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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



OF THE 



SEVENTY.SIXTH MEETING OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 




YORK 

AUGUST 1906 




LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

F1907 



Office of the Association : Biirliiigtoii House, London, W. 



PRINTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE AND CO. LTD, NEW-STREET SQUARE 

LONDOS 



I 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Objects and Rules of tlie Association xxvii 

Places and Times of Meeting, with Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local 
Secretaries, from 1831 xxxviii 

Trustees and General Officers, from 1831 liii 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association, from 1832 liv 

Chairmen and Secretaries of the Conferences of Delegates of Corre- 
sponding Societies Ixxv 

Evening Discourses Ixxv 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixxix 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the York Meeting , Ixxx 

Committee of Recommendations Ixxxi 

Treasurer's Account Ixxxii 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at the Annual Meetings Ixxxiv 

Officers and Council of the Association, 1906-1907 Ixxxvi 

Report of the Council to the General Committee Ixxxvii 

Research Committees appointed hy the General Committee xci 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso c 

Resolutions referred to the Council by the General Committee ci 

Synopsis of Grants of Money cii 

Places of Meeting in 1907, 1908, and 1909 ciii 

General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of Grants for 
Scientific Purposes civ 

General Meetings cxxiv 

Address by the President, Professor E. Rat Lankestee, M.A., LL.D., 
D.Sc., F.R.S 3 

A2 



IV CONTENTS. 



REPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Page 
Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. W. VVhitakee (Chairman), Mr. F. W. Rudlee (Secretary), Rev. 
J. 0, Bevan, Dr. Horace T. Brown, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, Dr. J. G. 
Gaeson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Professor R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. Read, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Professor W. W. Watxb, and the General Officers. (Drawn 
up by the Secretary.) 45 

Report of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies held at 
York, August 2 and 7, 1906 47 

Address by the Chairman, Sir Edwarb Brabeook, C.B., V.-P.S.A 49 

Local Societies and Meteorology. By Dr. Hugh Robert Mill 53 

The Desirability of Promoting County Photographic Surveys. By W. 
Jeeome Harrison, F.G.S 68 

List of Corresponding Societies, 1906-1907 68 

Catalogue of the more important Papers published by the Corresponding 
Societies during the year ending May 31, 1906 73 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir W. H. Peeece (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secre- 
tary), Professor W. G. Adams, Dr. Cheee, Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. 
Fox, Sir a. W. RtJCKEE, and Professor a. Schustee 90 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord McLaeen (Chairman), Professor A. Ceum Brown (Secretary), 
Sir John Murray, Dr. Alexander Buchan, and Mr. R. T. Omond. (Drawn 
up by Dr. Buchan.) 91 

Seismological Investigations. — Eleventh Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor J. W, Judd (Chairman), Mr. J. Milne (Secretary), Lord 
Kelvin, Dr. T. G. Bonnet, Mr. C. Veenon Boys, Sir George 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Daewin, Major L. Daewin, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebeook, Mr. M. H. Gray, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor 
R. Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Peeey, Mr. W. E. Plummer, 
Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, Mr. Nelson Richardson, 
and Professor H. H. TuENEE. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 92 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers 92 

II. The Situation of Stations 93 

III. The Origins of Large Earthquakes in 1905 94 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. V 

Page 

IV. Large Earthquakes in relation to Time and Space 95 

V. Relationship of Large Earthquakes to each other and to Volcanic 

Eruptions 97 

VI. Earthquakes and Changes in Latitude 97 

Vn. On the Change of Level on two sides of a Valley ... 99 

VIII. Antarctic Earthquakes 100 

IX. Note on the Determination of the Time of Origin of Earthquakes. 

By R. D. Oldham 100 

X. Diurnal Changes in Level in Mauritius. By T, F. Claxton. ... 103 

Experiments for improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
Ratleigh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, 
Professors W. E. Atrton, J. Pbert, W. G. Adams, and G. Caret Foster, 
Sir Oliver J. Lodse, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir W. H. Prbece, Professors . 
A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming, and J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. BoTTOMLET, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stonet, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, Sir A. W. Rijcker, Professor H. L. Callbndar, and Mr. 

George Matthet 104 

Appendix. — On Methods of High Precision for the Comparison of 
Resistances. By F. E. Smith 106 

The Evolution of the Elements. By F. Soddt 122 

Magnetic Survey of South Africa. — Preliminary Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir David Gill (Chairman), Professor J. C. Beaxtie (Secre- 
tary), Mr. S. S. Hough, Professor Morrison, and Professor A. Schuster, 
appointed to continue the Magnetic Survey of South Africa commenced by 

Professors Beattie and Morrison -... 131 

Report on Results of Magnetic Observations in the Transkei and in 
Bechuanaland. By Professor J. C. Beattie, D.Sc 132 

Investigations of the Upper Atmospliere by Means of Kites in co-operation 
with a Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Fifth Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. W. H. 
Dines (Secretary), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr, 0. Vernon Boys, Dr. A. 
Buchan, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, Professor A. Schuster, 
and Dr. W. Watson. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 138 

The Distribution of Prussic Acid in the Vegetable Kingdom. By Maurits 
Greshoff, Ph.D 138 

The Chemical Aspects of Cyanogenesis in Plants. By Professor Wtndham 
DuNSTAN, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., and T. A. Henrt, D.Sc 145 

Dynamic Isomerism. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor H. E. 
Armstrong (Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry (Secretary), Professor Sydney 
Young, Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. A. Lapworth, and Dr. M. 0. Forster, 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 157 

The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Substances, and its 
Relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping (Chairman), Professor K. J. P. 
Orton (Secretary), Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. Lapavorth, and Dr. J. T. 
Hewitt 159 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. RoscoE (Chairman), Dr. Mar- 
shall Watts (Secretary), Sir Norman Lockter, Professor Sir James 
Dewar, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schuster, Professor W. N. 
Hartley, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, Sir W. de W. Abney, and Dr. W. E. 
Adeney 161 



vi (JONTENTS. 

Page 
On the Present Position of the Chemistry of the Gums. By H. H. Robin- 
son, M.A., F.C.S., F.I.C 227 

The Present Position of the Chemistry of Rubber. By S. S. Pickles, M.Sc. . . 233 

The Study of Hydro-Aromatic Substances. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. E. Divers (Chairman), Professor A. "W. Orosslet (Secretary), 
Professor W. H. Peekik, Dr. M. 0. Forster, and Dr. H. R. Le Sueur'... 257 

Recent Work on Hydro- Aromatic Substances. By Professor A. W. 
Crosslet 260 

The Hydrolysis of Sugars. By Robert J. Caldwell, B.Sc 267 

The Faunal Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone of the South-west of 
England. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor J. W. 
Gregory (Chairman), Dr. A. Vaughan (Secretary), Dr. Wheeltox Hind, 
and Professor W. W. Watts, appointed to enable Dr. A. "N'aughan to con- 
tinue his Researches thereon 292 

Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. — Fourth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chair- 
man), Mr. J. LoMAS (Secretary), Professor W. W. Watts, Professor P. F. 
Kendall, and Messrs. H. C. Beaslet, E. T. Newton, A. C. Seward, and 
W. A. E. UssiiER. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 293 

Ou Tthynchosaufus articeps (Owen). By A. Smith Woodward, 

LL.D.,F.R.S 293 

Report on Footprints from the Trias. Part IV. By H. C. Beasley ... 299 

Composition and Origin of the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey.— Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. A. Harker (Chairman), Mr. E. Greenly 
(Secretary), Mr. J. Lomas, and Dr. C. A. Matley, appointed to enable Mr. E. 
Greenly to complete his Researches thereon 301 

Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. J. E. Marr (Chairman), Dr. Wheelton Hind 
(Secretary), Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. G. C. Crick, Dr. A. H. Fooed, Mr. H. 
Fox, Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. G. J. Hinde, Professor P. F, Kendall, 
Mr. R. Kidston, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor G. A. Lebour, Mr. B.N. 
Peach, Mr. A. Strahan, Dr. A. Vaughan, and Dr. II. Woodward. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 302 

Investigation of the Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, 
and at various localities in the East Riding of Yorkshire. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lajiplugh (Chairman), Mr. J. W. 
Stather (Secretary), Dr. Tempest Anderson, Professor J. W. Carr, Rev. 
W. Lower Carter, Mr. A. R. Dwereyhousb, Mr. F. W. Harmer, Mr. J. H. 
Howarth, Rev. W. Johnson, Professor P. F. Kendall, Mr. H. B. Muff, 
Mr. E. T. Newton, Mr. Clement Reid, and Mr. Thomas Sheppard 313 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bather (Secretary), 
Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. Stbbbing, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, Hon. 
Walter Rothschild, and Lord Walsingham 314 

The Probability of Anlcylostoma becoming a Permanent Inhabitant of our 
Coal Mines in the event of its introduction. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Mr. G. P. Bidder (Secre- 
tary), and Mr. G. H. F. Nuttall 315 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Sixteenth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor Newton (Chairman), Mr. David Sharp (Secretary), 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, and 
Mr. Edgar A. Smith 315 

Melanism in Yorkshire Lepidoptera. By G. T. Poebitt, F.L.S 316 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. vil 

Page 
Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), Dr. W. E. Hotle (Secietary), Dr. 
F. F. Blackman, Mr. J. S. Gardiner, Professor W. A. Herdman, Mr. A. C. 
Sewabd, Professor C. S. Sherrington, and Mr. A. Q. Tanslet, appointed 
to conduct an investigation into the Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands 325 

Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Garstanq (Chairman and Secretary), 
Professor E. Rat Lankester, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor Sydney H. 
Vines, and Professor W. F. R. Weldon 325 

Colour Physiology of the Higher Crustacea. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), Dr. F. W. Gamble 
(Secretary), Dr. W. E. Hoyle, and Mr. F. W. Keeble, appointed to enable 
Dr. F. W. Gamble and Mr. Keeble to conduct Researches on the relation 
between Respiratory Phenomena and Colour Changes in the Higher 
Crustacea 325 

The Freshwater Fishes of South Africa, with special reference to those of the 
Zambesi. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. A. 
BouLENGER (Chairman), Dr. J. D. F, Gilchrist (Secretary), and Mr. W. L. 
Sclater 326 

Zoology Organisation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors 
E. Ray Lankester (Chairman), S. J. Hickson (Secretary), T. W. Bridge, 
J. CossAR Ewart, M. Hartog, W. a. Herdsian, and J. Graham Kerr, 
Mr. O. H. Latter, Professor E. A. Minchin, Dr. P. C. Mjtchell, Professor 
C. Lloyd Morgan, Professor E. B. Poitlton, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Mr. A. E. 
Shipley, and Rev. T. R. R.Stebbing 326 

The Influence of Salt and other Solutions on the Development of the Frog. — 
Report of theCommittee, consisting of Professor G. C. Bourne (Chairman), 
Mr. J. W. Jenkinson (Secretary), and Professor S. J. Hickson. (Drawn 
up by the Secretary.).., 327 

I. On the Effect of certain Solutions upon the Developing Egg 327 

II. On the Symmetry of the Egg and the Symmetry of the Embryo ... 328 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. Hiceson (Chairman), Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing (Secretary), Professor E. Ray Lankester, Professor W. F. R. 
Weldon, Mr. A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. McIntosh, and Mr. G. P. 
Bidder 329 

Report of Mr.G. P. Farran 329 

Report of Professor J. Arthur Thomson 329 

Report of Mr. E. S. Goodeich, F.R.S 330 

Report of Dr. J. H. Ashworth 330 

The Quantity and Composition of Rainfall and of Lake and River Discharge. 
— Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Murray 
(Chairman), Professor A. B. Macallum and Dr. A. J. Herbertson 
(Secretaries), Sir B. Baker, Professor W. M. Davis, Professor P. F. 
Frankland, Mr. A. D. Hall, Mr. E. H. "V. Melville, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
Professor A. Penck, and Mr. W. Whitaker 330 

Investigations in the Indian Ocean. — First Repo-t of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Sir John Murray (Chairman), Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner (Secre- 
tary), Captain E. W. Creak, Professors W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 
and J. W. JuDD, Mr. J. J. Lister, and Dr. H. R. Mill, appointed to carry 
on an Expedition to investigate the Indian Ocean between India and South 
Africa in view of a possible land connection, to examine the deep submerged 
banks, the Nazareth and Saya de Malha, and also the distribution of Marino 
Animals 331 



Viii CONTENTS. 

Page 

laternational Trade Statistics. — Third Report of the ComQiittee consisting of 
Dr. E. Cannan (Chairman), Mr. H. 0. Meeedixh (Secretary), Messrs. 
W. G. S. Adams and A. L. Bowlbt, Professor S. J. Chapman, Professor 
II. E. S. Feemantle, and Sir Robert Gifpen, appointed to consider the 
Accuracy and Comparahility of British and Foreign Statistics of later- 
national Trade 839 

Standardisation in British Engineering Practice. By Sir John Wolfe- 
Baekt, K.C.B., F.R.S 339 

Anthropometric Investigations among the Native Troops of the Egyptian 
Army. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. Macalistek 
(Chairman), Professor C. S. Mtees (Secretary), Sir John Evans, and 
Professor D. J. Cunningham '. 347 

Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor D. J. Cunningham (Chairman), Mr. J. 
Geat (Secretary), Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr. C. S. Myers, Mr. J. L. 
Mtees, Professor A. F. Dixon, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Mr. D. Randall-Mvc- 
IvEE, ProfessorJ. Symington, Dr. Watbeston, Sir Edwaed Beabrook, Dr. 
T.H.BEYCE,Dr. W. L.II. Duckworth, Mr. G. L. Gomme, Major T. McCul- 
LOCH, Dr. F. C. Shkubsall, Professor G. D. Thane, and Mr. J. F. Tocher 349 

The Age of Stone Circles. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. 
C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. II. Bilfoue (Secretary), Sir John Evans, 
Dr. J. G. Gaeson, Dr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Muneo, Professor Boyd Daw- 
kins, and Mr. A. L. Lewis, appointed to conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 370 

Excavations at the Stripple Stones, E. Cornwall, 1905. By II. St. 
Geoege Gray 371 

Anthropological Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. 
C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. S. Kingsfoed (Secretary), Dr. J. G. 
Gaeson, Mr. H. Ling Roth, Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. 
E. S. Haetland, Mr. E. Heawood, Professor Flinders Petrie, Mr. 
E. N. Fallaize, and Mr. J. L. Myres, appointed for the Collection, Pre- 
servation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthropological 
Interest. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 383 

Excavations on Roman Sites in Britaiu. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor W. Boyd Dawkins (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myres (Secretary), 
Sir Edwaed Beabeook, Professor W. Ridgeway, and Dr. T. Ashby, 
appointed to co-operate with Local Committees in Excavations on Roman 
Sites in Britain 400 

Appendix A. — Excavations at Oaerwent, 1904-5. By T. Ashby, jun., 
D.Litt, F.S.A 401 

Appendix B. — Excavations on the Site of the Roman Fort known as 
Melandra Castle, Derbyshire, 1905 405 

Appendix C. — Excavations at Newstead, near Melrose, 1995-6 406 

Appendix D.— -Excavalions at Silchester, 1905 406 

Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir John Evans (Chairman), Mr. J. L. Myees (Secre- 
tary), Dr. A. J. Evans, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Mr. R. C. Bosanquet, Pro- 
fessor A. Macalistee, and Professor W. Ridgeway 408 

Appendix A. — Exploration at Knossos : Report for 1906 409 

Appendix B. — Excavations at Paiaikastro: Report for 1906 409 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCTEffCE. ix 

Page 
The Lake Village at Glastonbury. — Eighth Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. R. MuNKO (Chairman), Professor W. BorD Dawkins (Secretary), 
Sir John Evans, Dr. Arthur J. Evans, Mr. Henry Balfotjr, Mr. C. H. 
Read, and Mr. Arthur Bulleid. (Drawn up by Mr. Arthur Bulleid and 
Mr. H. St. George Gray.) 410 

The Ductless Glands. — Second Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor Schafer (Chairman), Professor Swale Vincent (Secretary), 
Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. Shore, and Mr. J. Barcroet. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 423 

The Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir T. Lauder Brunton (Chairman), Mr. J. Barcroft 
(Secretary); Colonel D. Bru-ce, Dr. A. Buchan, Dr. F. Campbell, Sir 
Kendal Franks, Professor J. G. McKendrick, Sir A. Mitchell, Dr. 
W. 0. F. Murray, Dr. Porter, Dr. A. J. Wright, and the Heads of the 
Tropical Schools of Liverpool and London 424 

The ' Metabolic Balance Sheet' of the Lidividual Tissues. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor F. Gotch (Chairman), Mr. J. Barcroft 
(Secretary), Sir Michael Foster, and Professor E. H. Starling. 
(Drawn up by Dr. F. G. Hopkins and the Secretary) 426 

The State of Solution of Proteids. — Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor Halliburton (Chairman), Professor Waymouth Reid 
(Secretary), and Professor ScHAFER. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 428 

Peat Moss Deposits. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor R. J. Harvey Gibson (Chairman), Professor R. H. Yapp 
(Secretary), Professor J. R. Green, and Mr. Clement Reid, appointed 
to investigate the Peat Moss Deposits in the Cross Fell, Caithness, and 
Isle of Man Districts 430 

Research on South African Cycads. — Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. A. C. Seward (Chairman), Mr. R. P. Gregory (Secretary), 
Dr. D. H. Scott, and Dr. W. H. Lang 431 

The Structure of Fossil Plants.— Second Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. D. H. Scott (Chairman), Professor F. W.Oliver (Secre- 
tary), Messrs. E. Newell Arber and A. C. Seward, and Professor F. E. 
Weiss 432 

Botanical Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
L. C. Miall (Chairman), Professor F. E. Weiss (Secretary), Mr. Francis 
Darwin, Mr. W. G. Smith, and Mr. A. G. Tansley, for the Registration 
of Negatives of Photographs of Botanical Interest. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 433 

The Conditions of Health essential to the carrying on of the Work of Instruction 
in Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Sherrington 
(Chairman), Mr. E. White Wallis (Secretary), Sir Edward Brabrgoe, 
Dr. C. W. KiMMiNs, Professor L. 0. Miall, and Miss Maitland 433 

Studies most suitable for Elementary Schools.— Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir Philip Magnus (Chairman), Mr. VV. Mayhowe Heller 
(Secretary), Sir AV. db W. Abney, Mr. R. H. Adie, Professor H. E. 
Armstrong, Miss A. J. Cooper, Miss L. J. Clarke, Mr. George Fletcher, 
Professor R. A. Gregory, Principal Griffiths, Mr, A. D. Hall, Dr. A. J. 
Herbeetson, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Professor J. Perry, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, 
Professor A. Smithells, Dr. Lloyd Snape, Principal Reichel, Mr. H. 
Richardson, Mr. Harold Wager, Miss Edna Walter, and Professor 
W. W. Watts, appointed to report upon the Course of Experimental, 
Observational, and Practical Studies most suitable for Elementary Schools 438 



CONTENTS. 

Page 
Report of the Sub-Committee on Arithmetic and Mensuration, consisting 
of Professor H. E. Armstrong, Miss A. J. Cooper, Mr. George 
Flbtcher, Mr. AV. M. Heller, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Professor J. 
Perky, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, Miss Edna Walter, and Professor R. A. 
Gregory (Secretary) 444 

Report of the Sub-Committee on Nature Study, consisting of Mr. R. H. 
Adxe, Miss L. J. Clarke, Mr. A. D. Hall, Mr. H. Richardson, and 
Mr. Harold Wager 459 

Interim Report of Sub-Committee on Domestic Worli, consisting of Miss 
Cooper, Miss Clarke, Miss Maitland, Professor Armstrong, Dr. 
Kimmins, Dr. Snape, Professor Smithells, and Mr. G. Fletcher 
(Secretary) 466 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XI 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



l^An asterisk * indicates tliat the title only is given. Tlie marlt t indicates the same, 
but mth a reference to the Journal or Newspaper in which it is published in extenso.] 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 2. 

Page 
Address by Principal E. H. Griffiths, M.A., D.Sc, F.E.S., President of 

the Section 471 

1. Photographs of the Arc Spectrum of Iron under High Pressures, By 

W. G. DUFFIELI) 481 

2. ^Measurements of Osmotic Pressure. By the Earl of BERKBLEr, F.G.S.... 481 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 3. 
Discussion on the Evolution of the Elements. Opened by F. Soddt (p. 121) 481 

1. •■•On the Notation and Use of Vectors. By Professor O. Henetci, F.R.S. 482 

2. The Notation and Use of Vectors. By Professor C. G. Knott, D.Sc, 

F.R.S.E 482 

MONDAY, AUGUST 6. 
Department op Pure Mathematics. 

1. Expansions in Products of Oscillating Functions. By Professor A. 0. 

Dixon, F.R.S 483 

2. Anemoids. By Professor W. H. H. Hudson, M.A 483 

3. On Residues of Hyper-even Numbers. By Lieut.-Colonel Allan Cun- 

ningham, R.E 485 

4. The Different Kinds of Integrals of Partial Differential Equations. By 

Professor A. R. Forsyth, Sc.D,, F.R.S.., 486 

Department of Astronomy and Cosmical Physics. 

1 . Report on the Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by means of Kites 

(p. 138) 490 

2. Report of the Seismological Committee (p. 92) 490 

3. ^'-The Irregular Motions of the Earth's Pole : a Preliminary Graphical 

Analysis of their Cause. By Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., and Professor 

J. Larmor, Sec.R.S... 490 

4. Note on the Effects of Tremors on Astronomical Observation. By Pro- 

fessor H. H. Turner, D.Sc, F.R.S 490 



XU CONTENTS. 

Pitge 
6. *Spectroscopic Observations of Solar Eclipses. By Professor F. W. 
D)csoN,M.A.,F.RS 491 

6. Discussion on Radio-activity and the Internal Structure of the Earth. 
Opening remarks by Plon. R. J. Steutt, F.Il.S 491 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 7. 
Department of Pure Mathematics. 

1. Some Notes on Finite Groups. By Haeold Hilton 492 

2. -On Two New Symmetric Functions. By Major P. A. MacMahon, 

F.R.S : 498 

3. A Test for the Convergence of Multiple Series. By T. J. I'A. Beomwich, 

F.E.S 493 

4. Many- Valued Functions of Real Variables. By A. R. Richardson 494 

5. Note on the Semi-convergent Series for J„.r. By Professor Alfred 

Lodge, M.A 494 

Department of Astronomy and Cosmical Physics. 

1. Preliminary Note on the Rainfall Periodogram. By Professor A. 

Schuster, F.R.S., and H. H. Turner, F.R.S 498 

2. On the Connection between Disturbed Areas of the Solar Surface and the 

Solar Corona. By the Rev. A. L. Ooetie, S.J., F.R.A.S 499 

3. Telescopic Observations of Meteorological Phenomena. By Miss C. 0. 

Stevens 499 

4. On the Radiation of Heat from the Moon. By the Earl of Rosse, K.P., 

F.R.S 600 

6. York Rainfall Records and their Possible Indication of Relation to Solar 

Cycles. By J. Edmund Clark 500 

6. Some Barometric and Rainfall Changes of an Oscillatory Nature. By 

William J. S. Lockybe, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.A.S 501 

7. Report on the Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory (p. 90) ... 501 

8. Preliminary Report on the Magnetic Survey of South Africa (p. 131) ... 502 

9. Report on Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis (p. 91) 502 

Department op General Physics. 

1. A Glass of Low Resistivity. By Charles E. S. Phillips 502 

2. Radiation from Gas Mantles. By J. Swinburne 503 

3. The Rate of Decay of the Phosphorescence of Balmain's Paint. By the 

Rev. B. J. Whiteside, S.J 504 

4. Chemical and Electrical Changes induced by Ultra-violet Light. By Sir 

William Ramsay, K.C.B., and J. F. Spencer, M.Sc, Ph.D 504 

5. Researches on nearly Pure Ozone Gas. By Erich Ladenbueg, Ph.D. ... 605 

6. Photographs of Thin Liquid Film,?. By Herbert Stansfield 505 

7. Photographic Records of a String's Vibrations and Responsive Motions 

in the Air. By Professor E. H. Barton, D.Sc, F.R.S.E., and J. Pknzer 506 

8. Haidinger's Tufts. By Professor W. F. Barrett, F.R.S 50G 

9. Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards (p. 104) 509 

10. Joint Discussion with Section E on the Proposed Remeasurement of the 

British Geodetic Arcs (p. 626) rg 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. Xlil 

Section B. — CHEMISTRY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 2. 

Page 
Address by Professor Wyndham Dtjnstan, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President 

of the Section 510 

1. The Electrical Discharge in Air and its Commercial Application, By 

Sidney Leetham and William Ceamp 520 

2. -The 1 : .3 : 5-hexatrien. By Professor Van Rombtiegh 521 

3. Report on Dynamic Isomerism (p. 157) 521 

4. Report on the Study of Hydro- Aromatic Substances (p. 257) 521 

5. On the Effects upon the Concentration of a Solution of the Presence of an 

Excess of Undissolved Salt. By A. Veenon Haecouet, F.R.S 521 

6. -The Crystallisation of Gold in the Solid State. By G. T. Beilby, F.R.S. 522 

7. On the Temperature at which AVater Freezes in Sealed Tubes. By Pro- 

fessor H. A. MiEKS, F.R.S., and Miss F. Isaac 522 

FBI DA Y, A UG UST 3. 

1. The Chemical Aspects of Cyanogenesis in Plants. By Professor Wynbham 

Dtjnstan, F.R.S., and Dr. Heney (p. 145) 522 

2. The Distribution of Prussic Acid in the Vegetable Kingdom. By Dr. 

Geeshoff (p. 138) 522 

3. *Chemical Research in the Dutch East Indies. By Dr. Geeshofp 523 

4. -The Utilisation of Nitrogen in Air by Plants. By T. Jamieson, F.I.C. 523 

MONDA Y, A UG UST 6. 

1. The Present Position of the Chemistry of Rubber. By S. S. Pickles, 

M.Sc. (p. 233) 523 

2. On the Constitution of Caoutchouc. By Professor C. D. Haeeies 523 

3. On the Polymerisation of Isoprene. By Professor W. A. Tilden, F.R.S. 525 

4. The Latex of Dyera costulafa. By Professor W. A. Tilden, F.R.S. ... 525 

5. The Present Position of the Chemistry of the Gums. By H. H. Robinson, 

M.A. (p. 227) 526 

6. '''On a Gum (Cochlospenmtm Oossypium) which produces Acetic Acid 

on Exposure to Air. By H. H. Robinson, M.A 526 

7. Note on Ergot Alkaloids. By G. Baegee and F. H. Caee 526 

8. The Hydrolysis of Sugars. By R. J. Calbwell, B.Sc. (p. 267) 527 

TUESDA r, A UG UST 7. 

*Joint Discussion with Section I (Physiology) on the Factors which determine 

Minimal Diet Values 527 

1. The Absorption of Ammonium Salt by Clay and other Soil Constituents. 

By A. D. Hall and C. T. Gimingham 527 

2. Oxidation in Soils and its relation to Productiveness. By Feancis V. 

Daebishiee, B.A., Ph.D., and Edwaed J. Russell, D.Sc 528 

3. A Method of Determining Indigotin. By W. Popplewell Bloxam 528 

4. Report on the Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Sub- 

stances, and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives (p. 159) 531 

5. Report on Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Com- 

pounds (p. 161) 531 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 2. 

Page 
Address by G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the Section 532 

1. *0n the Geology of the Country round York. ByProfessorP. F. Kendail, 

M.Sc 558 

2. Report on the Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, 

&c. (p. 313) 558 

3. The Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of Pomeroy. By William G. Feaensides 558 

4. Recent Exposures of Glacial Drift at Doncaster and Tickhill. By H. 

CuLPiN and G. Grace, B.Sc 559 

5. Report on the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey (p. 301) 559 

6. On Faults as a Predisposing Cause of the Existence of Pot-holes on Ingle- 

borough. By Haeold Beodrick 559 

7. Notes on the Speetou Ammonites. By C. G. Danfoed 560 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 3. 

1. The Post- Cretaceous Stratigraphy of Southern Nigeria, W.C.A. By 

John Paekinson, B.A 561 

2. An Occurrence of Diamonds in the Matrix at Oakey Creek, near Inverell, 

New South Wales. By Professor T. W. Edgewoeth Datid, F.R.S.... 562 

3. -i^On the ' CuUinan ' Diamond. By F. H. Hatch, Ph.D 563 

4. Exhibition of a remarkable Form of Sodalite from Rajputana. By T. II. 

Holland, F.R.S 563 

5. Fourth Report on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles 

(p. 29.3) 563 

6. A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Limestone Knolls of Craven. 

By A. WiLMOEB 563 

7. The Faunal Sequence in the Lower Carboniferous Rocks of Westmorland 

and the adjacent areas of West Yorkshire aud North Lancashire. By 
Professor E. J. Gaewood, M.A 564 

8. Report on Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks (p. 302) 566 

9. Report on the Faunal Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone of the 

South-west of England (p. 292) 566 

MONDA Y, A UG UST 6. 

1. Fossil Arthropods of the Coal-Formation. By Dr. H. Woodwaed, F.R.S. 667 

2. The Jurassic Plants from the Rocks of East Yorkshire. By A. C. Sewabd, 

M.A., F.R.S 568 

3. -"'^Report on the Fossil Flora of the Transvaal 569 

4. The Teaching of Geology to Agricultural Scholars. By Professor Geen- 

viLLE A. J. Cole 569 

6. *Note8 on the Index Animahum. By Dr. F. A. Bathee 570 

6. The Glacial Deposits of the East of England. By F. W. Haemee 570 

7. Lake Oxford and the Goring Gap. By F. W. Haemee 572 

8. On the Continuous Glacial Period. By M. B, Cotswoeth 678 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XV 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 7. 

Page 

1. Certain Earthquake Relationships. By John Milne, D.Sc, F.R.S 673 

2. Discussion on the Origin of the Trias : — 

(i) By Professor T. G. Bonnet, Sc.D.,LL.D., F.R.S 574 

(ii) By J. LoMAS 574 

(iii) By T. H. Holland, F.R.S 576 

(iv) By Professor Qbentille Cole 576 

3. Notes on the Permo-Carboniferous Coal-fields of Australasia. By Pro- 

fessor T. W. EDcfEwoRTH David, F.R.S 676 

4. The Problem of the Palaeozoic Glaciations of Australia and South Africa. 

By Professor J. W. Geegort, F.R.S 576 

6. On the Artesian Boring for the Supply of the City of Lincoln from the 
New Red Sandstone. By Professor Edwaed Hull, LL.D., F.R.S 577 

6. Further Note on the Occurrence of Diamond in the Matrix in New South 

Wales. By Professor T. W. Edgewoeth David, F.R.S 679 

7. ='=Report on the Correlation and Age of South African Strata 679 

8. '''Report on Geological Photographs 579 

9. "-'^Recent Observations at Vesuvius. By Dr. H. J. Johnston-Lavis 579 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 8. 

1. A Criterion of the Glacial Erosion of Lake-Basins, By R. D. Oldham 579 

2. Notes on the Glaciation of the Usk and Wye Valleys. By Rev. W. 

LowEE Caetee, M.A '. 579 

3. A Silurian Inlier in the Eastern Mendips. By Professor S. H. Reynolds 580 

4. ='=Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles 581 

5. On a Section in a Post-glacial Lacustrine Deposit at Hornsea. By 

T. Sheppabd 581 

6. -On the Plain of Marine Denudation beneath the Drift of Holdemess. 

By W. H. Ceofts and Professor P. F. Kendall 581 

7. Igneous Rocks of the Districts S.W. of Dolgelly. By Professor S. H. 

Reynolds 581 

8. A Picrite from the Eastern Mendips. By Professor S. H. Reynolds . . . 681 

9. On the Forms of Carbonate of Lime in Pearls and the Pearl-Oyster. By 

J. LoJiAs 581 

Section D.-ZOOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 2, 
Address by J. J. Listeb, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., President of the Section 583 

1 . The Life-cycle of Protozoa. By Professor Gaet N. Calkins 596 

2. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 

(P- 329) .^... 598 

3. Report on the Index Animalium (p. 314) 598 

4. Report on the Colour Physiology of the Higher Crustacea (p. 326) 598 

5. Interim Report on the Freshwater Fishes of South Africa (p. 326) 598 

6. Sixteenth Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands (p. 315) 598 

7. Report on the Madreporaria of the Bermuda Islands (p. 326) 698 



xvi CONTENTS. 

Page 

8. Report on Zoology Organisation (p. 326) 598 

9. Eeport on the Probability of Ankylostoma becoming a Permanent 

Inhabitant of our Coal Mines in the event of its introduction (p. 315) 598 

10. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, 

Plymouth (p. 325) 598 

11. --Interim Report on the Effects of Sera and Antisera on the Development 

of the Sexual Cells 598 

12. *The Milk Dentition of the Primitive Elephants. By Dr. C. W. Andebws, 

F.R.S 598 

13. The Habits of Tube-building Worms. By Aenold T. Watson 599 

FRIDA Y, A UG UST 3, 

1. *Some Results of the Infection of Monkeys with Guinea Worm. By 

Dr. R. T. Leiper 600 

2. On Epigamic and Aposematic Scents in Rhopalocera. By F. A. Dixey, 

M.A.,M.D. 600 

3. =''A Remarkable Example of Miillerian Mimicry among African Butter- 

flies. By Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S 601 

4. Melanism in Yorkshire Lepidoptera. By G. T. PoEEiTT(p. 0I6) 601 

5. Report on the Influence of Salt and other Solutions on the Development 

of the Frog (p. 327) COl 

6. Halolimnic Faunas and the Tanganyika Problem : — 

{a) By J. E. S. MooRE 601 

(h) By Professor Paul Pelseneee 602 

MONDAY, AUGUST 6. 
'■•Joint Discussion with Section K on Fertilisation 603 

1. Breeding Experiments in Canaries : an Exception to Mendel's Law. By 

C. L. W. NOOEDTTUN 603 

2. ^'-Preliminary Note on a New Conception of Segregation. By A, D. Darbi- 

shiee, M.A 603 

3. The Evolution of the Cock's Comb. By J. T. Cunningham, M.A 603 

4. The Pineal Sense Organs and Associated Structure in Geotria and 

Sphenodon. By Professor Arthue Dendt, D.Sc, F.L.S 604 

6. -The Birds and Mammals of Yorkshire. By Oxlex Grabham 605 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 7. 

1. Spicule Formation. By Professor E. A. Minchin, M.A 605 

2. Suggestions for a more Systematic Study of Oceanic Plankton. By 

G. Heebeet Fowler, B.A., Ph.D 606 

3. -Sterile Eggs of PM?;pMra. By Professor Paul Pelseneee 607 

4. Traces of a Periodic Law in Organic Evolution. By Henet M. Bee- 

NAED, M.A 6Q7 

6. *0n the Relation of Scientific Marine Investigations to Practical Fishery 

Problems. By Dr. E. J. Allen 608 

0. *The International Investigation of the North Sea Fisheries. By Dr. W. 
Gaestang 6Q8 



A 



TKANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XVll 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 8. 

Page 

1. Note8 on the Habits of Galatheidce. By Miss E. F. Galloway and Hek- 

BEET J. Fleuee G08 

2. Some Notes on tiie Mammalian Mandible. By Professor Richard John 

Anderson, M.D 610 

3. A Note on the Manus of the Dolphin. By Professor Richard John 
Anderson, M.D 610 

Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDA Y, A UG UST 2. 

Address by the Right Hon. Sir George Taubman Goldie, K.C.M.G., D.O.L., 

F.R.S., President of the Section 611 

1. Irrigation iu the United States, By John H. Beacom 617 

2. The Survey of the Scottish Lochs : Summary of Work, 1902-1906. By 

James Murray 619 

3. A Tour in South-east Persia, with an Account of the Ancient Cities of 

Narmashir. By Major P. Moleswoeth Sykes .620 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 3. 

1. Coast Erosion. By Clement Reid, F.R.S 621 

2. The Study of Social Geography. By Professor G. W. Hoke 622 

3. The Structure of Southern Nigeria. By John Parkinson, B.A.., F.G.S. 622 

4. *The Visit of the British Association to South Africa. By H. Ytjlb 

Oldham, M.A 623 

MONDA Y, A UG UST 6. 

1. *Geographical Photography. By John Thomson 623 

2. Report on Investigations in the Indian Ocean (p. 331) 623 

3. The Percy Sladen Expedition in H.M.S. ' Sealark ' : The Chagos Archi- 

pelago. By J. Stanley Gardiner 623 

4. *The Geography of the South Orkneys and other parts of the Weddell 

Sea. By R. N. Rudmosb Brown 624 

6. The Limestone Caves of Western Australia. By Professor W. B. 
Botxomley 624 

6. Interim Report on Rainfall and Lake and River Discharge (p. 330) 625 

7. Past and Present in Asiatic Turkey. By Professor W. M. Ramsay, 

D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D 625 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 7. 

1. Proposed Remeasurement of Geodetic Arcs in the United Kingdom. By 

Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., R.E 626 

2. A New Form of Tacheometer or Range Finder. By E. A. Reeves, 

F.R.A.S 627 

3. A Journey in the Central Himalayas and adjacent parts of Tibet, By 

T. G. LoNGSTAFF, M.A., M.B 627 

4. The Climate of the Wheat Area of Central Canada. By Professor 

L, W, Ltde 627 

5. -i^The Zambezi beyond the Falls. By A, Teevoe-Battyb, M,A., F.L.S., 

F.R.G.S 628 

1906. a 



xviii CONTENTS. 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 2. 

Page 
Address by A. L. Bowlby, M.A., President of the Section 629 

1. Third Report ou the Accuracy and Comparability of British and Foreign 

Statistics of International Trade (p. 339) 642 

2. Theory of Distribution. By Professor F. Y. Edgewoeth, LL.D 642 

3. The Inhabited House Duty as a Graduated Tax. By James Bonae, 

M.A., LL.D 642 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 3. 

L The Influence of the Rate of Interest on Prices. By Profe.ssor Wick- 
sell, PhD 643 

2. The Specie Reserve of the United Kingdom. By R. H. Inglis Pal- 

GEAVE,F.R.S 643 

3. The Gold Reserve. By D. Deumuond-Feasee 645 

4. Industrial Organisation in the Woollen and Worsted Industries of York- 

shire. By Professor J. H. CiAPHAM, M.A 645 

5. Cheap Railway Tickets for Workmen in Belgium. By Professor E. 

Mahaim, LL.D 646 

MONDAY, AUGUST 6. 

1. Some Notes on Railway Cost Statistics. By R. L. Wedgwood 647 

2. Some Principles of Freight-traffic Working. By W. T. STErnENSON, B. A. 648 

3. The Distribution of Population by Facilities of Rapid Transit. By 

Ltnden Macassey, M.A., LL.D 649 

4. Lead Mining in Yorkshire. By James Backhouse 649 

TUESDA Y, A UG UST 7. 

1. The Unemployed. By C. J. Hamilton, B.A 651 

2. Labour Exchanges and the Unemployed Problem. By W. H Beve- 

lUDGH, M.A., B.C.L 652 

3. Some recent Investigations in Home Work. By Mrs. J. Ramsay Mac- 

DONALD (353 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 8. 

1. Economic Theory and Proposals for Legal Minimum Wao-e. Bv H B 

Lees Smith, M.A " "653 

2. Labourers and the Land : Yorkshire. By Robeet E. Tuenbull . 654 

3. Monthly Index Numbers of Prices for 1906. By Claeence S. Howells 

and H. Stanley Jevons, M.A., B.Sc '. 655 

4. Industrial Betterment. By Maey E. Wood 656 



TKANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XIX 

Section G.— ENGINEERING. 

THURSDA Y, A UG UST 2. 

Page 
Address by J. A, Ewing, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Section ... 657 
tModern Armour and its Attack. By Major W. E. Edwakds, R.A 666 

FBI DAT, AUGUST 3. 

1. tTiie Eemoval of Dust and Smoke from Chimney Gases. By S. H. 

Davies and F. G. Fryee 666 

2. Standardisation in British Engineering Practice. By Sir John Wolfe- 

Baert, K.C.B., F.R.S. (p. 339) 666 

3. The Deformation and Fracture of Iron and Steel. By Waltee 

ROSENHAIN ,. 666 

4. tSegregation in Steel Ingots, and its Effect in Modifying the Mechanical 

Properties of Steel. By J. E. Stead 667 

5. Structural Changes in Nickel Wire at High Temperatures. By II. C. H. 

Carpenter ..-. 667 

6. On a Magnetic Indicator of Temperature for Hardening Steel. By 

William Taylor 668 

MONBA Y, A UG UST 6. 

1. The New Engineering Laboratories, Edinburgh University, and their 

Equipment. By Professor T. Hudson Bears, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E. 668 

2. Glow Lamps and the Grading of Voltages. By Sir W. H. Peeece, 

K.C.B., F.R.S , 669 

3. The Advent of Single-phase Electric Traction. By C. F. Jenkin 670 

4. A General Supply of Gas for Life, Heat, and Power Production. By 

A. J. Martin, M.Inst.C.E 671 

TUESDA Y, AUGUST 1. 

1. tExperiments illustrating the Balancing of Engines. By Professor W. E, 

Dalby, D.Sc, M.Inst.C.E 672 

2. Recent Advances in Steam Turbines, Land and Marine. By G. Gbeald 

Stoney, M.Inst.C.E 672 

3. tAn Application of Stream Line Apparatus to the Determination of tha 

Directions and Approximate Magnitudes of the Principal Stresses ia 
certain portions of the Structure of Ships. B3' J. Smith; 673 

4. On the Teaching of Mechanics. By C. E. Ashfoed, M.A 673 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 8. 

1. fThe Central Technical College Lecture Table Testing Machine. By 

Professor Ashceoft 674 

2. The Strength and Behaviour of Ductile Materials under Combined Stres?. 

By Walter A. Scoble 674 

3. tRecent Advances in our Knowledge of Radiation Phenomena, and their 

Bearing on the Optical Measurement of Temperature. By J. B. 
Henderson . . 674 

4. tElectro-positive Coatings for the Protection of Iron and Steel from 

Corrosion. By S. Cowpee Coles 674 

a 2 



XX . CONTENTS. 

Page 
•5. tSiiction Gas Engine Plants. By Trofessor W. E. Dalby, M.A., 

M.Inst.C.E 674 

6. '■■■Waterproof Eoads as a Solution of the Dust Problem. By DotrGLAs 

Mackenzie 674 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 2. 
Address by E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A., President of the Section 675 

1. Notes on the Ethnography of the Ba-Yaka. By T. A. Joyce, M.A., and 

E. ToEDAY .' 688 

2. The Aborigines of Sungei Ujong. By F. W. Knockee 688 

3. On the Bushmen of Basutoland. By S. S. Doenan 689 

4. Marriage and Mating. By S. S. Bxtckman, F.G.S 689 

5. Eighth Report on the Lake Village at Glastonbury (p. 410) 690 

6. -The Ethnology of South Africa. By Dr. A. 0. Haddon, F.R.S 690 

FRIDA Y, A UG UST 3. 

L '■'Exhibit of Bronze Weapons and Implements from Persia. By Major 
P. Moleswoeth Sykes, C.M.G '. 690 

2. Notes on Major Sykes's Collection. By Rev. Canon Green well 690 

8. Note on the Webster Ruin, Rhodesia. By E. M. Andeews 691 

4. The Origin of the Guitar and Fiddle. By Professor Ridgeway 691 

5. Report on Archasological and Ethnological Researches in Crete (p. 408)... 692 

6. Excavations at Sparta in 1906. By R. C. DDsanquet, M.A., F.S.A 692 

7. Note on thePrehistoric Civilisation of South Italy, with special reference 

to Campania. By T. E. Peet, B.A ." G92 

8. On the Evolution of Design in Greek and Turkish Embroideries. By Miss 

L. F. Pesel (392 

MONDAY, AUGUST 6. 

1. On the 'Red Hills' of the East Coast Salt Marshes. By F W 

RuDLEE, LS.O., F.G.S., and W. H. Dalton, F.G.S 693 

2. Archffiological Discovery. By Dr. E. Cartailh AC 693 

3. A Winter's Work on the Ipswich Palaeolithic Site. By Miss Nina 

Frances Layaed 693 

4. An Anglo-Saxon Cemetery in Ipswich. By Miss Nina Frances 

Lay ARD gn I 

5. Excavations in an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery near South Cave, Yorkshire 

By T. Sheppaed, F.G.S (395 

C. Note on some Roman and other Remains from South Ferribv Bv 
T. Sheppaed, F.G.S _' ^ 595 

7. *Pygmy Flints from Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. By Rev. R Scott- 

«^^^^ 695 

8. Report on the Age of Stone Circles (p. 370) 695 

0. Report on Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain (p. 400) 695 

10. *0n the Primitive Artemisia of Ephesus and their Contents. By D G 

IlOGARTH •' ■ ^^- 

095 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXI 

Page 

11. Excavations at Caerwent, Monmouthshire, on the Site of the Romano- 

British City of Venta Silurum, in 1904-6. By T. Ashby, jun,, M.A., 
Litt.D 696 

12. Recent Excavations in the Roman Forum. By T. Asiibt, jun., Litt.D. 696 

13. The Keltic AVeights found in a Roman Camp (Melandra, near Glossop). 

By Professor R. S. ComvAT, Litt.D 696 

TUESDAY, AUGUST!. 

1. '''Demonstration of the Methods of Determining Racial Characters. By 

Dr. F. C. Sheubsall 698 

2. * Exhibit of British Crania now in the Possession of the Yorkshire Philo- 

sophical Society, and of Crania from the Lamel Hill, York. By Dr. 

G. A. Atjden 698 

3. Notes on a recently discovered Skeleton in Scoska Cave, Littondale. By 

Haeold Beodeick, M.A., and C. A. Hill, M.B., B.A 698 

4. =''0n the Relative Stature of the Men with Long Heads, Short Heads, and 

those with Intef mediate Heads, in the Museum at Driffield. By J. R. 
MOETIMEE 699 

5. England before the English. By J. Geat, B.Se 699 

6. ^Discussion on the Phjsical Characters of the Races of Britain 699 

7. The Hyksos, and other Work of the British School of Archseology in 

Egypt. By Professor W. M. Flindees Peteie, F.R.S 6G9 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 2,. 

1. Early Traces of Human Types in the ^gean. By JoHif L. Myees, M. A., 
F.S.A 700 

2. Note on the Ethnology of Sardinia. By Dr. T. Ashby, jun., and 

D.Mackenzie 701 

3. •••Report of the Committee to Organise Anthropological Teaching and 

Research in the British Empire 701 

4. Report on Anthropometric Investigations among the Native Troops of 

the Egyptian Army (p. 347) 701 

5. -Nasal and Cephalic Indices in Different Parts of Egypt. By Dr. C, S. 

Myees : 701 

6. The Astronomy of the Torres Straits Islanders. By W. H. R. Rivees, 

M.A., M.D 701 

7. A Survival of Two-fold Origin. By W. H. R. Rivers, M.A., M.D 702 

8. Demonstration of Photographs of Racial Types. By T. E. Smuetuwaite 702 

9. Report on Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles (p. 349) . . . 702 

10. Report on the Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of 

Photographs of Anthropological Interest (p. 383) 703 

11. A Rare Anomaly in Human Crania from Kwaiawata Island, New Guinea. 

By W. L. H. DucKWOETH, M.D., Sc.D., M.A 703 

12. Observations made on an ' Eunuchoid ' Subject in the Cambridge Anatomy 

School. By W. L. H. Duckwoeth, M.D., Sc.D., M.A 703 

13. *The Races of South Africa. By Dr. F. C, Sheubsall 703 

14. Report on Archaeological and Ethnographical Researches in Crete (p. 408) 703 



Xxii CONTENTS. 

Section I. -PHYSIOLOGY. 
THURSDA r, A UG UST 2. 



Page 



Address by Professor Feancis Gotch, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the 

Section 704 

1. -Granular Changes in Nerve Fibres. By Professor J. S. Macdonald,B.A. 717 

2. Report on the Metabolic Balance-sheet of the Individual Tissues (p. 420) 717 

FRIDA T, A UG VST 3. 

1. The Nitrification of Sewage in Sliallow Filters with Fine Particles. 

By Dr. George Reid 717 

2. ='=Are the Preventive Measures which are Employed against Infectious 

Diseases Effective P By Dr. Hime 718 

3. Nitrogenous Metabolism in Normal Individuals. By Dr. J. M. Hamill 718 

4. Some Determinations of Nitrogen Excretion under Normal Conditions. 

By E. P. PouLTON, B.A 720 

5. Report on the Effect of Climate upon Health and DLsease (p. 424) 721 

6. Second Interim Report on the Ductless Glands (p. 423) T 721 

7. Fourth Report on the State of Solution of Proteids (p. 428) 722 

MONDA Y, A UG UST 6. 

"'^Discussion on the Physiological Value of Rest, opened by Tueodoee Dyke 

AcLAND, M.D 722 

1. The Neuron Theory : Fatigue, Rest, and Sleep. By Dr. AV. Bevan- 

Leavis, M.Sc 722 

2. The Hsematology of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. By G, G. Nasmith, 

M.A., Ph.D., and D. A. L. Graham, M.B 723 

3. On the Mechanism of the Locked Jaw of Tetanus. By Professor Sher- 

rington, F.R.S., and Dr. Roaf 723 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 7. 

'■= Joint DLscussion with Section B (Chemistry) on the Factors -which deter- 
mine Minimal Diet Values. Opened by Dr. F. Gowland Hopkins, 
F.R.S 723 

1. The Electrical Resistance of the Tissues. By Dr. Dawson Turner 723 

2. Observations on Hue Perception. By F. W. Edridge Green, M.D., 

F.R.C.S 724 

Section K.— BOTANY. 

THUBSDAY, AUGUST 2. 

Address by Professor F. W. Oliver, D.Sc, F.RS., President of the Section. 725 

1. Some South African Cycads : their Habitats, Habits, and Associates. By 

Professor H. II. W. Pearson 738 

2. Interim Report on Research on South African Cycads (p. 431) 739 

3. The Vegetation of TeneriH'e. By Hugh Richaebson, M.A 739 

4. A Preliminary Investigation into the Metabolism Concurrent with Heat 

Production in some Avoids. By Miss 0. B. Sanders 739 

6. Report on the Registration of Botanical Photographs (p. 43.3) 740 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXUl 

Page 

6. Report on Peat Moss Deposits (p. 430) 740 

7. Second Interim Report on the Structure of Fossil Plants (p. 432) 741 

8. Ecological Work in Switzerland. By Dr. T. W. Woobhead 741 

9. Succession of Plant Formations in Britain. By C. E. Moss, M.Sc. ...... 742 

10. Corn Smuts and their Propagation. By Professor T. JonNSON, D.Sc. ... 743 

11. Some Injurious Fungi found in Ireland. By Professor T. Johnson, D.Sc. 744 

12. Six Years' Seed-Testing in Ireland. By Professor T. Johnson, D.Sc, 

and Miss R. Hensman 744 

13. Acclimatised Plants. By W. Wilson 744 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 3. 

1 . Some Aspects of the Present Position of Palaeozoic Botany. By Dr. D. II. 

ScoiT, F.R.S 745 

2. On the Occurrence, Distribution, and Mode of Formation of the Calcareous 

Nodules found in Coal Seams of the Lower Coal Measures. By Professor 
F. E. Weiss 746 

3. On the ' Coal-Balls ' found in Coal Seams. By Miss M. C. Stopes, D.Sc, 

Ph.D ; 747 

4. On the Origin of Coal. By Professor H. Potonie 748 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 4. 

1. Contributions to the Root Anatomy of the Cupuliferte and of the Meliaceffi. 

By W. J. Gallagher , 749 

2. The Structure and Wound-reactions of the Mesozoic Genus Brachy- 

phyllum. By Professor E. C. Jeffrey 750 

3. Zygospore Germinations in the Mncorinere. By A. F. Blakeslee, Ph.D. 751 

4. Differentiation of Sex in Thallus, Gametophyte, and Sporophyte. By 

A. F. Blakeslee, Ph.D '. 752 

6. A Stigmaria of Unusual Type. By Professor F. E. Weiss, D.Sc 752 

G. The Cross-Inoculation of Leguminosre and other Root-Nodule bearing 
Plants. By Professor W. B. Bottomley 762 

7. Nitrifying Bacteria in the Velamen of certain Orchids. By Professor 

W. B. Bottomley 753 

8. On the Taxonomic Value of Cilia in Bacteriology. By Dayid Ellis ... 753 

MONDAY, AUGUST 6. 

'■= Joint Discussion with Section D on Fertilisation 754 

1. The Nature of Fertilisation. By Veenon H. Blackman 754 

2. The Protozoan Life-Cycle. By G. N. Calkins (p. 596) 755 

3. The Maturation of Parthenogenetic Eggs. By L. Doncastee, M.A 755 

4. Formation of the True Nucleoli or Plasmosoraes of the Somatic Cells : A 

Contribution to the Study of the Formation of the Plasmosomes in the 
Nerve and Blood Cells of some Batrachians, viz. Itana temporaria and 
Ahjtes obstetricans. By Professor T. Havet 757 

5. ='=Some Impressions of South African Vegetation. By Professor R. H. 

Yapp, M.A 758 

6. Algal Ecology and Biology. By Miss Florence Rich 758 

7. The Algal Vegetation of Ponds. By Norman Walker 758 



XXIV CONTENTS. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 7. 

Page 

1. On the Seedling Structure of Gymnosperma. By T. G. Hin and E. be 

FR AINE 759 

2. On the Seedling Structure of certain Centrospermse. By T. G. Hill 760 

3. The Phylogenetic Value of the Vascular Structure of Spermophytic 

Hypocotyls. By A, G. Tanslet and E. N. Thomas 761 

4. The Seedlings of certain Pseudo-Monocotyledons. By A. W. Hill, M.A. 763 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 2. 

Address by Professor M. E. Sadler, M.A., LL.I).,. President of the Section... 764 

1. Physical Education. By Sir Lauder Brunton, M.D., V.-P.R.S 776 

2. ='=Medical Inspection of Schools. By Dr. Ethel Williams 77G 

3. Physical Training in Denmark and its Application to English Needs. By 

Major Salmon 776 

4. The Workers' Educational Association : An Experiment in the Organi- 

sation of Working-class Edueation. By H. 0. Meredith, M.A 777 

5. ='=The Education of Wage-earners of School Age. By Mrs. M. E. Mac- 

DONALD 778 

6. Report on the Conditions of Health essential to the carrying on of the 

Work of Instruction in Schools (p. 433) 778 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 3. 

1. Report on the Courses of Experimental, Observational, and Practical 

Studies most suitable for Elementary Schools (p. 438) 778 

2. •••The Balance of Subjects in the Curricula of Elementary Schools. By 

Cyril Jackson 778 

3. -''Adapting Rural Education to the Needs of Rural Life. By T. S. 

Dtmond.F.C.S 778 

4. Primary School Problems. — (a) Balance of Curriculum ; {b) Training of 

Teachers. By Principal A. Burrell, M.A 778 

5. The Training of Primary Teachers. By Professor J. A. Green, B.A. ... 779 

6. School Training for Home Duties of Women. By Professor A. Smithells, 

F.R.S 781 

7. ''^School Training for Home Duties of Women. By Professor H. E. Arm- 

strong, F.R.S , 784 

8. The Training of the Teacher of Domestic Science. By Miss Mary E. 

Marsden 784 

9. '!=The Moral and Economic Standpoint of the Domestic Science Teacher. 

By Miss Maud Taylor ; 786 

10. The Duty of Education Authorities to the Nation respecting the Teaching 

of Domestic Subjects. By Mrs, Margaret Eleanor Pillow 786 

11. The Problem of Girls' Education in Elementary Schools, with Special 

Reference to Training for Home Life. By Professor Millicent Mac- 
kenzie \ 787 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS XXV 

MONDAY, AUGUST 6. 

Page 

1. The Curriculum of Secondary Schools : — ■ 

(i) By T. E. Page, M.A 787 

(ii) tBy the Hon. and Rev. A. Ltttelton, M.A 788 

(iii) By A. C. Benson, M.A 788 

2. The Preparatory School Curriculum. By G. Gidlet Robinson, M.A... . 789 

3. The Waste of Time in Secondary Schools. By J. H. Leonaed, B.Sc. ...791 

4. The Training of Teachers. By Miss E. Constance Jones 791 

5. The Overbalanced Curriculum : a Plea for Individuality in Ijeisure Hours. 

By Aei'htjr RowNTEEE, B.A 792 

G. Inspection and Regulation of Schools. By Rev. E. 0. Owen 792 

7. Scientific Method in the Study of School Teaching. By Professor J. J . 

FiNDLAT, Ph.D ,.. 793 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 7. 

1. tThe Inspection and Examination of Schools. By Professor H. E. Aem- 

STEONG, F.R.S 795 

2. The Constructive Work of an Inspector of Schools. By W. Mathowe 

Hellee, B.Sc 795 

3. Processes involved in the Acquirement of a Foreign Language. By Pro- 

fessor J. J. FiNDLAY 798 

4. -"On the Cultivation of Literary Taste. By Miss Lttct Haeeison 800 

5. The Position of German in the Educational Curriculum. By Professor 

J. G. Robeetson 800 

6. tThe Teaching of Mechanics by Experiment. By C. E. Ashfoed, M.A. . 800 



APPENDIX. 

The South Africa Medal Fund .' 801 

Index 805 



XXVI LIST OF PLATES. 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plate I. 
Illustrating the Report on Seiamological Investigations . 

Plates II. and III. 
Illustrating the Keport on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OP 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied 
by other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the British 
Empire, with one another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a 
more general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which impede its progress, 

EULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled 
to become Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation 
to conform to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical 
Societies publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, 
in like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, 
of Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like mannei*, to become 
Members of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Coun- 
cil or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become 
Members of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the 
General Committee or Council to become Life Members of the Asso- 
ciation, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the 
approval of a General Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitoushj the Reports of the Association which may be 
published after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the 
offices of the Association. 

Annual Subscribees shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 



XXVIU RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

gratuitously tlie Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annnal Subscription. By omitting to pay this subscription in any par- 
ticular year Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and 
all future -years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association 
gratis ; but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any 
subsequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the 
sum of One Pound. They are eligible to all the offices of the Association. 
Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the follovring classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on 
admission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annnal Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to 
the payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after 
intermission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the 
payment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each 
following year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of 
Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual volume 
of Reports, gratis, or to imrchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, 
a further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription . 
9.. At reduced or Members' Price, viz., two-thirds of the Publication Price. 
— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payraents, but no further sum as a Book 
Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 
Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 
of the volumes of the Reports of the Association up to 1874, 
of which more than 15 copies remain, at 2s. 6d. per volume.' 

Application to be made at the Office of the Association. 
Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can 
only be issued by direction of the Council. 

' A few complete sets, 1831 to 1874, are on sale at £10 the set. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. xxix 



Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annnally, for one week, or longer. The 
place of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee not 
less than two years in advance ; ' and the arrangements for it shall bo 
entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presi- 
dents of Sections for the present and preceding yeai'S, with Authors of 
Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members %vho by the publication of Works or Papers have fur- 
thered the advancement of those subjects which are taken into considera- 
tion at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. With o. view of suh- 
mitting new claims under this Bule to the decision of the Council, they must be 
sent to the Assistant Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the 
Association. The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the 
Association to be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporaet Members.'^ 

1. Delegates nominated by the Corresponding Societies under the 
conditions hereinafter explained. Claims under this Rule to be sent to the 
Assistant Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not ex- 
ceeding three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of 
Meeting. Claims under this Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries 
before the opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and 
who are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by 
the President and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees.'^ 

(i) The President, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of a Section are 
appointed by the Council in November or December. They form, with 
the existing members (see (ii) and (vi) ), the Committee, which lias the duty of 
obtaining information upon the Memoirs and Reports likely to be sub- 
mitted to the Section at the next meeting, of preparing a report thereon 
of generally organising the business of the Section, and of bringing before 
the Council any points which they think deserving of consideration.-* 

' Revised by the General Committee, Liverpool, 1896. 
' Hevised, Montreal, 1884. 

' Adopted by the General Committee at Cambridge, 1904. 

* Notice to Contributors of Memoirs.—Authois are reminded that, under an 
arrangement dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which 



XXX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

(ii) The Sectional Presidents of former years are ex-officio members of 
these Committees. 

(iii) The Sectional Committees may hold such meetings as they think 
proper for the organisation of the business, but shall, under any circum- 
stances, meet on the fii'st Wednesday of the Annual Meeting at 2 p.m. 
for the appointment of additional Members and other business. 

Any member who has served on the Committee in previous years, and 
who has intimated his intention of being present at the Meeting, is eligible 
for election as a Member of the Committee at its first meeting. 

(iv) The Sectional Committees shall have power to add to their number 
from day to day during the Annual Meeting, but it is not desirable for 
them to be larger than is necessary for efficiency ; they have also the 
power to elect not more than three Vice-Presidents at any time during 
the meeting, in addition to those appointed by the Council. 

(v) The List formed during the Annual Meeting is to be entered 
daily in the Sectional Minute- Book, and a copy forwarded without delay 
to the Printer, who is charged with publishing the same before 8 a.m. on 
the next day in the Journal of the Sectional Proceedings. 

(vi) Before the close of the Annual Meeting each Sectional Committee 
is to nominate six members of the Association to form the nucleus of the 
Committee for the succeeding year, and forward a list of the six names to 
the Assistant Secretary of the Association. 

Included in the six names should be the existing President of the 
Section, or one of the Vice-Presidents, and one of the existing Secretaries. 

It will be the duty of these Members to transact the business of 
the Committee until the officers of the Section for the ensuing year are 
appointed by the Council, and thus become the officers of the Committee 
(see (i) ). 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday, and on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday (optional), Monday, and Tuesday, 
for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association. The Committee of 
a Section is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of the Section 
and the Sectional Committee. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 
At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of 
last year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis 
of Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association 

they are to be read, are now as far as possible determined by the Sectional Com- 
mittees hefore the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become necessary, 
in order to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the several 
Communications, that each author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir of a 
length suitable for insertion in the published Transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or 

before , addressed to the General Secretaries, at the office of 

the Association. 'For Section ' If it should be inconvenient to tlie Author 

that his paper should be read on any particular days, he is requested to send in- 
formation thereof to the Secretaries in a separate note. Authors who send in their 
MSS. three complete weeks before the Meeting, and whose papers are accepted, 
will be furnished, before the Meeting, with printed copies of their HeiJorts and 
abstracts. No Report, Paper, or Abstract can be inserted in the Annual Volume 
unless it is handed either to the llecorder of the Section or to the Assistant Secre- 
tary before the conclusion of the Meeting. 



BULBS OF THE^ASSOCIATION. XXXI 

and printed in the last volume of the Report. He will next proceed to 
read the Report of the Committee that has held office since the last Annual 
Meeting. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by 
the Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accordingly. 
The List of Communications to be read on Thursday shall be then 
arranged, and the general distribution of business throughout the week 
shall be provisionally appointed. At the close of the Committee Meeting 
the Secretaries shall forward to the Printer a List of the Papers appointed 
to be read. The Printer is charged with publishing the same before 
8 A.M. on Thursday in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, 
the Secretaries are to prepare a copy of the Journal for the following day 
by (i) removing from the list of papers those which have been read on 
that day ; (ii) making any needful additions to or corrections in the list 
of those appointed to be read on following days ; (iii) revising the list of 
the Sectional Committee, and making any other necessary corrections, 
and to send this copy of the Journal as early in the day as possible to 
the Printer, who is charged with printing the same before 8 A.M. next 
morning in the Journal, It is necessary that one of the Secretaries of 
each Section (generally the Recorder) should call at the Printing Office 
and revise the proof each evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings at each Meeting of the Committee are to be 
entered in the Minute-Book, and these Minutes should be confirmed at 
the next meeting of the Committee. 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the 
Sectional Meetings, to the Assistant Secretary of the Association. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio 
temporary Members of the General Committee, and will receive, on 
application to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, tickets entitling 
them to attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be ofiered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association, and the 
communications made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of 
selecting definite points of research to which individual or combined 
exertion may be usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the 
state and progress of which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or 
Committees for the execution of such Reports or researches ; and to staie 
whether, and to what degree, these objects may be usefully advanced by 
the appropriation of the funds of the Association, by application to 
Government, philosophical institutions, or local authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, 
it is expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and 
one of them appointed to act as Chairman, who shall have notified per- 
sonally or in writing his willingnesa to accept the office, the Chairman to 
have the responsibility of receiving and disbursing the grant (if any has 
been made) and securing the presentation of the report in due time ; and, 
further, it is expedient that one of the members should be appointed to 
act as Secretary, for ensuring attention to business. 

It is desirable that the number of Members appointed to serve on 



xxxii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

a Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efiQcient 

working. . 

A tabular list of the Committees appointed on the recommendation 
of each Section shall bo sent each year to the Recorders of the 
several Sections, to enable them to fill in the statement whether or no the 
several Committees appointed on the recommendation of their respective 
Sections have presented their reports. 

On the proposal to recommend the appointment of a Committee 
for a special object of science having been adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, the number of Members of such Committee shall be then 
fixed, but the Members to serve on such Committee shall be nominated 
and selected by the Sectional Committee at a subsequent meeting. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons, being Members 
of the Association, whose assistance they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to 
be registered on the forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one copy of 
each is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant Secretary of the 
Association for presentation to the Committee of Eecommendations. 
Unless this he clone, the Eecommendations cannot receive the sanction of the 
Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can 
be referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the 
General Committee. 

Notices regarding Grants of Money. '^ 

1. No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 

the British Association without special permission from the General 
Committee to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended 
except in accordance with the Rules of the Association. 

2. In grants of money to Committees the Association does not contem- 

plate the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

3. Committees to which grants of money are entrusted by the Association 

for the prosecution of particular Researches in Science are ap- 
pointed for one year only. If the work of a Committee cannot be 
completed in the year, and if the Sectional Committee desire the 
work to be continued, application for the reappointment of the 
Committee for another year must be made at the next meeting of 
the Association. 

4. Each Committee is required to present a Report, whether final or in- 

terim, at the next meeting of the Association after their appoint- 
ment or reappointment. Interim Reports must be submitted in 
writing, though not necessarily for publication. 

5. In each Committee the Chairman is the only person entitled to call 

on the Treasurer, Professor John Perry, F.R.S., for such portion 
of the sums granted as may from time to time be required. 

6. Grants of money sanctioned at a meeting of the Association expire on 

June 30 following. The Treasurer is not authorised after that 
date to allow any claims on account of such grants. 

* ReTised by the General Committee at Ipswich, 1895. 



RtLES OF tHE ASSOCIATION. Xxxili 

7. The Chairman of a ComDiittee must, before the meeting of the Asso- 

ciation next following after the appointment or reappointment of 
the Committee, forward to the Treasurer a statement of the sums 
which have been received and expended, with vouchers. The 
Chairman must also return the balance of the grant, if any, which 
has been received and not spent ; or, if further expenditure is con- 
templated, he must apply for leave to retain the balance. 

8. When application is made for a Committee to be reappointed, and to 

retain the balance of a former grant which is in the hands of the 
Chairman, and also to receive a further grant, the amount of such 
further grant is to be estimated as being additional to, and not 
inclusive of, the balance proposed to be retained. 

9. The Committees of the Sections shall ascertain whether a Report has 

been made by every Committee appointed at the previous Meeting 
to whom a sum of money has been granted, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations in every case where no such 
report has been received. 
lU. Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 
for collecting specimens of any description are requested to re- 
serve the specimens so obtained to be dealt with by authority of 
the Council. 

11. Committees are requested to furnish a list of any apparatus which 

may have been purchased out of a grant made by the Association, 
and to state whether the apparatus will be useful for continuing 
the research in question, or for other scientific purposes. 

12. All instruments, papers, drawings, and other property of the Asso- 

ciation are to be deposited at the Office of the Association when 
not employed in scientific inquiries for the Association. 



Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation shortly 
before the meeting commences. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto 
can he used for no notices, exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the 
Association. 

At the time appointed the Chair will be taken,' and the reading of 
communications, in the order previously made public, commenced. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications 
delivered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of 
the Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers, 

1 . To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are 
appointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 

' The Sectional Committee is empowered to arrange the hours of meeting of 
the Section and of the Sectional Committee, except for Saturday 

1906. b 



xxxiv RULES OV THE ASSOCIATION. 

2. To require of every person desirous of entering the rooms the ex- 

hibition of a Member's, Associate's, or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's 
Ticket, signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the 
Assistant Secretary. 

3. Persons unprovided with any of these tickets can only be admitted 

to any particular room by order of the Secretary in that room. 

No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Ofl&cers of the 
Association whose names are printed in the Official Programme, p. 1. 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the rooms to which they are appointed dur- 
ing the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on 
messages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, 
which shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional 
Committees, and report to the General Committee the measures which 
they would advise to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

The ex officio members of the Committee of Recommendations are the 
President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting, the General Secretaries, 
the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of the Association 
in former years. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the 
Committee of Recommendations, and shall not be taken into considera- 
tion by the General Committee unless previously recommended by the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

All proposals for establishing new Sections, or altering the titles of 
Sections, or for any other change in the constitutional forms and funda- 
mental rules of the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of 
Recommendations for a report.' 

If the President of a Section is unable to attend a meeting of the 
Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Committee shall be 
authorised to appoint a Vice-President, or, failing a Vice-President, 
some other member of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice 
of the appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary.'^ 

Gorresponding Societies.^ 

1 . (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific investigation and 
publishes the results may become a Society affiliated to the British Asso- 
ciation. 

(ii) The Delegates of such Societies, who must be or become members 
of the British Association, shall be ex officio members of the General 
Committee. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Birmingham, 1865. 

* Passed by the General Committee at Leeds, 1890. 

» Passed by the General Committee, 1884 ; revised 1903, 1905. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXV 

(iii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging the study of 
science, which has existed for three years and numbers not fewer than 
fifty members, may become a Society associated with the British Associa- 
tion. 

(iv) Each associated Society shall have the right to appoint a Delegate 
to attend the Annual Conference, and such Delegates shall be members or 
associates of the British Association, and shall have all the rights of those 
appointed by the affiliated Societies, eKcept that of membership of the 
General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed on the 
List of Corresponding Societies. Applications must be addressed to 
the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of June preceding the 
Annual Meeting at which it is intended they should be considered, 
and must be accompanied by specimena of the publications of the 
results of the local scientific investigations recently undertaken by the 
Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be annually nomi- 
nated by the Council and appointed by the General Committee for the 
purpose of considering these applications, as well as for that of keeping 
themselves generally informed of the annual work of the Corresponding 
Societies, and of superintending the preparation of a list of the papers 
published by them. This Committee shall make an annual report to the 
General Committee, and shall suggest such additions or changes in the 
List of Corresponding Societies as they may think desirable. 

4. Every Corresponding Society shall return each year, on or before 
the 1st of June, to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, a 
schedule, properly filled up, which will be issued by him, and which 
will contain a request for such particulars with regard to the Society 
as may be required for the information of the Corresponding Societies 
Committee. 

5. There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the Association 
a list, in an abbreviated form, of the papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the past twelve months which contain the 
results of the local scientific work conducted by them ; those papers only 
being included which refer to subjects coming under the cognisance of 
one or other of the various Sections of the Association. 



Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies. 

6. The Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies is em- 
powered to send recommendations to the Committee of Recommen- 
dations for their consideration, and for report to the General Committee. 

7. The Delegates of the Tarious Corresponding Societies shall con- 
stitute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice- Chairmen, and Secre- 
taries shall be annually nominated by the Council, and appointed by the 
General Committee, and of which the members of the Corresponding 
Societies Committee shall be ex officio members. 

8. The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by the Secretaries 
to hold one or more meetings during each Annual Meeting of the Associa- 
tion, and shall be empowered to invite any Member or Associate to take 
part in the meetings. 

b2 



XXXvi RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

9. The Committee of each Section shall be instmcted to transmit 
to the Secretaries of the Conference of Delegates copies of any recom- 
mendations forwarded by the Presidents of Sections to the Committee 
of Recommendations bearing npon matters in which the co-operation 
of Corresponding Societies is desired ; and the Secretaries of the Conference 
of Delegates shall invite the authors of these recommendations to attend 
the meetings of the Conference and give verbal explanations of their 
objects and of the precise way in which they would desire to have them 
carried into effect. 

10. It will be the duty of the Delegates to make themselves familiar 
with the purport of the several recommendations brought be fore the Confer- 
ence, in order that they and others who take part in the meetings may be 
able to bring those recommendations clearly and favourably before their 
respective Societies. The Conference may also discuss propositions bear- 
ing on the promotion of more systematic observation and plans of opera- 
tion and of greater uniformity in the mode of publishing results. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association 
to assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers 
those Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Offi,cers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, 
and a Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

The Council shall appoint and have power to dismiss such paid officers 
as they may consider necessary to carry on the work of the Association, 
on such terms as they may from time to time determine." 

Council. 

In the intei'vals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall 
be managed by a Council appointed by the Genei-al Committee. The 
Council may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week 
of the Meeting. 

(1) The Council shall consist of ' 

1. The Trustees. 

2. The past Pi-esidents. 

8. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers and General 

Secretaries and past Assistant General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing 

Meeting 

7. Ordinary Members. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Cambridge, 1904. 

■ Passed by the General Committee at Belfast, 1874 ; amended at Cambridge, 
1904 



RDLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXXVII 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the 

General Committee. 

(3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of 

whom not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, 
as Ordinary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary 

Members of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election 
be ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on 
the Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 
2nd, those who, being resident in or near London, have 
attended the fewest number of Meetings during the year 
— observing (as nearly as possible) the proportion of three by 
seniority to two by least attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their 

Annual Report the names of twenty-three Members of the 
General Committee whom they recommend for election as 
Members of Council. 

(i) A nomination for either of the two vacant seats on the 
Council may be made in writing by any two or more 
members of the General Committee, and must be sent 
to the Assistant Secretary so as to be received by him 
at least twenty -four hours before the meeting of the 
General Committee at which the election takes place. 

(ii) The nominations shall be read to the meeting by the 
Chairman ; and if more than two persons be nominated, 
the election shall be by ballot or show of hands, and 
the two having the highest numbers of votes shall be 
declared elected. 

(iii) In case no nomination, or only one nomination, shall be 
received, as provided for by by-law, two seats on the 
Council (or one seat, as the case may be) shall remain 
vacant until the next ensuing Meeting of the Council, 
when the seats (or seat, as the case may be) shall 
be filled by co-optation of the other members of the 
Council.' 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that ot the 

Officers of the Association. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to 
reserve his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 

' Passed by the General Committee at Cambridge, 1904; revised in South Africa, 
1905. 



XXX VIU 



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TEUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831-3 90G. 



1833-70 (Sir) K. I. Murchison (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Taylos, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S 
1839-44 F. Bailt, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R S. 
18G2-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 



TRUSTEES. 
1872 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 

AVEBUET), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
Sir Lyon (afterwai-ds Lord) 

Playfaie, F.R.S. 
Prof, (Sir) A. W. Ruckeb, F.R.S 



1883 

1883- 

1898 



.98 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Geay, Esq. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq , F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



1891-98 Prof. A. W. Ruckee, F.R.S. 
1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904 Prof. John Pbeey, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832- 
1835- 



35 



36 



1836-37 



Rev. W. 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 
F.R.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 



Veenon Haecourt, 

Vbenon Haecourt, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 

Vernon Harcourt, 
i. muechison, 



F.R.S., and R. 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1837-39 R. I. MURCHISON. Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1839-45 Sir R. I. MuRCHisoN, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1845-50 Lieut.-Colonel E. Sabinb.F.R.S. 
1850-52 General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J.F. ROYLB, Esq., F.R.S. 
52-53 J. F. ROYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
59 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 

61 Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 

62 W. Hopkins, Efsq., F.R.S. 
-63 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
1863-65 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R S. 
66 F. Galton. Esq., F.R.S. 
68 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



1852 
1853 
1859 
1861 
1862 



1865- 
1866- 



1868-71 Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
1871-72 Dr.T.TH0M,S0N,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R,S. 
1872-76 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
1876-81 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. SCL.4.TER, F.R.S. 
1881-82 Capt. D. GALTON, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balfour, F.R.S. 
1882-83 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1883-95 Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G.Veenon Harcouut. 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1895-97 A. G. Vernon Harcourt, Esq.. 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

SCHAFER, F.R.S. 
1897- r Prof. ScHAFER, F.R.S., and Sir 
1900 1 W.C.Roberts-Austen,F.R.S. 
1900-02 Sir W. C. Robebts-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
1902-03 Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., and 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R 8 
1903 Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S , 

and Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES 
1881-85 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary/. 

1832 Prof. J. D. FORBES, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A., 

Assistant Secretary. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretamj. 



BONNEY, F.R.S 



Prof. T. G. 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Geiffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretari/. 
1890-1902 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1902-04 J. G. Gaeson, Esq., M.D. 
1904 A. SiLVA White, Esq., Assistant 

Secretary. 



liv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Wbewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Cflasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858 Leeds 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William "WTiewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . MTiewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'CuUoch, M.R.LA. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.LA. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 

Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 
I W. Scoresby. 
I J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
i Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 
I G. G. Stokes. 

IJolm Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 
j Stokes. 

' Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 
j Stokes. 

Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
'Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. .T.Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W, J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Pnckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Iv 



Date and Place 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin.. .. 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



Presidents 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



The Earl of Eosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. .J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

Rev. frof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 

M.R.I.A. 
Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. 0. Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LIj.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 
F.R.S.E. 

Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof .H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster^ 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hay ward. 
Prof. G. C. Poster, R. B. Haywardi 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Wliitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof, W. K. Clifford, Pi-of. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S.Herschel.G.F.Eodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A . S. Herschel. 
J. W.L. Glaisher, Prof. Hersch el, Ran- 
dal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casej', G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 0. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L, Glaisher, Dr. 

0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayi-ton, Dr. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAli.ster, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 
D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 

C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, 0. J. Lodge, D MacAlister. 

R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

. W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 

R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 
J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 



Ivi 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
189G. 

1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 

1901. 

1902 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 
1906. 



Manchester 
Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswicli ... 
Liverpool... 

Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford ... 

Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 
York 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. Sir E. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

■pi T> O 

Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.U., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.A.W.Riicker, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A.. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S.— Z»t^^ 
of Astronomy, Dr. A. A. 
Common, F.R.S. 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Asironomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Prof. J.Parser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 
— Di"p. of Asfronomt/, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 

C. Vernon Boys, V.n.S.—Dej}. 
of Astronomy and Meteor- 
ology, V>x. W. N. Shaw,F.R.S 

Prof. H. Lamb, F.R.S.— ;§«J-| 
Section of Astronomy and] 
Cosinioal Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.B., F.R.S. I 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. I 

Principal E. H.Griffiths,F.R.S. 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, VV. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, W. 

Wa&on. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. C. Glashan, J. 

L. Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 
A. P. Chattock, J. L Howard, C. H. 

Lees, W. Watson, E. T. Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, W. Wat- 
son, E. T. Whittaker. 
P. H. Cowell, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wasistaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 
H.S.Carslaw.C.H.Lees, W. Stewart, 

Prof. L. R. Wilber force. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 

Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. B. 

Morton, A. W. Porter. 
D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 

H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees, J. 

Loton, A. W. Porter. 
A. R. Hinks, R. W. II. T. Hudson, 

Dr. C. H. Lees, Dr. W. J. S. Lock- 

yer, A. W. Porter, W. C. D. 

Whetham. 
A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough, R. T. A. 

Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. C. H. Lees. 
Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 

A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. W. Porter, 

H. Dennis Taylor. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINEEALOGT. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



•John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ivii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. 
1836. 

18.37. 

1838 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 

1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

185.5. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 
1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 



Dublin J Dr. T. Thomson, F.K.S 

Bristol Eev. Prof. Gumming 

Liverpool.,. Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Newcastle ' Rev. William Whewell,F,R.S. 



Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 



Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Tliomas Thomson, F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, R. Hunt,W. M. Tweedy. 



Plymouth... Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S. 

Manchester John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham, 

Cork Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I. A R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

York I Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S i Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. 

Barker. 

Cambridge | Rev. Prof . Camming I R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. Solly. 
Southamp- Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 
ton. F.R.S. 

Oxford Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. { 

Swansea ... Richard Phillips, F.R.S T. II. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

Birmingham John Percy, M.D., F.R.S ' R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 



Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 
B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 



Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 
T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 



Edinburgh Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. 
Ipswich ... Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 

Belfast Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S.j Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

! Ronalds. 

Hull Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M. A., 'h. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 

i F.R.S. I Pearsall. 

Liverpool ^ Prof. W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

I Price. 
Glasgow ...'Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S.: Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
Cheltenham Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ...jJ. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

I Voelcker. 
Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 



Dublin.... 
Leeds .... 
Aberdeen. 
Oxford.... 



Manchester 
Cambridge 



M.R.LA 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 
D.C.L. 



livan. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B., F.R.S. J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

1 Liveing. Dr. Odling. 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

I A. B. Northcote. 
Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S.I A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. I H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Steven.son. 



A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 



Newcastle Dr. Alex. W. Williamson 
F R S 

Bath W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S.. 

Biggs, 
Birmingham Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J 
Russell, J. White. 
Prof. T. Anderson, M.D.,j A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
' F.R.S.E. j W. J. Russell. 

Norwich ... Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
i I sell, F. Sutton. 



Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 
! V.P.R.S. 
Nottingham H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dundee 



Iviii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 


1869. 


Exeter 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


1871. 


Edinburgh 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


1873. 


Bradford... 


1874. 


Belfast 


1875. 


Bristol 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


1877. 


Plymouth... 


1878, 


Dublin 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


1881. 


York 


1882. 
18S.3. 


Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 


1884. 


Montreal ... 


188.5. 


Aberdeen... 


1886. Birmingham 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 


Newcastle- 


1890. 


upon-Tyne 
Leeds 


1891 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford 



Presidents 



Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
A. G. Vernon Harconrt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, P.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof, H. McLeod, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 

Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 

Dr. W. J. Russell. 
J. Y. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T, 

E. Thorpe. 
Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 

W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 
Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 
Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 
Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 

Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 
W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 
Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 
H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T.Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof P.Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterMorley,Dr. W.J. Simpson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, H. F. Mor- 

ley.W. W. J. Niool, C.J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Bloyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 
H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Morley. 



1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 
1897 Toronto ... 



SECTION B (continued). 
Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 



-CHEMISTRY. 

E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn.J. W. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn. 
Prof. W. n. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



liK 



Date and Place 



1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902, 
1903. 
1904. 

1905. 
1906. 



Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford .. 
Glasgow .. 

Belfast 

Southport 
Cambridge 



Presidents 



Prof. F. K. Japp, F.R.S 

Horace T. Brown, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 

Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sydney Young, F.R.S.... 



SouthAfrica George T. Beilby 
York 



Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



C. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddart, T. K. 
Rose. 

A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K, Rose, 
Prof. W. P. Wynne. 

W. M. Gardner, F. S. Kipping, W. 
J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 

W. C. "Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 
W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 

R. F. Blake, M. O, Forster, Prof. 
G. G. Henderson, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Dr. M. 0. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. 0. Jones, Prof. W. 
J. Pope. 

W. A. Caldecott, Dr. M. 0. Forster, 
Prof. G. G. Henderson, C. F. Juritz. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 
Crossley, 8. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. 
Pope. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III.- 

1832. Oxford IR. I. Murchison, F.R.S. 

1833. Cambridge. !G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

1834. Edinburgh . I Prof . Jameson 



-GEOLOGY AND GEOGKAPHT. 

John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie, Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol, 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle., 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh' 



'R.J.Griffith 

'Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 
6'c<>(7.,R.I.Murchison,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 
6'eo$r.,G.B.Greenough, F.R.S. 
IC. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 
{ Geographij, Lord Prudhoe. 
Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 
G'p(j..7.,G.B.Greenoi^gh,F.R.S. 
Charles liyell, Y.'9,.^.— Geog., 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

B. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

I Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S. ... 

Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A. 
! F.R.S. 
j Leonard Horner, F.R.S. 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,P.R.S. 

] Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S ' 

Sir Roderick L Murchison,' 
I F.R.S. 1 



Ca,ptain Porllock, T. J. Torrie. 

William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hanter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M. Denham,R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt, Portlock.— 
Geoqrapliy, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, H. Murray, 
H. E. Strickland, J. Secular. 

W. J. Hamilton, Ed ward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
S.Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. Ramsay 
J. B. Jukes, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



' Geography was constituted a separate Section, see page Ixvii. 



Ix 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS, 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION c {continued). — GEOLOGY. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool .. 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1 856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

18C1. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1855. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford.., 

1874. Belfast , 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 



WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Lieut. -Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S... 



The Lord Talbot de Malaliide 

William Hopkins.M.A., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S... 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B., F.R.S. I 

Prof. A. C. Ramsar, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

R. A. C. Godwin- Austen, 1 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
SirPhilipde M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S 

Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. T.Wright, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbuiy, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, R. H. 

Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, E. Hull, J. W. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorb)'. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J; Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 

sen, G. H. Wrio-ht. 

E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fi.sher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengellj', Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Bo3'd Dawkins, 

Rev. li. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L.C.Miall,R.H.Tiddeman,W.Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney,W. Topley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Jxi 



Date and Place 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



Residents 



1891. .Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford ... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 



Secretaries 



1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York 



Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R.S , Sec. 

o ^ 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.E.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S,, F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL D., D.C.L., 

F.K.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
.J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Hudlestou, F.R S 

Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

John Home, F.R.S 

Lieut. -Gen. C. A. McMahon, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. W Watts, M.A., 

M.Sc. 
Aubrey Strahan, F.R.S 

Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 

G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S 



R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 
Teall, W. Topley. 

W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. TeaU, W. 
Topley, W. W. Watts. 

J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 

Prof G. A. Lebour, W. Tople}-, W. 
W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 

Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. B. Marr, W. 
W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 

J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 
E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 

W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 
Reid, W. W. Watts. 

H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 
Reid, W. W. Watts. 

J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 
Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, A. Barker, Clement 
Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, C. Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp 
Inah, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H. Pentecost. 

J. W. Gregory, G. W. Lamplugh, 

Capt. McDakin, Prof. H. A. Miers. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

G. W. Lamplugh, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton, 

J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. Seymour. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. Woods. 
H. L. Bowman, J. Lomas, Dr. Molen- 

graaff. Prof. A. Young, Prof. R. B. 

Young. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Rev. W. Johnson, J. Lomas. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, lY. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...;Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge' Rev. W.L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh. Prof. Graham W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett, 



' At this Meeting Pliysiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixv, 



Ixii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1835. Dublin, 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman ! J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow !J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, 8. 

Eootsey. 

W. S. MacLeay C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

j Swainson. 
Sir W. Jardine, Bart J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
Prof, Owen, F.R.S E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 



Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 

Very Rev. the Dean of Man- 
chester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 
F R S 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 

Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 
Patterson. 

Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 
Wollaston. 



SECTION D {continued). — ZOOLOG? AND BOTANT, INCLUDING PHTSIOLOGT. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixv.] 

1848. Swansea ...; L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 



1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof, Henslow, M,A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M,A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D,, 

F.R.S. 
C, C, Babington, M,A,, F.R.S, 

Sir W, Jardine, Bart,, F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S,... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

ProL Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof, Balfour, M.D., F.R.S,.,, 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A, Hen- 

frey, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, BI.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester, 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr, 

Edwin Lankester, 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy, 
W, S, Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright, 
Dr, T, Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr, E, Charlton, A.Newton, Rev. H, 

B. Tristram, Dr, E, P. Wright. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1864. Bath. 



1865. Birming- 
ham ' 



Presidents 



Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. 
T. Thomson, M.D,, F.E.S, 



Secretaries 



H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr, E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D (continued). — biology. 



1866. Nottingham 



1867. 
1868. 



Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter, 



1870. Liverpool. 



1871. Edinburgh. 



1872. Brighton 



Prof. Huxley, F.'R.S.—Bep. 

of Physiol., Vxoi. Humphry, 

F.R.S. — Dcp.of Antliropol., 

A. R. Wallace. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Dcp. of Zool. and Bat., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dep. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.E.S. 



George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— I)e2}. of Hot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Dcp. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof.G. RolIeston.M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., Y.'L.H.— Bej}. of 
Anat. and Physiol., Prof. M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— i)f/A 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— i)(VA of Bot. and 
ZooZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Ddj). of Anthrojjol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. j 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S.— i)e/A of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 
1873. Bradford ... j Prof. Allmau, F.R.S.— Z>(;/;. of 
Anat.and Physiol.,Fioi. TXxl- 
theTtoTd,M.J).— Dep. of An- 
thropol., Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

Prof. Redfern, M.B.—Bep. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Vxes.'R.'&.~Bip.ofAn- 
throp., Sir W. R. Wilde, 
M.D. 

1875. Bristol ?. L. Sclater, Y.^.^.— Dep. of 

Anat. and Physiol., Prof 
Cleland, Y.B..k—I)ep. of 
^«a.,Prof.Rolleston,F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— 
Bej). of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 



1874. Belfast . 



1876. Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthiir Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye- Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W, 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendi-ick, Prof, 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



' The title of Section D was changed to Biology. 



Ixiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1877. Plymouth... 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield .. 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1882. 



Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 



1884. 


Montreal ... 


1885. 


Aberdeen ... 


1886. 


L'irmingham 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 


Newcastle - 




upon-Tyne 


1890. 


Leeds 


1891. 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



J. GwjTi Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and PhysioL, 
Prof. Macalister. — I)c2). of 
A)ithroj)ol.,Y.GaMoT:i,¥.'R.i>. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bcp. of AntJiropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Bcp.. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R.i 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. ; 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anthroj'ol., 
E. B. Tyler, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 1 

A.C. L. Giinther, F.R.S.— Z»(^. ' 
of Anat. .J- Physiol, F. M.i 
Balfour, F.R.S.— i>f/A of 
AnthropoL, F. W. Eudler. 

R. Owen, F.ll.S.—Bej}. of An- 
thropoL, Prof. W.H. Flower, 
F.Il.ii.—Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burden 
Sanderson, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee. M.D., F.R.S. 
- Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Bcp. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 
F.R.S. — Bcp. of A iithropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

K Ti, S 
Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.E.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.E.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. "W. Rutherford, M.D., 
F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 



B. E. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunninsrham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 

Prof. W. E. M'Nab, J. B. Eowe, 

F. AV. Eudler. 
Dr. E. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Purser, J. B. Eowe, F. W. Eudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Blosam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 

G. W. Bloxam, AV. Heape, J. B. 

Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Manshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, A. 

Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillliouse, W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 

mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 
F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harnicr, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 

Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 
C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Ear- 

mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 
S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, H. 

Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. B. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 



Anthropology was made a sepa-rate Section, see p. Ixxiii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 

1893. Nottingham' 

1894. Oxford » ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Kev. Canon H. B. Tristram, G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 
M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. ! W. A. Ilerdman, S. J. Hickson, 

I W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 



F.R.S. 



Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 
Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 



1895. 


Ipswich . . . 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


1898. 


Bristol 


1899. 
1900. 


Dover 

Bradford ... 


1901. 
1902. 


Glasgow ... 
Belfast 



1903. Southport 



1904. Cambridge 



SECTION D (continued). 
Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 

'Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

• 

Prof. W. F. R.Weldon, F.R.S. 

Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. ... 

William Bateson, F.R.S 

G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S 



1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York J. J. Lister, F.R.S 



— ZOOIiOGY. 

G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
H. O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 
Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 
W. Garstang, J. G. Kerr, T. H. 

Taylor, Swale Vincent. 
J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson. 
Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, A. 

Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Oxley Grabham, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge jDr. J. Haviland IDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh iDr. Abercrombie IDr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Eoget, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Clark, M.D. .. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool., 

1838. Newcastle T. E. Headlam, M.D. 

1839. Birmingham John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S.. 

1840. Glasgow ...I James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr.J.Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. Reid. 



1906. 



' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxiv. 
' The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



Ixvi 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth...'?. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

1842. Manchester ' Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

1843. Cork Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. 

1844. York 'J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

1845. Cambridge Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. . 

1846. Southamp- Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

ton. 

1847. Oxford ' ... ; Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. . 



J. Butter, J. Fuge, R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. Jolin Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
. I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



1850. 

1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham ^ 



Prof. Bennett, M.D. ,F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rolleston,M.D.,F.L.S. 

Dr. John Davy, F.R.S 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Prfef. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Rediem. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. • 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
I Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
I Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. lix.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice- Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. E. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S., R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Pres. R.G.S. I Norton Shaw. 

Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L.,'r. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 



F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 



Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



' Sections D and E were incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology, 
and Botany, including Physiology ' (see p. Izii). Section K, being then vacant 
was assigned in 1851 to Geography, 

" Vide note on page Ixi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres.R.I.A. 
Sir R.I. Murchison.G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rear - Admiral Sir James 

Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 
John Crawford, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.K.S 



Secretaries 



Murchison, K.C.B., 
Murchison, K.C.B., 



Sir R. I, 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

Capt. G. H. Richards, E.N., 
F.R.S. 



R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 
Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

R. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghan, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. 0. 
Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, 8. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — geogeapht. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp. 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R. L Murchison, Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut. - General Strachey, 
R.E., C.S.I., F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. i 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. SirE. Ommanney, C.B.' 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D., F.R.S.,F.R S.E. I 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A., F.R.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.8.L, 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.L, 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
j ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
'H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 
I Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
B.. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
'e. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Eye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H, W. Bates, E. C. Eye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. 0. Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Eye. 
John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E, C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, B. C. Eye. 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E, G. Eavenstein, E. 0. Eye. 

John Coles, E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. 

Eye. 
Rev.Abb^Laflamme, J.S. G'Halloran, 

E. G. Eavenstein, J. F. Torrance. 

d2 



Ixviii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 

1885. Aberdeen.,. 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport 



Presidents 



1904, 
190.5, 



Cambridge 
SouthAfrica 



Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, RE., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E , 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. -Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L.,F.R.S., 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. 
Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.i., 

F.R.G.S. 
Major L. Darwin, Sec. R.G.S. 



J. Scott Keltic, LL.D. 

Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. 

Sir John Murray, F.R.S 

Sir George S. Robertson, 

K G S T 
Dr. H.R. Mill, F.R.G.S 

Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ... 

Capt. E. W. Creak, R.N., C B., 
F.R.S. 



Douglas W. Freshfield. 



1906. York. 



Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton, 
R.N., K.C.B, F.R.S. 

jRt. Hon. Sir George Goldie, 
I K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. S. Keltie, J S. O'Halloran, E. G. 
Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie. 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

A. Silva White. 
John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 
J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

Keltie, A. Silva White. 
Col F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 

Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 
Col. F. Bailey. H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill, II. C. 

Trapnell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. O. Forbes, 

Dr. H. R. Mill. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, E. R. 

Wethey. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 

Sandeman. A. C. Turner. 

G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 
A.J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. Lindsay. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. Under- 
wood. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
H. Y. Oldham, E. A. Reeves. 

A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, H. Y. Old- 
ham. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
E. A. Reeves, G. Yeld. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, TI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge I Prof. Babbage, F.R.S [J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh i Sir Charles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean, 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 

1835. Dublin Charles Babbage, F.R.S W. Greg, Prof, Longfield. 

1836. Bristol SirChas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. Rev. J. E. Brombj-, C. B. Fripp, 

I ! James Heywood, 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixix 



Date and Place 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849 Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 



Presidents 



Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.E.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Lord Sandon, M.P., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Secretaries 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. B3T:th, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. P. G. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire. W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (^continued). — economic science and STATISTICS. 



1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle . 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich,..,, 



Rt, Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 

His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.LA. 
Edward Baines 

Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M. A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S.... 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... i 

i 

W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.' 

Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. i 

Prof. J. E, T. Rogers 

M, E, Grant-Duff, M.P 

Samuel Brown | 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W, 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H, D. Hutton, W, 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory, 
R. Birkin, jun.. Prof, Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory, 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev, W, C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi, 



Ixx 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 
1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883, 

1884, 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 
1889. 
1890. 

1891. 

1892, 

1893. 

1894. 
1895. 
1896. 

1897. 

1898. 



Exeter 

Liverpool.., 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 



Bristol 

Glasgow ... 



Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 



Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 

Southport 

Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 
Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardifi. ... 
Edinburgh 

Nottingham 



Presidents 



Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W, Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



James Hevwood, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P, 

Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. ... 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant- Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.L, CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. ... 

Robert Qiffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. A. Marshall, M.A., F.S.S. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, F S.S. 

Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle. 
K.C.B. 

Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 

F.S.S. 



Oxford 

Ipswich .,, 

Liverpool... Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P, 



Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
L. L.Price, M.A 



Toronto ... ' Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 
Bristol J. Bonar, M.A., LL.D 



Secretaries 



E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, B. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E, 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neei Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W, 

Jack. 
W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T, Pim. 
W. J. Hancock, C. MoUoy, J. T. Pim. 
Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

MoUoy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F, 

Moss. 

G. Baden- Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 
Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higg.s, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Caunan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 
E. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Flux, H. 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRET ABIES OF THE SECTIONS 



Izzi 



Date and Place 



1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902, 
1903. 
1904. 
1905, 



Dover 

Bradford ... 
Glasgow ... 
Belfast . . . 
Southport 
Cambridge 
SouthAfrica 



1906. York. 



Presidents 



H. Higgs, LL.B 

Major P. G. Craigie, V.P-S.S. 
Sir R. Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
E. Cannan, M.A., LL.D. . 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D. . 



Rev. W. Cunningham, D 
D.Sc. 

A. L. Bowley, M.A 



D. 



Secretaries 



A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 

W. Flux, Rev. G. Sarson. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, S. J. 

Chapman, P. Hooper. 
W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan, S. J. Chapman. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J Chapman, 

Dr. A. Duffin 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. Lloyd. 
J. E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg. 
R. -X Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

H. E. S. Fremantle, H. 0. Mere- 
dith. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Mac- 

gregor, H. 0. Meredith, B. S. 

Rowntree, 



SECTION G.—MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. 
18.37. 
1838. 
1839. 



Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 



1840. Glasgow .... 



1841. 
1842. 

1843, 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 

1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1867. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862 
1863. 



Plymouth 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton 

Oxford 

Swan.sea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge . 
Newcastle . 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S, 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt, 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.LA.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 
W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 

George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M. A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T.Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struv6. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thomson. 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. JefEery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Aberuethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer. 



Ixxii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 
1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow . . . 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 



Presidents 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Sonthport . 
Montreal . . . 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 



J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
I'rof .W. J. MacquornRankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 
F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward "Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. List. Mech. 

Eng. 

J.Abernethy, F.R.S.E 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.O.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

J. Brunlees, Pres.Inst.C.E. ... 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.K.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. W. C. Unwin, P.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Jeremiah Head, M.Iiist.C.B., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 



Secretaries 



P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. LeNeve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. Barlo w,H. Bauerman, E.H. Carbutt, 

J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jirn. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G, 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., \V. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg,H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshal), 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hod. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. VV. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popple well, E. Riag. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxiii 



Date and Place 

1896. Liverpool.. 

1897. Toronto .. 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford ' 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. ... 



SirDouglasFox.V.P.Inst.C.E. Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof . Callen- 
dar, W. A, Price. 
Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

F.R.S. I H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 

Sir W. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. ! Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 

! E. Stilgoe. 
Sir Ale.x. R. Binnie, M.Inst, , Prof . T. H. Beare, C. F. Chamock, 
C.R. I Prof. S. Dunkerley, W. A. Price. 



SECTION G.— engineert:ng. 



1901. Glasgow .. 

1902. Belfast .. 

1903. Southpoit 



R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. J. Perry. F.R.S 

C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... 



1901. Cambridge Hon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. 



H.Bamford.W.E.Dalby, W.A.Price. 
M. Barr, W. A. Price, J. Wylie. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 

W. A. Price. 
'J. B. Peace, W. T. Maccall, W. A. 
I I Price. 

1905. SouthAfrica Col. Sir C. Scott-Moncriefe, i W. T. Maccall, W. B. Marshall, Prof. 

G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E. j H. Payne, E. Williams. 

1906. York J. A. Ewing, F.R.S I W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price, J. Trif- 

1 I fit. 



1881. 
1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

isg.'s. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Montreal ... E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 
Aberdeen... Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. Ig. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

I Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
Birmingham Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I.,'G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 
M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. ' i Huret, Dr. R. Saundby. 

Manchester Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 

Bath Lieut. -General Pitt- Rivers, G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson. J. 

D.C.L., F.R.S. I Harris Stone. 

Newcastle- Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., ' G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 



upon-Tjme LL.D., F.R.S. 

Leeds Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Cardiff Prof. F. Max Muller, M.A. ... 

Edinburgh I Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Nottingham ' Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.E.S.E. 



Oxford Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Ipswich ...Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, 

D.C.L. 
Liverpool... ! Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A 



1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. Toronto ...Sir W. Turner, F.R.S 



1898. Bristol E. W. Brabrook, C.B. 

1899. Dover I C. H. Read, F.S.A. .. 



R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 
G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

Roth. 
J. L. Myres, Rev. J. J, Kaven, H. 

Ling Roth. 
Prof. A. C. HaddoH, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 
A. F. Chamberlain, H. 0. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. Haddon. J. L. Myres. 
H.Balfour, .1. L. Myres, G. Parker. 
H.Balfour, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

Haddon, J. L. Myres. 



' The title of Section G was changed to Engineering. 



Ixxiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF 'IHE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 


1900. 


Bradford ... 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


190r,. 


York 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. John Khys, M.A Rev. E. Armitage, H. Balfour, W. 

Crooke, J. L. Myres. 
W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 

Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 
R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 

J. L. Myres. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 

E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres. 
W. L. H. Duckworth, E. N. Fallaize, 

H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres. 
A. R. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. S. 

Hartland. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize, 

H. S. Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrub- 
sail. 



Prof. D. J. Cunningham 
Dr. A.'d Haddon, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. 

H. Balfour, M.A 

Dr. A. C. HaddoD, F.R.S. 
E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A 



SECTION^ I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 



1894. Oxford. 



1896. 
1897. 

1899. 

1901. 

1902. 

1904. 

1905. 



Liverpool .. 
Toronto . . . 

Dover 

Glasgow ... 

Belfast ... 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 



1906. York. 



Prof. E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S., Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haldane, 

M.R.C.S. I M. S. Pembrey. 

Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. ... I Prof. R.Boyce, Prof. C.S.Sherrington. 
Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. i Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 

I ton. Dr. L. E. Shore. 

J. N. Langley, F.R.S Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 

H. Starling. 
Prof.J.G.McKendrick.F.RS. ;W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

W. H. Thompson. 
Prof. W. D. HaUibnrton, J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne, Dr. 

F.R.S. i C. Shaw. 

Prof. C.S.Sherrington, F.R.S. J. Barcroft, Prof. T. G. Brodie, Dr. 

L.- B. Shore. 
Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. ...'j. Barcroft, Dr. Baumann, Dr. Mac- 
kenzie, Dr. G. W. Robertson, Dr. 
Stanwell. 

Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S J. Barcroft, Dr. J. M. Hamill, Prof. 

i J. S. Macdonald, Dr. D. S. Long. 



1895. 
1896. 



Ipswich . 
Liverpool. 



1897. Toronto 



Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 
Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 



1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 
1906. 



Bristol 'Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. 

Dover Sir George King, F.R.S. 

Bradford... Prof. S. H. Vines, F.R.S. 
Glasgow ...iProf. I. B. Balfour, F.K.S 

Belfast ... ' Prof. J. R. Green, F.R S 

Southport A. C. Seward, F.R.S. .. 



Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 
York 



Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 

Harold Wager, F.R.S. .. 
Prof. F. W. OUver, F.E.S 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S. A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 

Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, J. W. White. 
G. Dowker, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, W. West. 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward. H. Wager. 
A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 

H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 
H. Ball, A. G. Tan.sley, H. Wager, 

R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 

H. Wager, T. B. Wood, R. IT. 

Yapp. 
R. P. Gregory, Dr. Marloth, Prof. 

Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 

SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



Ixxv 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


Sir John E. Gorst, F.E.S. ... 


R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 
Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 
H. L. Withers. 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. 


Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 
R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 
Prof. H. L. Withers. 


1903. 


Southport 


Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., 


Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 






F.R.S. 


Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. L. 
Snape. 


1904. 


Cambridge 


Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... 


J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 
W. M. Heller, Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


Prof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., 


A. D.Hall, Prof. Hele-Shaw, Dr.C.W. 






M.P. 


Kimmins, J. R. Whitton. 


1906. 


York 


Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... 


Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 








Hugh Richardson. 



CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES OF THE CONFERENCES OF 
DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Date and Place 


Chairmen 


Secretaries 


1885. Aberdeen... 


Francis Galton, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola. 


1886. Birmingham 


Prof. A. W. Williamson,F.R.S. 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1887. Manchester 


Prof.W.Boyd Dawkins,F.R.S. 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1888. Bath 


John Evans, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1889. Newcastle- 


Francis Galton, F.R.S 


Prof. G. A. Lebour. 


upon-Tyne 






1890. Leeds 


G. J. Symons, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1891. Cardiff 


G. J. Symons, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1892. Edinburgh 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1893. Nottingham 


Dr. J. G. Garson 


T. V. Holmes. 


1894. Oxford 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1895. Ipswich ... 


G. J. Symons, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1896. Liverpool... 


Dr. J. G. Garson 


T. V. Holmes. 


1897. Toronto ... 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


J. Hopkinson. 


1898. Bristol 


W. Whitaker, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1899. Dover 


Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S. 


T. V. Holmes. 


1900. Bradford... 


Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 


T. V. Holmes. 


1901. Glasgow ... 


F. W. Rudler, F.G.S 


Dr. J. G. Garson, A. Somerville. 


1902. Belfast 


Prof. W. W. Watts, F.G.S. ... 


E. J. Bles. 


1903. Southport 


W. Whitaker, F.R.S 


F. W. Rudler. 


1904. Cambridge 


Prof. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1905. London ... 


Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1906. York 


Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B.... 


F. W Rudler. 







LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



Lecturer 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S... 



Sir M. I. Brunei 
K. L Murchison.. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel, 
i The Geology of Russia. 



Ixxvi 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Plaee 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York , 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. SoTitliamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingbam 

1850. Edinburgb 

1851. Ipswicb ... 



1852. Belfast. 



1853. Hull, 



1854. Liverpool... 



1855. Glasgow ... 



1856. Cheltenbam 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 



Lecturer 



Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 



Dr. Robinson 

Charles LyeU, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.P.oyal 

R. I. Murehison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S, ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
i John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astronomer 

Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 

Robert Himt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Subject of Discourse 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



I 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murehison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 



The Dinomis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the .^gean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Propertiesof theExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researclies of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Bidus ineptus). 

Metallurgical Operationsof Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights witli 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their Changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 
1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babjdonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Bab3'lonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Ixxvii 



Date and Place 



1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865, 

1866, 

1867. 

1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 



Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 



Bath 

Birmingham 



Lecturer 



Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof. W. A. Miller,M.A.,F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. ., 



Subject of Discourse 



Nottingham (William Huggins,F.R.S 

Dundee. 



iDr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S.... 
'Archibald Geikie, F.R.S.... 



Norwich .. 

Exeter 

Liverpool.. 
Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton .. 



1873, 
1874. 

1875. 
1876. 
1877. 



Bradford 
Belfast... 



Bristol .... 
Glasgow . 
Plymouth . 



1878. Dublin 



1879. 
1880. 



Sheffield .. 
Swansea .. 



Alexander Herschel, F.R. A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. . . 

Prof. J. Tyndall,LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F T? S 
Prof. W.' K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F R S 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof.E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof. W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 
Francis Galton, F.R.S 



Physical Constitution of the Sun, 

Arctic Discovery. 
' Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 
I Organic Chemistry. 
i The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to 
Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archaeology of the early Buddliist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulae. 

The ScientificUse of the Imagination . 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants, 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects, 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The ' Challenger ' Expedition. 

Physical Phenomena connected wit 
the Mines of Cornwall and Devon, 

The New Element, Gallium. 

Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
Chemical Action. 

Radiant Matter. 

Degeneration. 

Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery, 



Ixxviii 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



1881. York. 



Lecturer 



1882. 
1883. 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



1884. Montreal. 



Prof. Huxley, Sec. P..S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pre.s. R.S.... 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



1885. Aberdeen... Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. 



1886, 
1887. 
1888. 

1889. 

1890. 
1891. 

1892, 
1893, 



John MuiTay, F.R.S.E 

Birmingham A. W. Rucker, M.A., F.R.S. 

I Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 
Manchester Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 

I Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Bath 'Prof.W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

{Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

I F.R.S. 
Newcastle- iProf. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
npon-Tyne' F.R.S. 

Walter Gardiner, M.A 



Leeds . 
Cardiff, 



Edinburgh 
Nottingham 



1894. Oxford... 



1895. Ipswich 



1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


1898. 


Bristol 


1899. 


Dover 


1900. 


Bradford... 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 



1902. Belfast 



E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
P»of. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof . A. W.Riicker.M. A.,F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J.A.Ewing,M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells. B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 

Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 

J. Milne, F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. SoUas, F.R.S. .. 

Herbert Jackson 

Prof. Charles Richet 

Prof. J. Fleming. F.R.S 

Prof F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Stroud 

Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

F. Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



The Rise and Progress of Palaeon- 
tology. 

The Electric Discharge, its Forms 
and its Functions. 

Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Reseaiches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of Power. 

The Foundation Stones of tlie Earth's 
Crust. 

The Hardening and Tempering of 
Steel. 

How Plants maintain themselves in 
the Struggle for Existence. 

Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 

Some Difficulties in the Life of 
Aquatic Insects. 

Electrical Stress. 

Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 

Flame. 

The Discovery of the Physiology of 
the Nervous System. 

Experiences and Prospects of 
African Exploration. 

Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 

Magnetism in Rotation. 

The Work of Pasteur and its various 
Developments. 

Safety in Ships. 

Man before Writing. 

Canada's Bletals. 

Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 

Funafuti : the Study of a Coral Island. 

Phosphorescence . 

La vibration nervetise. 

TheCentenaryoftheElectricCurrent, 

Animal Electricity. 

Range Finders. 

The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plants. 
Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Inheritance. 



LIST OF EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Ixxix 



Date and Place 



1903. Southport 



1904. Cambridge 

1905. South 

Africa : 
Cape Town .. 



Durban 

Pietermaritz- 

burg 
Johannesburg 

Pretoria 

Bloemfontein.. 

Kimberley 



Bulawayo 
1906. York.. 




Subject of Discourse 



Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 

PalEeolithic Period. 
The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 
Teachings. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.K.S.. .J Ripple- Marli and Sand-Dunes. 



Dr. R. Munro 
Dr. A. Rowe 



Prof. H. F. Osborn 



Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S 

Douglas W. Freshfield 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... 

H. T. Ferrar 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. 0. Arnold 

A. E. Shipley, F.R.S 



A. R. Hinks 



Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. J. B. Porter 



D. Randall-Maclver 

Dr. Tempest Anderson.., 
Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S. 



Palfeontological Discoveries in the 
Rocky Mountains. 

W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South 
Africa. 

Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 

The Mountains of the Old World. 

Marine Biology. 

Sleeping Sickness. 

The Cruise of the ' Discovery.' 

The Distribution of Power. 

Steel as an Igneous Rock. 

Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 
ing Sickness, &c. 

The Milky Way and the Clouds of 
Magellan. 

Diamonds. 

The Bearing of Engineering on Min- 
ing. 

The Ruins of Rhodesia. 

Volcanoes. 

The Electrical Signs of Life, and 
their Abolition by Chloroform. 



LECTUKES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. 
1868. 
1869. 



1870. 
1872. 
1873. 

1874, 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 
1889. 



Dundee.. 
Norwich 
Exeter .. 



Lecturer 



Liverpool . . . 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow .., 
Plymouth . . , 
Sheffield .., 
Swansea .. 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southpor; 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen . . . 
Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



Prof. J. Tyndall,LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R. S . 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B.... 

W. H. Preece 

W.E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 



Subject of Lecture 



Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.B 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power. 

The North- East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 



Ixxx 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 




1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
189G. 
1897. 
1898. 



Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 
Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 
Bristol 



Subject of Lecture 



1900. Bradford. 

1901. Glasgow , 



1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 
1906. York 



Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. Soilas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison... 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. O. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.E.S. ... 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.E.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Dr. J. S. Flett 

Dr. J. B. Marr, F.R.S 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 



Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

fepontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their Enemies and- Signal to their 

Friends. 
Electricity in the Industries. 
The Movements of Men by Land 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent : the 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 
The Manufacture of Light. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE YORK MEETING. 

SECTION A, — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Principal E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. 
H. L. Callendar, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. R. Forsyth, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. Gray, 
F.R.S. Secretaries.— Proi. A. W. Porter, B.Sc. {Recorder) , L. N. G. Filon, 
D.Sc. ; Dr. J. A. Harker ; A. R. Hinks, M.A. ; H. Dennis Taylor. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President. — Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — - 
G. T. Beilby, F.R.S. ; A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. ; Sir William H. 
Perkin, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. A. Tilden, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— Vvoi. W. J. Pope, F.R.S. (Recorder) ; Dr. E. F. Armstrong ; 
Prof. A. W. Crossley, D.Sc. ; S. H. Davies. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— Gr. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Trot T. W. 
Edgeworth David, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. ; T. H. Holland, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S.; J. F. Walker, M.A. Secretaries.— 
H. L. Bowman, M.A. (Recorder); Rev. W. Lower Carter, M.A. ; Rev. 
W. Johnson, B.A., B.Sc. ; J. Lomas. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President.— J . J. Lister, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — G. A. Boulenger, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. G. C. Bourne ; Prof. Jungersen ; Prof. Pelseneer ; A. E. 
Shipley, F.R.S. Secretaries.— B.. W. Marett Tims, M.D. (Recorder); 
J. H. Ashworth, D.Sc. ; L. Doncaster, M.A. ; Oxley Grabham, M.A. 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Right Hon. Sir George Taubman Goldie, K.C.M.G., 
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Ma.ior C. F. Close, R.E., C.M.G. ; 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. tXxxi 

Colonel D. A. Johnston, R.E., C.B. ; J. Scott Keltie, LL.D. ; H. R. Mill, 
LL.D. Secretaries. — E. Heawood {Recorder); A.J. Herbertson ; E. A. 
Reeves; G. Yeld. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCK AND STATISTICS. 

President. — A. L. Bowley, M.A. Vice-Presidents. — Major P. G. 
Craigie, C.B. ; Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D., D.Sc. Secretaries. — Prof. 
S. J. Chapman, M.A. {Recorder); D. H. Macgregor, M.A. ; H. O. 
Meredith, M.A. ; B. Seebohm Rowntree. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President. — J. A. Ewing, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— 
J. A. F. Aspinall ; W. J. Cudworth ; Sir Andrew Noble, Bart., K.C.B. 
F.R.S. ; Sir W. H. Preece, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. Secretaries.— W . A. Price, M.A. (Recorder); W. T. Maccall • 
John Triffitt. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President. — E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A. Vice-Presidents. — Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, F.R.S. ; D. G. Hogarth, M.A. Secretaries.— E. N. Fallaize, 
B.A. {Recorder); H. S. Kingsford, M.A. ; F C. Shrubsall, M.D. ; G. A. 
Auden, M.D. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Vvoi. Francis Gotch, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. Vice-Presi- 
dents. — Dr. Bevan-Lewis ; Sir T. Lauder Brunton, V.P.R.S. ; Sir A. E. 
Wright, F.R.S. Secretaries. — J. Barcroft, M.A. {Recorder); Prof. J. S. 
Macdonald, B.A. ; D. Sanderson Long, M.D. ; J. M. Hamill, M.D. 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— Proi. F. W. Oliver, D.Sc, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.- 
D. H. Scott, F.R.S. ; Harold Wager, F.R.S. Secretaries.— VroL A. G. 
Tansley, M.A. {Recorder) ; R. P. Gregory, M.A. ; Prof. R. H. Yapp, 
M.A. ; A. Burtt, D.Sc. 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. Vice-Presidents. — Sir Henry 
Craik, K.C.B., LL.D. ; Sir Philip Magnus, B.Sc, M.P. ; Col. Legard ; 
Dr. N. Bodington ; Sir T. Lauder Brunton, V.P.R.S. Secretaries. — W. M. 
Heller, B.Sc. {Recorder) ; Prof. R. A. Gregory ; Hugh Richardson, M.A. 

CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES. 
Chairman. — Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B., F.S.A. Vice-Chairman. — 
John Hopkinson, F.L.S. Secretary.— Y. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 
The President and Vice-Presidents of the Meeting ; the Presidents of 
former years ; the Trustees ; the General Treasurer ; the General 
Secretaries ; Principal Griffiths ; Prof. Porter ; Prof. Dunstan ; 
Prof. Pope ; G. W. Lamplugh ; H. L. Bowman ; J. J. Lister ; Dr! 
Marett Tims ; Sir George Goldie ; E. Heawood ; A. L. Bowley ; Prof. 
Chapman ; Dr. Ewing ; W. A. Price ; E. Sidney Hartland ; E. N. 
Fallaize ; Prof. Gotch ; J. Barcroft ; Prof. Oliver ; Prof. Tansley ; 
Prof. Sadler ; W. M. Heller ; Sir Edward Brabrook ; F. W. Rudler' 
1906. e 



Ixxxii GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. 

Br. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1905-1906. EBCEIPTS. 

£ 

Balance brought forward 1787 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 398 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 582 

Annual Subscriptions 466 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 425 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 181 

Contribution from Soutli African Association 500 

Sale of Publications 160 

Dividend on Consols 154 

Dividend on India 3 per Cents 102 

Interest on Deposit 54 

Balance of Grants returned : — 

Age of Stone Circles £0 13 9 

State of Solution of Proteids 1 9 8 

2 

Donation 50 



s. 


d. 


8 


1 






































IG 


3 


8 


4 


12 





4 


2 


3 


6 









£4863 12 3 



Investmeni^. 

£ i. d. 

2i per Cent. Consolidated Stock £6507 10 5 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 3600 

£10,101 10 6 

Sir Frederick Bramwell's Gift, 2^ per Cent. 

Self-cumulating Consolidated Stock 61 13 8 

£10,163 4 1 
John Pehey, General Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. Ixxxiii 



from July 1, 1905, to June 30, 1906. Cr. 

1905-1906. PAYMENTS. 

£ t. d. 
Rent and Office Expenses (including Payments to Office of 

Works for repairs at Office) 161 9 5 

Salaries,&c 756 16 6 

Printing, Binding, &c 1122 10 9 

Payment of Grants made in South Africa : 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations 40 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ., 60 

Magnetic Survey of South Africa 99 12 6 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 6 

Study of Hydro- Aromatic Substances 25 

Aromatic Nitramines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the British Trias 7 8 11 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 

Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 100 

Index Auimalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea , 15 

Freshwater Fishes of South Africa , . , 50 

Rainfall and Lake and Elver Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain 30 

Anthropometric Investigations in the British Isles 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease 20 

Research on South African Cj-oads 14 19 4 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elementary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Committee 25 



882 9 
2922 17 5 

On deposit at Bradford District Bank 1172 6 1 

Balance at Bank of England (Western 

Branch) £936 9 11 

Ze«« Cheques not presented 169 12 6 

766 17 5 

Cash in hand 1 11 4 



£4863 12 3 



I have examined the above Account with the Books and Vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the Balance at the 
Bankers', and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. 

Approved — W. B. Keen, Chartered Acoountant, 

Herbeet McLeod, "1 ^ .V 3 Church Court, Old Jewry, B.C. 

Edwaed Brabrook, ] ^«^'^'*»- j-iiiy 26, 1906. 

e2 



Ixxxiv ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 27., 

1832, June 19. 

1833, June 25. 

1834, Sept. 8 . 

1835, Aug. 10 ., 

1836, Aug. 22. 

1837, Sept. 11., 

1838, Aug. 10 . 

1839, Aug. 26 . 

1840, Sept. 17 . 

1841, July 20 



Where held 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool .. 

Ne wcasti e-on-T yue . . 



Presidents 



Old Life 1 New Life 
Members Members 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost LIoyd,LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S... . 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 



Birmingham ' Tlie Rev. W. Vern.rnHarcourt, F.R.S. 



Glasgow. 
Plymouth . 



1842, June 23 ! Manchester ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ' Cork 

1844, Sept. 26 York 

1845, June 19 Cambridge ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ...Southampton 

1847, June 23 ; Oxford 

1848, Aug. 9 ' Swansea 

1849, Sept. 12 Birmingham 

1850, July 21 ' Edinburgh ... 

1851, July 2 ' Ipswich 

1852, Sept. 1 i Belfast 

1853, Sept. 3 ... ' 

1854, Sept. 20... 

1855, Sept. 12... 

1856, Aug. 6 ... 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 

1860, June 27... 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 .., 

1863, Aug. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13 .. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 22.. 

1867, Sept. 4 

1868, Aug. 19 . 

1869, Aug. 18 .. 

1870, Sept. 14 . 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Aug. 14.. 

1873, Sept. 17 . 

1874, Aug. 19 .. 

1875, Aug. 25 . 

1876, Sept. 6 .. 

1877, Aug. 15 .. 

1878, Aug. 14.. 

1879, Aug. 20.. 

1880, Aug. 25 

1881, Aug. 31 

1882, Aug. 23 

1883, Sept. 19 . 

1884, Aug. 27 

1885, Sept. 9 . 

1886, Sept. 1 . 

1887, Aug. 31 . 

1888, Sept. 5 

1889, Sept. 11 

1890, Sept. 3 

1891, Aug. 19 . 

1892, Aug. 3 . 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 . 

1895, Sept. 11 

1896, Sept. 16. 

1897, Aug. 18 . 

1898, Sept. 7 

1899, Sept. 13 

1900, Sept. 5 

1901, Sept. 11. 

1902, Sept. 10 

1903, Sept. 9 ., 

1904, Aug. 17.. 

1905, Aug. 15.. 

1906, Aug. 1 .. 



Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-ou-Tyne. . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover ". 

Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 

York 



The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S. ... 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. luglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquisofNortIiampton,Pri>s.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. F.R.S, 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S. 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. 0. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S. 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S. 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. .. 
The Rev. Professor Willis,M.A.,F.R.S. 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.O.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. .Stokes, D.C.L., F R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F Jl.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir .John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. 0. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cavley, D.C.L., FJl.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair K.O.B.,F.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dan-son, O.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, O.B., FJl.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., FJl.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 

The Marquis of Sahsbury,K.G.,F.R.S, 

Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 

Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S... 

Sir WUliam Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. A. W. RUcker, D.Sc, SecJl.S. ... 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. H. Darwin. LL.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S, 



169 


65 


303 


1G9 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 


267 


13 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


32 


115 


40 


322 


10 



• Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Ixxxv 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 





Old 
Annual 
Members 


New 
Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Grants 

for Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 










— 


— 


— 


353 


— 





1831 













—, 


— 





— 


— 


1832 










— , 





— 


900 








1833 
















— 


1298 





£20 


1834 




-^ 








— 


— 


— 





167 


1835 




. 











— 


1350 





435 


1836 




_^ 








— 


— 


1840 


— 


922 12 6 


1837 













1100* 


— 


2400 


— 


932 2 2 


1838 
















34 


1438 


— 


1595 11 


1839 




. 








— 


40 


1353 


— 


1546 16 4 


1840 




46 


317 





60» 


— 


891 





1235 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33t 


331» 


23 


1316 


— 


1449 17 8 


1842 




71 


185 





160 


— 


— 


— 


1565 10 2 


1843 




45 


190 


9t 


260 


— 


— 


— 


981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


36 


1079 


— 


831 9 9 


1846 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 





685 16 


1846 




197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 


-^ 


208 6 4 


1847 




54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 




56 


67 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 




121 


121 


766 


624 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


869 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


609 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


1111 5 10 


1861 




160 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




216 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


45t 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


86 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1876 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 




253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60H.§ 


1777 


1855 


1173 4 


1884 




332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1886 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


U 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


609 


12 


1984 


2107 


1511 6 


18S8 




412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1776 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 




341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 


907 15 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 


583 15 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 


977 15 5 


1895 




383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 


1104 6 1 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 


1059 10 8 


1897 




327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 


1212 


1898 




324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 


1430 14 2 


1899 




297 


46 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


1801 


1072 10 


1900 




374 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


2016 


945 


1901 




314 


86 


647 


305 


6 


1620 


1644 


947 


1902 




319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1754 


1762 


845 13 2 


1903 




449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 


887 18 11 


1904 




937ir 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 


928 2 2 


1905 




356 


93 


817 


352 


1 22 


1972 


1811 


882 9 


1906 



X Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting 
f Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1906-1907. 

PATRON. 

Hia MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 

Professor E. BAY LANKESTER, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S., Director of the Natural History 

Departments of tbe British Museum. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His Grace the Archbishop op York, D.D., D.O.L., 

M.A. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of York. 
The High Shbrifk of Yorkshire. 
The Most Hon. the Mabqdess of Ripox, K.G., 

G.O S.I., ai.E., D.G.L., F.R.S. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Feversham. 
The Riglit Rev. the Lord Bishop of Ripon, D.D., 

D.O.L. 



The Right Hon. Lord Avebuey, D.C.L., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Wkxlock,G.C.S.L,G.C.I.E., 

K.C.B. 
Sir Hugh Bell, Bart. 
Sir George S. Gibe. 
Tempest Anderson, M.D., D.Sc, PresidenUof the 

Yorlcshlre Philosophical Society. 
John Stephenson Rowxtree. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Sir David Gill, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., Hon. F.R.S.B. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Rev. the LoKD Bishop of Peter- 
borough, D.D. 

The Right Rev. the Bishop of Leicester, D.D. 

Sir Oliver Lodge, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., Principal 
of the University of Birmingham. 

Herbert Ellis, Pre?i(]ent of the Leicester 
Literary and Philosophical Society. 



Sir Edward Wood, J.P., Mayor of Leicester. 

His Grace the Duke op Rutland, K.G., G.C.B., 
Lord Lieutenant of Leicestersliire. 

RICH.^RU Dalgliesh, J.l'., High Sheriff of Leices- 
tershire. 

The Riglit Hon. the Earl of Dysart, Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Rutlandshire. 

The Right Hon. the Earl Howe, G.C.V.O. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor John Perry, D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. 
GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, B.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. | Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

A. Silva White, Burlington House, London, W. 

CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 

H. 0. Stewardson, Burlington House, London, W. 

local treasurer for the meeting at leicester. 

Jambs Lavcfoud. 
local secretaries for the meeting at leicester. 

Alfked Colson, M.Iust.C.E. I E. V. HlLBY, Town Clerk. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
Abney, Sir W., K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Bourne, Professor G. 0., D.Sc. 
Bowley, a. L., M.A. 
Boys, 0. Vernon, F.R.S. 
Brabuook, Sir Edward, O.B. 
Brown, Dr. Horace T., F.R.S. 
Gunning UAJi, Professor D. J., F.R.S. 
Du.n'!-tax, Professor W., F.R.S. 
Dyson, Professor F. Wyndham, F.R.S. 
Glazebrook, Dr. R. T., F.R.S. 
GoLDiE, Right Hon. Sir George, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
GoTCH, Professor F., F.R.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Haddon, Dr. A. 0., F.R.S. 
Habtland, E. Sidney, F.S.A. 
Hawksley, C, M.Iust.C.E. 
Langley, Professor J. N., F.R.S. 
McKendrick, Professor J. G., F.R.S. 
Mitchell, Dr. P. Chalmers, F R.S. 
Pehkin, Professor W. H., P R.S. 
PoULTON, frofessor E. B., F.R.S. 
Seward, Professor A. 0., F.R.S. 
Shaw, Dr. W. N., F.R.S. 
Shipley, A. E., F.R.S. 
Waits, Professor W. W., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. A. Sjuth, F R 3. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General Secretaries for the present and former years, the former Assistant 
General Secretaries, the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer 
and Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Lord Avebuby, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, MJl.,D.C.L., LL.D., Pres.R.S., F.B.A.S. 
Sir Arthur W. RScker, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 

Sir Ai-chibald Geikie, Seo.R.S. i Sir A. W. RUcker, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Lord Lister, D.C.L., F.R.S. I Sir James Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B. F.R.S. i Sir Norman Lockyer, K.O.B.,F.R.S . 
Sir William Orookes, F.R.S. i Rt. Hon. A, J. Balfour, D.C.L., 

Sir Michael Foster, E.O.B., P.B.S. | F.R.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.O.B., F.R.S. i Sir G. H. Darwin, K.C.B., F.R.S . 



Sir Joseph D. Hooker, G. C.S.I. 
Lord Kelvin, G.C.7.O., F.R.S. 
Lord Avebury , D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., Pres.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Boscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir Wm. Hnggins, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



GENERAL OFFICERS OF FORMER YEARS. 



Francis Gsilton, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
P. L. Bolater, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S 
Sir A. W. RUcker. D.Sc. F.R.S. 
Prof. E. A. Schiifer, F.R S. 



Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Garson. 



Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. 



AUDITORS. 



Professor H. McLeod, F.R.S. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxxvii 



Annual Report of the Council, 1905-06. 

I. For the third time in its history, the British Association in 1905 
held its Annual Meeting beyond the United Kingdom. The Council 
desire to express their high appreciation of the cordial reception, 
hospitalities, and privileges extended to the Officers and Members of 
the Association throughout South Africa by the repi'esentatives of the 
several Colonies and Administrations, and in particular to recognise the 
admirable and arduous work performed by the Local Committees under 
the general direction of Sir David Gill, as Chairman of the Central 
Organising Committee. A detailed account of the Meeting has been 
published in the Annual Report, together with information in regard to 
the foundation of a Medal and Scholarship for South African Students in 
commemoration of the event. 

On the proposal of the General Treasurer, the Council resolved to add 
to the South Africa Medal Fund the balance of the special fund raised 
to meet extraordinary expenditure in connection with the Meeting. 

The Council have to deplore the deaths of Sir Richard Jebb and 
Admiral Sir W. Wharton, who held office as Presidents of Section and 
accompanied the Association during the tour in South Africa. 

II. Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S., has been nominated to fill the office 
of President for 1907. 

The Dublin Reception Committee have decided to renew their invita- 
tion for 1908 ; and a deputation will present it to the General Com- 
mittee at the Meeting in York. 

III. The following Resolutions, adopted by the General Committee, 
have been considered by the Council, and action has been taken in 
accordance with the recommendations made therein : — 



From Section A. 

(i) The Committee, being of opinion that the completion of the Geodetic 
Arc from the South to the North of Africa is of the utmost scientific 
importance, and that the establishment of a Topographical Survey is of 
an importance that is at once scientific and economic, respectfully request 
the Council to make representations in such form as they think fit to 
urge upon the British South Africa Company the desirability of taking 
advantage of the present favourable opportunity for joining up the 
triangulation north and south of the Zambesi, and also to urge upon the 
Governments of the South African Colonies the immense practical and 
economic importance of commencing the topographical survey. 

(ii) The Committee desire to draw attention to the importance of a 
Magnetic Survey of South Africa, and respectfully request the Council of 



Ixxxviii KEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

the Association to approach the Cape Government with a view to urging 
on them the great advantages which would accrue to Science and to South 
Africa if the Government would further support and assist the Survey 
which has already been partly made by Professor Beattie and Professor 
Morrison, and for the continuation of which a Special Committee of the 
Association is being appointed to co-operate with these gentlemen. 

§. A grant of 300^. from the Special South Africa Fund has been 
made by the Council to Sir David Gill, for the purpose of completing 
the connection between the Rhodesian and Transvaal triangulations along 
the thirtieth meridian of East longitude. 



From Section H. 

(i) That it is desirable that the Governments of the South African 
Colonies be urged to take all necessary steps to collect, record, and pre- 
serve the knowledge and observations of men, such as missionaries, 
administrators, and others, who were living in intimate relations with 
the native tribes before the advance of civilisation began to obscure and 
even obliterate all true traditions, customs, and habits of the South 
African peoples ; such steps to be taken without delay, especially in view 
of the old age and growing infirmities of most of the men refei-red to, 
and of the danger that with their deaths the knowledge which, if care- 
fully recorded and preserved, would form a most valuable contribution 
towards the history of the aboriginal population, would be irrecoverably 
lost; and that the Council be recommended to communicate with the 
South African Association and suggest the appointment of a Committee 
to deal with the matter. 

(ii) That, owing to the use by different writers and Government 
authorities of various names for the same groups of South African 
natives, much confusion and difficulty have arisen in anthropological and 
historical literature ; that it is consequently desirable that Government 
authorities and others should confer as to the proper nomenclature of 
such groups (clans, tribes, and nations), with a view to ascertaining their 
inter-relationships, and to suggesting the most appropriate name for each 
group, and the best method of spelling that name phonetically ; and that 
the Council be recommended to communicate with the South African 
Association and take such other steps as may conduce to this object. 

(iii) That the Committee are of opinion that it would conduce to the 
greater efficiency of officers who have to administer native affairs, and 
contribute to the advancement of anthropological science, as well as 
prove of considerable advantage to the well-being of the natives them- 
selves, if opportunity could be given to such officers before or after their 
appointment to study comparative ethnology for at least two terms in 
one of the Universities of the United Kingdom which presents facilities 
for the study ; and that in the case of junior officers already on active 
service such a course of study would facilitate their comprehension of 
native institutions and ideas, and help to render their services more 
efficient ; and the Committee recommends the Council to take steps for 
the purpose of bringing this matter before the proper authorities. 

IV, In view of the tentative proposals for Annual Meetings of the 
Association to be held at Colombo and Winnipeg, the Council discussed 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. Ixxxix 

the propriety of holding another Meeting beyond the United Kingdom in 
or before the year 1910, and decided to postpone to a future date the 
formal consideration of this matter. 

V. The President, Sir George Darwin, represented the Association 
and presented an Address of Congratulation to the American Philo- 
sophical Society on the occasion of the celebration at Philadelphia of the 
two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Benjamin Franklin. Pro- 
fessor Meldola represented the Association at the Sixth International 
Congress of Applied Chemistry held at Rome ; and Professor Herbert 
Cox was appointed a delegate to the International Mining Conference 
held in London. 

VI. The following nominations are made by the Council : — 

(i) Additional Vice-Presidents for the Meeting at York : Right Hon. 
Lord Avebury ; Sir Hugh Bell ; Mr. John Stephenson Rowntree. 

(ii) Sir Edward W. Brabrook, Chairman; Mr. John Hopkinson, Vice- 
Chairman ; and Mr. F. W. Rudler, Secretary, of the Conference of Dele- 
gates of Corresponding Societies to be held in York. 

(iii) Members of the Corresponding Societies Committee for the ensuing 
year : Mr. W. Whitaker, Chairman ; Mr. F. W. Rudler, Secretary ; 
Rev. J. O. Bevan, Dr. Horace T. Brown, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Professor R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. Read, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Professor W. W. Watts, and the General Officers of the Asso- 
ciation. 

(iv) Local Secretary for the Meeting at York : Mr. Henry Craven, 
the Town Clerk, in place of Mr. R. P. Dale, deceased. 

VII. A Report has been received from the Corresponding Societies 
Committee, together with the list of the Corresponding Societies, and the 
titles of the moi-e important papers, especially of those referring to local 
scientific investigations, published by the Societies during the year ending 
May 31, 1906. 

VIII. A Committee, consisting of Professor Ray Lankester, Professor 
E. B. Poulton, Professor W. A. Herdman, and Professor Francis Gotch, 
appointed to inquire into the Position of Biology at the Royal College of 
Science, have submitted a Report which is now under the consideration 
of the Board of Education. 

IX. Professor W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., has been nominated a Gover- 
nor, to serve on the Council of the Marine Biological Association of the 
United Kingdom, in place of the late Professor Weldon. 

X. The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. His accounts from July 1, 1905, to June 30, 1906, 
have been audited, and are presented to the General Committee. 

XL In accordance with the regulations, the retiring members of the 
Council are as follows : Professor F. O. Bower ; Professor H. L. Callendar ; 
Professor A. Macalister ; Sir A. Noble, Bart. ; and Mr. Henry Higgs. 

The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members 



xc 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



of the Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are dis- 
tinguished by an asterisk in the following list : — 

Hawksley, C, M.Inst.C.E. 
Langley, Professor J. N., F.R.S. 
McKendrick, Professor J. G., F.R.S. 
♦Mitchell, Dr. P. Chalmers, F.R.S. 
Parkin, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
Poulton, Professor B. B., F.R.S. 
Seward, A. C, F.R.S. 
Shaw, Dr. W. N., F.R.S. 
Shipley, A. E., F.R.S. 
Watts, Professor W. W., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. A. Smith, F.R.S. 



*Abiaey, Sir W., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Bourne, G. C, D.Sc. 

Boys, C. Vernon, F.R.S. 

Brabrook, Sir Edward W., C.B. 

Brown, Dr. Horace T., F.R.S. 

Cunningham, Professor D. J., F.R.S. 

Dunstan, Professor W., F.R.S, 

Dyson, Professor F. W., F.R.S. 

Glazebrook, Dr. R T., F.R.S. 
«Goldie, Sir G. Taubman, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Gotch, Professor F., F.R S. 

Haddon, Dr. A. C. F.R.S. 

XII. The following claims for admission to the General Committee have 
been allowed by the Council : — 



The Earl of Berkeley. 
Douglas Berridge. 
W. H. Lang. 
J. H. Leonard. 
R. C. Millar. 



Professor M. C. Potter. 
Dr. A. E. Salter. 
S. A. Saunder. 
William West. 
Professor Worthington. 



XIII. A Committee, consisting of the President, the General Officers, 
the Assistant Secretary, Mr. Vernon Harcourt, Mr. John L. Myres, and 
Sir Edward Brabrook, appointed to draw up and present a report on the 
following proposals, have made a report which is herewith submitted to 
the General Committee : — 

(I) The Committee appointed by the Council on 1st June, under the 
terms of reference given in the Minutes of the Council held on that date, 
recommend— {i) That the Rules and Regulations be revised and co- 
ordinated, power being given to the Committee to include in the body of 
the Rules such Standing Orders and Resolutions as by precedent and 
practice have become virtual Rules and Regulations of the Association ; 
(ii) That the standing matter hitherto published continuously and in 
consecutive order in the introductory pages of the Annual Report be in 
future published in quinquennial periods, as from the beginning of the 
Century, or Second Series ; and (iii) That the names of Annual Members 
who have not paid a subscription as a Member for five consecutive years 
shall, after an inquiry has been addressed to them, be withdrawn from 
the List of Members published annually and be placed on a Suspense 
List, without prejudice to their status as Members of the Association. 

(II) The Committee, having provisionally revised, co-ordinated, and 
redrafted the existing Rules of the Association, ask for powers to complete 
their labours, under the authority of the General Committee. 

(III) The Committee recommend that the Final Draft of the Rules, as 
amended, be published, with the sanction of the Council, in the Annual 
Report for 1906, and be submitted for adoption by the General Com- 
mittee at the Meeting of the Association to be held in Leicester. 

Signed, on behalf of the Committee, 

Edward Brabrook. 

The Council, in approving the terms of this report, recommend it to 
the General Committee for adoption. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



XCl 



Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
AT THE York Meeting : August, 1906. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money, 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 




Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 



Seismolgoical Observations. 



To co-operate with the Committee 
of the Falmouth Observatory 
in their Magnetic Observations. 



To continue the Magnetic Survey 
of South Africa commenced by 
Professors Beat tie and Morrison. 



Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver 
Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir 
W. H. Preece, Professor A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor J. J. Thomson, Dr. 
W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bot- 
tomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, 
Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Pro- 
fessor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. 
Eennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
Sir A. W. Riicker, Professor 
H. L. Callendar, and Mr. G. 
Matthey. 

Clia'irman. — Professor J. W. Judd. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. Milne. 

Lord Kelvin, Dr. T. G. Bonney, 
Mr. C. V. Boys, Sir George 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, 
Major L Darwin, Professor 
J. A. Ewing, Mr. M. H. Gray, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor 
C. G. Knott, Professor R. Mel- 
dola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Pro- 
fessor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. 
Plummer, Professor J. H. 
Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, 
Mr. Nelson Richardson, and 
Professor H. H. Turner. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professor W. G. Adams, Captain 
Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Professor 
A. Schuster, Sir A. W. Riicker, 
and Dr. Charles Chree. 

Chairman. —Sir David Gill. 
Secretary. — Professor J. C. Beattie. 
Mr. S. S. Hough, ProfessorMorri- 
son, and Professor A. Schuster. 



£ 

50 



s. d. 




40 



40 



25 7 6 



XCll 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of the Coramittee 




The further Tabulation of Bessel 
Functions. 



CJiairman. — Professor M. J. ]\I. 
I Hill. 

Secretanj. — Dr. L. N. G. Filon. 
i Professor Alfred Lodge. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra 
of the Elements. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Dynamic Isomerism. 



Section 

To investigate the Erratic Blocks i 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



To study Life-zones in the British 
Carboniferous Rocks. 



To report upon the Fauna and 
Flora of the Trias of the British 
Isles. 



CJiairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 
Secretary. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 
Sir Norman Lockyer, Professors 

Sir J. Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and 

Wolcott Gibbs, Sir W. de W. 

Abney, and Dr. W. E. Adeney. 

Chairman. — Professor E. Divers. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. W. Crossley. 
Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. O. 
Forster, and Dr. Le Sueur. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

Professor Sydney Young, Dr. Desch, 
Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. A. Lap- 
worth, and Dr. M. O. Forster. 

C— GEOLOGY. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. E. Marr. 

Secretary. — Mr. P. F. Kendall. 

Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. B. De 
Ranee, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 
Harrison, Dr. J. Home, Mr. 

F. M. Burton, Mr. J. Lomas, 
Mr. A. R. Dvsrerryhouse, Mr. 
J. W. Stather, Mr. W. T. Tucker, 
and Mr. F. W. Harmer. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. E. Marr. 
Secretary. — Dr. Wheelton Hind. 
Dr. F. A. Bather, Messrs. H. Bolton, 

G. C. Crick, A. H. Foord.and H. 
Fox, Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. 
G. J. Hinde, Professor P. F. Ken- 
dall, Mr. R. Kidston, Mr. G. W. 
Lamplugh, Professor G. A. Le- 
bour, Dr. B. N. Peach, Mr. A. 
Strahan, Mr. A. Vaughan, and 
Dr. H. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 
xuan. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Lomas. 

Professors W. W. Watts and P. F. 
Kendal), Messrs. H. C. Beasley, 
E. T. Newton, A. G. Seward, 
and W. A. E. Ussher, and Dr. 
A. Smith Woodward. 



£ s. d. 
15 



10 



30 



30 



21 16 6 



12 7 7 



10 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



XCIU 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 




To investigate the Fossiliferous 
Drift Deposits at Kirmington, 
Lincolnshire, and at various 
localities in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire. 



Chairman. — Mr. G W. Lamplugh. 

Secretary.— Mr. J. W. Stather. 

Dr. Tempest Anderson, Professor 

J. W. Carr, Rev. W. Lower 

Carter, Messrs. A. R. Dwerry- 

, house, F. W. Harmer, and J. H. 

Howarth, Rev. W. Johnson, and 

' Messrs. P. F. Kendall, G. W. B. 

Macturk, E. T. Newton, H. M. 

Platnauer, Clement Reid, and 

j T. Sheppard. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. Harker. 
I Secretary. — Mr. E. Greenly. 
Mr. J. Lomas, Dr. C. A. Matley, 
and Professor K. J. P. Orton. 

Chairman.— Vtoiessor J. W. Gre- 
gory. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. Vaughan. 
Dr. Wheelton Hind and Professor 
' W. W. Watts. 

Chairman. — Professor J. W. Gre- 
gory. 
Secretary. — Professor A. Young. 
Mr. W. Anderson, Professor R. 
Broom, Dr. G. S. Corstorphine, 
Mr. Walcot Gibson, Dr. F. H. 
Hatch, Mr. T. H. Holland, Mr. 
H. Kynaston, Dr. Molengraaf, 
Mr. A. J. C. Molyneux, Mr. 
A. W. Rogers, Mr. B. H. L. 
! Schwarz, and Professor R. B. 
j Young. 

To investigate the Speeton Beds Chairman. — Mr. J. F. Walker. 
at Knapton. Secretary — Rev. W. Johnson. 

j Messrs. H. M. Platnauer, T. Shep- 
1 pard, and J. W. Stather. 



To enable Mr. E. Greenly to com- 
plete his Researches on the 
Composition and Origin of the 
Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. 

To enable Dr. A. Vaughan to 
continue his Researches on the 
Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of the 
British Isles. 

To investigate and report on the 
Correlation and Age of South 
African Strata and on the 
question of a Uniform Strati- 
graphical Nomenclature. 



Section 
To aid competent Investigators 
selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 

Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



To enableMr. J. W.Jenkinson to con- 
tinue his Researches on the Influ- 
ence of Salt and other Solutions 
on the Development of the Frog. 



D.— ZOOLOGY. 

Chairma?!,. — Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 

Secretary. — Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Mr. 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, and Mr. G. P. Bidder. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary .—T)! . F. A. Bather. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Mr. W. E. Hoyle, the 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, and 
Lord Walsingham. 

Chairman. — ProfessorG.C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. W. Jenkinson. 
Professor S. J. Hickson. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
25 19 



7 18 11 



15 



10 



10 



100 



75 



5 14 6 



) 



XCIV 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To enable Dr. F. W. Gamble and 
Dr. F. W. Keeble to conduct 
Researches on the Relation be- 
tween Respiratory Phenomena 
and Colour Changes in Animals. 

To enable Dr. H. W. Marett Tims 
to conduct experiments with re- 
gard to the effect of the Sera 
and Antisera on the Develop- 
ment of the Sexual Cells. 




Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. W. Gamble. 
Dr. Hoyie and Dr. F. W. Keeble. 

Chairman. — Mr. J. J. Lister. 
Secretary. — Dr. H.W. Marett Tims. 
Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner and Mr. 
G. H. F. Nuttall. 



5 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



The Quantity and Composition of 
Rainfall, and of Lake and River 
Discharge. 



The continued Investigation of the 
Oscillations of the Level of the 
Land in the Mediterranean 
Basin. 



Chairman. — Sir John Murray. 

Seoretaries.~-VToies%or A. B. Mac- 
allum and Dr. A. J. Herbertson. 

Sir B. Baker.Professor W.M. Davis, 
Professor P. P. Frankland, Mr. 
A. D. Hall, Mr. N. F. Macken- 
zie, Mr. E. H. V. Melville, Dr. 
H. R. Mill, Professor A. Penck, 
Mr. A. Strahan, and Mr. W. 
Whitaker. 

Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. T, Giinther. 
Drs. T. G. Bonney, F. H. Guille- 

mard, J. S. Keltic, and H. R. 

Mill. 



10 



50 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The Accuracy and Comparability 
of British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade. 



The Amount of Gold Coinage in 
Circulation in the United King- 
dom. 



Section H. 

To conduct Archteological and 
Ethnological Researches in 
Crete. 



To investigate the Lake Village 
at Glastonbury, and to report 
on the best method of publioa- 
tioQ of the result. 



Chairman. — Dr. E. Cannan. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. O. Meredith. 

Mr. W. G. S. Adams, Mr. A. L. 
Bowley, Professor S. J. Chap- 
man, Professor H. E. S. Fre- 
mantle, Sir R. Giffen, and Mr. 
B. Seebohm Rowntree. 

Chairman. — Mr. R. H. Inglis Pal- 
grave. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Stanley Jevons. 

Messrs. A. L. Bowley and D. H. 
Macgregor. 

-ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Chairman.- — Sir John Evans. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Mr. R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. A. J. 
Evans, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Pro- 
fessor A. Macalister, and Pro- 
fessor W. Ridgeway. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 

Secretary. — Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins. 

Sir John Evans and Messrs. 
Arthur J. Evans, 0. H. Read, 
H. Balfour, and A. Bulleid. 



15 



10 



100 



30 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



XCV 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To co-operate with Local Com- 
mittees in Excavations on 
Roman Sites in Britain. 



To organise Anthropometric In- 
vestigation in the British Isles. 



To conduct Explorations vrith the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of 
Photographs of Anthropological 
Interest. 




Chairman. — Professor W. Boyd 
Davsrkins. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Myres. 

Sir Edward Brabrook, Mr. T. 
Ashby, Professor R. C. Bosan- 
quet, and Professor W. Ridge- 
way. 

Chairman. — Professor D. J. Cun- 
ningham. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Gray. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr. C. S. Myers, 
Mr. J. L. Myres, Professor A. F. 
Dixon, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Mr. 
Randall-Maclver, Professor J. 
Symington, Dr. Waterston, Sir 
Edward Brabrook, Dr. T. H. 
Bryce, Mr. W. H. L. Duckworth, 
Mr. G. L. Gomme, Major T. 
McCulloch, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, 
Professor G. D. Thane, Mr. J. F. 
Tocher, Dr. W. McDougall, Mr. 
W. M. Heller, Mr. C. M. Stuart, 
and Professor M. E. Sadler. 

Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Sir John Evans, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Dr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, and 
Mr. A. L. Lewis 

Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. S. Kingsford. 
Dr. T. Ashby, jun., Dr. G. A. 

Auden, Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. E. N. 

Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. 

E, S. Hartland, Mr. E. Heawood, 

Mr. J. L. Myres, and Professor 

Flinders Petrie. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



To enable Professor Starling, Pro- 
fessor Brodie, Dr. Hopkins, Mr. 
Fletcher, Mr. Barcroft, and 
others to determine the ' Meta- 
bolic Balance-Sheet ' of the 
Individual Tissues. 

The Ductless Glands, 



Chairman. — Professor Gotch. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Barcroft. 
Sir Michael Foster and Professor 
Starling. 



Chairman. — Professor Schiifer. 

Secretary. — Pjofessor Swale Vin- 
cent. 

Professor A. B. Macallum and Dr. 
L. E. Shore. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
15 



17 17 3 



3 



3 3 6 



45 



25 



XCVl 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — contimied. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



The Effect of Climate upon 
Health and Disease. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairman. — Sir T. Lauder Brunton 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Barcroft. 
Colonel D. Bruce, Dr. A. Buchan, 
Dr. F. Campbell, Sir Kendal 
Franks, Professor J. G. McKen- 
drick, Sir A. Mitchell, Dr. W. 
C. F. Murray, Dr. Porter, Pro- 
fessor Sims Woodhead, Dr. 
A. J. Wright, and the Heads of 
the Tropical Schools of Liver- 
pool and London. 



Grants 

£ s. d. 
55 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



To carry out the scheme for the 
Registration of Negatives of 
Botanical Photographs. 



Experimental Studies in the Phy- 
siology of Heredity. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



Research on South African Cy- 
cads, and on Welwitschia. 



The Peat Moss Deposits in the 
Cross Fell, Caithness, and Isle 
of Man Districts. 



Studies on Marsh Vegetation. 



CJiairman Professor F.W. Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Dr. W. G. Smith, Mr. A. G. Tans- 
ley, Dr. T. W. Woodhead, and 
Professor R. H. Yapp. 



Chaii-man. — Mr. Francis Darwin. 
Secretary.'— Mr. H. Wager. 
Professor J. B. Farmer and Mr. R. P. 
Gregory. 



Chairman. — Dr. D. H. Scott. 
Secretary. — Professor F.W. Oliver. 
Messrs. E. Nevcell Arber and A. C. 

Seward and Professor F. E. 

Weiss. 



Chairman. — Mr. A. C. Seward. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. P. Gregory. 
Dr. D. H. Scott and Dr. W. H. 
Lang. 



Chairman. — Prof essor R.J.Harvey 

Gibson. 
Secretary. — Professor R. H. Yapp. 
Professor J. R. Green and Mr. 

Clement Reid. 



Chairman. — Dr. F. F. Blackman. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. C. Seward. 
Messrs. A. W. Hill and A. G. 
Tansley. 



5 



30 







35 



7 5 7 



15 



liESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



XCVll 



1. Receiving Grants of Money— coniinMed.. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose Members of the Committee 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To report upon the Course of Ex- 
perimental, Observational, and 
Practical Studies most suitable 
for Elementary Schools. 



The Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to the carrying on of the 
work of instruction in schools. 



Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. M. Heller. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. 
Adie, Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong, Miss A. J. Cooper, Miss 
L. J. Clarke, Mr. George Flet- 
cher, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Principal Griffiths, Mr. A. D. 
Hall, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Professor J. 
Perry, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, Pro- 
fessor A. Smithells, Dr. Lloyd 
Snape, Principal Reichel, Mr. H. 
Richardson, Miss Edna Walter, 
and Professor W. W. Watts. 

Chairman. — Professor Sherrington. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. White Wallis. 

Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. C. W. 
Kimmins, Professor L. C. Miall, 
Miss A. J.Cooper, and Dr. Ethel 
Williams. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr. F. W. Rudler. 

Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Dr. H. T. Brown, Dr. 
Vaughan Cornish, Dr. J. G. Gar- 
son, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hop- 
kinson, Professor R. Meldola, 
Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. Read, 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Pro- 
fessor W. W. Watts, and the 
General Officers of the Associa- 
tion. 



G rants 



£ s. d. 
10 



5 



20 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



To co-operate with the Royal Meteoro- 
logical Society in the Investiga- 
tion of the Upper Atmosphere by 
means of Kites. 



1906. 



Chairman. — Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. H. Dines. 

Mr. P. Y. Alexander, Mr. D. Archibald, 
Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. A. Buchan, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
Dr. A. Schuster, and Dr. W. Watson , 

i 



XCVlll 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To co-operate with tlie Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society in making Meteoro- 
logical Observations on Ben Nevis. 



The Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of Dry Land and under 
Water. 



The Consideration of the Teaching of 
Elementary Mechanics, and the Im- 
provement which might be effected 
in such Teaching. 



Members of the Committee 



Chairma7i. — Lord McLaren. 
Sc'cretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Sir Jolm Murray, Dr. A. Buchau, Pro- 
fessor F. W. Dyson, and Mr. Omond. 

Chairman and Secretary. — Professor 
H. L. Callendar. 

Lord Kelvin, Sir Archibald Geikie, Pro- 
fessor Edward Hull, Professor A. S. 
Herschel, Professor G. A. Lebour, Pro- 
fessor C. H. Lees, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. 
W. Galloway, Mr. Joseph Dickinson, 
Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. Edward Wethe- 
red, Mr. A. Strahan, Professor Michie 
Smith, and Mr. B. H. Brough. 

Chairman.— VvolessoT Horace Lamb. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Perry. 

Mr. C Vernon Boys, Professors Chrystal, 
Ewing, G. A. Gibson, and Greenhill, 
Principal Griffiths, Professor Henrici, 
Dr. E. W. Hobson, Mr, C. S. Jackson, 
Sir Oliver Lodge, Professors Love, 
Minchin, Schuster, and A. M. Worth- 
ington, and Mr. A. W. Siddons. 



That Miss Hardcastle be requested 
continue her Report on the present 
state of the Theory of Point-groups. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic 
Derivatives of Benzene. 



The Transformation of Aromatic Nitra- 
mines and allied substances, and its 
relation to Substitution in Benzene 
Derivatives. 



Chairman. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Professors W. P. Wynne and W. J. Pope. 

Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kipping. 
Secretary .—VToiessoT K. J. P. Orton. 
Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. Lapworth, and 
Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secrcta/ry. — Professor W. W. Watts. 

Dr. T. G. Bonney, Dr. T. Anderson, 
Professors E. J. Garwood and S. H. 
Reynolds, and Messrs. A. S. Reid, W. 
Gray, H. B. Woodward, R. Kidston, 
J. J. H. Teall, H. Coates, C. V. Crook, 
G. Bingley, R. Welch, and W. J. Har- 
rison. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. XCIX 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of the Committee 



To record and determine the Exact 
Significance of Local Terms applied 
in the British Isles to Topographical 
and Geological Objects. 



To enable Mr. T. N. Leslie to continue 
his researches into the Fossil Flora of 
the Transvaal. 

To investigate the Pre-Devonian Rocks 
of the Mendips. 



Chairman. — Mr. Douglas W. Freshfield. 

Secretari/. — Mr, W. G. Fearnsides. 

Lord Avebury, Mr. C. T. Clough, Pro- 
fessor E. J. Garwood, Mr. E. Heawood, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Col. D. A. John- 
ston, Mr. 0. T. Jones, Dr. J. S. Keltic, 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Mr. H. J. Mac- 
kind r, Dr. E. J. Marr, Dr. H. R. Mil], 
Mr. H. Yule Oldham, Dr. B. N. Peach, 
Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. H. B. 
Woodward. 

Cliairnian. — Professor J. W. Gregory. 
Secretary.— Mt. A. C. Seward. 
Mr. T. N. Leslie. 

Chairman. — Mr. H. B. Woodward. 
Secretary. — Professor S. H. Reynolds. 
Dr. C. Lloyd Morgan and Rev. H. H. 
Winwood. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To continue the Investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Royal Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
pose of specimens where advisable. 

To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by cor- 
respondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To nominate competent naturalists 
to perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 



To carry on an Expedition to investi- 
gate the Indian Ocean between India 
and South Africa in view of a pos- 
sible land connection, to examine the 
deep submerged banks, the Nazareth 
and Saza de Malha, and also the dis- 
tribution of Marine Animals. 



Cliairman. — Professor A. Newton. 
Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 

Mr. F. Da Cane Godman, and Mr. 

Edgar A. Smith. 



Chairman. — Professor E. Ray Lankester. 

Secretary. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Professors G. C. Bourne, T. W. Bridge, 
J. Cossar Ewart, M. Hartog, W. A. 
Herdman, and J. Graham Kerr, Mr. 
O. H. Latter, Professor Minchin, Dr. 
P. C. Mitchell, Professor C. Lloyd Mor- 
gan, Professor E. B. Poulton, Mr. A. 
Sedgwick, Mr. A. E. Shipley, and Rev. 
T. R. R. Stebbing. 

Chairman and Secretary. — Professor A. 
Dendy. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester, Mr. A. Sedg- 
wick, and Professor Sydney H. Vines. 

Chairman. — Sir John Murray. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner. 
Captain E. W. Creak, Admiral A. Mostyn 

Field, Professors W. A. Herdman, S. J. 

Hickson, and J. W. Judd, Mr. J. J. 

Lister, and Dr. H. R. Mill. 

f2 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, 
2. Nut receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Blembers of the Committee 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To conduct Anthropometric Investi- 
gations among the Native Troops of 
the Egyptian Army. 



To explore Ancient Ruins in Portuguese 
East Africa. 



To explore the ' Red Hills ' of the East 
Coast Salt Marshes. 



To report on the best means ol' Register- 
ing and Classifying systematically 
Jlegalithic Remains in the British 
Isles. 



Chairman. — Professor A. Macalister. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. S. Myers. 
Sir John Evans and Professor D. J. 
Cunningham. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Secretari/.—Mr. H. Balfour. 
Messrs. E. Sidney Hartland and D. Ran- 
dall-MacIver. 

Chairman. — Professor R. Meldola. 
Secretary.— Mv. F. W. Kudler. 
Messrs. C. H. Read and T. V. Holmes. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 

Secretary. — Dr. G. A. Auden. 

Messrs. J. L. Myres and G. L. Gomme. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



The Training of Teachers. 



To consider and to advise as to the 
Curricula of Secondary Schools; in 
the first instance, the Curricula of 
Boys' Schools. 



Chaimian. — 

Secretary. — Mr. J. L. Holland. 

Mr. R. H. Adie, Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong, Mr. Oscar Browning, Miss A. J. 
Cooper, Mr. Ernest Gray, and Dr. H. 
B. Gray. 

Chairman. — Sir Oliver Lodge. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. M. Stuart. 

Mr. T. E. Page, Professors M. E. Sadler, 

H. E. Armstrong, and J. Perry, Sir 

Philip Magnus, Principal Griffiths, Dr. 

Gray, Professor H. A. Miers, Mr. A. 

E. Shipley, Professor J. Findlay, and 

Sir William Huggins. 



Communications ordered to he 2)rinted in extenso. 

On the Evolution of the Elements. By F. Soddy. 

On the Production of Prussic Acid in Plants. By Professor W. R. Dunstan and 
Dr. Henry. 

On the Occurrence of Prussic Acid in Plants. By Dr. Greshoff. 

On the present position of the Chemistry of Rubber. By S. S. Pickles. 

On the present position of the Chemistry of Gums. By H. H. Robinson. 

On the Hydrolysis of Sugars. By R. J. Caldwell. 

On Melanism in Lepidoptera. By G. T. Porritt. 

The Work of the Engineering Standards Committee. By Sir John Wolfe-Barry, 
K.C.B. 

An Application of Stream-line Apparatus to the Determination of the Dissection 
and Approximate Blagnitude of the Principal Stresses in certain portions of the 
Structure of Ships. By M.J. Smith. 



RESOLUTIONS REFERRED TO THE COUNCIL. ci 



Resolutions referred to the Council/or consideration, and action, 

if desirable. 

From Section A . 

That, in the opinion of the Committee of Section A, it is highly desirable that Sir 
William Plamilton's Memoirs on Dynamics, on Systems of Rays, and other Memoirs 
on Pure and Applied Mathematics, should be republished in accessible form ; and that 
this Resolution, if approved by the Council, be communicated to the Royal Irish 
Academy. 

From. Section H. 

That the Council of the British Association be asked to impress upon his Majesty's 
Government the desirability of appointing an Inspector of Ancient Monuments, fully 
qualified to perform the duties of his office, with full powers under the Act, and with 
instructions to report periodically on his work with a view to publication. 



CU SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. 



Synopsis of Gh-ants of Money apiyroiyriatecl for Scientific Purposes hy the 
General Committee at the Yorh Meeting, August 1906. The Names 
of Members entitled to call on the General Treasxirer for the Gh'ants 
are prefixed to the respective Research Committees. 

Mathematical and Physical Science, 

£ s. d. 

*Rayleigh, Lord — Electrical Standards 50 

*Judd, Professor J. W. — Seismological Observations 40 

*Preece, Sir W. H. — Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ... 40 

*Gill, Sir D.— Magnetic Survey of South Africa 25 7 6 

Hill, Professor H. J. M. — Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 



Chemistry. 

*Roscoe, Sir H. E.— Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

*Divers, Professor E. — Study of Hydro-Aromatic Substances 30 
*Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Geology. 

*Marr, Dr. J. E.— Erratic Blocks 21 16 C 

*Marr, Dr. J. E. — Life-zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 12 7 7 

*Herdman, Professor W. A. — Fauna and Flora of British Trias 10 

*Lamplugh, G. W. — Fossiliferous Drift Deposits 25 19 

*Harker, Dr. A. — The Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 7 18 11 

*Gregory, Professor J. W. — Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of the British Isles 15 

*Gregory, Professor J. W. — Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, &c 10 

"Walker, J. F. — Investigation of the Speeton Beds at Knapton 10 

Xoology. 

^'Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Animalium 75 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 100 

*Bourne, Professor G. C. — Development of the Frog 5 14 6 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Respiratory Phenomena and Colour 

Changes in Animals 11 2 

*Lister, J. J. — Experiments on the Development of the Sexual 

Cells 5 

Geography. 

*Hogarth, D. G. — Oscillations of the Land Level in the 

Mediterranean Basin 50 

*Murray, Sir J. — Rainfall and Lake and River Discharge ... 10 

Carried forward ^610 6 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEV. CUl 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward (310 6 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

*Cannan, Dr. E. — Intel-national Trade Statistics 15 

Palgrave, R. H. Inglis. — Gold Coinage in Circulation in the 

United Kingdom 10 

Anthropology. 

*Evans, Sir John. — Excavations in Crete 100 

*Munro, Dr. R. — Glastonbury Lake Village .30 

*Dawkins, Professor W. Boyd. — Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 15 

*Cunningham, Professor D.J. — Anthropometric Investigations 17 17 3 

*Read, C. H. — Age of Stone Circles 3 

*Read, C. H. — Anthropological Photographs 3 3 6 

Physiology. 

*Gotch, Professor — Metabolism of Individual Tissues 45 

*Schafer, Professor— The Ductless Glands ... 25 

*Brunton, Sir T. Lauder. — Effect of Climate upon Health and 

Disease 55 

Botany. 

*Darwin, Francis. — Physiology of Heredity 30 

*Scott, Dr. D. H.— Structure of Fossil Plants 5 

*Seward, A. C— South African Cycads, &c 35 

*01iver, Professor F. W. — Botanical Photographs 5 

*Gibson, Professor Harvey. — Peat Moss Deposits 7 5 7 

Blackman, Dr. F. F. — Marsh Vegetation 15 

Educational Science. 

*Magnus, Sir P. — Studies suitable for Elementary Schools ... 10 

*Sherrington, Professor. — Conditions of Health in Schools ... 5 

Corresponding Societies Committee. 

* W hitaker, W. — For Preparation of Report 20 

il^6lT2 4 
* Reappointed. 



Annual Meetings, 1907, 1908, and 1909. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1907 will be held at 
Leicester, commencing July 31 ; in 1908 at Dublin ; and in 1909 at 
Winnipeg. 



CIV 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



General Statement of Sums which have been jpaid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 



Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology . . ■ 105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 10.5 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Eain-gauges 9 13 

Eefraction E.xperiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£135 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 



£922 12 



18.38. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 1 10 

Eailway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Kivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 9 5 



£932 2 2 



1839. 

£ 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 

Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 

Kailway Constants ,.. 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

FossirReptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



s. 


d. 








10 





2 





18 


6 


11 





4 








7 


7 





1 


2 





4 


IS 








6 


16 





10 


6 








1 























t 


8 


2 


9 









£1695 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 60 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 60 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Plie- 

nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CV 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water onlron 60 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannia 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

GasesonLight 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 



d. 




11 




£1449 17 8 



1843. 
Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness ^. 77 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 
Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 

Oxidation of the Rails of 
Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 
Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks .30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 
Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 





















12 


8 


























6 





12 

8 


2 

10 



16 



1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 
8 


11 









5 




8 



CVl 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Additiocal Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Eeduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 60 M 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

Bast Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Dravsrings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells ... 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 
^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

£ s. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 
Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall . 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters ., 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



cvu 



1847. 

£ 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



























9 


.3 


7 


7 


8 


6 


5 


4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 
Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 1.3 

£1.5^ 





2 5 

8 1 







19 



18.50. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation .SO 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

£ .«. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Condi^c- 

tionofHeat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



18.5.3. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 
Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£3801^^7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 " 4 



1856, 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 01 

1855 £500 0/ 



675 



CVUl 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Eegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake "Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the "West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Eesearches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Eeport on Natural Products 
imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Jiife-boats 5 

£507 15 ^4 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Earthquake "Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

"V^itality of Seed .5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 

Fluids 20 

Eeport on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18" 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



I 
9 



£ s. d. 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidas 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry , 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 i 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 (5 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den .. 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Eocks and Minerals 25 

Eesearches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Eesearches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19~6 










72 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 J 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions.... 100 

Dredging in the Mersey .and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle ,30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 5 10 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£1111 5 10 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CIX 



1862. 

£ s. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Mollusca of N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of "Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 



j £ s. d. 

d. Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida •■• 10 

£1608 3 10 
■ — 













6 














1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 

penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 
Photoheliograph 100 



























































































































3 10 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon imder pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 

















































































15 


8 



























15 8 







1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber '6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Lrish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591^7~10 



ex 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1866. 



£ s. d. 



Maintaiuinj!: the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British EainfaU 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Faima, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750 13 " 



1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kewr Observatory.. 600 
Meteorological Instrimients, 

Palestine .50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c.. Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws ■ 30 

£1739 4~0 



1868. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at KevkT Observatory. . 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Faima, Devon and Cornwall.. 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 1 00 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

i5l940 0~0 



1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 60() 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Sjjectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 




































































































































u 



GRANTS OK MONEY. 



-CXI 



£ s. d. 
Cliemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



£ s, d. 
Fossil Coral (Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 



£1472 2 6 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood... ,, ,.,. 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &;c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations ..., ,,. 100 

Undeiground Temperature ... 50 
Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 
Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 
Heat 50 

£1572 










































































































































1)^ 



1871. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observation 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



















































2 


6 





































1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, ice 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 



























































































































1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 
















































































































£1685 



CXll 



GENEKAL STAT£ME>T. 



1874. 

£ s. d. 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

:eil51 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 26 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of ■ Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 "o^'o 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 150 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 
of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092" 















































10 



































15 
















4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 11 7 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpeae, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXlll 



1878. 

£ i, d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of UndergTOund 

"Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 
for Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 
less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 
Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration .. . 100 
Record of the Progress of 

Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 
Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 

Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 
Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 
Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Equivalent of Heat 12 

1906. 









0. 































































































[6 


6 



£ t. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of tlie Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 16 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 
Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Natm-e of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 6 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 
at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 60 

Anthropometry 60 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



g 



CXIV 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1881. 

£ ». d. 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Eefractions 7 3 1 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 3 1 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Eocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Raygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 16 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Natural History of Timor-laut 100 
Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee.. . 50 

£1126 





1 11 
















































1 11 



1883. 

£ i. d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives , 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palteo- 
zoic Eocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 
of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 
ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palteo- 

zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 1 00 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee. .. 10 

£1173 



























4 
































































































4 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXV 



1885. 

& i. d. 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 
of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 



d. 






1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record .100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ I. 

Migration of Birds ,... 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada : 50 

£995 6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatorv 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887 grant) 50 

Cae Gwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 

*M^^^ ■■■■> ^ 

g2 



CXVl 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1888. 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palasontographical Society ... CO 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds .. 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Eegions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Eace in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature. . . 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 




























4 8 



£ s. d. 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Eecord 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations . . . 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Eange 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Associp-tion 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pelhan Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard forthe 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Eecording Eesults of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hj'dracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya . 25 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXVll 



£ s. d. 

Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 3 9 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£799 16 8 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory......... 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Eays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1029 10~"0 



1892. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of AVest 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory. . . 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis .. . 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands.. 50 



cxvm 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ «. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 



d. 




1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 5 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 
Slate li 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoologv of the Sandwich 
Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15 6 



1893 

£ «. d. 

Electrical Standards 26 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 
onBenNe^•is 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 6 1 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

HUls 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate ... 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Flint- drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 85 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 
West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 50 

Climatologyof Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£977 15 5 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXIX 



1896. 

£ s. d. 

Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 6 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 2 6 1 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 
Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palseozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 

by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum wa« found ... 25 

Palaeolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 
near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 
. of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 

Abnormal Environment ... 40 

CUmatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Westem Tribes of 
Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

£1104 6 1 



1897. 

£ s. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals ,10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 
the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 
Publication 6 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 
West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 
Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 

Africa.... 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Phvsical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Plionograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phseophyceae 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1059 10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations... 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysisand Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 50 



cxx 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 

Photogi'aphs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 
in Canada » 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters , 30 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North -Western Tribes of 
Canada 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of ToiTes Straits... 125 

Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 

Fertilisation in Phseophyceas 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1212 



1899. 

Electrical Standards 225 

Seismological Observations. . . 65 14 8 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 19 6 

Relation between Absorption 

Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 60 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 

in Canada 30 



£ s. d. 

Records of Disappearing Drift 
Section at Moel Tryf aen ... 500 

Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
tic Organisms under Definite 
Physical Conditions 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1899 100 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 35 

New Edition of ' Anthropolo- 
gical Notes and Queries '... 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Res- 
piratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

Vascular Nervous System... 10 

Histological Changes in Nerve 

Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Histology of. Suprarenal Cap- 
sules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Physeophycese 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1430 14 2 



. 1900. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 60 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 25 

Meteorological Observatory at 
Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution 
of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis 5 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXXl 



£ $. d. 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 20 

The Nature of Alloys 30 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Elk in the Isle of 

Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 

Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 
Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Coral Beefs of the Indian 

Region 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea- Water 100 

Future Dealings in Raw 
Produce 2 10 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 

Ethnography of the Malay 

Peninsula 25 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 

Glands 10 

Fertilisation in Phasophycese 20 

Corresponding Societies Com. 20 

£1072 10 



1901. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 35 



£ t, d. 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 

Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegrsean Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 15 11 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 
Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in PhEeophyceas 15 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
macese 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life- zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 o 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 
Indian Ocean 50 



cxxu 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ i. d. 

Compound Ascidians of the 
Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface "Waves ... 15 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 15 

Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Hsemoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 
under Influence of Drugs... 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycefe 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 
Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£947^ir~0 



1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Waters of North- 
west Yorkshire 40 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 
Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 60 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 



£ s. 
Anthropometric Investigation 5 
Anthropometry of the Todas 

and other Tribes of Southern 

India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phyceie 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com. 20 

£845 13 







1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 60 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hyro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 
Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 

Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 

of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 

Anthropometric Investigation 
of Egyptian Troops 8 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 40 

Botanical Photographs 4 8 11 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 

Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£887 18 II 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXXIU 



1905. 

£, 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 

Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitramines 25 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog ... 10 
Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 

Kesearches in Crete 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions on Egyptian Troops... 10 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£928 



s. 


d. 
















































































4 


8 





























9 




















17 


6 




















2 


2 



1906. 

£ ». d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 99 12 6 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Aromatic Ni tramines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 7 8 11 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea 15 

Freshwater Fishes of South 

Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lake and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 30 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 

in the British Isles 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 20 

Research on South African 

Cycads 14 19 4 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 2S 

£882 9 



CXXIV GENERAL MEETINGS. 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, August 1, at 8.30 p.m., in the Exhibition Buildings, 
Sir George Darwin, K.C.B., F.R.S., resigned the office of President to 
Professor E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S., who took the Chair and 
delivered an Address, for which see p. 3. 

On Thursday, August 2, at 8 p.m., a Conversazione took place in the 
Exhibition Buildings. 

On Friday, August 3, at 8.30 p.m., in the Exhibition Buildings, 
Dr. Tempest Anderson delivered a Discourse on ' Volcanoes.' 

On Monday, August 6, at 8.30 p.m., in the Exhibition Buildings, 
Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on 'The Electrical Signs 
of Life and their Abolition by Chloroform.' 

On Tuesday, August 7, at 8 p.m., a Conversazione took place in the 
Exhibition Buildings. 

On Wednesday, August 8, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
was held in the Guildhall, when the Proceedings of the General Committee 
and the Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes were explained to the 
Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Leicester, July 31, 1907. 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



190G. 



ft 



ADDRESS 

BY 

Profj':ssou E. liAY LANKESTER, 

M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S., Director of the Natural History 
Departments of the British Museums, 

PRESIDENT, 



My Lords, Ladiks, and Gextlkmen, — It is, first of all, my privilege to 
tliank you for the distinguished honour yuu liave done nie in electiu 
me President of this great scientific Association — an honour which is 
enhanced by the fact that our meeting this year is once more held in the 
venerable city of York, in which seventy-five years ago the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science held its first meetinsr. 

It is a great pleasure to me to convey to the Lord Mayor and the 
dignitaries and citizens of York your hearty thanks for the invitation to 
meet this year in their city. It seems to have become a custom that the 
Association should be invited at regular intervals to assemble in the city 
where it took birth and to note the progress made in the objects for the 
furtherance of which it was founded. A quarter of a century ago we 
met here under the presidency of that versatile leader in public affairs- 
Sir John Lubbock, now Lord Avebury. That occasion was the jubilee — 
the fiftieth anniversary — of the Association. 

Lord Avebury on that occasion gave as his presidential address a 
survey of the progress of science during tlie fifty years of the Association's 
existence. He had a wonderful story to tell, and told it with a fulness 
which was only possible to one of his wide range of knowledo-e 
and keen interest in the various branches of science. If I venture on 
the present occasion to say a few words as to the great features in the 
progress of our knowledge of Nature during the last twenty-fi^ e years 
it will be readily understood that the mere volume of new knowledge to 
be surveyed has become so vast that a full and detailed statement such as 
that which Lord Avebury placed before the Association at its jubilee is 
no longer possible in a single address delivered from the President's 
chair. 

Let me ask you before w3 go further to take for a few moments a 
more personal retrospect and to think of the founders of this Associa- 
tion, then of the great workers in science who were still alive in 1881 

b2 



4 PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 

when last we met here and have since gone from among us, leaving 
their great deeds and their noble enthusiasm to inspire now and for all 
future time those who have vowed themselves to the advancement of 
science in this realm of Britain, 

There must be some here who had the privilege of personal acquaint- 
ance with several of the men who founded this Association in York 
seventy-five years ago. I myself knew Professor John Phillips, Sir 
Charles Lyell, Sir Roderick Murchison, Sir David Brewster, Dr. 
Whewell, and Mr. Harcourt of Nunehani. All these fathers of our 
Association had passed away before our last meeting in York. And 
now, in the quarter of a century which has rolled by and brought us here 
again, we have lost many who took an active part in its annual meetings 
and were familiar figures in the scientific world of the later Victorian 
period. Huxley and Tyndall, Spottiswoode and Cayley, Owen and 
Flower, AVilliamson and Frankland, Falconer and Busk, Prestwich and 
Godwin- Austen, Rolleston and Henry Smith, Stokes and Tait, and many 
others are in that list, including one whose name was, and is, more often 
heard in our discussions than any other, though he himself never was able 
to join us— I mean Charles Darwin. Happily some of the scientific 
veterans of the nineteenth century are still living, if not with us in York. 
Sir Joseph Hooker, who visited the Antarctic with Ross in 1839, is still 
liale and hearty, and so are Alfred Russel Wallace, Lord Kelvin, Sir 
William Huggins, and many others who were already veteran leaders in 
scientific investigation when last we visited York : they are still active in 
thought, observation, and experiment. 

In attempting to give an outline of the advancement of science in the 
past twenty-five years I think it is necessary to distinguish two main 
kinds of advancement, both of which our founders had in view. Francis 
Bacon gave the title ' Advancement of Learning ' to that book in which 
he explained not merely the methods by which the increase of knowledge 
was possible, but advocated the promotion of knowledge to a new and 
influential position in the organisation of human society. His purpose, 
says Dean Church, was ' to make knowledge really and intelligently the 
interest, not of the school or the study or the laboratory only, but of 
society at large.' This is what our founders also intended by their use of 
the word ' advancement.' So that in surveying the advancement of 
scienceSin the past quarter of a century we of the British Association 
must ask not only what are the new facts discovered, the new ideas and 
conceptions which have come into activity, but what progress has science 
made' in becoming really and intelligently the interest of society at large. 
Is there evidence that there is an increase in the influence of science on 
the lives of our fellow- citizens and in the great affairs of the State 1 Is 
there an increased provision for securing the progress of scientific investi- 
gation in proportion to the urgency of its need or an increased disposition 
to secure the employment of really competent men trained in scientific 
investigation for the public service 1 



pkesident's address. 5' 



I. TiiK Increase op Knowlkdge in the Several Branches of Science. 

The boundaries of my own understanding and the practical considera- 
tion of what is appropriate to a brief address must limit my attempt to 
*/ive to the general public who follow with friendly interest our proceedings 
some presentation of what li i . been going on in the workshops of science 
in this last quarter of a century. My point of view is essentially that of 
the naturalist, and in my endeavour to speak of some of the new things 
and new properties of things discovered in recent years I find it is im- 
possible to give any systematic or detailed account of what has been done 
in each division of science. All that I can attempt is to mention some of 
tlie discoveries which have aroused my own interest and admiration. I 
feel, indeed, that it is necessary to ask your forbearance for my presump- 
tion in daring to speak of so many subjects in which I cannot claim to 
speak as an authority, but only as a younger brother full of fraternal pride 
and sympathy in the glorious achievements of the great experimentalists 
and discoverers of our day. The duty of attempting some indication of 
their work is placed upon me as your President, and it is for my effort to 
discharge that duty that I ask your generous consideration. 

As one might expect, the progress of the knowledge of nature (for 
it is to that rather than to the historical, moral and mental sciences 
that English-speaking people refer when they use the word ' science ") has 
consisted, in the last twenty-five years, in the amplification and fuller 
verification of principles and theories already accepted, and in the discovery 
of liitherto unknown things Avhich either have fallen into place in the 
existing scheme of each science or have necessitated new views, some not 
very disturbing to existing general conceptions, others of a more startling 
and, at first sight, disconcerting cliaracter. Nevertheless I think I am 
justified in saying that, exciting and of entrancing interest as have been 
some of the discoveries of the past few years, there has been nothing to 
lead us to conclude that we have been on the wrong path— nothing which 
is really revolutionary : that is to say, nothing which cannot be accepted by 
an intelligible modification of previous conceptions. There is, in fact, 
continuity and healthy evolution in the realm of science. Whilst some 
onlookers have declared to the public that science is at an end, its possi- 
bilities exhausted, and but little of the hopes it raised realised, others have 
asserted, on the contrary, that the new discoveries — such as those relating 
to the X-rays and to radium— are so inconsistent with previous knowledge 
as to shake the foundations of science, and to justify a belief in any and 
every absurdity of an unrestrained fancy. These two reciprocally 
destructive accusations are due to a class of persons wlio must be described 
as the enemies of science. Whether their attitude is due to ignorance or 
traditions of self-interest, such persons exist ; and it is one of the objects of 
this Association to combat their assertions and to demonstrate, by the 
discoveries announced at its meetings and the consequent orderly building 



6 - president'.s address. 

up of tliii gixaL fabric of ' natural kuowledge,' ibat Scieiiuu has not come 
to the end of her work— has, indeed, only as yet given mankind a foretaste 
of what she has in store for it — that her methods and her accomplished 
results are sound and trustworthy, serving with perfect adaptability for 
the increase of true discovery and the expansion and development of those 
general conceptions of the processes of nature at which she aims. 

New Chemical Elements. — There can be no doubt that the past quarter 
of a century will stand out for ever in human history as that in which 
new chemical elements, not of an ordinary type, but possessed of truly 
astounding properties, were made known with extraordinary rapidity and 
sureness of demonstration. Interesting as the others are, it is the dis- 
covery of radio-activity and of the element radium which so far exceeds 
all others in importance that we may well account it a supreme privilege 
that it has fallen to our lot to live in the days of this discovery. No single 
discovery "ever made by the searchers of nature even approaches that of 
radio-activity in respect of the novelty of the properties of matter 
suddenly revealed by it. A new conception of the structure of matter is 
necessitated and demonstrated by it, and yet, so far from being destructive 
and disconcerting, the new conception fits in with, grows out of, and 
justifies the older schemes which our previous knowledge has formulated. 

Before saying more of radio-activity, which is apt to eclipse in interest 
every other topic of discourse, I must recall to you the discovery of the 
live inert gaseous elements by Rayleigh and Ramsay, which belongs to 
the period on which we are looking back. It was found that nitrogen 
obtained from the atmosphere invariably differed in weight from nitrogen 
obtained from one of its chemical combinations ; and thus the conclusion 
was arrived at by Rayleigh that a distinct gas is present in the atmosphere, 
to the extent of 1 per cent., which had hitherto passed for nitrogen. This 
gas was separated, and to it the name argon (the lazy one) was given, on 
account of its incapacity to combine with any other element. Subsequently 
this argon was found by Ramsay to be itself impure, and from it he 
obtained three other gaseous elements equally inert : namely neon, krypton, 
and xenon. These were all distinguished from one another by the 
spectrum, the sign-manual of an clement given by the light emitted in 
each case by the gas when in an incandescent condition. A fifth inert 
gaseous element was discovered by Ramsay as a constituent of certain 
minerals which was proved l)y its spectrum to be identical with an element 
discovered twenty-five years ago by Sir Norman Lockyer in the atmosphei-e 
of the sun, where it exists in enormous quantities. Lockyer had given th(^ 
name (helium) to this new solar element, and Ramsay thus found it locked 
up in certain rare minerals in the crust of the earth. 

But by helium we are led back to radium, for it has been found only 
two years ago by Ramsay and Soddy that helium is actually formed by a 
gaseous emanation from radium. Astounding as the statement seems, yet 
that is one of the many unprecedented facts which recent study has 
brought to light. The alchemist's dream is, if not realised, at any rate 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 7 

jusLifiwl. One element is actually under our eyes converted into anotlier ; 
the element radium decays into a gas which changes into another 
element, namely helium. 

Radium, this wonder of wonders, was discovered owing to the study 
of the remarkable phosphorescence, as it is called — the glowing without 
heat — of glass vacuum-tubes through which electric currents are made to 
pass. Crookes, Lenard, and Rontgen each played an important part in 
this study, showing that peculiar rays or linear streams of at least three 
distinct kinds are set up in such tubes — rays which are themselves 
invisible, but have the property of making glass or ether bodies which 
they strike glow with phosphorescent light. The celebrated Rontgen 
rays make ordinary glass give out a bright green light ; but they pass 
through it, and cause phosphorescence outside in various substances, such 
as barium platino-cyanide, calcium tungstate, and many other such salts ; 
they also act on a photographic plate and discharge an electrified body 
such as an electroscope. But the most remarkable feature about them is 
their power of penetrating substances opaque to ordinary light. They 
will pass through thin metal plates or black paper or wood, but are 
stopped by more or less dense material. Hence it has been possible to 
obtain ' shadow pictures ' or skiagraphs by allowing the invisible Rontgen 
rays to pass through a limb or even a whole animal, the denser bone 
stopping the rays, whilst the skin, flesh, and blood let them through. 
They are allowed to fall (still invisible) on to a photographic plate, when 
a picture like an ordinary permanent photograph is obtained by their 
chemical action, or they may be made to exert their phosphorescence- 
producing power on a glass plate covered with a thin coating of a 
phosphorescent salt such as barium platino-cyanide, when a temporary 
picture in light and shade is seen. 

The rays discovered by Rontgen were known as the X-i'ays, because 
their exact nature was unknown. Other rays studied in the electrified 
vacuum-tubes are known as cathode rays or radiant corpuscles, and 
others, again, as the Lenard rays. 

It occurred to M. Henri Becquerel, as he himself tells us, to inquire 
whether other phosphorescent bodies besides the glowing vacuum-tubes 
of the electrician's laboratory can emit penetrating rays like the X-rays. 
I say ' other phosphorescent bodies,' for this power of glowing without 
heat — of giving out, so to speak, cold light — is known to be possessed by 
many mineral substances. It has become familiar to the public in the 
form of 'phosphorescent paint,' which contains sulphide of calcium, a 
substance which shines in the dark after exposure to sunlight — that is to 
say, is phosphorescent. Other sulphides and the minerals fluor-spar, 
apatite, some gems, and, in fact, a whole list of substances have, under 
different conditions of treatment, this power of phosphorescence or shining 
in the dark without combustion or chemical change. All, however, 
require some special treatment, such as exposure to sunlight or heat or 
pressure, to elicit the phosphorescence, which is of short duration only. 



a PBESIDENTS ADDRESS. 

Many of the coiupuuiidsof a .sumewhal uncommon metallic element, called 
ui'anium, used for giving a line green colour to glass, are phosphorescent 
substances, and it was, fortunately, one of them Avhich Henri Becquerel 
chose for experiment. Henri Becquerel is professor in the Jardin des 
Plantes of Paris ; his laboratory is a delightful old-fashioned building, 
which had for me a special interest and sanctity when, a few years ago, I 
visited him there, for, a hundred years before, it was the dwelling-house of 
the great Cuvier. Here Henri Becquerel's father and grandfather — men 
renowned throughout the world for their discoveries in mineralogy, 
electricity, and light — had worked, and here he had himself gone almost 
daily from his earliest childhood. Many an experiment bringing new 
knowledge on the relations of light and electricity had Henri Becquerel 
carried out in that quiet old-world place before the day on which, about 
twelve years ago, he made the experimental inquiry, Does uranium give off 
penetrating rays like Rontgen's rays ? He wrapped a photographic plate in 
black paper, and on it placed and left lying there for twenty-four hours some 
uranium salt. He had placed a cross, cut out in thin metallic copper, 
under the uranium powder, so as to give some shape to the photographic 
print should one be produced. It toas produced. Penetrating rays were 
given off by the uranium : the black paper was penetrated, and the form 
of the copper cross was printed on a dark ground. The copper was also 
penetrated to some extent by the rays from the uranium, so that its 
image was not left actually white. Only one step more remained before 
Becquerel made his great discovery. It was known, as I stated just now, 
that sulphide of calcium and similar substances become phosphorescent 
when exposed to sunlight, and lose this phosphorescence after a few 
hours. Becquerel thought at first that perhaps the uranium acquired its 
power similarly by exposure to light ; but very soon, by experimenting 
with uranium long kept in the dark, he found that the emission of 
penetrating rays, giving photographic effects, was produced spontaneously. 
The emission of rays by this particular fragment of uranium has shown 
no sign of diminution since this discovery. The emission of penetrating 
rays by uranium was soon found to be independent of its phosphorescence. 
Phosphorescent bodies, as such, do not emit penetrating rays. Uranium 
compounds, whether phosphorescent or not, emit, and continue to emit, 
these penetrating rays, capable of passing through black paper and 
metallic copper. They do not derive this property from the action of 
light or any other treatment. The emission of these rays discovered 
by Becquei-el is a new property of matter. It is called ' radio-activity,' 
and the rays are called Becquerel rays. 

From this discovery by Becquerel to the detection and separation of 
the new element radium is an easy step in thought, though one of 
enormous labour and difficulty in practice. Professor Pierre Curie (whose 
name I cannot mention without expressing the grief with which we all 
heard in last April of the sad accident by which his life was taken) and 
his wife, Madame Sklodowski Curie, incited by Becquerel's discovery 



ritESIDEiNT's ADDKESS. 9 

cxamiuoil the uic called pitch- bleude which is Avorkud iu miuea in 
Bohemia and is found also in Cornwall. It is the ore from which all 
commercial urciniuni is extracted. The Curies found that pitch-blende 
has a radio-activity four times more powerful than that of metallic 
uranium itself. They at once conceived the idea that the radio-activity 
of the uranium salts examined by Becquerel is due not to the uranium 
itself, but to another element present with it in variable quantities. This 
proved to be in part true. The refuse of the first processes by which in the 
manufacturer's works the uranium is extracted from its ore, pitch-blende, 
was found to contain four times more of the radio-active matter than 
does the p\n-e uranium. By a long series of fusions, solutions, and 
crystallisations the Curies succeeded in ' hunting down,' as it were, the 
radio-active element. The first step gave them a powder mixed with 
barium chloride, and having 2,000 times the activity of the uranium in 
which Becquerel first proved the existence of the iiew property — radio 
activity. Then step by step theypurified it to a condition 10,000 times, then 
to 100,000 times, and finally to the condition of a crystalline salt having 
1,800,000 times the activity of Becquerel's sample of uranium. The 
purification could go no further, but the extraordinary minuteness of the 
quantity of the pure x'adio-active substance obtained and the amount of 
labour and time expended in preparing it may be judged of from the 
fact that of one ton of the pitch-blende ore submitted to the process of 
purification only the hundredth of a gram — the one-seventh of a grain— 
lemained. 

The amount of radium in pitch-blende is one ten-millionth per cent. ; 
rarer than gold in sea-water. The marvel of this story and of all that 
follows consists largely in the skill and accuracy with which our chemists 
and physicists have learnt to deal with such nfinitesimal quantities, and 
the gigantic theoretical results which are securely posed on this pin-point 
of substantial matter. 

The Curies at once determined that the minute quantity of colourless 
crystals they had obtained was the chloride of a new metallic element 
with the atomic weight 225, to wliich they gave the name radium. Tiio 
proof that radium is an element is given by its ' sign-manual '■ — the spectrum 
which it show-s to the okserver when in ihe incandescent state. It con- 
sists of six bright lines and three fainter lines in the visible part of the 
spectrum, and of three very intense lines in the ultraviolet (invisible) part. 
A very minute quantity is enough for this observation ; the lines given 
by radium are caused by no other known element in heaven or earth. 
They prove its title to be entered on the roll-call of elements. 

The atomic weight was determined in the usual way by precipitating 
the chlorine in a solution of radium chloride by means of silver. None 
of the precious element was lost in the process, but the Curies never had 
enough of it to venture on any attempt to prepare pure metallic radium. 
This is a piece of extravagance no one has yet dared to undertake. 
Altogether the Curies did not have more than some four or five grains of 



10 president's address. 

chJoridc of radium Lo experiment with, and the total {imouufc prepared 
and now in the hands of scientific men in various parts of the ■world 
probably does not amount to moi'e than sixty grains at most. When 
Professor Curie lectured on radium four years ago at the Royal Institu- 
tion in London he made use of a small tube an inch long and of one- 
eighth bore, containing nearly the whole of his precious store, wrenched 
by such determined labour and consummate skill from tons of black 
shapeless pitch-blende. On his return to Paris he was one day demon- 
strating in his lecture room with this precious tube the properties of 
radium when it slipped from his hands, broke, and scattered far and wide 
the most precious and magical powder ever dreamed of by alchemist or 
artist of romance. Every scrap of dust was immediately and carefully 
collected, dissolved, and re-crystallized, and the disaster averted with a 
loss of but a minute fraction of the invaluable product. 

Thus, then, we have arrived at the discovery of radium — the new 
element endowed in an intense form with the new property ' radio- 
activity ' discovered by Becquerel. The wonder of this powder, incessantly 
and without loss, under any and all conditions pouring forth by virtue of 
its own intrinsic property powerful rays capable of penetrating opaque 
bodies and of exciting phosphorescence and acting on photographic plates, 
can perhaps be realised when we reflect that it is as marvellous as though 
we should dig up a stone which without external influence or change, 
continually poured forth light or heat, manufacturing both in itself, and 
not only continuing to do so without appreciable loss or change, but 
necessarily having always done so for countless ages whilst sunk beyond 
the ken of man in the bowels of the earth. 

Wonderful as the story is, so far it is really simple and commonplace 
compared with what yet remains to be told. I will only barely and 
•abruptly state the fact that radio-activity has been discovered in other 
elements, some very rare, such as actinium and polonium ; others more 
abundant and already known, such as thorium and uranium, though 
their radio-activity was not known until Becquerel's pioneer-discovery. 
It is a little strange and no doubt significant that, after all, pure uranium 
is found to have a radio-activity of its own and not to have been 
altogether usurping the rights of its infinitesimal associate. 

The wonders connected with radium really begin when the experi- 
mental examination of the properties of a few grains is made. What I 
am saying here is not a systematic, technical account of radium ; so I shall 
ventui'e to relate some of the story as it impresses me. 

Leaving aside for a moment what has been done in regard to the more 
precise examination of the rays emitted by radium, the following 
astonishing facts have been found out in regard to it : (1) If a glass 
tube containing radium is much handled or kept in the waistcoat pocket, 
it produces a destruction of the skin and flesh over a small area — in fact, a 
sore place. (2) The smallest trace of radium brought into a room where 
a charged electroscope is present, causes the discharge of the electroscope. 



president's address. 11 

So powerful iw this electrical action of radiuui that a very seusitive 
electrometer can detect the presence of a quantity of radium five hundred 
thousand times more minute than that which can be detected by the 
spectroscope (that is to say, by the spectroscopic examination of a flame in 
which minute traces of radium ai-e present). (3) Radium actually realises 
one of the properties of the hypothetical stone to which I compared it 
giving out light and heat. For it does give out heat which it makes 
itself incessantly and without appreciable loss of substance or energy 
(' appreciable ' is here an important qualifying term). It is also faintly 
self-luminous. Fairly sensitive thermometers show that a few granules of 
radium salt have always a higher temperature than that of surrounding 
bodies. Radium has been proved to give out enough heat to melt rather 
more than its own weight of ice every hour ; enough heat in one hour to 
raise its own weight of water from the freezing-point to the boiling-point. 
After a year and six weeks a gram of radium has emitted enough heat to 
raise the temperature of a thousand kilograms of water one degree. And 
this is always going on. Even a small quantity of radium diffused through 
the earth will suffice to keep up its temperature against all loss by 
radiation ! If the sun consists of a fraction of one per cent, of radium, 
this will account for and make good the heat that is annually lost by it. 

This is a tremendous fact, upsetting all the calculations of physicists 
as to the duration in past and future of the sun's heat and the temperature 
of the earth's surface. The geologists and the biologists have long con- 
tended that some thousand million years must have passed during which 
the earth's surface has presented approximately the same conditions of 
temperature as at present, in order to allow time for the evolution of 
living things and the formation of the aqueous deposits of the earth's 
crust. The physicists, notably Professor Tait and Lord Kelvin, refused 
to allow more than ten million years (which they subsequently increased 
to a hundred million) — basing this estimate on the rate of cooling of a 
sphere of the size and composition of the earth. They have assumed that 
its material is self-cooling. But, as Huxley pointed out, mathematics 
will not give a true i-esult when applied to erroneous data. It has now, 
within these last five years, become evident that the earth's material is 
not solf-cooling, but on the contrary self-heating. And away go the 
restrictions imposed by physicists on geological time. Tiiey now are 
willing to give us not merely a thousand million years, but as many more 
as we want. 

And now I have to mention the strangest of all the proceedings of 
radium — a proceeding in which the other radio-active bodies, actinium 
and thorium, resemble it. This proceeding has been entirely Rutherford's 
discovery in Canada, and his name must be always associated with it. 
Radium (he discovered) is continually giving ofT, apart from and in 
addition to the rectilinear darting rays of Becquerel— an ' emanation' — 
a gaseous 'emanation.' This 'emanation' is radio-active — that is, 
gives off Becquerel rays — an^l deposits ' something ' upon bodies brought 



12 ^ PKEStDENx's ADDRESS. 

near tliu radium no that they become railio-activc, and rciriuin so foi" 
a time after the radium is itself removed. This emanation is always 
being formed by a radium salt, and may be most easily collected by 
dissolving the salt in water, when it comes away with a rush, as a gas. 
Sixty milligrams of bromide of radium yielded to Ramsay and Soddy 0-124 
(or about one-eighth) of a cubic millimetre of this gaseous emanation. 
What is it ? It cannot be destroyed or altered by heat or by chemical 
agents ; it is a heavy gas, having a molecular density of 100, and it can 
be condensed to a liquid by exposing it to the great cold of liquid air. It 
gives a peculiar spectrum of its own, and is probably a hitherto unknown 
inert gas — a new element similar to argon. But this by no means 
completes its history, even so far as experiments have as yet gone. The 
radium emanation decays, changes its character altogether, and loses 
half its radio-activity every four days. Precisely at the same rate as it 
decays the specimen of radium salt from which it was removed forms a 
new quantity of emanation, having just the amount of radio-activity 
which has been lost by the old emanation. All is not known about the 
decay of the emanation, but one thing is absolutely certain, having 
first been discovered by Ramsay and Soddy and subsequently confirmed 
by independent experiment by Madame Curie. It is this : After being kept 
three or four days the emanation becomes, in part at least, converted into 
helium — the light gas (second only in the list of elements to hydrogen), the 
gas found twenty-five years ago by Lockyer in the sun, and since obtained 
in some quantities from rare radio-active minerals by Ramsay ! The proof 
of the formation of helium from the radium emanation is, of course, obtained 
by the spectroscope, and its evidence is beyond assail. Here, then, is the 
partial conversion or decay of one element, radium, through an inter- 
mediate stage into another. And not only that, but if, as seems probable, 
the presence of helium indicates the previous presence of radium, we have 
the evidence of enormous quantities of radium in the sun, for we know 
helium is there in vast quantity. Not only that, but inasmuch as helium 
lias been discovered in most hot springs and in various radio-active minerals 
in the earth, it may be legitimately ai-gued that no inconsiderable quantity 
of radium is present in the earth. Indeed, it now seems probable that there 
is enough radium in the sun to keep up its continual output of lieat, and 
enough in the earth to make good its loss of lieat b}' radiation into space, for 
an almost indefinite period. Other experiments of a similar kind have 
rendered it practically certain that radium itself is formed by a somewhat 
similar transformation of uranium, so that our ideas as to the permanence 
and immutability on this globe of the chemical elements are destroyed, and 
must give place to new conceptions. It seems not improbable that the 
final product of the radium emanation after the helium is removed is or 
becomes the metal lead ! 

It must be obvious from all the foregoing that radium is very slowly, 
but none the less surely, destroying itself. There is a definite loss of 
particles which, in the course of time, must lead to the destruction of the 



tresident's addkess. 13 

radiuii), and it would seem that the large new credit on the bank of time 
given to biologists in coiisequence of its discovery has a definite, if remote, 
limit. With the quantities of radium at present available for experiment, 
the amount of loss of particles is so small, and the rate so slow, that it 
cannot be weighed by the most delicate balance. Nevertheless it has 
been calculated that radium will transform half of itself in about fifteen 
hundred years, and unless it were being produced in some way all of the 
radium now in existence would disappear much too soon to make it an 
important geological factor in the maintenance of the earth's temperature. 
As a reply to this depreciatory statement we have the discovery by 
Rutherford and others that radium is continually being formed afresh, 
and from that particular element in connection with which it was dis- 
covered — namely, uranium. Hypotheses and experiments as to the details 
of this process are at this moment in full swing, and results of a momentous 
kind, involving the building-up of an element with high atomic weight l)v 
the interaction of elements with a lower atomic weight, are thought by some 
physicists to be not improbable in the immediate future. 

The delicate electric test for radio-activity has been largely applied 
in the last few years to all sorts and conditions of matter. As a 
result it appears that the radium emanation is always present in our 
atmosphere ; that the air in caves is especially rich in it, as are 
underground waters. Tin-foil, glass, silver, zinc, lead, copper, platinum 
and aluminium are, all of them, slightly radio-active. The question has 
been raised whether this widespread radio-activity is due to the wide 
dissemination of infinitesimal quantities of strong radio-active elements, 
or whether it is the natural intrinsic property of all matter to emit 
Becquerel rays. This is the immediate subject of research. 

Over and above the more simply appreciable facts which I have thus 
narrated, there comes the necessary and difficult inquiry, What does it all 
mean ? What are the Becquerel rays of radio-activity ? What must we 
conceive to be the structure and mechanism of the atoms of radium and 
allied elements, which can not only pour forth ceaseless streams of intrinsic 
energy from their own isolated substance, but are perpetually, though in 
infinitesimal proportions, changing their elemental nature spontaneous! v, 
so as to give rise to other atoms which we recognise as other elements "« 

I cannot venture as an expositor into this field. It belongs to that 
wonderful group of men, the modern physicists, who with an almost weird 
power of visual imagination combine the great instrument of exact 
statement and mental manipulation called mathematics, and possess an 
ingenuity and delicacy in appropriate experiment which must fill all who 
even partially follow their triumphant handling of nature with reverence 
and admiration. Such men now or recently among us are Kelvin, Clerk 
Maxwell, Crookes, Eayleigh, and J. J. Thomson. 

Becquerel showed early in his study of the rays emitted by radium 
that some of them could be bent out of their straight path by making them 
pass between the poles of a powerful electro-magnet. In this way have 



14 PRESIDElN^rS ADDRESS. 

finally been distinguisheil three classes o£ rays given off by radium : 
(1) the alpha rays, which are only slightly bent, and ha\e little penetrative 
power ; (2) the beta rays, easily bent in a direction opposite to that in 
which the alpha rays bend, and of considerable penetrative power ; (3) the 
gamma i-ays, which are absolutely unbendable by the strongest magnetic 
force, and have an extraordinary penetrative power, producing a piioto- 
graphic effect through a foot thickness of solid iron. 

The alpha rays ai'e shown to be streams of tiny bodies positively 
electrified, such as are given off by gas flames and red-hot metals. The 
particles have about twice the mass of a hydrogen atom, and they fly off 
with a velocity of 20,000 miles a second ; that is, 40,000 times greater than 
that of a rifle bullet. The heat produced by radium is ascribed to the 
impact of these particles of the alpha ray.s. 

The beia i-ays are streams of corpuscles similar to those given ofi" 
by the cathode in a vacuum tube. They are charged with negative 
electricity and travel at the velocity of 100,000 miles a .second. They 
are far more minute than the alpha particles. Their mass is equal to the 
one-thousandth of a hydrogen atom. They produce the major part of 
the photographic and phosphorescent effects of the radium rays. 

The (jamma rays are apparently the same, or nearly the same, thing 
as the X-rays of B-ontgen. They are probably not particles at all, but 
pulses or waves in the ether set up during the ejection of the corpuscles 
which constitute the beta rays. They produce the same effects in a much 
smaller degree as do the beta rays, but are more penetrating. 

The kind of conceptions to which these and like discoveries have led 
the modern physicist in regard to the character of that supposed un- 
breakable body —the chemical atom — the simple and unaffected friend of 
our youth — are truly astounding. But I would have you notice that they 
are not destructive of our previous conceptions, but rather elaborations 
and developments of the simpler views, introducing the notion of struc- 
ture and mechanism, agitated and whirling with tremendous force, into 
what wc formerly conceived of as homogeneous or simply built-up 
particles, the earlier conception being not so much a positive assertion of 
simplicity as a non- committal expectant formula awaiting the progress of 
knowledge and the revelations which are now in our hands. 

As I have already said, the attempt to show in detail how the marvel- 
lous properties of radium and radio-activity in general are thus capable of 
a pictorial or structural representation is beyond the limits both of my 
powers and the time allowed me ; but the fact that such speculations 
furnish a scheme into which the observed phenomena can be fitted is 
what we may take on the authority of the physicists and chemists of our 
day. 

Intimately connected with all the work which has been done in the 
past twenty-five years in the nature and possible transformations of 
atoms is the great series of investigations and speculations on astral 
chemistry and the development of the chemical elements which we owe to 
tlie unremitting labour during this period of Sir Norman Lockyer. 



PBESIDENTS ADDBESS. 15 

Wireless telegraphy. — Of great importance lias been the whole 
progress in the theory and practical handling of electrical phenomena 
of late years. The discovery of the Hertzian waves and their applica- 
tion to wireless telegraphy is a feature of this period, though I 
may remind some of tliose who have been impressed by these dis- 
coveries that the mere fact of electrical action at a distance is 
that which hundreds of years ago gave to electricity its name. The power 
which we have gained of making an instrument oscillate in accordance 
with a predetermined code of signalling, although detached and a thousand 
miles distant, does not really lend any new support to the notion that 
the old-time beliefs of thought-transference and second sight are more 
than illusions based on incomplete observation and imperfect reasoning. 
For the important factors in such human intercourse — namely, a signal- 
ling-instrument and a code of signals — have not been discovered, as yet, 
in the structure of the human body, and have to be consciously devised 
and manufactured by man in the only examples of thought-transference 
over long distances at present discovered or laid bare to experiment and 
observation. 

Iliyh and low teynjjeralures. — The past quarter of a centuiy has 
witnessed a great development and application of the methods of pro- 
ducing both very low and very high temperatures. Sir James Dewar, 
by improved apparatus, has produced liquid hydrogen and a fall of 
temperatui'e probably reaching to the absolute zero. A number of 
applications of extremely low temperatures to research in various directions 
has been rendered possible by the facility with which they may now be 
produced. Similarly high temperatures have been employed in con- 
tinuation of the earlier work of Deville, and others by Moissan, the 
distinguished French chemist. 

Progress in Chemistry. — In chemistry generally the theoretical tendency 
guiding a great deal of work has been the completion and verification of the 
' periodic law ' of Mendele'eff ; and, on the other hand, the search by physical 
agents such as light and electricity for evidence as to the arrangement of 
atoms in the molecules of the most diverse chemical compounds. The study 
of ' valency ' and its outcome, stereo-chemistry, have been the special lines 
in which chemistry has advanced. As a matter of course hundreds, if not 
thousands, of nesv chemical bodies have been produced in the laboratory 
of greater or less theoretical interest. The discovery of the greatest 
practical and industrial importance in this connection is the production 
of indigo by synthetical processes, first by laboratory and then by factory 
methods, so as to compete successfully with the natural product. Von 
Baeyer and Heumann are the names associated with this remarkable 
achievement, which has necessarily dislocated a large industry which 
derived its raw material from British India. ^ 

' I had at first intended to give in this address a more detailed and technical 
statement of the progress of science than I have found possible when actually 
engaged in its preparation. The limits of time and space render any such survey 



1(5 president's address. 

Aslronoiiij/. — A biologist may well refuse to offer any remarks on his 
own authority in regard to this earliest and grandest of all the sciences. 
I will therefore at once say that my friend the Savilian Professor of 
Astronomy in Oxford has turned my thoughts in the right direction in 
reward to this subject. There is no doubt that there has been an immense 
'revival' in astronomy since 1881 ; it has developed in every direction 
The invention of the ' dry plate,' which has made it possible to apply 
photography freely in all astronomical work, is the chief cause of its great 
expansion. Photography was applied to astronomical work before 1881, 
but only with difficulty and haltingly. It was the dry-plate which made 
long exposures possible, and thus enabled astronomers to obtain regular 
records of faintly luminous objects such as nebulre and star-spectra. 
Roughly speaking, the number of stars visible to the naked eye may be 
stated as eight thousand : this is raised by the use of our best telescopes 
to a hundred million. But the number which can be photographed is 
indefinite and depends on length of exposure : a thousand million can 
certainly be so recorded. 

The serious practical proposal to ' chart the sky ' by means of photo- 
graphy certainly dates from this side of 1881. The Paris Conference of 
1887, which made an international scheme for sharing the sky among 
eighteen observatories (still busy with the woi'k, and producing excellent 
results), originated with photographs of the comet of 1882, taken at the 
Cape Observatory. 

Professor Pickering, of Harvard, did not join this co-operative scheme, 
but has gradually devised methods of charting the sky very rapidly, so 
that he has at Harvard records of the whole sky many times over, and 
when new objects are discovered he can trace their history backwards for 
more than a dozen years by reference to his plates. This is a wonderful 
new method, a mode of keeping record of present movements and 
changes which promises much for the future of astronomy. By the 
photographic method hundreds of new variable stars and other 
interesting objects have been discovered. New planets have been 
detected by the hundred. Up to 1881 two hundred and twenty were 
known. In 1881 only one was found ; namely, Stephania, being 
No. 220, discovered on May 19. Now a score at least are discovered 

on this occasion impossible, and, moreover, tlie patience of even the general meeting 
of the British Association cannot be considered as unlimited. With a view to the 
preparation of a more detailed review, I had asked a number of friends and col- 
leagues to send me notes on the progress and tendency in their own particular 
branches of science. They responded with the greatest generosit}' and unselfisliness. 
I must entirely disclaim for them any responsibility for the brief detached state- 
ments made in the address. At the same time I should wish to thank them here by 
name for their most kind and timely help. They are : Sn- VVilUam Ramsay, 
Mr. Soddy, Professor H. H. Turner, Dr. Marr, Dr. Haddon, Dr. Smith Woodward, 
Professor Sherrington, Professor Farmer, Professor Vines, Dr. D. H. Scott, Pro- 
fessor Meldola, Mr. Macdougal, Professor Poulton, Mr. C. V. Boys, Major MacMahon, 
and Mr. Mackinder. 



pbesideiNt's address. 1? 

every yeal'. Over live Imndi'ed arc now kiiowu. One of [these — ' 
Eros — (No. 433) is particulai-ly interesting, since it is nearer to the sun 
than is Mars, and gives a splendid opportunity for fixing with increased 
accuracy the sun's distance from the earth. Two new satellites to Saturn 
and two to Jupiter have been discovered by photography (besides one to 
Jupiter in 1892 by the visual telescope of the Lick Observatory). One of 
the new satellites of Saturn goes round that planet the xcn'owj way, thus 
calling for a fundamental revision of our ideas of the origin of the solar 
system. 

The introduction of photography has made an immense difference in 
spectroscopic work. The spectra of the stars have been readily mapped out 
and classified, and now the motions in the line of sight of faint stars can 
be determined. This ' motion in the line of sight,' which was discernible 
but scarcely measurable with accuracy before, now provides one of the 
most refined methods in astronomy for ascertaining the dimensions and 
motions of the universe. It gives us velocities in miles per second 
instead of in an angular unit to be interpreted by a very imperfect know- 
ledge of the star's distance. The method, initiated joi'-i-ctically by 
Huggins thirteen years before, was in 18S1 regarded by many astro- 
nomers as a curiosity. Visual observations wei-e begun at Greenwich in 
1875, but were found to be affected by instrumental errors. The intro- 
duction of dry plates, and their application by Yogel in 1887, was the 
beginning of general use of the method, and line-of-sight work is now a 
vast department of astronomical industry. Among other by-products 
of the method are the ' spectroscopic doubles,' stars which we know to be 
double, and of which we can determine the period of revolution, though 
we cannot separate them visually by the greatest telescope. 

Work on the sun has been entirely revolutionised by the use of photo- 
graphy. The last decade has seen the invention of the spectro-heliograph 
— which simply means that astronomers can now study in detail portions 
of the sun of which they could previously only get a bare indication. 

More of the same story could be related, but enough has been said to 
show how full of life and progress is this most ancient and imposing of all 
sciences. 

A minor though very important influence in the progress of astronomy 
has been the provision, by the expenditure of great wealth in America, of 
great telescopes and equipments. 

In 1877 my distinguished predecessor in the presidency of tlie 
British Association started a line of mathematical research which 
has been very fruitful and is of great future promise for astronomy. 
He was able himself last year to give some account of this reseai'ch to 
the Association. On the present occasion I may mention that as recently 
as last April, at the Royal Astronomical Society, two important papers 
were read — one by Mr. Cowell and the other by Mr. Stratton — which 
have their roots in Sir George Darwin's work. The former was led to 
suggest that the day is lengthening ten times as rapidly as had been 

1906. "^ • 



18 president's address. 

supposed, and the latter showed that in all probability the planets had 
all turned upside down since their birth. 

And yet M. Brunettiere and his friends wish us to believe that 
science is bankrupt and has no new things in store for humanity. 

Geology. — In the field of geological research the main feature in 
the past twenty-five years has been the increasing acceptance of the 
evolutionary as contrasted with the uniformitarian view of geological 
phenomena. The great work of Suess, ' Das Antlitz der Erde,' is un- 
doubtedly the most important contribution to physical geology within the 
period. The first volume appeared in 1885, and the impetus which it has 
given to the science may be judged of by the epithet applied to the views 
for which Suess is responsible — ' the New Geology.' Suess attempts to 
trace the orderly sequence of the principal changes in the earth's crust 
since it first began to form. He strongly opposes the old theory 
of elevation, and accounts for the movements as due to diffei'ential 
collapse of the crust, accompanied by folding due to tangential stress. 
Among special results gained, by geologists in the period we survey may 
be cited new views as to the origin of the crystalline schists, favouring 
a return to something like the hypogene origin advocated by Lyell ; the 
facta as to deep-sea deposits, now in course of formation, embodied in the 
' Challenger ' reports on that subject : the increasing discrimination and 
tracking of those minor divisions of strata called ' zones ' ; the assignment 
of the Olenellus fauna of Cambrian age to a position earlier than that of 
the Paradoxides fauna ; the discovery of Radiolaria in palseozoic rocks by 
special methods of examination, and the recognition of Graptolites as 
indices of geological horizons in lower paleozoic beds. Glacially eroded 
rocks in boulder-clays of permo-carboniferous age have been recognised 
in many parts of the world {e.g., Australia and South Africa), and 
thus the view put forward by W. T. JBlanford as to the occurrence 
of the same phenomena in conglomerates of this age in India is con- 
firmed. Eozoon is finally abandoned as owing its structure to an organism, 
The oldest fossiliferous beds known to us are still far from the beginning 
of life. They contain a highly developed and varied animal fauna — and 
something like the whole of the older moiety of rocks of aqueous origin 
have failed as yet to present us with any remains of the animals or plants 
which must have inhabited the seas which deposited them. The boring of 
a coral reef initiated by Professor SoUas at the Nottingham meeting 
of this Association in 1893 was successfully carried out, and a depth of 
1,1145^ feet reached. Information of great value to geologists was thus 
obtained. 

Animal and Vegetable Morphography. — Were I to attempt to give an 
account of the new kinds of animals and plants discovered since 1881, 
I should have to read out a bare catalogue, for time would not allow me 
to explain the interest attaching to each. Explorers have been busy 
in all parts of the world — in Central Africa, in the Antarctic, in remote 
parts of China, in Patagonia and Australia, and on the floor of the ocean, 



president's address. 19 

as well ;is in caverns, on uiouutaiu tops, and ia great lakes and ii\ers. 
We have learnt much that is new as to distribution ; countless new forms 
have been discovered, and careful anatomical and microscopical study 
conducted on specimens sent home to our laboratories. I cannot refrain 
from calling to mind the discovery of the eggs of the Australian duck- 
mole and hedgehog ; the fresh-water jelly-fish of Regent's Park, the 
African lakes, and the Delaware River ; the marsupial mole of Central 
Australia ; the okapi ; the young and adult of the mud- fishes of Australia, 
Africa, and South America ; the fishes of the Nile and Congo ; the gill- 
l)earing earth worms and mud-worms ; the various forms of the caterpillar- 
like Peripatus ; strange deep-sea fishes, polyps and sponges. 

The main result of a good deal of such investigation is measured by 
our increased knowledge of the pedigree of organisms, what used to be 
called ' classification.' The anatomical study by the Australian professors. 
Hill and Wilson, of the teeth and the fcatus of the Australian group of 
pouched mammals — the marsupials — has entirely upset previous notions, 
to the effect that these were a primitive group, and has shown that their 
possession of only one replacing tooth is a retention of one out of many 
such teeth (the germs of which are present), as in placental mammals ; and 
further that many of these marsupials have the nourishing outgrowth of 
the foetus called the placenta fairly well developed, so that they must be 
regarded as a degenerate side-branch of the placental mammals, and not 
as primitive forerunners of that dominant series. 

Speculations as to the ancestral connection of the great group of 
vertebrates with other great groups have been varied and ingenious ; but 
most naturalists are now inclined to the view that it is a mistake to 
assume any such connection in the case of vertebrates of a more definite 
character than we admit in the case of starfishes, shell-fish, and insects. 
All these groups are ultimately connected by very simple, remote, and 
not by proximate ancestors, with one another and with the ancestors of 
vertebrates. 

The origin of the limbs of vertebrates is now generally agreed to be 
correctly indicated in the Thatcher-Mivart-Balfour theory to the effect 
that they are derived from a pair of continuous lateral tins, in fish-like 
ancestors, similar in every way to the continuous median dorsal fin of 
fishes. 

The discovery of the formation of true spermatozoa by simple unicellular 
animals of the group Protozoa is a startling thing, for it had always been 
supposed that these peculiar reproductive elements were only formed by 
multicellular organisms. They have been discovered in some of the 
gregarina-like animalcules, the Coccidia, and also in the blood-parasites. 

Among plants one of the most important discoveries relates to these 
same reproductive elements, the spermatozoa, which by botanists are called 
antherozoids. A great diffierence between the whole higher series of 
plants, the flowering plants or phanerogams, and the cryptogams or lower 
plants, including ferns, mosses, and algte, was held to be that the latter 

c2 



20 thesident's ADDKESS. 

produce vibi'atile spermatozoa like those of animals which swim in liquid 
and fertilise the motionless egg-cell of the plant. Two Japanese botanists 
(and the origin of this discovery from Japan, from the University of Tokio, 
in itself marks an era in the history of science), Hirase and Ikeno, 
astonished the botanical world fifteen years ago by showing that motile 
antherozoids or spermatozoa are produced by two gymnosperms, the ging-ko 
tree (or Salisbiirya) and the cycads. The pollen-tube, which is the ferti- 
lising agent in all other phanerogams, develops in these cone-bearing trees, 
beautiful motile spermatozoa, which swim in a cup of liquid provided 
for them in connection with the ovules. Thus a great distinction between 
phanerogams and cryptogams was broken down, and the actual nature of 
the pollen-tube as a potential parent of spermatozoids demonstrated. 

When we come to the results of the digging out and study of extinct 
plants and animals, the most remarkable results of all in regard to the 
affinities and pedigree of organisms have been obtained. Among plants 
the transition between cryptogams and phanerogams has been practically 
bridged over by the discovery that certain fern- like plants of the Coal 
Measures — the Cycadofilices, supposed to be true ferns, are really seed- 
bearing plants and not ferns at all, but phanerogams of a primitive type, 
allied to the cycads and gymnosperms. They have been re-christened 
Pteridosperms by Scott, who, together with F. Oliver and Seward, has been 
the chief discoverer in this most interesting field. 

By their fossil remains whole series of new genera of extinct mammals 
have been traced through the tertiary strata of North America and their 
genetic connections established ; and from yet older strata of tlie same 
prolific source we have almost complete knowledge of several genera of 
huge extinct Dinosauria of great variety of form and habit. 

The discoveries by Seeley at the Cape, and by Amalitzky in North 
Russia of identical genera of Triassic reptiles, which in many respects 
resemble the Mammalia and constitute the group Theromorpha, is also 
a prominent feature in the palaeontology of the past twenty -five years. 
Nor must we forget the extraordinary Silurian fishes discovered and 
described in Scotland by Professor Traquair. The most important 
discovery of the kind of late years has been that of the Upper Eocene 
and Miocene Mammals of the Egyptian Fayum, excavated by the 
Egyptian Geological Survey and by Dr. Andrews of the Natural History 
Museum, who has described and figured the remains. They include a 
huge four-horned animal as big as a rhinoceros, but quite peculiar in its 
characters — the Arisinoitherium — and the ancestors of the elephants, a 
group which was abundant in Miocene and Pliocene times in Europe, 
and Asia, and in still later times in America, and survives at the 
present day in its representatives the African and Indian elephant. 
One of the European extinct elephants — the Tetrabelodon — had, 
we have long known, an immensely long lower jaw with large chisel- 
shaped terminal teeth. It had been suggested by me that the modern 
elephant's trunk must have been derived from the soft upper jaw and 



president's address. 21 

nasal area, which rested on this elongated lower jaw, by the shortening 
(in the course of natural selection and modification by descent) of 
this long lower jaw, to the present small dimensions of the elephant's 
lower jaw, and the consequent down-dropping of the unshortened upper 
jaw and lips, which thus become the proboscis. Dr. Andrews has de- 
scribed from Egypt and placed in the Museum in London specimens of two 
new genera — one Palseomastodon, in which there is a long, powerful jaw, 
an elongated face, and an increased number of molar teeth ; the second, 
Meritherium, an animal with a hippopotamus-like head, comparatively 
minute tusks, and a well-developed complement of incisor, canine, and 
molar teeth, like a typical ungulate mammal. Undoubtedly we have in 
these two forms the indications of the steps by which the elephants have 
been evolved from ordinary-looking pig-like creatures of moderate size, 
devoid of trunk or tusks. Other remains belonging to this great mid- African 
Eocene fauna indicate that not only the Elephants but the Sirenia took 
their origin in this area. Amongst them are also gigantic forms of Hyrax, 
like the little Syrian coney and many other new mammals and reptiles. 

Another great area of exploration and source of new things has 
been the southern part of Argentina and Patagonia, where Ameghino, 
Moreno, and Scott of Princeton have brought to light a wonderful series 
of extinct ant-eaters, armadilloes, huge sloths, and strange ungulates, 
reaching back into early Tertiary times. But most remarkable has been 
the discovery in this area of remains which indicate a former con- 
nection with the Australian land surface. This connection is suggested 
by the discovery in the Santa Cruz strata, considered to be of early 
Tertiary date, of remains of a huge horned tortoise which is generically 
identical with one found fossil in the Australian area of later date, and 
known as Miolania. In the same wonderful area we have the 
discovery in a cave of the fresh bones, hairy skin, and dung of 
animals supposed to be extinct, viz., the giant sloth, Mylodon, and the . 
peculiar horse, Onohippidium. These remains seem to belong to survivors 
from the last submergence of this strangely mobile land-surface, and it is 
not improbable that some individuals of this ' extinct ' fauna are still 
living in Patagonia. The region is still unexplored and those who set out 
to examine it have, by some strange fatality, hitherto failed to carry out 
the professed purpose of their expeditions. 

I cannot quit this immense field of gathered fact and growing 
generalisation without alluding to the study of animal embryology and 
the germ-layer theory, which has to some extent been superseded by the 
study of embryonic cell-lineage, so well pursued by some American 
microscopists. The great generalisation of the study of the germ-layers 
and their formation seems to be now firmly established — namely, that the 
earliest multicellular animals were possessed of one structural cavity, the 
enteron, surrounded by a double layer of " cells, the ectoderm and 
endoderm. These Enterocoela or Coelentera gave rise to forms having a 
second great bod jr- cavity, the coelom, which originated pot as a split 



22 president's address. 

between the two layers, as was supposed twenty five years ago by 
Haeckel and Gegenbaur and their pupils, but by a pouching of the 
enteron to form one or more cavities in which the reproductive cells 
should develop — pouchings which became nipped off from tlie cavity of 
their origin, and formed thus the independent coelom. The animals so 
provided are the Coelomoccela (as opposed to the Enteroccela), and com- 
prise all animals above the polyps, jelly-fish, corals, and sea-anemones. 
It has been established in these twenty-five years that the cojlom is a 
definite structural unit of the higher groups, and that outgrowths from 
it to the exterior (coelomoducts) form the genital passages, and may 
become renal excretory organs also. The vascular system has not, as it 
was formerly supposed to have, any connection of origin with the ccelom, 
but is independent of it, in origin and development, as also are the 
primitive and superficial renal tubes known as nephridia. These general 
statements seem to me to cover the most important advance in the 
general morphology of animals which we owe to embryological research in 
the past quarter of a century.' 

Before leaving the subject of animal morphology I must apologise for 
my inability to give space and time to a consideration of the growing 
and important science of anthropology, which ranges from the history of 
human institutions and language to the earliest prehistoric bones and 
implements. Let me therefore note here the discovery of the cranial 
dome of Fitltecanthropiis in a river gravel in Java — undoubtedly the most 
ape-like of human remains, and of great age ; and, further, the Eoliths of 
Prestwich, in the human authorship of which I am inclined to believe, 
though I should be sorry to say the same of all the broken flints to which 
the name ' Eolith ' has been applied. The systematic investigation and 
record of savage races have taken on a new and scientific character. Such 
work as Baldwin Spencer's and Haddon's in Australasia furnish examples 
of what is being done in this way. 

Physiology of Plants and Animals. — Since I have only time to pick 
the most important advances in each subject for brief mention, I nmst 
signalise in regard to the physiology of plants the better understanding 
of the function of leaf- green or chlorophyll due to Pringsheim and to the 
Russian Timiriaseft', the new facts as to the activity of stomata in 
transpiration discovered by Horace Brown, and the fixation of free 
nitrogen by living organisms in the soil and by organisms (Bacillus 
radicola) parasitic in the rootlets of leguminous plants, which thus benefit 
by a supply of nitrogenous compounds which they can assimilate. 

Great progress in the knowledge of the chemistry of the living cells 
or protoplasm of both plants and animals has been made by the dis- 
covery of the fact that ferments or enzymes are not only secreted 
externally by cells, but exist active and preformed inside cells. Biichner's 
final conquest of the secret of the yeast-cell by heroic mechanical methods — 

' See the introfluction to Part II. of a Treatiso on Zoolocr}'. E<1itcil by E. Ifiy 
Lankesler (London : A. & C. Bl.^ck). 



president's address. 23 

the actual grinding to powder of these already very minute bodies— first 
established this, and now successive discoveries of intraceUular ferments 
have led to the conclusion that it is probable that the cell respires by 
means of a respiratory ' oxydase,' builds up new compounds and destroys 
existing ones, contracts and accomplishes its own internal life by 
ferments. Life thus (from tlic chemical point of view) becomes a chain 
of ferment actions. Another most significant advance in animal physio- 
logy has been the sequel (as it were) of Bernard's discovery of the 
formation of glycogen in the livei-, a substance not to be excreted, Ijut to 
be taken up by the blood and lymph, and in many ways more important 
than the more obvious formation of bile wliich is thrown out of the gland 
into the alimentary canal. It has been discovered that many glands, 
such as the kidney and pancreas and the ductless glands, the suprarenals, 
thyroid, and others, secrete indispensable products into the blood and 
lymph. Hence myxoedema, exophthalmic goitre, Addison's disease, and 
other disorders have been traced to a deficiency or excess of internal 
secretions from glands formerly regarded as interesting but unimportant 
vestigial structures. From these glands liave in consequence been ex- 
tracted remarkable substances on which their peculiar activity depends. 
From the suprarenals a substance has been extracted which causes 
activity of all those structures which the sympathetic nerve system can 
excite to action : the thyroid yields a substance which influences the 
growth of the skin, hair, bones, &c. ; tbe pituitary gland, an extract 
which is a specific urinary stimulant. Quite lately the mammalian ovary 
has been shown by Starling to yield a secretion which influences the state 
of nutrition of the uterus and manimse. Had I time, I might .say a great 
deal more on topics such as these — topics of almost infinite importance ; 
but the fact is that the mere enumeration of the most important lines of 
progress in any one science would occupy us for hours. 

Nerve-physiology has made immensely important advances. There is 
now good evidence that all excitation of one group of nerve-centres is 
accompanied by the conctirrent inhibition of a whole series of groups of 
other centres, whose activity might interfere with that of the group 
excited to action. In a simple reflex flexure of the knee the motor- 
neurones to the flexor muscles are excited, but concurrently the motor- 
neurones to the extensor muscles are thrown into a state of inhibition, 
and so equally with all the varied excitations of the nervous system 
controlling the movements and activities of the entire body. 

The discovery of the continuity of the protoplasm through the walls 
of the vegetable cell by means of connecting canals and threads is one of 
the most startling facts discovered in connection with plant-structure, 
since it was held twenty years ago that a fundamental distinction between 
animal and vegetable structure consisted in the boxing-up or encasement 
of each vegetable cell-unit in a case of cellulose, whereas animal cells were 
not so imprisoned, but freely communicated with one another. It perhaps 
j.s on this account the less surprising tliat lately something like sen.se- 



24 president's address. 

organs have l)een discovei'cd on the roots, stems, and leaves of plants, 
which, like tlie otocysts of some animals, appear to be really ' statocytes,' 
and to exert a varying pressure according to the relations of these parts of 
the plant to gravity. There is apparently something resembling a per- 
ception of the incidence of gravity in plants which reacts on irritable 
tissues, and is the explanation of the phenomena of geotropisra. These 
results have grown out of the observations of Charles Darwin, followed 
by those of F. Darwin, Haberlandt, and Nemec. 

A few words must be said here as to the progress of our knowledge of 
cell-substance, and what used to be called the i3rotoplasm question. 
We do not now regard protoplasm as a chemical expression, but, in ac- 
cordance with von Mohl's original use of the word, as a structure which 
holds in its meshes many and very varied chemical bodies of great 
complexity. Within these twenty-five years the ' centrosome ' of the cell- 
protoplasm has been discovered, anfl a great deal has been learnt as to 
the structure of the nucleus and its I'emarkable stain-taking bands, the 
chromosomes. We now know that these bands are of definite fixed num- 
ber, varying in diflierent species of i^lants and animals, and that they are 
halved in number in the reproductive elements — the spermatozoid and 
the ovum — so that on union of these two to form the fertilised ovum 
(the parent cell of all the tissues), the proper specific number is attained. 
It has been pretty clearly made oui: by cutting up large living cells — ■ 
unicellular animals— that the body of tne cell alone, without the nucleus, 
can do very little but move and maintain for a time its chemical status. 
But it is the nucleus which directs and determines all definite growth, 
movement, secretion, and reproduction. The simple protoplasm, de- 
prived of its nucleus, cannot form a new nucleus — in fact, can do very 
little but exhibit irritability. I am inclined to agree with those who 
hold that there is not sufficient evidence that any organism exists at the 
present time which has not both protoplasm and nucleus — in fact, that 
the simplest form of life at pi'esent existing is a highly complicated struc- 
ture — a nucleated cell. That does not imply that simpler forms of living 
matter have not preceded those which we know. We must assume that 
something more simple and homogeneous than the cell, with its differen- 
tiated cell-body or protoplasm, and its cell kernel or nucleus, has at one 
time existed. But the various supposed instances of the survival to the 
present day of such simple living things — described by Haeckel and others 
— have one by one yielded to improved methods of microscopic examination 
and proved to be differentiated into nuclear and extra-nuclear substance. 

The question of ' spontaneous generation ' cannot be said to have 
been seriously revived within these twenty-five years. Our greater 
knowledge of minute forms of life, and the conditions under which they 
can survive, as well as our improved microscopes and methods of 
experiment and observation, have made an end of the arguments and 
instances of supposed abiogenesis. The accounts which have been pub- 
lished of 'radiobes,' minute bodies arising in fluids of organic origin when 



president's address. 25 

radium salts have been allowed to mix in minute quantities with such 
fluids, are wanting in precision and detail, but the microscopic particles 
which appear in the circumstances described seem to be of a nature 
identical with the minute bodies well known to microscopists and recog- 
nised as crystals modified by a colloid medium. They have been described 
by Rainey, Harting, and Ord, on different occasions, many years ago. 
They are not devoid of interest, l)ut cannot be considered as having any 
new bearing on the origin of living matter. 

Psychology. — I have given a special heading to this subject because 
its emergence as a delinite line of experimental research seems to me one 
of the most important features in the progress of science in the past 
quarter of a century. Thirty-five years ago we were all delighted by 
Fechner's psycho- physical law, and at Leipzig I, with others of my day, 
studied it experimentally in the physiological laboratory of that great 
teacher, Carl Ludwig. The physiological methods of measurement 
(which are the physical ones) have been more and more widely, and with 
guiding intelligence and ingenuity, applied since those days to the study 
of the activities of the complex organs of the nervous system which are 
concerned with 'mind ' or psychic phenomena. Whilst some enthusiasts 
have been eagerly collecting ghost stories and records of human illusion 
and fancy, the serious experimental investigation of the human mind, and 
its foi'erunner the animal mind, has been quietly but steadily proceeding 
in truly scientific channels. The science is still in an early phase — that 
of the collection of accurate observations and measurements — awaiting 
the de^•elopment of great guiding hypotheses and theories. But much 
has been done, and it is a matter of gratification to Oxford men that 
through the liberality of the distinguished electrician, Mr Henry Wilde, 
F.R.S., a lectureship of Experimental Psychology has been founded in the 
University of Oxford, where the older studies of Mental and Moral 
Philosophy, Logic and Metaphysics have so strong a hold, and have so 
well prepared the ground for the new experimental development. The 
German investigators W. Wundt, G. E. Miiller, C. Stumpf, Ebbinghaus, 
and Munsterberg have been prominent in introducing laboratory methods, 
and have determined such matters as the elementary laws of association 
and memory, and the perceptions of musical tones and their relations. 
The work of Goldschneider on ' the muscular sense,' of von Frey on the 
cutaneous sensations, are further examples of what is being done. 

The difficult and extremely important line of investigation, first 
scientifically treated by Braid under the name ' Hypnotism,' has been 
greatly developed by the French school, especially by Charcot. The 
experimental investigation of ' suggestion,' and the pathology of dual con- 
sciousness and such exceptional conditions of the mind, has been greatly 
advanced by French observers. 

The older work of Ferrier and Hitzig on the functions of the parts of 
the brain has been carried further by Goltz and Munk in Germany, and 
by Schafer, Horsley, and Sherrington in England. 



20 president's addbess. 

The luost important general advance seems to be the realisation that 
the mind of the human adult is a social product ; that it can only be 
understood in relation with the special environment in which it develops, 
and with which it is in perpetual interaction. Professor Baldwin, of 
Princeton, has done important work on this subject. Closely allied is 
the study of what is called ' the psycliology of groups,' the laws of mental 
action of the individual as modified by his membership of some form of 
society. French authors have done valuable work here. 

These two developments of psychology are destined to provide the 
indispensable psychological basis for Social Science, and for the anthro- 
pological investigation of mental phenomena. 

Hereafter, the well-ascertained laws of experimental psychology will 
undoubtedly furnish the necessary scientific basis of the art of education, 
and psychology will hold the same relation to that art as physiology does 
to the art of medicine and hygiene. 

There can be little doubt, moreover, of the valuable interaction of the 
study of physical psychology and the theories of the origin of structural 
character by natural selection. The relation of the human mind to tlie 
mind of aniuials, and the gradual development of both, is a subject full of 
rich stores of new material, yielding conclusions of the highest importance, 
which has not yet been satisfactorily approached. 

I am glad to be able to give wider publicity here to some conclusions 
which I communicated to the Jubilee volume of the ' Societe de Biolosie ' 
of Paris in 1899. I there discussed the significance of the great inci-ease 
in the size of the cerebral hemispheres in recent, as compared witli Eocene 
Mammals, and in Man as compared Avith Apes, and came to the conclu- 
sion that ' the power of building up appropriate cerebral mechanism in 
response to individual experience,' or what may be called ' educability,' is 
the quality which characterises the larger cerebrum, and is that which 
has led to its selection, survival, and further increase in volume. The 
bearing of this conception upon questions of fundamental importance in 
what has been called genetic psychology is sketched as follows. 

'The character which we describe as "educability" can be trans- 
mitted ; it is a congenital character. But the reseats of education can 
not be transmitted. In each generation they have to be acquired afresh. 
With increased " educability " they ai'e moje readily acquired and a larger 
variety of them. On the other hand, the nerve-mechanisms of instinct 
are transmitted, and owe their inferiority as compared with the results 
of education to the very fact that they are not acquired by the individual 
in relation to his particular needs, but have arisen by selection of con- 
genital variation in a long series of preceding generations.' 

'To a large extent the two series of brain-mechanisms, the " instinc- 
tive "and the " individually acquired," are in opposition to one another. 
Congenital brain-mechanisms may prevent the education of the brain 
and the development of new mechanisms specially fitted to the special 
conditions of life. To the educable animal the ]e.ss tjiere is of specialised 



president's addbess. 27 

mechanism transmitted by heredity, the better. The loss of instinct is 
what permits and necessitates the education of the receptive brain.' 

' We are thus led to the view that it is liardly possible for a theory to 
be further from the truth than that expressed by George H. Lewes and 
adopted by George Romanes, namely, that instincts are due to "lapsed" 
intelligence. The fact is tliat there is no community between the 
mechanisms of instinct and the mechanisms of intelligence, and that the 
latter are later in the history of the development of the brain than the 
former, and can only develop in proportion as the former become feeble 
and defective.' ^ 

Darioini^m. — Under the title ' Darwinism ' it is convenient to desig- 
nate the various work of biologists tending to establish, develop, or 
modify Mr. Darwin's great theory of the origin of species. In looking 
back over twenty-five years it seems to me that we must say that the 
conclusions of Darwin as to the origin of species by the survival of 
selected races in the struggle for existence are more firmly established 
than ever. And this because there have been many attempts to gravely 
tamper with essential parts of the fabric as he left it, and even to sub- 
stitute conceptions for those which he endeavoured to establish, at 
variance with his conclusions. These attempts must, I think, be con- 
sidered as having failed. A great deal of valuable work has been done in 
consequence ; for honest criticism, based on observation and experiment, 
leads to further investigation, and is the legitimate and natural mode of 
increase of scientific knowledge. Amongst the attempts to seriously 
modify Darwin's doctrine may be cited that to assign a great and leading 
importance to Lamarck's theory as to the transmission by inheritance of 
newly ' acquired ' characters, due chiefly to American palaeontologists and 
to the venerated defender of such views, who has now closed his long life 
of great work, JNIr. Herbert Spencer ; that to attribute leading import- 
ance to the action of physiological congruity and incongruity in selective 
breeding, which was put forward by another able writer and naturalist 
who has now passed from among us, Dr. George Romanes ; further, the 
views of de Vries jis to discontinuity in the origin of new species, sup- 
ported by the valuable work of Mr. Bateson on discontinuous variation ; 
and lastly, the attempt to assign a great and general importance to the 
facts ascertained many years ago by the Abbe Mendel as to the cross- 
breeding of varieties and the frequent production (in regard to certain 
characters in certain cases) of pure strains rather than of breeds com- 
bining the characters of both parents. On the other hand we have the 
splendid series of observations and writings of August Weismann, who 
has, in the opinion of the majority of those who study this subject, 
rendered the Lamarckian theory of the origin and transmission of nev/ 
characters altogether untenable, and has, besides, furnished a most 

' From the Jubilee volume oC the Son. <lc Biol, of Paris, 1S00. Roprinte'l in 
jYafiire, vol. Ixi., 1900, pp. f.24, 625. 



28 president's address. 

instructive, if not tinally conclusive, theory or ujechanical schenife of the 
phenomena of Heredity in his book ' The Germ -plasm.' Professor Karl 
Pearson and the late Professor Weldon — the latter so early in life and 
so recently lost to us^iave, with the finest courage and enthusiasm in 
the face of an enormous and difiScult task, determined to bring the facts 
of variation and heredity into the solid form of statistical statement, and 
have organised, and largely advanced in, this branch of investigation, 
which they have termed ' Biometrics.' Many naturalists throughout the 
world have made it the main object of their collecting and breeding of 
insects, birds, and plants, to test Darwin's generalisations and to expand 
the work of Wallace in the same direction. A delightful fact in this 
survey is that we find Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace (who fifty years ago 
conceived the same theory as that more fully stated by Darwin) 
actively working and publishing some of the most convincing and 
valuable works on Darwinism. He is still alive and not merely well, but 
pursuing his work with vigour and ability. It was chiefly through his 
researches on insects in South America and the Malay Islands that Mr. 
Wallace was led to the Darwinian theory ; and there is no doubt that the 
study of insects, especially of butterflies, is still one of the most prolific 
fields in which new facts can be gathered in support of Darwin and new 
views on the subject tested. Prominent amongst naturalists in this line 
of research has been and is Edward Poulton of Oxford, who has handed 
on to the study of entomology throughout the woi-ld the impetus of the 
Darwinian theory. I must here also name a writer who, though unknown 
in our laboratories and museums, seems to me to have rendered very 
valuable service in later years to the testing of Darwin's doctrines and to 
the bringing of a great class of organic phenomena within the cognisance 
of those naturalists who are especially occupied with the problems of 
Variation and Heredity. I mean Dr. Archdall Reid, who has with keen 
logic made use of the immense accumulation of matei-ial which is in the 
hands of medical men, and has pointed out the urgent importance of 
increased use by Darwinian investigators of the facts as to the variation 
and heredity of that unique animal, man, unique in his abundance, his 
reproductive activity, and his power of assisting his investigator by his 
own record. There are more observations about the variation and heredity 
of man and the conditions attendant upon individual instances than with 
regard to any other animal. Medical men need only to grasp clearly the 
questions at present under discussion in order to be able to furnish with 
ease data absolutely invaluable in quantity and quality. Dr. Archdall 
Reid has in two original books full of insight and new suggestions, the 
' Present Evolution of Man ' and ' Principles of Heredity,' shown a new 
path for investigators to follow. 

The attempt to resuscitate Lamarck's views on the inheritance of 
acquired ^ characters has been met not only by the demand for the 

' I use the term ' acquired ' v/itliout prejudice in thp sense givgn to that word by 
XAm^rck hiiiiBelf . 



PjRESIDENT 8 ADDKESS. 29 

production of experimental proof that such inheritance takes place, which 
has never been produced, but on Weismann's part by a demonstration 
that the reproductive cells of organisms are developed and set aside 
from the rest of the tissues at so early a period that it is extremely 
improbable that changes brought about in those other tissues by un- 
accustomed incident forces can be communicated to the germ-cells so as 
to make their appearance in the offspring by heredity. Apart from this, 
I have drawn attention to the fact that Lamarck's first and second laws 
(as he terms them) of heredity are contradictory the one of the other, and 
therefore may be dismissed. In 1894 I wrote : — 

' Normal conditions of environment have for many thousands of 
generations moulded the individuals of a given species of organism, and 
determined as each individual developed and grew " responsive "quantities 
in its parts (characters) ; yet, as Lamarck tells us, and as we know, 
there is in every individual born a potentiality which has not been 
extinguished. Change the normal conditions of the species in the case 
of a young individual taken to-day from the site where for thousands of 
generations its ancestors have responded in a perfectly defined way to the 
normal and defined conditions of environment ; reduce the daily or the 
.seasonal amount of solar radiation to which the individual is exposed ; or 
remove the aqueous vapour from the atmosphere ; or alter the chemical 
composition of the pabulum accessible ; or force the individual to pre- 
viously unaccustomed muscular effort or to new pressures and strains ; 
and (as Lamarck bids us observe), in spite of all the long-continued 
response to the earlier normal specific conditions, the innate congenital 
potentiality shows itself. The individual under the new quantities of 
environing agencies shows new responsive quantities in those parts of its 
structure concerned, new or acquired characters. 

'So far, so good. What Lamarck next asks us to accept, as his 
" second law," seems not only to lack the support of experimental proof, 
but to be inconsistent with what has just preceded it. The new character 
which is ex hypothesi, as was the old character (length, breadth, weight of 
a part) which it has replaced — a response to environment, a particular 
moulding or manipulation by incident forces of the potential congenital 
quality of the race — is, according to Lamarck, all of a sudden raised to 
extraordinary powers. The new or freshly acquired character is declared 
by Lamarck and his adherents to be capable of transmission by genera- 
tion ; that is to say, it alters the potential character of the species. It is 
no longer a merely responsive or reactive character, determined quantita- 
tively by quantitative conditions of the environment, but becomes fixed 
and incorporated in the potential of the race, so as to persist when other 
quantitative external conditions are substituted for those which originally 
determined it. In opposition to Lamarck, one jnust urge, in the first 
place, that this thing has never been shown experimentally to occur ; and 
in the second place, that there is no ground for holding its occuri-ence to 
be probable, but, on the contrary, strong reason for holding it to be 



30 president's address, 

improbable. Siucc Llio old character (length, breadth, weight) had not 
become fixed and congenital after many thousands of successive genera- 
tions of individuals had developed it in response to environment, but gave 
place to a new character when new conditions operated on an individual 
(Lamarck's first law), why should we suppose that the new character is 
likely to become fixed after a much shorter time of responsive existence, 
or to escape the operation of the first law 1 Clearly there is no reason 
(so far as Lamarck's statement goes) for any such supposition, and the 
two so-called laws of Lamarck are at variance with one another.' 

In its most condensed form my argument has been stated thus by 
Professor Poulton : Lamarck's ' first law assumes that a past history of 
indefinite duration is powerless to create a bias by which the present can 
be controlled ; while the second assumes that the brief history of the 
present can readily raise a bias to control the future.' ^ 

An important light is thrown on some facts which seem at first sight 
to favour the Lamarckian hypothesis by the consideration that, thougli 
an 'acquired' character is not transmitted to offspring as the consequence 
of the action of external agencies determining the ' acquirement,' yet tlio 
tendency to react exhibited by tlie parent is transmitted, and if the 
tendency is exceptionally great a false suggestion of a Lamarckian in- 
heritance can readily result. This inheritance of ' variation in tendencies 
to react ' has a wide application, and has led me to coin the word ' educa- 
bility ' as mentioned in the section of this address on Psychology. 

The principle of physiological selection advocated by Dr. Romanes 
does not seem to have caused much discussion, and has been unduly 
neglected by subsequent writers. It was ingenious, and was l)ased on 
some interesting observations, but has failed to gain support. 

The observations of de Vries — showing that in cultivated varieties of 
plants a new form will sometimes assert itself suddenly and attain a 
certain period of dominance, though not having been gradually brought 
into existence by a slow process of selection — have been considered by 
him, and by a good many other naturalists, as indicating the way in 
which new species arise in Nature. Tlio siii;gestion is a valuable one 
if not very novel, but a great deal of observation will have to be made 
before it can be admitted as really having a wide bearing upon the origin 
of species. The same is true of those interesting observations which 
were first made by Mendel, and have been resuscitated and extended with 
great labour and ingenuity by recent workers, especially in this country 
by Bateson and his pupils. If it should prove to be true that varieties 
when crossed do not, in the course of eventual inter-breeding, produce 
intermediate forms as hybrids, but that characters are either dominant or 
recessive, and that breeds result having pure unmixed characters — we 
should, in proportion as the Mendelian law is shown to apply to all 
tissues and organs and to a majority of organism?, have liefore us a 

« iNWi/rc, vol. li., 1SP4, p. 127. 



president's address. 31 

very important aucl deteruiiaiug principle in all that relates to heiedity 
and variation. It remains, however, to be shown how far the Mendelian 
phenomenon is general. And it is, of course, admitted on all sides that, 
even were the Mendelian phenomenon general and raised to the ranlc of a 
law of heredity, it would not be subversive of Mr. Darwin's generalisations, 
but probably tend to the more ready application of them to the explana- 
tion of many difficult cases of the structure and distribution of organisms. 

Two general principles which Mr. Darwin fully recognised appear to 
me to deserve more consideration and more general application to the 
history of species than he had time to give to them, or than his followers 
have accorded to them. The first is the great principle of ' correlation of 
variation,' from which it follows that, whilst natural selection may be 
favouring some small and obscure change in an unseen group of cells — 
such as digestive, pigmentary or nervous cells, and that change a change 
of selective value — there may be, indeed often is, as we know, a correlated 
or accompanying change in a physiologically related part of far greater 
magnitude and prominence to the eye of the human onlooker. This 
accompanying or correlated character has no selective value, is not au 
adaptation — is, in fact, a necessary but useless by-product. A list of a 
few cases of this kind was given by Darwin, but it is most desirable that 
more should be established. For they enable us to understand hov/ it is 
that specific characters, those seen and noted on the surface by systema- 
tists, are not in most cases adaptations of selective value. They also open 
a wide vista of incipient and useless developments which may suddenly, 
in their turn, be seized upon by ever-watchful natural selection and raised 
to a high pitch of growth and function. 

The second, somewhat but by no means altogether neglected, principle 
is that a good deal of the important variation in both plants and animals 
is not the variation of a minute part or confined to one organ, but has 
really an inner physiological basis, and may be a variation of a whole 
organic system or of a whole tissue expressing itself at several points and 
in several shapes. In fact, we should perhaps more generally conceive 
of variation as not so much the accomplishment and presentation of 
one little mark or difierence in weight, length, or colour, as the 
expression of a tendency to vary in a given tissue or organ in a particular 
Avay. Thus we are prepared for the rapid extension and dominance of 
the variation if once it is favoured by selective breeding. It seems to 
me that such cases as the complete disappearance of scales from the integu- 
ment of some osseous fishes, or the possible retention of three or four scales 
out of some hundreds present in nearly allied forms, favour this mode of 
conceiving of variation. So also does the marked tendency to produce 
membranous expansions of the integument in the bats, not only between 
the digits and from the axilla, but from the ears and diSerent regions of the 
face. Of course, the alternative hairy or smooth condition of the integu- 
ments both in plants and animals is a familiar instance in which 
a tendency extending over a large area is recognised as that which 



32 president's address. 

constitutes the variation. In smooth oi' hairy varieties We do hot postulate 
an individual development of hairs subjected one by one to selection and 
survival or repression. 

Disease. — The study of the physiology of unhealthy, injured, or 
diseased organisms is called pathology. It necessarily has an immense 
area of observation and is of transcending interest to mankind who do 
not accept their diseases unresistingly and die as animals do, so purifying 
their race, but incessantly combat and fight disease, producing new and 
terrible forms of it, by their wilful interference with the earlier rule of 
Nature. 

Our knowledge of disease has been enormously advanced in the last 
quarter of a century, and in <an important degree our power of arresting 
it, by two great lines of study going on side by side and originated, not 
by medical men nor physiologists in the narrow technical sense, but 
by naturalists, a botanist, and a zoologist. Ferdinand Cohn, Professor of 
Botany in Breslau, by his own researches and by personal training in his 
laboratory, gave to Robert Koch the start on his distinguished career 
as a bacteriologist. It is to Metschnikoff the zoologist and embryologist 
that we owe the doctrine of phagocytosis and the consequent theory of 
immunity now so widely accepted. 

We must not forget that in this same period much of the immortal work 

of Pasteur on hydrophobia, of Behring and Jloux on diphtheria, and 

of Ehrlich and many others to whom the eternal gratitude of mankind is 

due, has been going on. It is only some fifteen years since Calmette 

showed that if cobra poison were introduced into the blood of a horse in 

less quantity than would cause death, the horse would tolerate with little 

disturbance after ten days a full dose, and then day after day an 

increasing dose, until the horse without any inconvenience received an 

injection of cobra poison large enough to kill thirty horses of its size. 

Some of the horse's blood being now withdrawn was found to contain a 

very active antidote to cobra poison — what is called an antitoxin. The 

procedure and preparation of the antitoxin is practically the same as 

that previously adopted by Behring in the preparation of the antitoxin 

of diphtheria poison. Animals treated with injections of these antitoxins 

are immune to the poison itself when subsequently injected with it, or, 

if already suffering from the poison (as, for instance, by snake-bite), are 

readily shown by experiment to be rapidly cured by the injection of the 

appropriate antitoxin. This is, as all will admit, an intensely interesting 

bit of biology. The explanation of the formation of the antitoxin in the 

blood and its mode of antagonising the poison is not easy. It seems that 

the antitoxin is undoubtedly formed from the corresponding toxin or 

poison, and that the antagonism can be best understood as a chemical 

■ reaction by which the complex molecule of the poison is upset, or effectively 

modified. 

The remarkable development of Metschnikoff's doctrine of phago- 
cytosis during the past quarter of a century is certainly one of the 



president's ADDRESS; S^ 

characteristic features of the a-jtivity of biological science in that period. 
At first ridiculed as ' Metschnikoffisni,' it has now won the support of its 
former adversaries. 

For a long time the ideal of hygienists has been to preserve man from 
all contact with the germs of infection, to destroy them and destroy the 
animals conveying them, such as rats, mosquitoes and other flies. But it 
has now been borne in upon us that, useful as such attempts are, and 
great as is the improvement in human conditions which can thus be 
effected, yet we cannot hope for any really complete or satibfactory 
realisation of the ideal of escape from contact with infective germs. 
The task is beyond human powers. The conviction has now been arrived 
at that, whilst we must take every precaution to diminish infection, yet 
our ultimate safety must come from within— namely, from the activity, 
the trained, stimulated, and carefully guai'ded activity, of those wonder- 
ful colourless amoeba-like corpuscles whose use was so long unrecognised, 
but has now been made clear by the patiently continued experiments 
and arguments of Metschnikoff, who has named them ' phagocytes.' 
The doctrine of the activity and immense importance of these corpuscles 
of the living body which form part of the all-pervading connective 
tissues and float also in the blood, is in its nature and inception opposed 
to what are called the ' humoral ' and ' vitalistic ' theories of resistance 
to infection. Of this kind were the beliefs that the liquids of the living 
body have an inherent and somewhat vague power of resisting infective 
germs, and even that the mere living quality of the tissues was in some 
unknown way antagonistic to foreign intrusive disease-germs. 

The first eighteen years of Metschnikoff's career, after his under- 
graduate course, were devoted to zoological and embryological investiga- 
tions. He discovered many important facts, such as the alternation of 
generations in the parasitic worm of the frog's \\ing—Ascaris nigrovenosa — 
and the history of the growth from the egg of sponges and medusa?. In 
these latter researches he came into contact with the wonderfully active 
cells, or living corpuscles, which in many low forms of life can be seen by 
transparency in the living animal. He saw that these corpuscles (as was 
indeed already known) resemble the well-known amoeba, and can take 
into their soft substance (pi'otoplasm) at all parts of their surface any 
minute particles and digest them, thus destroying them. In a trans- 
parent water-flea Metschnikoflf saw these amoeba-like, colourless, floating 
blood-corpuscles swallowing and digesting the spores of a parasitic fungus 
which had attacked the water-fleas and was causing their death. He 
came to the conclusion that this is the chief, if not the whole, value of 
these corpuscles in higher as well as lower animai.-,, in all of which they 
are very abundant. It was known that when a wound bringing in 
foreign matter is inflicted on a vertebrate animal the blood-vessels become 
gorged in the neighbourhood and the colourless corpuscles escape through 
the walls of the vessels in crowds. Their business in so doing, Metschnikoff - 

showed,istoeatuptheforeign matter, and also to eat up and rornove the dead, 
190G. D 



31' president's adddess, 

wounded tissue. He therefore called these v/hite or colourless corpuscles 
'phagocytes,' the eater-cells, and in his beautiful book on Inflammation, 
published twenty years ago, proved the extreme importance of their 
activity. At the same time he had shown that they eat up intrusive 
bacteria and other germs ; and his work for the last twenty years has 
mainly consisted in demonstrating that they are the chief, and probably 
the only, agents at work in either ridding the human body of an attack 
of disease-causing germs or in warding off even the commencement of an 
attack, so that the man or animal in which they are fully efficient is 
' immune ' — that is to say, cannot be eiFectively attacked by disease-germs. 
Disease-germs, bacteria, or protozoa produce poisons which sometimes 
are too much for the phagocytes, poisoning them and so getting the upper 
hand. But, as Metschnikoff showed, the training of the phagocytes by 
weak doses of the poison of the disease-germ, or by weakened cultures of 
the disease-germ itself, brings about a power of resistance in the phagocytes 
to the germ's poison, and thus makes them capable of attacking the germs 
and keeping them at bay. Hence the value of inoculations. 

The discussion and experiments arising from Metschnikoff's demon- 
strations have led to the discovery of the production by the phagocytes 
of certain exudations from their substance which have a most important 
efifect in weakening the resistance of the intrusive bacteria and rendering 
them easy prey for the phagocyte. These are called ' sensitisers,' and 
have been largely studied. They may be introduced artificially into the 
blood and tissues so as to facilitate the work of the phagocytes, and no 
doubt it is a valuable remedial measure to make use of such sensitisers as 
a treatment. Dr. Wright considers that such sensitisers are formed in 
the blood and ti.ssues independently of the phagocytes, and has called 
them ' opsonins,' under which name he has made most valuable application 
of the method of injecting them into the body so as to facilitate the work 
of the phagocytes in devouring the hostile bacteria of various diseases. 
Each kind of disease-producing microbe has its own sensitiser or opsonin ; 
hence there has been much careful research and experiment required in 
order to bring the discovery to practical use, Metschnikoff himself holds 
and quotes experiments to show that the ' opsonins ' are actually produced 
by the phagocytes themselves. That this should be so is in accordance 
with some striking zoological facts, as I pointed out nearly twenty years 
ago. For the lowest multicellular animals provided with a digestive sac 
or gut, such as the polyps, have that sac lined by digestive cells which 
have the same arareboid character as ' phagocytes,' and actually digest to 
a large extent by swallowing or taking into their individual protopla,sm 
raw particles of food. Such particles are enclosed in a temporary cavity, 
or vacuole, into which the cell-protoplasm secretes digestive ferment and 
other chemical agents. Now there is no doubt that such digestive 
vacuoles may burst and so pour out into the polyp's stomach a digestive 
juice which v/ill act on food particles outside the substance of the cells, 
and thus by the substitution of this process of outpouring of the secretion 



president's address. 35 

for that of ingestion of food particles into the cells we get the usuiil form 
of digestion by juices secreted into a digestive cavity. Now this being 
certainly the case in regard to the history of the original phagocytes 
lining the polyp's gut, it does not seem at all unlikely, but on the con- 
trary in a higher degree probable, that the phagocytes of the blood and 
tissues should behave in the same way and pour out sensitisers and opso- 
nins to paralyse and prepare their bacterial food. And the experiments 
of Metschnikoff's pupils and followers show that this is undoubtedly the 
case. Whether there is any great variety of and difference between 
' sensitisers ' and ' opsonins ' is a matter which is still the subject of 
active experiment. Metschnikoff's conclusion, as recently stated in 
regard to the whole progress of this subject, is that the phagocytes 
in our bodies should be stimulated in their activity in order successfully 
to fight the germs of infection. Alcohol, opium, and even quinine, hinder 
the phagocytic action ; they should therefore be entirely eschewed or 
used only with great caution whei-e their other and valuable properties 
are urgently needed. It appears that the injection of blood-serum into 
the tissues of animals causes an increase in the number and activity of tlio 
phagocytes, and thus an increase in their resistance towards pathogenic 
germs. Thus Durham (who was a pioneer in his observations on the 
curious phenomena of the 'agglutination' of blood corpuscles in relation 
to disease) was led to suggest the injection of sera during surgical 
operations, and experiments recently quoted by Metschnikoff seem to 
show that the suggestion was well founded. Both German and French 
surgeons have employed the method with successful results, and the 
demonstration that an immense number of microbes are thus taken up 
and destroyed by the multiplication (due to their regular increase by 
cell-division) of the phagocytes of the injected patient. After years of 
opposition bravely met in the pure scientific spirit of renewed experiment 
and demonstration, Metschnikoff is at last able to say that the foundation- 
stone of the hygiene of the tissues — the thesis that our phagocytes are 
our arms of defence against infective germs — has been generally accepted. 

Another feature of the progress of our knowledge of disease— as a 
scientific problem — is the recent recognition that minute animal parasites 
of that low degree of unicellular structure to which the name ' Protozoa ' is 
given, are the causes of serious and ravaging diseases, and that the 
minute algoid plants, the bacteria, are not alone in possession of tliis field 
of activity. It was Laveran — a French medical man — who, just about 
twenty-five years ago, discovered the minute animal organism in the red 
blood-corpuscles, which is tlie cause of malaria. Year by year ever since 
our knowledge of this terrible little parasite has increased. We now 
know many similar to, but not identical with it, living in the blood of 
birds, reptiles, and frogs. 

It is the groat merit of Major Ross, formerly of the Indian Army 
Medical Staff, to have discovered, by most patient and persevering 
experiment, that the malaria parasite passes a part of its life in the spot- 

D2 



■i^ president's address. 

winged gnat or mosquito {Anopheles), not, as lie had at first bupposed, ill 
the common gnat or mosquito (Culex), and that if we can get rid of spot- 
winged mosquitoes or avoid their attentions, or even only prevent them from 
sucking the blood of malarial patients, we can lessen, or even abolish, malaria. 
This great discovery was followed by another as to the production 
of the deadly ' Nagana " horse and cattle disease in South Africa by a 
screw-like, minute animal parasite, the Trypanosoma Brucei. The 
Tsetze fly, which was already known in some way to produce this 
disease, was found by Colonel David Bruce to do so by conveying by its 
bite the Trypanosoma from wild big-game animals, to the domesticated 
horses and cattle of the colonists. The discovery of the parasite and its 
relation to the fly and the disease was as beautiful a piece of scientific 
investigation as biologists have ever seen. A curious and very important 
fact was discovered by Bruce— namely, that the native big game (zebras, 
antelopes, and probably buffaloes), are tolerant of the parasite. The 
Trypanosoma grows and multiplies in their blood, but does not kill them 
or even injure them. It is only the unaccustomed introduced animals from 
Europe which are poisoned by the chemical excreta of the Trypanosomes 
and die in consequence. Hence the wild creatures — brought into a con- 
dition of tolerance by natural selection and the dying out of those susceptible 
to the poison — form a sort of ' reservoir ' of deadly Trypanosomes for the 
Tsetze flies to carry into the blood of new-comers. The same phenomenon 
of 'reservoir-hosts' (as I have elsewhere called them) has since been 
observed in the case of malaria ; the children of the native blacks in 
Africa and in other malarious regions are tolerant of the malarial 
parasite, as many as 80 per cent, of children under ten being found to be 
infected, and yet not suffering from the poison. This is not the same 
thing as the immunity which consists in repulsion or destruction of the 
parasite. 

The Trypanosomes have acquired a terrible notoriety within the last 
four years, since another species, also carriefl by a Tsetze fly of another 
species, has been discovered by Castellani in cases of sleeping sickness in 
Uganda, and demonstrated by Colonel Bruce to be the cause of that awful 
disease. Over 200,000 natives of Uganda have died from it within the 
last five years. It is incurable, and, sad to relate, not only a certain number 
of European employes have succumbed to it in tropical Africa, but a brave 
young officer of the Army Medical Corps, Lieutenant TuUoch, has died 
from the disease acquired by him in the course of an investigation of this 
disease and its possible cure, which lie was carrying out, in association 
with other men of science, on the Victoria Nyanza Lake in Central 
Africa. Lieutenant TuUoch was sent out to this investigation by the 
Royal Society of London, and I will venture to ask you to join that 
body in sympathy for his friends, and admiration for him and the other 
fourageous men who risk their lives in the endeavour to arrest disease. 

Trypanosomes are now being recognised in the most diverse regions 
of the world as the cause of disease — new horse diseases in South America, 



president's address. |7 

in North Africa, in the Philippines and East India are all traced to 
peculiar species of Trypan osouie. Other allied forms are responsible for 
Delhi-sore, and certain peculiar Indian fevers of man. A peculiar and 
idtra-minute parasite of the blood cells causes Texas fever, and various 
African fevers deadly to cattle. In all these cases, as also in that of 
plague, the knowledge of the carrier of the disease, often a tick or acarid 
— in that of plague the ilea of the rat — is extremely important, as well as 
the knowledge of reservoir-hosts when such exist. 

The zoologist thus comes into closer touch than ever v/ith the pro- 
fession of medicine, and the time has arrived when the professional 
students of disease fully admit that they must bring to their great and 
hopeful task of abolishing the diseases of man the fullest aid from every 
branch of biological science. I need not say how great is the content- 
ment of those who have long worked at apparently useless branches of 
science, in the belief that all knowledge is good, to lind that the science 
they have cultivated has become suddenly and urgently of the highest 
practical ^■alue. 

I have not time to do more than mention here the effort that is beinjr 
made by combined international research and co-operation to push further 
in our knowledge of phthisis and of cancer, with a view to their destruc- 
tion. It is only since our last meeting at York that the parasite of 
Phthisis or Tubercle has been made known ; we may hope that it will not 
be long before we have similar knowledge as to Cancer. Only eighteen 
months have elapsed since Fritz Schaudinn discovered the long-sought 
parasitic germ of Syphilis, the Spirocheta pallida. As I write these 
words the sad news of Schaudinn's death at the age of thirty-five comes 
to me from his family at Hamburg — an irreparable loss. 

Let me finally state, in relation to this study of disease, what is the 
simple fact — namely, that if the people of Britain wish to make an end of 
infective and other diseases they must take every possible means to dis- 
cover capable investigators, and employ them for this purpose. To do 
this, far more money is required than is at present spent in that direction. 
It is necessary, if we are to do our utmost, to spend a thousand pounds of 
public money on this task where we now spend one pound. It would be 
reasonable and wise to expend ten million pounds a year of our revenues 
on the investigation and attempt to destroy disease. Actually, what is 
so spent is a mere nothing, a few thousands a year. Meanwhile our 
people are dying by thousands of preventable disease. 

II. The Advancement of Science as Measured by the Support given 
TO it by Public Funds, and the Respect accorded to Scientific 
"Work by tbe British Government and the Community at Large. 

Whilst I have been able, though in a very fragmentary and incomplete 
way, to indicate the satisfactory and, indeed, the wonderful progress of 
science since this Association last met in York, so far as the making of 



38 president's address, 

new knowledge is concerned, I am sorry to say that there is liy no 
means a corresponding ' advancement ' of Science in that signification of 
the word which imphes the increase of the influence of science in the life 
of the community, the increase of the support given to it, and of the 
desire to aid in its progress, to discover and then to encourage and reward 
those who are specially fitted to increase scientific knowledge, and to 
])ring it to bear so as to promote the welfare of the community. I am 
speaking on a privileged occasion to a body of men who are met together 
for the Advancement of Science, and I claim the right to say to them, 
without offence to the representatives of institutions which I criticise, 
what is in my mind. 

It is, unfortunately, true that the successive political administrators 
of the affairs of this country, as well as the permanent officials, are 
altogether unaware to-day, as they were twenty-five years ago, of the 
vital importance of that knowledge which we call science, and of the 
urgent need for making use of it in a variety of public affairs. Whole 
departments of Government in which scientific knowledge is the one 
thing needful are carried on by ministers, permanent secretaries, assistant 
secretaries, and clerks who are wholly ignorant of science, and natui'ally 
enough dislike it since it cannot be used by them, and is in many 
instances the condemnation of their official employment. Such officials 
are, of course, not to be blamed, but rather the general indifference of 
the public to the unreasonable way in which its interests are neglected. 

A difficult feature in treating of this su})ject is that when one mentions 
the fact that ministers of State and the officials of the public service are 
not acquainted with science, and do not even profess to understand its 
results or their importance, one's statement of this very obvious and 
notorious fact is apt to be regarded as a personal offence. It is difficult 
to see wherein the offence lies, for no one seeks to blame these officials for 
a condition of things which is traditional and frankly admitted. 

This is really a very serious matter for the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science to consider and deal with. We repi'esent a line 
of activity, a group of professions which ai'e in our opinion of vital impor- 
tance to the well-being of the nation. We know that those interests 
which we value so highly are not merely ignored and neglected, but are 
actually treated as of no account or as non-existent by the old-established 
class of politicians and administratoi's. It is not too much to say that 
there is a natural fear and dislike of scientific knowledge on the part of a 
large proportion of the persons who are devoid of it, and wlio would 
cease to hold, or never have held, the positions of authority or emolument 
which they now occupy, were scientific knowledge of the matters with 
which they undertake to deal required of them. This is a thorny subject, 
and one in which, however much one may endeavour to speak in general 
terms, it is difficult to avoid causing personal annoyance. Yet it seems 
to me one which, believing as I do that it is of most urgent importance, 
it is my duty as youi' President to press upon the attention of the 



president's address, 39 

members of the British Association. Probably an inquiry into and dis- 
cussion of the neglect of science and the questionable treatment of 
scientific men by the administrative departments of Government, would 
be more appropriate to a committee appointed by the Council of the 
Association for this purpose than to the Presidential Address. 

At the same time, I think the present occasion is one on which atten- 
tion should be drawn in general terms to the fact that science is not 
gaining ' advancement ' in public and official consideration and support. 
The reason is, I think, to be found in the defective education, both at 
school and university, of our governing class, as well as in a racial dislike 
among all classes to the establishment and support by public funds of 
posts which the average man may not expect to succeed by popular 
clamour or class privilege in gaining for himself — posts which must be held 
by men of special training and mental gifts. Whatever the reason for the 
neglect, the only remedy which we can possibly apply is that of improved 
education for the upper classes, and the continued effort to spread a 
knowledge of the results of science and a love for it amongst all members 
of the community. If members of the British Association took this 
matter seriously to heart they might do a great deal by insisting that 
their sons, and their daughters too, should have reasonable instruction in 
science both at school and college. They could, by their own initiative 
and example, do a good deal to put an end to the trifling with classical 
literature and the absorption in athletics which is considered by too 
many schoolmasters as that which the British parent desires as the edu- 
cation of his children. 

Within the past year a letter has been published by a well-known 
nobleman, who is one of the Trustees of the British Museum, holding up to 
public condemnation the method in which the system laid down by the 
officials of the Treasury and sanctioned by successive Governments, as to 
the remuneration of scientific men, was applied in an individual case. I 
desire to place on record here the Earl of Crawford's letter to the 
'Times ' of October 31, 1905, for the careful consideration of the members 
of the British Association and their friends. When such things are done, 
science cannot be said to have advanced much in public consideration or 
Governmental support. 

To tlie Editor of the ' Timeg: 

Sir, — The death, noted by you to-day, of my dear friend and colleague Dr. 
Copeland, His Majesty's Astronomer for Scotland, creates a vacancy in the scientific 
staif of Great Britain. 

Will you permit me, Sir, to offer a word of warning to any who may be asked to 
succeed him ? 

Students or masters of astronomy are not, in the selfish sense, business men, nor 
are they as a general rule overburdened with this world's goods. It behoves them 
henceforth to take more care as to their future in case of illness or physical infirmity, 
and not to trust to the gratitude or generous impulse of the Treasury Department. 

In old days it was the custom when a man distinguished in science was brought 
into a high position in the f'ivil Service that he was credited with a certain number 



40 president's address. 

of years' service ranking ior pension. Tbis practice has been done away wiih; and 
a bargain system substituted. A short while ago the growing agonies of heart 
disease caused Dr. Copeland to feel that he was less able to carry on the duties of 
his post, and he determined to resign ; but he learnt that nder the scale, and in the 
absence of any special bargain, the pension he would receive would not suffice for the 
necessities of life. The only increase his friends could get from the Treasury was 
an offer to allow him about half-a-crown a week extra by way of a house. 

Indignant and ashamed of my Government, I jjersuaded Dr, Copeland to with- 
flraw his resignation and to retain the official position wliich he has honoured till his 
death. 

1 trust, Sir, that this memorandum of mine may cause eminent men of science 
•who are asked to enter the service of the State when already of middle age to take 
heed for their future welfare. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

Ckawfoud. 

2 Cavendish Square, October 28. 

It is more agreeable to uie not to dwell further on the comparative 
failure of science to gain increased influence and support in this country, 
but to mention to you some instances on the other side of the account. 
As long ago as 1842 the British Association took over and developed an 
observatory in the Deer Park at Kew, which was placed at the disposal 
of the Association by Her Majesty the Queen. Until 1871 the Associa- 
tion spent annually a large part of its income — as much in later years as 
GOOl. a year in carrying on the work of the Kew Observatory, consisting 
of magnetic, meteorological, and physical observations. In 1871 the 
Association handed over the Observatory to the Royal Society, whicJi 
had received an endowment of 10,000Z. from Mr. Gassiot for its main- 
tenance, and had further devoted to that purpose considerable sums from 
its own Donation Fund and Government Grant. Further aid for it 
was also received from private sources. From this Observatory at last 
has sprung, in the beginning of the present century, the National Physical 
Laboratory in Bushey Park, a fine and efficient scientific institution, built 
and supported by grants from the State, and managed by a committee 
of really devoted men of science who are largely representatives of the 
Royal Society. In addition to the value of the site and buildings occupied 
by the National Physical Laboratory, the Government has contributed 
altogether 34,00OZ. to the capital expenditure on new buildings, fittings, 
and apparatus, and has further assigned a grant of 6,000^. a year to the 
working of the laboratory. This institution all men of science are truly 
glad to have gained from the State, and they will remember with 
gratitude the statesmen — the late Marquis of Salisbury, the Right Hon. 
Arthur J. Balfour, Mr. Haldane, and others — as well as their own leaders — 
Lord Rayleigh, Sir William Huggins, and the active body of physicists in 
the Royal Society who have carried this enterprise to completion. The 
British Association has every reason to be proud of its share in early 
days in nursing the germ at Kew which has at length expanded into 
this splendid national institution. 

I may mention also another institution which, during the past quarter 



president's address. 41 

of a century, has come into existence and received, originally through the 
influence of the late Lord Playfair (one of the few men of science who has 
ever occupied the position of Minister of a the Crown), and later by the 
influence of the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, a subsidy of 1,000?. a 
year from the Government and a contribution of 5,000?. towards its initial 
expenses. This is the Marine Biological Association, which has a laboratory 
at Plymouth, and has lately expended a special annual grant, at the spon- 
taneous invitation of His Majesty's Treasury, in conducting an investi- 
gation of the North Sea in accordance with an international scheme 
devised by a central committee of scientific experts. This scheme has 
for its purpose the gaining such knowledge of the North Sea and its 
inhabitants as shall be useful in dealing practically and by legislation with 
the great fisheries of that area. You will, perhaps, not be surprised to 
hear that there are persons in high positioias who, though admittedly un- 
acquainted with the scientific questions at issue or the proper manner of 
solving them, are discontented with the action of the Government in 
entrusting the expenditure of public money to a body of scientific men 
who give their services, without reward or thanks, to carrying out the 
purposes of the international inquiry. Strange criticisms are oflfered by 
these malcontents in regard to the work done in the international 
exploration of the North Sea, and a desire is expressed to secure the 
money for expenditure by a less scientific agency. I do not hesitate to 
say here that the results obtained by the Marine Biological Association 
are of great value and interest, and, if properly continued and put to 
practical application, are likely to benefit very greatly the fishery 
industry ; on the other hand, if the work is cut short or entrusted to 
incompetent hands it will no doubt be the case that what has already 
been done will lose its value — that is to say, will have been wasted. There is 
imminent clanger of this perversion of the funds assigned to this scientific 
investigation taking place. There is no guarantee for the continuance of 
any funds or offices assigned to science in one generation by the officials of 
the next. The Mastership of the Mint held by Isaac Newton, and finally 
by Thomas Graham, has been abolished and its salary appropriated by 
non-scientific officials. Only a few years ago it was with great difficulty 
that the Government of the day was prevented from assigning the Director- 
ship of Kew Gardens to a young man of influence devoid of all knowledge 
of botany ! 

One of the most solid tests of the esteem and value attached to scien- 
tific progress by the community is the dedication of large sums of money 
to scientific purposes by its wealthier members. We know that in the 
United States such gifts are not infrequent ; they are rare in this country. 
It is, therefore, with especial pleasure that I call your attention to a 
great gift to science in this country made only a few years ago. Lord 
Iveagh has endowed the Lister Institute, for researches in connection with 
the prevention of disease, with no less a sum than a quarter of a million 
pounds sterling. This is the largest gift ever made to science in this 



42 president's address. 

country, and will be proclucfcive of great benefit to humanity. The Lister 
Institute took its origin in the surplus of a fund raised by Sir James 
Whitehead when Lord Mayor, some sixteen years ago, for the purpose of 
making a gift to the Pasteur Institute in Paris, where many English 
patients had been treated without charge, after being bitten by rabid 
dogs. Three thousand pounds was sent to M. Pasteur, and the surplus of 
a few hundred pounds was made the starting-point of a fund which grew, 
by one generous gift and another, until the Lister Institute on the 
Thames Embankment at Chelsea was set up on a site presented by that 
good and high-minded man, the late Duke of Westminster. 

Many other noble gifts to scientific research have been made in this 
country during the period on which we are looking back. Let us be 
thankful for them, and admire the wise munificence of the donors. But 
none the less we must refuse to rely entirely on such liberality for the 
development of the army of science, which has to do battle for mankind 
against the obvious disabilities and sufferings which afflict us and can be 
removed by knowledge. The organisation and finance of this army should 
be the care of the State. 

It is a fact which many of us who have observed it regret very keenly, 
that there is to-day a less widespread interest than formerly in natural 
history and general science, outside the strictly professional arena of the 
school and university. The field naturalists among the squires and the 
country parsons seem nowadays not to be so numerous and active in their 
delightful pursuits as formerly, and the Mechanics' Institutes and Lecture 
Societies of the days of Lord Brougham have given place, to a very large 
extent, to musical performances, bioscopes, and other entertainments, 
more diverting, but not really more capable of giving pleasure than those 
in which science was popularised. No doubt the organisation and pro- 
fessional character of scientific work are to a large extent the cause of this 
falling-off" in its attraction for amateurs. But perhaps that decadence is 
also due in some measure to the increased general demand for a kind of 
manufactured gaiety, readily sent out in these days of easy transport from 
the great centres of fashionable amusement to the provinces and rural 
districts. 

In conclusion, I would say a word in reference to the associations of 
our place of meeting, the birthplace of our Association. It seems to me not 
inappropriate that an Association for the Advancement of Science should 
have taken its origin under the walls of York Minster, and that the clergy 
of the great cathedral should have stood by its cradle. It is not true that 
there is an essential antagonism between the scientific spirit and what is 
called the religious sentiment. ' Religion,' said Bishop Creighton, ' means 
the knowledge of our destiny and of the means of fulfilling it.' We 
can say no more and no less of Science. Men of Science seek, in all 
reverence, to discover the Almighty, the Everlasting. They claim sympathy 
and friendship with those who, like themselves, have turned away from the 
more material struggles of human life, and have set their hearts and minds 
on the knowledge of the Eternal. 



EEPOKTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



REPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Mr. W. Whitaker (Chcdrmwt), Mr. F. W. Rudler 
(Secretary), Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Dr. Horace T. Brown, Dr. 
Vaughan Cornish, Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. HorKiNsox, Professor R. Meldola, 
Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. Read, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbino, 
Professor W. W. Watts, and the General Officers. (Drawti 
up hy the Secretary.) 

With the view of carrying into effect the new regulation whereby many 
o£ the smaller local Societies which exist in this country for the encourage- 
ment of the study of science may, under certain circumstances, become 
Associated Societies, a circular was drawn up and addressed in the earlv 
part of the year to a number of such bodies. It was found with satis- 
faction that some had undertaken and published original scientific work, 
and were consequently entitled to Affiliation. The following Societies are 
recommended, from the character of their published work, to be phxced 
on the list of Affiliated Societies : — ■ 

British Mycological Society. Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. 

ICdinburgh Field Naturalists' .ind Vale of Derwent Naturalists' Field 

Microscopical Society. C'lnb. 

Liverpool Biological Society. 

It is also recommended that the following bo placed on tho list of 
Associated Societies : — 

Bakewell Naturalists' Club. Ealing Scientitic and Micrcscopical 

Balhani and District Antiquarian and Society. 

Natural History Society. Grimsby nnd District Antiquarian and 

Barrow Naturalists' Field Club and Naturalists' Society. 

Literary and Scientific Association. Hampstead Scientific Society. 

Battersea Field Club. Hastings and St. Leonards Natural 

Bradford Natural History and Micro- History Society. 

scopical Society. Ipswich and District Field Club. 

Catford and District Natural Hi.story Lancashire and Cheshire Entonlolo- 

Society, gical Society. 

Dover Sciences Society, Lewisham Antiquarian Society. 

Dunfermline Naturalists' Society. Liverpool Microscopical Society. 



46 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SClEx\CE. 



LiveriJOol Scieuce Students' Afsocia- 
tion. 

London: City of London Entomolo- 
gical and Natural History Society. 

London : North Loudon Natural His- 
tory Society. 

London : Soutli London Entomological 
and Natural History Society. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne Literary and 
Philosophical Society. 



Penzance Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society. 

Preston Scientific Society. 

Scottish Microscopical Society. 

Southport Society of Natural Sciences. 

Teign Naturalists' Field Club. 

Torquay Natural History Society. 

Tunbridge Wells Natural History and 
Philosophical Society. 

Warrington Field Club. 

Watford Camera Club. 



It is further recommended that the following Societies, which had been 
struck off the list of Corresponding Societies through temporary non- 
compliance with the rules, be now reinstated as Affiliated Societies ; — 



Brighton and Hove Natural History 

Society. 
Dumfries-shire and Galloway Natural 
History and Antiquarian Society. 



Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society. 



Much considei'ation has been given by the Committee to the subject 
of railway-fares, in order to ascertain whether any steps could be taken 
to secure reduced rates under certain circumstances for members of the 
Corresponding Societies. Considering, however, the number of railway- 
companies which would have to be approached and the diversity of local 
arrangements, it has been felt to be impossible for the British Association 
to deal with the subject as a whole. Societies which desire concessions 
should therefore apply directly to the railway-companies of their re- 
•spective districts for such privileges ; and with the view of strengthening 
such applications the Council of the British Association, on the recom- 
mendation of the Corresponding Societies Committee, have authorised the 
issue of a form of Warrant to all Corresponding Societies which send 
representatives to the Annual Conference of Delegates, certifying that the 
Societies in question are recommended by the Council as suitable appli- 
cants for any privileged tickets that the railway- companies may grant. 
These warrants may be obtained at the present Conference, or at the 
Offices of the British Association. 

The Annual Schedule has been issued, as usual, to all the Affiliated 
Societies, and the Committee have thus obtained particulars of their work. 
The ManchesttT Microscopical Society report that they make a special 
feature of giving to their members demonstrations on tlie construction of 
the microscope and on microscopic manipulation. Very few Societies offer 
suggestions for subjects to be brought forward at the Conference of 
Delegates. 

The Committee have decided that the following subjects shall bo 
discussed at the Conference at York: — 

The De.sirability of . promoting County Photographic Surveys; to be 
introduced by Mr. W. Jerome Harrison. 

Meteorological Observations by Local Scientific Societies ; to be 
introduced by Dr. H. R. Mill. 

Other subjects may be introduced if time allows. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, with the addition of the name 
of Sir Edward Brabrook, and they apply for a grant of 25Z., with permis- 
sion to retain the small unexpended balance from last year. It may be 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES, l? 

pointed oal that the British Association, by its relationship with tlic 
Corresponding Societies, is gradually accumulating a collection of the 
publications of the local Scientific Societies of the country, which is of 
exceptional value and probably unrivalled. The cost of binding the 
volumes is defrayed out of the grant to the Committee. 



Report of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 
held at York, August 2 and 7, 1906. 

Chairman , . Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B., V.P.S.A. 
Vice-Chairman . John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Secretary . . F. W. Eudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

The following Corresponding Societies nominated Delegates to repre- 
sent them at the Conferences. The attendance of the Delegates is 
indicated in the list by the figures 1 and 2 placed in tlie margin opposite 
to the name of each Society, and referring I'espectively to the first and 
second meetings. Where no figure is shown it will be understood that 
the Delegate did not attend. The attendances are taken from the 
attendance-book, which each Delegate is expected to sign on entering tlie 
meeting-room. 

List of Affiliated Societies sending Delegates. 

1 2 Andersoiiiaa Naturalists' Society . M. B. Gilmoar, F.Z.S. 
1 Bath Natural History and Antiqiia- i ^ ^ ^^ g, ^ j^, j, _^ 

nan Field Club. J ' 

Belfast Natural Historj' and Philo- ] t i n -ci t> o 

sophical Society. ^ j J°'"^ ^•'°^"' ^■^■^- 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club , . Prof. Gregg Wilson, D.Sc. 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club . . A. H. Evans, M.A. 
1 2 Birmingham and Midland Institute 1 ,,t t, ■, • -da 
Scientific Society. } ^^ R°senhain, B.A. 

1 Bristol Natiiralists' Society , . Prof. S. H. Reynolds, M.A. 

1 British Mycological Society . . Miss Annie Lorrain Smith, F.L.S, 

Buchan Field Club . . . .J. F. Tocher, F.I.C. 

Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club Prof. W. W. Watts, F.K.S. 

1 Cardiff Naturalists' Society . . Prof. W. S. Boulton, B.So. 

Chester Society of Natural Science, "I ,, 1,^ t u h ■!.-• v> » o 
T -^ . lit ' ^ 1. W. Longbottom, F.R..A.S. 

Literature, and Art. J a > • -> 

1 Cornwall, Royal Polytechnic Society Edward Kitto. 

- Croydon Natural History and Scien- 1 y^ ^ ^ 

tific Society. J • ' 

Dor.set Natural History and Anti- 1 -n, t> ^ i n . 
c'- ij (HI u y E. R. Sykes, B.A. 

quarian Field Club. j •' ' 

1 2 Dublin Naturalists' Field Club . . Prof. Grcnvillc Cole, F.G.S. 

East Kent Scientific and Natural "I . c t> ■ i -nr a 
TT. . o • i \ A. S. ueid, M.A. 

History Society. J ' 

Eastbourne Natural Historj^ Society . H. Dent Gardner, F.R.G.S. 

Edinburgh Field Natnrali.sts' and"),,, „ ,, . ., 
Microscopical Society. J ^^ ' ^- 'Crawford. 

1 2 Edinburgh Geological Society . . R. C. Millar. 
1 2 Essex Field Club . . . . F. W. Rudlcr, I.S.O. 
1 2 Glasgow Geological Society . . Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. 
1 2 Glasgow Natural History Societ}- , James Murray. 
1 Halifax Scientific Society , , , W. Simpson, F.G.S, 



1 2 



48 BEPOJiTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



W. Dale, F.S.A. 
■ John Hopkinson, F.L.8. 



Hampshire Field Club and Archaao- 

logical Society. 

2 Hertfordshire Natural History Society 

and Field Club. / 

2 Holmesdale Natural History Club , Miss Ethel Sargant, F.L.8. 

Hull Geological Society . . . J. W. Stather, F.G.S. 

2 Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 1 ,„ r„ t -c n a 

^^^^y^ I T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 

2 Institution of Mining Engineers . J. A. Longden, M.Inst.C.E. 

2 Isle of Man Natural History and | j ^^ ^_^ 

Antiquarian Society. J •' 

Leeds Geological Association . . Prof. P. F. Kendall, M.Sc. 

2 Leeds Naturalists' Club and Scientific ] „ n i\t„_ i 
, . , . [ H. C. Marsn. 

Association. J 

Leicester Literary and Philosophical 1 g„j,y,g,.f v\mg 

Society. J 

Liverpool Engineering Society . . Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw, F.R.S. 

Liverpool Geographical Society . . Caj)!. E. C. Dubois Phillips. 

Liverpool Geological Society . . J. Lomas, F.G.S. 

^Idence Socity^ ^°°'^°'' ^°^^^^^} J. Logan Lobley, F.G.S. 
London: Quekett Microscopical Club C. F. Eousselet. 
Manchester Geographical Society . J. Howard Reed. 
2 Manchester Geological and Mining 1 ^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ M.Inst.C.E. 

Society. J 

Manchester Microscopical Society . F. W. Hembry, F.R.M.S. 
Manchester Statistical Society . . Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. 
Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' | ^ ^^^f^^^^. ^^ ^^ ^ 

Society. J 

North Staffordshire Field Club . . J. T. Stobbs, F.G.S. 

^SS^S^I^d aS^^ ^'^*"^ } B-^y T'^-P-". ^•«-«- 

Northumberland, Durham, and New- | 

castle-upon-Tyne Natural History I N. H. Martin, F.R.S.E. 
Society. J 

Nottingham Naturalists' Society . Prof. J. W Carr, M.A. 
2 Paisley Philosophical Institution . John Woodrow. 
Perthshire Society of Natural Science H. R. Mill, D.Sc. 
2 Rochdale Literary and Scientific | j p^_ ^^,^^^^^j^ _g^_ 
Society. J 

Somersetshire Archaeological and | ^ 

Natural History Society. J ' 

2 South-Bastern Union of Scientific | j^^^, ^^^j^j j^^j,^ 

Societies. J ° ' 

Southport Literary and Philosophical j ^ jj Qarstane- 

Society. J ' ' 

Tyueside Geographical Society . . Herbert Shaw, B.A. 
2 Warwickshire Naturalist and Archx- 1 ^y j,^^ p.G.S. 

ologists Field Club. J ' 

2 Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club . Rev. J. O. Bevan, M.A. 
Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic ^ y^^^^ Simpson F G S 
Society. J ' !■ > • -• 

2 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union . . T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 
Yorkshire Philo.sophical Society . Dr. Tempest Anderson. 

List nf Associated Societies sending Delegates. 

Bakewell NaturaUsts' Club . . E. M. Wrench, F.R.C.S. 
Balham and District Antiquarian and \ ^.^ j,^^^^^ Brabrook, C.B. 

Natural History Society. j - 

2 Dunfermline Naturalists' Society . R. Somerville, B.Sc. 

Ealing _ Scientific and Micro.scopical | j^^ ^^ j, ^ ■ 

Society. , . J . 



CORKESPONDING SOCIETIES. 49 

1 2 Giimsbv and Dislrid Aiiliqiiaiiaii"| ^ t /» . vt o 

and Naturalists feociety. J ' 

1 2 Hampstead Scientific Society . . F. W. Kudler, I.S.O. 
Hastings and St. Leonards Natural ] ™, p. , . ,, . 
History Society. J ' 

1 2 Lewisham Antiquarian Society . . A. E. Salter, D.Sc. 
1 2 Teign Naturalists' Field Club . . 1'. F. S. Amery. 
1 Torquay Natural History Society . A. Somervail. 

1 2 Watford Camera Club . . . John Hopkinson, F.L.S. 



First Meeting, Aiogust 2. 

The Meeting was presided over by Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. The 
Corresponding Societies Committee was represented by Mr. Whitaker, 
F.R.S., the Rev. J. O. Bevan, the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S., Dr. 
H. R. Mill, Mr.J. Hopkinson, and Mr. Rudler. 

Chairman's Address. By Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B., V.-P.S.A. 

It is my privilege to open the proceedings of this meeting, which is the 
twenty-second Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, and the first at which 
associated as well as affiliated Societies are represented. I am much 
honoured by having been selected by the Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee and appointed by my colleagues of the Council to occupy the chair 
of the Conference in the present year ; and I anticipate great advantage 
from the new departure, alike to the Societies which are here brought into 
union and to the Association. I am myself the representative of one of 
the Societies which are now for the first time permitted to be associated 
with you — a Society so small that it was barely able to qualify for that 
honour by the possession of fifty members, but yet one which has been 
able, in the few years of its existence, to justify that existence by stimu- 
lating in the neighbourhood where I reside an interest in antiquities and 
in natural history, and by the publication of a paper by the late Mr. 
T. W. Shore bearing upon those subjects, with especial relation to local 
affairs. I have also the pleasure of welcoming here, in the person of 
Dr. A. E. Salter, the representative of another such Society, which has 
existed for twenty-one years, and has produced many excellent publi- 
cations, and of v>'hicli I had the honour to be its first and am again its 
present President. I cannot but feel, therefore, very great interest in 
the new arrangements by which these useful but modest Societies have 
been brought into line with those more important and more ambitious 
ones which have hitherto been recognised as the Corresponding Societies 
of the British Association. 

The work of those Societies, especially in relation to Section H, has been 
watched by me with very great satisfaction. At the Edinburgh meeting 
in 1892 I read before that Section a paper on the Organisation of Local 
Anthropological Research, which was published in the 'Journal of the 
Anthropological Institute ' for February 1893. At that time these Con- 
ferences and the Corresponding Societies Committee had been in operation 
for eight yeai-s. From the materials supplied, by the reports of that 
Committee I sought an answer to the question, What had local Societies 
then already done for anthropology ? and I obtained the information 
that during the eight years — 1885 to 1892 — as many as thirty- three local 
1906. E 



50 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Societies had been engaged in valuable, original, anthropological work, and 
at least a hundred individuals had conti-ibuted anthropological papers to 
their ' Transactions.' They occupied the whole country from Penzance to 
Inverness, and from Rochester to Belfast. During each of the twenty- 
one years I have published an answer to tlie same question in the form 
of a brief note on that portion of the annual report which relates to 
Section H. On more than one occasion I have had the honour of 
attending your Conferences as a repi'esentative of Section H, and of 
addressing you on one or other of the movements which have interested 
that Section. Though I have not until now been a member of your body, 
I may claim that I have been from the very first in close touch with you, 
and a sincere admirer of the excellent work v/hich is done in all parts of 
the country by the local scientific Societies and Field Clubs. 

I hope we shall find in the course of our Conference that the afliliated 
and associated Societies are alike capable of useful work in connection 
with the sciences which are cultivated in all or nearly all the Sections ; 
but I will not attempt in these opening remarks to go beyond the three 
Sections, F, H, and L, in which I am personally interested. I have no 
commission from the Organising Committee of Section F to lay before you 
any special problem of economic science ; but when I consider how wide 
is the range of subjects bearing upon the welfare of mankind with which 
that Section has to deal, and at the same time how complicnted are the local 
considerations which affect them, I cannot but reconnnend to your atten- 
tion the great advantage which may be derived from local investigation. 
To take one subject only which has recently acquired great importance, 
that of the unemployed workman. It is obvious that that is a subject 
which ought not to be dealt with upon general principles without careful 
local investigation, in all parts of the country, of the processes whicli 
make for mobility of labour and of all the other elements of the problem. 

It is thought by many that the establishment of labour exchanges in 
correspondence with one another a.11 over the country wovdd tend to a 
solution of the difficulty ; but no such general scheme could be set on foot 
without careful consideration of the economic position of every locality. 
Accurate statistics of the number employed in each branch of industry 
and of the demand for labour and a precise estimate of the reserve of 
labour required to meet occasional calls would have to be obtiiined, and 
could only be made complete by enlisting the co-operation of local 
scientific men. 

Other great economic questions whicli occasionally come to the front, 
and are tre;ited by the ordinary statistician upon broad general lines, 
acquire an altogether different aspect when examined in detail in their 
application to a particular locality. The questions of population whicli 
emerge upon any general census, the important consideration of the 
decline in the birth-rate, vv'ith all the moral and economic consequences 
that it implies, the rate of infant mortality, the ijicrease in the employ- 
ment of women, are all matters which affect one locality differently from 
another, and therefore call for local treatment. 

With regard to Section H what I have already said may sufKciently 
exemplify the special work of local Societies. Each locality has its own 
ancient monuments, its own relation to past history, its own mixed 
population, with special racial affinities ; its own ancient customs, some 
of their roots going far down into the past ; its own folklore, its own 
dialect, its own place-names ; and thus every local Society has an interest 



J 



CORRESPONDIISa SOCIETIES. 51 

in working out for itself its own anthropology. If it is the fact, as it 
seenis to be, that the course of legislation and of ev(Mits in the past 
century has been to efface as much as possible the traces of special local 
history and custom, and by centralisation to i-educe us all to a sort of 
uniformity, it is all the more necessary that local Societies should place on 
record all these evidences before they finally disappeai-. It is only the 
local Societies by which this can be done ; no bureau of ethnography 
could succeed in its mission without their help. By the collection of 
typical photographs of individuals belonging to families long settled in 
the district, by the recording of anthropometric measurements and other- 
wise, local Societies may provide precious material for the anthropologist 
which no central oi'ganisation could procure. 

Passing on to Section L, is it not the vice of all legislation upon 
education that it seeks to reduce it to a uniform system, regardless of the 
local conditions ? Have we not for years been accumulating code upon 
code, syllabus upon syllabus, with the view of making educational pro- 
ceedings uniform all over the country ? And is not that precisely the 
wrong way of setting to work ? Why should not boys in a seaport town 
1)0 taught seamanship ; boy-j in a business town, bookkeeping ; boys in a 
manufacturing town, mechanics ; boys in an agricultural district chemistry? 
Why should not an ample discretion be left to every local educational 
authority 1 Possibly the answer is that the local educational autliorities 
as at present constituted are as wooden as the Board of Education itself. 
Why, then, not constitute proper educational authorities ? And where 
better can you find educational authorities than among the scientific men 
of the locality 1 

In this connection I wish to take the liberty of drawing the attention 
of the delegates to the International Congress on School Hygiene, which 
is to be held in Loudon from August 5 to August 10, 1907. It is the 
second of a series of congresses, the first of which was held at Nuremberg 
in the Easter of 1904. That congress was attended by about 1,.500 
representatives, drawn from almost every civilised state, and its pro- 
ceedings are recorded in four volumes. I am assured that its influence 
has already made itself felt in many countries in the literature, laws, 
and i-egulations connected with health and education. The forthcoming 
congress has already been honoured by the patronage and active symj^athy 
of His Majesty King Edward VII., and by the official recognition of 
many colonial and foreign governments, and there is room to expect that 
it will be as numerously attended and as successful in every respect as 
was the Nuremberg Congress. The important bearing that the healthy 
surroundings of childhood in school-life have on the welfare of the 
country and the future of its population will, I am persuaded, be argu- 
ment suflicient to ensure the interest of the members of the British 
Association and its Corresponding Societies in this movement. 

So far I have been suggesting work for local Societies and incidentally 
urging the necessity for such organisations, but, as you are hei'e to repre- 
sent them, it is presumed you are already convinced of that necessity, 
and to urge it further would be to preach to the converted. I pass on, 
therefore, to the next point : Why should the local Societies correspond 
and be afiiliated and associated ? W^hat is included in the two ideas, 
affiliation and association, which we are now working out together for 
the first time ? Let me say at once what I think is not included in them. 
No sinking of the individual character of any local Society is so included, 

E 2 



53 REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

The affiliation which creates the Association our putative father does not 
give it the right to enforce our obedience to its commands or its caprices 
by any system of parental discipline any more than it implies that the 
Association will be responsible for our maintenance. If we are children 
we are emancipated children, earning our own subsistence and going our 
own way. To drop the metaphor, I assert that it would be idle for this 
Conference to attempt to lay down any hard-and-fast lines which every 
Corresponding Society must follow. 

Within its legitimate province, however, there is mucli that this Con- 
ference can do, much that these Conferences have already done. In the 
free communication with each other which is here setup, in the discussion 
of methods of working, in pointing out special subjects in which definite 
and organised investigation is desirable, in learning what has been done 
by such and such a Society, so as to avoid wasteful duplication and 
repetition of work, there is ample material for conference. In the 
excellent relations which such meetings as these create between those 
who are engaged in the like pursuits and actuated by the same ambitions 
there is an element of great value. ' Iron sharpeneth iron ; so a man 
sharpeneth the countenance of his friend.' AVe who are now admitted to be 
your associates, whose highest claim is that our Societies are ' formed for 
the purpose of encouraging the study of science,' will leave this Con- 
ference, I am persuaded, more than ever stimulated to do our utmost to 
fulfil that purpose. 

At the conclusion of the Chairman's Address, the Report of the 
Corresponding Societies Committee was read by the Secretary. It was 
resolved to apply for a grant of 25/. 

Mr. W. Dale (Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society) 
explained the method adopted by his Society for obtaining railway 
tickets at reduced rates for members attending the field-meetings. 

Mr. Edward Kitto (Royal Cornwall JPolytechnic Society), after 
expressing appreciation of the honour conferred ujDon his Society by being 
placed on the list of affiliated Societies, reminded the Conference that the 
Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society was the first ' Polytechnic' instituted 
in the country. The most important jjermanent work of the Royal 
Cornwall Polytechnic Society was the carrying on of the Falmouth 
Meteorological and Magnetical Observatory. The Meteorological Obser- 
vatory was one of the seven first-class observatories established in 1867 
by the Meteorological Committee of the Royal Society, under whose con- 
trol it had remained to the present time. The Magnetical Observatory 
started regular records of magnetic declination and of horizontal and 
vertical force in 1887 with a set of self-recording magnetographs furnished 
by the Royal Society. That branch of the Falmouth Observatory work 
was at pi-esent extremely important. The magnetic records at Kew 
Observatory wei'e in measure vitiated by the effect of electric trams in 
the neighbourhood, and as a consequence their results have not of late 
been published in complete foi-m. The Falmouth magnetogi-aphs — happily 
not so interfered with — were in full working order and furnished 
complete returns whereby the continuity of magnetic records for the 
Kingdom was maintained. Mr. Kitto said he would venture to promise 
that his Committee would be prepared to present to the Association a 
fairly complete set of the annual reports of the Royal CoruM-all Poly- 
technic Society from its inceiition in 1833. 



fORKESPONDIXG SOCIETIES. OO 

Dr. Hugh ilobeit Mill introduced the following subject :— ^ 

Local iSocieties and Meteoroloyy . 

The study of meteoi'ology may be commeuded to the Jittention of those 
scientific Societies whose scope is wide, on account of the means it afl'ords 
of advancing science and at the same time obtaining those intellectual 
advantages to the student which it is one of the objects of scientific 
Societies to secure. The object of studying meteorology is not to fit the 
student to predict tlie weather of to-morrow, though it may help him to 
stimulate the Meteorological Office to keep improving the weather 
forecasts by bringing intelligent criticism to bear on the forecasts as 
issued. Tliese forecasts receive criticism enough at present, but too often 
of a captious and uninstructed kind which contains neither correction nor 
help. The main object is to advance meteorology by means of careful 
and accurate observation. Thousands, perhaps even millions, of observa- 
tions have been made and recorded in the past absolutely uselessly, for the 
instruments have been untrustworthy, the hours of observation irregular, 
or the records rendered valueless by not being communicated to the 
•authorities competent to deal with them. 

The best advice which can be given to an enthusiast anxious to observe 
is not to begin until he has good instruments certified as accurate. In a 
long record the difference in the cost of good and bad instruments is 
almost nothing when compared with the value of the observer's time 
lavished uj^on work which a few shillings spent at the outset makes 
permanently valuable, a few shillings saved makes useless or even 
harmful. 

There is scope in meteorology for a great diversity of work. Definite 
researches should be carried on in specific directions. At present the 
most interesting and perhaps the most important of these is the investiga- 
tion of the free air at great heights by means of instruments raised by 
kites. Excellent work is being done in this country by a joint committee 
of the British Association and the Royal JNCeteorological Society, Avhich 
has been greatly aided by the inventive genius and generous help of 
Mr. W. H. Dines. Additional centres for kite work are desirable, but 
these must be remote from the haunts of men, as the accidental fall of a 
kite with several miles of .steel wire attached is a very serious risk near 
towns or thoi'oughfares. The equipment costs about l.')0/. and the work 
demands great mechanical skill. 

Another research which awaits the student is that into the measure- 
ment of moisture in the air, and the revision of the tables by means of 
wliioh the humidity is calculated from readings of the dry and wet bulb 
thermometers. 

A more simple and no less useful department is the study of local 
climate, and here the co-operation of local societies may be confidently 
invited. Every important town should have a properly equipped 
meteorological station. An observatory such as that maintained at 
Falmouth by the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society is beyond the 
resources of most Societies ; but a Second Order station, where the instru- 
ments only I'equire attention for a few minutes twice daily, such as that 
in the Museum Garden at York, is within the reach of most. The climate 
of a place can only be determined by a long record, and such records are 
very rare, because on the death of an enthusiastic observer therg is 



54 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

frequently no successor to carry on the work ; and a gap once made, 
though not fatal to some uses of a record which has been re-established, 
deprives it of much of its permanent value. If such a record were under 
the charge of a Society, which by its nature is immortal, it should go on 
continuously, ever growing in value. Anyone wishing to start such a 
station will hnd full particulars very clearly set forth in Mr. W. Marriott's 
•Hints to Meteorological Observers,' a little book published by the 
authority of the Royal Meteorological Society. That Society is always 
ready to encourage the study of meteorology, and has recently made 
arrangements to co-operate with local Societies by providing lectures and 
exhibitions of inscruments, full particulars as to which may be obtained 
from the Secretaries at 70 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Two of the elements of climate stand in particular need or additional 
study, and to these attention might profitably be given by all 
scientific Societies wliose aim is not restricted to the study of one 
department. The first is sunshine. The duration of sunshine is measured 
best by an instrument known as the Campbell- Stokes sunshine recorder, 
the records of which are accepted as authoritative by the Meteorological 
Office and the Eoyal Meteorological Society, to one or other of which the 
records should be sent for accurate measurement and preservation. There 
is at present no such thing as an accurate map of the average annual 
duration of sunshine in the British Isles, and yet botli in relation to 
agriculture and to health it is a condition of great importance. 

The second element of climate for which additional observations are 
necessary is rainfall. While a few hundred stations uniformly dis- 
tributed over the country would supply all the information necessary 
with regard to temperature, pressure, or wind, which vary gradually from 
place to place, the extraordinary influence exercised by local conditions 
of configuration of the laud upon rainfall makes it necessary to have 
several thousand well-distributed stations in order to study the rainfall fully. 
There arc 4,000 rainfall stations at present at work in the British Isles, 
but they are not uniformly distributed, and so it happens that while some 
localities are amply supplied others are almost neglected. The perfect 
arrangement woultl be to have a network of stations at most five miles 
apart, and to secure continuity at each five-mile centre there sliould be 
two or even three stations within half a mile of each other. If this were 
secured it would be possible to take account not only of the general rain- 
fall of the country, but also of the limits and intensity of every heavy 
shower, the incidence of which is often curiously restricted. A map was 
exhibited showing the districts in which additional rainfall-stations are 
most urgently wanted. While these are most numerous in the Highlands 
of Scotland and the West of Ireland there are large areas in the East 
and North Ridings of Yorkshire where a large increase in the number of 
stations would be very welcome. 

It is desirable that all rainfall-observers should be in touch with the 
British Rainfall Organisation, under the direction of the reader of tiiis 
communication, at G2 Camden Square, London, N.W. ; there is at the 
same time room for local associations of observers under the supervision 
of local ^ scientific Societies, which should be charged with seeing that 
proper instriunents are used when a new station is started, witii tlie pro- 
vision of successors when old observers cease to record, and witli the 
establishment of new records in places where none exist. 

Apart from the stations provided by the Meteorological Oflice in 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 55 

various parts u£ the British Isles, by the Royal Meteorological Society in 
England, and by the Scottish Meteorological Society in Scotland, rainfall 
stations are supervised and the records publislied by the following 
Societies : — ■ 

Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society. — 102 stations in 
north-western Kent and eastern Surrey. 

Dorset Field Club. — 48 stations in Dorset. 

llertfordsliire Natural History Society . — 55 stations in Herts. 

Nortliamptonshire Natural History Socifty. — 41 stations in North- 
amptonshire. 

North Devon Athenamin {Burnstaj)le) . — 30 stations in North Devon 
and Somerset. 

Rainfall associations are also organised by individuals in Cambridge- 
shire and Huntingdon, Norfolk, the English Lake District, the Isle of 
Man, Mid-Wesscx and Stirlingshire. 

Mr. J. Ferguson (Ceylon) in(|uired what period of years Dr. Llill 
would lix as the minimum for continuous rainfall observations to prove of 
practical value from a scientific point of view. In Ceylon, and in most 
tropical planting colonies, superintendents of plantations were accustomed 
to include attention to the rain-gauge (and sometimes to thermometers) 
as part of their daily duties ; but nowadays each man had, as a rule, 
only a limited stay on the estate, although in pioneering days fifteen to 
twenty-five years' residence was not uncommon. He might point out to 
delegates how important it was that young men who looked for a career to 
farming or planting in the colonies — where there were few or no weather 
traditions available' — should get some experience of simple meteorological 
observations at home. 

Mr. J. Hopkinson (Hertfordsliire Natural History Society) said that he 
would only refer to one or two points connected with Dr. Mill's remarks. 
(1) As to the cost of taking meteorological observations, he feared that 
the delegates might be deterred by thinking that it was greater than is 
really the case. A reliable ' Snowdon ' rain-gauge, with a certificate from 
the Kew Observatory or from Dr. Mill could be obtained for from 20.s'. to 
255. For a climatological station of the R,oyal Meteorological Society 
four thermometers were also required, a maximmn and minimum, and a 
dry bulb and wet bulb (the latter two to obtain the relative humidity of 
tlie air), and also a ' Stevenson ' (louvre-boarded) screen to place them 
in, the cost of this equipment being, he thought, about 5/. or 6^. All 
the thermometers should be tested at the Kew Observatory. (2) Only 
one reading daily was required, at 9 A.M., when the proportion of sky 
covered by cloud (0-10) should be estimated. He knew from experience 
that all the observations required for such a station could be made in 
live minutes. (3) As to continuity. This was most important, and lie 
would urge upon the Corresponding Societies to endeavour to ensure con- 
tinuity of observation by getting any private meteorological observatory 
which seemed likely to be discontinued transferred to some in.stitution 
or public body. After taking climatological observations for twelve years 
at Watford, and then for thirteen years at St. Albans, he transferred his 
own instruments to the County Museum there, instructing the care- 
taker how to make the observations, which he supervised, worked up, 
and published annually iii the ' Transactions ' of his Society. As the 



Ob KEPOKTS ON THE Sl'ATE 01'' SCIKXCE. 

climiitological station thus established was under the trusteeship of the 
Hertfordshire (Jounty Council, he hoped that it would be permanent. 

Dr. J. R. Ashworth (Eochdale Literary and Scientific Society), after 
remarking on his attempts to get a sunshine-recorder established in 
Rochdale, suggest(;d that meteorological worlc might be promoted by 
carrying out a meteorological sui'vey of the British Isles. A tirst step 
would be to ask each local Society to diaw up a schedule stating what 
observations were being taken in its own area, the kind of instruments 
in use, when and how tliey were verified, the duration of the record, and 
where the results were published. Such an account might be rendered to 
Dr. Mill or to the headquarters of the British Association. The next 
step would be for the central authority to draw attention to those 
districts where I'ecords were nonexistent or seanty, and to urge local 
Societies to use their influence to make good the deficiencies. It would at 
least be useful to have a comprehensive summary of the meteorological 
work carried out in each locality throughout the country. 

Mr. N. H. Martin (Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne NatuiJil History Society) agreed with Dr. Mill tliat it would be well 
if meteorological observations were seriously undertaken, Avith properly 
equipped stations, by local scientific societies, as in this way there would 
be a greater probability that the records would be continuous over a 
period of years long enough to make them valuable. The speaker did 
not think it was the expense of fitting i^p a station of the second order 
which deterred private individuals from the work, so much as the tie it 
was to read tlie instruments and take the records witli that punctuality 
which alone would give them value. 

Mr. Walter Rosenhain (Birmingham and Midland Institute Scientific 
Society) asked how frequently it was required to read rain-gauges for the 
purpose of Dv. Mill's rainfall survey. Would one reading in twenty-four 
hours be sufficient ? 

Mr. E. Kitto (Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society), referring to a 
former speaker's remarks as to the difficulty sometimes of procuring the 
services of competent observers, said that he attaciied first importance to 
reliable observers ; next to trustworthy instruments authoritatively veri- 
fied, and then the selection of suitable sites for the various instruments, 
so that the observations might be taken under satisfactory conditions ; 
and last, but not least, to punctuality in making the observations ; this was 
extremely important if the records taken by a great number of observers 
were to be comparable with one another or of service for scientific 
purposes. 

Dr. Mill briefly replied to tlie discussion. In answer to Mr. Ferguson 
he said that while at least thirty years was necessary in this country to 
obtain a trustworthy average of annual rainfall, a much shorter 
period sufficed for the 1p.ss variable climate of the tropics. As regards 
Dr. Ashworth's suggestion, he thought that the lists of general meteoro- 
logical stations published annually by the INleteorological Office, the two 
Meteorological Societies, and in ' British Rainfall,' fairly covered the 
ground ; but it would certainly be an advantage to have these reduced to 
a single list, indicating the nature of the work done at each station. In 
reply to Mi\ Rosenhain, one reading in twenty-four hours, at 9 a.m., was 
all that was asked for in rainfall observations, and in certain circumstances 
gauges read even once a week or once a month were not without value. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. oi 



Second Meeting^ August 7. 

Mr. John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., in the Chair. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee was represented by Mr. W. 
Whifcaker, Rev. J. O. Bevan, Mr. Hopkinson, and Mr. Rudler. 

The Chairman, in opening the proceedings, said that it might not be 
known to all who were present that a Conference of Delegates of Corre- 
sponding Societies met at York twenty-five years ago. It was not 
recorded in the Reports of the British Association ; for, although held 
under the sanction of the Council, it was not an official department 
of the Association. It was the second of five unofficial conferences 
due to his suggestion, the first having been held at Swansea in 1880 
and the last at Montreal in 1884. Reports of these five annual con- 
ferences were printed, the delegates or their Societies contributing 
towards the expense of printing and postage, and abstracts of these 
reports were published in the ' Transactions of the Hertfordshire Natural 
History Society ' (vol. vi. pp. 4-5-47). He wished to impress upon all tlie 
delegates that they were expected to give some report, however brief, of 
the present Conference to the Societies they represented, and to obtain 
its publication by their Societies. They were asked to do so in the 
circulars issued by the Corresponding Societies Committee, but only ;i 
few, he believed, complied with this request. Though not bringing 
forward his own reports published by the Hertfordshire Natural History 
Society as a model to be followed, they might pei'haps be a help to some 
of the delegates, and he had brought for distribution a few copies of 
these reports for the years 1902 to 1904. That for 190-5 was not yet 
printed. 

At this meeting suggestions for a Photographic Survey of the 
Counties of Great Britain and Ireland would be brought before the 
Conference by Mr.W. J. Harrison, and he thought that all would admit that 
this was an important subject, and one which well deserved the considera- 
tion of our county Societies. It was becoming more and more desirable 
to obtain a permanent representation of the interesting features of our 
country, whether natural or the work of man ; for at no former period 
had the destruction or mutilation of such features been more rife, and 
never before had so much interest been taken in their preservation. 
This apparent paradox might be explained by the fact that the greater 
the vandalism the greater was the protest evoked. Nor should the 
ravages of time be overlooked, nor the changes due to natural agencies, 
such as the encroachment of the sea upon our coasts. The sooner the 
lietter, therefore, would it be for a systematic attempt to be made to 
obtain and preserve a picture of everything of interest admitting of 
representation by the camera in all departments of science not within the 
scope of any existing Committee of the Association. This could best be 
done by our Natural History and Archreological Societies, Camera Clubs, 
and Photographic Societies, and amateur photographers unattached to 
any Society or club, working in conjunction with some central body, 
such as a Committee of the British Association ; for in this way only 
could a photographic survey be sufficiently systematic in its execution, 
and in this way only could comparable results of permanent value be 
achieved. 



58 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The Desirahility of Promoting County Photoc/rcqyhic Surveys. 
By W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S. 

I.— Origin of the Photo-Survey Movement. 

The movement which it is the object of tliis paper still further to 
promote hail its origin in a meeting of the representatives of numerous 
local photographic, scientific, and literary societies at Birmingham in 1889, 
when a paper was read entitled ' Notes upon a Proposed Photographic 
Survey of Warwickshire.' This paper was an amplification of the ideas 
which had been urged in a note upon ' The Work of a Local Pliotographic 
Society,' read before the Birmingham Pliotographic Society in 1885, and 
published in the PhotocjraiMc Neics (vol. xxix. p. 421). 

Although this Birmingham paper of 1889 had a local title, yet it has, 
and was intended to have, a general application. 

In response to an invitation from the (Royal) Photographic Society 
of Great Britain, a paper bearing the wider title of a 'Proposal for a 
National Photographic Record and Survey ' was su))scquently read before 
tlmt body in London in 1892. In this paper the right and duty apper- 
taining to the ' parent ' photographic Society of taking the lead in this 
m(5st important work was strongly urged. 

Finally an ambitious attempt was made to link together the photo- 
graphers of the entire civilised world by an extension of the ' survey ' 
idea, and at the World's Congre.ss at Chicago in 1893 a paper upon ' The 
Desirability of an International Bureau ; established (1) to record, and 
(2) to exchange Photographic Negatives and Prints,' in which these views 
were explained, was read and discussed. In this paper three principal 
points were urged : — 

(1) In every country it is desirable that a photographic survey .should 
be initiated. By the term ' survey ' is here meant a pictorial record of 
the state of tliiugs, physical and general, now existing. 

(2) In each country there should be («) local depots (free libraries, 
museums, itc.) containing complete sets of permanent photographic prints 
of the iunnediatc district ; and {b) a central bureau (in England, the 
British Museum, for example) containing both negatives and prints 
relating to the entire country. 

(3) Facilities for the exchange, or purchase, of prints, kc, should be 
provided.' 

On the motion of Mr. Snowden Ward an International Connnittce 
was appointed to consider how these ideas might best be carried out. 
This Committee did good work in disseminating a knowledge of 
the survey movement, and its French representative, M. Leon Vidal, 
inaugurated a very complete .system in his owii country. 

II- — Phogre.ss of Photo-Survey Work in Britain. 

Seventeen years have elapsed since the photographers of Warwickshire 
began their task of making a local photo-survey. Each year an exhibition 
of the Warwickshire Survey Prints has been held in the Municipal Art 

' A few copies of tlio first paper of 1889 still remain, and, wljile the supply lasts, 
a copy will be gladly forwarded to the secretary of any Society which contemplates 
commencmg photo-survey work. Address: W. J. Harrison, 52 Claremont Road, 
Handsworth, Birmingham. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 59 

Galleries of Birmiiighaiu. The prints have afterwards been presented to 
the Free Reference Library, where they can be examined and studied at 
any time. The number of local survey photographs in the Birmingham 
library is 3,020 prints, bound in 110 folio volumes. 

Other localities where work for the photo-survey has been commenced 
include Barnstaple, Cardiff, Chester, Darlington, Bromsgrove, Exeter, 
Manchester, Stoke-on-Trent, Wolverhampton, and Yorkshire ; but we 
liave not seen any recent reports of progress from any of these centres. 
The following, however, are known to be more or less actively engaged in 
survey work (the names given being those of the Hon. Secretaries) : — 

Warwickshire (Geo. Whiteliouse) ; Worcestershire (W. H. Harris); A's.ie.v 
(Victor Taylor) ; Jveiif (J. H. AUchin); Surrey (F. V. Wood) ; Conselt Valley, York- 
shire (P. E. Surtees) ; Edinburgh (James Burns) ; ISational Photo'jrajjhic Record 
Association (Geo. Scamell). 



III. — Objects of Photo-Survey Work. 

The three great objects of the Photographic Record and Survey are 
to benefit — {a) The individual photographer ; (i) the Scientific and 
Photographic Societies ; and (c) the nation generally. 

{a) The Individual rhotograjyher and the Survei/.— The survey scheme 
gives the photographer an object, and we maintain that the work of such 
a survey is a liberal education for any man. It is impossible to photo- 
graph without learning much about the objects photographed ; and the 
survey brings photographers into contact with experts who are able and 
willing to afford ample information. 

The professional photographers of the British Isles now form a small 
army, their number being recorded by the census of 1901 as 17,945. 
Many firms must possess stores of negatives illustrating 'survey ' subjects ; 
and it is certain that if properly approached the average professional 
of any standing would be willing to aid a county photographic survey. 

Lastly, there is the great body of ' unattached ' photographers, whose 
number can hai'dly be estimated, but, omitting the casual snapshotter, 
there are, perha^js, a quarter of a million who could do useful work for a 
photo-survey, if someone would only tell them what to do, and how to do it. 

(b) Photographic and Scientific Societies and the Survey. — The total 
number of British Photographic Societies in the list published in the 
' British Journal Almanack' for 190G is 354. And in the 'Year Book' 
of the scientific and learned Societies of (ireat Britain and Ireland 
for 1905 the number of Societies other than photographic, but whose 
work would be more or less aided by photography, is given as 333. In 
addition there are many Societies connected with the ' Fine Arts ' not 
included in either of the above lists. 

It is a mistake to suppose that the task is one which appeals only to 
practical photographers. The man with the camera may know hoir to 
photograph, but it is impossible that he should always know ichat is worth 
photographing. For this purpose he needs the advice of an expert, and 
the guidance of the man with local knowledge. 

To the Society, as to the individual, the duty of having a useful 
public task to accomplish is of great value. It binds the members 
together, it attracts members, and it brings the Society before the public. 

(c) The Nation and the Survey. — The work of a photographic record 



60 KEPOETS ON THE STATK OF SClENCJi:. 

and survey is of valuo alike lo the generation hy wliich it is executed 
and to all succeeding generations. 

The 23hysical features of the land slowly alter, even if left solely to 
the unaided action of the foi'ces of Nature. There are points on our 
eastern coast where the sea has advanced a mile or more during the last 
century. But when we include the agency of man we find yet more rapid 
alterations. Every year the amount of waste land is diminished — the bogs 
are drained, the pastures creep up the hill-slopes, forests vanish here, while 
new plantations spr-ing up there. The opening-up of mines and quarries, 
the cutting of nev/ canals and railways, the rapid expansion of our towns 
and cities — in all these, and in many other ways, the natural scenery of 
these islands is continually being changed. Then there are the nobie 
buildings and monuments which we have inherited fi-om our forefathers, 
and in which history is written in stone. Architecture is indeed one of 
the strongholds of photography. 

It is also important that we should record the life of the nation — 
the trades, the dress, the occupations of the people, their habits and 
their amusements. We live in an era of unusually rapid change. 
Tlie improved means of communication, the discoveries of modern science, 
and the spread of education all combine to abolish the di (Terences of lan- 
guage, of dress, aiid of manners. 

The British Association has rightly joined in hastening on the work 
of an Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom ; for if such a 
survey is not done quickly, the amalgamation of the people of the different 
counties will have gone so far as to render the task useless, if not 
impossible. 

IV. — 'District' Surveys and 'Subject' Surveys. 

The work of a photo-survey may proceed along two distinct lines, 
although these may of course be pursued simultaneously :— 

{a) A Diatrici Siirveij, where, say, the one-inch map or the six-inch 
map is taken as the unit, and all items of interest within that area are 
photographed. This is the method so far pursued l)y those who have 
approached the task from the photographic side. 

(b) A Subject Snrvey, in which some definite line of research is followed. 
It is in this direction that the efforts of most of our men of science who 
are not connected directly with photography and photographic Societies 
have tended. No prai.se can be too high for the work of the Geological 
Photographs Committee of the British Association. The Committees on 
Anthropological Photographs and on Botanical Photographs are working 
upon similar ' subject ' lines, while many of the other Committees largely 
use photography. Indeed the British Association seems to be specially 
well fitted to carry on the work of subject surveys. 

V. — Base of the British Photo-Survey. 

Unquestionably the great unit for district surveys should be the 
county. For the small working unit, nothing can be better than the maps 
of the Ordnance Survey. The one-inch map is good ; but the six-inch 
gives such detail that by its aid we can determine the orientation of 
buildings, »kc., so as to be able to select beforehand the precise hour of 
the dav when the light will be best suited for work. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 61 

VI. — Promotion of the 'Survey' Movement. 

What can be done by the Corresponding Societies Committee of the 
British Association to aid the photo-survey 1 A small sub-committee 
might be appointed : — 

(a) To collect details as to the work done or being done. 
(6) To prepare and circulate printed matter on the work of the survey, 
so as to make its aims and methods generally known, 

(c) To co-ordinate the photographic Societies with the literary and 
scientific Societies, so that all may unite in the work of the survey. 

(d) To obtain lists of ' e.Kperts ' in various departments, who would 
be willing to advise upon such subjects as photographic methods, processes, 
and appliances ; to draw up county lists of objects and places, specifying 
their exact points of interest, ifec, ; to write brief descriptions upon the 
backs of the mounts, the survey prints, &c. ; and to draw up lists of 
literature upon the counties or other areas. 

(e) The publication of series of prints either of districts or of subjects 
would be one of the best methods of popularising the survey. 



Appendix. 

Suggestions and Memoranda for the Use of Societies, Committees, or 
Sections, as to the Working of a Photographic Survey. 

1. In any district, a Society, Committee, or Section may be formed, 
to promote the work of a photographic survey. Such a body may be 
either independent or part of an already existing Society. 

2. Members may be of two classes— («) Experts in photography ; 
(b) Experts in other branches of science, literature, and art. 

3. Members in class (a) who desire to join in the work of a photo- 
survey, must (prior to election) send in not fewer than — prints as their 
first contribution to the work of the survey ; and must further contribute 
at least — prints annually. Members of class (b) nmst subscribe not 
loss than — per annum. 

4 All prints should preferably be by some permanent proce:s, such a? 
carbon, platinum, or bromide, but silver-prints will be accepted. 

Prints may be of any size. [' Half-plate,' 6^ by 4| inches, or ' whole- 
plate,' 8i by 6 1 inches, preferred.] 

5. Prints may be sent in either mounted or unmounted. If mounted, 
they must be upon ' standard ' mounts. 

These standard mounts may be of two sizes. The 6rst size to carry 
one ' whole plate,' or two 'halves,' or four 'quarters'; the second or 
larger size to take prints up to 15 inches by 12 inches. Prints must be 
mounted behind 'cut-out mounts,' so that the surface of each print may 
be protected from abrasion, and they must cany printeil headings or 
labels on their backs for particulars to be filled in by the photographer. 
The ' first size ' mounts should measure 14 inches by 11 inches, with a 
central space for the prints of 10^ inches by 7^ inches. 

6. As many details as possible must be given upon the back of the 
mount about each photograph, including : (1) Subject, (2) Date, 
(3) Time of day, (4) Focal length of Ions, {^>) Printing proross, 
(G) General remarks, (7) Contributor's name; and address. 



62 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

7. The oflicers of the survey shall include a Curator, whose duties 
shall consist of the care, classification, cataloguing, mounting, ifec, of the 
prints ; and a Secretary, to conduct the correspondence, »kc. 

[ A. Chairman and a Special Survey Committee may also be necessary.] 

8. Beyond simple ' spotting,' it is not advisable that any ' retouching,' 
' improving,' or ' double-printing ' should be done to the negatives from 
which prints are to be taken, or to the prints themselves. 

9. The work of a plioto-survcy established under this scheme is 
intended to supplement, and not in any way to interfere with, the work 
which is already being done in this direction by other photographic or 
scientific Societies. 

10. Many districts are not covered by the existing photographic 
Societies ; many individuals who are not connected v/ith such Societies are 
Avilling and able to do survey work, and there are many lines of research 
which are best conducted by specialists working alone. Tlie Survey 
General or Central Committee will endeavour to cover such districts 
and to enlist and direct the services of isolated workers and specialists. 

11. Information will be songht as to buildings, places, or regions in 
which restorations, destructions, or great changes are likely to occur. 

Lists of such buildings, &c., have already been con>piled by Mr. 
Snowden Ward and published in the ' Monthly Photogram.' 

12. Lists of special areas for photo-survey work and of special lines 
of inquiry shall be drawn up and circulated. Suggestions are asked for. 

Examples {«) of neglected (or unsupplied) areas sucli as — 

(1) Salisbury Plain, Dartmoor, the New Forest, ttc. 

(2) The Scilly Isles. 

(3) The Fens. 

(4) Many isolated districts in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. 

(5) The coastline generally (to show the eflects of erosion). 

(6) The Roman Roads. 

(7) North Lincolnshire (before the development of the recently dis- 
covered coalfield changes the entire character of this agricultural disti-ict). 

(8) The South Staffordshire coalfield — an area where the coal seams 
will probably be worked out ere the close of another quarter-century. 

And (!>) of special lines of inquiry, as — 

(1) Occupations (trades, etc.) of the people. 

(2) Dress as influenced (i) by occupation, (ii) hy 'fashion.' 

(3) The native flora of Britain — wild plants i^hotographed in their 
natural h.abitats. 

13. The survey may hold at least one meeting annually for the pur- 
pose either of making a more or less complete photo-survey of some 
(photographically) neglected or specially interesting district ; or of co- 
operating with some existing Society or Societies in inaugurating or 
extending such a survey. 

14. Sample sets of mounts, ]naps, illustrative survey-photographs, etc., 
shall be prepared. Of these sample sets, one set shall be kept for 
reference at the ofiice of the survey, while the other may be borrowed 
by any Society or membei-, who must, however, defray the cost of 
carriage both ways and return the set whenever requested to do so by 
the Hon. Secretaiy. 



CORRESPONDINCr SOCIETIES. 63 

15. Of the photographs collected, the first c&iuplete set shall bo 
deposited in some public institution (preferably the British INtuscum). 

Sets of survey photographs of local interest may also bo presented to 
any local institutions (as free libraries and museums) which may be 
willing and able to take proper care of them. 

16. If not fewer than — membera apply, a special sub-section or 
sections may be formed, among whom a portfolio of survey prints (with 
accompanying descriptive note-boobs) shall circulate. Such members 
shall pay a small annual subscription to defray extra expenses. 

17. The inauguration and direction of photo-survey work in the 
British Colonies may be one of the objects of the survey. 

18. Photography at sea, including meteorological phenomena, types of 
vessels, of seimen, waves, icebergs, marine animals and plants, il-c, may 
be one of the special subjects of Avhich records shall be obtained. 
Photographs taken by British travellers in unexplored, wild, barren, or 
savage regions of the earth, such as the Polar Regions, Central Africa, 
&c., may also be included in the survey collections. 

19. An annual exhibition of the work of the survey may be held. 

20. The gift of negatives, as well as of prints, is solicited. 

21. Local photographic, literary, scientific, archaeological, and art 
Societies may be afiiliated to the survey. Such Societies may aid in the 
preparation of lists of objects and places for the work of the photo- 
survey ; and by the help of their members as local guides and experts. 

22. The survey may appoint a professional photographer or photo- 
graphers to do the work of printing, both for the survey and for individual 
members. 

23. In any lists of the members of the survey which may be published 
the number of prints contributed by each member shall be shown (in 
brackets) after his name. 

24. A]}parati(s. — The following specification refer.s to a set of 
apparatus which has been used for survey-work for several years past :^ 

(1) Ilalf-plate camera fitted with turn-table and bchind-lens shutter. 
(2) Three double plate-holders, with pull-out aluminium slides. (3) Three- 
fold wooden tripod. (4) Wide-angle lens (anastigmat), 5^ inches focus. 
(5) Lens (anastigmat) for ordinary work, 8^ inches focus. (G) Changing- 
bag and focussing-cloth combined. (7) Spirit-level. (8) Focussing-glass. 
(9) Yellow screen (for orthochromatic plates). (10) Note-book and 
exposure meter. (11) Stiff brown canvas carrying-case. (12) Ordnance 
map of the district. The weight of such an outfit (loaded with six 
glass plates) will be 14 lb. 

25. The ' half-plate ' is perhaps the smallest size which gives, in 
itself, a useful print ; and yet it is not too big for the enlarging 
apparatus. Enlargements to 23 by 17 inches are to be preferred for 
wall-pictures. 

26. To get good enlargements we must use lenses capable of giving fine 
definition, and the lenses recommended are most satisfactory in this respect. 

27. Plates are to be preferred to films, because of their possessing 
a plane surface, which can be relied on to be in register with the focussing- 
screen, and for their rigidity, although films possess the advantages of 
lightness, non-breakability, and ease of storage, 

28. Each member shall be furnished with a ticket or book stating 
that he is a member of the photo-survey, and giving l)ricf particulars of 



64 BEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIEiS-CE. 

the survey work. Endeavours shall be made to oblaiu a reduction of 
railway fares to bearers of such tickets when carrying photographic 
apparatus, and also to obtain permission to photograph (as in cathedrals 
and public places generally) on production of such a ticket. 

The Rev. J. O. Bevan (Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club) asked leave 
to take part in the discussion on the score that for many years past he 
had felt a great interest in the subject. He adverted to the pains taken 
in the preparation of Mr. Harrison's paper and to the value of the 
information conveyed. He considered, however, that the Appendix, deal- 
ing with details, was premature, inasmuch as the principle of a photo- 
graphic survey had not yet been affirmed by the British Association, and 
as there was some doubt whether it would be considered by the Council 
to come within the scope of their operations. Of course the projected 
survey had an important and a special value of its own ; but many of the 
objects represented (whilst possessing an artistic or historical value) 
might not illustrate any ethnological or anthropological fact or principle, 
and it was with the scientific aspect alone that the British Association 
was concerned. Assuming a scientific value, would it not be well to 
ascertain what materials already existed for a complete survey, and to 
join hands with bodies which had already undertaken any department 
of a similar work ? The Society of Antiquaries had projected an 
archwological county index and map of England and Wales, the special 
objects placed on the index being plotted on the map in symbolic form 
and characteristic colour. Several of these maps had been completed. 
Tlie speaker himself was i-esponsible for that relating to Herefordshire 
and in a brochure published a few years ago had advocated an extension 
of the scheme in the following words : ' Could not Arch«ological 
Societies, in conjunction with this agency, startle the world with an 
illustrated index and map ? This would be of immense interest — an 
interest that would increase in geometrical ratio from year to year. The 
expense would naturally be great, but would be considerably lessened by 
the fact that many woodcuts even now would be available from their 
"Transactions" a,nd elsewhere.' 

It was evident that such an inclusive index as that already published 
for some half-dozen counties would furnish a basis for a general photo- 
graphic survey, and it were much to be wished that the whole series might 
be completed. Again, certain publishers were bringing out a Victorian 
County History of England, and the speaker had approached them 
with a suggestion that such an arch reel ogical index should be included 
in each volume. Further, various Societies existed with a kindred aim, 
such as the National Photographic Record Society ; but the work under- 
taken by such bodies, though extremely interesting, was frequently dis- 
cursive and fragmentary, as opposed to any British Association scheme, 
which would be systematised on a progressive and regular plan. 

Probably it would be found that, in almost every county, photo- 
graphic survey work had been carried on, such as that so effectively 
executed in Yorkshire and Warwickshire. The need for such action 
became increasingly evident as time rolled on. A central advisory 
authority was needed to supply information as to what had been done and 
what I'emained to be done, to act as a clearing-house between local 
Societies and the Association, to lay down certain simple rules in order to 
ensure uniformity, and, finally, to stimulate a general and strictly- 
scientific interest in the matter. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 65 

If Mr. Harrison's suggestions were to be efficiently and rapidly carried 
out, the speaker could not conceal from himself the enormous amount of 
woi-k to be done and the practical difficulties in the way. It would almost 
seem to need an independent Society, a central home, a depository for 
completed work, a secretary, and a grant for office expenses. He begged 
the Delegates to remember the magnitude of the subject, and suggested 
that the discussion should deal with the principle involved, rather than 
with the mass of detail which had occupied the second part of the paper. 

Mr. T. Sheppard (Yorkshire JSTaturalists' Union) thought that the 
difficulties to be surmounted were, perhaps, not quite so serious as had 
been suggested by the previous speaker. Already the British Associa- 
tion, with its Geological Photographs Committee, was doing excellent 
work as regards geological photography. He believed also that there 
was a Botanical Survey Photographs Commiitee and an Ethnographical 
Committee doing similar work. If the various Societies affiliated 
with the British Association made up their minds to set to work, as the 
Geological Section had done, good would result. If, however, the matter 
was allowed to drop so soon as this Conference was over, it was useless 
to approach the General Committee for a grant or for anything else. In 
Hull the photographic Society had already done good work by taking 
careful photographs of the local archfcological and architectural features, 
which were sent to headquarters, while a duplicate set was placed in the 
public museum. 

The Rev. R. Ashington BuUen (South-Eastern Union of Scientific 
Societies) said that there were now three County Photographic Surveys 
affiliated to the Union which he represented — viz. those of Surrey, Kent, and 
Sussex. A much appreciated feature of the Annual Congress of the S.E. 
Union was the yearly exhibition by the above-named surveys of the photo- 
graphs taken during the previous year. It appealed to many different 
intellectual tastes, and he thought that during a British Association 
meeting an exhibition by the particular survey of the county in which 
the meeting was being held would be an added attraction, and would 
appeal to the varied interests of the members. 

Mr. W. F. Stanley (Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society) 
suggested that the most convenient size for photographs of interest was 
quarter-plate, as these might be taken with the kodak commonly carried 
by members of local Societies. Also that films (which were now made 
very imperishable) were light, and easily stored without risk of breakage. 
These were valuable for producing lantern-slides for lectures or enlarge- 
ments. Some lantern-slides of Old Croydon, taken in this manner by 
Mr. Low Sargeant twenty- five years ago, were unique, and had become 
very valuable for reference. 

Professor H. H. Turner (Oxford) remarked that the value of survey 
photographs would be greatly enhanced if they could be taken on the 
stereoscopic plan, from two points of view. Such pairs of photographs 
would provide material for making a ground-plan of the objects photo- 
graphed. The measurements and calculations were very simple : he 
begged lea\-e to refer those interested to a paper of his own ' On a Simple 
Method of Accurate Surveying with an Ordinary Camera,' in the Monthly 
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. Ixii. p. 126 (December 
lt)01). 

Mr. Rudler (Essex Field Club) desired to call attention to the excellent 
work being done by the ' Photographic and Pictorial Survey and Record 
1906. J ^ t ^ s 



o6 REPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

of Essex.' This organisation was started only last year by the Essex 
Field Club, at the suggestion of Mr. A. E. Briscoe, but it has already 
formed the nucleus of a collection of permanent photographs, engravings, 
maps, &c., which promises to be of much value to the future naturalist 
and historian of the county. The collection is preserved in the Essex 
Museum at Stratford, and contributions of suitable photographs should 
be sent to Mr. Victor Tayloi', of Buckhurst Hill. hon. sec. of the survey. 

Dr. H. R. Mill wrote : The great obligation which all interested in 
photographic records owe to Sir Benjamin Stone and to the National 
Photographic Record Society, of which he is the president and most active 
member, ought not to be lost sight of on this occasion. The rules adopted 
by that Society and the method of its organisation seem to me to leave 
little to be desired. The work, although incomplete, is by no means un- 
systematic, and the fact that the records are deposited in the British 
Museum makes it national in more than name. Reference should also be 
made to the admirable work of the London County Council in making 
the photographing of all buildings before demolition part of its ordinary 
routine. 

The Chairman suggested that an application should be made at next 
year's meeting of the British Association to secure the appointment of a 
Committee for County Photographic Surveys. After some discussion the 
following were provisionally nominated as members of such a Committee : 
Rev. J. O. Bevan, Mr. John Brown, Rev. Ashington BuUen, Mr. W. 
Crooke, Mr. W. Jerome Harrison, Mr. T. Sheppard, Sir J. Benjamin 
Stone, and Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Reports from the Sections. 

The Chairman then invited any Delegates from the Sections who were 
present to explain how the Corresponding Societies could assist in aiding 
the work of the several Sections. 

Professor H. H. Turner, representing Section A (Mathematics and 
Physics), suggested that local Societies desirous of undertaking new work 
might profitably consider — 

(a) Observations of solar radiation. 

(6) Observations of the brightness of the sky at night. 

Any Society willing to undertake such work may receive information 
on the subject by written application to Pi-ofessor H. H. Turner, F.R.S., 
the University Observatory, Oxford. 

Mr. W. Whitaker, Section C (Geology), solicited the aid of local 
Societies in the work of the Geological Photogi-aphs Committee, and 
expressed the hope that certain Societies would assist the Committee 
for investigating the Speeton Beds at Knapton. 

Mr. W. Crooke, Section H {Anthropology), stated that he had been 
directed to lay two suggestions before the meeting : — 

First, to draw attention to the work of a Committee formed by Section H 
with the co-operation of the Anthropological Institute, to collect and register 
photographs of anthropological interest. He suggested that members of 
the Corresponding Societies might be asked to co-operate in this work, 
particularly by the collection of photographs of the best defined types of 
the peasantry in those parts of the country where they have been least 
aflfected by foreign influences. The matter is urgent (as pointed out in a 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 67 

letter read from Mr. J. L. Myres), because, though these types are still 
recognisable in favoured and sheltered localities, they are being con- 
taminated rapidly through the agency of modei-n facilities for intercourse 
between town and counti-y ; and it is only too probable that they will 
shortly disappear altogether. It is of importance that photographs taken 
for this purpose in different localities should, as far as possible, be com- 
parable with each other ; and the Anthropometric Committee will be glad 
to furnish detailed instructions and other particulars as to pose, illumina- 
tion, and the like to any Society or individual who is willing to take up 
this work. The inquiries should be addressed to the Secretary of the 
Anthropometric Committee of the British Association. 

Secondly, Mr. Crooke inyited similar co-operation with a Committee 
which had been appointed to report upon the best means of registering 
the megalithic monuments of Great Britain. To this Committee the 
Conference was invited to appoint a delegate. Photographs of all rude 
stone monuments and hut circles, particularly those in a stereoscopic form, 
were much needed. 

Professor G. A. Cole (Dublin) suggested that the work of the 
Anthropometric Committee might be assisted, so far as Ireland was 
concerned, by application to Mr. John Brown, F.R.S., of the Belfast 
Natural History Society. 

It was resolved to recommend that the Secretary of the Conference 
(Mr. Rudler) be nominated to serve as Delegate on the Megalithic 
Monuments Registration Committee. 

A letter was read from Mr. E. Heawood, Recorder of Section E 
{Geography), calling the attention of local Societies to the work of the 
Committee which was appointed last year for investigating ' the Quantity 
and Composition of Rainfall, and of Lake and River Discharge.' Local 
observations on the latter subject would be useful, if made systematically, 
so as to admit of co-ordination with work already done. 

On the motion of the Rev. J. 0. Bevan, a vote of thanks was passed 
to the Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Conference. 



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REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 





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CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 73 



Catalogue of the more important Papers, especiallij those referring to 
Local Scientific Investigations, puhlished hij the Corresponding 
Societies during the year ending Mag 31, 190G. 

*#* This Catalogue contains only the titles of papers published in the volumes or 
parts of the publications of the Corresponding Societies sent to the Secretary of 
the Committee in accordance with Rule 2. 

Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science. 

Allest, H. Stanley. Experimental Work at Low Temperatures. 'Proc. Glas- 
gow R. Phil. See' XXXVI. 128-135. 1905. 

Note on Radio-activity. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxvi. 209-213. 

1905. 

A.NDSON, Rev. William. The Meteorologv of 1900. 'Trans. Dum. Gall. N.H. A. 
Soc' XVII. 3.3-38. 1905. 

Meteorological Report for 1901. 'Trans. Dum. Gall. N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 

156-161. 1905. 

Barr, J. Miller. I. New "Variable Stars ; II. The Variable Star e Bootis ; 

III. The Colours of Helium Stars; IV. A New Problem in Solar Physics. 

' Trans. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 141-160. 1906. 
Becker, Prof. Ludwig. Progress of Astronomy in the Nineteenth Century. 

' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxvi. 136-183. 1905. 
Bladen, W. Wells. Report of the Meteorological Section. ' Report N. Staff. 

F. 0.' XI. 138-144. 1906. 
BoLHAM, George (extracted by). Meteorological Observations at Cheswick for 

1900, 1901, 1902, and 1903,' by the late Major-General Sir William Grossman, 

K.C.M.G., and continued by his Son, L. Morley Grossman, Esq. ' History 

Berwicksh. Nat. Club,' xix. 91-94. 1905. 
Brown, M. Walton. Barometer, Thermometer, &c. Readings for the Year 1903. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxvii. 743-752. 1906. ' 
Campbell-Bayard, F. Meteorological Report for 1904. 'Trans. Croydon N. H. 

Sci. Soc. 1904-1905,' 115-122, and Appendices, 51 pp. 1905. 

Meteorological Report for 1905. ' Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc. 1905- 

1900,' 163-162, and Appendices, 55 pp. 1906. 

Caeadoc and Severn Valley Field Club. Meteorological Notes. 'Record of 

Bare Facts,' No, 15, 40-54. [1906.] 
Chant, Dr. C. A. Astronomical and Astrophysical Progress in 1905. (Pre- 
sidential Address.) ' Trans. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 13-26. 

1906. 
CoRRiE, John. Phenological Observations taken at Moniaive during 1901. 

'Trans. Dum. Gall. N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 164-165. 1905. 
Craw, J. H. Amount of Rainfall in Berwickshire — Year 1903. ' History Ber- 
wickshire Nat. Club,' XIX. 90. 1905. 
Cresswell, Alfred. Records of Meteorological Observations taken at the 

Observatory, Edgbaston, 1905. 'Birm. and Mid. Inst. Sci. Soc' 26 pp. 

1906. 
Delury, a. T. The Eclipse Expedition to Labrador, August 1905. ' Trans. 

Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 67-69. 1906. 
Graham, L. H. Achievements of Nineteenth Century Astronomy. ' Trans. 

Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 125-130. 1906. 
Harvey, Arthur. Solar Spots and jMagnetic Storms for 1904. ' Trans. Roy. 

Astr. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 35-46. 1906. 
Heywood, H. Meteorological Observations in the Society's District, 1903. ' Trans. 

Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxxvii. 1-18. 1905. 

Meteorological Observations in the Society's District, 1904. ' Trans. Cardift 

Nat. Soc' xxxviii. 1-18. 1906, 



74 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

HoPKiNSON, John. Meteorological Observations taken in Hertfordshire in the 
Year 1904. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xii. 209-216. 1905. 

Report on the Rainfall in Hertfordshire in the Year 1904. 'Trans. Herts 

N. H. Soc' XII. 217-225. 1905. 

King, W. F. The Dominion Observatory at Ottawa. 'Trans. Roy. Aatr. Soc. 
of Canada for 1905/ 27-34. 1906. 

KiBSCHMANN, A. On the Possibility of Life in other Worlds. 'Trans. Roy. 
Astr. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 159-174. 1906. 

Klotz, Otto. Transpacific Longitudes. ' Trans. Roy. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 
175-203. 1906. 

Laitder, a. Meteorological Notes for the Year ending September 30, 1905. 
' Trans. East Kent S. N. H. Soc' v. 24-26. 1906. 

Loudon, W. J. A Lunar Tide on Lake Huron. ' Trans. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada 
for 1905,' 131-140. 1906. 

Mann, W. P. Polarised Light and Colour Phenomena. 'Trans. East Kent 
S. N. H. Soc' v. 17-18. 1906. 

Maekham, C. a., and R. H. Peimavesi. Meteorological Report. — Observers' 
Notes. ' Journal Northants N. H. Soc' sin. 31-36, 70-78, 123-130, 1905 ; 
155-160. 1906. 

Maelock, Dr. R. Results of Further Experiments on Table Mountain for 
ascertaining the Amount of Moisture deposited from the South-East Clouds. 
' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 97-105. 1905. 

Maeeiott, William. Weather Forecasting. ' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xxi. 
113-115. 1906. 

Marsh, D. B. Photographing the Sun and Moon with a 5-inch Refracting Tele- 
scope. 'Trans. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 108-111. 1906. 

Mawlet, Edwaed. Report on Phenological Phenomena observed in Hertford- 
shire during the Year 1904. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xii. 237-244. 1905. 

Mellish, Henet. Some Aspects of Meteorology. ' Report Nott. Nat. Soc. for 
1904-1905,' 17-23. 1906. 

Metrick, E. Summary of Meteorological Observations, 1905. ' Report Marlb. 
Coll. N. H. Soc' No. 54, 105-126. 1906. _ 

Mitchell, Rev. J. C. Results of Meteorological Observations taken in Chester 
during 1905. 'Report Chester Soc Nat. Sci. 1905-1906,' 15-20. 1906. 

MooEE, H. Cecil. Meteorological Report, 1902. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 
1902-1904,' 85-94. 1905. 

Rainfall in Herefordshire in 1903, Temperature and Dustfall. ' Trans. Wool- 
hope N. F. Club, 1902-1904.' 212-220. 1905. 
Rainfall in Herefordshire in 1904. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902- 



1904,' 357-360. 1905. 
MuiR, Dr. James, and Archibald Lano, The Effect of Ten.sile Overstrain on 

the Magnetic Properties of Iron. 'Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxvi. 77-85. 

1905. 
Mtjie, Dr. Thomas. Notes on Semi-circulants. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' 

XVI. 153-163. 1905. 
MtrssoN, W. Balfoue. Stellar Classification. ' Trans. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada 

for 190.5,' 151-158. 1906. 
Paisley Philosophical Institution. Report of Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Coats Observatory, 1905. 15 pp. 1906. 
Plaskett, J. S. Plates and Filters for Monochromatic and Three-colour Photo- 
graphy of the Corona. ' Trans. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 89-107. 

1906. 
Peeston, a. W. Meteorological Note.i, 1904. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc* 

VIII. 90-96. 1905. 
Rutheefoed, J. Phenological Observations taken at Jardington during 1900 

and during 1901. ' Trans. Dum. Gall. N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 125-127, 161-164. 

1905. 
Sinclair, W. J. H. The Weather and Climate of Peterhead. ' Trans. Buchan 

F. C VII. 57-86. 1905. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 75 

Softball, H. Weather in Herefordshire during the Nineteenth Century. 

'Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' 2-14. 1905. 
Rainfall at Ross, compared with Rainfall over the Area of Watershed in 

Radnorshire connected with the Birmingham Water Supply from Wales. 

' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' 15-18. 1905. 
Our English Summers. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' 208-211, 



1905. 
Spitta, E. J. The Relative Merits of the Long- and Short-tube Microscopes. 

(Presidential Address.) ' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' ix. 279-286. 1906. 
Stenhouse, Thomas. The Radio-Activity of Radium and other Compounds. 

' Trans. Rochdale Lit. Sei. Soc' viii. 13-23. 1905. 
Stewart, Louis B. Gravity Determinations in Labrador. ' Trans. Roy. Astr. 

Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 70-78. 1906. 
Stilwbll, H. Returns of Rainfall, &c., in Dorset in 1904. ' Proc. Dorset 

N. H. A. F. C XXVI. 88-100. 1905. 
Stupaet, R. F. JMagnetic and Meteorological Observations at North-West River, 

Labrador. ' Trans. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 79-88. 1906. 
SiTTTON, J. R. Some Results of Observations made with a Black Bulb Thermo- 
meter in vacuo. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 79-96. 1905. 
On the Variation of the Hourly Meteorological Normals at Kimberley during 

the Passage of a Barometric Depression. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 

169-188. 1905. 
Walkbe, Stdbtet F. Earth in Collieries, with reference to the ' Special Rules 

for the Installation and Use of Electricity.' ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 

404-415. 1906. 
Wheeler, W. H. The High Tides on the East Coast. ' The Naturalist for 

1905,' 335-3.36. 1905. 
The Weather and the March High Tides. 'The Naturalist for 1906,' 110- 

111. 1906. 
Wood, G. C. Determination of the Specific Electrical Resistance of Coal, Ores, 

&c. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 99-107. 1906. 
Yorkshire Philosophical Society. Meteorological Record for the Year 1905. 

' Report Yorka. Phil. Soc. for 1905,' 14-19. 1906. 

Section B. — Chemistry. 

DoDDS, R. (N. Eng. Inst. Min. Eng.). Note on the Composition of Coal from 
the Faroe Islands. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 281." 1905. 

Note on a Natural Paraffin found in the Ladysmith Pit, Whitehaven Col- 
lieries. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 284-285. 1905. 

Kbegan, Dr. P. Q. The Chemistry of some Common Plants. ' The Naturalist 
for 1905,' 274-277. 1905. 

PENNiifGTON, W. H. Some Ancient Colouring Matters. ' Trans. Rochdale Lit. 
Sci. Soc' VIII. 85-92. 1905. 

Smith, Samuel. Decay of Stones in Buildings; the Cause and Prevention. 
' Proc Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxvi. 103-117. 1905. 

Thwaite, B. H. Can Explosions in Coal-mines, with their Associated Toxic 
Fatalities, be prevented P ' Trans. Inst. Mm. Eng.' xxx. 388-398. 1906. 

Section G. — Geology. 

Abbott, G. Concretionary Cellular Limestone of Durham. ' The Naturalist for 
1905,' 231-233. 1905.' 

Aldis, T. S. Drift in the Wye Valley. 'Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902- 
1904,' 325-329. 1905. 

Anderson, E. M. The Dynamics of Faulting. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' viii. 
387-402. 1905. 

Ashwoeth, James (Manch. Geol. Min. Soc). Notes on the Crow's Nest Coal- 
field, British Columbia. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 330-335. 1905. 



76 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Batlet, E. B. On the Occurrence of Two Splierulitic (' Variolitic ') Basalt Dykes 
in Ardmuclinish, Argyll. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc." Till. 367-371. 1905. 

and D. Tait. On the Occurrence of True Coal Measures at Port Seton, East 

Lothian. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' viii. 351-362. 1905. 

Baldwin, Walter. Notes on the Palaeontology of Sparth Bottoms, Rochdale. 
' Trans. Rochdale Lit. Sci. Soc' viii. 78-84. 1905. 

(Manch. Geol. Min. Soc.) Prestwichia anthrax and JBelmwus Innatus 

from Sparth Bottoms, Rochdale. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eug-.' xxix. 621-624 
1906. 

Barke, F. Report of the Geological Section. ' Report N. Staff. F. C XL 83- 

86. 1906. 
Bell, Robert. Observations on Our Home Hills. ' Proc Belfast Nat. F C ' 

V. 327-328. 1905. 
Sharks' Teeth from the Local Cretaceous Formations. ' Proc. Belfast Nat 

F. C V. 330-331. 1905. 
Blunt, T. P. Bedding and Cleavage in Rocks. ' Trans. Oar. and Sev. Vail. 

F. C IV. 47-50. 1906. 
BouLTON, Prof. W. S. On a Newly-exposed Glaciated Rock-surface near 

Penrhiwceiber, South Wales. 'Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxxviii. 59-60. 

1906. 
Brodrick, Harold. Notes on a Recently-explored Fault-Fissure on Ingle- 
borough. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' x. 43-47. 1905. 
Beown, J. C. On some Lacustrine Deposits in the Drift near Ferryhill. ' Trans. 

Northumb. N. H. Soc' i. 288-292. 1905. 

Note on Janassa lituminosn, Schlot., from the Marl Slate, Thicklev, 

Durham. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 220-222. 1905. 

Buckingham, C. The Intermittent Streams of East Kent. ' East Kent S. N. H. 

Soc Report.' Ser. IL v. 11-14. 1906. 
BuLMAN, G. W. Some Aspects of Geology. 'Trans. Eastbourne Nat. Hist. 

Soc' lY. 35-49. 1906. 
Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club. Geological Notes. 'Record of 

Bare Facts,' No. 15, 37-39. [1906.] 
Carter, W. Lower. The Evolution of the Don River System. ' Proc Yorks, 

Geol. Soc' XV. 388-410. 1905. 

The Glaciation of the Don and Dearue Valleys. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc' 

XV. 411-436. 1905. 

C.48H, W. The Fossil Plants of the Yorkshire Coal Measures. Part I. What 

and How to Observe, Collect, and Record. 'The Naturalist for 1900,' 116- 

120. 1906. 
OOBBOLD, E. S. A River Valley. ' Trans. Car. and Sev. VaU. F. C iv. 7-9. 

1906. 
Cope, Thomas H. Some Geological Problems in South- West Lancashire. (Presi- 
dential Address.) 'Proc Liverpool Geol. Soc' x. 1-25. 1905. 
Craig, E. H. Cunningham. On the Igneous Breccia of the Lui near Braemar. 

' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' viii. 336-340. 1905, 
Crampton, C. B. The Limestones of Aberlady, Dunbar, and St. Mocans. 

'Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' viii. 374-378. 1905. 
Crick, G. C. Note on a Rare Form of Actinoramax {A. Grossonvrei) from the 

Chalk of Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 156-158. 1906. 
Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society. Geological Report. 

' Proc Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc. 1905-1906,' Ixxxii.-lxxxviii. 1906. 
CuLPiN, H. A Post-Permian Fault at Cusworth, near Doncaster. ' Proc. 

Yorks. Geol. Soc' xv. 453-455. 1905. 
CuRRiE, James. On New Localities for Levyne in the Fseroes and in Skye. 

' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' viii. 341-343. 1905. 
The Stassfurt Salt Industry. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' viii. 403-412. 

1905. 
Davey, E. C. The Leading Fossils of the Upper and Lower Greensands of Wilts 

and Berks. ' Proc. Bath N. H. A. F. C x. 412-422. 1905. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 77 

Dickinson, Joseph. The Leading Features of tbe Lancashire Coal-field. 'Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 357-368. 1906. 
Dow, R. The Agates of the Sidlaws. ' Trans. Perthshire Soc. N. Sci.' iv. 87-96. 

1905. 
Du ToiT, Alex. L. The Lower Old Red Sandstone Rocks of the Balmaha- 

Aberfoyle Region. ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' viii. 315-325. 1905. 
Edwards, W. The Glacial Geology of Anglesey. 'Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' 

X. 26-37. 1905. 
Garnett-Botfield, W. E. A Fortnight in Norway. ' Trans. Car. and Sev. 

Vail. F. C IV. 18-20. 1906. 
Gibson, Walcot. Marine Beds in the Coal-Measures of Yorkshire. 'The 

Naturalist for 1906,' 112-113. 1906. 
Goodchild, J. G. The Black Hill of Earlston. ' History Berwickshire Nat. Club,' 

XIX. 51-59. 1905. 
Tha Geological Formations near Embletou, Northumberland. ' History 

Bermckshire Nat. Club,' xix. 60-67. 1905. 
On Unconformities and Palseontological Breaks in relation to Geological 

Time. (Presidential Address.) ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' viii. 276-314. 1905. 
Gregory, Prof. J. W. (Min. Inst. Scot.) The Mining Fields of Southern Rhodesia 

in 1905. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 46-102. 1906. 
Gkindlet, Rev. H. E. Further Notes on Ice Action and on Ancient Drainage 

Systems connected with the Wye Valley. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 

1902-1904,' 336-338. 1905. 
Haeker, Alfred. The Tertiary Crust-Movements in the Inner Hebrides 

' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' vin. 344-350. 1905. 
Cordierite in the Metamorphosed Skiddaw Slates. 'The NaturaUst for 

1906,' 121-123. 1908. 
Hawkeswoeth, Edwin. Some Drift Deposits near Leeds. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. 

Soc' XV. 456-462. 1905. 
HiNDE, Dr. G. J. Description of some Fossils from a Croydon Garden. 'Trans. 

Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc. 1904-1905,' 87-94. 1905. 
Hogg, A. J. Mitcham Gravels and their Mammalian Remains. ' Trans. Croydon 

N. H. Sci. Soc. 1905-1906,' 133-140. 1906. 
Hughes, Prof T. McKennt. Ingleborough. Part II. Stratigraphy (continued). 

The Silurian Rocks of Ingleborough. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc' xv. 351-371. 

1905. 
Johns, Cosmo. Geological Notes on the District around Askrigg. 'The 

Naturalist for 1 905,' 2 1 2-214. 1905. 

A Yorkshire Glacial Problem. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 24-3-245. 1905. 

On Segregation in Igneous Rocks. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 364-366. 1905. 

The Large Felspars of Shap Granite. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 11-33. 1906. 

Sheffield's Trough Fault. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 87-89. 1906. 

on Differential Earth- Movements during Carboniferous Times and their 

Significance as Factors in determining the Limits of the Yorkshire, Derby- 
shire, and Nottingham Coalfield. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc' xv. 372-379. 

1906. 

Experimental Petrology. ' Proc Yorks. Geol. Soc' xv. 46.3-467. 1905. 

Johnson, J. P. On the Discovery of a large numher of Implements of Palaeo- 
lithic Type at Vereeniging, Transvaal. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 

107-109. 1905. 
Kennard, A. S., and R. B. Woodward. The Extinct Postpliocene Non-Marine 

Mollusca of the South of England. 'South-Eastern Naturalist' for 1906, 

14-24. 1905. 
Lebour, Prof. G. A. Geological Notes for a Visit to Rothley Crag. ' Trans. 

Northumb. N. H. Soc' i. 277-283. 1905. 
LoNEs, Dr. T. E. Some recently exposed Beds in the Valley of the Gade, at and 

near Hunton Bridge. ' Trans. Herts. N. H. Soc' xii. 253-256. 1905. 
McDakin, Capt J. G. The Initial Cause of the Dover Valley. ' Trans. East 

Kent S. N. H. Soc' v. 4. 1906. 



78 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Martin, Egbert. Coal-Mining in the Musselburgh Coal-iield. ' Trans. Edinb. 

Geol. Soc' Tin. 379-386. 1905. 
Metrick, E. Report of the Geological Section. 'Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. 

Soc' No. 54, 75. 1906. 
Milne, John. The Geology of Mormond. ' Trans. Bucban F. C viii. 90-92. 

1905, 
MoLENGRAAFF, Dr. G. A. F. The CuUiuan Diamond. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XXIX. 607-509. 1906. 
MooEE, H. Cecil. The Woolhope Valley : References to the Geology of the 

Woolhope and neighbouring Districts ; Geological Illustrations ; Suggestions 

for Routes. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' 19-28. 1905. 
Note on the Landslip in the Woolhope District, near Putlev Cockshoot, on 

February 17, 1904. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' 228-229. 1905. 
Drifts in Herefordshire and Evidences of Action of Land Ice. ' Trans. 



Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' 330-335. 1905. 
Parker, William A. Remains of Fossil Fishes found near Rochdale. ' Trans. 

Rochdale Lit. Sei. Soc' viii. 25-32. 1905, 
Peach, B. N. The Higher Crustacea of the Carboniferous Rocks of Scotland. 

[Abstract of Address.] ' Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc' viii. 372-373. 1905. 
Reade, T. Mellard. Notes on some Specimens of Lancashire Boulder Clay. 

' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' x. 38-42, 1905. 
and Philip Holland. Sands and Sediments : Part II. Geologic Sedi- 
ments of Marine, Estuarine, or Fresh Water Origin, ' Proc. Liverpool Geol, 

Soc' X. 48-78. 1905. 
Reillt, George E. The Carrickfergus Salt Beds, ' Proc. Belfast Nat. F, C 

V, 332, 1905, 
Richardson, L. The Results of Denudation as seen from Bredon Hill. ' Trans. 

Woolhope N, F. Club, 1902-1904,' 55-61, 1905, 
Notes on the Geology of Bredon Hill, ' Trans, Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902- 

1904,' 62-67. 1905. 
On the Mesozoic Rocks around Chepstow. 'Trans, Woolhope N. F, Club, 

1902-1904,' 178-184. 1905. 
RoBARTS, N. F. Notes on the New Cross Cutting (L.B. & S.C. R.), ' Trans, 

Croydon N, H. Sci, Soc. 1904-1905,' 61-65. 1905. 
Notes on a Section of Woolwich and Reading Beds, New Cross Gate. 

• Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc 1904-1905,' 111-113, 1905, 
Rogers, A. W, The Volcanic Fissure under Zuurberg, 'Trans, S, African 

Phil. Soc' XVI. 189-199. 1905. 
Russell, Archibald (Min, Inst. Scot.). The Coal-fields of Cape Colony.- 

' Trans. Inst. Min, Eng,' xxix. 228-258. 1905. 
Sawyer, A. R. The Geology of Chunies Poort, Transvaal. ' Trans. Inst. Min, 

Eng.' XXIX, 510-516, 1906. 
Sewell, J. T. Notes on Glacial Deposits near Pickering. ' Proc, Yorks. Geol, 

Soc' XV. 443-445, 1905, 
Notes on the ' Overflow Channel ' in Newton Dale between Lake Whealdale 

and Lake Pickering, ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc' xv, 446-452. 1905. 
Sheppard, T. On a Section in the Boulder-clay near 'V^'ithe^nsea. ' The Natu- 
ralist for 1905,' 301-304, 1905. 
Notes on some Speeton-clay Belemnites. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 97-99, 

1906, 
Sherborn, C, Davies. On the Belemnites of the Chalk of Yorkshire. ' The 

Naturalist for 1906,' 152-154, 1906, 
Smith, Arthur, Liucolnshire Boulders. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 206. 1905. 
SoLLT, Rev, H. Shaen. The Landslip, Lyme Regis, ' Proc. Dorset N.H. A.F.C 

XXVI. 182-186. 1905. 
Stather, J. W. Notes on the Geology of the South District. ' The Naturalist 

for 1905,' 217-219. 1905. 
Yorkshire Geological Photographs Committee's Report for 1905, ' The 

Naturalist for 1906,' 16-17. 1906. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 79 

Stobbs, John T. The Value of Fossil Mollusca in Coal-measure Stratigraphy. 
' Trans. lust. Min. Eng.' sxx. 443-458. 1906. 

Strachan, J. The Origin and Growth of Agate and Chalcedony. ' Proc. Belfast 
Nat. F. C V. 328-330. 1905. 

SuTCLiFFE, W. H. The Bullion Mine of the Upper Carboniferous Rocks. ' Trans. 
Rochdale Lit. Sci. Soc' viii. 33-40. 1905. 

Teasdale, Thomas. The Barton and Forcett Limestone Quarries. 'Trans. Inst. 
Min. Eng.' xxx. 73-83. 1906. 

Thompson, Bbeby, Petrifactions So-called. * Journal Northants N. H. Soc' xiii. 
17-19. 1905. 

The Junction Beds of the Upper Lias and Inferior Oolite in Northampton- 
shire. Part II. ' Journal Northants N. H. Soc' xiii. 55-66, 93-105. 1905. 

Thompson, C. Note on the Occurrence of Actinocama.v plenus in the Chalk of 
Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 202-203. 1905. 

Waed, John. Contributions to the Geology and Paleontology of North Stafford- 
shire. No. VI. Palaeontology of the Cheadle Coalfield. 'Trans. N. Staff. 
F.C XL. 102-137. 1906. 

and John T. Stobbs. A. Newly-discovered Fish-bed in the Cheadle Coal- 
field ; with Notes on the Distribution of Fossil Fishes in that District. ' Report 
N. Staff. F. C XL. 87-101. 1906. 

Warth, Thomas (S. Stafl". Inst. Eng.). Gold Mining in Southern Rhodesia. 
' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 75-88. 1905. 

Watt, James. The Geology of the Dumfries Basin. ' Trans. Dum. Gall. N. H. 
A. Soc' XVII. 216-221. 1905. 

Wellbxten, Edgar D. Fish Fauna of the Lower Carboniferous Rocks of York- 
shire. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc' xv. S80-387. 1905. 

Whitakbr, W. Some Surrey Wells. (Fourth Paper.) ' Trans. Croydon N. H. 
Sci. Soc. 1904-1905,' 71-85. 1905. 

WiLMAN, Miss M. Catalogue of Printed Books, Papers, and Maps relating to 
the Geology and Minerology of South Africa. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' 
XV. 283-467. 1905. 

Wingate, Rev. W. J. A Ramble up Burnhope. ' Trans. Northumb. N. H. 
Soc' I. 95-114. 1905. 

Weight, Joseph. Perforations in Primary Limestone. 'Proc. Belfast Nat. 
F. 0.' V. 343-344. 1905. 

Young, B. Robert. An Analcite Diabase and other Rocks from GuUane Hill. 
' Trans. Edinb. Qeol. Soc' viii. 326-335. 1905, 

Section D. — Zoology. 

Adamson, Lieut.-Col. C. H. E. Catalogue of Butterflies collected in Burmah. 

Part I. ' Trans. Northumb. N. H. Soc' i. 155-189. 1905. 
Bagnall, R. S. Note on some Additions, &c., to the Coleoptera of the Northum- 
berland and Durham District. ' Trans. Northumb. N. H. Soc' i. 224-247. 

1905. 
Bedford, E. J. A Few Notes on Birds. 'Trans. Eastbourne Nat. Hist. Soc' 

IV. 33-34. 1906. 
A Visit to the Fame Islands and their Birds. ' Trans. Eastbourne Nat. Hist, 

Soc' IV. 54. 1906. 
Bell, Richard. Some Bird Notes from Eskdale, 'Trans. Dum. Gall, N. H. A, 

Soc' XVII. 64-75, 1905 
BiCKEETON, William. Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during the 

Year 1904. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xii. 226-236. 1905. 
Bladen, W. Wells. Bird Notes (1903-5), chiefly taken at Stone. ' Trans. N. 

Staf}'. F. C XL. 55-65. 1906. 
BoLAM, George. On the Occurrence of the Lesser Whitethroat near Berwick, 

' History Berwickshire Nat. Club,' xix. 68. 1905. 

Ornithological Notes. ' History Berwickshire Nat. Club,' xix. 69-72. 1905. 

Booth, H. B. Bird Migration. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 164-166. 1906, 



80 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

BosTOCK, E. D. Report of the Entomological Section. ' N. Staff. F. C xxxix. 

69-72, 1905 ; xl. 66-68, 1906. 
Bkadt, Dr. G. S. On Copepoda and otlier Crustacea taken off Northumberland 

and Durham in July 1904. ' Trans. Northumb. N. H. Soc' i. 210-223. 1905. 
Beixten, Haert. Notes on Birds of the Eden Valley. 'The Naturalist for 

1905,' 207-208, 237-238. 1905. 

Coleoptera in Cumberland. 'The Naturalist for 1905/ 312-313. 1905. 

Brown, Rev. W. McI;EAN. Rare Birds Nesting or Taken about Rothley Lake 

and the Rothbury Hills. ' Trans. Northumb. N. H. Soc' i. 273-274. 1905, 
Beowne, F. B. a Study of the Aquatic Coleoptera and their Surroundings in 

the Norfolk Broads District. 'Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' viii. 58-82. 

1905. 
BuNKEE, Thomas. Note on the Occurrence of the Beluga, or White Whale, in 

the Ouse. ' The Naturahst for 1905,' 167-168. 1905. 
Oaraboc and Severn Valley Field Club. Zoological Notes. 'Record of Bare 

Facts,' No. 15, 23-36. [1906.] 
Castellain, a. List of Birds and Flowers of Bath and its Neighbourhood, with 

the Periods of their First Appearance as observed in the Year 1904. ' Proc. 

Bath N. H, A. F. C x. 527-533. 1905. 
Dicker, Rev. C. W. H. The Naturalist in Australia. ' Proc Dorset N.H. A. F. C 

XXVI. 160-171. 1905. 
Donaldson, George. Marine Shells of our District. 'Proc Belfast Nat. F. C 

T. 341-342. 1905, 
Deane, R. Irish Biological Futilities. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxxvii. 26-30. 

1905. 
Eaeland, Aethur. The Foraminifera of the Shore-sand at Bognor, Sussex. 

' Journal Quekett Mic Club,' ix. 187-232. 1905. 
Edwaeds, James. On Bagous lutosus, Gyll., in Norfolk. ' Trans. Norf. Norw, 

Nat. Soc' VIII. 102-106". 1905. 
Falconee, Wm. East Yorkshire Spiders. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 29-30. 1906. 
Forrest, H. E. Shore Birds and their Ways. * Trans. Car. and Sev. Vail, 

F. C IV. 22-25. 1906. 

The Barbastelle Bat. ' Trans. Car. and Sev. Vail. F. C iv. 52-54. 1906. 

Fortune, Riley. Birds requiring Protection in Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist 

for 1906,' 81-86. 1906. 
Freeman, Rev. R. The Rotifera of Norfolk. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' 

VIII. 137-147. 1905. 
Gallwat, AV. II. Sea Anemones ; their Structure, Habits, and Life History. 

' Proc Belfast Nat. F. C V. 326-327. 1905. 
Garstang, Walter. The Natural History of the North Sea. (Presidential Ad- 
dress.) ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' viii. 1-14. 1905. 
George, 0. F. Notes ou a Solitary Wasp {Odynerus parietum, Linn.). ' The 

Naturalist for 1906,' 27-28. 1906. 
Lincolnshire Freshwater Mites. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 37-38, 93-94. 

1906. 
GxLLANDERS, A. T. Further Notes on Arboreal Insects. ' Trans. Manch. Mic. 

Soc, 1904,' 58-06. 1905. 
Gurnet, Robert. The Infe History of the Cladocera. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. 

Soc' VIII. 44-58. 1905. 
Alonopsis ariibiffua, Lillj., an Addition to the Cladocera of Norfolk, ' Trans. 

Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' viii. 150-151. 1905. 
Hammond, H. W. Bird Song (continued). 'Rochester Naturalist,' iii. 325-341, 

1905. 
Hutchinson, Thomas. The Ouclcoo in 1902. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 

1902-1904,' 46-48. 1905. 
Jackson, A. Randell. The Genus Tajjinocyba. ' Trans. Northumb, N. H, Soc' 

I. 248-261. 1905. 
Jeffrey, Wm. R. Notes on Lepidoptera. ' Trans. East Kent S. N. H. Soc' 

V, 21. 1906. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 81, 

Keee, Prof. J. Graham. The Evolution of Zoological Science during the Nine- 
teenth Century. 'Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxvi. 227-249. 1905. 

Knight, Rev. G. A. Frank. On tlie Phenomenon of Sinistrorsity in the 
Mollusca. ' Trans. Perthshire Soc. N. Sci.' iv. 100-119. 1905. 

Leney, Frank. Some Additions to tlio Norwich Castle Museum in 1904 
'Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' VIII. 107-110. 1905. 

Lloyd, James W. Occurrence of Rare Birds in Herefordshire. ' Trans. Wool- 
hope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' 148-149. 1905. 

LoFTHOUSE, T. AsnroN. An Addition to the Yorkshire List of Lepidoptera 
' The Naturalist for 1906,' 70. 1906. 

Lord, J. E. The Micro-flora and Fauna of our Wells and Surface Troui-hs 
'Trans. Manch. Mic. Soc, 1904,' 55-57. 1905. "" 

Martin, Dr. List of the Birds of Glencairn. 'Trans. Dam. Gall. N. H. A Soc 
XVII. 140-155. 1905. 

The Fauna of Glencairn. 'Trans. Dum. Gall. N, H. A. Soc' xvii 166- 

172. 1905. 

Masefield, J. R. B. Report of the Zoological Section. ' Trans. N. Staff F C 
XL. 44-54. 1906. 

Meek, Alexander. On the Migrations and the Growth of Plaice. ' Trans 
Northumb. N. H. Soc' I. 144-154. 1905. 

Metrick, E. Report of the Entomological Section. ' Report Marlb. Coll N [I 
Soc" No. 54,' 59-70. 1906. 

Ornithological List. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. II. Soc,' No. 54, 71-74. 1900 

List ofColeoptera of the District. 'Report Marlb. Coll. N. II. Soc ' No 54 

76-96. 1906. ■ ' 

Notes on Wiltshire Insects outside the Marlborough District. ' Report 

Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc.,' No. 54, 97. 1906. 

MiLNE, William. On the Function of the Water Vascular System in Rotifera 

with Notes on some South African Floscularia. ' Proc. Glasgow R Phil Soc ' 

xxxvi. 118-127. 1905. 
Morley, B. Notes on Lepidopterous Variation in the Skelmanthorpe District 

' The Naturalist for 1906,' 48-51. 1906. 
Murray, James. On a New Bdelloid Rotifer, Callidina vesicularis. ' Journal 

Quekett Mic Club,' ix. 259-262. 1906. 
Patterson, A. H. Natural History Notes from Yarmouth, 1904, ' Trans Norf 

Norw. Nat. Soc' viii. 111-116. 1905. 
Peacock, Max. The Birds of North-Weat Lindsev. 'The Naturalist for 1906' 

42-45. 1906. ' ' 

Pickard-Oambeidge, Rev. 0. On New and Rare British Arachnida ' Proc 

Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxvi. 40-74. 1905. 
PiLLEY, James B. The Nutcracker {Nucifraga caryocaf.actes) in Herefordshire 

' Trans. AVoolhope N. F. Clu!S, 1902-1904,' 70-72. 1905. 

The Goshawk. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' .361-.362. 1905. 

Peogee, T. W. Bats. 'Trans. Cardifi' Nat. Soc' xxxviii. 69-73. ISOo'. 

and D. R. Pateeson. Ornithological Notes for 1904. 'Trans. CardilFNat 

Soc' XXXVII. 66-75. 1905. 

Ornithological Notes. ' Trans. CardilFNat. Soc' xxxviii. 92-97. 1906. 



Rasell, F. J. Monkshood Moth — Plusia monata. ' Journal Northants N H 

Soc' XIII. 16. 1905. ■ ■ 

Richardson, Nelson M. Report on First Appearances of Birds, Insects, &c. 

and the First Flowering of Plants in Dorset during 1904. ' Proc Dorset 

N. H. A. F. C XXVI. 266-275. 1905. 
Robinson, Rev. Thos. Notes on the Radiolaria. ' Trans. Manch Mic Soc 

1904,' 44-54. 1905. 
RoBsoN, John E. A Catalogue of tlie Lepidoptera of Northumberland, Durham 

and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Vol. II. Micro-Lepidoptera. Part I. I'yraldinia 

and Tortricina. ' Trans. Northumb. N. II. Soc' xv. 1-106. 1905. 
RossETER, T. B. On Drepanidotmmia undiilata (Krabbe). ' Journal Quekett 

Mic. Club,' IX. 269-278. 1906. 

1906. „ 



82 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Saunders, S. Barnacles. ' Trans. E. Kent S. N. H. Soc' v. 5-7. 1906. 
Service, Robert. The Vertebrates of Solway — a Centurj^'s Changes. 'Trans. 

Dam. Gall. N. H. A. Soo.' xvii. 15-31. 1905. 
Shaw, W. A. The Birds of Northamptonshire and Neighbourhood. ' Journal 

Northants. N. H. Soc' xiii. 11-15, 1905. 
Shbppard, T, Yorkshire Naturalists at Loftus. 'The Naturalist for 1905,' 

246-25.3. 1905. 
Sjiith, Frank P. The Spiders of the Walckenaeria Group. ' Journal Quekett 

Mic. Club,' IX. 239-246. 1905. 
Anglia Hancockii, a Spider new to Science. ' Journal Quekett Mic, Club,' 

IX. 247-250. 1905. 
The Spiders of the Diplocephalus Group. ' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' ix. 

295-320. 1905. 
The Literature of the Sub-Family Erigoninse. ' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' 



IX. 321-326. 1906. 
SoAE, Chas. D. The Hydrachnids of the Norfolk Broads, 'Trans. Norf. Norw, 

Nat. Soc' viii. 83-89. 1905. 
Southwell, Thomas. On Migration other than of Birds, with special reference 

to the Oetacea. * Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' viii. 15-21. 1905. 
Spitta, E. J. On some Experiments relating to the Compound Eyes of Insects. 

' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' ix. 263-268. 1906. 
Stainforth, T. Notes on East Yorkshire Coleoptera. ' Trans. Hull Sci. F. N. 

Club,' III. 235. 1906. 
Stephenson, Thos. The Lesser Grey Shrike near Whitby : an Addition to York- 
shire Avi-Fauna. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 70. 1906. 
Taylor, J. W. Notes on Sinistral Shells of LimncBa peregra. ' The Naturalist 

for 1906,' 114-115. 1906. 
ToNGB, A. E. Lepidopterous Ova. ' South-Eastern Naturalist for 1905,' 52-54. 

1905. 
Trechmann, 0. T. Limnma jiereqra monst. sinistrorsum in Durham. 'The 

Naturalist for 1906,' 113-114. 1906. 
Wesche, W. The Genitalia of the Tsetse Fly, Olossina palpalis. ' Journal 

Quekett Mic Club,' ix. 233-238. 1905. 
Whitaker, Arthur. Notes on the Breeding Habits of Bats. ' The Naturalist 

for 1905,' 325-330. 1905. 
The Development of the Senses in Bats. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 145- 

151. 1906. 
White, R. Watts. Life in Ponds and Ditches. ' Trans. Ea.stbourne Nat. Hist. 

Soc' IV. 34. 1906. 
Whtte, W. The Nesting of the Great Crested Grebe {Podiceps cristatua) in 

Perthshire. ' Trans. Perthshire Soc. N. Sci.' iv. 83-86. 1905. 
Wilson, Prof Gregg. Deep Sea Life. ' Proc Belfast Nat. F. 0.' v. 332-334. 1905. 
Wood, John H. Herefordshire Diptera: the Platypezidfe, Pipunculidee, and 

Syrphidce. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' 363-375. 1905. 
Woodeuffe-Peacock, Rev. E. A, Notes on the Common Weasel, ' The 

Naturalist for 1905,' 169-170. 1905. 
Yorkshire Entomological Committee. Yorkshire Lepidoptera in 1905, 

'The Naturalist for 1906,' 39-41. 1906. 

Section E. — Geography. 
Bcttterworth, Walter. A Visit to Portugal. 'Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' 

XX. 145-164. 1905. 
Dann, Ernest W. What is Geography ? 'Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xx. 

130-139. 1905. 
Darbt, Rev. R. D. Life on the Congo. ' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xxi. 

99-103. 1906. 
Fordham, H. G. Hertfordshire Maps : a Descriptive Catalogue of the Maps of 

the County. Part II., 1673-1794; Part III., 1794-1900. 'Trans. Herts 

N. H. Soc' XII. 169-208. 1905, 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 83 

Galeotti, Mrs. L. F. Sicily. 'Journal Manch. Geo;^. Soc' xx. 116-129. 1905. 
Gleave, J. J. East Anglia — Cromer, the Norfolk Broads, Norwich, and Ely. 

'Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xxr. 116-127. 1906. 
Haekek, Alpeet). The Eecording of Localities. 'The Naturalist for 1905/ 

331-332. 1905. 
Heatlet, J. T. P. The Development of Rhodesia and its Railway System in rela- 
tion to Oceanic Highways. ' Journal Tyneside Geog. Soc' v. No. 4, 7-18. 1 906. 
Johns, Cosmo. Maps and Records. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 260-263. 1905. 
Lambebt, Feedeeick, Marvels of the Subterranean World — the Jenolan Caves, 

N.S.W. 'Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xxi. 128-139. 1906. 
McDeemott, Rev. P. A. The Development of West Africa. ' Journal Manch. 

Geog. Soc' XX. 97-109. 1905. 
Macgeegob, Miss Mueeat. The Carpathians. ' Trans. Perthshire Soc. N. Sci.' 

IT. 70-83. 1905. 
Magian, Dr. A. C. Japan and the Japanese. ' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xxi. 

140-148. 1906. 
Maetin, H. C, Rev. F. A. Rees, and W. Telfoed Gtjnson. The Eighth Inter- 

national Geographical Congress, Washington, 1904. ' Journal Manch. Geog. 

Soc' XXI. 50-70. 1906. 
Minns, Rev. G. W. Remarks on an Old Map of a Portion of the Ancient Parish 

of Titchfield. ' Proc. Hants F. C v. 203-209. 1906. 
MooEE, Dr. J. Mtjeeat. A Tour in Austria and Hungary in 1903. ' Journal 

Manch. Geog. Soc' xx. 113-115. 1905. 
Robinson, J. Feasee. Natural Aspects of Hull and District. ' Trans. Hull Sci. 

F. N. Club,' III. 189-195. 1906. 
RoTDs, Lieut. C. W. R. Life in Antarctica. ' Trans. Rochdale Lit. Sci, Soc' 

VIII. 54-65. 1905. 
Rudmose-Beown, R. N. The Voyage of the ' Scotia.' ' Trans. Perthshire Soc. 

N. Sci,' IV. 63-70. 1905. 
Scott, Capt. R. F. The National Antarctic Expedition. ' Journal Manch. Geog. 

Soc' XXI. 31-48. 1906. 
Swallow, Prof. R. W. Tai Yuan fu to Hankow : an Overland Trip in North 

China. ' Journal Manch. Geol. Soc' xxi. 13-29. 1906. 
Stkes, Heebeet R. Travels in Persia. ' Trans. Car. and Sev. Vail. F. C iv. 

9-10. 1906. 
Some Notes on Journeys in Southern and South-Eastern Persia. ' Journal 

Manch. Geog. Soc' xxi. 1-12. 1906. 
TuBLEY, Robebt T. Manchuria. ' Trans. Liverpool Geog. Soc. 1905,' 11-16. 

1906. 

Section F. — Economic Science and Statistics. 

Beamall, Henet (Manch. Geol. Min. Soc.) Presidential Address. (Coal- 
mining Industry.) ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng,' xxx. 304-310. 1906. 

Camfield, F. W. The Maritime Trade of Southampton in the Seventeenth 
Century. ' Proc. Hants F. C v. 139-154. 1906. 

Castletown, Lord. A Plea for Tillage Farming on Co-operative Lines. ' Journal 
Stat. Soc. Ireland,' xi. 339-351. 1905. 

Chalmees, Dr. A. K. The Development of Sanitary Science during the Nine- 
teenth Century. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxvi. 250-265, 1905. 

Chapman, Prof. S. J. Some Aspects of the Theory of Wages in relation to 
Practice. 'Trans. Manch. Stat. Soc, 1904-1905,' 61-80. 1905. 

Feasee, D. Deummond. The Gold Reserve of the Nation. 'Trans. Manch. 
Stat. Soc. 1904-1905,' 93-112. 1905. 

Geoqhegan, Hanbtjex C. The Report of the Tariff Commission. 'Journal Stat. 
Soc. Ireland,' xi. 311-324. 1905. 

Gill, A. H, The Organisation of Labour as a Political Force. * Trans. Manch. 
Stat. Soc. 1904-1905,' 81-91. 1905. 

Hassam, a. (N. Staff. Inst. Eng.) The Taxation of Collieries, 'Trans, Inat. 
Min, Eng.' xxix. 90-108. 1905. 

62 



84 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Laavson, Dr. William. The Social Legislation of 1904. Registration of Clubs 

(Ireland); Licensing (England) — Applicability of it' to Ireland. 'Journal 

Stat. Soc. Ireland,' xi. 325-3.39. 1905. 
Matheson, Dr. E. E. The Principal Results of the Census of the United 

Kingdom in 1901. (Presidential Address.) 'Journal Stat. Soc. Ireland,' xi. 

289-310. 1905. 
MooRE, R. T. (Min. Inst. Scot.) Presidential Address. (The Coal Question.) 

'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 115-122. 1905. 
Reed, J. Howabd. Cotton Growing within the British Empire. ' Journal 

Manch. Geog. Soc' xx. 110-112. 1905. 
Rowley, Walter. Our Coal Resources. ' Proc. Yorks. Geol. Soc' xv. 437-442. 

1905, 
Stanley, Wm. F. Economy of Growing Canadian Poplars upon Waste Lands 

for the Manufacture of Paper. ' Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc' 1904-1905, 

107-109. 1905. 
Welton, Thomas A. By-Products of the Census : a Study of the Recent 

Migrations of English People, and some other Questions arising in relation to 

the Census of 1901. ' Trans. Manch. Stat. Soc. 1904-1905,' 1-39. 1905. 
WiGG, T. J. Notes on the Herring Fishery of 1904, 'Trans. Norf. Norw, 

Nat. Soc' VIII. 97-101. 1905. 
Zimmerman, Lawrence W. The Taxation of Land Values. ' Trans. Manch. 

Stat. Soc. 1904-1905,' 41-59. 1905. 



Section G. — Engineering. 

Adamson, Thomas. Goaf-blasts in Mines in the Giridih Coal-field, Bengal, 

India. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 425-430. 1905. 
Allen, E. Some Engineering Problems in Gas- Works. ' Trans. Liverpool 

Eng. Soc' XXVI. 18-28. 1905, 
Andr6, Leon (N. Eng. Inst.) A Conveyor for Filling Coal at the Face. ' Trans, 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 106-108. 1906. 
AsHWORTH, James (Manch. Geol, Min. Soc.) The Hunter V. Mine, British 

Columbia, ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 338-348. 1905. 
Baddiley, H. (Mid. Inst. Eng.) Systematic Timbering at Emley Moor Collieries. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 150-152. 1905. 
Barnes, J. S. (Mid. Inst. xMin. Eng.) The Automatic Prevention of Overwinding 

of Hoisting, Winding, and Hauling Engines or Motors. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XXIX. 214-215. 1905. 
Batby, J. W. (N. Eng. Inst. Min. Eng.) The Mickley Conveyor. ' Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xxix. 268-271. 1905. 
Blackett, W, C, and R. G. Ware. The Conveyor-System for FiUing at the 

Coal-face, as practised in Great Britain and America. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XXIX. 449-474. 1905. 
Charlton, William (S. Staff, and Warw. Inst.) Coal-cutting Machines of the 

Bar Type. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 31-36. 1906. 
Clegg, Joseph (Mid. Inst. Min. Eng.) A Safety-catch for Cages. ' Trans. Inst, 

Min. Eng.' xxix. 208. 1905. 
Crawford, Robert (Min. Inst. Scot.) Hydraulic Pumping-Installation at 

Loanhead Colliery, near Edinburgh. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Ens-.' xxx. 64-72. 

1906. ^ 

Dinoire, C. (N. Eng. Inst.) The Application of Direct Cementation in Shaft- 

smkmg. ♦ Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 113-122. 1906. 
DuNCANSON, Thomas. Flow of Water in Pipes, Channels, and Rivers. ' Trans. 

Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxvi. 117-131. 1905. 
Ellis, S. H. Notes on some Hydraulic Limes. ' Trans. Liverpool Eajr. Soc' 

XXVI. 37-57. 1905. 
Fowler, A. F. The Evolution of Harbour Engineering. 'Trans, Liverpool 

Eng. Soc' XXVI. 235-246. 1905. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 85 

Fox, John (S. Staff. lust. Eng.) Tapping and Running-off a Head of Water 

from a Shaft. ' Trans. Inst. Min, Eng.' xxix. 217-218. 1905. 
Fetak, William. A Mechanical Coal-cutter in Queensland. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XXX 110-11.3. 1906. 
Gamlen, R. L. Electrical Power Distribution. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 

369-385. 1906. 
Qeeenek, T. Y. The Firing of Babcock and other Boilers by Waste-heat from 

Colje-ovens. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 362-369. 1905. 
Gkundt, J. Ship and Engine Equipment. 'Trans. Liverpool Eng. See' xxvi. 

82-91. 1905. 
Halbaum, H. W. G. The Great Planes of Strain in the Absolute Roof of Mines. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 175-201. 1906. 
Hied, F. The Electrical Driving of Winding Gears : Supplementary Note. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 392-395. 1905. 
HoLLiDAY, M. F. (N. Eng. Inst. Min. Eng.) An Outbreak of Fire, and its Cause, 

at Littleburn Colliery. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 294-295. 1905. 
HooGHWiNEEL, G. H. J. (Manch. Geol. Min. Soc.) Electric Pumping at 

Collieries. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 636-653. 1906. 
(Manch. Geol. Min. Soc.) The Generation of Electricity by the Waste 

Ga.ses of Modern Coke-ovens. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 313-325. 1906. 
Jefpeies, J. The Occurrence of Underground Fires at the Greta Colliery, New- 
South Wales. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 518-638. 1906. 
Keee, D. G. Corundum in Ontario : its Occurrence, Working, Milling, Con- 
centration, and Preparation for the Market as an Abrasive. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' xxx. 143-157. 1906. 
KiEBr, M. R. The Compound Winding-Engine at Lumpsey Mine. ' Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xxix. 380-383. 1905. 
Laweence, Heney (N. Eng. Inst. Min. Eng.) An Improved Watering-tub for 

Laying Dust in Coal Mines. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 292. 1905. 
LozE, Ed. Electric Winding-Engines at the Exhibition of the North of France, 

Arras, Pas-de-Calais. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 556-589. 1906. 
Lynch, W. (S. Staff. Inst. Eng.) Pneumatic Coal-boring Machines and Tools. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 08-71 . 1905. 
MacGeegoe, J. Stewaet (N. Eng. Inst.) The Alumino-thermic Welding 

Process and its Application to General Engineering. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XXXI. 11-25. 1906. 
Maclean, Prof. Magnus. Developments in Electric Signalling during the Nine- 
teenth Century. 'Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' XXXVI. 38-76. 1905. 
Maueicb, William (Mid. Count. Inst.) A Spark Arrester for Locomotives. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 15-17. 1906. 
Mitchell, T. W. H. (Mid. Inst. Eng.) Notes on Capels for Winding-ropes. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 173-183. 1905. 
Further Notes on Capels for Winding- Ropes. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

xxx. 239-242. 1906. 
Molyneux, T. Heavy Motor Vehicles. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxvi. 67- 

73. 1906. 
MoEEis, John. The Unwatering of the Achddu Colliery, with a Description of 

the Riedler Express Pump. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 131-142. 1906. 
MoTTEAM, Thomas H. (Min. Inst. Scot.) Description of the Sinking of Shafts 

through Sand at Ardeer, Ayrshire, by the Pneumatic Process, with Notes on 

the Subject of Caisson-ventilation and Sickness. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 

205-234. 1906. 
NoETH OP England Institute op Mining and Mechanical Engineees. Report 

of the Committee upon Mechanical Coal-cutting. Part II. — Heading Machines. 

Separate Pamphlet, 109 pp. 1905. 
Peasegood, W. G. (N. Staff. Inst. Eng.) A Gob Fire in the Ten-feet Seam, 

North Staffordshire. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 46-47. 1906. 
PiCKEEiNG, W. H. (Mid. Inst. Min. Eng.) The Dust Danger. 'Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xxix. 134-137. 1905. 



86 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

PiFFATJT, J. H. (N. Eng. Inst. Min. Eng.) The Use of Cement-concrete in the 

Working of Thick Coal Seams. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 274-278. 190-5. 
Petest, Feank E. Inaugural Address. [The Disposal of Sewage.] ' Trans. 

Liverpool Eng. Soc' xsvi. 1-17. 1905. 
Ross, Aethur (Manch. Geol. Min. Soc). The Circulation of Water in Steam 

Boilers. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 606-619. 1906. 
Steele, F. W. Design and AVork of Hydraulic Pressing, Stamping, Forging, 

and similar Machinery. 'Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxvi. 97-114. 1905. 
Stuaet, Donald M. (N. Eng. Inst. Min. Eng.) The Development of Explosives 

in Coal Mines. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 299-3-J8. 1905. 
SuTCLiFFB, FiELDEif. Sundry Notes on Dock Construction. ' Trans. Liverpool 

Eng. Soc' XXVI. 139-159.' 1905. 
ToNGE, A. J. (Mid. Inst. Eng.) A Colliery-plant: Its Economy and Waste. 

' Trans, Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 15-3-163. 1905. 
Teeglown, C. H. (S. Staff, and Warw. Inst.) The Tangye Suction Gas- 
producer. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 263-273. 1906. 
Walkeb G. Blake, and L. T. O'Shea (Mid. Inst. Min. Eng.) The Utilisation 

of Surplus Gases from By-product Gas-ovens. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 

187-206. 1905. 
Willis, J. (N. Staff. Inst. Eng.) An Electric Indicating Two-wire Signal. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 167-170. 1905. 
Wilson, H. W. Electrification of Railways. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxvi. 

181-223. 1905. 
WiNSTANLET, Geoege (Mauch. Geol. Min. Soc.) A Fatality caused by Low- 
pressure Electric Current in a Lancashire Colliery. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XXIX. 349-353. 1905. 
WooDWOETH, B. (N. Staff. Inst. Eng.) Proposed Plant for Winding 250 Tons 

of Co.al per Hour from a depth of 3,000 feet. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 

31-37. 1906. 

Section H. — Anthropology. 

AsHWOETH, Eev. G. H. The Whitburn Hot-pot. 'Trans. Rochdale Lit. Sci. 

Soc' viii. 8-12. 1905. 
Babboue, James. First Account of the Excavations of Lochrutton Crannog. 

' Trans. Dum. Gal. N. H. A. Soc' xvir. 128-136. 1905. 
BuLLEiD, Aethtte, and li. St. Geoege Geat. The Glastonbury Lake Village : 

an Account of a Portion of the Excavations undertaken during 1905. ' Proc 

Som'setsh. A. N. H. Soc' li. Pai-t ii. 77-104. 1906. 
Claeke, W. G. Remains of the Neolithic Age in Thetford District. 'Trans. 

Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' viii. 25-35. 1905. 
OooKSBY, Chaeles F. Upou some Relics discovered near the Site of the Ancient 

Castle of Southampton. ' Proc. Hants F. C v. 197-201. 1906. 
Dale, W. On the Discovery of an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Droxford, Hants. 

' Proc. Hants F. C v. 173-177. 1906. 
Don, John. A Prehistoric Interment in Buchan. ' Trans. Buchan F. C viii. 

103-104. 1906. 
Fleat, F. G. The Great Pyramid— A New Theory. ' London Coll. Sci. Soc' 

XI. 22-30. 1905. 
FoEEEST, Rev. J. Place Names in Lonmay. ' Trans. Buchan F. C viii. 93-102. 

1905. 
Geoege, T. J. On some Bronze Mirrors found in Great Britain. 'Journal 

NorthantsN. H. Soc' xiii. 37-43. 1905. 
Goodman, C. H. Note on Bronze Palstave found at Warlingham. 'Trans. 

Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc 1904-1905,' 59. 1905. 
Geat, H. St. Geoege, and C. S. Peideaux. Barrow Digging at Martinstown, 

near Dorchester, 1903. ' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. 0.' xxvi. 6-39. 1 905. 
Hamilton, J. C. Stellar Legends of American Indians. * Trans. Roy. Astr. Soc. 

of Canada for 1905,' 47-50. 1906. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 87 

Hepburn, Prof. D. On Prehistoric Human Skeletons found at . Mertbyr Mawr, 

Glamorganshire. ' Trans. Cardift" Nat. Soc' xxxvii. 31-.54. 1905. 
Hogg, A. J. On Human and other Bones found at Whyteleafe, Surrey. ' Trans. 

Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc. 1905-1906,' 125-1.31. 1906. 
HuTCHESON, Alexander. Notes on the Discovery of the Remains of an Earth- 
house at Barnhill, Perth. ' Trans. Perthshire Soc. N. Sci.' iv. 96-100. 1905. 
Jacob, W. H. Notes on some Roman Urns found at Winchester. ' Proc. Hants 

F. C V. 211-212. 1906. 
M'Kban, J. B. Folk Lore. ' Proc. Belfast Nat. F. C v. 344-345. 1905. 
Metrick, E. Authropo metrical Report. 'Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' 

No. 54, 127-151. 1906. 
Morgan, Rev. W. E. T. Place Names in the Neighbourhood of Hay. ' Trans. 

Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' 285-287. 1905. 
Mortimer, J. R. Notes on the British Remains found near the Cawthorn Camps, 

Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 264-265. 1905. 
RoBARTS, N. F. The British Town of Wallington in the First Century B. C. 

' Trans. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc. 1905-1906,' 143-152. 1906. 
Trechmann, C. T. Neolithic Remains on the Durham Coast. ' The Naturalist 

for 1905,' 341-342, 361-363. 1905. 
Neolithic Remains on the Northumberland Coast. ' The Naturalist for 

1906," 90-91. 1906. 
Wedgwood, Lawrence. Notes on Celtic Remains found at the Upper House, 

Burlaston. ' Report N. Staff. F. C XL. 148-150. 1906. 
Wood, James G. The Place Name of Caerwent. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 

1902-1904,' 198-202. 1905. 



Section I. — Physiology. 

HiOKSON, Prof. S. J. Micro-organisms associated with Disease. (Presidential 
Address.) ' Trans. Manch. Mic. Soc. 1904,' 26-34. 1905. 

JEFi'ERiss, F. B. Physical Degeneration. (Presidential Address.) 'Rochester 
Naturalist,' iii. 377-390. 1906. 

JuRiTZ, C. F. Some Notes regarding South African Pharmacology. ' Trans. 
S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 111-133. 1905. 

PiTTOCK, Dr. Bacteria. ' Trans. East Kent S. N. H. Soc' v. 8-10. 1906. 

ScHAFER, Prof. E. A. Methods of Artificial Respiration. ' Proc. Glasgow 
R. Phil. Soc' xxxvi. 1-10. 1905. 

Wrob, Jonathan (Mid. Inst. Min. Eng.). The Effect of the Watering of Coal- 
mines on the Spread of Ankylostomiasis. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 
210-213. 1905. 

Section K. — Botany. 

Aenott, S. Some Observations on the Variation of Plants under Cultivation. 

' Trans. Dum. Gall. N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 41-49. 1905. 
Barrett, W. Bowles. Notes on the Flora of the Chesil Bank and the Fleet. 

' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxvi. 251-265. 1905. 
Bennett, Arthur. Distribution of Sonchus palustris, L., and Atnplex peduncu- 

lata, L., in England. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' viii. 35-43. 1905. 
Blashill, Thomas. The Occurrence of the Mistletoe in Herefordshire upon the 

Plum and Peach. ' Trans. AVoolhope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' 265-266. 1905. 
Bloomfield, Rev. E. N. Lichens of Norfolk and Suffolk. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. 

Nat. Soc' Tin. 117-137. 1905. 

Hepaticae of Norfolk. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' viii. 148-149. 1905. 

Bolus, Dr. Harry. Contributions to the African Flora. * Trans. S. African 

Phil. Soc' XVI 135-152. 1905. 
BouLGER, G. S. Report on Wild Plant Protection. ' South-Eastern Naturalist 

for 1905,' 70-71. 1905. 



88 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

BxTLMAN, G. W. Insects and Flowers. ' Trans. Eastbourne Nat. Hist. Soc' iv. 

10-17. 1906. 
Caeadoc and Severn Valley Field Cltjb. Botanical Notes, 1905. ' Record 

of Bare Facts,' No. 15, 5-^2. [1906.] 
Caek, Prof. J. W. Notes on the Botany of Nottinghamshire. * Report Nott. Nat. 

Soc. for 1904-1905,' 24-32. 1906. 
Ck)NN0LD, Edavaed. British Vegetable Galls. 'Trans. Eastbourne Nat. Hist. 

Soc' IV. 77-78. 1906. 
Ceossland, C. Fungus Foray at Maltby. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 337-340, 

367-370. 1905. 
Ceoydon Natueal Histoey and Scientific Society. Botanical Report. 

' Proc. Croydon N. H. Sci. Soc. 1905-1906,' lxxvi.-lxxxi. 1906. 
Dices, A. J. Correlation between Structure and Environment in Plant Life. 

'Journal London Coll. Sci. Soc' xi. 12-20. 1905. 
Dixon, H. N. Pheuological Observations. 'Journal Northants N. H. Soc' xiii. 

118-119. 1905. 
Eyee, Rev. W. L. W. A Newly Introduced Plant. 'Proc. Hants F. C 

V. 240. 1906. 
Geoege, C. F. Lincolnshire Freshwater Mites. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 344- 

345, 359-360. 1905. 
Gilcheist, Prof. D. A. Summer Frosts and their Effects on Swedes and Mangels 

in the North of England. ' Trans. Northumb. N . H. Soc' i. 293-298. 1905. 
Hammond, AV. H. Botanical Notes for 1905. ' Trans. East Kent S. N. H. Soc' 

T. 22. 1906. 
Heath, John W. Evolution of the Flower. ' Trans. Car. and Sev. Vail. F. C 

IV. 1-6. 1906. 
Henet, Augustine. Forests, Wild and Cultivated. ' Proc. Belfast Nat. F. C 

Y. 336-339. 1905. 
Hewett, F. Botanical Notes from Thanet. ' Trans. East Kent S. N. H. Soc' 

v. 23. 1906. 
HorxiNSON, John. The Comparative Rate of Growth of a Pedunculated and a 

Sessile Oak at Bayfordbury, Herts. ' Trans. Herts N. II. Soc' xii. 245-252. 

1905. 
Ingham, AV. New and Rare Hepafcics and Mosses from Yorkshire and Durham. 

'The Naturalist for 1005,' 171-174. 1905. 
Mosses and Hepatics of Askrigg and District. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 

278-280. 1905. 
Mosses and Hepatics near Leyburn. ' The Naturalist for 1905/ 299-300. 

1905. 
Keegan, Dr. P. Q. The Wych Elm ( Ulmus montana). ' The Naturalist for 1906/ 

18-21. 1906. 
Pepworth, W. H. Wayside Plants. ' Trans. Manch. Mic Soc. 1904,' 35-43. 

1905. 
Lee, p. Fox. E'l-ythraa pulchella, Fr. An Addition to the Flora of the North 

Riding of Yorkshire, and other Records. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 92. 1906. 
Ley, Rev. Augustin. Plants of Craig Cille, Breconshire. ' Trans. Woolhope N. 

F. Club, 1902-1904,' 149-151. 1905. 
Linton, Rev. E. F. Dorset Plants. 'Proc Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxvi. 75-87. 

1905. 
McAndeew, James. Botanical Notes for 1899. ' Trans, Dum. Gall. N. H. A. 

Soc' XVII. 106-108. 1905. 
Addenda and Corrigenda to Lists of Mosses, Hepaticse, and Lichens of the 

District. 'Trans. Dam. Gall. N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 121-125. 1905. 
Maeloth, Dr. R. Further Observations on Mimicry among Plants. ' Trans. S. 

African Phil. Soc' xvi, 165-167. 1905. 
Marshall, H. J. The White-leaved Oak at Whiteoak Farm, Craswall. ' Trans. 

Woolhope N. F. Club, 1902-1904,' 282-284. 1905. 
Massee, George, and Charles Ceossland. New and Rare British Fungi. ' The 

Naturalist for 1906,' 6-10. 1906. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 89 

Metrick, E. Keport of the Botanical Section. ' Eeport Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' 

No. 54, 48-58. 1906. 
MiLLiGAN, Alex. Evolution of Plant as compared with Animal Life. ' Proc. 

Belfast Nat. F. C v. 323. 1905. 
Moss, C. E. The Botanical Geoo^raphy of a Pennine Stream. 'Journal Mancb. 

Geog. Soc' XXI. 89-98. 1906. 
Pbtch, T. The Mycetozoa of the East Eiding. ' Trans. Hull Sci. F. N. Club,' 

III. 196-208. 1906. 
Notes on the Reclaimed Land of the Humber District. ' Trans. Hull Sci. 

F. N. Club,' HI. 221-231. 1906. 
Pethyheibgb, Dr. G. H. Plant Structure and Environment. ' Proc. Belfast Nat. 

F. Club,' V. 320-322. 1905. 
Philip, R. H. Notes on Local Diatoms for 1904-1905. ' Trans. Hull Sci. F. N. 

Club,' 21 7-2 IS. 1906. 

Yorkshire Diatoms in 1905. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 14-15. 1906. 

Ramsat, John, Measurements of the Great Beech Tree at Newbattle Abbey, 

Midlothian, August 25, 1903. ' History Berwickshire Nat. Club,' xix. 80. 

1905. 
RiBGE, W. T. B. Report of the Botanical Section. ' Report N. Staff. F. C XL. 

69-78. 1906. 
RoBiJTSON, J. F., and C. Wateepall. East Riding Botanical Notes, 1905. 

'Trans. Hull Sci. F. N. Club,' iii. 218. 1906. 
Satjndeks, Miss E. R. Mendel's Theory of Heredity. ' South-Eastern Naturalist 

for 1905,' 55-61. 1905. 
S[heppabd], T[hos.] Yorkshire Naturalists at Barnsley. ' The Naturalist for 

1905,' 293-298. 1905. 
Smith, Dr. W. G. Botanical Survey around Askrigg. 'The Naturalist for 

1905,' 214-216. 1905. 
Stiles, M. H. Yorkshire Diatoms in 1905. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 128-129. 

1906. 
Thomas, T. H. lufluence of Farm and Cottage Gardens upon Flora in Part of 

the District of the C. N. S. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc' xxxviii. 61-68. 

1906. 
Teail, Prof J. W. H. The Flora of Ruchan : its Distribution, Origin, and Rela- 
tions to Man. ' Trans. Buchan F. C.^ viii. 2-56. 1905. 
Walkee, NoEMAN. Pond Vegetation. 'The Naturalist for 1905,' 305-311. 

1905. 
Welchman, R. n., and C. E. Salmon. The Flora of the Reigate District. 

' South-Eastern Naturalist for 1905,' 62-69. 1905. 
Whitney, N. S. The British Species of Primula. ' Trans. Eastbourne Nat. 

Hist. Soc' IV. 31-^33. 1906. 

The Lady's Slipper Orchis and other Plants of the Caldecott Herbarium. 

Trans. Eastbourne Nat. Hist. Soc' iv. 76. 1906. 
Woodhead, Dr. T. W. Classification of Alien Plants according to Origin. ' The 

Naturalist for 1906,' 124-127. 1906. 
Woodrufpe-Peacock, Rev. E. A. The Lincolnshire Oxlip. 'The Naturalist for 

1905,' 203-205. 1905. 



Section L. — Educational Science. 

Beittain, J. H. The Schools of Old Greece. ' Trans. Rochdale Lit. Sci. Soc. ' 

Tin. 1-7. 1905. 
Colville, Dr. James. A Theory of Education. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' 

XXXVI. 11-17. 1905. 
EcKFELBT, Prof. IIowAED. The Education of Mining Engineers in the United 

States. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 401-417. 1905. 
Fawsitt, Dr. C. E. The Education of the Examiner. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. 

Soc' xxxvi. 95-102. 1905. 



90 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

Fiiri.AT, Eev. T. A. Practical Education in our Schools. 'Journal Stat. Soc. 

Ireland/ XI. 351-362. 1905. 
FoETH, Fkas. C. Teclinical Instruction in Belfast : a Retrospect and a Prospect. 

' Proc. Belfast N. H. Phil. Soc. 1904-1905,' 1-14. 1905. 
Institution of Civil Engineers. Education and Training of Engineers. 

Report of a Committee appointed by the Council of the Institution of Civil 

Engineers on November 24, 1903. * Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 485-499. 

1906. 
Martin, H. C. Geography in Schools. ' Journal Manch. Geog. Soc' xxi. 104- 

112. 1906. 
Murray, Dr. David. Some Early Grammars and other School Books in use in 

Scotland, more particularly those printed at or relating to Glasgow. ' Proc. 

Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxvi. 266-297. 1906. 
Park, Prof. James. An Outline of Mining Education in New Zealand. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 418-424. 1905. 
Sheppard, T. The Hull Museum and Education. ' Trans. Hull Sci. F. N. Club,' 

III. 209-216. 19C6. 
WiNSTANLET, George H. Mining Education in the Victoria University of Man- 
chester. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 437-442. 1906. 

Obituary. 

Ackroyd, W. ' The Naturalist for 1905,' 170. 1905. 

By W. Lower Carter. ' Proc. Yorlis. Geol. Soc' xv. 468-472. 1905. 

Baereit, 0. G. By F. D. W. ' Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc' viii. 152-154. 

1905. 
Blashill, Thomas. By T. Sfheppard]. ' Trans. HuU Sci. F. N. Club,' iii. 219- 

220. 1906. 
Cudwoeth, William. By T. S[heppard]. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 161-163. 

1906. 
Evans, Feanklen G. By Dr. C. T. Vachell and P. Evans. ' Trans. Cardiff Nat. 

Soc' xxxvii. 19-26. 1905. 
GooDCHiLD, John George. By T. Sfheppard]. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 130- 

131. 1906. 
Howes, Prof. G. B. By F. W. Rudler. ' South-Eastern Naturalist for 1905,' 

72-73. 1905. 
Nelson, William. By R. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 159-161. 1906. 
PuECHAS, Rev. W. H. By Rev. Augustiu Ley. ' Trans. Woolhope N. F. Club, 

1902-1904,' 341-344. 1905. 
Russell, James B., M.D., LL.D. By Dr. John Brownlee. 'Proc. Glasgow 

R. Phil. Soc' xxxvi. 86-94. 1905. 
Smith, Laekatt William. ' Trans. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 208. 

1906. 
SowERBUTTs, Eli. ' Jouru. Manch. Geog. Soc' xx. 181-182. 1906. 
Wadsworth, James Joseph. ' Trans. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada for 1905,' 207. 

1906. 
Waller, John Green. ' Journal Quekett Club,' ix. 258. 1905. 



Miujnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. Preege (Chairman), Dr. 
E. T. Glazebrook {Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, 
Dr. Chree, Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Sir A. W. Rucker, 
and Professor A. Schuster. 

The Grant voted by the Association last year has been expended in 
carrying on the magnetic observations at Falmouth Observatory. The 
results of the observations have been published in the Annua] Report of 



ON MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS AT FALMOUTH OBSERVATOKY. 91 

the National Pliysical Laboratory, as well as in the Annual Report of the 
Eoyal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. They appear as satisfactory as in 
previous years. 

The instruments were inspected in September 1905 by Mr. T. W. 
Baker, who took some absolute observations showing a satisfactory 
accordance with those taken by Mr. Kitto. 

Dr. Chree has published ' A comparison of the results from the Fal- 
mouth Declination aad Horizontal Force Magnetographs on quiet days 
in years of Sun- Spot maximum and minimum ' in the ' Transactions ' of 
the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. xx. 1906 ; the results are 
closely analogous to, but in some respects more complete than, those 
deduced from his earlier papers dealing with the Kew curves. 

The Committee regret to learn that the new Observatory at Eskdale 
Muir continues to make somewhat slow progi'ess and will not be ready 
until some time in 1907. In view of the importance of maintaining con- 
tinuity of the magnetic records, they ask for reappointment with a grant 
of 50^. 



Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Repoi-t of the Committee, 
consisting of Lord McLaren, Professor Crum Brown (Secretary), 
Sir John Murray, Dr. Alexander Buchan, and Mr. K. T. 
Omond. (Drawn up by Dr. Buchan.) 

The Committee, which was in former years appointed for the purpose of 
co-operating with the Scottish Meteorological Society in making meteoro- 
logical observations at the two Ben Nevis Observatories, has, since the 
closing of these observatories in October 1904, devoted its attention to 
the publication and discussion of the observations made at these obser- 
vatories. 

The Hourly Observations from the opening of the Ben Nevis Obser- 
vatories in 1883 to the end of 1897 have now been published by the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, assisted by a grant of 500^. from the 
Publications Fund of the Royal Society of London. They form Volumes 
34, 42, and 43 of the ' Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.' 
The last of these volumes was issued during the current year. These 
volumes contain, in addition to the hourly observations, a resum^ of the 
hourly values for each individual year ; and the last published volume, 
being Vol. 43 of ' Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh,' gives, 
in addition, the hourly values of the observations made from the opening 
of the observatories, in 1883, to October 1904. In this volume papers are 
also given in which the observations are discussed in relation to weather 
and to atmospheric physics. 

In the meantime arrangements are made for the continuation of these 
large discussions, which it is contemplated will occupy about three 
years. 



92 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Seismological Investigations. — IJleventh Report of the Committee, consist, 
ing 0/ Professor J. W. Judd (Chairman), Mr. J. Milne (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Sir 
George Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor 
J. A. EwiNG; Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, Professor 
C. G. Knott, Professor R. Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor 
J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor J: H. Poynting, Mr. 
Clement Reid, Mr. Nelson Richardson, and Professor H. H. 
Turner, (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

[Plate L] 
Contents. 

PAGE 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers 92 

IL T]ie Situation of Stations ........,, 93 

III. The Origins of Large Earthquakes in \^QB 94 

IV. Large Earthqualtes in relation to Time and Space 95 

V. Relationship of Large Earthqualtes to each other and to Volcanic Eruptions 97 

VI. Earthquakes and Changes in Latitude ....... 97 

VII. On the Change of Level on t7w sides of a Valley 99 

VIII. Antarctic Eartliquakes 100 

IX. JSote on the Betermination of the Time of Origin of Earthquakes. By R. D. 

Oldham 100 

X. Biurnal Changes in Level in Maiiritius. i?y T. F. Claxton . . .102 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers. 

The registers issued during the past year are Circulars Nos. 12 and 13. 
They refer to Shide, Kew, Bidston, Edinburgh, Paisley, Toronto, 
Victoria (B.C.), San Fernando (Spain), Ponta Delgada (Azores), Cape of 
Good Hope, Alipore, Bombay, Kodaikanal, Batavia, Perth, Trinidad, 
Christchurch, Cairo, Irkutsk, Baltimore, Beirut, Honolulu, Cheltenham 
(Md. U.S.A.), and Vieques (Porto Rico). 

From the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey the Secretary has 
received records from the Milne pendulum established in Honolulu, 
together with records from Bosch-Omori pendulums installed at Vieques 
(Porto Rico), Cheltenham Md. U.S.A., and Sitka. 

These registers appear in Circular No. 13. 

Records have not yet been received from Melbourne, Sydney, and Are- 
quipa ; while registers from Tokyo, Wellington, Philadelphia and Mexico 
should be brought up to date. The Seismological Committee of the British 
Association would be greatly indebted to the Directors of Observatories 
at these places if they would kindly forward copies of their observations. 

During the last year Milne pendulums have been installed at Old 
Frensham Hall, Haslemere, Surrey, at the University in Malta, and at 
the National Observatory in Paris. 

All instruments record photographically on cylinders moving at the 
rate of 25 cm. per hour. The two first instruments are single component, 
while the latter gives a two- component record. The insti-ument at 
Haslemere was established by the late Hon. Charles Ellis, who, in 
addition to giving this assistance to observational seismology in this 
country, forwarded to the Secretary a cheque for 200^., to be used as he 
considered best to assist seismological research. Your Committee suggest 
that it be employed towards the general expenses at Shide station, 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 93 

pai'ticularly iu connection with an increase in office accommodation. 
Mr. Richard Cooke, The Croft, Detling, Maidstone, has kindly sent 
\l. Li. as an annual subscription for the support of seismological research. 



II. 2^he Situation of Stations. 
Continued from 'British Association Report,' 1905, p. 84. 

AchalaJci. 

The town lies on a plateau. Beneath the town we find two lava streams, the 
lower one trachytic with a columnar structure, here dense and there porous. 
Above this there is a dolomite schist, in parts solid and in others porous. These are 
separated from one another by schistose sandstone of Miocene age with slate and 
layers of coal. 

Batoum. 

The town lies in the Kachaber low ground, which is formed of the deposit of the 
river Tschoroch. A vertical section through the low ground shows the following 
horizontal strata in downward succession : — 

Humus 355 metre 

Hard clay 2-84 „ 

Clayey sand mixed with pebbles . . . 1'42 „ 

Sand 1065 „ 

The heights surrounding the town consist of different sorts of andesite and tufa. 

BorsJiom. 

The little town of Borshom lies in the valley of the river Kura, and its tributary 
rivers Borshoraka and Tschornaja Retchka. 

The tectonic formation which is shown in the neighbourhood of Borshom may 
be summarised as follows : Steep sloping strata of the Eocene period intermingled 
with andesite strata form anticlinal and synclinal folds. The protruding ends of 
strata consist of andesite lava in layers and streams. 

The sedimentary formation is represented by marl and argillaceous sandstone. 
The marl possesses the peculiarity of being broken into small pieces ; the sandstone 
is traversed by a system of perpendicular clefts inclining to a cubical cleavage. 

The region on the right side of the Kura forms a plateau which is an anticlinal ; 
the middle of the plateau coincides with the ridge of the anticlinal, and strikes 
N.W.-S.E. 

Upon the left side of the Kura, where the seismic station is situated, there is a 
deposit of sandstone and marl in layers with a uniform dip of 15° N.E. 

Schemacha. 

The town lies partly on the slope of the valley of the river Dsoga-Lawa and partly 
in the river valley itself. No account of the structure of the district has been published. 
Many varieties of sedimentary rocks belonging to the Tertiary period are to be found. 

In the town towards the south, Muschelkalk schist supported by clay slate 
dips N.W. 

On the southern face of the height which rises above the town one finds the same 
limestones exposed, which in their higher part dip S.E., but in the lower part W.S W. 

In a deep ditch not far from the prison we find laminated plastic clays which 
support intermediate layers of marl, sandy clay, and lime sandstone. 

To the south of the town, not far from the village Bojat, one finds the following 
strata exposed in this order downwards : — 

(a) Yellow and brown coloured sandy clay. 

(J) Various layers of insignificant thickness of yellow and white clay3. 

(c) Shell limestone (Muschelkalk) with Cardium {sic) and Mactra. 

(d) White and yellow porous sandstone with shells. 



94 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Derbent. 

The town lies on the lower shore of the Caspian Sea. 

The nearest point of interest from the town is the mountain Dschalgan, whose 
steep brows approach the town from the south-west. To the southerly side of the 
mountain we find a synclinal fault which stretches N.W.-S.E., and dips south-east. 
In the direction of the town the tectonic structure becomes tolerably complicated, 
and the connection of tlie Dschalgan synclinal with the flat dome-shaped anticlinal 
which comes to sight on the north side of the town is not yet explained. Tertiary 
deposits as well as the Quaternary Loess formation are also found. The latter 
deposit stretches from the sea-shore at Derbent to a height of 100 fathoms up the 
brow of the Dschalgan. 

In the sea-clifEs, not far from the railway station, shell lime rocks come to view. 

The remainder of the Dschalgan heights are formed of limestone, sandstone and 
clay. Along the south-east brows of the Dschalgan, not far from the fortress, one 
finds the following strata cropping up in ascending order :— 

1. Grey and cofEee-brown coloured sandy clay. 

2. 3-2 inches of clay strata with ferruginous grains. 

3. Layers of white sandy clays. 

4. Grey shell limestone (holding Mactra), 17-15 fathoms thick. 

5. Dividing layers of marl clay with broken pieces of Mactra shells, 3 inches. 

6. Grey Mactra shell limestone, 14-15 fathoms. 

7. Dividing layer clay marl, 14 inches. 

8. Yellowish solid limestone with few large shells of Mactra, such as Vitaliana, 
d'Ori). 

Tiftis. 

The town lies on the slopes of the valley of the river Kura. 

With the exception of a few places, where primitive rock comes to view, the 
surface formation of the Tiflis valley is composed of clayey sandstone and loam 
deposits, whose thickness amounts in places to 80 feet and more. This is covered with 
horizontal strata of alluvium. 

The heio'hts in the environs of the town consist of the above rocks, together with 
sedimentary and volcanic rock debris, which are cemented together by a clayey 

medium. 

In an exposure on the right bank of the Kura, in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the seismic station, one finds more or less thinly laminated clay sandstone of a 
grey colour ; the same stratification is to be seen in the bottom of a deep trench 
which surrounds the station. The foundations of the station, as well as all 
seismographs, are directly set on the original rock. 

III. The Origins of Large Earthquakes in 1 905. 

In registers from dififerent stations in 1905, as in other years, the 
number of entries vary within wide limits. In the list for Shide there 
are 159 entries, but 47 of these refer to extremely minute displacements 
the nature of which is uncertain. Disturbances which are undoubtedly 
of seismic origin are therefore 112. Out of these 56 were distinctly 
megaseismic. On the accompanying map (Plate I.) the origins of 57 
widespread movements are indicated. This number happens to be the 
annual average for the years 1899 to 1905 inclusive. 

A glance at the map shows, with but few exceptions, that these earth- 
quakes are confined to a circle passing from Central America through the 
Azores, the Alpine, Balkan and Himalayan ranges, into the East Indian 
Archipelago. 

The quiescence of districts not lying on this band is very marked. 

Destructive earthquakes occurred on April 4 in N.W. India, and on 
September 8 in Calabria. Whether the latter was in any way connected 
with the relief of volcanic stress which commenced in May 1905 and 



[Plate 1. 

and the number of earthquakes which since 1899 have originated 




Bntuh Atf^ialion. 76(A Btporl, Yorli. 19O0, 



The Ij<irge Earthquaka of 1905, 
£*nbqDik> diitncU *r« ioaiotad A, B, C. Src^ tod Ihn annbu Dt «ithqiitkei 



[Plate I 1 

law b>*(i ehiiuialad 




Vhntmti'uj tlu-. Ikporf ••<\ Seiynwl-'jtoil Iiu-e»luji 



I 



/ 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



95 



culminated in the violent eruptions at Vesuvius in April 1906 is a matter 
of conjecture. The largest earthquakes, eclipsing either of these, or the 
one of April 18, 1906, which devastated Central California, were numbers 
1036 and 1052. They originated in Central Asia, one on July 9, and 



Fig. 1. 




■^Y o~oo 



■¥0/0 



*or5 



*ozo • 



*025, 



^"0-25 



lO'ZS *0}:20 ^O-'/J' *0"/0 *0"0S O'OO -0''05 -0'','t? -O'-JS -O"£0 -0''2J 

the other on July 23, 1905. As accounts of destruction do not appear to 
have reached Europe, it may;be assumed that the epifocal areas were 
only sparsely populated. The latter disturbance was felt in Tomsk, 
Kiachta, and other places. 

IV. Large Earthqtiakes in relation to Time and Space. 

Megaseismic motion has been automatically recorded since 1884.' 
Maps showing the origins of world-shaking earthquakes have been pub- 
lished in ' British Association Reports ' since 1899. The last refers to the 
earthquakes of 1 905, and is contained in this report. When, therefore, we 
are considering the time-relationship between earthquakes originating in 
different localities, the records at our disposal only extend over seven 
years. The material is admittedly as yet far too meagre to give satisfactory 
results, but, nevertheless, it is interesting to note the direction in which 
it points. 

' Sets. Soc. Trans., vol. x., p. 6. 



96 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



In the following table megaseisraic origins are classified under three 
heads : — 

I. Refers to the East Pacific Coast north of the Equator, including- 
the parallel Antillean Fold, shown on the map as District C. 

II. Refers to the Western and South -Westei-n portions of the North 
Pacific. 

III. Refers to the folds extending from the Balkans to the Himalayas. 

The first two divisions relate to earthquakes with a sub-oceanic origin, 

whilst the third relates to those which have originated in a continental 

area. 

I. 



Districts 


Year 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 

1 
Oorl 


Sept. 


Oct. 



Nov. 


Dec. 
1 


Total 

1 

24 


A,B& 


1899 


3 


6 


lor 2 


1 





Oorl 


3 


7 or 10 


2 




1900 


5 


1 





2 


1 


3 


2 





2 


2 


3 


2 


23 




1901 


3 


1 


2 


1 


2 














4or5 





3 or 4 


16 




1902 


4 or 5 


2 


3 


1 














1 





1 


1 


13 




1903 


3 or 4 


2 


2 


2 





1 





1 


1 











12 




1904 

















0> 























» 


1905 














1 





1 








1 





2 or 3 


5 

1 


Total Minimum 


18 


12 


8 


7 


4 


4 
II. 


6 


1 


n 


7 


6 


9 


93 


E4F 


1899 


1 





2 





1 


1 


6 


3 


1 


3 or 4 


6 


1 


24 




1900 


3 





2 or 3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


5 


3 


2 


2 





21 




1901 


2 


1 


1 





2 


1 





4 or 5 


2 or 3 





1 


1 


15 • 




1902 


6 


2 or 3 


3 





2 


1 


1 


2 


2 





3 





22 


^ 


1903 


3 


S 








2 


1 





2 





2 


2 


3 


20 


^ 


1904 


2 








1 


2 


4 or 6 


3 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


20 


»» 


1905 


2 


6 


3 or 6 


5 


4 


5 


3 


1 


3 

12 











32 


Total minimum 


19 


14 


11 


7 


14 


14 


14 


19 


9 


15 


6 


154 














III. 
















K 


1899 








2 




















1 





1 


4 




1900 








1 





























1 




1901 








1 


1 





1 





1 


. 1 


1 


2 





8 




1902 





1 


2 





2 


1 


2 


6 


2 


1 


1 


2 


20 




1903 





4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 








1 


16 




1904 








lor 2 


2 


























3 


11 


1905 


2 








1 


1 


1 


3 





2 


1 


1 





12 


Total minimum 


3 


5 


10 


6 


4 


4 


6 


9 


6 


4 


4 


4 


64 


Total foi 
district 


■ all) 

3 


39 


31 


34 


24 


22 


24 


26 


31 


29 


20 


25 


19 


324 1 

1 



If we take the months April to September as summer months, and 
October to March as winter months, we find the following numerical 
seasonal distribution : — 

Summer Winter 

N.B. Pacific 33 60 

W. and S.W. Pacific 80 74 

Balkan and Himalayan 85 29 



Total 



148 



163 



These epitomised results indicate that on the west side of the Pacific 
seismic frequency is greatest in summer, whilst on the eastern side it is 



greatest in winter. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



97 



Assuming the alternation in frequency in these two districts to be 
real, an explanation for the same may possibly be found in the seasonal 
alternation in the flow of ocean currents, the measured oscillations of sea- 
level, and the chani»es in the direction of barometric gradients — phenomena 
which are inter- related. 

In summer-time oft' the coast of Japan the Kuro Siwo or Black Stream 
runs further northward in that season than in winter ; while Dr. Omori 
tells us that although barometric pressure may be low at this time, this 
decrement in load is more than compensated for by the increased height 
in oceanic level. 

For the third region the summer frequency for the land area is nearly 
identical with that of the West Pacific. 



V. Jielationshi]) of Large Earthquakes to each other and to Volcanic 

Eruptions. 

In any two districts, or in the same district, no apparent time- 
relationship between the occurrence of successive megaseisms has yet been 
formulated. If, however, we consider groups of large earthquakes which 
have occurred in a particular district, we may find a yearly decrease in 
their numbers, as in district A, while in districts like F and K there may 
be an inci'ease. The time-relationship between after-shocks is well known. 
A striking illustration of the connections between a large earthquake and 
small shocks in a neighbouring district, together with displays of volcanic 
activity, occurred on January 31, 1906. On that date the coast of 
Colombia was inundated, islands sank at the mouth of the Esmeralda 
River, a cable was broken, and the volcano Cumbal erupted. These 
changes on the flanks of the Cordilleras were followed by disturbances in 
the Antilles. 

Many small earthquakes occurred, and on February 16 several of 
them were sufficiently severe to damage masonry. Mount Pel^e and 
La Soufriere showed signs of increased activity, and eight, if not nine, 
cable interruptions were recorded. 

Here we have another illustration of the remarkable relationship 
which exists between the hypogenic activities of these parallel folds, a 
disturbance in one being accompanied or followed by a response in the 
other. ^ 

VI. Earthquakes and Changes in Latitude. 

The following table is a continuation of one published in the ' British 
Association Report,' 1903, pp. 78-80 : — 



Periods 


1900 1901 

1 


1902 


1903 


1904 


0-1, Jan. 1 to Feb. 5 
1-2, Feb. 5 to March 14. 
2-3, March 14 to April 19 
3-4, April 1 9 to May 26 . 
4-5, May 26 to July 1 . 
5-6, July 1 to Aug. 7 
6-7, Aug. 7 to Sept. 12 . 
7-8, Sept. 12 to Oct. 19 . 
8-9, Oct. 19 to Nov. 24 . 
9-10, Nov. 24 to Dec. 31 




11 8 

6 f 7 

! 1 1 10 

f 4 5 

i I 5 3 

' 3 if 1 

5 \ 10 

r 8 j 8 
17:7 

4 i 7 


11 

/ 7 
7 
4 

f 1 
4 
6 
5 
4 
4 


{ ? 

7 
5 

f 7 
2 
4 
1 

f 4 
6 


3 
1 
5 

( * 

I 6 

4 

r 6 

5 
4 
4 



1906. 



' See Brit. Assoc. Bej>., 1902, p. 73. 



98 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The numerals indicate the number of large earthquakes which occurred 
in successive periods of 36-5 days. 

Two periods connected by brackets indicate times when the change 
in direction of pole-movement, as shown on Albrecht's figure, was com- 
paratively rapid (see fig. 1). 

If we compare the number of earthquakes which occurred in these 
selected periods with the total number of earthquakes which were 
recorded in equal intervals of time before and after the deflection periods 
we obtain the following results : — 

Com- 
parable 
Totals 
Earthquakes before deflection: 7 8 12 8 18 — 8 12 5 6 — = 60 
during „ 9 15 17 11 14 5 16 9 10 10 11 = 87 

after „ 8 12 8 15 — 11 12 5 4 — 8 = 64 

Omitting the four cases where figures for comparison are not com- 
plete, out of seven deflections there are six instances where the greater 
number of earthquakes have taken place during deflection periods. 

If this result be added to that for the years 1892 to 1899 ' we see 
that out of twenty-three deflection periods there are eighteen instances 
where the greater number of earthquakes have been recorded for the 
deflection period. The totals for before, during, and after comparable 
deflection periods are respectively 167, 287, and 217, or as 1 : 1-72 : 1-29, 

A closer determination of the possible relationship between pole- 
deflections and earthquake-frequency is obtained if the deflections between 
successive periods are expressed in angular measure. Such measurements 
have been made for each of the ten periods in the years 1899 to 1904. 
Opposite to each measurement figures give the number of earthquakes 
which occurred during the seventy-three days to which a measurement 
refers. 

These have been divided into two groups. The first group embraces 
observations made in the years 1892 to 1899. During this interval the 
pole-path shows many irregularities.^ 

The second group refers to the periods between 1901 (-6) and 1905(-0). 
During this interval the pole-path was comparatively regular (see fig. 1), 

Group I. 



Deflections 


No. of 

Deflections 


No. of 

Earthquakes 


Average No. of 

Earthquakes 


Group Averages 


o o 

to 5 


1 


18 


18 




5 „ 10 


7 


153 


22 


— 


10 „ 15 


8 


32 


4 1 




15 „ 20 


4 


13 


3 I 


6-9 


20 „ 25 


13 


128 


9 J 




25 „ 30 


10 


185 


18 1 




30 „ 35 


9 


115 


13 I 


14-5 


35 „ 40 


11 


137 


13 J 




40 „ 45 


5 


67 


13 ] 




45 „ 50 


6 


115 


19 i 


17-7 


50 „ 55 


6 


120 


20 J 




65 „ 60 


2 


42 


21 


— 


60 „ 75 


6 


122 


24 


— 



' See Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1893, p. 80. 
f Ibid., 1903, p. 80, fig. 2. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



99 



If we omit the first two entries in this table it appears that the 
average number of earthquakes in any period is approximately directly 
proportional to angular deflections of the pole-path during that period. 

A similar result is shown in the three group averages which are 
given : — 

Group II. 



Deflections 


No. of 
Deflec- 
tions 


No. of 
Earth- 
quakes 


Average 
No. of 
Earth- 
quakes 


1 

Deflections 

1 


No. of 
Deflec- 
tions 


No. of 
Earth- 
quakes 


Average 
No. of 
Earth- 
quakes 


o o 








1 O 








5 to 10 


1 


8 


8 


30 to 35 


8 


89 


11 


10 „ 15 


2 


33 


16 


35 „ 40 


5 


62 


12 


15 „ 20 


3 


39 


16 


40 „ 45 


5 


43 


8 


20 „ 25 


2 


18 


9 


i 45 „ 52 


2 


21 


10 


25 „ 30 


13 


134 


10 


1 









In this instance, where the path of the pole relatively to its mean 
position has been fairly uniform, earthquake-frequency does not appear 
to have been influenced. 

"VII. On the Change of Level on two sides of a Valley. 

It has been found that under certain but frequently recurring con- 
ditions the two opposite sides of a valley move in opposite directions 
at the same time. On bright fine days the inclinations of the sides 
of a valley decrease. At night they increase. A valley may therefore be 
supposed to open and close. These conclusions, which do not necessarily 
apply to all valleys, are based on observations taken in two very difie- 
rent localities. The first were made in Tokyo, Japan, by means of hori- 
zontal pendulums giving continuous photographic records, installed on 
the two sides of a valley cut in alluvium.^ 

The second series were made on the two sides of a valley cut in chalk 
at Shide, near Newport, in the Isle of Wight. On the western side of 
the valley the instrument employed was an astronomical level reading 
to l"-0 of arc. On the eastern side change of level was continuously 
recorded by a horizontal pendulum easily reading to 0"-5 of arc. Both 
were well founded and well protected from direct effects of solar radia- 
tion. When the instruments were side by side they gave similar and 
practically identical results. 

The level, which was in charge of Mr. H. G. Morgan Hobbs, resident 
at Sunnyside, was read three times a day from July 26 to August 27 
1905. The difference between successive readings usually varied between 
0"-5 and 3"-0, and with but few exceptions these readings indicated 
changes in level in opposite directions. During wet weather the diurnal 
movement was eclipsed by a rapid movement in a direction which corre- 
sponded with a closing of the valley. This sometimes amounted to 18"-0. 

These diurnal changes in the vertical have been found in chambers 
excavated in rock, and at other installations when the daily change in 
temperature has not exceeded 2" F. They have been recorded in the^New 
Red Sandstone at a depth of 19 feet. From these and other observations 
it is clear that they cannot be attributed to any warping effect in the 
instrument or change in temperature at the base of a pier on which an 



See Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1896, p. 132. 



H2 



100 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

instrument has been installed. They may, however, be due to the general 
warping of a district under the influence of solar radiation, or to the 
differential effects of loading and unloading of portions of the same. 
During the day the sides of a valley covered with vegetation lose load 
by evaporation and transpiration, and therefore underground drainage, 
tending to carry a water load to the bottom of a valley, is reduced. At 
night, with the cessation of these processes, the load at the bottom of a 
valley is increased. At that time streams and certain wells carry their 
greatest quantity of water. Tt is therefore at night tliat a valley may be 
expected to sag downwards, a suggestion that finds support in the observa- 
tion that during wet weather, when we see streams in flood, the sides of 
the bounding valley approach each other in a marked manner. 

The conclusion is that as the world turns before the sun its surface 
is measurably smoothed, whilst at night the frecklings on its face are 
measurably increased. 

VIII. Antarctic Earthquakes. 

From March 14, 1902, to December 31, 1903, a horizontal pendulum 
of the British Association type was installed in Victoria Land, about 
fifteen miles distant from Mounts Erebus and Terror. The instrument 
was in charge of Mr. Louis Bernacchi, who was attached to the 
s.s. ' Discovery.' Although observations were made under exceptional diffi- 
culties, Mr. Bernacchi brought back about 3,000 feet of photographic film. 
This was examined by your Secretary, Mr. Shinobu Hirota, and Mr. 
Howard Bui-gess of Newport. ' Preliminary Notes ' on this analysis are 
to be found in the 'Proceedings of the Royal Society,' vol. A76, 1905, 
pp. 284-295. The more important results are as follows : — 

1. Out of 136 records of earthquakes seventy-three refer to disturb- 
ances Avhich originated in a sub-oceanic region between New Zealand and 
Victoria Land. In the British Association maps of Seismic Distribution 
this TiQ'fr district is indicated by the letter M. The greatest frequency 
was in the months April, May and June. 

2. Certain earthquakes from district M have been recorded to the 
south-east by the ' Discovery,' and along a band about 20° in width 
towards the north-west as far as Britain. This phenomenon of recordable 
motion being propagated in one direction only round the world is now 
known to be true for earthquakes originating in other districts. 

3. An earthquake may be recorded at stations near its origin and its 
antipodes, but not at intermediate stations. 

4. As an earthquake radiates, the phase of motion which travels the 
greatest distance is that of the largest waves or P3. 

5. The average arcual velocity for P3 is approximately 3 Km per 
second, with a possible acceleration in the quadrantal region of its path, 
where it may reach 4 Km per second. 

6 . Other results refer to slow changes in the vertical, diurnal waves, 
tremors and pulsations. 

IX. Note on the Determination of the Time of Origin of Earthquakes. 

By R. D. Oldham. 

One of the greatest desiderata in the study of the nature and 
propagation of earthquake waves is an exact determination of the 
time of origin of the earthquake. Few are the instances where a great 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



101 



earthquake occurs in countries sufficiently civilised to allow of an accurate 
determination by direct observation, more frequently we have one or two 
instrumental records at distances of a hundred to a thousand miles from 
the origin, and the results obtained from the study of iadividual earth- 
quakes have so far been too discordant to enable these to be used with 
certainty. Recently Professor Imamura has published a memoir ' On the 
Transit Velocity of the Earthquake Motion originating at a Near Dis- 
tance,' ^ which should be of assistance, but, owing to the mode of dis- 
cussion adopted, his results are not directly applicable for the purpose in 
hand. As, however, all the data are published in detail, I ha»ve been able 
to plot them on squared paper and obtain two time-curves from which the 
intervals tabulated below were measured. 

Table shoioing the intervals taken by earthquake loaves to travel from their origin 
to distances nj) to 10° (llll'l kilometres) deduced from tlie records of ticenty- 
four Japanese earthquakes. 



Distance in 
Degrees 


Commencement of Preliminary Tremors 


Commencement of 
Principal Portion 
















Interval 


DifE. 


Interval 


Difi. 


Interval 


DifE. 




M. s. 


s. 


M. S. 


s. 


M. S. 


s. 


1 


21 


18 


29 


24 


29 


29 


2 


39 


18 


53 


18 


58 


29 


3 


57 


18 


1 11 


15 


1 27 


29 


4 


1 15 


15 


1 26 


13 


1 56 


29 


5 


1 30 


9 


1 39 


12 


2 25 


30 


C 


1 39 


11 


1 51 


10 


2 55 


29 


7 


1 50 


10 


2 1 


8 


3 21 


29 


8 


2 


12 


2 9 


6 


3 53 


29 


9 


2 12 


6 


2 15 


3 


4 22 


29 


10 


2 18 




2 18 




4 51 





Two groups of times were dealt with, P, and P3 of Japanese seismo- 
logists. The first of these represents the commencement of the preliminary 
tremors, and two columns are devoted to it in the table : the first repre- 
sents the measurements of a curve drawn so as to average the records at 
each distance most closely. It is convex upwards, indicating a slower rate 
of propagation as the epicentre is neared, but the irregularity of the 
diflferences of time for equal difierences of distance suggests that it 
departs from the true time-curve. Another curve was accordingly drawn, 
representing the average of the observations almost as well as the first, 
while the more regular decrease in the difierences, as seen in the second 
column, indicates that it is a closer approximation to the true curve than the 
other. Both columns give unduly high rates of transmission at the longer 
distances, the curves being uncertain, beyond 1°, from paucity of records. 

' Publications of the Earthquake Investigation Committee in Foreig'" Languaqes, 
No. 18, Tokyo, 1904. 



102 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

T]ie second group of times dealt with is the P3, or commencement of 
the principal portion of the disturbance. These records group themselves 
most satisfactorily along a straight line, representing a rate of trans- 
mission of about 29-1 seconds per degree of arc. Professor Imam ura does 
not record the time of maximum, but this would be later by about live or 
six seconds per degree. Probably 35 seconds per degree represents very 
closely the true rate of propagation. 

It must be remembered that only four out of the twenty-four earth- 
quakes dealt with originated on, or so near, land that the place and time 
of origin could be determined with accuracy by direct observation. The 
other twenty originated under the sea, and their time and place of origin 
had to be inferred, with a consequent liability to error in each case ; but 
these errors probably compensate each other to a great extent, and, used 
with judgment, it is believed that the table will prove useful. 

X. Diurnal Changes in Level at the Royal Alfred Observatory, Mauritius, 

By T. P. Claxton. 

A Milne seismograph for recording unfelt earth-tremors has been in 
use at the Royal Alfred Observatory, Mauritius, since September 1898. 
It was first mounted in a small wooden hut, 12 feet square by 18 feet 
high, on a brick pillar built up from a concrete floor 9 inches thick ; but it 
was found that with this mounting a very large diurnal inequality of level 
was recorded, a daily range of 8'' being of frequent occurrence, and 
during heavy rains the boom occasionally drifted off the sheet. 

A more substantial foundation was constructed in November 1899. 
The pillar was removed, and a hole dug 6 feet deep by 4 feet square ; 
this was filled up with 4 feet of concrete, and a tapering column built up 
from the latter without touching the earth on any side. 

In addition to the wanderings of the boom due to unstable mounting, 
the registers are vibrated at night and early juorning by tremors, which 
appear to be due to radiation from the concrete pillar, the tremors being 
most active during rapid cooling. In order therefore to decrease the 
daily range of temperature within the hut in the month of March 1 900, 
the latter was completely enclosed by a straw thatching at a distance of 
3 feet from the walls and roof ; but this did not entirely destroy the 
tremors, and the nocturnal radiation was further checked by means of a 
lamp which, lighted before sunset and extinguished soon after sunrise, 
has remedied this defect, but has unfortunately introduced another. 

For the study of the diurnal and secular change of level a second 
pendulum, registering N.-S. tilting, was added to the instrument in 
February 1904,^ and a preliminary discussion of its recoi-ds revealed a 
well-marked tilt to south, commencing at the time of lighting the lamp. 

It is not easy to distinguish the effect of the lamp on the E.-W. boom, 
as the turning-points occur at about the times of lighting and extinguish- 
ing the lamp. The effect, if any, wojald be to acccelerate both morning and 
afternoon turning-points, as the boom is at its most easterly position 
when the lamp is lighted, and most westerly when the lamp is extinguished. 
In the E.-W. records, as affected by the lamp, the afternoon turning-point 

' This pendulum registers on the same cylinder as the E.-W. pendulum, with 
which its booms run parallel. The discs at the end of the booms have been reduced 
in width to 15 mm. Silk threads stretched across the registering slit at every second 
millimetre produce a fine scale on the paper, by means of which the hourly ordinates 
are readily and accurately measured. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



103 



occurs two hours later than in the N.-S. recoixls, occurring in the latter 
about two hours before the lamp is lighted. 

It appears from the above that with the seismograph exposed to the 
ordinary diurnal range of temperatui-e the registers are affected either by 
air tremors or by the lamp introduced to check them. For this reason, in 
the month of July 190J: the instrument was removed to the magnetic 
basement, in which the diurnal range of temperature is seldom greater 
than 0°-2 (Fahrenheit), the chamber having double walls, with an eigh teen- 
inch air-space between them, and its floor being 1*2 feet below the surface 
of the ground. The chamber is ventilated by means of a 12-inch pipe laid 
at a depth of 11 feet below the surface of the ground, and communicating 
with the air at a point 35 yards distant. A hole was dug, 10 feet deep by 
3 feet square, and hlled up with 7 feet of concrete, on which a tapering 
column, also of concrete, was built up to a height of 3 feet above the floor 
for the reception of the seismograph. 

The registers obtained with this installation show no air tremors 
whatever. No measures have yet been made, but from an examination 
of the photographs it would appear that the character of the diurnal 
inequality of level has altered considerably. Its amplitude is very much less 
than formerly, and the maximum tilt to east occurs at about 8h. in place 
of at 17h., and the maximum northerly tilt at about 17h. in place of at 6h. 

The accompanying vector diagram (fig. 2) shows the mean diurnal tilt of 
the boom for tlie year 1903, as determined from the hourly measures of 
the north and east components. The effect of lighting the lamp (at about 
5|h. P.M.) is to tilt the pillar towards the south, and thus reverse the 
northerly tilt, which sets in after 14h., and to form a closed loop, but 
there is no corresponding tilt to north when the lamp is extinguished at 
6 A.M., the boom tilting steadily towards the south-east until 2 p.m. 

Fig. 2. — Mean Diurnal Inequality' of Level at the Royal Alfred Ohservatory, 
Mauritius, in the year 1903. (^Mauritius Civil Tivie.) 



7/ 


.5A 


















X4A 


L. 


















3 A 


\9'' 







'0 


/ 


'2 


J 






2^ 


I \ 


\I0'> 






Sca/e 












/A 


\ 


\// 


h 














M/efn.' 




\ 

N 


\. 


Yoon 


'1 


f) 


7f> 






2. 




y— 


— £ 




^*^^ 


<3h/ 


\J" 


yA 








22' 


L ^ 




^y 


As'' 














2/"^- 


-"zo" 









104 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Expenments for imi^rovinrj the Construction of Practical Statulards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of tlte Go'mmittee, consisting of 
Lord Rayleigh {Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. Ayrton, J. Perry, W, G. Adams, 
and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver J. Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Professors A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming, 
and J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, 
Rev. T. C. FiTZPATRiCK, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professor 
S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Sir 
A. W, Rucker, Professor H. L. Oallendar, and Mr. George 
Matthey. 

I'AUE 

Appendix. — Oft, Methods of Sigh Precision for the Comparison of Resist- 
ances. By F. E. Smith 106 

In the last Report reference was made to a conference of representatives 
of standardising laboratories which had been invited to meet in Berlin as 
a preliminary to the more formal Conference on Electric Units suggested 
at St. Louis. 

The question of this preliminary Conference was brought before the 
Committee at a meeting on October 19, 1905, and attention was called to 
the importance of Clause (2) of the provisional programme, viz. — 

*' Shall the three units, the Ohm, Ampere, and Volt, be defined inde- 
pendently, or shall only two be defined, and, if so, which ? ' 

and it was agreed unanimously that two units should be defined inde- 
pendently, and that these two should be the unit of resistance and the 
unit of current. The Secretary was instructed to report this to the 
Conference at Berlin. 

This Conference took place in October last at the Reichsanstalt in 
Charlottenburg, and was attended by representatives from America, 
Austria, Belgium, England, France, and Germany. 

Agenda prepai-ed with great care by the President of the Reichsanstalt 
were very carefully discussed, and, as a result, the Conference expressed 
the wish that an Internationa] Convention should be summoned in order 
to arrive at agreement in the electric standards which are in use in the 
different countries. 

The following resolution was further adopted : — 

' In view of the fact that the laws of the different countries in relation 
to electrical units ai-e not in complete agreement, the Conference holds it 
desirable that an official conference should be summoned in the course of 
a year with the object of bringing about this agreement.' 

The Conference further expressed the opinion :— 

1. That the information before it is not suflSicient to enable it to pro- 
pose any alteration in the formerly accepted value for tlie ampere. 

2. That the information before it is not sufficient to enable it to lay 



ON PKACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 105 

down exact directions in respect to the silver voltameter and the standard 
cell. 

3. That if a proposal for a change in the accepted value of the ampere 
is to be brought from any source before a formal congress to be held later, 
an agreement in writing on the point should be come to previously 
between the parties interested. If differences of opinion in the matter 
cannot be removed, a new preliminary conference should be held. 

The same procedure should be observed in regard to the specification 
for the silver voltameter and the standard cell, in the event of such 
specifications being submitted to a formal conference from any quarter. 

The following iormal decisions were agreed to : — 

1. That only two electrical units shall be chosen as fundamental units. 

2. The international ohm, defined by the resistance of a column of 
mercury, and the international ampere, defined by the deposition of silver, 
are to be taken as the fundamental electrical units. 

3. The international volt is that electromotive force which produces 
an electric current of one international ampere in a conductor whose 
resistance is one international ohm. 

4. The Weston Cadmium Cell shall be adopted as the standard cell. 

Recommendations were also made as to realising the ohm, and some 
particulars as to the Cadmium cell were agreed upon. 

These results were laid before the Board of Trade, and a Departmental 
Committee, of which the Secretary was a member, drew up a report 
reconmiending that an official conference should be invited to meet in 
London, and it is understood that negotiations are now on foot with view 
to summoning such a conference. 

During the year the work in connection with the absolute ampere balance 
has been in progress, and is practically complete. Under the supervision of 
Professor Ayrton and Mr. Mather a large number of determinations have 
been made, and are most satisfactory. Detailed particulars are reserved 
until the work is complete ; but there is little doubt that the balance is a 
most excellent absolute instrument, and that the probable error of a 
determination of current by means of it is only a few parts in 100,000. 

The investigation of the silver voltameter has been extended beyond 
the limits originally thought to be necessary. The results so far obtained 
are very valuable, and appear to indicate that a satisfactory form of silver 
voltameter is realisable. It is hoped that the publication of the results 
will take place at the same time as those of the ampere balance. 

An Appendix by Mr. F. E. Smith describes the methods of comparing 
resistances in use at the National Physical Laboratory, and discusses the 
sources of error and the accuracy attainable. 

The grant of 25Z. made in 190-5 has been expended in materials for the 
work on the ampere balance and the silver voltameter. In connection 
with the latter a large amount of work involving considerable expense 
remains to be done. For this purpose the Committee ask for reappoint- 
ment with a grant of 501. They recommend that Lord Rayleigh be 
Chairman and Dr. R. T. Glazebrook Secretary. 



106 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

APPENDIX. 

On Methods of High Precision for the Comparison of Eesistances. 

By F. E. Smith. 

( From the National Physical Laboratory.) 

The object of the author is to give a brief account of the high precision 
methods used at the National Physical Laboratory for measuring standard 
resistances. Up to and including the year 1 903, the standard unit coils 
of the British Association were compared by Carey Foster's method, the 
Fleming circular wire bridge being used. The probable error of such 
comparisons is of the order 0-00 1 per cent. The build-up of a 10-ohm coil 
from the unit was very conveniently effected by a process suggested by 
Lord Kayleigh.' Three 3 -ohm coils are arranged in parallel, and their 
combination value determined by comparison with a unit resistance. 
They are then placed in series ; by the addition of a unit coil to the series 
formation, the ' build-up ' is complete. The probable error of this build- 
up is also small, but when combined with the error of comparison of 
nominally equal coils, the observed value of a 1 to 10 ratio may be in 
error by 0-002 per cent. The use of this ratio for the evaluation of 
resistances of 10" units results in a possible error of n x 0-002 per cent. 

The resistance standards of the National Physical Laboratory are of 
three kinds — mercury, platinum-silver, and manganin. When comparing 
standards of mercury and of platinum-silver, comparatively small currents 
must be employed, because the temperature-coefficients of these materials 
are large and the resistances are surrounded by bad thermal conductors. 
The manganin coils are wound on brass cylinders, have small temperature 
coefficients, and may be immersed in oil ; the maximum permissible 
current is therefore much greater. The accuracy of all methods of com- 
parison is directly proportional to the current employed, from which it 
follows that for all building-up processes, manganin coils are to be 
preferred. The question of preference for permanency is not discussed in 
this paper. 

In order to compare the various methods of measurement it is 
necessary to give the formula for sensitiveness. In presenting these 
latter I do not wish to suggest that they are new. The subject has been 
previously treated by Mr. O. Heaviside,^ Mr. T. Gray,^ Lord Rayleigh,* 
Professor Schu&ter,^ Professor A. Gray,*' Dr. Ja^ger,^ Dr. St. Lindeck, 
Diesselhorst, and others, and some of the formulae are given in text-books. 
In the present paper the considerations of many of these writers have been 
extended. Professor Schuster first pointed out that it is the heating of 
the conductors which puts the limit to a measurement of resistance, and the 
formulae derived by him are in terms of the current conveyed by the resist- 
ance to be measured. Dr. Jaeger has recently discussed the question of 
sensitiveness from the same point of view, and in this paper the subject is 
similarly treated. The formulae may be derived in several ways, as will be 
seen on reference to the authorities quoted. Many of these ways are long, 

' PMl. Trans., 1883, 174, 310. See also B.A. Report, 1883. 

» Phil. Mag., 1873, xlv., p. 114. » Ibid., 1881, xii., p. 283. 

* Proc. Boy. Soc, 1891, 49, 203. > Phil. Mag., 1894, p. 175. 

* Absolute Measurements, vol. i., p. 331. 

' Zeitschr. Instrumentenlt., March 1906, 26, 69. See also Jaeger, St. Lindeck, 
and Diesselhorst, Zeitschr. Instrumentenk., 1903, 33. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 107 



and it may not be out of place to give a well-known rule which, if applied 
to any system of conductors, will quickly give all the desired information. 
' In any network of conductors the current in one arm due to an 
electromotive force in another arm is equal to the current in the latter 
when an equal e.m.f. is placed in the former.' 

(This rule results from an application of Kirchoff's Laws.)- 

The most complicated system of conductors considered in the present 

paper is that known as the Kelvin double bridge, ^ and this is dealt with 

here by way of example. Let the current through P be i, and through 

R, i', and let P/Q=R/S=a//3. Also let the applied e.m.f. remain 



Fig. 1. 




constant. On completing the galvanometer circuit the distribution of the 
currents will remain unaltered. Let P be changed to P + SP. The 
current through it will change to i — ci, and the change in p.d. of P is 
i^P — 'Phi ; of Q it is QSi. If the galvanometer circuit is now completed 
the current through it will be equal to that produced by an e.m.f. idV—'Pci 
in P and an e.m.f. equal to Qci in Q. If an e.m.f. equal to the latter is 
placed in the galvanometer branch, the current through Q is PQSi/ 
(P + Q)r, where r is equal to 

a/3 (P + R)(Q + S) ^ 
a + i3 P + R + Q + S^ ' 

i.e. the resistance of the ' external galvanometer circuit ' plus that of the 
galvanometer. Similarly the current through P due to an e.m.f. Poi in 
the galvanometer branch is equal to Q7ci/(P + Q,)r. Hence, by the rule, 
the current through the galvanometer due to an e.m.f. Qci in Q, is equal 
to the current through the same due to an e.m.f. Pei in P. As these must 
be in opposite directions through G, we have only to consider the current 
due to an e.m.f. iSP in P. The current through G due to this e.m.f. is 
found in a similar manner and is equal to 



i3P 



C , «/3 (P + RXQ+S) 
ci+fi'^ P + RfQ + S 



P+R+Q+S 



(A) 



This, therefore, is the current through the galvanometer when the balance 
of the bridge is disturbed by an alteration in P of ^P. 

' W. Thomson, Phil. Mag., 1862, 24, 149. 



108 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



In galvanometers, the coils of which are wound in similar channels, 
and contain the same mass of wire, the electromagnetic force on the 
needle, and hence the deflection, is proportional to .Tn/G,' where x is the 
current through G. In the case considered the deflection is pro- 
portional to 



VG WP 



G- 



a/3 



• 



Q + S 



a + /3 



(P+R)(Q + S ) 
P+R+Q+S 



P+R+Q+S 



(B) 



This is a maximum when G 



_^ (PJ-RXQ + S) 
a+y8^P + R + Q + S' 



the resistance of 



the ' extprnal galvanometer circuit,' and the value of this is the most 
suitable galvanometer resistance. Substituting this value for G in (B), an 
expression is obtained which, from the conjugate condition of the arms of 
the bridge, may be reduced to the simple form 



iA v/P/2 



(R + S)(P + R + «) 
PS 



(C) 



in which A—vF/'P. 

If in (B) we write g for the best galvanometer resistance and N^r for 
the resistance of the galvanometer used, the deflection is proportional to 
\/Ng/(N + \)^yg, and the ratio of this to the maximum (N=l) is 
2\/N/(N + l). Prof. Schuster, in the paper referred to, gives a table 
showing that if N=20 or 0-05, the sensitiveness is 0426 times the 
maximum. 

The derivation of the formulae being so simple, the results alone are 
given for the other methods considered. 

Wheatstone Bridge (fig. 2). — If a=ff=0 in the expressions obtained 

Fig. 2. 




for the Kelvin double bridge, the values are those for the Wheatstone 
bridge.^ In this case, expression (C) may be written 



.WP/2^(l.|)(l + f) 



(D) 



' A hsolute Measurements, A. Gray, vol. ii. 

■- The values usually given for the Wheatstone bridge (see J. J. Thomson, 
Elements of Elec. and Magnetism, p. 3C5 ; Fleming, Handlook of Elec. Laboratory, 
vol. i., p. 233 ; A. Gray, Abs. Measurements, vol. i. p. 333), involve the resistance of 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 109 



The best conditions for sensitiveness are here clearly indicated. The re- 
sistance R should be small compared with S and with P, i.e. P should be 
connected to a comparatively large resistance Q and a small resistance R. 
If i is the maximum permissible current through P, Q must be a resistance 
of large cooling surface and small temperature coefficient ; if it is of the 
same type and dimensions as P, then it should be of the same nominal 
value. In the latter case, which is the general one for precision measure- 
ments, P=Q=R=S, and the sensitiveness is proportional to iA^.P/4 
It is generally recognised that for coils of the same type and dimensions 
i\/P is constant. 

3). — Let the resistances of the two circuits be 
is the current through P, the current through 



The Poteyitiometer (fig. 
P + Ri and Q + Ro. If i 
the galvanometer is 



iAP 



G+PR,/(P+R,)+QR2/(Q+R2) 

and the best resistance for the galvanometer is PR|/(P-|-R,)-1-QR2/ 
(Q + Ro). The sensitiveness is therefore proportional to 

iA^/P~ 



2VR,/(P + R,) + QR2/P(Q+R2)' 

In the case of precision measurements, Ri and Rg may be made very 
great compared with P and Q respectively. If this is so, the sensitiveness 
is proportional to iAn/P/ 2 n/I+Q/ P. If Q is small compared with P, 
this becomes iA^/P/S, and the best resistance for the galvanometer is P. 

Fig. 3 




Unless P and R are nominally equal the galvanometer resistance cannot 
be the most suitable for both observations, and the sensitiveness of one 
of the measurements must be less than that stated. If P=R and Q=S, 
the latter being comparatively small, the sensitiveness is twice that of 
the Wheatstone bridge with equal arms. It has to be remembered, 

the battery arm and the e.m.f. of the battery. If for the latter i (P + Q) i 
substituted, the resistance of the battery may be taken as zero, and on substituting, 
the value given in this paper is obtained. 



110 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



however, that the current in the potentiometer is continuous and the 
heating effects more marked than in the bridge in which a tapping current 
only is employed. A great practical advantage of the bridge method is 
the rapidity of measurement. 

Differential Galvanometer Method (fig. 
resistances of the galvanometer coils, the 



4).— If G and g 
difference of the 



are the 
currents 



Fig. 4. 




Gfg 



a 



through them is i(P5'— QG)/G(Q4 g). If P=Q and G!=g, the difference 
of the currents is i(P— Q)/(Q + G)=tc)P/(Q + G), and the best galvano- 
meter resistance is G=P=Q. The sensitiveness is then proportional to 
iA \/ P/2 n/ 2. If the currents through the galvanometer are comparatively 
large, convection currents are produced in the space containing the sus- 
pended magnets ; also, the resistance of the coils is subject to small but 
rapid changes. There is, therefore, a maximum permissible value for the 
currents through the galvanometer coils, and in general some ballast 
resistance must be added to the galvanometer arms. This reduces the 
sensitiveness. 

Mercury Standards of Resistance. — The Kohlrausch differential 
galvanometer (see p. 120), the Kelvin bridge, and the potentiometer 
have been employed ' for the measurement of resistance of mercury 
standards witli current and potential leads of comparatively high resist- 
ance. These methods are recommended in the Report of the Conference 
on Electric Units at Charlottenburg (1905). The current used in the 
measurement of such resistances is limited by the condition that the 
mercury shall not be sufEciently warmed to produce appreciable error. 

In the Standards Department of the National Physical Laboratory 
no favourable opportunity has arisen for an exhaustive test of the 
Kohlrausch method. As used at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsan- 
stalt it is very satisfactoi-y ; but, strictly speaking, it is not a null 
method, as observations of deflections have to be made. From particulars 
published,- a favourable arrangement for the measurement of mercury 
standards is when G=5'=6 ohms, P=;Q = 1 ohm, and the ballast resist- 
ance in each galvanometer arm is 10 ohms. In this case the sensitive- 
ness is proportional to iAs/12/34=0"098 iA. 

With the Kelvin double bridge, if R=S = 1000, P=Q=1, a=^=100, 
and G=1000, the sensitiveness is proportional to 0011 iA. If R=S=100, 
P=Q = 1, a=^^100, the sensitiveness is more than doubled, being 
equal to 025 iA. This latter case is convenient in practice. 

In the potentiometer, if P=Q, and G=P + Q, the sensitiveness is 
proportional to 0'35i-!s. The current is continuous, and hence the 



' Wissoischaft. Ahhand. d. Phys.-Tech. Eeichsanstalt, 414, Band II. ; see also 
Phil. Trans., 1904, A 373, 57. 

» Wissenschaft. Abhand. d. Phys.-Tech. Reichsanstalt, Band III. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



Ill 



maximum permissible value of i is not so great as with the differential 
galvanometer and Kelvin bridge. 

At the National Physical Laboratory the Kelvin bridge and the 
potentiometer were employed up to March of the present year. With 
the former method a tapping current of 02 ampere was necessary in order 
to measure a difference of 1 X 10^" ohm with certainty. With the latter 
method the current used was 03 ampere, but the method was far less 
convenient. At the present time a modification of the Wheatstone 
bridge is used, and proves to be the most satisfactory and most sensitive 
of all the methods discussed. The arrangement is very similar to that 
suggested by R. H. Housman for the evaluation of small resistances 
(p. 117). 

In fig. 5, P is the mercury standard, of which r and r' are the current 
leads. R principally consists of a 1-ohm manganin coil which is shunted 
with a resistance X, usually of the order 30 to 50 ohms, and a resistance 
X' of several thousands of ohms. The latter is varied in the final 




adjustment of this arm of the bridge so as to obtain a very accurate 
balance. Q and S are IjOOO-ohm coils of manganin. R' consists of two 
unit coils in series ; the value of these in terms of other unit coils is 
known with great accuracy (see build-up method, p. 104). B is a thick 
copper conductor in series with S. The current through P is 0*03 ampfere. 
The operations are as follows : The bridge-piece B is placed in position 
so that R' is out of circuit, and the shunts X and X' are adjusted until 



R,/P=(S-t-B)/(Q-f-r), 



R, being the shunted value of R. The galvanometer lead at a is 
removed and connected to b, and the battei'y lead at c is placed at a. In 
practice this change is effected with a rocking commutator. The position 
of B is altered so as to include R' as one of the arms of the bridge, 



112 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

and a balance is obtained by shunting R', when, if R,' represents the 
shunted value of R', 

R,7(P + R,)=(S + B)/(Q + R). 

Combining this with the previous equation, we have 

R/=P[(S + B) (Q + S + r + B)/(Q + r)2]. 

The value of r is obtained with considerable accuracy by moving the 
galvanometer lead at e to c^ and balancing. In an analogous manner the 
value of B may be obtained ; the correction due to B is usually less than 
1 part in 10,000,000. The ratio of S to Q may be eliminated from the 
last equation by interchanging Q and S in the bridge and repeating the 
operations indicated above. If Q and S are not very different from their 
nominal values, then 

R,' + R,/=P[4-6(r- B)/Q], 

where Rj' represents the second shunted value of R'. 

With a galvanometer resistance of 2 ohms, with P=R=1, and 
Q=S = 1000, the sensitiveness of the arrangement is proportional to 
0-35 tA. With P=R=2, and Q=S=1000, this is increased to 0-47 iA, 
the values for % being the same in the two cases. If a greater current 
value than 0-03 ampere is permissible, then Q=S may be made equal to 
100 ohms, and the increase in sensitiveness is approximately propor- 
tional to the increase in the current. 

The following observations were made on May 30, 1906, the mercury 
standard, Y, being used, and two coils in series (C.l) evaluated : — 

1st observation, P=Y=l-00027o "^*'- ohms Q=1000"18 approx. 

8 = 1000-19 
X=40-l 
X' =30900 

Shunt on R'=31500. r=0-033. B=000007 

2nd observation, Q and S interchanged 

Shunt on R'= 16400. 
Hence 



X =40-1 
X'=28400 



R , ' + R/ = 1 -000270 [4 - 6(0-0000329)1 
=4-0008825 
.-. 2R'=4-0008825 + 2(1/31500 + 1/16400) 
.-. Cl=R'=2-000534 int. ohms. <=17°-21C. 

Comparing the various methods as practically employed, the sensiti- 
vities are proportional to 

0-025 i A for the Kelvin double bridge. 

0-098 i \ „ Kohlrausch differential galvanometer. 

0-35 i A „ Wheatstone bridge. 

0-35 i A „ Potentiometer. 

The maximum permissible values of % are the same for the first three 
methods. For the potentiometer a smaller current must be used. 
Possibly the arrangement considered for the differential galvanometer 
might be modified so as to make the method more sensitive. 



ox TKACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUKEJIENTS. 113 

Comparison of Unit Coils. — Manganin coils with potential points are 
alone considered. Platinum-silver coils without such points are com- 
pared with manganin ones by substitution in one of the arms of the 
bridge. 

The method adopted is analogous to that of Carey Foster. The coils 
are exchanged in position, but the difference of values is given by the 
shunts applied to the two ratio coils. Thermal e.m.f.'s are small, and 
produce no disturbing effect as the galvanometer circuit is continually 
closed. The self-induction of the coils is very small indeed. 

For coils having potential leads the Kelvin double bridge is used. 
P=Q are the coils to be compared, P^, P,,, Q,., and Q,, being the resis- 
tances of the current leads of these coils. E, and S are 1-ohm standards. 

Fig. 6. 




n—ft—l ohm and Q,j-f Pj,=o?. The gahanometer is permanently con- 
nected as shown in fig. 6, but the battery leads are successively joined to 
tlie junctions of P-P,, and QQ^, PP,, and SQ„ R-P,, and Q-Q,. The 
cojls K. and S are shunted to effect a balance. Representing the shunted 
values of R and S by Ri R^ R^, S, S.^ 83, &c., we have 

(1) P= Q(^i+Ph) , dfi / R,+P, _ u\ 

s,+Q. "+/3+.^Vs,+q; ft)- 

(2) P= (Q + Q'-X^-s + Pb) , d^i _ /R2 + Pb_ «> 

(.3) p= 3^y^ - P + ^^^ f^^ _ «^ 

In practice, the value of d,S / (a + /3 + d) does not exceed 0-00006 ohm, and 
the expression accompanying this is normally of the order 0-00005 ohm, so 
that the last term in the above equations is negligible. From (1) and '(''') 
Q,=(R,/S,-R2/S2)/2, and from (1) and (3) P,=(R3/S3-R,/S,)/2. 

P and Q are now exchanged in position, when Q=P(Rj + Q^)/(S^ + P„), 
the values of Q^ and P„ being determined as before. If the coils are not 
very different from their nominal values we may now write 

lyub. 2 



114 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



a difference readily determined from the shunts employed. With a 
galvanometer resistance of 3 ohms the sensitiveness is proportional to 
0'20iA\/-P. For coils without potential leads, in which case the method 
of comparison is simplified, the sensitiveness is 0'25iAN/P, the same as for 
the Carey-Foster bridge employing equal coils and a galvanometer re- 
sistance of 2 ohms. The latter method is, however, inapplicable to coils 
with potential leads, necessitates a calibration and standardisation of the 
bridge wire, is more troublesome in practice, and the accuracy is limited, 
not by the general arrangement of the bridge arms but by the openness 
of the bridge wire and the accuracy of the scale and vernier. 

The following table gives the difference in values of four coils with 
potential leads, every possible combination being taken. The differences 
in the first column result from the exchanging of the coils in the bridge 
arms ; the differences in the second and third columns are deduced fi'ora 
observations of the two coils with a common standai-d. Thus, from the 
first and second recorded observations, the difference 2206-2205 is 
1 30 X lO"' ohm. The probable error is of the order of 1 part in 10,000,000. 
The temperature coefficients of these four coils are not very different, and 
average 001 per cent, per 1° C. The bath used for the comparison is 
that described in the Phil. Trans., A 373, p. 87, 1 904. 







Tempera- 
ture of 
Observa- 


Difference at 17° C. 


1 

1 


1905 


Coils 




Mean 








tion 


1 X lO-T Ohm. 




July 21 . . . 


,2351-2205 


17°01 C. 


492 


493 


492 


492 




2351-2206 


1696 „ 


425 


424 


426 


425 




2483-2361 


16-86 „ 


143 


143 


144 


143 




2483-2205 


17-10,, 


635 


635 


637 


636 




2483-2206 


17-12 „ 


569 


568 


567 


568 




2206-2205 


1706 „ 


068 


067 


066 


067 


September 8 . 


2351-2205 


17-25 „ 


475 


474 


476 


475 




2351-2206 


17-22 „ 


345 


344 


344 


344 




2483-2351 


1719 „ 


357 


356 


356 


356 




2483-2205 


17-33 „ 


831 


832 


8.32 


832 




2483-2206 


17-38 „ 


701 


702 


700 


701 




2206-2205 


17-30 „ 


131 


130 


130 


130 



The differences recorded above indicate that at least three of the four 
coils changed between the dates of the observations. In a similar 
manner, very small changes have been observed in a few coils in an 
interval of twenty-four hours. Such changes are very interesting, but 
cannot be discussed here. 

Ten, 100, and 1000 ohm Coils and Resistances of a Higher Value. — 
By the bridge method the probable error in the evaluation of a resistance 
of 10" ohm is n times the error of the 10 ohms built up from the unit. 
This latter error must, therefore, be made as small as possible. The 
' build-up ' should contain no variable contacts, and the lines of flow in 
the coils when these latter are evaluated singly should be practically 
identical with the lines of flow when the coils are in series. At the 
National Physical Laboratory three special build-up boxes have been 



ON PBACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS, 115 

constructed. The 10-ohm build-up is here described. In this the coils 
are of nominal value, 1, 1, 2, 2, 5 ohms, and may be described as 
la, 1/3, 2f(, 2/3, and 5. Each coil is of manganin, is immersed in oil, and 
connected by two copper posts to massive copper blocks, the blocks being 
provided with side terminals and mercury contacts. The coils la and 1/3 
are evaluated by the Kelvin double bridge as described for standard unit 
coils. The leads to the bridge are from the mercury contacts, and the 
connections with the shunt coils a and /3 are from the side terminals. 
The resistance thus measured is that between two points lying centrally 
under the mercury contacts in the copper blocks. The value of the 
5, 2/3, 2a, and 1/3 in series will, therefore, be exactly equal to the sum of 
their individual values. The coils la and 1/3 ; la, 1/3, and 2a ; 2a and 
2/3 ; and 1^8, 2«, 2/3, and 5 are compared by forming a simple bridge, the 
coils in the other arms being of 10 ohms resistance. A reversal in 
position of the two coils enables the difference to be accurately found. 
Finally the 5, 2/3, 2a, and 1/3 are employed to evaluate a 10-ohm coil. 
100 and 1000 ohms are built up in a similar manner. 

Let the constructional errors of the 10, 100, and 1000 ohms build- 
up boxes be a, b, and c respectively. Then, if we neglect the errors of 
observation, which ai'e small, the error of a 10-ohm is a, of a 100-ohm 
(a + b), and of a 1000-ohm (a-^b + c). If the 100 and 1000 ohm coils 
are evaluated by a Wheatstone bridge using the 10 to 1 ratio, then the 
error of the 100-ohm is '2a, and of the 1000-ohm 3a. Hence, if in 
practice a =6, and 2a=6-f-c, the probable error of the built-up values 
must be veiy small. Observations show that the differences 2a — {b + c), 
3« — 36, ifec, are not measurable with certainty, for not only are the 
observed differences very small, but often the sign changes. The dif- 
ferences resulting in one set of observations is given in the following 
table : — 

Jtine 11, 1906. Observed Values in Int. Ohms at 17° C. 





L-19 


2450 


2449 


\ From build-up boxes .... 
' From 1 to 10 ratio by use of Wheat- 1 

stone bridge j 

From build-up boxes .... 


9-9997„ 
9-9997,3 


100-008, 
100008, 

lOO-OOS, 


100053o 
1000-52, 
1000'5?8 
1000-52, 



The values given on the first and fourth lines are from the three 
build-up boxes. The second values of 2450 and 2449 are obtained by the 
bridge, using the 1 to 10 ratio from the first build-up. The third value 
of 2449 results from the 1 to 10 ratio from the second build-up, and the 
probable error is therefore 36. 

Low Resistance Standards. — A large number of methods have been 
suggested for the measurement of small resistances, and as many of these 
are known to be in use, it may be of service to point out the advantages 
and disadvantages of each. 

(a) Matlhiessen and Hockin's Method (fig. 7). — By adjusting the 
resistances R and S, a balance is obtained with the galvanometer arm 
connecting R-!S with each of the potential points of P and Q in succession. 
The value of R-f S is kept constant. The ratio of R to S is necessarily 

i2 



116 



KEPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



very "reat in one of the observations, and the sensitiveness is, therefore, 
very "small (see expression (D), p. 108). The method is unsuited for 
accui'ate work. 



Fiu, 7. 




(b) Method suggested hy Lord Rayleujh (fig. 8). — As an alternative to 
the previous method, the Jfollowing process was suggested by Lord Rayleigh 
in 1881:.' P is the low resistance whose value is required. Q is a one- 
or tenth-ohm standard which is shunted by the resistances h and c, the 
ratio of c to 6 being approximately equal to Q/P if the resistance of 
the calvauometer is comparatively great. When the galvanometer is con- 
nected across h, c is adjusted until the combination gives the same effect 
upon it as P does. Then, supposing the resistance of the galvanometer 
branch to remain constant, 



P= 



Q6 



The method may be made a null one by using a differential galvanometer 
knd an additional resistance S (approximately equal to P) in the main 
circuit. One coil of the galvanometer is connected across ]? and the other 



Fig. 8. 




across S, the lesistance of the galvanometer arm of S being adjusted until 
there is no deflection. The P galvanometer coil is then joined across h, 
and c adjusted to obtain a balance. Small variations in current strength 
have no effect, but the current must be reversed and the combination 

' Camb. Phil. Soc. Proc, 1884, v., p. 133. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR KLECTRICAT. MEASUREMENTS. 117 

readjusted in order to eliminate thermal e.m.f.'s. The resistance of the 
galvanometer branch is not constant unless the potential leads of P are 
equal in resistance to those of b. In order to neglect the resistance of 
these leads, and to make bc/G comparatively small, G must be great. This 
diminishes the sensitiveness. If Q is made greater than 1, the maximum 
permissible current in the main circuit is reduced, and the sensitiveness is 
again diminished. Suppose that P=0'0], Q=l, b=l, c = 97, and 
G = 100 + .'i'wherea;issmall. Then P=l/ (99 + 097— 0-01,t). Hence, if 
the value of P is desii'ed to be correct to 0-001 per cent., the value of the 
galvanometer resistance must be known to 1 part in 1000. Although not 
so sensitive as other methods described hereafter, the pr-ocess is interest- 
ing. The combination of resistances Q, b, and c was used by Lord 
Rayleigh in the determination of the ohm by Lorenz' method. 

(c) Housman's Method ' (fig. 9). — The first stage in the process is to 
measure the ratio of P to Q by shunting E, or (S + Q'). The second is to 
shift one galvanometer lead and one battery lead and measure the ratio 
of (P + Q) to Q'. Q' is a 1-ohm coil. For precision work the leads 
connecting Q' to S and P to R must be known. The greatest dis- 
advantage of this method is that the current through P in the second 
measurement must be compai-atively small. Thus,'if P=0-0001, Q=0-01, 

Fig. 9. 




and Q'=l, the maximum permissible current through P (if P is the 
usual type and size of standard resistance) is 100 amperes ; through P and 
Q in series, 10 amperes; and through P-fQ-f-Q' in series, 1 ampere. 
The necessary ratio of the arms S and R is also unsuited for accurate 
work. 

(d) Two-stej) Method- (A. Campbell) (fig. 10). — A suitable small 
resistance, whose value need not be accurately known, is inserted at U, 
and is adjusted by shunting until the galvanometer balances in position a. 
The galvanometer is then brought into position b and balance obtained by 
another shunt at R or S. By repeating this process a few times the 
balance is good in both positions. The method is about 50 per cent. 
more sensitive than the Kelvin double bridge if equally favourable arrange- 
ments are made, but it is much less convenient in practice. The leads 



' Electrician, 1897, xl., p. 300. 



» Phil. Mag., July 1903. 



118 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



connecting P to R and Q to S have to be evaluated by changing the 
position of the battery leads. 

(e) Potentiometer. — With very small resistances, if great sensitiveness 
is required, two currents of large value have to be maintained in a steady 
state. As the probable error is proportional to the variation in the 
current strengths this necessitates great care. In practice the sensitive- 
ness may be made greater than that of any other method. If P=00001, 
R=0'001, Q=0-001, S=0'01 (see fig. 3), and if we suppose the resistance 
of the other portions of the circuits to be comparatively great, then, with 



Fig. 10. 




y^/^y* 



G=l ohm, the sensitiveness for one position of balance is proportional to 
001 i A v/P, and for the second position of balance 0031 i\ \/R. If 
Q=l, S = 10, the sensitivities corresponding are proportional to 0'005 
i A v/P and 0-0029 i A x/R. 

(f) Kelvin Double Bridge^ (fig. 11). — For measurements of pre- 
cision this method is used at the National Physical Laboratory. Balance 
is first obtained by shunting R or S, when 



,_QE' 



ftd 



S' ^a + /3 + tf 



(s'-i)' 



R' and S' representing the shunted values of R + L and S-f L' + L". To 
obtain the value of L the battery lead at P'L is disconnected and joined 
to L-R and the bridge again balanced. L' + L" is similarly evaluated (see 
example which follows). For d, a and ft are disconnected and the galva- 
nometer circuit completed by connecting to the junction of Q and d and 
balancing. The ratio of a to fl must be known with considerable accuracy 
if d is comparatively great. a consists of a resistance coil plus a 
potential load of P, and /3 of another coil phis a potential lead of Q ; 
hence the ratio must be determined with a and /? in position in the 
bridge. The bridge is first balanced in the ordinary way by shunting 
R or S. The connector which joins P to Q through the arm d is then 
removed and balance restored by shunting a or /3. The original arrange- 



' W. Thomson, Phil. Mag., 1862, 24, 149. 
Diesselhorst, Zeitichr. Instrument enli., 190.3, 33. 



See also Jaeger, St. Lindeck, and 



0^ PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 119 



ment is restored and the bridge balanced again. Thus, by succes.sive 
approximations wc have 



P _ P+« _ « ^ 

Q Q + /3 /8 



R' 



where E' and S' are tlie shunted values of E and S. 



E' 
Thus — is equal to 



If 

then 



a//3 within the limits of the errors of measurement. It does not follow, 
however, that d/S / (<t + ft + d) x (R'/H'-a/ft) is negligibly small. It is 
only so if the value of dft/{a + /3 + d) does not exceed the value of P 
the value be NPand the probable error of an observation is 1 X 10 ", 
the error of the final result is not less than N x 10"". It will be seen 
from this that the current leads of standard resistances intended for 
measurement on the Kelvin double bridge should have a resistance not 
than the standard itself. In some commercial standards the 



greater 



Fig. 11. 




resistance of the current leads plus the connectors necessary for their 
measurement is greater than that of the standard strip. In such cases 
the potentiometer or Kohlrausch differential galvanometer should be 
employed. In the department of Electrotechnics at the National Phy- 
sical Laboratory the potentiometer is used. The sensitiveness of the 
Kelvin bridge is less than that of the potentiometer, but it is more 
convenient m practice. In the bridge, if P=00001, Q=0001, E=l, 
g_10, a = l, /3=10, the sensitiveness is proportional to 0-0034 iAVP. 
The galvanometer resistance is supposed to be 2 ohms. An example 
follows. For simplicity P=01 ohm. 



P = No. 2484 = 01 ohm with potential leads. 

Q = No. 23.51 = 10 „ 

R = No. 2483 = I'O „ 

S = No. 1693 = 100 ohms. No potential leads. 

a = 1 /3 = 10 t = 170° 0. 



Value desired. 
Value = 1-00000, at 17-0° C. 
Value = 100002, „ 
Value - lOOOOls „ „ 



120 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Balance was effected by shunting Pt with 122,000 ohms. The cohnector 
completing the branch d was then removed and balance again established 
by shunting « with 0,500 ohms. The balance still held good when the 
connector was restored in position. Hence, if R' and a' represent the 
shunted values of R and «, 

P^P + a'^a'^ R;+L_ 

Q q + ii ft S + L' + L"' 

the probable error of these ratios being of the order O'OOOl per cent, in 
the present instance. The value of d (for measurement see the following 
table) is equal to 0-000128 ohm, and is less than P. Hence 

Q(R' + L) _l-00000,x(l-OOOOl6 + 0-00011o) 
^"S + L' + L" 10-000l8 + 0~^0601, " ^^^"^^» ^* ^^ ^ ^' 

The manner in which d, L, and(L' + L") were evaluated will be seen from 
the accompanying table. This is a good instance of a measurement 
involving a number of connecting pieces which must be evaluated in 
position. 



Position of 

Galvanometer 

Lcails 


Position of 

Battery 

Leads 


Balancing Condition 


Ohm 


(1) L" R a-0 

(2) „ „ 

(3) L"-S „ 

(4) L"R q-d 


PL QL' 
LR QL' 
PL SL' 
PL QL' 


Shunt on R = 122000 Equivalent change 
„ „ S = 8150 „ „ 
„ » R= 7100 
„ „ S = 8370 


= 00000,. 
= 0001 22^ 
= 000014, 
= 001195 


From (1) and 
„ (1) „ 
,. (I) ,. 


(2) L = 10(0-0001.SO,)/11 = 000011, 

(3) L' + L" = 10(00001. 33)/ 11 = 000012, 

(4) d = 0000128 





(g) The Differential Galvanometer.^- — This method is usually used for 
comparing resistances which are nominally equal. It is not convenient 
for their evaluation from the unit by means of a ratio of 1 to 10. 

The difference of the currents through the galvanometer coils is 
i(Pgr — QG)/G(Q+^) where G and g are the resistances of the galvano- 
meter circuits (see hg. 4). This is equal to zero when "P lQ = G/g. When 
this latter condition holds there will in general be a deflection owing 
to want of symmetry of the galvanometer coils. If P=l and Q=10, 
then the ballast resistance in circuit with ff or G may be adjusted until 
there is no deflection. In such a case, if two other coils, P'^0'1 and 
Q'=1'0, are substituted for P and Q (G and g remaining as before), and 
ten times the previous current sent through them, there will be no deflec- 
tion when P/Q=P7Q'. In general, however, the maximum permissible 
current is VlO times that previously employed, and any want of 
symmetry in the galvanometer coils does therefore introduce an error. In 
, addition, the substitution of P' and Q' for P and Q changes the values of G 
and g, because these latter include the potential leads of the resistances 
and also the contact resistances introduced. If G and g are comparatively 
large, the error is reduced, but so also is the sensitiveness. In the same 
way, errors are introduced in the comparison of nominally equal 

' See Heai'isidc's Papers, vol. i. Also C. W. S. Crawley, Journ. Inst, of Electrical 
Engineers, April 1904. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 121 

resistances. In this latter case if P and Q are exchanged, P is equal to 
Q when there is no change in the deflection, and no error is introduced 
by want of symmetry in the galvanometer coils or inequality of the 
resistances of the galvanometer circuits, always supposing that these 
latter remain constant throughout the ol)servations. Unfortunately, the 
resistances of these circuits do change, for the reason previously given, 
and the error introduced may be considerable. Let P=Q=0'1 ohm, 
and let the resistance of the leads of P=0-0001 ohm, and of Q=00002 
ohm. (In some low resistances the potential leads are of the order 0*0 1 
ohm.) Then if G = l, and no correction is applied for the inequality of 
the leads, the error of measurement is 0-01 per cent. If G = 100 ohms, the 
error is O'OOOl percent., but the sensitiveness is reduced to one-fifth of its 
former value. Such errors are abolished if the Kohlrausch method of 



Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 




overlapping shunts ' is used, of which a diagi-am of connections is given 
in fig. 13. In fig. 12 let P=Q. Then, unless there is symmetry of the 
galvanometer coils and equality of resistance of their arms, there will be 
a deflection. Supposing that G and g can be exchanged in position by 
substituting for X a re.sistance practically identical with it, then the 
deflection will be of the same magnitude and of the same sign as before. 
In practice P is made equal to Q by shunting one of them, the equality 
being determined by the equality in magnitude and sign of the deflection 
before and after interchanging G and g. The exchange is eflfected by a 
six-pole switch as shown in fig. 13. The resistance of the galvanometer 
circuits is thus constant, and it is apparent that the Kohlrausch method 
of using the differential galvanometer is the only one so far suggested 
that can be used for precision measurements. 

' Wied. Ann., 188.3,20,76. See also article hv Jaeger, ZoitseJ/r. I7istri(menten- 
hinde, 1901, 288. 



122 REPORTS ON THE STATE QF SCIENCE. 

The Evolution of the Elements. By F. Soddy. 
(Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.) 

' The subject chosen for the discussion which I have been asked to open 
is ahnost as old as any in philosophy, but the profound change which it 
lias undergone in the last decade makes it desirable to pause, and, looking 
backward, to review the standpoint that has been attained. I shall 
attempt to deal briefly with the historical aspect, in the hope of showing 
how perfectly the newer ideas dovetail into, and arise naturally out of, 
the hardly-won articles of scientific belief of a generation ago. The new 
emphatically does not in any sense subvert the old, but the horizon has 
greatly extended — how greatly is perhaps hardly yet fully admitted. 
Facts always remain in modern science, and theories too, in so far as 
they mirror them completely. So the old facts about the atom and 
element remain ; but the theories, which are the generalised expression of 
all the facts, have had in connection with the discovery of radioactivity 
to accommodate some new facts of a strange, not to say revolutionary, 
character. The extension of the theories which has been rendered 
necessary has not been revolutionary in any destructive sense. It is 
wonderful how accommodating a true theory is to new truth, apparently 
of a diametrically opposite character, and this not in any sense of mere 
ingenuity of explanation, but in a manner that arrests the investigator, 
and is his sign that he is on safe ground. From the very first the best 
proof of the newer views, to my mind, was in the completeness with 
which the strange, newly-won knowledge harmonised with the old, and 
gave to it a still deeper meaning. 

I intend first to consider the distinguishing features of the newer 
conception of the evolution of the elements, and how it came about that 
they remained so long unanticipated, either in imagination or discovery. 
Then the new light that has been shed on some of the oldest problems in 
the more speculative departments of knowledge must be touched on, and 
this leads naturally to the question as to what are the limitations of the 
present position. How far does the new view fail to reveal types of 
evolution which now may be legitimately imagined to be taking place, 
and of which the only thing we are certain of is that our present weapons 
are unequal to the task either of discovering or investigating them 1 
Again, we have to take into account the poverty of the unaided human 
imagination and the wealth of suggestion that one fundamentally new 
point of view awakes. From this point of view, it is true, the advance 
made points to an extension of possibilities so great as almost to amount 
to a revolution of thought. Possibilities of the ultimate convergence of 
these newly discovered processes and activities of matter on the practical 
problems of life and the future welfare of the race, considered in the 
light of the known effect of the relatively insignificant forces which 
have already been harnessed and are taking every day a larger place in 
our lives, lose none of their suggestiveness for being so vague and incal- 
culable. Possibilities of a new order of things, a more extended and 
exalted material destiny than any that have before transpired, even as 
possibilities, must affect the imagination and lay hold on the thought of 
the future none the less even if they continue to remain out of reach. It 
is in this sense that the new discoveries must afi'ect in time the whole 



ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE ELEMENTS. 123 

trend of philosophic thought. We are now, however, more nearly con- 
cerned with the lines of attack at our disposal for dealing with the new 
situation which has presented itself, and in which, it must be confessed, 
we feel unusually ill-equipped. The weapons available are rather limited 
in their range, and there is the possibility that the radio- elements may 
remain for long the only example of a process of evolution which we 
cannot but believe will ultimately embrace all the elements within its 
scope, and lead to a consistent theory of the whole material universe. 

More than fifteen hundred years ago, as M. Berthelot has pointed out, 
the symbol by which matter was every vvhere expressed was a serpent, 
the body coiled into a circle and the head devouring the tail, bearing the 
central motto ' ev to Trav.' This was derived from the Greeks, who, in 
imagination, untrammelled by knowledge, far surpassed even the most 
advanced theory of to-day, supposing that material evolution proceeded 
in a cycle, and thus were able to arrive intuitively at a system at once 
continuous, consistent, and eternal, avoiding the inherent difficulties con- 
nected with the beginning and end of the process which trouble us to-day. 
From that time till quite recently, although the idea of continuous 
evolution of matter was never absent, experimental knowledge advanced 
steadily along lines which seemed almost to disprove the possibility of 
any such process. We had Boyle's recognition of an element as a sub- 
stance which could not be fundamentally changed or made to yield 
anything more simple, and the continued existence of a relatively few 
constituent elements throughout all chemical changes. The law of 
multiple proportions and Dalton's atomic theory led to the idea of atoms, 
in their modern experimental sense, as the units of all chemical changes — 
the bricks, so to speak, out of which all molecules are built and into 
which they can be resolved. The advent of the spectroscope and the 
evidence afforded by such meteorites as make their way to us from dis- 
tant regions proved the essentially uniform composition of the material 
universe. 

Intimately connected with these researches another idea took shape 
as chemistry advanced. Not the slightest variation in the properties of 
elements could be detected, and hence each atom must be exactly like 
every other of any one element. It had constants, such as the atomic 
mass, which is in itself a theoretical abstraction from the experimental 
combining or equivalent weight, and periods, represented by the character- 
istic lines in its spectrum, capable of being measured with extreme 
accuracy, and in which the slightest variation in value had never been 
detected. An atom of hydrogen executes its vibrations, by which we 
know it, at precisely the same rate in the most distant star as in the 
laboratory. This seemed to exclude the possibility of a gradual change 
or evolution of one element into another. The position cannot be more 
forcibly expressed than in the familiar words of Clerk Maxwell to this 
Association at the Bradford Meeting in 1873. 

' In the heavens we discover by their light, and by their light alone, stars 
so distant from each other that no material thing can ever have passed 
between them, and yet this light tells us also that each of them is built 
up of atoms ' of the same kind as those we find on earth. 

' . . . Each atom, therefore, throughout the universe bears impressed 
upon it the stamp of a metric system as distinctly as does the metre of 

' I have replaced the word molecule throughout by atom, so as to retain the same 
meaning for the word atom as it bears throughout the paper. 



124 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

the Archives of Paris or the double royal cubit of the Temple of Karnac. 
No theory of evolution can be formed to account for the similarity of 
atoms, for evolution necessarily implies continuous change, and the atom 
is incapable of growth or decay, of generation or destruction. 

' On the other hand, the exact equality of each atom gives to it, as 
Sir John Herschel has well said, the essential character of a manu- 
factured article, and precludes the idea of its being eternal and self- 
existent.' 

In this quotation we have the best generalised expression of the 
philosophy of a generation ago. To-day we could deduce even more 
striking examples of the exact similarity of atoms than were then known, 
and yet we believe in evolution as an experimentally demonstrated fact. 

A little later the swing of the pendulum was again towards some 
system of evolution. The discovery of the periodic law, and the natural 
order into which the elements fell when classed according to their atomic 
weight, the recurrence periodically of elements resembling each other in 
properties, these resemblances extending even to similarity of spectrum, 
together with the growing knowledge of all that the spectrum of an 
element implied, led to the view that similar elements must possess similar 
structures, in which the constituent stuff out of which they are built 
is the same but the quantity and arrangement different in the formation 
of each atom. The idea was expressed, by the lemniscate curve of Sir 
William Crookes, that the elements were successively formed out of the 
same protyle, while in their formation a periodic change of the conditions 
conditioned the periodic recurrence of properties. A little later Sir 
Norman Lockyer propounded a theory of inorganic evolution accompany- 
ing cosmical evolution, in which in the hottest stars it was concluded the 
conditions are such that only the lighter elements can exist, and then, as 
the star cools, the heavier elements successively make their appearance, by 
the condensation of the lighter. 

Finally we have the brilliant series of researches emanating from the 
Cavendish Laboratory, under J. J. Thomson, in which he succeeded in 
the isolation and measurement of the constants of the corpuscle or 
negative electron, and the recognition that this must possess the 
fundamental attribute of matter, inertia or mass. From this point came 
the step to the conclusion that negative electricity might be the protyle, 
out of which all atoms are in some way constructed, by varying numbers 
being combined together in stable systems in regular motion. But in the 
more purely speculative part of this theory it is not necessary for me to 
venture. 

I pass to the discovery of the radioactivity of matter by Becquerel 
and its essential characteristic, which at once arrested attention. Here 
we had a case of certain of the heaviest elements being proved continually 
to liberate energy of a very novel and striking character without at first 
sight any perceptible change in the matter or any exhaustion of the 
supply. As is well known, this energy is manifested in the emission 
of new sorts of radiation, and it has been proved that these radiations are 
in nature much what Newton supposed light to be, consisting of streams 
of material particles ejected from the matter with hitherto unknown 
velocities. In general two kinds of radiant particles have been recognised, 
the n particle, having a mass slightly greater than the hydrogen atom, and 
the f) particle, which is an electron or corpuscle many thousand times 
smaller. 



ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE ELEMENTS. 125 

A theory elucidating the mystery was worked out in the laboratories 
of McGill University, Montreal, under Rutherford four years ago, and 
having proved itself adequate to exphiin the known facts and to suggest 
innumerable new discoveries, it has received general acceptance. I need 
only recall the discussion which took place on the subject in this Section 
three years ago, which assisted materially in the favourable reception ac- 
corded the disintegration theory, and in this Section at least I need only 
briefly refer to its main outlines. 

The atoms, in the case of the radioactive elements, are spontaneously 
breaking up into atoms of lighter elements, and this change proceeds in 
each case according to a very simple law. The same definite fraction of 
the total number of atoms breaks up in the unit of time in the case of any 
one radioactive element. The a particle expelled with enormous velocity 
consists, as we have seen, of an atom a little heavier in mass than the 
hydrogen atom, and this it seems probable, though it has not been com- 
pletely proved, is an atom of helium. The residual atom which is left, in 
many cases breaks up again and again, the same law as before being fol- 
lowed, only in the succeeding products the fraction changing in unit time 
is usually much larger than in the original elements, so that the conse- 
quence is that these products have a very limited term of existence, and 
can only accumulate in minute quantities. The energy that is evolved in 
this change is so enormous that very slow changes can be observed, where 
the actual amount changing is so infinitesimal that it is hopeless to attempt 
to detect it by ordinary methods. This appears at once when it is con- 
sidered that the smallest quantity of any element that can be detected by 
the spectroscope contains between lO'-'and 10" individual atoms, whereas 
the disintegration of a single atom accompanied with the expulsion of one 
a particle is not greatly, if at all, below the limit of detection by present 
methods. 

At first put forward on radioactive evidence alone, it was not long 
before additional evidence of the correctness of the view was obtained by 
the older methods. With the discovery in the laboratories of the Univer- 
sity College, London, under Sir William Ramsay, of the production of 
helium from radium, the fact of the gradual evolution of one element into 
others passed beyond doubt, and the new methods of investigation received 
the support of the old in a case where it was found possible to examine 
the process from both points of view. 

The essential features distinguishing the type of evolution revealed by 
radioactive processes from previous conceptions chiefly claim our atten- 
tion. 

The first consists in the reconciliation of the idea of a gradual evolu- 
tion of one element from another with the facts of chemistry and spectro- 
scopy, which we have seen were at one time interpreted to prove the exact 
opposite. On the new view the change, though of any degree of slowness 
so far as the mass of the matter is concerned, is sudden and abrupt for 
each individual atom. There is no gradual alteration of one element in 
properties until it changes into another, but an abrupt, or more usually 
a series of abrupt, step-by-step changes in property accompanying the 
sudden expulsion of each a particle. As great a difference exists between 
radium and its emanation, which is its first product, as between any pair 
of elements known. Yet it is gradual in the sense that only a small frac- 
tion of the total quantity of the radium changes in each unit of time. 

Slight as this addition is to make the requirements of chemistry and 



126 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

spectroscopy conform to those of continuous evolution, yet the words of 
Maxwell clearly show how small a step the most brilliant imagination, un- 
aided, is able to take. It would be an interesting digression to examine 
the small part played by the imagination, unaided by existing models or 
analogies, in mathematical and physical science. 

The second distinguishing feature is that the evolution proceeds from 
the complex to the simple. In all previous ideas a continuous building- 
up of the original protyle into something more and more complex was 
implied. 

The third difference is that the evolution is actually proceeding under 
our eyes, instead of having once proceeded in the remote past, or, if pro- 
ceeding now, then only under transcendental conditions impossible to 
realise in the laboratory, which was the earlier idea. 

But the fourth distinguishing feature is the vital one. Hitherto the 
energy changes that must accompany a subatomic change had received no 
consideration, while in the new views it is the dominating aspect. Much 
takes on a new significance in this light. We have seen how the range of 
the older weapons of investigation, the balance and the spectroscope, has 
been left behind. We can understand why it is that these new changes 
proceed with such complete independence of their environment. All the 
forms of energy known previously are so much lower in order of mag- 
nitude that it is not to be expected that we should be able to influence 
the rate of change with the means at our disposal. The explanation is 
now ready to hand why the elements have hitherto resisted and still re- 
sist all attempts to change them. The resistless energy which accom- 
panies the break-up of an atom must pre-exist within the atom and be 
controlling its history, making it independent of its environment and such 
forces as we can bring to bear upon it from the outside. For the first 
time we have a positive proof, if such were needed, of the correctness of 
the stand taken by chemistry against the claim of the alchemist. There 
may have existed a lingering doubt in some minds, after reading the cir- 
cumstantial accounts that have been recorded of actual transmutation, 
that perhaps in some cases the alchemist by chance achieved his ends. 
Now, however, we know that such could certainly not have been the 
case, on account of the energy which would have been evolved in the 
change of a heavy element into a lighter one, or absorbed in the reverse 
process. On the other hand, we can imagine what consequences the suc- 
cessful ti-ansmutation of metals would bring in its train, which are not at 
all those which its devotees have imagined. In this problem our posi- 
tion might be compared to that of the savage who knew of fire and its 
possibilities, and yet neither possessed it nor could start or control it. 
The control and utilisation of fire and other soui'ces of energy means 
no more to the present than the conti'ol and utilisation of the internal 
energy of matter will mean to the future, if ever it comes to be accom- 
plished. 

It is in this aspect also that the most revolutionary changes in previous 
ideas are rendered necessary. The energy changes accompanying any 
form of continuous material evolution must be the controlling factor of 
any cosmical scheme, and the failure to recognise this so deeply affects all 
the existing views on cosmical and terrestrial evolution that it is diflicult 
to see what will remain when it is rectified. But a beginning has been 
made, and the discussion that has been arranged in this Section on 
the connection between radium and the internal heat of the earth must 



ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE ELEMENTS. 127 

bring forth fruit abundantly. I need only say I would like to see the 
whole subject reconsidered, now that it is clear that an isolated body in 
space need not of necessity get cooler, although continually losing heat. 

There is a small question of nomenclature, the retention of the word 
atom, now that atoms have been shown to be changeable, which may appear 
justified if we consider the history of the word. The Greek meaning con- 
veyed by the word was purely an imaginative one, being, in fact, the 
smallest particle of matter that can be imagined. From the time of 
Dalton a new experimental meaning became attached to the word, to 
signify the smallest part of an element, or the unit, that enters into 
chemical change, and since chemical changes were the most fundamental 
then known, the word signified in a derived sense the smallest particle 
that can exist. To-day the atom still retains the exact meaning it has 
had for a century, as the unit of chemical change, but chemical change is 
not now the most fundamental known. Radioactive change is so utterly 
different that it cannot be considered to have any relation to chemical 
change. 

The view has been expressed to me that since the radio-elements have 
been shown to undergo changes, it is incorrect any longer to speak of their 
atoms, and the word molecules would meet the case. But this would 
cause the word atom to drop out of scientific use altogether, for no 
element is safe from the fate which has been shown to overtake the radio- 
elements. On the other hand, if we used the word violecule throughout 
where now we use atom, and spoke of a molecule of hydrogen where now 
we mean atom, we should have to revive the old clumsy nomenclature of 
simple molecules meaning atoms, and compound molecules meaning mole- 
cules. 

Limitation of Present Methods. — Our knowledge of material evolution 
has arisen almost entirely on account of the energy emitted in the pro- 
cesses, the material evidence, as in the proof of the production of helium 
from radium, being of necessity only confined to a few cases. The general 
condition which determines whether any process of spontaneous evolution 
comes within our experimental methods of detection is simply that the 
energy evolved should be sufficient in quantity and suitable in kind. 
There is no doubt that in the actual case of the radioactive elements the 
conditions are exceptionally favourable. Probably in no other bi-anch of 
physics can such a minute evolution of energy be detected and accurately 
measured as in radioactivity. The electroscope is the oldest and simplest 
as it is the most sensitive electrical instrument, and in proper hands pos- 
sesses possibilities for accurate measurement by no means to be despised. 
It may seem to conflict with what has been said as to the enormous quan- 
tities of energy liberated during radioactive processes that such delicate 
methods should be demanded, but that is because the actual amount of 
matter changing is always infinitesimal, even under the most favourable 
circumstances. The world is old, and only those changes which require 
an aeon for completion continue still. 

Since the theory of atomic disintegration w.as advanced it has become 
more and more plain that such disintegration may, and does, occur with- 
out the accompaniment of radioactivity. We now rather regard radio- 
activity as a gratuitous hint given us, one might almost say overlooked, 
by nature into secrets we were not bound ever to have known of at all. 
For the same result and the same type of evolution could have been 
accomplished, and may actually be going on, without our possessing any 



128 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

means to discover or investigate it. Three separate lines of evidence 
which have lately transpired show this in the clearest possible manner. 
In the first place, Rutherford proved the existence of changes in the 
disintegration series of radium, thorium, and actinium in which no detect- 
able radiation was expelled. Let A change into B, and B into C, 
and C into D. The middle change of B into C might be a ' rayless ' 
change, but it would still be possible to detect it so long as detectable 
radiation were exjielled from A and C. The same point may be 
illustrated also by a slightly different case taken from an investigation 
four yeai's ago in a series where some of the changes only emit « rays, 
and others both a and y8 rays. If some of the radium emanation which 
emits a rays, but not /3 rays, is put into a vessel with thin walls, capable 
of absorbing completely the a radiation and tdl owing the /j radiation to 
pass through, no external radiation can be detected from the vessel when the 
emanation is first introduced. Little by little, as the emanation begins to 
change, an external radiation comes from the vessel and gradually grows. 
If now the emanation is blown out of the vessel, the products of its 
change, being solid, are left behind, deposited on the inside walls. The 
external radiation is not at first affected, but as time goes on gradually 
decays away. It would not have made any difference to the above 
experiment if the emanation had not given out rays. Its existence could 
have been inferred from its producing a body which did give out rays, 
and, moreover, the rate of its change into this body could be determined. 
In this way Rutherford has established that changes occur without the 
emission of a detectable amount of energy, but which are, nevertheless, 
demonstrable, because they are preceded and followed by changes in 
which detectable energy is given out. 

In the next place, the past two years' work on the nature of the a lay 
has shown clearly that it is only detectable within somewhat narrow 
limits of velocity. If we represent the velocity of the fastest moving 
o particle expelled from radium by 100, then it has been shown that an 
a particle moving with a velocity below 43 would fail to be detected by all 
our methods — electrical, photographic, or phosphorescent. The identical 
a jmrticle, we know through radioactive tests, might be expelled with a 
velocity up to 6,000 miles a second, and we should be unaware of it and 
incapable of detecting it by its energy. 

Lastly, the possibility remains to be considered that such a particle 
might-be detectable by its charge. I need only mention the ingenious 
contrivance of Strutt, popularly known as the radium clock, to illustrate 
a possible method. This detects the loss by radium of negative electricity 
carried away by the /3 particles which are negatively charged. In the 
same way it might be thought that an otherwise undetectable a radiation 
might be detected by the loss of positive electricity. This hope, however, 
proves illusory. There are theoretical grounds which made me suspect 
that the positive charge carried by the n particle is an accident of the 
conditions under which it is investigated, and that the a particle is not 
charged when initially expelled from the atom. This I have now proved 
to be the case, and, so far as we can see, if its energy was below that at 
which it could be detected the « particle would never become charged 
at all. 

So that unless entirely new methods of investigation are discovered 
we are forced back in the search for direct evidence of other processes 
of evolution on the purely material methods, such as the use of the 



ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE ELEMENTS. 129 

spectroscope. Large quantities of materials are required ; these materials 
are the more likely to be changing the rarer they are, which makes the 
research very costly, and, in the end, it is by no means certain that a single 
lifetime is long enough to give to the investigation to secure a positive 
result. In this connection the suggestion made by our President, 
Principal Griffiths, is most welcome. If we do not live long enough for 
the purpose ourselves, it is, as he remarked, our duty to provide our 
successors with data on which to base their conclusions. 

A possible research along these lines, which I started a year ago, but 
have not yet pushed very far owing to lack of time and material, is the 
examination of old coins, medals, and ornaments of undoubted antiquity, 
for evidence of occluded helium or similar gases. The age or date of 
manufacture of such articles can often be accurately fixed by the expert, 
and there is a tolerable certainty that the metals were melted during 
manufacture, and have Tiot been heated since. It seemed that if helium 
or other gas were found a definite idea of the magnitude of the rate of 
change might be arrived at, as a preliminary to more direct experiments. 
But a good deal of material is required, which, however, need not 
necessarily have any great antiquarian value, so long as its antiquity is 
above suspicion. An application for help to the British Museum failed, 
although individual officials have assisted me in the most generous manner 
from their own collections. But certainly the line of work looks promis- 
ing enough to justify an attempt if the requisite quantity of material was 
forthcoming. In the meantime, I have been engaged in a determination 
of the minimum quantity of helium detectable by the spectroscope, and 
with some new methods find I can be sure of ^y\j-{yth part of a cubic 
millimetre. This is by far the smallest quantity of any element that 
has with certainty been detected with the spectroscope. 

Taking the possible methods in the order of their directness and 
certainty, we come next to the method, to which our President has 
already alluded, by which valuable evidence has been secured to prove 
that radium is being produced from uranium. If two elements can be 
shown to occur in constant relative quantity together in all cases in 
nature, this of itself is the strongest indirect evidence that the one is the 
parent of the other. If the parent element is the longest lived member 
of the series, the relative quantities of all the successive members of a 
disintegration series present with the parent element attain with lapse of 
time a constant equilibrium value, when as much of each is being formed 
as disappears in each unit of time. The relative amounts of each member 
when the equilibrium state is reached is inversely proportional to the 
relative rates of change, or directly proportional to the average life of 
each. Thus the researches of Strutt and Boltwood have proved- that the 
amount of radium in all the natural uranium minerals is proportional to 
the quantity of uranium. This ratio is 1 : 2,500,000, and represents the 
ratio of the life of radium to that of uranium. 

The importance of this result is that it is not confined to radioactive 
changes. It is a simple deduction which holds good in any series of 
successive changes where the first change is the slowest and each member 
changes into the next at a rate proportional to its quantity. If the rate 
of change of any member is I'apid, the equilibrium amount that can 
accumulate is small ; if the rate of change is slow it will be large. Thus 
polonium, which is formed from radium, has never yet been obtained in 
quantities greater than the fraction of a milligram, although many tons of 

190G. K 



130 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

pitchblende have been worked up for it. Half of it changes in 143 days, 
which is more than a thousand times faster than radium. Hence the 
activity is of the order of a thousand times greater, but correspondingly 
the quantity in pitchblende is of the order of a thousand times less than 
in the case of radium. 

No other cases except those mentioned of two elements always 
occurring together in constant ratio in nature have as yet been proved, 
but if this is done it is, as stated, almost sufficient to prove that the rarer 
element has been formed from the one present in greater abundance, and is 
itself changing further into some other constituent of the natural mineral. 
It remains to point out the limitations of this argument. No 
equilibrium state can be reached if the parent element is not the most 
stable of the series. If, for example, thorium were being produced from 
uranium, there could be no constant ratio between the quantities of 
uranium and thorium, for the I'ate of change of the thorium is five times 
slower than that of uranium, according to a recent accurate determination 
of Brigg. This indicates that thorium is not a member of the uranium- 
radium series, for in this case there would exist no proportionality 
between the uranium and the radium, although there would be between 
the thorium and radium. The limitation serves to show that the case 
is likely to be rare if the instability of the radio-elements, as is commonly 
supposed, is in some way connected with their heavy atomic weight. 

We are thus led to consider constancy of association in nature apart 
from a constant ratio of quantity. This, it will be remembered, gave the 
necessary clue indicating helium as a disintegration product of radium. 

These cases are common enough in chemistry, but little can be at 
pi'esent deduced from existing knowledge. Tantalum and niobium are two 
inseparable companions in nature. Donald Murray has recently directed 
attention to the companionship of silver and lead in this connection, and 
examples could be multiplied. We are still in darkness as to whether 
there is any process complementary to disintegration, simultaneously 
building up the elements of heavier atomic weight and maintaining their 
quantity, and this constant association in nature could result as well from 
a simultaneous formation of both elements or from the building up of one 
from the other. Without other evidence no certain conclusion can yet be 
drawn in this field. ^ 

A slightly different phase of the same question is seen in an element 
having an approximate constant rarity in nature after prolonged and 
extensive search for it. I have drawn attention to the fact that the 
coinage metals, in particular gold, silver and platinum, of necessity 
fulfil this condition more or less completely, indicating that these metals 
are likely subjects for a direct examination for evidence of slow changes. 
I have referred to the case of coins, where for practical reasons a direct 
examination is probably more likely to yield fruit than in any other case. 

So far as the economic evidence goes, the scarcity of gold is a matter 
of concentration, like that of I'adium, for in small quantities it is, like 
radium, very widely distributed. Seeing that 500 tons of gold were produced 

' In the writer's opinion Mr. Strati's remarkable results, showing that the 
quantity of radium in the common rocks of the earth's crust is so great that a crust 
composed of these rocks only a few miles thick would supply the heat lost by the 
earth and maintain it at constant temperoture, seem to suggest the first experimental 
indication that there is actually taking place a process of atomic upbuilding with 
the necessarily enormous absorption of energy. 



ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE ELEMENTS. 131 

last year, the element can hardly be considered scarce in any other sense 
of the word. It has the remarkable property of being found just when- 
ever the demand for it increases, and the providential character of this 
behaviour makes me suspect that a law similar to that regulating the 
scarcity of radium is in question. If this turns out to be well founded, 
the theory of currency will be reduced to a branch of physics. We may 
anticipate a more scientific system of currency being devised than the 
present, which in 1 904 cost the world from fifty to a hundred million 
pounds value thrown away in the unproductive labour of maintaining the 
gold and silver currency. 

So far only what may be termed passive lines of investigation have been 
considered where processes of spontaneous evolution are supposed to be 
taking place. There is no evidence whatever that any of the known pro- 
cesses can be in any way artificially influenced. If such were possible it 
would be tantamount to an artificial transmutation. But at least we know 
the lines along which even this more ambitious attempt might have a chance 
of success. The matter in question should be as minute in quantity, and 
the energy acting upon it as intense, as possible. These conditions are 
realised in the case of the residue of gas left in an X-ray bulb through 
which large amounts of electrical energy of great intensity are passed. 
The idea has long been held that possibly in these bulbs the disappearance 
of the gas with use, resulting in the gradual improvement of the vacuum 
so well known to the X-ray operator, may be due to a real transmutation 
or resolution of the gas under the drastic treatment to which it is 
exposed. But no experiments have been published, so far as I am aware, 
along these lines, and the whole subject has not yet advanced beyond the 
speculative stage. 

It remains to be seen whether the lines of investigation here sketched 
will bear fruit. With the problem of artificial transmutation is linked 
that of the ultimate utilisation of the internal energy of elements, the 
solution of which would change our destiny. The importance of the 
problem cannot be questioned, but its magnitude is reflected in the 
difliculties which beset its investigation. To control natural phenomena 
we must first learn how to imitate them, and this is only possible when 
an intimate knowledge of the underlying laws has been attained. It 
may well be that the single life of the individual and the limited 
resources at his command must be replaced by an organised assault on 
the part of institutions equipped for the purpose where continuity of 
purpose can be secured and experiments on a large scale performed. 



Magnetic Survey of Soidh Africa. — Preliminary Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir David Gill {Chairman), Professor J. C. 
Beattie (Secretary), Mr. S. S. Hough, Professor Morrison, a7ui 
Professor A. Schuster, appointed to continue the Magnetic Survey 
of South Africa commenced by Professors Beattie and Morrison, 

Observations were taken at twenty-two stations in the Transkei, and ab 
three stations in Bechuanaland. The observations at Mafeking, one of 
the Bechuanaland stations, extended over four days, and the results 

K 2 



133 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



furnish important information on the secular variation of the elements a 
this place. The other twenty-four stations were occupied for the firs 
time. 

The various astronomical and magnetic reductions have been carried 
out twice, and the results have been reduced to the epoch July 1, 1903. 
Maps have been prepared showing the isomagnetics in the Tran.skei ; and 
at present the magnetic anomalies for that region are being calculated. 

The Committee ask for reappointment, with a grant of 50^., for the 
purpose of carrying the survey into Little Namaqualand. The Govern ■ 
naent of Cape Colony has placed 100?. on the estimates for the incoming 
year for the same purpose. 



lieport on Results of Magnetic Observations in 
Becfiuanaland. By J. C. Be.vttie, D.Sc, 
South African College, Cape Town. 



the Transkei and in 
Professor of Physics, 



The observations m the Transkei were made by Professor Morrison, 
assisted by Professor Brown ; the instruments used were a Kew magneto- 
meter, No. 31, by Elliott, and a dip circle, No. 9, by Dover. For 



Table I. 



Statiou 


Date 


G.M.T. 


Declination 


Latitude 


Longitude 


No. 








1906. 
















H. M. 


o / 


o / 


o / 




Imvani 


.lau. 


y 


6 54 a.m. 


25 41-1 W. 


32 2-0 S. 


27 6-0 E. 


1 


Toise River 


., 


III 


6 31 „ 


26 5-5 „ 


32 27-0 „ 


27 28-7 „ 


2 


Amabele Junction 


„ 


Ji 


G 8 „ 


25 40-0 1, 


32 431 ,. 


27 19-2 „ 


^ 


Komgba 


,, 


13 


3 37 p.m. 


25 45-8 „ 


32 35-6 „ 


27 54-5 ., 


4 


East of Komglia .... 


i» 


14 


5 44 a.m. 


25 44-2 „ 


32 32-6 ,1 


27 58-3 ., 


5 1 


Butterworth Road 


)i 


15 


G 11 


25 27-9 „ 


32 21-3 „ 


28 4-U „ 


6 


1 Between Butterworth and 
















1 Idutywa 


,, 


16 


G 12 „ 


25 33-8 „ 


32 13-4 .. 


28 10-4 1, 


7 


East of Idutywa .... 


,. 


17 


8 8 „ 


25 33-1 „ 


32 0-8 „ 


28 20-4 „ 


8 


Near Basliee .... 


» 


18 


6 58 1, 


25 35-3 „ 


31 420 ,. 


28 30-4 „ 


9 


Umtata 


11 


20 


6 28 „ 


24 49-2 1, 


31 35-9 „ 


28 47-1 „ 


10 


Libode 


11 


21 


5 35 „ 


24 49-6 „ 


31 32-1 „ 


29 1-6 ,1 


11 


1 




22 


6 16 1, 


24 47-2 „ 


31 36 „ 


29 19-6 „ 


13 


j Port St. John's .... 


11 


23 


6 42 1, 


24 54-9 „ 


31 37-8 „ 


29 33-0 ,1 


13 


' Amaranya 


11 


26 






31 14-7 „ 


29 30-0 „ 


15 




11 


27 


10 25 „ 


23 52-2 „ 


31 0-6 „ 


29 30-5 „ 


16 


Kear Mount Aylifl: . 




28 


8 28 „ 


24 9-5 „ 


30 48'2 „ 


29 31-5 „ 


17 




11 


29 


1 56 p m. 


23 471 „ 


30 49-7 „ 


29 15 6 „ 


18 


Mount Frere .... 




30 


9 26 a.m. 


24 8-8 „ 


30 53-5 „ 


28 59-0 1, 


19 


Tsolo 


Feb. 


3 


7 7 „ 


24 26-1 „ 


31 18-2 „ 


28 45-6 „ 


21 


Near ITgie 




,j 


5 


6 46 „ 


24 43-9 „ 


■31 8-0 „ 


28 26-2 „ 


22 


; ElUot . 




^^ 


6 


6 „ 


24 31-0 „ 


31 18-0 ,1 


27 54-0 „ 


23 


] Mafeking 
" 




Jan. 


24 
24 


7 4S „ 
10 21 „ 


22 43-8 „ 
22 35-9 „ 


25 52-0 „ 


25 39-0 „ 


24 






11 


24 


12 27 „ 


22 34-1 „ 


1* 






n 




11 


24 
25 


2 37 p.m. 
8 5 a.m. 


22 36-0 „ 
22 44-4 „ 




11 




'* 




II 


25 


10 32 „ 


22 40-1 „ 


1) 


n 




" 




II 


25 


12 54 p.m. 


22 35-8 „ 








Maribogo 




11 


27 


2 36 „ 


23 61 „ 


26 25-1 „ 


25 l6-0 „ 


25 


)i 




11 


28 
28 


7 62 a.m. 
10 22 „ 


23 15-7 „ 
23 7-8 „ 


" 


1» 




Vryburg 




11 
11 


29 
29 
30 


1 37 p.m. 
3 8 ,1 

7 27 a.m. 


22 27-2 „ 
22 30-4 „ 
22 37-2 „ 


26 of'l „ 


24 43-0- 1, 

») 


26 


" 






3J 


9 44 „ 


22 30-8 „ 


" 


- »1 





ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OF SOUTH AFRICA. 



133 



astronomical determinations a 5-inch theodolite and a chronometer, which 
was rated telegraphically about twice a week, were carried. 

In the three stations occupied in Bechuanaland the observations were 
made by the writer, who used a Kew magnetometer, No. 73, by Elliott, 
on loan from the Royal Society, London ; a dip circle, No. 142, by Dover ; 
a 5-inch theodolite, and a chronometer. 

The method of taking the observations was the same as in the other 
observations in connection with the magnetic survey of South Africa. 
A full account of it will be found in the report of that survey by the 
writer, to be published by the Royal Society. 

The instruments 31 and 73 differ in the declination and in the hori- 
zontal intensity by 2'-0 and 20y respectively. The dip circles agree with 
each other. 

Table I. contains the observed values of declination. 

The values of the declination were next corrected for daily variation, 
and then reduced to July 1, 1903. No correction for daily variation was 
applied to either the horizontal intensity or to the dip. Both were 
reduced to epoch July 1, 1903. 

The reduced values were used to calculate the total (T), the ver- 
tical (Z), the northerly (X), and the westerly (Y) components of the 
intensity. 

The results are given in Table III. 



Table II. 
Observed Values of Horizontal Intensity (ff) and of dij} (I). 



Pine • 



Date 



G.M.T. 



g.:m.t. 



[Latitude 



Longi- 
tude 



Imvaui 

Toise Biver 

Amabele Juuctiou 

Eomgba 

East of Komglia 

Butterwortb Road 

Between Butterworth 

and Idutywa 
East of Idutywa 
Near Bashee 
Unitata 
L' bode 

Uruldeugaua Pass 
Port St. John's . 

Amaranya . 

Near Mount Ayliff 

Mount Frere 

Tsolo . " . '. 

Near Ugie . 
Elliot . 

Mafeking . 



Maribogo 
Vryburg 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Jan. 



i:o6. 





11. M. 




C.G.S. 


9 


9 46 


a.m. 


•17539 


10 


9 1 


1, 


•17317 


11 


8 23 


^^ 


•17572 


13 


8 36 


,j 


•17539 


14 


8 10 




•17487 


15 


7 58 


11 


•17537 


16 


8 2fi 




•17559 


17 


10 43 


il 


•17312 


18 


9 47 


,_ 


•17542 


20 


9 14 


ji 


•17634 


21 


8 24 


ji 


•17761 


22 


8 51 


J 


■17542 


23 


9 30 


^, 


•17301 


25 


8 57 




•18203 


26 


9 45 


,, 


•17826 


27 


12 12 


p.m. 


•17725 


28 


10 26 


i.m. 


•17642 


29 


10 14 


ij 


•17705 . 


30 


10 39 


,1 


•17819 


31 


11 6 




■17545 


3 


9 38 




•17753 


5 


8 54 


11 


•17721 


7 


9 


11 


•17748 , 


24 


9 20 


11 


•19322 


24 


1 37 


).m. 


•19289 


25 


8 33 


i.m. 


•19301 


26 


9 35 




•19322 


27 


12 40 


11 


•19188 


28 


9 10 


11 


•19189 


29 


9 37 


11 


•18993 


30 


8 39 


11 


•19019 



H. M. 

2 48 p.m. 
10 52 a.m. 

9 59 „ 
10 32 „ 

9 46 „ 

9 36 „ 

10 12 „ 

2 10 p.m. 

11 45 a.m. 

3 10 p.m. 
10 26 a.m. 

10 39 „ 

11 6 „ 

2 59 p.m. 

4 16 p.m. 
9 28 a.m. 

12 2 p.m. 

11 68 a.m. 

12 55 p.m. 
9 38 a.m. 

11 19 „ 
10 27 „ 
10 31 „ 



8 48 

9 20 
8 42 



No. 



01 48^1 








1 


02 7^0 








2 


61 42^3 


— 





8 


61 65-2 





1 


4 


61 62^9 


— 


! - 


5 


61 40^4 


- 





6 


01 391 


_ 


_ 


7 


62 4^5 


— 


— 


S 


61 55^5 








9 


61 55^8 


— 





10 


61 51^5 








11 


62 10-7 








la 


62 22^1 





_ 


13 1 


61 22^7 


31 260 


29 'SI^O 


14 


61 20-9 


— 





16 


61 27^5 


— 





16 ] 


61 37^1 








17 


61 38^5 








18 


61 22-3 


— 


— . 


19 1 


61 40-1 


30 59^0 


28 51-0 


20 


61 180 








SI 


61 32^7 


— 





32 I 


61 25^5 


— 


— 


23 


— 


— 


— 


34 1 


57 141 


— 


~ 


39 . 


67 38^3 


z 




— 





— 


26 


58 21^8 


— 


— 


i 



134 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Tablk III. 
Values of the Magnetic Elementi rednced to Jiily 1, 1903. 



Ko. 


[ Declii 


lation (D) 


H 




e 


T 


Z 
O.G.S. 


X 


Y 




O.G.S. 






O.G.S. 


O.G.S. 


O.G.S. 


1 


26 


3-7 W. 


•17781 


61 


28'o S. 


•37225 


•32699 


•15973 


•07812 


2 


26 


28-2 „ 


•17569 


61 


46-7 „ 


•37132 


•32716 


•15718 


•07827 


3 


26 


2-9 „ 


•17815 


61 


22-1 „ 


•37178 


■32630 


•16140 


•07542 


4 


26 


12-0 „ 


•17782 


61 


35-0 „ 


■37367 


•32865 


■15955 


•07851 


B 


26 


7-2 „ 


•17730 


61 


32-6 „ 


•37209 


■32712 


•15701 


•07589 


6 


25 


51-1 „ 


•17841 


61 


20-1 „ 


•37191 


■32634 


■16056 


•07779 


7 


25 


56-8 „ 


•17803 


61 


18-7 „ 


■37078 


■32529 


•16008 


•07790 


8 


25 


55-8 „ 


•17657 


61 


44-1 „ 


•37075 


•32653 


•15790 


■07677 


9 


25 


58-4 „ 


•17786 


61 


35-1 „ 


•37376 


•32871 


•15990 


•07789 


10 


25 


12-3 „ 


•17879 


61 


35-4 „ 


•37578 


•33052 


•16177 


•07614 


11 


25 


13-0 „ 


•18006 


61 


31-1 „ 


■37758 


•33187 


•16290 


•07671 


12 


25 


10-5 „ 


•17787 


61 


50-2 ., 


■37685 


■33222 


■16097 


•07666 


13 


25 


18-2 „ 


•17547 


62 


1-5 „ 


■37406 


■33036 


•15864 


•07600 


14 






•18449 


61 


21 „ 


•38096 


•33329 


— 


— 


15 




_ 


•18073 


61 


0-2 „ 


•37282 


•32608 


— 


— 


16 


24 


17-9 „ 


•17973 


61 


6-8 „ 


■37205 


■32577 


•16381 


•07396 


17 


24 


33'1 „ 


•17890 


61 


16-4 „ 


•37222 


•32641 


•16272 


•07434 


18 


24 


14-4 „ 


•17983 


61 


17-8 „ 


■37381 


•32786 


■16370 


■07371 


19 


24 


33-6 „ 


•18067 


61 


1-6 „ 


■37298 


■3-2629 


•16432 


•07510 


20 






•17793 


61 


19-4 „ 


■37079 


■32530 


— 


— 


21 


24 


49-6 „ 


•18002 


60 


57-3 „ 


•37079 


•32417 


■16338 


•07559 


22 


25 


7-3 „ 


•17971 


61 


120 „ 


'37303 


■32690 


•16271 


•07629 


23 


24 


54-7 „ 


•17998 


«1 


4-7 „ 


■37216 


•32569 


•16233 


•07580 


24 


23 


4-4 „ 


•19487 


57 


14-1 „ 


■36008 


•30277 


•17927 


•07640 


26 


23 


35-4 „ 


•19366 


57 


18-6 „ 


■35857 


•30176 


•17748 


•07750 


26 


22 


67-6 „ 


•19179 


58 


2-3 „ 


•36230 


•30737 


•17660 


•07481 



The maps following are drawn from the above data. 



24'0- 

Port Shepstons 

2f,S 




True Isogenics 
for July 1, 1903. 



^2*0' long 




62' O 



True laocliuics 
for July 1, 1903. 



H'OLtl 



28°0'l0J>J 



32'0'Uny. 



30'O l3C 



/ teout 

- 16000 



. 17800 



m Frcrc » X 


/7SS3 

• 


i7a9<y^ ""-- 


J/7eo, 

7 Port Shepstone 


i I7T9S 


/ 


• /T7S3 J 


^ 


• / 

i7S7 I 

/ TSQlQ 


/ 


■I8073 //7B00 




^^^--^ 1 -aooiN 


/ 


Aje**^/ 


c 




/y 


/ y^rt StJohni 





^^ ' 

•^ *I7T3S 


^y 


^ 




f7S57 ■t77^€ / . 


f 


^ 





•:7S96/ 
*^Eask London 



True Lines of 
Equal Horizontal 

Intensity 
for July 1. 1903. 



■ 2Q'0' lon<^ 




True Lines of 
Equal Northerly 
Intensity 
for July 1, 1903. 



3*'0'Ut 



IS^O'Lorg • 



33' P Isffg 



30'0 Lit 








rue Lines of 
Total Intensity 
for July 1, 1003. 



'•<i*0' Long. 



-<v^ 



138 REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by Means of Kites in co-ojjera- 
tion with a Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Fifth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), 
Mr. W. H. Dines (Secretary), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon 
Boys, Dr. A. Buchan, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, 
Professor A. Schuster, and Dr. W. Watson. (Brawn up by 
the Secretary.) 

Since the date of sending in the last report an investigation into the 
conditions prevailing over the North Sea has been carried on by Mr. 
G. C. Simpson, who kindly undertook the work at the request of the Joint 
Committee. Mr. Simpson spent three weeks on the North Sea in the 
mission ship ' Alexandra,' which was attached to the Red Cross Trawling 
Fleet. The results he obtained have been published in the ' Quarterly 
Journal of the R. Met. Soc.,' vol. xxxii., No. 137. 

Observations were also continued at Oxshott, on behalf of the Joint 
Committee, down to the end of September 1905, and the results of these 
observations, together with those previously obtained at Crinan and at 
Oxshott, have been published in the ' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' 
A, vol. Ixxvii. 1906. 

Since October 1, 1905, the work of obtaining systematic observations 
has been undertaken by the Meteorological Office, whose station is at 
present situated at Oxshott ; but Mr. Simpson is arranging a kite station 
on the moors near Manchester, at which it is hoped that kite ascents can 
be made on suitable days, and more particularly on the days appointed by 
the International Committee. 

The Committee ask for reappointment, and for a grant of 25^. 



The Distribution of Priissic Acid in the Vegetable Kingdom. 
By Maurits CIreshoff, Ph.D. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in cxtcnso.] 

The President of the Chemical Section has honoured me with an invitation 
to give a paper on cyanogenesis, that very important phyto-chemical 
problem in which I have taken an interest ever since I went to Buiten- 
zorg, now eighteen years ago. I began my work on the distribution of 
prussic acid among plants with Pangium edule. In recent years I have 
had, owing to the pressure of othex* work, to relinquish investigation in 
this direction, and I am now scarcely more than a spectator of the pro- 
gress made from year to year. 

The following list shows concisely our present knowledge of the extent 
to which prussic acid occurs in plants: — 

DICOTYL. POLYPETAL. Fam. 1—90. 

Fam. 1. Ranunculaceas. 

Aquilegia vulgaris (— , Jorissen 1884), A. chrysantha (n.B., Greshoflf 

1906). 
Thalictrum aquilegifolium {A., v. Itallie 1905). 



DISTRIBUTION OF PRUSSIC ACID IN THE VEUETABLE KINGDOM. 139 

Fam. 7. Berberidaceaj. 

Nandina domestica (.1., Dekker 1906). 
Fam. 12. Ciucifercs. 

Lepidium sativum (— , Schulze 1860). 
Fam. 18. Bixaceae (A.). 

subf. Pangieie (' Hydrocyanifene '). 
Gynocardia odorata (GreshofiE 1890). 
Hydnocarpus venenata v. inebrians, H. alpina (GreshofiE 1890), H. anthel- 

minthica (Power 1905). 
Kiggelaria africana (Wefers Bettink 1891). 
Pangium edule, P. ceramense (Greshoff 1889). 
Kyparosa caesia, R. longipedunculata <'GreshofF1891). 
Taraktogenos Blumei (Greshoff 1892), T. Kurzii (Power 1904). 
Trichadenia zeylanica (Greshoff 1890). 
Sterculiacere. 

Sterculia (Pterocymbium) sp. (n.B., v. Komburgh 1897). 
Tiliacea;. 

Echinocarpus (Sloanea) Sigun (B., Greshoff 1892). 
LinaceEe. 

Linum usitatissinium, L. perenne (^1., Jorissen 188t). 
Eutaceffi. 
? Citrus medica. 
Dichopetalaceaj. 

Chailletia cymosa (Dunstan 1903). 
Olaeaceffi. 

Ximenia americana (J?., Ernst 1887), X. elliptica (J?.). 
Celastraceee. 

Kurrimia zeylanica (n.B., v. Komburgh 1897). 
Rhamnacese. 

Rhamnus Frangula ( — ■, Lehmann 1874). 
Sapindaceas. 

Cupania sp. (^n.B., v. Romburgh 1897). 
Schleichera trijuga (B., Thiimmel 1889). 
Anacardiaceaj. 

Corynocarpus Isevigata (B., Easterfield 1903). 
Leguminosas-Papilionacese. 
Lotus arabicus, L. australis (£., Dunstan-Henry 1900). 
Indigofera galegoides (^B., v. Romburgh 1893). 
Phaseolus lunatus (A., Davidson 1884). 
Vicia sativa (B., Ritthausen 1870), V. angustifolia, V. hirsuta ( — , Bruyn- 

ing- v. d. Harst 1899), V. macrocarpa ( — , Guignard 1906). 
Dolichos Lablab (Leather 1906). 
Fara. 66. Rosacea (? jB.). 

subf. Pomoidese, 
Amelauchier vulgaris (Wicke 1851), A. canadensis, A. alnifolia (Greshoff 

1896). 
Chamaemeles sp. 

Cotoneaster integerrima (Wicke 1851), C. microphylla (Greshoff 1906). 
Cratiegus Oxyacantha (Wicke 1851), 0. orientalis (Greshoff 1896). 
Eriobotrya japonica (Wicke 1851). 
NuttalHa cerasiformis. 
■ Osteomeles sp. 

Photinia (Heteromeles) arbutifolia (Lustig 1882). 
Pyrus (Cydonia, Malus, Mespihis, Sorbus), sp. div. : P. Aria, P. Aucuparia, 

P. Cydonia, P. japonica, P. Malus, P. Mespilus, P. pinnatifida, P. tor- 

minalis (± 1850), P. spectabilis, P. Ringo (Greshoff 1896). 
subf. Prunoidefe. 
Prunus Amygdalus, P. Laurocerasus (Schrader 1803), P. armeniaca, P. 

persica (Vanquelin 1803), P. Padus (Bergemann 1812), P. avium, P. 

Cerasus, P. domestica, P. insititia, P. occidentalis, P. pennsylvanica, 

P. spinosa, P. undulata ( ± 1850), P. scrotina (Perot 1852), P. lusitanica 

(Fluckiger 1879), P. virginiana (Schimmel 1890), P. alleghaniensis, P. 

Bessiei, P. divaricata, P. paniculata, P. pendula (Greshoff 1896), P. snb- 

hirtella (v. d. Ven 1898), P. adenopoda, P. javanica (v. Romburgh 1898). 



Fam. 


34. 


Fam. 


35. 


Fam, 


36. 


Fam. 


41. 


Fam. 


46. 


Fam. 


47. 


Fam. 


60. 


Fam. 


53. 


Fam. 


55. 


Fam. 


61. 


Fam. 


65. 



140 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCJEINCE. 

Fam. 66. Pygeum africanum (Welwitsch 1860), P. parviflorum, P. latifolium*(Gies- 
(oont.) hoff 1890). 

subf. Spirfeae. 
Spirsea Aruncus, S. sorbifolia, S. japonica (Wicke 1851), S. KneiBBi (Gies- 
hofiE 1906). 
Fam. 67. Saxifragaceae. 

Ribes aureuin ( — , Jorissen 1884), R. nigrum, R. rubrum ( — , Hebert-Heim 
1897), R. Grossularia (— , Guignard 1905). 
Fam. 74. Combretacese. 

? Combretum constriotum. (? B.) 
Fam. 75. Myrtaceae. 

? Psidium montanum. (? -S.) 
Fam. 76. Melastomaceae. 

Memecylon sp. div. (S., v. Romburgh 1899). 
Fam. 79. Samydaceje. 

Homalium (Blackwellia) sp. div. (S., v. Romburgh 1899). 
Fam. 82. Passifloracese. 

Passiflora quadrangularis, P. laurifolia, P. princeps {n.B., v. Romburgh 

1897), P. caarulea {A., Dekker 1906). 
Tacsonia sp. {n.B., v. Romburgh 1898), T. var. Volxemii (Dekker 1906). 



DICOTYL. GAMOPET. Fam. 91—136. 

Fam. 91. Caprifoliaceaj. 

Sambucus nigra (5., Bourquelot-Guignard 1905). 
Fam. 92. Rubiacese. 

Plectronia dictjcca (5., v. Romburgh 1898). 
Fam. 96. Compositae. 

Chardinia xeranthemoides (5., Eichler 1862). 

Xeranthemum annuum, X. cylindraceum {B., GreshofE 1899), 
Fam. 100. Sapotacese. 

1 Isonandra (Bassia) mottleyana (? B.). 

Lucuma bonplandia {B., AUamirano 1876), L. mammosx {B.). 

1 Payena latifolia (? B.). 
Fam. 116. Asclepiadacefe. 

Gymnema latifolium (B., GreshofI 1890). 
Fam. 122. Convolvulaceas. 

Ipomoea dissecta (B., Prestoe 1874), I. sinuata (2?., v. Rcmburgh 1S91) 
T. (Merremia) vitifolia (5., Weehuizen 1906). 
Fam. 129. Bignoniaceag. 

? Osmohydrophora nocturna (? B.). 

DICOTYL. MONOCHLAMYD. Fam. 137—172. 

Fam. 160. Euphorbiaceae. 

Bridelia ovata ( — , v. Romburgh 1899). 

Elateriospermum Tapos (— , v. Romburgh 1899). 

Hevea brasiliensis, H. spruceana (A., v. Romburgh 1893). 

Jatropha angustidens (A., Heyl 1902). 

Manihot utilissima, M. palmata (A., Henry 1 830), M. bankensis, M. Glaziovii 
(A., Greshoff 1892). 

Ricinus communis ( — , Ritthausen 1870). 
Fam. 162. Urticaceie. 

Sponia virgata ( — , v. Romburgh 1899). 



MONOCOTYL. Fam. 173—207. 

Fam. 198. Aracese. 

Arum maculatum (n.B., Jorissen 1884). 
Colocasia gigantea (ji.B., v. Romburgh 1897). 
Cyrtosperma lasioides, C. Merkusii (n.B., Greshoff 1890). 
Lasia aculeata, L. Zollingeri (n.B., Greshoff 1890). 



DISTllIBUTIOX OF TRUSSIC ACID IX THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 141 

•Fam. 207. Gramiaeffl. 

Glyceria aquatica ( — , Jorissen 1884). 

Panicum sp. div. {B., Briinnich 1003). 

Sorghum vulgare {B*., Dunstan-Henry 1902). 

Stipa hystricina, S. leptostachya (— , Hebert-Heim 1904). 

GYMNOSPERMiE. Fam. 208—210. 

CRYPTOGAMS. Fam. 211— . 

Fungi. 

? Hygrophorus agathosmus, H. cerasinus (? B.). 

Marasmius oreades (B., Loesecke 1871). 

? Pholiota radicosa (? B.). 

1 Russula foetens (? B.). 

The length of this list shows in a surprising manner that prussic acid, 
a compound formerly supposed to occur only in the bitter almond, the 
cherry laurel, and some related plants, seems to be distributed in widely 
different natural orders. The dates given in the list indicate clearly that 
our knowledge of this distribution is mainly of recent acquisition. This 
is still more clearly shown if we consider only the cyanogenetic gluco- 
sides so far isolated and either partially or fully investigated. 

1830. Amygdalin (Robiquet and Boutron-Charlard). 

1891. Linamarin, now known to be identical with phaseolunatin (Dunstan 
Henry and Auld ') (Jorissen and Hairs). 

1901. Lotusin (Dunstan and Henry). 

1902. Dhurrin (Dunstan and Henry). 

1903. Phaseolunatin (Dunstan and Henry). 

1903. Corynocarpin (Easterfield and Aston). 

1904. Gynocardin (Power and Lees). 

1905. Sambunigrin (Bourquelot and Danjou). 
1905. Prulaurasin (Herissey). 

The complete investigation of several of these cyanogenetic glucosides 
has greatly enlarged our insight into the ways in which prussic acid is 
combined in the plant. It is with pleasure I take this opportunity of 
paying homage to these English researches so highly appreciated by 
scientists throughout the world. 

This paper would become unduly long if I dwelt on every case of 
cyanogenesis, with several of which I occupied myself personally. As an 
instance of the difficulties attending the work may be mentioned a con- 
troversy which arose over a single plant {Arum maculatum). The 
Belgian chemist Jorissen, to whom we owe some interesting observations 
regarding the distribution of hydrocyanic acid in plants other than the 
Rosacese, mentioned in 1889 that on distilling Arum he found a small 
quantity of prussic acid in the distillate, but other investigators were 
unable to confirm this. When later I found prussic acid in some Javanese 
Aracefe I wrote to Professor Plugge asking him to investigate Arum 
maculatum. He thereupon completely confirmed Jorissen's results.'- A 
short time ago I was informed by the well-k*iown plant physiologist, Dr. 
Burck, who has long devoted attention tflfWTe biology of flowers, that the 
trace of prussic acid in Arum plays a very special part in the biological 

' Proc. Boij. Soc, 1906, 78, 345. 

- Similarly, after much opposition, Jorissen waa shown to be right with regard 
to tlie production of prussic acid by Hax. 



142 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

process, as it gradually narcotises and kills any insects which may have 
penetrated into the flower after they have performed their task of bring- 
ing about self-fertilisation. 

The estimation of the amount of prussic acid yielded by plants is also 
a matter of importance. In my own work I have followed the plan of 
crushing the plant under water and then macerating it without acid in a 
moderate quantity of water to allow the enzyme to break up the whole 
of the cyanogenetic glucoside. Even when dealing with very small quan- 
tities of acid I usually precipitate it at once as cyanide of silver, which, 
after having being weighed, can still be converted into Prussian blue, I 
may remark here that sometimes in the investigation of plants which 
contain but a small quantity of an amygdalin-like glucoside only benz- 
aldehyde is found in the distillate, the hydrocyanic acid being either 
consumed by the plant or escaping into the air. Thus in Xeranthemuni 
I found benzaldehyde repeatedly, but only once hydrocyanic acid. 
Similarly in some plants, e.g. Gymnema, the quantity of enzyme present 
is insufiicient to hydi'olyse the glucoside ; in that case emulsin should be 
added in the form of sweet-almond emulsion. Treub has shown that in 
these researches the micro- chemiciil method of studying the localisation 
of prussic acid in the plant is of great value. I will give here the modus 
operandi, proposed by me in 18S9. Place a freshly cut section, not too 
thin and containing at least one layer of intact cells, in a 5-per-cent. 
alcoholic potash solution, then transfer it after 1 5 to 90 seconds to a warm 
(60° C.) ferrous-ferric solution (2-5 per cent, ferrous siilphate and 1 per cent, 
ferric chloride) and leave it there for ten minutes, and Anally place it for 
from five to fifteen minutes in dilute hydrochloric acid (one part of 
concentrated acid and six parts of water). A section so prepared shows 
minute agglomerations of Prussian blue wherever prussic acid occurred 
in the original thin section. In order to follow the distribution in 
whole leaves these may be uniformly pricked by means of a brush of 
thin steel needles arranged in rows and then subjected to the reagents 
mentioned above. Even hard and leathery leaves when pricked in this 
way receive regularly distributed small holes, through which the reagents 
can penetrate. 

As regards the physiological role of prussic acid in plants there is yet 
no consensus of opinion. 

Treub regards the hydrocyanic acid in Panynim edule as the first 
product of nitrogen assimilation in the formation of albuminoid matter. 
Treub has considerable experience of plant physiology and anatomy, and 
has built up his theory on experimental results obtained with living 
Pangium plants at Buitenzorg, so that it cannot be refuted by mere discus- 
sion. Prussic acid is abundant in the growing parts of this plant ; in 
young foliage there occurs 03 per cent. HON. I estimated the total 
amount in a single Pangium tree at 350 grams. 

This remarkable abundance of the acid and the fact that it appeai-s 
to be produced in special cells of great chemical activity, as is proved by 
the simultaneous occurrence iji them of prussic acid, proteid matter, and 
calcium oxalate, and the evid^rit influence of sunlight on its formation, 
the dependence of this formation on the presence of sugar and nitrates in 
the green leaves in which cyanogenesis occurs, the transport of the prussic 
acid from leaves along the phloeum to the growing parts or to the seeds 
as a reserve material, have all been fully proved by Treub's investigation. 
Similarly he studied for some years the physiology of another plant yield- 



DISTRIBUTION OF PRUSSIC ACID IN THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 143 

ing prussic acid, the poisonous variety of Fhaseolus lunatus. This secQjid 
series of results indicates that in this plant also prussic acid is a plastic 
material for proteid synthesis. 

Now we may ask, Is this so for every plant and under all circum- 
stances ? We may defend the hypothesis, but must acknowledge that we 
have no proof for it. 

During the last twenty years many plants have been examined with 
a view to ascertaining whether they yield prussic acid. My friend 
Professor van Romburgh has examined over a thousand species, but only 
a few of these gave positive results, though 0-001 per cent, of acid can 
be detected with perfect certainty. Compared with the distribution of 
other special plant products, e.g. saponin and cumarin, prussic acid is 
comparatively rare. Sometimes it is absent in plants in which the litera- 
ture states it to be present, e.g. Viola and MitcheUa. 

Those who believe that prussic acid plays an important part in proteid 
synthesis have their answer ready, and it is worth considei-ation. The 
plant, they say, produces the acid, but uses it immediately to produce 
more complicated compounds. As a proof that the acid can escape 
detection as an intermediate compound, we may refer to I'haseolus lunatus. 
In the young leaf much free hydrocyanic acid is to be found, and in the 
ripe seeds there is also much hydrocyanic acid, not free, but combined as 
a glucoside, which must have been transported from the leaves along the 
stem. But in the stem itself no prussic acid can be found. Hence it 
must be acknowledged that the fact of this body not being found is not 
sufficient proof that it does not play an important part in the life of the 
plant. Nevertheless it is curious that, as a rule, we cannot find even a 
trace of the acid with our most sensitive reagents, if at any given moment 
we analyse the whole plant. 

It may be urged, on the other hand, that all plants do not exhibit a 
prussic-acid stage in the proteid synthesis, and that such a phenomenon is 
a special feature only in some plants, or in certain groups of plants. But 
even in the Bixaceaj and the Rosacea;, hydrocyanic acid compounds are 
limited to a few subdivisions. 

And now, if we find prussic acid in a plant, is it always of the same 
significance ? Is it always a material for proteid formation, as it prob- 
ably is in Pangium edule and Fhaseolus lunatus ? I do not think so. 
The presence of the same substance in difFerent orders or genera may be a 
proof of natural relationship showing itself in the plant by similarities in 
its chemistry, but this need not always be the case ; the same substances 
may arise in plants in very different ways. 

Let us pass on to another prussic-acid plant, which has been studied 
thoroughly, i.e. the cherry laurel. Here, and in all rosaceous plants, the 
hnkmg of the hydrocyanic acid to other substances is much stronger 'than 
in the plants examined by Treub, and is of a difFerent type. Further, the 
acid is not so definitely localised. In the dark the cyanogenetic com- 
pound disappears less easily, and it even seems to be formed in the dark. 
The role of hydrocyanic acid as the first visible assimilation product of 
the nitrogen is not very evident in this case. The fact that in the sweet 
almond no trace of amygdalin is present, and that only after germination 
that body is found there, can be explained in other ways than in the 
assumption that it takes part in proteid synthesis. Again, such a com- 
plicated substance as lotusin more closely resembles a decomposition 
product than an early product of phyto-synthesis. 



,144 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Certainly we must be careful in generalising about the r61e of 
prussic acid in plants. . 

The most important point to determine in the first instance is whether 
the acid occurs free or loosely combined and circulating in the plant, or 
combined into a definite substance to be used as a reserve material. The 
nature of hydrocyanic acid is such as to allow of its production in difi'erent 
physiological processes by the disruption of the albumen molecule. 

In my list of prussic-acid plants I have mentioned, so far as is known, 
the manner in which the hydi'ocyanic acid occurs. The two most im- 
portant forms are (1) combination with acetone, marked A ; and (2) with 
benzaldehyde, marked B. n.B. means that we know with certainty that 
benzaldehyde is not split off. 

I propound the question : Does a physiological difference exist 
between those two large chemical groups, the acetonecyanohydrin and 
the benzaldehydecyanohydrin ? On chemical grounds the acetonecyano- 
hydrin may be regarded as a primary material for proteid synthesis. 
Treub's plants belong to the first group, in which prussic acid is loosely 
combined with acetone, and where the greater part of the prussic acid is 
free and cannot be isolated in the combined form. 

With benzaldehydecyanohydrin plants, such as Pruuus and other 
Eosaceaj, the prussic acid is associated with benzaldehyde as a stable 
glucoside, and it is not so clear that benzaldehyde could serve as a primary 
material for proteid formation. Nevertheless, is it not wholly impossible, 
since the proteid molecule contains aromatic groups, and the step from 
benzaldehydecyanohydrin to tyrosin is not an unthinkable one in phyto- 
synthesis ? 

Many plant physiologists in Europe, with more experience with 
Prunus or amygdalin than with the tropical Pangium, incline to the view 
that hydrocyanic acid in these plants has nothing to do with either the 
building-up orthe breaking-down of proteids, but that this substance is made 
by the plant from sugar and nitrate by a special process, and serves no 
other purpose than to defend the plants against the attacks of animals. 
It is, above all, the incompleteness of our physiological knowledge which 
makes decision between these theories difficult. 

In the study of this question it is important to remember the possible 
diversity of origin of this body, and every cyanogenetic plant will be 
requii-ed to be examined on the lines laid down by Treub. I hope my 
paper has shown how necessary is the co-operation of botany and chemistry 
in this work, and how much every botanical garden which aspires to be 
something more than a mere collection of plants needs a chemical 
laboratory. 

Allow me to conclude with the words of Professor Czapek, in his 
recent ' Biochemistry of Plants ' (ii. 1905, p. 259), who closes his chapter on 
this subject as follows : — 

' Die ganze Blausaurefrage bedarf eines griindlichen, umfassenden 
Studiums, da es sich unstreitig um physiologisch wichtige Stoffwechsel- 
vorgange handelt, und die Bildung cyanhydrin- oder nitrilartiger 
Substanzen moglicherweise im Chemismus der Zelle eine bedeutungsvolle 
EoUe spielt.' 



ON THE CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF CYANOGENESIS IN PLANTS. 145 



jfVic Chemical Aspeds of Gi/anogenesiH in Plants. Bij Professor 
Wykdham Dunstan, M.A., LL.D., F.lt.S., and T.A. Henry, 
D.Sc. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in cxtenso.'] 

The production of prussic acid by a plant was recorded for the first time 
by a Berlin pharmacist named Bolnn, ' who obtained it by distilling water, 
which had been in contact with crushed bitter almonds. Since then the 
formation of this highly poisonous substance, under conditions similar to 
those noted by Bohm, has been observed by many investigators working 
on widely difterent plants, and at the present time considerably more 
than a hundred plants, belonging to twenty-two different natural orders, 
have been observed to yield prussic acid. During recent years consider- 
able progress has been made in the investigation of this phenomenon 
(which may conveniently be referred to as ' cyanogenesis '), especially in 
elucidating the nature of the immediate precursors of the acid in plants 
and the processes by which it is liberated. 

'Natuke of 'Cyanogenesis.' 

In the great majority of cases in which the isolation of prussic acid 
from a plant has been recorded no attempt has been made to ascertain 
whether it occurs free or is produced by the decomposition of some more 
complex primai-y substances occurring in the plant. Indeed, it has been 
assumed that the acid occurs free in many of the plants in which it has 
been found. 

In all plants in which ' cyanogenesis ' has been thoroughly investi- 
gated it has been shown that although some free prussic acid may exist,^ 
there is always present in addition a cyanogenetic glucoside, which is 
readily decomposed by an associated enzyme, yielding the acid. 

Until quite recently only one of these cyanogenetic glucosides — viz., 
amygdalin — was well known, but during the last few years, since our dis- 
covery of lotusin in 1901, and of dhurrin in 1902, several additions have 
been made to this class of substances. 

Amyfjdalin. 

This, the best-known member of the class, was isolated from bitter 
almonds by Robiquet and Boutron-Charlard in 1830,^' and was first 
thoroughly investigated by Liebig and Wohler.'' It has the formula 
CjoH^jO, iN, and on hydrolysis by the enzyme emulsin, which occars botli 
in sweet and bitter almonds, or by hot dilute mineral acids, yields a 
molecule each of prussic acid and benzaldehyde and two molecules of 
dextrose. 

C,„H„,0„N -t- 2H,0 = HCN + C'„H,CHO + 2C,H,,0, 
Amygdalin. Prussic acid. Benzalde- Dextrose. 

hyde. 



' ^'eucs Allfjemehics Jour7ial der Chcmie, 1S03. 

■ Ann. Chim. Phys., 1830 (ii.), 44, 352. » Ann. Chcm. P/iarm., 1837, 22,:il. 

1906. L 



146 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Amygdaliu is also decomposed hydrolytically when boiled with alkalis 
or strong mineral acids, yielding amygdalinic acid and ammonia. 

C,„H,-0„N + 2H,0 = C„„H,sO„ + NH, 
Amygdaliu. Amygdalinic acid. Ammonia. 

Amygdalinic acid, on further treatment with hot, dilute, mineral acid^j 
yields one molecule of maudelic acid and two molecules of dextrose. 

C,„H,30„ + 2H,0 = CHA . + 2C,H,,(), 
Amygdalinic acid. Mandelic acid. Dextrose, 

From these data it is clear tliat aniygdalin is probably the maltose 
btlier of bcnzaldehydecyanohydrin, and that its constitution must be 
represented by the following formula : — 

/C"\ .0 ± C„H,,0„ 

CH C — CH< 

CH CH 

\ch/ . ; 

Bcnzaldehydecyanohydrin Jlaltosc 

residue. re«iduc. 

Manddic N'drUn Glncosidc. — This substance is the glucusidic hydru- 
lytic product obtained by Fischer,' by tlie action of the enzyme maltase 
of yea.st on amygdalin, and has the formula C|,H|;0,iN. Having regard 
to its method of formation and to the fact that on further treatment with 
the enzyme emulsin or with hot, dilute, mineral acids it is hydrolysed, 
yielding one molecule eacli of prussic acid, bcnzaldehyde, and dextrose — 

C,,H,;0,N + H.O = HCN + C,lI,CHO + C,U,,0, 
Mandelic nitrilc Prussic Bcnzaldehyde, Dextrose, 

glucosidc. acid. 

. It must be a ^ dextrose other of benzaldehydecyanohydrin, and be 

represented by the following formula : — 

CH C — CH< 



'C 



CH CH 

\ch/ 

Bcnzaldehydecyanohydrin Dextrose, 

residue. residue. 

^aud)uni<jrin. 

This glucoside Avas isolated from the leaves of the common elder 
[Samhucus nigra) by Bourquelot and Danjou,- although Guignard had 
almost simultaneously recorded the presence in the leaves of a substance 
which underwent hydrolysis, yielding prussic acid and bcnzaldehyde. '' It 
is isomeric with Fischer's mandelic nitrile glucoside, but differs from it in 
melting-point and in exhibiting a much higher hevorotation. 

rridauraain. 

This substance was obtained for the firot time in a pure state from 
the leaves of the common laurel (Primus Laurocerasus) by Herissey,' 

I Ber., 1894, 27, 2989; 1895, 28, 1809. •' Conqjt. Bend., 1905, 141, 598. 

» /&!</., 1905, 141, 23G. ' Ihid., 1905, 141, 959. 



0?r TllE CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF CYANOGENESIS IIS PLAJ^TS. \i7 



thouyh Simon,' Michelsohn,* Lehmauii,^ and Jouck ^ had previously 
obtained the glucoside in an impure state. In this impure form it was 
known as ' laurocerasin,' or ' amorphous amygdalin.' The production of 
prussic acid when laurel leaves are crushed and moistened with water was 
lirst recorded by Schrader,^ and subsequently by Winkler, wlio also 
noticed the presence of benzaldehyde in the distillate.'' Prulaurasin is 
isomeric with raandelic nitrile glucoside and with sambunigrin, and, like 
both these substances, is hydrolysed by emulsin or by hot, dilute hydro- 
chloric acid, yielding one molecule each of prussic acid, benzaldehyde, and 
dextrose. The principal properties of these three isomerides are shown in 
the following table : — 



Fornl 

i Mandelic nitrile Colourless 

glucoside ! needles 

Sambunigrin . . Colourless 

j needles 

Prulaurasin . .; Colourless 

1 long 

j 1 needles 


Mflting- 
poiiit 

147°-149° 

151°-152° 

120°-122° 


Specific 
Rotation 


Hydroljsoil by 
Emulsin into 


-26°-l 

-76° 3 
-52*-75 


1 1 mol. each of 
1 prussic acid, 
benzaldehyde, 
and dextrose 

) 



If it may be assumed that they are diflerent — and the evidence oil 
this point is not as conclusive as is desirable, having regard to the diffi- 
culty of isolating these glucosides in a pure state from plants- the 
differences Ijetwetii thciii probably lie in the nature of the sugar i-esidue, 
and it is desirable that the sugars produced from them on liydrolysis 
should be carefully examined. 

Glucosides yielding both prussic acid and benzaldehyde are also known 
to occur in the barks, seeds, and leaves of a large number of rosaceous 
plants. Lists pf these and references to the literature dealing with them 
are given by GreshofFin ' Monographia de plantis venenatis et sopientibus 
quae ad pisces capiendos adhiberi solent,' ii.,' and by .Jouck in ' Beitragc 
zur Kenntnis der Blausiiui-e abspaltenden Glycoside,' Strasburg i. E , 
1902. Crystalline glucosides have not been isolated from any of these 
plants, though in several cases an ' amorphous amygdalin ' has been 
obtained. 

Dhurrin, 

This glucoside was isolated by Dunstan and Henry ^ from the leaves 
and stems of the ' great millet ' (Sorrjlium vulgare) grown in Egypt. This 
plant is much cultivated in tropical countries for the sake of its edible 
graiji, which forms one of the staple foods of the natives of India (Jiair), 
Egypt {dlinrra), West and East^Vfrica (*;iffto/H«), t^outh Africa ('Guinea' 
or * KaHir ' corn), the West Indies, the United >States, and elsewhere. 
With the gradual introduction of European methods of agriculture into 
tropical countries it has become customary to take advantage of the 
rapidity and ease witji which crops of 'great millet' can be obtained to 



' Ann. Chem. Pharm, 18.S0. 

•■• Neucs Jiepertormm, 1874, 23. 449. 



* Vber das Ami/ifdali7t, 1S70. 

* Inaug. Diss. Strashvrg, 1002. 
■■' Tfommndnrfg Journal, 180.S. " Hep. Pharm., 18H9. 

♦ Published in Mededeclingen uit 's lands plantentuin, Batavia, 1900. 
« Phil. Trans., 1902, A, 199, 399. 

-L2 



148 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE^ 

cultivate it for use as forage, and as a result occasional poisoning cases 
among cattle have occurred in almost all the countries in which this 
practice has been adijpted. The toxicity of sorghum seems to be enhanced 
in seasons of drought. In Egypt the young plant has long been known 
to be poisonous, and there it appears never to be applied as a green fodder 
by the natives. 

Dhurrin has the formula C,4H,,0,,N, and on hydrolysis with hot 
dilute hydrochloric acid or by emulsin, which occurs in the plant, yields 
one molecule each of prussic acid, para -hydro xybenzaldehyde, and dextrose. 



C„H,AN 


+ 


11,0 


= HCN + 


C„H,(OH).CHO 


+ cjr,A 


Dliurrin. 






Prussic acid. 


;;.-Hydroxybenz- 
alilehyde. 


Dextrose, 



When decomposed by heating with alkalis it yields ammonia and 
dhurrinic acid. 

C,JT„0,N + 2H,0 = NII3 + C,,TI,„0,. 
Dhurrin. Ammonia. Dliurriiiic 

acid. 

And the latter, on further hydrolysis by hot dilute acids, decomposes into 
a molecule each of jj. -hydroxy mandelic acid and dextrose. 

C,,H„0„ + H.,0 = C.H.G, + CJI,A 
l)hurrinic acid. j;.-Hydrox}man- Dextrose. 

delic acid. 

These reactions are explained by regarding dhurrin as the dextrose 
ether of parahydroxybenzaidehydecyanohydrin, thus : — 

ch/ \c — ch<; 

I I \CN 

HO.C . /CH 

u.-Hydroxybenzaldeliydecyauo- Dextroac 
hydrin residue. residue. 

it is probably, therefore, a ;?ara-hydroxy derivative of mandelic 
hitrile glucoside or of one of its isomerides. 

Lolusin. 

It will be observed that all the cyanogenetic glucosides so far de.scribed 
are of a type in which the cyanogen radicle is attached to the non-sugar 
portion of the nucleus, forming with it a cyanohydrin. It is, however, 
obvious that another type may exist, in which the cyanogen radicle is 
associated with the sugar residue to form a sugar cyanohydrin. The only 
substance of this second type yet known was obtained ^ from the stems 
and leaves of an Egyptian plant, Lotnn ambicus, growing along the valley 
of the Nile, where it is known as 'khuther.' The Arabs have long 
known that it is poisoiaous in the early stages of its growth, and that it 
becomes a useful forage when allowed to mature. The plant was a great 
source of trouble to the Anglo-Egyptian army during the first Sudanese 
war, since many of the transport animals were poisoned by eating it. 
This led eventually to its investigation at the Imperial Institute, and it 

> Ducstan and Henrj-, Phil. Trans., 1901, B, 194, 513. 



ox THE CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF CYANOGENESIS IN PLANT?. M9 

was observed to produce prussic acid when ground and moistened with 
water, and the acid was found to be derived from a glucoside, which 
was named lotusin. This is pale yellow in colour, and has the formula 
CjgHjiOiijN. When hydrolysed by a specific enzyme loiase, which occurs 
in the same plant, or by boiling it with dilute hydrochloric acid, lotusin 
furnishes two molecules of dextrose and one molecule each of prussic acid 
and a yellow dye, lotoflavin. 

C,^H3,0,„N + 2H,0 = C„H,„0,. + HCN + 2C„H,p, 
Lotusin Lotoflavin. Prussic Dextrose. 

acid. 

When decomposed by boiling with ddute alkalis the glucoside 
furnishes ammonia and lotusinic acid. 



C,,H„0,„N 


+ 


2U..0 


= NH, + 


r..ji,.,o„ 


Lotusin. 






Ammonia. 


Lotusinio 
acid. 



And the latter, when boiled with dilute hydrochloric acid, decomposes into 
lotoflavin, dextrose, and heptogluconic acid. 



0.^,1X3.^0, g 


+ 


211,0 


= C',.H„0„ 


+ P^H.A 


+ 


C„H„0„COOH 


Lotusinic 






Lotoflavin, 


Dextrose. 




Heptogluconic 


acid. 












acid. 



The dye lotoflavin is liberated as a final product both in the acid and 
alkaline hydroyses of lotusin, and one of the dextrose residues is obtained 
as heptogluconic acid in the alkaline hydrolysis. These reactions indicate 
that the cyanogen radicle in lotusin must be associated with the sugar 
residue, and that it is probably a lotoflavin ether of maltosecyanohydrin. 
Lotoflavin also possesses a much more complicated structure than that of 
similar decomposition products of cyanogenetic glucosides. It is isomeric 
with the dyes luteolin and fisetin, obtained respectively from the yellow 
dyestuff" 'weld' and 'young fustic'; and, like its isomerides, has been 
shown to be a flavone derivative, and to difier from each of them in the 
positions occupied by one of the four hydroxy 1 groups. The constitution 
of lotusin may be represented as follows : — 



C'„H.,,0,„ CH- 

I 
CN 



Maltosecyano- 
hydrin residue. 




OH CO 

Lotoflavin residue. 



The precise position of attachment of the lotoflavin residue to the 
gpgar-cyanohydrin residue has not been determined, 

rhaseolunatin. 

The cyanogenetic glucosides mentioned above include all those defi- 
nitely known to contain a cyclic nucleus. Phaseolunatin differs from 
these in having an aliphatic nucleus. 

It w^s fipst obtained from the beans of Phaseohis himijj,s, L., grown iti 



150 . REPORTS ON THE STATE OF RC lEXf'E. 

Mauritius.' It has the formula CjoHijO^N, and on hydrolysis by an 
enzyme present in the beans, or with dilute acids, yields a molecule each 
of prussic acid, acetone, and dextrose. 

C,„H,AN + H,0 = HON + CH,.CO.CH, + r„H,„0, 
rimseoliinatiu. Prussic Acetone. Dextrose. 

acid. 

Alkalis hydrolyse it into phaseolunatinic acid and ammonia — 

C„.H„0,;N + 2n,0 - (',„H„0, + 2NH., 

Pliaseoluiiatin. l^hasenlunatinic acid. Ammonia, 

— the former breaking up on further hydrolysis by acids into one molecule, 
each of hydroxyisobutyric acid and dextrose. 

yOll 

(•,„H,A -I- 11,0 = CH,.C-CH + C,H,,0, 

■ Phaseolunatinic acid. ITydroxy/sobutyric acid. ])extrose, 

The gluoosidolytic enzymes present in the beans of Phaspolua Ivnalvf^ 
are of special interest. The mixture of enzyme.s, prepared from the beans 
in the usual v/ay, contains at least two glucosidolytic enzyme.s — one of the 
emulsin typo and the other of the maltase type ; and it is the latter whicli 
attacks phaseolunatin. Examination of the dextro.se produced by tlie 
hydrolysis of pliaseolunatin by the maltase-like enzyme present in the 
lieans .shows that it is the a -i.someride, .so that phaseolunatin is an a- 
glucoside, and m.iy thei-efore bo represented as the a-dextrose ether of 
acetonecyanohydriu. 

/O — ■- C',;H„0, 
CII.,.C— CH3 ; 
\ 

CN 
Acetonecyanohydrin : a-Dextroso 
residue, residue. 

A paper dealing with the constitvition of the sugar residue of phaseo- 
lunatin will shortly be communicated to the Royal Society. 

Phaseolunatin has been identified - with the lijiamarin first isolated by 
Jorissen and Hairs from young flax plants,'' and it lias also been proved to 
be the source of the prussic acid yielded by bitter cassava. ' It is probable, 
also, that phaseolunatin, or a similar glucoside, is the source of the acetone 
and prussic acid obtained from JJaviJiot (•'Ia:iorii (the Ceara rubber 
plant) and from ITevea brasUienftin (the Para rubber plant) by N'^an 
Romburgh,'' and also from Thalictrntn aqiiilegijolhtm, by Van Jtallie.'' 

Oynocardin. 

This glucoside was isolated by Power and Gornall '' from the oleaginous 
seeds of Gynocardia ndornta, and was subsequently investigated by Power 
and Lees.* It has been assigned the formula C|;tH,,,OgN, and is hydro 

' Dunstan and Henrj', Proc. Roy. Soc, 190,3, 72, 29,t>. 

- Dunstan, Henry, and Auld, Proe. Roy. Soc, 1906, B, 78, 14.'). 

» BidL Acad. Roy. Belg., 1891, iii. 21, 529. 

* Dunstan, Henry, and Auld, Proe. lioy. Soc, 190fi, B, 78, 1.52. 

» Ann. Jard. Bot. Bvit., 1899, ii. 16, 1. 

« Jonrti. Pharm. Chim., 190.5, vi.,22, 337. 

' Proe, Chm, S.oe„ 1904, 20, 137. » Joum. Chm. Soc, 1905, 87, 349. 



ON THE CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF CYANOGENKSIS IX PLANTS. 151 

lysed by the enzyme gynocardase, present in the seeds, and by hot dilute 
mineral acids, yielding one molecule each of prussic acid, dextrose and a 
substance having the composition Ci;HsO,. The latter has not been 
isolated, as it passes immediately into a brown, amorphous resin. Oi 
alkaline hydrolysis gynocardin yields gynocardinic acid, which may, in 
turn, be hydrolysed by dilute acids into dextrose and an acid of the foi'mula 
CjH|(,0|;. The exact nature of gynocardin and its dooomposition products 
remains to be determined. 

In addition to the glucosidos mentioned, which have been iiiolated 
from the several pl.mts referred to, there can be little doubt that similar 
substances exist in all the plants in which cyanogenesis occurs, and in a 
few cases indications of tlie existence of such compounds have been 
observed. 

In I'anginm edulo Treub suggests ' that the prussic acid may be 
loosely combined with a sugar also found in the plant. Power and 
Gornall - liave shown that a peculiarly unstable cyanogenetie substanct 
exists in the seeds of Tarnklogenos Kv'r.U, and Easterlield and Aston 
observed that the 'kanaka ' fruit {Corynocarpuslawigata) of New Zealand 
yields prussic acid, probably produced by the action of an enzyme on the 
glucoside kai^aUin, contained in the fruit.^ 



o 



Enzymes associatrd with Cvanogrnrtic Gutcosides. 

All these cyanogenetie glucosides are accompanied in the plants by 
enzymes which decompose them, yielding products identical with those 
olitainod by the action of hot dilute acids. 

There is as yet no method availal)le of chaiacterising enzymes, except 
in a very general manner by the nature of their activities. The enzymes 
present in these various plants cannot, therefore, be identified with 
certainty, but it may be convenient to summ.arise what has l)een done 
in the way of associating enzymes with the cyanogenetie glucosides they 
have been found capable of decomposing. 

Emulsin Oj Sivcet or Bitter Almonds. 

This decomposes .amygdalin, mandelic nitrile glucoside, prulaurasin, 
sambunigrin, anddhurrin, but does not hydrolyselotusin or phaseolunatin. 
It has been pointed out by Fischer ' th.nt emulsin hydrolyses only tho.se 
glucosides which contain /^dextrose residues. Hence the live first- 
mentioned substances must be /i-glucosides. 

Lotfifie. 

This hydrolyses lotusin, the characteristic glucoside of Lot/us arabima, 
and also decomposes amygdalin and salicin. On the contrary, the 
emulsin of almonds has p?-actically no action on lotusin. Tt may therefore 
be a.ssunied that lotase is not identical with the emulsin of almonds. 

ffynocardase. 

This decompo.ses gynocardin and amygdalin, and may be identical 
with emulsin. 

' Am. Jard. But. BuU., 1896, vol. xiii. » Trani:. Chem. Soe., 1904, 85, 841. 

' Proc. Chen. Soc, 1903, 19, 191. ■• Zdt. Phyml. Che-m., 1899, 26, 60. 



152 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Maliase. 

This partially liydrolyses amygdalin, forming mandelic nitrile gluco- 
side, and decomposes phaseolunatin, yielding acetone, prussic acid, and 
a -dextrose. 

Since the mixture of enzymes prepared from the beans of Phaseolus 
lunatus completely liydrolyses both amygdalin and phaseolmiatin, it must 
be assumed that these beans contain at least two enzymes, the one 
identical with or siuiilar to the emulsin of almonds, and the other identical 
with or similar to the maltase of yeast. Fischer has shown ' that 
maltase only liydrolyses glucosides containing an a-dextrose residue, 
and in confirmation of this it has been shown ■^ that phaseolunatin yields 
f«-dextrose on hydrolysis by one of the enzymes associated with it in the 
beans of Fhaseolus lunatus, which must therefore be of the maltase type. 

Mention may also be made of the enzyme isolated by Power and 
Gornall ^ from the seeds of Tarakiogenos Ktirzii, which has the property 
of hydrolysing amygdalin, but differs from emulsin in also decomposing 
potassium myronate, the characteristic glucoside of white mustard seed. 

It is of interest also to record that an emulsin-like enzyme, capable of 
decomposing amygdalin and mandelic nitrile glucoside,' occurs in yeast,^ 
and that substances exerting similar activities have been noted by 
Bourquelot in various fungi. 

Physiological Significance of Cyanogenesis, 

In the literature relating to cyanogenesis three main ideas as to the 
significance of the production of prussic acid in plants may be traced. 
At first it was regarded as merely a waste product of no metabolic 
importance ; later tlie \iew that it was possibly a means of protection was 
suggested ; and more recently a small number of botanists and chemists 
have put forward the idea that tlie acid is an intermediate product in the 
synthesis of proteids. 

Evidence in favour of this last view has been accumulated mainly in 
three ways. 

1. Jji/ 2^^''ysiological experiments on plants in which cyanogenesis 
occiirs. — Two notable contributions liave been made to this side of the 
subject by Dr. Treub, who has studied especially Pangium cdule * and 
Phaseolus lunatus.'' In both these plants prussic acid appears to occur 
free, and also in the form of a compound (phaseolunatin in the case of 
P. lunaiiis), from wliich the acid may be readily released, and which 
appears to serve as a temporary reserve of the acid, and with more 
active assimilation in the plants, wliether brought about by improve- 
ment in nutrition or in environment, there is an increase in the total 
amount of the acid available in the plant. Whilst Treub has conclusively 
established that the living plant of Phaseolus lunatus develops more 
prussic acid under conditions of improved nutrition, it seems to be equally 
certain that prussic acid and the cyanogenetic glucoside, phaseolunatin, 
may be completely eliminated from the seeds or beans of the plant by 
careful cultivation. Bonarae showed ' that of the variously coloured 

Dunsf.in, Henry, and Aiild, Proc. Boy. Son., 1906. ' Loc. cit. ' Loo. cit. 

* Henry and Aiild, Proc. Hoy. Soc, 1905, B, 76, 5G8. Compare Husemanrj, 
Plianzen Stoffe, p. 1020. ^ Loc. cit. 

' Ann. jard. Bot. Buit., If 05, ii. 4, 86. 
. ' Bap. Stat Ayr on. Afaurice, 1900, 94. 



ox THE CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF CVANOGENESIS IN PLANTS. 153 

beans produced by the wild plant in Mauritius those wbidi were darkest 
in colour yielded most prussic acid. This observation was confirmed by 
Dunstan and Henry ' for beans produced from wild plants in Mauritius, 
and subsequently it was found by these authors that the pale, buff- 
coloured, semi-cultivated beans produced by Phaseolus lunatns in Burma 
contained only traces of the glucoside, whilst the large white beans prO' 
duced by careful cultivation of the plant in the South of France con- 
tained none. These observations have been confirmed in a general way 
by Guignard,'- Kohn-Abrest,^ and by Tatlock and Thomson,"* though 
the first-mentioned author states that he also obtained traces of prussio 
acid from the wliite beans produced by careful cultivation. He has, in 
addition, shown that the relationship Letween the depth of colour and the 
amount of prussic acid yielded by the beans produced by the wild plant 
in Java is not so clearly marked as is the case with the beans produced in 
Mauritius. 

2. By the ini^cstlyation of the dislributicn of cyanogenetic compounds 
in the vegetable kingdom. — To this side of the work many investigators 
have contributed, but reference may be made more especially to the 
pioneer work done by GreshofF,"' and more recently by van Romburgh," 
who have shown that prussic acid is produced by many plants occurring 
in the Dutch East Indies. Investigations in this dii-ection have also been 
made by Hebert,^ Jouck," Briinnich,^ and others. 

3. By chemical investigation of the ^^''ogrcss of cyanogenesis in 
plants. — "Work of this kind has been done by Jorissen and Hairs ^'^ as 
regards flax, by Joi-issen " and Marco Soave '- as regards the sweet 
almond, by Briinnich '^ for a number of grasses cultivated in Queensland, 
by Hubert,'^ and by Dunstan and Henry ''' for the various plants they 
have investigated. 

The results of this work, taken generally, go to show that in cases 
where there is little or no cyanogenetic glucoside in the .seed (e.g. Lotus 
arabicus, the sweet almond, linseed, and sorghum) there is on germina- 
tion a large and rapid increase in the total amount of prussic acid avail- 
able. Thus whereas flax seed yields only 0-008 per cent, of prussic acid, 
flax embryos four to five inches high yield as much as 0'135 percent. ; and, 
similarly, whilst sweet almonds yield the merest traces of the acid, almond 
embryos eight days old furnish as much as 004 per cent. Further, it 
has been proved in the case of flax, sorghum, Lotus arabicus, and maize 
that the percentage of pru.ssic acid available reaches a certain maximum, 
and then diminishes, in some cases to zero. The stage at which this 
maximum occurs varies with different plants. Thus in flax the percentage 
of acid reaches the maximum when the embryos are about 45 inches 
high. In Lotus arabicns the maximum is not attained until the plant 
reaches the flowering stage ; in sorghum it occurs when the plants are 
about twelve inches high, and in maize when they are about four 
weeks old. Briinnich has also shown "' that with maize and sorghum 

> Proc. Hoy. Hoc, 190.3, 72, 285. = Cumpt. Hend., 1906, 142, 545. 

' Cuvipt. itend , 1906, 142, CSC. " Analyst, August 1900. 

^ Compare Dunstan and Henry, Compt. Rend., 1906. 

« Loc. eit. ' Jhill. Soe. Chim., 1896, iii. 15, 210, 

" Luc. eit. » Junrn. Chem. Hoc, 1803. 83, 783, 

"• Loc eit. " Ann. Agron. IBSfi, 10, 468. 

'• Ntioi-o Giorn. Bot. Ital, 1899, 6, 219. '^ Loc cii. 

" Ann. Aqron. 1898,416, '^ Loc eit. 

'» Ann. Agron. 1898, 416, 



154 KEPORTS OX TfJE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

manuring has the effect of increasing the yield of prussic acid, and, 
similarly, Treub ' found that the application of potassium nitrate led to 
an increased production of prussic acid in plants of Phnseo/na lunafus. 

The results obtained by the prosecution of investigation in these three 
directions lend support to Treub's view that prussic acid pl.ays some 
important pai't in plant metabolism, and is probably a step in the process 
by which these plants convert the ' inorganic ' nitrogen of nitrates into 
the ' organic ' nitiogen of proteids. 

It may be wortli while, therefore, to refer to the \arious theories of 
proteid formation in plants, which liave been put forward in which 
prussic acid is regarded as a basis of proteid synthesis, or in whicii its 
svidespread occurrence in plants is accounted for. 

On the theoretical side Pfliiger '' regarded the cyanogen radicle as a 
most important factor in the constitution of the proteid molecule, and 
advanced the hypothesis that whereas in ordinary proteid the nitrogeji 
probably occurs in the form of amino groups, in the molecule of living 
protoplasm it was probably present in the form of cyanogen radicles. 
Dr. P. W. Latham, in his Croonian Lecture on 'Some Points in thn 
Pathology of Rheumatism, t>out, and Diabetes,' also assigns an important 
role to the cyanogen radicle and to prussic acid in the con.stitution and 
natural synthesis of animal proteids.-' 

From the chemical side, however, more importance attaches to the 
views put forward by Victor Meyer and Schulze, Bach and Gautior. 
Meyer and Schulze suggested ' that the nitrates in cell sap are Jirst 
reduced to hydroxylamine, which combines with the various aldeliydie 
and ketonic substances occurring in plants forming aldoximes and 
ketoxime.s, and that the oximino group subsequently undergoes reduc- 
tion to an amino group. Bach's explanation ' greatly extended that put 
forward liy Meyer and Schulze, This investigator supposed thaf, from 
the small amount of nitrate present in cell-sap, nitric acid was liberated 
in minute amount by the considerable quantities of oxalic and carbonic 
acids usually present, and that this free nitric acid was continuously 
reduced by formaldehyde, producing hydroxylamine, which immediately 
combined with formaldehyde, foiming formaldoxime. The latter might 
then undergo transformation in two ways. It might be convei-ted into 
the isomeric formaraide, which l)y simple dehydration would give prussic 
acid and water, and in this way account for the frequent occurrence of 
this acid in plants, or the formamide might be hydrolysed, yielding 
ammonium formate, so supplying ammonia and formic acid. 

There may be a fundamental objection to this view. Meyer and 
Schulze have themselves shown that hydroxylamine is poisonous towards 
protoplasm, but this difficulty of the genei-ation in the plant of a sub- 
stance which is toxic to protoplasm, also occurs in the formaldehyde 
liypotliesis of the phytosyn thesis of carbohydrates, and may perhaps lie 
fiyercome by assuming that the hydroxylamine as it is formed is imme- 
diately converted into a stable and innocuous oxime. 

On the other hand, there is indirect physiological evidence in favour 
of this view. Thus the supposition that the reduction of nitric acid is 
accomplished by formaldehyde is in harmony with the observation that, 
whilst nitrates occur abundantly in stem structures of green plants, they are 

» I.O(f. cit. t ArcJiirfiir Physiologie. 1875, 10, 2.')I. 

=• Brit. Med. Jmirml, 18S6, 1, G29. * lier., 188t. 41," J 554. 

6 Afonitem Scientifique, 1897, iv. 11, 1, 



ON THE CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF CVANOGENESIS IN PLANTS. 155 

either entirely absent or are present in diminished amount in the leaves — 
i.e., in the organs in which it is generally assumed the formation of 
formaldehyde is most actively proceeding. Moreover, several in\'estigators 
have stated on other grounds that the reduction of nitrates is most active 
in the leaves. 

While there is no exporimontal evidence of the production of hjxlroxyl- 
amine when nitric acid reacts with formaldehyde, there can be no 
objection on theoretical grounds tu Bach's hypothesis ' tliat nitric 
acid in contact with formaldehyde undergoes reduction in the following 
step.s : — 

NO.jH— -^NOall >NH/)H 

Nitric Nitrons Hydroxylaminp. 

acid. acid. 

especially since he has obtained indirect evidence of the formation of 
liydroxylamine by the action of nitric acid on trioxyraethylene. 

The isomeric change of formaldoxime into formamide, the decomposi- 
tion products of which Bach has detected in the products of the action of 
ti'ioxymethylene on nitric acid, is probable, since Dunstan and Bossi have 
.shown that formaldoxime yields ammonia and formic acid when boiled 
with dilute hydrochloric acid,- and the dehydration of formamide to form 
prussic acid and water has been recorded liy SchoU,'* whilst its hydrolysis 
into formic acid and ammonia is a familiar chemical reaction. 

A fui'ther fact in favour of Bach's view may be mentioned. It is well 
kiiown that Soryhum vulgare is most poisonous when grown in very diy 
climate.s. This is precisely the condition in which natural dehydration 
would oc'cui, and if Bach's view be adopted it might lie expected that in 
seasons of drought an unusually large proportion of the formamide in 
.sorghum would be dehydrated and an abnormal production of prussic acid 
take place. Similar observations have been made witli regai'd to cassava, 
which is peculiarly virulent when grown in the dry districts of South 
America, but, according to Wiley, yields much less prus.?ic acid when 
grown under moist climatic conditions, as in the West Indies or the 
United States. It is also worth mentioning in this connection that 
Leather has ol)tained a much larger proportion of prussic acid from flax 
(linseed) plants grown in India than has been recorded by European 
workers who have investigated flax plants grown in colder and moister 
climates. 

It will be observed that Bach oflfers no suggestion that prussic acid 
takes any further part in the metabolic process, and he appareiitly regards 
it as an accidental product of little importance, 

Gautier's theory^ differs fundamentally from these of Mpyer 'iiicl 
Schulze and Bach, This author supposes th.at the free nitric acid of 
cell sap reacts with formaldehyde, forming free prussic acid, carbon 
dioxide, and water, It js then suggested that the prussic acid formed, 
condenses with formaldehyde, forming a chain such as 

I ^ II 

:CNHCH0HCH0HCNHCH0HCHOHNHCC.=NH, 

I I 

in which it is supposed that the=C*NH groups undergo hydrolysis and 

' Monitfur Scientifique, 18i)7, iv. 11, I. 

- Journ. Chem. Soc, 1898, 73, 3.'>4. « lier., 1891, 573. 

♦ BuU. Soc. Chim. 1872,42, 141, and Lecons de Cltimie Bid, Vms, Masson et 
Cie., 1897. 



15(j REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

the -CHOH- and -NH-CHOH" groups reduction, giving rise eventually 
to chains of the type 

I I I 

-CO-CHo-CH-OH-NH-CH2-CH-NH-CF2CO,H, 

which are regarded as forming the unit of the proteid molecule. 

Gautier's explanation of the formation of proteids from formaldehyde 
and prussic acid as primary materials is purely speculative, and has at 
present no experimental evidence to support it. Yet there is much to 
be said for his view that prussic acid is an important factor in plant 
metabolism, and support for it is found in the fact that the acid is widely 
distributed in plants, and that Treub's botanical researches on Panghim 
edule and Phaseolus lunalus indicate that prussic acid is concerned in the 
metabolism of these plants. The fact that prussic acid is not obtainable from 
all plants does not invalidate this theory, since the acid may be a plastic 
substance which is immediately utilised in the metabolism of the plant. 

Hebert has brought forward a series of observations made on the 
columbine [Aquilegia vulgaris) which lend some support to Gautier's 
view as to the method of production of prussic acid. In this plant 
prussic acid is obtainable from the stems, leaves, and unopened flower- 
buds, but not from the roots. In the fully developed flowers none is 
produced by the calyx or stamens, neither of which contain chlorophyll, 
but considerable quantities can be obtained from the ovary, which is 
chlorophyllaceous. From these results Hebert draws the conclusion that 
in Aquilegia vulgaris the formation of prussic acid is dependent on the 
formation of formaldehyde. 

Treub, on the contrary, has shown that in Phaseohcs lunatus and 
Pangium edule the production of the acid is not directly dependent on 
the energy derived from light, but is influenced mainly by the supply of 
sugar available. This observation has led Treub to modify Gautier's 
theory, and to suggest that the reduction of nitric acid in the cell-sap is 
brought about by the action'of a sugar on the acid. 

Professor Meldola in his recent presidential address to the Chemical 
Society, ' The Living Organism as a Chemical Agency,' ' says, in reference 
to the theories of Bach and Gautier (wrongly attributed to Htjbert in the 
address) that on careful consideration these do not appear very plausible, 
and that for these views ' there is at present practically no evidence either 
from the physiological or chemical side.' This statement is perhaps 
rather stronger than is warranted by the facts of the case, and a fairer 
position is that taken up by Treub, who concludes his memoir on 
Phaseolus lunafAis by saying : ' II serait premature de vouloir expliquer, 
en partant de I'acid cyanhydrique, I'origine des differents corps reconnus 
dans la plante comme prrcurseurs des substances albuminoides. Le 
moment d'entrer dans des discussions de cette nature ne sera venu que 
lorsque les vues hypothetiques emises ici auront ete confirmees par les 
resultats de nouvelles recherches, enterprises sur d'autres plantes.' 
Czapek, in his recently issued ' Biochemie der Pflanzen' (vol. ii., p. 259), 
says : ' Die ganze Blausjiurefrage bedarf eines griindlichen umfassenden 
Studiums, da es sich unstreitig um physiologisch wichtige Stofl'wechsel ■ 
vorgange handelt, und die Bildung cyanhydrin- oder nitrilartiger Sub- 
stanzen mugUcherweise im Chemismus der Zelle eine bedeutungsvolle Roll^ 
.spielt.' 

> Jpurn. Chem. Soc, 1906, 89, 7G5. 



ON TflE CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF CYANOGENESIS IN PLANTS. 157 

Much experimental work, however, still remains to be done in order 
to substantiate . the view that the prussic acid originates in the plants 
from nitrates, and especially to trace the exact mechanism of this process, 
and also to ascertain the reaction into which the prussic acid subsequently 
enters and the nature of the compounds formed. 



Dniamic Tsomerisvi. — Report of the Govimittee, consisting of Professor 
H. E. Armstrong (Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lovvry (Secretanj), Pro- 
fessor Sydney Young, Dr. J. J. Dorkie, Dr. A. Lapworth, and 
Dr. M. O. Fokster. (Draicu vp bij the Secretary.) 

Attkntion has been directed during the past two years mainly to the 
determination of the proportions in which isodynamic compounds are in 
equilibrium in solution. The method of investigation, which was briefly 
referred to in the last report,' involves the measurement of the solubility 
of one of the isomerides, both before and after isomeric change has taken 
place. Only one of the solid isomerides can persist in stable equilibrium 
with the solution. This is not necessarily the form which predominates 
in the liquid ; indeed, the modification which thus persists may vary with 
the solvent''' and differ in closely related compounds (compare nitro- 
camphor and its Tr-bromo derivative). The concentration of the original 
compound is kept substantially constant by stirring the solution with an 
excess of the solid ; any increase which is observed in the concentration 
of the saturated solution is attributed to the formation in the liquid of one 
or more dynamic isomerides. Tf the initial concentration of the saturated 
solution be A and the final concentration B, the ratio A/B aflTords a 
measure of the pi-oportion of the original material present in the solution 
when equilibrium between the dynamic isomerides is attained. 

In applying the method experimentally certain difhculties are 
encountered. 

(1) When isomeric change occurs rapidly, the products appear in the 
solution before the latter is saturated with the original material. In 
such cases it is necessary to make solubility-measurements at frequent 
intervals during the early stages of the experiment and to deduce the 
initial value by extrapolation. When, however, isomeric change proceeds 
slowly or only after the addition of a catalyst, the measurements can be 
made at leisure and the experimental errors are very greatly reduced. 

(2) Whether isomeric change be rapid or slow, it is essential that the 
solid u.sed in effecting saturation consist wholly of one isomcride. To 
ascertain if this be the case, the sample should be extracted at constant 
temperature with successive quantities of the solvent ; if the material 
be pure, the different extracts should have equal concentrations. In 
comparing different series of observations those which give the smallest 
ratio of initial to final concentration are the more likely to be correct. 

(3) In deducing the pro2)ortion of the original material present in 
the solution, it has been assumed that the solubility of this form remains 
constant throughout the experiment and is not affected by the products 
of isomeric change. This cannot, as a rule, be tested directly, since the 
method is of greatest value in cases in which the less stable isomerides 
are unknown or cannot be prepared in a pui'e state. Important evidence 

' Cambridge, 1904, p. 218; compare Lowry, Prvc, 1903, 19, 156. 
= Dr. Whiteley, ym/M, 189i)i, 75, 231. 



ISS REPORTS ON TriE STAtE OF SCIEliTCiE. 

cau be obtaiiaed, however, by studying the efiect of adding to the solvent 
known quantities of a pure substance of allied structure. Experiments 
have been made on the influence of glucose on the solubility of 
galactose, by Mr. Robertson on the influence of ^-mcthylglucoside on the 
solubility of the d-glucoside, on the influence of ajr-dibromocamphor on the 
solubility of the aTr-isomeridc and of bromocamplior Tr-sulphonamide on 
that of the ^-sulphonamide : these have shown that in the case of sparingly 
soluble compounds of high melting-point the change of solubility is 
insigniticant. In the case of soluble compounds of low melting-point the 
effects produced are no longer negligible, but the correction to be applied 
may be estimated by similar methods. In the most extreme case that has 
yet been examined the correction amounts to 2 per cent, on the volume 
concentration or -t per cent, on the weight concentration. 

Since the appearance of the last report four investigations dealing 
with the subject have been completed and described ; briefly summarised, 
the results obtained are as follows : — 

1. Nitro-derivatives of Camjihor.^ — The solubility of normal nitro- 
camphor in light petroleum increases in the course of a few hours in the 
ratio 082 : 1, indicating that when equilibi-ium is attained the normal 
and pscudo forms are present in the ratio 82 •, 18 or 5:1 approximately. 
Tn the case of the a--bromo dei'ivativc, the pseudo-form is that which 
persists in contact with the solution : its solubility increases in the ratio 
0'17 : 1; the isomerides are therefore present in the ratio 83 : 17 or (as 
in the case of nitrocamphur itself) 5 : 1 approximately. 

2. Glucose and (J alactose.' —In metliyl-alcoholic solutions one half of 
the sugar is in the a-form, the other lialf probably consisting almost 
entirely of the stereoisomeric y8-sugar. In presence of water the proportion 
of (he a-sugar decreases : this might be due to a displacement of the 
equilibrium between the a and ^ sugars but is more probably due to the 
formation of a largely increased proportion of a third form of the sugar, 
such as the aldehyde or its hydrate. The foi-mation of some such inter- 
mediate compound in M'hich the terminal carbon atom is no longer 
asymmetric appears to be essential to account for the optical inversion 
which accompanies the interconversion of the o and /? sugars. 

3. Brumocam2)hor and Cldwocaniphor.^ — Kipping has shown ' that 
these compounds, although stable in neutral solutions, undergo rcvcrsibh! 
isomeric change in presence of alkalies. This change is accompanied by 
an increase of solubility in the ratio 089 ; 1 ; a similar increase is 
observed in the case of the /3 and k bromo-derivatives of these compounds. 
In the case of chlorocamphor and bromocamplior the proportions of the 
f(-compounds in the solutions arc probaljly somewhat greater tli.ui 89 per 
cent, owing to the influence of the a'-compound in increasing (he 
solubility of the a-compounds. The proportions arc estimated at 91 per 
cent, and 93 per cent, respectively. 

4. Sidphonir Derivatives of C'ainplior.^ — Kipping has shown '' that the 
TT-sulphonic salts deri\ed frum a-bromocaniphor and a-chlurocaniphor 
undergo reversible isomeric change in presence of a trace of free alkali, 
Solubility measurements indicate that similar changes take place in 
the case of the ^-sulphonic salts, amides and other derivatives but 
the observations are complicated by the fact that the compounds of the 

' Lowry and Robertson, Tram., 1904, 85, 1541-1550. 

' Lowry, Trans., 1904, 85, 1551-1570. " Lowry, Trans., 1906, 89. 

♦ Proc, 1905, 21, 125. » Lowry and Magson, Trans., 1906, 89. 

« rroc, 1905, 21, 124. 



ox DY^fAMIC ISOMEHlfeM. 159 

(tfi-sevics are able to pass not only into stereoisomeric a'fi compounds 
but also into isomeric sulpholactoucs. A number of the latter have been 
examined and described. 

The expenses incurred in connection with investigations described 
above were in part defrayed by a grant made to the Committee in 1904. 
It is proposed during the coming year to undertake a detailed examination 
of the optical properties of nitrocamphor and other compounds which 
exhibit dynamic isomerism in solution. In particular it is proposed to 
test Biot's hypothesis that anomalous rotatory dispersion is due to the 
presence in solution of two modifications of a substance — a suggestion 
which was made some years before the phenomena of dynamic isomerism 
were clearly understood. 



The Transformation of Aromaiic Nitroamines aiul Allied Substances, 
and its lielation to Stihstiintiun t?i Ben::enc Derivatives. — Rejiort oj 
the Committee, coni^iMing of Professor F. S. Kipping (Chairnum), 
Professor K. J. P. Orton (Secretarij), Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. 
Lapwukth, and Dr. J. T, Hewitt. 

I. Nilromnines. 

In continuation of previous work on the transformations of aromatic 
nitroamines ^ a study of the reactions of s4ribromonitroauiinubenzene has 
been undertaken. 

Under conditions which lead to the isomeric change of unsubstituted 
nitroaminobenzenes, that is, treatment with sulphuric acid in acetic acid 
solution, the .'<-tribromonitroamine is largely converted into 2 : 6-dibromo- 
•1-nitroaniline, a bromine atom being displaced from the para position by 
the nitro group. If the reaction, however, is carried out under narrowly 
defined conditions, namely, in a mixture of acetic acid 2 parts ami 
sulphuric acid 1 part, which contains 1-") per cent, of water (this 
proportion of water is essential), other changes are observed, bromo- 
phcnyliminoquinones, derivatives of the compound, 



-<: 






being formed. s-Tribroaionitroaminobenzene behaves in this respect as does 
5-trichloronitroamiiiobenzeno, which yields hcxachlorupheuyliminoquinone 5 
but in the case of ^-trichloronitroaminobenzene a chlorine atom is not 
displaced by the nitro-group from the para position, and conseijuently no 
dichloronitroaniiine is formed. 

In contrast to the s-trichloro-aualogue, which yields only one phcnyl- 
iminoijuinonc, the tribromonitroaminobenzcnc gives a mixture of a penta- 
and hexa-bromophenyliminoquinone ; the former melts at 170°, and on 
reduction is converted into a pentabromohydroxydiphenylaminc, juelting 
at 150° ; and the latter melts at 135°, and yields a hexabromohydroxy- 
diphenylamine, melting at 207". 

' See Report, 1905, and compare Ortan, Ti-ans. Chem. Svc, 81, 80G ; and Ortoti 
and Smith, ibid., 87, ^89, 



1()0 REPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

In the formation of the hexachlorophenyliminoquinoni3, 

CI CI CI 

0:<J:\:N.<~>C1, 

CI CI 

from s-trichloronitroamiuobenzene, a chlorine, atom must, ib iS clear, h^ 
transferred from one carbon atom of the benzene ring to the neighbouring 
carbon atom. In the case of the s-tribromonitroaminobenzene, on the 
other hand, it would appear that the detached bromine atom only 
partly recombines with the neighbouring carbon ; hence a mixture of 
phenyliminoquinones is formed. 

Reaction of Phenyliminoqidnones ivith Ilydroijen Chloride. — The 
phenyliminoquinones interact with hydrogen chloride in a very interesting 
way, forming a chlorohydroxydiphenylamine, thus : 

0:<('" '\;N<^ ^ + HC1-»H0<^ \ NCI i(^ \ -4 

CI 

An additive product, a chloroamino derivative, is possibly first formed, 
which then passes into a diphenylamine, the chlorine wandering into one 
of the nuclei, and taking up an ortho or para position with respect to 
the nitrogen atom. 

This interpretation of the change is strengthened by the fact that 
hexachlorophenyliminoquinone does not react with hydrogen chloride in 
this way ; every position into which the chlorine atom could pass from 
the nitrogen is already occupied by chlorine. 

II. The Exchange of Halogen for Hydroxyl in Senzenediazonium 

Hydroxides. 

The displacement of halogen by hydroxyl in halogenbenzenediazo- 
compounds has been studied with substances containing methyl groups, 
such as the diazotoluenes and diazoxylene. The presence of the methyl 
group greatly retards the replacement of halogen when the diazonium 
.salts of weak acids are used. In dilute aqueous solution neither bromo- 
7/i-xyleuediazonium acetate nor bicarbonate lose bromine ; 3 : 5-dibromo- 
4-toluenediazonium acetate decomposes very slowly, but the bicarbonate, 
in the rapidity of its decomposition, approaches the trihalogenbenzene- 
diazonium bicarbonates. Weighting the benzene nucleus with negative 
groups restores this property ; thus 2-nitro-3 : 5-dibromo-4-diazotoluene 
or 2:4: 6-tribromo-3-diazotoluene lose bromine lapidly in dilute-acetic 
acid solution. 

These facts are in accord with the views previously expressed ^ ; the 
bromine is displaced by ionic hydroxyl, (OH)', which is produced in the 
hydrolytic dissociation of the salts of weak acids. The strong diazonium 
bases derived from toluene and xylene form acetates Avhich suffer hydro- 
lytic dissociation to a less extent than the halogenbenzenediazonium salts. 

Chlorobromobenzenediazo-Compounds. — Mixed halogenbenzenediazo- 
compounds, containing both chlorine and bromine, have been investigated 
Avith the object of comparing chlorine with bromine as regards their dis- 

' Trans. Chem. Soc, 83, 700. 



ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES. 



161 



placement by the hydroxyl group. The four s-(oh]orobromo)-diazo- 
benzenes and 3-chloro-5-bi'oniodiazotoluene have been ohosen for this 
purpose. o 

Two facts IiaA'e been the outcome of these experiments. 

When chlorine or bromine occupy similar positions in the benzene 
ring each is displaced by hydroxyl to an equal extent. No preference 
appears to be shown to either atom. 

Secondly, it has been found that the halogen is not only displaced 
from the ortho position v/ith respect to the diazo-group, but also from the 
para position. The latter replacement, however, takes place to a much 
smaller extent, not more than 10-20 per cent, of the 
from the para position. 



halogen coming 



Wave-levgth Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds.-^ 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. RoscoE (Chair- 
man), Dr. Marshall Watts (Secretari/), Sir Norman Lockyer, 
Professor Sir James Devvar, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A, 
Schuster, Professoi" W. N. Hartley, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, 
Sir W. DE W. Abney, and Dr. W. E. Adeney. 

Chromium (Spark Spectrum). 

Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzber. kaiseri. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' cvi. (2), 1897, 
Adeney, ' Proc. Royal Dublin Soo.,' x. (2), p. 235, 1904. 
Lohse, ' Publ. Potsdam Obs.,' No. 41. 
Demarjay, ' Spectres eleetriques,' 1895. 









Bcduction to 




Wave-lengtli 
(Deraar(,'ay) 


Intensity 
and 


Previoug 
Observations 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 








Character 


(Hasselberg) 


A + 


1 _ 

A 


in Vacuo 


4921-9 


3 


*4921-9 


1-35 


5-6 


20312- 1 


488G-3 


3 


488611 


1-34 


»> 


20460- 


70-6 


3 


70-96 


1-33 


*» 


20526" 


61-4 


2 


61-38 


»> 


5-7 


65- 


29-5 


4 


29-5 


1-32 


>> 


20700- 


23-2 


1 




99 


>f 


27- 


OM 


3 


01-17 


1-31 


,> 


20823- 


4792-4 


3 


4792-61 


J» 


»» 


61- 


67-8 


2 


67-98 


?» 


5-8 


20968- 


64-4 


2 


64-45 


1-30 


9t 


83- 


56-1 


7 


56-30 


r* 


9» 


21020- 


52-4 


2 


52-27 


>> 


>» 


36- 


37-4 


4 


37-50 


fy 


99 


21102- 


30-7 


4 


30-88 


99 


»» 


33- 


27-0 


2 


27-33 


1-29 


»» 


49- 


23 G 


2 




>> 


>y 


64- 


18-4 


6 


18-57 


9> 


99 


88- 


08-0 


4 


08-16 


f» 


5-9 


21235- 


4698-6 


5 


4698-60 


99 


9> 


77- 


97-2 


2 


97-20 


»> 


» 


83- 


93-9 


3 


94-12 


»> 


ft 


98- 


88-5 


3 




1-28 


19 


21323- 



1906. 



* This was observed by Huggins. 



« 



162 



REPORTS ON THR STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chbomium (Spabk Spectrum) — continued. 

* The measurements of Hasselberg are in the arc. 
t Observed also by Demari;ay.- 



t Double. 



m 



Wave-length ] 

j 


! 

[ntensity 
and 


Previous 
Observations 


Reduction to 
Vacuum | 


1 

Oscillation 


1 


1 




Frequency 


Exner and Adenev '^ 
Haschek Adeney 


Character 


(Hasselberg *) 


A+ j 

1 


1_ 1 

1 


in Vacuo , 


4C89-o4 




2 


4689-54 


1*28 1 


5-9 1 


21318-1 


81-02 




1 


81-01 


»» 


»> t 


57-0 


t 80-66 




I 


80-65 


>i i 


1 
" 1 


58-6 


t 69-50 




1 


69-50 


it 1 


„ 


21409-7 


67-33 




1 


67-36 1 


" 


» 


19-6 


•,■ 66-69 




2 


66-35 1 


>> 


ff» 


22-6 


66-34 




In 


66-07 


»» 


1 


24-2 


66-07 




1 


64-94 


" 1 


>» 


25-4 


64-99 




2 


63-98 1 


" 


»f 


30-4 


t 64-01 




2 


63-47 


>> 


•» 


34-9 


63-52 i 




2n 


56-34 


>f 


II 


37-1 


56-33 j 




In 


54-90 


1-27 


II 


70-2 


54-94 




1 


52-31 


• » 


i* 


76-7 


t 52-34 1 




7 


51-44 


M 


»» 


88-7 


•j- 51-48 j 




6 


49-58 


., 


11 


92-5 


49-61 1 


2n 


49-04 


ff 


91 


21501-3 


49-07 


In 


48-27 


t* 


» 


03-8 


48-30 


In 


46-96 


»» 


l> 


07-3 


47-(H> 1 


lt» 


4 6 -.33 


** 


)» 


13-4 


t 4ti-3r. 


8 


42-21 


>» 


» 


16-3 


42-20 


In 


39-85 


>» 


II 


35-6 


30-77 


lb 


.39-69 


)l »* 


40-9 


t 37-94 


1 


37-92 


.^.5-4 


37-3-. 


1 


37-35 


»» 


58-1 


t 34-32 


6 


34-23 


6-0 


72-2 


t 33-46 


la 


.33-45 „ „ 


761 


t 32-34 


111 




81-4 


26-35 




6 


2ti-3l 


Jt 9» 


21609-3 


26-10 




1 


26-07 


*» 


1) 


: 10-5 


24-74 




1 




)» 


»l 


1 16-9 


22-95 




In 


22-89 


») 


II 


1 25-3 


22-76 




I 


22-00 


tt 


II 


1 26-1 


22-65 




1 




l» 


1 »l 


20-6 


2211 




3 


22-07 


»> 


1 

1 " 


29-1 


t 19-70 




3 


19-70 


t ft 


II 


! 40-4 


19-15 


j 


5 




t 

i " 


91 


430 


19-03 


1 


C 




1 *> 


II 


; 43-6 


t 1682 




3n 




\ 1-26 


., 


53-9 


16-29 




7 


16-28 


^ It 


>f 


i 5«i-5 


13-54 


1 


n 


13-54 




»t 


1 69-3 


12-15 




6 


1215 


1 1 

1 l» »♦ 


75-9 


10-10 




In 


10-07 


1 »> tt 


85-5 


06 -.-.5 


1 


1 


00-55 


»» »* 


21702-2 


01-20 




In 


01-18 


' »« »» 


27-5 


•j- 0(1-92 




6 


00-92 


»> 


♦ t 


28-8 


00-28 




• 2 


00-25 


)» »» 


31-8 


4598-62 




1 ^ ■ 


4598-00 


»t »» 


.39-7 


t 95-77 




3 


95-78 


>' 


>» 


53-1 


92-71 




' In 




t* 


>. 


67-6 


92-25 




4ri 


l> 


1. 


69-8 


1 t 91-59 




1 5 


91-56 


#1 


13 


72-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TAtlLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 163 



Cheomium (Spabk SPECTrnju)— continued. 



Wave-length 



Exner and 
Haschek 



4590-2 

88-42 

86-32 

85-2 

84-2fi 

80-24 

78-48 

75-30 

71-86 

71-3 

69-79 

65-97 

65-67 

64-36 

63-85 

63-40 

58-90 

56-35 

55-20 

54-12 
46-13 
45-49 
44-79 
43-92 
42-80 
41-fiS 
41-24 
40-92 
40-72 
39-95 
35-87 
35-30 



32 03 

30-92 

3003 

27-62 

27-52 

26-65 

26-25 

24-98 

22-2 

21-31 

15 60 

14-6 

12 or. 

1017 

07 00 

03-2 

01-93 

t 01-25 

00-44 

t4498-87 

t 9702 



t 



Adeney 



4558-92 
56-43 

55-07 

5411 
4619 
45-44 

4^-85 

42-89 
41-79 

40-99 
40-79 
39-99 
35-99 

33-31 

30-99 
30-01 
27-69 

26-77 

24-99 

21-35 
15-66 
14-67 
12-16 

0711 

02-07 
01-30 
00-49 

97-05 



Intensity 
j and I 
I Character! 

J 



Previous 

Observations 

(Hasselberg *) 



Eeduction to 
Vacuum 



lb 
10 

1 

lb 

1 
,5 

1 

1 

3 

1 

2 

1 

3 

2 

1 

In 
10 

1 

5n 

In 

7 



2 
6 
3 

1 

7 
1 
2 

2 

7 
2 

T 

lb 

3 

I 

In 

4 

In 
o 

Tb 
1 

3 
3 



4588-38 
86-31 
85-23 
84-26 
80-22 
78-55 
75-26 
71-85 
71-27 
69-76 

65-71 
64-36 
63-82 
03-43 
58-81 
56-32 
f 55-45 
I 54-98 
54-10 
4615 
45-51 
44-77 
43-99 
42-83 
41-70 
41-25 
40-90 
40-70 
39-96 
35 f,5 
35-3t> 



30-92 
30 04 
27-65 
27-53 
26-65 

2501 
22-18 
21-30 
15-()0 
14-64 
12-05 

07-0<1 

01-92 
01-24 
00-42 
4498-87 
97 02 



A. + 



1 
A 



1-26 60 



1-25 



1-24 



1-23 



6-1 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



i;2 



21780- 
88-0 
98-0 
03- 
07-8 
26-9 
35-3 
50-5 
66-9 
70- 
76-8. 
95-1 
96-6 

21902-9 
05-3 
07-5 
29-1 
41-4 

46-9 

52-1 

90-7 
93-8 
97-2 

22<X»l-4 
00-9 
120 
14-4 
16-0 
16-9 
20-7 
40-5 
43-3 
469 
54-8 
64-0 
08-9 
80-7 
81-1 
S5-4 
87-2 
93-4 

22107- 
11-3 
39-2 
44- 
56-4 
66-0 
81-4 

2-2200- 
06-3 
09-4 
13-9 
21-7 
30-8 
if 2 



164 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 





Chromium (Spaek Specteum> 


—conth 


ued. 




Wave-length 




Reduction to 








Intensity 
and 


Previous 
Observations 


V tlUUUUl 


Oscillation 
Fi-equency 






1 




Exner and 
Hascliek 


Adeaey Charastei 


(Hasselbei-g*) 


\ + 


1 

A 

6-2 


in Vacuo 


4495-46 


4595-53 


1 


4495-42 


12-3 


22238-4 


t 92-49 


92-43 


3 


92-45 


)» 


99 


53-3 


$ 92-oa 


91-93 


2a 


91-99 
91-81 


>» 


»> 


55-9 


t 89-60 


89-06 


2 


89-60 


»9 




62-4 


88-20 




2 


88-18 


99 




74-4 


83-04 


83-07 


2 


83-01 


99 




22300-0 


81-60 




1 


81-57 


»» 


jj 


07-3 


t 80-47 


80-45 


1 


80-40 


99 




130 


80-42 




1 




9> 




13-1 


t 75-51 


76-51 


lb 


75-47 


)> 




37-7 


t 73-90 




1 


73-91 


99 




45-7 


67-71 




1 


07-72 


1-22 




76-0 


66-36 




In 


66-33 


99 




83-4 


65-98 




In 




)> 




85-3 


t 65-49 


65-55 


2 


65-54 


>> 




87-8 


65-07 




I 


65-08 


91 




89-9 


64-81 




1 


64-84 


»» 




91-2 


62-94 




1 


62-98 


»> 




22400-6 


t 60-8 




lb 


60-95 


]) 




11- 


t 59-87 


59-99 


2 


59-95 


»» 




15-7 


58-69 


58-81 
55-27 


4 


58-75 






21-6 
39-1 


t 43-87 




1 


43-90 


>» 




96-3 


t 42-44 




1 


42-43 


>> 




22504 


34-07 




1 




9> 




46-4 


3-2-95 




In 


32-93 


>) 




52-1 


t 32-33 


32-41 


2 


32-30 


»> 




56- 


-j- 30-63 




2 


30-59 


1-21 


6-3 


63-8 


3008 




1 


3007 


• 9 




60-7 


t 28-75 




1 


28-71 


99 




73-4 


25-29 




1 


25-27 


99 




91-1 


t 24-46 


24-51 


3 


24-40 


99 




95-2 


t 23-50 




1 


23-46 


>9 




22600-2 


22-86 




2n 


22-84 


99 




03-5 


21-9 




lb 




99 




08- 


2113 




In 


2112 


99 




12-3 


t 14-03 


4414-02 


2 


14-00 


99 




48-8 


1317 


12-96 


1 




99 




53-7 


t 12-43 


12-49 


1 


12-42 


99 




56-8 


t 11-28 


11-21 


1 


11-26 


99 




63-0 


11-16 


11-21 


In 


11-15 


99 




63-3 


10-49 


10-44 


1 


10-47 


99 




670 


09-74 


09-94 


In 




99 




70-3 


07-92 




In 




99 




801 


06-87 




In 




99 




85-5 


06-45 




In 


06-45 


99 




87-7 


03-67 


03-68 


2 


03-08 


99 




22702-0 


03-57 




2n 


03-55 


99 




02-5 


t 00-00 




In 


4399-97 


9} 




21-0 


4397-44 




1 


97*40 


J» 




34-2 


95-62 




1 


95-58 


99 




43-6 


t 93-7 




lb 


93-66 


1-20 




54- 


t 91-94 




3 


91-90 


It 




62-7 


91-20 




In 




9* 




06-5 



On wave-length tables of the spectra of the elements. 165 



Chromium (Spark Spect:rvm)— continued. 



Wave-length 


1 Intensitj 
and 


Previous 
Observations 


Keduction to 
Vacnnm 


Oscillation 






1 ^ 


Frequency 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Adeucy 
4387-73 


Cliaractei 
2 


• (Hasselberg *) 


^^\l- 


in Vacuo 


t4387-G7 


4387-04 


1-20 


G-3 


22784-7 


t 851G 


84-19 


! 1 


8511 


>• 

II 


1 

9* 

f 1 


97-9 
22802-9 


83-03 


S3-1G 


1 


83-04 


II 


II 


08-0 


82-73 




lu 








10-5 


t 81-30 


81-39 


2 


81-25 




i »» 


17-7 


80-8 




lb 


80-73 


II 


19 


21- 


79-97 




1 


79-93 


II 


91 


24-9 


78-50 




In 




91 


' ** 


32-6 


t 77-71 


77-79 


1 


77-73 


II 


If 


36-5 


76-95 


77-04 


2 


70-95 


91 


If 


40-4 


70-50 




In 




II 




43-0 


t 75-49 


75-54 


3 


75-52 


II 


II 


53-4 


t 74-33 


74-37 


4 


74-34 


91 


1 " 


54-2 


t 73-82 




! 1 


73-83 


19 


91 


57-0 


73-43 


73-49 


1 2 


73-41 


II 


91 


58-9 


71-48 


71-50 


7 


71-44 


99 


99 


69-2 


71-1 




lb 




91 


99 


71- 


69-07 




1 






19 


81-9 


08-40 




1 


08-42 




6-4 


85-3 


07-75 




111 






99 


88-7 


06-57 




lu 






ff 


94-9 


05-00 




1 






ff 


22903-1 


04-3 




In 






f 1 


07- 


t 03-29 


63-35 


3u 


03-25 




99 


11-9 


t 59-80 


4359-83 


7 


69-78 




99 


30-4 


t 67-08 




1 


57-70 




91 


41-6 


t 56-93 




1 


60-91 


1-19 




45-5 


56-44 




1 






ff 


48-1 


64-10 




1 






ff 


60-5 


t 51-99 


52-01 


10 


51-91 




ff 


71-5 


61-28 


51-28 


7r 


51-20 




)9 


75-3 


47-67 




In 








94-4 


t 47-02 


47-04 


3 


47 00 




ff 


97-8 


45-28 




1 






99 


23007-1 


t 44-73 


44-74 


10 


44-06 




9) 


100 


43-37 




1 


43-32 




99 


17-2 


42-2 




lb 






99 


23- 


41-30 




1 






y9 


28-2 


40-33 


40-29] ! 


2 


40-26 




99 


33-4 


t 39-95 


39-93 


5 


39-85 




99 


35-4 


39-69 


39-08 


7 


39-60 




99 


36-7 


38-99 




1 


38-95 




99 


40-4 


38-58 




1 


38-50 


»> 1 


99 


42-6 


t 37-78 


37-81 


8 


37-70 


1 


99 


46-8 


37-45 


^ 


1 


37-38 




99 


48-6 


32-77 


27-38 ': 


1 


32-75 


»> I 


99 


73-6 
23102-3 


T 25-27 


25-29 


3 


25-24 




ff 


13-6 , 


23-71 


23-79 


2 


23-70 




ff 


21-9 ' 


• 21-81 




1 


21-80 




ff 


32-1 


21-45 




1 


21-44 




99 


34-0 


20-79 




1 


20-75 




99 


31-5 


t 19-82 




2 


19-82 


1 


f 9 


42-7 


18-12 


a 


1 




1-18 


f» 


61-8 



1G6 



HEFORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chromium (Spark Svevtrum)— continued. 



Wave-loncth 


1 


! 


Reduction to 

Vacuum 

1 








Intensity 
and 


Previous 
Observations 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Exner and 
Hasdiek 


Adcney 


Character 
lb 


(Hasselberg *) 


i 


1_ 

A 

1 


in Vacuo 


43i5'7 






1-18 i 


0-4 


23105- 


15-28 




1 






9f 


07-1 


]2-(i7 


431268 


1 


4312 05 




jf 


81-0 


10-7 




la 






if 


92- 


o'j'ua 




1 






if 


95-7 


09'05 


(1917 


lu 






»» 


23200-2 


07-15 


07-75 


111 


07-65 




0-5 


09 1 


t 05-67 


05^55 


1 


05-61 




)) 


190 


02 -'.to 




1 


(»2-95 


'' 


ff 


33 '3 


t 01-38 


0144 


3 


01-33 




}) 


41 '7 


00-70 


00^60 


2 


00^68 




ff 


45'8 


00-M 




1 




' 


f^ 


40^9 


:: 00M7 




1 






ff 


48 -4. 


■42t)U"J0 


4299-95 


1 


4299-87 




• 9 


497 




99-80 








)) 


50-4 


98 1 




lb 








00- 


t 97 '90 


97 '80 


4 


97-91 




}) 


61-0 


t 97-24 


97-16 


2 


97-21 




fy 


04-5 


96-83 




T 


96-81 




ft 


60-5 


96-51 




1 


96-47 


" 


Jt 


68-2 


05-92 


95-82 


4 


95-92 




ff 


71-7 


93-75 


93-62 


1 


93-73 




•If 


83-5 


t 92-175 


92-16 


2 


92-14 




tt 


91-8 


'l.- 89-92 


89-96 


15r 


89-87 




tt 


23303-8 


88-57 




1 






ff 


11-3 


85-06 


85-08 


1 


84-99 






30-3 


t 84-90 




1 


84-84 


" 


fi 


31-3 


84-37 


84-43 


4 




99 




34-0 


t 83-17 




In 






fy 


40-7 


t 80-58 


80-65 


5 


80-53 


1-17 


ff 


54-0 


78-21 




1 






ff 


07-8 




t 77-29 








}) 


72-8 


70-12 




I 






19 


79-2 


75-73 


75-86 


3 








81-0 


t 74-99 


75-00 


20r 


74-91 




?> 


85-3 




7415 








J) 


90-0 


73-82 




1 






;tT 


91-8 


73-11 




2 


7301 




>> 


95-6 


71-24 


71-21 


2 


71-18 




}| 


23405-9 


70-12 


70 -OS 


1 


70-08 


5f 


yy 


12-1 


t 69-45 


m-r,i 


*) 






jr 


15-5 


68-97 


(i9<»3 


1 


6S-yo 




f } 


18-2 


66-99 


67 -00 


1 


66-96 




)) 


29-0 


t 63-31 


63-37 


5 


(■.3-28 






49-4 


62-52 




1 


62-53 




,; 


54-8 


62-28 




3ii 


62-27 




9) 


55-3 


62-12 


62-10 


4 








66-0 


61-79 




1 


61-77 




f 9 


57-8 


t 61-51 


i 61-54 


2 


61-49 




ff 


69-3 


59-35 




111 






9} 


71-3 


67-52 




1 






)f 


81-3 


66-80 




In 








85-3 


56-30 




In 






yy 


88-1 . 


55-65 


65-70 


3 


55-65 




1 „ 


91-5 


t 64-60 


64-51 


1 30r 


' 54-49 




1 9> 


98-0 



OxV ^VAVE-LENGTH tables OF THE SPECTRA Of THE ELEMENTS. lOt 



C'HKOMIUM (SPAKK iiPECTRVM)—COntini(e<l. 



AVave-length 






Eediictiou to 








Intensity PreVioUs 

and ObncrvatiDus 
Character (Haaselberg *) 

! 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Exner diul 
Haschek 

4252-78 
62-40 

•18-85 


Adeney 
4252'95 


\ + 


1 

1_ 

A 


3 
1 

1 


4252-37 

48-84 


1-17 

1 >' 

1 

1 )> 


0-0 

■ 9 


23500-5 
07-4 
09-5 

29-2 


t 48-48 




1 


48-47 




S> 


31-2 


40 -9 
4(3-5 


i 


lb 
lb 




JJ 


it 


40- 

48- 


t 42-55 


42-58 


8 




1-io 


99 


G4-0 


41-35 




1 








70-8 


t 40-85 


40-80 


4 


40-82 






73 -5 


t 39-08 
37-85 




2 
1 


39-08 
37-83 


»> 


») 


s:j-4 

9<J-3 


34-04 




1 


34-04 


ff 




23008-2 


33-38 




2 








15-2 


33-05 




lu 


3300 


99 
9y 


19 
• 9 


10-7 


32-30 




1 


32-35 


19 


ff 


20-9 


31-5 




lb 








20- 


3002 


t 20-70 
25-70 


lu 


30-01 


99 

ft 


>> 


30-0 
62-2 

57-8 


25-00 


25-00 


4 








01-9 


t 24-07 


24-81 


2 


24-04 


fy 




03-5 


22-91 
t 22-2 


23-04 


2 
In 


22-89 


9» 


99 


73-4 

78- 


t 21-74 


21-75 


3 


21-71 


ff 




80-3 


t 17-77 


17-80 


3 


17-75 


99 




23702-5 


17-3 




In 








05- 


t 10-50 


10-00 


2 


10-50 






09-5 


15-9 




In 




ff 




13- 


14-33 
t 13-32 




1 
1 


13-31 


19 

ff 


99 


22-0 
27-0 


12-82 


12-78 


1 


12-77 


tf 


99 


30-0 


t 11-54 


12-51 

11-51 1 


2 


11-47 


99 


?J 


32-2 

37-8 


t 09-92 


09-94 


2 


09-90 


99 




40-8 


09-51 


09-57 : 


4 


09-50 ' 


99 




49-(J 


t 08-51 


08-02 i 


3 


08-50 






54-5 


07-52 


07-08 1 


la 


1 


)f 




59-9 


t 07-07 


, 


3 


07-05 ; 


99 




02-9 


t 04-04 


04-73 ! 


3 


01-01 i 


1-15 




70-4 


t 04-35 




1 


01-37 ; 


f9 




78-3 


t 03-70 


03-80 


2 


03-71 


9 9 




81-3 


t 00-29 


00-38 


1 


00-27 


• 9 


0-7 


23800-9 


+4198-00 


4198-70 


4 


4198-05 






liy.i 


98-05 


1 


lu 




» 




13-9 


t 97-40 


97-30 1 


4 


97-38 > 






17-7 


95 -GO 
t 95-14 


95-70 
95-10 


2 
4 


95-09 


9' 


» 


27-5 
30-3 


94-50 




1 


; 


99 




34-0 


t 93-87 1 


93-90 ; 
92-08 


4 


93-80 






37-5 
44-4 


t 92-30 


92-31 


3 


92-25 






46-5 


t 91-94 




1 


91-90 


if * 




4ft-6 


t 91-45 


91-52 


3 


91-41 






51-2 


90-90 




1 




9> 




54-5 



l68 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SClBNCEi 



Chromium (Spark SrECTRVn)— continued. 



Wave-leugth 



Exner and 
Hascliek 



t4190-32 
t 86-5t 

85-8 
t 85-53 
85-07 
84-83 
83-24 
81-9 
gO-9 
SO-15 
'79-57 
79-44 
'78-15 
76--83 
76-11 
75'41 
75-01 
74-4 
741 
72-99 
72-15 
71-85 
7103 
70-39 
70-02 



t 

t 

t 



65-71 

63-80 

61-60 

61-3 

69-1 

53-99 

53-25 

52-94 

61-7 

61-18 

49-65 

47-8 

46-90 

46-37 

46-2 

45-94 

43-65 

42-36 

40-9 

39-3 

38-15 

37-60 

34-45 

32-62 

31-52 

30-3 

29-4 

28-45 



Adeney 



4186-41 



79-48 



7614 
75-39 
75-03 



72-96 



70-31 
69-99 
69-69 
65-67 
63-79 
61-61 



54-65 



49-55 



45-95 



34-83 
31-61 

28-71 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



4 

2 

lb 

1 

2 

1 

1 

lb 

lb 

1 

3 

6 

In 

1 

2 

2 

6 

In 

In 

4 

Jn 

2 

1 
3 
4 

6 

6 

5 

In 

lb 

5 
1 
3 

In 

1 

1 

lb 

1 

1 

In 

7 

In 

2 

lb 

lb 

In 

1 

1 

1 

3 

lb 

lb 

2 



Previous 
Observations 
(Hasselberg *) 



4190-32 
86 -.50 

85-50 



79 37 



76-09 
75-34 
74-98 



72-88 

71-81 

70-31 
69-94 
69-67 
65-67 
63-76 
61-55 



53-96 
63-20 
62-89 



46-81 



42-31 



31-50 



28-53 



Reductioii to 
Vacuum 



A. + 


1_ 
A. 


1-15 


6-7 


ff 




)» 




99 




9* 




9> 




y* 




99 




99 




»> 




99 




99 




*9 




>J 




99 




>» 




9» 




99 




)» 




>» 




»9 




»> 




1» 




»» 




>) 




1-14 




99 




JJ 




J» 




»> 




99 




99 




5» 




J> 




99 




J> 






6-8 


99 




99 




>» 




J» 




>» 




»' 




9> 




99 




J> 




99 




5» 




9» 




113 




9» 





Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



23857-8 
79-7 
84- 
851 
87-8 
8'J'l 
98-2 

23&06- 
12- 
15-9 
19-2 
19-8 
27*3 
34'9 
38-9 
43*1 
45-4 
49- 
51- 
670 
61-7 
63-5 
68-2 
721 
741 
75-9 
98-9 

24010-4 
22-5 
24- 
37- 
62-6 
68-8 
70-8 
72-6 
80- 
82-8 
92-0 

24102- 
07-6 
10-7 
12- 
13-2 
26-5 
34-0 
42- 
62- 
68-6 
61-8 
791 
90-9 
97-1 

24204- 
10- 
X4-6 



DN \VAVE-LENGTH tables of the Sl'ECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 160 



Chromium (Spark Spectrum)— c'oM/t«?<«rf. 



Wave 


-length 


Intensity 
and 


Previous 
Observations 


Eeduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










texner and 
Haschek 


Adfency 


Character 


(Hasselbcrg *) 


K + 


1 _ 


in Vacuo 


4127-82 


4127-91 


n 


4127-77 


1-13 


G-8 


24218-8 


27-17 


27-4G 


2 


27-44 


>> 


»9 


21-2 


27-10 


27-14 


1 




99 


»9 


230 


t 27-09 




1 


27-05 


)) 


99 


23-3 


t 2G-G7 


26-74 


5 


26-67 


99 


99 


25 -G 


26-25 




1 


26-25 


99 


99 


28-3 


25-G3 




In 






99 


31-9 


t 23-55 


23-64 


4 


23-55 


)) 


99 


43-9 


t 22-32 


22-34 


2 


22-34 


99 


99 


51-3 


21-99 


22-04 


3 


21-96 


99 


99 


53-2 


t 21-G 


21-55 


lb 


21-41 


J» 


99 


56- 


t 20-79 


20-83 


3 


20-78 




99 


60-3 


lC-80 




3 






„ 


83-9 




15-08 


In 




J» 


J9 


94-1 


13-45 




1 






99 


24303-7 


12-85 




1 






99 


07-2 


t 11-19 


11-26 


4 




" 


99 


16-8 


t 09-87 


09-87 


2 


09-74 




99 


24-9 


t 08-58 




1 


08-54 




99 


32-5 


06-23 




1 






99 


46-4 


t 0506 




2 


04-90 




99 


53-4 


04-51 




1 






99 


56-7 


04-00 




1 




9* 


99 


59-7 


t 01-35 




1 


01-31 




99 


75-4 


00-00 




1 






99 


83-4 


14099-60 




1 






6-9 


85-7 


99-19 




1 


4099-16 




19 


88-2 


t 98-59 




2 






99 


91-7 


95-10 




1 






9f 


24412-5 


93-5 




lb 




I'k 


99 


22- 


93-25 




In 




^j 


}9 


23-6 


t 92-37 




1 






99 


28-8 


t 90-50 




2n 


90-43 




99 


40-0 


90-30 




lb 






99 


41-2 


89-75 




lb • 






99 


44-5 


890 




lb 








49- 


87-8 




lb 






99 


66- 


87-2 




lb 






99 


CO- 


t 86-31 




I 






99 


65-1 


85-18 




1 


85-15 




99 


71-8 


82-48 


4082-69 


2 






99 


87-4 


82-03 




1 




jj 


99 


00-7 


t 81-9 




In 


81-88 




99 


91- 


t 80-41 




1 


80-35 


J 


99 


24500-4 


t 77-86 


77-89 


3 


77-81 




99 


15-7 


•f- 77-27 




2 


77-21 


9) 


99 


19-3 


t 76-22 


76-52 


2 


76-20 


}) 


3f 


24-7 


t 75-02 




2 


75-01 


)9 


99 


. 32-9 


t 71-11 


71-13 


4n 


71-13 


99 


99 


56-4 


t 68-00 


67-91 


I 


67-94 


J9 


99 


75-5 


67-09 




4 




)9 


99 


80-7 


t 65-89 




4 


65-84 


99 


99 


88-0 


64-74 




1 




99 


" 


94-9 




62,-86 






f» 


99 


24606-3 




61-81 




V 

I .1 


»> 


99 


12-7 



170 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chromium (Spakk HPEGTimu)— continued, 



Wttve- 


length 






Reduction to 








Intensity 
and 


Previoua 
Observations 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Exner and 
Haschek 








Prerjuency 


Adeney 


Charactei 


(Hasselberg *) 


A. + 


1 _ 

\ 


in Vacuo 


t40G0-81 




2 


4060'77 


1-14 


0-9 


24018-7 


•|- 58-93 


4058-98 


6 


68-89 






30 


57-35 




1 




f 






39-7 


t 5G-'J7 




1 


50-93 


1 






42-0 


T 50-22 


56-30 


3 


56-17 








46-3 


T 54-27 




3 




} 






58-4 


T 52-10 


52-04 


3 




) 






71-7 


51-50 


51-59 


>i 


51-47 


* 






731 


50-22 




1 


50-18 


f 




7''0 


830 


4U-95 




1 


49-90 


) 






84-7 


49-31 


49-38 


3u 










88-5 


t 48-94 


48-98 


5 


48-94 


f 






90-7 




47-35 






1- 


11 




24700-5 


t 40-90 




1 


40-S9 


J 






03-3 


• 44-38 


44-29 


1 


44-24 








18-9 


T 43-87 




O 


43 -85 


9 






21-8 


t 42-43 




1 


42-40 








30-6 


•f- 41-97 




I 




) 






33-4 


t 39-31 


39-28 


5r 


39-21 


) 






49-8 


38-20 


38-22 


5 










66-4 


37-80 




1 




t 






590 


t 37-45 


» 


1 


37-43 


f 




" 


GI-1 


35-3 




lb 




s 






74- 


34-10 




1 




9 






81-7 


33-45 




1 


33-44 


) 






85-7 


•1- 33-16 




1 




f 






87-4 


31-31 




1 


31-26 


) 






98-8 


t 30-80 


30-90 


3 


30-82 








24801-5 


28-20 




1 


28-22 


J 






17-6 


t 27-20 


27-30 


3 


27-24 




• 




23-7 


t 20-30 


26-36 


4 


26-30 


f 


' 




29-5 


25-61 




1 


25-00 


9 


^ 




33-9 


t 25-10 


25-21 


3 


25-14 


) 






36-6 


24-73 


24-71 


1 










39-4 


•f- 23-90 


23-95 


2 


23-90 








44-4 


t 22-41 


22-47 


4 


22-38 ; 






53-5 


■\ 18-38 




1 


18-36 






78-0 


18-11 




1 




J 


t )i 


80-3 


T 16-96 




1 


16-95 




• •• 


87 -4 


, t ll'S2 


1404 


2 




1-12 i .; 


24901-3 


.. 






y^ 


1 
'^ave-length 




Previous 


Reduction to 








[ntensity 

and 
character 


Observa- 
tions 
(Hincl- 
g*) 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

iu Vacuo 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Adeuoy 


Lohse , 

t 


\ + 


1 _ 


t4012-68 


4012-08 


4012-02 




4012-63 


MO 


7-0 


24914-1 


11-11 










tf 


„ 


23-8 


07-7 1 






lb 




if 




45- 


04-87 ' 










1 " 

39 




62-6 


t 04-06 


04-01 




1 04-11 






07-8 


03-48 


03-60 


03-47 i 


6 , 


1 


71-2 


02-63 


02-48 






1 






i 


9> 




1* 


77-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 171 



CiiKoMiuM (Spabk Spectbvm)— continued; 









! 


1 


Reduction to 


1 


Wave-length 


1 


Intensity 
and i 


Previous 1 
Obaerva- | 
tioiis 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 










Exncr and i 

Httsclick ! 

1 

t400 1-0)0 


Adeney 
4001 '01 


4001-03 ' 


Character 


(Hassel- 
berg*) 


\ + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 

i 


5 1 


4001-58 


110 


70 


24982-9 1 


00-75 






1 




f) I 


". 


88-3 


t39'jy-8l 


3999-86 


S999-83 


2 


3999-85 


») 


7-1 


93-9 


99-00 


98-90 




1 


I 


1 


Jl 


99-3 


t 94-10 






2 


94-10 


>) 


J* 


25029-8 


t 93-00 ' 


93-08 


92-95 


5 


92-95 i 


)» 


fJ 


30-7 


92-24 






1 


i 


ft j 


II 


41-5 


t 91-81 


91-83 


91-80 


5 


91-81 i 


Jl 


II 


441 


1 91 -.U 


91-:!0 


91-23 


9 


91-26 1 


" 1 


II 


47-5 


■ t 9015 


9011 


IK)- 12 


Or 


90-14 ; 


j> 


J> 


54-8 






88-20 




1 

t 


)' I 


11 


06-9 






87-72 




1 


1 

99 


J* 


69-9 


t 84-50 


84-51 


84-50 


^ i 


84-48 1 


" 1 


99 


901 


84-08 


84-05 


84-06 


7 i 


84-02 ! 


»» 


Jl 


92-9 


83-30 




83-36 


1 


1 


»> 


II 


97-3 


82-10 






1 




l> 


11 


25105-3 


t 81-37 


81-45 


81-36 


3 


81-37 


» 


»J 


09-7 


i 79-9G 


! 




2ii 


79-99 


9f 


Jl 


18-8 


] t 79-65 


79-72 


79-65 


4 




>» 


Jl 


20-6 


, t 78*89 


78-87 


78-83 


3 


78-81 


i> 


II 


25-7 


j t 70-82 


70-80 


76-84 


9 


70-81 


J> 


IJ 


38-6 


t 72-81 






1 


72-85 


1-09 


If 


04-0 


t 71-39 






3 


71-39 


?J 


11 


73-0 


■j- 09-93 


69-85 


69-91 


9 


68-89 


19 


IJ 


82-5 


C9-10 


69-15 




3 


09-20 


>> 


IJ 


87-2 


08-OOCa 


08-57 


68-02 


8 


L>- 


>J 


ft 


90-7 




t 06-45 






Li'. 


»f 


99 


25203-4 


T 04-47 






1 




99 


J5 


17-0 


t 03-80 


63-73 


03-86 


10 


03-82 


99 


f) 


21-1 


02-32 






1 




)> 


Jl 


300 






62-07 






99 


Jl 


32-2 


[ t 00-88 






1 


00-95 


n 


II 


39-8 






60-21 






99 


J» 


44-7 


59-9 






lb 




»> 


» 


40- 


i t 58-22 






1 


fr--i 


>» 


J» 


50-8 


t 56-42 






1 




»> 


II 


09-3 


t 53-30 






1 


63-34 


99 


7-2 


88-1 


52-5:5 






o 


52-56 


)) 


f> 


93-0 


i 51-9<J 






1 


61-93 


?» 


Jl 


97-0 


! t 51-2:! 






In 


51-20 


S» 


IJ 


25301-4 


j 49-75 






lb 




99 


II 


10-9 


t 49-00 






1 


ifr 


1 

99 


31 


15-7 




48-33 








*» 


l> 


200 


t 40-09 


j 


40-15 


1 


46-15 


>> 


f> 


34-1 


i 45-63 






1 


45-68 


99 


If 


37-3 


44-37 


I 




1 




J> 


>' 


' 45-4 


t 43-73 


i 
1 




1 




9> 


»» 


49-5 


43-40 






1 




If 


1 » 


1 51-6 


t 41-62 


41-50 


41-65 


5r 


41-66 


1 ** 


1 


; 03-0 


41-28 






i 1 




! » 


1 


05-3 


40-40 






t In 




' » 


t 

» 


70-9 


39-4 


1 




lb 




\ " 


i ff 


77- 


38-50 


i 


38-48 


In 


1 


>» 


1 

ft 


! 83-2 






38-03 






i> 


' 9> 


86-2 - 


1 37-7 


i ■ 




1 lb 


_;:; 


»» 


1 

i »» 


1 88' 



172 



HEPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SClEiXCE. 



CiinoMiUM (Spabk SvECTRVM^—cmitinued. 













Reduction to 




Wave-length 






Previous 


VaCliiitn 












Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tions 






Oscillation 
Frequency 












Exnei- and 
Haschek 


Adcney 


Lolise 


Character 


(Hassel- 
berg*) 


1-09 


1_ 
A 


in Vacuo 




3930-23 






1 




7-2 


25395-0 


35-70 






In 




99 




25401-2 


33-8iCa 


-3933-81 


3933-"9 






1-08 




18-5 


29-9 






lb 




» 




39- 






29-34 






»» 




42-4 


t 28-80 


28-80 


28-80 





3928-79 


ff 




45-7 


•1- 2G-81 


20-91 




3 


20-80 


99 




57-8 


1 


25-35 


25-21 






» 


fj 


08 -0 






24-84 






» 




71-5 


23 -W 






1 


23-51 


» 




80-3 




•j- 22-95 








S» 




83-8 


t 21-10 


21-05 


21-18 


5 


21-20 


99 




95-4 


20-24 






1 


20-25 


?» 


99 


25501-4 


t 19-32 






8 


19-31 


*> 




07-4 




1905 








99 




09-2 


t 17-72 




17-73 


1 


17-75 


9> 




17-8 


17-10 






1 


17-15 


9> 




21-9 


t 10-37 


10-30 


10-40 


4 


10-38 


99 




20-7 


1 t 10-00 


10-03 


10-00 


3 


15-90 


99 




29-0 


15-04 


15-83 


15-07 


1 


15-05 


J» 




31-3 


-i- 14-47 


14-29 


14-47 


2 


14-45 


JI 




39-0 


t 12-50 




12-50 


In 




99 




51-9 






12-07 






99 




54-7 


11-47 






1 




99 




58-0 


10-90 






1 




99 




62-4 


t 08-90 


08-89 


08-91 


Or 


08-87 


99 


7-3 


75-3 


07-92 






2 


07-91 


99 




81-8 


; -j- 07-44 






1 


07-40 


99 




84-9 


"l" 05-80 


05-78 


05-79 







99 




95-7 




05-30 






99 




98-9 


t 03-32 


03-31 




2 


03-30 


99 




25012-0 


03-04 


03-03 




4 


03-02 


99 




13-8 


02-23 




02-24 


2 


02-22 


99 




19-1 


t3897-80 


3897-91 


3897-73 


2n 


3897-83 


99 




48-0 


95-32 






In 




1-07 




04-5 


■^ 94-75 






1 




99 




68-3 


T 94-20 


94-10 


94-10 


4 


94-20 


99 




72-3 


t 92-2 






lb 




99 




85- 


92-07 


92-08 




2 


92-07 


99 




85-9 


t 90-97 


90-00 




2 




99 




93-3 


90-33 






1 




99 




97-5 


88-42 






1 




99 




25710-2 


; 1 


f 80-93 


so-oo 




4 


80-94 


99 




19-8 i 


• 


• 85-35 


85-35 


S5-;{3 


5 


85-35 


99 


„ 


30-5 


i ■ 


■ 83-83 




83-70 


1 


83-78 


99 




40-7 


1 83-44 


83-45 




5 


83-41 


99 




43-0 


! 82-02 






1 




99 




52-5 


' t 81-40 




81-30 


2u 


81-37 


99 




50-7 


80-5? 


, 




1 




99 




62-4 


t 79-38 


79-39 


79-35 


3n 


79-39 


99 




70-1 


78-47 






1 




99 




76-1 


t 77-50 






In 




99 




82-5 


77-27 






I 




99 




84-0 


77-10 






1 




" 




85-2 




1 

-. . 1 


75-73 








„ 1 




94-3 



OiV WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 173 



Chbo ium (Spark Spectrum) — continued. 



Exner and 
Hascliek 


Wave-length 
Adeney 


Lohse 


Litensitj 

aud 
Charactei 


j Previous 
r Obsei'va- 
1 tions 

(Hassel- 
1 berg*) 


! Reduction to 
1 Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


A + 

107 


1_ 
A. 


t3S75-4 


\ 3875-41 




lb . 




1 7-3 


25796-4 


t 74-75 






2a 






99 


25800-8 




74-55 










99 


02-1 


73-7 






lb 






99 


07- 


71-7 


1 




lb 






99 


21" 


t 70-4 


j 




lb 






99 


30- 


t 68-43 


1 




1 


3808-41 




99 


430 


66-68 


j 


3866-67 


1 


i 


„ 


99 


54-7 


06-20 




66-07 


1 




! » 


>9 
99 


57-9 
58-8 


t 65-74 


64-69 


64-24 


G 


j 65-73 




99 

99 
99 


61-0 
68-0 
71-0 


t 62-71 






1 






99 


81-3 


t CO-1 






lb 






99 


99- 


t 59-1 






lb 






99 


25905- 


t 57-78 


67-77 


57-79 


4 


57-74 






14-3 


t 56-45 


56-40 




2 


56-40 


1-06 


jy 


23-3 


t 55-73 


55-74 


55-75 


3 


55-75 




jy 


28-1 


•j- 55-44 


55-41 


65-42 


2 


65-41 






30-2 


54-97 


64-95 




In 






99 


33-2 


t 54-39 


64-38 


54-36 


4 


54-36 




yy 


37-1 


t 53-46 






1 






99 


43-4 


52-72 


52-69 




1 






99 


48-5 


t 52-36 


52-30 


52-33 


2 


52-33 




99 


61-0 


t 50-18 


5019 




5r 


50-13 




yy 


65-6 


49-67 


49-66 




3 


49-66 




yy 


69-0 


t 49-50 


49-53 


49-55 


3 






99 


69-9 


t 49-14 


49-01 


49-13 


4 


49-15 






72-6 


47-7 






lb 






99 


82- 


45-8 






In 






99 


95- 


42-21 






1 






99 


26020-1 


t 41-42 


41-42 




5n 


41-42 






24-7 


36-70 






I 






99 


56-8 




t 30-23 






36-22 




99 


60-0 


t 34-87 


34-86 


34-88 


2 


34-88 




)} 


69-2 


t 33-63 






1 


33-62 




99 


77-6 


33-3 






In 






99 


80- 


32-92 






1 






99 


82-5 


32-47 






1 






99 


85-5 


31-8 






In 






99 


90- 


t 31-18 


31-16 




2 


3115 




99 


94-4 


t 30-20 


30-18 


30-14 


4a 


30-17 




99 


26101-2 


t 26-60 


26-64 


26-59 


3 


26-55 




9) 


25-5 


t 25-56 


25-60 


25-55 


2 


25-54 




yy 


32-6 


t 23-60 


23-73 




2 


23-64 




99 


45-4 


22-25 






1 


22-22 




99 


55-3 


t 21-74 


21-78 




I 


21-71 




99 


58-8 


t 21-03 


21-01 
t 20-71 




1 


21-00 




99 
99 


63-7 
65-8 


2013 






1 


20-11 




99 


09-8 


t 19-72 


19-83 




4 


19-68 




yf 


72-3 


t 18-62 


18-71 


18-60 


3 


18-61 




yy 


80-0 


t 17-99 


17-98 




2 


17-97 




7-4 


84-4 


t 16-34 


10-38 




3 


16-30 


1-05 


it 


95-6 



17i 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIEXOE. 



Chbomium (Spark Sfecthvm')— continued. 



Wave-length 






Previous 


Reduction to 










Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tions 


V a\j\. 




Oscillation 
Frequency 












Exnei- and 


Adeney 


Lohse 


Character 


(Hassel- 


X + 


1 _ 


in Vacuo 


Haschek 








berg*) 




7-4 






3815-83 








105 


26199-2 


t3815-56 


15-61 1 


3815-60 


4 


3815-53 


f » 




26200-9 


i t "14-77 1 


14-81 




3 


14-74 


tt 




06-3 


14-16 1 


14-21 




3 




tt 




10-7 


t 12-42 


12-46 




3 


12-37 


if 




22-5 


10-91 






1 




„ 




33-0 


t 09-65 


09-74 




2 




»» 




41-4 


; 




08-46 






»f 




49-9 


t 08-06 1 


08-15 


08-00 


3 


08-06 


If 




52-5 


t 06-96 


07-07 




3 


06-97 


>» 




59-9 


+ OG-70 






1 


06-68 


*» 




62-1 


t 04-99 


05-04 


04-94 


7 


04-91 


>> 




73-9 


•]• 01-37 






2n 




ft 




98-9 


t3797-87 


3797-85 




5r 


3797-85 


J» 




26323-2 


■f 97-27 


97-29 




4 


97-28 


}f 




27-2 


t 94-74 


94-77 




3 


94-75 


yt 




44-8 


t 94-01 


94-03 




4 


94-02 


)> 




49-9 


t 93-44 


93-45 




4 


93-46 






53-9 


t 92-27 


92-31 




4 


92-30 


jt 




62-0 


t 91-51 


91-52 




4 


91-51 


yy 




67-3 


t 90-61 


90-58 




3 


MOl 




jf 


73-7 


90-37 


90-38 




1 


f»0-36 


yy 




75-2 


89-83 


89-85 




1 


89-87 


yy 




78-9 


t 88-99 


88-91 




3 


89-00 


)» 




85-1 






3788-40 






%y 




89-0 


88-1 






In 




yy 




91- 






87-80 






yy 




92-7 






87-29 






J> 




96-7 


86-38 






1 


80-38 


}f 




26403-1 






84-77 








,, 


14-3 






84-02 






^^ 




19-5 


83-85 






In 








20-7 




83-33 


83-43 










24-1 


82-6 






11) 




J» 




29- 






82-20 






»f 




31 -G 


80-9 




80-57 


11) 




yy 




41- 

43-6 


SO -3 






]h 








45- i 






• 79-85 






yy 




48-7 ' 






78-90 






J* 




54-7 


■\ 78-81 






1 




*» 




56-0 


77-48 






1 








65-3 


76-4 






11) 




1-04 




73- 


74-9 






lb 




*f 




83- 


69-12 






1 


69-13 


}f 


7'''> 


26523-9 


68-86 


68-92 




2 


6S-S5 






25-5 


1 -1- 68-:i7 


68-44 




5 


68-37 


yy 


>* 


29-0 


1 i 67-57 


07-01 




1 


67-56 


)« 


„ 


34-7 


1 60-80 






In 








39-7 


"l- 65-72 


65-60 




In 




;$ 




48-0 


65-47 


05-46 




In 








49-6 


•1- 64-8 


, 




lb 




yy 




54- 


62-02 


'62-05 • 




In 




)j 




73-9 ' 


•)• 6H10 


' 


61-85 


In 




If 




75-0 


61 -5S 






1 




»f 




77-1 



ON WAVE-LEXGXn TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 175 



Chromium (Spark &pect&vm)— continued. 



Wave-length 












Intensity 


1 






and 


Exner and 

Haschek 

1 


Adeney 


Lohse 


Character 




3758-35 




3758-20 


3758-19 ' 




3 


t 57-82 1 


57-82 j 




5 


t 57-34 


57-30 




2 


50-71 






1 


65-99 






1 


55-30 






1 


! t 54-75 . 


54-68 


54-87 


5 


50-75 ' 


50-79 




3 


t 49-18 


49-18 




5r 


48-81 


48-78 


47-79 


4 


t 47-42 


47-40 




2 


-|- 47-08 






1 


t 44-04 


44-70 




3 


t 44-10 


4409 




6 


t 43-72 


43-74 




5 


43-13 


43-19 




3 


42-25 




40-07 


1 


38-58 






5r 


37-70 


37-54 


37-42 


2 


3(5-58 






In 


36-05 




36-09 


In 


34-7 




34-63 


lb 


34-(X> 




34-05 
33-13 


1 


3219 


32-24 


32-10 


3 


t 31-87 






1 


t 30-94 


31-01 


3096 


3 


27-49 






3 


20-05 






1 


23-52 


23-78 




2 


t 23-20 






i 


22-97 






1 


19-(50 






1 


18-75 


18-45 




1 


t 17-8 


17-45 




11) 


t 10-70 


10-75 




la 


15-03 


15-65 


15-56 


6 


t 15-38 


15-45 


15-33 


6 


13-11 


13-20 


13-11 


9 


1 1 -45 


Jl-Ol 




2 


10-70 


10-41 




1 


10-25 


Ill-ll 




lu 


i 07 -lN 






In 


t 07-1 






11) 


ot;-2 






11. 


04-!) 






Ih 


1 02-05 






1 


13008-13 


3008-20 


3698-10 


5 


t (XVfK) 


00-96 


9005 


2 


90 01 


1 




1 1 


! 95-13 


! 




1 


94-20 






1 



Previous 
Observa- 
tions 
(Hassel- 
berg*) 



3758-14 

57-80 
57-28 

55-97 



49-13 

48-73 

47-40 

44-63 
44-01 
43-67 
43-08 



32-15 
30-91 



16-65 



3i,9V02 



Reduction to 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 


1 


\+ i 


in Vacuo 


1 


~'~ 1 




1-04 


7-5 


26599-9 




99 


20001 -0 




9* 


03-0 


99 


99 


07-0 


,, 


99 


11-5 




99 


10-0 


" 


99 


21-5 




»9 


25-3 




9) 


53-0 


»» 


99 


65-0 




99 


07-8 




99 


74-9 




99 


77-4 




99 


80-0 




99 


971 




99 


26701-2 




99 


03-8 




>* 


07-9 




99 


14-4 




99 


25-7 




99 


40-0 


1-03 


99 


48-1 




99 


54-9 




99 


59-0 




99 


08-7 




»> 


73-2 




99 


79-7 




99 


86-4 




99 


88-7 
95'2 




99 






7-6 


26820-8 




99 


30-5 




99 


47-8 




99 


51-0 
ro.n 




9* 


• i^ 1 




99 


77-0 




99 


84-2 




9» 


91-3 




99 


97-8 




)» 


26905-9 




9* 


07-5 




9' 


23-7 




99 


35-5 




99 


42-5 




99 


44-2 




9» 


60-4 




9» 


OS- 




99 


74- 




19 


S4- 




„ 


27004-5 




99 


33-1 


1-02 


19 


41-8 






48-6 
55-0 



CI -9 



176 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chromium (Spark Spectrum)— cowrtrtwcrZ. 





Wave-length 






Previous 


Reduction to 

Oscillation 








Intensity Observa- 
and 1 tions 










Frequency 


Exner and 

Haschek 


Adeney 


Lohse 


Character Hassel- 
berg*) 


A + 


1 _ 

A 


in Vacuo 

1 

1 


3093-25 






1 




10-2 


7-6 


i 27068-8 


j- 89-77 


3689-87 




1 


i 3689-76 


J) 


99 


i 94-0 


89-45 


89-57 




1 




99 




90-3 


88-58 


88-47 


3088-01 


2 


88-56 


99 


99 


27103-3 


t 88-25 






1 


88-24 


99 




05-5 


t 87-5 






3b 


87-65 


99 


99 


11- 


t 80-84 


86-89 


86-85 


4r 


80-95 


99 




15-9 


t 85-74 


85-73 


85-72 


2 


85-70 


99 




24-0 


t 85-3 






In 




» 


99 


27- 


85-1 






la 






99 


29- 


t 84-39 


84-46' 




5 






9> 


33-7 


t 83-79 


83-01 




1 


83-60 




7-7 


1 38-9 


81-86 


81-71 




O 


81-81 






63-0 


81-15 


81-07 


81-20 


1 


81-12 






57-8 


80-32 






1 


80-34 






63-8 


t 79-99 


79-96 




1 


79-93 






66-4 


t 79-22 


79-26 




1 


79-20 






71-8 


t 78-05 


78-00 


77-95 


8 


78-00 






80-8 


t 77-83 


77-88 




6 








82-1 


76-46 


76-51 




3 








92-4 


76-25 






In 








93-9 


74-3 






lb 








27208- 


73-8 






lb 








12- 


t 68-20 


68-10 


68-14 


2n 


08-17 






54-0 


t 60-82 


60-87 


60-81 


3 


00-78 






63-8 


t 00-30 


66-39 


06-23 


1 


06-30 






67-7 


66-15 


00-19 




2 


0010 






68-7 


t 65-10 


05-17 


05-09 


6 








70-5 


63-39 


03-42 


03-39 


3 


63-35 






89-3 


t 63-03 




62-97 


1 


62-97 






92-1 


01-00 


01-04 




In 








27302-0 


61-40 






In 








04-3 


t 58-33 


58-39 


58-31 


4 








27-1 


t 50-41 


50-44 


50-42 


5r 


50-30 


I'-bi 




41-4 


t 54-09 


54- 14 


54-07 


4 


54-05 






58-8 


t 51-83 


51-89 




3 








75-8 


t 50-50 


50-56 


50-48 


5 








85-7 


50-0 






In 








90- 


t 49-8 






In 








91- 


t 49-14 


49-18 


49-10 


4r 


49-12 






95-9 


t 48-70 


48-70 
48-31 


48-09 


2 


48-65 






99-2 
27402-2 


t 47-54 


47-50 




2 








08-0 


t 46-85 






1 








13-2 


46-31 


40-39 




2 


46-26 






17-0 


45-73 


45-84 




1 








21-2 


t 44-80 


44-87 


44-73 


3 








28-5 


43-35 




43-34 


3 








39-6 


4201 




41-99 


4r 


41-95 






49-7 


t 41-65 


41-73 

4003 


41-62 


2 


41-61 






52-3 
60-1 


t 4000 


39-95 


39-97 


7 


39-93 






65-0 




38-83 










7-8 


73-1 


38-5 






lb 








70- 


38 00 






1 




>> 




79-8 



ox WAVE-LENGTH TABLE3 OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 177 





CHBOiiitrii (Spaek Spec 


TBUM) — continued. 






Wave length 






Previous 


Beduction to 
Vacuum 










Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tiona 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Exner and 
Haschek 


Adeney 


Lohse 


Character 


(Hassel- 
berg») 


\ + 


1 

A. 


in Vacuo 


t3636-75 


3636-73 


3636-75 


5r 


3636-72 


101 


7-8 


27489-3 


35-44 


35-48 




1 








99-1 


3517 


3513 
34-78 




1 


35-03 




„ 
» 


27501-2 
04-2 


34-19 


34-17 




2 








08-7 


t 33-00 


32-93 


33-01 


4 


32-92 




,, 


17-8 


t 31-86 


31-85 




6 








26-0 


29-57 


29-66 




111 








42-6 


28-2 


28-26 




lb 








53-8 


26-40 


26-29 


26-45 


In 








67-9 


20-2 






In 








27615- 


t 19-61 


19-55 




2 








19-7 


t 17-45 


17-50 




2 




1-bo 




35-8 


t 15-80 


15-79 




2 


15-76 






48-6 


14-41 






1 




** 




59-2 


t 13-82 






1 


13-78 






63-8 


t 13-35 


1334 




6 








67-4 


t 12-76 


12-76 


12-76 


3 


12-70 


>l 




71-9 


10-22 


10-19 




2 


10-17 






91-5 


t 09-64 


09-64 


09-60 


2 


09-62 






95-9 


08-77 






1 




„ 




27702-5 


t 08-55 


08-56 




2 


08-52 


J, 




041 


t 05-47 


05-48 


05-50 


10 


05-46 






27-7 


04-70 






1 




» 




33-8 


t 03-90 




03-91 


9 


03-86 


" 




39-9 


02-73 


02-78 


02-25 


1 


02-68 






48-7 
52-6 


t 01-80 


01-85 


00-53 


4 


01-70 






55-9 
65-8 


t3599-55 


3599-54 
97-79 


3596-98 


2 


3599-51 






73-5 
87-0 
93-3 


94-47 






1 






7-9 


27812-6 


t 93-64 


93-62 


93-63 


10 


93-57 






191 


90-3 






lb 








45- 


89-2 






lb 








53- 


88-46 


87-4d 




In 




" 




59-2 
67-3 


85-73 


85-5^ 




7 








81-2 


t 85-48 


85-3i 


85-48 


7 


85-45 


f» 




82-4 


84-5 


84-54 
83-54 




4b 


84-45 






89-8 
97-5 


t 82-79 






1 


82-74 






27903-3 


82-3 






In 








07- 


81-95 






In 








'10-0 


t 78-83 


78-8-4 
7 7 -3d 




10 


78-81 


0-99 




34-2 
461 


76-43 






1 








52-9 


750 


74-99 


74-91 


5n 








64-4 


t 74-7 


74-5<j 




In 




9» 




67-0 


74-20 


74-19 


74-24 


2 


74-19 






70-3 




t 73-81 






73-79 






73-4 


t 73-30 




73-52 


3 








77-4 


t 72-91 


730<i 




f 


72-90 






80-1 


t 72-20 




.,_ 




11 


"» 


860 


1906. 














X 



178 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Chhomium (Spark Spectbqm) — continued. 



Wave-length 




Previous 


Eeduction to 








Intensity 


Observa- 
tions 






Oscillation 
Frequency 


■ 






and 






Exner and 
Hascliek 


Adeney 


Lohae 


Character 


(Hassel- 
berg») 


A + 


1 


in Vacuo 


3571-52 






j 


0-99 


7-9 


27991-4 


69-32 








3569-28 ' 


„ 


SJ 


28009-4 


G7-7 






lb 






99 


21- 


66-2^ 


3566-34 




3b 


66-23 




ff 


32-4 




65-54 






65-31 




9> 


38-3 


65-12 












>» 


41-6 


64-91 


64-94 






64-87 




99 


43-3 


64-45 








64-44 


,y 


9» 


46-9 


64-09 


6414 


3563-99 








99 


49-8 


62-60 


62-64 






62-57 


„ 


99 


61-3 


62-47 








62-40 


„ 


»J 


62-5 


60-6 






In 






1« 


77- 


59-93 








59-90 




99 


82-5 


58-8 


5883 




3b 


58-74 




*9 


91-3 


56-28 








56-27 




>* 


28111-4 


55-98 






M 


65-88 


! II 


»l 


13-7 
15-4 


55-77 






1 1 




t .1 


99 


54-12 






1 


54-10 




r» 


28-5 


52-8 


52-87 




2b 


52-85 




99 


38-4 


50-80 


50-82 






50-73 




80 


54-6 


490 


48-97 


48-95 • 


"lb 


48-95 




l» 


68-9 


48-0 






Ih 






»> 


77- 


47-26 












>» 


82-8 


' 39-10 












*y 


28247-8 


37-36 






1 




0-98 


9» 


61-7 


36-6 






lb 






»» 


6S- 


33 02 








3304 




,, 


96-4 


31-60 






1 






»» 


2H307-8 


31 '20 






1 






*f 


110 


29'83 












If 


22-0 


27-25 


^7-44 






27*22 




99 


42-7 


25'6 






lb 






9* 


56- 


24-75 






In 






>* 


62-8 


23-8 






lb 






9* 


70- 


2312 






In 






»t 


75-9 


22-30 


22-43 










9* 


82-5 


21-69 












99 


87-4 


19-7 






lb 






>> 


28403- 


18-77 












M 


11-0 


18-51 












*• 


13-1 


1317 


13-24 










99 


56'3 


1200 


n-94 


11-90 




11-93 




,, 


66-2 


1067 


10-64 


10-66 




Kcfiti 




HI 


76-6 


03-98 






In 






ft 


90-1 


08-24 












II 


96'2 


07-4 






lb 






II 


28503- 


06-72 






In 






14 


08-6 


i 03-52 


1 03-58 










<• 


34'4 


1 02-49 


0-2-43 








« 


43-0 


3495-71 


3495-80 






0-97 


II 


98-4 


95-r)5 


95-58 3405-53 








II 


99-7 


ftij-13 


9513 


2 


3495-08 


•• 


II 


28603-1 




94-53 








»> 


08-1 


IU-2S 




'' 1 




9X 


II 


101 






«-2-37 




1 


•• 


ti 


26'9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMEXTS, 179 



Cheomium (Spark Spkcteum)— f«/*^</ttf«/. 





Wave-length 




1 

Previous 


Reduction to 


1 






Intenaily 
1 and 


Observa- 
tions 


1 tl>V>UUlll 


j Oscillation 
1 Frequency 




1 ' 




1 - 


Exner and 
HascUek 


Adeuey 

1 


Lohse 


Charactei 
In 


(Hassel- 
1 berg*) 

i 


\ + 


1_ 

A 

1 


j in Vacuo 

i 

: 28648-6 


t3480-58 




' 0-97 


8-1 


89-2r> 






In 


j 


1 »» ; « 


51-4 


88-58 


348806 




1 


3488-60 


»» 


1 " 


50-5 


8C.-(i-2 






1 




" 


99 


730 


84-ao 


84-35 


3434-29 


4 




>■• 


9t 


920 






83-27 






99 


99 


28700-0 


82-75 


82-48 




2 




9* 


99 


04-8 




8203 








99 


99 


10-8 


81-67 


81 73 




3 


81-66 


»J 


99 


13-5 


81-43 


81-41 




3 


81-41 


99 


99 


15-7 


80-4S 










J9 


99 


23-0 


79-27 






la 




?» 


99 


33-0 


78-89 










»» 


99 


37-5 


78-30 










JJ 


99 


41-6 


77-32 






In 




99 


99 


49-7 


75-29 


75-31 








99 


99 


06-4 


74-52 


74-53 








99 


99 


72-8 


73-70. 


73-81 








,, 


99 


79-0 


73-or. 


73-01 








,, 


«* 


85-2 


72-92 










M 


99 


80-1 


72-22 


72-31 








»* 


99 


91-5 


71-03 










,, 


,, 


96-8 


70-6r, 


7000 








,, 


K-2 


28804-7 


70-53 










»» 


»» 


05-8 


fi9-72 


09-76 








»9 


99 


12-4 


ti8-87 


68-90 








,, 


99 


19-3 


07-85 


07-80 






07-80 


»» 


99 


28- 1 


0715 


07-21 




2n 




»• 


»« 


33-7 


06-44 






In 




,, 


,, 


39-8 


05-73 










»* 


99 


45-8 


05-38 


65-36 






05-40 


,, 


9» 


48-8 


<i4-99 










»♦ 


♦ 9 


51-9 


Oil7 


04-06 








t» 


99 


59-2 


r>3-8 


63-66 




lb 




** 


99 


62-4 


02-87 










*» 


»9 


09-5 


01-45 






In 




,, 


■ 99 


814 


rK>-57 


00-46 






00-60 


»* 


99 


89-2 


59-41 


59-41 








,, 


99 


98-4 


58-22 


58-21 








0-90 


99 


28908-5 


57-80 1 


57-70 


1 






99 


99 


1-2-1 


55-72 , 


55-70 






55-76 


»« 


,, 


29-2 


5514 


5513 








,, 


,, 


34-2 


53-99 










»» 


.> I 


43-8 


53-87 










^, 




44-8 


53-40 


5:'.-40 






53 46 


,, 


«« 1 


48-:5 


51 (Ml 


51 (Ml 








,. <. ' 


08-9 


49-45 






1 It 




'* ** 


HI -9 


47-89 






"2 i 


47-90 


*» »» ' 


95(> 


47-50 


47-58 




3 i 


47-55 


«♦ ♦• 


97-S 


4715 


47-23 




■> 

— 


4715 


)» »» 


•29000-9 


45-75 


45-(M) 




4r 


45-71 


99 >• 


13-7 


45-25 


45-03 




2n 




»9 99 

99 99 


17-3 
19-1 


44-52 


44-42 


111 




99 »» 


23-8 


4395 


43-80 


2 




99 »» 


28-9 
















N 2 



180 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chromium (Spark Spegt&um')— continued. 



Wave-length 


Previous 


Beduction to 
Vacuum 






1 


Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tions 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Exner and 
Haschek 


Adeney 


Lohse 


Character 


(Hassel- 
berg*) 


A -t- 
0-96 


1 _ 


in Vacuo 


3441-60 


3441-43 




4 


3441-56 


8-2 


29048-8 


41-27 


41-12 




2 




>f 




51-6 


40-88 






1 




>9 




54-0 


39-46 






1 




>» 




66-1 


38-12 






1 




l> 




77-5 


36-87 






1 




»> 




88-0 


36-31 


36-16 




4 


36-31 


tf 




93-4 


35-95 






1 




)» 




95-8 


35-81 


35-83 
34-88 




1 




t9 
1* 




96-9 
29104-9 


34-24 


3412 




3 




)» 




10-8 


33-73 


33-74 




5ii 


33-72 


t> 




14-6 


33-50 


33-44 




10 


33-42 


ft 




18-8 


3247 






1 




99 


8-3 


25-2 


3-217 






1 




)» 


^^ 


27-8 


31-82 






1 




9* 




30-8 


31-42 






1 


»> 




341 


30-58 


30-51 




1 


9t 




41-6 


3003 






In 




>f 




460 


29-07 


28-94 
28-88 




2 








54-7 

55-7 


27-85 






In 




9> 




64-5 


26-29 


26-21 




2 




>J 




78-1 


24-77 






1 




yy 




90-7 


2'2-92 


22-86 




10 




99 




29206-5 


21-8 






3n 1 


9) 




16- 




21-58 








9f 




18-0 


21-40 


21-36 




10 




ft 




19-7 


19-45 






In 




99 




36-2 


17-90 






In 




0-95 




49-4 


15-55 






In 




99 




69-6 


12-35 


11-83 




In 




99 

9> 




97-0 
29301-5 


111 






lb 1 


9> 




08- 


10-66 


10-71 




1 ! 


99 




11-3 


08-91 


03-91 




10 




»9 




26-6 


07-32 






1 




99 




40-3 


06-9 






iri 




99 




44- 


05-4 






lb 




9) 




57- 


03-47 


03-43 




10 




99 




730 


02-58 


02-58 




6 




99 


" 


811 


00-13 






In 




99 




29402-3 


3399-65 


3399-49 




4 




99 




07-2 


95-72 


95-76 




5 




9* 


8-4 


40-3 


94-49 


94-45 




S 




99 


„ 


61-3 


94-00 


93-99 
93-71 




8 




99 
99 




55-4 
57-9 


93-18 






8 




99 




62-5 


91-58 


91-50 




8 




fr 




70-7 


90-87 










99 




82-6 


88-90 






Iti 




99 




99-7 


88-07 










99 




29506-9 


87-82 










99 




09-1 


86-7 i 






lb 




" 




19- 


86-30 










.; 1 




22-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SrECTWA OF THE ELEMENTS. Igl 



Chromium (Spark HrEcrRvu)— continued. 





Wavelength 




Previous 


Reduction to 

Vacuum 

1 








Intensity 
j and 


Observa- 
' tiona 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Exuer and 
Haschek 






1 


Adeney 


Lohse 


Character (Hassel- 
berg*) 


- \i- 


in Vacuo 


3386^20 


1 




0-95 


8-4 


29523-2 


85-45 






1 




»9 


)l 


29-8 


84-79 






1 




f» 


»» 


35-5 


82-82 


3382-77 




9 




») 


*» 


52-9 


79-99 


79-95 




9 




»» 


»» 


77-6 


79-50 


79-50 




6 




J> 


»f 


81-8 


78-49 


78-46 




8 




»* 


»» 


90-7 


77-47 






1 




0-94 


it 


99-5 


76-8 






lb 




>» 


99 


29605- 


76-49 


76-45 




1 




tl 


)> 


08-3 


76-36 






1 




9$ 


99 


09-3 


75-08 


75-12 




2 




„ 


>9 


20-3 


72-26 


72-32 




3 




>> 


99 


45-0 


71-60 






hi 




f» 


J» 


51-1 


70-3 






In 




9* 


99 


62- 


69-20 


09-20 




4 




»> 


99 


72-2 


08-83 


68-90 




3 




» 


If 


75-2 


08-20 


08-20 




10 




„ 


f« 


81-0 


07-52 


67-60 




4 




9» 


ff 


86-7 


64-75 






lb' 




99 


ff 


29711-5 


63-85 


63-87 




4 




» 


ff 


19-3 


61-92 


61-96 




6 




)* 


f) 


36-3 


60-48 


60-48 




10 




9* 


8^5 


49-1 , 


58-64 


58-62 




9 




99 


)» 


65-5 


57-52 


57-51 




6 




» 


>* 


75-4 


560 






lb 




99 


ft 


80- 


65-33 






la 




»» 


«i 


94-8 


53-25 


53-20 




5 




99 


f9 


29813-3 


5210 


52-10 




1 




9* 


»» 


23-5 


51-71 


51-65 
50-19 
49-82 




1 




n 


9» 


27-3 
40-6 
43-8 


49-47 


49-62 




3 




f» 


»» 


46-3 


49-18 


49-16 




1 




99 


»> 


49-6 


4800 


47-97 




6 




>f 


>» 


60-2 


46-80 


46-83 




2 




ft 


>» 


70-4 


46-14 


4611 




2 




f* 


» 


76-8 


45-55 






1 




f» 


»» 


81-9 


44-64 


44-63 




1 




M 


9» 


90-1 


43-47 


43-49 




1 




» 


>> 


29900-5 


42-78 


42-71 




10 




tf 


t* 


070 


42-13 






1 




f* 


99 


12-5 


4003 


39-91 




10 




9* 


19 


Si -9 


39-3 


39-11 




2b 




M 


It 


38-7 


37-15 


37-10 




1 




0-93 


tf 


57-4 


36-49 


36-45 




8 




»t 


t> 


63-3 


36-06 






1 




•ff 


99 


67-0 


35-52 


35-45 




9 




*l 


• 9 


12-1 


33-1 


33-00 




lb 




■91 


• 9 


94-0 


33-03 


33-00 




1 




■»» 


9t 


94-4 


32-3 






lb 




•99 


t. 


.30 01- 


29-63 






In 




ft 


.t 


24-9 


29-16 






1 




•M 


99 


i29-I 


28-50 


28-49 




4 




»ff 


99 


35-1 


26-72 


26-73 




1 




«f 


99 


.511 



182 



KEPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIEISCE, 







Chromium (Spark Spectrum)— fo?i<t//«(<?. 




1 




1 

i 




,j Rednetion to 






Wave-length i 




Frevions Vacuum 








1 


liiltensity 
aud 


Obser^'a- i 

tioiis 1 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




( 


1 ! 




Exuer and 
Hascliek 


1 
Adeney 


Lolise Chalracter 


(Hassel- a -f ' ^ - 
berg*) A 


in Vacuo 




3324-52 ' 


3324-47 




7 


0-93 8-0 


300711 




24-27 






6 




73-2 




23-1)8 i 


23-68 




2 




78-5 




22-84 1 


22-86 




»> 




86-1 




21-5 






Tb ■ 




98- 




16-04 


10-02 


1 




3014-2-5 




15-40 


15-42 


1 




53-3 




14-72 I 


14-08 


4r i 




(WO 




14-21 1 


14-19 




3d 




640 




13-23 


13-19 




3 




73-6 




12-35 


1-2-31 









81-0 




1210 


12-04 




(V 




84-0 




10-86 


10-80 


(') 




95-3 




10-1 




Itr 




30-202- 




(»8-31 


08-24 


>> 




18-5 




07 -92 


(»7-85 


1 




22-2 




(17-20 


07-12 


10 




28-8 




04-y 




In 




49- 




0305 




1 




06-4 




02-3 




lb 




73- 




01-39 


01-35 




i) 




81-9 




3298-1) 






Til 


0-it2 ',', 


30304- 




98-57 


3'298-50 




1 


' J, It 


07-9 




98-42 






1 




09-0 




95-58 


95-55 




9 




35-2 




95-15 




In 




39-0 




94-0 






In 




60- 




91-91 


91-87 




6 




69-1 




91-4 






la 




74- 




88-18 


88-18 




2 


" 8-7 


30403-3 




86-09 


8009 




n 
O 




'22-6 




83-19 


8317 




3 




49-6 




79-66 






1 




82-3 




70-07 


7606 




1 


; 


30515-7 




74-1 






In 




34- 




73-4 






lb 




41- 




730(J 


73 06 




1 


»f 


440 




71-15 






In 


' „ i ,, 


61-6 




70-28 


70-28 




5 


i 


69-7 




69-87; 


69-95 




3 




73-2 




69-72 


69-23 




4 




75-0 
79-6 




08-57 






1 


i " 1 " 


85-7 




00-40 


66-42 




I 


1 1 

» j „ 


30605-9 




64-40 


04-40 
01-81 
00-81 




4 




24-8 
491 
58-5 




6(B10 


6005 




2 


1 9J 1 J> 


65-4 




58-88 


58-89 




3 


1 0-91 i „ 


76-6 




57-92 


57-91 




2 


1 I 

i » : j» 


85-8 




55-41 


55-41 




2 


1 t> 1 i» 


30709-4 




52-59: 


52-67 




3 


i » 8-8 


36-0 




51-96 


51-92 




2 




421 




51-80 


51-82 


-i' 


1 


jj 1 j» 


43-3 




t 5o:t5 


50-83 


.i. 


1 


j> ' »» 


52-0 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES UF THE SPECTRA OP THE ELEMENTS. 183 



Chromium (Spark SvEC'[Rvyi)—coniiiuied. 



,„ , 41 ' T, . Reduction to 
i AVave-length Previous Vn..,,,,™ 


1 






lutensity 
and 


Observa- 


1 Oscillation 






1 


tions 1 


Frequency 


Exiier anil 
Hiischek 


Ai-leney 


Lohse Clia^cter (Hassel- ^ + 1_ 
, bei-g*) A 

1 


iu Vacuo 


3250-74 




1 ' i 0-91 8-8 


30?53'4 


49G4 


324962 


1 ! ., „ 


63'9 


47 GS 


47-61 


1 „ „ 82-9 


4745 




1 „ „ 84-6 


4715 




111 ,, „ 87-4 


45-65 


45-65 


it 


30801-7 


45- 10 




1 


040 




44-30 


9f 




14-5 


• 41-o2 




1 




40-9 


4018 


4025 


1 




53-3 


3890 


38-88 


9 




600 


3805 




lu 


!! 68-3 


38^20 


3S-1'.) 


I 


72-6 


37'85 


37-82 


I 


760 


37-4G 




1 


79-6 


35-3G 


35-30 




hi „ 




99-9 


34-20 


34-15 




9 




30911-0 


31-75 


31-76 


1 




34-1 


30-95 






111 




41-8 


. 3001 


30(M) 




1 




60-9 


29-48 


29-30 


1 




56-4 


2932 




1 




57-5 


26-40 


26-45 


lu 




85-0 


25-50 


25-50 


3 




94-1 


19-90 


19-83 


2 0-90 


„ 


31048-4 


19-73 




1 


„ 


49-7 


19-23 


19-26 


3 


„ 


54-4 


17-51 


17-55 


9 


„ 


70-9 


16-61 


16-66 





„ 


79-6 


12-98 


12-98 


3 


8-9 


31114-8 


12-59 


12-64 


3 




18-4 


11-63 


11-57 




2 


9t 


28-2 


11-42 


11-45 

09-87 




1 




29-8 
45-0 


09-30 


09-32 




" 




50-4 


08-70 


08-72 




4 




56-3 


0810 


0810 




1 




62-2 


0615 






lu , » 


„ 


• 81-1 


05-23 


05-23 




3 , 1 „ 




901 


03-67 


03-66 




2 


i " 




31205-3 


02-64 


02-64 




2 


tf 


„ 


J 5-3 


01-39 


01-38 




3 


)» 




27-6 


00-57 


00-55 




1 .. „ 


35-6 


3199-97 


3199-98 


1 » » 


41-3 


9812 


9809 




2 




59-6 


97-22 






10 1 „ 


)i 


68-3 


96-51 






1 1 » 


1 


75-2 


94-76 


94-70 




1 ! » 


" 


92-4 


94-05 


92-30 




In 


j 


99-3 
31316-5 


90-8 


90-68 




In i »9 f> 1 


31-8 


89-93 


89-92 




1 ' 


39-8 


88-17 


88-10 




In „ „ 67-4 


86-85 


86-82 


1 
1 


2 „ , „ 70-2 


84-56 


84-43 




2 


,. 1 


It 


93-2 , 



184 



SfifORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 





Chr 


OMIUM (Spabk SPE( 


3TRUM) — continued 


• 








Wave-length 




Previous 


JEleduction to 
Vacuum 








Intensitj 
j and 
Charactei 


Observa- 
[ tions 
• (Hagsel- 
berg*) 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Exner and 
Hdschek 


Adency 


Lolise 


A + 


1_ 

K 


3183-44 


3183-42 


5 


0-90 


8-9 


31403-7 


81^5t 


81-52 




3 




0-89 




{ 22-^4 


80-82 


80-80 




10 




9t 




90 


29-5 


79-52 






In 




1 »t 






42-3 


78-83 


78-87 




In 




j )) 




',', 48-9 


77-7 




lb 








CO- 


70-8 




lb 




9) 




09- 


7307 


7308 




1 




fi 






31500-2 


72-20 
G9-33 


72-21 
09-33 




4 
3 




1 '* 

i 99 




99 


14-8 
43-4 


08-49 






1 ' 




1 

,9 




99 


51-8 


04-5 






lb 




■99 






92- 


04-03 1 
03-85 J 


03-92 




n 
U 




99 




99 


90-3 
98-1 


02-50 


02-54 




2 




fy 




91 


31011-0 


00-2G 


00-24 




1 




„ 






341 


59-97 


59-97 
59-78 




1 








99 


30-9 

38-8 


59-22 






1 




)) 






44-4 


58-14 


58-14 




2 










55-2 


55-24 


55-31 

54-77 




1 




»» 






84-0 
89-0 


54-2 


5414 




In 




f » 






95-1 


53-7 


53-71 




la. 




f9 






99-7 


53-1 


53-14 




m 




)) 






317050 


52-34 


52-30 




5 




yj 






13-4 


50-23 


50-24 




3 










34-7 


49-95 


49-97 




3 










37-4 


49-3 




In 




)9 






44- 




48-88 








99 






48-3 


48-50 


48-02 




1 








K 


51-2 


47-33 


47-34 




7 




f f 




* 


03-9 


45-80 


45-92 




2 , 




99 




•1 


78-4 


45-21 


45-24 




2 ■ 




99 






85-1 




44-57 


1 




99 






91-7 




44-25 1 








99 






96-0 


44-0 


1 




In 










97- 


43-85 


43-83 




In 










99-1 


431 


4314 




In 




99 






31800-4 


42-85 


42-85 




1 








1 


09-2 


42-0 






In 




99 






18- 


40-20 


40-37 




3 




0-88 




1 


34-8 


40-00 


4009 
39-55 




1 


1 


99 




' 1 


370 
42 


38-38 


38-37 




L 










54-5 


37-08 


37-04 1 




1 


i 








01-8 


37-25 






1 




99 




• 1 


00-0 


30-81 


30-84 




7 








1 


70-3 


35-80 


35-91 




3 


1 








79-8 


35-40 


35-48 




3 










84-0 


34-43 


34-50 




3 










94-3 


32-20 


32-19 




10 




99 






31917-4 


3105 






I 




ff 






23-0 


30-73 


30-73 




1 




ff 






32-3 


28-82 


28-87 




6 


1 


99 


9 




51-6 



ON WaVE-LENGTH TABLEIS of TIJE SPECtRA OF TitE ELEMENPS. IS; 





Chromium (Spark SvECvnvu)— continued. 








Wave-length 




Previous 


Reduction to 

VnniiiiTTi 


1 
1 






Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tions 


V ttlvU ULU 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Exner and 
Haschek 


Adcney 


Loll so 


Character 


(Hassel- 
betg*) 


A -f 

0-88 


1 _ 


in Vacuo 




3127-83 




91 


31961-4 




27-07 








1> 




69-7 


31-25-G 






2n 




9> 




85- 


25-12 


25-17 




10 




99 




89-4 


22-73 


22-72 




4 




»i 




32014-2 


22-0-i 


2201 




1 




99 




19-5 


21-92 






1 




99 




22-5 


21-33 


21-29 




1 




99 




28-7 


21-18 






1 




5f 




30-1 


20-50 


20-54 




10 




99 




30-8 




19-90 








»J 




43-2 




19-29 








J> 




49-5 


18-78 


18-74 




10 




»> 




54-9 


18-27 


18-18 




1 




9t 




60-4 


17-40 


17-34 




1 




t9 




09-2 


1G-8G 


16-81 




2 




99 




74-7 


15-77 


15-72 




2 




}f 




86-2 


15-42 


15-30 




1 




*> 




89-6 




14-48 








99 


9-2 


98-9 


13-77 


13-69 




In 




)» 




32116-9 


12-10 


12-03 




1 




99 




23-7 


11-0 


11-00 




lb 




)> 




34-8 




09-43 








»9 




51-0 


08-77 


08-75 




1 




99 




58-0 


07-70 


07-64 




3 




)| 




69-2 




03-83 








■ >f 




32209-1 


0300 


03-54 




2 




)» 




11-8 




02-24 








99 




25-6 




3099-00 








0-87 




59-3 


3098-27 


98-22 




In 




99 




67-2 


96-27 


96-20 




3 




9» 




87-8 


95-05 


95-59 








ff 




94-5 


9512 


9510 








99 




99-8 


94-12 


94-13 








99 




3-2310- 1 


93-01 


93-62 








» 




15-4 


8801 


88-08 








99 




73-7 


85-50 


85-52 




In 




99 




32400-4 


84-58 


84-61 




In 




»9 




100 




83-82 








19 


9-3 


18-0 


83-27 






In 




»» 




23-8 


79-59 


79-47 








99 




63-2 


77-89 


77-93 








99 




80-3 


77-39 










99 




85-8 


73-88 


73-84 








9) 




32523-1 


73-40 


73-44 








99 




27-7 


72-57 


7-2-63 








99 




35-4 


71-7 


71-75 




In 




99 




45-7 




71-12 








99 




52-1 


07-27 


67-35 








99 




92-5 


65-18 


65-05 








99 




32615-9 




64-36 








ff 




23-9 


63-92 


63-93 








ff 




28-6 




63-31 








99 




35-2 


62-0 






lb 




0-86 




49- 


61-75 


61-88 






' 


99 


•» 


51-1 



18G 



HEPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chromium (Spark Svecvrvu)— continued. 



i 




i Reduction to 


! 


Wave-leiigtli , 




Pi-evjoiis , ■\r„„„„,.. 




i 


Intensity 

and 1 

Character! 

i 


Observa- 
tions 1 

(Hassel- 
ber-*) 


t 11,1^1.(1.11.11 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Exuer and 
Hascliek 

t 


1 
Adency i Lohse ,* 

3061-60 ' ! 


- ^ 1 


1 


1 
1 


0-86 9-3 


32652-4 


805903 


59-80 1 


- )> i> 


73-5 


58-50 ; 


58-43 1 




99 1 »» 


86-8 


58-00 


57-95 




99 »9 


92-1 


56-8 


56-78 


lb 


99 J> 


32701-8 


55-57 


55-51 


^ i> »» 


18-0 


54-00 


54-02 


1 .. 9-4 


34-4 




52-32 i 




?♦ r> 


57-6 




51-80 ; 




■ >> 9» 


C8-2 




50-87 ; . 




1 »» J» 


68-1 


50-23 


50-25 i 


8 


»> )» 


74-9 


49-7 


'49-51 


lb „ 


81'7 


47-90 


47-8iJ : 


1 1 )» <» 


32800'5 


47-77 


47-82 i 


^ , «♦ »» 


01 '2 




47 09 ; 


i) ri 


088 


45-6 


45'71 


lb 


24-3 


44-30 


44-29 J 


1 >> )» 


38'9 


43'99 


43-97 ; 


1 


M *9 


42-3 


42'90 




1 


!» »» 


59-0 


41-85 


41-89 




651 


4103 


4105 


• »> »i 


74-1 


40-4 


40-39 


lu 


811 


39-9 


39-88 


In 


86-5 


38-15 


38-15 


lu „ „ 


32905-4 




38-00 


t) 99 


070 


37-52 




1 


»> If 


12-2 


37-15 


37-17 


1 


„ 


161 


351 


3511 


lu 


99 '9 


38-4 


34-64 


34-62 


1 


i »» >» 


43-5 


34-30 


34-31 


1 




99 >> 


471 


34-22 




1 




99 99 


48-0 


33-05 


33-07 


2 




19 »» 


60-6 


- 31-49 


31-48 


1 


1 


77-7 


30-37 


30-39 


2 


! )> »» 


89-8 


29-28 


29-29 


1 




» f 99 


33001-7 


28-22 


28-25 


3 




U 


99 


12-9 


20-78 


26-80 


6r 


1 
1 


t9 


9* 


28-9 


24-40 


24-48 


2 


1 


99 


95 


54-1 


21-68 


21-67 


k> 




0-85 ! „ 


84-7 


20-77 


20-79 


T 


19 T9 


94-5 


18-91 


18-96 


1 SI S> 


33114-8 


18-59 


1 18-63 


i Jl 91 


18-3 


17-66 


17-66 


i> 




28-8 


15-58 


15-63 


3 




51-3 


15-30 


15-30 : 


1 


j » 


54-7 


15-05 




2 


I 


57-4 


14-88 




2 




59-3 


13-84 


13-85 


1 


70-7 


13-16 


1316 


1 


78-2 


11-54 


11-55 


1 


96-0 




i 11-22 


»J »♦ 


99-6 


10-72 


10-75 


1 


33205-0 


08-2 


08-41 


lb 


31-8 


05-16 


05-18 


1 


66-5 




; 04-62 






ft 


» 


72-6 



ON WAVE-LENOTH TABLES OF THE Sl'ECTKA OF THE ELEMEKJS. 187 





Chromium (Si'akk Bpectrvm)— continued. 






AVave-lenglh 




„ , Reduction to 
Previous ir„„ 








Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tions 


V OiV^UUIll 


Oscillation 




1 






Frequency 


Exiier and 
Haschek 


Adcney Lohse 


Cliaracter 


(Hassel- » , 
berg') ^ + 


1_ 
K 


in Vacuo 


3003-98 


3004-06 


2 


' 0-85 


9-5 


33279-2 


0100 


01-01 


1 


>) 


33312-7 


00-04 


(M3-07 


1 


J» 


23-2 


2999-37 


2999-tK) 


111 


>5 


99 


32-9 


98-88 




1 


>» 


j9 


36-3 




98-22 . 


» 


»> 


99 


43'6 


90- (>9 


90-07 


I 


>» 


9-6 


60'7 


9(i-(U 




1 


99 


61-4 


95-21 


95-21 


1 


99 


77-0 


94-S5 


94-84 


>•> 


99 


81-1 


91-17 


9418 i 


1 ; » 


99 


K8'6 




93-05 


ft- 


99 


94-4 


93-2 


93-10 ' 


iij i. 


99 


99'7 


92-7 




jii . „ 


99 


(J3405' 


92-53 


92-58 , 


2 


9« 


00-7 


92-02 


92-02 1 


1 


99 


12--6 


89-25 


89-28 


7 „ 


99 


43-4 


88-75 


88-77 ' 


1 


9i 


49' 1 


88-13 


88-15 




99 


50-0 




87-61 1 


» 


ft 


02-0 




87-15 1 




', « 


99 


07-1 


80-98 


i 


1 


99 


91 


090 


80-00 


1 


1 


99 


19 


73-3 


80-52 


i 


1 


f» 


99 


74-2 


80-10 


80-00 1 


1 


99 


99 


79-1 


85-99 




1 


99 


• 9 


80-1 


85-40 




7 


,, 


») 


86-7 


84-85 


84-91 


1 


1 

99 


99 


92-6 


84-80 




1 


0-84 


99 


93-5 




8300 1 




1 


• » 


33513-7 


80-93 


■ 


1 


9» 


99 


37-0 


80-80 


80-87 i 


1 


99 


99 


37-7 


79-80 


79-88 


8 


i >y 


99 


49-2 


70-79 


70-78 


2 


99 


99 


83-7 


75-59 


75-55 


T 




19 


19 


97-4 


73-2 


7317 


In 




§9 


99 


33624-4 


72-75 


72-71 


I 


\ 

99 


99 


29-5 


71-99 


7194 


9 


\ » 


99 


38-2 


71-22 


71-18 


1 


1 " 


99 


46-8 


09-78 


09-73 


1 


99 


9-7 


03- i 


08-80 


08-75 


1 


it 


j> 


74-2 


07-75 1 


07-28 


11 


' »J 


jj 


85-9 


07-00 1 


1 1 


ti 


•» 


94-4 


0014 


00-10 


3 


99 


>3 


33704-4 


03-58 


63-52 


1 


99 


JJ 


33-6 


01-81 


61-80 


4 


99 


99 


53-5 


00-00 


60-04 


1 


99 


99 


73-8 


59-06 


59-68 


1 


99 


99 


77-9 




58-58 




1 

99 


JJ 


90-3 




5814 




J) 


99 


95-3 


57-67 


57-67 


In 


9f 


9J 


33800-7 


57-4 


57-36 


In 


^> 


J) 


04-0 


56-70 


56-59 


1 „ ' 


JJ 


1-2-4 


55-23 


55-23 


1 


9* J1 


28-6 


54-76 


54-81 


1 






) 
JJ I 


33-7 



188 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chromium (Spa.ek Spectkum) — contiimeA. 



Wavelength 


! 


Previous 


Reduction to 
Vacuum " 








Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tions 


Ogcillation 
Frequency 


T. -. 1 










Exner and 
Haschck 


Adeney 


Lolisc 


Character 
4 


(Hassel- 
berg*) 


A. + 


1 _ 

A 

9-7 


in Vacuo 


2953-79 ! 


2953-82 






0-84 


33844-9 


53-4G 


53-44 




3 




*9 


99 


49-1 


52-57 


52-61 




1 




)J 


99 


58-9 


52-10 


52-08 




1 




jy 


99 


04-6 


51-52 


51-50 




1 




»> 


99 


71-3 


50-8 


50-83 




In 




J> 


99 


79-3 1 


50-22 


50-31 




1 




)> 


99 


85-5 


49-91 


49-92 




1 




91 


99 


89-6 


49-55 


49-58 




2 




J> 


99 


93-6 


47-60 


47-60 




2 




>» 


99 


33916-2 


46-93 


46-96 




5 




9» 


99 


23-7 


45-85 


45-87 




In 




»» 


99 


36-3 




43-88 








)t 


9-8 


59-0 


42-08 


42-11 




3 




0-83 


99 


790 


41-47 


41-48 




1 




»9 


99 


8G-8 


4112 






1 




*» 


99 


90-8 i 


40-34 


40-37 




o 




f» 


99 


99-7 I 


39-46 


39-57 




2 




S) 


99 


34000-4 1 




38-46 








»l 


99 


21-6 




37-99 








1$ 


99 


27-1 


3704 


3704 


1 


2 




99 


99 


38-1 




30-30 








99 


99 


46-7 


35-7 






In 




19 


99 


54- 


35-22 


35-24 




5 




>9 


99 


59-1 


34-45 






1 




99 


99 


08-2 


34-30 


34-33 




1 




>9 


99 


G9-7 


3407 


34-01 




3 




99 


99 


73-0 


33-73 


33-71 




1 




99 


99 


76-6 . 


32-81 


32-79 




2 




99 


99 


87-3 


30-96 






3 




99 


99 


34108-7 


29-92 






1 




99 


99 


20-8 


29-55 


29-57 




2 




99 


99 


25-0 


28-42 


28-38 




3 




99 


9 


38-5 


28-28 






3 




99 


99 


400 


27-19 


2719 




5 




99 


99 


51-7 


26-25 


26-26 




3 




99 


99 


63-6 


23-80 


23-72 




4 




99 


«9 


92-7 


23-57 


23-58 




3 




99 


99 


95-0 


21-92 


21-88 




4 




99 


99 


34214-5 


21-32 


21-35 




5 




99 


9-9 


21-0 


18-4 






In 




99 


99 


55- 


17-2 


17-38 




In 




99 


99 


68-5 


16-17 


16-12 




1 




99 


99 


81-9 


15-58 


15-56 




3 




99 


99 


88-7 


15-34 


15-34 




3 




99 


99 


91-4 


13-83 






1 




99 


99 


34309-2 


13-60 






1 




99 


99 


11-9 


11-78 


11-79 




4 




99 


99 


33-3 


11-25 


11-27 




1 




99 


9» 


39-5 


10-98 


11-13 




1 




99 


99 


41-9 


10-73 


10-73 




3 




99 


»> 


45-7 


09-13 


09-12 




1 




99 


99 


64-7 


08-38 


08-40 




1 




99 


99 


73-4 




07-15 




1 




99 


99 


88-0 • 


06-25 


06-32 




1 




99 


ft 


98-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS, 189 



Chromium (Spabk Sbecthum) — continued. 



Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Previous 
Observa- 
tions 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Exner and 
Haschek 


Adeney 


Lohse 


Character 


(Hassel- 
berg*) 


A + 


1_ 

A 

9-9 


ill Vacuo 


1 2905-55 


2903-60 




In 




0-83 


34406-7 ! 




04-78 












161 ! 


1 041G 


0408 




2 








23-9 


03-67 


03-79 




2 




0-82 




28-6 


0-2-98 


02-92 




1 








37-8 1 


02-76 


02-73 




1 








40-2 


01-13 


01-10 




1 








59-6 


2899-58 


289961 




3 








77-1 


99-26 


99-26 




3 








81-7 


98-60 


98-64 




7 








89-3 


97-79 


97-83 




4 








98-9 


97-35 


97-33 




I 








34504-5 


i 96-85 


96-85 




2 






100 


10-2 


! 96-56 


96-52 




4 








13-9 


95-78 


95-82 




2 








22-8 


95-13 


9502 




1 








31-4 


94-90 


9495 




2 








33-2 


94-5 






In 








38- 


94-33 


94-38 




3 








400 


93-57 






1 






„ 


49-4 


93-30 


93-34 




1 








52-0 


9307 


9304 




2 








55-6 


92-84 






1 








58-1 


91-99 


91-98 




2 








68-3 


91-55 


91-38 




2 








73-5 
75-6 


91-28 






3 








76-8 


91-13 






3 








78-6 


89-96 


89-95 




4 








92-G 1 


89-59 


89-60 




4 








96-9 ! 


89-26 


89-31 




4 








34600-9 i 


88-81 


88-85 




4 








06-1 


87-87 


87-88 




3 








17-5 


87-08 


87-13 




1 








26-8 


86-50 


86-50 




1 








340 


85-38 


85-39 




1 








47-4 j 


81-99 


82-05 




5 




j^ 




^7-9 


80-95 


8100 




6 








34700-5 


79-33 


79-34 




1 








20-2 


79-25 






1 








21-3 


78-52 


78-53 




3 








30-0 


7803 


7813 




4 








35-4 


76-75 






1 








61-4 


76-37 


76-37 




5 








56-0 


7607 


7606 




6 








59-7 


75-13 






3 








710 


74-51 


74-63 




1 








77-8 


73-91 


73-90 




4 








85-9 


73-57 


73-57 




5 








89-9 


71-70 






1 






10-1 


34812-5 


71-55 


71-58 




2 








141 


70-51 


70-54 




8 








26-7 


68-8 






In 








48- 


67-70 


67-73 




7 








60-9 


67-21 


67-20 




3 








67-1 



190 



REPORTS 0\ THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chromium (Spaek Spectrum)— <^y««««crf. 



Wave-length 


i 

Previous 


1 Reduction to 
Vacuum 


1 






Intensityl Observa- 
and tions 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Exner and 
Haschek 


Adeney Lohse 


Character (Hassel- 
bercr*) 


A + 


1 _ 
A, 


in Vacuo 


2866-80 


2866-83 ' 


7 




0-82 


101 


34871-8 


6601 


65-98 


2 








81-8 


C5-7C 




1 




99 


84-7 


05-47 




3 




)f 


88-2 


05-22 


05-24 : 


6 






91-1 


02-62 


62-08 i 


9 




0-81 




349220 


61-01 


01-05 1 


7 






;f 


45-0 


00-0 


i 


In 








; 55- 


59-00 


59-01 ! 


6 








671 


58-72 


58-76 


3 








70-4 


58-06 


58-09 , 


3 








78-5 


57-49 


57-50 1 


5 








85-6 


50-85 


56-89 1 


5 








93-2 


56-43 


56-48 ' 


2 








98-2 


55-7.3 


55-79 


7 








350(W-S 


.55-13 


.5517 


4 








14-3 


.54-72 


54-74 


1 






19-5 


54-25 


54-25 ; 


2 




t9 


25-4 


.53-88 


53-83 


1 






30-2 


53-30 


53-30 


5 






37-0 


52-70 


52-80 1 


2 






43-4 


.52-35 


.52-39 1 


3 




„ 


48-5 j 


51-41 


51-41 i 


8 






fiO-3 ' 


.50-78 


.50-70 ! 


1 






G8-2 j 


,50-38 


i 


1 




" 


730 i 


49-98 


49-93 i 


5 






78-5 ' 


49-84 




5 






79-0 


49-41 


49-40 


2 






85-1 ■ 


48-47 


48-.52 


3 






96-2 


40-80 


40-82 j 


1 




10-2 


351 10-8 j 


40-51 


40,52 


3 






20-5 1 


40-4 


1 
1 


2n 




9> 


22- ; 


44-90 


I 


In 






39-7 


43-35 


43-39 


lOr 






.59-3 




43-19 






• » 


61-7 ! 




43-09 i 






99 


1 02-8 1 


42-87 




1 




99 


'65-5 


42-49 


1 


111 




99 


, 71-2 


40.57 




1 






940 


40-10 


4013 


7 






99-0 


39-33 




1 






3.5-209-4 


38-87 


.38-07 
38-92 ? 


5 




99 


16-3 


37-90 


38-00 


2 






25-8 


36.55 


36-65 


3 






43-3 


.35-75 


35-75 


lOr 






.53 '.S 


34-83 


34-93 


6 




94 


64'7 1 


33 48 


33-51 


1 






81-9 


32.54 


.32.53 







•f 


93-9 


31-63 




In 1 






3.5305- 1 


3117 




1.1 ' 






lO-'J 


30-69 




3 i .. 1 


*^ 


10'« 


30.57 


.30-46 





99 




id-1 I 




29-08 


j 






29-5 


28-88 


28-76 


1 1 


1 


f9 


9* ' 


0-2 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 101 



Chromium (Spark Spectrvm)—cohHhiwiI. 



Wave-length 


1 

' Previous 
Intensity Observa- 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






and tions 


I 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Adeney 
2828-01 


Lohse Character (Hassel- 
1 berg*) 


A.+ 

1 


l_ 

\ 


in Vacuo 


282801 


1 


0-81 


10-2 


353r>0-4 


26-50 




1 


it 


99 


C9-2 


26-23 




2 


»f 


99 


72-2 


26-15 


26-09 


In 


99 


) 


74-0 


25-80 




1 






78-0 


25-57 


25-37 


2 




99 


82-1 1 


24-64 




1 


0-80 


i )' 


92-5 


22-47 


22-40 


i 8 




10-3 


35420-1 ! 


22-10 


21-93 


! 6 






25-4 




20-52 






99 


44-2 


18-42 


18-39 


7 




99 


70-8 ; 


18-01 


17-95 


2 




99 


761 


17-65 




In 




99 


80-3 


171 




2b 




1 ') 


87- 


16-89 


16-88 


4 


99 


1 

99 


89-9 


14-57 




1 




1 " 


35519-1 


14-29 




1 


„ 


1 

99 


22-6 i 


13-50 




1 




99 


31-4 


12-03 


12-07 


9 


99 


99 


50-9 


11-55 


11-56 


1 




99 


57-2 


11-15 




2 




99 


62-3 


no 


10-93 


2b 




99 


«,4-7 


10-3 


10-19 


2b 




99 


73-8 


09-71 




I 




99 


80-6 


(Xl-35 




1 






85-1 


08-(»8 


08-07 






,',* 


35601-3 


07-74 




1 1 




99 


05-5 


04-1 


04 09 


Ih 






51-2 


03-42 




«■> \ 




99 


«i0-4 


03-31 




T 




99 


61 -7 


02-7 




lb 






70- 


(KV81 


(X>-Sl 


9 






93-fi 


00-23 


00-22 


4 




«< 


35701-1 


2798-82 


2798-75 


2 




104 


19-5 


98-69 




2 




99 


20-6 


95-90 




T j 




99 


56-3 


95-62 




1 1 




99 


59-8 


94-55 




In 




99 ; 


73-5 


93-72 


93-75 


t>> i 






84-0 


92 2(1 


92-20 


9 1 




9* 1 


35803-6 


91-79 




1 I 




99 


08-9 


91 54 




I i 




>9 


12-1 i 


91 OO 




1 






19-0 


S9-43 


89-43 


6 


'* 1 




39-2 


89 I r. 




1 


,. i 




42-8 


87-97 


87-92 


>> 


1 
» 1 




r.8-7 


87-67 


87-67 


6 






61-8 ! 


86-54 


86-55 


5 






76-3 ! 


85-73 


85-75 


8 




,, 


86-7 


85-18 


8r.-3i 


1 




»* 


93 1 


84-40 


84-55 


1 


1 




359<»3-0 




83-95 




0-79 




09-8 


83-4!] 


j 


2 




>* 


16-7 


82- 70 


82-64 ' 


3 






26-3 


82-42 


82-43 I 


4 1 


", 1 


ft 


29-5 



]92 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chbomium (Spabk Spectrum) — omitimwd. 



Wave-length 




Previous 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 








Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tions 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




\ 






Exner and 
Haschek 

2781-17 


Adeney : Lohse 


Character 


(Hassel- 

berg") 


A + 


1 _ 


in Vacuo 


2781-04 




2 




0-79 


10-4 


35946-5 


80-97 






3 




99 




48-3 


80-35 


80-35 




7 








56-3 


7900 


78-98 




1 






;; 


73-9 


78-57 






1 




)9 




79-3 


78-11 


7815 
77-37 




8 




9f 




8-5-0 
949 


76-81 


76-71 




2 




ff 




36002-8 


76-1 






lb 




99 




11- 


74-50 


74-51 




6 




99 


10-5 


320 


73-39 


73-40 




4 








46-4 


72-45 


72-30 




1 








59-3 


720 


72'03 




2b 




9) 




64-0 


71-35 


7140 




1 








72-7 


700 


69-93 




lb 








91-1 


69-4 


69-52 




lb 






,, 


97-6 


68-65 


68-60 




6 






" 


30108-5 


68-21 


68-28 




1 








13-5 


67-70 


67-70 




1 








20-6 


67-32 






1 








25-5 


66-01 


66-63 




10 








34-7 


65-96 


65-97 




3 








43-2 


65-70 


65-72 




2 








4C-6 


65-52 


65-46 




3 








49-4 


65-19 






1 








53-4 


6505 


6505 




1 








55-2 


64-37 


64-38 




2 








64-1 


64-05 


64-03 




2 








68-4 


63-57 


63-66 




3 








740 


62-85 






3n 




99 




84-0 


62-70 


62-76 




10 






19 


85-6 


61-80 


61-77 




In 




99 




98-0 


61-21 






1 




99 




36205-5 


60-92 






1 








09-^ 


60-60 


60-57 




2 








13-7 


60-45 






2 








15-5 


60-24 1 
60-09 J 


6017 




{i 




99 




18-2 
20-2 


59-78 


59-80 




3 








24-1 


59-46 


59-41 




4 








28-5 


59-02 


59-01 




4 








34-3 


58-67 






2 








38-8 


57-75 


57-77 




8 








50-8 


57-00 


56-98 




3 








60-9 


50-35 


56-33 
55-84 




5 




99 
99 




69-5 
76-1 


55-50 


55-55 




3 








79-8 


54-35 


54-33 




5 








95-8 


53-99 


53-93 




3 








99-6 


53-72 


53-73 




3 








36304-0 


53-37 






1 




99 




08-5 


52-90 


52-88 




1 








15-0 


52-40 






1 




99 




20-6 


51-91 


51-92 




8 








27-8 


50-78 


50-77 




8 




»t 


lOG 


42-8 



ON WAVE 


-LEXGTll TABLES OF' 


THE SPECtRA OF 


THfc 


ELEMEN rs. 1 9 


3 




Chromium (Spaek SPECTKUti)—co7itinued. 


Wave-length 


1 Previous 


Reduction to 

\'rk /111 tit^i 








Intensity Obscrva- 


V tic UU 111 


Oscillation 




- 


1 




and i tions 




1 


1 Frequency 




Bxner and 
Haschek 


Adeney 


Lohse Character 


(Hassel- 
bcrg') 


A. + 


1 1 

1*" 


in Vacuo 




2749-88 


2749-84 




3 


1 


1 0-79 


10-6 


36354-9 




4901 


49-04 




8 




! 


99 


65-9 




48-36 






1 




>i 


fl 


74-7 




4800 






I 




$9 


f» 


79-5 




47-88 


47-84 




1 




M 


99 


gl-3 




46-23 


46-22 









tf 


yy 


36403-0 




45-50 


45-28 




1 




») 


99 


12-6 




45-03 


44-98 




5 




») 


)) 


i9-2 




44-65 


44-62 




3 




ff 


ff 


241 




43-G7 


43-67 




8 




„ 


f9 


36-9 




43-25 






2 




*f 


f9 


42-5 




42-12 


42-12 




8 




»» 


>> 


57-5 




41-16 


41-13 




2 




0-78 


99 


70-5 




40-13 


40-12 




5 




f5 


f J 


84-1 




39-83 






1 




fj 


»f 


88-0 




39-60 






4 




J9 


JJ 


911 




39-5 






2ii 




jf 


t* 


92- 




37-70 


37-70 




1 




$t 


»» 


36516-4 




37-55 






1 




f* 


f) 


18-4 




37-17 


37-14 




1 




»» 


»» 


23-7 




37-10 






1 




Jt 


19 


24-4 




36-80 






1 




tt 


»> 


28-4 




36-50 


36-50 




1 




„ 


>J 


32-4 




35-84 


35-80 




2 




tf 


ff 


41-5 




31-61 


34-62 




2 




J» 


»f 


56-0 




3413 






1 




J> 


f » 


64-1 




33-63 






1 




*f 


ff 


70-8 




32-52 






1 




99 


ft 


85-6 




31-97 


31-93 




2 




99 


»f 


93-3 




31-6 






In 




99 


„ 


98- 




30-80 






1 




»• 


ff 


36608-7 




30-4 






In 


„ 1 


„ 


14- 




29-82 






1 






f f 


21-8 




28-25 


28-24 




2 






f» 


43-0 




27-81 


27-33 











t* 


48-8 




26-57 


26-58 




o 






10-7 65-3 




26-34 






2 






68-5 




25-0 






1 






" ( 


86- 




24-11 


24-12 




6 






f f 


98-5 




23-77 


23-68 




5 






ff 


36703-7 




23-6 






3n 






f f 


05- 




22-82 


22-80 




8 






ff 


lG-1 




20-93 






In 


}* 1 


ff 


41-4 




20-79 


20-74 




2 






ff 


43-7 




20-36 






3 






49-1 




2013 


20-18 




4 






51-9 




19-8 






In 






„ 57- 




19-40 






1 






If 


6-2-1 




19-12 






1 






» 1 


65-9 




18-45 


18.45 




8 






• 9 


75-0 




18-15 






2 






ti 


790 




17-58 


17-60 




6 






fl 


86-6 




1713 






1 




yy 


ft 


92-8 




17-00 






1 




ff 


9t 


94-6 




16-27 






1 




„ 


»» 


'- :804-5 




1906. 




















194 



KEFOKTS ON THE STATE UK SCIENCE. 



Cjiromium (SPAfiK fsPECTKUM) — continued. 



Wave-length 



Exncr and 
Haschek 

2715-75 
15-15 
12-96 
l'2-39 
11-96 
11-3 
11-00 
09-49 
08-88 
06-63 
06-25 



Adeuey 



271-2-77 
12-40 



11-04 
09-40 
08-88 



Lolisti 





06-02 


03- 55 


05-62 


04-9 


04-90 


03-97 


(t3-90 


03-65 


03-65 


0303 




02-66 




0210 


0208 


01-77 


01-77 


01-35 




01-20 


1 


1MV6S 


1 


00 1 


00-20 


2699-75 




99-20 




98-89 


•2698-80 


98-72 


1 


98-49 


98-53 


98-2 




98-00 


98-02 i 


97-59 


97-64 ! 


96-86 


96-87 


96-22 




94-83 


94-83 


93-9 




93-62 




93-14 




92-21 


92-28 


91-15 


91-20 


90-48 


90-42 ; 


89-89 


89-98 1 


, 89-33 


89-35 : 


89-2(» 


j 


88-43 


88-50 


. 88-34 




87-19 




86-50 


86-25 


86-06 


86-17 


85-24 


1 


85-12 


84-88 


84-23 


84-41 


. 83-87 




83-56 


83-58 


81 60 


I 81 98 



I*revioui9 
liiteusity Observa- 

aiid tidns 

Character (Hassel- 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



111 
la 

7 
I 
lu 

7 
7 
7 
1 
In 

1 

lb 

3n 

6 

1 

1 

1 

•2n 

2n 

•,\ 

I 

lu 

1 

1 

4 

4 

5 

2b 

6 

5 

3 

1 

1 

)b 

7 

1 

3 

9 

lu 

1 

5 

2u 

4 

6 

9 

1 

1 

2 

2 

1 

1 

3 

I 



A + 



d-78 



1_ 

\ 

10-7 



0-77 



J) 

f1 


10-8 1 


?• 


" 


)» 


" 


!> 


»i 


*i 


»» 


if 


?» 



Oscillatiou 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



30811-5 
19-7 
50-7 

56-5 
63-0 
72- 
89-4 
97-2 
36904-9 
35-6 
40-8 
44-0 
50-2 
59-2 
72-4 
76-3 
84-7 
S!)-K 
97-6 

37W2-(t 
07-7 
09-8 
l(i'9 
24-2 
•29-7 
37-2 
41-7 
43-8 
46-7 
51- 
53-6 
59S 
70-7 
78-2 
97-3 

37110- 
14-0 
20-6 
32-9 
47-7 
59-2 
64-8 
73- 1 
75-0 
851 
86-9 

37-202-8 
141 
17-7 

33-1 
42-6 

48-8 
53-0 

1 77-7 



0?r WAVE-LEKGTa TAULES 01' THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS 195 



.Chromium (Spakk Si'ecteum)— co«fw*««^. 



! 1 
Wave-length | 


Ti ■ ' Reduction to 
Previous ir ^ ! 






Intensity 
and 


Obsei-va- 
lioiis 


V UUUUIII 


Oscillation 
Freqtteilcy ' 






1 




Exner and j^^ , 
Hiischck 


ijoliso ,' 


3hai-actei- 


(Hassel- py^_,_ [ 
boi-g*) 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 


2080-98 


•2081-03 i 


1 




on 


10-8 


37288'fl 


80-43 


80-4G 1 




2 


1 


90-4 


80'3-i 






1 




,♦ 98-2 


8000 


80-00 




2 




37302-6 


78^88 


78'88 




9 




10-9 18-9 


77-31 






7 




?» )» 


40-0 


77-20 


77-20 




7 




J> 


• J 


41-0 


76^6-2 i 






1 




>> 


»i 


49-7 


73-78 


75-76 




4 




?» >5 


61-5 


75-36 I 


75-33 




I 




)) J) 


67-5 




74-75 








)J 


M 


75-8 


74-3 


74-17 




lb 




J> 


J) 


83-0 


73-00 






1 




>> 


)) 


91-8 


7'i-91 


72-91 




8 




»» ?> 


37401-5 


72-48 


72-43 




3 




J9 


07-9 


71-90 


71-88 




y 




?5 


99 


15-8 


71-0 






hi 




?' »J 


28- 


70-30 






4 




»S )) 


38-1 


70-17 


7018 




5 




99 ?) 


39-8 


08-78 


08-77 




8 




f> )» 


59-5 


08-05 


08-(X) 




2b 




)» »» 


70-0 


07-35 






lu 




*» 


99 


79-7 


00-1-2 


00-15 




8 




)» 


99 


90-6 


05-7 


05-08 




3b 




)' J* 


37502-8 


03-78 


03-00 




G 




»> !J 


30-6 


03-45 


03-46 




7 




J> )> 


34-3 


03-10 


03-14 




2 




fy a 


39-0 


0-2-78 






1 




19 5) 


43-8 


02-22 






1 




!) ») 


51-7 


01-85 


01-81 




4 




99 It 


57-3 


01-75 






3 




•) 




58-4 


01-4 


01-44 




5b 




99 




03-0 


00-85 


00-83 




lu 




99 




71-3 


50-83 






1 




99 




85-5 


59-57 






1 




It 




90-0 


59-01 


59 01 




3 




99 




97-0 


58-05 


58-70 




.S 




?> 




37601-8 


57-05 


57-78 




2b 




J» 




15-4 


57-20 


57-34 




hi 




99 




21-7 


55-85 


50-00 




1 




»» 




40-8 


55-37 






ill 








48-9 


54-2 






lb 




0-70 


11-0 


05- 


5303 


5302 


1 


8 




*) 99 


73-3 


5290 






1 




)9 99 


83-0 


52-2 


52-24 




2b 




99 19 


93-3 


51-55 






la 




)> 99 


37702-8 


5(J-88 






1 




99 »» 


1-2-3 


49-73 






1 




i " 




28-7 


48-4 


48-31 




lb 




1 " 




48-3 


48-10 






2 




1 " 




511 


47-5 






lb 




■ ft 


jt 


00- 


44-3 






lb 


1 


>' 




37806- 


43-62 


4302 




2 




1 

1 » 




15.9 


43-08 


4300 




1 




99 




24-2 


1 42-20 




1 


1 




1 ^ 




36-2 



02 



196 



HEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chhomium (Spaek Spectrvh)— continued. 



Wave-length l 


Previous 


Reduction to 
Vri.pnnm 






Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tions 


V Ui^^UUtU 


i Oscillation 
1 Frequency 












Exner and 
Hascliek 

2641-91 


Adeney 


Lohse Character (Hassel- 
i berg*) 


X + 


1 


' in Vacuo 






2 




0-76 


110 


37840-4 


; t 41-47 


2641-50 




T 








46-5 


40-81 






1 








56-2 


401 






In 








66- 


39-2 






lb 








79- 


38-6 






111 








88- 


38-12 






1 








94-8 


37 50 


37-58 




2 








37903-0 


37-26 


37-28 




1 








07-0 


36-90 






I 








1-2-3 


36-78 






1 








14-0 


36-54 


36-55 




1 








17-3 


35-9 


35-93 




lb 








26-5 


34-4 


34-38 




lb 








48-4 


33-8 


33-63 




lb 








58-1 


32-7 


32-67 




lb 








73-0 


31-00 


31-03 




3 






111 


970 


29-65 


29-66 




1 








38016-7 


29-12 






1 








24-4 


t 28-06 


28-13 




2 








39-3 


26-87 


26-88 




2 








57-0 


26-16 






1 






',', 


07-3 


25-75 






1 






" 


73-3 


240 






lb 








99- 


23-48 


23-42 




3b 








38100G 


20-60 


2060 




2n 






,, 


48-1 


19-7 


19-79 




3b 






„ 


60-6 


18-8 


18-75 




2b 








74-7 


t 16-60 1 


1 fi--t-2 




(2 
2n 








38206-4 


t 16-28 / 


L\J 'it^ 










11-1 


14-7 


14-80 




2b 








33-5 


13-62 


13-62 




I 








500 


13-3 


13-17 




lb 








55-7 


12-63 


12-65 




1 








64-4 


12-5 


12-19 




In 








68-7 


11-70 


11-70 




1 








78-1 


11-0 


11-04 




3b 








88-1 


10-2 


10-20 




2b 








38300-1 


09-4 






lb 




0-75 


11-2 


12- 


08-94 


08-90 




1 








18-8 


08-28 






1 








28-2 


0801 


0801 




4 








32-2 


07-73 


0711 




1 








3G-3 
45-4 


06-65 


06-61 




3 






52-5 


06-20 


06-22 




2 






58-7 


05-76 


05-72 




t) 








65-6 


04-26 


04-26 




2 








87-4 


03-85 


03-81 




1 








93-8 


03-1 


0315 




lb 








38404-2 


02-001 


01-92 




ri 






" 


21-4 


01-70 / 


V* i/A# 




U 








25-3 


01-17 






1 








33-0 


00-3 




lb 


ft )• 


40- : 


2597-00 


2597-22 




1 






t» 


93-1 ! 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 197 



Chromium (Spakk Specthvu)— continued. 



Wave-length 




Previous 


Keduction to 
Vacuum 








Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tions 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Exner and 
Haschek 


Adeney 


Lohse 


Character 


(Hassel- 
berg*) 


A + 
0-75 




in Vacuo 


+2596-22 






4n 


11-2 


38506-3 


95-68 


2595-70 




3n 




ft 




14-2 


94-4 


94-42 




lb 




*> 




33-2 


93-58 






1 




tt 




45-5 


91-98 


92-00 




1 




t9 




69-2 


90-88 


90-90 




5 




tf 




85-6 


90-6 






2b 




» 




90- 


89-83 


89-83 




3 




91 




38001-4 


89-16 


89-20 




2 




fl 




11-3 


88-36 


88-36 




1 




» 


11-3 


21-2 


88-3 






In 




ft 




24- 


87-53 


87-50 




3 




ft 




35-3 


86-78 






1 




>» 




40-8 


85-70 


85-79 




1 




»• 




62-3 


85-0 


85-13 




lb 




9> 




72-5 


84-66 






1 




tt 




78-5 


84-22 


84-26 




4 




ft 




84-8 


83-75 


83-78 




1 




t* 




91-9 


82-9 






lb 




«» 




38705- 


82-71 


82-79 




1 




It 




071 


82-40 \ 
82-22 J 


82-33 




J2 
12 




tf 




12-4 
151 


80-87 






1 




ft 




35-3 


80-0 






lb 




99 




39- 


79-9 






lb 




91 




CO- 


79-24 


79-28 




2 




99 




59-5 


78-87 






In 




99 




G5-4 


78-39 


78-45 




4 




99 




72-1 


77-80 


77-85 




1 




99 




81-1 


76-22 






1 




99 




38805-3 


75-91 


75-90 




2 




99 




10-0 


74-30 






1 




ft 




34-2 


73-66 


73-06 




4 




99 




43-9 


72-6 






lb 




ft 


99 


60- 


72-24 


72-28 




1 




99 




65-0 


71-90 


71-91 




4 




99 




70-4 




70-86 








99 




86-2 


09-55 


69-60 




In 




19 




38905-6 


f.8-67 


68-09 




2n 




99 


11-4 


^ 19- 1 


07-70 


67-68 




1 




99 




341 


67-45 






1 




99 




37-7 


06-98 






1 




99 




44-9 


66-63 


66-03 


1 




99 




50-2 


66-4 




In 




>» 




54- 


04-87 


04-91 




2 




0-74 




70-6 


64-5 






1 




99 




83- 


63-71 


03-71 




5 




99 




94-6 


63-45 


63-49 




3 




99 




98-2 


62-63 


02-50 




2 




99 




39010-8 


61-9 


01-80 




2b 




99 




22-9 


6113 


0108 




2 




99 




34-2 


60-82 


60-80 




1 




99 




38-7 


59-92 


59-93 




2n 




f9 




521 


58-90 






In 




99 




67-8 


58-45 


58-45 




la 


1 


9» 




74-7 



198 



REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chuomium (Spakk SPECTnuM)—contm>ied. 



Wave-length 


Previous ^'^^J^Z^ 
Intensity Obser,a- ^ '^•^""™ 


1 






Oscillation 


Exner and 
Hascliek 


Adenej' 


Lohse 


and tions 
Character (Hassel- ^ .|_ 


' 1_ 
11-4 


Preqnency 
in Vacuo 


2557-98 


1 ' 0-74 


39081-8 


57-56 




I 1 ,. 




88-3 


57-22 1 
57-10 


2557-16 




1' i " 

U 1 „ 




93-5 i 
95-:$ 


55-65 


55-59 




-'n ; :; 




.•59117-9 1 


52-03 






1 ! „ 




73-0 


51-71 


51-70 




4 




78-0 


50-96 






1 




89-4 


50-40 






1 




98-0 


50-10 






I 




39202-ft 


4905 


49-60 




I 




10-0 


48-71 


48-70 




3 


11-5 


24-1 


48-10 


48-16 




2 




32-5 


47-7 


47-57 




2b " 




40-fi 


46-56 


46-55 




1 




57-2 


461 


4612 




11. 




64-1 


45-30 






2 




76-6 


44-46 


44-45 




2 




89-6 


43-24 


43-25 




:"« ", 




39308-3 


42-88 






'«» 




13-9 


40-60 






In 




49-3 


38-5 


38-49 




5b 




81-9 


37-84 






2 




92-1 


34-43 


34-42 




4 




39445-2 


32-8 






lb 




70- 


31-96 


31-92 






*' 


83-9 


3113 


31-18 








96-4 


30-32 


30-30 




* 


11-6 


39;509-2 


30-06 


3005 




■''> 




13-2 


27-53 






1 




52-7 


27-22 


27-20 




1 




57-7 




25-52 




If 




84-2 


24-75 






lb 




96-3 


23-8 






3b 




39611- 


23-38 


23.58 




•t 




18-2 


2-2-75 


22-39 




1 




27-7 


20-73 


20-75 




3 


„ 


65-3 


19-63 


19-65 




2n 


,, 


76-C 


19-0 


1900 




2n 




86-7 


18-40 


18-35 




4n 




96-5 


17-5 






lb 0-73 


„ 


39710- 


t 16-70 


16-71 




3n 




22-9 ! 


16-01 






1 




33-9 


15-70 






4n 




38-8 


13-80 


13-72 




4n 




69-4 


12-95 






lb 




72-3 


12-50 






1 




89-4 


12-12 






In 




95-4 


11-30 


11-28 


1 


11-7 


.39809-5 


10-33 


10-35 


o 




23-5 


09-15 


09- 15 




lb 




42-4 


0817 


1 


I 




58-0 


07-62 


1 




66-7 


06-93 


I 




77-7 ; 


06-50 










84-6 1 



ON ^VA\■E-L^:NGTH TAItLES OK THE SPRCTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 199 



Chromium (Si'Akk Si'ECTB.vti)—co)itiniieel. 





1 


_ . ' Reduction to 




Wave-length i 


Previous v<.o„„m 








Intensity Observa- 
and 1 tions 




Oscillation 
Freriuency 






Exnei- and 
Hascliek 

2505-ft5 


Adeney Tjohso 


Charactei- 

1 


(Hassel- 
berg*) 


A-l- 

0-73 


1_ 

A. 

11-7 


in Vacuo 
39893-3 






1 


05-ir. 






In 




39906- 1 


04-3K 


2504 -^K 


1 


1 


^^ 




18-3 


0-2-4 


02-61 


1 


lb 


»' 




48-3 


()l-5ii 


Ul-55 


1 


1 


>» 




63-8 


2499-5 


2498-82 




lb 






96-0 
40007-2 




98-06 






»» 




19-4 


9G-9 


96-95 




3b 


>9 




371 


96-4 


96-45 




2b 


»» 




45-6 


92-98 


92-95 




3 


t* 


lT-8 


401011 


92-72 


92-70 
91-57 
90-85 




3 


J* 




05-2 
23-5 
351 


89-85 






2ii 


' >J 




51-3 


89-35 


89-32 




3 


»» 




59-6 


87-13 






In- 


>> 




95-2 


86-73 


86-73 




2 


»» 




40201-6 


86-36 


86-39 




2 


»• 




07-4 


85-54 






2n 


»» 




50-9 


83-85 


83-85 




4i- 


»* 




48-3 


83-12 


S3-1 1 

80-80 




4i- 


** 




60-2 
97-8 


79-89 






4 


f> 




40312-6 


7SG3 


78-81 




o 


»» 




31-6 


77-78 


77-71 




In 


?» 




47-5 


76-95 


77-01 




2 


)* 




590 


75-74 


75-76 




2 


J) 


11-9 


79-9 


75-0 


75-05 




2b 


if 




91-7 


72-93 


72-87 




3 


1 " 




40426-4 


70-83 






In 


t 

1 " - - 




00-3 


7005 






1 


1 >»" 




731 


69-51 






2 


i 0-72 




82-0 


09-20 


69-22 

68-07 




o 






86-9 
40505-5 


06-6 


66-62 




2b 


}* 




29'6 


66-28 






1 


J> 




35-0 


65-83 






i> 


1 " 




4-2'4 


65-66 


65-69 






»» 




44-9 


65-01 






2 


t9 




55-9 


64-6 


64-52 




lb 


»» 




(W-3 


63-56 


63-56 




1 


»» 




79-7 


62-44 






2 


>» 




98-2 


fiO-49 


60-56 




2 


>J 


»» 


406-29-8 


59-5 






In 1 


12-0 


47- 


56-90 


56-75 




tn 






90-9 


1 55-8 






lb 






40708- 




55-30 










16 2 


i 54-55 


54-51 




3 






29 


54-13 


54- 11 




2 


1 " 




35-8 


52-78 


52-90 




■2 






57-1 


51-73 






In 






75-5 ! 


' 50-44 


. 




o 

^ 






97-0 


50-04 








I 


t* 




40803-7 


49-70 


1 49-70 




I ^ 


,. 


>■ 




09-3 



200 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



CiiEOMiUM (Spakk SPECTRVM)~contiaiicd, 



Wave-length 




Previous 


Eeduction to 
Vacuum 








Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tions 


Oscillation 








■ 


Frequency 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Adeney 


Lohse 


Character 


(Hassel- 
berg*) 


- \{- 


in Vacuo 




2447-70 








0-72 


uo 


40842-7 


2440-98 


47-07 




2 




»> 


99 


54-4 


45-15 






In 




>» 




85-3 


43-43 






1 




»» 


12- 1 


40914-0 


38-50 


38-50 




4 




)} 




90-7 


35-30 






1 




»» 




41049-6 


33-24 


33-23 




3 




99 




85-4 


29-82 






1 




»> 




41143-2 


25-30 






1 




99 


12-2 


41219-9 


20-20 


20-13 




2 




0-71 




41307-3 


19-94 






1 




f» 




11-1 


19-44 






1 




9t 




19-7 


10-40 


10-45 




3 




*9 




70-7 


15-3 






lb 




99 




90- 


13-73 






1 




f) 




41417-4 


08-87 


08-81 




2u 




99 


12-3 


41501-4 


05-37 






In 




99 




01-3 


04-15 
03-98 






1 
1 




99 
>9 




82-4 
85-4 


0305 






I 




r9 




91-1 


00-35 


00-35 




2 




9f 




41048-3 


2399-74 


2399-73 




2 




99 




59-0 


98-58 






I 




ft 




79-0 


97-83 


97-70 




3 




91 


12-4 


92-7 


95-49 






In 




19 




41732-8 


94-57 






4 




99 




48-7 


93-47 


9401 




1 




99 




58-5 
07-9 


92-95 






I 




l» 




77-0 


92-15 






1 




99 




91-0 


91-52 






1 




99 




41802-0 


89-81 
81-55 


89-7S 
81-50 




3 

4 






12-5 


32-2 
41977-4 


81-10 






1 




** 




83-8 


71-28 






I 




.0-70 




42158-8 


00-90 


00-90 




3 




99 


12-0 


42236-7 


05-32 


0535 




2 




*9 




C4-7 


G410 






I 




f * 




80-8 


t 60-9 






In 




If 




42344- 


55-38 






1 




99 




42443-4 


52-75 






In 




1* 


12-7 


90-7 


52-10 
45-38 


45-43 




In 
3 




99 




42502-5 
42023-9 


44-0(» 


44^00 




2 




1) 




38-0 


42-57 
40-00 
37-83 
35-45 






1 
2 

2 

1 




»l 


12-8 


73=5 

427U'3 

01-9 

42805-5 


34-91 
34-72 
34-51 
34-32 
33-97 
33-58 


3441 
3355 




1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 






I 


15-4 
18-9 
23-7 
26-2 
32-7 
40-1 


33-20 i 






\ 




V 




46-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 201 



Chromium (Spark SrECTRUM) — coutiuucd. 





1 






Beductiou to 




Wave-length | 




Previous 


Vftcuum 






. 1 


Intensity 
and 


Observa- 
tions 


V 1JU\^ \A ^nfe AAA 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Exner and ; 
HaRchek 


Adeney 


1 

Lohse I 


Character 
1 


(Hassel- 
berg*) 


x-t- 
0-70 


1_ 

X 

12-8 


in Vacuo 


233015 








42902-9 


29-42 






1 






>> 


10-3 


27-83 


2320-50 




1 






12-9 


45-7 
701 


25-00 


24-97 




5 




0"09 


>> 


98-1 


20-52 






1 






»> 


43080-9 


20-21 


20-09 
19-90 




3 






>) 
»> 


87-8 
91-4 


19-50 


19-50 




4 






»» 


99-8 


1910 


19-07 




4 






>> 


431070 


18-95 






In 






99 


10-0 


14-80 


14-78 




5 






99 


87-0 


13-95 






In 






13-0 


43203-1 


10-18 






2 






>> 


73-7 


07-7 






lb 






(9 


43320- 


07-33 


07-30 




3 






• » 


27-4 


06-97 






1 






>> 


33-9 


0417 






1 






»> 


80-6 


03-00 






1 






>» 


434080 


00-68 


00-08 




2 






13-1 


52-3 


00-20 






1 






>» 


00-3 


2299-7 






In 






>J 


71- 


98-06 






1 






99 


43501-9 


97-34 


2297-34 




2 






ti 


15-5 


97 03 






2 






99 


21-4 


95-70 






2 






J> 


40-6 


94-58 






1 






99 


67-9 


92-7 






In 






»9 


43604- 


02-0 






In 






>l 


17- 


91-20 




1 






f» 


310 


90-82 


90-78 


2 






»» 


39-8 


89-40 


89-40 


2 






99 


00-5 


87-33 




1 






13-2 


43705-9 


80-74 






1 






>? 


17-2 


86-40, 






1 






J> 


23-7 


84-01 






2 






>? 


58-0 


84-25 




1 






»9 


04-8 


82-53 




1 






>t 


97-8 


77-00 


77-08 


2 




0-68 


}» 


43891-9 


70-50 




2 






»» 


43912-7 


75-01 


75-06 


2 






13-3 


30-5 


73-50 


73-50 


2 






»* 


71-7 


71-15 




In 






J» 


44017-3 


68-49 






1 






f 1 


08-9 


05-00 






2 






>» 


44135-0 


02-79 




1 






13-4 


79-8 


01-82 




2 






»• 


98-8 


1 00-3 






la 






>j 


44228- 


58-73 






2 






>y 


59-3 


58-15 


58^01 




2n 






)» 


72-0 


57-92 






In 






i» 


751 


57-72 






In 






9> 


79-1 


57-57 






In 






19 


82-0 


50-70 






1 






ft 


97-9 


66-50 






I 






If 


443030 



202 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Chromium (Spark {iPECTRVii)—contimied. 



Wave-length 


1 
Previous 


Reduction to 






Intensity Observa- 
and tions 


> tt'l^UUlU 


Oscillation 






Frequency 


Kxnevand Adeney T;olise 
Hascliek ■ 


Character (Hassel- 
berg-) 

2 


» I- 


in Vacuo 


225615 1 1 


0-68 


134 


44309-9 ' 


55-01 ' 


1 




J, 


20-r. 


52- 1 1 


1 




>♦ 


S9-4 


51-00 


2 




>» 


99-5 


51-28 


1 






44405-8 


50-Ofl 


1 




13-5 


•29-2 


49-89 


2 




)J 


33-1 


49-05 


1 




J> 


49-7 


48-08 2248-65 




2 




»» 


57-1 i 


48-40 




2 


>♦ 


1» 


020 i 


48-01 




1 






70-3 1 


47-79 




1 




74-G i 


45-48 




1 




^^ 


445-20-4 : 


45-02 




1 




,^ 


29-5 1 


44-23 44-23 




2 




• » 


45-2 


43-73 43-75 




2 




,, 


54-9 


43-39 




2 




99 


01-9 


41-94 




2 ; 




)* 


90-7 


41-45 




I i 




,, 


44ri(HV5 


390 1 




1 ' 




»» 


37- 


39-3 1 




1 




*• 


43- 


37-71 ! 




2 




\:u\ 


74-9 : 


30-03 3000 




2 




» 


44708-8 


34-67 1 




1 ; 




9f 


35-7 


33-92 1 




2 1 




99 


50-8 i 


31-94 




2 




>» 


90-5 1 


31-59 




1 




J» 


97-5 1 


3115 




1 


„ 


»J 


44806-3 


28-87 '■ 




1 


0-67 


>5 


52-2 


t 28-4 




1 




J» 


02- 


28-02 




1 




99 


69-5 


20'80 20-80 




2 




13-7 


93-0 


20-42 




1 




)» 


44901-8 


24-9 




lb 




>> 


32- 


22-00 




1 




>* 


90-8 


19-73 




1 




9> 


45036-8 


18-83 1 




1 




1? 


55-1 


17-89 






lu 




>» 


74-2 


1702 






2 




»» 


79-7 > 


15-9 






1 




99 


45115- 


15-20 




1 




13-8 


28-8 


13-81 




2 




>J 


57-2 


12-38 




1 




»» 


80-4 


11-94 




I 




>» 


95-4 


t 11-4 




lu 




f» 


45200- 


08-84 




1 




»» 


58-8 


0409 




la 




J> 


45344- 1 


04-0 


In 




»» 


58- 


03-34 


2 




13-9 


71-8 


02-09 


1 




)» 


97-5 


01-3 




In 


1 


»» 


45414- 


(H)-0 




In 




*» 


28- 


2198-77 


1 


„ 


»» 


00- 1 


' 98-02 


1 




»» 


81-0 


90-98 






I 




If 


93- i 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF TOE ELEMENTS. 203 



Chromium (Spark SPECcnvM)— continued. 



] 




Kednction to 




Wave-length 


Previous 


Vftoimni 






Intensity 
and 


ObHerva- 
tioiis 


> n\^ It 11 111 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


! ■ ■ ■ ■ 








Kxnpr and 
1 Haschek 


Adeney 


Lohse f-'liavarter 
■ ! 


(Hasael- 
berg*) 


A. + 


1 _ 


in ^'acuo 

1 

1 


: 2193-47 




... 1 I 




0-67 13-9 


45576-0 


91-75 


1 




J» 


140 


4501 1-fi 


9141 


i I 




»» 


>> 


18-7 


'.M>-94 


» 




99 


>J 


30-C 


. '.K>-2f» 






1 




99 


9t 


42-7 


S5-17 






I 




99 


*t 


45749-0 


.s3-sr> 




I 




99 


If 


7G-5 


8-2-85 






la 




tf 




97-7 


71-25 






I 




0-CC 


141 


46042-3 


70-81 






1 




99 


f» 


51-7 


G()-4 






In 




»» 


14-2 


46145- 


52-9 






In 




»» 


14-3 


46435- 


50-8 






In 




99 


99 


80- 


49-7 






lb 


\ 


9* 


99 


46504- 


1 48-8 






lb 




»» 


99 


23- 


47-7 






lb 




>. 


14'4 


47- 


47-3 






1 




99 


>1 


56- 


44-3 






2 




»J 


9* 


46621- 


41-3 






2n 




9f 


9* 


86- 


4n-ri 






In 




»» 


»» 


46701- 


39-3 






1 




J» 


.» 


30- 


35-5 






I 




>» 


145 


46813- 


34-7 






2 




9* 


ji 


30- 


34-3 






1 




9* 


ff 


39- 


33-G 






1 




99 


t* 


55- 


33-1 






1 




f* 


» 


66- 


32-7 






1 




0-65 


» 


74- 


30-4 






1 




5» 


»» 


46925- 


30-0 






1 




>> >» 


34- 


21-4 




1 




140 


47124- 


17-f) 


^ 

* 




1 




19 >» 


47209- 


150 






1 




14-7 


67- 


13-8 1 


. 


1 




91 M 


' 93' 



204 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Palladium. 

Kayser, ' Astropliys. Jour.,' vii. p. 99, 1898. 

Rowland and Tatnall, ' Astrophys. Jour.,' iii. p. 291, 1896. 

Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzber. kaiserl. Akad. Wissensch, Wien,' civ. (2), p. 950, 
1893; ev. (2), p. 533, 1896; cvi. (2), p. 45, 1897. 

Adeney, ' Roy. Dublin Soc. Trans.,' vii. p. 331, 1901, 

Lohse, ' Publ. Potsdam Obs.,' xii. (3), No. 41, 1902. 

Exner and Haschek, ' Wellen-lilngen-Tabellen . . . der ultravioletten Bogen- 
spektren der Elemente,' Leipzig 1904, p. 116, 

The lines marked A are distinctly recorded in Adeney's photograph of the spark 
spectrum. 



Wave-length 








Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Kayser 


Rowland 
and Tatnall 


and 
Character 


and 
Character 


A + 


1_ 
A 

4-7 


Frequency 
in Vacuo j 


5760122 




1 






1-57 


17350-0 


39-881 




4 






1-50 


99 


17417-3 


37-842 




3 






ff 


99 


23-4 


36-826 




5 






9t 


*» 


26-5 


00-978 











1-55 


4-8 


175360 


5095-293 




9 






*> 


99 


53-0 


90-333 




4 






J> 


99 


68-9 


87-670 




2 






fy 


9f 


77-1 


80-993 











19 


99 


97-8 


74-432 




2 






9» 


>9 


176181 


70-263 




10 






9t 


99 


311 


08-005 




2 






>» 


99 


36-2 


04-578 




1 






1-54 


99 


48-8 


55-628 




5n 






9t 


99 


76-7 


42-898 




5 






>» 


99 


17710-6 


21-520 




2 






1-53 


• 99 


84-0 


19-667 




9 






97 


99 


89-8 


08-229 




5n 






»> 


4-9 


178260 


01-867 




3 






99 


9) 


46-3 


5502-902 




2n 






1-52 


99 


17971-3 


48-514 




2n 






1-51 


99 


18017-9 


47-219 




9 






H 


99 


221 


42-997 




10 






>f 


99 


35-9 


29-057 




6 






»» 


»> 


79-4 


5497-056 




4 






J -50 


50 


ISISO'O 


35-379 




3 






1-48 


»» 


18393'0 


27-425 




I 






J» 


,, 


1841!t'0 


5395-471 




8b' 






1-47 


51 


l.H529'0 


94-958 




4b' 






» 


99 


30-7 


85-668 











»> 


99 


62-7 


77-833 




In 






»» 


99 


89-7 


03-474 




1 




1-4G 


59 


18639-5 


62-864 




4b' 




9> 


it 


41-7 


46-980 











»» 


9f 


97-0 


45-278 




4 






»» 


99 


187030 


12-752 




4 






1-45 


99 


18817-5 


5295-744 




10 






»> 


5-2 


77-9 


94-207 




2 






99 


99 


831 


50-321 




3 






1-44 


99 


19019-5 


34-992 




7 






1-43 


99 


97-0 


09-044 




4 






1-42 


99 


19102-2 


5103-970 




10 






1-41 5-3 


193590 


61-491 




I 






» 


.. 


69-0 



ON VVAVE-LENGtH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE ELEMENTS. 205 



■ FXhhADWis— continued. 



Wave-length 




1 


1 


Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Spark ' 
Spectrum 
(Exner and 
Haschek) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Rowland 
and Tatnall 


A. + 


1 _ 
A 


6127-849 




2 




1-40 


5-3 


19496' I 


17-158 




7 






" 


5-4 


19536-7 


14-530 




2 






» 


99 


46-7' 


10-940 




6 






" 


)» 


60-4 


01-704 




1 






»» 


99 


95-9 


5063-549 




4 






1-38 


^» 


19743-6 


4972-081 




3 






1-36 


5-5 


20107-1 


30-145 




1 






1-35 


5-G 


20277-8 


24-373 











»> 


3f 


20301-5 


19-008 




3 






»» 


)» 


23-7 


4875-577 




7 






1-34 


»» 


20504-8 


3G-G54 











1-32 


5-7 


20669-7 


22-347 











>f 


»> 


2073M 


17'GG2 




9 






99 


9> 


51-2 


17-2G 




Oa 






„ 


»> 


53-0 


4791-OGl 











1-31 


" 


20866-5 


88-327 




8 


4788-0 


111 


)) 


9t 


78-4 


7G-715 




1 






99 


5-8 


20929-2 








G8-4 


In 


,, 


)» 


06-0 


G2-098 




(» 






1-30 


9* 


93-3 








55-5 


1 


99 


*9 


21022-0 








43-1 


o 


t9 


99 


77-0 








33-5 


1 


»» 


99 


21120 


24-204 




3 






1-29 


» 


61-8 








14-4 


1 


>» 


»» 


212060 


08-2G1 











»J 


JJ 


33-5 


t4G77-G17 




4 






1-28 


5-9 


213720 






4G7M 


2 


„ 


» 


214020 








36-9 


In 


,. 


99 


215600 


32-770 




2 






1-27 


6-0 


79-4 








04-4 


In 


» 


»> 


217120 








03-7 


In 


» 


?» 


lG-0 








4598-5 


In 


99 


»» 


400 








9G-G 


In 


»* 


)> 


49-0 








93-3 


In 


)' 


)» 


G50 








91-5 


In 


99 


)> 


73-0 


1 4590-191 




3u 






1-2G 


9* 


79-6 


t 5309G 




2 


53-0 


In 


1-25 


G-1 


21957-0 


t 41-314 




Sn 


41-4 


1 


1-24 „ 


2201 GO 








31-1 


In 


>> 99 


64-0 








191 


In 


>> 


)> 


22122-0 


t 16-40G 




5u 


lG-4 


In 


99 


f] 


35-4 


■•f 4497-813 




2 


4497-G 


In 


1-23 


♦ » 


22226-9 


t 89-G41 




4n 


89-5 


In 


99 


G-2 


67-4 


Af 73-771 


4473-7G1 


7s 


73-77 


6 


J» 


" 


22346-3 


G9-307 


I 









»> 


>> 


68-6 


58-785 


1 


2 






1-22 


»> 


22421-4 


43- 191 




3 


431 


In 


>» 


jj 


2-2500-1 








331 


lb 


99 


>> 


51-0 


•'r 21-217 




In 


210 


In 


i " 


6-3 


22611-9 


t ■ 


1 


1 09-0 


In 


1 1-21 


j> 


i 740 



t Observed also Ht tke arc bj' Exner and Haschek whose numbers are IGTI-SS 
(In), 4590-2 (In). 4553-1 (In), 1541-30 (2n), 4510-41 (2n), 4497-8 (In), 4189-65 (2n), 
4473-76 (10), 4121-2 (In). 



i^OO 



BbPOHtS ON TMJi STAtE O^ SCIEXCfc. 



FXhhAiiiVtt—cuiitmucd. 



Witve-leiigth 


1 


1 




Bfedhctlou to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity; 

and 
Character 


SpeSiu I"tensily 
(Exner and „, ""'^, 
Haschek) Character^ 

4406-0 In 


Vacuum 

1 ^ I 


Oscillatibn 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kavser 


Rowland '( 
bud Tatniill! 

1 


1 4406759 


1 


5 


1-21 


G-3 


22686-1 








4390^1 


ill 


„ 


,, 


2-2741-0 


1 4388-770 




2 


88-6 1 


1 


1-20 


" 1 


79-1 


•[■ 80014 




1 


80^5 


1 : 


1 
" 1 


jj 


90-8 


79-8 




Oil 






»j 


„ 


22820' 








. 777 


In 


s> 


99 


37- 


60^4 




On 


* 




j» 


6=4 


22927' 


58-773 




On 




1 

] 




99 ' 


35=8 


•1- 511 

t 44-8 




2n 




1 


I'io 


1 


76- I 




4n 


44^9 


111 [ 


>j 


1 


23010- 


28-125 




On 






if 


J) 


98-3 


21^8 




on 






• » 


99 I 


23132' 








150 


ill 


rl8 


•9 


09' 








42S33 


lb 


• ' 1 


0-5 


23340' 








81-8 


lil 


i-l7 


J) 


48- 








75-1 


lb 


iJ 


*l 


85- 


t 42084 




4u 


08-5 
04-0 


In 1 
hi 




•9 


23421- 

46- .1 








26-y 


1 


1-10 


"9 


23051 ■ 








24-8 


1 


JJ 


0-0 


03- 








15-9 


1 


9} 


>) 


23713- 








140 


i> 


99 


») 


20- 


Af 13110 


4213115 


6r 


1312 






99 


28-8 ! 








4199-4 


1 


1-15 


0-7 


23800- ' 








83-4 


1 


• » 


99 


97- 


At 4170005 


4170-000 


5 


70-02 


4 




99 


23974-1 








06-4 


1 


1-14 


J> 


95- 








04-9 


1 


99 


!> 


24(K>3- , 








(nJ-I 


In 


99 


)» 


14- ! 








A 57-1 


1 


99 




48- ' 








41-0 


In 


99 


o'-'s 


24142- 




• 




40-3 




"9 


»» 


40- 








280 


! lb 


1-13 


99 


24218- 








24-3 


In 


n 


J) 


39- 


t 23-701 




3 


-23-0 


i Jn 


99 


>> 


429 








189 


! la 


») 


1» 


71- 








13-7 


In 


f) 


•) 


21302- 








03-2 


In 


99 


)J 


04- 


4101 1 
















1- to 'r 

4098' 




b 






9> 


JJ 
























4< >'.♦(»;; 


1 


1 12 


0-9 


21441- 






1 


88-8 


1 


J) 


?» 


50- 


At 4087-518 


4087-513 


Os 


87-48 


8 


!J 


>» 


57-8 








84-0 


hi 


)J 


1 " 


75- 






j 


00-6 


In 


J) 


1 „ 


24584- 








03-0 


2 


J) 


99 


•240O2- 


• 


1 




57-88 


4 


•? 


,, 


371 




1 




51-5 


1 


Ml 


70 


75- 








39-5 


1 


99 


j> 


24748- 


t 21-2 




On 


21-0 


lb 


)) 


1 >. 


24861- 



t Observed also in the arc by Exner and Haschek whose numbsrs are 4406-79 (2n), 
4388-80(1), 4386-65 (In), 435115 (lb), 4344-75 (2b), 4268-4 (lb), 421311 (20), 4170-02 
(5), 4123-71t (2), 4099 (2b), 4087-52 (10), 4021 (lb). 



ON SVAVE-LENGTH TAULES OK THE firECTUA OV THE ELEMENTS. 207 



VAhhA-Diva—coiUuiued. 



Wiivc-length 


1 
j 


1 




Eeduction to 


! 


Arc Specttum 


[ntensity 

and 
Dllaracter 

1 


(Exner and ,„ *"'V i 
Haschek) <^"»'f'«=tef 


Vacuum 


OHcillation 


and Tatnall 


A+ ' 
I'll 


1_ 
A. 

7-0 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


1 4020-3 ' 


In 


40200 


Ib(Ir) 


24807- 




14^0 


lb 


MO 


?» 


24900- 


11-8 


On 






ii 


if 


19- 


t 070 


On 


07-5 


lb 


a 




40- 


t 3992-5 


In 






j» 


t\ 


25040- 






3982-3 


1 i 


jj 


ij 


25104- 






79-0 


In 


j< 


>> i 


25' 


' 




74-0 


In ' 


ro9 


1 

fj 


50' 






73-5 


2 ' 


»» 


»> 


00- 






71-5 


In 


j» 


?» 


72- 






A 09-3 


1 


»> 


!> 


80- 


! 




60-4 


1 


)) 


»» 


25290- j 


*t38-777 3958-772 


5r 


58-80 


10 


t» 


»? 


53-3 






44-2 


1 


?> 


7-2 


25340- 






40-3 


lb 


?•> 


»9 


72- 






28-1 


1 


I'OS 


)3 


25450- 






27'1 


1 


f» 


» 


57- 






25-7 


]u 


J* 


J> 


00- 






24-5 


In 


• * 


•> 


74- 






23' I 


In 


5J 


!» 


83' 






U-3 


1 


J> 


J» 


25540- 






13'8 




1 


?» 


if 


43- 






! 13-6 




1 


•» 


>» 


44- 






13-2 




1 


>5 


>» 


47- 






j 12-8 




1 




9» 


50- 1 


[ 




11-8 


■^ 


1 


)? 


•J 


50- 


1 




11-2 


g 


1 


»» 


J? 


00- 






10-0 


^ 


1 


91 


a 


04- 


i 




lO'O 


^ 


1 


)) 


a 


08- 






09-3,^ 


1 


99 


1 '• 


7-2- 






'■ 08-0f S 
00-8 S 


1 


JJ 


7-3 


77- 






1 


99 


i „ 


89- 


1 




00-5| 


1 


?> 


\ *' 


91- 


1 




00- 1 




1 


J» 


i " 


94- 






05-7 




1 


1 5* 


1 


90- 






05-2 




1 


!? 


J) 


i 250OO- 






04-3 




In 


?) 


»> 


1 0.-.- 






02-3 




In 


?» 


>) 


1 111- 






00-8 




In 


*> 


•> 


2'.t- 






3890-1 


1 


107 


«i 


r.'.t 


A''t3894'335 3894334 


Or 


9t-37 


8 


?) 


^> 


7 10 






90-0 


In 


?> 


•» 


1 90- 






87-5 


1 


H 


j» 


25710- 






87-1 


1 


J» 


i 


19- 






84-3 


In 


5» 


>> 


37- 






83-3 


In 


J? 


•» 


48- 






82-0 


In 


•» 


»» 


49 






81-0 


1 


?J 


J) 


59- 




1 


750 




lb 


;> 


1 f> 


95- 



f Observed also in the arc by Exner and Hascliek, whose numbers are 4020 2 (lb), 
40i)rC (lb), 3992-4 (lb), 3958-79(20), ;{894-33 (20). 

- * Observed also by Lohse, who also gives lines at 3908-62 (10), 3961-65 (Oln), 
3958-79 (70), 3894-37 (7-5), 3933-78 (2-0), 3919-25 (0-6n), 3902-27 (0-1), 3882-98 (0-2n>, 
3882-28 (0-2n), 3804-08 (0-ln), 3843-20 (0-ln). 



208 



REPORtS 0^ THE StATE OF SCIENCE:. 



Palladium — confi/iued. 



Wavelength 








Redu 


jtion to 


1 


Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Charactei 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 

3873-7 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Va 


juum 

1 _ 
A. 

7-3 


1 

Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 

1 


1 Kayser 


Rowland 
and Tatnal 


! 




In 


107 


25808- 








720 


1 




99 


19- 








1 71-5 


1 




)f 


22- 








1 70-0 


1 


„ 


99 


32- 






i 


i 69-7 


In 




99 


34- 








1 67-9 


lu 




)) 


46- 








67-3 


In 




r> 


50- 








63-7 


In 




*l 


75- 








! 62-0 


lb 




»> 


8G- 








52-7 


In 


I'-OO 


99 


25948- 








510 


lb 






60- 








48-3 


In 






78- 






47-G 


In 






83- 






43-3 


In 




" 


26012- 






34-4 


2 






72- 






A*t32-41 


8 






80-0 


1 






31-3 


1 






93- 


i 






28-05 


G 






2G115-0 1 








23-6 


1 






46- 


j 






23-2 


1 






49- 


i 






221 


I 






56- 








21-9 


1 






58- 








21-7 


1 






CO- 








18-7 


lb 






80- 








17-7 


In 




7'4 


86- 




■ 




lG-3 


1 


1-05 




96- 








14-9 


1 






26-206- 








131 


1 


„ 




18- 








101 


1 






39- 








09-9 1 


1 






40- 








t 07-9 


In 






54- 








05-4 


1 


" 




71- 








02-8 1 


I '. 




!! I 


89- 


1 






01-2 I 


1 




„ i 


26300- 


At3799-332 

1 


3799-335 


5r 


3799-34 1 

98-7 

98-2 1 
97-4 i 
95- 1 
91-8 

88-7 t 
87-9 ! 
85-3 
83-6 

81-8 1 
79-0 
78-G ! 


1 
1 
1 

In 
2 

1 

In 

1 

In ! 

In 

lb 

2 

1 j 


" j 


i 
»> 1 


12-5 
17- 
21- 
26- 
42- 

C5- I 
87- 1 
92- ' ' 
26411- 
23- 
35- 
55- 
57- 








7G-7 1 


1 ! 


1-04 


! 


71- i 



* Lohse, 3842-61 (0-ln), 3839-36 (0-3b), 3832-44 (3-0), 3827-16 (0-ln), 3825-41 
(0-ln), 3818-89 (0-ln), 3808-09 (0-ln), 3802-69 (0-2), 3778-98 (0-ln), 3753-07 (0-ln), 
3738-96 (1-0), 3719-10 (2-5), 3697-27 (0-1). 

t Observed also in tke arc by Exner and Haschek, whose numbers are 3832-45 (10), 
.3799-31 (10). ^ 



% Double. 



ON wave-lengtS tables of the spectra of the elements. 209 

FAhhADivM— continued. 



Wave length 








Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Spark- 
Spectrum 
(Exner and 
Haschek) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


7C'vs€T 1 Rowland 
''"■y*'"^ and Tatnall 

1 


A + 


1 _ 

A 








3772-2 


In 


104 


7-5 


26502- 








71-2 


lb 


f9 


99 


09- 








65-7 


1 


»> 


99 


48- 








61-6 


1 


ij 


99 


77- 








59-5 


1 


99 


99 


92- 








55-0 


1 


99 


99 


26624- 








53-6 


In 


99 


99 


34- 








52-5 


In 


99 


99 


41- 








51-7 


In 


99 


99 


47- 








51-0 


In 


99 


99 


52- 








46-0 


1 


99 


99 


88- 








45-7 


2 


»9 


99 


90- 








40-5 


In 


99 


99 


26727- 








A 38-98 


6 




99 


37-8 








• 32-4 


In 


1-03 


„ 


85- 








27-7 


2 


„ 


„ 


26ai9- 








25-2 


1 


99 


7-6 


37- 








22-7 


2 


99 


99 


55- 


Af 3719061 


3719046 


4r 


* 19-06 


10 


„ 


99 


iW-9 








12-7 


In 


99 


99 


26927- 








11-4 


I 


99 


99 


36- 








10-9 


1 


99 


99 


40- 








00-7 


1 


91 


JJ 


27014- 








3092-4 


2 


102 


„ 


75- 


AT3690-491 


3690-483 


6r 


* 90-44 
88-6 


10 

1 


99 
99 


99 

99 


89-1 
27103- 








88-] 


1 


99 


»> 


07- 








87-5 


1 


99 


99 


11- 








83-60 


4 


99 


7-7 


39-7 








82-7 


In 


99 


99 


46- 








80-0 


1 


99 


99 


66- 








78-9 


1 


9) 


99 


74- 








77-0 


lb 


99 


99 


88- 








740 


1 


99 


99 


27211- 








720 


1 


99 


99 


■25- 








71-4 


1 


99 


99 


30- 








70-2 


2 


9) 


99 


39- 








65-0 


lb 


ft 


99 


77- 




62-520 


2n 






99 


99 


95-9 


t 5-1-574 




2 


54-3 


1 


1-01 


99 


27355-3 








51-5 


1 


99 


99 


78- 








50-3 


In 


99 


99 


87- 








49-8 


In 


99 


99 


91- 








47-9 


2 


99 


99 


27412- 


t IG-llG 




1 


46-0 
44-8 
43-2 
42-9 


T 

1 
1 

1 


99 
99 
99 


99 
99 
99 
*9 


18-7 
29- 
41- 
43- 


A*t 34-340 


34-841 


lOr 


34-83 


10b 


»9 


7-8 


27503-8 








31-5 


2 


t> 


i9 


29- 








23-8 


In 


" 


99 


87- 



* Lobsc, 3690-50 (5-5), 3634-85 (100), 3610-31 (0-lu). 

t Ohscrvefl also in the arc by Exner and llascliek, whose numbers are ;)7l9-0(j (15) 
309019 (20r), 3654-57 (1), 364614 (1), 3G34'85 (200r). 

1906. P 



210 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Palladium — continued. 



Wave-length 








Reduction to 


1 


Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation [ 


Kayser 


Rowland 
and Tatnall 


and 
Character 


and 
Character 

In 


A. + 
101 


1 _ 

A 

7-8 


Frequency | 
in Vacuo , 

27592- 








3623-2 








22-0 


In 


>» 


91 


27601- 








21-5 


1 


„ 


)J 


05- 




i 




18-9 


2 


J) 


99 


25- 








13-7 


In 


1-00 


99 


65- 


A*t3609-69S 


3609-696 


9r 


09-67 
06-8 


10b 

1 


97 


9> 

99 


95-3 

27718- 








05-5 


1 


>» 


99 


28- 








01-7 


1 


J» 


99 


57- 








3598-7 


1 


»f 


99 


80- 








97-0 


1 


99 


99 


93- 


*t3596-795 


3596-804 


2 


96-6 


2b 


99 


99 


94-7 








95-7 


1 


» 


99 


27803- 








89-0 


lb 


99 


7-9 


55- 








84-5 


In 


yy 


99 


go- 








84-1 


In 


99 


99 


OS- 








80-9 


In 


)> 


99 


27918- 








77-9 


In 


0-99 


99 


41- 








77-5 


1 


fr 


99 


45- 








75-0 


1 


If 


99 


64- 








72-6 


1 


» 


99 


83- 


A*t 71-305 


71-302 


5r 


71-31 


10 


» 




93-1 


t 66-775 


66-781 


2 


66-9 
66-6 
65-3 


2 
2 
2 






28028-6 
30- 
40- 








61-7 


1 


j» 




69- 








61-2 


1 


99 




72- 








60-3 


1 


9» 




80- 








58-4 


1 


)> 




95- 








54-9 


1 


J> 




28122- 


A*t 53-242 


53-236 


7r 


53-23 


10 


19 




35-4 








46-4 


1 


99 


s'b 


90- 








42-2 


In 


9) 




28223- 








* 39-2 


In 


» 




47- 








36-7 


In 


0-98 




67- 








36-4 


In 


9) 




69- 








35-8 


In 


>l 




74- 








35-5 


In 


99 




76- 








34-2 


In 


}» 




87- 








330 


10b 


)» 




97- 


*t 28-881 


28-878 


2 


28-7 
27-3 
26-7 
25-3 
23-8 


2 
1 

1 
1 
1 


J) 
99 




28329-6 
42- 
47- 

58- 
70- 








A 21-40 


4 


99 




89-8 


A*t 17-087 


17-096 


8r 


17-10 
13-9 


10 

1 




99 


28418-3 
50- 








A* 08-09 


4 


>» 


8-1 


98-1 



* Lohse, 3609-69 (10-0), 3596-77 (0-2n), 3596-20 (0-ln), 3571-31 (2-8), 3553-27 
(7-5), 3539-65 (0-1), 3528-87 (0-ln), 3517-13 (6-0). 3508-09 (0-2). 

+ Observed also in the arc by Exner and Haschek, whose numbers are 3G09'71 
(lOOr), 3596-81 (2). 3571-29 (20r), 3566-77 (3), 3553-24 (oOr), 352886 (2), 3517-08 
(lOOr), 3507-48 (1). 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 211 



Palladium — continued. 



Wave-length 








Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

Haschekj 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Kayser 


Rowland 
and Tatnall 


and 
Character 


and 
Character 


A.+ 


1_ 
A 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 








3505-5 


In 


0-98 


81 


28518- 








04-7 


In 


>> 




25- 




- 




03-7 


1 


t9 




33- 








01-7 


1 


>> 




49- 








3499-5 


In 


» 




67- 








97-7 


1 


0-97 




82- 








95-6 


In 


» 




99- 








93-1 


In 


»J 




28619- 


*t3489-930 


3489-915 


4r 


89-91 


6 


>* 




45-8 


t 88-293 











99 




59-2 




86-112 


1 






*J 




77-4 


A*t 81-308 


81-300 


7r 


81-3 


10 


» 




28716-7 








77-6 


In 


»> 




47- 








75-8 


1 


»> 




62- 








75-5 


1 


t> 




65- 








74-7 


1 


»> 




71- 








72-9 


In 


»> 




86- 








71-3 


In 


t» 




00- 








710 


In 


» 


8-2 


28802- 








69-5 


In 


» 




14- 








A 68-72 


4 


»> 


„ 


20-9 


4.*t 60-888 


60-884 


7r 


60-92 


10 


» 




86-1 








57-7 


In 


0-96 


„ 


28913- 








A* 51-42 


8 


ft 




65-6 








49-6 


1 


99 




81- 


t 42-545 


42-548 


2 






J> 




29040-1 


A*-f 41-548 


41-539 


6r 


41-56 


10 


99 




48-4 


A*t 33-582 


33-578 


5r 


33-57 


10 


» 




29115-9 








33-0 




99 


8-3 


21- 


A*t 21-368 


21-367 


8r 


21-53 


10 


»9 




29219-8 


t 19-818 


19-805 


4 


19-7 


1 


» 




330 








18-1 


In 


»J 




48- 








15-0 


1 


0-95 




74- 








11-6 


1 


» 




29303- 








11-2 


1 


)» 




07- 








08-01 


1 


» 




34-4 








07-3 


1 


>» 




40- 


t 06-210 


06-196 


1 






»» 




49-8 


A*t 04-732 


04-725 


lOr 


04-71 


10 


») 




62-6 








3397-6 


In 


l> 




29424' 


t 3396-926 




3 


97-0 


2(Rh) 


>J 




30-1 


96-081 











19 


8-4 


37-3 








95-3 


1 


»> 




44- 








94-6 


1 


)> 




50- 








93-0 


In 


>5 




64- 








91-6 


In 


» 




76- 


t 89-192 


3389-195 


2 


89-3 


In 


9f 




97-2 


88-811 







88-0 


In 


9* 




29500-5 
08- 



* Lohse, 3489-95 (2-6), 3481-35 (4-0), 3464-15 (0-1), 3460-94 (3-0), S451-49 (1-2), 
3441-62 (2-8), 3433-62 (1-8), 3421-40 (2-7n), 3404-77 (3-On). 

■f Observed also in the arc by Exner and Haschek, whose numbers are o489-93 
(15), 3488-31 (1), 3481 31 (50r), 346093 (50r), 3442-54 (2), 8442-13 (1), 3441-54 (20r), 
3433-59 (20r), 3421-42 (50r), 3419-83 (3), 3406-20 (1), 3404-73 (lOOr), 339694 (3), 
3389-20 (1). 

p2 



212 



KErORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



P ALL ADi UM — contimied. 



Wave-length i ', 






Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum ^ , ., 
'^ Intensity 


Spark 
Spectrum 
(Esner and 
Haschek) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency i 
in Vacuo , 


Kayscr i 


and 1 
Rowland Character 
and Tatnall 


A + 


1 _ 

A 




i 




3386-5 


In 


0-95 


8-4 


29520- 








85-7 


In 




»» 


28- 




1 


1 


83-9 


1 { 




1 


i 


43- 


A 3383023 




4 


83-0 


2 


f > 9 


9 


50-9 








82-6 


In 






9 


55- 


t 80-840 


3380-832 


5n 


81-0 
80-5 


2 
In 








70-0 
73- 








77-0 


In 


0-94 




9 


29604- 








76-3 


In 








10- 


A*t 73-137 


73-139 


6r 


73-16 

71-5 

66-1 

65-8 

63-9 

62-2 

61-4 


10 
1 

1 
1 

!. 

1 






1 
> 

> 


37-6 
52- 
29700- 
02-2 
19- 
34- 
41- 








60-3 


lb 


• .. 


8 


5 


51- 








59-0 


lb 


„ 




y 


68- 








55-9 


In 


» 




9 


90- 








53-6 


In 






) 


29810- 








52-3 


In 






J 


22- 








51-2 


In 






J 


32- 








49-6 


2 








46- 








49-2 


In 






y 


50- 








4G-9 











70- 


46-268 







46-4 
44-5 
41-9 
40-7 


In 
lb 
lb 
lb 






t 
y 
J- 

9 


75-5 
91- 
29915- 
25- 








38-0 


lb 


0-93 




^9 


50- 








36-2 


lb 






tf 


66- 








30-8 


1 






ty 


30014- 








27-40 


4 






It 


36-0 








25-1 


lb 




8 


-6 


66- 








23-1 


1 






)j 


84- 


t 21100 






21-1 
18-6 


1 
lb 








30101-9 
25- 


17-455 






17-2 
16-0 


lb 
lb 








35-0 
37- 

48- 


t 13093 






11-7 


In 








74-7 
87- 


t 11136 














9J 


92-5 


10-251 






10-2 
06-9 


In 
In 






>) 
fy 


30200-8 
31- 


At 02-253 


02-256 


30r 


02-25 


10 






fy 


73-7 


00-3-25 














J) 


91-4 


t3299-875 






3296-0 


1 lb 


0-92 

1 » 


i 


91 


95-6 
30331-2 



* Lohse, 3373-15 (0-2). 

t Observed in the arc by Exner and Haschek, whose numbers are 3380-89 (8). 
3373-21 (30r), 332115 (2), 3313-10 (2), 331 115 (2), 330228 (30r), 330000 (1). 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



213 



Palladium — cmiUnued. 



Wave-length 






Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 


Spark 
Siiectrum 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


1 , 1 and 1 

KavRPr ' riowland Character 
Aayser ^,^^ Tatuall, 

1 


(Exner and 
Haschek) 


and 
Character 

In 


A + 


1 _ 
A 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 




1 


3294-0 


0-92 


8-6 


30350- 






92-8 


In 


" 


>9 


61- 






90-5 


lb 


", 


J» 


82- 


At3287-378 


3287-377 ; 


87-35 


4 


1 


8-7 


30410-7 


t 86-337 




86-0 
84-6 


lb 
1 






20-3 

33- 

36- 


84-080 


i 








>y 


41-2 




' 


79-1 


In 




99 


87- 






78-5 


In 




99 


93- 






77-2 


In 




99 


30505- 






76-7 


In 




9f 


10- 




; 


75-3 


In 


„ 


99 


23- 




i 


74-1 


2 




99 


34- 


A 72-925 




72-7 


2 


„ 


»> 


45-0 








69-7 


In 




99 


75- 








67-4 


6 


it 


t) 


97- 








62-5 


2 




99 


30643- 


At 58-907 


58-900 25r 


58-92 




0-91 


99 


76-4 


At 51-754 


51-760 


20r 


51-80 


8 


„ 


8-8 


30743-8 








49-7 


1 




59 


63- 








43-2 


2 




99 


30825- 


A 42-824 


42-828 COr 


42-85 


10 




99 


28-5 








38-7 


1 




99 


68- 








36-7 


1 


>» 


99 


87- 








36-2 


1 




»9 


92- 








34-7 


1 


„ 


99 


30906- 








32-5 


1 




99 


27- 








31-0 


1 




99 


41-. 








29-3 


In 




99 


58- 








28-0 


1 




99 


70- 








26-5 


lb 




tf 


84- 








23-7 


lb 




» 


31011- 








22-2 


lb 




99 


26- 








21-0 


lb 


0-90 


99 


37- 


t 19-088 


19-097 




19-1 


1 




99 


55-9 






16-5 


lb 




99 


81- 








14-2 


In 




8-9 


31103- 








13-5 


1 




99 


09-8 


13-018 















14-5 








A 10-60 


4 




99 


37-9 








09-9 


4 




If 


45- 








09-5 


1 




99 


49- 








05-4 






ft 


88- 








t04-l 


1 




99 


31201- 








03-7 


lb 




99 


05- 








02-7 


lb 




99 


15- 








00-8 


1 




99 


33- 








3195-5 


lb 




99 


85- 








91-0 


lb 




1 » 


313-29- 



t Observed In the arc by Exner and Haschck, whose numbers are 328738 (10), 
3286-38 (In), 325901 (30), 3251-89 (30), 3248-13 (1), 32-12-83 (lOOr), 321908 (3), 
3204-1 4 (1). 



214 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Palladium — eoiitinued. 



Wave-length 








Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 
and 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exuer and 

Haschek) 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










Kayser 


Rowland j 
and Tatnall 


Character 


Character 
lb 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 








31850 


0-90 


8-9 


31388- 








A 79-5 


1 


0-89 


9-0 


31442- 








78-9 


2 






48- 








75-1 


2 






86- 








73-9 


1 






98- 








72-0 


lb 






31517- 








A 70-40 


4 


ij 




32-8 


3168022 




In 


68-0 
64-2 
630 

A 62-08 
57-0 
56-5 

A 55-75 
54-3 
53-4 
50-2 


In 

1 

2 

4 

1 

1 

4 

1 

lb 

In 


tf 

l» 
»» 

»» 
9) 




56-4 

95- 
31006- 
15-7 
67- 
72- 
79-2 
94- 
31703- 
35- 


48-532 







48-8 
47-9 
45-0 


In 
In 
In 


91 
99 
99 




52-8 

58- 

87- 


At 42-932 


3142-927 


5 


A 42-93 


4 


99 


9-i 


31808-3 


39-804 




2 






0-88 




29-9 


t 39-631 











ft 




42-8 


38-417 







37-7 
36-8 
A 32-4 
31-5 
29-8 
28-2 
27-0 
25-8 


lb 
In 

lb 
lb 
In 
In 
lb 


99 
9> 

99 
99 
19 
»9 
99 
99 
t9 




54-1 
61- 

70- 
31915- 
24-5 
42- 
58- 
70- 
83- 








22-7 


In 


99 


9-2 


32014- 


At 14-157 


14-152 


lOr 


14-15 

13-9 

11-5 


8 

1 


9) 

99 




32102-2 
05- 
30- 


At 09-276 




2 


09-1 




99 




52-6 


07-435 







A 05-4 




99 
99 




71-7 
93- 


03-909 











f f 




32208-4 


03-176 











9> 




15-8 








3095-2 


lb 


0-87 




99-0 








92-7 


1 


jt 




32325- 


3089-756 











9f 




55-8 


88-636 











it 




66-5 








88-0 


1 


»> 




74- 








86-5 


In 


t9 




90- 








82-2 


lb 


tf 


9-3 


32435- 


t 






78-6 


In 


If 




73- 


78-356 







77-2 


In 


tt 


„ 


75-6 

88- 



t Observed also in. tJie arc by Bxner and Haschek, whose numbers are 3142-97 
(10), 3139-54 (1), 3114-19 (30), 310925 (2). 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 215 

Palladium — cantimted. 



Wave-length 








Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 
and 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


" t 


! _ 1 Bowland 


Charactei- 


Character 


A.+ 


i_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


1 3075-274 




4 


3075-1 


1 


0-87 


9-3 


32508-1 


73-924 













9J 


22-4 








69-2 


1 




»> 


72- 








69-0 


1 




If 


75- 


68-564 











*• 


9> 


79-2 








67-8 


1 




>» 


87- 


67-243 







67-3 


1 




»> 


93-2 


t 66-210 




1 


66-0 


In 




9) 


32604-2 


t 65-4-25 


3065-408 


6r 


A 65-2 


4 




it 


12-8 








64-6 


2 




»» 


22- 


63-537 




1 








9) 


32-7 


62-430 











0-86 


99 


44-5 


62-3 




On 








9> 


46- 








60-4 


1 




99 


66- 








A 59-55 


4 




99 


75-8 








57-3 


1 




99 


99- 








54-2 


In 




9-4 


32732- 








A 52-25 


4 




99 


53-3 








A 50-0 


2 




99 


78- 


49-502 













99 


82-8 








47-7 


1 




99 


32802- 








47-1 1. 


In 




99 


09- 








46-5 


1 




99 


15- 


t 46-614 




2 






„ 


99 


13-9 








46-0 


1 




99 


20- 








42-6 


1 




99 


57- 








41-6 


2 




99 


68- 


41-102 













99 


73-4 


39-648 













99 


89-2 


38-830 













99 


98-0 








38-3 


In 




99 


32904- 








37-4 


1 




99 


13- 


36-220 




1 








>, 


26-3 








34-1 


2 




99 


49- 


t 32-324 




I 


A 32-30 


6 




99 


68-6 


1 






30-0 


1 




99 


94- 


29-600 













>» 


98-3 


t 28-894 




1 








99 


33006-0 


At 28-031 


28-031 


6r 


28-08 







99 


15-4 








26-4 


lb 




9f 


33- 








25-9 


1 




99 


39- 


25-094 











„ 


9-5 47-3 


22-744 







22-7 


1 


0-85 „ 73-0 1 


t 21-859 




3 








82-8 


t 20-835 




2 


(21-01 
1 20-6 ) 


1 


,. 


93-9 








19-7 


1 




33106- 








A 19-0 


In 




14- i 


15-052 







150 


In 


;; „ , 57-4 1 


14-733 




1 




1 


» 


i» ' 


60-9 1 



f Observed also in the arc by Exner and Haschek, whose numbers are 3075'28 (3), 
3066-20 (2), 3065-41 (20), 3046-61 (1), 3032-30 (1). 3028-86 (2), 302805 (20), 3021-87 
(3), 3020-79 (3). % Double. 



216 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Palladium — continued. 



Wave-length 








Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

Hasohek) 


Intensity 
and 

Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 

33169- 


Kayser 


Rowland 
and Tatnall 


A + 


1 _ 

A 








3014-0 


lb 0-85 


9-5 


3010-980 




1 






99 


99 


33-203-1 


t 






09-6 


2 


91 




17- 


09-093 




3 


09-1 
08-0 


1 
1 


99 


99 
99 


23-1 
35- 


t 






07-0 
05-3 
04-9 t 


In 
In 


*9 
99 
99 


99 
99 
99 


46- 
65- 
69- 


At 02-775 


3002-765 


5r 


02-81 
01-6 
01-2 
2997-9 


In 


99 

99 
99 


99 
99 
99 
99 


93-0 
33306- 
10- 
47- 


2996-660 











99 


9-6 


60-9 


95-400 







94-4 
93-7 
89-7 
85-5 
83-6 J 


2 

1 

In 

1 

In 


99 
>9 

„ 


99 
99 

99 
99 
>9 
99 


74-9 

86- 

94- 

33439- 
86- 

33507- 


t 






A 80-78 


8 


0-84 „ 


38-7 








77-7 


lb 


99 




73- 


75-953 







73-2 


1 


♦9 




93-1 
33624- 








70-6 


In 


99 


9-7 


53- 








70-3 


In 


99 




56- 


G8-356 







67-0 
66-3 
65-3 
64-3 
62-9 


1 

In 

In 

In 

In 


99 
99 
99 
99 
»9 
99 




79-0 
94- 
33702- 
14- 
25- 
41- 


62-443 







60-7 
60-0 
59-7 
58-6 
57-5 


In 
In 
In 
In 


99 
99 
99 

99 
99 




46-2 
66- 

74- 

77- 

89- 

33803- 


A 56-811 







56-7 
55-7 
A 54-0 
53-5 
52-5 
52-0 


2 
lb 
1 
In 

In 


99 
99 

99 
99 
99 
99 




10-5 

23- 

43- 

48- 

60- 

66- 


51-134 











99 




75-6 


50-920 




1 


50-3 
49-6 

47-8 
46-7 


1 

1 

lb 
lb 


99 

99 

99 




78-0 
85- 
93- 
33914- 

27- 








45-2 


1 


g'-'s 


44- 








44-6 


1 


99 


•* 


51- 



■|- Observed also in the are by Exner and Haschek, whose numbers are 3009-88 (3), 
3007'37 (1), 3002-74 (10), 2980-78 (In). J^Double. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 217 



Pall ADi um — continued. 



Wave-length 




1 


Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 
and 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 


Intensity 
and 


Vaci 


lum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 






Kayser 


Exner and Character 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 _ 


in Vacuo 








2943-5 


In 


0-84 


9-8 


33963- 


2938-552 











0-83 




34020-6 


36-901 




2 


370 


1 






39-7 


36-570 















43-5 








A 35-2 


2n 






59- 


32-4 




6r 










92- 


t 






31-5 


1 






34102- 








31-2 


1 






06- 








27-5 


2 






49- 








A 25-6 


2a 






71- 


t 22-015 


■ 


7r 


22-7 


4 






34206-1 








22-3 


1 






10- 








20-8 


lb 




Q-h 


27- 








19-5 


111 






41- 








18-4 


1 


>) 




55- 






' 


A 17-5 


1 






66- 








A 15-3 


In 






92- 








A 12-3 


In 






34327- 








11-3 


lb 






39- 








07-5 


lb 






84- 








060 


1 


„ 




34402- 








03-4 


1 


0-82 




31- 








02-0 


lb 






49- 








2900-5 


lb 


0-82 


Q-9 


67- 








2898-0 


1 






97- 






97-2 


In 






34506- 






95-0 


In 




10-0 


32- 






94-0 


1 






44- 








A 93-2 


2 






54- 








90-3 


1 






88- 








901 


1 






91- 






89-7 


1 






96- 








89-1 


1 






34603- 








86-8 


1 






30- 








83-8 


In 






66- 








81-G 


1 






93- 








80-7 


In 






34705- 








A 78-20 


4n 






34-0 


2875-875 


2875-85 


1 










62-0 








73-5 


1 






91- 








A 71-45 


4n 




10-1 


34815-5 




' 




70-5 


In 






27- 








63-5 


2 


0-81 




34912- 








62-7 


In 






22- 








61-8 


1 






33- 








59-4 


1 






62- 


A 54-G94 


54- G8 


2 


54-73 


8 




" 


35019-9 








53-83 


In 






olO 






.52-2 


4 






51- 








50-8 


In 






68- 


49-912 


49-90 


2 


49-9 


1 






78-7 



f Observed also in the arc by Exner and Haschek, whose numbers are 2931-59 
(2), 2022-G3 (10). % Double. 



218 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







YAi.hKT>ivt&— continued. 










Wave- 


eugtli 


1 


1 




Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


lutensity 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Esner and 

Haschek) 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Kayser 


' Exuerand 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


and 
Character 


! ^ + 


1 1 

A. 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 








2848-8 


1 


0-81 


101 


35092- 


2846-4 




2n 


46-8 


In 


>» 


10-2 


35121-9 








430 


In 


J» 


„ 


64- 








A 41-18 


4 


j> 




)) 


86-4 








A 40-08 


4 


)) 






35200-1 


395 


2839-5 


10b 


A 37-8 J 


In 


>> 
y? 




99 


07-0 

28- 


37-2 




i 2n 

■ 


35-9 


1 


97 




9f 


360 
52- 


35-385 











99 




yy 


58-4 


35-133 







31-7 

29-6 

29-4 

26-74 

25-8 


1 

1 

1 

In 

In 


99 
99 

f> 
J» 
ft 

99 


1 

I 

i 


99 
99 


61-5 
35304- 
30- 
33- 
67-0 
78- 




24-51 


1 










94-2 








23-2 


la 


0-80 


10-3 


35410- 








21-9 


In 


99 


«• 


27- 








18-0 


1 


» 






76- 








A 14-2 


2 


}» 






35523- 








11-7 


1 


)) 






55- 




, 




10-2 


In 


»» 






74- 








A 08-6 


In 








95- 


07-8 


07-8 


In 


07-7 


2n 


ri 






35604-8 


06-561 


^06-55 


1 


06-6 
05-4 
04-6 
03-8 


In 
In 
In 
In 


99 

99 
99 






20-5 

35- 

45- 

56- 








02-6 


1 


yf 




71- 


A 02-009 




3 


02-1 
01-6 
Oil 
2799-5 
98-7 
98-4 
96-7 
95-6 
95-2 
94-8 
94-3 
91-7 
A 88-10 


1 
1 

In 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

In 

4n 


99 
99 

99 

99 


1( 


>4 

9 


78-4 

84- 

90- 

35710- 
20- 
24- 
46- 
60- 
65- 
70- 
77- 

35810- 
56-3 








81-7 


1 


0-79 






35939- 








79-8 


1 








63- 








A 77-0 


4 








36000- 








750 


1 








25- 


A 2763-199 


2763-19 


lOr 


63-13 
62-1 . 
60-7 
55-1 
54-0 


4 

1 
In 

1 
1 




1( 


)-5 


36179-7 
94- 

36212- 
86- 

36300- 


51-972 


i 


2 


51-3 


In 




IC 


'■6 


27-1 
36- 



% Double. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 219 



PALli ADIUM — conUti lied. 



Wave-length 






1 


Reduction to ! 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity, 

and 
Character 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

(Haschek) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


\ + 

1 


1 

A 1 








2750-8 


In 


0-79 10-6 


36342- 








50-3 


In 


»> >» 


49- 








49-40 


4 


»» >J 


61-0 








44-7 


In 


f» 


" 1 


36423- 




2742-48 


2 


A 42-7 


2 


99 


99 1 


50-0 








40-8 


1 


0-78 1 


99 


75- 








40-4 


1 


f» { 


f> 


80- 








39-6 


2 


» 


19 


91- 








38-8 


1 


»» 


99 


36502- 








37-0 


1 


ff 


1 
99 1 


26- 








36-3 


1 


99 


99 


35- 








35-7 


In 


99 


99 


43- 


2734095 


§ 34-04 


2 


34-1 


1 


f* 


1 


64-6 
94- 








31-9 


2 


99 


99 








30-8 


1 


99 


99 


36609- 








30-2 


1 


99 


99 


17- 








30-0 


1 


»» 


99 


19- 








29-5 


1 


»> 


99 


26- 








28-0 


2 


fl 


99 


46- 








27-2 


In 


r> 


10-7 


57- 








26-3 


In 


»> 


99 


69- 








24-2 


1 


99 


99 


97- 








19-1 


1 


99 


99 


36766- 








17-7 


In 


»9 


99 


85- 








16-9 


1 


99 


99 


96- 








A 14-98 


4 


• 9 


99 


36822-0 








A 14-38 


4 


99 


99 


301 








13-2 


In 


ff 


99 


46- 








12-5 


1 


99 


99 


56. 








11-9 


1 


19 


t9 


64- 








10-5 


1 


yy 


99 


83- 








09-2 


In 


99 


99 


36901- 








08-7 


In 


99 


99 


07- 








07-3 


1 


99 


>» 


26- 








071 


1 


99 


99 


29- 








06-5 


1 


»f 


99 


37- 








06-0 


1 


99 


99 


44- 








04-1 


1 


99 


99 


70- 








03-5 


1 


99 


99 


78- 








02-5 


2 


99 


10-8 


92- 








01-7 


1 


99 


99 


37003- 








00-8 


In 


99 


99 


16- 








00-6 


In 


99 


99 


18- 








A2698-8 


2 


0-77 


99 


43- 








96-5 


1 


99 


99 


74- 








94-9 


1 


99 


99 


96- 








94-0 


1 


99 


1 *' 


37109- 








92-7 


1 


99 


1 

' 91 


i 27- 








92-4 


1 


99 


» 


' 30- 








91-5 


1 


99 


f* 


43- 








A 88-6 


2 


tt 


n 


83- 








' A 87-8 


2 


99 


tf 


' 94- 


2686-373 


2686-38 


2 


> 




tt 


t> 


372141 








85-5 


1 


It 


»» 


26- 




t 
i 




84-0 


1 1 


tt 


It 


1 47- 



§ Occurs also in Ft and Ir. 



220 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
FALLABiVM—continiied. 



Wave-length 








Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


A + 


i 1_ 
A. 








2683-4 


0-77 


10-8 


37255- 








81-0 


lb 






89- 




2679-18 


1 


A 79-7 








37307 








79-2 


In 




t9 


13- 








77-9 






10-9 


31- 








77-2 








42- 




76-06 


2Au? 


76-0 








58-0 








61-2 








66- 








59-4 


J 






92- 


A 2G58-819 


58-84 


2 


58-82 








99-8 








57-6 








37617- 








55-7 


In 


J9 




41- 1 


651 


55-2 


2b 








I'l'-O 


52- 








540 




0-70 




68- 


53-7 




2n 


53-3 








72- 








51-0 






" 


37710- 


- 






47-8 








56- 








47-6 








59- 








46-9 








69- 








45-8 








85- 








42-3 








37835- 








41-3 


In 






49- 


41 149 















51-3 








40-7 


In 






58- 








40-3 








63- 








38-4 








91- 








37-7 








37901- 








37-2 








08- 








A 36-5 


In 






18- 




36-01 


2 


3603 








24-8 








34-7 


In 






44- 








33-3 








64- 


31 092 













111 


87-3 








31-3 








93- 








31-1 








96- 








30-3 + 








38007- 








29-7 


In 






10- 








28-9 


In 


99 




28- 








A 28-38 


6 


tf 




351 








20-3 


In 






65- 








24-6 








90- 








21-6 


In 






38133- 








21-2 


In 






39- 








20-4 


In 






51- 








18-8 


In 






74- 








lS-0 


*■ 


t9 




86- 








17-5 




^^ 




93- 








170 








38201- 








15-2 


In 






27- 


14-270 




1 










40-5 








13-4 


2 


„ 




53- 








13-0 


In 


„ 




59- 








11-7 


2 






78- 



X Double, 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 221 



Palladium — contimwd. 



Wave-length 








Beduction to ' 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Spark 
Spectrum ' 
(Exner and 
Haschek) 


Intensity 
and 

Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


1 
Kaysor 


Exner and !( 
Haschek 


1 
A + 


1 
1 _ 

\ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


2609-716 







2609-7 


2 


0-75 


IM 


38307-2 








09-4 




» 


11-2 


12- 








07-0 1 


2 


" ! 


99 


47- 








06-3 


1 


1 


39 


57- 








06-2 


1 


)> 


99 


59- 








05-5 


1 


i> 


99 


69- 


05-157 


2605-19 


3 


1 




j» 


99 


74-2 








A 03-7 i 


1 


» 


99 < 


96- 








03-5 


1 


99 


99 


99- 




02-&7 


1 


f 03-3 
1 02-6 


1 

2 




19 1 

9- : 


38402- 
12- 








01-8 


la 


>> 


99 


24- 








00-9 


In 


iJ 


99 


37- 




2596-09 


1 


A2596-02 


4 


»> 


99 


38509-3 








A 94-3 


In 


>l 


99 


35- 








93-7 


1 


97 


99 


44- 




93-36 


1 


93-30 


4 


99 


79 


49-8 








93-0 


1 


99 


99 


54- 








91-6 


1 


99 


99 


75- 








91-0 


In 


99 


99 


84- 








90-2 


1 


99 


99 


96- 








88-7 


In 


99 


t9 


38618- 








87-5 


1 


99 


11-3 


36- 




83-95 


1 


A 83-95 


4 


» 


99 


89-1 








82-6 


2 


9t 


99 


38708- 








82-0 


1 


99 


99 


18- 








79-1 


In 


)> 


99 


. 62- 








78-5 


1 


99 


99 


71- 








77-9 


1 


>> 


99 


80- 




77-20 


1 


A 77-13 


4 


)> 


99 


89-6 








A 76-4 


2 




99 


38802- 








A 75-5 


2 


99 


99 


16- 








74-3 


1 




99 


34- 








72-8 


In 




99 


57- 








71-3 


1 


99 


99 


79- 








A 70-8 


1 


f* 


99 


87- 


A25G5-595 


09-65 


2 


69-58 


4 


» 


9> 


38905-6 


iXt^xjyj'j KtK/XJ 


65-60 


3 


65-55 


8 


19 


11-4 


65-9 








64-6 


1 


0-74 


9) 


81- 


64-0 


64-2 


lb 






99 


99 


900 








63-5 


1 


»J 


9t 


1 98- 








63-3 


1 


99 


fi 


1 39001- 








62-6 


1 


99 


99 


11- 




61-14 


1 


61-0 


1 


99 


}> 


i 36-0 








57-3 


1 


99 


99 


i 92- 








54-1 


1 


99 


99 


, 39141- 








52-5 


1 


19 


99 


i 66- 


51-071 


51-95 


2 


51-98 


8 


99 


f1 


74-0 


51-095 


51-10 


1 








?9 


87-4 




50-76 


1 


r5i-o 

\50-6 


6 
2 


99 


99 
99 


i 89- 
! 95- 








49-3 


I 




»} 


39215- 








49-1 


1 




11-5 


20- 








48-7 


I 


99 


" 


24- 


48-165 













1 *f 


31-4 



222 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Palladium — continued. 



Wave-length 






Reduction to 


1 


Arc Spectrum 


Intensit 

and 
Characte 


Spark 
^j Spectrum 
\ (Exner and 
'■' Haschek) 


T . -, Vacuum 
Intensity 


Oscillation 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and j 
Character ;^ ^ 


1_ 
A 

11-5 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 








2547-1 




0-74 


39249- 


2546-990 







46-6 




9> 


99 


! 49-5 
56- 


46-283 











ft 




61-4 


44-821 




4 


44-8 
43-5 




9* 


9) 
99 


84-3 
i 39300- 








43-1 




f» 


99 


04- 








42-0 




)J 


99 


28- 


39-690 







39-4 
38-8 
380 
37-0 




9t 


99 
99 

99 
99 


63-4 

77- 

90- 

39405- 


6-872 




2 


36-8 




99 


99 


06-8 




2534-70 


2 


34-70 
33-6 






99 
9) 


40-9 
58- 








32-7 


In 






72- 








32-3 


In 


tt 




78- 








30-5 




J9 




39506- 








29-6 






11-6 


20- 








27-4 






99 


55- 








27-0 






yy 


61- 








26-3 






99 


72- 








25-4 


In 


J» 




86- 








24-2 


In 


99 


9) 


39605- 








22-9 


In 


it 


9f 


25- 








22-6 


In 


99 


99 


30- 








21-9 


In 


»f 


99 


41- 








21-5 


In 




99 


47- 


21-102 











>» 


99 


63-6 








190 


In 


99 


99 


87- 








18-2 




9f 


9) 


99- 








16-1 




0-73 


99 


39732- 








15-4 




J9 


99 


43- 








14-52 






)) 


57-4 


130 


13-2 


lb 


12-5 t 




99 


99 

99 


81- 
89- 








11-7 


1 j 


99 


11-7 


39802- 








09-1 






yj 


43- 








08-2 




99 


99 


57- 








07-4 








70- 


05-804 


05-84 


3 


05-82 


6 


}9 


99 


95-6 


03-597 




2 










39930-8 


2498-873 


2498-87 


3 


2498-82 


6 




99 


40006-3 




96-78 


1 


96-7 


2 


>f 


99 


410 








93-2 


1 


)f 


11-8 


97- 








91-8 


In 


>f 


19 


40120- 








91-3 


In 


>» 


99 


28- 








89-5 


4 


ff 


19 


57- 


89-010 


89-00 


4 


88-97 


8 


}9 


„ 1 


64-8 




87-24 


1 


87-1 


In 


99 


tt 


96-0 


86-618 


86-61 


3 ; 


86-58 


6 


99 


tt 


40203-5 








84-7 


1 


99 


f> J 


34- 






1 


84-2 


1 


11 , 


91 1 


43- 



X Double. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLK8 OK THE SPECTKA OF 


THE 


ELEMENTS. 22 


o 




Palladium — continued. 




! Wave-length 








Reduction to 




I Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 

2483-7 


Intensitj 

and 
Charactei 

1 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 


i 

j (Kayser) 


Exner and 
Hascliok 


1 
1 

0-73 


1 
1 _ 

\ 
11-8 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


1 






! 1 


40251- 


i 


248205 


2482-1 


lb 


, 81-9 
1 79-2 (c) 

78-5 

77-0 


In 
In 




1 •» 


77-5 
40324- 
35- 
60- 


1 


76-509 


76-50 


8r 


76-6 






11-9 


67-5 


i 


73011 




2 










40424-6 






72-60 


1 


72-58 


4 






31-7 




71-275 


71-25 


2 


71-22 


4 






51-4 




70-091 


7010 


2 


7008 


4 






72-4 




69-353 


69-34 


2 


69-32 

67-7 

64-2 

63-3 

62-7 


4 
In 


0-72 




84-5 
40512- 
69- 

84- 
95- 




61-2 


61- 


lb 


59-9 


In 




12-0 


40619- 
40- 






57-81 


2 


57-80 








75-8 




57-361 


57-35 


3 


57-32 
55-5 








82-1 
40713- 






54-87 


1 


54-7 
53-7 
530 
52-5 
51-5 
511 
48-10 


In 
4 






26-0 
43- 
54- 
63- 
79- 
86- 
40836-0 




47-998 


48-00 


8r 










37-7 






46-81 


1 


46-80 


4 






57-7 




46-275 


46-27 (P 


b) 3 


46-25 

44-4 

43-7 


4 

1 
1 




12-1 


66-3 
98- 
40909- 




41-52 


41-51 


lObr 


39-3 

38-7 
36-5 


1 
1 
2 






46-0 
83- 
93- 
41030- 




35-408 


35-41 


2 


35-4 
34-8 
34-3 


4 
1 

1 






48-7 

59- 

67- 






33-20 


2 


33-2 
32-0 


4 
1 






86-0 
41106- 




31-051 


3102 


2 


30-9 
30-6 
30-2 
30-1 

29-7 
29-3 


2 

1 
I 
1 

I 
In 






22-4 

25- 

32- 

37- 

38- 

45- 

52- 






28-05 (A 


u?) 


•28-6 
27-9 

. 27-7 


In ' 

1 
1 




12-2 


64-0 
76- 

79- 




26-964 


26-96 


2 


26-2 
25-8 


1 
1 






91-5 
41204- 
11- 




24-564 


24-57 


2 


24-5 


2 1 






32-3 





224 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



Palladium — continued. 



Wave-length 




1 




Reduction to 




Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

Easchek) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

frequency 

in Vacuo 


(Kayser) 


Exner and 
Haschek 


A + 


1_ 

A 








2423-5 


1 


0-72 


12-2 


41250- 








22-7 


1 


ff 




64- 








22-5 


1 


0-71 




67- 


2421-0 


2420- 


2b 


21-2 


1 






93-1 


18-835 


18-82 


2 


18-80 


4 






41330-0 








16-7 


1 


)) 


" 


66- 


14-850 


14-83 


2 










98-2 








14-7 


4 


9V 




41401- 








13-5 


1 


9> 




21- 








13-0 


1 


99 




30- 








11-8 


In 


fj 


12-3 


50- 








11-5 


1 


99 




56- 




09-79 


lu 


10-4 


1 






75-0 








08-7 


2 


f9 


99 


41504- 




06-78 


1 


06-80 


4 


iJ 




36-6 








04-8 


1 


tt 




71- 








03-3 


1 


f) 




97- 








01-5 


2n 


* f 




41628- 








00-0 


In 


)> 




39- 








2399-2 


1 


99 




68- 








98-0 


In 


ft 


12-4 


89- 








95-5 


2 


99 




41732- 








90-8 


Tu 


99 




41815- 




2388-42 


1 


88-33 


4 


99 




57-9 








86-5 


1 


9> 




90- 








85-8 


1 


99 




41902- 








85-2 


1 


99 




13- 








82-5 


2 


9$ 




60- 








82-0 


2 


99 




69- 








81-2 


1 


J> 




83- 








Sl-0 


1 


)) 


12-5 


87- 








79-7 


1 


»> 




42010- 








79-4 


1 






15- 








78-7 


1 


if 




27- 




" 78-00 


In 


78-0 


2 


t> 




40-0 








75-5 


1 


)) 




84- 








74-7 


1 


99 




98- 








73-8 


1 


0-70 




42114- 


2373-701 















15-8 








73-0 


1 


19 




28- 




72-24 


o 


72-13 


4 


99 




43-7 








71-2 


1 


>» 




60- 








70-5 


1 


99 




73- 








69-5 


1 


99 




90- 


68-044 


68-05 


2 


68-00(Ir 


) 


9t 


12-6 


42216-3 








06-3 


1 


9' 




47- 








64-7 


2 


9f 




76- ! 








63-7 


1 


99 




94- ! 


62-406 


62-40 


2 


62-37 


4 


91 




42317-1 




60-58 


1 


f 61-5 
1 61-0 


In 

1 


1 99 
99 




33- 
42- 








69-5 


1 


99 




69- 


57-732 


P57-70 


1 


57 7 


2 


99 




42451-0 



t Double. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 225 



Palladium — continued. 



Wave-length 
Arc Spectrum 


Intensity 
and 


Spark 
Spectrum 
{Exner aud 


[nteusity 
aud 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 






Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek \ 


Character 


Haschek) 


Character 


A + 


1 

A 


in Vacuo 








2355-7 


In 


0-70 


12-6 


42438- 








55-2 


1 


»J 


99 


47- 








54-2 


1 


9J 


12-7 


65- 




2352-00 


1 


51-9 


2 


>t 


99 


42506-0 


2351-428 


51-48 


2 


51-4 


2 


»> 


99 


14-7 








50-8 


In 


9f 


9» 


26- 








48-7 


1 


>» 


99 


64- 








48-2 


1 


»» 


99 


73- 


47-611 


47-62 


1 


47-6 


1 


ft 


9? 


83-8 








47-4 


1 


tf 


99 


88- 








45-0 


1 


99 


99 


42631- 








44-4 


1 


*f 


99 


42- 








43-6 


1 


99 


99 


57- 








410 


1 


9f 


99 


42704- 








39-7 


1 


»> 


12-8 


28- 




37-84 


1 


37-7 


2 


»» 


99 


640 


36-663 


36-66 


2 






99 


99 


83-0 


36-622 


36-52 


1 


36-50 
34-6 
32-8 
32-6 


4 
1 
1 

1 


99 
99 
*9 
99 


99 

99 
99 
99 


77-2 
42821- 
54- 
58- 




31-54 


1 


31-5 


2 


J9 


99 


78-0 








28-6 


In 


99 


99 


42931- 








28-3 


1 


99 


99 


37- 


27-575 




■ 


27-5 


1 


39 


12-9 


50-3 








23-5 


In 


0-69 


99 


43026- 








22-5 


1 


99 


99 


44- 








22-1 


1 


99 


9t 


51- 








21-8 


2 


99 


99 


57- 








19-7 


1 


99 


99 


96- 


19-328 


1935 


In 






99 


99 


431030 








181 


In 


99 


99 


26- 


16-569 


16-56 


1 


15-8 


1 


99 

99 


99 


54-4 
66- 








11-8 


1 


„ 


130 


43246- 








09-5 


1 


99 


99 


86- 








08-5 


2 


y* 


tf 


43305- 








07-5 


1 


tt 


ft 


24- 








05-0 


1 


t> 


99 


71- 




0214 


1 


020 


2 


99 


JJ 


43427 








2299-5 


1 


if 


131 


75- 








99-0 


1 


ft 


99 


84- 




2296-61 


3 


96-52 


4 


99 


99 


435310 








95-1 


In 


99 


99 


58- 








93-6 


1 


99 


99 


86- 








93-4 


2 


f» 


99 


90- 








91-6 


1 


I» 


99 


43624- 








88-7 


In 


99 


99 


80- 








88-4 


In 


99 


13-2 


85- 








85-4 


1 


99 


99 


43742- 








83-6 


In 


99 


99 


77- 








83-2 


1 


99 


99 


85- 








82-6 


1 


99 


99 


96- 




82-20 


1 


82-2 


1 


99 


»» 


438040 




80-92 


1 


80-9 


1 1 


9* 


„ 


29-0 



1906. 



226 



BEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Palladium- -cmitimied. 



Wave-leugtli 
Arc Spectrum 

1 


Intensity 


I 
Spark 
Spectrum 


Intensity, 
and 1 


Keduction to 
Vacuum 


■ 

Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 


and (iixner ana 


[ 




K^v«pv Exnerand Character Haschek) 
ivajscr Haschek 


Character 


A.+ j 

0-69 


1 _ 

A 

13-2 


in Vacuo 


! ' 


2279-3 ! 


In 


43860- 


1 


76-1 


1 


0-68 


s» 


43922- 






75-5 i 


1 




13-3 


33- 






75-0 ! 


1 




99 


43- 






74-5 1 


1 




tf 


52- 






73-4 ! 


1 




9» 


74- 






730 


In 




9> 


82- 






720 


In 




99 


44001- 






70-4 


1 


„ 


99 


32- 






C7-G 


1 




>» 


86- 






67-1 I 


1 




»9 


96- 




2204-40 


1 1 


64-5 


1 




»> 


44147-0 




02-59 


1 


62-7 


2 




13-4 


820 








62-4 


2 




*y 


87- 








61-3 


In 




>» 


44209- 








60-7 


1 




>> 


21- 






60-4 


In 




99 


27- 






59-6 


1 


» 


99 


42- 








59-2 : 


1 




99 


50- 








58-7 


1 




f» 


60- 




54-40 


In 










44344-3 






52-8 


1 


„ 


)» 


76- 






521 


2 




99 


90- 




51-60 


In 


51-5 


2 




99 


444010 








49-6 


1 




13-5 


39- 








490 


1 




99 


61- 








48-4 


1 




rl 


63- 








48-1 


1 




99 


68- 








47-1 


1 




9* 


88- 








45-5 


1 




99 


44522- 








43-9 


1 




99 


52- 








43-5 


1 




)] 


60- 








37-8 


1 




13-6 


44673- 








35-3 


1 




99 


44723- 








34-8 


1 




99 


33- 




31-08 


I 


31-7 


2 




99 


95-0 








29-3 


2 


0-67 


99 


44843- 








28-7 


1 




99 


56- 








22-4 


1 




13-7 


44983- 








21-5 


1 




99 


45000- 








18-3 


2 




99 


66- 








17-7 


In 




99 


78- 








15-3 


1 




99 


45127- 








14-1 


2 




13-8 


51- 








12-2 


2 




99 


90- 








10-8 


In 




99 


45220- 








2198-2 


In 




13-9 


45478- 








97-5 


1 


1 


99 


92- 








85-7 


In 




14-0 


45738- 








84-7 


1 




99 


59- 






82-4 


1 




99 


45807- 






82-2 






99 


13- 




' 


80-9 




0-66 


14 1 


38- 


1 


1 


76-1 




If 


99 


45940- 






1 


74-5 




II 


fff 


1 73- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 227 

Palladium — continued. 



Wave-length 






Reduction to 


1 


Arc Spectrum ^ , ., 
'^ < Intensity 


Spark 

Spectrum 

(Exner and 

Haschek) 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Oscilhition 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Kayser 


1 and 
Exner and Character 
Haschek [ 


\ + 


1 






2173-4 




0-66 


141 


45997- 






70-2 






14-2 


46065- 






64-5 






t9 


86- 






62-4 


1 




J> 


46230- 






60-4 






99 


73- 






530 






14-3 


46432- 






52-4 






»» 


45- 






49-3 


1 






46512- 






48-4 


1 




14-4 


32- 






48-2 


1 


** 


99 


36- 






44-5 


2 




*» 


46616- 






31-5 




0-65 


14-5 


46902- 






291 




,, 


»» 


54- 






23-6 


1 


„ 


14-6 


47175- 






17-7 






»> 


47206- 






13-9 






14-7 


91- 






11-9 






» 


47336- 






02-0 




','. 14-8 


47559- 




1 1 


2098-2 




$f 99 


47645- 

1 



On the Present Position of the Chemistry of the Gums. 
By H. H. Robinson, M.A., F.C.S., F.I.C. 

The gums are a class of substances characterised by the property of either 
dissolving in water to form viscid solutions, or of absorbing water to form 
gelatinous pastes ; these solutions or pastes, on exposure to air, lose their 
water, and dry to hard, translucent, somewhat glassy masses. The gums 
are uncrystallisable, and are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 
As found in nature they contain more or less ash constituents, and 
sometimes contain a little nitrogen. The nitrogen, if present, is small 
in amount, and is not regarded as an essential component, and this 
differentiates them from gelatin, glues and proteids, which also possess the 
above properties, but contain a considerable proportion of nitrogen. 

The gums occur in plants, and are often found as exudations on the 
bark or other surfaces ; some gums have also been found in animal 
products. Different views have been held as to the processes by which 
gum is formed in the plant. One view considers the production of gum 
part of the normal metabolism of the plant ; in the case of tree gums 
they are generally regarded as an excretion resulting from the breaking 
down of cell tissue. In certain cases the formation has been attributed 
to the action of a fungus, which attacks the tree and generates an enzyme 
that penetrates the tissues and transforms the cell walls, (fee, into aum. 
A third view attributes it to bacterial action, and it is claimed that 
specific bacteria have been found capable of producing different kinds of 
gum. The employment of a system of inoculating the trees to cause the 
production of gum has been suggested, but the evidence in support of it 
is as yet very slight. 

The word 'gum' in its earliest use was probably applied to plant 

Q2 



228 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

exudations, which thickened and hardened on the surface of the plant, 
and thus it has been applied not only to substances which have an affinity 
for water, but also to resins and caoutchouc. As the latter are very 
different in their composition and properties from the substances of the 
class described above, it is most convenient not to include them with 
these. 

One of the earliest recorded uses of the word is by Herodotus, who 
described, about 450 B.C., how in Egypt the embalmers swathed the 
corpse in strips of linen smeared with gum, which, he adds, the Egyptians 
generally use instead of glue ; he employs the word k-o^z/xi, from which 
the word ' gum ' is descended. The gums have been familiar substances 
in European literature from that time to the present, being designated by 
some form or other of the word Kuj-ipt, which itself was not a native Greek 
word, but was of foreign origin. 

The views held regarding the chemistry of the gums since the year 
1774, which may be regarded as the period of the dawn of modern science, 
have passed through three phases. 

In the first phase they were regarded as being among the proximate 
or immediate principles of plants, such a proximate principle being defined 
as a distinct compound existing ready formed in plants. They were 
accordingly placed in the lists of such principles, which at that time were 
not very extensive. It was then imagined that the chemistry of animal 
and vegetable products was far simpler than we now know it to be. It 
was known that the gums were composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, 
with pos.'sibly some nitrogen. 

In the second phase, as analysis appeared to show that the hydrogen 
and oxygen were in the same proportions as in water, they were con- 
sidered to be carbohydrates ; and when, by studying the action of reagents 
on them, it was found that on hydrolysis they yielded various sugars, they 
were classed as polysaccharides — that is, substances formed of two or more 
sugar residues united together, and differing from the sugars by one or 
more molecules of water. 

In the third phase, by a more careful and systematic series of fractiona- 
tions and hydrolyses, several of the gum substances have been shown to 
be built up of the residues of sugar molecules, united by an ethereal 
oxygen attachment to an organic acid, which is different in different 
gums, and which may be regarded as the nucleus of the particular gum. 
In other words, they are glycosides of certain organic acids. The number 
of these sugar residues in a gum compound is considerable, and the natural 
gum is often a mixture of several gum compounds, diSering from one 
another in the number of sugar residues in their molecules. As the 
attachment is ethereal, and not like that of an ester, the gum compounds 
possess acid properties, since the acid groups are not neutralised by the 
sugar residues. 

This is the most modern view, and doubtless many, if not all, of the 
gums will be found to be of this nature when fresh examination of them 
has been made. 

It must be understood, however, that these phases are not sharply 
marked off from one another in sequence of time, the germs of the later 
idea being often found in the records of earlier investigations. 

In the early part of the nineteenth century a good many gums were 
known, the most familiar of which were gum arable, gum tragacanth, 
gum Bassora, gums from the genus Prunus, such as cherry-tree gum, 



ON THE TRESENT POSITION OF THE CHEMISTRY OF THE GUMS. 229 

and the mucilages or gum solutions obtained from linseed and from 
quince seed. 

At that period the activity awakened by the new ideas in chemistry 
was the cause of various attempts to ascertain the nature of the substances 
that form the different gums. The work then done resulted in the 
descriptions of the properties of a few gum substances, believed to be 
individual chemical compounds, to which the names bassorin, cerasin, and 
arabin were given. After these names had been assigned, chemists, 
dominated by the idea that the number of organic compounds was only 
small, on investigating a gum identified its constituents with one or more 
of these substances. As these identifications rest on only a few simple 
properties, but little weight attaches to them. In fact, it now appears that 
the number of gum compounds is very considerable ; consequently, in 
reading the literature of the last century, statements that the author had 
found the presence of arabin, or cerasin, or bassorin, &c., do not throw 
any certain light on the nature of the substance found, as it cannot be 
safely inferred that it is the same substance as the arabin, or cerasin, or 
bassoi'in, &c., found in another natural product by another author. 

It may be of some interest to trace the origin of these names, so often 
attached in the last century to the components of the different gums. 

Bassorin. — In 1811 Vauquelin published an examination of gum 
Bassora, and in the same year Pelletier, who was engaged in examining 
several gum resins, published a paper in which he proposed the name 
bassorine for the substance constituting the gum Bassora described by 
Vauquelin, since he believed he had found the same substance in the gum 
resins. Gum Bassora appears to be a gum having properties somewhat 
similar to those of tragacanth, but not to be so highly valued. It derives 
its name from the Turkish port now called Basra, at the head of the Persian 
Gulf, from which there is a considerable export of gums. A ' gum Bussora ' 
is still quoted in the London market reports, but whether it is the same 
gum as that examined by Vauquelin, or whether it really comes from 
Basra, is not easy to say, since trade terras of the kind are often mis- 
leading. 

Cerasin. — In 1812 John, who was aware of Vauquelin's work, 
published an examination of several gums derived from the genus Prunns, 
and gave the name of cerasin or prunin to the gum substance he obtained 
from the fruit of the plum known as Mirabel, and also from the stem of 
the wild cherry-tree, Prutbus avium. He found that the gum of the 
sweet cherry-tree was of a different nature. The term ' prunin ' did not 
come into use, but ' cerasin ' has often been used. 

Arabin and Para Arabin. — In 1833, Chevreul, in reporting on a 
memoir on the gums, written by Guerin, gave the name arabine to the 
gum substance of gum arable and of gum Senegal, and remarked that if 
cerasin should prove to be identical in composition with arabin it ought 
to be called para arabine. 

Roughly speaking, it may be said that in the descriptions of the gums 
the part soluble in cold water was put down as arabin, and the part in- 
soluble in cold water was put down as cerasin or bassorin. 

Metagummic Acid and Gummic Acid. — In 18G0, Fremy published a 
paper in which he described a substance obtained by pouring a strong 
solution of gum arable on to concentrated sulphuric acid. This substance 
is insoluble even in boiling water, but alkalies cause it to dissolve, and 
then acids do not reprecipitate it from the solution. He gave the name 



230 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

metagummic acid to the insoluble acid, and gummic acid to the soluble 
aeid produced by the action of alkalies on metagummic acid and also 
existing in soluble gum. He remarks that these experiments modified all 
the ideas then held concerning gum arable, which up to then had been 
considered as a neutral substance comparable to dextrin, but that it 
now appeared that the natural gum was a lime salt of an acid. It was, 
iu fact, gummate of lime, and the insoluble natural gum cerasin was 
metagummate of lime. It should be mentioned that the term ' gummic 
acid ' has also been used for quite a different substance, prepared by 
Reichardt. 

Arabic Acid. — That gum arable was largely composed of an acid had 
already been discovered by Neubauer and announced in 1854 and 1857, 
although Fremy was not aware of this. Neubauer made analyses of the 
acid obtained by freeing gum arable of its ash constituents and also of the 
salts of this acid, to which he gave the name Arahinsaure. 

Metarabic Acid. — Fr^my's term metagummic acid seems to have 
been changed into metarabic acid by later writers, no doubt because his 
gummic acid was the same as the arable acid previously described by 
Neubauer. 

As early as 1810 Gay-Lussac and Th(5nard had analysed gum, and had 
put it in the same class as sugar and starch, stating that these substances 
were composed of cai-bon united to hydrogen and oxygen, which were in 
the same proportions as in water ; that is to say, they put it in the class 
of compounds now called ' carbohydrates.' 

An important step in the elucidation of the problem of the constitution 
of gums was Scheibler's discovery, published in 1868 and in 1873, of a 
new sugar, arabinose, obtainable both from gum arable and from a gummy 
substance yielded by sugar beet. He also noticed the concurrent libera- 
tion of an acid with the sugar, but does not seem to have investigated it 
further. As early as 1832, however, Gu^rin had obtained a sugar from 
gum arable by the action of sulphuric acid. 

Arabinon, galactose, xylose, fucose, and tragacanthose are other sugars 
which have been obtained from gums by hydrolysis. 

Up till comparatively recently the gums have been placed among the 
carbohydrates, together with cellulose, starch, and dextrin, and have had 
the forraulaj (Cf.HioO,),, and Ci^HioOii assigned to them, and, in fact, 
this view has not yet been abandoned by the text-books. O'Sullivan, 
however, has shown that this view of their nature is mistaken, and that 
the gums are really acids of high molecular weight, and are constituted 
of an acid grouping forming a nucleus, to which are attached a number 
of the residues of various hexoses, pentoses, and bioses ; these residues 
being linked on to the acid nucleus by an ethereal oxygen attachment, 
just as the dextrose and Isevulose are joined in cane sugar. In some cases 
the linking is by two oxygen atoms, and reaction with two molecules of 
water occurs when the sugar residue is broken off by hydrolysis. 

He first dealt with gum arable, and in 1884 showed that it contained 
an acid nucleus of the formula C13H38O22, to which in a later paper he 
gives the name arabic acid ; it is the X- arabinosic acid of the 1884 paper. 
The gum substance itself is an acid composed of this nucleus joined to 
+^^he residues of a number of galactose and arabinose or arabinon mole- 
cules ; arabinon, CioHigOg, being a biose or disaccharide formed by the 
union of the residues of two arabinose molecules. On submitting the 
gum to hydrolytic action of varying degrees of intensity, more and more 



ON THE rURSKNr rOSITTOX OF THE CHEMISTRY OF THE GUMS. 231 

of the sugar residues are split off and acids of lower and lower molecular 
weight and of higher and higher neutralising power are obtained, until 
arable acid is reached. This acid is of considerable stability and requires 
strong hydrolytic action to break it up, and it then appears to suffer a 
great degree of disintegration. In the light of the pentose nature of 
arabinose announced in 1887 by Kiliani, O'Sullivan assigns to the gum 
substance the formula 2CioH|f,Oj„ 4C,2H.,(,0,o, CasHjoOig, and names it 
di-arahinan-tetrayalactan-arabic acid. In this ' arabinan ' and ' galactan ' 
stand for two molecules of arabinose and galactose respectively minus 
two molecules of water, the termination ' an ' indicating the anhydride of 
the corresponding sugar. The arable acid nucleus appears in this formula 
■with four molecules of water less than in the free acid, indicating the 
occurrence of four double oxygen attachments between the sugar residues 
and the nucleus acid, and showing that sixteen molecules of water are 
required for complete hydrolysis to arabinose, galactose, and free arable 
acid. In the natural gum, of course, the acid is more or less neutralised 
by the potash, lime and magnesia of the ash constituents of the plant. 
The * arable acid ' of O'Sullivan thus denotes the nucleus acid, and not the 
acid of the natural gum substance ; since the latter acid differs in different 
specimens of gum, this seems to be an advantageous change, especially as 
it permits of descriptive names being given to the varying natural gum 
acids. 

A gum known in commerce as Geddah gum was next examined by 
O'Sullivan ; it resembles gum arable in being soluble in water, but it is 
dextrorotatory, whilst gum arable is lievorotatory. He found that it 
is a mixture of several gum acids, which are constituted of the radicles of 
galactose and of arabinose or arabinon, attached in considerable numbers 
to a nucleus acid to which the name geddic acid is given. Geddie acid is 
an isomer of arable acid, C .3113,0.22. The acids forming the mixture of 
which the gum itself is composed are of high molecular weight, and differ 
from one another in the number of arabinon molecules they contain and, 
consequently, in their rotatory power. 

The third gum investigated was tragacanth. This, like Geddah gum, 
was found to be a mixture of several gum acids. It can be separated 
into a group of acids which remain in solution in dilute alcohol, and an 
insoluble portion, for which the old name bassorin is appropriated. The 
acids of the soluble group were found to be built up on a nucleus acid 
very similar, if not identical, with geddic acid, by its union with galac- 
tose and arabinose residues. The constitution of the insoluble portion, 
bassorin, has not yet been completely worked out, but it yields a nucleus 
acid of the formula C,4H2nO,3, to which the name bassoric acid is given, 
and intermediate acids formed of this acid united to the residues of 
xylose and of a new pentose sugar named tragacanthose. 

It has been observed that in the case of the gum from sugar-beet the 
gum obtained in one season frequently differs in rotatory power from that 
obtained in another season, and that in the case of gum arable different 
samples also differ in this respect. The explanation of this was discovered 
in the work on Geddah gum ; the cause lies in the fact that in these 
varying gums the number of sugar residues attached to the nucleus acid 
varies, or in some cases it may be that the gums contain mixtures of the 
same gum acids, but in different proportions. 

It was found that in a series of gum acids containing arabinans and 
galactans in varying numbers joined to geddie acid that there were 



232 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

indications that the rotatory power varied fairly regularly in a series, 

thus : — 

Series I. [o]d 

Mon-arabinan-tri-galactan-geddic acid + 37° 

Ui- ,, ,1 t, J, ,, 1 • t . . + 4o 

Iri' )} >> }, )} ,, t , - . . . + 4y 

ietra- „ ,, ,, ,, ,,.,...+ 59 

Series II. 

Tri-arabinan-tetragalactan-geddic acid + 80° 

Pent- „ „ „ „ + 90° 

Hept- „ „ „ , +100° 

Non- „ „ „ , +110° 

Series III, 

Tri-galactan-geddic acid + 20° 

Tetra- „ „ +22° 

Penta- „ „ -, +30° 

The principal constants in identifying a gum acid are its ultimate 
composition, its neutralising power for bases, and its rotatory power for 
polarised light. As such acids do not crystallise, fractional precipitation 
must be resorted to iu order to prove their individuality. Determinations 
of the amount of mucic acid they yield, and also of the amount of furfural, 
are helpful. In separating the nucleus acid, and in preparing inter- 
mediate acicis lying between the natural gum acid and the nucleus, 
hydrolyses of varying intensity must be used, followed by precipitation 
with alcohol and purification by means of dialysis. Sometimes it is more 
convenient to precipitate as barium salts instead of as the free acids. 

There is no doubt that in future work on the gums the methods 
adopted by O'Sullivan should be followed, and that a determination not 
only of the sugars they yield should be made, but also of the nature 
of the nucleus acid. In fact, a great deal of investigation is required 
to bring our knowledge of other gums up to the level of O'Sullivan's 
discoveries in the case of gum arable, Geddah gum, and tragacanth. 

References. 
Chevreul . , . . ' Nouvelles Annales du Mnseam d'Histoire Naturelle,' 

18H3, 2, 126. 
Fr6my .... ' Comptes Rendus,' 1860, 50, 124. 
Gay-Lussac and Th^nard . ' Annales de Chimie,' 1810, 74, 47. 
Guurin .... ' Annales de Cbimie et de Physique,' 1832, 49, 248. 
John ' Schweigger's ' Journal fiir Chemie und Physik,' 1812, 

6, 374. 
Neubauer .... 'Journal fur Praktische Chemie,' 1854, 62, 193; 

Liebig's ' Annalen der Chemie,' 1857, 102, 105. 
O'Sullivan .... 'Journal Chemical Society,' 1884,45, 41 ; 1890. 57, 59 ; 

1891, 69, 1029; 1901, 79, 1164. 'Proceedings 

Chemical Society,' 1889, 6, 166; 1891, 7, 131; 

1901. 17, 156. 
Pelletier .... 'Bulletin de Pharmacia,' 1811, 3, 556. 
Reichardt . . . . ' Liehig's Annalen der Chemie und Pliarmacie,' 1863, 

127, 297. 
Scheibler .... ' Berichted. Deutschen ChemischenGesellschaft,' 1868, 

1, 58 and 108 ; 1873, 6, 614. 
Vauquelin .... 'Bulletin de Pharmacie,' 181J, 3, 49. 

Fiirmation of Oum in the Plant. — Lutz, ' fitude des Gommea. Th^se presentee 
A, rficole Superieure de Pharmacie de Paris,' 1894-95 ; Greig Smith, ' Journal Society 
pf Chemical Industry,' 1904, 23, 105 and 972. 



ox THE PRESENT POSITION OF THE CHEMISTRY OF RUBBER. 233 



The Fresent Position of the Chemistry of Rubber. 
By S. S. Pickles, M.Sc. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso."] 

Indiarubber, or caoutchouc, is a hydrocarbon which is present in the 
milky juices of various trees and shrubs, belonging chiefly to the natural 
orders Euphorbiacese, Moracese, Artocarpacete, and Apocynacese. The 
milky juice, technically known as latex, and which exudes from certain 
plants when wounded, is quite distinct from the so-called sap of plants. 
It is contained chiefly in the middle layer of the bark, in a network of 
minute tubes known as laticiferous vessels. These vessels run for the 
most part longitudinally in the other plant tissues, fornting usually a 
closed and connected system. 

The latex possesses to some extent the properties of a vegetable 
emulsion, the caoutchouc being suspended in it in the form of minute 
transparent globules averaging about x^^s's inch in diameter (Adriani). 
On coagulation by means of heat, or treatment with various chemicals, 
the coagulum consists largely of the indiarubber hydrocarbon, mixed, 
however, with certain quantities of resinous and albuminoid substances. 
The proportion of resinous matter varies in different varieties of latex, 
and depends upon the botanical source, habitat, and age of the plant, 
and also upon the portion of the plant from which the latex was 
taken. 

The botanical function of the latex forms a very interesting and 
important study, and much has been written regarding this portion of the 
subject ; this, however, falls outside the province of the present report, 
which is intended to be confined as closely as possible to the pure chemistry 
of the indiarubber hydrocarbon. 

When pure, indiarubber is an almost colourless, elastic substance, and 
when obtained in thin sheets is quite transparent ; the specific gravity 
varies slightly in diflferent samples between '91 and '93. 

It belongs to that class of substances known as colloids, and this fact 
makes the investigation from a chemical standpoint a matter of consider- 
able difiiculty. Even dilute solutions are gelatinous in nature, and it is 
almost impossible to prepare definite and characteristic derivatives direct 
from the hydrocarbon. Its analysis shows it to have the composition 
expressed by the empirical formula C.^Hg, though its molecular weight is 
probably many multiples of this number ; it is an unsaturated hydrocarbon, 
having one unsaturated bond or double linking for every complex CjHg. 
On heating it is decomposed, giving a mixture of hydrocarbons, most of 
which have the same empirical composition as the parent rubber. The 
earlier work on the chemistry of indiarubber was almost entirely confined 
to the examination of the products obtained by destructive distillation, 
and it is proposed to devote the first part of the report to an historical 
survey of these investigations. 

The first mention of indiarubber on record was made about four 
hundred years ago by Herrera,' who, in his account of the second voyage 
of Columbus to America (1493-1496), observed that the inhabitants of 

' JEncycloj)adm Britannica, vol. xii. 1881, p. 835. 



234 RErORTS ON THE STATE OV SCIENCE. 

Hayti played a game with balls made from the gum of a tree, ajid that 
the balls were lighter and bounced better than the wind balls of 
Castile. 

Torquemada, in 1615,^ described the tree yielding this gum as one 
which the Mexican Indians called Ulequahuitl, and although there is 
much doubt about the point, it has been i-egarded as identical with the 
tree now known as Castilloa elastica. Torquemada also mentioned that 
an oil was obtained by the action of heat on the rubber, which was used 
for various medicinal purposes. The Spaniards, even at this early date, 
used the juice of the tree to waterproof their cloaks. 

No rubber seems to have reached Europe, however, till a much later 
date. 

La Condamine, the celebrated French explorer, was the first to give 
any accurate information regarding rubber trees (about the year 
1735). In 1751 the subject is again mentioned in the researches of M. 
Fresnau, published by the French Academy, and M. Aublet, in 1755, 
described a caoutchouc -yielding tree occurring in French Guiana. Such 
trees were also described by J. Howison (1798), and later Roxburgh 
showed that Assam rubber was the product of the tree Ficus elastica. 

Berniard," in 1781, described the processes of the collection and work- 
ing up of indiarubber, and mentioned the oil which is formed from it by 
dry distillation. 

Priestley alludes to the use of indiarubber as an erasing material in his 
work on ' Perspective,' and the oil obtained from indiarubber is again 
mentioned in Fourcroy's ' Systeme de Connaissances Chimiques,' published 
in 1790. 



Investigations on the Products of the Destructive Distillation of 

Indiarubber.^ 

In the year 1833 W. H. Barnard,^ in the course of some experiments 
at the works of Messrs. Enderby, at Greenwich, obsei'ved that when 
caoutchouc was exposed to a temperature of about 600' F. (315° C.) it 
was resolved into a vapour, which on cooling condensed to a liquid having 
remarkable properties, and to which the name caoutchoucine was given. 
Barnard obtained a patent in August 1833* for this invention 'of a 
solvent not hitherto used in the arts.' In the specification the process of 
preparation is indicated, and a diagram is given of the cast-iron still and 
water-cooled worm condenser used in the distillation. The still was 
slowly heated until the temperature registered had risen to 315° C, and 
during this period a dark-looking liquid distilled over, which Barnard 
claimed as his invention, the liquid being a solvent of caoutchouc and 
resinous and oleaginous substances. He afterwards rectified this liquid 
and obtained fractions varying in specific gravity, of which the lightest 
was not below -670. 

He stated that at each rectification the oil became more bright and 

' Loo. cit. 

" Rozier, OhgervationB et Memoires s^ir la Physiqtie. 

' The iauthor acknowledges his indebtedness to the concise collection of the 
literature on this subject, published by Dr. R. Ditmar, Graz, in the Gumvii Zeitiing, 
1904. .^ . . y. 

* Dr. Ure's Dictionary of Arts, kc, 1853, p. 358. 

* Specification No. 6466, August 20, 1833. 



ON XnP: PRESENT POSITION OF THK CHEMISTRY OF RURKER. 235 

transparent, until at a specific gravity about •680 it was jierfectly 
colourless and highly volatile. In the specification Barnard also gives 
practical instructions for the distillation, the cleaning out of the still by 
means of solder, and the removal of the obnoxious odour from the oil. 
The oil was used as a solvent for caoutchouc, resins, varnishes, and paints, 
and for mixing with cocoanut oil to render it suitable for burning in 
lamps. No delinite boiling-point was given, so it must be presumed that 
the term caoutchoucine included all the lighter and lower boiling portions 
of the oil. 

In 1834 Beale and Enderby ' prepared the oil in large quantity. 
They are stated to ha^e obtained by the distillation of rubber 83^ per 
cent, of an oil of specific gravity "640 and boiling below 38° C. Thir, 
statement occurs iu ' L'Institut,' 1834, and was copied from there into the 
' Jahresberichte ' of Berzelius, xv. 320 (1836). The process here referred 
to may be the one for which Barnard was granted a patent in 1833, 
particularly as he was working at the works of Messrs. Enderby. The 
yield of the liglit oil, however, is obviously erroneous. 

In 1834 J. T. Beale, of Wliitechapel, obtained a patent for a new 
form of lamp (Specification No. 6537), in which it was proposed to burn 
' liquids, including any of the fluids of the distillation and occasional 
rectification of indiarubber.' 

The oil caoutchoucine was analysed quantitatively by Dumas, who 
found it to be composed of carbon and hydrogen in the proportions 
C =88 per cent., H=12 per cent. In the 'Annalen de Chimie u. 
Pharm.' for 1835, Liebig, in an article entitled 'A Note concerning the 
Purification of Products obtained by the Dry Distillation of Organic 
Materials,' describes an oil which ' Dr. Gregory had obtained in large 
quantity by the distillation of rubber.' Liebig states that on rectification 
the boiling-point of the oil rose slowly from 35° to 65°, that the specific 
gravity was "673, and was composed of carbon and hydrogen only. The oil, 
distilling at 36°, reduced sulphuric acid with the evolution of sulphur 
dioxide and the formation of black colour. On afterwards adding water 
to the product of the acid treatment, an oil was obtained which, after 
rectification, boiled at 220°. 

In 1836 Gregory '^ published his own investigations in an article 
entitled ' Concerning a Volatile Oil obtained from Indiarubber by De- 
structive Distillation, with Notes concerning some other Erapyreumatic 
Substances.' 

By repeated rectification Gregory obtained liquids, boiling from about 
32° C. (not constant) to 77° C, which had a specific gravity of •666 at 
15°^5. He found that this product was not identical with an oil known as 
' eupion,' previously described by Reichenbach,^ as it was at once de- 
stroyed by sulphuric acid. Gregory also isolated from the distillate the 
fractions mentioned by Liebig, the figures varying slightly, however, 
from those given by the latter chemist. He stated that he obtained a 
highly rectified oil boiling at 96° F. (35-5° C), specific gravity •670, which 
on treatment with sulphuric acid yielded an oil, boiling-point 220°, and 
which had the same composition as oil of turpentine (C5H8 or CoHig). 
Some of the oils obtained boiled as high as 360° C. 



*o'^ 



• L'lnstitut, 1834, p. 290. 

'^ London and Edinburgh Pliil. Mag. and Journ. of Scinnce, Third Scries, vol. ix. 
(1836), p. 322. 

' Ann. de Pharm., 8, 217 (1833). 



236 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

On October 14, 1834, John Dal ton read a paper before the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society ' Concerning certain Liquids obtained 
from Caoutchouc by Dry Distillation.' The paper did not appear in 
print, and it was not until 1836 that the contents of the paper were 
published.' The liquids (contained in four phials) examined liy Dalton 
had been submitted to him by an unknown friend, and he believed them 
to be the results of successive distillations. 

No. 1 contained a dark coloured liquid, specific gravity -86. 

No. 2 contained a slightly coloured liquid, specific gravity -837, boiling-point 
143°-166°. 

No. 3 contained a colourless liquid, specific gravity -752, boiling-point 60". 
No. 4 contained a liquid, specific gravity -68, boiling-point 42°. 

He found that the vapour tension of No. 4 was practically the same 
as that of sulphuric ether. Their relative volatilities were examined by 
plunging the bulbs of thermometers into the liquids, and then observing 
the fall of temperature on evaporation. He determined the specific 
gravity of No. 4, and found it to be 2-07 (air=l). Dalton considered 
that the oil No. 4 was identical with that obtained by Faraday by the 
decomposition of oils by heat, but also that it was capable of further 
rectification. 

A. F. C. Himly, in 1835, published his dissertation (Gottingen) 
entitled ' De caoutchouc ejusque distillationis siccae productis et ex his 
de caoutchine, novo corpore ex hydrogenio et carboneo composito,' ^ and 
seems to have gone very fully into the question of tlie decomposition 
products of indiarubber. He obtained on distillation of speck rubber 
75 per cent, of an ethereal oily distillate of specific gravity -8702, and 
from this he separated a portion boiling 56° to 96° C, which, when 
carefully redistilled, gave a very volatile oil having the following proper- 
ties : specific gravity, -654 ; boiling-point, 33°-44° C. It was completely 
transparent, and had a pleasant odour, was not solidified at a temperature 
of — 39°, and on evaporating on the bulb of a thermometer reduced the 
temperature from +20° to —10°. This oil was named ' Faradayin ' by 
Himly, because it possessed great similarity to an ethereal liquid ob- 
tained about that time by Faraday by the distillation of an oil, although 
the boiling-point of Faraday's liquid was 10° higher than that obtained 
by Himly. Among other fractions obtained by Himly was one boiling 
171°-5, to which he gave the name ' caoutchine.' By redistillation of this he 
obtained a liquid, boiling-point 168° — 171°, which he purified as follows : 
It was first dried with calcium chloride, and converted into caoutchine 
hydrochloride by passing dry hydrogen chloride gas into the well-cooled 
liquid. The product was dissolved in alcohol and reprecipitated with 
water, dried with CaClj, and the hydrochloric acid split off by distilling 
over quicklime or barium oxide, the resulting liquid being distilled over 
potassium. The hydrocarbon thus obtained had the following properties : 
It was a clear neutral oil, only slightly refractive, and possessed an odour 
and taste resembling those of orange oil ; specific gravity, -8423 at 16° ; 
boiling-point, 171° 5 at 750 mm.; did not solidify at —39°, and was 
soluble in absolute alcohol, ethereal and fatty oils, and carbon disulphide. 

' London and Edinburgh Phil. Mag. and Joiirn. nf Science, Third Series, vol. ix. 
183fi), p. 479. 

"^ Ann. d. Ch. u. Pharm. 27, 41. 



ON THE PRESENT POSITION OF THE CHEMISTRY OF RUBBER. 237 

The vapour density indicated the formula to be CjoHig, and it gave 
on analysis the following figures : — 

C - 8700 per cent. H = 11-56 per cent. 

Calculated ° for C,„Hi5. 

C = 88-23 „ H = 11-77 

Himly also described chlor-caoutchine obtained by passing chlorine 
into the cooled hydrocarbon, and also the caoutchine hydrochloride ob- 
tained by the action of dry hydrochloric acid gas on cooled caoutchine. 

The most complete investigation of this period on the distillation 
products of rubber was that made by Alexander Bouchardat, and pub- 
lished in 1837 in the 'Journal de Pharmacie' (vol. xxiii. 1837). 

The object of the investigation was the discovery of a good solvent for 
indiarubber. Bouchardat distilled his rubber from a copper retort fitted 
with a curved neck which terminated in a spiral condenser. This was 
surrounded by ice, and communicated at the base with a series of three 
bottles immersed in a freezing mixture. By distillation in this apparatus 
417 grs. of rubber yielded (a) 357 grs. of liquid, collecting in the first 
flask, and {b) 29-82 grs. in the other two flasks. 

Hevdene. 

From the liquid in the first flask Bouchardat isolated a hydrocai-bon 
boiling at 252° C, to which he gave the naraeheveene (from Hevea guian- 
ensis, a euphorbiaceous rubber-yielding tree). This is a transparent, neu- 
tral yellow oil, having a specific gravity -921 at 16-8°, and boiling point 
about 252°. It does not solidify at low temperatures, burns with a smoky 
flame, and is soluble in absolute alcohol. The composition in two experi- 
ments was found to be : — 

1. C = 86-62 H = 13-18 

2. C = 85-24 H = 14-76 

This substance forms a wax-like derivative when chlorine is passed 
over it, hydrochloric acid being at the same time evolved. Bromine and 
iodine compounds were also obtained, but evolution of HBr or HI 
always accompanied the formation. When treated with strong caustic 
potash or soda heveene becomes viscous and discoloured owing to oxygen 
absorption. On slowly adding strong sulphuric acid to heveene in a 
stoppered flask — with frequent cooling — Bouchardat obtained a thick 
brown mass, and noticed that after standing a few days a clear oily 
liquid floated on the top. This oil was separated, washed, purified, and 
finally distilled. It boiled at 182° -4, was soluble in alcohol and ether, and 
was unacted upon by concentrated alkalies and acids. 

Bouchardat considered it to be identical with the product obtained by 
Gregory by treating the light oil (boiling-point 35°-77°) with sulphuric 
acid, although Gregory's product boiled at 226° C. 

On examining the liquid contained in the second and third flasks, it 
was found to be a transparent, mobile, slightly yellow liquid, which boiled 
a few degrees above freezing-point. A portion crystallised out at —25° C, 
but the other part of the liquid would not solidify at —30°. A partial 
separation was thus effected : (a) the mother liquid was run oS" and 
examined first. On acting upon it with sulphuric acid, heat was deve- 
loped, and after standing for a few days a clear transparent oil separated 



238 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

This, after washing with potash, distilled at 63°-7 at 745 mm. It was 
a colourless liquid, specific gravity -69 at 18° -75, insoluble in water, 
and unacted upon by acids. Boucbardat compared it with Reichenbach's 
'eupion.' (6) By warming the original liquid to 12° -5 and condensing the 
vapour in a freezing mixture a liquid was obtained boiling below 0° and 
having a specific gravity '65 at — 5°. It was soluble in ether and alcohol. 
On the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid it gave a brownish coloured 
product, which was not acted upon by potash or hydrochloric acid. It 
boiled at 85°'5 C. and had a specific gravity -SS at 15°'5. Bouchardat 
considered it to be identical with Faraday's then recently discovered 
hydrocarbon,' now known as benzene, (c) After the liquid boiling below 
0° had been collected, a fraction was obtained boiling between 12°"5 and 
22°"5. From this liquid, on cooling in a freezing mixture, a solid sepa- 
rated in the form of fine white needles. These were separated from the 
adhering liquid, and on examination Bouchardat found the substance to 
be a hydrocarbon, to which he gave the name caoutchene. It forms a 
white opaque mass, melting-point, — 12°'5 ; boiling-point, 18°"12 at 752 
mm. ; specific gravity, -65 at — 2°'5 ; soluble in alcohol, and is not acted 
upon by alkalies. 

Analysis gave the figures : — 

1. C = 85-09 per cent. H = 13-77 per cent, 

2. C = 85-44 „ ,; H = 14-59 „ „ 

The treatment of this subject, however, on modern scientific lines, and 
the isolation of definite compounds from the distillation products of 
rubber, may be said to date from 1860, when Greville Williams ^ con- 
tinued the work of Himly and Bouchardat. Williams distilled the india- 
rubber in an iron alembic, using the lowest temperatures consistent with 
the distillation, and the process was stopped before all the heveene 
fraction had passed over. The distillate possessed an unpleasant odour, 
due, he considered, to the volatile bases resulting from the decomposition 
of the vegetable casein in the rubber. By purification and redistillation 
he separated two chief fractions from tlie oil, (1) boiling at 37°-44°C., and 
(2) boiling at 170°-180°C. These same fractions appear to have been 
also isolated about the same time by Williams from the distillation pro- 
duct of gutta-percha. 

Isojjrene. 

No. 1, after careful rectification over sodium, boiled almost entirely 
between 37° and 38°. It had a vapour density of 2*44 (air=l) (cal- 
culated for C5H8=2'45), and specific gravity -6823. The mean of three 
analyses of the liquid obtained both from rubber and gutta-percha gave 
the figures : — 

C = 88-0 H = 121 

Calculated for C^Hj 
C = 88-2 Hzill-8 

He gave to this liquid the name ' isoprene.' Williams observed that 
this isoprene, when left in a bottle for some months, became sticky, 
lost its fluidity, and became 'ozonised' (peroxidised) by absorbing the 
oxygen of the air. The pei'oxidised isoprene possessed marked bleaching 

' Phil. Trans. Boyal Soc, 1825. 

2 Proceedings Royal Society, 1860, p. 517. 



ON THE PRESENT POSITION OF THE CHEMlSTllY OF KUBBEK. 239 

properties, decolouring indigo sulphate and converting lead sulphide into 
lead sulphate. By careful distillation of this sticky product some isoprene 
first passed over ; the temperature then rose quickly, and the residue was 
converted into a white spongy mass, which consisted of carbon, hydrogen, 
and oxygen. Analysis gave : — 



C = 78-7 H = lO-7 = 10-5 

Calculated for C,„H,^0 
C = 78-94 U = 10 52 O =10-51 



Isoprene also readily combined with bromine, the action being some 
what violent. 

Caoutchine. 

Fraction No. 2. The portion boiling at 1 70°-180° was further rectified, 
and Williams obtained a fraction boiling almost constantly at 170°-173°, 
which was identical with the caoutchine obtained by Himly (boiling at 
171°). 

Gutta-percha also yielded the same fraction, and the mean of the 
analyses of samples from both sources gave : — 

C = 88-l H = ll-9 

Himly's figures . C = 88-4 H = 11-5(5 

Greville Williams showed that the vapour density of caoutchine was 
double that of isoprene, and observed that it belonged to a group of substances 
isomeric with turpentine- oil, the same quantity of bromine being absorbed 
by it|,'as|"^by turpentine-oil. He described the preparation of the 
bromide,' and on distillation of this brom compound with potassium he 
obtained an oil boiling at 170°- 200°, which he considered to be cymene. 
On oxidation with sulphuric acid and potassium dichromate, this oil 
gave an acid apparently identical with the isolinic acid obtained by 
Hofmann. An oil boiling at 300° was also produced, which Williams 
termed paracymol. 

On treating caoutchine with an excess of concentrated sulphuric acid 
there resulted a thick liquid from which, on treatment with lime, Williams 
obtained a calcium salt of the empirical formula C2oHi5CaS.20g. 

Isoprene, thus obtained by Williams, was afterwards the subject of 
further investigations by M. G. Bouchardat.^ On heating isoprene in a 
sealed tube containing carbon dioxide for ten hours at 2y0°-290° Bou- 
chardat obtained a viscous sticky mass which no longer boiled at 38°. 

On distillation this gave (1) some unchanged isoprene ; (2) an inactive 
hydrocarbon boiling at 170°-185°, having an odour like lemons, specific 
gravity "866 at 0°, and composition CioH,g; (3) other higher boiling con- 
densation products. 

The hydrocarbon boiling at 170°-185° was optically inactive and 
absorbed oxygen from the air. Bouchardat found that it combined with 
hydrogen chloride in ethereal solution, giving two different compounds — 
(1) a hydrochloride boiling at 145° (100 mm.), having the composition 
CmHigHCl; and (2) a solid dihydrochloride melting at 49°-5, having 
the formula CioH,62HCl. 

The name of di-isoprene was given to this hydrocarbon, a polymer of 
isoprene, the boiling-point of which was found to be 174°-6. Bouchardat 

' Cowj^^es ^e«<Z«s, Ixxxix. p. 1117 (1879). 



240 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

considered it identical with terpiline, the optically inactive hydrocarbon 
of turpentine oil, the dihydrochloride being identical with terpiline hydro- 
chloride. He also suggested the identity of this di-isoprene with caout- 
chine and with the hydrocarbon from terebinthine, as he was able to 
obtain terpine hydrate from all three. 

Subsequently Bouchardat investigated the action of hydrogen chloride 
and hydrogen bromide on isoprene itself, and found that here also, two 
hydrochlorides and hydrobromides were produced by the addition of one, 
or two, molecules of the halogen acid. The following compounds were 
prepared : — 

Boiling-point. Specific Gravity. 

aH^HCl. . . 85°-9l° 0-868 at 15° 

aH,2HCl . . 145°-953° 1 065 at, 16° 

aH.HBr. . . 10i°-108° 1-173 at 15° 

C^HsBr^ . . . 176°-180° 1-601 at 15° 

as were also several other halogen compounds and their derivatives. 

A very interesting observation was also made by Bouchardat, viz., 
that on treating isoprene with cold aqueous hydrochloric acid, saturated 
at 0° C, an elastic polymer was obtained, which after boiling with water 
possessed the properties of indiarubber. It had the same percentage com- 
position as isoprene, was insoluble in alcohol, swelled upon treatment 
with ether, and dissolved in carbon disulphide like indiarubber. On dry 
distillation the same hydrocarbons are produced as in the case of caout- 
chouc. One of these, CmHi^, was isolated, and was identical with a similar 
hydrocarbon obtained from caoutchouc, yielding on treatment with hydro- 
gen chloride a solid hydrochloride melting at 46°. 

If this substance obtained by Bouchardat was really indiarubber, this 
work constitutes the first partial synthesis of this hydrocarbon. The 
isoprene used was, however, itself obtained from rubber. This same 
elastic polymer was subsequently obtained by Professor W. A. Tilden/ 
in 1882, with isoprene from other sources. By passing turpentine oil 
through a red-hot tube and fractioning the products of decomposition, 
Professor Tilden isolated a small quantity of a liquid, boiling-point 37° the 
vapour density of which corresponded with the formula C^Hg, and which 
was apparently identical with isoprene. On treating this with concen- 
trated hydrochloric acid he obtained a tough elastic product closely re- 
sembling caoutchouc. Isoprene from rubber was al&o examined by Tilden, 
who confirmed Bouchardat's observations, except that he found the boiling- 
point to be 35°. He also obtained the elastic polymer by treatment 
with nitrosyl chloride, and prepared isoprene tetrabromide C5HsBr4 for 
the first time. In his publication Tilden also discussed the question of 
the constitution of isoprene, and concluded tiiat isoprene is /3 methyl 
crotonylene 

CH3X 

>C-CH = CH, 

ch/ 

a view which has since received synthetical confirmation. 

Dr. O. Wallach,'- in 1885, conducted a thorough investigation of the 
hydrocarbons, caoutchine and isoprene, obtained by the distillation of 

' Chem News, 1882, pp. 120-121 ; Brit. Assoc. Report, Southampton, 1882. 
• Ann. 'der Chem., 1885 (227). pp. 292-296; 1884 (225), p. 311. 



ON THE PRESEXT POSITION OF THE CHEMISTRY OF RUBBER. 241 

rubber. After distilling off the low boiling portions of the distillate, 
Wallach subjected the remainder to distillation in steam, and thus ob- 
tained a liquid boiling after rectification at 180°, the ' caoutchine ' of Himly, 
Williams, and Bouchardat. On treatment with bromine this gave a 
solid tetrabromide, melting-point 125°-126°, which proved to be com- 
pletely identical with the tetrabromide of the hydrocarbon then known as 
cinene (now dipentene). The solid hydrochloride was also obtained,, 
melting at 49°-50'', from which by treatment with aniline Wallach re- 
generated the caoutchine. From the identity of the teti-abromides, and 
of the odours, he concluded that caoutchine and cinene (dipentene) were 
identical. 

The isoprene, boiling-point 34°-39°, was also examined by Wallach,' 
who confirmed the observations of Bouchardat and Tilden on the poly- 
merisation to di-isoprene on heating, and showed by means of the tetra- 
bromide that this also was identical with caoutchine and cinene. Wallach 
seems to have been the first to notice the spontaneous conversion of 
isoprene into a rubber-like product simply by the action of light. He 
allowed isopi-ene to remain in a sealed tube in the light for a long time, 
and on afterwards adding alcohol to the liquid a tough indiarubber-like 
mass separated out which, on standing in the air for some time, resinified. 
In May 1892, Professor Tilden ^ read a paper before the Philosophical 
Society of Birmingham, in which he makes the following statement with 
regard to the spontaneous conversion of isoprene into caoutchouc, being 
apparently unaware of Wallach's observation : — 

' Specimens of isoprene were made from several terpenes in the course 
of my work on those compounds, and some of them I have preserved. 
I was surprised a few weeks ago at finding the contents of the bottles 
containing isoprene from turpentine entirely changed in appearance. In 
place of a limpid colourless liquid, the bottles contained several lar^e 
masses of a solid of a yellowish colour. Upon examination this turned out 
to be indiarubber. The change of isoprene by spontaneous polymerisation 
has not, to my knowledge, been observed before. I can only account for it 
by the hypothesis that a small quantity of acetic or formic acid had been 
produced by the oxidising action of the air, and that the presence of this 
compound had been the means of transforming the rest. The liquid was 
acid to test paper, and yielded a small portion of unchanged isoprene. 

' The artificial rubber, like natural rubber, appears to consist of two 
substances, one of which is more soluble in benzene or in carbon disulphide 
than the other. A solution of artificial rubber in benzene leaves on 
evaporation a residue which agrees in all characters with a similar pre- 
paration from Para rubber. The artificial rubber unites with sulphur in 
the same way as ordinary rubber, forming a tough elastic compound.' 

Bouchardat and Lafont,'' in 1886, treated caoutchine with glacial 
acetic acid, and obtained terpineol acetate, CmHi^.CHiOj, boiling-point 
220°, or 110°- 11.^° (10 mm.) Specific gravity, -9570' at 18° C. It" is in 
active, and on hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid gave caoutchine dihydro- 
chloride and acetic acid. 

By saponification of the acetate with alcoholic potash at 100° inactive 
terpineol is formed, which, when crystallised by cooling, afterwards melts 
at 32°. 

' A7in. der Chem,., 1887 (238), pp. 88-89. 
^ Chem. News, vol. Ixv., p. 265. 
" Ann. Chem. Pltys.. 1886, pp. 507 534. 
1906. J ■ vv ^ 



242 REPORTS OTf THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

This hoils at 114'-118° (10 mm.), and on treatment with hydrogen 
chloride gas gives the same dihydrochloride as above, C|oH,b2HC1, shown 
by Wallach to be identical with dipentene hydrochloride. The formation 
of these compounds furnishes additional proof of the identity of caout- 
chine with dipentene. 

We have seen that in 1882 Tilden suggested that isoprene was fi methyl 
crotonylene, but brought forward no other experimental proof than that 
on oxidation it yielded carbonic, formic, and acetic acids. Gadziatzky ' 
was the first to bring forward direct experimental proof in the support of 
this, formula for isoprene. From isoprene hydrochloride he obtained a 
tertiary alcohol, dimethyl-vinyl carbinol — 

^g'\c(0H).CH = CH2. 

He also showed that on heating isoprene with dilate alcoholic hydro- 
chloric acid it is transformed into dimethylallene, which change can be 
represented as taking place by the alternate addition and elimination of 
hydrochloric acid : — 

(1) gU»\G-CH = CH2 + HCl = ^g''^CCl-CH = OH2; 






(2) pS'^^CCl - CH = CHj - HCl = p5^\c = C = CH^ 



Mokiewsky 2 in 1895 succeeded in obtaining a solid crystalline 
derivative of isoprene by the action of hypochlorous acid upon it. This 
melted at 81°, and he considered it to have the formula C5Hg(OH)2Cl2 
(isoprene dichlorhydrin), 

Ipatieff and Wittorf (1897) identified amongst the products of 
rubber distillation the hydrocarbon trimethyl ethylene, 



?:>=' 



gJj3>C = CH.CH3, 



after Mokiewsky * had shown it to be present in the distillation products 
of the turpentine decomposition. This occurs in the fraction SS^-SS" of 
the rubber distillate. On treating this fraction with HBr in acetic acid 
solution a hydrobromide was obtained, boiling-point 50°-74° (16 mm.). 
On treatment with water and potassium carbonate this gave an oil which 
proved to be dimethyl ethyl carbinol. Its formation from trimethyl- 
ethylene is expressed in the following manner : — 

Ch'/^ = oh . CH3 -h H Br = ^^»\cBr - CH^ . CH3 

Trimethyethylene 

^^»"\cBr . CHj . CH3 + HjO = ^y'\c(OH) . CH, . OH,. 

Dimethylethyl carbinol. 

The chief product of the treatment of the 33°-38° fraction with 

' Wolkow, Jonrn. 0/ Russian Phys. Chem. Soc, 20, 706. 
= Mokiewsky, CItem. Zeit, 1895, 101. 
' JouTii.f. Prakt. Chem., 1897, pp. 2-3. 
♦ Journ. Puss. Phye. Chem. Soc, 27, 516. 



ON THE PRESENT POSITION OF THE CHEMISTRY OF RUBBER. 243 

HBr, however, is /3 dimethyl trimethylene bromide ; specific gravity, 
1-696 at 0° 

which was shown to be identical with the bromide obtained from 
ft dimethyl allene (Gadziatzky). Assumiog that isoprene possrsses an 
open chain, these results are best explained by supposing that isoprene 
has the formula proposed by Tilden, and which Ipatieff called methyl 
divinyl. 

Ch!^^ - CH = CHj + 2HBr = ^h /'^E'" • ^^2 • CH.Br. 

/3 methyl crotonylene (Tilden), 

or isopropenyl ethylene (Gadziatzky), 

or as-merhyl divinyl (Ipatieff). 

The preparation from /3 dimethyl allene is expressed — 

^^sXc = = CH. + 2HBr = ^g'^CBr . CH^ . CH^Br. 

The question of the constitution and formula of isoprene was, how- 
ever, settled beyond doubt by the synthesis, in 1897, of ft methyl 
crotonylene by Euler \ who found it to be identical in properties with 
isoprene. Euler started with ft methyl pyrollidine, 

Cxig . CH — OH.^v 

I >NH, 

CHj-CH/ 

which, on treatment with methyl iodide and potassium hyrdoxide, was 
converted into/3 methyl-dimethyl-pyrollidyl-ammonium-iodide : — 



CHg . CH CHgV /CHg 



I '>N^CH3 

ch,-ch/ m 



On distillation with solid potash this is converted into one of two 
bases, both yielding the same end results : — 

(1) CHg.CH-CHj-N/p^' 

CH = CH, 
or (2) CH3.C = CH, 

CH,-CH,.N<;^CH3 

On again treating with methyl iodide these bodies yield respectively 
the compounds : — 

^CH, 

(1) CHj . OH-CHj-N r pS' 

I \i ^ 

CH = CH2 

or (2) CH3 . C = CH„ pry 

I /'PH 

CH, . CH3 . N C ch' 

\I ' 



Ber., 30 (1897), pp. 1989-91. 

u 2 



244 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

both of which on distillation with solid potash split up and give isoprene, 
trimethylamiue, potassium iodide, and water :— 



I 

ca 

II 



+ N(CH3)3 + KI + H.,0. 



The isoprene thus prepared was found to be identical with the 
isoprene obtained from caoutchouc. It was identified by means of the 
hypochlorous acid addition product, melting-point 81°, isoprene dichlor- 
hydrin, obtained by Mokiewsky. 

In 1898 Mokiewsky ' prepared an isoprene dibromhydrin similar to 
the above dichlorhydrin, and having probably the constitution— 

Cff, . CBr . CH.,OH or CHa-CBr-CH.OH 

I " I ' 

<JHBv-CH,OH CH(OH) . CEr,Br 

and in 1899 - this same investigator showed that on attaching a molecule 
of hydrogen bromide to isoprene the same unsaturated tertiary bromide 
is obtained as from dimethylallene when similarly treated. This furnishes 
additional confirmation of the correctness of the isoprene formula : — 



\C-CH = CH, 
Ch/ ^ CH3. 

isojyrene '>CBr . CH = CH^. 

CH3. .^ CH/ 

>C=C = CH., 
CH3/ 

dimethyl allene 



Composition of Caoutchine, Di-isoprene, or Dipentene. 

We have seen that Wallach had proved conclusively the identity 
of di-isoprene, the polymerisation product of isoprene, obtained by 
Bouchardat and Tilden, with the hydrocarbon known as cinene or 
dipentene, and that the caoutchine of Himly and Williams was also 
identical with this substance. The constitution of dipentene, however, 
for a long time remained a matter of much uncertainty. 

Dipentene is one of the most commonly occurring terpenes, being 
found free in nature, and being also easily prepared from many other 
naturally occurring products, such as terpineol and pinene. It is an 
inactive hydrocarbon, but is really an externally compensated mixture 
of two active liydrocarbons, the d and I limonenes. Tilden ^ showed that 
it was closely related to the alcohol terpineol CioHigO, and Wallach'' 
found that on heating terpineol with potassium bisulphate at 200° water 
was eliminated and dipentene was formed. Wagner, in 1894,'* after a 

' Jaurn. Rv.ss. Phys. Chem. Soc, 30 (1898), pp. 885-900. 
2 Ibid., 32 (1899). pp. 207, 21ti. ' £er., 1879, 12, 848. 

Ann. (1885), 230, p. 258, ' £er., 27, 1636. 



ON THB PRESENT POSITION OF THE CHEMISTRY OF RUBBER. 245 

careful consideratioa of the relationship of terpineol to pinene, pinol, and 
sobrerol, deduced the formula 

//CH - CH„ V yCH., 

CHj . C^ >nH - C^CH, 

\CH,-CH/ \0H 

as best representing terpineol, and represented the constitution of 
dipentene as 

^CH — CH., V yCH^ 

CHj . C^ ' >CH . C^ 

\CH,,-CH/ ^CH; 

Ipatieff' suggested the probable formation of dipentene from isoprene 
by the condensation of two molecules of the latter in the following 
manner : — 

CH3 ^Hg 

I I 

CH,-^ \CH Ch/ '^'^CH 



CHov 
"^CH 



CHy ^^2 \ / ^^2 



CH 
^\rrr CH./ \CH3 



CH.^ ^CH, 

The proof of the correctness of Wagner's formula for dipentene was 
supplied by Professor W. H. Perkin, jun., 2 in 1904, by his synthesis of 
terpineol and dipentene from B keto hexahydrobenzoic ester. 

This ester, after treatment with magnesium methyl iodide and sub- 
sequent hydrolysis, yields 8 hydroxy hexahydro p-toluic acid, which on 
the addition of fuming HBr passes into 8 brom-hexa-hydro-^^-toluic 
acid, 

CH, Br 

\/ 

CO C 

CHj /\ CH, CH„ /'^ CH2 CH, f^\ CH, 

CH, 



CH3 OH 

\/ 



CH, /\ CH, 


CH, 


1 1 
CH 


CH, 
. COOH 



\/ CH, CH, I J CH, CH, .} CH, 

CH . COO Et CH . COOH CH . COOH. 



Weak alkalies or pyridine eliminate HBr from this acid, yielding 
A"* tetrahydro-^j-toluic acid. 

CH, 

I 
G 

CH., /^ CH 



CH, V ^ 



CH, 
CH . COOH 



The ester of this acid on subsequent treatment with magnesium- 



' JoKvn. f. Frakt. Chem., 55 (1897). 
- Jourii. Chem. Soc, 1904, p. 654. 



246 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

methyl-iodide passes into terpineol, from which, by splitting off the 
elements of water with potassium bisulphate, dipentene is obtained. 

CH3 CH3 CH3 

c! h i 

CH, OH CHj CH HC^ CH 

II -> ! I ^ II 

CH, CH„ CH, CH, CH, CH, 

\/ ' \/ \/ 

CH . COO Et CH terpineol CH dipentene 

1 I 

C (OH) C 

CHj CH3 CH, CH3 

The products thus obtained were shown to be identical with those of 
natural origin. 

In 1902 the examination of the distillation products of caoutchouc 
was again taken up by Dr. C. D. Harries,^ then at Berlin, and now 
Professor of Chemistry at Kiel. Harries assumed that the dipentene 
was a secondary product of the decomposition of the molecules of the 
colloid indiarubber, that the primary products were molecules of isoprene, 
or ' di-isoprene,' and that dipentene was found from these in a secondary 
reaction. He examined carefully the dipentene fraction of the india- 
rubber distillate, boiling-point 150^-200°, and found that dipentene was 
never present in greater proportion than 33 per cent., the remaining 
portion consisting of other hydrocarbons of the formula CioH,,;. Two 
of these were isolated. One fraction, boiling-point 147°-150° (761 mm.), 
specitic gravity '8286 at 205, t^^ =1-4692 and molecular refraction 45'54, 
contained no dipentene. 

He considered it to be a hydrocarbon, probably having the following 
formula, and for which he again revived the name di-isoprene : — 

CH3 

C-CH„-CH,-CH = C-CH = CH„ 

/' ' 1 ' 

CH, CH3 

Harries regarded this as possibly identical with the hydrocarbon myrcene 
obtained from Bay oil. 

Another fraction boiling at 168°-169° was also found to contain 
no dipentene, no solid tetrabromi