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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

S', / 



v'l 



REPORT 



OF THE 



SEVENTY.SEVENTH MEETING OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 




LEICESTER 



31 JULY— 7 AUGUST, 1907 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1908 

Office of the Association : Burlington House, London, W. 



PRINTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE AND CO. LTD., NEW-STKKET SQUAHE 
LONDON 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Rules of the British Association xxvii 

Officees and Council, 1907-08 xxv 

Tables : Past Annual Meetings : 

Places and Dates, Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local Secretaries xliii 

Trustees and General Officers Iviii 

Sectional Presidents and Secretaries lix 

Chairmen and Secretaries of Conferences of Delegates Ixxx 

Evening Discourses Ixxxi 

Lectures to the Operative Classes Ixxxiv 

Attendances and Receipts Ixxxvi 

Analysis of Attendances Ixxxviii 

Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes Ixxxix 

Report of the Council to the General Committee, 1906-07 ex 

General Treasurer's Account, 1906-07 cxiv 

LEICESTER MEETING, 1907: 

General Meetings , cxvi 

Sectional Officers , cxvi 

Conference of Delegates cxvii 

Committee of Recommendations cxvii 

Research Committees cxviii 

Communications ordered to he printed in evtenso cxxvii 

Resolutions referred to the Council cxxvii 

Synopsis of Grants of Money cxxviii 

Address by the President, Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.E.S 3 

Reports on the State op Science 29 

Transactions op the Sections 427 

Evening Discourses 728 

Index , 739 

List op Members, &c 90 pp. 

a2 



iv CONTENTS. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Page 
Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. W. Whitaeee (Chairman), Mr. F. W. Rttdler (Secretary), Rev. 
J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edwabb Brabeook, Dr. Horace T. Brown, Dr. Vaughak 
Cornish, Dr. J. G. Gauson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, 
Mr. J. HopKiNSON, Professor R. Melbola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. 
Reab, Rev. T. R. R. Steering, Professor W. W. Watts, and the General 
Officers. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 29 

Report of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies held at 
Leicester, August 1 and 6, 1907 30 

Address by the Chairman, H. J. Mackinber, M.A., on ' The Advance- 
ment of Geographical Science by Local Scientific Societies' 33 

The Advisability of Appointing a Committee for the Photographic 
Survey of Ancient Remains in the British Islands. By Rev. R. 

ASHINGTON BuLLEN 37 

A Plea that Local Societies should give greater attention to the 
Investigation of the Fungi occurring in their Districts, with Sugges- 
tions for the Encouragement of the Study of this Group. By 
Carleton Rea, B.C.L., M.A 40 

List of Corresponding Societies, 1907-1908 48 

Catalogue of the more important Papers published by the Corresponding 
Societies during the year ending May 31, 1907 53 

Experiments for improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
Ratleigh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Lord Kelvin, 
Professors W. E. Atrton, J. Perry, W. G. Abams, and G. Carey Foster, 
Sir Oliver J. Lobqe, Dr. A. Mitirheab, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors 
A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming, and J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, Sir A. AV. Rtjcker, Professor H. L. Callendae, and Mr. 
George Matthey 73 

Appbnbix I. — Notes on the present condition of the work on 
Electric Units at the National Physical Laboratory. By F. E. 
Smith 75 

Appendix II. — Specification for the Practical Application of the 

Definition of the International Ampere 77 

Appendix III. — Preparation of the Weston (Cadmium) Standard Cell 80 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. V 

Page 
Seismological Investigations. — Twelth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor H. H. Tuenee (Chairman), Dr. J. Milne (Secretary), Lord 
Kelvin, Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. Veenon Boys, Sir Geoegb 
Daewin, Mr. Hoeace Daewin, Major L. Daewin, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebeook, Mr. M. II. Geay, Professor J. W. Judd, Professor 
C. G. Knott, Professor R. Melbola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor 
J. Peeey, Mr. W. E. Pltjmmee, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement 
Rbid, and Mr. Nelson RiCHAEDsoN. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 83 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers 83 

II. The Situations of Stations ., 84 

III. Photographic Record-receivers 85 

IV. Origins and Relationships of Large Earthquakes in 1906 86 

V. On the Apparently Luminous Effects from certain Rocks 87 

VI. Earthquakes and Changes in Latitude. By Dr. C. G. Knott ... 91 

VII. Note on the Duration of the First Preliminary Tremor in the 
San Francisco and Colombian Earthquakes. By R. D. 
Oldham 93 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir "W. H. Peeece (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebeook (Secre- 
tary), Professor W. G. Adams, Dr. Oheee, Captain Oeeak, Mr. W. L. 
Fox, Sir A. W. Ruckee, and Professor Schustee 93 

The Further Tabulation of Bessel Functions.— Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill (Chairman), Dr. L. N. G. Filon 
(Secretary), and Professor Alfeed Lodge 94 

Appendix. — Report of the Committee appointed in 1906 to consider 
the Further Calculation of Bessel's Functions 95 

The Teaching of Elementary Mechanics. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor Hoeace Lamb (Chairman), Professor J. Peeey 
(Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Professors Cheystal, Ewing, G. A. 
Gibson, and Geeenhill, Principal Geipfiths, Professor Heneici, Dr. 
E. W. HoBSON, Mr. C. S. Jackson, Sir Olivee Lodge, Professors Love, 
MiNCHiN, ScHUSTEE, and A. M. Woethington, and Mr. A. W. Siddons, 
appointed for the Consideration of the Teaching of Elementary Mechanics, 
and the Improvement which might be eflected in such Teaching 97 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by means of Kites in co-operation 
with a Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Sixth Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. W. H. 
Dines (Secretary), Mr. D. Aechibald, Mr. C. Veenon Boys, Dr. 
R. T. Glazebeook, Dr. H. R. Mill, Professor A. Schustee, and Dr. 
W.Watson. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 99 

Glossop Moor Kite Station (Peak District). Report for the Session 
1906-1907. By J. E. Petavel, F.R.S 99 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Lord McLaren (Chairman), Professor Ceum Beown (Secretary), 
Sir John Miteeay, Professor F. W. Dyson, and Mr. R. T. Omond 100 

The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Substances, and its 
relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives.— Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping (Chairman), Professor K.J. P. 
Oeton (Secretary), Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. Lapwoeth, and Dr. J. T. 
Hewitt 101 



Yl ■ CONTENTS. 

Page 
The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances. — Report of the Comoiittee, con- 
sisting of Dr. E. DiVEKS (Chairman), Professor A. W. Ceossxey (Secretary), 
Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. 0. Foester, and Dr. H. R. Lb Sueur ... 104 
Wave-length Tahles of the Spectra of the Elements and Compounds. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. RoscoE (Chairman), Dr. Mar- 
shall Watts (Secretary), Sir Norm an Lockter, Professor Sir James 
Dewar, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. Schuster, Professor W. N. 
Hartley, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, Sir W. be W. Abney, and Dr. W. E. 

Adeney 116 

Dynamic Isomerism. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor H. E. 
Armstrong (Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry (Secretary), Professor Sydney 
Young, Dr. J. J. Dobbib, Dr. A. Lapworth, Dr. M. O. Foester, and 
Dr. C. H. Desch. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 270 

The Study of Isomorphous Derivatives of Benzene Sulphonic Acid. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professors H. A. Miers (Chairman), H. E. 
Armstrong (Secretary), W. P. Wynne, and W. J. Pope 272 

The Applications of Grignard's Reaction. — By Alex. McKenzxb, M.A., 
D.Sc, Ph.D 273 

Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. — Fifth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chair- 
man), Mr. J. LoMAS (Secretary), Professor W. W. Watts, Professor P. F. 
Kendall, Professor A. C. Seward, Messrs. H. C. Beasley, E. T. Newton, 
and W. A. E. Ussher, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. (Drawn up by 
the Secretary) 298 

On a Mandible of Labyrinthodon leptognathus (Owen). By A. Smith 
Woodward, LL.D./F.R.S 298 

Report on Footprints from the Trias. Part V. By H. C. Beasley ... 300 

On a Footprint Slab in the Museum of Zoology, University of Liver- 
pool. By J. LoMAS, A.R.C.S., F.G.S 304 

The Flora and Fauna of the Trias (Keuper only) in Leicestershire, 
with some Notes on that of the surrounding counties. By A. R. 
HoRwooD 306 

A Bibliography of Works referring to the Flora and Fauna of the 
Trias (Keuper) in Leicestershire, and in some outlying localities 311 

Note on the Fossils from the Lower Keuper of Bromsgrove. By L. J. 
Wills, B.A., F.G.S 312 

The Faunal Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone of the South-west of 
England.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor J. W. 
Gregory (Chairman), Dr. A. Vaughan (Secretary), Dr. Wheelton Hind, 
and Professor W. W. Watts, appointed to enable Dr. A. Vaughan to con- 
tinue his Researches thereon. (Drawn up by the Secretai7) 313 

I. — The Avonian Sequence in the Gower 313 

II. — The Carboniferous Sequence from Rush to Skerries, Co. Dublin... 314 
Hi. — Palseontological Work 314 

Investigation of the pre-Devonian Beds of the Mendips.— Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. H. B. Woodward (Chairman), Professor 
S. H. Reynolds (Secretary), Professor C. Lloyd Morgan, and Rev. H. H. 
WiNwooD. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 315 

Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. J. E. Mare (Chairman), Dr. Wheelton Hinb (Secretary), 
Dr. F. A. Bathee, Mr. G, C. Crick, Dr. A. H. Fooed, Mr. H. Fox, 
Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. G. J. Hinde, Professor P. F. Kendall, 
Mr. R. KiDSTON, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor G. A. Leboue, Mr. B. N. 
Peach, Mr. A. Steahan, Dr. A. Vaughan, and Dr. H. Woodwabd 316 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. Vll 

Page 

Composition and Origin of the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey.— Second 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. Haeker (Chairman), 
Mr. E. Greenly (Secretary), Mr. J. Lomas, Dr. C. A. Matxet, and 
Professor K. J. P. Orton 317 

Appendix.— Methods of Rock Analysis. By John Owen Httghes, B.Sc. 323 

Investigation of the Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, 
and at various localities in the East Riding of Yorkshire.— Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lampltjgh (Chairman), Mr. J. W. 
Stather (Secretary), Dr. Tempest Anderson, Professor J. VV. Carr, Rev. 
W. Lower Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerrthotjse, Mr. F. W. Harmer, Mr. J. H. 
Howarth, Rev. W. Johnson, Professor P. F. Kendall, and Messrs. 
G. W. B. Macttjrk, E. T. Newton, H. M. Platnatter, Clement Reid, 
and Thomas Sheppaed. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 325 

South African Strata.— Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor J. VV. Gregory (Chairman), Professor A. Young (Secretary), 
Mr. W. Anderson, Professor R. Broom, Dr. G. S. Coestorphine, Mr. 
Walcot Gibson, Dr. F. H. Hatch, Mr. T. H. Holland, Mr. H. 
Kynaston, Dr. Molengraaef, Mr. A. J. C. Molyneux, Mr. A. W. 
Rogers, Mr, E. H. L. Schwaez, and Professor R. B. Young, appointed to 
investigate and report on the Correlation and Age of South African 
Strata, and on the question of a LTniform Stratigraphical Nomenclature ... 328 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. J. E. Marr (Chairman), Professor P. F. Kendall (Secretary), Dr. T. G. 
BoNNEY, Professor W. J. Sollas, Mr. R. H. Tiddeman, Rev. S. N. 
Harrison, Dr. J. Horne, and Messrs. F. M. Burton, J. Lomas, A. R. 
Dwebeyhouse, J. W. Stathee, W. T. Tucker, and F. W. Harmer, 
appointed to investigate the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 329 

The Iron Ore Supply of the Scandinavian Peninsula. — By Hj. Sjogren 332 

The Fossil Flora of the Transvaal. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor J. W. Gregory (Chairman), Professor A. C. Seward (Secretary), 
and Mr. T. N. Leslie, appointed ' to enable Mr. T. N. Leslie to continue 
his Researches into the Fossil Flora of the Transvaal ' 345 

Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor A. Dendy (Chairman and Secretary), 
Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor A. Sedgwick, and Professor Sydney 
H. Vines 346 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing (Secretary), Sir E. Ray Lankestee, Professor A. Sedgwick, 
Professor W. C. McIntosh, and Mr. G. P. Bidder 346 

Report of Dr. W. N. F. Woodland 346 

Report of Mr. R. W. Harold Row 346 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bathee (Secretary), 
Dr. P. L. Sclatee, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, Hon. 
Walter Rothschild, and Lord Walsingham 347 

Experiments on the Development of the Frog. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor G. C. Bouene (Chairman), Dr. J. W. Jenkinson 
(Secretary), and Professor S. J. Hickson. (Drawn up by the Secretary)... 347 



VIU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Colour Physiology in Amtnals. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor HiCKSoif (Chairman), Dr. F. W. Gamble (Secretary), Dr. W. E. 
HoTLE, and Dr. F. Keeblb, appointed to enable Drs. Gamble and 
Keeble to conduct Researches on the relation between Respiratory 
Phenomena and Colour Changes in Animals 349 

Development of the Sexual Cells. — Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. J. J. Lister (Chairman), Dr. H. W. Marett Tims 
(Secretary), Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, and Mr. G. H. F. Nuttall, ap- 
pointed to enable Dr. H. W. Marett Tims to conduct experiments with 
regard to the effect of the Sera and Antisera on the Development of the 
Sexual Cells 350 

Zoology Organisation. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir E. Rat Lankester (Chairman), Professors S. J. Hickson (Secretary), 
G. 0. Boitrne, T. W. Bridge, J. Cossar Ewaet, M. Hartog, W. A. 
Herdman, and J. Graham Kerr, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Professor E. A. 
MiNCHiN, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, Professors C. Llotd Morgan, E. B. ' 
Poulton, and A. Sedgwick, Mr. A. E. Shipley, and Rev. T. R. R. 
Steering .. 350 

The Investigation of the Oscillations of the Level of the Land in the 
Mediterranean Basin. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. D. G. Hogarth (Chairman), Mr. R. T. Gtjnther (Secretary), and 
Drs. T. G. Bonnet, F. H. Guillemard, J. S. Keltie, and H. R. Mill ... S50 

Investigations in the Indian Ocean. — Second Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir John Murrat (Chairman), Mr. J. Stanlet Gardiner 
(Secretary), Captain E. W. Creak, Professors W. A. Herdman, S. J. 
HiCKsoN, and J. W. Judd, Mr. J. J. Lister, Dr. H. R. Mill, and Dr. D. 
Sharp, appointed to carry on an Expedition to investigate the Indian 
Ocean between India and South Africa in view of a possible land con- 
nection, to examine 'the deep submerged banks, the Nazareth and Saza de 
Malha, and also the dLstribution of Marine Animals 351 

Rainfall and Lake and River Discharge. — Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir John Murray (Chairman), Professor A. B. Macallum, 
and Dr. A. J. Herbertson (Secretaries), Professor W. M. Davis, Pro- 
fessor P. F. Frankland, Mr. A. D. Hall, Mr. N. F. Mackenzie, 
Mr. E. H. V. Melville, Dr. H. R. Mill, Professor A. Penck, Dr. A. 
Strahan, and Mr. W. Whitakee, appointed to investigate the Quantity 
and Composition of Rainfall and of Lake and River Discharge 353 

Amount of Gold Coinage in Circulation in the LTnited Kingdom. — Interim 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrave 
(Chairman), Mr. H. Stanley Jevons (Secretary), and Messrs. A. L. 
BowLET and D. H. Macgregor 353 

Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Profes.sor D. J. Cunningham (Chairman), Mr. J. 
Gray (Secretary), Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr. C. S. Mters, Profe.ssor J. L. 
Mtrbs, Professor A. F. Dixon, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. Randall-Mac- 
IvER, Professor J. Symington, Dr. Waterston, Sir Edward Brabeook, 
Dr. T. H. Brtce, Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Mr. G. L. Gomme, Major T. 
McCulloch, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, Professor G. D. Thane, Mr. J. F. 
Tocher, Dr. W. McDougall, Mr. AV. M. Heller, Mr. C. M. Stuart, 
Professor M. E. Sadler, Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, Dr. W. D. Halli- 
burton, Mr. A. Abraham, Mr. H. S. Kingsford, Mr. A. F. Shand, and 
Mr. W. H. Winch 354 

Report of the Anatomical Sub-Committee 354 

Report of the Psychological Sub-Committee 358 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. IX 

Page 
Report of the Sub-Committee on Photographic Records of Anthropo- 
logical Data 362 

Report of the Educational Sub-Committee 366 

The Age of Stone Circles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of jMr. C. H, 
Read (Chairman), Mf. II. Balfour (Secretary), Sir John Evans, 
Dr. J. ii. Gaeson, Mr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Muneo, Professor Botd 
Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. Lewis, appointed to conduct Explorations with 
the object of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 368 

Notes on the Survey of the Fernacre and Stannon Stone Circles, East 
Cornwall, 1906. By H. St. Geoege Geat 369 

E.xploration of the ' Red Hills ' of the East Coast Salt Marshes. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor R, Meldola (Chairman), Mr. F. W. 
Rtjdler (Secretary), Mr. C. II. Read, and Mr. T. V. Holmes. (Drawn 
up by the Secretary) 373 

Anthropological Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr, 
C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. S. Kingsfoed (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashbt, 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. H. Balfoue, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, Mr. E. Sidney Hartland, Mr. E. IIeawood, Professor J. L. 
Myees, and Professor Flindees Peteie, appointed for the Collection, 
Preservation, and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthro- 
pological Interest. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 374 

Megalithic Remains in the British Isles.— Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor W. Ridgeway (Chairman), Dr. G. A. Aitden 
(Secretary), Professor J. L. Myees, Mr. G. L. Gomme, and Mr. F. W. 
Rudlee, appointed to report on the best means of Registering and Classi- 
fying systematically Megalithic Remains in the British Isles 391 

Archaeological and Ethnographical Researches in Crete. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir .John Evans (Chairman), Professor J. L. Myees 
(Secretary), Professor R. C. Bosanqtjet, Dr. A. J. Evans, Mr. D. G. 
Hogarth, Professor A. Macalistee, and Professor W. Ridgeway 391 

The Lake Village at Glastonbury. — Ninth Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. R. Munro (Chairman), Professor W. Boyd Dawkins (Secretary), 
Sir John Evans, Dr. Arthur J. Evans, Mr. Henry Balfour, Mr. C. H. 
Read, and Mr. A. Bulleid. (Drawn up by Mr. Arthur Bulleid and 
Mr. II. St. George Gray) 392 

Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain. — Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor W. Boyd Daweins (Chairman), Professor J. L. 
Myres (Secretary), Sir Edwaed Brabrook, Dr. T. Ashby, Professor R. 0. 
BosANauET, and Professor W. Ridgeway, appointed to co-operate with 
Local Committees in Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain 400 

The Ductless Glands. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Schafer (Chairman), Professor Swale Vincent (Secretary), Professor 
A. B. Macallum, and Dr. L. E. Shore. (Drawn up by the Secretary) ... 400 

The ' Metabolic Balance Sheet' of the Individual Tissues. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor F. Gotch (Chairman), Mr. J. Barceoft 
(Secretary), and Professor E. H. Staeling. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 401 

The Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease.— Second Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir T. Laudee Beunton (Chairman), Lieut.-Col. 
Simpson and Mr. J. Baeceoft (Secretaries); Colonel D. Bruce, Dr. A. 
Buchan, Dr. S. G. Campbell, Sir Kendal Franks, Professor J. G. 
McKendeick, Sir A. Mitchell, Dr. C. F. K. Mueray, Dr. C. Porter, 
Professor G. Sims Woodhead, Sir A. E. Weight, and the Heads of the 
Tropical Schools of Liverpool, London, and Edinburgh 403 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

The Structure of Fossil Plants. — Third Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. D. H. Scott (Chairman), Professor F. W. Oliveb (Secre- 
tary), Mr. E. Newell Aebee, Professor A. C. Seward, and Professor F. E. 
Weiss 408 

Research on South African Cycads and on Welwitschia. — Interim Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor A. C. Sewabd (Chairman), Mr. 
R. P. Geegoet (Secretary), Dr. D. H. Scott, and Dr. W. H. Lang 408 

Studies of Marsh Vegetation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. F. F. Blackman (Chairman), Mr. A. G. Tanslet (Secretary), Professor 
A. C. Sewaed, and Mr. A. W. Hill 409 

Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Mr. Feancis Daewin (Chairman), Mr. Haeold 
Wagee (Secretary), Professor J. B. Faemee, and Mr. R. P. Geegoet 410 

The Peat Moss Deposits in the Cross Fell, Caithness, and Isle of Man Dis- 
tricts. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor R. J. Haevet 
Gibson (Chairman), Professor R. H. Yapp (Secretary), Professor J. 
Reynolds Geeen, and Mr. Clement Rbid. (Drawn up by Mr. Francis 
J.Lewis) 410 

Botanical Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
F. W. Oliver (Chairman), Professor F. E. Weiss (Secretary), Dr. W. G. 
Smith, Mr. A. G. Tanslet, Dr. T. W. Woodhbad, and Professor R. H. 
Yapp, for the Registration of Negatives of Photographs of Botanical Interest. 
(Drawn up hy the Secretary) 417 

The Conditions of Health essential to the carrying on of the Work of Instruction 
in Schools. — ^Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Shereington 
(Chairman), Mr. E. White Wallis (Secretary), Sir Edwaed Beabrook, 
Dr. C. W. KiMMiNs, Professor L. C. Miall, Miss A. J. Cooper, and 
Dr. Ethel Williams 421 

Curricula of Secondary Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir Oliver Lodge (Chairman), Mr. C. M. Stuaet (Secretary), Mr. T, E. 
Page, Professors M. E. Sadlee, H. E. Armstrong, and J. Perry, Sir 
Philip Magnus, Principal Griffiths, Dr. H. B. Gray, Professor H. A. 
MiERS, Mr. A. E. Shipley, Professor J. J. Findlay, and Sir William 
Htjggins, appointed to consider and to advise as to the Curricula of 
Secondary Schools ; in the first instance, the Curricula of Boys' Schools.... 422 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XI 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



[An asterisk * indicates that the title only is given. The mark f ijidicates the same, 
hut with a reference to tlie Journal or Newsjiaper in which it isjjuhlished in extenso.] 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 1. 

Page 

Address by Professor A. E. H. Love, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the 

Section 427 

\. ='-Helium and Radio-activity in Common Ores and Minerals. By Hon. 

R. J. Strtjtt, F.R.S 439 

2. tOn the Motions of Ether produced by Collision of Atoms or Molecules 

containing or not containing Electrons. By Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O., 
F.R.S 439 

3. On Secular Stability. By Professor Hoeace Lamb, F.R.S 439 

FBIDAT, AUGUST 2. 
='=Discussion on the Constitution of the Atom. Opened by Professor E. 

RUTHEBFOED, F.R.S 439 

1. '-'On Variability in the Products resulting from Changes in Radium 

Emanation. By Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S 440 

2. Pseudo-high Vacua. By F. Soddy and T. D. Mackenzie 440 

3. On the Range of Freedom of Electrons in Metals. By Professor J. 

Laemoe, Sec.R.S 440 

4. Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards (p. 73) 440 

MONDAY, AUGUST 5. 

1. Optical Pyrometry. By Dr. L. Holboen 440 

2. Optical Pyrometry. By Professor C. Feey 442 

Department of Mathematics. 

L '''An Account of Modern Work on the Calculus of Variations. By Pro- 
fessor A. R. Forsyth, F.R.S 445 

2. Some New Results in the Theory of Functions of a Real Variable. By 

Dr. W. H. Young, F.R.S 445 

3. On a Remarkable Periodic Solution of the Restricted Problem of Three 

Bodies. By Dr. W. db Sitibe 446 



Xll CONTENTS. 

Page 

4. On Essentially Positive Double Integrals and the Part which they play 

in the Theory of Integral Equations. By H. Bateman 447 

5. -Operational Invariants. By Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S 449 

6. A Method of obtaining the Principal Properties of the Exponential 

Function. By Professor A. E. H. Love, F.R.S 449 

Department of General Physics. 

2. The Transmission of the Active Deposit from Radium Emanation to the 
Anode. By Sidney Russ, B.Sc 451 

2. The Absorption of Gases by Charcoal. By Miss I. Homfeay 451 

8. Report of the Seismological Committee (p. 83) 452 

4. The Density of the Ether. By Sir Olia-er Lodge, F.R.S 452 

5. An Electrical Experiment for illustrating the Two Modes of Condensation 

of Moisture on Solid Surfaces. By Professor F. T. Tkouton, F.R.S. ... 453 

6. On a Theoretical Method of attempting to detect Relative Motion between 

the Ether and the Earth. By A. 0, Rankine 454 

7. tOn the Nature of lonisation. By Professor H. E. Aemsteong, F.R.S. 455 

8. Note on the Echelon Spectroscope and the Resolution of the Green 

Mercury Line. By H. Stansfleld 455 

9. The Production and Origin of Radium By Professor E. Rutherford, 

F.R.S 456 

10. The Effect of High Temperature on the Activity of the Products of 

Radium. By Professor E. Rutherford, F.R.S., and J. E. Petavel, 
F.R.S 456 

11. On a Freehand Potential Method. By L. F. Richardson 457 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 6. 

1. Examples of the Modern Methods of treating Observations. ByW. Palin 

Elderton 457 

2, On the Use of Calcite in Spectroscopy. By Professor W. M. Hicks, F.R.S. 458 

Department op Mathematics. 

1. The Introduction of the Idea of Infinity. By W. H. Young, Sc.D., 

F.R.S 458 

2. The Teaching of the Elements of Analysis. By C. 0. Ttjckey 459 

3. On Models of Three-dimensional Sections of Regular Hypersolids in Space 

of Four Dimensions. By Mrs. A. Boole Stoti 460 

4. Models of Three Developable Surfaces. By Professor Schoute 461 

5. On an Unrecorded and Remarkable Feature in the Splash of a Drop. By 

Professor A. M. Woethington, F.R.S 461 

6. A Property of Abelian Groups. By Harold Hilton 461 

7. Factorisation of the Pellian Terms (t„, v,„ &c.). By Lieut.-Colonel Allan 

Cunningham, R.E 462 

8. Report on Bessel Functions (p. 94) 463 

9. Report on the Teaching of Elementary Mechanics (p. 97) 463 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. xiii 

Department of Astronomy and Cosmical Physics. 

Page 

1. ='=The Variation of Latitude. By Dr. 0. Backitjnd 463 

2. On some recent Developments of the Method of Forecasting by means of 

Synoptic Charts. By W. N. Shaw, LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S 463 

3. *A Mountain Observatory in South India. By 0. MicniE Smith 465 

4. The Variability in Light of Mira Ceti and the Temperature of Sun-spots. 

By Rev. A. L. Oortie, S J., F.K.A.S 465 

5. On a Method of improving the Constants of the Plates for the Astro- 

graphic Catalogue. By Professor H. II. Ttjrnee, F.R.S 465 

6. On the Determination of Periodicity from a Broken Series of Maxima. 

By Professor H. H. Turner, F.R.S , 466 

7. An Analytical Study of the Meteorological Observations made at the 

Glossop Moor Kite Station during the Session 1906-1907. By Margaret 
White, T. V. Pring, and J. E. Petayel, F.R.S 467 

8. Sixth Report on the Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by means of 

Kites (p. 99) 467 

9. On the recent Balloon Ascents. By W. A. Harwood and J. E. Petayel, 

F.R.S 468 

10. Report on Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis (p. 100) 468 

11. ''^Results of recent Researches on the Physics of the Earth. By Dr. 

T.J. J. See 468 

12. Report on the Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory (p. 93) ... 468 

Section B. — CHEMISTRY. 

THUMSDAY, AUGUST 1. 

Address by Professor Arthur Smithells, B.Sc, F.R.S,, President of the 

Section 469 

Discussion on Valency: — 

(i) -The Nature of Valency. By Professor W. J. Pope, F.R.S 480 

(ii) ='=Zur Valenzfrage. By Processor A. Werner 480 

(iii) Valency. By Professor R. Abegg 480 

(iv) Divisibility of Valency. By Professor Hugo Kauffmann 480 

(v) Valency. By Dr. F. M. Jaeger 481 

(vi) Note on the Intimate Structure of Crystals. By Professor W. J. 

SoLLAs, Sc.D,, F.R.S 481 

FRIDA Y, A U6 U8T 2. 
t Joint Discussion with Section G on Explosion Temperatures 482 

1. -The Ignition Point of Gases. By Professor H. B. Dixon, F.R.S 482 

2. Iron Carbonyls. By Sir James Dewar, F.R.S., and H. 0. Jones, D.Sc. 482 

3. On the Conductivity of Electrolytes in Pyridine and other Solvents. By 

Kenneth Somerville Caldwell 483 

MONDAY, AUGUST 5. 

1. The Applications of Grignard's Reaction. By Alex. Mackenzie, M.A., 
D.Sc, Ph.D. (p. 273j 484 



xiv CONTENTS, 

Page 

2. *Tripheiiylmethyl. By Professor Tschitschibabin 435 

3. Copper Mirrors. By F. D. Ohattawat 485 

4. Oxides of Carton. By Dr. Boudouard 485 

5. Report on the Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Sub- 

stances, and its relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives (p. 101) 485 

6. Eeport on the Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances (p. 101) 485 

7. Eeport on Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements and 

Compounds (p. 116) 486 

8. Report on Dynamic Isomerism (p, 270) 486 

9. Report on the Study of Isomorphous Derivatives of Benzene Sulphuric 

Acid (p. 272) 486 

10. ^Experiments illustrative of the Inflammability of Mixtures of Coal Dust 

and Air. By Professor P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc 486 

11. On Substances which fonn Three different Liquid Phases. By Dr. F. M. 

Jaeger 486 

12. Calcium : its Properties and Possibilities. By Arthur E. Pratt, B.Sc. 487 

TUESDA Y, A VG UST 6. 

Discussion on the Chemistry of Wheat and Flour, with Special Reference to 

. Strength : — 

(i) Causes of the Quality Strength in Wheaten Flour. By A. E. 

Humphries 487 

(ii) Some Considerations determining the Strength of Flours. By 

J. L. Baker and H. F. S. Hulton 488 

"'The Production of Acid or Alkaline Reactions in the Soil by Artificial 

Manures. By A. D. Hall, M. A 489 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 1. 

Address by Professor J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the Section 490 

1. Notes on the Geology of Leicestershire. By C. Fox Strangwats, F.G.S. 503 

2. '"The Geology of Charnwood Forest. By Professor W. W. AVatts, 

F.R.S 503 

3. The Felsitic Agglomerate of Charnwood Forest. By F. W. Bennett, 

M.D., B.Sc 603 

4. The North-West District of Charnwood Forest. By Bernard Stracey, 

M.B., F.G.S 503 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 2. 

1. Some Desert Features. By H. T. Ferrar, M.A., F.G.S 504 

2. Fifth Report on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles 

(p. 298) 505 

3. On the Structure of the Mandible in a South African Labyrinthodont. 

By Professor H. G. Seelby, F.R.S 505 

4. The Origin of the Upper Keuper of Leicestershire. By T. O. Bosworth, 

B.A., F.G.S 605 



TBANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XV 

Page 

5. The Relation of the Keuper Marls to the Pre-Camhrian Rocks at Bardon 

Hill. By W. Keat and Martin Gimson 506 

6. On a Peculiarity in the Mineralogical Constitution of the Keuper Marl. 

By C. Gilbert Cullis, D.Sc, F.G.S 506 

MONDA T, A UG UST 5. 

1. Iron Ore Supplies : — 

(i) By Bennett H. Bkough, F.G.S 507 

(ii) The Iron Ore Supply of the Scandinavian Peninsula. By Hj. 

Sjogren (p. 332) 509 

2. The Distribution of Radium in the Rocks of the Simplon Tunnel. By 

Professor J. Jolt, Sc.D., F.R.S 510 

3. On the Pisolitic Iron Ores of "Wales. By W. G. Fearnsides 510 

4. The Trilobite Fauna of the Shineton Shales. By F. Raw, B.Sc, F.G.S. 511 

5. The Development of Olenus Salteri, Call. By F. Raw, B.Sc, F.G.S 513 

6. Report on the Faunal Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone of the 

South-West of England (p. 313) 514 

7. -^Report on the Exact Significance of Local Terms 514 

8. A Contribution to the Palisontology of the North Derbyshire and Notts 

Coalfield, or the Southern Part of the North Midland Coalfield. By 
A. R. HoKWOOD 514 

9. Report on the Pre-Devonian Beds of the Mendips (p. 315) 514 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 6. 

1. A Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes. By Dr. John Milne, F.R.S. 516 

2. Mountain Building and Seismology. By Professor F. Frech 515 

3. Report on the Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, 

&c. (p. 325) 515 

4. Note on a New Section in the Glacial Gravels of Holderness. By T. 

Sheppard, F.G.S., and J. W. Stather, F.G.S 515 

5. On a Marine Peat from the Union Dock, Liverpool. By J. Lomas, F.G.S. 516 

6. On a hitherto unnoticed Section of the Amaltheus spinatus Zone and the 

Transition Bed in the Middle Lias at Billesdon Coplow, Leicestershire. 
By A. R. HoRwooD 616 

7. On the Occurrence of Boulders of Strontia in the Upper Triasaic Marls of 

Abbots Leigh, near Bristol. By Herbert Bolton, F.R.S.E., F.G.S., 
and C. J. Waterfall 517 

8. Notes on the Ancient Volcanoes of Basutoland. , By Rev. S. S. Dornan 517 

9. Second Report on the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey (p. 317) 519 

10. Report on Life-zones in the British Carboniferous Rocks (p. 316) 519 

11. Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles (p. 329) 519 

12. Interim Report on the Correlation and Age of South African Strata, &c. 

(p. 328) 619 ■ 

13. Report on the Fossil Flora of the Transvaal (p. 346) 619 



XVi CONTENTS. 

Section D.-ZOOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 1. 

Page 

Address by William E. Hotlb, M.A., D.Sc, President of the Section 520 

=:=Tbe Preservation of Natural Monuments. By Professor Con wenxz 539 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 2. 

1. Experiments on Seasonally Dimorphic Forms of African Lepidoptera. 

By F. A. DiXEY, M.A., M.D 540 

2. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, 

Plymouth (p. 346) 540 

3. --Functions of the Spiracle in Sharks and Rays. By A. D. Dakbishire 540 

4. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 

(p. 346) 541 

5. Report on the * Index Animalium ' (p. 347) 541 

6. Report on Experiments on the Development of the Frog (p. 347) 541 

7. Report on Colour Physiology in Animals (p. 349) 541 

8. Interim Report on the Effects of Sera and Antisera on the Development 

of the Sexual Cells (p. 350) 541 

9. Interim Report on Zoology Organisation (p. 350) 541 

10. ^Seventeenth Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands 541 

11. Joint Discussion with Section K on the Physical Basis of Inheritance. 

Opened by Professor Sydney J. Hicksobt, F'.R.S 541 

12. -'Tycnogonida (Sea Spiders). By T. V. Hodgson 542 

13. On some Points in the Development of Ophiothria fragilis. By Professor 

E. W. MacBeide, M.A., F.R.S 542 

14. •■=The Rise and Recognition of Economic Biology. By Walter E. 

OOLLINGE 542 

MONDAY, AUGUST 5. 

1. Sex in the Crustacea, with special reference to the Origin and Nature of 

Hermaphroditism. By Geoffrey Smith, M. A 643 

2. •'■■Exhibition of Photographs of a Living Okapi. By Sir E. Ray 

Lankestee, K.C.B., F.R.S 544 

3. The Pendulation Theory in relation to Geographical Distribution, By 

Professor H. Simeoth .544 

4. On the Systematic Position oi Poly^Aerus. By E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S.... 545 

5. The Thickness of the Skull in Mammalia. By Professor Richard J. 

Andeeson, M.A., M.D 546 

6. Joint Discussion with Sections K and L on the Teaching of Biology in 

Schools. Opened by Oswald H. Latter 547 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 6. 

1. Note on the Structure of the Larva oi Lanice conchiler/a. By Rev. G. A. 

Eleington, D.Sc 549 

2. Demoustiiation of Skin Varieties of Cricetus frumentarius of Thuringia. 

By Professor H. Simeoth \ 650 






TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. Xvii 

Page 

3. Plankton Fishing off the Isle of Man. By Professor W. A. Hebdman, 

F.R.S 550 

4. ^Demonstration : Models of Protozoa. By F. R. Rowley 563 

5. Experiments on the Development of the Frog. By Dr. J. W. Jenkinson 

(p. 347) 553 

G. The Classification of the Haplosporidia. By H. B. Fantham, B.Sc, 

A.R.C.S 553 

7. The Movements of Spirochsetes, as seen in S. balbianii and S. anodontce. 

By H. B. Fantham, B.Sc, A.R.C.S 564 

8. ''The Experimental Study of Heredity. By R. C. Punnett 555 

9. ^Demonstration of Inheritance of Eye-colour in School Children brought 

from Burbage, Hinckley. By C. C. Hurst 555 

Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDA Y, A UG UST 1 . 

Address by George G. Chisholm, M.A., B.Sc, President of the Section 556 

1. *The District of Jsederen in Southern Norway. By 0. J. R. IIowabth, 

M.A 569 

2. Commercial Geography from the Modern Standpoint. By Professor 

Max Eceert ..." 570 

5. *The Preservation of Natural Monuments. By Professor Conwentz 671 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 2. 

1. The Surveys of British Africa. By Major C. F. Close, R.E 571 

2. The Modern Explorer: his Maps and Methods. By Captain T. T. 

Behrens, R.E 571 

3. Recession of the Niagara Falls, By Dr. J. W. Spencer 572 

4. The Physical Geograpliy of the Etbai Desert of Egypt. By H. T. 

Ferkae, M.A., F.G.S 573 

6. The Kurdish Tribes of Asiatic Turkey. By Mark Stkes 574 

MONDAY, AUGUST 5. 

1. The Land's End Peninsula: a Regional Survey. By A. AV. Andrews... 574 

2. The Hinterland of the Port of Manchester. By J. McFaelanb 575 

3. The Geographical Evolution of Communications. By Professor Vidal 

DE LA Blache 575 

4. ^Explorers and Colonists. By J. D. Rogers 576 

5. A Narrative of the Jamaica Earthquake. By Vaitghan Cornish, D.Sc, 

F.R.G.S 576 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 6. 

1. An Expedition to Ruwenzori. By R. B. Woosnam 576 

2. The Newly Discovered Cave of Atoyac (Mexico) : a Contribution to the 

Study of Cave-development. By M. M. Allorge, L.esSc, F.G.S 577 

3. Second Report on Investigations in the Indian Ocean (p. 351) 578 

4. Interim Report on Rainfall and Lake and River Discharge (p. 353) 578 

1907. a 



XVUl CONTENTS. 

Page 

5. Interim Report on the Oscillations of the Level of the Laud in the 

Mediterranean Basin (p. 350) 578 

6. A Traverse of Two Unexplored Rivers of Labrador. By Mrs. Leonidas 

Htjbbaed, jun 578 

7. ^Notes on British New Q uinea. By Dr. W. M. Strong 578 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 1. 

Address by Professor W. J. Ashley, M.A., M.Oom., President of the Section 679 

1. A Suggestion for a new Economic Arithmetic. By Professor T. N. 

Cakvee, Ph.D 692 

2. The Laws of Inci-easing and Decreasing Returns in Production and 

Consumption. By Professor S. J. Chapman, M.A., M.Com 693 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 2. 

1. The Rise and Tendencies of German Transatlantic Enterprise. By 

Professor Eenst von Halle, Ph.D 594 

2. The Labour Legislation of the Australasian States. By J. Ramsat 

MacDonald, M.P 596 

3. Sweating and Legislation. By L. G. Chiozza Money, M.P 697 

MO^'DAY, AUGUST 5. 

1. Small Occupying Ownerships. By the Right Hon. Jesse Collin gs, M.P. 597 

2 The Importance of the Distinction between (1) Subsistence Farming and 
(2) Producing for a Market, in connection with Small Holdings. By 
W. Cunningham, D.D., F.B.A. . 599 

3. Some Notes on the Small Holdings of Worcestershire. By Professor 

KiEKALDY, M.Com 600 

4. Agricultural Co*operation in Great Britain. By R. A. Yeebtiegh 601 

5. Some Considerations about Interest. By Professor E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 603 

6. Interim Report on the Amount of Gold Coinage in Circulation in the 

United Kingdom (p. 353) 603 

7. Index Numbers of Prices. By Professor A. W. Flux, M.A 603 

lUESDA Y, A UG UST 6. 

1. Co-operation. By C. R. Fay, B.A 604 

2. Co-operative Production irom the Labour Co-partnership Standpoint. 

By Amos Mann 605 

3. The Co-operative Organisation of Consumers. By T. Tweddell 606 

4. Economic Theory and the Formation of Trusts. Bv H. W. Macrosty, 

B.A , .'. 606 

5. The Development of Trusts. By D. H. Macgeeqoe, M.A 007 

Section G.— ENGINEERING, 

THURSDA Y, A UG UST 1 . 

Address by Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President 
of the Section 608 

t The Present Condition of Gas and Petrol Engines. By Dugald Clerk, 
M.Inst.C.E 620 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. xix 

FRIDA Y, A UG UST 2. 

Page 
tOn the Gases exhausted from a Petrol Motor. By B. Hopkikson, M.A. ... 620 

t Joint Discussion with Section B on Explosion Temperatures 620 

MONDA Y, A UG UST 5. 

1. fPupiii's Compensated Cable for Telephone Transmission. By SirW. H. 

Preece, K.C.B., F.R.S 620 

2. Tuning in Wireless Telegraphy. By Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S 620 

S. tNote on Oscillograph Study of Duddell Arcs of Low Frequency. By 

J. T. Morris 622 

4. fDevelopments in Electric Incandescent Lamps. By Leon Gaster 622 

5. The New Engineering Laboratory at the City and Guilds of London 

Institute, Finsbury. By Professor E. G. Coker, M.A.., D.Sc 622 

TUESDAY, AUGUST &. 

1. Ferro-concrete and Examples of Construction. By J. S. E. de Vesian, 

M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E 623 

2, Some new Uses for Reinforced Concrete. By W. Noble Tweltetree'?, 

M.I.Mech.E 624 

y. fThe Origin and Production of Corrugation of Tramway Rails. By 
W. Worry Beaumont, M.Inst.C.E 624 

4. t Modern Machinery and its Future Developments. By H, T. Bracken- 

BURT ■ 624 

5. Resistance Coils and Comparisons. By 0. V. Drysdalb 624 

WEDNESDA Y, A UG UST 7. 

1. A Machine for Weighing the Forces on a Cutting Tool. By John F. 

Brooks 625 

2. Notes on the Governing of Hydraulic Turbines. By Robert S. Ball, 

Assoc.M.Inst.C.E 626 

3. The Ice Problem in Engineering Work in Canada. By Professor Howard 

T. Barnes, D.Sc, F.R.S.C 626 

4. On the Application of Water Power, and how to secure the greatest 

Efficiency in its Working. By John Smyth, M.A., M.Inst.O.E.1 628 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 1. 

Address by D. G. Hogarth, M.A., F.S. A., President of the Section 629 

Dr. Usener's Theories concerning Sonder-Gotter and Augenblick-Gcitter 

in his ' Gotternamen.' By L. R. Farnell, M.A., Litt.D 638 

Joint Discussion with Section L on Anthropometrics in Schools (p. 704) ... 639 

FRIDA Y, A UG UST 2. 

1. Morgan's Malayan System of Relationship. By W. H. R. Rivers, M.D. 640 

2. On some new Types of Prehistoric Objects in British New Guinea. By 

C. G. Seligmann, M.D., and T. A. Joyce, M.A 640 

8. The Anthropological Field in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. By J. W. 
CROWfOOT 641 

4. Notes on the Wild Tribes of the Ulu Plus, Perak. By F. W. Knocker 641 

a2 



XX CONTENTS. 

Page 
6, A Study of the Conditions of the Maoris in 1907. By Miss B. Pttllen- 
BlTEBT 642 

6. Notes on the Ethnology of the South-west Congo Free State. By E. 

ToEDAT and T. A. Joyce, M.A 642 

7. Considerations on the Origin of Totemism. By G. L. Gomme, F.S.A. ... 643 

8. -Iramian Tribes of the Ottoman Empire. By Mark Stkes 644 

9. tEgyptian Soul-houses and other Discoveries, 1907. By Professor W. M. 

Flindebs Petrie, F.R.S 644 

10. * The Excavations at Deir-el-Bahari. By Professor E. Naville 644 

MOM) A Y, AUGUST 5. 

1. The Beginnings of iron. By Professor Ridgewat, M.A., Litt.D 644 

2. T!ie Sigynnae of Herodotus: a Problem of the Early Iron Age. By 

Professor J. L. Myres, M.A 644 

.3. An Account of some Souterrains in Ulster. By Mrs. Mary Hobsox 645 

4 Some Objects recently found in York referable to the Viking Period. Bv 
G. A. AuDEN, M.A., M.D .'. 646 

5. Report on the Age of Stone Circles (p. 363) 647 

6. Ninth Report on the Lake Village at Glastonbury (p. 392) 647 

7. -The Dances of Briti.ih New Guinea. By Dr. C. G. Sbltgmann 647 

8. -Religion and Custom in the South Seas. By 0. Bainbridge 647 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 6. 

1. Report on Archreological and Ethnological Researches in Crete (p. 391)... 647 

2. Excavations at Sparta in 1907. By R. M. Dawkins, M.A. 647 

3. Artemis Orthia and the Scourging Festival at Sparta. By Professor R. C. 

BosANauET, M.A., F.S.A 648 

4. Door-step Art : a Traditional Folk Art : 

(i) The Art Relatioas. By F. H. Newbery 649 

(ii) Some Remarks ou its Anthropological Bearings. By T. H. Brtcb, 

M.D ". 049 

5. The Origin of the Crescent as a Muhammadan Badge. By Professor W. 

RlDGEWAY, M.A 649 

6. Note on the Ethnography of Sardinia. By T. Ashbt, D.Litt., F.S.A. ... 650 

7. The Work of the British School at Rome during the Session 1906-07. 

By T. AsHBY, D.Litt., F.S.A : 6.50 

8. The Origin of Egyptian Civilisation. By Professor Edward Naville 650 

9. Recent Explorations in Asia Minor and North Syria. By Professor 

J. Garstang 652 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 1. 

1. Interim Report on Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain (p. 400) 652 

2. The Six Races of Mankind : their Mental Capabilities and Political and 

Commercial Tendencies. By T. E. Smurthwaite 652 

3. Excavations at Caerwent, 1906-07. By T. Ashby, D.Litt., F.S.A 652 

4. Some Sociological Definitions. By W. H. R. Rivers, M.D 653 

5. Racial Types in Connaught. By Professor R. J. Anderson, M.D 654 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXI 

Page 

6. A Terminology of Decorative Art. By Professor J. L. Myres, M.A G55 

7. Report on the Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of 

Photographs of Anthropological Interest (p. 374) 656 

8. A Preliminary Report on the Progress of the University of Wales Ethno- 

graphical Survey. By T. C. James and H. J. Fleuke 656 

9. The Cephalic Indices and the computed Stature of the Pagan Saxons in 

East Yorkshire. By J. R. Moktimer 667 

10, Report on the Exploration of the ' Red Hills ' of the East Coast Salt 

Marshes (p. 373) 657 

11. Interim Report on Classifying and Registering Megalithic Remains in the 

British Isles (p. 391) 657 

Section I. -PHYSIOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 1. 
Address by A. D. AValler, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Section... 658 

1. Cancer Investigation : with special reference to the Gastric Secretion of 

Hydrochloric Acid. By S. Monckxon Copeman, F.R.S 666. 

2. The Investigation of the Effects of Climate by means of Laboratory 

Experiments. By Professor Ztjnxz 666 

3. -The Study of Sea Climate. By Dr. Franz Muller 666 

4. Report on the Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease (p. 403) 666 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 2. 

1. The Nervous Impulse. By Professor J. S. Macdonald, B.A 667 

2. Spinal Reflexes. By Professor C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S 667 

3. Meiaholism oi Ariim spadices : Enzyme Action and Electrical Response. 

By Miss H. B. Kemp and Miss C. B. Sanders 667 

4. The Play of Forces in the Normally Dividing Cell. By Professor 

Marcus Hartog, D.Sc 668 

5. Report on the ' Metabolic Balance Sheet ' of the Individual Tissues 

(p. 401) 669 

MOyDAY, AUGUST 5. 
Discussion on the Physiological and Therapeutical Uses of Alcohol 669 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 6. 
'•'Discussion on the Value of Perfusion Experiments 673 

1. Certain Problems in Electro-physiology. By Dr, N. H. Alcock 673 

2. Report on the Ductless Glands (p. 400) 673 

Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 1. 
Address by Professor J. B. Farmer, M.A., F.R.S., President of the Section 674 

1. Charnwood Forest. By William Bell 683 

2. On the Disappearance of certain Cryptogamic Plants from Charnwood 

Forest, Leicestershire, within historic times. By A. R. Horwood 684 



XXU CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. On the Cotyledon of Sorghum as a Sense Organ. By Francis Darwin, 

F.R.S 684 

4. A Botanical Excursion in the Welwitschia Desert. By Professor 

H. H. W. Peaeson, Sc.D., F.L.S 685 

5. Pieport on the Registration of Botanical Photographs (p. 417) 685 

6. Report on Research on South African Cycads and on AVelwitschia (p. 408) 685 

7. Third Interim Report on the Structure of Fossil Plants (p. 408) 686 

8. Report on Peat Moss Deposits (p. 410) 686 

9. Report on Studies of Marsh Vegetation (p. 409) 686 

10. Report on Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity (p. 410)... 686 

11. *The Preservation of Natural Monuments. By Professor Conwentz ... 686 

FRIDA Y, A UG VST 2. 

1. The Emhryology of Pteridophytes. By Professor F. 0. Bower, F.R.S... . 686 

2. Joint Discussion with Section D on the Physical Basis of Inheritance 

(p. 541) 687 

• 3. '-'^Some Advances in our Knowledge of the Pollination of Flowers. By 

Professor F. E. Weirs, D.Sc 687 

MONDAY, AUGUST 5. 

1. The Morphology of Aspergillus herbarionwi. By Miss H. C. I. Fbaser 

and H. S. Chambers 687 

2. Fertilisation in ^sco6o/Ms/M>yMrac«<s (Pers.). By E. J. Welsford 688 

3. Nuclear Fusions and Reductions in the Ascomycetes. By Miss H. C. I. 

Fraser 688 

4 ^Enzymes : their Mode of Action and Functions. By Professor H. E. 

Armstrong, F.R.S., and Dr. E. F. Armstrong 689 

Joint Discussion with Sections D and L on the Teaching of Biology in 

Schools (p. 547) 689 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 6. 

1. T)ie Real Nature of the so-called Tracheids of Ferns. By D. T. Gwynne 

Vatjghan, M.A 690 

2. On the Structure and Affinities of Physostoma elegans (Williamson), a 

Pteridospermous Seed from the Coal Measures. By Professor F. W. 
Oliver, F.R.S 600 

3. On the Cone oi Bothrodendron vmndum. By D. M. S. Watson, B.Sc. ... 690 

4. On the Hairiness of certain Marsh Plants. By Professor R. H. Yapp, M.A. 691 

5. On the Inheritance of certain Characters in Primida sinensis. By R. P. 

Gregory, M.A 691 

6. The Phylogenetic Connexions of the recent Addition to the Thread liaLC- 

tma,{Spirophylliimferrugineum[E\Yis]). By David Ellis 693 

7. The Structure of Root Tuhercles in Leguminous and other Plants. By 

Professor W. B. Bottomlet 693 

8. ii^WDWmo-a'm Merismopedia glauca. By B. H. Bentlet 693 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXIU 

Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUSl 1. 

Page 

Address by Sir Philip^Magnus, B.Sc, M.P., President of the Section 694 

1. Joint Discussion with Section H on Anthropometrics in Schools : — 

(i) Report on Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles 

(p. 354) 704 

(ii) Anthropometrics in Schools. By J. Gray, B.Sc 704 

(iii) The Aims and Function of Anthropometry in relation to the 

School. By F. 0. Shrubsall, MA., M.D 705 

(iv) On the Practical Difficulties in obtaining Measurements of 

Growth in Schoolboys. By E. Meyrick, BA., F.R.S 705 

2. Report on the Conditions of Health essential to the carrying-on of the 

Work of Instruction in Schools (p. 421) 705 

3. Types of Physical Development in Schools. By Cecil Hawkins, M.A. 706 

F It ID AT, AUGUST 2. 

1. The English Scholarship System : its Principles and Results. By Pro- 

fessor M. E. Sadler, LL.D., and H. Bompas Smith, MA 707 

2. Scholarships for Girls from Elementary to Secondary Schools. By Isabel 

ClEGHORN, L.LA 710 

3. The Scholarship System. By A. R. Piceles, M.A., BA 711 

4. The Scholarship System. By Miss S. Heron 712 

5. The Scholarship System as affecting Preparatory Schools. By G. 

Gidley Robinson, M.A 713 

6. The Scholarship System at Oxford and Cambridge. By H. B. Baker, 

M.A.,D.Sc., F.R.S 714 

7. The Scholarship Svstem at a Residential University. By Professor 

H. A. MiERS, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S 715 

8. The Scholarship System, By Rev. A. A. David, M.A 717 

MONDA Y, A U6 UST 5. 

1. Report on the Curricula of Secondary Schools (p. 422) 718 

2. Education and Evolution. By Rev. A. E. Crawley, M.A 718 

3 The Secondary School Curriculum in France, with particular reference to 

Instruction in Modern Languages. By Professor Leon Morbl 719 

4. Conditions of Science Work in Secondary Schools. By R. E. Thwaites, 

M.A 720 

Joint Discussion with Sections D and K on the Teaching of Biology in 

Schools (p. 547) 721 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 6. 

1. ''^The Need of a Scientific Basis to Girls' Education from a Domestic Point 

of View. By Professor H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S 721 

2. The Teaching and the Teacher in Evening Technical Schools. By J. H. 

Hawthorn, M.A 72] 



XXIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. Problems "of Trade Education considered in relation to our School System 

By C. T. MiLLis, M.l.Mech.E 723 

4. Day Trade School for Girls. By Mrs. J. Ramsay MacDonald 725 

5. Technical Training of the Rank and File. By J. G. Legge, M.A 726 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 

FRIDA Y, A UG U8T 2. 

The Arc and the Spark in Radio- Telegraphy. By W. Dctddell, F.R S 728 

MONDAY, AUGUST 6. 
Recent Developments in the Theory of Minnicry. By F. A. Dixey, M.A., M.D. 73G 

Index 739 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plate I. 
Illustrating the Report on Seismological Investigations. 

Plates II. and III. 
Illustrating the Report on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. 

Plate IV. 

Illustrating Mr. H. T. Ferrar's Paper on the Physical Geography of the 
Etbai Desert of Egypt. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1907-1908. 

PATRON. 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

VICE-PATRON FOR THE MEETING AT DUBLIN. 

Hi.s Excellency the LORD LIEUTENANT OF IRELAND. 

PRESIDENT. 

Sm DAVID GILL, K.C.B., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., Hon. F.R.S.E. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His Grace the Duke op Rutland, Lord Lieutenant 

of Leicestershire. 
RiCHAnD DALGLiEsn, J.P., D.L., High SherifE of 

Leicestershire. 
Sir Edwakd Wood, J.P., Mayor of Leicester. 
The Riglit Hon. the Earl op Dysart 
The Right Hon. the Earl Ho«tc, G.C.V.O. 



The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop op Petek- 

BOROUGH, D.D. 
The Right Rev. the Bishop of Leicester, D.D. 
Sir Oliver Lodge, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., Principal 

of the University of Birmingham. 
Herbert Ellis, President of the Leicester 

Literary and Philosophical Society. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

Francis Darwin, M.A,, M.B., P.R.S., 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



F.L.S. 



TheRight Hon. the Lord Mayor op Dublin. 
The Bight Hon. the Lord Chancellor of 

Ireland. 
The Bight Hon. the Chief Secretary to the 

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 
His Maje!-ty's Lieutenant for the County of 

Dublin. 
The Chancellor of the University of Dublin. 
The Chancellor of the Royal University of 

Ireland. 
The Provost op Trinity Colleqb, Dublin. 



Tlie President op Uni\t!Rsity College, Dublin. 

The Right Hon. Viscount Iveagh, K.P. 

The President op the Royal Dlblim Society. 

The President of the Roysl Irish Academy. 

The Vice-Chancellor of the University of 
Dublin. 

The Vice-Chancellor op the Royal Univer- 
sity OP IREL4XD. 

The Vice-President op the Department op 
Agriculture and Technical Instruction. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor John Perry, D.Sc, LL.D., F.B.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, R.A., D.Sc, F.B.S. | Professor W. A. Herdjian, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

A. SiLVA White, Burlington House, Loudon, W. 

CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 

H. C. Stewardson, Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT DUBLIN. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Dodd. | Laurence A. Waldron, M.P. 

Sir James Creed Meredith, LL.D. | William M. Murphy, J.P. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT DUBLIN. 

Joseph McGrath, LL.D. I Professor W. H. Thompson, M>D., D.Sc. 

John Mulligan, J.P. | Professor W. E. Thrift, M.A. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
Abney, Sir W., K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Anderson, Tempest, M.D., D.Sc. 
Bourne, Professor G. C, D.Sc. 
Bow LET, A. L., M.A. 
Boys, C. Vernon, F.B.S. 
Brabrook, Sir Edwabd, O.B. 
Brown, Dr. Horace T., F.R S. 
Cunningham, Professor D. J., F.R.S. 
Dunstan, Professor Wtndham, F.R.S. 
Dyson, Professor F. W.. F.R.S. 
Forsyth, Professor A. R., F.R.S. 
Glazebrook, Dr. R. T., F.R.S. 

Woodward, Dr. A, 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Haddon, Dr. A. C, F.R.S. 
Habtland, E. Sidney, F.S.A. 
Hawksley, C, M.Inst.C.E. 
Hogarth, D. G., MA. 
Langley, Professor J. N.. F.R.S. 
McKendrick, Professir J. G., F.R.S. 
Mitchell, Dr. P. Chalmers, F.R.S. 
PoULTON, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Prain, Lieut.-Colonel D., C.I.E., F.R.S. 
Sherrington, Professor C. S., F.R.S. 
Shipley, A. E., F.R.S. 
Waits, Profes.sor W. W., F.R.S. 
Smith, F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President and Vice-Presidents for the year, the 
President and Vice-Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Pres.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
Sir Arthur W. RtJCKER, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

PAST PRESIDENTS OP THE ASSOCIATION. 



Sir Joseph D. Hooker, G.C.S.I. 
Lord Avebury, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., Pres.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir William Huggins, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 



I Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., 

Sec.R.S. 
Lord Lister, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
.Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir William Orookes, F.R.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.G.B., F.R.S. 



Sir A. W. Rlicker, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Sir James Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 
I Sir Norman Lockyer, K.O.B.,F.B.S. 
Arthur J. Balfour, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir George Darwin, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
SirE.BayLankester,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



P.Galton, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
P. L. Sclater, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. C. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 



A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. RUcker, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. A. Schiifcr, F.R.S. 



Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Garson. 



AUDITORS. 



Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. 



Professor H. McLeod, F.R.S. 



XXVI RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



INDEX TO RULES. 

CHAPTKU PAGE 

I. Objects and Constitution , xxvii 

Annual Meetings .......... xxvii 

II. The General Committee: 

Constitution xxvii 

Admission ............ xxviii 

Meetings xxviii 

Functions xxviii 

III. Committee of Recommendations: 

Constitution and Functions xxix 

Procedure ............ xxix 

IV. Eeseaech Committees: 

Procedure and Constitution xxx 

Proposals bj^ Sectional Committees xxx 

Tenure .... xxx 

Reports xxx 

Grants xxxi 

V. The Council : 

Constitution xxxii 

Functions xxxii 

Elections xxxiii 

VI. The President, General Officers, and Staff: 

The President xxxiii 

The General Officers xxxiii 

The Staff xxxiv 

VII. Finance xxxiv 

VIII. The Annual Meetings: 

Local Officers and Committees ........ .xxxv 

Functions xxxv 

IX. The Work of the Sections : 

The Sections xxxvi 

Sectional Officers xxxvi 

Rooms xxxvi 

Sectional Committees. ......... xxxvi 

Executive Functions of Sectional Committees : 

(i) Organising Committee xxxvii 

(ii) Sectional Committee . . . . . . . . xxxvii 

(iii) Papers and Reports xxxvii 

(iv) Recommendations xxxviii 

Copyright xxxviii 

X. Admission op Members and Associates: 

Applications xxxix 

Conditions and Privileges xxxix 

Corresponding Members xl 

Annual Subscriptions xl 

The Annual Report xl 

XI. Corresponding Societies : Conference op Delegates : 

Affiliated and Associated Societies xl 

Applications xli 

Corresponding Societies Committee xli 

Conference of Delegates xli 

XII. Amendments and New Rules .... ... xlii 



RULES OF 
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

[Adopted by the General Committee at Leicester, 1907.] 

Chapter I. 
Objects and Constitution. 

1. The objects of the British Association for the Advance- Objects. 
ment of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiiy ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in diflFerent parts 

of the British Empire with one another and with foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for the objects 
of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

2. The Association shall consist of Members, Associates, Constitution, 
and Honorary Corresponding Members. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall be directed by a Council and conducted by 
General Officers appointed by that Committee. 

3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or Annual 
longer, and at such other times as the General Committee Meetings, 
may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 

in advance ; and the arrangements for these meetings shall 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

Chapter II. 

The General Committee. 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the Constitution, 
following persons : 

(i) Permanent Members — 

{a) Past and present Members of the Council, and past 
and present Presidents of the Sections. 



XXVlll 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Admission. 



Meetings. 



Functions. 



(6) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furthered the advancement of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association. 

(ii) Temporary Members — 

(a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(6) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 
sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies. 

{d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 
number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 

2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and 
claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
General Committee shall be final. 

(i) Claims for admission as a Permanent Member must 

be lodged with the Assistant Secretary at least one 

month before the Annual Meeting, 
(ii) Claims for admission as a Temporary Member may be 

sent to the Assistant Secretary at any time before or 

during the Annual Meeting. 

3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least during 
every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annual 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 
to summon a meeting of the General Committee 

4. The General Committee shall 

(i) Receive and consider the report of the Council. 
(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations, 
(iii) Receive and consider the report of the Committee of 

Recommendations, 
(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 

than two years in advance, 
(v) Determine the date of the next Annual Meeting, 
(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting, 
(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council. 
(viii) Appoint General Officers, 
(ix) Appoint Auditors. 

(x) Elect the officers of the Conference of Delegates, 
(xi) Receive any notice of motion for the next Annua] 
Meeting. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. XXIX 



Chapter III. 
Committee of Recommendations, 

1. The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution. 
mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 
Association and the President of each Section at the Annual 
Meeting, the General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the 
Trustees, and the Presidents of the Association in former years. 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a "Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. Every recommendation made under Chapter IV. and Functions. 
every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 

the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Piecommendations 
approve such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidered by the General Committee that is not so transmitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section or Sub- 
Section, for altering the title of a Section, or for any other 
change in the constitutional forms or fundamental rules of 
the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration and report. 

3. The Committee of Recommendations shall assemble, Procedure. 
for the despatch of business, on the Monday of the Annual 
Meeting, and, if necessary, on the following day. Their 

Report must be submitted to the General Committee on the 
last day of the Annual Meeting. 



XXX 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter IV. 
Research Comlnittees. 

Procedure. 1. Every proposal for special research, or for a grant of 

money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

In consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee, composed of Members of the Association, to 
conduct research or administer a grant in aid of research, 
and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; and the 
Committee of Recommendations may include such recom- 
mendation in their report to the General Committee. 

Constitution. 2. Every appointment of a Research Committee shall be 

proposed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 
at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary, 
Such Research Committee, if appointed, shall have power to 
add to their numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes 
of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall 
be forwarded by the Recorder to the Assistant Secretary not 
later than noon on the Monday of the Annual Meeting for 
presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 

Tenure. ^- Research Committees are appointed for one year only. 

■ If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 

in that year, application may be made through a Sectional 

Committee at the next Annual Meeting for reappointment, 

with or without a grant — or a further grant — of money. 

Reports. 5. Every Research Committee shall present a Report, 

whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 
that at which it was appointed or reappointed. Interim 
Reports, whether intended for publication or not, must be sub- 
mitted in writing. Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain 
whether a Report has been made by each Research Committee 



Proposals by 

Sectional 

Committees. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. XXSl 

appointed on theii' recommendation, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations on or before the Monday of 
the Annual Meeting. 

6. In each Research Committee to which a grant of money Grants. 
has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call qi^j^jj,^^ ^ 
on the General Treasurer for such portion of the sum granted 

as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting (*) Expire on 
expire on June 30 following. The General Treasurer is not 
authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants. 

The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before (c) Accounts, 
the Annual Meeting next following the appointment of ^^^an?"*^^ 
tlie Research Committee, forward to the General Treasurer 
a statement of the sums that have been received and ex- 
pended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
either return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains 
unexpended, or, if further expenditure be contemplated, apply 
for leave to retain the balance. 

When application is made for a Committee to be re- (.d) Addi- 
appointed, and to retam the balance of a former grant, and ^'°''^^ Grants, 
also to receive a further grant, the amount of such further 
gi'ant is to be estimated as being sufficient, together with 
the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 

In making grants of money to Research Committees, the (e) Caveat. 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal 
expenses to the Members. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
Committee. 

7. Members and Committees entrusted with sums of money Disposal of 
for collecting specimens of any description shall include in apparatus' 
their reports particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens kc. 

thus obtained for disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any ap- 
paratus which may have been purchased out of a grant made 
l)y the Association, and to state whether the apparatus is 
likely to be useful for continuing the research in question or 
for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of 
the Association, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall 
be deposited at the Office of the Association. 



XXXli RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter V. 

The Council. 

Constitution. 1. The Council shall consist of ex officio Members and of 

Ordinary Members elected annually by the General Com- 
mittee. 

(i) The ex officio Members are — the Trustees, past Presi- 
dents of the Association, the President and Vice- 
Presidents for the year, the President and Vice- 
Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty- five in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty shall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
previous year. 

Functions. 2. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 

on behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the affairs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the next 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual Report, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for election by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the 
Council at the Meeting in February, and the names selected 
shall be issued with the summonses to the Council Meeting in 
March, when the nomination shall be made from the names 
on the list. 

The Council shall have power to appoint and dismiss 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 



THE COUNCIL. XXXIU 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same Elections, 
time as that of the Officeis of the Associatioii. 

(i) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for re- 
election in the ensuing year : 

(a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

longest consecutive period, and 

(b) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 

London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 

Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
order of retirement above set forth. 

^ii) The Council shall submit to the General Committee, 
in their Annual Report, the names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council, 
(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 
Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
members of Council, and, if only two are so proposed, 
they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two are 
so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
unless five members at least require it to be by ballot. 



Chapter VI. 
The President, General Officers, and Staff. 

1. The President assumes office on the first day of the The Presi- 
Annual Meeting, when he delivers a Presidential Address. '^'"^*- 

He resigns office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. In his absence, he shall be represented 
by a Vice-President or past President of the Association. 

2. The General Officers of the Association are the General General 
Treasurer and the General Secretaries. Officers. 

1907. b 



XXXIV 



RULES OF THE l^HITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The General 
Treasurer. 



The General 
Secretaries. 



The Assistant 
Secretary. 



Assistant 
Treasurer. 



It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Association, in any matter of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 

meeting. 

3. The General Treasurer shall be responsible to the 
General Committee and the Council for the financial affairs 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretai'ies shall control the general 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to 
the General Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general routine of the work of 
the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Assistant Secretary shall hold office during the 
pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 
of the General Secretaries, and in their absence shall repre- 
sent them. He shall also act on the directions which may 
be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Assistant Secretary shall be charged, subject as afore- 
said : (i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persons 
therein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 

6. The General Treasurer may depute one of the Staff, as 
Assistant Treasurer, to carry on, under his direction, the 
routine work of the duties of his office. 

The Assistant Treasurer shall be charged with the issue of 
Membership Tickets, the payment of Grants, and such other 
work as may be delegated to him. 



Financial 
Statements. 



Chapter VII. 

Finance. 

1. The General Treasurer, or Assistant Treasurer, shall 
receive and acknowledge all sums of money paid to the 
Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 
Council, an interim statement of his Account 3 and, after 



FINANCE. 



XXXV 



June 30 in each year, he shall prepare and submit to the 
General Committee a balance sheet of the Funds of the 
Association. 

2. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, Audit, 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinary pay- Expenditure, 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 

Council. 

4. The General Treasurer is empowered to draw on Investments. 
the account of the Association, and to invest on its behalf, 

part or all of the balance standing at any time to the credit 
of the Association in the books of the Bank of England, 
either in Exchequer Bills or in any other temporary invest- 
ment, and to change, sell, or otherwise deal with such 
temporary investment as may seem to him desirable. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable. Cheques, 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 

his office, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 



Chapter VIII. 
The Annital Meetings, 

1. Local Committees shall be formed to assist the General 
Officers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and 
shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General Officers 
and the Assistant Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Treasurers 
shall be empowered to enrol Members and Associates, and to 
receive subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Committees shall under- 
take tlie local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 
name of the Association in all matters pertaining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than the work of 
the Sections. 



Local Offi- 
cers and 
Committees, 



Functions. 



b2 



XXXVl 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The 

Sections. 



Sectional 
Officers. 



Rooma, 



Sectional 
Committees. 

Constitution. 



Privilege of 
Old Members. 



Daily 
Co-optation. 



Chapter IX. 
The Work of the Sections. 

1. The scientific work of the Association shall be trans- 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time 
to time by the General Committee. 

It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of communica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for each Annual Meet- 
ins in advance, and shall act as the OSicers of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting. 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The Section Rooms and the approaches thereto shall 
not be used for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes 
than those of the Association. 

4. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following : — 

(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office. 

(ii) All past Presidents of that Section. 

(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 

any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Committee, 

thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 

meeting : 

Provided always that — 

(a) Any Member of the Association who has served on 

the Committee of any Section in any previous year, 
and who has intimated his intention of being present 
at the Annual Meeting, is eligible as a member of 
that Committee at their first meeting. 

(b) A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 

set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members. 



THE WORK OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXVll 



(c) A Sectional Committee may, at any time during the Additional 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons ^^^^^ 
present at the meeting to be Vice-Presidents of the 
Section, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 



5. The chief executive officers of a Section shall be the 
President and the Recorder. They shall have power to act on 
behalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 
be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
mittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be absolute on all points 
of order that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- 
mission to the Assistant Secretary of the daily programme of 
his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, of the printed retui*ns, abstracts, reports, or papers 
appertaining to the proceedings of his Section at the Annual 
Meeting, and for the correspondence and minutes of the 
Sectional Committee. 

6. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the 
close of the Annual Meeting, not more than six of its own 
members to be members of an Organising Committee, with 
the officers to be subsequently appointed by the Council, and 
past Presidents of the Section, from the close of the Annual 
Meeting until the conclusion of its meeting on the first day of 
the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

Each Organising Committee shall hold such Meetings as 
are deemed necessary by its President for the organisation 
of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and shall hold a meeting 
on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting : to nominate 
members of the Sectional Committee, to confirm the Pro- 
visional Programme of the Section, and to report to the 
Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be offered by a member, or may 
arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 

No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted 
on its Minutes. 



Executive 
Functions 



Of President, 



and of 
Recorder. 



Organising 
Committee. 



Sectional 
Corpmittee. 



Papers and 
Reports. 



XXXVlll 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Eecom- 
mendatioDS. 



Publication, 



Copyright. 



Any report or paper read in any one Section may be read 
also in any other Section. 

No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the 
Annual Report of the Association unless the manuscript has 
been received by the Recorder of the Section before the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

It shall be within the competence of the Sectional Com- 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, further, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the task 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa- 
tion, whether by reference to local authorities, public institu- 
tions, or Departments of His Majesty's Government. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Com- 
mittee. 

7. Papers ordered to be printed hi extenso shall not be 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 
to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports 
of Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere 
than in the Annual Report without the express sanction of 
the Council. 

8. The copyright of papers ordered by the General Com- 
mittee to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report shall 
be vested in the authors ; and the copyright of the reports 
of Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
shall be vested in the Association, 



ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. XXXIX 



Chapter X. 
Admission of Members and Associates. 

1. No technical qualification shall be required on the Applications. 
part of an applicant for admission as a Member or as an 
Associate of the British Association ; but the Council is 
empowered, in the event of special circumstances arising, to 

impose suitable conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

Every person admitted as a Member or an Associate Obligations, 
shall conform to the Rules and Regulations of the Association, . 
any infringement of which on his part may render him liable 
to exclusion. 

2. All Members are eligible to any office in the Association. Conditions 
(i) Every Life Member shall pay, on admission, the sum ^f *Meraber?°^ 

of Ten Pounds. ship. 

Life Members shall receive gratis the Annual 
Reports of the Association, 
(ii) Every Annual Member shall pay, on admission, the 
sum of Two Pounds, and in any subsequent year 
the sum of One Pound. 

Annual Members shall receive gratis the Report 
of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay, 
without intermission, their annual subscription. An 
Annual Member who omits to subscribe for any 
particular year shall lose for that and all future 
years the privilege of receiving the Annual Reports 
of the Association gratis. He, however, may resume 
his other privileges as a Member at any subsequent 
Annual Meeting by paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound, 
(iii) Every Associate for a year shall pay, on admission, 
the sum of One Pound. 

Associates shall not receive the Annual Report 
gratuitously. They shall not be eligible to serve on 
any Committee, nor be qualified to hold any office in 
the Association, 
(iv) Ladies may become Members or Associates on the 
same terms as gentlemen, or can obtain a Lady's 
Ticket (transferable to ladies only) on the payment 
of One Pound. 



xl 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Correspond- 
ing Members. 



Annual Sub- 
scriptions. 



The Annual 
Report. 



3. Corresponding Members may be appointed by the 
General Committee, on the nomination of the Council. They 
.shall be entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending the meeting may 
make payment at any time before the close of the financial 
year on June 30 of the following year. 

5. The Annual Report of the Association shall be forwarded 
gratis to individuals and institutions entitled to receive it. 

Annual Members whose subscriptions have been inter- 
mitted .shall be entitled to purchase the Annual Report 
at two-thirds of the publication price ; and Associates for a 
year shall be entitled to purchase, at the same price, the 
volume for that year. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of 
publication can only be issued by direction of the Council. 



Affiliated 
Societies. 



Associated 
Societies. 



Chapter XI. 

Corresponding Societies : Conference of Delegates. 

Corresponding Societies are constituted as follows : 

1. (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the British Association. 

Each Affiliated Society may appoint a Delegate, 
who must be or become a Member of the Associa- 
tion and must attend the meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates. He shall be ex officio a Member of 
the General Committee, 
(ii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 
the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and numbers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the British 
Association. 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con- 
ference. Such Delegates must be or Vjecome either 
Members or Associates of the British Association, 
and shall have all the rights of Delegates appointed 
by the Affiliated Societies, except that of member- 
ship of the General Committee. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES : CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES, xli 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed Applications. 
on the list of Corresponding Societies. Such application must 

be addressed to the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of 
June preceding the Annual Meeting at which it is intended 
it should be considered, and must, in the case of Societies 
desiring to be affiliated, be accompanied by specimens of the 
publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
I'ecently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- Coere- 
nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the societies 
General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves Coifmittek. 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties and of superintending the preparation of a list of the 

papers published by the Affiliated Societies. This Com- 
mittee shall make an Annual Report to the Council, and 
shall suggest such additions or changes in the list of Corre- 
sponding Societies as they may consider desirable. 

(i) Each Corresponding Society shall forward every year Procedure, 
to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, on or 
before June 1, such particulars in regard to the 
Society as may be required for the information of 
the CoiTesponding Societies Committee. 

(ii) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the 
Association a list of the papers published by the 
Corresponding Societies during the preceding 
twelve months which contain the results of local 
scientific work conducted by them — those papers 
only being included which refer to subjects coming 
under the cognisance of one or other of the several 
Sections of the Association. 

4. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies shall consti- Confeeekcb 
tute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, 
and Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated annually by 
the Council and appointed by the General Committee. The 
members of the Corresponding Societies Committee shall be 

ex officio members of the Conference. 

(i) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by Procedure and 



OF Dele- 
gates. 



the Secretaries to hold one or more meetings during 
each Annual Meeting of the Association, and 
shall be empowered to invite any Member or 
Associate to take part in the discussions. 
(ii) The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to 
submit Resolutions to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration, and for report 
to the General Committee. 



Functions. 



xlii RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

(iii) The Sectional Committees of the Association shall be 
requested to transmit to the Secretaries of the 
Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions to be made to the General Committee bearing 
on matters in which the co-operation of Corre- 
sponding Societies is desirable. It shall be com- 
petent for the Secretaries of the Conference of 
Delegates to invite the authors of such recom- 
mendations to attend the meetings of the Conference 
in order to give verbal explanations of their objects 
and of the precise way in which they desire these 
to be carried into effect. 

(iv) It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make 
themselves familiar with the purport of the several 
recommendations brought before the Conference, in 
order that they may be able to bring such recom- 
mendations adequately before their respective 
Societies, 
(v) The Conference may also discuss propositions 
regarding the promotion of more systematic ob- 
servation and plans of operation, and of greater 
uniformity in the method of publishing results. 



Chapter XII. 
Amendments and New Rides. 

Alterations. Any alterations in the Rules, and any amendments 

or new Rules that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee on the first day of the Annual Meeting, and referred 
forthwith to the Committee of Recommendations ; and, on the 
report of that Committee, shall be submitted for approval at 
the last meeting of the General Committee. 



PAST PRESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECBETARIEfi. xlili 









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PAST PRESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES xlvii 






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Iviii 



TEUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831-1907. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. MuECHiSON (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egeeton, Bart., F.R.S. 



1872 Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 

Avebuey), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoodb, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883 Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord) 

Playfaie, F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. (Sir) A. W. Ruckeb, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1 831 Jonathan Geay, Esq. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoodb, Esq., F.R S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S, 



1891-98 Prof. (Sir) A. W. RiJCKER, 

F.R.S. 
1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904 Prof. John Pebry, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832 
1835 



-35 



Vernon Harcourt, 



-36 



1836-37 



1837-39 



1839- 



Vbenon Harcourt, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 

Vernon Harcourt, 
I. Muechison, 



1845- 
1850- 

1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 



1863-65 



1865- 
1866- 



Rev. W. 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S., and R 

Esq., F.R.S. 
R. I. Muechison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
45 Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Colonel E Sabinb.F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. ROYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. ROYLB, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., 

Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



and 



and 



1868-71 

1871-72 

1872-76 

1876-81 

1881-82 

1882-83 
1883-95 

1895-97 



1897- f 

1900 1 

1900-02 



1902-03 
1903 



Dr. T, A. Hirst, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. SCLATER, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balfour, F.R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Vernon Harcouut, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

Schaper, F.R.S. 
Prof. Schafer, F.R.S., and Sir 

W.C.Roberts-Austen, F.R.S. 
Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., and 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Forbes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A., 

Assistant Secretary. 
] 881 G. Griffith, E.sq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-1902 G. Griffith, E.-sq., M.A. 
1902-04 J. G. Gaeson, Esq., M.D. 
1904 A. SiLVA White, Esq., Assistant 

Secretary. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS, 



lix 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

183.3. Cambridge 
1834. Edinburgh 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.R.S.lRev. H. Coddington. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S Prof. Forbes. 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. IProf. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

184.5. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.LA. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 
V.P.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof, 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G, 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G, G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof .Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. SoUitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh, 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev, T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull, 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H, J. S, Smith, Prof, 

Tyndall. 



Ix 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 




1859, 
1860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1861 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 



Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



Secretaries 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1877. 

1878. 
1879, 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 



The Earl of Kosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S... . 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. i 

Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D.,! 

F.R.S. I 

J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.B. . 



Brighton... W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Bradford ...'Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 

Belfast ' Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 

I M.R.I.A. 
Bristol Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Gla,sgow ... Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Plymouth. 
Dublin.. . 
Sheffield . 
Swansea . 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen. . . 

Birmingham 



Prof. G . C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. 0. Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 
F.R.S.E. 

Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T, Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev, G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M.Wilson. 
FleemingJeukin,Prof.H. J. S.Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. CliflEord, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harle}'. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S.Herschel,G.F.Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W.L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S.Herechel. 
J.W.L.Glaisher.Prof.Herschel, Ran- 
dal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. AV.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 0. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher,^Dr. 

0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. 0. J. Lodge, 
D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 

C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, O. J. Lodge. D MacAlister. 

R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 

R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 
J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixi 



Date axid Place 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 
1890. 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 


1891. 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


1898. 


Bristol 


1899. 


Dover 


1900. 


Bradford... 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902, 


Belfast 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 



Presidents 



Prof. Sir E. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.A.W.Rucker, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.K.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S. — Dep. 
of Astronomy, Dr. A. A. 
Common, F.R.S. 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 
— Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S.— i?^^^. 
of Astronomy and Meteor- 
ology, Dr. "^."iH. Shaw,F.R.S 

Prof. H. Lamb, F.R.S.— iS?<&- 
Seetion of Astronomy and 
Cosmical Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Principal E. H.Griffiths,F.R.S. 



Prof. A. E. H. Love, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. B. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddle. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddle. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T, Walker, W. 

Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. C. Glashan, J. 

L. Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 
A. P. Chattock, J. L. Howard, C. H. 

Lees, W. Watson, E. T. Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, W. Wat- 
son, E. T. Whittaker. 
P. H. CoweU, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wagstaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 
H.S.Carslaw.C.H.Lees, W. Stewart, 

Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R, Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. B, 
Morton, A. W. Porter. 

D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 
H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees, J. 
Loton, A. W. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. H, T. Hudson, 
Dr. C. H. Lees, Dr. W. J. S. Lock- 
yer, A. W. Porter, W. C. D. 
Whetham. 

A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough, R. T. A. 
Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. C. H. Lees. 

Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 
A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. W. Porter, 
H. Dennis Taylor. 

E. E. Brooks, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, 
Dr. J. A. Harker, A. R. Hinks, 
Prof. A. W. Porter. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



18.S2. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr, Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



Ixii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOOT. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 

1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 
1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 
1868. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich . . . 
Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 

Norwich ... 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Cumming .. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. "William Whewell,F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.LA 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, R. Hunt.W. M. Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. 
Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A.,!B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

F.R.S. 
Richard Phillips, F.R.S i T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 



John Percy, M.D., F.R.S... 
Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ... 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 



Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

Prof. W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B.,F.R.S, 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B., F.R.S. 

Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. ■W.A.Miller, M.D,,F.R.S. 



Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F R S 
W. bdlikg, M.B., F.R.S 



R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 
Biggs. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

V.P.R.S. I Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S.! J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Russell, J. White. 
Prof. T. Anderson, M.D.,' A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 



F.R.S.B. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 



W. J. Russell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixiii 



Date and Place 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. CardifiE 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 



Presidents 



1895. Ipswich 

1896. Liverpool... 
1897 Toronto ... 



Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 
Prof.T.Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S,... 
Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 
W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 

Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S 

Prof. W, A. Tilden, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W, C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 

SECTION B (continued).- 
[Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



1898. Bristol Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S. 



Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 

Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 

Dr. W. J. Russell. 
J. Y. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 

E. Thorpe. 
Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 

W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 
Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 
Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 
Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 

Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 
W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 
Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 
H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 
P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

J. L. Notter. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, I'rof . W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

H.ForsterM orley,Dr. W.J. Simpson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, H. F. Mor- 
ley, W.W. J.Nicol, C. J. Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillij^s Bedson, H. Forster 

Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 
H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 

W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol. G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

Harden, H. Forster Morley. 

—CHEMISTRY. 

E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, J. W. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn. 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 
C. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddart, T. K. 

Rose. 



Ixiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECKETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford,.. 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. South Africa 

1906. York 



1907. Leicester. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Horace T. Brown, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.K.S. ... 

Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Divers, F.E.S 

Prof. "W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sydney YouDg, F.R.S.... 



George T. Beilby 



Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. ... 



A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Rose, 
Prof. W. P. Wynne. 

W. M. Gardner, F. S. Kipping, W. 
J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 

W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 
W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 

R. F. Blake, M. 0. Forster, Prof. 
G. G. Henderson, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Dr. M. 0. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. O. Jones, Prof. W. 
J. Pope. 

W. A. Caldecott, Dr. M. O. Forster, 
Prof. G. G. Henderson, C. F. Juritz. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 
Crossley, S. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. 
Pope. 

Dr. B. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 
Crossley, J. H. Hawthorn, Dr. 
F. M. Perkin. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III.- 

1832. Oxford R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. 

1833. Cambridge. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

1834. Edinburgh .' Prof . Jameson 



-GEOLOGY AND GEOGKAPnY. 

I Jolin Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie, Rev.J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. Dublin, 

1836. Bristol , 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle.. 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 
1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh" 



R. J. Griifith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

6'fO)7.,R.I.Murchison,F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

G'eo^.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geography, Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

G^eo.7.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 
Charles Jiyell, Y. '&.%.— 6eog., 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S. ... 
Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A. 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner, F.R.S. 

Very Eev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S 



Sir Roderick 
F.R.S. 



I. Murchison, 



Captain Portlook, T. J. Torrie. 

William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M. Denham.R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt, Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, H. Murray, 
H. B. Strickland, J. Secular. 

W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloj'd, H. B. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
S.Benson,Prof.01dham,Prof. Ramsay 
J. B. Jukes, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



Geography was constituted a separate Section, see page Ixxii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION c (contifiued). — geology. 



1851. Ipswich .. 
1352. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . , 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds .... 

1859. Aberdeen. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol.., 

1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 



WilliamHopkins,]\I.A.,F.ll.S. 

Lieut.- Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins.M. A., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D.j 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S... 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smvth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

Archibald Geijiie, F.R.S 

R. A. 0. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
SirPhilipde JI.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S 

Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. T.Wright,F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea .., 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1907. 



\V. Peugelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Brj'ce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, R. H. 

Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, E. Hull, J. W. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengellv. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. 0. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L.C.Miall,R.H.Tiddeman,W.Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G, Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney.W. Topley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. AMiitaker. 



Ixvi 



rEESIDENTS AND SECKETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1883, 
1881 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 

1896. 

1807. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 
1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 

190G. 
1907. 



Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen ... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Presidents 



Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.K S , Sec. 

Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

O.Kford 

Ipswich ... j W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 
I 

Liverpool... J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S 

Toronto ... Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 
Bristol ,\V. H. Hudleston, F.R.S 

Dover Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 

Bradford ... Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

Glasgow ... John Home, F.R.S 

Belfast Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, 

j F.R.S. 
Souihport Prof. W. W, Watts, M.A., 
M.Sc. 



Cambridge 
SouthAfrica 



Aubrey Strahan, F.R.S 

Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 



York |G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S 

Leicester... i Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... 



:R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
i ley, W. Whitaker. 
.F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
I Topley, W. Whitaker. 
C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. TeaU, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W. 
I W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 
i E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W.Wat ts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 
! Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, C. Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp 
lugh. Prof. H. A. Miers. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H. Pentecost. 

J. W. Gregory, G. W. Lamplugh, 

Capt. McDakin, Prof. H. A. Miers. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

G. W. Lamplugh, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton, 

J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. Seymour. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. Woods. 
H. L.Bowman, J. Lomas, Dr. Molen- 

graaff. Prof. A. Young, Prof. R. B. 

Young. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Rev. W. Johnson, J. Lomas. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Prof. T. Groom, J. Lomas. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANT, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...iRev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge''Rev. W.L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh. Prof. Graham W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixx. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman I J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow jj. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 

W. S. MacLeay C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

: Swainson. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

I Dr. Richardson. 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S 'e. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D jProf. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Very Rev. the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. ' Dr. Lankester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 
F.R.S. Wooldridge. 



H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T, V. 
Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — ZOOLOGT AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixx.] 



1848. Swansea ...L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S. 



1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 
185?. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 

C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. Balfoiir, M.D., F.R.S... . 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.E.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey. Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. B. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. E. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright, 

d2 



Ixvui 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1864. Bath. 



18G.5. Birming- 
ham ' 



Presidents 



Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. 
T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S, 



Secretaries 



IT. B. Brady, G. E. Broom, H. T. 
j Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 
I H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D {continued). — biology. 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter, 



1870. Liverpool. 



1871. Edinburgh. 



1872. Brighton .. 



1873. Bradford .. 



Prof. Huxley, F.R.S.— Z'^yA 
of Physwl, Prof. Humphry, 
F.R.S. — Dej). of Anthrojiol., 
A. R. Wallace. 

Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 
— Bej). of Zool. and Bot., 
George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 

Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Physiology, W. 
H. Flower, F.R.S. 



George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Bej). of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. RoUeston, M. A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. — i>(7A of 
Anat. and Phygiol.,Fiof.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Bej). 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— -DtfiA of Bot. and 
ZooZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bej). of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol. ,\ 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman,F.R.S.— J9('i;. of 
Anat.and Physiol. ,'PToi. Ru- 
therford, yi.T).—Bep. of An- 
thropol, Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 

1874. Belfast Prof. Redfern, W.Ti.—Bep. of 

Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Vr:eB.'B,.?,.—Bep.ofAn- 
throp.. Sir W. R. Wilde, 
M.D. 

1875. Bristol ;P. L. Sclater, V.B..S.— Bep.of 

Anat. and Physiol., Prof. 
Cleland, ¥.B..E.—Bep. of 

^«/A.,Prof.Rolleston,F.R.S. 

1876. Glasgow ... A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S. — 
Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. I 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson. 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



' The title of Section D was changed to Biology. 



I'RESIDENTS AND SECRETAKIES OF" THE SECTIONS. 



IXIX 



Date and Place 



1877.Plymoutli. 



1878. Dublin 



1879^ Sheffield .. 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport' 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. BirmingbaiD 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle - 
upon Tyne 



Pre.sidents 



1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 



J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. 
Dip. of Anat. and PhydoJ.,. 
Prof. Macalister. — Dep. of 
Anthropol.,V.GaXioTi,¥.B..ii. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Dep. 
of Anat. and Phyiiol.., K. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Anthropol, 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Dej). of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A.C. L. Giinther, F.R.S.— i?ci?. 
of Anat. <f Physiol., F. M. 
Balfour, ¥\lii.—Dep. of 
Anthropol., F. W. Rudler. 

R. Owen, ¥.^.^.—Dep. of An- 
thropol.. Prof. W.H. Flower, 
F.R.S.— iJp/A of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burden 
Sanderson, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Zool. and Dot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Dep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Z>p;a of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

VV. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., P.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 
F.R.S., F.R.S.E. I 



Secretaries 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 
Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Piuser, J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 

G. W. Bloxam, "W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 
W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 
Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 
G. A. Woods. 

Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, 
A. Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 

W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 
J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 
Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 

Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 
W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 



' Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxviii. 



Ixx 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1893. Nottingham' 
189-i. Oxford'^ ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 
M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. i W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmei, 
F.R.S. j Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

! Hickson, G. Blurray, W. L. Sclater. 



Ipswich 
Liverpool 
Toronto 
Bristol . , 



Dover . . . 
Bradford 



SECTION D {continued). — zoology. 

. Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. iG. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 
, I Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 

.jProf. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... H. O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E, 
• Hoyle. 

. Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

! E. E. Prince. 

. Prof. W. F.R.Weldon, F.R.S. Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 

. Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 

. Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ... W. Garstang, .J. G. Kerr, T. H. 

Taylor, Swale Vincent. 
. Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson. 
. ' I'rof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

I Simpson. 
Southport Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. ...|Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, A 

j Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. 
I H. W. M. Tims. 

Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

j Prof. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. H. W. M. 
I Tims. 
.... Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H. W. M. 

1 Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson. 
.... Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 
Oxley Grabham, Dr. H. W. M. 
i Tims. 
.... Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 
j E. B. Lowe, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 



Glasgow 
Belfast.. 



1895. 

1896. 

1897. 

1898. 

1899. 
1900. 

1901. 
1902. 

1903. 



1901. Cambridge i William Bateson, F.R.S. 

1905. SouthAfrica G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 

1906. York J. J. Lister, F.R.S 

1907. Leicester... Dr. W. E. Hoyle, M.A.... 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge Dr. J. Haviland jDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh |Dr. Abercrombie |Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S..., 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. 0. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J.Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. Reid. 



' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxis. 
* The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxi 




Secretaries 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY, 



1841. 
1842. 


Plymouth . . . 
Manchester 


1843. 


Cork 


1844. 


York 


1845. 
1846. 


Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 


1847. 


Oxford' ... 


1850. 


Edinburgh 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 
1863. 


Cambridge 
Newcastle 


1864. 


Bath 


1865. 


Birming- 
ham 2 



P. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 
Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S 
Sir James Pit cairn, M.D. ... 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. .., 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S 



! J. Butter, J. Fuge, R. S. Sargent. 
' Dr. Cbaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
1 1. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
' Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 

C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
I gent. 
[ T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



Prof. Bennett, M.D.,F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rol]eston,M.D., F.L.S. 

Dr. John Davy, F.R.S 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D.,' 
F.R.S. I 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wlieelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Snaitli. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. Ixiv.] 



ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1646. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1 850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Pres. R.G.S. I Norton Shaw. 

Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 'R. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 



F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 



Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 



' Sections D and B were incorporated under the name of ' Section D — Zoology 
and Botany, including Physiology ' (see p. Ixvii), Section E, being then vacant, 



was assigned in 1851 to Geography, 
' Vide note on page Ixvi, 



IXXll 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1 860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 


1864 


Bath 


1865. 


Birming- 




ham. 


1866. 


Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee ... 


1868. 


Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres.R.I.A. 
Sir R. I. Murchison,G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rear - Admiral Sir James 

Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 
John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir E. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
i F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. Cull, S. Ferguson. Dr. R. R. 
I Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

R. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghan, 
[ Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

Richard Call, Prof. Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
I ton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lempri^re, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 
C. R. Markham, K. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Raines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — geography. 



186!). 


Exeter 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


1871. 


Edinburgh 


1872. 


Brighton ... 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


1874. 


Belfast 


1875. 


Bristol 


1876. 
1877. 
1878. 


Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 
Dublin 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


1 881 


York 


1882. 
1883. 


Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 


1884. 


Montreal ... 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.LMurchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock,K.C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut. - General Strachey, 
R.E.,C.S.I.,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B. 

Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D.,F.R.S.,F.R S.E. 

Clements R. Markham, C.B., 
P.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A.,F.R.S. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 
C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.L, 
F.R.G.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S., V.P.R.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
PL W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keitli Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. .1. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bales, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Eye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. 0. Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 
John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev.Abb^Laflamme, J.S. O'HaUoran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxiii 



Date and Place 


1885 


Aberdeen... 


1886. 


Birming- 
ham. 


1887 


Manchester 


1888 


Bath 


1889. 


Newca.stle- 


1890. 


npon-Tyne 
Leeds 


1891. 


CardiflE 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford 


1895. 


Ipswich . . . 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


1898. 


Bristol 


1899. 


Dover 


1900. 


Bradford ... 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 


]90.'i. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester ... 



Presidents 



Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. P. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.L, C.B., F.K.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, RE., 

G.C.M.G.. F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E , 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S 
E. G. Raven.?tein, F.E.G.S., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.R.S.. 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. 
Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.4., 

F.R.G.S. 
Major L. Darwin, Sec. R.G.S. 

J. Scott Keltic, LL.D. 

Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. 

Sir John Murra}-, F.R.S 

Sir George S. Robertson, 

K.C.S.L 
Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.G.S 

Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ... 

Capt. E. W. Creak, R.N., C B., 
F.R.S. 

Douglas W. Fre.shfield 

Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton, 
R.N., K.C.B , F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Sir George Goldie, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
George G. Chisholm, M.A. ... 



Secretaries 



J. S. Keltie, J S. O'Halloran, E. 
Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smitli. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

iRev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 
I H.J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
I J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
ij. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 
I Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, Jolin Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

A. Silva White. 
John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 

kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 
J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

Keltie, A. Silva White. 
Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 

Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 
Col. F. Bailey. H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill, H. C. 

Trapnell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 0. Forbes, 

Dr. H. R. Mill. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, E. R. 

Wethey. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 

Sandeman. A. C. Turner. 

G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 
A. J.Herbertson.Dr. J. A. Lindsay. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. Under- 
wood. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
H. Y. Oldham, E. A. Reeves. 

A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, H. Y. Old- 
ham. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
E. A. Reeves, G. Yeld. 

E. Heawood, O. J. R. Howarth, 
E. A. Reeves, T. Walker. 



1833. 
1834. 



183.5. 
1836, 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, TI. — STATISTICS. 

Cambridge I Prof. Babbage, F.R.S ! J. E. Drinkwater. 

Edinburgh j Sir Charles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION P. — STATISTICS. 

Dwhlin Charles Babbage, F.R.S ' W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Bristol SirChas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. 

James Heywood. 



Fripp, 



Ixxiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birming- 

ham. 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birming- 

ham. 
18.50. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 



Presidents 



Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon . 



Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Lord Sandon, M.P., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



Secretaries 



W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W, C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
P. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. P. G. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W.H, 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



1856. 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and statistics. 
Cheltenham Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen . . . 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 
1863. 


Cambridge 
Newcastle . 


1864. 


Bath 


1865. 
1866. 


Birming- 
ham. 
Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee 


1868. 


Norwich.... 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.LA. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S... 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P. .. 
Samuel Brown 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr, 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
B. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun.. Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxv 



Date and Place 



1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872 
1873. 
187i. 

1875. 

1876, 



1877, 

1878. 
1879. 

1880. 
1881. 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 



Presidents 



1 Rt.Hon.SirStafifordH.North- 
' cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



Secretaries 



Bristol 

Glasgow ... 



Plymouth. 
Dublin.... 
Sheffield . 



Swansea 
York 



1882. 
1883. 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 
1886. 
1887. 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester 



1888. 
1889. 
1890. 



Bath. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



1891. Cardiff. 



1892, 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 
1898. 



Edinburgh 
Nottingham 



James Hey wood, M.A.,F.R.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K. C. S.I. , 

M.P. 

Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. ... 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duflf, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.L, CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. ... 

Robert GifEen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. A. MarshaU, M.A., F.S.S. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, F S.S. 



Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool... 

Toronto . . . 
Bristol 



Hon. Sir 
K.C.B. 



C. W. Fremantle 



Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 

F.S.S. 

Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
L. L. Price, M.A 

Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P.... 

Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 
J. Bonar, M.A., LL.D 



E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Cbas. R. Dudley Baxter, E, Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Pitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. 

Jack. 
W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 
W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 
Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F, 

Moss. 
G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 
Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. P. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 
E. Cannan, Prof, A. W. Flux, H. 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 



Ixxvi 



PKESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date andlPlace 



1899. 
I'JOO. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 



Dover 

Bradford ... 
Glasgow ... 
Belfast ... 
Southport 
Cambridge 
SouthAfrica 



Presidents 



1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 

1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1855. 
1856. 
1857. 

1858. 
1859. 



A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 

VV. Flux, Rev. G. Sarson. 
A. L. Bovi^ley, E. Cannan, S. J. 

Chapman, F. Hooper. 
W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan, S. J. Cha)^man. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J Chapman, 

Dr. A. Duffin 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. Lloyd. 
J. E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg. 
R. a Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

H. E. S. Fremantle, H. O. Mere- 
dith. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Mac- 

gregor, H. O. Meredith, B. S. 

Eowntree. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Macgregor, 

H. O. Meredith, T. S. Taylor. 

SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 
Bristol I Davies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.R.S. IT. G. Bimt, G. T.Clark, W. West. 



1906. York 



H. Higgs, LL.B 

Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. 

Sir R. Giflen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

E. Cannan, M.A., LL.D 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D 

Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc. 

A. L. Bowlej', M.A 



1907. Leicester... I Prof. W. J. Ashley, M.A. 



Secretaries 



Liverpool. 
Newcastle 
Birming- 
ham. 
Glasgow .... 

Plymouth . . . 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton 

Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 



Rev. Dr. Robinson Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S. .. 
Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



1860 

1861. Manchester 



1862, 
1863. 



Cambridge . 

Newcastle . 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I. A.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Robt. Slephensou,M.P.,F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson ,. 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 
W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macqiiorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev.Prof.Willis,M.A.,F.R.S. 



R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles. T. Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T.^Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Man by. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A.Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 

Charles Manby, AV. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephen.son. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J . Thomson . 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. JefEery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott. 

J. F. Spencer. 



TRUSIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



IXXVll 



Date atid Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 
1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 



Bath I J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S ; P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 

Birming- Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., P. Le Neve Fester, Henry Lea 

liam. F.R.S. | W. P. Marsliall, Walter May. 

Nottingham Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, 
C.E., F.G.S. I M. O. Tarbotton. 

Dundee Prof.W. J.MacquornRankine, P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 1 W. W. Urqubart. 

Norwich ... G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. i P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, 

! I C. Manby, W. Smith. 

Exeter jC. W. Siemens, F.R.S P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 

Liverpool... Chas.B.Vignoles,C.E.,F.E.S.'H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, 

I I T. King, J. N. Slioolbred. 

Edinburgh Prof. FleemingJenkin, F.R.S. H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 

Brighton ... F. J. Bramwell, C.E H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C.Barlow,H.Banerman.E.H.Carbutt, 
J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 

Belfast Prof. James Thomson, LL.D.,: A. T.Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

I C.E., F.R.S.E. Smyth, jun. 

Bristol :W. Froude, C.E.,M.A.,F.R.S.|W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 
J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 



Bradford ...W. H. Darlow, F.R.S 



Glasgow ... C. W. Menifield, F.R.S. 

Plymouth... Edward Woods, C.E. .. 

Dublin Edward Easton, C.E. .. 

Sheffield 



A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, E. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 



J. Robinson, Pres.Inst. Mech. 
Eng. 

Swansea ... i J. Abernethy, F.R.S.E 

York Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B.,jA. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. H. T. Wood. 

John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... A. T. Atchison, F Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg,H. T.Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Kigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshal], E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 
W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
Edinburgh | Prof . W. C. Unwin, F.E.S., C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

M.Inst.C.E. Popplewell, E. Rigg. 

Nottingham! Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 
F.C.S. i Rigg, H. Talbot. 

Oxford : Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, ' Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

I F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. I W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 

Ipswich ... I Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, i Prof . T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 
I M.A., M.Inst.C.E. I W.'^B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport . 
Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester 

Bath 



J. Brunlees, Pres.Inst.C.E. ... 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.E.S., 



M.Inst.C.E. 
Newcastle- 'W. Anderson. M.Inst.C.E. ... 
upon-Tyne. I 
Leeds iCapt. A. Noble, C.B., F.E.S., 

F.E.A.S. 
Cardiff iT. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 



Ixxviii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1896. Liverpool... I Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

i S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 

1897. Toronto ...:G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. ... Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof . Callen- 

dar, W. A. Price. 

1898. Bristol Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

F.R.S. H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 

1899. Dover Sir W. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 

E. Stilgoe. 

1900. Bradford ' Sir Alex, R. Binnie, M.Inst. Prof. T. H. Beare, C. F. Charnock, 

C.E. I Prof. S. Dunkerley, W. A. Price. 

SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 

1901. Glasgow ... I R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. H.Bamford,W.E. Dalby, W.A.Price. 

1902. Belfast ... 'Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S M. Barr, W. A. Price, J. Wylie. 

1903. Southport 'C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall 

I , W. A. Price. 

1904. Cambridge .Hon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. ... J. B. Peace, W. T. Maccall, W. A. 

Price 

1905. SouthAfrica ; Col. Sir C. Scott-Moncrieflf, 

G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E. 

1906. York I J. A. Ewing, F.R.S 

1907, 



W. T, Maccall, W. B. Marshall, Prof. 
H. Payne, E. Williams. 

York I J. A. Ewing, F.R.S W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price, J. Trif- 

fit. 
Leicester... Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, ' Prof . E. G. Coker, A. C, Harris, 
I F.R.S. i W. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1884. Montreal... I E. B.Tylor,D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 'Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 

1886. Birming- Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

ham. M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 

1887. Manchester Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Bath Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 



1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1893. 
189.3. 

1894. 
1895. 
1896. 

1897. 

1898. 
1899. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 



Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 



LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., 
F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson. J. 

Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 



R. Morison, Dr. R. llowden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 
Dr. J. G. Garson. 
Prof. F. Max Muller, M.A. ... iG. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

1 Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., ' G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof 
M.D., F.R.S. I R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 

Nottingham I Dr. R. Munro, M.A. , F.R.S E. |G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 



Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool... 

Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B,. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, 

D.C.L. 
Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A 

Sir W. Turner, F.R.S 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

C. H. Read, F.S.A 



J L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

Roth. 
J. L. Myres, Rev. J. J. Raven, H. 

Ling Roth. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 
A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. Haddon. J. L. Myres. 
H.Balfour, J. L. Myres, G. Parker. 
H.Balfour, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

Haddon, J. L. Myres. 



' The title of Section G was changed to Engineering. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1900. Bradford... Prof. John Rhys, M.A Rev. E. Armitage, H. Balfour, W. 

1 Crooke, J. L. Mj'res. 

1901. Glasgow ... Prof. D. J. Cunningham, ; W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. ¥. 

F.R.S. Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 

1902. Belfast ... Dr. A. C. Iladdon, F.R.S. ... R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 

j J. L. Myres. 

1903. Southport Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. ... E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 

! I E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres. 

1904. Cambridge H. Balfour, M.A iW. L. H. Duckworth, E. N. Fallaize, 

' H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres. 

1905. SouthAfrica Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... A. R. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. S. 

I I Hartland. 

1900. York E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize, 

I H. S. Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Sbrub- 

f I sail. 

1907. Leicester... D. G. Hogarth, M.A ;C. J. Billson, E. N. Fallaize, H. S 

I I Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 



1894. 

1896. 
1897. 

1899. 

1901. 

1902. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 
1907. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 
Oxford... 



Liverpool... 
Toronto . . . 

Dover 

Glasgow ... 

Belfast ... 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 



York 

Leicester , 



Prof. E. A. Sch'ifer, F.R.S., Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haldane, 

M.R.C.S. 1 M. S. Pembrey. 

Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. ...! Prof. R. Boy ce, Prof. C.S.Sherrington. 
Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S.! Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 

! ton, Dr. L. E. Shore. 
J. N. Langley, F.R.S ; Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 

H. Starling. 
Prof.J.G.McKendrick.F.RS. W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

W. H. Thompson. 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton, J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne, Dr. 



F.R.S. 
Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. 

Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. ... 



Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 



C. Shaw. 

J. Barcroft, Prof. T. G. Brodie, Dr. 
L. E. Shore. 

J. Barcroft, Dr. Baumann, Dr. Mac- 
kenzie, Dr. G. W. Robertson, Dr. 
Stanwell. 

J. Barcroft, Dr. J. M. Hamill, Prof. 
J. S. Macdonald, Dr. D. S. Long. 

Dr. N. H. Alcock, J. Barcroft, Prof 

! J. S. Macdonald, Dr. A. Warner. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



1895. Ipswich ... W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S. 

1896. Liverpool... Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S 

1897. Toronto ... Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 



1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 

1902. 

1903. 



Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford .. 
Glasgow .. 

Belfast 

Southport 



Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. ... 

Sir George King, F.R.S 

Prof. S. H. Vines, F.R.S 

Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. R. Green, F.RS 

A. C. Seward, F.R.S 



A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 
Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 
A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

A. C. Seward, H. Wager, J. W. White. 

G. Dowker, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 

A. C. Seward, H. Wager, W. West. 

D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 

A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 
H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 

H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, H. Wager, 
R. H. Yapp. 



lxx> 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OK THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1904. Cambridge Francis Darwin, F.R.S. ... 
1903. SouthAfrica Harold Wager, F.R.S 

1906. York Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. 

1907. Leicester ... Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. 



Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 

H. Wager, T. B. Wood, R. H. Yapp. 
R. P. Gregory, Dr. Marloth, Prof. 

Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 

A. G Tansley, Prof. R. H.'Yapp. 
W. Bell, R. P. Gregory, Prof. A. G. 

Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 



1902. Belfast .. 

1903. Southport 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

1901. Glasgow ... Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. ... R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 

Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 
t H. L. Withers. 

Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

R. M. Jones, Dr. 0. W. Kimmins, 
Prof. H. L. Withers. 
Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 
F.R.S. Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. L. 

Snape. 

1904. Cambridge Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

I W. M. Heller, Dr. C. W. Kimmius. 

1905. SouthAfrica Prof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., A. D.Hall, Prof. Hele-Shaw, Dr. C.W. 

I M.P. Kimmins, J. R. Whitton. 

1906. York :Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

Hugh Richardson. 

1907. Leicester... Sir Philip Magnus, M.P W. D. Eggar, Prof. R. A. Gregor}', 

I I J. S. Laver, Hugh Richardson. 



CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES OF THE CONFERENCES OF 
DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Date and Place 


Chairmen 


Secretaries 


1S8.5. 


Aberdeen . . . 


Francis Galton, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola. 


1886. 


Birmingham 


Prof. A. W. Williamson,F.R.S. 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1887. 


Manchester 


Prof.W.Boyd Dawkins,F.R.S. 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1888. 


Bath 


John Evans, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1889. 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 


Francis Galton, F.R S 


Prof. G. A. Lebour. 


1890. 


Leeds 


G. J. Symons, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1891. 


Cardiff 


G. J. Symons, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1893. 


Nottingham 


Dr. J. G. Garson 


T. V. Holmes. 


1894. 


Oxford 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 


G. J. Symons, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


Dr. J. G. Garson 


T. V. Holmes. 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


J. Hopkinson. 


1898. 


Bristol 


W. Whitaker, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1899. 


Dover 


Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S. 


T. V. Holmes. 


1900. 


Bradford ... 


Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 


T. V. Holmes. 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


F. W. Rudler, F.G.S 


Dr. J. G. Garson, A. Somerville. 


1902. 


Belfast 


Prof. W. W. Watts, F.G.S. ... 


E. J. Bles. 


1903. 


Southport 


\V. Whitaker, F.R.S 


F. W. Rudler. 


1904. 


Cambridge 


Prof. E. H. Grifliths, F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1905. 


London . . . 


Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1906. 


York 


Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B.... 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A 


F. W. Rudler. 


1907. 


Leicester . . . 


F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 



Ixxxi 
EVENINa DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



Lecturer 



1842. Manchester Charles Vignoles, F.R.S,. 



1843. Cork 



1844. York , 



Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S. 
Dr. Falconer, F.R.S.., 



1845. Cambridge G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

1846. Southamp- Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

ton. I Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birming- 

ham. 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Farada3s F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 



G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astronomer 
Royal 

1852. Belfast Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



1853. Hull lProf.J.PhiIlips,LL.D.,F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 

! Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

1854. Liverpool... Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

jCol. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

1855. Glasgow ...[Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



1856. Cheltenham 



1907. 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S. , 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the Mgean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

PropertiesoftheExplosivcSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Didus inejjtus). 

Metallurgical Operationsof Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani 
mals, and their Changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28 
1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickf ergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 



Ixxxii 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 




1864. 
186.5. 


Bath 

Birming- 
ham. 


1866. Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee 


1868. 


Norwich ... 


1869. 


Exeter 


1870. 


Liverpool... 


1871. 


Edinburgh 


1872. 


Brigliton ... 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


1874. 


Belfast 


1875 


Bristol 


1876 


Glasgow ... 


1877. 


Plymouth... 



Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L... . 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn. R.N. 
Prof. W. A. Miller,M.A.,F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
•J. Beete Jukes, F.E.S... 



William Huggins,F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S ■ 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn llankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

Prof. W. K. Clifeord 



Prof. W. C.Wiliiamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smjth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic 
Battery considered in relation 
to Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The Results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution oi the 
Stars and Nebulae. 

The ScientificUse of the Imagination . 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

Tlie Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorpliosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The ' Challenger ' Expedition. 

Physical Phenomena connected with 
the Mines of Cornwall and Devon. 

The New Element, Gallium. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Ixxxiii 



Date and Place 



1878. 

1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 
1883. 



Lecturer 



Dublin G. J. Romanes, F.L.S. 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S. ... 



Sheffield .. 
Swansea .. 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



1884. Montreal. 



I W. Crookes, F.R.S 

! Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 

Prof.W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

Iw. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S.... 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



1885. Aberdeen... Prof. W. G. Adams. F.R.S. ... 



188G. 
1887. 
1888. 

1889. 

1890. 
1891. 

1892. 
1893. 



John Murray, F.R.S. E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Bath Prof.W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 
i F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 
"Walter Gardiner, M.A 



Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



Leeds E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 

Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Cardiff Prof. L. C. Miall, F.L.S., F.G.S. 



Prof.A.W.Riicker,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Edinburgh Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 

Prof. J.A.Ewing,M.A., F.R.S. 
Nottingham Prof. A. Smithells, B.Sc. 

Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 



1894. Oxford. 



1895. Ipswich 



... J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 
Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 



Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 
I F.R.S. 

1896. Liverpool... 'Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 

1897. Toronto ... Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 

1 F.R.S. 

jj. Milne, F.R.S 

1898. Bristol jProf. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. .. 

Herbert .Jackson 

1899. Dover ' Prof. Charles Richet 

Prof. J. Fleming, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 

Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
Chemical Action. 

Radiant Matter. 

Degeneration. 

Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palaeon- 
tology. 

The Electric Discharge, its Forms 
and its Functions. 

Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of Power. 

The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 
Crust. 

The Hardening and Tempering of 
Steel. 

How Plants maintain themselves in 
the Struggle for Existence. 

Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 

Some Difficulties in the Life of 
Aquatic Insects. 

Electrical Stress. 

Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 

Flame. 

The Discovery of the Physiology of 
the Nervous System. 

Experiences and Prospects of 
African Exploration. 

Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 

Magnetism in Rotation. 

The Work of Pasteur and its various 
Developments. 

Safety in Ships. 

Man before Writing. 

Canada's Metals. 

Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 

Funafuti : the Study of a Coral Island. 

Phosphorescence. 

La vibration nerveuse. 

TheCentenary of the ElectricCurrent . 



Ixxxiv 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Dale and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1900. Bradford... 


Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 


Animal Electricity. 




Prof. W. Stroud. 


Range Finders. 


1901. Glasgow ... 


Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 


The Inert Constituents of the 
Atmosphere. 




F. Darwin, F.R.S 


The Movements of Plants. 


1902. Belfast ... 


Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 


Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 




Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 


Inheritance. 


1903. Southport 


Dr. R. Munro 


Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 
Palaeolithic Period. 




Dr. A. Rowe 


The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 






Teachings. 


1904. Cambridge 


Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.... 


Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 




Prof. H. F. Osborn 


Palseontological Discoveries in the 
Rocky Mountains. 


1905. South 




Africa : 






Cape Town ... 


Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S 


W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South 
Africa. 




C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S 


Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 


Durban 


Douglas W. Freshfield 


The Mountains of the Old World. 




Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 


Marine Biology. 


Pietermaritz- 


Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... 


Sleeping Sickness. 


burg 
Johannesburg 


H T Ferrar 


The Cruise of the ' Di.scovery.' 
The Distribution of Power. 


Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 




Prof. J. 0. Arnold 


Steel as an Igneous Rock. 
Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 


Pretoria 


A. E. Shipley, F.R.S 






ing Sickness, &c. 


Bloemf ontein . . . 


A R. Hinks 


The Milky Way and the Clouds of 
Magellan. 






Kimberley 


Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S 


Diamonds. 




Prof. J. B. Porter 


The Bearing of Engineering on 
Mining. 






Bulawayo 
1906. York 


D. Randall-Maclver 


The Ruins of Rhodesia. 


Dr. Tempest Anderson 


Volcanoes. 




Dr. A. D.Waller, F.R.S 


The Electrical Signs of Life, and 
their Abolition by Chloroform. 


1907. Leicester ... 


W. Duddell, F.R.S 


The Ark and the Spark in Radio-tele- 
graphy. 




Dr. F. A. Dixey 


Recent Developments in the Theory 
of Mimicry. 







LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Lecture 


1867. Dundee 


Prof.J.Tyndall,LL.D.,P.R.S. 


Matter and Force. 


1868. Norwich ... 


Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 


A Piece of Chalk. 


1869. Exeter 


Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 


The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 


1870. Liverpool... 


Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 


Savages. 


1872. Brighton ... 


W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 


Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 


1873. Bradford ... 


C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 


Fuel. 


1874. Belfast 


Prof. Odling, F.R.S 


The Discovery of Oxygen. 


1875. Bristol 


Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 


A Piece of Limestone. 


1876. Glasgow ... 


Commander Cameron, C.B.... 


A Journey through Africa. 


1877. Plymouth... 
1879. Sheffield ... 


W. H. Preece 


Telegraphy and the Telephone. 
Electricity as a Motive Power, 


W. E. Ayrton 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Ixxxv 



Date and Place 



1880. 
1881. 

1883. 

1883. 
188-1. 
1885. 
1886. 

1887. 
1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893 
1894 
1895. 
1896, 
1897, 
1898, 



Swansea 
York 



Lecturer 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southpari 
Montreal ... 
Aberdeen... 
Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford . . . 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol ... 



1900. 
1901. 

1902. 
1903. 

1904. 
190(5. 
1907. 



Bradford . 
Glasgow . 



Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

York 

Leicester ... 



H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 
i F.R.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 
I 

!sir F. J. BramweU, F.R.S. ... 
'Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

SirJohn Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 

B. Baker, M.Inst.C.B 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
jProf. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

I Prof. W. J. SoUas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison... 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. 0. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Dr. J. S. Flett 



Subject of Lecture 



Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S 

iProf. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. 11. A. Miers. F.R.S 



The North-East Passage. 
Raindrops, Hailstones, and Suow- 

flakes. 
Unwritten History, and how to 

read it. 
Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 
Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 
The Colours of Metals and their 

Alloys. 
Electric Lighting. 
The Customs of Savage Races. 
The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their Enemies and Signal to their 

Friends. 
Electricity in the Industries. 
The Movements of Men by Land 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent : the 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 
The Manufacture of Light. 
The Growth of a Crystal. 



Ixxxvi 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS, 

Table showing the Attendances and Receipts 




Presidents 



Old Life New Life 
Members Members 



1831, Sept. 27 

1832, June 19 . 

1833, June 25 , 

1834, Sept. 8 . 

1835, Aug. 10 . 

1836, Aug. 22. 

1837, Sept. 11. 

1838, Aug. 10 . 

1839, Aug. 26 . 

1840, Sept. 17, 

1841, July 20 . 

1842, June 23 

1843, Aug. 17 . 

1844, Sept. 26 . 

1845, June 19 . 

1846, Sept. 10 

1847, June 23 . 

1848, Aug. 9 . 

1849, Sept. 12 . 

1850, July 21 . 

1851, July 2 ... 

1852, Sept. 1 . 

1853, Sept. 3 . 

1854, Sept. 20 . 

1855, Sept. 12 . 

1856, Aug. 6 , 

1857, Aug. 26 . 

1858, Sept. 22 . 

1859, Sept. 14 . 

1860, June 27 . 

1861, Sept. 4 . 

1862, Oct. 1 . 

1863, Aug. 26 . 

1864, Sept. 13 . 

1865, Sept. 6 . 

1866, Aug. 22 . 

1867, Sept. 4 . 

1868, Aug. 19. 

1869, Aug. 18 . 

1870, Sept. 14 . 

1871, Aug. 2 . 

1872, Aug. 14. 

1873, Sept. 17 . 

1874, Aug. 19. 

1875, Aug. 25 , 

1876, Sept. 6 . 

1877, Aug. 15 . 

1878, Aug. 14 . 

1879, Aug. 20 . 

1880, Aug. 25 . 

1881, Aug. 31 . 

1882, Aug. 23 , 

1883, Sept. 19 . 

1884, Aug. 27 . 

1885, Sept. 9 

1886, Sept. 1 . 

1887, Aug. 31 

1888, Sept. 5 . 

1889, Sept. 11 , 

1890, Sept. 3 . 

1891, Aug. 19 , 

1892, Aug. 3 , 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 , 

1895, Sept. 11 

1896, Sept. 16 

1897, Aug. 18 , 

1898, Sept. 7 

1899, Sept. 13 

1900, Sept. 5 

1901, Sept. 11 

1902, Sept. 10 

1903, Sept. 9 

1904, Aug. 17 

1905, Aug. 15 

1906, Aug. 1 

1907, July 31 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Mauchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-ou-Tyne, . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Slieftield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Binningham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 

York 

Leicester 



Viscount Milton, D.O.L.. F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Buokland, F.R.S. . ". 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. .. 
Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd,LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Laus'downe, F.R.S. 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vern. .n Harcourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquisofNorthampton,PrPs.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S I 

William Hopkins, F.R.S ' 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S I 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. .. .- 
Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S...,! 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. .,, 

WiUiam Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis,M.A.,F.R.S. 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S.' 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

WiUiam R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Bucoleuch, K.C.B.,F.B.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.C.L., F R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. WUliamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson. M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S ... 

Sir .lohn Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. 0. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair K.O.B., F.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dawson, O.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, O.B., F.R.S 1 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S ' 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S.i 
The Marquis of Salisbuvy,K.G..F.R.S.! 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pros. R.S. .,,' 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S ' 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S.... 
Sir William Turner, D.C.L., F.R.S. ...i 
Prof. A. W. Rucker. D.Sc, SecR.S. ...1 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S ' 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin. LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S i 



169 


65 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 


267 


13 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


32 


115 


40 


322 


10 


276 


19 



» Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



Ixxxvii 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Old 


1 
New 


Annual 


Annual 


Members 


Members 


— 




46 


317 


75 


376 


71 


185 


45 


190 


94 


22 


65 


39 


197 


40 


54 


25 


93 


33 


128 


42 


61 


47 


63 


60 


56 


57 


121 


121 


142 


101 


104 


48 


156 


120 


111 


91 


125 


179 


177 


59 


184 


125 


150 


57 


154 


209 


182 


103 


215 


149 


218 


105 


193 


118 


226 


117 


229 


107 


303 


195 


311 


127 


280 


80 


237 


99 


232 


85 


307 


93 


331 


185 


238 


59 


290 


93 


239 


74 


171 


41 


313 


176 


263 


79 


330 


323 


317 


219 


332 


122 


428 


179 


510 


244 


399 


100 


412 


113 


368 


92 


341 


152 


413 


141 


328 


57 


435 


69 


290 


31 


383 


139 


286 


125 


327 


96 


324 


68 


207 


45 


374 


131 


314 


86 


319 


90 


449 


113 


937ir 


411 


356 


93 


339 


61 



Asso- 
ciates 



33t 

9t 
407 
270 
495 
376 
447 
510 
244 
510 
367 
765 

1094 
412 
900 
710 

120C 
636 

1589 
433 

1704 

1119 
7fiC 
960 

1163 
720 
678 

1103 
976 
937 
796 
817 
884 

1265 
446 

1285 
529 
389 

1230 
516 
952 
820 

1053 

1067 

1985 
639 

1024 
680 
672 
733 
773 
941 
493 

1384 
682 

1051 
548 
801 
794 
647 
688 

1338 
430 
817 
659 



Ladies Foreigners Total 



353 



900 
1298 









1350 


— 


— 


1840 


1100» 


— 


2400 


— 


34 


1438 


— 


40 


1353 


60» 





891 


331» 


28 


1315 


160 





_ 


260 


— 





172 


35 


1079 


196 


36 


857 


203 


53 


1320 


197 


15 


819 


237 


22 


1071 


273 


44 


1241 


141 


37 


710 


292 


9 


1108 


236 


6 


876 


524 


10 


1802 


543 


26 


2133 


346 


9 


1115 


569 


26 


2022 


509 


13 


1698 


821 


22 


2564 


463 


47 


1689 


791 


15 


3138 


242 


25 


1161 


1004 


25 


3335 


1058 


13 


2802 


508 


23 


1997 


771 


11 


2303 


771 


7 


2444 


682 


45t 


2004 


600 


17 


1856 


910 


14 


2878 


754 


21 


2463 


912 


43 


2533 


601 


11 


1983 


630 


12 


1951 


672 


17 


2248 


712 


25 


2774 


283 


11 


1229 


674 


17 


2578 


349 


13 


1404 


147 


12 


915 


514 


24 


2557 


189 


21 


1253 


841 


5 


2714 


74 


26&60H.§ 


1777 


447 


6 


2203 


429 


11 


2453 


493 


92 


3838 


509 


12 


1984 


579 


21 


2437 


334 


12 


1775 


107 


35 


1497 


439 


50 


.2070 


268 


17 


1661 


451 


77 


2321 


261 


22 


1324 


873 


41 


3181 


100 


41 


1362 


639 


33 


2446 


120 


27 


1403 


482 


9 


1915 


246 


20 


1912 


305 


6 


1620 


365 


21 


1754 


317 


121 


2789 


181 


16 


2130 


352 


22 


1972 


251 


42 


1647 



Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 



Grants 
for Scientific 
Purposes i 



£707 

963 
1085 

620 
1085 

903 
1882 
2311 
1098 
2015 
1931 
2782 
1604 
3944 
1089 
3640 
2965 
2227 
2469 
2613 
2042 
1931 
3096 
2575 
2649 
2120 
1979 
2397 
3023 
1268 
2615 
1425 

899 
2689 
1286 
3369 
1855 
2256 
2532 
4336 
21U7 
2441 
1776 
1604 
2007 
1653 
2175 
1236 
3228 
1398 
2399 
1328 
1801 
2016 
1644 
1762 
2650 
2422 
1811 
1501 











































































n 











































£20 

167 

435 

922 

932 

i 1595 

1546 

1235 

I 1449 

1565 

981 

831 

685 

208 

275 

159 

345 

391 

304 

205 

380 

480 

734 

507 

618 

684 

766 

1111 

1293 

1608 

1289 

1591 

1750 

1739 

1940 

1622 

1572 

1472 

1285 

1685 

U51 

960 

1092 

1128 

725 

1080 

731 

476 

1126 

1083 

1173 

1385 

995 

1186 

1511 

1417 

789 

1029 

' 864 

907 

583 

977 

1104 

1059 

1212 

1430 

1072 

945 

947 

845 

887 

928 

882 

I 767 









12 6 

2 2 

11 , 

16 4 I 
10 11 i 

17 8 I 
10 2 ' 

12 8 I 
9 9 



16 

5 4 

1 8 

19 6 

18 



9 

6 


19 
16 
13 
15 

18 2 
11 1 

19 6 
5 10 

16 6 

3 10 
15 8 

7 10 
13 4 

4 






16 




16 6 
11 11 

7 7 

8 1 
1 11 
3 3 



18 1 

5 I 

11 I 

16 8 

10 

10 

15 6 

15 6 I 
15 
6 



5 
1 
10 8 



10 



13 2 

18 11 
2 2 
9 

12 10 



Year 



1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
18f9 
1800 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1801 
1805 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 



X Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting 
V Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 



Ixxxviii 



ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCES AT THE ANNUAL 
MEETINGS, 1831-1906. 

[The total attendances for the years 1832, 1835, 1843, and 1844 

are unknoivn.^ 

Average attendance at 12 Meetings : 1855. 

Average 
Attendance 
Average attendance at 5 Meetings beginning during June, between 

IS33 and 18G0 12fiO 

Average attendance at 3 Meetings beginning during Juli/, between 

JSil and 1S51 947 

Average attendance at 28 Meetings beginning during August, between 

1836 and 1906 1978* 

Average attendance at 34 Meetings beginning during September, 

between 1831 and 1903 1933 

Attendance at 1 Meeting held in October, Cambridge, 1862 . . UGl 



Meetings beginning during August and September. 

Average attendance at — 

4 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in Avgust ( 1st- 7th) . 1905 

5 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ „ ( 8th-14th) . 2130 
8 „ „ „ „ 3rd „ „ „ (15th-21sr.) . 1761 t 

11 „ „ „ „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-31st) . 2094 

Average attendance at — 

11 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in September { 1st- 7th) . 2082 

16 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ „ (8th-14th). 1860 

5 „ „ „ „ 3rd „ „ „ (15th -2 1st). 2206 

2 ,, „ „ „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-30th). 1025 

Meetings beginning during June, July, and October. 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1845, June 19) beginning during the 3rd 

week in ,/«»e (15lh-21st) ". . . . 1079 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during the 4th week in 

Jjinc (22nd-30th) 1306 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1851, July 2) beginning during the 1st 

week in July (lst-7t.h) 710 

Average attendance at 2 Meetings beginning during the 3rd week in 

Jidij (15th-21st) 1066 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1862, October 1) beginning during the 1st 

week in October {\si-lth) 1161 



* Average attendance at 29 Meet'\ngs,including South Africa, 1905 (August 15- 
September 1): 1983. 

t Average attendance at 9 Meetings, including South Africa, 1905 (August 15- 
September 1): 1802. 



GRx\NTS OF M0XP:Y 



Ixxxix 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1831. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 

Rain-gauges 9 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 





















1 





3 

















6 






£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 

Chemical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



1 





13 


6 








12 











3 











4 


6 








18 


6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 2G7 

Steam- vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 

£932" 



1 


10 


12 


10 














G 


6 








3 





8 


7 








9 


5 


2 


2 



Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 

il67 



1839. 

£ 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 

Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars (Lacaille) 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



.«. 


d. 








10 





2 





18 


6 


11 





4 








7 


7 





1 


2 





4 


18 








6 


16 





10 


6 








1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 60 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



xc 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 02 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 110 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 
Dynamometric Instruments. . 113 

Anoplura Britannife 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instrumentr 90 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


6 



































10 























8 


6 















£ s. d. 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 111 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 



£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness . 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Wliewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 

and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 
Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks .W 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of ) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



XCl 



£ s. d. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

llcductiou of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

ExDeriments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 

1844. 

Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars B5 

Observations on Tides on the 
East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Pievision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 1842 2 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kevv Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Dravs^ings of Kail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

oftheLower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and MoUusca of the 
iEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

£ s. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness .30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 
at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces ... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 
Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9^9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 



XCll 



GENERAL STATEMEINT. 



1847. 

& s. d. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

. Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establisli- 

ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£20 8 5 4 

1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 8 10 1) 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 

1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Kegistration of Periodical 
Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 
Azores 25 

£345 18 

1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Eadiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

£ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304~~6~7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory ] 65 

Experiments on the Influence 
of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19~7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 01 

1855 £500 1 



i75 



GRANTS OF MO>fEY. 



XClll 



£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

I'ropagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 ^ 



13 


















1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 3.50 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 
imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 

Life-boats 



5 7 


4 


5 









£507 15 


4 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seed 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



£ «. d. 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidfe 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 i 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den .. 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

ResearchesontheConstituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766 19~~6 



1861. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 

Earthquake Experiments 

Dredging North and East 
Coasts of Scotland 

Dredging Committee : — 

I860 £.50 1 

1861 £22 0/ 

Excavations at Dura Den 

Solubility of Salts 

Steam-vessel Performance . . . 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 

Chemical Alloys 

Classified Index to the Tran.s- 
actions 

Dredging in the Mersey .and 
Dee 

Dip Circle 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 

Prison Diet .*. 

Gauging of Water 

Alpine Ascents 

Constituents of Manures 



JOO 
25 









23 



72 



20 








20 








1.50 








15 








20 








20 








100 








5 








30 








50 








20 








10 








6 


5 


10 


25 








111 


5 


10 



XCIV 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1862. 

£ s. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

PatentLaws 21 6 

Mollusca of N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

PhoLoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Diiblin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 



£ s. d. 

d. Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida ••• 10 

£1608 3 10 

' - — — '-^ 




















































1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 







3 10 





















































f\ 




















































































15 


8 



























15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£l59r 



























8 























9 

























































































10 


10 








7 


10 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



XCV 









13 


4 





























































































































. 




















13 


4 



1866. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee ... 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds . . 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

DredgingAberdeenshireCoast 25 
Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals , 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 
Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750 

1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 , 

Metrical Committee 30 | 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 ' 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 ! 

British Rainfall 50 i 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &lg.. Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methjd Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 "^4 



1868. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observator}''... 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 1 00 

British Baiufall 6U 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall .. 30 

British Fossil Carols 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

F'ossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 
Fauna 100 

£1940 





























































































A 
















































1869, 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c. 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations ICO 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 








































































































































XCVl 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s d. 
Chemical Constitution ;ind 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions ..:. 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record... 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c. 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 



£ s. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 G 



1871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Eqirivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observation 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 1.50 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse 'Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 



























































































































1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committe 4C0 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 o 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



XCVll 



187i. 

£ 

Zoological liecord 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tallies 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 
Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 

Pliysiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens 's Pyrometer 3 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 

£lT51 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors l-iO 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specilic Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£9050 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 1 59 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
1907. 



II. 


d. 








































































































10 





























5 











6 
























































































































4 


2 








15 


















15 

16 



£ s. d. 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£10'J2 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 117 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpeje, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethjl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9^7 



XCVlll 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

Geological Kecord 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 
Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 
less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Record of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra .. . 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 
Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 
Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£\mO 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coetficieuts 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Napl.js 75 

Investigation of the Geology 
and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 60 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



GRANTS OF MONKY. 



XCIX 



1-881 . 

£ 

Lunar Disturbance of Gra\nty 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£^To' 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Explorati on of Raygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Natural History of Timor-laut 100 
Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 



s. 


d. 
































3 


1 


























































3 1 









1 


11 






































































































































1 11 



1883. 

£ s. (J. 

Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaso- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 
of Ireland „. 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station .. . 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 
Bodily Exercise 38 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 
ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 
Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screvr Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 
























































































3 3 











1881 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 4 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks oE England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

£ll73~"4~ 6 

f2 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1885. 

£ 
Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Tlieory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of PalEeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 
Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 
Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£l'385^ 



s. 


d. 









































































































1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius m 

Geological Record 100 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food-Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ g. d. 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada , 50 

£995 B 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatorv 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 (> 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of .lapan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887gi-ant) 50 

CaeGwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bodsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds ..'. 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 IS 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CI 



1888. 

£ 

Ben Nevis Observatory 1 50 

Electrical Standards 2 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 

Klectrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford. . . 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palasontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Yolcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

i\Iarine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 

Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Eifect of Occupations on Phj'- 

sical Development 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

;ei511 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature. . . 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 



s. 


d. 








6 


4 








2 


3 














11 


10 





























































































































































































5 




























•1 8 



£, s. d. 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 1 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight ... 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palseozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 



cu 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



3 















Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 2,5 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£7991.6 8 







1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Rays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1029 UPO 



1892. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Dotany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthiopometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



cm 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 

grapliy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

"£907 15 6 



1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of IMeteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 5 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 20 

Eurj'pterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15 6 



1895. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographsof Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 C 

Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectraof the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 6 1 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Flint-drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 
of Animals 50 

Climatologyof Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£977 15 5 



CIV 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1896. 

£ s. d. 
Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 

Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-lengtli Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 
Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours - 2 6 1 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 

Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 

Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Pala30zoic Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurvpterids of the Pentland 

Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 

by Boring and Sounding ... 10 
Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 
Palseolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 
Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 
Age and Relation of Rocks 

near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 
Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 

Abnormal Environment ... 40 
Chmatology of Tropical Africa 10 
Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

Northwestern Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . .30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 3 

£lT04 6 1 



1897. 

£ s. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 0.0 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 

Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 

Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 

Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phasophyceaj 20 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 Q 

£1059 10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations..- 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysisand Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal , 50 



GRANTS OF MONEV, 



CV 



£ s. d. 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectraof the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Life- zones in British Car- 
boniferous Bocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters , 30 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North - Western Tribes of 
Canada , 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits... 125 

Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 

Fertilisation in Phasophyceee 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee , - 25 

£1212 0~~b 



1899. 

Electrical Standards .,...225 

Seismological Observations... 65 14 8 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 19 6 

Relation between Absorption 

Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 

in Canada 30 



£ s. d. 

Records of Disappearing Drift 
Section at Moel Tryfaen ... 5 

Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
tic Organisms under Definite 
Physical Conditions 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1899 100 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 35 

New Edition of ' Anthropolo- 
gical Notes and Queries '... 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Res- 
piratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

Vascular Nervous System... 10 

Histological Changes in Nerve 

Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Histology of Suprarenal Cap- 
sules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Phyaaophyceae 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1430 14 2 



1900. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 60 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 25 

Meteorological Observatory at 
Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution 
of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis 5 











CVl 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 20 

The Nature of Allo.ys 30 

Photographs of Geological 
Interest 10 

Kemains of Elk in the Isle of 
Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 
in Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 
Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 16 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 
Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 
Islands 100 

Coral Reefs of the Indian 
Region 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea- Water 100 

Future Dealings in Raw 
Produce 2 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Pliotographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 

Eilmography of the Malay 
Peninsula 25 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 
Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 
Cerebral Cortex 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 
Glands 10 

Fertilisation in Phieophyceas 20 

Corresponding Societies Com. 20 

£1072 10 























































































10 




















































































1901. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 35 



£ s. d. 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 

Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegrjean Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada .30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 15 11 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 

Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in PhiBophyceaj 15 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
macefe 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 

Indian Ocean 50 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



evil 



£ s. d. 

Compound Ascidians of the 
Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 15 

Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Hemoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 

under Influence of Drugs... 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycete 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 
Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£947 0~~0 



1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Watersof North- 
west Yorkshire 40 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation aflfecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 



£ s. d. 
Anthropometric Investigation 5 
Anthropometry of the Todas 

and other Tribes of Southern 

India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phyceiB 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com. 20 

£845 13 ""2 



1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 60 

Wave length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 
Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 
Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 

Anthropometric Investigation 
of Egyptian Troops 8 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 40 

Botanical Photographs 4 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 
Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£887 18 11 





























































































10 























8 


11 





















cvm 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1905. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 

Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra .5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitramines 25 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples K)0 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog ... 10 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 4 8 

Kesearches in Crete 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions on Egyptian Troops... 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigation.s 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 17 6 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£928 2 2 



190(5. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 99 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 
Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Aromatic Nitramines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 7 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 





















2 


6 




















8 


11 









£ s. (I. 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples :..,.. 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea 15 

Freshwater Fishes of South 
Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lake and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 30 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 

in the British Isles 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 20 

Research on South African 
Cycads 14 19 4 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£882 9 



1907. 

Electrical Standard.s 50 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 40 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 25 7 G 

Wave - length Tables of 

Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro - aromatic 

Substances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

t^'aunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of 

South- West England 15 

Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, &c 10 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Sexual 

Cells 1118 

Oscillations of the Land Level 

in the Mediterranean Basin 50 
Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom ... 8 19 7 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CIX 



£ s. d. 



Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles... 10 

Metabolism ot Individual 
Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 55 

Physiology of Heredity 30 
































Research of South African 

Cy cads 35 

Botanical Photographs 5 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Marsh Vegetation.,, 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 16 

£757" 




























14 1 
12 10 



ex REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Beport of the Council, 1906-1907. 

I. The Council have expressed condolence with the widow of the late 
Sir Michael Foster, whose jnany and conspicuous services in all the 
offices of the Association were highly appreciated by his colleagues. 

II. Mr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S., has been nominated by the Council 
to fill the office of President of the Association for the year 1908-1909. 

III. The following Nominations are made by the Council : — 

(i) Additional Vice-Presidents of the Association for the Meeting at 
Leicester: His Grace the Duke of Rutland, Lord- Lieutenant of Leicester- 
shire ; Mr. Richard Dalgliesh, High Sheriff of Leicestershire ; the Right Hon. 
the Earl of Dysart ; the Right Hon. the Earl Howe ; the Right Rev. the Lord 
Bishop of Peterborough ; the Right Rev. the Bishop of Leicester ; Sir Oliver 
Lodge. 

(ii) Mr. H. J. Mackinder, Chairman, Rev. J. O. Bevan, Vice-Chairman, 
and Mr. F. W. Rudler, Secretarj', of the Conference of Delegates of Corre- 
sponding Societies to be held at Leicester. 

(iii) Members of the Corresponding Societies Committee for the ensuing 
year: Mr. W. Wiiitaker, Chairman ; Mr. P. W. Rudler, Secretary ; Rev. J. 0. 
Bevan, Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B., Dr. Horace T. Brown, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professor R. 
Meldola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. Read, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Professor 
W. W. Watts, and the President and General Officers of the Association. 

IV. A Report has been received from the Corresponding Societies 
Committee, together with the list of the Corresponding Societies and 
the titles of the more important Papers, especially of those referring to local 
scientific investigations, published by the Societies during the year ending 
May 31, 1907. 

V. The following Resolution has been considered by the Council 
and acted upon : — 

From Section A. 

That, in the opinion of the Committee of Section A, it is highly desirable 
that Sir William Hamilton's Memoirs on Dynamics, on Systems of Rays, and 
other Memoirs on Pure and Applied Mathematics should be republished in 
accessible form ; and that this Resolution, if approved by the Council, be com- 
municated to the Royal Irish Academy. 

A Sub-Committee of Section A is making inquiries for the purpose of 
promoting the object in view. 

YI. A Resolution, in regard to the appointment of an Inspector of 
Ancient Monuments, has been considered by the Council : — 

Froin Section H. 

That the Council of the British Association be asked to impress upon His 
Majesty's Government the desirability of appointing an Inspector of Ancient 
Monuments, fully qualified to perform the duties of his office, with full powers 
under the Act, and with instructions to report periodically on his work with a 
view to publication. 



REPOKT OF THi; COUNCIL. Cxi 

The Council appointed a Committee, consisting of Sir John Evans, 
Sir Edward Brabrook, Mr. Sidney Hartland, Sir Norman Lockyer, and 
Lord Balcarres, to report on the proposal, and have received the fol- 
lowing : — 

Your Committee, in accordance with the terms of their appointment, have 
taken into consideration the terms of the Kesolution presented to the Council 
from Section H, in which they fully concur. They learn that the subject has 
been under the consideration of the Congress of Archa3ological Societies, which 
has passed the Kesolution of which a copy is annexed and of the terms of 
which your Committee entirely approve. 

They further understand that the question of the appointment of an 
Inspector, in accordance with the provisions of the Ancient Monuments 
Protection Act, is about to be considered by the Council of the Society of 
Antiquaries and, in all probability, of other learned Societies. They therefore 
recommend that the Council cf the Association should co-operate by all means 
in their power with these bodies in bringing the desirability of carrying out 
the provisions of the Act under the notice of His Majesty's Government. It 
appears to your Committee that the present moment is well fitted for calling 
attention to the matter, inasmuch as the destruction of early megalithic 
monuments is daily going on, and several have been absolutely destroyed. 

In view of this destruction, your Committee are further of opinion that it 
should be an instruction to the Inspector of Ancient Monuments to prepare 
a list, as complete as possible, of all megalithic monuments, whether under 
public control or not, and that steps should be taken to secure their preservation 
in future. 

Furthermore, your Committee are of opinion that steps ought at once 
to be taken to prepare a list and secure the preservation, not only of mega- 
lithic monuments, but of all ancient monuments deemed worthy of the 
national care ; and that this cannot be effectually done without recognising a 
property in such monuments on the part of the nation overriding all private 
ownership and custody, and conferring much larger powers on the inspector, 
so as to prevent injury to such monuments by any person whomsoever. 

This Report, having been approved by the Council, was sent with a 
covering letter to the Prime Minister on December 19, 1906. Further- 
more, the President attached his signature to the followin"' Memorial 
drawn up by the Council of the Society of Antiquaries : — 

To the Prime Minister, 

The Eight Hon. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, G.C.B. 

We, the undersigned, representing the Societies named, beg leave respect- 
fully to represent to you that by the Act of 45 & 46 Victoria (c 73) 1882 
known as 'The Ancient Monuments Protection Act,' provision was made for 
the guardianship of Ancient Monuments, and a salary was assigned to an 
inspector who should take charge of such monuments. 

It was clearly intended that other monuments of national interest should 
be acquired under that Act and the amending Act of 1900, and ifi the 
judgment of your memorialists it was the intention of Parliament that the 
duties of the inspector should include, not only the care of the scheduled 
monuments, but that his experience and advice should be available for such 
owners of similar monuments as might be desirous of vesting their possessions 
in the hands of public bodies. 

It furthermore appears essential that such an inspector should be a man 
of independent position, able to give time to the duties of his office and 
occupying such a status in the archfeological world as to inspire the n'ublic 
with confadence. f '^ 

We beg to observe that the Government, on taking over a number of these 
monuments, virtually guaranteed that they should be placed under the care of 
such an inspector. Since the death of General Pitt -Rivers the office of 
inspector has been vacant, although the salary attached to the post is annuallv 
voted by Parliament. The terms of the Act are clear and explicit, directing 
not merely that an inspector shall be appointed, but actually contemplatini 



Cxii REPORT OK THE OOUKCIL. 

the appointment of more than one official. We beg to observe that no option 
is reserved to the Government, and to remind you of the strongly expressed 
opinion of Archteological and kindred Societies, that the need of an inspector 
is urgent in order to check those injuries to ancient monuments which are of 
constant occurrence. 

Your memorialists therefore pray the Government will proceed to make an 
appointment under the Act by selecting some archseologist of acknowledged 
experience and distinction. 

It is understood that, whilst no immediate action will be taken by His 
Majesty's Government, the matter is receiving careful consideration by 
the Prime Minister, with the object of placing all ancient monuments in 
the United Kingdom under adequate protection and more effective 
supervision. 

VII. The Council submit the following report by the Revision of 
Rules Committee and recommend for adoption the accompanying Dbaft 
Rules of the Association : — 

The Committee, appointed by the Council on 1st June last under terms of 
reference given in the Minutes of the Council held on that date, made certain 
recommendations which were adopted by the Council and included in their Annual 
Report to the General Committee at the Meeting of the Association held in York. 
These recommendations were adopted by the General Committee. 

The Committee have now completed their labours. They have revised, co- 
ordinated, and re-drafted the existing Rules of the Association, and have added 
others which comprise and contain the precedents and practice of the Association, 
including the duties performed by its principal office-bearers. 

VIII. The Council have approved of the following Standing Orders 
and recommend these for adoption : — 

1. Papers ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenao 
shall not be included in the Annual Report, if such papers are published 
elsewhere before the issue of the Report. 

2. As a general rule, not more than 100 copies of each Presidential 
(Sectional) Address and not more than 100 copies of each Report of a 
Research Committee shall be printed for distribution at the Annual 
Meeting. In the event of a Recorder requesting any number of additional 
copies up to 200 for the use of his Section, such request shall be referred 
to the decision of the General Officers. Requests for more than 200 
extra reprints shall be brought before the Council. 

3. The President of a Section shall receive 100 free copies of his 
Presidential Address, and be entitled to obtain additional copies at the 
cost price of reproduction. 

4. Authors of Reports and of Papers printed in extenso shall be 
entitled to receive twenty-tive free copies, and to obtain additional copies 
at the cost price of reproduction. 

5. The total annual expenditure, including printing and the issue of 
programmes and circulars, to be defi-ayed by the Association, shall not 
exceed £5 for any one Section. Recorders' expenses shall be limited 
to telegrams and postages incurred on account of Sectional work. 
Exceptional demands must be referred to the Council. 

IX. The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. His Accounts from July 1, 1906, to June 30, 1907, 
have been audited, and are presented to the General Committee. 

The Council have authorised the transfer to Capital Account of a 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



CXUl 



sum not exceeding £1,500, to be invested in tlie names of the Trustees 
of the Association. 

X. In accordance with the Regulations, the retiring Membkijs of the 
Council are : by seniority— 'Proiessor F. Gotch, Professor W. H. Perkin, 
and Professor A. C. Seward ; by least attendance— Sir George Goldie and 
Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members, 
with the addition of those whose naraes are distinguished by an asterisk 
in the following list, leaving two vacancies to be filled up by the General 
Committee : — 



Abney, Sir W., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Bourne, Professor G. C, D.Sc. 
Bowley, A. L., M.A. 
Boys. C. Vernon, F.R.S. 
Brabrook, Sir Edward, C.B. 
Brown, Dr. Horace T., F.R.S. 
Cunningham, Professor D. J., F.R S. 
Dunstan, Professor W., F.R.S. 
Dyson, Professor F. W., F.R.S. 
*Forsyth, Professor A. R., F.R.S. 
Glazebrook, Dr. R. T., F.R.S. 
Haddon, Dr. A. C, F.R.S. 



Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A. 
Hawksley, C, M.Inst.C.E. 
Langley, Professor J. N., F.R.S. 
McKendrick, Professor J. G., F.R.S. 
Mitchell, Dr. P. Chalmers, F.R.S. 
Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
*Prain, Lieut.-Uol. D., C.I.E., F.R.S. 
♦Sherrington, Profes.sor C. S., F.R.S. 
Shipley, A. E., F.K.S. 
Watts, Professor W. W., F.R.S. 
Woodward, Dr. A. Smith, F.R.S. 



XI. The following have been admitted as Members of the General 
Committee : — 



Professor Alexander Fraser. 
Professor R. A. Gregory. 
Mr. Robert Hammond. 
Mr. W. Jerome Harrison. 
Dr. Frederick H. Hatch. 



Mr. H. Forbes Julian. 
Dr. Hugh Marshall. 
Dr. J. H. Vincent. 
Mr. R. Bruce Young. 



XII. In regard to the proposal made at York that, at future Annual 
Meetings, the General Committee shall hold its first sitting on Thursday 
at 4.30 P.M., the Council recommend that no change be made. 

_XIII. The Council have added the following to the Institutions 
entitled to receive, by exchange of publications or otherwise, the Annual 
Reports of the Association : New Zealand Institute ; Marine Biological 
Laboratory, Woods Holl, Mass., U.S.A. ; Kew Gardens ; Kimberley Public 
Library ; University of Manitoba. 

• 

Ajiproved and adojjted by 

the General Covunittee : 

Leicester, July 31, 1907. 



190( 



Cxiv GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1906-1907. KECEIPTS. 

£ s. d. 

Balance brought forward 1940 14 10 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 257 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 204 

Annual Subscriptions 686 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 8U 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 350 

Sale of Publications 579 3 10 

Dividend on Consols 154 8 4 

Dividend on India 3 per Cents 102 12 

Interest on Deposit and Current Account 69 8 11 

Income Tax returned 37 8 10 

Unexpended balance of Grant to Committee on the Colour 

Physiology of the Higher Crustacea returned 9 6 9 



£5204 3 6 

Investmefotx. 

£ s. d. 

2| per Cent. Consolidated Stock 650110 5 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 3600 

£10,101 10 5 

Sir Frederick Bramwell's Gift, 2| per Cent. 

Self-cumulating Consolidated Stock 63 8 10 

£10,164 19 3 
John Perey, General Trea»urer. 



GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. CXV 

from July 1, 1906, to June 29, 1907. Cr. 

1906-1907. PAYMENTS. 

£ s. d. 

Rent and Office Expenses 103 9 4 

Salaries,&c 773 U 10 

Printing, Binding, &c 1001 10 4 

Expenses of York Meeting 155 8 

Donation transferred to South African Fund 50 

Payment of Grants made at York ; 

£ s. a. 

Electrical Standards . . 50 

Seismological Observations . . 40 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth . , 40 

Magnetic Survey of South Africa 25 7 G 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-Aromatic Substances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fauna and Flora of British Trias 10 

Faanal Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone of 

South-West England 15 

Correlation and Age of South African Strata, &c 10 

Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Sexual Cells 1 11 8 

Oscillations of the Land Level in the Mediterranean 

Basin 50 

Gold Coinage in Circulation in the United Kingdom .... 819 7 

Anthropometric Investigations in the British Isles 10 

Metabolism of Individual Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease 55 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Research of South African Cycads 35 

Botanical Photographs 6 

Structure of Fossil Plants 5 

Marsh "Vegetation 15 

Corresponding Societies Committee 16 14 1 



757 12 10 



;g2841 5 

Balance at York Bank 5 10 

Balance at Bank of England (Western 

Branch) £2388 1 11 

Ze,« Cheques not presented 41 11 8 

2346 10 3 

Cash in hand 10 18 3 



£5204 3 6 



I have examined the above Account with the Books and Vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the Balances at the 
Bankers, and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. 

Approved— W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant, 

Heebbet McLeod, I . ,.. 3 Church Court, Old Jewry, E.C 

Edward Beabrook,] ^'^'^"'"■*- Juhj 24, 1907. 

g2 



CXVl GENERAL MEETINGS. 

General Meetings at Leicester. 

On Wednesday, July 31, at 8.30 p.m., in the Opera House, Sir E. Ray 
Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S., resigned the office of President to Sir David 
Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S., who took the Chair and delivered an Address, for 
which see p. 3. 

On Thursday, August 1, at 8 p.m., a Fete was given in the Abbey 
Park by the Mayor of Leicester. 

On Friday, August 2, at 8.30 p.m., in the Opera House, Mr. W. 
Duddell, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on 'The Arc and the Spark in 
Radio-telegraphy.' 

On Monday, August 5, at 8.30 p.m., in the Temperance Hall, Dr. F. A. 
Dixey delivered a Discourse on ' Recent Developments in the Theory of 
Mimicry.' 

On Tuesday, August 6, at 8 p.m., a Conversazione was held in the 
Museum Buildings. 

On Wednesday, August 7, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General 
Meeting was held in the Municipal Buildings, when the following Reso- 
lutions were adopted : — 

1. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Mayor and Corpora- 
tion of Leicester for the reception which they have accorded to the British 
Association, and for the facilities placed at the dispo.sal of the Officers of 
the Association. 

2. That a cordial vote of thanks be given (i) to the Local Executive 
Officers and Committees for the admirable arrangements made for the 
meetings ; (ii) to the Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society ; (iii) to 
the public institutions which have granted the u.se of their buildings for 
sectional proceedings ; and (iv) to the schools and works thrown open to 
the inspection of the members. 

3. That the grateful thanks of the Association be given to the citizens 
of Leicester for the generous hospitality shown to its members on the 
occasion of this meeting. 

4. Vote of thanks to the President for his conduct in the Chair. 

The meeting was then adjourntd to Dublin, September 2, 1908. 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE LEICESTER MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Prof. A. E. H. Love, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, F.R.S. ; the Earl of Berkeley, F.G.S. Secretaries.— Prot A. W. Porter, 
B.Sc. (Recorder); Dr. L. N. G. Filon ; Dr. J. A. Harker; A. R. Hinks, M.A. ; 
E. E. Brooks, B.Sc. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President. — Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. Wyndhara 
Dunstan, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S. ; Sir William Crookea, F.R.S. ; Sir 
Henry E. Roscoe, F.R.S. Secretaries. — Prof. A. W. Crossley, F.R.S. (Recorder); 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong : Dr. F. M. Perkin ; J. H. Hawthorn, M.A. 

SECTION 0. — GEOLOGY. 
President. — Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. Freeh ; 
Prof. J. P.Iddings ; G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S. ; Prof. C. Lapwortb, F.R.S. ; 0. Fo.\. 
Strangways ; Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S. Secretaries. — J. Lomas, F.G.S. 
(Recorder) ; Rev. W. Lower Carter, M.A. ; Prof. Theodore Groom, D.Sc. ; F, W. 
Bennett, W.D. 



OKK1CKR8 OF SECTIONAL COMMirfEES. CXvii 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 
President. — William E. Hoyle, M.A., D.Sc. Vice-Presidents.— i . J. Lister, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. G. C. Bourne, D.Sc. ; Prof. Marcu.s M. Ilartog, D.Sc. ; Prof. M. 
Simroth. Secretaries.~ll. W. Marett Tims, M.D. (Recorder) ; J. H. Ashworth, 
D.Sc. ; L. Doncaster, M.A.; E. E. Lowe. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 
President.—Q^nvge G. Chisholm, M.A., I3.Sc. Vice-Presidents— 3. Bolton • 
Major C. F. Close, R.E., C.M.G. ; Ool. Sir D. A. Johnston, K.C.M.G. ; H. R. Mill, 
LL.D. Secretaries.— v.. Heawood, M.A. (Recorder); E. A. Reeves; 0. J. R. 
Howarth, M.A. ; Theodore Walker. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
Preside7it. —Frof. W. J. Ashley, M.A. Vice-Presidents.— Fro f. F. Y. Edff- 
worth, D.C L. ; Prof. A. W. Flux ; Prof. E. C. K. Gonuer, M.A. Secretaries.— 
Prof. S. .1. Chapman, M.A. (Recorder) ; H. 0. Meredith, M.A.; D. H. Macgregor, 
M.A. ; Thomas Smithies Taylor. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President. — Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents Dugald 

Clerk; Alfred Colson ; Prof. Hele-Shaw, F.R.S ; Col. H. C. L. Ilolden. R A., 
F.R.S. Secretarifs.—W . A. Price, M.A. (Recorder) ; H. E. Wimperis' B A "• 
Prof. E. G. Coker, D.Sc. ; Alex. C. Harris, MA. f . • , 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President— T). G. Plogarth, M.A. Ftce-P?-m"(^ew^s.—E. Sidney Hart! and ; 
Prof. W. Ridgeway, M.A. ; Prof. E. Naville. Secretaries.— E. N. Fallaize, B.A. 
(Recorder) ; H. S. Kingsford, M.A. ; F. C. Shrubsall, M.A., M.D. ; Charles J. 
Billson, M.A. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— FroL Francis Gotch, 
F.R.S.; Dr. C. J. Bond; Prof. Schafer, F.R.S. ; Dr. Gaskell, F.R.S. ; Prof. Sher- 
rington, F.R.S. Secretaries.— J. Barcroft, M.A (Recorder) ; Dr. N. H. Alcock ; 
Prof. J, S. Macdonald, B.A. ; Allan Warner, M.D. 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 
President.— Trot J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Dr. J. P Lotsy • 
Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. ; Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Trot. A. G.' 
Tansley, M.A. (Recorder); R. P. Gregory, M.A. ; Prof R. H. Yapp, M.A.: 
William Bell. ^ 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 
President. — Sir Philip Magnus, M.P. Vice-Presidents. — W. M. Heller ; Dr. G. 
Kerschensteiner ; Baron Kikuchi ; Prof. M. Sadler, LL.D. Secretaries — Prof" 
R. A. Gregory (Recorder); W. D. Eggar ; Hugh Richardson ; J. Saville Laver. 

CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES. 
Chairman.— R. J. Mackinder, M.A. Vice- Chairman.— Rqv. J. 0. Bevan, M A. 
Secretary.— F. W. Rudler, I.S 0. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of the Association ; the General Secretaries ; 
the General Treasurer ; the Trustees ; the Presidents of the Association in 
former years; Prof. Love; Principal Griffiths; Prof. Smithells; Prof. 
Crossley ; Prof. J. W. Gregory; J. Lomas; Dr. W E. Hoyle; Dr. Marett 
Tims; George G. Chisholm; E. Heawood ; Prof. Ashley; Prof. Chapman; 
Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson; W. A. Price; D. G. Hogarth; Sir Edward 
Brabrook ; Dr. Waller ; Prof. Schafer ; Prof Farmer ; Prof Tansley ; Sir 
Philip Magnus ; Prof. R. A. Gregory ; Rev. J. O. Bevan ; and F. W. Rudler. 



SJXVlll 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
AT the Leicester Meeting : August 1907. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 




Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Seismological Observations. 



The farther Tabulation of Bessel 
Functions. 



To co-operate with the Royal 
Meteorological Society in the 
Investigation of the Upper At- 
mosphere by means of Kites. 



To co-operate with the Scottish 
Meteorological Society in mak- 
ing Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis. 

To carry out a further portion of 
the Geodetic Arc of Meridian 
North of Lake Tanganyika. 



Chairman. — Professor H.H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. Milne. 

Lord Kelvin, Dr. T. G. Bonney, 
Mr. C. V. Boys, Sir George 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, 
Major L Darwin, Professor 
J. A. Ewing, Mr. M. H. Gray, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professors 
J. W. Judd, C. G. Knott, and 
R. Meldola, Mr. K. D. Old- 
ham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. 
W. E. Plummer, Professor J. H. 
Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, 
and Mr. Nelson Richardson. 

Chairman. — Professor M. J. M. 

Hill. 
Secretary. — Dr. L. N. G. Filon. 
Professor Alfred Lodge. 

Chairman. — Dr. W. N. Shaw. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. H. Dines. 
Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon 

Boys, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, Dr. A. Schuster, and 

Dr. W. Watson. 

Chairman. — Lord McLaren. 
Secretary. — Professor Crum Brown. 
Sir John Murray, Professor F. W. 
Dyson, and Mr. Omond. 

Chairman. — Sir George Darwin. 

Secretary Sir David Gill 

MajorCloseand Sir George Goldie. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra 
of the Elements. 



Chairman. — Sir H. E. Roscoe. 
Secretanj. — Dr. Marshall Watts. 
Sir Norman Lockyer, Professors 

Sir J. Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and 

Wolcott Gibbs, Sir W. de W. 

Abney, and Dr. W. E. Adeney. 



£ s. d. 
40 



15 



25 



25 



200 



10 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Gra/nts of Money — continued. 



CXIX 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Dynamic Isomerism. 



Members of Committee 



The Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitramines and allied sub- 
stances, and its relation to Sub- 
stitution in Benzene Deriva- 
tives. 



Chairman. — Professor E. Divers. 

Secretary. — Professor A. W. Cross- 
ley. 

Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. O. 
Forster, and Dr. Le Sueur. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

Professor Sydney Young, Dr. Desch, 
Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. A. Lap- 
worth, and Dr. M. O. Forster. 

Chairtnan. — Professor F. S. Kip- 
ping. 

Secretary. — Professor K.J. P. Orton. 

Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A.Lapworth, 
and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



To report upon the Fauna and 
Flora of the Trias of the Brioish 
Isles. 



To investigate the Fossiliferous 
Drift Deposits at Kirmington, 
Lincolnshire, and at various 
localities in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire. 



To enable Mr. B. Greenly to com- 
plete his Researches on the 
Composition and Origin of the 
Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. 

To enable Dr. A. 7aughan to 
continue his Researches on the 
Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles. 



Chairman. — Professor P. F. Ken- 
dall. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. M. Burton, 
Mr. F. W. Harmer, Rev. S. N. 
Harrison, Dr. J. Home, Mr. J. 
Lomas, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
and Blessrs. J. W. Stather, R. H. 
Tiddeman, and W. T. Tucker. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 
man. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Lomas. 

Mr. H. C. Beasley, Professor P. F. 
Kendall, Mr. E. T. Newton, Pro- 
fessor A. C.Seward, Mr. W. A. B. 
TJssher, Professor W. W. Watts, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Chairman.— Mv. G. W. Lamplugh. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. W. Stather. 

Dr. Tempest Anderson, Professor 
J. W. Carr, Rev. W. Lower 
Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 
Mr. F. W. Harmer, Mr. J. H. 
Howarth, Rev. W.Johnson, Pro- 
fessor P. F. Kendall, and Messrs. 
G. W. B. Macturk, E. T. New- 
ton, H. M. Platnauer, Clement 
Reid, and T. Sheppard. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. Harker. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. Greenly. 
Mr. J. Lomas, Dr. C. A. Matley, 
and Professor K. J. P. Orton. 

Chairman. — Professor J. W. Gre- 
gory. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. Vaughan. 

Dr. Wheelton Hind and Professor 
W. W. Watts. 



Grants 



£ 
30 



s. d. 




40 



30 



17 16 6 



10 



11 12 9 



2 17 2 



10 



cxx 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Reeeiving Orants of Money — continued. 




To investigate the pre- Devonian 
Rocks of the Mendips and the 
Bristol Area. 



To record and determine the 
Exact Significance of Local 
Terms applied in the British 
Isles to Topographical and Geo- 
logical Objects. 



To excavate Critical Sections in 
the Palfeozoic Rocks of Wales 
and tlie West of Eoeland. 



To invtstigatc the Microscopical 
and Chemical Composition of 
Charnwood Rock?. 



Chairman. — Mr. H. B. Woodward. 

Secretary. — Professor S. H. Rey- 
nolds. 

Dr. C. Llojd Morgan and Rev. 
H. H. Winwood. 



Mr. 



Douglas W. 



Chairman. — 

Freshfield. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. G. Fearnsides. 
Lord Avebury, Mr. C. T. Clough, 

Professor E. J. Garwood, Mr. E. 

Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 

Col. D. A. Johnston, Mr. 0. T. 

Jones, Dr. J. S. Keltie. Mr. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Mr. H. J. 

Mackinder, Dr. J. B. Marr, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, Mr. H. Yule Oldham, 

Dr. B. N. Peach, Professor W. W. 

Watts, and Mr. H B. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor C. Lap- 
worth. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. G. Fearnsides. 

Mr. J. Lomas, Dr. J. E. Marr, Pro- 
fessor W. W. Watts, and Mr. 
G. W. Williams. 

Chairman. ■ — Professor W. W. 

Watts. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. T. Groom. 
Dr. F. P. Bennett, Mr. C. Fox- 

Strangways, and Dr. Stracey. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
10 



10 



1.5 



10 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To aid competent Investigators 
selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 

Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



To enable Mr. Laurie to conduct 
Experiments in Inheritance. 



To assist Mr. G. W. Smith to pro- 
ceed to Tasmania to studj' the 
Anatomy and Development of 
Auaspidcs, and to investigate 
the Fauna of the Lakes of 
Central Tasmania. 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 

Secretary. — Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, and Mr. G. P. Bidder. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary. — Dr. F. A. Bather. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, the 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, and 
Lord Walsingham. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. 

Herdman. 
Secretary.— My. Douglas Laurie. 
Mr. R. C. Punnett and Dr. 

H. W. Marett Tims. 

Chairma)!. — Professor G. C. 

Bourne. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. J. Lister. 
Sir E. Ray Lankester. 



100 



75 



10 



40 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



CXXl 




1. Ileceiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Members of Committee 



Grants 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



To oaiTy on an Espedition to 
investigate the Indian Ocean 
between India and South Africa 
in view of a possible land con- 
nection, to examine the deep 
submerged banks, the Nazareth 
and Saya de Malha, and also the 
distribution of Marine Animals. 

The Quantity and Composition of 
Rainfall, and of Lake and River 
Discharsre. 



-Sir John Murray. 
-Mr. J. Stanley Gar- 



The Exploration of Prince Charles 
Foreland, Spitsbergen. 



Chairman- 
Secretary— 

diner. 

Captain E. W. Creak, Professors 
W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 
and J. W. Judd, Mr. J. J. Lister, 
Dr. H. R. Mill, and Dr. David I 
Sharp. 

Chairman. — Sir John Murray. 

Secretaries. — Professor A. B. Mac- 
allum and Dr. A. J. Herbertson. 

Professor W. M. Davis, Professor 
P. F. Frankland, Mr. A. D. Hall, 
Mr. N. F. Mackenzie, Mr. E. H. V. 
Melville, Dr. H. R. Mill, Pro- 
fessor A. Penck, Mr. A. Strahan, 
and Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. G. Chisholm. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. S. Bruce. 
Major W. L. Forbes. 



£ 
50 



?. d. 




5 



30 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The Amount of Gold Coinage in 
Circulation in the United King- 
dom. 



Chairman. — Mr. R. H. Inglis Pal- 
grave. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Stanley Jevons. 

Messrs. A. L. Bowley and D. H. 
Macgregor. 



6 



Section G.— ENGINEEEING. 



Making Experiments for improv- 
ing the Construction of Practical 
Standards for use in Electrical 
Measurements. 



Chairmati.— 'Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary.— Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. 
Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver 
Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir 
W. H. Preece, Professor A. 
Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor J. J. Thomson, Dr. 
W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bot- 
tomley. Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, 
Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Pro- 
fessor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. 
Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
Sir A. W Riicker, Professor 
H. L. Callendar, and Messrs. 
G. Matthey, A. P. Trotter, T. 
Mather, and F. E. Smith. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



.^0 10 8 



To investigate the Lake Village 
at Glastonbury, and to report 
on the best method of publish- 
ing the result. 



Chairman,— Dv. R. Munro. 

Secretary.— Vrofessor W. Boyd 
Dawkins. 

Sir John Evans and Messrs. 
Arthur J. Evans, C. H. Read, 
H. Balfour, and A. Bulleid. 



30 



CXXll 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To co-operate with Local Com- 
mittees in Excavations on 
Roman Sites in Britain. 



To organise Anthropometric In- 
vestigation in the British Isles. 



To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of 
Photographs of Anthropological 
Interest. 



To prepare a New Edition of Notes 
and Queries in Anthropology. 



Members of Committee 




Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Secretary. — Professor R. C. Bosan- 
quet. 

Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. T. 
Ashby, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, and 
Professor W. Ridgeway. 

Cliairman. — Professor D. J. Cun- 
ningham. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Gray. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr. C. S. Myers, 
Professors J. L. Myres and A. F. 
Dixon, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Sir 
Edward Brabrook, Mr. G. L. 
Gomme, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, 
Professor G. D. Thane, Dr. W. 
McDougall, and Professor M. E. 
Sadler. 

Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Lord Avebury, Sir John Evans, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. A. J. Evans, 
Dr. R. Munro, Professor Boyd 
Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. Lewis. 

Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretari/. — Mr. H. S, Kingsford. 

Dr. T. Ashby, Dr. G. A. Auden, 
Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. E. N. 
Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. 
E. S. Hartland, Mr. E. Heawood, 
Professor J. L. Myres, and Pro- 
fessor Flinders Petrie. 

Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor D. J. Cunningham, Mr. 
E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
Mr. T. A. Joyce, Dr. C. S. 
Myers, and Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. 



£ 

15 



s. d. 




13 



53 



3 3 6 



40 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



To enable Professor Starling, Pro- 
fessor Brodie, Dr. Hopkins, Mr. 
Fletcher, Mr. Barcroft, and 
others to determine the ' Meta- 
bolic Balance-sheet ' of the 
Individual Tissues. 

The Ductless Glands. 



Chairman. — Professor Gotch. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Barcroft. 
Professor T. G. Brodie and Pro- 
fessor Starling. 



-Professor Schafer. 
Professor Swale Vin- 



Chairman. 
Secretary.- 

cent. 
Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E 

Shore, and Mrs.W. H. Thompson 



40 



30 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Monet/— continned. 



cxxill 



Subject for InvestigatioD, or Purpose 



The Effect of Climate upon 
Health and Disease. 



Body Metabolism in Cancer. 



The Electrical Phenomena and 
Metabolism of Arum Spadices. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Sir T. Lauder Brunton. 

Secretaries. — Mr. J. Barcroft and 
Lieut. -Col. Simpson. 

Colonel D. Bruce, Dr. F. Camp- 
bell, Sir Kendal Franks, Pro- 
fessor J. G. McKendrick, Sir A. 
Mitchell, Dr. W. C. F. Murray, 
Dr. Porter, Dr. J. L. Todd, 
Professor Sims Woodhead, Dr. 
A. J. Wright, and the Heads 
of the Tropical Schools of 
Liverpool, London, and Edin- 
burgh. 

Cliairtna/n. — Professor C. S. Sher- 
rington. 
Secretary. — Dr. S. M. Copeman. 

Chairman. — Prof essor A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Miss Sandars. 
Professor Gotch and Professor 
Farmer. 



Grants 

£ s.d. 
35 



30 



10 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



Studies on Marsh Vegetation. 



The Succession of Plant Remains 
in the Peat Deposits of Teesdale 
and Stainmoor (Cumberland 
and Westmorland) and the 
Western portion of Iceland. 



Chairman. — Dr. D. H. Scott. 
Secretary. — Professor F.W. Oliver. 
Mr. E. Newell Arber and Professors 
A. C. Seward and F. E. Weiss. 



Dr. F. F. Blackman. 
- Professor A. C. 



Chairman. 
Secretary. 

Seward. 
Messrs. A. W. Hill and A. G. 

Tansley, 

Chairman. — Professor .T.B. Farmer. 
Secretary. — Professor R. J. Harvey 

Gibson. 
Dr. J. Home and Dr. J. E. Marr. 



15 



15 



4o 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To report upon the Course of Ex- 
perimental, Observational, and 
Practical Studies most suitable 
for Elementary Schools. 



Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. M. Heller. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. 
Adie, Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong, Miss L. J. Clarke, Miss 
A. J. Cooper, Mr. George Flet- 
cher, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Principal Griffiths, Mr. A. D. 
Hall, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Professor L. C. 
Miall, Professor J. Perry, Mrs. 
W. N. Shaw, Professor A. Smith- 
ells, Dr. Lloyd Snape, Sir H. R. 
Reichel, Mr. H. Richardson, and 
Professor W. W. Watts. 



10 



CXXIV 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preiJaration of 
their Report. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr. F. W. Rudler. 

Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Dr. H. T. Brown, Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Principal E H. 
Griffiths. Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. 
J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Mel- 
(lola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. C. H. 
Read, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Professor W. W. Watts, and the 
President and General Officers 
of the Association. 



Grants. 



£ K. d. 

25 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 




Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



To co-operate with the Committee of 
the Falmouth Observatory in their 
Magnetic Observations. 



The Consideration of the Teaching of 
Elementary Mechanics, and the Im- 
provement which might be effected 
in such Teaching. 



To continue the Magnetic Survey of 
South Africa commenced by Pro- 
fessors Beattie and Morrison. 



Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professor W. G. Adams, Captain Creak, 
Mr. W. L. Fox, Professor A. Schuster, 
Sir A. W. Riicker, and Dr. Charles 
Chree. 

Chairman. — Professor Horace Lamb. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Perry. 

Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Professors Chrystal, 
Ewing, G. A. Gibson, and GreenhiU, 
Principal Griffiths, Professor Henrici, 
Dr. E.'W. Hobson, Mr. C. S. Jackson, 
Sir Oliver Lodge, Professors Love, 
Minchin, Schuster, and A. M. Worth- 
ington, and Mr. A. W. Siddons. 

Chairman. —Sir David Gill. 
Secretary. — Professor J.C. Beattie. 
Mr. S. S. Hough, Professor Morrison, atd 
Professor A. Schuster. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic 
Derivatives of Benzene. 



Chairman. — Professor H. A.Miers. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Professors W. P. Wynne and W. J. Pope. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



cxxv 




Section C— GEOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



To investigate and report on the Corre- 
lation and Age of South African 
Strata and on the question of a Uni- 
form Stratigraphical Nomenclature. 



To determine the precise significance 
of Topographical and Geological 
Terms used locally in South Africa. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To continue the Investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Royal Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
pose of specimens where advisable. 

To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by cor- 
respondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of monej' for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To nominate competent naturalists 
to perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 



Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Si-crctary. — Professor W. W. Watts. 

Dr. T. Anderson, Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. 
T. G. Bonney, Mr. H. Coates, Mr. C. V. 
Crook, Profestor E. J. Garwood, 
Messrs. W. Gray, W. J. Harrison, R. 
Kidston, A. S. Reid, Professor S. H. 
Reynolds, and Messrs. J. J. H. Teall, 
R. Welch, and H. B. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor J. W. Gregory. 

Secretary. — Professor A. Young. 

Mr. W. Anderson, Professor R. Broom, 

Dr. G. S. Corstorphine, Mr. Walcot 

Gibson, Dr. F. H. Hatch, Mr. T. H. 

Holland, Mr. H. Kynaston, Mr. F. P. 

Mennell, Dr. Molengraaff, Mr. A. J. C. 

Molyneux, Mr. A. W. Rogers, Mr. 

E. H. L. Schwarz, and Professor R. B. 

Young. 

Chnirman. — Mr. G. W. Lamplugh. 
Secretary.— Dx. F. H. Hatch. j 

Dr. G. Corstorphine and Messrs. A. Dn { 

Toit, A. P. Hall, G. Kynaston, F. P. j 

Mennell, and A. W. Rogers. 



Chairman. — Mr. F. Du Cane Godman. 
Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
and Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 



Chairman. — Sir E. Ray Lankester. 

Secretary. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Professors G. C. Bourne, T. W. Bridge, 
J. Cos.sar Ewart, M. Hartog, W. A. 
Herdman, and J. Graham Kerr, Mr. 
O. H. Latter, Professor Minchin, Dr. 
P. C. Mitchell, Professors C. Lloyd 
Morgan, E. B. Poulton, and A. Sedg- 
wick, Mr. A. E. Shipley, and Rev. 
T. R. R. Stebbing. 

Chairman and Secreta/t^y. — Professor A. 

Dendy. 
Sir E. Ray Lankester, Mr. A. Sedgwick, 

and Professor Sydney H. Vines. 



CXXVl 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of jlfowey— continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To enable Dr. J. W. Jenkinson to con- 
tinue his Researches on the Influence 
of Salt and other Solutions on the 
Development of the Frog. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Professor G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. W. Jenkinson. 
Professor S. J. Hickson. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



The continued Inveitigation of the 
Oscillations of the Level of the Land 
in the Mediterranean Basin. 



Section G. 

The Investigation of Gaseous Ex- 
plosions, with special reference to 
Temperature. 



Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. T. Giinther. 
Drs. T. G. Bonney, F. H. Guillemard, 
J. S. Keltic, and H. R. Mill. 

ENGINEERING. 

Chairma7i. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretaries. — Mr. Dugald Clerk and Pro- 
fessor B. Hopkinson. 

Professors F. Birstall, B. G. Coker, and 
H. B. Dixon, Dr. J. A. Marker, Pro- 
fessor H. S Hele-Shaw, Colonel 
II. C. L. Holden, and Professor A. 
Smithells. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To conduct Archfeological and Ethno- 
logical Researches in Crete. 



To report on the best means of Register- 
ing and Classifying systematically 
Megalithic Remains in the British 
Isles. 

To conduct Archaeological and Ethno- 
logical Investigations in Sardinia. 



Chairman. — Sir John Evans. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. A. J. 
Evans, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Professor 
A. Macalister, and Professor W. 
Ridgeway. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 

Secretary. — Dr. G. A. Auden. 

Dr. H. A. Auden, Mr. G. L. Gomme, 

Professor J. L. Myres, and Mr. F. W. 

Rudler. 

Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 
Secretary. — Professor R. C. Bosanquet. 
Dr. T. Ashby, Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, 

Professor J. L. Myres, and Dr. F. C. 

Shrubsall. 



Section K.- BOTANY. 



To carry out the scheme for the Regis- 
tration of Negatives of Botanical 
Photographs. 



Chairman. — Professor F. W. Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Dr. W. G. Smith, Mr. A. G. Tansley, Dr. 

T. W. Woodhead, and Professor R. H. 

Yapp. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To consider and to advise as to the 
Curricula of Secondary Schools ; in 
the first instance, the Curricula 
of Boys' Schools ; and to consider, 
through a Sub Committee, the ques- 
tion of the Sequence of Studies in 
the Science Section of the Cur- 
riculum. 



Chairman. — Sir Oliver Lodge. 
Secretary. — Mr. C. M. Stuart. 
Professor H. E. Armstrong, Mr. G. F. 

Daniell, Mr. W. D. Eggar, Professor 

J. J. Findlay, Dr. Gray, Professor R. A. 

Gregory, Principal Grifiiths, Sir W. 

Huggins, Mr. O. H. Latter, Sir Philip 

Magnus, Professor H. A. Miers, Mr. 

T. E. Page, Professor J. Perry, Mr. 

Hugh Richardson, Professor M. E. 

Sadler, and Mr. A. E. Shipley. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. CXXVll 

2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 


Members of Committee 


To take notice of, and report upon 
changes in, Regulations — whether 
Legislative, Administrative, or made 
by Local Authorities — affecting 
Secondary Education. 


Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Sir William Bousfield, Mr. S. H. Butcher, 
Sir Henry Craik, Principal GrifiBths, 
Sir Horace Plunkett, and Professor 
M. E. Sadler. 



Communications ordered to be printed in extenso. 

The Applications of Grignard's Reactioa. By Dr. A. McKenzie. 
Iron-ore Supplies. By Professor Sjogren. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and action, 

if desirable. 

From Section H, supported hy Section L. 

That, in vievsr of the national importance of obtaining data on the question of 
physical deterioration, this Association urges upon the Government the pressing 
necessity of instituting, in connection with the medical inspection of school 
children, a system of periodic measurement which shall provide definite information 
on their physical condition and development. 

From the Conference of Delegates. 

That it is desirable (I) to obtain information as to the present state of things 
in Britain in connection with Photo-survey work ; (2) to publish instructions or 
give advice for the execution of a Scientific Photographic Survey ; (3) to endeavour 
to found or promote a Photo-record of the town and district in which the British 
Association holds its Annual Meeting. 



CXXviii SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated for Scientific Furposes by the 
General Committee at the Leicester Meeting, August 1907. The 

Names of Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer for the 
Grants are prefixedj to ih e respective Research Committees. 

Mathematical and Physical Science. 

£ s. d. 

*Turner, Professor H. H. — Seismological Obsei'vations 40 

*Hill, Professor M. J. M.— Further Tabulation of Bes,sel 

Functions 15 

*Shaw, Dr. W. N. — Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere 

by Means of Kites 25 

*McLaren, Lord — Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis 25 

Darwin, Sir Geoi'ge — Geodetic Arc in Africa 200 

Chemist?'!/. 

*Roscoe, Sir H. E. —Wave- length Tables of Spectra 10 

*Divers, Professor E. — Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 30 

*Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism 40 

*Kipping, Professor F. S. — Transformation of Aromatic Nitra- 

mines ^O 

Geology. 

*Kendall, Professor P. F.— Erratic Blocks 17 16 6 

*Herdman, Professor W. A. — Fauna and Flora of British Trias 10 

*Lamplugh, G. W. — Fossiliferous Drift Deposits 11 12 9 

*Harker, A. — The Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 2 17 2 

*Gregory, Professor J. W. — Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the British Isles 10 

*Woodward, H. B. — Pre-Devonian Rocks 10 

*Freshfield, D. W.— Exact Significance of Local Terms 10 

Lapworth, Professor C. — Palaeozoic Rooks of Wales and the 

West of England 15 

Watts, Professor W. W. — Composition of Charnwood Rocks 10 



Zoology. 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 100 

* Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Animalium 75 

Herdman, Professor W. A. — Heredity Experiments 10 

Bourne, Professor G. C. — Fauna of Lakes of Central Tas- 
mania 40 

Geography. 

*Murray, Sir John — Investigations in the Indian Ocean 50 

Murray, Sir John — Rainfall and Lake and River Discharge 5 

Chisholm, G. G. — Exploration in Spitsbergen 30 

Carried forward £822 6 5 



* 



* 



Keappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEV. CXXIX 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 822 6 5 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

*Pa]grave, R. H. Inglis — Gold Coinage in Circulation in the 

United Kingdom 6 

Engineering. 
* Ray leigh, Lord — Electrical Standards 50 10 8 

Anthropology. 

*Munro, Dr. R.— Glastonbury Lake Village 30 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Excavations on Roman Sites in 

Britain 15 

*Cunningham, Professor D. J. — Anthropometric Investigation 13 8 8 

*Read, C. H.— Age of Stone Circles 53 

*Read, C. H. — Anthropological Photographs 3 3 6 

Read, C. H. — Anthropological Notes and Queries 40 

Physiology. 

*Gotch, Professor F. — Metabolism of Individual Tissues 40 

*Schafer, Professor E. A.— The Ductless Glands 30 

*Brunton, Sir T. Lauder — Effect of Climate upon Health and 

Disease 35 

Sherrington, Professor C. S. — Body Metabolism in Cancer... 30 
"Waller, Dr. A. D. — Electrical Phenomena and Metabolism 

of Arum Spadices 10 

Botany. 

*Scott, Dr. D. H.— Structure of Fossil Plants 15 

*Blackman, Dr. F. F.— Marsh Vegetation 15 

Farmer, Professor J. B. — Succession of Plant Remains 45 

Educational Science. 
*Magnus, Sir P. — Studies suitable for Elementary Schools ... 10 

Corresponding Societies Committee. 
* W hitaker, W.— For Preparation of Report 25 

£1^88 9 3 
* Reappointed. 



An1^ual Meetings, 1908 and 1909, 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1908 will be held at 
Dublin, commencing September 2 ; in 1909, at Winnipeg, Canada. 



190< 



PRESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1907. 



ADDRESS 

BY 

Sir DAVID GILL, K.C.B, 
LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., Hon. F.R.S.E., 

PRESIDENT. 



To-night, for the first time in its history, the British Association meets 
in the ancient city of Leicester ; and it now becomes my privilege to 
convey to you, Mr. Mayor, and to the citizens generally, an expression of 
our thanks for your kind invitation and for the hospitable reception 
which you have accorded to us. 

Here in Leicester and last year in York the Association has followed 
its usual custom of holding its annual meeting somewhere in the United 
Kingdom ; but in 1 905 the meeting was, as you know, held in South 
Africa. Now, having myself only recently come from the Cape, I wish 
to take this opportunity of saying that this southern visit of the 
Association has, in my opinion, been productive of much good : wicler 
interest in science has been created amongst colonists, juster estimates 
of the country and its problems have been formed on the part of the 
visitors, and personal friendships and interchange of ideas between 
thinking men in South Africa and at home have arisen which cannot fail 
to have a beneficial influence on the social, political, and scientific rela- 
tions between these colonies and the mother country. We may confidently 
look for like results from the proposed visit of the Association to Canada 
in 1909. 

One is tempted to take advantage of the wide publicity given to words 
from this Chair to speak at large in the cause of science, to insist upon the 
necessity for its wider inclusion in the education of our youth and the 
devotion of a larger measure of the public funds in aid of scientific research • 
to point to the supreme value of science as a means for the culture of 
those faculties which in man promote that knowledge which is power • 
and to show how dependent is the progress of a nation upon its scientific 
attainment. 

But in recent years these truths have been prominently brought 

b2 



4 PRESIDENTS ADDUESS. 

before the Association from this Chair ; they have been exhaustively 
demonstrated by Sir William Huggins from the Chair of the Royal 
Society, and now a special guild ' exists for their enfoi'cement upon the 
mind of the nation. 

These considerations appear to warrant me in following the healthy 
custom of so many previous Presidents— viz., of confining their remarks 
mainly to those departments of science with which the labours of their 
lives have been chiefly associated. 

The Science of Meosrirevient. 

Lord Kelvin in 1871 made a statement from the Presidential Chair 
of the Association at Edinburgh as follows : ' Accurate and minute 
measurement seems to the non-scientific imagination a less lofty and 
dignified work than the looking for something new. But nearly all the 
grandest discoveries of science have been the reward of accurate measure- 
ment and patient, long-continued labour in the minute sifting of numerical 

results.' 

Besides the instances quoted by Lord Kelvin in support of that 
statement, we have perhaps as remarkable and typical an exemplification 
as any in Lord Rayleigh's long-continued work on the density of nitrogen 
which led him to the discovery of argon. We shall see presently that, 
true as Lord Kelvin's words are in regard to most fields of science, they 
are specially applicable as a guide in astronomy. 

One of Clerk Maxwell's lectures in the Natural Philosophy Class at 
Marischall College, Aberdeen, when I was a student under him there, in 
the year 1859, ran somewhat as follows : — 

A standard, as it is at present understood in England, is not a real standard at 
all" it is a rod of metal with lines ruled upon it to mark the yard, and it is kept 
somewhere in the House of Commons. If the House of Commons catches fire there 
may be an end of your standard. A copy of a standard can never be a real standard, 
because all the work of human hands is liable to error. Besides, will your so-calkd 
standard remain of a constant length? It certainly will change by temperature, it 
probably will change by age (that is, by the rearrangement or settling down of its 
component molecules), and I am not sure if it does not change according to the 
azimuth in which it is used. At all events, you must see that it is a very impractical 
standard— impractical because, if, for example, any one of you went to Mars or 
Jupiter, and the people there asked you what was your standard of measure, you 
could not tell them, you could not reproduce it, and you would feel very foolish. 
Whereas, if you told any capable physicist in Mars or Jupiter that you used some 
natural invariable standard, such as the wave-length of the D line of sodium vapour, 
he would be able to reproduce your yard or your inch, provided that you could tell 
him how many of such wave-lengths there were in your yard or your inch, and your 
standard would be available anywhere in the universe where sodium is found. 

That was the whimsical way in which Clerk Maxwell used to impress 



' The British Science Guild. 



president's address. 5 

great principles upon us. We all laughed before we understood ; then 
some of us understood and remembered. 

Now the scientific world has practically adopted Maxwell's form of 
natural standard. It is true that it names that standard the metre ; but 
that standard is not one ten-millionth of tlie Earth's quadrant in length, 
as it was intended to be ; it is merely a certain piece of metal approxi- 
mately of that length. 

It is true that the length of that piece of metal has been reproduced 
witli more precision, and is known with higher accuracy in terms of many 
secondary standiucls, than is the length of any other standard in the 
world ; but it is, after all, liable to destruction and to possible secular 
change of length. For these reasons it cannot be scientifically described 
otherwise than as a piece of metal whose length at 0° C. at the epoch 
A.D. 1906 is =1,553,164 times the wave-length of the red line of the 
spectrum of cadmium when the latter is observed in dry air at the 
temperature of 15° C. of the normal hydrogen- scale at a pressure of 
760 mm. of mercury at 0° C. 

This determination, recently made by methods based on the interfer- 
ence of light-waves and carried out by MM. Benoit, Perot, and Fabry at 
the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, constitutes a real 
advance in scientific metrology. The result appears to be reliable'within 
one ten-millionth part of the metre. 

The length of the metre, in terms of the wave-length of the red line in 
the spectrum of cadmium, had been determined in 1892 by Michelson's 
method, with a mean result in almost exact accordance with that just 
quoted for the comparisons of 1906 ; but this agreement (within one part 
in ten millions) is due in some degree to chance, as the uncertainty of the 
earlier determination was probably five times greater than the difference 
between the two independent results of 1892 and 1906. 

We owe to M. Guillaume, of the same International Bureau, the dis- 
covery of the remarkable properties of the alloys of nickel and steel, and from 
the point of view of exact measurement the specially valuable discovery of 
the properties of that alloy which we now call ' invar.' He has developed 
methods for treatment of wires made from this alloy which render more 
permanent the arrangement of their constituent molecules. Thus these 
wires, with their attached scales, may, for considerable periods of time 
and under circumstances of careful treatment, be regarded as nearly 
invariable standards. With proper precautions, we have found at the 
Cape of Good Hope that these wires can be used for the measurement of 
base lines of the highest geodetic precision with all the accuracy attain- 
able by the older and most costly forms of apparatus ; whilst with the 
new apparatus a base of 20 kilometres can be measured in less time and 
for less cost than one of a single kilometre with the older forms of 
measurement. 



6 president's address. 

The Great African Arc of Meridian, 

In connection with the progress of geodesy, time only permits me to 
say a few words about the great African arc on the 30th meridian, 
which it is a dream of my life to see completed. 

The gap in the arc between the Limpopo and the previously executed 
triangulation in Rhodesia, which I reported to the Association at the 
Johannesburg meeting in 1905, has now been filled up. My own efforts, 
at 6,000 miles distance, had failed to obtain the necessary funds, but at 
Sir George Darwin's instance contributions were obtained from this 
Association, from the Royal Society and others, to the extent of half the 
estimated cost ; the remaining half was met by the British South Africa 
Company. But for Darw'i.'s happy intervention, which enabled me to 
secure the services of Captain Gordon and his party before the Transvaal 
Survey Organisation was entirely broken up, this serious gap in the great 
work would probably have long remained ; for it is one thing to add to 
an existing undertaking of the kind, it is quite another to create a new 
organisation for a limited piece of work. 

Since then Colonel (now Sir William) Morris has brought to a conclusion 
the reductions of the geodetic survey of the Transvaal and Orange River 
Colony, and his report is now in my hands for publication. 

Dr. Rubin, under my direction, at the cost of the British South 
Africa Company, has carried the arc of meridian northwards to S. lati- 
tude 9° 42', so that we have now continuous triangulation from Cape 
L'Agulhas to within fifty miles of the southern end of Lake Tanganyika ; 
that is to say, a continuous geodetic survey extending over twenty-five 
degrees of latitude. 

It happens that, for the adjustment of the international boundary 
between the British Protectorate and the Congo Free State, a topographic 
survey is at the present moment being executed northward along the 
30th meridian from the northern border of German East Africa. A 
proposal on the part of the Royal Society, the Royal Geographical 
Society, the British Association, and the Royal Astronomical Society has 
been made to strengthen this work by carrying a geodetic triangulation 
through it along the 30th meridian, and thus adding 2\° to the African 
arc. These Societies together guarantee 1,000/. towards the cost of the 
work, and ask for a like sum from Government to complete the estimated 
cost. The topographic survey will serve as the necessary reconnaissance. 
The topographic work will be completed by the end of January next, and 
the four following months oflFer the best season of the year for geodetic 
operations in these regions. 

There is a staff of skilled officers and men on the spot sufficient to 
complete the work within the period mentioned, and the Intercolonial 
Council of the Transvaal and Orange River Colony most generously offers 
to lend the necessary geodetic instruments. The work will have to be 
done sooner or later, but if another expedition has to be organised for the 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 7 

purpose the work will then cost from twice to three times the present 
amount. One cannot therefore doubt that his Majesty's Government 
will take advantage of the present offer and opportunity to vote the small 
sum required. This done, we cannot doubt that the German Government 
will complete the chain along the eastern side of Lake Tanganyika, which 
lies entirely within their territory. Indeed, it is no secret that the Berlin 
Academy of Sciences has already prepared the necessary estimates with 
a view to recommending action on the part of its Government. 

Captain Lyons, who is at the head of the survey of Egypt, assui-es me 
that preliminary operations towards carrying the arc southwards from 
Alexandria have been begun, and we have perfect confidence that in his 
energetic hands the work will be prosecuted with vigour. In any case 
the completion of the African arc will rest largely in his hands. That 
arc, if ever my dream is realised, will extend from Cape L'Agulhas to 
Cairo, thence round the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and the 
islands of Greece, and there meet the triangulation of Greece itself, the 
latter being already connected with Struve's great arc, which terminates 
at the North Cape in lat. 70° N. This will constitute an arc of 105° in 
length — the longest arc of meridian that is measurable on the earth's 
surface. 

The Solar Parallax. 

Much progress has been made in the exact measurement of the great 
fundamental unit of astronomy — the solar parallax. 

Early in 1877 I ventured to predict' that we should not arrive at any 
certainty as to the true value of the solar parallax from observations of 
transits of Venus, but that the modern heliometer applied to the measure- 
ment of angular distances between stars and the star-like images of minor 
planets would yield results of far higher precision. 

The results of the observations of the minor planets Iris, Victoria, 
and Sappho at their favourable oppositions in the years 1888 and 1889, 
which were made with the co-operation of the chief heliometer and 
meridian observatories, fully justified this prediction.^ The Sun's distance 
is now almost certainly known within one-thousandth part of its amount. 
The same series of observations also yielded a very reliable determination 
of the mass of the Moon. 

The more recently discovered planet Eros, which in 1900 approached 
the Earth within one-third of the mean distance of the Sun, afforded 
a most unexpected and welcome opportunity for redetermining the solar 
parallax — an opportunity which was largely taken advantage of by the 
principal observatories of the northern hemisphere. Unfortunately the 
high northern declination of the planet prevented its observation at the 
Cape and other southern observatories. So far as the results have been 

' ' The Determination of the Solar Parallax,' The Observato?-;/, vol. i. p. 280. 
' Annals of the Cape Observatory, vol. vi., part 6, p. 29. 



8 president's address. 

reduced and published ' they give an ahnost exact accordance with the 
value of the solar parallax derived from the heliometer observations of 
the minor planets, Iris, Victoria, and Sappho in 1888 and 1889. 

But in 1931 Eros will approach the Earth within one-sixth part of 
the Sun's mean distance, and the fault will rest with astronomers of that 
day if they do not succeed in determining the solar parallax within one 
ten-thousandth part of its amount. 

To some of us who struggled so hard to arrive at a tenth part of 
this accuracy under the less favourable geometrical conditions that were 
available before the discovery of Eros, how enviable seems the oppor- 
tunity ! 

And yet, if we come to think of it rightly, the true opportunity and 
the chief responsibility is ours, for novo and not twenty years hence is the 
time to begin our preparation ; noio is the time to study the origin of 
those systematic errors which undoubtedly attach to some of our photo- 
graphic processes ; and then we ought to construct telescopes specially 
designed for the work. These telescopes should be applied to the charting 
of the stars near the path which Eros will describe at its opposition in 
1931, and the resulting star-co-ordinates derived from the plates 
photographed by the different telescopes should be rigorously inter- 
compared. Then, if all the telescopes give identical results for the 
star-places, we can be certain that they will record without systematic 
error the position of Eros. If they do not give identical results, the 
source of the errors must be traced. 

The planet will describe such a long path in the sky during the 
opposition of 1931 that it is already time to begin the meridian observa- 
tions which are necessary to determine the places of the stars that are to 
be used for determining the constants of the plates. It is desirable, 
therefore, that some agreement should be come to with respect to selection 
of these reference-stars, in order that all the principal meridian observa- 
tories in the world may take part in observing them. 

1 venture to suggest that a Congress of Astronomers should assemble 
in 1908 to consider what steps should be taken with reference to the 
important opposition of Eros in 1931. 

The Stellar Vidverse. 

And now to pass from consideration of the dimensions of our solar 
system to the study of the stars, or other suns, that surround us. 

To the lay mind it is difficult to convey a due appreciation of the 
value and importance of star-catalogues of precision. As a rule such 
catalogues have nothing whatever to do with discovery in the ordinary 
sense of the word, for the existence of the stars which they contain is 
generally well known beforehand ; and yet such catalogues are, in reality, 
by far the most valuable assets of astronomical research. 

' Mtmthly Notices R.A.S., Hinks, vol. Ixiv. p. 725; Christie, vol. Ixvii. p. 382. 



president's adduess, 9 

If it be desired to demarcate a boundary on the Earth's surface by astro- 
nomical methods, or to fix the position of any object in the heavens, it is to 
the accurate star- catalogue that we must refer for the necessary data. In 
that case the stars may be said to resemble the trigonometrical points of 
a survey, and we are only concerned to know from accurate catalogues 
their positions in the heavens at the epoch of observation. But in another 
and grander sense the stars are not mere landmarks, for each has its 
own apparent motion in the heavens which may be due in part to the 
absolute motion of the star itself in space, or in part to the motion 
of the solar system by which our point of view of surrounding stars is 
changed. 

If we desire to determine these motions and to ascertain something of 
the general conditions which produce them, if we would learn something 
of the dynamical conditions of the universe and something of the velocity 
and direction of our own solar system through space, it is to the accurate 
star catalogues of widely separated epochs that we must turn for a chief 
part of the requisite data. 

The value of a star-catalogue of precision for present purposes of 
cosmic research varies as the square of its age and the square of its 
accuracy. We cannot alter the epoch of our observations, but we can 
increase their value fourfold by doubling their accuracy. Hence it is that 
many of our greater astronomers have devoted their lives chiefly to the 
accumulation of meridian observations of high precision, holding the view 
that to advance such precision is the most valuable service to science 
they could undertake, and comforted in their unselfish and laborious work 
only by the consciousness that they are preparing a solid foundation 
on which future astronomers may safely raise the superstructure of sound 
knowledge. 

But since the extension of our knowledge of the system of the 
universe depends quite as much on past as on future research, it 
may be well, before determining upon a programme for the future, to 
consider briefly the record of meridian observation in the past for both 
hemispheres. 

The Comparative Slate of Astronomy in the Northern and 
Bouthern Hem,ispheres. 

It seems probable that the first express reference to southern con- 
stellations in known literature occurs in the Book of Job (ix. 9) : ' Which 
maketh Arcturus, Orion, and Pleiades, and the chambers of the south.' 
Schiaparelli's strongly supported conjecture is that the expression 
' chambers of the south,' taken with its context, signifies the brilliant 
stellar region from Canopus to a Centauri, which includes the Southern 
Cross and coincides with the most brilliant portion of the Milky Way. 

About the year 750 B.C. (the probable date of the Book of Job) all 
these stars culminated at altitudes between 5° and 1 6° when viewed from 



10 president's address. 

the latitude of Judaea ; but now, owing to precessional change, they can 
only be seen in a like striking manner from a latitude about 12° further 
south. 

The words of Dante have unquestionably originated the wonderful 
net of poetic fancy that has been woven about the asterism, which we 
now call Crux. 

To the right hand I turned, and fixed my mind 
On the other pole attentive, where I saw 
Four stars ne'er seen before save by the ken 
Of our first parents — Heaven of their rays 
Seemed joyous. O thou northern site I bereft 
Indeed, and widowed, since of these deprived. 

All the commentators agree that Dante here referred to tlie stars of the 
Southern Cross. 

Had Dante any imperfect knowledge of the existence of these stars, 
any tradition of their visibility from European latitudes in remote 
centuries, so that he might poetically term them the stars of our first 
parents ? 

Ptolemy catalogues them as 31, 32, 33, and 34 Centauri, and they 
are clearly marked on the Borgian globe described by Assemanus in 
1790. This globe was constructed by an Arabian in Egypt : it bears 
the date 622 Hegira, corresponding with a.d. 1225, and it is possible that 
Dante may have seen it. 

Amerigo Vespucci, as he sailed in tropical seas, apparently recognised 
in what we now call Crux the four luminous stars of Dante ; for in 1501 
he claimed to be the first European to have looked upon the stars of our 
first parents. His fellow-voyager, Andrea Corsali, wrote about the same 
time to Giuliano di Medici describing ' the marvellous cross, the most 
glorious of all the celestial signs.' 

Thus much mysticism and romance have been woven about this 
constellation, with the result that exaggerated notions of its brilliancy 
have been formed, and to most persons its first appearance, when viewed 
in southern latitudes, is disappointing. 

To those, however, who view it at upper culmination for the first 
time from a latitude a little south of the Canary Islands, and who at the 
same time make unconsciously a mental allowance for the absorption of 
light to which one is accustomed in the less clear skies of Northern 
Europe, the sight of the upright cross, standing as if fixed to the horizon, 
is a most impressive one. I at least found it so on my first voyage to 
the Cape of Good Hope. But how much more strongly must it have 
appealed to the mystic and superstitious minds of the early navigators as 
they entered the unexplored seas of the northern tropic ! To them it 
must have appeared the revered image of the Cross pointing the way 
on their southward course — a symbol and sign of Hope and Faith on 
their entry to the unknown. 

The first general knowledge of the brighter stars of the southern 



president's address. 11 

hemisphere we owe to Frederick de Hautman, who commanded a fleet 
sent by the Dutch Government in 1595 to the Far East for the purpose 
of exploring Japan. Hautman was wrecked and taken prisoner at 
Sumatra, and whilst there he studied the language of the natives and 
made observations of the positions and magnitudes of the fixed stars of 
the southern hemisphere.' 

Our distinguished countryman Halley visited St. Helena in 1677 for 
the purpose of cataloguing the stars of the southern hemisphere. He 
selected a station now marked Halley's Mount on the Admiralty chart 
of the island. I have visited the site, and the foundations of the 
observatory still remain. Halley's observations were much hindered by 
cloud. On his return to England, Halley in 1679 published his ' Catalogus 
Stellarum Australium,' containing the magnitudes, latitudes, and longi- 
tudes of 341 stars, which, with the exception of seven, all belonged to 
the southern hemisphere. 

But the first permanently valuable astronomical work in the southern 
hemisphere was done in 1751-52 by the Abbe de Lacaille. He selected 
the Cape of Good Hope as the scene of his labours, because it was then 
perhaps the only spot in the world situated in a considerable southern 
latitude which an unprotected astronomer could visit in safety, and where 
the necessary aid of trained artisans to erect his observatory could be 
obtained. Lacaille received a cordial welcome at the hands of the Dutch 
governor Tulbagh : he erected his observatory in Cape Town, made a 
catalogue of nearly 10,000 stars, observed the opposition of Mars, and 
measured a short arc of meridian all in the course of a single year. 
Through his labours the Cape of Good Hope became the birthplace of 
astronomy and geodesy in the southern hemisphere. 

Bradley was laying the foundations of exact astronomy in the 
northern hemisphere at the time when Lacaille laboured at the Cape. 
But Bradley had superior instruments to those of Lacaille and much 
longer time at his disposal. Bradley's work is now the basis on which 
the fair superstructure of modern astronomy of precision rests. His 
labours were continued by his successors at Greenwich and by a long 
series of illustrious men like Piazzi, Groombridge, Bessel, Struve, and 
Argelander. But in the southern hemisphere the history of astronomy 
is a blank for seventy years from the days of Lacaille. 

We owe to the establishment of the Royal Observatory at the Cape 
by an Order in Council of 1820 the first successful step towards the 
foundation of astronomy of high precision in the southern hemisphere. 

Time does not pei-mit me to trace in detail the labours of astronomers 
in the southern hemisphere down to the present day ; and this is the 
less necessary because in a recent Presidential Address to the South 
African Philosophical Society ^ I have given in great part that history in 

' The resulting catalogue of 304 stars is printed as an appendix to Hautman's 
Vocabulary of the Malay Language, published at Amsterdam in 1603. 
' Trans. South African Phil. Sac, vol. xiv. part 2. 



12 president's address. 

considerable detail. But I have not there made adequate reference to 
the labours of Dr. Gould and Dr. Thome at Cordoba. To their labours, 
combined with the work done under Stone at the Cape, we owe the fact 
that for the epoch 1875 the meridian sidereal astronomy of the southern 
hemisphere is nearly as well provided for as that of the northern. 
The point I wish to make is that the facts of exact sidereal astronomy in 
the southern hemisphere may be regarded as dating neai'ly a hundred 
years behind those of the northern hemisphere. 

The Constitution of the Universe. 

It was not until 1718, when Edmund Halley, afterwards Astronomer 
Royal of England, read a paper before the Royal Society,' entitled 
' Considerations on the Change of the Latitudes of Some of the Principal 
Fixt Stars,' that any definite facts wei'e known about the constitution of 
the universe. In that paper Hallej', who had been investigating the 
precession of the equinoxes, says : ' But while I was upon this enquiry 
I was surprized to find the Latitudes of three of the principal Stars in 
heaven directly to contradict the supposed greater obliquity of the 
Ecliptick, which seems confirmed by the Latitudes of most of the rest.' 

This is the first mention in history of an observed change in the 
relative position of the so-called fixed stars — the first recognition of what 
we now call 'proper motion.' 

Tobias Mayer, in 1760, seems to have been the first to recognise that 
if our Sun, like other stars, has motion in space, that motion must produce 
apparent motion amongst the surrounding stars ; for in a paper to the 
Gottingen Academy of Sciences he writes : ' If the Sun, and with it the 
planets and tlie Earth which we inhabit, tended to move directly towards 
some point in the heavens, all the stars scattered in that region would 
seem to gradually move apart from each other, whilst those in the 
opposite quarter would mutually approach each other. In the same 
manner one who walks in the forest sees the trees which are before him 
separate, and those that he leaves behind approach each other.' No 
statement of the matter could be more clear ; but Mayer, with the meagre 
data at his disposal, came to the conclusion that ' the motions of the 
stars are not governed by the above or any other common law, but belong 
to the stars themselves.' 

Sir William Herschel, in 1783, made tlie first attempt to apply, with 
any measure of success, Mayer's principle to a determination of the 
direction and amount of the solar motion in space.- He derived, as well 
as he could from existing data, the proper motions of fourteen stars, and 
arrived by estimation at the conclusion that the Sun's motion in space is 
nearly in the direction of the star \ Herculis, and that 80 per cent, of the 
apparent motions of the fourteen stars in question could be assigned to 
this common origin. 

' Phil. Trans, 1718, p. 738. « Jbid., 1783, p. 247. 



president's address. 13 

This conclusion rests in reality upon a very slight basis, but the 
researches of subsequent astronomers show that it was an amazing acci- 
dental approach to truth — indeed, a closer approximation than Hei'schel's 
subsequent determinations of 1805 and 1806, which rested on wider and 
better data.^ 

Consider for a moment the conditions of the problem. If all the 
stars except our Sun were at rest in space, then, in accordance with 
Mayer's statement, just quoted, all the stars would have apparent motions 
on great circles of the sphere away from the apex and towards the 
antapex of the solar motion. That is to say, if the position of each star of 
which the apparent motion is known was plotted on the surface of a sphere 
and a line with an arrow-head drawn through each star showing the direc- 
tion of its motion on the sphere, then it should be possible to find a point 
on the sphere such that a great circle drawn from this point through any 
star would coincide with the line of direction of that star's proper motion. 
The arrow-heads would all point to that intersection of the great circles 
which is the antapex of the solar motion, and the other point of inter- 
section of the great circles would be the apex, that is to say, the direction 
of the Sun's motion in space. 

But as the apparent stellar motions are small and only determinable 
with a considerable percentage of error, it would be impossible to find any 
point on the sphere such that every great circle passing through it and 
any particular star, would in every case be coincident with the observed 
direction of motion of that star. 

Such discordances would, on our original assumption, be due to errors 
of observation, but in reality much larger discordances will occur, which 
are due to the fact that the other stars (or suns) have independent 
motions of their own in space. This at once creates a new difficulty, 
viz., that of defining an absolute locus in space. The human mind 
may exhaust itself in the effort, but it can never solve the problem. We 
can imagine, for example, the position of the Sun at any moment to be 
defined with reference to any number of surrounding stars, but by no 
effort of imagination can we devise means of defining the absolute position 
of a body in space without reference to surrounding material objects. If, 
therefore, the referring objects have unknown motions of their own, the 
rigour of the definition is lost. 

What we call the observed proper motion of a star has three possible 
sources of origin : — 

1. The parallactic motion, or the effect of our Sun's motion through 
space, whereby our point of view of surrounding celestial objects is 
changed. 

2. The peculiar or particular motion of the star, i.e., its own absolute 
motion in space. 

3. That part of the observed or tabular motion which is due to inevi- 
table error of observation. 

Phil. Trans., 1806, p. 233 ; 1806, p. 205. 



14 president's address. 

In all discussions of the solar motion in space, from that of Herschel 
down till a recent date, it has been assumed that the peculiar motions of 
the stars are arranged at random, and may therefore be considered zero 
in the mean of a considerable number of them. It is then possible to find 
such a value for the Precession, and such a common apex for the solar 
motion as shall leave the residual peculiar motions of the stars under 
discussion to be in the mean = zero. That is to say, we refer the 
motion of the Sun in space to the centre of gravity of all the stars con- 
sidered in the discussion, and regard that centre of gravity as immovable 
in space. 

In order to proceed rigorously, and especially to determine the 
amount as well as the direction of the Sun's motion in space, we ought to 
know the parallax of every star employed in the discussion, as well as its 
proper motion. In the absence of such data it has been usual to start 
from some such assumption as the following : the stars of a particular 
magnitude are roughly at the same distance ; those of different classes 
of magnitude may be derived from the hypothesis that on the average 
they have all equal absolute luminosity. 

The assumption is not a legitimate one — 

1. Because of the extreme difference in the absolute luminosity of 
stars. 

2. Because it implies that the average absolute luminosity of stars 
is the same in all regions of space. 

The investigation has been carried out by many successive astronomers 
on these lines with fairly accordant results as to the position of the solar 
apexj but with very unsatisfactory results as to the distances of the fixed 
stars. ^ In order to judge how far the magnitude (or brightness) of a star 
is an index of its probable distance, we must have evidence from direct 
determinations of stellar parallax. 

' Argelander, Mem. presentes a VAcad. Imj). des Sciences St. Peter$bovrg, 
tome iii. 

Limdahl, Astron. Naolirioliten, 398, 209. 

Argelander, Astron. Naclirwhtcn , 398, 210. 

Otto Struve, Mhii. Acad, des Sciences St. PetersVourg, vi" serie, Math, et Phys., 
tome iii. p. 17. 

Galloway, Phil. Trans., 1847, p. 79. 

Madler, Borpat Olservations, vol. xiv., and Ast. Nach., 566, 21.S. 

Airy, Mem. B.A.S., vol. xxviii. p. 143. 

Dunkin, Mem. li.A.S., vol. xxxii. p. 19. 

Stone, Monthly Notices li.A.S., vol. xxiv. p. 36. 

De Ball, Inaugural Dissertation, Bonn, 1877. 

Rancken, Astron. Nachrichten, 2482, 149. 

Bischoff, Inaugural Dissertation, Bonn, 1884. 

Ludwig Struve, Mem. Acad. St. Petershourg, vii° sgrie, tome xxxv. No. 3. 



president's address. 15 



Stellar Parallax. 

To extend exact measurement from our own solar system to that of 
other suns and other systems may be regarded as the supreme achieve- 
ment of practical astronomy. &'o great are the difficulties of the pro- 
blem, so minute the angles involved, that it is but in comparatively 
recent years that any approximate estimate could be formed of the true 
parallax of any fixed star. Bradley felt sure that if the star 7 Draconia 
had a parallax of 1'' he would have detected it. Henderson by 'the 
minute sifting of the numerical results ' of his own meridian observa- 
tions of a Centauri, made at the Cape of Good Hope in 1832-33, first 
obtained certain evidence of the measurable parallax of any fixed star. 
He was favoured in this discovery by the fact that the object he 
selected happened to be, so far as we yet know, the nearest sun to our 
own. Shortly afterwards Struve obtained evidence of a measurable 
parallax for a Lyr^e and Bessel for 61 Cygni. Astronomers hailed with 
delight this bursting of the constraints which our imperfect means im- 
posed on research. But for the great purposes of cosmical astronomy 
what we are chiefly concerned to know is not what is the parallax of 
this or that particular star, but rather what is the average parallax of a 
star having a particular magnitude and proper motion. The prospect of 
even an ultimate approximate attainment of this knowledge seemed 
remote. The star a Lyrse is one of the brightest in the heavens ; the 
star 61 Cj'gni one that had the largest proper motion known at the time ; 
whilst a2 Centauri is not only a very bright star, but it has also a large 
proper motion. The parallaxes of these stars must therefore in all 
probability be large compared with the parallax of the average star ; 
but yet to determine them with approximate accuracy long series of 
observations by the greatest astronomers and with the finest instruments 
of the day seemed necessary. 

Subsequently various astronomers investigated the parallaxes of other 
stars having large proper motions, but it was only in 1881, at the Cape of 
Good Hope, that general research on stellar parallax was instituted.' 
Subsequently at Yale and at the Cape of Good Hope the work was 
continued on cosmical lines with larger and improved heliometers.- By 
the introduction of the reversing prism and by other practical refinements 
the possibilities of systematic error were eliminated, and the accidental 
errors of observation reduced within very small limits. 

These researches brought to light the immense diversity in the absolute 
luminosity and velocity of motion of different stars. Take the following by 
way of example : — 

Our nearest neighbour amongst the stars, «2 Centauri, has a parallax 

' Mem. H.A.S., vol. xlviii. 

'■' Annals of the Cape Observatory, yo\,yi\\. part 2, and Trans. Astron. Observatori/ 
of Tale University, vol. i. 



16 president's address. 

of 0"'76, or is distant about 4^ light-years. Its mass is independently 
known to be almost exactly equal to that of our Sun ; and its spectrum 
being also identical with that of our Sun, we may reasonably assume that 
it appears to us of the same magnitude as would our Sun if removed to 
the distance of 02 Centauri. 

But the average star of the same apparent magnitude as a. 2 Centauri 
was found to have a parallax of only 0""]0, so that either a 2 Centaui'i or 
our Sun, if removed to a distance equal to that of the average fixed star of 
the first magnitude would appear to us but little brighter than a star of 
the fifth magnitude. 

Again, there is a star of only 8^ magnitude ' which has the remarkable 
annual proper motion of neai'ly 8| seconds of arc — one of those so-called 
runaway stars — which moves with a velocity of 80 miles per second at right 
angles to the line of sight (ive do not know with what velocity in the line 
of sight). It is at about the same distance from us as Sirius, but it emits 
but one ten-thousandth part of the light energy of that brilliant star. 
Sirius itself emits about thirty times the light-energy of our Sun, but it in 
turn sinks into insignificance when compared with the giant Canopus, 
which emits at least 10,000 times the light-energy of our Sun. 

Truly ' one star differs from another star in glory.' Proper motion 
rather than apparent brightness is the truer indication of a star's probable 
proximity to the Sun. Every star of considerable proper motion yet 
examined has proved to have a measurable parallax. 

This fact at once suggests the idea. Why should not the apparent 
parallactic motions of the stars, as produced by the Sun's motion in space, 
be utilised as a means of determining stellar parallax ? 

Secular Parallactic Motion of Stars. 

The strength of such determinations, unlike those made by the method 
of annual parallax, would grow with time. It is true that the process 
cannot be applied to the determination of the parallax of individual 
stars, because the peculiar motion of a particular star cannot be separated 
from that part of its apparent motion which is due to parallactic displace- 
ment. But what we specially want is not to ascertain the parallax of the 
individual star, but the mean parallax of a particular group or class of 
stars, and for this research the method is specially applicable, provided 
we may assume that the peculiar motions are distributed at random, so 
that they have no systematic tendency in any direction ; in other words, 
that the centre of gravity of any extensive group of stars will remain fixed 
in space. 

This assumption is, of course, but a working hypothesis, and one which 
from the paper on star- streaming communicated by Professor Kapteyn of 
Groningen to the Johannesburg meeting of the Association two years ago 
we already know to be inexact.^ Kapteyn's results were quite recently 

' Gould's Zones, V' 213. ^ Re}). Brit. Assoc, 1905, p. 257. 



president's address. 17 

confirmed in a remai-kable way by Eddington,' using independent material 
discussed by a new and elegant method. Both results showed that, at 
least for extensive parts of space, there are a nearly equal number of stars 
moving in exactly opposite directions. The assumption, then, that the 
mean of the peculiar motions is zero may, at least for these parts of space, 
he. still regarded as a good working hypothesis. 

Adopting an approximate position of the apex of the solar motion, 
Kapteyn resolved the observed proper motions of the Bradley stars into 
two components, viz., one in the plane of the great circle passing through 
the star and the apex, the other at right angles to that plane. '^ The former 
component obviously includes the whole of the parallactic motion ; the 
latter is independent of it, and is due entirely to the real motions of the 
stars themselves. From the former the mean parallactic motion of the 
group is derived, and from the combination of the two components, the 
relation of velocity of the Sun's motion to that of the mean velocity of 
the stars of the group. 

As the distance of any group of stars found by the parallactic 
motion is expressed as a unit in terms of the Sun's yearly motion through 
space, the velocity of this motion is one of the fundamental quantities to 
be determined. If the mean parallax of any sufficiently extensive group 
or class of stars was known we should have at once means for a direct 
determination of the velocity of the Sun's motion in .space ; or if, on the 
other hand, we can by independent methods determine the Sun's velocity, 
then the mean parallax of any group of stars can be determined. 

Detettnination of Stellar Motion in the Line 0/ Sight. 

Science owes to Sir William Huggins the application of Doppler's 
principle to the determination of the velocity of star-motion in the line of 
sight. The method is now so well known, and such an admirable account 
of its theory and practical development was given by its distinguished 
inventor from this Chair at the Cardiff meeting in 1891, that further 
mention of that part of the matter seems unnecessary. 

The Velocity of the Sun's 2fotion in Space. 

If by this method the velocities in the line of sight of a sufficient 
number of stars situated near the apex and antapex of the solar motion 
could be determined, so that in the mean it could be assumed that their 
peculiar motions would disappear, we have at once a direct determination 
of the required velocity of the Sun's motion. 

The material for this determination is gradually accumulating, and 
indeed much of it, already accumulated, is not yet published. But even with 

' Monthly Notices R.A.S., vol. Ixvii. p. 3i. 
- Publications Astron. Lahoratory Groningen, Nos. 7 and 9. 
1907. C 



18 pkesident's address. 

the comparatively scant material available, it now seems almost certain that 
the true value of the Sun's velocity lies between 18 and 20 kilometres per 
second ;^ or, if we adopt the mean value, 19 kilometres per second, this 
would correspond almost exactly with a yearly motion of the Sun through 
space equal to four times the distance of the Sun from the Earth. 

Thus the Sun's yearly motion being four times the Sun's distance, the 
parallactic motion of stars in which this motion is unforeshortened must 
be four times their parallax. How this number varies with the amount 
of foreshortening is of course readily calculated. The point is that from the 
mean parallactic motion of a group of stars we are now enabled to derive 
at once its mean parallax. 

This research has been carried out by Kapteyn for stars of different 
magnitudes. It leads to the result that the parallax of stars differing^ve 
magnitudes does not differ in the proportion of one to ten, as would follow 
from the supposition of equal luminosity of stars throughout the universe, 
but only in the proportion of about one to five.^ 

The same method cannot be applied to groups of stars of different 
proper motions, and it is only by a somewhat indirect proof, and by calling 
in the aid of such reliable results of direct parallax determination as we 
possess, that the variation of parallax with proper motion could be satis- 
factorily dealt with. 

The Mean Parallaxes of Stars of Different Magnitude and Proper Motion 

As a final result Kapteyn derived an empirical formula giving the 
average parallax for stars of different spectral types, and of any given 
magnitude and proper motion. This formula was published at Groningen 
in 1901.^ Within the past few months the results of researches on stellar 
parallax, made under the direction of Dr. Elkin, at the Astronomical Ob- 
servatory of Yale University, during the past thirteen years,"* have been 
published, and they afford a most crucial and entirely independent check 
on the soundness of Kapteyn's conclusions. 

In considering the comparison between the more or less theoretical 
results of Kapteyn and the practical determinations of Yale, we have to 
remember that Kapteyn's tables refer only to the means of groups of a 
large number of stars having on the average a specified magnitude and 
proper motion, whilst the latter are direct determinations affected by the 
accidental errors of the separate determinations and by such uncertainty 
as attaches to the unknown parallaxes of the comparison stars — parallaxes 
which we have supplied from Kapteyn's general tables. 

The Yale results consist of the determination of the parallax of 173 
stars, of which only ten had been previously known to Kapteyn and had 

' Kapteyn Ast. Nacli., No. 3487, p. 108 ; and Campbell, Astrophys. Jovrn., xiii. p. 80. 
•■i Astroii. NacJirichten, No. 3487, Table III. ; and Ast. Journ., p. 566. 
' Publications Astron. Laboratory Groningen, No. 8, p. 24. 
* Trans. Astron, Observatory of Tale Univ., vol. ii., part 1. 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 



19 



been utilised by him. Dividing these results into groups we get the 
following comparison : — 

Comparison Groups arranged in order of Proper Motion. 



No. of 
Stars 


Proper Motion 


Magnitude 


Parallax 


Yale— Kapteyn 


Yale 


Kapteyn 

0026 
•055 
•060 
•074 
•124 


21 
39 
45 
46 
22 


014 
0-49 
0-59 
0-77 
1-50 


3^8 
6-3 
6-7 
6-5 
6-2 


0'b28 
•042 
•068 
•047 
•118 


+ o'6o2 

- ^013 

+ '008 

- -027 

- •ooe 



Groups arranged in order of Magnitude. 









Parallax 


1 


No. of 

Stars 


Proper Motion 


Magnitude 




Yale — Kapteyn 


Yale 


Kapteyn 


10 


0-61 


0-8 


0-103 


o'lio 


-0^007 


29 


•53 


3-8 


•076 


•075 


+ -001 


33 


•63 


56 


■064 


•070 


- 006 


34 


•73 


6'7 


•055 


•070 


- -017 


31 


•68 


76 


•025 


•061 


- 036 


36 


•80 


8-3 


•056 


•062 


- ^006 






No. of 
Stars 


Proper 
Motion 


Magni- 
tude 


Parallax 


! Yale- 
Kapteyn 


Yale 

0'676 
00li7 


Kapteyn 

0'()76 
0074 


Spectral Tvpe I. 

„ 11. . 


13 

81 


042 
0^67 


4-0 
5-3 


o'ooo 

-0007 



These results agree in a surprisingly satisfactory way, having regard 
to the comparatively small number of stars in each group and the great 
range of parallax which we know to exist amongst individual stars having 
the same magnitude and proper motion. In the mean perhaps the tabu- 
lar parallaxes are in a minute degree too large, but we have unquestion- 
able proof from this comparison that our knowledge of stellar distances 
now rests on a solid foundation. 



The Distribution of Varieties of Luminosity of Stars. 

But, besides the mean parallax of stars of a particular magnitude and 
proper motion, it is essential that we should know approximately what 
percentage of the stars of such a group have twice, three times, &c., the 
mean parallax of the group, and what percentage only one-half, one- 
third of that parallax, and so on. In principle, at least, this frequency- 
law may be obtained by means of the directly determined parallaxes. 
For the starsof which we have reliable determinations we can compare 

c2 



20 president's address. 

these true parallaxes with the mean parallax of stars having correspond- 
ing magnitude and proper motion, and this comparison will lead to a 
knowledge of the frequency-law required. It is true that, owing to the 
scarcity of material at present available, the determination of the 
frequency-law is not so strong as may be desirable, but further impi-ove- 
ment is simply a question of time and the augmentation of parallax- 
determination. 

Adopting provisionally the frequency-law found in this way by 
Kapteyn,^ we can localise all the stars in space down to about the 
ninth magnitude. 

Take, for example, the stars of magnitude 5*5 to 6'5. There are 
about 4,800 of these stars in the whole sky. According to Auwers- 
Bradley, about 9^ per cent, of these stars, or some 460 in all, have 
proper motions between 0"-04 and 0''-05. Now, according to Kapteyn's 
empiric formula, whose satisfactory agreement with the Yale results has 
just been shown, the mean parallax of such stars is almost exactly 0"'01. 
Further, according to his frequency-law, 29 per cent, of the stars have 
parallaxes between the mean value and double the mean value ; 6 per 
cent, have parallaxes between twice and three times the mean value ; 
1^ per cent, between three and four times the mean value. Therefore 
of our 460 stars 133 will have parallaxes between 0''-01 and 0"-02, twenty- 
eight between 0''02 and 0"03, seven between 0"-03 and 0"04, and 
so on. 

Localising in the same way the stars of the sixth magnitude having 
other proper motions, and then treating the stars of the first magnitude, 
second magnitude, third magnitude, and so on to the ninth magnitude in 
the same way, we finally locate all these stars in space." 

It is true we have not localised the individual stars, but we know 
approximately and within certain limits of magnitude the number of stars 
at each distance from the Sun. 

Thus the apparent brightness and the distance being known we have 
the means of determining the light-energy or absolute luminosity of the 
stars, provided it can he asstimed that light does not suffer any extinction 
in its passage through interstellar space. 

On this assumption Kapteyn was led to the following results, viz., 
that within a sphere the radius of which is -560 light-yeais (a distance 
which corresponds with that of the average star of the ninth magnitude) 
there will be found : — 

1 star giving frora 100,000 to 10,000 times the light of our San. 



26 stars 


19 


10,000 „ 


1,000 


1,300 „ 


>» 


1,000 „ 


100 


22,000 „ 


yi 


100 „ 


10 


140,000 „ 


*i 


10 „ 


1 


430,000 „ 


*» 


1 ,, 


01 


650,000 „ 


11 


01 „ 


001 



' Publications Astron. Lab. Groningen, No. 8, p. 23. 
» lUd., No. 11, Table II. 



president's address. 21 

The Density of Stellar Distribution at Different Distances from 

our Sun. 

Consider, lastly, the distribution of stellar density, that is, the number 
of stars contained in the unit of volume. 

We cannot determine absolute star-density, because, for example, some 
of the stars which we know from their measured parallaxes to be com- 
paratively near to us are in themselves so little luminous that if removed 
to even a few light-years greater distance they would appear fainter than 
the ninth magnitude, and so fall below the magnitude at which our data 
at present stop. 

But if we assume that intrinsically faint and bright stars are dis- 
tributed in the same proportion in space, it will be evident that the 
comparative richness of stars in any part of the system will be the same 
as the comparative richness of the same part of the system in stars of a 
particular luminosity. Therefore, as we have already found the arrange- 
ment in space of the stars of different degrees of luminosity, and con- 
sequently their number at different distances from the Sun, we must also 
be able to determine their relative density for these different distances. 

Kapteyn finds in this way that, starting from the Sun, the star-density 
{i.e., the number of stars per unit volume of space) is pretty constant till we 
reach a distance of some 200 light-years. Thence the density gradually 
diminishes till, at about 2,500 light-years, it is only about one-fifth of the 
density in the neighbourhood of the Sun.^ This conclusion must, however, 
be regarded as uncertain until we have by independent means been 
enabled to estimate the absorption of light in its course through inter- 
stellar space, and obtained proof that the ratio of intrinsically faint to 
bright stars is constant throughout the universe. 

Thus far Kapteyn's researches deal with the stellar universe as a 
whole ; the results, therefore, represent only the mean conditions of the 
system. The further development of our knowledge demands a like study 
applied to the several portions of the universe separately. This will 
require much more extensive material than we at present possess. 

As a first further approximation the investigation will have to be 
applied separately to the Milky Way and the parts of the sky of higher 
galactic latitude. The velocity and direction of the Sun's motion in space 
may certainly be treated as constants for many centuries to come, and 
these constants may be separately determined from groups of stars of 
various regions, various magnitudes, various proper motions, and various 
spectral types. If these constants as thus separately determined are 
different, the differences which are not attributable to errors of observa- 
tion must be due to a common velocity or direction of motion of the group 
or class of star to which the Sun's velocity or direction is referred. Thus, 
for example, the Sun's velocity as determined by spectroscopic observations 

Publications Asfron. Lab. Groningcn, No. 11. 



22 president's address. 

of motion in the line of sight, appears to be sensibly smaller than that 
derived from fainter stars. The explanation appears to be that certain 
of the brighter stars forai part of a cluster or group of which the Sun is 
a member, and these stars tend to some extent to travel together. For 
these researches the existing material, especially that of the determination 
of velocities in the line of sight, is far too scanty. 

Kapteyn has found that stars whose proper motions exceed 0"*05 are 
not more numerous in the Milky Way than in other parts of the sky ; ' in 
other words, if only the stars having proper motions of 0'''05 or upwards 
were mapped there would be no aggregation of stars showing the existence 
of a Milky Way. 

The proper motions of stars of the second spectral type are, as a rule, 
considerably larger than those of the first type ; but Kapteyn comes to the 
conclusion that this difference does not mean a real difference of velocity, 
but only that the second-type stars have a smaller luminosity, the mean 
difference between the two types amounting to 2^ magnitudes.^ 

The Future Course of Research. 

In the last Address delivered from this Chair on an astronomical sub- 
ject, Sir William Huggine, in 1891, dealt so fully with the chemistry of 
the stars that it seemed fitting on the present occasion to consider 
more especially the problem of their motion and distribution in space, 
as it is in this direction that the most striking advances in our 
knowledge have recently been made. It is true that since 1891 great 
advances have also been made in our detailed knowledge of the chemistry 
of the Sun and stars. The methods of astro-spectrography have been 
greatly improved, the precision of the determination of motion in the line 
of sight greatly enhanced, and many discoveries made of those close 
double stars, ordinarily termed spectroscopic doubles, the study of which 
seems destined to throw illustrative light upon the probable history of the 
development of systems from the original nebular condition to that of 
more permanent systems. 

But the limitations of available time prevent me from entering more 
fully into this tempting field, more especially as it seems desirable, in the 
light of what has been said, to indicate the directions in which some of 
the astronomical work of the future may be most properly systematised. 
There are two aspects from which this question may be viewed. The first 
is the more or less immediate extension of knowledge or discovery ; the 
second the fulfilment of our duty, as astronomers, to future generations. 
These two aspects should never be entirely separated. The first, as it 
opens out new vistas of research and improved methods of work, must often 
serve as a guide to the objects of the second. But the second is to the 
astronomer the supreme duty, viz., to secure for future generations 
those data the value of which grows by time. 

' Vcrl. K)i. Akad. Amsterdam, January 1893. 
- Ibid., April 1892. 



president's address. 23 

As the result of the Congress of Astronomers held at Paris in 1887 
some sixteen of the principal observatories in the world are engaged, as 
is well known, in the laborious task, not only of photographing the 
heavens, but of measuring these photographs and publishing the relative 
positions of the stars on the plates down to the eleventh magnitude. 
A century hence this great work will have to be repeated, and then, if 
we of the present day have done our duty thoroughly, our successors will 
have the data for an infinitely more complete and thorough discussion of 
the motions of the sidereal system than any that can be attempted to-day. 
But there is still needed the accurate meridian observation of some eight 
or ten stars on each photographic plate, so as to permit the conversion of 
the relative star-places on the plate into absolute star-places in the heavens. 
It is true that some of the astronomers have already made these observa- 
tions for the reference stars of the zones which they have undertaken. But 
this seems to be hardly enough. In order to co-ordinate these zones, as 
well as to give an accuracy to the absolute positions of the reference stars 
corresponding with that of the relative positions, it is desirable that this 
should be done for all the reference stars in the sky by sevei-al observa- 
tories. The observations of well-distributed stars by Kustner at Bonn 
present an admirable instance of the manner in which the work should 
be done. Several observatories in each hemisphere should devote them- 
selves to this work, employing the same or other equally efficient means 
for the elimination of sources of systematic error depending on magnitude, 
&c., and it is of far more importance that we should have, say, two or 
three observations of each star at three different observatories than two 
or three times as many observations of each star made at a single 
observatory. 

The southern cannot boast of a richness of instrumental and personal 
equipment comparable with that of the northern hemisphere, and con- 
sequently one welcomes with enthusiasm the proposal on the part of the 
Carnegie Institute to establish a meridian observatory in a suitable situa- 
tion in the southern hemisphere. Such an observatory, energetically 
worked, with due attention to all necessary precautions for the exclusion 
of systematic errors, would conduce more than anything else to remedy 
in some degree that want of balance of astronomical effort in the two 
hemispheres to which allusion has already been made. But in designing 
the programme of the work it should be borne in mind that the proper 
duty of the meridian instrument in the present day is no longer to 
determine the positions of all stars down to a given order of magnitude, 
but to determine the positions of stars which are geometrically best 
situated and of the most suitable magnitude for measurement on photo- 
graphic plates, and to connect these with the fundamental stars. For 
this purpose the working list of such an observatory should include only 
the fundamental stars and the stars which have been used as reference 
stars for the photographic plates. 

Such a task undertaken by the Carnegie Observatory, by the Cape, 



24 pkesident's addkess. 

and if possible by another observatory in the southern hemisphere, and 
by three observatories in the northern, would be regarded by astronomers 
of the future as the most valuable contribution that could be made to 
astronomy of the present day. Taken in conjunction with the astro- 
graphic survey of the heavens now so far advanced, it is an opportunity 
that if lost can never be made good ; a work that would grow in value 
year by year as time rolls on, and one that would ever be remembered 
with gratitude by the astronomers of the future. 

But for the solution of the riddle of the universe much more is 
required. Besides the proper motions, which would be derived from the 
data just described, we need for an ideal solution to know the velocity in 
the line of sight, the parallax, the magnitude, and the spectrum -type of 
every star. 

The broad distinction between these latter data and the determination 
of proper motion is this, that whereas the observations for proper motion 
increase in value as the square of their age, those for velocity in the line 
of sight, parallax, magnitude, and type of spectrum may, for the broader 
purposes of cosmical research, be made at any time without loss of value. 
We should therefore be most careful not to sacrifice the interests of the 
future by immediate neglect of the former for the latter lines of research. 
The point is that those observatories which undertake this meridian work 
should set about it with the least possible delay, and prosecute the pro- 
gramme to the end with all possible zeal. Three observatories in each 
hemisphere should be sufficient ; the quality of the work should be of the 
best, and quality should not be sacrificed for speed of work. 

But the sole prosecution of routine labour, however high the ultimate 
object, would hardly be a healthy condition for the astronomy of the 
immediate future. The sense of progi'ess is essential to healthy growth, 
the desire to know must in some measure be gratified. We have to test 
the work that we have done in order to be sure that we are working on 
the right lines, and new facts, new discoveries, are the best incentives to 
work. 

For these reasons Kapteyn, in consultation with his colleagues in 
different parts of the world, has proposed a scheme of research which is 
designed to afford within a comparatively limited time a great augmenta- 
tion of our knowledge. The principle on which his programme is based is 
that adequate data as to the proper motions, parallaxes, magnitudes, and 
the type of spectrum of stars situated in limited but symmetrically dis- 
tributed areas of the sky, will suffice to determine many of the broader 
facts of the constitution of the universe. His proposals and methods are 
known to astronomers and need not therefore be here repeated. In all 
respects save one these proposals are practical and adequate, and the 
required co-operation may be said to be already secured — the exception is 
that of the determination of motion in the line of sight. 

All present experience goes to show that there is no known satisfactory 
method of determining radial velocity of stars by wholesale methods, but 



PKESIDKNTS ADDRESS. lo 

that such velocities must be determined star by star. For the fainter 
stars huge telescopes and spectroscopes of comparatively low dispersion 
must be employed. On this account there is great need in both hemi- 
spheres of a huge reflecting telescope — six to eight feet in aperture — 
devoted almost exclusively to this research. Such a telescope is already 
in preparation at Mount Wilson, in America, for use in the northern 
hemisphere. Let us hope that Professor Pickering's appeal for a large 
reflector to be mounted in the southern hemisphere will meet with an 
adequate response, and that it will be devoted there to this all -important 
work. 

Conclusion. 

The ancient philosophers were confident in the adequacy of their 
intellectual powers alone to determine the laws of human thought and 
regulate the actions of their fellow men, and they did not hesitate to 
employ the same unsupported means for the solution of the riddle of the 
universe. Every school of philosophy was agreed that some object which 
they could see was a fixed centre of the universe, and the battle was 
fought as to what that centre was. The absence of facts, their entire 
ignorance of methods of exact measurement, did not daunt them, and the 
question furnished them a subject of dispute and fruitless occupation for 
twenty-five centuries. 

But astronomers now recognise that Bradley's meridian observations 
at Greenwich, made only 150 years ago, have contributed more to the 
advancement of sidereal astronomy than all the speculations of preceding 
centuries. They have learned the lesson that human knowledge in the 
slowly developing phenomena of sidereal astronomy must be content to 
progress by the accumulating labours of successive generations of men ; 
that progress will be measured for generations yet to come more by the 
amount of honest, well-directed, and systematically discussed observation 
than by the most brilliant speculation ; and that, in observation, concen- 
trated systematic effort on a special thoughtfully selected problem will be 
of more avail than the most brilliant but disconnected work. 

By these means we shall learn more and more of the wonders that 
surround us, and recognise our limitations when measurement and facts 
fail us. 

Huggins's spectroscope has shown that many nebulae are not stars at 
all ; that many well-condensed nebulse, as well as vast patches of nebulous 
light in the sky, are but inchoate masses of luminous gas. Evidence upon 
evidence has accumulated to show that such nebulse consist of the matter 
out of which stars (i.«., suns) have been and are being evolved. The 
different types of star spectra form such a complete and gradual sequence 
(from simple spectra resembling those of nebula^ onwards through types 
of gradually increasing complexity) as to suggest that we have before us, 
written in the cryptograms of these spectra, the complete story of the 
evolution of suns from the inchoate nebula onwards to the most active 



26 president's address. 

sun (like our own), and then downward to the almost heatless and invisible 
ball. The period during which human life has existed on our globe is 
probably too short — even if our first parents had begun the work — to 
afford observational proof of such a cycle of change in any particular star ; 
but the fact of such evolution, with the evidence before us, can hardly be 
doubted. I most fully believe that, when the modifications of terrestrial 
spectra under sufficiently varied conditions of temperature, pressure, and 
environment have been further studied, this conclusion will be greatly 
strengthened. But in this study we must have regard also to the spectra 
of the stars themselves. The stars are the crucibles of the Creator. There 
we see matter under conditions of temperature and pressure and environ- 
ment, the variety of which we cannot hope to emulate in our labora- 
tories, and on a scale of magnitude beside which the proportion of our 
greatest experiment is less than that of the drop to the ocean. The 
spectroscopic astronomer has to thank the physicist and the chemist 
for the foundation of his science, but the time is coming — we almost see 
it now — when the astronomer will repay the debt by wide-reaching contri- 
butions to the very fundamenta of chemical science. 

By patient, long-continued labour in the minute sifting of numerical 
results, the grand discovery has been made that a great part of space, so 
far as we have visible knowledge of it, is occupied by two majestic streams 
of stars travelling in opposite directions. Accurate and minute measure- 
ment has given us some certain knowledge as to the distances of the stars 
within a certain limited portion of space, and in the cryptograms of their 
spectra has been deciphered the amazing truth that the stars of both 
streams are alike in design, alike in chemical constitution, and alike in 
process of development. 

But whence have come the two vast streams of matter out of which 
have been evolved these stars that now move through space in such 
majestic procession ? 

The hundreds of millions of stars that comprise these streams, are they 
the sole ponderable occupants of space ? However vast may be the 
system to which they belong, that system itself is but a speck in illimitable 
space ; may it not be but one of millions of such systems that pervade 
the infinite 1 

We do not know. 

' Canst thou by searching find out God ? canst thou find out the 
Al mighty unto perfection ? ' 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



KEPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



(hrresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Mr. W. Whitaker (Chairman), Mr. F. W. Rudler 
(Secretary), Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. Horace 
T. Brown, Dr. Vaughan Cornish, Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal 
E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Professoi- 
R. Meldola, Dr. H, R. Mill, Mr. 0. H. Read, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Professor W. W. Watts, and the General Officers. 
(Braivn up hij the Secrrtary.) 

Applications have been received during the past year from six local 
Societies desirous of being brought into correspondence with the British 
Association. The Committee recommends that the following Societies, 
which issue publications containing the results of original scientific inves- 
tigations, should be placed on the list of Affiliated Societies, namely : — 

The Ashraoleau Natural History Society of Oxfordshire. 
The Worcestershire Naturalists' Club. 

It is also recommended that the following bodies be placed on the list 
of Associated Societies, namely : — 

The Maidstone and Mid-Kent Natural History Society. 
The Scarborough Philosophical and Archseological Society. 
The Bournemouth and District Society of Natural Science. 
The School Nature-Study Union. 

With regard to the Inverness Scientific Society, the Haslemere 
Microscope and Natural History Society, and the Leeds Naturalists' 
Club, which have hitherto been on the affiliated list, the Committee 
has to report that as these Societies have not published for some time 
past the results of any original work, they should be removed from the 
rank of Affiliated to that of Associated Societies. The latter are not 
necessarily publishing bodies, and do not receive the Annual Report of 
the Association. 

Your Committee has had under consideration a suggestion, made by 
the Delegates at last year's Conference, with reference to the advisability 
of making application to the British Association for the appointment of a 



30 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Committee to promote and supervise County Photographic Surveys. The 
suggestion arose in the course of a discussion on a paper read at the Con- 
ference by Mr. W. Jerome Harrison. The Committee has been led to the 
, conclusion that the proposal, as originally made, was too wide in scope and 
too vague in its objects to admit of action being profitably taken by the 
Association ; but it believes that, while the scheme in its entirety seems 
impracticable, a Committee might advantageously deal with some specific 
branch of the suggested work. It has been thought that Archaeology, in 
so far as it comes within the scope of the British Association, would be a 
subject that might appropriately be thus dealt with ; and it has con- 
sequently been arranged that the matter shall be brought for discussion 
before the Conference at Leicester by the Rev. R. Ashington BuUen, who 
will introduce it by a paper ' On the Advisability of Appointing a Com- 
mittee for the Photographic Survey of Ancient Remains in the British 
Islands.' 

It has been suggested by the British Mycological Society, which has 
recently been bi'ought into relation with the British Association, that the 
investigation of Fungi should receive more attention from local Societies. 
This suggestion having been favourably received, the Committee has 
decided that the subject be submitted to the Delegates at Leicester, 
when a paper intended to encourage the study of the group of fungi will 
be read by Mr. Carleton Rea, of Worcester. 

Mr. H. J. Mackinder, who will preside at the Conference at Leicester, 
has promised to deliver an introductory address to the Delegates on ' The 
Advancement of Geographical Science by Local Scientific Societies.' 

The Cardiff" Naturalists' Society reports that, as a consequence of 
Dr. H. R. Mill's suggestions in the paperwhich he read before the Delegates 
last year, the Society has presented to the Cardiff City Council three 
meteorological instruments to complete the equipment of the local station. 
Your Committee regards this as a very satisfactory result of the last 
Conference. 

More than thirty volumes of the Proceedings of the local Corresponding 
Societies have recently been bound and added to the collection which is 
preserved for consultation in the office of the British Association. 

Your Committee asks for reappointment with a grant of 251. 



Eeporf of the Conference of Delegates of Corresiyonding Societies 
held at Leicester, August 1 and 6, 1907. 

Chairman H. J. Mackinder, M.A. 

Vice-Chairman .... Rev. J. O. Bevan, M.A. 
Secretary F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 

The following Corresponding Societies nominated Delegates to repre- 
sent them at the Conference. The attendance of Delegates is indi- 
cated in the list by the figures 1 and 2 placed in the margin opposite to 
the name of the Society, and referring respectively to the first and 
second meetings. Where no figure is shown it will be understood that 
the Delegate did not attend. The attendances are taken from the 
Attendance-Book, which each Delegate is expected to sign on entering 
the Meeting-Room. 



1 2 Belfast 



1 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

List of Affiliated Societies appointing Delegates. 

1 2 Andersoiiiaa Naturalists' Society . M. B. Gilmour, F.Z.S. 
1 2 Ashmolean^ Natjiral History Society | ^ ^ Bellamy, M.A. 

^ rian^Fie"ld'ci?b'*°'^ ^""^ Antiqua- 1 j^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ jj^_ 

~ ilfast Natural History and Philo- i t i £•„ *i ir a 
sophical Society [ ^^'^"^ ^""J^^' ^^•^• 

1 2 Belfast Naturalists' Field Club . . Mrs. Mary Hobson. 
1 2 Berwickshire Naturalists' Club . . G. P. Hughes, F.K.G.S. 
1 Birmingham and Midland Institute "1 ., -r ,,r . 

Scientific Society ]^-'^- ^^atson. 

1 Birmingham Natural History and 1 ^ t -v^r f 

Philosophical Society | O. J . W atsou. 

Brighton and Hove Natural History 1 .,r j ii' r>i t t mr 
and Philosophical Society ] ^^^^^"^ ^^ • ^^^' ^^'^^ 

Bristol Naturalists' Society . . J. H. Priej.tley. 
1 British Mycological Society . . V. H. Blackman, F.L.S. 

1 Buchan Field Club . . . . J. F. Tocher, F.I.C. 

Burton-on-Trent Natural History and "I Tj t n ii 
Archfflological Society / ^- ^- ^s'^e'^- 

Canada : Royal Astronomical Society Prof. A. T. de Lury, M.A. 
Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club Prof. W. W. Watts, F.E.S. 
1 Cardife Naturalists' Society . . Prof. W. S. Boulton, B.Sc. 

Chester Society of Natural Science, 'I -n, T,r t „»,^u„4^+„~. tt -d a c 
Literature, and Art J ^- ^^- Longbottom, F.E.A.S. 

1 2 Cornwall Royal Polytechnic Society B. Kitto, F.R.M.S. 
1 2 Croydon Natural History and Scien- 1 -.-.j ■,,,■•, , -c^ t> c, 
tific Society } ^V- Whitaker, F.E.S. 

1 Dorset Natural History and Anti- ] .-.f ■, ^ 

quarian Field Club ] ^"^^ ^°P®- 

Dublin Naturalists' Field Club . . G. H. Carpenter, B.Sc. 

Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural 1 „ e n u^ a ^i tm- xi. m > 
History and Antiquarian Society } P^^*" ^- ^- Scott-Elliott, M.A. 

East Kent Scientific and Natural ] . o t> -j -m- a 
History Society j A. S. Keid, M.A. 

Eastbourne Natural History Society . H. Dent Gardner, F.E.G.S. 
1 Edinburgh Field Naturalists' and I ,„ p Prawford FESF 

Microscopical Society j W . O. Crawtord, a .E.S. B. 

1 2 Edinburgh Geological Society . . E. C. Millar. 

1 2 Essex Field Club . . . . F. W. Eudler, I.S.O. 

1 2 Glasgow Natural History Society . Peter Ewing, F.L.S. 

2 Glasgow Eoyal Philosophical Society David Ellis, D.Sc. 

Halifax Scientific Society . . . Wm. Simpson, F.G.8. 

1 Hampshire Field Club and Archjeo- 1 ,,t rv i -c a k 

logical Society [ ^- ^^^®' ^■^■^■ 

1 Hertfordshire Natural History Societv 1 TT t^-j t^ r> d 

and Field Club ' | ^^""'^ K^'^^^'^' ^■^■^■ 

1 2 Hull Geological Society . . . G. W. Macturk. 

1 Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 1 m oi, j r- r. o 

Q\^\^ \ T. bheppard, t .G.S. 

2 Institution of Mining Engineers . J. A. Longden, M.Inst.C.E. 

' '^^ AntiquSn gSy "^^*°''^ ^°' } «• W- Lamplugh. F.E.S. 

Leeds Geological Association . . Prof. P. F. Kendall, JI.Sc. 
Leeds Naturalists' Club . . . H. C. Marsh. 

^''sodety^'*'"^'^ ^""^ Philosophical | ^y,^^^,^ talker, F.E.G.S. 

Liverpool Biological Society . . H. C. Beasley. 
1 Liverpool Geographical Society . . Capt. 'A. C. Dubois Phillips. 

Liverpool Geological Society . . H. C. Beasley. 
1 London : Quekett Microscopical Club Joseph Wilson. 



32 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

2 Manchester Geograpbical Society . J. Howard Reed, F.R G.S. 
Manchester Geological and Mining 1 ^jjuj^^ ^atts 

Society J 

Manchester Microscopical Society . F. W. Hembry, F.R. M.S. 
Manchester Statistical Society . . Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. 
2 Midland Counties Institution of En- 1 j ^ Lo^gden, M.Inst.C.E. 
gmeers I 

Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' j j,,^,-,^^^^ j^ L.E.C.P. 

Society J 

North of England Institute of Mining j ^^^ ^ ^ (, ^^ 
and Mechanical Engineers J "^ 

1 2 North Staffordshire Field Club . . J. R. B. Masefield, M.A.. 
1 2 Northamptonshire Natural History \ jj >j Dixon F L S 
Society and Field Club J ' ' ' ' • ■' ■ 

1 2 Northumberland, Durham, and New- | 

castle-upon-Tyne Natural History I G. P. Hughes, F.R.G.S. 
Society J 

1 2 Nottingham Naturalists' Society . Prof. J. W. Carr, MA. 

1 2 Paisley Philosophical Institution . John Woodrow, 
1 Perthshire Society of Natural Science Dr. H. R. Mill, F.E.S.E. 

1 2 Rochdale Literary and Scientific j j j^^ ^^j^^^^^j^ P_g^_ 

Society J 

I 2 Somersetshire Archseological and 1 -p j qi^^^ F L S 
Natural History Society J ' ' > • ■ ■ 

1 2 South-Bastern Union of Scientific 1 j^^^ ^^^j^j j3^^jl^ j5^_ 

Societies J 

Tyneside Geographical Society . . Herbert Shaw, B.A. 
Vale of Derwent Naturalists' Field 1 jj p Buiman 
Club J ' ' 

1 Warwickshire Naturalists' and Arch^- 1 ^^ Andrews, F.G.S. 

ologists Field Club J 

1 2 Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club . Rev. J. O. Bevan, M.A. 
1 2 Worcestershure Naturalists' Club . Carleton Rea, B.C.L. 
Yorkshire Geological Society . . Wm. Simpson, F.G.S. 
1 Yorkshire Naturalists' Union . . T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 

1 2 Yorkshire Philosophical Society . Richard Thompson. 



List of Associated Societies appointing Delegates. 

1 2 Bakewell Naturalists' Club . . E. M. Wrench, M.V.O. 

1 2 Balham and District Antiquarian and j gj^ ^^^^^^ Brabrook, C.B. 

Natural History Society j 

1 2 Bournemouth and District Society of \ j j^ Liddiard F R G S 
Natural Science ) ' ' , . . . . 

1 Bradford Natural History and Micro- ] .^y .^y^^j. p ^ S 

scopical Society J ' i • • • 

Catford and District Natural History | ^ g Hardine- 
Society J ' " 

1 2 Dover Sciences Society . . . Percy Moring. 

Dunfermline Naturalists' Society . Henry Beveridge. 
Ealing Scientific and Microscopical | ^^ .^y_ j^^^^^ jjutcher. 
Society J 

1 2 Grimsby and District Antiquarian and 1 q j Qlsen F L S 
Naturalists' Society J ' ' ' • • ■ 

1 2 Hampstead Scientific Society . .CO. Bartrum, B.Sc. 
1 Hastings and St. Leonards Natural ] j p^j.]^[^ jj j^ 

History Society J ' ' • ■ • 

1 2 Ipswich and District Field Club . P. G. H. Boswell. 
1 Lewisham Antiquarian Society . . A. E. Salter, D.So. 

] Newcastle-upon-Tyne Literary and 1 j,^.^^ j^j ^ ^ ^.^^^ 

Philosophical Society J 

Preston Scientific Society . . . Edmund Dickson, F.G.S. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 33 

1 Scarborough Philosophical and | jj^^^^g^^ ^j ^ g^ 

Archaeological Society J 

1 2 School Nature Study Union . . Mrs. White, D.Sc. 
1 2 Southport Society of Natural Science D. E. Benson. 

Teign Naturalists' Field Club . . P. F. S. Amery. 
1 Torquay Natural History Society . A. Somervail. 

1 2 Tunbii.-lge Wells Natural History and I ^^^ ,j, j^ ^ stebbing, F.R.S. 
Philosophical Society J ° 

Watford Camera Club . . . John Hopkinson, F.L.S. 



Fii'st Meeting, August 1. 

The Meeting was presided over by 'Mr. H. J. Mackinder, M.A., 
Chairman of the Conference. The Corresponding Societies Committee 
was represented by the Rev. J. O. Bevau, Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. 
H R. Mill, Mr. Rudler, the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S., and Mr. 
Whitaker, F.R.S. 

The Chairman delivered an address on ' The Advancement of Geo- 
graphical Science by Local Scientific Societies.' 

Chairman's Address. 

The honour of presiding over your Conference has been conferred 
on me in order, as I understand, that I may have the opportunity of 
bringing befoi'e you the desirability of local geographical research in this 
country. From the fact that I live in London, I cannot pretend to offer any 
experience or useful advice either in the matter of the opportunities open 
to the Societies which you represent, or in regard to the difficulties which 
may beset them. How far what I am going to say may be practicable 
under your conditions it is for you to decide. My function, it appears 
to me, is to place before you an ideal, and to speak to you simply as 
a geographer. Tliis much, however, I am entitled to say — that the work 
wliich I wish to commend to your attention has been accomplished iii 
neighbouring countries, in some degree at any rate, by the co-operation 
of local agencies. 

In France there are some twenty local Geographical Societies, there 
being one, with very few exceptions, in each of the old provincial centres. 
These Societies hold an annual conference, which resembles this Conference 
except that it is for geography only. Not a few geographical studies 
relating to different parts of France have emanated from these Societies, 
and have been published in the ' Annales de Geographic ' and other 
journals. It is in part from these fragments that \ idal de la Blache has 
built up his admirable description of France in the introductory volume 
of the great history which is now being issued by Lavisse. 

In Germany the same end is attained, although with slightly different 
machinery. TJiere, as you know, university education is more markedly 
decentralised than in France, or even in Britain, with the result that 
scattered over the whole country there are geographical institutes of 
university rank whose professors and students have put together a rich 
geographical literature descriptive of every part of the land. 

My suggestion is that in this country a similar work might be 
achieved by the co-operation of your Societies. It is true tliat we have a 
certain number of proviticial Geographical Societies, but, with the excep- 
tion of tlie Royal Scoltish Geographical Society in Edinburgh, tliey are 

1007. V 



oi BEPOKtS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

situated in the great commercial centres, and devote themselves rather to 
the spreading of a knowledge of the lands beyond tlie seas than to the 
study of local British geography. Here again I must make a partial 
exception in tlie case of the Koyal Scottish Geographical Society at 
Edinburgh ; but I think that I have not misrepresented the very valuable 
aims and work of the Societies at Southampton, Manchester, Liverpool, 
and Newcastle, or of the branches of the Scottish Society at Glasgow, 
Aberdeen, and Dundee. In course of time the geographical teachers in 
our old and new universities may no doubt come to our aid, but there are 
wide areas of our country wiiich have no university, or none sufficiently 
developed as at present to afibrd a Chair in Geography. For some time 
to come I see no agencies which can cover the United Kingdom con- 
sistently with centres of geographical study, unless they are to be found 
in the Societies which you represent. 

Let me now give a first indication of the nature of the work which I 
am proposing. Many of your societies have members interested in botany, 
and in your publications there are not a few valuable memoirs dealing 
with the distribution of plant species. That of course was a very neces- 
sary study, but we are now developing a diflferent study, whose object is 
to ascertain the distribution of what are known as plant associations. 
For instance, in the twenty-tirst and twenty-second volumes of the 
' Geographical Journal ' you will find maps showing the distribution of 
tlie jilant associations of Yorkshire, which have been compiled from the 
researches of Mr. William G. Smith and others who have assisted him. 
Here you will see carefully mapped by Bartholomew the distribution of 
the various moorland , woodland, and farmland associations. For instance, 
under the head of moorlands you will find distinguished upon the map the 
bilberry summits, the cotton-grass bogs, the heather moors, the grass 
heaths, the natural pastures, and the lowland swamps. In each of these 
associations there are several characteristic plants, which occur together 
and very rarely apart — a fact which is obvious to anyone who con- 
trasts the trees and undergrowth which constitute an oak wood with those 
which constitute a beech wood. Primarily, of course, the distribution 
of these associations is due to differences of climate and soil, but also 
it must be remembered that the dominant plants themselves form the 
required environment of the minor species associated with them. I com- 
mend to you the study of these maps themselves, for they will give you a 
far better idea of the nature and value of this kind of botanical geography 
than any mere description of mine. Admirable examples of the same kind 
of work are the memoirs and maps of the late Mr. Robert Smith, published 
in the sixteenth voluitie of the ' Scottish Geographical Magazine ' under the 
title of ' A Botanical Survey of Scotland.' Results of this nature, I may 
point out, are however comparatively useless unless the different parts 
of the country are mapped according to a more or less uniform scheme ; 
hence the value of the lead which such a conference as this niay give to 
local societies. 

The distribution, however, of plant associations is of comparatively 
little value when studied alone. We require for its interpretation a 
knowledge of the local land forms and drainage systems, of local drift 
geology, of local climate, and many other local data which can be ex- 
pressed upon maps. The geographical method of research is to construct 
with scrupulous care separate maps of ea.ch of these orders of phenomena, 
and then to compare them, when correlations of distribution will leap to 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. -5.) 

notice and will suggest fresh inquiries. It is obvious that for the study 
of the causes of local distribution we must often go to historical records, 
whether embodied in documents, in place-names, or in atchieological 
relics. My suggestion is that the distribution of all these thinj;s should 
be systematically studied upon the map. It is true, no doubt, that maps 
are attached to many special studies, botanical, geological, or archfeological ; 
but the research which I am suggesting treats the comparison of a large 
number of such maps as its main material, and is not satisfied with having 
them as incidental illustrations in books of non-geographical aim, and 
with having them prepared accoi'ding to different methods, and therefore 
without facilities for comparison. In other words, the object is to have 
a complete analysis of each district from a geographical standpoint. 

We already have examples of the kind of work which I am indicating, 
although, as being the product in each case of one man's research only, 
they have not and cannot have the thoroughness and richness which 
would ensue from the combined and prolonged endeavour of one of your 
societies. Dr. H. R. Mill has described a small part of Sussex in his ' Frag- 
ment of the Geography of England ' which you will find in the fifteenth 
volume of the ' Geographical Journal.' Dr. Herbertson, again, has a 
description of the Oxford Sheet of the One-inch Ordnance Survey Map 
in the first volume of the ' Geographical Teacher,' and Professor Geddes 
has given us descriptions of the neighbourhood of Edinburgh in connection 
with his Outlook Tower. But these essays, though excellent so far as 
they go, are hardly comparable with the elaborate Continental descriptions 
to which 1 have referred. No really adequate geographical account of the 
British Isles will be possible until we have a much richer local literature 
from which an author may mine. Yet such an account is essential to any 
scientific basis for British national history. 

What is wanted is that in connection with each Society it should be 
the duty of some member to correlate the results obtained by the different 
specialist sections. This member would extract from the work of the bota- 
nists, the archaeologists, the geologists, and others the data for the con- 
struction of his scheme of maps, and it would fall naturally to him to 
suggest the formation of new sections, and to enlist the enthusiasm of 
fresh students for the purpose of filling lacunte in the local researches. 
In other words, it would be his special function to correlate from a geo- 
graphical point of view the work of the various specialists, and to draw 
deductions from his correlations for the guidance of the specialists in their 
further work. Local investigation, instead of being haphazard and iso- 
lated, would thus become co-operative, and the results wouhl be synthetic. 
Side-lights would be thrown on all manner of special studies, and the 
students of other sciences would thus get back with interest the contri- 
butions which they made to geography. 

All this is easily said, but our experience shows that only a geographer 
of adequate training and insight could perform the function which we 
here demand. Such persons are no doubt increasing in number. The 
University Schools of Geography at Oxford and elsewhere are gradually 
supplying them, and before long it should be possible for each of your 
societies to find someone, say a master in some neighbouring public 
school, who is capable for the purpose. In some cases you may even have 
a member who would be willing to undergo the necessary training 
specially for your service. 

I am aware, of course, that your Societies are perhaps more often than 

D 2 



3f) REPORTS ON THE STATi: 01" fSf'IENCK. 

not on a county basis, and many of our counties do not coincide with 
natural geographical units or groups of units. You have the same thing 
in France, wliere the natural 'pays,' such as Caux, Bray, Bresse, Bauce, 
Sologne, and so forth, bear distinctive names more frequently perhaps 
than in this country. Economy of effort should, in the case of certain 
counties at any rate, prompt an exchange of territory with adjoining 
counties. In Hampshire, for instance, the little strip of the Weald along 
the eastern border of the county could not be understood apart from the 
much larger Wealden areas of Surrey and Sussex, and the study of it 
might therefore very reasonably be separated from that of the great chalk 
plateau of Hampshire and Wiltshire. In other words, your societies might 
divide the land into countries analogous to the 'countries' hunted by 
the various packs of hounds, the Quorn, the Craven, and the rest of 
them. 

Finally, I would suggest that any local Society which .saw its way 
to organising and carrying through such a thorough and comprehensive 
survey as to lead to a geographical .synthesis of all the aspects, physical 
and humane, of local knowledge would blend itself with the local life and 
establish itself securely among the local institutions. On all hands it is 
now agreed that education in such subjects as geography and history 
should be based on the study of the home district. What finer work for 
the efforts of a local Society than to produce a text-book for the local 
schools which shall rouse and satisfy interest in the surrounding country- 
side and in the local monuments, generate local patriotism, and establish 
an outlook into the larger world on a concrete foundation rather than 
on the sands of mere book learning 1 Such a text-book might also be 
correlated with the local museum arranged for visual instruction, and so 
classified as to prompt systematic thought. Of course I am not here 
advocating the incorpoi-ation into such an educational system of the 
occasional special collections, which have more than a local value and are 
visited by scholars fi'om a distance. 

The outcome of it all seems to me to be this : that while we can 
advance knowledge only by being specialists, yet we do require that in 
each important Society there should be one or more whose specialty con- 
sists in the correlation for the locality of all the other specialties ; and, 
in my opinion, this correlation can best be accomplished on a geographical 
basis and by geographical methods 

Captain Dubois Phillips (Liverpool Geographical Society), in proposing 
a vote of thanks to the Chairman, expressed his satisfaction that a 
geographical subject had at length been brought before the Delegates. 
He remarked that Geography as outlined by Mr. Mackinder was some- 
thing vasrly different from the general conception of that science. He 
hoped that the address would be printed, and copies forwarded to every 
Geographical Society in the country, as well as to the Scientific Societies 
in correspondence with the Association. 

Dr. H. R. Mill (Perthshire Society of Natural Science), in seconding 
the vote of thanks, referred to the inspiriting character of the Chairman's 
discourse and the stimulus it would no doubt give to some individuals 
and Societies. He feared, however, that the complete realisation of Mr. 
Mackinder's scheme would not be effected in the lifetime of anyone 
present ; still, one of the reasons for the existence of a Society was to carry 
out work that was too hard or too long for an individual. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 37 

The Rev. R. Ashington BuUen (South- Eastern Union of Scientific 
Societies) introduced the following subject : — ■ 

The Advisability 0/ Ajjpointitig a Committee for the Photogra^jhic Survey 
of Ancient Remains in the British Islands. 

Last year, at York, the Delegates had the advantage of listening to 
a clear, concise, and comprehensive paper by Mr. W. Jerome Harrison on 
the ' Desirability of Promoting County Photographic Surveys.' Nothing 
but good can come out of such a discussion as that paper initiated, and 
in one sense I am, so to speak, continuing that discussion, so that some- 
thing of a practical character may result. 

T have lately sought for some of the earliest references to the practical 
application of photography to scientific purposes, and the earliest which 
I could find dates back to the forties of the last century. In a book of 
J. L. Stephens's on ' Incidents of Travel in Yucatan '(in the year 1841) it 
is stated that ' the descriptions are accompanied by full-page illustrations 
from daguerreotype views and drawings taken on the spot by Mr. Cather- 
wood, and the engravings were executed under his personal superin- 
tendence.' The object of that expedition was to visit the almost forgotten 
cities of Yucatan, and the work of faithfully reproducing the hiero- 
glyphics and carved images must have been considerably aided even by 
the somewhat clumsy and uncleanly process of daguerreotyping. 

Again, in 1859, when the too tempting rewards oflered by Boucher 
de Perthes had caused many spurious flint implements to be included 
among the genuine work of palieolithic man, Prestwich called in the aid 
of photography, and by employing a photographer from Amiens he was 
able to exhibit photographs of palaeolithic implements still in situ at 
St. Acheul, in the very pit from which remains of Elephas primigenius, 
Hhinoceros tichorliiniis, itc, had been obtained. 

Again, on the one hand how valuable would have been photographs 
of the seventeen inverted urns unearthed in cutting Fordiiigbridge Rail- 
way, of which Dr. Blackmore tells me no account has been published, nor 
illustrations given ; and, on the other hand, how useful the photographs of 
the cists in the late Keltic cemetery at Harlyn Bay have proved, seeing 
that the human bones sent to Truro were so damp that most of them fell 
to pieces on the way thither. 

I have always regretted that the prehistoric slate-built hut at Con- 
.stantine Island, Cornwall, was never photographed before it was reduced 
to ruins by some unknown searcher for buried treasure. The treasure 
was there, but it was not of gold — only the cunningly placed hut of 
neolithic man upon an old raised beach. One could easily midtiply 
instances of the utility of photography in furnishing valuable corro- 
borative evidence ; but let the above instances suffice. 

There can only be one opinion as to the value of Mr. Jerome 
Harrison's suggestive paper, already referred to ; but the work to which 
he invites the British Association is so vast that it would need a 
separate organisation in order to attain an adequate measure of success. 

Such a work seems rather to be suitable for a Society like the 
'National Photographic Record Association.' Since the British Associa- 
tion has members in every county of the British Isles it is believable 
that the inclusion of the subject of County Photographic Surveys for 
discussion at this meeting may help to advertise the desirability of siidi 



38 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

comprehensive surveys, the work of which, if fully carried out, will 
necessarily include a great deal that is not to be ranged under the banner 
of Science, although quite worthy of being photographed and recorded 
for other reasons. 

But although it may not be advisable for the British Association to 
undertake such a wide field of work it may be able to address itself to 
a more limited one by confining itself to the photographing of ancient 
remains in the British Islands. 

If we refer to the British Association Reports for the last four years 
we shall find that Section H has not only dealt with such subjects as the 
stone circles and other prehistoric antiquities of the British Isles, V)ut 
also with excavations on Roman sites and investigations of Anglo-Saxon 
remains in various places. 

Here, then, we have a precedent in the work undertaken by an 
important section, and we might define the ancient remains which would 
come within the scope of any photographic entei'prise as consisting of 
such remains as precede and include the Anglo-Saxon period. These 
might be justly comprised under the term 'archreology ' as distinct from 
what is merely ' antiquarian.' So much remains still to be discovered 
about the peopling of these islands after the Roman domination ceased 
that the Anglo-Saxon period would form a fitting terminus for the photo- 
graphic archajologist. 

Several photographic committees have already been appointed by the 
Briti.sh Association. One deals v/ith geological photographs, another with 
those of anthropological interest, and a third with botanical photographs. 
The excellent work of these may well be supplemented by that of 
another committee appointed to deal with objects of the palseolithic, 
neolithic, bronze, late Keltic, Roman, and Anglo-Saxon epochs, apart 
from photographs relating to anthropometry and ethnography, if these are 
already included in the work of the Committee on anthropological photo- 
graphs. There would thus be a permanent record of all photographs of 
the character indicated, and an annual exhibition of such photographs at 
the British Association meeting might well become a permanent feature 
of that annual gathering, So that, although it may not be possible, 
on account of the extensive organisation required and of the great 
expense involved, for the Association to co-ordinate all the county surveys 
by means of a central committee for photographic work, still it may be 
possible, if the delegates so determine, to form a photographic committee 
to deal with ancient British remains, requiring only a modest grant for 
expenses from the Association funds, and covering the ground not already 
preoccupied by the special committees, such as deal photographically with 
stone circles, geology, and anthropometry. The work of any such photo- 
graphic committee would be considerably aided by the invaluable sugges- 
tions in the appendix to Mr. Jerome Harrison's thoughtful paper. 

Mr. H. S. Kingsford (Section of Anthropology), speaking as Secretary 
of the Committee appointed by Section H to register anthropological 
photographs, drew the attention of the Conference to the work of this 
Committee, which included such work as that now proposed. He urged 
upon the delegates the advisability of their co-operating with this 
Committee rather than founding a new one, and particularly pointed out 
the disadvantage of two committees working for the same object, with 
inevitable overlap and loss of efficiency. 



CORKE,SPONl)IN(f SOCIETIES. 39 

Mr. William Dale (Hants Field Club and Archaeological Society) said 
that his Society had taken up the work of photographing objects of 
interest in his county, and an album of such photographs was in the 
possession of Mr. Nisbett of Winchester. It was of importance that 
local societies should undertake the work, inasmuch as they would have 
the best information about objects which were in danger of disappearing, 
a contingency which was continually occurring. The photographs should 
be readily accessible and placed where they could be seen by all. As an 
instance of a photographic surprise he mentioned the wonderful photo- 
graphs of Stouehenge taken last year by Lieut. Capper from a war balloon. 

Mr. Alfred Pope (Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field 
Club) said that with regard to the county which he n'presented, the 
advantages of a photographic survey had not been lost sight of. The Rev. 
Wm. Miles Barnes had, in connection with the Dorset Field Club, already 
procured some three thousand photographs, of a uniform size so far as 
possible, of subjects of antiquarian and historical interest in the county, 
which are preserved in four royal folio albums deposited in the county 
museum, where they are available for reference. It was his intention 
to obtain at once photographs of some well-formed ' linchets ' in a common 
field now being enclosed, which would shortly disappear under the plough. 
All the old stone crosses in the county had also been photographed. 

Mr. Thomas Parkin (Hastings and St. Leonards Natural Histoi-y 
Society) drew attention to the fact that a photographic society had been 
for some years established in Sussex for the purpose of taking views of 
ancient buildings and interesting spots, some of which were fast vanishing. 
The Society places these photographs on view on all possible occasions. 

Mrs. Mary Hobson (Belfast Naturalists' Field Club; said that in the 
Society which she represented there were many members who had taken 
much pains to photograph and make plans of prehistoric remains. It 
was most important that records should be prepared without delay, for 
the monuments were fast disappearing. 

Mr. Edward Kitto (Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society) thought the 
subject under discussion one which would commend itself to the Society 
which he represented, especially as Cornwall is peculiarly rich in ancient 
stone memorials. It was painfully true that such monuments were rapidly 
disappearing, and he would suggest that those who were keen on securing 
photographs of these memorials might go further and assist in the 
preservation of these invaluable relics or the past. 

Mr. Sheppard (Yorkshire Naturalists' Union) referred to a recent 
report that a well-known stone memorial in Cornwall had been broken 
up for road-metal. He pointed out that the work of the suggested 
Committee need not interfere with that of any existing Committee, but 
would rather supplement their work. 

Mr. J. F. Tocher (Buchan Field Club) remarked that the part of the 
country he came from was rich in ancient monuments, and several excellent 
photographs had been taken of them under the auspices of the Buchan 
Field Club. He suggested that a Committee should be appointed by the 
delegates to act in conjunction with the Anthropological Section for 
photographing the ancient monuments of the Kingdom. It would be a 
pity if two separate committees acting under the wing of the British 
Association should be formed throughout the country. 

After some further discussion it was resolved that the following 
resolution, pi-oposed by Mr. Jerome Harrison, should be sent to the 



10 lUCPORTS ON THK STATE OF SCIENXE. 

Committee of Recommendations for transmission to the Council of the 
Association : — 

That it is advisable : 

1. To obtain information as to the present state of things in Britain 
in connection with Photo-Survey AVork. 

2. To publish instructions or give advice for the execution of a 
Scientific Photographic Survey. 

3. To endeavour to found, or promote, a Photo Record of the town 
and district in which the British Association holds its Annual Meeting. 

The Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee was read by 
the Secretary, and it was resolved to apply for a grant of 25/. 

Second Meeting, August 6. 

The Meeting was presided over by the Rev. J. O. Bevan, M.A., V ice- 
Chairman. 

The Corresponding Societies Committee was represented by Mr. Bevan, 
Sir Edward Brabrook, Mr. Rudler, the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and Mr. 
W. Whi taker. 

The Vice-Chairman apologised for the absence of Mr. Mackinder 
(who had been called away on important business), and, in his name, 
welcomed the delegates to the second session. He lamented the facts 
that the delegates had but little time to make each other's acquaintance ; 
that they were unable to meet but for two short sessions, at the period 
of the annual gathering ; and that the personnel of the Conference 
materially changed from year to year, so that the interest excited had a 
tendency to die flown and become extinguished. He asserted that the 
Corresponding Societies Committee were very sensible of these disadvan- 
tages, and were willing to adopt any suggestion whereby they might be 
counteracted. In face of the disabilities above mentioned, he ventured to 
impress upon the delegates the responsibility which rested upon them to 
take an active part in the proceedings of the Conference ; to make known 
to its members any branch of scientific work carried out by the bodies 
they respectively represented ; and, in turn, to report to their societies 
the main results arrived at in the various sectional meetings (or such 
portion as might particularly affect their locality), especially the suggestions 
for local work made at this conference by the Recorders of the various 
sections. He concluded by saying that in this way the British Associa- 
tion would fulfil its functions — of stimulating workers in the various 
departments of research, of popularising science and scientific method, 
and of exercising a co-ordinating influence over the various Societies 
whose representatives he had the honour of addressing. 

Mr. Carleton Rea, B.C.L., M.A. (Worcestershire Naturalists' Club), 
then introduced the following subject : 

A Plea that Local Societies should give greater attention to the investiga- 
tion of the Fungi occurring in their Districts, ivith Suggestions for the 
Encouragement of the Study of this Grouj}, 

As the suggestion of the subject for discussion to-day originated with 
myself on behalf of the British Mycological Society, I felt, as their 
honorary Secretary, bound to accept the invitation of the Corresponding 



(^UKURSI'ONDING .SOCIETIES. 4'1 

Societies Committee to attend and expound our views with regard to it. 
The fact that the Committee has selected this topic for debate evidently 
indicates that it considers that most of our Local Societies neglect the 
investigation of the Fungi occurring in their distiicts. But what is the 
cause of this neglect ? Thousands of species are at hand, and abound in 
every district, but our British botanists generally omit them from their 
enumeration of the plants occurring in the various county floras, and if 
they are in a few instances included, the task has been delegated to some 
outsider who cannot possibly have that intimate local knowledge which is 
necessary for the production of a complete and exhaustive list. 

Why the study of our fungi has been so sadly neglected it is very hard 
to explain, because, unlike that of mosses and lichens, it is of immense 
importance to every individual. All our farmers and gardeners suffer 
immense losses annually, and I may mention incidentally that the Inter- 
national Phytological Commission in 1893 reported that the cereal rusts 
alone cost Prussia for that year 20,900,000/. A knowledge of this inter- 
esting group of plants also would place at the disposal of our people a 
great quantity of valuable nitrogenous food, which is at the present time 
allowed to fall into decay uncared for. It is only necessary t ) draw 
attention to these points to convince Local Societies that they should 
encourage the study of the fungi in their districts. 

In 1868 the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club inaugurated a series of 
autumnal forays, which were continued with some measure of success 
down to the year 1902, and these were copied by many of our leading 
Naturalists' Clubs. But the devotion of a day or even of a week in the 
autumn will not elucidate the fungi occurring in a given area. To do so 
satisfactorily it is necessary to investigate them year in and year out, and 
to place them on exhibition from day to day. 

This exhibition should either be maintained in the Club Room or, 
better still, at the Local Museum, if the place possesses one, and should 
be open to the inspection of the general public. 

Of course members of the Local Societies would willingly aid in 
bringing in specimens for the exhibition, but in order to stimulate the 
general public, and possibly the members also, it might be advisable to 
oti'er prizes for the most varied or most correctly named specimens sent in 
during the course of the year. 

The Local Society should also annually prepare a list of the fungi, 
with the name of the tinder, the exact habitat and locality, and encourage 
the general public to make accurate paintings, accompanied by accurate 
sections and microscopic details, if possible to one scale. The most con- 
venient way of exhibiting the larger fleshy fungi and plant diseases is to 
display specimens on large plates, whilst the smaller ones should be in- 
.serted in tubes before being put on the plates. The label would give its 
correct scientific name, but the popular name, if it po.ssessed one, should 
also be given, and an instructive note added. Thus : — 

Amanita mappa (Batsch.). Fr. Very poisonous. 

I/ygrophorus jjsittacinus (Sch&eff.). Parrakeet Mushroom. Edible. 

Delicious. 
Exoascuspruni (¥ck\.). Pocket-plums. Prune back behind the point 

of infection. 

Two copies of the British Museum ' Guide to Sowerby's Models of 



42 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

British Fungi ' should be cut up and pasted on cards ; these make instruc- 
tive labels for those species to which they apply, and should be pinned 
out on the table in front of the plate containing the specimens. During 
the winter the exhibition woidd consist principally of wood-destroying 
fungi and moulds, and as many of the former are of a hard woody texture 
they can easily be displayed for some time, and sections of various trees 
showing their destructive influence on the wood can be exhibited along- 
side. In the spring and early summer the Fungi inducing various plant- 
diseases can be exhibited, accompanied by a note as to their treatment, 
and then in the autumn we have the abundant harvest of the year. To 
further popularise the study, short papers should be given to the members 
and the general public, and the arrangement of the groups into which 
this vast family of plants is divided should be explained, so that all may 
be easily conversant with the terms employed in describing these plants 
For many of the systematic works and text-books plunge at once in 
imdias res without explaining the nature of the classification adopted 
or the meaning of the technical terms used. 

Up to this point we have presumed that the Local Society possessed a 
member or members capable of determining the different species of fungi 
sent in from time to time, or that the Local Curator was competent to 
discharge that function. But if the Local Society have no members who 
are interested in this branch of botany, then we consider that the Local 
Society should persuade some member or members to take up the study of 
this neglected group. A botanist would find no difficulty in the study, as 
the orders and genera are very clearly defined, and are almost more easily 
determined than in the case of our flowering plants. And to ensure 
rapid progress in the study it would be well for those members to join and 
attend the annual meetings of the British Mycological Society. This 
Society holds a week's fungus foray every ye:ir in dift'eretit parts of 
Britain, generally on the invitation of some Local Society. The speci- 
mens collected from day to day are named and placed out on exhibition, 
and ample time is allowed to the members to study them and to compare 
them with the descriptions in books. 

Such exhibitions as we have advocated have been held for portions of 
the year both at Haslemei'e and Worcester with great success. The exhi- 
bitions have been very popular, and have diffused a pretty general know- 
ledge of the subject. This I have proved in the case of the Worcestershire 
Naturalists' Club, where attention is paid to the study of fungi at all 
their meetings during the year, for the members easily follow a paper on 
the subject which other Local Societies that I have ventured to address 
have acknowledged to be beyond their comprehension. 

Mr. H. N. Dixon (Northamptonshire Natural History Society and 
Field Club) explained that the collection of hand-coloured photographs 
exhibited in the ante-room was made by Mr. Albert Wallis, of Kettering, 
during the autumn of 1906 and the following months. It was shown 
at a meeting of the Northants Natural History Society, and he (the 
speaker), on hearing that the subject of the systematic study of Fungi 
would be introduced at this Conference, asked Mr. Wallis to allow the 
collection to be exhibited. He would be glad of suggestions by which 
such a collection might be made more complete and accurate for such 
a purpose as Mr. Carleton Rea had in view. He suggested the sending of 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 43 

a leaflet to the Societies, giving suggestions and instructions as to the 
observations and data necessary for the identification of fungi, and also 
mentioning the names of gentlemen willing to act as referees. If the 
photographing of a specimen and the taking of such observations were 
made a preliminaiy condition of obtaining the help of the referee, it would 
prevent improper advantage being taken of such assistance. A photo- 
graphic reproduction (coloured) answered the purpose of either a model 
or a painting of a fungus, with even less labour and greater accuracy 
in detail. 

Mr. J. E. Liddiai'd (Boui-nemouth and District Society of Natural 
Science) remarked that the Society which he represented had done some- 
thing to promote the study of Fungi, and he* haiided in a publication 
showing what his Society, in conjunction with the New Forest Society, 
had done in their district. 

Mr. J. R. B. Masefield (North Staffordshire Field Club) called 
attention to the importance of the study of fungi to the farmer and 
gardener. Expert help, however, was required by Field Clubs. Photo- 
graphs would be useful in assisting in the identification of species. It was 
important that there should be an interchange of views between the 
various Societies and mutual help given by arranging joint meetings. 

Mr. P. Ewing (Glasgow Natural History Society) said that in his 
opinion the practice which obtained in the Society which he represented 
was a very satisfactory one — that of forming sectional committees. 
Only a few members in most Societies take a working interest in the 
different branches of science, and consequently those who take the most 
active part are made conveners of the various sections, to whom all 
specimens can be referred for identification. Such members can, as 
a rule, name correctly 98 per cent, of the specimens submitted, and for 
the sake of local records are quite willing to do so. More critical species, 
or those in which identification was doubtful, are referred to some 
authority. This authority, in the case of fungi, should be one recom- 
mended by the British Mycological Society. 

Mr. G. P. Hughes (Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne Natural History Society) pointed out the desirability of including 
the study of Fungi in the list of scientific subjects to be introduced 
for the occasional instruction of children, especially in country schools, 
the importance of elementary scientific knowledge being very properly 
advocated by most of the sections of the British Association. 

Mr. A. W. Oke (Brighton and Hove Natural History Society) referred 
to the educational value of the exhibition of living specimens of Fungi by 
Natural History Societies and Museums. 

The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing (Tunbridge Wells Natural History 
Society) observed that the annual exhibition of wild flowers, which 
excited much admiration at Tunbridge Wells, and which had been 
imitated in some other localities, was, in fact, only indirectly due to the 
Natural History Society. It had been initiated and carried on year by 
year by the personal efforts of Mr. Fred Roberts, an honoured assistant 
of that Society. This rather pointed to the desirability of securing the 
services of some enthusiastic member when any special work was to be 
done, in preference to asking vaguely for the efforts of a whole Society. 
Most likely Mr. Roberts, if requested to do so, would add the Fungi of 
the district to his much appreciated botanical exhibition. 



44 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

The Rev. C. W. Shickle (Bath Natural History and Antiquarian 
Field Club) instanced the assistance given to the study of local Fungi by 
the valet of the late Mr. Skrine, of Warley. 

Mr. W. Bell (Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society and 
delegate from Section K) spoke of the general ignorance in regard to the 
poisonous and edible forms of Fungi, and thought a closer study of the 
family would do much to remove the present prejudice. It was a most 
desirable thing to have a complete series of all plants, including Fungi, 
in County Herbaria. Hitherto the collection of Leicestershire plants, 
which contained from twenty thousand to twenty-five thousand sheets, 
had not more than a dozen forms of Fungi. This was due to the fact 
that great difficulty obtained in regard to the preservation of the 
specimens. He strongly recommended that, where it was impossible to 
preserve actual specimens, coloured photographs, such as those exhibited, 
should be file 1. 

Mr. J. A. Longden (Institution of Mining Engineers) said that he 
had never been able to eat mushrooms, for they were absolutely poisonous 
to him. It was important that the school children should be taught 
which mushrooms are edible for the ordinary mortal. 

The Rev. R. Ashington Bullen (South- Eastei'n Union of Scientitic 
Societies) said that there was no doubt a large quantity of nourishing 
material neglected in England. In Italian markets, he believed, there 
was an inspector of Fungi, who decided whether the species exposed for 
sale were edible ; quite a large number are available for human food, 
although a fungus diet does not suit every person. Following the old 
proverb fiat fixperimentum, &c., his corpus vile had enjoyed, when he 
lived in Kent, Clavaria of various species, and the ' fairy- ring ' fungus, 
Marasmius (superior in flavour to the ordhiary mushroom) ; and in 
Hunts he had eaten Ayaricus (PsaUiota) arvensis and slices of young 
giant puff-balls, which iu point of tastiness he considered equal to beef- 
steak. 

The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing called attention to a recent article in the 
' Museum Gazette,' under tlie editorship of Dr. Jonathan Hutchinson, 
F.R.S. This article not onl}' strongly insisted on the dangers involved 
in eating Fungi, but also maintained that, however agreeable they 
might be to the palate, they were almost entirely devoid of nutritious 
quality. 

Mr. F. W. Rudler (Essex Field Club) remarked that the Society 
which he represented had always taken much interest in the study of 
Fungi. Ever .since its foundation it had held annually a fungus foray, 
and in this way had registered pretty completely the fungus flora of 
Epping Forest. The next foray would probably take place in the woods 
around Chelmsford. Moreover, the Museums under the Essex Field Club 
exhibited models and coloured illustrations of Fungi, seeking by such 
means to explain to the public the differences between edible and 
poisonous species. 

Professor J. W. Carr (Nottingham Naturalists' Society) pointed out 
the practical difficulties in working out the fungus flora of any district by 
the Local Society, owing to the general lack of expert knowledge of the 
plants of this group by the members of such Societies. He suggested 
that much good might be done if an expert mycologist, such as the opener 
of the discussion, would undertake to give an address on the best methods 



CORKESPONDING SOCIETIE.S. 45 

of investigation of tlie Fungi before some of the principal local Natural 
History Societies in tlie country. 

Mr. Carleton Rea, in reply, said that photographs per se were not 
good enough to identify tlie larger Fungi. The excellent coloured photo- 
graphs exhibited by Mr. Wallis were much better, but their value from 
a scientific standpoint would be much enhanced by having a section cut 
longitudinally represented with each specimen, and the colour of the 
spores and their shape should also be set out, magnified to a constant 
increment of, say, 1000. He admitted that there were some persons 
who were unable to digest even the common mushroom, as was the case 
with certain people who were unable to assimilate pork or fish. But if 
people became mycophagists before they were competent mycologists, then 
they must be very careful to gather their specimens with the base of the 
.stem intact, because, if they observed any trace of a universal wrapper, 
known as a volva, at the base of the stem they should reject it, as it 
was the dangerous Amanita' and Volvarim that possess this poison 
cup. 

Professor Carr had said that it involved great research and high micro- 
scopic investigation to determine the species, but he reminded him that 
Parliament had just passed an Act which empowered the police to deal with 
plant diseases in the same way as they did with anthrax and swine fever, 
and therefore the police would have to determine whether the goose- 
berries were attacked by Sphcpvotheca Mors-uvai. The continuous ex- 
hibition which he had advocated for popularising the knowledge of our 
Fungi could be carried on in conjunction with the exhibition of their wild 
flowers. At the present time at Worcester he had out on exhibition a 
far more virulent disease of the gooseberry than that caused by Sphcero- 
tJieca Mors-uvce, namely, Lcptosplurria vagahmda (Sa,cc.), the conidial con- 
dition being a Coniothyrium. In conclusion he urged that it was the 
duty of all Local Societies to determine the Fungi of their own districts, 
and only when their mycologists were puzzled should they submit the 
specimens to a referee. 



Reports from the Sections. 

The Chairman then invited any Delegates from the Sections to explain 
how the Corresponding Societies could assist in aiding the work of the 
Committees of the several Sections. 

Dr. AV. N. Shaw, representing Section A {Mathematics and Physics), 
explained that he had only recently been informed of his appointment as 
the representative of that Section. There are many ways in which the 
Corresponding Societies could be helpful in the meteorological work in 
which he was specially interested. 

Mr C. O. Bartrum (Hampstead Scientific Society) reported that, as a 
result of Dr. Mill's suggestion at the last year's Conference, his Society had 
asked the London County Council for a site on the summit of Hampstead 
Hill for the establishment of a Meteorological Station ; that the Council 
had granted the use of a site, and that by next year it was likely that 
the station would be in working order. 

Dr. Theodore Groom (Section C, Geology) wrote that the Committee 
of the Section had decided to recommend to the Corresponding Societies 



46 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

that the local work connected with the Section should embrace the 
following : — 

i. Further investigations on Drift. 

ii. The watching of new sinkings and borings, and the examination 
of cores. 

iii. The collecting of local terms applicable to geology and geography. 

Mr. W. Whitaker supported this recommendation, and especially 
solicited the aid of Provincial Societies in recording the meaning of 
local terms applied to geological objects. 

Mr. Wilfred Mark Webb (Section D, Zoology) asked the representa- 
tives of the Corresponding Societies for help in connection witli the dis- 
tribution of Centipedes and Millepedes. He offered to send a booklet 
and collecting-tubes to anyone who would send him specimens, on appli- 
cation to him at Odstock, Hanwell, London, W The results will be 
published by the Ray Society in a monograph. 

The Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing expressed a hope that Mr. Webb's request 
for centipedes would meet with a better response than his own often- 
repeated petition for well-shrimps had received. Of these the Delegates 
had never sent him any, although it is certain they are to be found in 
many parts of the kingdom. He further pointed out that in Section D, 
judging by the size of the audiences, far greater interest had this year 
been shown in Mendelian experiments than in any other subject. 

Mr. E Heawood (Section E, Geogra'phy) wrote that his Committee 
could add nothing to the suggestions made by Mr. Mackinder in his 
address in connection with the work of Local Societies. 

Mr. H. E. Wimperis (Section G, Mechanical Science) said that he had 
been instructed by his Committee to attend the meeting as a mark of 
their general sympathy. Owing, however, to the nature of their work 
they did not feel empowered to offer the Conference any suggestions. 

Mr. G. L. Gomme (Section H, Anthropology) urged the local societies 
to organise a scheme for the photographing of ascertained types of local 
population. It was not too late to do this, for there were still people who 
had never left their villages, who had married inside their villages, and 
who were descendants of many generations of villagers. It was essential 
to select those persons whose names were to be found in the parish 
registers of as early a date as possible, and to take the photographs on a 
plan which should be common to all the counties. A collection of such 
photographs, possible now, would be impossible a few years hence, and 
one of the most fruitful means of identifying local ethnological types 
will have become destroyed without a record. The interest of such a 
collection would be enormous. The comparison of the various types 
would provide important ethnological data. Mr. Gomme mentioned the 
case of a village in Bucks where he had a cottage, and where two or 
three family names appeared over and over again, dating from the 
earliest times of the parish registers. The type of face was most dis- 
tinctive for the men, and was of almost classical perfection ; not so 
distinctive for the women, and not so perfect in form. He was certain 
that this meant something in the history of the Buckinghamshire village. 
The same kind of evidence repeated in the villages of every county where 
distinction and the necessary amount of evidence were forthcoming would 
be of the utmost value. On behalf of Section H he urged this im- 



COkKESPONDlNG SOCIETIES. 47 

portant piece of work for early attention by the Local Societies, and he 
could assure the Conference of the gratitude of the Section on whose 
behalf be spoke. 

Sir Edward Brabrook supported Mr. Gorame's appeal. 

Miss Kate Stevens (Teachers' Guild) remarked that though she had 
no authority or instructions to speak on behalf of Section L {Education) 
she would urge all the members of the Conference to watch carefully the 
proceedings of the present Educational legislation, as radical changes 
had lately been made, without, in her opinion, sufficient notice or 
discussion. 

Mr. F. A. Bellamy (Ashmolean Nat. Hist. Soc. of Oxfordshire) sug- 
gested that means should be taken to secure a better exchange of publica- 
tions between scientific societies. After brief remarks by several dele- 
gates the further discussion of the subject was adjourned. 

A vote of thanks was then passed to the Rev. J. O. Bevan as vice- 
chairman. 



48 



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CORRKSPONDING SOCIETIES. 53 



Catalogue of the more important Papers, especially those referring to 
Local Scientific Investigations, published by the Corresponding 
Societies during the year ending May 31, 1907. 

*^* This Catalogue contains only the titles of papers published in the volumes or 
parts of the publications of the Corresponding Societies sent to the Secretary of 
the Committee in accordance with Rule 2. 

Section A. — MATnEMATiCAL and Physical Science. 

Andson, Rev. W. A Year's Obaervationa of the Maximum and Minimum 
Temperatures of the River Nith at Dumfries, and its Estuary at Glencaple. 
'Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 239-242. 1906. 

' The Weather of 1902. ' Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway N. H. A. Soc' 

XVII. 265-271. 1906. 
Meteorological Observations at Dumfries during 1903. ' Trans. Dumfries- 



shire and Galloway N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 350-355. 1906. 

Bladen, W. AVells. Report of the Meteorological Section. ' Trans. N. Stafl". 
F. 0.' XLi. 101-106. 1907. 

Brighton and Hove Natural History and Philosophical Society. 
Meteorology of Brighton. ' Report Brighton N. H. Phil. Soc. to June 1906,' 
20. 1906. 

Brown, M. Walton. Barometer, Thermometer, &c., Readings for the Year 1904. 
' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxix. 715-724. 1906. 

Burton-on-Trent Natural History and Arch,t;ological Society. Meteoro- 
logical Summary, 1903-1905 ; Rainfall for Thirty Years, 1876-1905. ' Burton- 
on-Trent N. H. Arch. Soc' v. 196-199. 1906. 

Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Glud. Meteorological Notes. ' Record of 
Bare Facts,' No. 16, 34-49. 1907. 

Chant, Dr. 0. A. Progress in Astronomy and Astrophysics during 1906. (Pre- 
sidential Address.) ' Journ. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada' 1.2-19. 1907. 

Coates, Henry. Seasonal Notes. (Opening Addresses.) ' Proc Perthshire Soc. 
Nat. Sci.' IV. cii.-cviii., cxiii.-cxiv. 1906. 

Craw, J. H. Account of Monthly Rainfall in the County of Berwick. 1904. 
' History Berwickshire Nat. Club,' xix. 216. 1906. 

Note of Rainfall and Temperature, West Foulden, 1904. ' History Berwick- 
shire Nat. Club,' XIX. 217. 1906. 

Cresswell, Alfred. Records of Meteorological Observations taken at the 
Observatory, Edghaston, 1906. 'Birm. and Mid. Inst. Sci. Soc' 38 pp. 
1907. 

Elvins, Andreav. Thoughts on Meteorology and Terrestrial Magnetism. ' Journ. 
Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada,' i. 125-126. 1907. 

FiNCHAM, G. H. H. On the Nature of the EH'ect of Sun-spot Frequency on the 
Variation of the Magnetic Elements at Cape of Good Hope. ' Trans S. African 
Phil. Soc' XVI. 301-311. 1906. 

Gray, Prof. Andrew. Solutions of Physical Problems : I. The Attractive Force 
between Two Halves of a Sphere of Matter of Density symmetrical about the 
Centre ; II. The Attraction of Ellipsoidal Shells and of Solid Ellipsoids at 
External and Internal Points, with some Historical Notes. ' Proc. Glasgow 
R. Phil. Soc' XXXVII. 208-239. 1906. 

Gray, J. G. Hensler's Magnetic Alloys. 'Proc Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxvii. 
125-128. 1900. 

HoPKiNsoN, John. Weather of the Year 1905 in Hertfordshire. ' Trans. Herts 
N. H. Soc' XIII. 33-48. 1907. 

IIuTCHiNS, D. E. The Cvcle Year 1905 and the Coming Season. 'Trans. 
S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 237-250. 1900. 



54 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

King, W. F. Astronomy as a Science. ' Journ. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada.' 

I. 22-37. 1907. 
McEacheen, J. A Eemarkable Aurora on August 7, 1906. 'Journ. Roy. Astr. 

Soc. of Canada,' i. 42. 1907. 
Maekham, C. a.., and R. H. Peimavbsi. Meteorological Report — Observers' 

Notes. 'Journ. NorthantsN. H. Soc' xiii. 235-241, 279-2«6, 1906 ; 301-307. 
Matthews, C. G. Phosphorescence. (Presidential Address.) ' Trans. Burton- 

on-Trent N. H. Arch. Soc' v. 74^85. 1907. 
Mawley, Edwakd. Report on Phenological Phenomena observed in Hertford- 
shire during the Year 1906. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xiii. 81-88. 1907. 
Mellish, Henet. Weather Charts and Weather Forecasts. (Presidential 

Address.) ' Report Nottingham Nat, Soc' for 1905-1906, 23-33. 1907, 
Meyeick, E. Summary of Meteorological Observations, 1906. 'Report Marlb. 

Coll. N. H. Soc' No. 65, 99-110. 1907, 
MooEE, A. W. Report of the Meteorological Section, 1905, ' Proc. Isle of Man 

N. H. A, Soc' I. 21-23. 1906. 
MoEisoN, Dr. John. Inorganic Evolution. (Anniversary Address.) 'Trans. 

Herts N. H. Soc' xiii. 15-32. 1907. 
MuiR, Dr. Thomas. A Set of Linear Equations connected with Homofocal 

Surfaces. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 263-265. 1906. 
— — The Expression of certain Symmetric Functions as an Aggregate of Frac- 
tions. ' Trans. S African Phil. Soc' xvi. 81.3-316. 1906, 
Paisley Philosophical Institution. Report of Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Coats Observatory, 1906. 16 pp, 1907. 
Plaskett, J, S. The Spectra of jlfe'ra Ceti. 'Journ. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada,' 

I. 45-59. 1907. 
Adapting a Universal Spectroscope for Radial Velocity Determinations. 

'Journ. Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada,' i. 104-121. 1907, 
Peeston, A. W. Meteorological Notes, 1905. 'Trans. Norfolk and Norwich 

Nat, Soc' viii. 239-245. 1906. 
Rambatit, Dr. A. A. Summary of the Weather during 1906, from Observations 

made at the Radcliii'e Ob.servatory, Oxford. ' Report Ashmolean N. H. Soc. 

for 1906,' 38. 1907. 
Ramsay, Sir William. Some Facts and Theories connected with the Inactive 

Gases of the Atmosphere. ' Proc. Glasgow R, Phil. Soc' xxxvii. 38-45. 

1906. 
. Rheinberg, Julius, On Stereoscopic Effect and a Suggested Improvement in 

Binocular Microscopes. ' Journ. Quekett Mic Club,' ix. 371-394. 1906. 
Royal Asteonomical Society of Canada. Summary Report of the Weather 

in Canada, December 1906 to February 1907. ' Journ. Roy, Astr. Soc. of 

Canada,' i. 77-80, 141-144. 1907. 
Russell, James. President's Address. [The Microscope.] ' Trans. Edinburgh 

F,N. Mic Soc' v. 319-334. 1906. 
'^MiTH, Aethur E. Note on Stereophoto-micrography. ' Journ. Quekett Mic. 

Club,' IX. 429-4.30. 1906. 
•ipiTTA, E. J. A Review of Photo-micrography, (Presidential Address.) ' Journ. 

Quekett Mic. Club,' x. 51-54. 1907. 
(Steavaet, R. M. The Time Service at the Dominion Observatory. ' Journ. Roy. 

Astr. Soc. of Canada,' i. 85-103. 1907. 
Stilwell, H. Returns of Rainfall, &c., in Dorset in 1905. ' Proc Dorset 

N, H. A. F, C XXVII, 1.38-146. 1906. 
SiuPART, R. F. Magnetic Disturbance and the Aurora. ' Journ. Roy. A.str. Soc 

of Canada,' i. 38-41. 1907. 
A Magnetic Disturbance synchronous with the Aurora. ' Journ. Roy. Astr. 

Soc. of Canada,' i. 43. 1907. 
Magnetic Disturbances recorded at the Agincourt Observatory. 'Journ. 

Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada,' i. 122-124, 1907. 
SuTTON, J. R. The Climate of East London, Cape Colony, ' Trans. S. African 

Phil, Soc' XVI. 217-236. 1906, 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 55 

Traviss, W. R. Note on an Expanding Stop for Dark-ground Illumination. 

' Journ. Quekett Mic. Club,' x. 77-82. 1907. 
Whitton, James. Meteorological Notes and Remarks upon the Weather during 

the Year 1904, with its General Eflects upon Vegetation. ' Trans. Glasgow 

N. H. Soc' VII. 276-289. 1907. 



Section B. — Chemistry. 

Bedson, Dr. P. P., and Henry Widdas (N. Eng. Inst.). Experiments illustra- 
tive of the Inflammability of Mixtures of Coal Dust and Air. 'Trans. Inst. 
Min. Eng.' xxxii. 529-531. 1907. 

Christy, Miller. A History of Salt-making in Essex. ' Essex Naturalist,' 
XIV. 10.3-204. 1907. 

Cooke, A. E. (N. Staff. Inst. Eng.) Notes on the Feed Water of Colliery Boilers. 
' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 31-37. 1906. 

Dalton, W. H. Seleuite. ' Essex Naturalist,' xiv. 147-149. 1906. 

Dymond, T. S. Sulphate of Lime in Essex Soils and Subsoils. ' Essex Naturalist, 
xiv. 02-64. 

Keegan, Dr. P. Q. The Chemistry of some Common Plants. ' The Naturalist 
for 1900,' 397-400. 1906 ; for 1907, 24-25, 153-155. 1907. 

Parkes, Robert J. Ozone. (Presidential Address.) ' Report Southport Soc. of 
Nat. Science,' xi. 5-18. 1906. 

SiMONis, Otto (N. Eng. Inst.). Liquid Air and its Use in Rescue Apparatus. 
' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 534-538. 1907. 

SoRBY, Dr. H. C. On the Salinity of the Sea Water along the Coast of Essex. 
' Essex Naturalist,' xiv. 235-236. 1907. 



Section C. — Geology. 

Amphlett, John. AVychbury Camp : its History and Geology. * Trans. Worces- 
tershire Nat. Club/ III. 256-259. 1907. 
Barze, F. Report of the Geological Section. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xli. 91-92. 

1907. 
Bates, George F. On the Microscopic Structure of some Perthshire Igneous 

Rocks. ' Trans. Perthshire Soc. N. Sci.' iv. 128-134, 1906. 
Bather, Dr. F. A. The Discovery in West Cornwall of a Silurian Crinoid 

characteristic of Bohemia. 'Trans. Cornwall R. Geol. Soc' xiii. 191-197, 

1907. 
Beasley, H. C. Some Difficulties of the Upper Keuper. (President's Address.) 

' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' x. 79-97. 1906. 
Bonnet, Prof. T. G. On the Origin of the British Trias. 'Proc. Yorkshire 

Geol. Soc' XVI. 1-14. 1906. 
Broom, Dr. R. On the South African Dinosaur (Hortalotarsus). ' Trans. S. 

African Phil. Soc' xvi. 201-205. 1906. 
■ On a new Cyodout Reptile (JElurosuchus' Browni). ' Trans. S. African 

Phil. Soc' XVI. 376-378. 1906. ' 
On a new South African Triassic Rhynchocephalian. ' Trans. S. African 

Phil. Soc' XVI. 379-380. 1906. 
Brown, W. D. On some Erratics of the Boulder Clay in the Neighbourhood of 

Burscough. 'Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' x. 128-131. 1906. 
Burnett, Arthur. Notes on the Upper Chalk of Lincolnshire. ' The Naturalist 

for 1906,' 207-212. 1906. 
Burton, F. M. Note on a Liassic Concretion. ' The Naturalist for 1907,' 149- 

150. 1907. 
Burton, W. J. P. The Ancient Volcanoes of Derbyshire. ' Trans. Burton-on-Trent 

N. H. Arch. Soc' v. 95-107. 1907. 
Butterfield, a. E. Islands in the Humber. ' Trans. Hull Geol. Soc' vi. 33-37. 

1906. 



56 HEPORTS ON TIIK STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Christen, Madame Rodolphe. Summary of recent Glacial Investigations Ly 

the "Belfast Naturalists' Society. ' Proc. Belfast Nat. F. C.,' Appendices (vol. ii.), 

320-3.3.3. 1906. 
CoATES, Heney. The Evolution of a Haiighland, as illustrated in the Camping- 
ground of the Boys" Brigade at Ballinluig. ' Proc. Perthshire Soc. Nat. Sci.' 

IV. cxiv.-cxxii. 1906. 
Cooke, Captain. The Meres of Shropshire. 'Trans. Caradoc and Severn Valley. 

F. C IV. 104-119, 1907. 
CkoI'Ts, VV. H. Notes on the Indications of a Raised Beach at Hessle. ' Trans. 

Hull Geol. Soc' vi. 58-64. 1906. 
Daniord, C. G. Notes on the Belemnites of the Speeton Clays. ' Trans. Hull 

Geol. Soc' VI. 1-18. 1906. 
Notes on the Speeton Ammonites. ' Proc. Yorkshire Geol. Soc' xti. 101- 

114. 1906. 
Davis, W. M. The Colorado Canyon and its Lessons. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. 

Soc' X. 98-102. 1008. 
Drake, II. C. Spondijlus latus in the Chalk of North Lincolnshire. 'The 

Naturalist for 1907,''40. 1907. 
Du ToiT, A. L. Underground AVater in South-eastern Bechuanaland. ' Trans. 

S. African Phil. Soc' XVI. 251-262. 1906. 
DwERRYHOUSE, Dr. A. R. Report of the Magnesian Limestone Committee. 

' Trans Leeds Geol. Assoc' xiii. 45-48. 1906. 
Elgee, Frank. Glacial Phenomena in the Neighbourhood of Guisborough. ' The 

Naturalist for 1906,' 268-270. 1906. 
The Driftless Area of North-east Yorkshire and its relation to the Geogra- 
phical Distribution of certain Plants and Insects. ' The Naturalist for 1907,' 

137-143. 1907. 
Grace, Geo. Notes on Sections in Gravels near Doncaster. ' The Naturalist for 

1906," 184-186. 1906. 
Gkayston, F. a. (S. Staff. Warw. Inst. Min. Eng.) Presidential Address. 

[The Geology of the District.] 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 312-319. 1906. 
Gregory, E. E. Striated Rock Surface on Harden Moor, near Bingley. ' Proc. 

Yorkshire Geol. Soc' xvi. 26. 1906. 
Griffin, W. H. The Geology of the Upper Ravensbourne Valley, with Notes 

on the Flora. ' South-Eastern Naturalist for 1 906,' 50- 59. 1 906. 
IIarker, a. The Problem of the Gneissic Rocks. ' Trans. Hull Geol. Soc' vi, 

24-27. 1906. 
Hawkesworth, Edwin. Y'orkshire Naturalists at Ingleton: Geological Notes. 

'The Naturalist for 1906,' 2-33-2.38. 1906. 
IIiLL, AV. Notes on the Microscopic Aspect of the LTpper Chalk of Lincolnshire. 

' The Naturalist for 1906,' 213-214. 1906. 
IIiNCH, J. DE W. Notes on the Glacial Geology of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish 

Naturalist,' xvi. 14-16. 1907. 
Hind, Dr. Wheelton. Speculations on the Evolution of the River Trent. 

' Trans. N. Staff'. F. C XLi. 93-100. 1907. 
Fossil MoUuscan Zones in the (Carboniferous Rocks of the Midlands. ' The 

Naturalist for 1906,' 253-256. 

Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks. Part II. The Fossils of the 



Millstone Grits and Pendleside Series. 'The Naturalist for 1907/ 17-23, 
90-96. 1907. 

Houston, Robert S. Rare Renfrewshire Minerals. ' Trans. Glasgow Geol. Soc' 
XII. 354-361. 1906. 

HuDLESTON, W. H. Worgret Hill and the Wareham Water Supply. 'Proc. 
Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxvii. 147-175. 1906. 

Hughes, Prof. T. McKenny. Ingleborough. Part IV. Stratigraphy and Palaeon- 
tology of the Silurian. 'Proc. Y'orkshire Geol. Soc' xvi. 45-74. 1906. 

Hull Geological Society. East Riding Boulder Committee's Reports. 'Trans. 
Hull Geol. Soc' vi. 70-75. 1906. 

Johns, Cosmo. The Permian Salt Lake ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 176-178. 1906. 



OOIJ RESPONDING S0CIKTIK8. 57 

Johns, Cosjio. On the Inalotnn f'arboiiiferous Basement Beds. ' The Naturalist 

for 1906; 231-232. 1900. 
Kendall, Prof. P. F. Geological Notes on the Robin Hood's Bay District. ' The 

Naturalist for 1907,' 177-179. 1907. 
Lai'WOKTh, Prof Charles (S. Staff. Warw. Inst. Eng). The Hidden Coalfields 

of the Midlands. 'Trans. Jn.st. Min. Eng.' xxxiii. 26-50. 1907. 
Livingston, Colin. The Parallel Roads of Lochaber with relation to an Ice Cap. 

' Trans. Glasgow Geo!. Soc' xii. 326-353. 1906. 
LoMAS, J. The Dwvka of South Africa. 'Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' x. 118- 

127. 1906. 

On the Origin of the Trias. ' Proc Yorkshire Geol. Soc' xvi. 15-18. 1906. 

MacAlistee, D. W. On a Microscopic Section of Quartzite containing Tin from 

Bolivia. ' Trans. Cornwall R. Geol. Soc' xni. 198-199. 1907 
Macnaie, Petee. Notes on the Discovery of an Outlier of the Loch Tay Lime- 
stone on Beinn Bhreac, Loch Tay, Perthshire. ' Trans. Glasgow (ieol. Soc' xii. 

318-325. 1906. 
The Geology of the Rouken Glen and its Neighbourhood. 'Trans. Glasgow 

Geol. Soc' xii. 362-397. 1906. 
On the Development of the Great Axial Lines of Folding in the Highland 

Schists. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Phil. Soc' xxxvii. 129-135. 1906. 
Macturk, G. W. B. Denudation in the South Cave District. 'Trans. Hull 

Geol. Soc' VI. 40-42. 1906. 
Maetin, Edwaed a. Sea Erosion and Coast Protection. ' South-Eastern 

Naturalist for 1906,' 35-49. 1906. 
MoET Feedeeick. The Crystallisation of Rock. ' Trans. Glasgow Geol. Soc' 

XII. 311-317. 190G. 
Neilson, James. The Geology of the Clyde ' Crannogs.' ' Trans. Glasgow Geol. 

Soc' XII. 273-289. 1906. 
Notes on a Section seen in a Drain on the lands of Davieland, near Thornlie- 

bank. ' Trans. Glasgow Geol. Soc' xii. 294-304. 1906. 
O'Sfllivan, C. Gypsum. ' Trans. Burton- on-Trent N. II. Arch. Soc' v. 108- 

115. 1907. 
Pearce, Dr. Richard. Anniversary Address. [The Mining Industrv of Corn- 
wall.] 'Trans. Cornwall R. Geol. Soc' XIII. 161-174. 1907. 
Peaeson Hugh. (Min. Inst. Scotland.) The Goldfield of Paracatu, Minas 

Geraes, Brazil. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 257-263. 1906. 
Randall, John. Petroleum Wells in Shropshire. ' Trans. Caradoc and Severn 

Valley F. C iv. 99-103. 1907. 
Eastall, R. H. The Ingletonian Series of West Yorkshire. ' Proc. Yorkshire 

Geol. Soc' XVI. 87-100. 1906. 
Reade, T. Mellaed, and Joseph Weight. The Pleistocene Clays and Sand8 

of the Isle of Man. ' Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc' x. 103-117. 1906. 
and Philip Holland. Sands and Sediments : Part III. Final. ' Proc. 

Liverpool Geol. Soc' x. 132-156. 1906. 
Robinson, Jas. Feasee. licsumc of the Field Work done in the years 1901-4, 

inclusive. 'Trans. Hull Geol. Soc' vi. 76-82. 1906. 
ScHAEFF, Dr. R. F. On the Relationship of the Irish Elk. 'The Irish 

Naturalist; xvi. 165-167. 1907. 
Setmoue, Henry J. The Geology of Lambav, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' 

xvi. 3-13. 1907. 
Sheppaed, T. List of Papers, Maps, &c., relating to the Erosion of the Holder- 

ness Coast and to Changes in the Huniber Estuary. * Trans. Hull Geol. Soc. 

VI. 43-57. 1906. 

Humber District Geological Notes. ' Trans. Hull Geol. Soc' vi. 65-69. 1906. 

Bibliography, 1901-1905; being a List of Papers dealing with the Geology 

of East Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire. 'Trans. Hull Geol. Soc' vi. 
82-93. 1906. 
On a Section in the Post-Glacial Deposit at Hornsea. ' The Naturalist for 



1906,' 420-424. 1906, 



58 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Sills, S. A Study in Chalk. ' Rochester Naturalist,' in. 450-454. 1907. 
Smith, John. On Crystallised Carbonite, a Mineral new to Scottish Car- 
boniferous Rocks. 'Trans. Glasgow Geol. Soc' xii. 308-310. 1906. 
On the Occurrence of Conodonts in the Arenig-Llandeilo Formations of the 

Southern Uplands of Scotland. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' vii. 235-252. 

1907. 
Smtthe, Dr. J. A. (N. Eng. Inst. Eng.) Deposits in a Pitfall at Taufield Lea, 

Tantobie, co. Durham. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 24-28. 1906. 
SoEBT, Dr. H. C. The Origin of the Cleveland Ironstone. ' The Naturalist for 

1906,' 354-357. 1906. 
Stathee, J. W. Quartzite Pebbles on the Yorkshire Wolds. 'Trans. Hull 

Geol. Soc' VI. 38-40. 1906. 
Steachan, James. The Carnmoney Chalcedony: its Occurrence and Origin. 

' Proc Belfast Nat. F. C.,' Appendices (vol. ii.), 336-354. 1906. 
Thompson, Beebt. The Oil "Well at Husbands Bosworth. ' Journal Northants 

N. H. Soc' XIII. 267-269. 1906. 
UssHEE, R. J. The Hyaena Dens of the Mammoth Cave near Doneraile, 

CO. Cork. ' Irish Naturalist,' xv. 237-249. 1906. 
Vaughan, Dr. Aethue. A Note on the Carboniferous Sequence in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Pateley Bridge. ' Proc. Yorkshire Geol. Soc' xvi. 75-83. 1906. 
Wain, E. B., and J. T. Scobbs. Notes on Cauldon Low and the Manifold 

Valley, North Staffordshire. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 193-196. 1906. 
Watt, James. Geological Notes. 'Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway N. H. A. 

Soc' xvii. 358-361. 1906. 
Watts, Rev. Aethue. Derwenthaugh Land in Derwent Gut. 'Trans. Nat. 

Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, &c.' i. 421-433. 1907. 
Watts, William (Manchester Geol. Min. Soc). Geological Notes on Sinking 

Langsett and Underbank Concrete-trenches in the Little Don Valley. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 668-680. 1906. 
Williams, T. R. The Formation of Flint. 'Trans. Hull Geol. Soc' vi. 19-23. 

1906. 
WiLMOEE, Albeet. The Structure of some Craven Limestones. ' Proc. York- 
shire Geol. Soc' XVI. 27-44. 1906. 
WooDWAED, Dr. A. Smith. On a New Chimaeroid Fin-spine from the Portland 

Stone. ' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxvii. 181-182. 1906, 
On a Pycnodont Fish of the Genus Mesodon from the Portland Stone. 

' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxvii. 183-188. 1906. 
WooDWAED, Dr. Henet. On a Carboniferous Trilobite from Angram, in Nidder- 

dale. ' Proc. Yorkshire Geol. Soc' xvi. 84-86. 1906. 
WooLACOTT, Dr. David. The Landslip at Claxheugh, co. Durham, September 

1905. ' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, &c.' i. 434-436. 1907. 
Wynne, T. Teapfoed. Gypsum, and its Occurrence in the Dove Valley. 

'Trans, Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii, 171-184. 1906, 



Section D. — Zoology. 

Albbeson, E. Maude. Notes on Chrysopa perla and C. flava. 'The Naturalist 

for 1907,' 84-89. 1907. 
Andrews, F. W. Natural History Notes in New Zealand. ' Trans. Burton-on- 

Trent N. H. Arch. Soc' v. 172-190. 1906. 
Bailey, J. Harold. Report of the Entomological Section. ' Proc. Isle of Man 

N. H. A. Soc' I. 19-20. 1906. 
Baldwin, Edwaed T. The Pine Marten in Lake-land. 'The Naturalist for 

1906,' 221-222. 1906. 
Baeing, C. The Mammals of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 

19-23. 1907, 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 59 

Baebingtok, E. M. The American Snowbird in Ireland. 'Irish Naturalist,' 

XV. 137-138. 1906. 

The Melodious Warbler in Ireland. ' Irish Naturalist,' xv. 157. 1906. 

Beare, Pi-of. T. Hudson. Annual Address. (Entomological Progress during the 

Year 1 '.)0G ) ' Proc. Lancashire and Cheshire Ent. Soc. 1906,' 21-31. 1907. 
Bekgh, 11. The Opisthobranchiata of South Africa. ' Trans. S. African Phil. 

Soc' xvu. 1-144. 1907. 
Bickeeton, William. Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire during the 

Year 1905. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xiii. 49-64. 1907. 
Blade.\, W. Wells. Bird Notes (1906), chiefly taken at Stone. 'Trans. N. 

Staff. F. 0.' XLi. 73-78. 1907. 
Bloomi'Ield, Rev. E. N. Annual Notes on the Local Fauna, Flora, &c. 

' Hastings and East Sussex Naturalist,' i. 17-21. 1906. 

Aphides of the Hastings District. ' Hastings and East Sussex Naturalist,' 

1. 68-59. 1907. 

Booth, H. B. Abnormal Immigration of Fieldfares. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 
188. 1906. 

On the Small Quantity of Air necessary to Sustain Life in a Bat. ' The 

Naturalist for 1907,' 28. 1907. 

Notes on the Common Swift in the Bradford District. ' The Naturalist for 

1907,' 111-112. 1907. 

White Lesser Black-backed Gull, and the reported Nesting of the Ivory 



Gull on the Fame Islands in 1906. ' The Naturalist for 1907,' 172. 1907. 
BosTOCK, E. D. Report of the Entomological Section. 'Trans. N. Staff. F. C 

XLI. 79-85. 1907. 
Beady, Dr. G. S. On the Crustacean Fauna of a Salt-water Pond at Amble. 

' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, &c.' i. 330-336. 1907. 
Beoom, Dr. R. On the Early Development of the Appendicular Skeleton of the 

Ostrich, with Remarks on the Origin of Birds. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' 

XVI. 355-368. 1906. 

On some Little-known Bones of the Mammalian Skull. ' Trans, S. African 

Phil. Soc' XVI. 369-372. 1906. 

Note on the Lacertilian Shoulder Girdle. ' Trans. S. African Phil, Soc' xvi. 



373-375. 1906. 

Beowne, F. Balfotje. A Study of the Aquatic Coleoptera and their Sur- 
roundings in the Norfolk Broads District. (Second Paper.) ' Trans. Norfolk 
and Norwich Nat. Soc' viii. 290-307. 1906. 

Buchanan-Wollaston, H. J. The Tunicata of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish 
Naturalist,' xvi. 83. 1907. 

and D. R. Pack-Beeesfoed. The Crustaoea Arthrostraca of Lambay, 

CO. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 59. 1907. 

BxjLLEN, G. E. Notes on Land and Freshwater Mollusca observed in the 

Neighbourhood of St. Albans. 'Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xiii. 11-13. 

1907. 
BuTLEE, Edwaed A. The Hemiptera of the Hastings District. Part I. Hetero- 

ptera. ' Hastings and East Sussex Naturalist,' i. 23-37. 1906. Part II. 

Homoptera. Ibid. 47-57. 1907. 
BuTTERFiELD, RossE. Notes ou Lepidoptcra in the Wilsden District in 1906. 

' The Naturalist for 1907,' 175-176. 1907. 
BuTTEEFiELD, W. RusKiN. Comparison between the Sussex and the British 

Lists of Birds. ' South-Eastern Naturalist for 1906,' 27-29. 1906. 

British and Sussex Birds. Hastings and East Sussex Naturalist,' i. 43-45. 

1906. 

Cameeon, p. Descriptions of some New Species of Hjmenoptera from Pearston, 
Cape Colony. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 323-333. 1906. 

On the Hymenopterous Parasites of the Mealie Stalk Borer {Sesamia fusca, 

Hampson). ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 334-336. 1906. 

— — - Two Species of Ichneumonidse parasitic on Codling Moth in Cape Colony. 
' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 337-339. 1906. 



60 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Oaeaboc and Seveen Valley Field Olub. Zoological Notes. 'Record of Bare 

Facts,' No. 16, 22-33. 1907. 
Caepentee, Prof. G. H. Advances iu Irish Marine Zoologj'. ' Irish Naturalist,' 

XV. 197-206. 1906. 

The Aptera of liambay, co. Dublin. 'Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 54-56. 1907. 

The Myriapods of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 57. 1907. 

The Pycnogonida of Lambay, co. Dublin. 'Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 60. 

1907. 

The Phalaugida of I^ambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 60. 1907. 



Caee, Prof. J. W. New Nottinghamshire Spiders and False Scorpions. ' Report 

Nottingham Nat. Soc. for 1905-1906.' 47-48. 1907. 
Castellain, a. List of Birds and Flowers of Bath and its Neighbourhood, with 

the Periods of their First Appearance as observed in the Year 1905. ' Proc. 

Bath N. H. A. F. C xi. 26-35. 1906. 
Chapman, Dr. T. A. Differentiation of T. tridens and T.psi in the Imaginal 

Stage. ' Trans. City of London Ent. and N. H. Soc. for 1906,' 34-37. 1907. 
Chastee, Geoege W. A Second List of the Coleoptera of Southport and 

District. ' Report Southport Soc. of Nat. Sci.' xi. 56-69. 1906. 
Colgan, N. The Marine Mollusca of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' 

XVI. 33-40. 1907. 
Ceallan, G. E. J. Ophiodes or Pseudophia Lunaris. 'Proc. Dorset N. II. 

A. F. C XXVII. 176-180. 1906. 
Ceellin, John C. Report of the Zoological Section. 'Proc. Isle of Man 

N. H. A. Soc' I. 17-18. 1906. 
Ceosfield, a. J. The Birds and Plants of California. 'Proc. Holmesdale 

N. H. C. 1902-1905,' 37-49. 1906. 
CuETis, W. Parkinson. The Ringed Plover {^Eyialitis hiaticola). ' Proc. 

Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxvii. 189-213. 1906. 
Distant, W. L. Undescribed Genera and Species of South African Rhyuehota. 

' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 413-418. 1906. 
DoNiSTHOEPE, H. St. J. K. British Myrmecophilous Acarina. ' Hastings and 

East Sussex Naturalist,' I. 05-67. 1907. 
Egglestone, W. M. Further Note.s on a Solitary Wasp. ' The Naturalist for 

1907,' 38-39. 1907. 
Egqleton, James. The Occurrence of Risso's Dolphin, Grampiis griseus, Cav., 

in the Forth. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' vii. 253-257. 1907. 
Elliman, E. G., and C. T. Gimingham. Coleoptera new to the Hertfordshire 

Fauna. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xiii. 10. 1907. 
Falconbe, Wm. Notes on Harvest Spiders, with Particulars of their Occurrence 

in Yorkshire. 'The Naturalist for 1906,' 215-220, 388-390. 1906. 
Fortune, Riley. The Protection of Birds in the West Riding. ' The Naturalist 

for 1907,' 107-110. 1907, 

A large Trout near Harrogate. ' The Naturalist for 1907,' 134. 1907. 

Foster, Nevin H. On the Nesting of the Tree Sparrow in County Derry. 

' Irish Naturalist,' xv. 221-223. 1906. 
Feisbt, G. E. Some Habits of the Hymenoptera. 'Proc. Holmesdale N. II. C. 

1902-1905,' 6-20. 1906. 
Geoege, C. F. Hints on Collecting and Preserving Fresh-water Mites. ' Haatiugs 

and East Sussex Naturalist,' 1, 71-79. 1907. 

Lincoln.?hire Mites : Epicrius. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 264-267. 1906. 

Lincolnshire Mites : Rhyncholophidce. * The Naturalist for 1907,' 4 1-45, 

179-180, 1907. 
GiBBS, A. E. Notes on Lepidoptera observed iu Hertfordshire in the year 1905. 

' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xiii. 5-9. 1907. 

Albino Moles in Hertfordshire. 'Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xiii. 14. 1907. 

Geimshaw, Peecy H. The Diptera of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' 

XVI. 43. 1907. 
Halbeet, J. N. The Hymenoptera of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' 
XVI. 43-44. 1907. 



COKHESPONDING SOCrETIKS. 6J 

Halbeet, J. N. The Coleoptera of Lambay, CO. Dublin. 'Irish Naturalist," xvi. 

47-52. 1907. 

The Hemiptera of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 53. 1907. 

The Acarina of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 65-67. 1907. 

Hammond, 11. W. Sketches of Bird Melody in England. ' Rochester Naturalist,' 

III. 413-427, 437-442, 445-450. 1906. 
Hanson, C, jun. Dates of Arrival of Summer Migrants as noticed in Burton- 

on-Trent District (1890-1905). ' Burton-on-Trent N. II. Arch. Soc' v. 191 

1906. 
Harting, J. E. A Whale at Mersea in 1299. ' Essex Naturalist,' xiv. 149-152. 

1906. 
Hatdon, W. T. Presidential Address : The ' Biogenetic Law ' considered in 

relation to an Antithetic Alternation of Generations in the Metazoa. ' Report 

Liverpool Science Students' Assoc. 1906-1907,' 8-28. 1907. 
Heedman, Prof. W. A. Our Ignorance of Marine Biology. ' Proc. Isle of Man 

N. H. a. Soc' i. 37-42. 1907. 
Nineteenth Annual Report of the Liverpool Marine Biological Committee 

' Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc' xx. 15. 1906. 
Andrevt Scott, and James Johnstone. Report on the Investigations 

carried on duriug 1905, in connection with the Lancashire Sea Fisheries Labora- 
tory, at the University of Liverpool and the Sea Fish Hatchery at Piel, near 

Barrow. ' Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc' xx. 145-352. 1906. 
Hewett, W. Notes on Yorkshire Lepidoptera in 1906. ' The Naturalist for 

1907,' 144-146. 1907. 
HiCKSON, Prof. S. J. Presidential Address, 1905: Precious Corals. 'Trans. 

Manchester Mic. Soc. 1905,' 29-38. 1906. 
Hilton, A. E. On the Study of the Mycetozoa. ' Journal Quekett Mic Club,' 

IX. 423-428. 1906. 
On the Nature of Living Organisms, ' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' x 41-50 

1907. 
Hopkinson, John. Ostracoda and MoUusca from the Alluvial Deposits at the 

Watford Gas Works. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xiii. 79-80. 1907. 
Imms, A. D. Anurida. ' Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc' xx. 353-451, 1906, 
Jackson, A. Randell. The Spiders of the Tyne Valley. 'Trans Nat Hist 

Soc. of Northumberland, &c.' I. 337-405. 1907. 
Jackson, J. Wilfeid, Notes on Succinea oblo7ign, Drap., and other Species at 

Grange-over-Sands, Lancashire. ' The Naturalist lor 1907,' 173-174. 1907. 
Jenkinson, C. p. Diving of the Moorhen. 'Journal Northants N. H Soc' 

xiir. 229. 1906. 
Jennee, J. H. A. Nature near Eastbourne. ' South-Eastem Naturalist for 1906 ' 

18-26. 1906. 
Johnson, Rev. W. F. Coleoptera from co. Fermanagh. ' Irish Naturalist ' 

XV. 139-142. 1906. ' 
Jot, Norman H. Notes on Searching the Nests of Birds and Mammals for 

Beetles, &c. ' Hastings and East Sussex Naturalist,' 1, 68-70. 1907. 
Kane, W. F. de V. The Lepidoptera of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist ' 

XVI. 44-46. 1907. 

Kew, H. Wallis. Chernes cerneus in Nottinghamshire: a Recent Addition to 

the known False Scorpions of Britain. 'Report Nottingham Nat Soc for 

1905-1906,' 41-46. 1907. 
Kiekpateick, Robert. The Porifera of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist ' 

XVI. 86-87. 1907. ' ' 

Knight, Rev. G. A. Feane. A Molluscan Visit to some of the Inner Hebrides 

(May, Coll, Tiree, and lona). ' Trans. Perthshire Soc. N. Sci.' it. 135-161 

1906. 
Leboxir, Maeie V. Larval Trematodes of the Northumberland Coast. 'Trans 

Nat, Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, &c.' i. 437-454. 1907. 
Lenet, Frank. Some Additions to the Norwich Castle Museum in 1905 

' Trans. Norfolk and Norway Nat. Soc' viii. 313-314. 1906. 



62 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Lindsay, John. The ' Water-flea ' Scare in our Oity. ' Trans. Edinburgh F. N. 

Mic. Soc' V. 267-276. 1906. 
LoMAS, Joseph. Presidential Address : The Work of Organisms in the Making 

and Unmaljing of Rocks. * Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc' xx. 3-14. 1906. 
Lord, J. E. Notes on Acanthocystis pertyana. ' Trans. Manchester Mic. Soc. 

1905/41-44. 1906. 
M'Gall, Robert. Local Birds. 'Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway N. H. A. 

Soc' XVII. 388-390. 1906, 
Mansbeidge, W. Microlepidoptera collected in Lancashire and Cheshire in 

1905. 'Proc Lancashire and Cheshire Ent. Soc. 1906,' 13-14. 1907. 

Note on a Remarkable Race of Agrotis Askwort/ni. ' Proc. Lancashire and 

Cheshire Ent. Soc. 1906,' 46-49. 1907. 

Masefield, J. R. B. Report of the Zoological Section. * Trans. N. Staff. F. C 

XII. 65-72. 1907. 
Meyrick, E. List of the Birds of the Marlborough District. ' Report Marlb. 

Coll. N. H. Soc' No. 55, 32-50. 1907. 
Report of the Entomological Section. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' 

No. 55, 63-73. 1907. 

Ornithological List. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' No. 55. 74-78. 1907. 

Moffat, C. B. The Problems of an Island Fauna. 'Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 

133-145. 1907. 
MoRLEY, Claude. The Beetles of the Eastern Counties. ' Essex Naturalist,' 

XIV. 57-61. 

MosLEY, S. L. Arctic Birds with Brown or Black Underparts, * The Naturalist 

for 1906,' 358-359. 1906. 
MuRiE, Dr. James. Sea Bream in Essex Waters. 'Essex Naturalist,' xiv. 

238-240. 1907. 
Murray, James. Water-bears, or Tardigrada. ' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' 

X. 55-70. 1907. 
Nichols, A. R. The Polyzoa of Lam bay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 

82-83. 1907. 

The Echinodermata of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 84-85. 

1907. 

Pack-Beeesford, D. R. Woodlice in County Carlow. ' Irish Naturalist,' 

XV. 142. 1906. 

The Araneida of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 61-65. 

1907. 

Patterson, A. H. Natural History Notes from Yarmouth, 1905. 'Trans. 

Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc' viii. 315-322. 1906. 
Patterson, Robert. The Birds of Ireland and the Isle of Man. ' Irish 

Naturalist,' xv. 159-170. 1906. 

The Birds of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 23-30. 1907. 

Peringuet, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Coleoptera of South Africa {Lucanidce 

and Scarabeidre). ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xiii. 289-546. 1907. 
Pickard-Cambridge, Rev. O. On Some New and Rare British Arachnida. 
' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxvii. 72-92. 1906. 

Note on a Curious Faculty in Spiders. ' The Naturalist for 1907,' 9-10. 

1907. 

Prout, Louis B. The Hheumaptera hastata Group, 'Trans. City of London 

Ent. and N. H. Soc. for 1906,' 22-34. 1907. 
Rankin, William. The Crustacea Thorocostraca of Lambay, co. Dublin. 

' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 57-58. 1907. 
Richardson, Nelson M. Anniversary Address : Recent Advances in Science. 

' Proc. Dorset N. H. A. F. C xxvii. Ix.-lxxxviii. 1906. 

Report on First Appearance of Birds, Insects, &c., and the First Flowering 

of Plants in Dorset during 1905. 'Proc, Dorset N. H. A. F, C xxvii. 
259-270. 1906. 

Robertson, Dr. Agnes. Theories of Evolution. ' Tlie Naturalist for 1907,' 
167-171. 1907, 



CORRESPONDING SOCIEtlES. (53 

Robertson, Muriel. Notes on certain Parasitic Protozoa from the Groups of 

the Myxosporidia and Haemosporidia. ' Proc. Glasgow R. Pliil. Soc' xxxvii. 

74-79. 1906. 
Roebuck, W. Denison. Xeris spectrum at Leeds : an Addition to the British 

List of Hjmenoptera. ' The Naturalist for 1900/ 223. 1906. 
Rosseter, T. B. On the Tapeworms Hymenolepis nitida, Krabbe, and 

H. nitidtdans, Krabbe. ' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' x. 31-40. 1907. 
Rousselet, Charles F. Note on Tetramostiiv opoliensis (Zacharias). * Journal 

Quekett Mic. Club,' ix. 431-432. 1906. 
Rtjdler. F. W. On Niitural History Museums. (Presidential Address.) ' Essex 

Naturalist,' xit. 1-37. 
St. Quintin, W. H. The American Grey Squirrel in Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist 

for 1907,' 37. 1907. 
ScHAEFF, Dr. R. F. The Fishes of Lambay, co. Dublin. •' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 

31-32. 1907. 
ScocEFiELD, D. J. Mendelism and Microscopy. ' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' 

IX. 395-422. 1906. 
An Alona and a Pleuro.rus new to Britain (A. u-eltneri, Keilhaek, and P. den- 

ticulatus, Birge). ' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' x. 71-76. 1907. 
Service, Robert. The Sparrow Hawk {Accipiter nisus, Linn.). ' Trans. Dum- 

friesshii-e and Galloway N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 273-278. 1906. 
The Diurnal and Nocturnal Birds of the Solway Area. ' Trans. Dumfries- 
shire and Galloway N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 327-339. 1906. 
The Rarer Birds of the Solway Area. ' Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway 



N. H. A. Soc' XVII. 423-435. 1906. 
SBrMOUR, H. J., and R. Llotd Praegee. The Origin of the Fauna and Flora 

of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' L-ish Naturalist,' xvi. 111-112. 1907. 
Shaw, William, and others. Galashiels and District : A Guide to the Existing 

Fauna. 'History Berwickshire Nat. Club,' xix. 179-203. 1906. 
Sheppard, T. Note on a Large Basking Shark at Redcar. ' The Naturalist for 

1907,' 10. 1907. 
Sigh, Alfred. Notes on the Micro-Lepidopterous Fauna of the London District 

— Tiueina. ' Trans. City of London Ent. and N. H. Soc' 37-43. 1907. 
Smith, Frank P. The British Spiders of the Genus Lycosa. ' Journal Quekett 

Mic Club,' X. 9-30. 1907. 
Smith, Sydney H. Bird Notes : York District. ' The Naturalist for 1907,' 106 

1907. ' 

Soar, C. D. Notes and Observations on the Life-history of Fresh-water Mites 

' Journal Quekett Mic. Club,' ix. 359-370. 1906. 
Southern, Rowland. Notes on the Genus Enc.hytrceus, with Description of a 

New Species. ' Irish Naturalist,' xv. 179-185. 1906. 

The Oligochseta of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 68-82.^1907. 

The Nematomorpha of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist.' xvi 84 

1907. 

The Turbellaria of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 84. 1907. 

Southwell, Thomas, Notes on the Arctic Whale Fishery from Yarmouth and 

Lynn. ' Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc' viii. 202-215. 1906. 
Speedy, Tom. A Trip to the Island of Hoy. 'Trans. Edinburgh F. N Mic 

Soc' V. 276-285. 1906. ^ 

Stelfox, a. W., and R. Welch. The Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of Lambav 

CO. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 41-42. 1907. 
Stephens, Jane, and H. J. Buchanan- Wollaston. The Ocelenterata of Lambav 

CO. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 85-86. 1907. 
Strickland, W. W. Note on a Curious Faculty in Spiders. ' The Naturalist 

for 1906,' 401-402. 1906. 

On Peculiarities in Attia Spiders. ' The Naturalist for 1907 ' 147-148 

1907. - ' 

SwiNUERTON, Dr. H. H. The Stickleback: its Personal and Family History 
' Report Nottingham Nat. Soc. for 1905-1906,' 34-40. 1907. ' 



64 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Stkes, Mark L. Animal Coloratiou. ' Trans. Mancbe&ter Mic. Soc. 1905/64-75. 

1906. 
Tatloe, J. W. Notes on a Variety of Limncea stagnalis. ' The Naturalist for 

1907,' 60. 1907. 
ThomsoNj A. E. The Earthworm. ' Trans. Manchester JNlic. Soc. 1905,' 45-52, 

1006. 
TiCEHURST, Norman F. On tlie British Yellow Wagtail {Motacilla rait, Bona- 
parte) and its Continental Representatives, the Blue-headed Wagtails, and 

the Status of the latter in the Sussex Avifauna. ' Hastings and East Sussex 

Naturalist,' 1, 38-41. 1906. 
On the Grev Wagtail {Motacilla melanope, Pallas) as a Sussex Bird. 

' Hastings and JEast Sussex Naturalist,' 1, 60-62. 1907. 
On the Occurrence of the Black Lark {Melanocorypha yeltoniensis, Forster) 

on the Sussex and Kent Coast. 'Hastings and East Sussex Naturalist,' 1, 

63-64. 1907, 
Walker, James J. Preliminary List of Coleoptera ohserved in the Neighbour- 
hood of Oxford, from 1819 to 1907. 'Report Ashmolean N. H. Soc. for 1906,' 

49-100. 1907. 
Walus, Elstach F. Some Captures of Lepidoptera for 1906. ' Journal 

Northants N. H. Soc' xiii. 293--'_'90. 1907. 
Wallis, H. M. The Birds one Sees Abroad. ' Proc. HolmesdaleN. H. C. 1902- 

1905,' 69-61. 1906. 
Webb, W. M., and 0. Sillem. The British Woodlice. ' Essex Naturalist,' xiv. 

38-56,81-111. 1906. 
West, G. S. A Yorkshire Variety of a rare British Tardigrade. ' The Naturalist 

for 1907,' 72-73. 1907. 
Whitaker, Arthur. The Ilight of Bats. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 349-353, 

379-384. 1906. 
Notes on the Breeding Habits of Bats. 'The Naturalist for 1907,' 74-83. 

1907. 
Whittakee, Oscar. A I'reliminary Catalogue of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera 

of Lancashire and Cheshire. ' Proc. Lancashire and Cheshire Ent. Soc. 1906,' 

32-45. 1907. 
Williamson. Wm. A Contribution to the Hydrachnid Fauna of Scotland. 

' Trans. Edinburgh F. N. Mic. Soc' v. 239-242. 1906. 
WiNGATE, Rev. W. J. A Preliminary List of Durham Diptera, with Analytical 

Tables. ' Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Northumberland, &c.' ii. 416 pp. 1906. 
Wright, Joseph. The Foraminifera of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' 

XVI. 88-89. 1907. 

Section E. — Geography. 

Dann, E. W. Orography and History. ' Journal Manchester Geog. Soc' xxii. 

56-64. 1906. 
Gibson, Dr. Robert. In and Around Hong Kong. ' Journal Manchester Geog. 

Soc' XXII. 108-112. 1907. 
GuRNEY, Eustace. Presidential Address: I^imnologj', or the Study of Fresh 

Waters. ' Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc' viii. 159-174. 1906. 
Magian, Dr. A. C. The Rhine and its Legends. 'Journal Manchester Geog. 

Soc' xxii. 135-142. 1907. 
Mellor, E. W. Ceylon, with a Retrospective Glance, 1905. ' Journal Manchester 

Geog. Soc' xxii. 1-25. 1906. 
Jamaica, the Crown of our West Indian Possessions. ' Journal Manchester 

Geog. Soc' XXII. 113-134. 1907. 
PuLLEN-BuRET, Miss B. Jamaica as it is. ' Trans. Liverpool Geog. Soc 1906,' 

8-11. 1907. 
Back Blocks in New Zealand. 'Trans. Liverpool Geog. Soc 1906,' 12-15. 

1907. 
Scotx-Elliot, Prof. G. F, Chile. ' Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway N. H. A. 

Soc' XVII. 368-375. 1906. 



COKUESPONDING SOCIETIES. 65 

Stephenson, Capt. J. The Punjab and its People. 'Journal Manchester Geog. 

Soc' XXIX. L'6-40. 190G. 
SoTTON, Alfred. The Iviver System of Western Hertfordshire. ' Trans. Herts 

N. n. Soc' xiii. 1-4. I'JOr. 
Thompstone, Mark W. An Undiscovered Country and the English Holland. 

' Journal Manchester Geug. Sjc' xxii. 97-107. 1007. 
Watts, Prof. W. W. Opening Address to the Geographical Section: The Study 

of Geography. ' Proc. Biruiinghan N. H. Phil. Soc' xil. 1-16. 1907. 
WoOLLEY, Hermann. A Chapter in the History of the Exploration of the 

Canadian Eocljy Mountains. ' Journal Manchester Geog. Soc' xxii. 05-72. 

190G. 



Section F. — Economic Science and Statistics. 

Atkinson, W. N. (S. Staff, and Warwick Inst.) Coal-miuiug Statistics of 1905. 

'Trans. Inst. Min. Eug.' xxxi. 157-159. 1906. 
Brocklehurst, F. The Growth of Municipal Expenditure. ' Trans. Manchester 

Stat. Soc. 1905-1906,' 1-20. 1906. 
Uall, Dr. Alex. Some Historical Aspects of Trades Unionism. ' Proc. South- 
port Lit. Phil. Soc' VI. 3-49. 1906. 
Dawson, Charles. Suggested Substitutes for the present Poor-law System. 

' Journal Stat. Soc. Ireland,' xi. 428-438. 1906. 
Johnston, W.J, The Land Purchase Problem. 'Journal Stat. Soc Ireland,' 

XI. 396-411. 190G. 
Knowles, Sir Lees. Presidential Address. Workmen's Compensation : with 

special reference to Contracting out. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 288-323. 

1906. 
Maginnis, Arthur J. Transatlantic Lines and Steamships (No. 3). ' Trans. 

Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxvii. 151-167. 1900. 
Miller, Rev\ Andrew. Elberfeld System of Poor Relief. ' Proc. Glasgow R. 

I'hil. Sjc' xxxvii. 20-37. 1906. 
Morris, E. A. M. Canals and Waterways of Western Europe. 'Journal Stat. 

Soc. Ireland,' XI. 381-396. 1906. 
MuiR, Arthur H. Belfast Civic Undertakings. ' Proc. Belfast N. II. Phil. Soc. 

1905-6,' 1-13. 1906. 
Murray, John Bruce. Social Reformation of Criminals. ' Proc. Glasgow R. 

Phil. Soc' XXXVII. 46-58. 1906. 
O'DoNAHUE, T. A. (N. Eng. Inst. Eug.) The Valuation of Mineral Properties, 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eug.' xxxii. 399-417. 1907. 
Parry, Judge E. A. Ten Years' Experience of the Manchester and Salford 

County Courts. ' Trans. Manchester Stat. Soc. 1905-1906,' 67-86. 1906. 
Platt-Higgins, Frederick. The Rise and Decline of the Free Trade Movement. 

'Trans. Manchester Stat. Soc. 1905-1906,' 21-65. 1906. 
PocoCK, Very Rev. Dr. A. Trade Societies in the Middle Ages. • Trans. Man- 
chester Stat. Soc. 1905-1906,' 87-128. 1906. 
Price, Harry L. Some Financial and Commercial Aspects of Trade Insolvency. 

' Trans. Manchester Stat. Soc. 1905-1906,' 129-146. 1906. 
Saihuel, John S. Social Derelicts ; or the Contribution of the Army to Human 

Wastage. ' Proc Gla>gow R. Phil. Soc' xxxvii. 80-92. 1906. 
Stanuell, Charles A. The Practice of the Commercial Court. ' Journal Stat. 

Soc. Ireland,' Si. 365-381. 1906. 
Synnott, Nicholas J. Proposals for a New Labourers' Bill ; an Attempt to solve 

the Rural Housing Question in Ireland. ' Journal Stat. Soc Ireland," xi. 

411-428. 1906. 
WiGG, T. J. Notes on the Herring Fishery of 1904. 'Trans. Norfolk and 

Norwich Nat. Soc' viii. 307-312. 1906. 
Wilson, II. W. Some Economic Aspects of Electric Power Supply, ' Trans. 

Liverpool Eug. Soc' xxvii. 135-142. 1906. 

1907. F 



66 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Section G. — Engineering, 

Abell, W. Peice. The Reavell Air-compressor at Work. ' Trans. Inst. Miu. 

Eng.' XXX. 582-586. 1906. 
Archee William. Improved Dampers for Coke-oven Flues. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XXXI. 1(33-165. 1906. 
AsHWOEiH, James (Manchester Geol. Min. S )c.). The Elba and Ciydach Vale 

Colliery Explosions. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eug.' xxx. 509-518. 1906. 
Atkinson, W. N., and A. M. Henshaw. The Courrieres Explosion. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii 439-492. 1907. 
Bambee, H. K. G. The Manufacture of Portland Cement. 'Trans. Liverpool 

Eng. Soc' XXVII. 102-119. 1906.^ 
BAEEACLOUGn, Ellis (Midland Inst. Eng.). Practical Notes on Winding Ropes 

and Capels. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 56S-576. 1906. 
Beach, T. 'Black Ends': Their Cause, Cost, and Cure. 'Trans. Inst. Jlin. Eng.' 

xxx. .592-599. 1906. 
Bentley, John (N. Staff. Inst. Eng.). Improved Constructions of Rails and 

Rail-joints for Collieries, Mines, and Quarries. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XXXII. 493-497. 1907. 
Caldwell, James (Min. Inst. Scotland). Electric Power Station, Winding 

Gear, and Pumping Plant of the Tarbrax Oil Company, Limited. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 221-2.30. 1906. 
Coulston, p. Baeeett. The Use of Electric Power in Collieries. ' Trans. Liver- 
pool Eng. Soc' XXVII. 7 1 -90. 1906. 

(Manchester Geol. Min. Soc.) The Use of Electricitv in Collieries. 'Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 185-197. 1906. 

CowpER-CoLEs, Sherard. The Rendering of Iron and Steel Non-corrosive. 

'Trans. Liverpool Eog. Soc' xxvii. 17-36. 1906. 
Ceemee, R. (Midland Inst. Eng.) The Pueumatogen, the Self-generating 

Rescue Apparatus, compared with other types. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 

61-71. 1906. 
Faemer, George. Cnnsiderations on Deep Mining. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XXXI. 465-484. 1906. 
Galloway, W. (N. Eng. Inst. Eng.) An Appliance for Automatically Stopping 

and Restarting Mine Wagons. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 19-22. 

1906. 
Gaeforth, W. E. a New Apparatus for Rescue Work in Mines. ' Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xxxi. 025-654. 1906. 
Gebayes, Pekc? C. (Midland Inst. Eng.) Cost of an Electrical Unit at a Colliery. 

• Trans. lust. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 363-365. 1907. 
Gueritte, T. J. (N. England Inst. Eng.) Ferro -concrete and its Applications. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxni. 10-24. 1907. 
Hall, Aethue. The Stanley Double-headmg Machine. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

xxx. 600-606. 1906. 
Hodges, Isaac (Midland Inst. Eng.). An Account of Sinking and Tubbing at 

Methley Junction Colliery, with a description of a Cast-iron Dam to Resist an 

Outburst of Water. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 76-97. 1906. 
Hodgson, L. H. (Min. Inst. Scotland) The Wolf Safety Lamp. ' Trans. Inst. 

Mm. Eng.' xxxii. 300-304. 1906. 

Acetylene Safety Lamps. ' Trans. Inst. Miu. Eng.' xxxii. 305-307. 

1906. 

King, Eenest (Min. Inst. Scotland). Non-rotating Wire-ropes and Tests 
of Wire-rope Attachments. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eug.' xxxi. 150-153. 
1906. 

Latham, Chaeles (Min. Inst. Scotland). Notes on the Detection and Estima- 
tion of Inflammable Gases in Mines by means of Flame-caps. ' Trans. Inst. 
Miu. Eng.' XXXI. 136-147. 1906. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 67 

LoNGDEN, J. A. (Mid. Counties Inst. Eng.) Colliery Consumption. ' Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xxx. 539-540. 1906. 
Louis, Prof. Henry. The Strength of Brazed Joints in Steel Wires. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 443-449. 1906. 
McKay, William (Manchester Geol. Min. Soc). The Boultham Well at 

Lincoln. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng ' xxxii. 24.5-252. 1900, 
McLaren, Robert (Min. Inst. Scotland). The McCutcheon Gas Detector. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 237-242. 1906. 
Marchant, Prof. E. W. Electrical' Testing. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' 

XXVII. 256-288. 1900. 
Mason, A. Stewart. Some Notes on Sewage Purification. ' Trans. Liverpool 

Eng. Soc' XXVII. 293-324. 1906. 
Maitrice, Wm. (Mid. Counties lust. Eng.) A Rateau Exhaust- steam- 
driven Three-phase Haulage Plant. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 118-128. 

1906. 
Mayor, Sam. Practical Problems of Machine Mining. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' 

XXXI. 378-437. 1906. 
(Min. Inst. Scotland). Heading by Longwall Machines. ' Trans. Inst. 

Min. Eng.' xxxiii. 65-76. 1907. 
Meyer, G. A. (Translation.) Rescue Apparatus and the Experiences gained 

therewith at the Courrieres Collieries by the German Rescue Party. * Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 575-613. 1906. * 
Mountain, W. C. Commercial Possibilities of Electric Winding for Main Shafts 

and Auxiliary Work. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 329-347. 1906. 
Ness, Georsb (Min. Inst. Scotland). Efl'ects of Acceleration on Winding- 
torques, and Test of Tarbrax Electrical Winding-plant. 'Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XXXIII. 287-293. 1906. 
Ornsby, R. E. The Reopening of Hartley Colliery. ' Trans. Inst. Min. En".' 

XXIX. 657-662. 1906. 
PiGGFORD, Jonathan (Mid. Counties lust. Eng.) Two-stage Air-compress- 
ing Plant at Teversal Collieries. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxx. 526-537. 

1906. 
PiLKiNGTON, Charles (Manchester Geol. Min. Soc.) Presidential Address. 

[Mining Problems.] 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 352-361. 1907. 
RoELOFSEN, Dr. J. A. By-product Coke and Huessener By-product Coke-ovens. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 451-460. 1906. 
Rosenheim, Ernest A. Petrol Motor-cars in 1905. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. 

Soc' XXVII. 211-241. 1906. 
Sawyer, A. R. Petroleum Occurrences in the Orange River Colony. ' Trans. 

Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 641-544. 1906. 
Shanks, John. Under-sea Extensions at the Whitehaven Collieries, and the 

Driving of the Ladysmith Drift. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 166-172. 

1906. 
Smith, J. Reney. Inaugural Address. [Modern Developments in the Shipping 

Industry.] 'Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxvii. 1-16. 1906. 
Steavenson, a. L. (N. England Inst. Eng.) Bonburn Winning. ' Trans. lust. 

Min. Eng.' xxxii. 385-388. 1907. 
Swallow, F. C. (S. Stafl" and Warw. Inst. Min. Eng.) Boilers for Colliery 

Purposes. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 321-326. 1906. 
Thacker, S. L. (S. Stall' and Warw. Inst. Min. Eng.) Walsall Corporation 

Electric Supply. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 330-335. 1906. 
Thompson, A. Electrically driven Air-compressors combined with the Working 

of Ingersoll-Sergeant Heading-machines, and the subsequent Working of the 

Busty Seam at Ouston Colliery. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 356-374. 

1906. 
Thomson, John B. (Min. Inst. Scotland.) A Diamond Hand-boring Machine. 

' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 107-110. 1906. 
Tests of a Mine Fan. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 295-299. 

1906. 

F 2 



68 KKPOIiTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

ToNGB, Alfred J. (Maucbestei- Geol. Min. Soc.) Underground Fans as Main 

Ventilators. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 207-219 1006. 
Tyrrell, J. B. Development of Placer Gold-mining in the Klondike District, 

Canada. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 556-574. 1906. 
Verschoyle, W. Denh.^m. A New Pocket Transit. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng. 

xxxir. 165-167. 1906. 
Walker, R. J. Progress made in the Application of the 'Parsons' Turbine to 

Marine Propulsion. 'Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc ' xxvii. 170-202. 1906. 
Walker, Sydney F. The Capacity-current and itsEtlect on Leakage- indications 

on Three-phase Electrical Power-service. 'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxi. 

526-540. 1906. 
Watts, William (Manchester Geol. Min. Soc). Alternative Schemes of 

Pumping and Supplying Water by Gravitation for the Use of Collieries. 

'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng' xxxi. 632-680. 1906. 
Wilson, J. R R. (Midland Inst. Eng.) Presidential Address. [Mining History.] 

'Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 256-285. 1906. 
Wood, E. Seymour (N. Eng. Inst.). Sinking through Magnesian Limestone and 

Yellow Sand by the Freezing Process at Diwdon Colliery, near Seaham 

Harbour, co. Durham. ' Trans. Inst. Min. Eng.' xxxii. 551-577. 1907. 
Young, F. W. The Salvage of Ships. ' Trans. Liverpool Eng. Soc' xxvii. 

41-61. 1906. 

Section B. — Anthropology. 

Barhour, .Tames. Account of the Excavations of Lochrutton Lake Dwelling 

(Part II.) 'Trans. Dumfriesshire and Gallowav N. H. A. Soc" xvii. 246-254. 

1906. 
Barnes, J. B., and Harold Brodrtck. On a recently discovered Skeleton in 

Scoska Cave, Littondale. ' Report Southport Soc. of Nat. Science ' xi. 52-65. 

1906. 
Beeston, T. J. The Roch Dwellings at Drakelow and Blakeshall Common. 

' Trans. Worcestershire Nat. Club,' in. 269-272. 1907. 
Bulleid, Arthur. Prehistoric I3oat found at Shapwick, 1906. 'Proc. 

Somersetshire A. N. H. Soc' lii. Part II. 51-54. 1907. 
and H. St. George Gray. The Gla.stonbury Lake Village: an Account 

of a Portion of the Excavations undertaken during 1905 and 1906. 'Proc. 

Somersetshire A. N. II. Soc' lii. Part II. 96-131. 1907. 
Clarke, W. Q. The Classification of Norfolk Flint Implements. 'Trans. Norfolk 

and Norwich Nat. Soc' viii. 215-230. 1906. 
Cole, Rev. E. Maule. Roman Remains at Filey. ' Proc. Yorkshire Geol. Soc' 

XVI. 21-25. 1906. 
Cole, W^illiav.. Exploration of some ' Red Hills ' in Essex, with Remarks upon 

the Objects found. ' E^sex Naturalist,' xiv. 170-183. 1907. 
CoRRiE, John. Tbe Lnch Urr Crannog. ' Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway 

N. H. A. Soc' XVII. 242-246. 1906. 
Evans, Sir John. On a recent Palseolitliic Discovery near Rickmans worth. 

'Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xiii. 65-66. 1907. 
Gray, II. St. George. TLe Stone Circle on Withypool Hill, Exmoor. 'Proc 

Somersetshire A. N. H. Soc' lii. Part II. 42-50. 1907. 
Kewlet, J. On a Cinerary Urn from Balahot. 'Proc Isle of Man N. H. A. 

Soc' I. 33. 1907. 
Knowlfs, W. J. Stone Axe Factories near Cushendall. ' Proc. Belfast N. F. 0.' 

V. 421-423. 1906. 
Lennox, James. Excavations on the Site of the Monasterv of Dumfries. ' Trans. 

Dumfriesshire and Galloway N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 254-256. 1906. 
Lyell, Dr. John. Some Aspects of the New Craniology. ' Trans. Perthshire 

Soc. N. Sci.' IV. 121-127. 1906. 
Meyrick, E. On the Opening of a Barrow near Manton. ' Report Marlb. Coll. 

N. H. Soc' No. 65, 81. 1907. 



COKKESPUNDJMCJ CiUClKTIES. G9 

Metrick, E. Aiithvopometrical Report. 'Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. Soc' 

No. 5.5, 11M38. 1907. 
Peringtjey, L. On Rock-engravings of Auimala and Human Figure, the Work 

of South African Aborigines, and their relation to similar ones in Nortbern 

Africa. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 401-412. 1906. 
Reaber, F. W. Further Notes on the Pile Dwelling Site at Skitt's Hill, 

Braintree, Essex. ' Essex Naturalist,' xiv. 1.37-147. 1906. 
ScLATER, W. L. Notes on some recently rediscovered Inscribed Stones bearing 

on the History of the Cape Colony. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 207-212. 

1906. 
Vine, George T. Science and Child Study. ' Report Southport Soc. of Nat. 

Science,' xi. 33-50. 1906. 

Section I. — Physiology. 

Oarmicuael, Dr. Niel. The Necessity for Improved Ventilation of Buildings. 

' Proc Glasgow R. Pliil. Soc' xxxvit. 59-73. 1908. 
Pollock, Dr. W. B. Inglis. The Eyesight of School Children : being a Record 

of the Examination of over 3,000 School Children. ' Pi-oc. Ghxsgow R. 

Phil. Soc' xxxvii. 93-124. 1906. 
Thompson, Beebt. Physiological Effects of Altitude. * Joui-nal Northants N. H. 

Soc' xm. 227-223. 1906. 
WiLSHAW, R. H. Pathogenic Organisms. ' Report Southport Soc. of Nat. 

Science,' xi. 60-61. 1908. 



Section K. — Botany. 

Adams, J. Irish Parasitic Fungi. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 167-169. 1907. 
Arnott, S. The Snowdrop: its History, Literature, and Botany. 'Trans. 

Dumfriesshire and Galloway N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 339-350. 1906. 
Popular Plant Names. ' Trans. Damfriesshire and Galloway N. H. A. Soc' 

XVII. 404-410. 1906. 
Batters, E. A. L. The Algae of Lambay, co. Dublin : a Preliminary List of the 

Marine Algae. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 107-110. 1907. 
Bennett, Arthur. Holosteum umhellatum, L., Statice reticulata, h., and Phloum 

Boehneri, Wibel. ' Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc' viii. 231-238. 1906. 
Bloomfield, Rev. E. N. Suffolk Fungi. ' Trans, Norfolk and Norwich Nat. 

Soc' vm. 246-264. 1906. 
Boi.TJS, Dr. H. Contributions to the African Flora. ' Trans. S. African Phil. 

Soc' XVI. 381-400. 1906. 
Boyd, D. A. Bryological Notes. 'Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' vii. 273-275. 

1907. 
Bradshaw, a. p. Short Notes on the Study of the British Seaweeds. ' Trans. 

Manchester Mic Soc 1905,' 56-60. 1906. 
Bukkill, Harold J Cornus Suecica on the York Moors. ' The Naturalist for 

1907,' 135-136. 1907. 
Burrell, W. H. Mertensia niarkima, Gray, in Norfolk. ' Trans. Norfolk and 

Norwich Nat. Soc' viii. 201. 1906. 
Burton, J. On the Reproduction of Mosses and Ferns. 'Journal Quekett Mic. 

Club,' X. 1-8. 1907. 
Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Clur. Botanical Notes, 1906. * Record 

of Bare Facts' No. 16, 5-21 . 1907. 
Carr, Prof. J. W. Notes on Nottinghamshire Plants. ' Report Nottinghamshire 

Nat. Soc. for 190.5-190G,' 49-50. 1907. 
Cavers, Dr. F. Notes on Yorkshire Bryophytes. IV. Frullania and Jubula. 

' The Naturalist for 1907,' 11-1 6, 46-49. 1907. 
Chittenden, F. J. The Bog-mosses (Sphagnaceae) of Essex : a Contribution to 

the Flora of the County. ' Essex Naturalist,' xiv. 111-116. 1906. 



70 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Chittenden, F. J. The Mosses of Essex : a Contribution to the Flora of the 

County. ' Essex Naturalist,' xiv. 201-2^5. 1907. 
Cooke, Dr. M. C. Fungi in Pairs. ' Essex Naturalist,' xiv. 64-65. 
Crossland, C. Fungus Foray at Farnley Tyas. ' The Naturalist for 1907,' 

50-57. 1907. 
Recently discovered Fungi in Yorkshire. ' The Naturalist for 1907,' 

97-105. 1907. 
Darwin, Francis. Presidential Address. [Periodicity.] 'South-Eastern Natu- 
ralist for 1906,' 1-17. 1906. 
Dixon, H. N. Botanical Notes. 'Journal Northants N. H. Soc' xiii. 270-272. 

1906. 
Deuce, G. Claridge. Northamptonshire Plants. 'Journal Northants N. H. 

Soc' xiii. 290-291. 1907. 
Notes on a Botanical Expedition in Ireland in September 1906. ' Irish 

Naturalist.,' xvi. 146-153. 1907. 
Edwards, W. II. The Museum as an Index to the Flora, Fauna, Geology, and 

Antiquities of the County. ' Trans. Worcestershire Nat. Club,' iii. 277-291. 

1907. 
EwiNG, Peter. An fficological Problem. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' vii. 

225-235. 1907. 
Fish, D. S. Some Features of Interest in Scottisii Mountain Plants. ' Trans. 

Edinburgh F. N. Mic Soc' v. 242-258. 1906. 
Geldaet, Alice M. Stratiotes alo'ides, L. ' Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. 

Soc' Tin. 181-200. 1906. 
Griffin, W. H. Notes on the Flora of Eastbourne as observed during the 

• Congress. ' South-Eastern Naturalist for 1900,' 68-09. 1906. 
Ingham, W. New and Rare Yorkshire Mosses and Hepatics. ' The Naturalist 

for 1906,' 187. 1906. 
Two New Yorkshire Hepatics. ' The Naturalist for 1907,' 151-152. 

1907. 
Jackson, A. B. Northamptonshire Plant Notes, 1905. ' Journal Northants N. H. 

Soc' xiii. 219-221. 1906. 
Kewlbt, J. Report of the Botanical Section, 1905-6. ' Proc Isle of Man 

N. H. A. Soc' I. 25-28. 1907. 
Knowles, M. C. a Contribution towards the Alien Flora of Ireland. ' Irish 

Naturalist,' XV. 143-150. 1906. 
fjiLLr, C. J. l^icia orobiis in co. Antrim. 'Irish Naturalist,' xv. 267-268. 

1906. 
M'Ardle, D. a Morel new to Ireland. ' Irish Naturalist,' xv. 158-159. 1906. 

The Mosses of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 99-103. 

1907. 

The Ilepaticse of Lambay, co. Dublin. 'Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 103-104. 

1907. 

The Fungi of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 104-106. 1907. 

The Lichens of Lambav, co. Dublin. 'Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 110-111. 

1907. 

M'CuTCHBON, W. M. Sediim telej)hium. ' Trans. Dumfriesshire and Gallowav 

N. II. A. Soc' XVII. 394-395. 1906. 
Macdonald, J. J. The Great Gulf : an Interesting Point in Evolution. 'Trans. 

Edinburgh F. N. Mic. Soc' v. 268-263. 1906. 
M'li.EOT, Janie Hamilton. Some Notes on the Leaves of Nephrodium filex 

mas, L , and Scolopendn'um vu>gave, Sm., in. relation to Environment. ' Proc. 

Glasgow Roy. Phil. Soc' xxxvii. 136-141. 1906. 
Maeloth, Dr. R. Notes on Aloe socotrina, Lam. ' Trans. S. African Phil. 

Soc' XVI. 213-215. 1906. 

Observations on the Function of the Ethereal Oils of Xerophytic Plants. 

'Trans. S. African Phil. Soc' xvi. 317-321. 1906. 

Merlin, A. A. C. E. Note on a new Diatom Structure. ' Journal Quekett Mic. 
CJub ' X. 13-83. 1907. 



CORRESPONDTNG SOCIETIES. 71 

Meyrick, E. Report of the Botanical Section. ' Report Marlb. Coll. N. H. 

Soc' No. 55, 52-62. 1907. 
Murray, W. The Larch Disease. ' Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway N. H. A. 

Soc' XTiT. .386-387. 1906. 
NicnoLSON, W. A. A Preliminary Sketch of the Bionomical Botany of Sutton 

and the Ant District. 'Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Soc' viii. 265-289. 

1906. 
Norman, Commander. Pinits pinea at Dunglass, East Lothian. ' History 

Berwickshire Nat. Club,' xix. 173-177. 1906. 
NowERS, J. E. Dispersal of Seeds. ' Trans. Burton-on-Trent N. H. Arch Soc' 

V. 144-1.57. 1906. 

British Phanerocramic Parasitic Plants. 'Trans. Burton-on-Trent N. H. 

Arch. Soc' V. 162-171. 1906. 

Pearson, 11. H. W. Notes on South African Oycads.— I. ' Trans. S. African 

Phil. Soc' XVI. 341-354. 1906. 
Phillips, W. H. Reproduction in Ferns. (Inaugural Address.) ' Proc Belfast 

Nat. F. C V. 408-413. 1906. 
PiCKARB, J. F. Botanical and other Notes at Arncliffe. ' The Naturalist for 

1906,' 425-428. 1906. 
Praeger, R. Lloyd. On the Botany of I^ough Carra. ' Irish Naturalist,' xv. 

207-214. 1906. 

Notes of a Western Ramble. ' Irish Naturalist,' xv. 257-266. 190G. 

The Phanerogams .and Vascular Cryptogams of Lambay, co. Dublin. ' Irish 

Naturalist,' xvi! 90-99. ITO/. 

The Flora of Inisbturk. ' Irish Naturali.st," xvi. 113-125. 1907. 



Rea, Carleton. Some Remarks on the Rusts and Smuts known technically as 

TJredinacce and TJstUayinacea. ' Trans. Worcestershire Nat. Club,' ill. 247- 

254. 1907. 
Renwick, John. Notes on Trees at Auchendrane, Ayr. ' Trans. Glasgow 

N. H. Soc' VII. 262-272. 1907. 
Ridge, W. T. B. Report of the Botanical Section. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xli. 

86-88. 1907. 
Robertson, Dr. Agnes. The Plant Cell : an Historical Sketch. ' The Naturalist 

for 1906,' 179-18.3. 1906. 
Salmon, E.S. Wanted: Field Workers. ' Proc. Holme.sdale N. H. C. 1902-1905,' 

21-31 1906. 
Sargant, Miss E. The Family Tree of Flowering Plants. ' Proc Ilolmesdale 

N. H. C. 1902-1905,' 50-59. 1906. 
Saunders, James. Witches' Brooms. ' Trans. Herts N. H. Soc' xiii. 67-78. 1907. 
Scott-Elliot, Prof. G. F. The Idea of Evolution, and possible Fields of Work 

for British Botani.sts. (Presidential Address.) ' Trans. Dumfriesshire and 

Galloway N. H. A. Soc' xvii. 257-262. 1906. 
Trees. 'Trans. Dumfriesshire and Galloway N. II. A. Soc' xvii. 314-317. 

1906. 
Sim, T. R. Recent Information concerning South African Ferns and their Dis- 
tribution. ' Trans. S. African Phil. Soc'' xvi, 267-300. 1906. 
Smith, Miss A. Lorrain. How the Lily is Attacked and Destroved by 

the Botrytis Fungus. 'Proc Holmesdale N. H. C. 1902-1^05,'" 78-83. 

1906. 
Smith, Dr. W. G. The Use of Maps in Botauv. ' The Naturalist for 190G,' 

171-175. 1906. 
Spraque, Miss Beatrice. Notes on the Formation and Flora of a Shingle 

Island in the River Orchy, Dalmallv, Argyll. 'Trans. Edinburgh F. N. Mic. 

Soc' V. 290-31.\ 1906. 
Stansfield, W. H. The Distribution of Alpine Plants in Britain. ' Report 

Southport Soc of Nat. Science,' XI 20-32. 1906. 
Stiles, M. H. Diatoms. ' The Naturalist for 1906,' 428. 1906. 
ToMLiNSON, W. J. C. Some Recent Records in our Local Flora. ' Proc Belfast 

N. F. C V. 440-442. 1906. 



72 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

TtTENER, Charlfs. Tbe Microscopic Structure of Stems. ' Trans. Manchester 
Mic. Soc. 1905,' 5.3-65. 1906. 

Whitney, N. S., and Miss B. Milner. The Flora of the Eastbourne District. 
' South-Eastern Naturalist for 190G,' 30-34. 1900. 

WiEsox, Rev. D. W. Some of the Rarer Plants of the Gorebridge District. 
' Trans. Edinhui'gli F. N. Mic. Soc' v. 264-207. 1900. 

Wtshart, R. S. Some East Fife Flowers. ' Trans. Glasgow N. H. Soc' vii. 
257-261. 1907. 

WooDRTJFPE-rEAcocK:, Rev. F. A. Floral Competition and Cycles. 'The Natu- 
ralist for 1906,' 414-419. 1906. 

Wkoot, Herbert E. Notes on Yorlcshire Botany in 1727. ' The Naturalist for 
1906/ 257-260. 1906. 



Section L. — Educational Science. 

Gregory, Prof. J. W. The Education of Mining Engineers. ' Trans. Inst. Min. 

Eng.' XXXI. 602-515. 1906. 
Murray, Dr. David. Some Early Grammars and other School Books in use in 

Scotland, more particularly those printed at or relating to Glasgow. (Part II.) 

' Proc. Glasjrow R. Phil. Soc' xxxvii. 142-191 . 1906. 



Obituary. 

Blake, Prof. .1. F. By F. R. ' Report Nottingham Nat. Soc 1005-1900,' 19-20. 

1907. 
Clerkb, Agnes Mary. By Elsie A. Dent. ' .louvnal R Astr. Soc. of Canada,' 

I. 81-84. 1907. 
Foster, Sir Michael. By T. S[heppardl. ' The Naturalist for 1907,' 124-125. 

1907. 
Iruy, Lieut.-Colonel Ti. TI. L. By T. S. ' Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. 

Soc' viTi. 327-32.S. 1900. 
PiM, Greenwood. By W. Monre. ' Irish Naturalist,' xvi. 169. 1907. 
RoBSON, John Emmerson. By G. T. P. ' The Naturalist for 1907,' 187. 1907. 
Silver, Stephen William. By H. Balfour. 'Report Ashraolean N. II. Soc. for 

1906,' 19-20. 1907. 
Symes, lliciiARD Glascott. By R. C. 'Irish Naturalist,' xv. 249-2.50. 1906. 
Ward, Prof. II. Marshall. By J. W. C, ' Report Nottingham Nat. Soc. for 

1905-1906,' 21-22. 1907. 
Ward, John. ' Trans. N. Staff. F. C xli. 41-47. 1907. 
WiLLETT, Henry. By G. C. Druce. ' Report A.shmolean N. H. Soc. for 1906,' 

16-18. 1907. 
Wood, Rev. F. 11. By Beebv Tliompson. ' .Tournal Northants N. II. Soc' xiii. 

222-223. 1906. 



ON PHACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAT. MEASUREMENTS. 73 



Experiments for improimri the Gonstrndion of Practical Standarch for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Lord Rayleigh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazekrook (Secretary), 
Lord Kelvin, Professors W. E. Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver J. Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Professors A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming, 
and J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, 
Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professor 
S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal B. H. Griffiths, Sir 
A. W. RucKER, Profe&sor H. L. Callendar, and Mr. George 
Matthey. 

AITEXniX PAGE 

I. Notes 071 tJie ^;re.sf«# condition of the worh on Electric Units at the 
National Physical Laboratory. By V. E. Smith. {From the Na 
tional Physical Laboratory) ....... 

II. Sjieeif cation for the Practical Application of the Definition of the Tn 

ternaiional Ampere. (From the National Physical LMhoratory') . 77 

in. Preparation of the Weston {Cadmium) Standard Cell. {From the 

National Physical Lahor at or y) 80 



The main work during the year has been the completion of the work 
with the ampere balance. The general results are referred to in some 
detail bMow. The final measurements confirm the opinion expressed in 
last year's Report that an accuracy of a few parts in 100,000 might 
be reached. It appears that the result is probably accurate to 1 in 
50,000. 

Interim reports on the ampere balance, indicating the progress of con- 
struction, adjustment, and use of the instrument, have been submitted to 
the Association since 1904. 

The Committee are now pleased to report that the balance continues 
to give complete satisfaction. During the past year it has been much 
used for determining the e.mf. of the Normal Weston Cadmium cell and 
the electrochemical equivalent of silver. A description of the instrument, 
its construction and adjustment, and the results obtained with it in the 
cadmium cell determinations, has been prepared and submitted to the 
Royal Society for publication in its 'Transactions,' by Professor Ayrton, 
Mr. Mather, and Mr. F. E. Smith. An account of the work on the 
electrochemical equivalent of silver is well advanced and will be published 
shortly. 

In all some 71 observations have been made on a certain cadmium 
cell (No. 2), using both sets of coils on the balance, and 13 observations 
in which one or other of the two sets was employed. The agreement 
between the individual results obtained with the two sets of coils is 
remarkable, the average difference from the mean amounting only to 6 
parts in a million. The wlio'e series of observations extended over a 
period of nineteen months (September 1905 to April 1907), and during 
that time the coils of the balance were reset five times. No determina- 
tion made has been omitted, except those in which the observations were 
of such a nature that a decision to disregard the result was arrived at 
before its computation. Such occasions were rare. 



74 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIEXCE. 

Of the 71 observations made 



7 are 


within 


1 


in a 


million 


of the 


mean 


14 „ 




2 










28 „ 




5 










53 „ 




10 










66 „ 




15 










70 „ 




20 











Only one determination out of the whole 71, and this one of the earliest, 
differs from the mean by so much as 1 part in 59,000. 

The above facts constitute important evidence of constancy in both 
balance and cell. In fact, both current-weigher and cell proved to be 
much more constant and reliable than the standard resistance, although 
the latter was very carefully made and annealed with a view to ensuring 
permanency. 

Expressed in terms of the international ohm as realised at the 
National Physical Laboratory, and of the ampere as given by the new 
current-weighor, we find that the value of C x R for the normal Weston 
cadmium cell is 1-01830., at 17° C. 

This assumes that the value of g at Teddington is 981-19, a number 
probably correct to within 3 part in 100,000. An uncertainty of this 
amount in y introduces a possible error of 1^ part in 100,000 in the 
value of the ampere, and, as all other probable errors are smaller in 
magnitude, it is important that a more accurate determination of g be 
made. 

To realise the volt with an accuracy approaching that of the ampere, 
as now known, it is necessary that an absolute determination of resistance 
of corresponding precision be undertaken. Through the kindness of the 
Drapers' Company of London it is hoped that such a determination by 
means of a Lorenz apparatus may be completed at the National Physical 
Laboratory before the end of next year. At the present time the 
unceitainty in the absolute value of the international ohm approximates 
to 4 in 10,000. 

From the above value of C x R for the cadmium cell, together with 
the ratio of Clai'k to cadmium, viz., 



Clark at 15° (1 _ ^.^Qg 

Cadmiuni aT 17° C. * 



0) 



the e.m.f. of the Clark cell at 15° C. becomes 1-4323. 

The Committee recognise very fully the skill and devotion of Mr. 
Mather and Mr. Smith, on whom the v.ork of carrying out the experi- 
ments has fallen, and have invited these gentlemen to become members 
of the Committee. 

Papers by Mr. F. E. Smith, of the National Physical Laboratory, 
dealing with tlie use of the silver voltameter and the preparation of the 
Weston cadmium cell, are nearly ready for publication. 

Some preliminary work has also been done on the design for the 
Lorenz apparatus, the funds for which are being found by the Drapers' 
Company. The proposed design embodies new features of importance. 

With regard to the proposed Conference on Electric Units, further 
consideration led to the conclusion that a year's delay was desirable, 
and in consequence the meeting was postponed from October 1906 to 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 75 

October 1907. With a view to a preliminary agreement on the matters 
to be raised, correspondence has passed during the year between the 
Secretary, acting as Director of the National Physical Laboratory, and 
the heads of standardising laboratories in other countries. The Con- 
ference will probably deal with tlie drawing up of an International 
Convention relative to Electric Units, which should include the draft of 
a form of law which might be adopted generally in the various countries 
represented, and the consideration of the steps necessary to secure 
uniformity in the carrying out of the laws in different countries, and to 
arrange for determinations necessary for this purpose. 

The necessary invitations for the Conference are being issued by his 
Majesty's Government. 

To secure uniformity in carrying out the law it will be necessary that 
specificatioiis for constructing and using a mercury unit of resistance, for 
setting up and working a silver voltameter, and for preparing a standard 
cell, be approved either by the Conference itself or by some body 
nominated by the Conference for this purpose. 

With a view to aiding discussion, very detailed specifications dealing 
with the voltameter and the cell have been prepared by the National 
Physical Laboratory and issued to other standardising institutions. 
These are printed in Appendices II. and III. 

It is not suggested that the Una] specifications need be so full or so 
detailed, but it was thought well that all information necessary to assist 
in criticising the results should be included. 

The work on the silver voltameter and Weston cell still continues 
and, in view of the deliberations of the Conference, it is probable that 
further expenditure will be required. The accounts show that a balance 
of 10s. 8d. remains from the grant of 50^. made last year. The grant 
has been spent on the purchase of material and appliances for the 
research. 

In view of the importance of bringing the work of re-determining the 
values of the fundamental units to a satisfactory conclusion, the Com- 
mittee i-ecommend that they be reappointed, with a grant of 50/., and 
with the addition of the names of Mr. A. P. Trotter, Mr. T. Mather, 
F.R.S., and Mr. F. E. Smith ; that Lord Rayleigh be Chairman and 
Dr. Glazebrook Secretary. 



APPENDIX I. 



Notes on the Present Condition of the Work on Electric Units at the 
National Physical Laboratory. By F. E. Smith. 

(From the National rhysicul Laboratoiy.) 

1. The Ohm. — (a) Absolute Unit. — The value of a resistance in absolute 
measure is still subject to considerable uncertainty ; the most satisfactory 
value is obtained from the mean observed ratio of the International Ohm 
to the absolute ohm.' 

A provisional design has been prepared for the Lorenz apparatus 
which the Drapers' Company are kindly presenting to the National 
Physical Laboratory, and experiments to test the more important features 

' See table in the Brit. Assoc. Eej). for 1892. 



Observed Difference in 


Observed Difference in 


Int. Ohms in 1903. 


Int. Olnns in 1900. 


0-0006'.), 


OOOO685 


88^ 


89j 


94, 


953 


29, 


30, 


ou 


02, 



76 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIEMCE. 

of the design are in progress. It is hoped to realise the ohm in absolute 
measure to 1 part in 100,000. The experience gained in the construc- 
tion of many of the fittings of the ampere balance will greatly facilitate 
the work. 

(b) hiternational Unit. — Further comparisons of some of the mercury 
standards of the National Physical Laboratory were made in October and 
November 1906. There appears to have been no change in any of the 
tubes which affects the resistance of the contained mercury columns by 
as much as 1 part in 100,000. The following table gives the observed 
differences in 1903 (the year of their construction) and in October and 
November 1906. 

Blercury Standards 
Compared. 
M-P 
M-T 
M-U 
M-V 
M-X 

2. The Ainpere. (a) Ahsolnie Measure. — When the ampere balance 
was designed it was hoped by means of it to measure a current in absolute 
value to 1 part in 10,000, but it will be seen from the report on the 
balance that the evaluation of a current of nominal value I ampere is 
subject to an error which appears to be not greater than 1 part in 50,000. 

(b) International Unit of Current. — The International Conference ou 
Electric Units at Charlottenburg (1905) reaffirmed the definition of the 
International ampere in terms of the deposit of silver in a silver voltameter 
or coulometer, but expressed the opinion that the information before it 
was insufficient to enable it to propose any alteration in the formerly 
accepted value for the ampere, or to lay down exact directions in respect 
to the silver voltameter. 

The Rayleigh type of voltameter has been used in a large number of 
investigations, but the researches of Rodger and Watson, Richards, Kahle, 
and others have shown that this voltameter as generally employed gives 
results which may vary as much as 1 part in 1,000. 

In the research at the National Physical Laboratory a reproducible 
type of voltameter was sought, but after making a large number of 
observations on various forms it was found that, subject to certain easily 
attained conditions, all the forms give identical results to 1 part in 
100,000. As the Rayleigh type is the simplest to erect and produces the 
least variation in the current strength, it is proposed that this form be 
specified. The conclusions arrived at in the research differ appreciably 
from those of most other observers, and attempts have been made expe- 
rimentally to reproduce the conjlitions under which they worked. In 
part we have been successful, but there are still anomalous results for 
which we can at present offer no explanation. 

It is certain, however, though the complete chemistry of the silver 
voltameter or coulometer is unknown, that a reproducible type can 
be specified, and that the International ampere can be defined in terms 
of the deposit of silver with very great accuracy, certainly to 1 part in 
100,000. 

The Standard Cell. — For the past five years experiments have been 
made at the National Physical Laboratory on Clark and on Weston 
cadmium cells, and two years ago a provisional specification of the 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 77 

cadmium cell was published. It is gratifying to know that the specifica- 
tion proved of value, for in 1906 fifty-one cadmium cells were submitted for 
tost at the National Physical Laboratory, and all of these were prepared 
on the lines of the specification. The ceMs were intended for commercial 
use, and they were packed with small crj ^tals of cadmium sulphate to be 
more portable ; also we have reason t( belifve that in some cases the 
mercurous sulphate had not been properly washed, and in other cases the 
solution of cadmium sulphate was slightly acid. Nevertheless the e.m f. 
of these cells agreed with the N.P.L. cells to about 2 parts in 10,000, the 
N.P.L cells having the lower voltage. Standards more carefully set up 
have been submitted by two observers for comparison with the N.P.L. 
cells in accordance with the offer made in the ' British Association Report,' 
1905. The cells prepared by one of these observers— Mr. Tinsley of 
Beckenham— differed from the N.P.L. cells by about 0-1 millivolt, or 
1 part in 10,000. Mr. Mather aLso submitted a number of cells, and 
these had approximately the same mean e.m.f. as those from Mr. Tinsley. 
The N.P.L. cells were the lower in voltage, and freshly prepared cells 
agree with old ones.^ 

In May 1907 twelve Weston cadmium cells set up by Dr. Wolfi" at 
the National Bureau of Standards, Washington, were compared with 
a number of the cells of the National Physical Laboratory, and a mean 
difference of 3 parts in 1,000,000 was measured. Dr. Wolff's cells were, 
we believe, set up quite independently of the N.P.L. specification, which 
makes this remarkable agreement all the more gratifying. 



APPENDIX II. 

Specification for the Practical Ajyplication of the Definition of the 
International Ampere. 

(From the National Physical Laboratory.) 

In the following specification the term silver voltameter (or coulo- 
meter) means the arrangement of apparatus by means of which an electric 
current is passed through a solution of silver nitrate in water. The silver 
voltameter measures the total electrical quantity which has passed during 
the time of the experiment, and by noting this time the time-average of 
the current, or, if the current has been kept constant, the current itself, 
can be deduced. 

In employing the silver voltameter to measure currents of ahovt 1 
ampere the followins; arrangements should be adopted : The kathode on 
which the silver is to be deposited should take the form of a platinum bowl 
about 10 centimetres in diameter and 7 centimetres in depth. The mass 
of the bowl is conveniently about 80 grams. 

The anode should be a plate or disc of pure silver coated with a deposit 
of electrolytic silver, the mass of the latter being about 50 per cent, 
greater than the mass of silver to be deposited on the kathode. The plate 
or disc of silver should be of about 6 centimetres edge (or diameter) and 
3 or 4 millimetres in thickness. Its total area will thus approximate to 
60 square centimetres. The anode should be supported horizontally in' 
the liquid near the top of the solution by a silver rod riveted through its 

' In Mr. Mather's cells electrolytic mercurons sulphate was used ; in Mr. Tinsley's 
cells the mercurous sulphate was prepared by the chemical precipitation method. 



78 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

centre. To prevent the disintegrated silver which is formed on the anode 
from falling upon the kathode the anode should be inserted into a cup of 
filter paper separately supported. 

The liquid should consist of a neutral solution of pure silver nitrate, 
containing about fifteen parts by weight of the nitrate to eighty-five parts 
of water. 

The resistance of the voltameter changes somewhat as the current 
passes. To prevent these changes having too great an effect on the cur- 
rent some resistance besides that of the voltameter should be inserted in 
the circuit. If the value of the current is desired and the measurement 
is one of high precision, this external resistance should be from .50 to 100 
ohms ; in other cases the resistance should not be less than 10 ohms. 

Method of making a Measurement. 

1. The Solution. — The silver nitrate should be purchased as pure and 
recrystallised twice ; the recrystallisation is preferably done by evaporat- 
ing a saturated solution in a flask over a water-bath. The mother liquor 
should be drained away and the crystals dissolved in pure freshly distilled 
water. Prolonged contact of the crystals or of the solution with impure 
air must be avoided. The solution should be neuti'al to sensitive litmus- 
paper. 

If the silver nitrate is recovered from much used or contaminated 
solutions, or from an acid solution, the recovered salt should be fused 
(preferably in an electric oven) and afterwards dissolved, and the solution 
filtered before the recrystallisation processes ; otherwise it may be neces- 
sary to recrystallise more than twice. 

During electrolysis in the voltameter herein specified the silver nitrate 
solution does not change in composition as a result of the electrolysis by an 
amount which is detectable by any tried means, but, owing to the presence 
of impurities in the atmosphere, the solution should not be used more than 
once if great accui'acy is desired. 

2. The Anode. — The anode should be prepared by cleaning the silver 
plate or disc with sandpaper or a scratch-brush. It should be washed 
with distilled water and supported so as to form the kathode of a silver 
voltameter. The anode of this latter should be a silver bowl or a platinum 
bowl coated with silver, and the liquid should be a 15 per cent, solution 
of silver nitrate in water ; this solution need not be specially pure. If 
the anode bowl is of platinum coated with silver and of the dimensions 
already specified, it is convenient to employ about 350 cubic centimetres 
of the solution and support the silver plate or disc horizontally in the 
liquid near the top of the solution. A convenient current for depositing 
silver on the plate is 0'3 ampere. The plate is washed with distilled 
water and dried in an electric oven. 

The cup of filter-paper should be about 5 centimeti'es deep and of 
a diameter a little greater than that of the silver plate. It is made by 
folding a large filter-paper (such as Schleicher and Schull No. 595, 24 cm. 
diameter) over a glass cylinder (such as a bottle) of appropriate diameter 
and securing the upper portions of the folds of the paper with sealing wax 
or with platinum wire. The cylinder is removed and that portion of the 
paper which is above the seals is cut away. The upper parts of the 
int-irnal folds are also secured with sealing wax or with platinum wire. 

3. The Kathode. — The platinum bowl should be cleaned with a strong 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 79 

solution of sodium hydrate, followed by washings with water, strong nitric 
acid, and distilled water. It is then made the anode of a silver voltameter, 
the liquid being a 15 per cent, solution of silver nitrate (an impure solu- 
tion serves) having a volume of about 350 cubic centimetres. The kathode 
should be a clean silver plate supported near the top of the solution. 
With a current of about 1 ampere the circuit should be completed for 
ten minutes at least, after which the kathode and liquid are removed from 
the bowl. The bowl is washed with water and afterwards cleaned with strong 
nitric acid ; washings with distilled water, strong nitric acid, and dis- 
tilled water follow in the order named, and the bowl is dried in an electric 
oven at about a temperature of 160" C. It is removed to a desiccator 
and when thoroughly cool is weighed. A bowl of similar size and of 
approximately the same mass is cozivenient as a counterpoise. 

4. The Circuit. — The platinum bowl is placed in position in the 
intended circuit and 300 cubic centimetres of the solution of silver nitrate 
are placed in it. The anode is placed inside the filter -paper cup and the 
latter suspended by platinum wires, which are insulated from the anode 
and from the rest of the circuit. The anode and filter-paper cup are sup- 
ported so that the silver plate or disc is covered by the solution ; the 
connections to the remainder of the circuit are then made. Contact is 
made at a key and the time noted. The current is allowed to pass for an 
interval depending on the precision desired, and the time of breaking 
contact must be observed. For measurements of high precision from 7 
to 10 grams of silver should be deposited. During the passage of the 
current the voltameter should be covered over, to exclude light. 

5. Dejjosit of Silver. — The solution is removed from the bowl and the 
deposit rinsed with about 100 cubic centimetres of distilled water. The 
washing water is poured into a clean glass crystallising- dish and the 
operation of washing is repeated three times. The bowl is then nearly 
filled with distilled water and left for at least three hours ; it is rinsed 
three times, the last of these washing waters remaining in the bowl for 
ten minutes. This should give no milkiuess when added to a neutral 
solution of sodium chloride in water. The bowl is dried m an electric 
oven at a temperature of about 160" C. 

If any loose silver is observed in the solution outside of the hlter- 
paper cup, or in the washing waters, these liquids must be filtered, the 
niter-paper dried, and the loose silver added to the bowl before drying the 
deposit. The bowl is cooled in a desiccator and weighed again. The gain 
in mass gives the silver deposited. 

6. Calculation. —To find the current in amperes this mass, expressed 
in grams, must be divided by the number of seconds during which the 
current has been passed and by 0001 118. The result will be the time- 
average of the current, if during the interval the current has varied. 

In determining the constant of an instrument by this method the 
current should be kept as uniform as possible, and the readings of the 
instrument observed at frequent intervals of time. These observations 
give a curve from which the reading corresponding to the mean current 
(time-average of the current) can be found. The current, as calculated 
from the voltameter results, corresponds with this reading. 

Notes on Observations. — If this specification is carefully followed the 
mass of silver deposited for the passage of one coulomb through the 
voltameter is constant within the limits of the errors of measurements of 
the highest precision. It is certainly constant to 1 part in 100,000. 



80 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

The specification is possibly too rigorous for many practical needs, and 
for such a simplification is possible. The solution of silver nitrate may be 
prepared from purchased silver nitrate, provided it is free from acid. The 
anode may be a plate of pure silver without electrolytic silver deposited 
thereon. The remainder of the specification must be followed. 

Effect of Pressure. — The observations may be made at any oi'dinary 
atmospheric pressure, or exceptionally low pressures, as the mass of silver 
deposited when the silver voltameter is under a pressure of 76 centimetres 
of mercury is the same as when under any lower pressure to 2 centimetres 
of mercury, and possibly without these limits. 

Effect of Temperature. — This specification is based on observations at 
or about a temperature of 17° C. Observations at other temperatures 
have been made and are being continued ; if there is a temperature 
coefficient to the silver voltameter it is exceedingly small. 

This specification is based on the results of a large number of measure- 
ments made at the National Physical Laboratory. 



APPENDIX III. 

Prejmration of the Weston (Cadmium) Standard Cell. 
(From the National Physical Laboratory.) 

Definition of the Cell. — The cell has mercury for its positive electrode 
and an amalgam of cadmium, consisting of I25 j)arts by weight of 
cadmium to 87^ jDarts of mercury, for its negative electrode. The electro- 
lyte consists of a saturated solution of cadmium sulphate, and solid 
cadmium sulphate is contained within the cell. A paste consisting of 
solid mercurous sulphate, mercury, and cadmium sulphate rests on the 
positive electrode. 

IVeparation of the Materials. 

1. Mercury. — Commercially pure mercury should be squeezed through 
wash-leather and passed in the finely divided condition in which it 
emerges through dilute nitric acid (1 part of acid to 6 parts of water) and 
mercurous nitrate solution, and afterwards through distilled water. 
These liquids are conveniently contained in long glass tubes. The mercury 
is then distilled twice in vacuo. Mercury suspected of any abnormal 
contamination should not be employed. 

2. Cadmium Amalgam. — A current is passed from a thick rod of pure 
commercial cadmium to distilled mercury, the intervening liquid being 
cadmium sulphate solution rendered slightly acid with a few drops of 
sulphuric acid. The kathode is weighed before electrolysis commences, 
and again afterwards ; the percentage of cadmium in the amalgam is then 
calculated. More than the requisite amount of cadmium should be 
deposited and the percentage reduced to 12^ by the addition of mercury. 
To prevent the anode slime having access to the kathode the anode should 
be contained in a filter-paper cup, as in the Rayleigh form of silver volta- 
meter. Contact with the kathode is made by a platinum wire sealed into 
a glass tube, the wire being thus protected from direct contact with the 
cadmium sulphate solution. An approximate estimate of the quantity of 
cadmium deposited is obtained from the readings of an ammeter placed 
in the circuit. The amalgam, with very dilute sulphuric acid flooding its 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 81 

surface, is melted over a water-bath and stirred to ensure homogeneity. 
It is then ready for use. 

3. Cadmium Sulphate. — Procure commercially pure cadmium sulphate, 
CdS04 . 8/3 HjO. Powder in a mortar and dissolve in distilled water until 
a saturated solution results : filter the solution through a fine-grained 
filter-paper until it is quite clear. The liquid should then be placed in a 
large crystallising dish and slowly evaporated at a temperature of about 
35° C, when, provided that dust is excluded, many transparent crystals 
of CdS04 . 8/3 HjO will result. In this way about five sixths of the 
solution may be evaporated (the mother liquor may be used for a pre- 
liminaiy washing of the mercurous sulphate, the manufacture of which 
is described hereafter). The recrystallised cadmium sulphate should be 
washed with successive small quantities of distilled water, until after 
standing for ten minutes no trace of acidity can be detected in it with 
sensitive congo-red paper : the crystals, still moist, are transferred to a 
stock bottle. To prepare the saturated solution the crystals are crushed 
in a mortar and agitated with distilled water The latter may be warmed 
to 35° C. 

4. Mercurous Sulphate. — Add 15 cubic centimetres of pure strong 
nitric acid to 100 grams of pure mercury contained in a crystallising dish, 
and place on one side until the action is over, or nearly over. Transfer 
the mercurous nitrate thus formed, together with the excess of mercury, 
to a beaker containing about 200 cubic centimetres of dilute nitric acid 
(1 of acid to 40 of water by volume) ; a clear solution should result. 
Prepare about 1 litre of dilute sulphuric acid (1 of acid to 3 of water by 
volume), and while the mixture is hot add the acid mercurous nitrate 
solution to it. The solution should be added as a very fine stream from 
the narrow orifice of a pipette and the mixture violently agitated during 
the mixing. Mercurous sulphate is precipitated and rapidly settles to the 
bottom of the vessel when the stirring ceases. Decant the hot clear 
liquid and wash the precipitate twice by decantation with dilute sulphuric 
acid (1 of acid to 6 of water by volume). The precipitate should then be 
filtered. (A small Buchener filter funnel and a filter flask is very con- 
venient for this latter operation.) Wash the precipitate three times with 
the dilute sulphuric acid (1 to 6), and afterwards wash six or seven times 
with saturated cadmium sulphate solution to remove the acid. After each 
washing the liquid should be removed as completely as possible by the 
filter pump. When the.se operations are complete, the mercurous sulphate 
is flooded with saturated cadmium sulphate solution and left for one hour ; 
the solution is then tested with congo-red paper. In general no acid will 
be detected, and the mercurous suljahate is ready for use. It is placed in 
a stock bottle together with some saturated cadmium sulphate solution, 
and should be kept in the dark. If acid is detected, the washing must be 
continued. When the cells are required for observations of the highest 
precision, the apparently neutral mercurous sulphate should not be imme- 
diately used. It is placed in a bottle with saturated cadmium sulphate 
solution, and at the end of one week the latter is tested for acidity. The 
sulphate is given another washing with the solution, and may then be used 
if only a trace of acid is detected. 

One of the following methods of preparation may, if desired, be sub- 
stituted for the foregoing : — 

(1) Electrolytic Method. — This preparation is conducted in a darkened 
room. Pure distilled mercury forms the anode and platinum foil the 

1907. G 



82 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

kathode, the electrolyte being dilute sulphuric acid (1 volume of acid to 
5 volumes of water). The mercury is placed in the bottom of a large 
flat-based beaker and about twenty times its volume of the dilute acid is 
arlded. Contact with the mercury is made by a platinum wire passing 
through a glass tube, and the kathode is suspended in the upper portion 
of the liquid. During electrolysis the electrolyte must be continually 
stirred, an L- shaped glass stirrer being very efficient, the foot of the 
L moving close to the surface of the mercury. A convenient current 
density is 001 ampere per square centimetre of anode surface. The 
mercurous sulphate so prepared is filtered and the greater part of the 
mercury removed ; it is then washed with dilute sulphuric acid and 
saturated cadmium sulphate solution in a manner already described for 
the previous preparation. 

(2) By means of Fuming Sulphuric Acid. — Place distilled mercury in 
a crystallising dish so as just to cover the bottom. Add sufficient fuming 
sulphuric acid to flood the surface of the mercury to a depth of about 
2 millimetres. Cover with a clock glass and place on one side for 48 hours. 
Mercurous sulphate is formed and appears in the crystalline form. Care- 
fully add the salt to hot dilute sulphuric acid (1 to 6) and well agitate. 
Decant the hot liquid. Tf any caked masses of the sulphate are left, the.se 
should be rejected or crushed in an agate mortar. Wash three times by 
decantation with hot dilute sulphuric acid, and afterwards filter and 
wash with saturated cadmium sulphate solution in the manner already 
described. Set aside with cadmium sulphate solution for one week at 
least, test for acidity, and wash as described for the first preparation. 

7'he lilercurous Sulphate Paste. — The mercurous sulphate is mixed with 
about one-fourth its volume of powdered recrystallised cadmium sulphate, 
and about one-tenth its volume of pure mercury. (When the electrolytic 
sulphate is used, or that prepared with fuming sulphuric acid, no mercury 
need be added.) To the mixture of mercurous sulphate, cadmium sulphate, 
and mercury, sufficient saturated cadmium sulphate solution is added, so 
that when well mixed the whole forms a thin paste. 

Setting up the Cell. — That type of H-f<>rm of cell which may be 
hermetically sealed is the most convenient ; if the lower end of each 
limb is slightly constricted, the contents of the cell are less liable to bo 
disturbed. The platinum wires inside the glass vessel are amalgamated 
by passing an electric current from a platinum wire anode through an 
acid solution of mercurous nitrate to each of the wires in turn as a 
kathode. The vessel is washed out twice with dilute nitric acid, several 
times with water, and finally with distilled water ; it is dried in an oven. 
A small pipette is used for "the introduction of the amalgam, and a small 
tliistle funnel for the insertion of the paste and crystals. The main stock 
of amalgam is flooded with very dilute sulphuric acid, and it is melted 
over a water-bath ; a little of it is introduced into one of the limbs of 
the H -vessel. After the amalgam has solidified, this limb must be washed 
out several times with distilled water, care being taken to avoid wetting 
the interior of the other limb. A little distilled water is added and the 
amalgam is melted by immersing the limbs of the H -vessel in hot water. 
After the solidification of the amalgam, it is washed once more with 
distilled water. Into the other limb sufficient mercury is introduced to 
cover the amalgamat-ed platinum wire ; then the paste is added, care being 
taken not to smear the sides of the vessel. Finally, powdered crystals 
of cadmium sulphate are introduced into each limb, and saturated 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 83 

cadmium sulphate solution is added. The cell may be immediately sealed 
with tlie aid of a blowpipe, but the contents must not be abnormally 
heated thereby. The cadmium amalj^am introduced should cover the 
amalgamated platinum wire ; the depth of the paste should be from 
05 cm. to rO cm., and the depHi of the layer of cry.stals about O'-J cm. 
twenty-four hours after the cell has been set up it may he used. Its electro- 
motive force at 15" C. is 1-018., volt. The electromotive force at any 
other temperature may be obtained from the formula given by the Phvs. 
Techn. Reichsanstalt, viz., 

E,=E2o-0-000038(<-20)-0-00000065(<-20)2, 

or from the formula obtained at the National Physical Laboratory, 

E(=E,7-O-0000345(<-17)-0-0000G066(<-17)2. 

This specification is based on observations made at the National 
Physical Laboratory. 



Seismological Investigations. — TiveJfth Report of the Committee, consist, 
ing of Professor PL H. Turner (GhairmAin), Dr. J. Milne (Secre- 
tary), Lord Kelvin, Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, 8ir 
George Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor 
J. A. Ewing, Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, Professor 
J. W. JuDD, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor R. Meldola, Mr. 
R. D. Oldbam, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor 
J. H. PoYNTiNG, Mr. Clement Reid, and Mr. Nelson Richardson. 
{Brawn up by the Secretary.') 

[Plate L] 
Contents. 

PAGE 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers §3 

II. The Situations of Stations ....... . g.j 

III. Photographic Beeord-receivers •......,. 85 

IV. Origins and Relatioiishi2>s of Large EaHhquahes in l^QQ . . . . 86 
V. Un the A2)parently Luduiious Effects from certain Rochs . . . .87 

VI. Earthq^ualies and Changes in Latitude. By Professor C. G. Knott . '. 91 
Vll. Note on the Luration if the First Preliminary Tremor in the Sail Francisco 

and Colonibiau Earthquakes. Ey R. D. Oldham 93 

I. General Notes on Stations and Registers. 

The registers issued during the past year are Circulars Nos. 14 and 15. 
They refer to Shide, Kew, Bidston, Edinburgh, Paisley, Victoria (B.C.), 
Alipore, Bombay, Kodaikanal, Batavia, Cairo, San Fernando, Cape of 
Good Hope, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Toronto, Pilar, Beirut, Baltimore, 
Trinidad, Honolulu, Perth (W.A.), Christchurch (New Zealand), Mauritius! 
^ Records have not yet been received from Melbourne, Sydney, and Are- 
quipa ; while registers from Wellington, Philadelphia, and Mexico should 
be brought up to date. The Seismological Committee of the British 
Association would be greatly indebted to the Directors of observatories 
at these places if they would kindly forward copies of their observations. 
Some time ago a Milne seismograph, which records on a band 

q2 



84 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

2 inches wide, was sent to F. Barecla Y. Asma, Esq., Lima, Peru. This 
was for the use of the Geographical Society. This year a two-component 
instrument, recording on a cylinder moving at the rate of 25 cm. per 
hour, was forwarded to W. G. Davis, Esq., Director of the Meteorological 
Department, Buenos Ayres. Its number is 49. Two instruments are 
being constructed for the Public Works Department, Cairo. The intention 
is to insta] one of them at Khartoum and the other near the Victoriii 
Nyanza. We understand that an instrument has been ordered for the 
Government of South Australia. 

Mr. Richard Cooke, The Croft, Detling, Maidstone, has again kindly 
sent II. 1.9. for the support of seismological research. 

At a Committee meeting held on February 21, Professor J. W. Judd 
expressed a strong wish to retire from the office of chairman, which office 
he had held for nine years. The announcement was naturally received 
with regret, and a vote of thanks was accorded to Professor Judd for hisi 
valuable services. Professor H. H. Turner has kindly consented to take 
over the vacant position. 

The office accommodation at Shide has been increased, and has been 
seen by the President and several members of your Committee. Mr. 
H. C. O'Neill joined me as an assistant on March 11, since which time he 
has been daily attending to the instruments and the regular routine work. 
I also receive assistance from Messrs. S. Hirota and J. H. Burgess, who, 
as you are aware, have worked at this observatory since its establishment. 

Correspondence, which is frequently of a descriptive nature and 
requires photographic and other illustrations, has naturally increased with 
the growth in number of stations and the increasing interest in earth- 
quake phenomena. Material has been supplied to the Committee con- 
nected with the Carnegie Institute investigating the San Francisco 
earthquake, to the Central Bureau of the International Seismological 
Association, and to many others. 



II. The Situations of Stations. 
Continued from 'British Association Reports,' 1905, p. 84, and 1906, p. 93. 

Pilar, Argentina. 

On January 20, 1905, the seismograph was dismounted in Cordoba and removed 
to Pilar, our new magnetic station, lat. 31" 40' and 4h. 15-4m. W. of Greenwich. 
A special building was erected for the seismograph and Mascart's electrometer. 
The building is of brick, with cemented tloors and ventilation coming through the 
floor and passing through the roof, with two windows on opposite sides of the 
building. The pier on which the seismograph rests is built of Djasonrj', with its 
foundations extending to a depth of 1-5 metre below the floor. The ground is 
compact alluvial deposit. The building is situated about 100 metres from the 
Rio Segundo, that is, the river Segundo. In summer there is frequently a large 
volume of water, but in winter the river is practically dry. 

The instrument was installed on February 1, 1905, but the masonry was not 
considered sufficiently settled to allow of trustworthy registers from the instrument 
till the end of the month, so that the records of 1905 begin on March 1. The 
photographic record, however, shows no well-delined movement during the month 
of Februar^y. The period of the boom oscillations was kept constant from the 
month of February till June 22, at 17 seconds, the same as formerly used in 
Cordoba, giving a sensibility of 0"-56. On November 2 this was increased to 16 
seconds, with a sensibility of 0"-50 to one millimetre of displacement of the outer 
end of the boom. 

W. G. Davis, Director. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 85 



Colombo, Ceylon (^Observatory at the Technical College). 

Lat. 6° 54' N. ; long. 79° 51' E. ; alt. 13 feet above mean sea-level. 

Fmindation. — A brick-in-cement pier built on a cement-concrete base rising from 
a bed of laterite. 

Tojwgraphical Situation. — The Observatory is situated on low ground, quite close 
to a canal, about 50 feet from the bank of it. There is a lake about 150 yards away 
towards the south-west, with which the canal communicates direct. The sea is 
about a mile distant (south-west) from the Observatory. The canal above mentioned 
is on the north of the Observatory. 

Geological Structure. — The ground surrounding the Observatory to a considerable 
distance is alluvium with outcropping laterite. 

Hating. — Tiie rating of tlie time-keeper attached to the instrument is done by 
comparison with tlie chronometer of the Master Attendant, Colombo Harbour, at 
intervals of two to rhvee days, by means of a portable time-keeper carried backwards 
and forwards in a locked box. Periodic time of instrument varied between 
18 seconds and 15 seconds. During the period August to December the periodic 
time did not fall below 17 seconds, and for the months of September and October 
th3 periodic time was nearly 18 seconds. 

TC., Human, Superintendent. 

III. rhotograjihic Record-receivers. 

If two similar and similarly adjusted seismographs are installed on 
sites which are geologically and topographically different it is to be 
expected that the records they yield will show certain differences. If, for 
example, we compare the seismograms obtained at a station on rock with 
one on alluvium we find that at the former, within a given period, more 
records have been obtained, and earlier times of commencement, than af 
the latter.' The probable explanation of this is that thick beds of 
alluvium, in consequence of their non-elastic nature, do not transmit the 
waves of small amplitude which constitute small earthquakes and the 
preliminary tremors of lai'ger disturbances. 

Another condition on which the recording of very minute wav^es is 
dependent, and which does not hitherto appear to have been recognised, 
is the speed of the film on which the record is received. 

In connection with the Milne horizontal pendulums adopted by the 
British Association, two types of recording surfaces are now employed. 
In one the photographic film moves beneath a slit about 0'25 mm. in 
width at the rate of 60 mm. per hour. In the other the photographic 
surface passes beneath a similar slit at a little over four times that rate.^ 
In the first type of receiver the paper as it passes the slit is exposed 
to light for fifteen seconds, whilst in the second the exposure is between 
three and four seconds. Experiment shows that the line obtained from 
the long exposure may be double the breadth of that from the short 
exposure. From this it would seem that minute tremors with a short 
period which would show as deviations of the narrow line might be 
eclipsed if the same became broadened by halation. This, however, would 
not be the case if the tremors had a very long period. 

This probably explaijis the observation that earlier commencements are 
more frequently noticed on a rapidly moving surface than on one which 
moves more slowly. For example, for the year ending June 1906, for a 
series of sixty-one disturbances, a pendulum, at Shide recording on a quickly 
moving surface was on forty occasions from one to six minutes in advance 

' See Brit. Assoc. liej)., 1902, p. 74, and 1903, p. 82. '•= Jbid., 1904. 



86 RErOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

of a similar and similarly installed pendulum recording on a slowly 
moving surface. With very large earthquakes in which the preliminary 
tremors have comparatively large amplitudes, differences of this nature 
are not observable. Although attention is only called to the photo- 
graphic recording apparatus used with seismographs, it is evident that 
the character of the results obtained from other instruments may also to 
some degree be dependent upon the speed of recording surfaces. 



IV. Origins and Relationships of Large Eartliquakes in 1906. 

The number of entries in the Shide register for 1906 is 207. Out of 
this number ninety-two may be regarded as megaseismic in character. This 
number is distinctly above the average. On the accompanying map the 
origins of seventy-one of these are shown, the districts of greatest activity 
being E and F. The display of activity, however, to which public 
attention has been chiefly "directed, occuri'ed on the western shores of North 
and South America. On January 31 we had the Colombian earthquake, 
the origin of which was apparently sub-oceanic off the mouth of the 
Esmeralda River. This convulsion, which led to the intfrruption of 
several submarine cables, was followed by shocks in the Antilles. On 
April 4 a disastrous shaking took place in the Kangra Valley, in North - 
West India. Ten days later the Formosan earthquake occurred, which 
ruined 5,556 houses. On April 18 San Francisco was destroyed. Not- 
withstanding the intensity of the initial impulse, which, we are told, sent 
earth-waves twice round our world, it is astonishing how very little 
damage was done merely by the shaking of the ground. The greatest 
destruction was occasioned by tire. The origin of this disturbance was 
along lines of faults, which can be traced for distances of several hundreds 
of miles. The strike of these faults is apparently fairly parallel to the 
coast line, or from N.N.W. to S.8.E. The seismograms obtained at 
distant stations lying to the east or west of California, or at right angles 
to the fault, were very pronounced, whilst at Cordova, in South America, 
I'ecords were extremely small. Exactly the opposite occurred in ' the 
Jamaica earthquake which took place on J une 1 4. In this case the strike of 
the fault or faults was east to west, and the seismograms in Europe, i.e., to 
the east of Jamaica, were extremely small. On August 17 Valparaiso 
and the towns in i*:s neighbourhood were reduced to ruin. In Greenwich 
mean time the Valparaiso earthquake occurred at Oh. 4lm. 2s. Thirty- 
three minutes before this, or at Oh. 8m., or Oh. 11m. G.M.T., a very large 
earthquake took place beneath the North PaciBc to the north of the 
Sandwich Islands. The time taken for the second phase of this shock to 
travel from its origin to Valparaiso, a distance of 122^, would be abiut 
31 minutes. This time-interval suggests at least three possibilities : 
(a) The earth-Avaves from the North Pacific may have released a state of 
seismic strain in Chili ; or {h) the earthquake in this latter country may 
represent an eflbrt to establish a dynamical counteibalance consequent 
on a inolar displacement in the North Pacific ; or {c) the two disturbances 
wore due to some common influence. 

Tlie fact that large earthquakes so frequently occur in pairs or groups 
precludes the idea that these short intervals between megaseismic effects 
are merely matters of chance. 



^rt, Leices. 

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ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 87 

The epicentre for the first shock has been given at 40° N.L. and 
170= or 180^ E.L. (Mihie), 30° N. and 170° E. (Oldham), and oO^ N. 
and 170=" E. (Omori). 

V. On the Apparently Luminous Effects from certain RocJcs. 

The object of the following note is to show that at certain times sur- 
faces of chalk or clay slate as they exist in mines and quarries give rise 
to continuous or sudden radiations which make an impression similar to 
that produced 'sy light upon a photographic film. Various motives led to 
the experiments. Accounts of luminosity in the heavens or on hills at 
the time of large earthquakes are common. One of the last occasions upon 
which phenomena of this nature were observed was at the time of the 
Valparaiso earthquake, August 17, 1906. Mr. W. G. Davis, Director of 
the Meteorological Survey of Argentina, tells me that as seen by Captain 
Taylor from the deck of the R.M.S. 'Orissa,' lying fifty meties from the 
wharf at Valparaiso, there appeared upon the hills at a height of about 500 
metres waves of light. These waves, which are compared with chain light- 
ning, extended as far as the eye could reach, and lasted during the first 
thock, of nearly two minutes. 

On these occasions strong earth- currents have affected the working of 
land lines, and needles of galvanometers have been disturbed. In Tokio 
the writer found that an electrometei-, whether arranged to record the 
difference of potential between the earth and the atmosphere or between 
the surface of the ground and water-bearing strata at a depth of 30 feet, 
would from time to time suffer large displacements. The times at which 
certain of these were recorded agreed with the times of local earthquakes, 
and might therefore be regarded as the res^u]tof a mechanical disturbance. 
When these observations were made teleseismic unfelt movements had not 
yet been recorded, and it was therefore impossible to determine whether 
such disturbances had any true relationship with many unexplained electro- 
meter perturbations. Now we know that unfelt earth-movements may be 
accompanied by movements of magnetic needles and disturbances in the 
records from electrometers. These and kindred observations suggested 
the possibility that a megaseismic collapse might not only produce 
mechanical disturbances through and over the world, but that part of the 
initial energy at the centrum might be concerted into another form of 
enei'gy which might be transmitted to all parts of the world simul- 
taneously. When a territory equal in area to the British Islands is 
shattered to such a depth that the homogeneous nucleus of our earth is 
caused to vibrate, as we have indicated, a local transformation of energy 
in the form of light has occasionally been observed. But we have no 
definite information as to the distance this or its equivalent may be trans- 
mitted. The observation that from time to time a quarry in the Isle of 
Wight, known as Pan Chalk Pit, which I occasionally passed at night, 
appeared to be luminous also, suggested the possibility of hypogenic 
activities, giving evidence of their existence in the form of light. The pit 
or quarry faces north. In winter it is not reached by the sun. Its 
glowings, which apparently rise and fall in intensity, are most noticeable 
after a dull damp day. 

To determine whetlier these appearances were real, and whether they 
might be connected with other phenomena, I made, with the permis- 
sion of Mr. J. L. Warsap, the following experiments. At the end of a 



88 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

chamber twenty yards from the mouth of a tunnel driven into the chalk, 
a hole about two feet square was excavated. Into this a box with a light- 
proof door was cemented. In this box a Richard self-recording tlier- 
mometer drum covered with a Kodak bromide paper was placed. The 
drum, which was entirely made of brass, revolved at the rate of 40 milli- 
metres per day. Between it and the chalk face, distant about half an 
inch, there was a sheet of zinc in which were two round holes respectively 
about an eighth and a quarter inch in diameter. One was below the 
other, and lower still there was a vertical slit. As the drum turned, the 
paper was exposed to the chalk through these openings. Experiments 
were continued for four months, ending May 8, 1903. During that interval 
photographic impressions were only obtained on three or four occasions. 
These were in the form of black discs, possibly representing the holes and 
straight lines for the slit. The first series read as follows: February 6, 
6.30 P.M., 8.54 P.M.; February 7, 0.30 a.m. and 2.54 a.m. Nothing in 
the nature of a glow extending over several hours or anything coinciding 
in time with a large earthquake was recorded. It was, however, interest- 
ing to note that photographic effects had been obtained in a place and 
under conditions where it is difficult to imagine that they had been the 
result of artificially produced light. 

For various reasons these experiments were not again taken up until 
August 19, 1906. On that date a piece of apparatus in many respects 
similar to that used in 1903 was put up in a dark chamber, cut in the 
chalk inside the tunnel leading to the Pan Chalk Pit. The chief differ- 
ences between the new and the old installations were as follows : In the 
new apparatus the cylinder carrying the paper moved at the rate of 90 mm. 
per day. This shortened the exposure of the film as it passed before the 
holes in the zinc plate between it and the chalk face. The distance 
between the film and this plate was reduced to one-eighth inch, whilst an 
aluminium rim forming the bottom of the brass drum revolved inside a 
horizontal slit cut in the plate. The rim was at a distance not greater 
than one sixteenth inch from the top and bottom of the slit. 

The drum stood inside a wooden case outside which at the distance of an 
inch was a second case. The dimensions and form of the holes in the 
zinc sheet which formed the end of the inner box were as follows : A 
round hole one-eighth inch in diameter, a triangular hole with half-inch 
sides vertically below the round one, and below this a square hole with 
sides of one inch. The holes were about an inch apart, and underneath 
the square hole was the slit, cut to free the rim of the drum. 

The movement of a small electric lamp round the face and sides of the 
box produced no efi'ect on the paper inside, and hence it may be inferred 
that the box was light-proof. A self-recording thermometer and a hygro- 
meter between November 5 and 19 showed that the temperature and the 
moisture in the chamber were practically constant. 

A similar piece of apparatus was, through the kindness of Mr. B. 
Angwin and Mr. J. G. Lawn, placed in the King Edward Mine, Cam- 
borne, Cornwall, at a depth of 160 feet. The rock was damp, as in Pan 
Chalk Pit. At both places cakes of calcium chloride were used to dry the 
atmosphere, but I cannot say they were effective. For about three months 
papers were exposed simultaneously with those at Shide, and the results 
were compared. Another piece of apparatus was set facing the chalk in 
a light-proof hut in White Pit Lane, between Shide and Carisbrooke. The 
drum was inclosed in a box (also light-proof) inside the hut. Its rate of 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 89 

running was only a little over a half thr^.t of the instruments at Pan Chalk 
Pit and Camborne. 

In each case the drums turned oncie a week, in which interval they 
used one sheet of bromide paper. 

Amongst various control experiments which were made I may mention 
the following : — 

I. Two pieces of chalk, one of which had been soaked for several 
hours in water, were placed over a piece of rapid bromide paper. Between 
the paper and the chalk there was an air space of about one milli- 
metre. At the end of forty hours development showed that no effect 
of any description had been produced. Each piece of chalk had a surface 
of about four square inches. 

II. For two weeks the instrument from the Pan Chalk Pit was 
mounted in my observatory, where a plastered brick wall took the place 
of the natural chalk face. To approximate to the conditions in the pit, 
inside the covering case a bowl of water and a wet sponge were placed. 
The developed films did not show any trace of photographic action. 
The ideas of making these last experiments arose from communications 
with the manager of the Kodak works at Harrow, who pointed out that 
effects had been produced upon photographic surfaces inclosed in dark 
slides made from aluminium, and also in apparatus where movable parts 
of aluminium and zinc were used. The drums used at Shide and at 
Camborne were made of brass and aluminium, and they passed very 
closely to a fixed sheet of zinc. But T have only got photographic effects 
when the apparatus was underground in the places described. 

III. Several pieces of bromide paper have been inclosed in black 
envelopes and placed against the face of the chalk in the instrument 
chamber at the Pan Pit. After a week's contact there was no trace of 
photographic action on the film when it had been developed. 

IV. Several pieces of bromide paper have been placed in envelopes 
which had a thin glass window which touched the chalk. After a week's 
exposure the paper opposite the window was sometimes blackened. 

More Important Observations. 

Pan Chalk Pit. Camborne. 

Novemler 12 to 19, 1906.— 12tb, 14h. Noremler 13 to 19, 1906.— No record, 

to 14th, 17h. 45m , strong singeings. At as paper had been exposed to light ; still 

this time it was foggy and frosty. Inter- on it three parallel lines can be traced, 

mittent singeings 30m. to 31i. apait. made up apparetitly of a series of spots 

bounded by a luminous band. 

Novemher 19 to 26.— 19th, 10b., to November 19 to 24.— Parallel bands 

21st, lOh., strong singeings. Weather reproduced, but the dotted lines are 

frosty, finishing with ra'n. Up to 25th broken. On I9t.h, lOh. to 20h.,and 23rd, 

slight intermittent singeings. During lOh., singeings; 19th, strongly marked, 
this period there were many spots ; one 
group agrees with a slight earthquake on 
21st at 23h. 57m. 

A''ovember 26 to December 3. — 26th to November 24 to Becember I. — Upper 

28th, spots fairly numerous. Singeings and lower luminous bands surrounding 

strong November 26th, 16h., to 27th, 6h. broken dotted line. 

Weather dull and fine. Spots also December 1 to 8. — Luminous bands 

numerous December, 3h. to 20h., and and broken lines continue. Strong 

singeings (strong). Slight rain and singeings December 1, I6h., to 3rd, 

stormy. lOh. ; 4th, lOh. ; 8th, lOh. Weather foggy 

and stormy. 



90 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



December 10 to 17.— 10th, 13h., 12th, 
lOh., heavy singeings; 13th, 17h., to 15th, 
9h. 30m., heavy singeings. Luminous 
band opposite top small hole 13th a.m. 
to 16th noon. 

December 24 to 31.— 24th noon to 19h., 
intermittent singeings; 25th, Oh., to 29th, 
15h., same ; 29th, 21h., to 30th, 15h., 
same. A few spots. 

December i\ to January 7, 1907. — 31st, 
12h , to January 1st, 6h., occasional singe- 
ings which continue at intervals of several 
hours up to January 3. January 4th, 
3h., to 5th, llh., intermitlent singeings, 
only one or two spots. 

Jfln«fflr2/22^o 29.— 22nd to 28th, heavy 
singeings, most of time weather cold and 
frosty. Running along the top of singe- 
ings is a very fine line. 

Janvary 29 to February 5. —February 
1st, 2h., slight singeings to llh. 

Marcli 19 to 25.— 19th, lOh., ICh. 
slight singeings. 

March 25 to Ajjril 1. — Mere trace of 
singeings, 30th, Ifih. 

April ItoS. — 1st, 11 A.M., slight singe- 
ings repeated at long intervals during 
week. 



April 8 to 15. — Neither singeings, 
spots, nor bands. For most part weather 
showery and dull. 

April 15 to 22. — Very slight singeings. 

Ajml 22 to 29.— Clear sheet. 



December 8 to 15. — 8th, 14h., luminous 
band, dotted lines ; 9th to 10th, strong 
singeings, and 13th to 14th; 11th, very 
large spot lOh. 30m., 15 mm. diameter. 

December 18 to 21.— Luminous bands. 
No records until March 18. 



March 18 to 24, 1907.— Bands very 
faint. 

March 23 to 28.— Two faint bands. 

April 2 to 6. — 2nd to 5th, luminous 
band with a chain-like pattern. Slight 
singeings 3rd, 12h., at intervals to 5th, 
12h. From 3rd, 12h., to 4th, 12h., groups 
of large spots. 

April 6 to 11.— From Gth to lOth 
intermittent singeings. 

April 11 to 17.— 12th to 17th, bands 
very faint. 

April 17 to 23. — Two dark bands. 
18th to 19th, slight singeings. 



The Results. 

The sheets of paper were changed once a week and were always 
found to be very damp. When they were developed, certain sheets were 
perfectly clear whilst others were partly or entirely marked with dark 
bands, black lines, round black spots, or semicircular spots along the lower 
edges. These latter, from their appearance of having been burnt, have 
been called singeings. 

I. Dark Bands. — Those have not been very numerous, but were found 
four times out of twenty-nine sheets from Shide, eleven times out of twelve 
sheets from Camborne. They were never found on fourteen sheets from 
White Pit Lane. On removing the instrument at the latter place it was 
found that the zinc plate had so far buckled that the bromide paper may 
have been a quarter of an inch from the chalk. Those from Pan Chalk 
Pit were about one inch in width, being darker in the centre than near 
their edges. They occurred opposite the triangular hole, the edges of which 
touched the chalk. Those from Camborne varied much in character. In 
certain cases we appear to have had at least three bands, apparently 
coinciding with the three holes in the zinc plate interposed between the 
film and the rock surface. In some of these bands there were hard black 
lines broken along their length and made up of black spots. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 91 

II. Black Spots. — These vary in diameter from 1 mm. to 8 mm. In 
the centres of some of these there is a small white or brownish spot. 
As pointed out by Mr. W. H. Bullock of Newport, these closely resemble 
the spots produced when a piece of bromide paper is placed between the 
poles of an induction coil. Sometimes they were verj- numerous, and at 
other times only one, pei-haps, was found on a sheet. 

III. Singeings. — These occur on the lower edge of the paper where the 
brass cylinder joins the aluminium I'ing. They are sometimes continuous, 
or they may occur at intervals of half-an-hour to several hours on the length 
of a whole sheet. At other times only a group of two or three can be 
found during the entire week. 

If we attach the secondary terminals of an induction coil, one to the 
zinc sheet and the other to the drum, bands, spots, and singeings closely 
simulating those recorded in the clialk pit may be obtained. 

Between August 19, 1906, and January 29, 1907, sixty-three large 
and small earthquakes were recorded at Shide. Out of these only ten 
nearly coincided with the time of occurrence of spots upon the paper. 
As at times the spots were so very numerous, we can only regard these 
coincidences as accidental. So far as we can see, bands, singeings, and 
spots occur in any state of the weather, and are therefore not connected 
with any ordinary meteorological conditions. 

Neither is there any distinct evidence that the markings are due 
to radio-activity. There appears, however, to be a suggestion that the 
luminosity occasionally seen at Pan Pit may result from a very feeble 
brush or glow-like electrical discharge. If this be so, it would also 
account for the bands on the photographic paper, the other markings being 
due to minute sparks. 

If we assume that there are radio-active or electrical emanations of 
hypogenic origin from our earth, it is difficult to escape from the conclu- 
sion that such must have an effect on what we call 'climate,' and hence 
upon everything which lives upon the surface of the globe. 

VI. Earthquakes and Chmiges in Latitude. By Professor C. G. Knott. 

In the last report Professor Milne continued las interesting com- 
parison of the occurrence of large earthquakes and the movements of the 
earth's pole. The table he gave seems to call for a further discussion. 
Milne's idea is to connect the occurrence of the earthquakes with the 
curvature of the path traced by the projection of the pole on the celestial 
sphere. But if there is to be any connection of the kind looked for, ought 
we not rather to consider the deviations from the mean value of the cur- 
vature or deflection (to use Milne's terminology) than the deflections 
themselves ? For this mean curvature per tenth year we may consider 
to be due to some steadily acting dynamical cause, such as a slight de- 
parture from coincidence of the axis of rotation with the principal axis of 
inertia. From this point of view v/e should regard small deflections of 
5° or 10° as being abnormal equally with large deflections of 60° or 70°. 
Hence the earthquake frequency should be compared with the deviations 
of the deflections from the mean, which for the whole set of observations 
is almost exactly 30--5. I shall take tlie two groups as given in the last 
report together. By subtracting the mean deflection from the average 
deflection in each range we obtain what I shall call deviations from mean 
curvature. These form the first and fourth columns in the following 



92 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



table, the second and fifth containing the number of times this particular 
average deviation occurred ; while the third and sixth columns contain 
the average number of earthquakes corresponding with the deviations. 



Deviations 
from Mean 


Number of 
Occurrences 


Average | 
Number of 
Earthquakes 


Deviations 
from Mean 


Number of 
Occurrences 


Average 
Number of 
Earthquakes ! 


• -28 


1 


18 


+ 2 


17 


12 


-23 


8 


20 1 


+ 7 


16 


12-5 


-18 


10 


fi5 


+ 12 


10 


11 ' 


-13 


7 


7-4 


+ 17 


8 


17 


- 8 


15 


9-7 


+ 22 


6 


20 


- 3 


23 


139 


+ 37 


2 


21 








+ 37-3 


5 


24 



The number of occurrences are given by way of contrast. It is 
obvious that they follow roughly the well-known law of grouping about a 
mean, the maximum being in the neighbourhood of zero deviation or mean 
deflection. But it is quite otherwise with the earthquake numbers. If there 
were no connection, direct or indirect, between the two phenomena, the 
earthquake numbers would be fairly constant throughout. There seems 
to be, however, a tendency toward greater values for higher deviations. 
For deviations up to +12 and —13 the averages total 66-5, or an average 
of 11-1. For deviations greater than these limits the averages total 126-6, 
or an average of 18-1. This conclusion lends a certain amount of support 
to Milne's view that there is some connection between the occurrence of 
large world-shaking earthquakes and tlie movements of the earth's pole. 

The mean curvature of the path of the pole is 30-5 per tenth year, or 
305 per annum. Hence the pole will make a complete revolution in 
365x360/305 days, or 432 days. The value given by Chandler is 427 
days. It is well known that a rigid body of the size, figure, and mass of 
the earth will have a small precessional motion of period — 305 days if the 
axis of the figure is not quite coincident with the axis of diurnal revolu- 
tion. To expl lin the large discrepancy between the observed value 427 
and the theoretical value 305, Newcomb invoked the influence of elas- 
ticity in modifying the period of precessional rotation. His original 
calculation was admittedly approximate, and Hough ' has worked out the 
problem in a more rigorous manner. Taking account of the elasticity 
only, he finds that the precessional period will have the value 427 days if 
the effective rigidity of the earth were a little greater than that of steel. 
Newcomb also pointed out that the mobility of the ocean would have the 
same effect of lengthening the precessional period. Further, if the eflFec- 
tive rigidity of the earth were to diminish all over, the precessional period 
would be increased. It is not easy to see what would be the immediate 
effect of either a local diminution of rigidity or a local yielding to stresses 
such as takes place when an earthquake is originated. But it is at all 
events not unreasonable that some effect will be produced. This is prob- 
ably the direction in which we must look for the connection imagined by 
Milne. 

' ' Rotation of au Elastic Spheroid,' Phil. Trans., vol. clxxxvii. A, 1896. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIOINS. 93 

VII. Note on the Duration of the First Preliminary Tremor in the San 
Francisco and Colombian Earthquakes. By R. D. Oldham. 
The great earthquakes of Colombia, January 31, 1906, and California, 
April 18, 1906, originated at not very greatly different distances from 
Western Europe, but reached it by very different wave-paths. The great 
circles from Shide, plotted on the map, show that in the former case the 
wave-paths lay under the broadest and" deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, 
and in the latter under the continent of North America and the continental 
shelf of the North Atlantic. In studying the records of these two earth- 
quakes I found that there was a marked difference in the interval 
between the arrival of the first and the second phases of the preliminary 
tremors, the interval at Shide being 9'9 minutes for a distance of about 
77 "6 degrees in the Californian, and 11 '9 m. for a distance of about 80-7 
degrees in the Colombian, records. The difference between these two, 
viz., '2-Q minutes, is greater than the average, but a comparison of all the 
records from European observatories, at which these two phases can be 
recognised in the case of both earthquakes, gives mean intervals of 10*4 
andll'4 minutes for mean distances of 84° and 86° in the case of the 
Californian and Colombian earthquakes respectively. The difference 
in interval, corresponding with the difference in distance, is only 
0-2 minute, or one-fifth of the observed difference. As these two phases of 
the record are due to wave-motion of different kinds, transmitted at dif- 
ferent rates, through the earth, the difference in interval between their 
arrival indicates a difference in the ratio between their rates of trans- 
mission, and consequently a difference in the constitution of the matter 
under the North American continent and the North Atlantic Ocean. 
The exact time of occurrence of the Colombian earthquake being un- 
known from direct observation, it is not possible to compare the absolute 
rates of propagation and determine in what this difference consists, but 
it appears to be too great to be due to any error of record or interpreta- 
tion, and may be accepted as real. 



Magnetic Observcdions at Falmouth Observatory.— Report of ihe 
Committee, consisting o/Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. E. T. 
Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, Dr. Chree, 
Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, 8ir A. W. Rucker, and Professor 
Schuster. 

The grant voted by the Association last year has been expended in 
maintaining the magnetic observations at Falmouth Observatory. The 
results of the observations have been published in the Annual Report of 
the National Physical Laboratory, as well as in that of the Royal Cornwall 
Polytechnic Society. 

The mean value of the magnetic elements for the year 1906 are — ■ 

Declination . . . 18° 5'-3 W. 

Horizontal Force . . 0-18790 C.G.S. 

Vertical Force . . 0-43344 C.G.S. 

Inclinauon . . .66° 33'-7 N. 

The Committee are informed that the observatory at Eskdale Muir 
will be ready for occupation this autumn. It is clearly important for 
the sake of continuity that the Falmouth Observatory should be fully 
maintained until Eskdale Muir is in complete working order. To secure 
this the Committee ask for reappointment, with a grant of 50/. 



94 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

The Further Tahnlation of Bessel Functions. — Beport of the Committee, 
consisthirj of Professor M. J. M. Hill {Chairman) , Dr. L. N. G. 
FiLON (Secretary), and Professor Alfred Lodge. 

Appendix. — Rejiort of the Committee appointed in 1906 to consider the Further 

Caleulatioii of Bessel's Functions pO'g^ 95 

The Committee wei-e appointed for the purpose of continuing the 
investigation of the formulie (see Report for 1906, pp. 494-498) relating 
to the semi- convergent series for the ii}'^ Bessel function, viz., 



'^"^")=A/i-^'"K"'+'^-I-%)' 



where R2=P2 + Q'' 

the values of P and Q being 

p^ (4w^-l)(4TC''-3g ) (4w2-1 ) . . . {in"^—!^) 

1.2.(8x)2 "^ 1 . 2 . 3 . 4(8x)'» • ■ 

Q^^n"-- 1 _(4n2_l)(4«2_32)(i^!^5'') 

8x l.llT3(8a;)* ^ ' ' " 

and a being sin~^^, 
" R' 

/2 
with a view to tabulating the logarithms of R and R » / "" for different 

values of x and n, and also tabulating values of a. The values of 

'R./l-^s^x give the amplitude of the function, and the values of a 

are needed to give its phase. 

The forraulse relating to a are Rsin a=Q, and 1 + -— g, leading to 

doc i\ 

a somewhat unsatisfactory series for a, viz. (writing 8^- -in^ — \) 

k 
a= 

X 

and lastly 



_ k k{k-3) yl-(F- 14 /^ + 15 ) k{5P-}Q0^+ 807 k- 630) 
"".-c"*" Gx"' 10a;-' 56a;7 '*' 



sec (a„+i— a„)=R„R„+i, 
which depends on the identity 

P « "jl + l + *^hnJii + 1= -Ij 

an identity which was obtained by induction, and needed to be verified 
by a deductive proof. This proof has now been obtained by Professor 
Hill, and is appended. 

The Committee have calculated a series of values of log R and log 

R . /"', which are here printed (see folding Tables I. and II.). 

They have also calculated values of sin oq with a view to obtaining 
values of «,, 02, ... by use of the equation sec (ci„^.i — a„) = R„R„+i. 
The values of oj, ao, . . . they hope to give in a subsequent report. The 



calculation of a 


). 
















~=4i 


n- 


-5 


n- 


5i 


n^ 


= 6 


n = 


-6i 




6 7351 


-0300 


743.. 


-0375 


6929 


•0463 


414.. 


-0566 


2925 




5 4591 


•0069 


0510 


-0084 


2711 


■0101 


1849 


-0119 


8678 




4 3570 


•0030 


2224 


-0036 


7421 


•0043 


9277 


-0051 


7920 




3 6441 


-001b 


9098 


-0020 


5307 


•0024 


5103 


-0028 


8526 




8 7155 


•0010 


7957 


•0013 


0996 


■0015 


6284 


-0018 


3838 




6 0461 


-0007 


4870 


-0009 


0818 


■0010 


8312 


-0012 


7359 




4 4393 


-0005 


4963 


•0006 


6657 


■0007 


9479 


•0009 


3435 




3 3974 


•0004 


2058 


•0005 


1001 


■0006 


0802 


•0007 


1469 




2 6836 


•0003 


3220 


•0004 0280 


0004 


8018 


•0005 


6433 




2 1733 


-0002 


6901 


-0003 


2616 


■0003 


8880 


•0004 


5690 




5430 


-0000 


6720 


-0000 


8146 


•0000 


9708 


-0001 


1406 




|0 2413 


•0000 


2986 


-0000 


3619 


•0000 


4314 


•0000 


5068 




lO 1357 


•0000 


1679 


■0000 


2036 


•0000 


2426 


-0000 


2850 




0868 


•0000 


1074 


■0000 


1303 


•0000 


1552 


-0000 


1824 




0603 


-0000 


0746 


■0000 0905 


•0000 


1078 


•0000 


1267 




0443 


•0000 


0548 


•0000 0665 


•0000 0792 


-0000 0931 




0340 


■0000 


0420 


■0000 0509 


■0000 


0606 


•0000 0712 




0268 
0217 

/ 9 


•0000 


0332 


■0000 0402 


•0000 


0479 


•0000 


0563 




•0000 0269 


•0000 0326 


•0000 0388 


-0000 0456 




71 = 


4^ 


11- 


= 5 


?i = 


6^ 


n = 


= 6 


« = 6i 


T-925 


6 136 


T-932 


144 


T939 


5 094 


T^948 


2 815 


T^9585 693 


T-907 


4 860 


1 •908 


8 452 


T^910 


3 672 


T^912 


586 


1-9139 268 


1-904 


3 758 


T^904 


9 623 


T^905 


6 142 


T^906 


3 328 


1-9071 193 


T-903 


3 045 


T-903 


6 310 


T^903 


9 931 


T^904 


3 911 


T-9048 253 


T-902 


8 116 


1-903 


196 


T^903 


2 500 


T'903 


5 029 


19037 784 


T'902 


5 447 


T^902 


6 888 


T-902 


8 482 


T-903 


232 


1^9032 137 


T-902 


3 840 


T-902 


4 897 


T902 


6 066 


T-902 


7 349 


T-9028 744 


T-902 


2 798 


T-902 


3 606 


1^902 


4 501 


T-902 


5 481 


1-9026 547 


T-902 


2 084 


1 -902 


2 722 


T^902 


3 429 


T-902 


4 202 


1-9025 044 


~ T-902 


1 574 


T-902 


2 091 


T-902 


2 662 


T-902 


3 289 


T-9023 970 


T-901 


9 944 


1-902 


073 


T-902 


215 


T-802 


371 


T9020 541 


T-901 


9 642 


1 901 


9 699 


T^901 


9 763 


T-901 


9 832 


1-9019 907 


T-901 


9 536 


T-901 


9 569 


T^901 


9 604 


T-901 


9 643 


T-9019 686 


T-901 


9 487 


T-901 


9 508 


1^901 


9 531 


T901 


9 556 


1-9019 583 


T-901 


9 461 


T-901 


9 475 


r901 


9 491 


T-901 


9 508 


T-9019 527 


T-901 


9 445 


T-901 


9 455 


T901 


9 467 


T-901 


9 480 


T-9019 494 


T-901 


9 435 


T901 


9 443 


T901 


9 452 


T-901 


9 461 


1-9019 472 


, T-901 


9 427 


T-901 


9 434 


T901 


9 441 


T-901 


9 449 


T 9019 457 


li T901 


9 422 


T-901 


9 428 


T^901 


9 433 


T-9019 439 


T-9019 446 


• 














\Tc 


>face p 


. 94. 







T*IU,B I.-F<i/u« 4'"% ■" "> 8 d».*™.Z,,' (At /a.1 io>j, aj,frohmoU (rtgmndf 


nr lAt cakulat 


™ !,/«). 












H.l| 


«=9 


H-n 


n-a 
■009T easi 


0180 1873 


•U18I !G0.. 


n-4* 


„.S 


,■ - r.j 


., ,1 


oEGu ausr. 


tWt ,15,, 


009 i eU63 




-oiilG nat 


OaOO 713,, 


■osm aviii 


■0103 414 






<NXIS 411 U 


UOIU 18*1 


OUIG 31CS 


■0093 »a04 


-0033 V:<|I3 


■oma 4382 


•OOiS 4M1 


•«0«0 OilO 


■OOHl 3711 


0101 1849 


■0119 8078 


30 T-S990 BMP 


■UDOO 903e 


■OOOi 4114 


«)04 6MH 


■0007 5509 


■OOIO S99.1 


-OOl't 618'J 


■0019 13011 






■0030 7421 


•0043 0277 








■0001 36CS 


0009 6i3S 


OOOt 0763 


■OOOS 9433 


OOOS 1669 


■OOIO 730* 


■0013 6441 


•0010 OOOS 


■0020 6307 


0024 SI03 


•0028 8691! 








<iooi ia»« 


0009 d073 


0003 B0I4 


•■Rios aain 


■OOOn 867C 






■0013 0996 


-DOlfi 6M4 




60 T»W9 931<s: 


■OOOOSiOl 


OOOO 60.11 


iMOi i:iii 


0001 «109 


OOOK BlIO 


■OOOS &m 








■OOOO 081H 










■0000 4411 


■OOOOKllU 


■0001 3399 


-0001 9100 


•0003 OttM 


<000:< 4U44 


•0001 4393 


■0005 49113 


■OOOO 60S7 


-0007 91TP 


-OOOO 313S 












^WOI 48G1 


0002 o.m 


■coos 0T4C 


■0003 3074 


-0004 20B9 


•0006 lUOl 


■0006 OSOa 


-OOOr 1409 


90 i-wn v»u ; 


■0000 1006 


■0000 SOSl 


■0000 noj7 

0000 4071 




UOOI 1733 


0001 6004 


•OOOS lllW 
0001 T113 


•0009 1739 




■0001 ua8o 


0004 801 N 


■OOOS 6433 






00IW3I7I 


■0000 OS IS 


(WOO 9S03 


0001 ms 


•OOO^J CTOI 


-O003 2«l(i 


0003 BBHO 


•0001 6090 












■0000 23;a 


0000 3JM 


oooo^jaio 




■OOOO B720 


■imoo S14G 


-OOOO D708 


0001 1106 


300 T9B9tl 9970 


■oom 0090 


■0000 0'J41 




OCiOil OTSl 


0000 lOSU 


■0000 IHB 


■0000 1000 






-OOOO 301O 


1)000 4314 


■0000 6008 














UOOO 0814 


■0000 IOCS 


■OOOO 13S7 


■OOOO IBI9 


0000 2030 


■OOOO HS6 


tlOOOMBO 




■WXO 0032 ' 


OOIW 0087 








■0000 0S21 


■0000 oe»3 






■OOOO 1303 


■OOOO 1GS2 


■OOOO 1824 


£00 T-»I{K) 9St93 


■0000 ooaa 


■oo(« oono 


woo oua 


■0000 0181 ' 


0000 uiat 


0000 o:ie2 


•OOOO 0476 


•OOOO OOOS 


•OOOO 0I4C 


0000 0906 


OOOO 1078 


OOOO 1207 


700 T'0999 99BB 


0000 0017 


■(iyoo«<>i4 


■0000 0083 


■OOOO 01S3 


0000 0101 


0000 oiea 


1»00 0349 








■01»0 0792 


■OOOO 0931 












'0000 OIJS 


-0000 0201 


■OOOO 020T 


■OOOO 0340 


OOOO 0120 


■OOOO 0SO9 


'OOOOOeOO 


OOOO 07ia 


900 T9999 M117 I | 


-0000 OOlO 


■0000 UU37 


■0000 00(0 


0000 OOM 


0000 0117 


■OOOO 0101 


•0000 0211 


-OOOO 02(13 
■OOOO 021T 


-OOOO 0338 

■ooooosae 


■OOOO 040S 


-0000 0170 


■OOOO 0663 


1000 T-9999 999T j 1 


J)0.«OOO8 j 


•0000 OUK 


-0000 0041 


■0000 00«S 


■0000 0006 


■0000 0130 


0000 0171 


-OOOO oatfi 


-0000 0383 


■OOOO OlBfl 



' fionio of tlin logurllhoii an uhIcuIaUiI to 7 dDdauMbnl)', whco ■ = ID. 



10 

20 
10 


n.O 1 n-t 


■ ' 


r uoii 007 
T»02t 8U 
T-901II »ia 


I -3060 334 
19029 889 
T-9013 926 


I.-9I 

r ooes 483 

T903li 747 
1-9020 Oil 


T-9117 0V9 
T-0013 321 
T-9029 990 


T 9186 088 

T 8092 310 
T 8033 960 


T 9201 661 

T-9062 839 
T 9038 630 


T^9074 siiO 

r-904a TS8 




->-B| 




n-0| 


T-9Die T18 1 1-9019 401 
TW1» 726 (Ihronjiboal) 
T90I9 100 


r WiJ 166 
T90JI 131 
T4020 301 


1 U32U 111 
TU088 462 
T-9049 028 


r 9393 094 
T0103 072 
T0066 142 


T 94*2 «IG 

I 9120 B8S 
T-BOOS 328 


T-BBSO 603 
T-UI89 aiiS 
T-9071 193 


10 
60 
GO 


19019 231 1 
T-9019 »M 


I 9010 9(IU 
TW)ia T20 
T901U 02? 


r^9020 7ST 

I-902O 269 
I-V020 OOI 


T-!J02l 910 
T'Mil 020 
r 0020 63* 


r-9023 410 
r-S022 008 
T'OOai 911 


T 00!6 340 

1-9023 206 
T 9022 CIS 


T 9031 GCT 
T-ooai 6a3 
T 9023 021 


T9O30 131 
T-B020 268 
19024 ISO 


T9033 OIS 
r'9028 IIS 
1 9020 447 


T 803S 910 
1 0030 198 
T9O20 88tl 


T-9039 931 

T9032 600 


T-0048 nil 
T 9036 020 
TB030 832 


T 9018 263 
T0037 7fi4 
T-W03a 137 


70 
80 
00 

ZOO 

300 


TWII9 31C ' 
r»019 368 
I fiOlO 307 

I W19 373 
T-B019 301 
1 1W19 3Vil 


TVOIO 607 

r-liOlO 62» 
I liOlO 601 

T V019 432 

TO0I9 lai 

1 0019 410 


r^lB 844 
T0OI9 740 
TOOlU 6GU 


1 9020 239 
1 -9020 037 

r 9010 au> 


T OOao 730 
T9020 4IU 
T UO20 lOS 


19021 111 

T9020 88(1 
7 902O 674 


T-0022 003 
T-Ooai 438 
1 soil 010 


T0O2S 89B 
T9022 074 

r 1)021 013 


190a3 8-10 
T 9021 798 
r^0012 084 


T'S0!4 897 
T90S3 000 
T 9022 722 


Tooaa ooa 
T 9024 601 
T'BOSS 429 


T90a7 340 
TBOIB 481 
T0024 202 


TUOaB T44 
T-902C 647 
T 9026 014 

T-9023 870 
T BOKO 641 
T-9019 907 


I 9010 fll« 
I' 9010 4SS 
r-'J019 126 


I901U80B 
I 9019 603 
I nolo 410 


TVOaO 063 
T0019 603 
r^UOlD 173 


111020 36 1 
1 B019 038 
I-B019 600 


T 9020 701 
T 9019 720 
1U01U 010 


r-ooai 111 

1 0019 828 
T-9019 891 


T902I 674 
room B41 

rOOIB 012 


T-0O22 001 
I0O2O 073 
19019 099 


Tooaa BO* 
T'Doao ais 
T-9019 763 


Tuoaaaau 

T-SOaO 371 
T !>019 832 


400 

too 
eoo 


1 9019 399 
1 -9019 400 
1 -9019 400 


T 9019 IOC 
I 0019 101 
T 9019 103 


rooio 114 

1-9019 109 

rooio lOT 


TOOIO 11(1 

r-oom 417 
tooin 113 


r 0010 141 

r-WllO 127 

1-9019 no 


1-9019 139 

T-9010 427 


T9019 WJ 
I B019 489 

1 UOIU 137 


T-9010 607 
T 9010 4U9 
1-9019 418 


TBOIB 63S 
TilOlB 487 
r-S019 101 


T0019 609 
I^DOlO 603 
I 9019 470 


T9019 604 
T90I9 631 
T 0019 491 


1 0019 tl43 
T 9019 660 
T9019 BOB 


T-9019 080 
T9019 083 
I 9019 B2I 


KOO 
900 1 


TW19 400 
I-90I9 400 
T 9019 400 


T 9010 402 
t-OOlO 402 
I 90)9 402 


I 9019 loa 

rK919 401 
I-DOIO 403 


r»OIB 409 
T'9019 107 
TDOIB 100 


i^noiu 411 

IP0I9 411 
T-9010 400 


I OOIO 430 
rilOlO 416 
mOlO 412 


TOOlU 427 
I'UOIO Ul 
T-B019 417 


T^tlOlO 430 
T-90IU 487 
rflOI9 422 


1 9010 146 
TUOl!) 436 
1-9010 4'27 


r 0019 4S0 
T B019 143 
T-9010 434 


T0OI9 407 
T-OOlO 462 
I'DOIO 411 


T-UOIO 480 
TBOIO 181 
T-BOIQ 110 


T'OOlO 491 
T^OOIB 178 
T BOlO 467 


1000 


19019 400 


T-9010 401, 


TIIOIO 103 


79019 40G 


r B019 40T 


I 0019 110 


T 11019 411 


TU019 41S| 


1 0019 413 


T-B013 128 


TOO 19 133 


T-BOIO 439 


T^BOlO 41fl 



i 



Jtriliih AMOoialion 1907 — Btport on Buttt I'umeiioTu. 



\To/ae« p. H. 



ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL FUNCTIONS. 



95 



values of siii «„ are given in Table Til., and also those of log {—x sin a^), 
which latter series is useful for purposes of interpolation. 





Table III. 


— Values of % (.r) and log 


{-QoW},4 


c. 


10 
20 
30 


Qo(^) 




log(-Qo(a;)) 


log (-sin oo) 


- Bin Oo 


log ( - a; sin qq) 


- 012 428 881 
-•006 240 9144 
--004 163 9632 


¥-0944,3203 
3-7952,4822 
3-6195,0688 


2-0946,9926 
3-7953,1581 
3-6195,3699 


■012,436,.531 
006,241,886 
•004,164,252 


T-0946 9926 
1-0963 4581 
1-0966 5824 


40 
50 
60 


-003 123 
-002 499 
--002 082 


8578 
4148 
9945 


3'-4946,9125 
3"-3978,3835 
3-3186,8813 


3-4947,0820 
3-3978,4920 
3-3186,9567 


■003,123,980 
•002,499,477 
•002,083,031 


T-0967 6819 
T0968 1920 
1-0968 4692 


70 
80 
90 

100 
200 
300 


--001 785 
--001 562 
--00 1 388 


5309 
357 L 

7884 


"3-25l7,6737 
"3-1937,8030 
B 1426,3609 


3'-25 17,7291 
3-1937,8454 
3-1426,3944 


•001,785,554 
•001,562,372 
■001,388,799 


T0968 7095 
10968 7453 
1-0968 8195 


- 001 249 
-•000 621 
-•000 416 


9268 
9908 
6640 


70968,8458 
4-7958,7363 
4-6197,8598 


3-0968,8729 
1-7958,7431 
4-6197,8628 


•001,249,935 
-000,624,992 
•000,416,664 


T-0968 8729 
1-0969 0431 
T-0969 0753 


400 
500 
600 


-•000 312 
-•000 249 
-■000 208 


4989 
9994 
3330 


4-4948,4849 
4 3979,3897 
4-3187,5806 


44948,4866 
4 3979,3908 
4-3187,5814 


■000,312,499 
•000,250,000 
-000,208,333 


r-0969 0865 
T.0969 0908 
1-0969 0939 


700 
800 
900 


-000 178 
-•000 156 
-■000 138 


5712 
2499 

8888 


¥-2518,1141 
4-1938,1975 
4-1426,6723 


•4 2518,1147 
4 1938,1979 
4 1426,6728 


-000.178,571 
•000 156,250 
-000,138,889 


T-0969 0951 
r-0969 0978 
1 0969 0979 


1000 


-•000 124 


9999 


¥•0969,0967 


4-0969.0980 ' -000,125,000 


T-0969 0980 1 

1 



They have also obtained approximate expressions for u„ for a few 

special values of n when x is very large. The extent to which these 

approximations can be depended on will have to be verified when the 

tables of a have been formed. It seems better to postpone the report on 

these approximations until such verification can be made ; but it may be 

• 1 4-x 

stated that a good approximation to og is ao= — cot"^ . 

The following are accurate : 

ai=0. 
na:=cot"^a;. 

3 



a4=C0t" 



-4- cot '■ 



■V5 



The Committee desire reappointment, with a continuation of their 
present grant. 



APPENDIX. 

Report of the Commitlce appointed in 1906 to consider the Further 
Calculation of B easel's Functions. 

In the communication on this subject made to Section A in 1906, it 
was stated by Professor Lodge that the equation 



96 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

where 

p ^;^_(4«2_12)(4«2_32) ( 4n^-]2) (4w^_32)(4y t2-5-^ )(4rt^-7^)_ 

2 ! {8xf 4 ! {8xy ' ■ ■ ■ 

and 

_4rt2-12_ (4,t2_p)(4TO2-3-^)(4ri^-5-^) _^ 
^" (8a;) 3!(8a!)3 + • • •> 

was probably true. 

The following is an outline of the proof, which is much shortened by 
adopting the abbreviation (a, a + 2s) for the product of the (s+1) factors 
w, a + 2, a + 4, . . . (a + 2s). 

With this notation 

p -i_(2>^- 3. 2n + 3) (2n-ir + l, 2n + 4r-l) 

2!(8a;)2 -^•■•^V ; (2r) ! (S.x)^'- '^' ' ' 

O =(^'1~^' 2n + l)_(2ri^, 2w + 5)_ 
^" 'lT(8a;) 3!(8x)^^ 

(2n-4r + 3, 2H + 4r-3) 
^ ^ (2r-l)! CBxf' -1 "^^ • ■ 

On forming the expression P„P„+i + Q„Q„+i the coefficient of 
( — 1)'-^ . will be found to consist of (2r + 1) terms, of which 

,, „ , . , (2«-4r + l, 2n + 4r-l) 

the first IS 1 . ^ ' \ . — ■ '- ; 

(2r) ! 

,. (2« + l, 2« + 3) (2w-4?- + 3, 2TO-r4»--3) 

the second is — ^ '- -' ^ , ^ '- ^ f ; 

1 1 (2r— 1) ! 

the (C + l)''' is 

y{27i-2t + 3^2n + 2t + l) (2n-4r + 2< + l, 2 7t + 4r-2^-l ) 
( I) . _ (2r-t)l 

i^e (2rr i^ - ^'"^"-^^P^^ (I^^Z}^P±D, 
and the (2r+ 1;- is (2j^:iW3, 2^ + 4^^!) 

In order to prove that -P,iP„+i + Q„Q,m =1 it is necessary to prove that 

the coefficient of ( — 1)'' ,„ ,„- is zero. 

{oxy 

If the r^^ term in the series, which expresses the value of this 

coefficient, be denoted by T,, it will be found that 

^ ^ _ ( -l)'(2.i-2r-l, 2n + 2r + l)(2it-2r + 3, 2?i + 2r-3 ) 
'■^'■^ '^'" ' r(r-l) ! (r-h 1) ! 

T,.,i + (T,.,, + T,,) + T,,, 
^ (_l)'+io(2.u-2r-3, 27i + 2r + 3){2n-2r + 5, 2n + 2r-5) 
~ r(?--2)! (r + 2) ! 



ON THE FUKrHEK TABULATION OF BEriSEL FUNCTIONS 97 

Then the induction 

T..i + (T,,, + T,)+ . . . +(T,,. + T,_,,,) + T,,.,i = 
(-l)'+»^is(2w-2r-2s + l, 27i, + 2r+ 2s-l){2n-2r+2s + l, 2n + '2r - ■2>i - I) 

(r—s) ! {r+s) ! r 

can be verified by adding in the two terms T,._s^.i + T,.+s+ij. 
Putting ii=-r — 1, the value of 

T,..x + (T,...,+T,)+ . . . +(T,,_i + T,) + T,, 

is found ; and adding in the remaining terms, Tj, T.^, +1, and Tj, the result 
is found to vanish. 

Thus the equation P„P„+i + Q„Q„+i=l is proved. 

The expression found by Professor Lodge for P„^+Q„' from the 
differential equation which it satisfies has also been verified by a direct 
calculation, but the work is so long that the Committee do not feel justified 
in asking the Association to print it. 



The Teaching of Elevientary Mechmiacs. — lieijort of the Committee, 
considmy of Professor Hokace Lamb {Ghairman), Professor J. 
Perry {Secretary), Mr, C. Vernon Boys, Professors Chrystal, 
E\MNG, G. A. Gibson, and Greenhill, Principal Griffiths, Pro- 
fessor Henrici, Dr. E. W. HoBSON, Mr. C. S. Jackson, Sir Oliver 
Lodge, Professors Love, Minchin, Schuster, aiul A. M. Worth- 
INGTON, and Mr. A. W. Siddons, apjMinted for the Consideration 
oj the Teaching of Eleinentarg Slechanics, arid the Improvement 
which might he effected in such Teaching. 

The Committee make the following suggestions. Some of these are 
copied from the Report of the Mathematical Association Committee on 
the Teaching of Elementary Mechanics : — 

1. Practical and theoretical mechanics ought, if possible, to be taught 
by the same person ; mechanics and mathematics ought not to be treated 
as distinct from each other. 

2. The opportunity furnished by the necessity for writing an account 
of what a student has done and seen in his laboratory work ought to be 
utilised in relation to the teaching of English composition. 

3. The theoretical study of mechanics should be preceded and accom- 
panied by concrete experience of some of the facts to be dealt with in the 
systematic course ; for example, such things as are used in practical 
engineering and such as can be met with in ordinary life. 

4. An experimental course might include mensuration, geometry, 
weighing, and measuring ; the equilibrium of forces, the lever and other 
simple machines, force of friction, and the effect of friction in simple 
machines ; work, forms of energy, especially the energy of lifted weights, 
kinetic energy, heat ; hydrostatics, barometers, pumps ; velocity, accelera- 
tion, inertia, force. 

5. Examples should at first, as a rule, be numerical, and should, as 
far as possible, be of a practical nature. A specially instructive class of 

1907. H ■ 



98 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

example consists in compiling a table or drawing a graph to show the 
effect on a result of variation in a certain datum. 

6. Graphical and analytical methods of study, involving the use of 
mathematical instruments, squared paper, and tables of logarithms, sines, 
&c., ought to go hand in hand throughout the teaching of mechanics. 

7. Pupils should always be required to specify the body whose 
equilibrium or motion is being considered, and to indicate the complete 
system of forces acting on the body, before writing down any equations. 

8. Simplifying assumptions, such as that friction, stiffness of ropes, 
weights of certain bodies, &c., are being disregarded in any particular 
question, cannot be too explicitly stated. 

9. Some statics should precede kinetics. 

10. The parallelogram or triangle of foi-ces should be assumed as an 
experimental result. 

11. The impression that the weight of a body is in reality a single 
force acting at its centre of gravity sliould be guarded against. 

12. The consideration of work should be an essential part of the 
discussion of machines, and attention should at an early stage be given to 
* velocity-ratio ' and ' efficiency.' 

13. When the equilibrium of two or more connected bodies or parts of 
a single body is considered, it is helpful to attend to the separate equili- 
brium of each part. 

14. It should be clearly pointed out that all the results of statics 
apply to cases of uniform motion. 

1-5. Velocity. — The meaning of the phrase ' velocity at an instant ' sh juld 
be carefully brought out by means of the idea of ' average velocity.' 
Average velocity should be defined as ' total distance /total time,' and 
should not be assumed to be identical with the arithmetic mean of the 
initial and final velocities, or with the velocity at half-time, or with the 
velocity at half-way. There should be no objection to illustrating the 
idea of a rale so as to lead up to the elementary ideas and methods of 
the calculus. 

16. Angular velocity should receive attention, as in connection with 
it a great variety of interesting kinematic examples arise. 

17. Acceleration. — The velocity at any time should be represented 
graphically. This method should be used to illustrate the idea of accelera- 
tion, and the formuUe for uniformly accelerated motion may be obtained 
from the fact that the graph is in this case a straight line. 

18. The formula? for uniform acceleration having been proved, the 
fact that 'the average velocity = the velocity at the middle instant' 
should be frequently employed in solving problems connected with such 
motion. 

19. It is convenient to treat elementary problems on the accelerations 
produced by forces by simple proportion, 

force acting acceleration produced 

weight g ' 

using the fact that a body's own weight produces acceleration g ; and it 
is convenient to postpone the consideration of mass or inertia until such 
problems have been discussed. 

20. Students ought to know the meaning of ' absolute measure ' ; 
that is, they should be able to interpret all fundamental equations such 



ON THE TEACHING OF ELEMENTARY MECHANICS. 99 

as E^^m^?^, or ¥^mdv/dt, in any consistent system of units whatever. 
They should learn that for certain purposes the C.G.S. system of units 
is convenient, and for certain other purposes the units employed by 
British engineers may be convenient ; they should not be dominated by 
any system, but able to use them all. The j)oundal and other such 
educafional conveniences should be used as auxiliary units only, final 
results being expressed in units to which practical people are accustomed, 
so as to be generally intelligible. 

21. Atwood's machine should be regarded as a means of illustrating 
the laws of motion, and not as an accurate method of finding g. 

22. With the idea of preventing the notion that acceleration is always 
uniform, and having regard to the importance in physics of simple 
harmonic motion, it is advisable to consider such motion and the 
pendulum at an early stage. 

23. Easy problems on the motion of a fly-wheel should form part of 
a course on elementary mechaiiics. 

24. Centrifugal force should never be dealt with as if applied to 
the moving body, so as to reduce an essentially kinetic problem to a 
spuriously statical one. It is a force exerted by a curvilinearly moving 
body on its constraints. 



Lvvestigation of the Upper Atmosphere by means of Kites m co-opera- 
tion tuith a Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Sixth 
Report of the Committee, consisting o/Dr. W. N. Sbaw (^Chairman) , 
Mr. W. H. Dines {Secretanf), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. 0. Vernon 
Boys, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, Professor A. 
Schuster, ani Dr, W. Watson. {Brawn up by the Secretary.) 

Meetings of the Joint Committee were held on November 13, 1906 ; 
also on January 24, May 9, May 23, and July 5, 1907. 

Observations have been made at Glossop Moor by Mr. J. E. Petavel, 
F.R.S., whose report on the subject is appended. 

The Committee have had under consideration a circular sent out by 
Professor Hesgesell, the President of the International Aeronautical 
Commission. In it he asks for the co-operation of England in a special 
series of kite and balloon ascents, and the Committee have arranged for 
some ascents, in addition to those undertaken by the Meteorological 
Office, on the specified days. 

At the meeting of the Joint Committee held on May 9 it was 
suggested that the British Association Committee should ask for re- 
appointment and for a grant of 251. 

Glossop Moor Kite Station [Peak District). Rejyort for the Session 
1906-1907. % J. E. Petavel, F.R.S. 

This kite station was established in the spring of 1906 by Mr. G. C. 
Simpson. 

The necessary winding gear was purchased by aid of a grant from the 
Royal Meteorological Society ; the other initial and current expenses have 
been defrayed by the Manchester University. 

During the present session some sixty successful ascents have been 
made, Messrs. T. V. Pring and W. A. Harwood having kindly acted as 
voluntary assistants. 

h2 



100 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Miss Margaret White has undertaken an analytical study of the 
records obtained, and proposes to give a short account of the results of 
the work at the coming meeting of the British Association. 

Recently the Government Grant Committee of the Royal Society 
have awarded the funds required to complete and perfect the apparatus 
installed at this station. 



Meteorological Observations on Ben Nei'is. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Lord McLaren {Chairman), Professor Crum Brown 
(Secretary), Sir John Murray, Professor F. W. Dyson, and Mr. 
K. T. Omond. 

As mentioned in the report for 1905, the meteorological observations 
on Ben Nevis have now ceased, but the Committee have co-operated with 
the Scottish Meteorological Society in the discussion of the observations 
made on Ben Nevis and at Fort William during the twenty-one years 
that the observations were carried on. This discussion was conducted 
under the direction of the late Dr. Alexander Buchan, but owing to his 
death on May 13 last no report can be furnished this year. It is 
proposed that the discussion be continued by Mr. Omond and others 
during the ensuing year. 

The observations made at the high and low level observatories from 
the opening of the Ben Nevis Observatory in 1883 till the end of 1897 
have been published, and those for two additional years — 1898 and 
1899 — are in type. The observations to the end of 1887 were published 
by the Royal Society of Edinburgh. The cost of printing those of the 
.succeeding twelve years — 1888 to 1899 inclusive — has been defrayed by 
a grant of 500^. from the Royal Society of London and another grant of 
500^. from the Royal Society of Edinburgh. There still remain nearly five 
yeai's' observations in manuscript — namely, from January 1900 to Septem- 
ber 1904. The Committee consider it exceedingly desirable that these 
last observations should also be published, so that the whole record from 
the Ben Nevis Observatory be made available to meteorologists. 

The estimated cost of printing these observations is 400^., and towards 
this the Royal Society of Edinburgh ha.s offered a grant of 200/., spread 
over four years, on condition that the remainder of the money be obtained 
from other sources The Royal Society of London has voted 501. for this 
object, so that there is still a sum of 150/. required to make up the 4001. 
necessary for the complete publication of the Ben Nevis records. 

The Committee hope that the British Association will see its way to 
make up this deficiency by a grant from its funds, so as to enable the 
printing to go forward. The Committee beg to point out that it is some 
years since a grant was asked for the Ben Nevis work, and that at present 
there are no funds available for the purpose except what have been pro- 
mised by the two scientific societies. 



ON THE TRANSFORMATION OK AROMATIC NITROAMIJSES. 101 

The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Substances, 
and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping {Chairman), 
Professor K. J. P. Ohton (Secretari/), Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. 
Lapworth, and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 

I. Nitroamines. {With W. W. Heed, B.Sc.) 
A DETAILED study o£ the conditions governing the transformation of 
2 : 4:-dichloro-l-nitroaminobenzene (I.)^ into the isomeric 2 : 4-dichloro- 
6-nitroaniline (II.) has been made : 

NH . NO, NH, 

/^\ CI /\ N0„ 



CI 



(I.) 



I 



(II.) 



CI CI 



This nitroamine was chosen for particular study in preference to 
others, having different positions vacant (ortho and para relative to the 
group, NH . NO2) into which the nitro-group may ' wander,' on account 
of the ease of its preparation,'^ and the non-ljasic character of the nitro- 
aniline, of the above constitution, which is produced in the isomeric 
change. In testing the effect of minute quantities of acids as trans- 
forming agents, it is of great importance that the aniline should not be 
able to unite with the reagent, which would thus be withdrawn from the 
sphere of action. 

A particular advantage which this transformation offers, in contrast 
to many others of a similar type, is due to the fact that the nitroamine is 
quite colourless, and forms colourless solutions, which may be preserved 
for long periods, whereas the nitroaniline crystallises in intensely yellow 
needles, and forms highly coloured solutions. Traces of the nitroaniline 
could thus be recognised, not only in solutions, but also in the crystals of 
the nitroamine. The conversion of the crystalline nitroamine into the 
nitroaniline is not merely indicated by a simple change of colour, but by 
the growth of yellow needles of the nitroaniline, apparently out of the 
colourless nitroamine — a process which can be readily followed photo- 
graphically. This phenomenon, which can be demonstrated with a single 
crystal of the nitroamine, has allowed of the testing of the effect of single 
(necessary gaseous) reagents as ti'ansforming agents in the absence of all 
solvent. 

The nitroamine was dried by sealing it up with phosphorus pent- 
oxide in glass tubes. When thus entirely freed from water the substance 
acquires greater stability, and loses a remarkable sensitiveness to light, 
which necessitates the use of a dark room when aqueous solutions are 
employed. 

After seven days' drying in this manner the tubes were opened, the 
reagent introduced, and the tube resealed. The reagent, which was in 
most cases in aqueous solution (0-1-02 c.c), was enclosed in a small 
tube, and was separated from the dried nitroamine by a column of 
phosphorus pentoxide, five to six inches in length. The water slowly 
evaporated, and was absorbed by the pentoxide, the gaseous reagent, now 

' Orton, Trans. Chem. Sue, 1902, 81, 802. 

2 Orton, Berichte d. Chem. GesclL, 1 907, 40, 370. 



& 



102 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

anhydrous, diffusing to the region containing the nitroamine, of which at 
most one or two crystals (plates or needles) were used. Obviously this 
procedure admits only of the use of reagents which are not changed by 
prolonged contact with phosphorus pentoxide. 

By this means it has been ascertained that hydrogen chloride, bromide 
and iodide, nitric acid, chlorine, or bromine can all act as transforming 
agents. Iodine, hydrogen cyanide (?), sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, 
and methyl iodide are inactive. 

Quantitative experiments carried out with hydrogen chloride have 
i-evealed the very interesting fact that there is a limiting concentration 
(partial pressure) below which hydrogen chloride does not initiate the 
molecular rearrangement. In the case of the nitroamine here dealt with 
the partial pressure of the hydrogen chloride must be approximately 
1/30 atmosphere. 

The behaviour of the nitroamine with hydrogen chloride in various 
solvents was investigated, the most instructive results being obtained in 
aqueous solution. The solution of the nitroamine in pure water can 
apparently be preserved indefinitely in a dark room, no trace of colour 
becoming perceptible, notwithstanding the fact that it is easy to perceive 
the colour communicated by 1/10 mgr. of the nitroaniline to 100 c.c. 
of the solution ; that is, to detect the transformation of O'l per cent, of 
the nitroamine. The addition of hydrogen chloride causes transforma- 
tion, provided that the acid is above a certain concentration. The 
nitroamine was used at a concentration of V=207 (1 gr. per litre), 
the concentration of the acid being varied from N to N/1000. In all 
the solutions but that last mentioned, in which the molecular ratio 
CfjHaCla . NH . NO^HCl was 5/1, the acid was in excess. The presence 
of the nitroaniline can be detected with certainty at the end of ten 
minutes in the N solution, and after longer periods down to a concentra- 
tion of N/200, below which concentration all change ceases. Similar 
results were obtained with other acids, but, keeping the concentration of 
the nitroamine coiistant, the limiting value of the effective concentrations 
of the acids varies with the strength of the acid. 

In the hope of isolating some compound of the acid and the nitroamine, 
hydrogen chloride, accurately dried, was passed into a solution of the 
nitroamine in petroleum. A colourless compound separated, which was 
resolved by solutions of alkalis into the nitroamine and hydrogen chloride, 
but when kept in a diy atmosphei-e the compound slowly changed into 
the nitroaniline. 

These remarkable results greatly illuminate the mysterious part played 
in this type of intramolecular change by the transforming agent (or 
catalyst), the necessity for the presence of which was first recognised by 
Armstrong.' 

The deductions to be drawn from these observations may be thus 
summarised : — 

(i) No 'specific' reagent is required for any given transformation. 

(ii) The reagent must be capable of combining with the nicioamine. 
In all probability this union is effected directly with the nitrogen of the 
NH group, which thus becomes quinquevalent. The additive product 
in the case of hydrogen chloride has a composition represented by the 
formula OgHaCli . NH . NOo,HCl. 

' Rejwrt, ]8i)9, p. 683, and cf. Trans. Chem. Sue, 1900, 77, 1053. 



ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES. 103 

(iii) No transformation occurs in aqueous solution when the con- 
centration of the transforming agent is below a certain value (for hydro- 
chloric acid below N/200), the nitroamine being at a dilution of V=207. 
The additive compound is apparently completely ' hydrolysed ' at such 
dilution. 

(iv) The additive compound is not formed from gaseous hydrogen 
chloride and the nitroamine when the pressure of the former is below a 
certain value — namely, the dissociation pressure of the compound. This 
pressure is approximately 1/30 atmosphere at 15° C. 

It hf)s been suggested ^ that the additive compound of the nitroamine 
and the transforming agent is alone capable of undergoing those further 
changes, probably through the transitory conversion .of the^ benzene 
nucleus into a quinonoid form, by which the nitro-group 'wanders' from 
the nitrogen into the nucleus, whereas the simple nitroamine has no such 
power. 

II. Tim Wandering of Bromine in the CMorination of Bromoanilines. 
{With W. W. Reed, B.Sc.) 

Although the replacement of bromine by chlorine in ani'ines^ and in 
bromobenzenediazonium chlorides ^ has been observed, the displacement 
of bromine by chlorine from a given position in the benzene nucleus, 
followed, however, by a subsequent re-entry in another position, has not 
been described. 

In the chlorination of ^j-bromoaniline, either by the usual method of 
passing chlorine into a solution in benzene or chloroform, or by the more 
delicate procedure of adding the requisite quantity of a solution of 
chlorine, or, finally, by using solutions of the aniline and chlorine (in the 
correct proportions, C,;H4Br . NH.,/2CL,) in 20 per cent, hydrochloric 
acid, the expected 2 : 6-dichloro-4-bromoaniline 

NH. 
CI /\ CI 



Br 

is not alone obtained. It is always mixed with 2 : 4-dibromo-6-chloro- 
and s-trichloro-anilines, and cannot be separated from them. The aniline 
can, however, be prepared in a pure state by indirect chlorination of the 
;>-bromoaniline in chloroform solution with a solution of 2 : 4-dichloro- 
acetylchloraminebenzene in the same solvent, thus : 

C,H,Br . NH, + 2n„H3Cl, . NCI . AC = C,H,Cl,Br . NH, + 2C,H3C]„ . NH . AC 

Under these conditions displacement of bromine does not occur. 

Similar results were obtained by chlorinating 2 : 4dibromoaniline 
in hydrochloric acid solution. On subjecting o-bromo, m-bromo, or 
2 : 6-dibromo-aniline to a similar treatment no such displacement was 
observed, each substance yielding a single chloro-derivative. 

' Orton, Proc. Roy. Soc, 1901 , 71, 153. 

« Wegscheiden, Munatsheft, 18, .329 ; Chattaway and Orton, Travx. Chem. Soc, 
79, 822. 

' Hantzsch, Berichte d. Chem. Oesell., 30, 28.34. 



104 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Si(hsta,noes. — Beport of the Committee, 
consisting o/Dr. E. Divers {Chairman), Professor A. W. Crossley 
{Secretary), Professor W. H. Perkin, Di-. M. O. Forster, and 
Dr. H. R. Le Sueur. 

1. The Action of Reducing Agents on 5-chloro-3-keto-l : l-dimethyl- 
A*-tetrahydrobenzene.^ — Some little time since ^ it was shown that the 
principal product obtained by the action of sodium in moist ethereal 
solution on chloroketodimethyltetrahydrobenzene (I.) was 3-hydroxy- 
1 : 1-dimethylhexahydrobenzene (TI.), which may be described as the 

/CH,— COv /CH., . CH(OH). 

CMe2< ' \CH CMe„< ' >CH„ 

^CHj . CCl^ ' \CH, CH/ 

(T.) -(11.) 

limit-reduction product of the chloroketone. A fui'ther study of the 
reaction has proved that the addition of a small quantity of alcohol to the 
ether has a beneficial effect, considerably increasing the yield of hydroxy- 
dimethylhexahydrobenzene, and rendering it much easier to remove the 
chlorine completely from the chloroketone. As alcohol had such a decided 
influence it was thought advisable to try the reduction with sodium in 
absolute alcoholic solution. The reaction proceeded, however, in an 
unexpected direction, and demonstrated the fact that the chlorine atom in 
chloroketodimethyltetrahydrobenzene is very reactive, a fact which greatly 
enhances the possibilities of the use of this and similar chloroketones for 
synthetical purposes. Small quantities of hydroxydimethylhexahydro- 
benzene (II.), but principally '3-hydroxy-5-ethoxy-\ : l-dimethylhexa- 
hydrohenzene (IV.), were obtained, and it is evident that the sodium 

/CH„ COv /CH, . CH(OH) . 

CMe„< \CH ->. CMe.< " >CH, 

^CH^.CCi:'^ "\CHj.CH(OEt)/ 

:Na'; OEt 
(III.) - (IV.) 

ethoxide formed in the first stages of the reduction reacts with the 
chlorine atom of the chloroketone to give the substance represented by 
formula III., which is then further reduced to the corresponding 
saturated compound. The constitution of the latter is proved by analysis 
and by the facts that a Zeisel determination shows it to contain an ethoxy- 
group, and that, when treated with acetyl- or benzoyl-chlorides, it yields 
acetyl- or lienzoyl-derivatives respectively. 

The main object of the investigation was, however, to find reducing 
agents, less powerful than sodium in moist ethereal solution, which would 
be discriminating in their action ; so that it might be possible to prepare 
from chloroketodimethyltetrahydrobenzene, first, a ketodimethyltetra- 
hydrobenzene, differing from the former only in that chlorine would be 
replaced by hydrogen, and, secondly, the corresponding ketodiniethyl- 
hexahydrobenzene. Complete success has attended the experiments, and 
further work is in progress with the object of proving that the reactions 
are general ones. 



ft 

' Crossley and Renouf, J.C.S., 1907, 91, 63. 
^ lUd., 1905, 87, 1487. 



ON THE STUDY OF HYnRO-AROMATlC SUBSTANCES. 105 

The next reducing agent employed was zinc-dust in aqueous alcoholic 
solution, which, as previously shown,' readily replaces halogen by hydrogen 
in saturated hydro-aromatic substances, but in the present instance its 
action is too powerful, as it gives a mixture of the ketones represented 
by formulae V. and VI., containing approximately 30 per cent, of the 
latter. However, 3-keto-l : \dimethyl-K'^-tetrahydrobenzene (V.) may be 

/CHj— COv .CH.,— COv 

CMe„< >CH CMe„< ^CH^ 

{V.) (VI.) " 

obtained quite pure by replacing zinc-dust by zinc-filings, either in the 
cold or on heating, or by using the zinc copper couple. It is a colourless 
liquid, boiling at 88-5° at 32 mm., and its ketonic nature is proved by the 
fact that it gives a semicarbazone and an oxime. When oxidised with 
potassium permanganate in the cold it yields as-dimethylsuccinic acid and 
the lactone of a hydroxy -/D/5-dimethylglutaric acid : 

.CH2— CO. /CH(CO.,H) . O 

CMej< NCH -> CMe,< I -^ 

\CHj . CH^ "\CH„ CO 

/CO,H 
CMe„< 
■ Nf 



•^CH^ . CO,H. 

3-A'e^o-l : \-diinethylhexaliydrohenzene (VI.) may be produced from 
chloroketodimethyltetrahydrobenzene by heating it with zinc-dust in 
glacial or dilute acetic acid solution. It is a colourless liquid, boiling 
about 10° lower (7.5-5° at 25 mm.) than the corresponding unsaturated 
ketone. It forms an oxime and a semicarbazone, and when oxidised with 
potassium permanganate gives only /^/3-dimethyladipic acid (VII.), a fact 

/CH„— CO. CHj . CO„H 

CMeZ \CH, -> CMe„< 

\CH„ . CH./ " \CH, . CHj . COjH 

(VII.) 

which proves its constitution beyond doubt. 

Other reducing agents investigated were zinc-dust in strongly alkaline 
solution, also zinc-dust and hydrogen chloride in alcoholic solution. In 
the former case the hydrolytic action of the potassium hydroxide over- 
shadows the reducing action of the zinc, with the result that the only 
product isolated was dimethyldihydroresorcin (VIII.). In the latter case 
a mixture of ketodiinethyltetrahydrobenzene and ketodimethylhexahydro- 
benzene was obtained, together with dimethyldihydroresorcin and its ethyl 
ether ^ (IX.). Here, again, hydrolysis must first take place, giving rise 

CH., GOv X'H., CO. 

CMe/ \CH CMe.< ' >CH 

\CH„ . C(OH)^ "\CH„ . C(OEt)^ 

(VIII.) - (IX.) 

to dimethyldihydroresorcin, which is then esterified by the alcoholic 
hydrogen chloride. 

Dicydic Compounds. — The compounds of this nature met with are 
all derivatives of a substance formed theoretically by the removal of 
one hydrogen atom from each of two hexahydrobenzene rings, with 

' J.C.S., 190.'), 87. 1497 ; 1906, 89, 4.S. 
= IHd., 1899, 75, 775. 



106 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

consequent production of dicyclic derivatives. It has been decided to refer 
to this substance as dic^/cZohexane, and to indicate the positions of the 

scheme of 



various substituting 
numbering : 


groups 


by 


adoptin 


ig the 


followin 


'g 






CH,<^4 


CH„ 

5 
8 

CH„ 


. CH, 

G 
2 

.CH, 


i^CH . CH^i 


CH, 

,6' 
2' 

CHj 


.CHj 

5' 
3' 

.CH; 


*ycH„ 





When zinc-dust acts on chloroketodimethyltetrahydrobenzene in 
aqueous solution, there is obtained a mixture of ketodimethyltetrahydro- 
benzene and ketodimethylhexahydrobenzene (V. and VI.), in which the 
former largely predominates. If this mixture of ketones is again treated 
several times with zinc- dust it is possible to isolate pure ketodimethyl- 
hexahydrobenzene and a semi-solid mass from which a crystalline product 
has been separated, melting at 148°. It has the composition Oi^Hg^Oo, 
is believed to be 1 : V -dihydroxy-5 -.5:5': b'-tetrametkyl-i^^''^'-dic-^c\o- 
hexene (X.), and owes its orgin to pinacone formation. Moreover its 

/CMe„ . CH„. /CH„ . CMe.,\ 

CH2< " >C(OH) . C(OH)< " ">CH„ 

\CH=:CH/ ^CH=CH^ 

(X.) 

behaviour is quite in accord with that of a substance having formula X., 
for it does not give a colour reaction with concentrated sulphuric acid, 
nor can it be acetylated or benzoylated under the conditions employed. 
Further, its unsaturated nature is proved by the facts that it readily 
absorbs bromine, and when treated with sodium in moist ethereal solution 
it absorbs four atoms of hydrogen to give 1 : V -dihydroxy-b : 5 : 5' : .5'- 
tetramethyJdieyclohexane (XI.). Here again this saturated pinacone does 

/CMej.CH.. .CHj.CMe^. 

♦ CHj/ >C(OH).C(OH)< >CH, 

\CH„— CH/ \cH.,— CH/ 

(XI.) 

not give a colour reaction with concentrated sulphuric acid, but it is 
surprising to find that it is acetylated or benzoylated very readily, though 
no explanation of this fact can be ofiered on the present occasion. 

In the preparation of hydroxydimethylhexahydrobenzene consider- 
able difficulty was experienced at one time in obtaining the product 
free from halogen, and on examining the resinous by-product formed 
under these conditions two solid substances were separated from it, 
melting respectively at 178° and 173°-! 74°. The former of these has 
the composition C,cH,220.2 and is apparently 3 : 3'-diketo-0 : 5 : 5' : 5'- 
tfitrainefhylA-^'-^'-dicyclohexene (XII.), formed by the direct coupling 

yC Me„ . CHjv /CHj . C Me,. 

CH„< ■ NciCi NL C1C4 >CHj 

\f!0 C,Vf<^ ■■ ^'~'" '^'^-'^ 



"-CO CH^ '■ ^CH CO-' 

yC Me. . CH.v /C H, . C Me„. 

">c.c/ ■ -Nf 



-> chZ ■ ">c.c/ ■ -yen, 
\rn CH'^ ^CH — CO/ 



(XII.) 

of 2 molecules of chloroketodimethyltetrahydrobenzene by the sodium. 
It is highly coloured (yellow), gives a brick-red disemicarbazone, thus 
proving its diketonic nature, and is unsaturated as shown by its ready 



ON THE STUDY OK HYDKO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 107 

absorption of bromine. It could not be detected in the resin formed 
when alcohol was added to the ether used in the reduction of chloro- 
ketodimethyltetrahydrobenzene, but much larger quantities of the second 
substance melting at 173°- 17 4° and also another compound melting 
sharply at 212° were isolated. The latter proved to be identical with 
1 : l'-dihydroxy-5 : 5 : 5' : 5'-tetramethyldici/c/ohexane (XI.). 

For a long time the substance melting at 173°-174° was thought 
to be homogeneous, as it gave on analysis numbers agreeing with the 
formula C'lgHjoO^, nor was its melting-point altered by iijany recrystallisa- 
tions, and, moreover, it sublimed in needles which melted at 171°-172°. 
Nevertheless it was found to be a mixture, for on acetylation it gave 
two diacetyl derivatives melting at 130° and 68°, and on benzoylation 
two dibenzoyl derivatives melting at 199° and 134°. The former of the 
diacetyl and dibenzoyl compounds (m.-p. 130° and 199°) proved to be 
diacetyl- and dibenzoyl-1 : l'-diliydroxy-.5 : T) : 5' : 5'-tetramethyldic?/cZo- 
hexane, which substance they yielded on hydrolysis. 

The above mentioned derivatives meltina: at 68° and 134° were 
separately hydrolysed with alcoholic potassium hydroxide, when they 
each gave a substance, CigHyyO-i, melting at 183°, which is believed to 
be 3 : 'd'-dihi/droxy-5 : 5 : 5' : 5' -tetramethyldicyclohexane (XIII.). It is 



CH„< ">CH.CH< ' >CH., 

\CH(OH).CH„/ \CH.,.CH(OH)/ 

(XIII.) 



readily acetylated and benzoylated, and, unlike the unsaturated or satu- 
rated pinacones, gives a decided colour reaction with sulphuric acid. Its 
formation would be due to the further reduction of diketotetramethyl- 
dicycZohexene (XII.), although, unfortunately, sufficient of the latter 
material could not be isolated to try the action of reducing agents upon it. 

The substance melting at 173°-174° is therefore a mixture of 
1 : r-dihydroxy-5 : 5 : 5' ; .^'-tetramethyldic^/c/ohexane (XI.) and 3 : 3'- 
dihydroxy-5 : 5 : 5' : S'-tetramethyldic^/cZohexane (XIII.), and it would 
appear, therefore, that in the reduction of chloroketodimethyltetrahydro- 
benzene with sodium in moist ethereal solution dicyclic compounds are 
formed both by the process of pinacone formation and by the coupling 
reaction of the sodium. 

2. Action of Alcoholic Potassium Hydroxide on 3-Bromo-l : \-Di- 
methylhexahydrobenzene.^ — The preparation of 3-bromo-l : 1-dimethyi- 
hexahydrobenzene (XIV.) has been previously described, ^ and also the 
action of alcoholic potassium hydroxide on this substance,^ which was 
stated to give rise to 1 : l-dimethyl-A^-tetrahydrobenzene (XV.) only, 
and not to the isomeric tetrahydrobenzeue with the double bond in the 

XHj.CHBiv X'H.-CH. 

CMeZ \CH., CMe/ ' ^CH 

\CH,- CH,/ ■ ■ \CH, . OH/ 

(XIV.) (XV.) 

A2-position. This conclusion, which was based on the result of oxidation 
experiments, was so unexpected that it appeared desirable further to 
investigate the supposed 1 : 1 dimethyl- A^-tetrahydrobenzene, especially 
as there appeared to be a fairly easy means of deciding the point at issue. 

' Crossley and Eenouf, J.C.S., 1906. 89, 1556. 
^ Ibid., 1905, 87, 1497. ^ Ibid., p. 1499. 



108 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

If this hydrocarbon has the constitution represented by formula XV., then 
on treatment with bromine it would give rise to 3 : 4-dibromo-l : 1-di- 
methylhexahydrobenzene (XVI.), which, on treatment with a reagent 

/CHj.CHBrv /CH=CHv 

CMe/ >CHBr -> CMe.< >CH 

\CH.. — CH./ " \CH.. . CH^ 

(XVI.) ' (XVII.) 

capable of removing the elements of hydrogen bromide, should yield 
1 : l-dimethyl-- = ^-dihydrobenzene (XVII.).^ But though the hydrocarbon 
obtained by the action of quinoline on the dibromodimethylhexahydro- 
benzene had the odour and gave the colour reaction characteristic of 
1 : 1 -dimethyl- A- -^-dihydrobenzene, it has been proved by analysis and 
a study of its oxidation products to be an undoubted mixture of dimethyl- 
dihydro- and dimethyltetrahydro-benzenes. 

Being under the misapprehension that the dibromodimethylhexahydro- 
benzene, from which the mixture of hydrocarbons had been prepared, 
was a homogeneous substance, the oxidation products expected were 
«s-dimethylsuccinic acid, resulting from the oxidation of the dimethyldi- 
hydrobenzene, and /j/s-dimethyladipic acid, from the oxidation of the 
dimethyltetrahydrobenzene. 

/CH.,.CHBr. /CH2— CH.v 

CMp/ >CHBr -> CMe.,< ^CH -» 

\CU..— CH./ \CH..CH/ 

/CH,, . CO.,H 
CMeZ 

\CH,.CH,,.CO,H. 

Instead there were actually obtained (ta-dimethyladipic and as- 
dimethylsuccinic acids. This at once proved that the tetrahydrobenzene 
contained in the mixture of h;y drocarbons must have been 1 : 1-dimethyl- 
A--tetrahydrobenzene, and therefore that the supposed 1 : 1-dimethyl- 
A^-tetrahydrobenzene, which formed the stai'ting point of this investiga- 
tion, was not a homogeneous substance, but consisted of a mixture 
of 1 : l-dimethyl-A--tetrahydrobenzene and 1 : 1 -dimethyl- A^-tetrahydro- 
benzene. If this were so, then on oxidation a mixture of aa- and 
/5y8-dimethyladipic acids would be obtained, and, as it had been found 

/CH.,— CH^ /C H., . C 0„H 

CMe,/ ^CH -^ CMe.,/ 

\CH,, . CH/ ■ \CH., . CH, . CO,H 

/CH=CH. " /CO.,H 

CMe/ yCH^ -» CMe.,/ 

^CH^.CH/ '\CH„.CH2.CH,.C0,H. 

possible, contrary to the statement of Blanc,^ to separate these two acids,^ 
a further quantity of 20 grams of dimethyltetrahydrobenzene'' was pre- 
pared and oxidised with potassium permanganate.'^ There was no diffi- 
culty in proving that the solid product obtained consisted of a mixture of 
aa- and /)/3-dimethyladipic acids, in which the latter largely predominated, 
thus proving definitely the correctness of the above inference regarding 
the composition of the substance previously described as 1 : 1-dimethyl- 
A^-tetrahydrobenzene. 

' J.C.S., 1902, 81, 832. 2 Bull. Soc. chim., 1905 [iii], 33, 889. 

3 Ciossley and Renouf, J.C.S., 1906, 89, 1552. 

* Ibid., 1905, 87, 1199. » Ibid., p. 1502. 



ON THE STUDY OF HYDRO-AROMATir SUBSTANCES. 100 

It follows from the above evidence that the supposed 3 : 4-dibromo- 
1 : 1-diniethyl-hexahydrobenzene ' is a mixture of this substance with the 
corresponding 2 : 3-dibromo-derivative. When treated with quinoline 
the former (XVIII.) loses the elements of hydrogen bromide to give 
1 : 1 -dimethyl- A^-''-dihydrobenzene, which forms the main portion of the 
resulting mixture of hydrocarbons. But in the case of 2 : 3-dibromo- 

/CH.,.CHBrv /CH : CH. 

CMe< " >CHBr -> CMe..< ^CH. 

\ CH,— CH. / \CH„ . CH'^ 

XVIIT. 

1 : 1-dimethyl-hexahydrobenzene (XIX.) the removal of the hydrogen bro- 
mide cannot take place in an exactly similar manner, because the carbon 

>CH Br . C H Br q ^ 

^^^""KoH— PH/CH, -> CMe,^ \CH., or 

'^^i^J^^"-/ \ CH„ . CH/ 

XIX. XX. 

CH — CH 

atom to which the g'i?m-dimethyl group is attached has no hydrogen atoms in 
connection with it. The reaction might take place, giving rise to a sub- 
stance of formula XX. containing a treble bond, or the two bromine atoms 
might be alone removed, possibly as a quinoline bromide. The former sug- 
gestion does not seem probable, because, although the hydrocarbon would 
give aa-dimethyladipic acid on oxidation, it would be isomeric with di- 
methyldihydrobenzene, but analysis showed the substance to be a mixture 
of dimethyldihydro- and dimethyl tetrahydro-benzenes. In the latter case 
1 : l-dimethyl-A^-tetrahydrobenzene would result, which would also give 
aa-dimethyladipic acid on oxidation, and, furthermore, its presence would 
be in agreement with the analytical data. 

Becent Work on Hydro-aromatic Substances. 
By Professor A. W. Crossley. 

Hydrocarbons. — The ozonides of hydro-aromatic hydrocarbons - pro- 
duced by the direct addition of ozone to a double bond in a six carbon 
ring, differ markedly from analogous derivatives obtained from open chain 
hydrocarbons, or from members of the aromatic series, in being very 
stable towards water. Thus the ozonide of 1 : 1 ; 3-trimethyl-A'''-tetra- 
hydrobenzene (cyclogeraniolene) is with difficulty acted on by water • 
the ozonide of tetrahydrobenzene is slowly changed by boiling with water 
yielding principally adipic acid and small quantities of adipic aldehyde, 
whereas the ozonide of jdi hydroxy lene does not give any definite products. 
Furthermore, the ozonides of hydro-aromatic hj'drocarbons show irregulari- 
ties in their composition, for though tetrahydrobenzene ozonide has the 
normal composition CgHioOj, the derivative obtained from 1:1: 3-tri- 
methyl-A^-tetrahydrobenzene appears to contain four atoms of oxy»en 
and to possess a double molecular weight. This alone would not preclude 
the use of such substances for the determination of the constitution of 

■ ' Crossley and Renouf, J.CS., 1905. 87, 1501. 
* Harries and Neresheimer, Ber., 190G, 39, 2846. 



no 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



hydro-aromatic liydrocarbons if they were not so difficult to decompose 
with water. It has, however, now been ascertained that reduction of the 
ozonides leads to the production of the same aldehydes or ketones as 
would be formed by the action of water ; or, if very energetic reducing 
agents are employed, to the corresponding alcohols. But the method 
possesses the disadvantage that it is not so easy to make a quantitative 
estimation of the products as when the decomposition is brought about 
by water. 

Alcohols. — Scyllite, discovered in 1856, by Staedeler in certain cartila- 
ginous fishes, has been further examined by Miiller.' It has the formula 
C5H,20fi, forms monocliiiic crystals melting in the neighbourhood of 360°, 
is but slightly soluble in water, is optically inactive, and gives a hex- 
acetyl derivative. It is concluded from this evidence that scyllite is a 
hexahydroxyhexahydrobenzene, and is one of the inactive forms of inosite. 

CHOH— CHOH 

CHOH CHOH 

CHOH— CHOH 

Ketones. — Ketohexahydrobenzene, like phloroglucinol and dihydro- 
resorcin, is capable of existing in two tautomeric forms, either as the 
ketone or as hydroxy-A'-tetrahydrobenzene, for when heated with acetic 
anhydride and sodium acetate ^ it yields the acetyl derivative of 
hydroxytetrahydrobenzene. The latter is a colourless oij boiling at 
180°-182° and possessing a pleasant fruity odour. It is readily oxidised 
by potassium permanganate, giving adipic acid, and is hydrolysed by 
alcoholic potassium hydroxide with regeneration of ketohexahydro- 
benzene. 

Condensation products of a varied nature have been obtained from 
ketohexahydrobenzene ; thus when hydrogen chloride is passed into the 
pure ketone-' a solid product results, having the formula CiaHigOCl, and 
the probable constitution 

CH., 



CH, 



/\ 



CH- 



/CO-CHj 
-C1C< 

\CH,— CH. 



> 



CH, 



CH„ 

\" / 

CH„ 



CH„ 



This substance loses hydrogen chloride to form cyclohexene- 
cyclohexanone (XXI.), which on reduction gives the corresponding satu- 
rated alcohol (XXII.). 

O OH 




(XXI.) (XXII.) 

From this latter body, by treatment with hydrogen iodide, the fully 
hydrogenised dicyclohexane or dicyclohexyl 0^11,, . CgH,, is formed. 

' £er 1907, 40, 1821. - Mannich, Ber., 1906, 39, 1594. 

■' Wallach, Bcr., 1907, 40, 70. 



ON THE STUDY OF HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 



Ill 



If alcoholic sulphuric acid be used as condensing agent, then Mannich ' 
iinds that ketohex.ahydrobenzene behaves similarly to acetone, yielding 
bodies analogous, as regards method of formation, to mesityl oxide, 
phorone, and mesitylene, and having the respective formuhe 0|.;H|j,O, 
CigHjuO, and C,8H.2(. The latter would obviously be produced from 
three molecules of ketohexahydrobenzene, according to the 
scheme : 



following 





H, 



H, 



H„ 




+ 3H,0 



which shows it to contain a benzene ring and three hydrogenised benzene 
rings, and it would therefore be dodecahydrotriphenylene. It crystallises 
in compact prisms melting at 232°-233°, when oxidised with fuming nitric 
acid yields mellitic acid, and on distillation with zinc-dust in an atmo- 
sphere of hydrogen - is converted into triphenylene, identical with the sub- 
stance previously described by Schmidt and Schultz.^ The ketones 
CjaHigO and C13H20O have probably the following constitutions : 
H., O H. O H., 



H, 



H., 



H.. H. 




H.. 



"=V/"'= "\y"- 



H.. 



H., 



Homologues of ketohexahydrobenzene can be produced by the slow 
distillation of the anhydrides of substituted pimelic acids, when they lose 
carbon dioxide. Blanc ' has by this means prepared from /3/>dimethyl- 
pimelic anhydride 3-keto-l : l-dimethylhexahydrobenzene,-^ which when 
reduced with sodium and absolute alcohol gives 3-hydroxy 1 : 1-dimethyl- 
hexahydrobenzene, identical in every respect with the product obtained 
by Crossley and Renouf^ by the reduction of chloroketodimethyltetra- 
hydrobenzene. 3-Keto-l : 1 : 4-trimethylhexahydrobenzene has been pre- 
pared by a similar reaction. 

1 : 2-, 1 : 3-, and 1 : 4-ketomethylhexahydrobenzenes.^ 

2-Chloro-l -ketohexahydrobenzene is obtained by treating ketohexa- 



' Ber., 1907, 40, 153. 
^ Annalen, 1880, 203, 135. 

» Compare p. 105 of this report. '^ Compare p. 104 of this report. 

' Wallach, Annalen, 1906, 346, 249. 



2 Ibid., p. 159. 

♦ Coin])t. rend., 11)07, 144, 143. 



112 REPORTS ON THE 8TATE OF SCIENCE. 

hyclrobenzene suspended in water with chlorine in presence of calcium 
carbonate.^ When boiled with a strong solution of potassium carbonate 
it is converted into 2-hydroxy-l-ketohexahydrobenzene, and when treated 
by Grignard's reaction yields ketomethyl-(ethyl, ikc.)-hexahydrobenzene. 

A compound isomeric with Pinner's xylitone is formed by the action 
of sodium ethoxide on a mixture of ethyl acetoacetate and phorone,^ and is 
supposed to be l-keto-3-isobutenyl-5 : 5-dimethyl- A ^-tetrahydrobenzene, 

CO CH^ 

CU.j( 7C— GH = C(GH3).,. 

^OCCHa),— CH./ 

It yields a tetrabromide, and when reduced with sodium and alcohol 
gives l-hydroxy-3-isobutyl-5 : 5-dimethylhexahydrobenzene, which under 
the influence of phosphorus pentoxide loses water to form 3-isobutenyl- 
5 : 5-dimethyl- A '-tetrahydrobenzene. 

Acid>>. — Marckwald and Meth -^ have further investigated 1-methyl- 
cyclohexylideneacetic acid, to which allusion was made in the last report.'* 

/CH„— CH.,. 
CH3.CH< " >C = CH.COOH. 

\CH— CH/ 

This acid shows the general property of an o/5-unsaturated acid, in that, 
when heated, it readily loses the elements of carbon dioxide to give a 
hydrocarbon, ChHi4, which is optically inactive and has already been 
proved by Wallach to be l-methyl-4-ethylenehexahydrobenzene. 

<CH2 — GH^j 
>C = CH,. 
CH,— GH/ 

Further, as is well known, the bromo-additive compounds of f(/5-un- 
saturated acids j-eadily lose carbon dioxide and hydi*ogen bromide to give 
brominated hydrocarbons : — 

R . GHBr . CHBr . GOOH -> R . CH : ClIBr. 



Methylcycloiiexylideneacetic acid behaves in a similar way,'' for when 
treated with bromine in ac^ueous sodium carbonate solution it is converted 
into l-methyl-4-bromomethylenehexahydrobenzene, which on heating with 

.CH,— GH.,v 

GH3.GH/ " >G = CHBr 

\GH,— GH./ 

water forms hexahydro-ju-tolualdehyde. Perkin and Pope '• prepared their 
methylcyclohexylideueacetic acid by eliminating the elements of hydrogen 
bromide from ti-bromohexahydro-;*-tolylacetic acid, and, as shown byRuppe, 

/CH,— CH„. 
GH3 . CH< >CH - GHBr— GOOH 

\CH,— CH/ 

Roners, and Lotz,'^ both a/) and /-iy-unGatnrated acids are formed by loss of 
hydrogen bromide from ti-bromo acids. Marckwald and Meth suggest that 

' Bouveault und Chereau, Compt. rend., 1906, 142, 1086. 

2 Knoevenagel and Schwartz, Jier.,\9Q&, 39, 3411. 

3 Her., 1906, 39, 2035. ' Rnjyorts 1906, p. 264. 
■' Marckwald and Meth, Ber., 1906, 39, 2404. 

» Pruc. C. S., 22, 107. ' Ber., 1902, 35, 4265. 



ON THE STUDY OF HYDKO-AKOMATIG SUBSTANCES. 113 

Perkiii aud Pope's iicid is 1 -methyl A^-tetrahydrobenzeneacetic acid, and 

/CH„— CH J. 
CH3 . CH< ' ^C . CH„ . GOGH 

\CH— CH./ 

that the methylcyclohexylideneacetic acid, which would be produced at 
the same time, was overluoked on account of its extreme solubility in all 
oi'ganic solvents. 

?u-Hydroxybenzoic acid can be readily reduced by sodium and alcohol ^ 
to form cyclohexanol-3-carboxylic acid, wliich exists in well-defined cis and 

.CHOH— CH.,v 
CH„< " >CH . COOH 

"\CH., CH^/ 

trans modifications. When oxidised with chromic acid it is converted 
into cyclohexanone-3-carboxylic acid, the ethyl salt of which has been 
used as the starting point in the synthetical preparation of carvestrene. 
The method of preparing o-ketohexahydrobenzoic acid from pentane-aye- 
tricarboxylic acid is very laborious, and a decided improvement has now 
been introduced ^ by heating the ethyl ester of the above acid with sodium, 
when ethyl cyclohexanone-2 : 4-dicarboxylate is formed, which, when 

.CH., . CH., . COOC..H, 
C.H.COO . CH< ' ' -> 

\CH,. . CH„ . cooaH, 



<CH„ — CHjv 
>C( 
GH .— CH / CC 



C,H, . 000 . CH< >C0 



\gh. — CH/. COOCH 



2^^5 



digested with dilute sulphuric acid, is readily decomposed with formation 
of ^-ketohexahydrobenzoic acid, carbon dioxide, and ethyl alcohol. 

Confirmation of the formuhe assigned by Baeyer •* to the different 
forms of dihydroplithalic acids has been furnished through the resolution 
of <rans-A^--^-dihydrophthalic acid ^ into two active isomerides by crys- 
tallising the strychnine hydrogen salt, the isomerides having [a];, 126°. 
Baeyer stated that when treated with caustic soda the trans A"*-^ acid was 
converted into the A^-^-variety ; and with acetic anhydride it passed the 
cis A ■'■■^ modification. As neither of these forms contains an asymmetric 
carbon atom, the optical activity ought to be destroyed by treatment 
with these reagents. This takes place in both cases, the change from one 
modification to the other proving to be a unimolecular reaction under the 
conditions of experiment. 

A comparison of the electrical conductivities of a- and ^-naphthoic, 
benzoic, and phthalic acids with their hydrogenised derivatives leads 
Abati •'' to the conclusion that, apart from the strongly negative character 
of the aromatic nucleus, the presence and position of double bonds in 
these acids has an undoubted influence on their conductivities, which is 
increased by a double bond in the aa or (3y positions, whereas if in the 
ap or yS positions practically the same value is obtained as for the 
corresponding saturated acids. The author considers this to be conti'ary 
to the declarations of Fichter and Pfister,'' and does not consider that 

' Perkin and Tattersall, J.C.S., l'J07, 91, 480. 
- Kay and Peikin, ibid., 1906, 89, 1640. 

» Annalcii. 1892, 269, 145. ■• Neville, J.C.S., 1906, 89, 1744. 

^ Cent. Blatt., 1907, 1, 886. '^ Annalen, 1904, 334, 201. 

1907. I 



il4 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

constitutional formulaj should be assigned from the results of single I'eac- 
tions, as has been done by Perkin and Pickles ' in the case of the tetra- 
hydroisophthalic acids. Abati and Minerva - have isolated hydrophthalic 
acids by the reduction of phthalic acid w^ith sodium amalgam, and give 
the principal properties of these acids and their anhydrides. 

Steric Hindrance in the Formation of Rings. — The interaction of the 
1 : 4-dibromides and primary aromatic amines has been previously shown 
by Scholtz ■* to take place in one or two ways, according as to whether the 
primary amine contains a substituting group in the ortho position or not. 
Thus with o-xylylene dibromide and aniline or ta- and p toluidine a tive- 
ring compound, is formed : — 

/CHjBr /CH.,. 

C^H / + H,N . CeH, = C,H / ■ >N . C,H, + 2H Br, 

\CHjBr \CH/ 

whereas when o-toluidine is used an open chain substance results ; — 

.CH„Br /CHj . N H . CjH^ . CH3 

C,h/ ' + 2H,N.CeH,.CH3. = C,H/ + 2HBr. 

NCHjBr \CHj.NH.C„H,.CH3 

The reaction has now been extended to the formation of six-ring 
systems,^ where the condensation of numerous substances has shown 
that exactly similar conditions hold good : for o-toluidine condenses 
with pentamethylene dibromide to give pentamethylene-di-o-toluidine, 
(0112)5 . (NH . C6H4 . 0113)2, whereas with m- or ^j-toluidine there is formed 
m- or p-tolylpiperidine. 

/CH„-CH.,. 
CH / ' ■>N.C„H,.CH3. 

^CH„— CH/ 

Optical Injluence oj Conjutjated Unsaturated Groups. — Kay and 
Perkin * have shown that the magnetic rotation of cf-limonene differs 
from that of A'^^'-^^menthadiene, of which the value is abnormally high, 
and they expressed the belief that this was due to the presence of two 
conjugated double bonds. Bruhl •" points out that this is correct, and 
that the high value could have been jDredicted with certainty, for Bruhl's 
previous work has proved that the numbers for the magnetic I'otations 
and refractive values of substances are always largely increased by the 
presence of conjugated double Unkings, not only 0:0.0:0 but also 
0:0.0:0. Only benzene derivatives, which contain monovalent atoms 
or groups substituting hydrogen atoms of the ring, give normal values, 
and here it is presumed that the three double bonds mutually neutralise 
one another. As soon as the symmetry of the six carbon atoms is 
disturbed by the introduction of OH, between the members of the ring, 
or by coupling the ring with other unsaturated groups, such as : 0, 
: O, NO2, &c., then the characteristic increase in value due to the con- 
jugated bonds is shown. 

Velocity of Chemical Change in the Poly methylene Series. — The follow- 
ing may be quoted as some of the more important general results of the 

> J. as., 1905, 87, 293. " rJetit. Blatt, 1907, 1, 887. 

' Ber.. 1898, 31, 414, G27, 1154, 1707 ; and 1899, 32, 848. 
♦ Scholtz, Ber., 1907, 40, 852. '' J.C.S., 1906, 89, 839. 

« J.CS., 1907, 91, 115. See also Ber., 1907, 40, 878. 



ox TEIE STUDY OV HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 115 

study of polyraethylene derivatives in respect to the velocity of chemical 
change.' 

The formation of the closed polymethylene ring from an open chain of 
normal structure proceeds with increase of velocity, the maximum occur- 
ring in the formation of the pentamethylene ring, decreasing through 
the hexamethylene, to the minimum increase in the case of the hepta- 
methylene ring. The increase of velocity at the closing of the open 
chain is not a specific property of the polymethylene ring, but is observed 
in the formation of all rings, alicyclic and heterocyclic. The secondary 
polymethylene alcohols, in which the hydroxy! group is attached to the 
carbon atom of the ring, are typical secondary alcohols. Their esterifica- 
tion constants are higher than those of the normal saturated secondary 
alcohols ; derivatives of cyclopentanol giving the highest, cyclohexanol 
much lower, and cycloheptanol the lowest values. The esteritication con- 
stants of polymethylene tertiary alcohols are very low, but esterifi cation 
proceeds regularly. This is characteristic of phenols, and does not occur 
with saturated tertiary alcohols. When side chains are present in the 
ortho or diortho positions a great decrease in the esterification constants 
is observed, an effect commonly ascribed to the benzene ring alone, but in 
reality a general property of all chains. Side chains in positions 3 or 
4 of the polymethylene series produce an increase of the constants ; and 
as open chain compounds show no such increase of velocity, this provides 
an important characteristic of closed chains. When a hexamethylene 
ring is introduced into the open chain of an alcohol, the decrease of the 
esterification constants is much larger than is effected by the benzene 
ring. 

' Menschutkin, J.C.S., 1906, 89, 1.5.32. 



12 



116 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Wave-length Tahles of the Spectra of the Eleme-iU.'t and Compounds. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. ROSCOE (^Chair- 
man), Dr. Marshall Watts (Secretary), Sir Norman Lockyer, 
Professor Sir James Dewar, Professor G. D. Liveing, Professor A. 
Schuster, Professor W. N. Hartley, Professor Wolcott Gibbs, 
Sir W. de W. Abney, and Dr. W. E. Adeney. 



Standard Lines. 



Buisson and Fabry, ' C.R.,' cxliii. p. 165 (1906) ; cxliv. p. 1155 (1907). 

Perot and Fabry, ' C.R.,' ox'cxiii. p. 153 (1901). 

Kayser, ' Ann. d. Physik ' (4), iii. p. 195 (1900). 

Eversheim, ' Zeitschrift fiir wisseusehaftliche Photographie,' v. 152 (1907). 

Wave-lengths in dry air at 15' C. and 760 mm. 



Buisson and 

Fabry 

Iron Arc 


Perot and Fabry 
Solar Spectrum 


Kayser 
Iron Arc 


Previous Measurements 

(Solar Spectrum) 

Rowland 


6494-994 






6495-209 




6471-666 Ca 




71-885 


30-859 






31-063 




08-027 Fe 




08-231 


6393-612 






6393-818 


35-342 


6335-346 




35-550 




22-706 Fe 




22-912 


18-029 






18-242 


6265-147 






6265-347 


30-732 


6230-746 




30-946 


6191-560 






6191-770 




6151-639 




51-834 


37 700 








6065-493 


6065-506 




6065-708 


27-059 






27-265 




16-650 Mn 




16-856 


03-039 






03-245 




5987-081 Fe 




5987-286 


5952-739 








34-683 


34-666 




34-883 


5892-882 Ni 






5893-098 




5862-368 Fe 




62-580 


57-760 Ni 








05-211 Ni 






05-448 


5763-013 


5763004 




5763-215 


60-843 Ni 










15-095 




15-309 


09-396 






09-616 


5658-835 








15-658 






5615-879 



M)te. — The wavelengths now given'^by Buisson and Fabry rest on the value 
6438-4696, determined by Benoit, Fabry* and Perot for the red line of Cadmium, 
and those of Perot and Fabry on Michelson's value 5085-8240 for the Cadmium green 
line. 



UN Wave-length tables ok the spectka of the elements. 117 
Standard Li^ES—co?itiuucd. 



Buisson and 

Fabry 

Iron Arc 


Perot and Fabry 
Solar Spectrum 


Kayser 
Iron Arc 


Previous Measurements 

(Solar Spectrum) 

Eowland 


6586-770 


5586-778 




5586-991 


69-632 






69-848 


35-418 








06-783 


06-794 




07-000 


5497-521 


5497-536 




5497-731 


55-621 






55-826 


34-530 


34-544 




34-742 




09-800 Cr 




10-000 


05-780 






05-987 


5371-498 






5371-686 




5367-485 Fe 




67-670 




45-820 




45-991 


24-196 






24-373 


02-316 








5266-568 






5266-729 




5247.5S.7 




47-737 




47 063 




47-259 


32-958* 






33-124 


5192-362 










5171-622 Fe 




.. 5171-783 


67-492 






67-686 


27-364 






27-530 




23-739 




23-889 


10-415 






10-570 




5090-787 Fe 




5090-959 


5083-343 








49-827 






50-008 


12-072 








01-880 


01-881 




02044 


4966104 










4923-943 Fe 




4924-109 


19-006 






19-183 


03-324 






03-488 


4878-226 








59-756t 


4859-758 




4859-934 


23-521 Mn 






23-697 


4789-657 










4783-449 




4783-601 


54-046 Mn 






54-226 


36-785 


36-800 




36-963 


07-287 










04-960 




05-131 


4678-855 






4679-028 


74-437 










4643-483 




43-645 


02-944 








4592-658 








47-854 








31-155 








4494-572t 




4494-755 
89-929 
84-420 
76-207 
69-566 


4494-735 (756 in arc) 


66-554 




66-737 





* Eversheim, 52329630. 



t Idem, 4494-5812. 



t Idem, 4859-7613. 



118 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OK SCIENCE. 
Standard LiI'IES— continued. 



Buisson and 

Fabry 

Iron Arc 


Perot and Fabry 
Solar Spectrum 


Kayser 
Iron Arc 


Previous Measurements 

(Solar Spectrum) 

Rowland 






4461-838 








54-572 








47-907 


4447-899 (-912 in arc) 






42-522 








30-801 




4427-314 




27-490 








15-301 


15-299 (-298 in arc) 






04-929 


04-927 (-928 in arc) 






4391-137 


4391-149 






83-724 


83-721 


4375-935* 




76-104 


76-103 (108 in arc) 






69-954 


69-948 (in arc) 






67-759 








58-689 




52-741 




52-910 
46-739 
37-219 


52-908 






25-941 


25-932 


15-089 




15-255 
09-542 
4299-420 
94-290 
91-631 
85-614 




4282-407t 




82-567 








71-933 


4271-920 






71-333 








60-656 


60-647 






60-948 


50-949 






50-299 


50-300 






47-604 








45-423 








38-980 








36-118 




33-615 




33-771 
27-606 








22-387 


22-396 






19-523 








10-521 








02-195 


02-187 






4199-256 


4199-257 


4191-441 




91-611 
87-221 
81-918 
75-799 
71-069 
54-662 




47-677 




44-033 
37156 




34-685 




[ 




18-552 




; 18-709 








14-608 


14-600 (in sun) 






07-646 








4098-346 








96-135 





* Eversheim, 4375-9435. 



t Idem, 4282-4125. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 119 



Standard Lines— ro»<«(?/e(^. 



Biiisson and 






Previous Measurements 


Fabry 
Iron Arc 


Perot and Fabry 
Solar Spectrum 


Kayser 
Iron Arc 


(Solar Spectrum) 
Rowland 






4084-166 








79-999 




4076'641 












71-901 


4071-903 






68-138 








63-755 


63-755 






62-605 


62-602 (in sun) 






55-706 


65-701 ( „ ) 






45-978 


45-975 






44-776 








32-796 








30-670 




21-872 




22-029 
17-303 
07-429 
3998-211 
96-148 
86-330 
84-112 




3977-745 




77-892 
69-411 
66-219 
56-823 
56-610 
48-927 
45-269 


3977-891 (in sun) 






41-032 


41-034 


35-818 




35-966 








28-073 


28-060 


1 




23-059 








20-404 






- 


18-467 








16-880 


16-886 






13-784 








09-980 




06-481 




06-624 
03-097 
3899-853 
95-801 
93-538 
87-193 








86-426 


3886-421 






78-722 








78-166 








72-640 




3865-526 




65-670 








60-054 


60-050 






56-615 


66-517 (in sun) 






50-114 




43-261 




41-194 




1 




40-586 


40-589 






34-370 








33-463 








27-967 


27-973 






26-028 


26-024 


\ 




24-591 








20-573 


20-566 



120 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Standabd LimBS—continned. 



Buisgon and 






Previous Measurements 


Fabry 
Iron Arc 


Perot and Fabry 
Solar Spectrum 


Kayser 
Iron Arc 


(Solar Spectrum) 
Rowland 

1 






3815-987 
13-202 
06-847 


3815-984 


3805-346 




01-822 


05-487 






3799-694 


3799-698 






98-656 


98-662 






95-149 


95-150 






90-242 








88-031 


88-032 






78-670 








76-606 








70-452 








67-339 


67-344 






63-940 


63-942 






58-381 


58-370 


3753-615 












49-034 


49-633 






48-409 


48-409 






45-710 


45-701 






43-510 


43-502 






37-278 


37-282 






35-016 


35-075 






33-470 


33-407 






32-541 


32-542 






31-102 








27-769 


27-763 


24-346 




24-527 








22-710 


22-691 






20083 


20-086 






09-395 


09-397 






07-199 


07-186 






05-714 


05-711 






02-180 








3695-202 


3695-194 






87-609 


87-607 






83-205 


83-202 






80-062 


80-064 


3677-628 




76-461 
69-674 
59-673 
55-625 
51-615 
50-429 








47-997 


47-995 


40-391 




40-541 
32-195 


40-536 






31-617 


31-619 






30-506 








22-158 


22-147 






18-918 


18-924 






17-944 


17-920 






17-474 




, 




12-242 


12-217 






09-011 


09-015 



ox WAVE-T.ENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 121 





Standabd Lines — continued. 


Buisson and 






Previous Measurements 


Fabry 
Iron Aj:o 


Perot and Fabry 
Solar Spectrum 


Kayser 
Iron Arc 


(Solar Spectrum) 
Bowland 


3606-681 




3606-836 


3606-831 






05-619 


05-635 






3599-781 








94-767 








87-137 








85-478 








81-348 


3581-344 






70-257 


70-225 






65-535 


65-528 






58-672 


58-670 


3556-879 




53-898 
45-793 








40-287 


40-266 






36-694 








29-960 








26-822 








26-196 


*■ 






21-415 


21-404 


13-820 




13-974 
08-663 
08-627 


13-947 






06-650 








00-716 


00-721 






3497-989 


3497-991 






90-721 


90-721 


3485-344 




85-496 
83-159 








76-850 


76-831 






75-600 


75-594 






71-497 








71-413 








66-006 


65-991 






60-067 








58-454 








50-484 




45-155 




45-301 








44-025 


44-032 






41-138 


41-135 






40-762 


40-759 






27-263 


27-282 (3427-279 in arc) 






24-430 


1 
1 






18-649 








13-275 








06-938 


06-955 






06-578 


06-581 


3399-337 




3399-468 
97-117 
94-721 








89-882 


3389-887 






84-113 








80-242 








78-814 




70-789 




67-675 
66-993 




1 


66-917 








55-355 





122 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Standard Lines — contlnved. 



Buisson and 

Fabry 

Iron Arc 



Perot and Fabry 
Solar Spectrum 



3323-739 



3271-003 



25-790 



3175-447 



25-6C1 



Kayser 
Iron Arc 



3351-882 
48-056 
42-340 
42-034 
37-793 
28-992 
25-589 

17-251 
14-868 
06-479 
06106 

3298-263 
92-721 
86-884 
84-720 
80-386 
71-129 
65-746 
57-724 
53-043 
48-332 
46-617 
44-308 
39-564 
31091 
28-379 
25-905 
22-187 
16-057 
14-158 
12-112 
10-953 
05-513 
00-595 

3199-638 
93-423 
92-921 
91-778 
88-947 
85-015 
78-122 
75-556 
71-743 
66-551 
65-129 
62-064 
60-764 
57-157 
51-460 
44-096 
42-565 
40-503 
32-627 
25-770 
19-609 
16-747 
12-183 



I 



Previous Measuremerita 

(Solar Spectrum) 

Rowland 

3351-877 
48-011 



06-471 
06117 



3225-923 
22-203 

14-152 (in axn' 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TAULES OK THE SPECTHA OF THE ELEMENTS. 123 



Standard hj^/iEs— continued. 



Buisson and ! „ , j t-i i. 
Fabry Perot and Fabry 
Iron Arc Solar Spectrum 


Kayser 
Iron Arc 


Previous Measurements 

(Solar Spectrum) 

Kowland 




3100-778 


3100-779 (in arc) 


I 


00-418 


00-415 „ 




00-057 


00-064 „ 




3095-013 


3095003 






91-687 






83-853 


83-849 (in arc) 




75-830 


75-849 „ 




68-286 






67-363 


67-363 (in arc) 




64-042 








59-202 


59-200 (in arc) 






57-562 


57-557 „ 






51-179 








47-719 


47-720 (in arc) 


: 


41-860 








41-753 








37-505 


37-492 






31-753 




3030-152 












25-960 


25-958 (in arc) 






24-153 


24-154 „ 






21-194 


21-191 „ 






20-764 


20-759 „ 






20-619 


20-611 






19-105 


19- 






17-747 


17-747 (in arc) 






16-305 


16-296 „ 






09-690 


09-696 „ 






08-254 


08-255 „ 






07-409 


07-408 „ 






07-262 


07-260 „ 






01-068 


01-070 „ 






2999-630 


2999-632 „ 






94-554 


94-547 






90-511 




2987-293 




87-410 


87-410 (in arc) 






83-690 


83-689 „ 






81-565 


81-570 „ 






76-253 








73-366 


73-358 (in arc) 






73-254 


73-254 „ 






70-227 


70-233 „ 






67-019 


67016 „ 






65-379 


65-381 






57-484 


57-485 „ 






64 061 


54-058 „ 






48-557 








47-996 


47-993 (in arc) 


41-347 




41-462 








37-030 


37-020 (in arc) 






29-119 


29-127 „ 






26-699 








23-409 








18-144 




12157 




12-273 
07-630 
01-496 


12-275 (in arc) 






2899-531 


± - 



124 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIEKCE. 



Standaed Lines — continued. 



Buisson and 

Fabry 

Iron Arc 


Perot and Fabry 


Kayser 




Solar Spectrum 


Iron Arc 








2894-617 








90-000 








87-920 








80-867 








77-414 




2874-176 


• 


74-284 
69-418 
63-973 
59-007 




51-800 




51-910 
48-828 
44-083 
43-742 
38-231 
35-562 
32-543 
25-803 
25-660 
23-382 
17-612 


c 


13-290 




13-391 

07-088 

04-622 

2797-877 

91-989 

88-207 


i 

4 






81-936 




2778-225 




78-327 
72-205 
68-621 
62-125 
61-883 








57-413 . 






56-412 






55-834 








50-238 








47-080 








46-580 








45-177 








44-624 








44-163 








42-506 








42-349 




39-550 




39-639 
37-407 
35-566 
33-978 
30-832 
28-914 
25-024 
23-671 
20-997 
19-121 
18-530 




14-419 




14-503 




"I 




08-663 




--j 




06-672 




1 
J 




2699193 





Previous Measurements 

(Solar v'^iiectrum) 

Kowlaud 

1 


2851-904 




44-085 (in arc) 
43-744 „ 
38-226 „ 


32-545 (ill 


arc) 


25-667 (in 
23-389 


arc) 
If 


13-388 (in 


arc) 


2788-201 (in 
81-945 
78-340 
72-206 
68-630 
62-110 
61-876 


arc) 

» 

») 
») 
99 
99 


56-427 (in 

55-837 

50-237 


arc) ! 

1 
" 1 

19 


42-485 


*f 


37-405 (in arc) 


33-973 


» 


23-668 (ill 

20-989 

19-119 


arc) 

99 
99 


06-684 (iu 


arc) 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 125 



Standard Liti^s—continited. 



Bnisson and 

Pal.ry 

Iron Arc 



2679-065 



28-296 



Perot anfl Fabry 
Solar Spectrum 



2588 016 



62-541 



28-516 Si 



06-904 Si 



Kayaer 
Iron Arc 



2690-153 


89-302 


80-544 


79-148 


73-315 


69-581 


66-897 


56-232 


51-800 


47-649 


44-085 


35-899 


31-139 


28-383 


25-754 


23-627 


20-499 


18-108 


17-706 


13-914 


11-963 


07-155 


06-920 


2599-663 


99-483 


98-456 


88-102 


85-964 


84-623 


82-408 


78-012 


75-845 


74-462 


67-001 


62-619 


' 56-963 


51-192 


49-708 


46-072 


44016 


42-192 


41064 


37-263 


35-699 


33-911 


29-928 


29-223 


27-525 


24-393 


23-754 


22-950 


18-198 


17-754 


11-857 


10-927 


[07-991 



Previous Measurements 

(Solar Spectrum) 

Rowland 



2679-148 (in arc) 



31-125 (in arc) 



11-965 (in arc) 



2599-494 (in arc) 
98-460 



84-629 (in arc) 



49-704 (in arc) 
46-068 



41-058 (in arc) 
35-648 „ 



28-599 Si 
27-530 „ 



22-948 (in arc) 
18-188 „ 



10-934 (in arc) 
06-944 Si 



126 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Standard Lines — continued. 



Buissou and 


1 




Previous Measurements 


Fabry 
Irou Arc 


Perot and Fabry 
Solar Spectrum 


Kayser 
Iron Arc 


(Solar Spectrum) 
Pvowland 






2501-228 


2501-223 (in arc) 




2496-625 






93-331 








91-249 


2491-244 (in arc) 






90-737 


90-723 „ 






89-844 


89-838 „ 






88-232 


88-238 „ 






87-155 








84-280 


84-283 (in arc) 






83-618 








83-361 


83-359 „ 






79-872 


79-871 „ 






74-906 








72-976 


72-974 (in arc) 






72-436 








68-974 








65-244 








62-740 


62-743 (in arc) 






62-279 








57-686 


57-680 (in arc) 






53-568 








47-808 


47-785 (in arc) 






42-658 








40-201 








39-834 








38-274 




2435-159 Si 




31-126 
24-231 




13-310 




13-393 
11-152 








10-601 


10-604 (in arc) 






06-742 


06-743 „ 






04-969 


04-971 „ 






04-519 








2399-322 


2399-328 (in arc) 






95-709 


95-715 „ 






90-058 








88-711 


88-710 (in arc) 


1 


84-473 








83-324 








82-114 


82-122 (in arc)] 






80-840 








79-355 








75-273 




2373-737 




73-813 
68-670 


73-771 (in arc) 






64-904 


64-897 






59-187 








54-969 








48-380 


48-385 (in arc) 






48-196 








43-567 


43-571 (in arc) 






32-869 








31-384 








27-468 


1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF TflE SPECTRA OK THE ELEMENTS. 127 



Iridium. 

Exner aud Haschek, ' Sitz. kais. Akail. Wissensch. AVieii,' civ. 909, 1895 ; cv. 503, 
1896. 

Kayser, ' Abhandl. konigl. Wissensch. Berlin,' 1897. 

Exner and Haschek, ' Wellenlangen-Tabellen der Bogcuspektren dor Element e,' 
Leipzig und Wien, 1904. 

Lohse, ' Astrophys. Obs. Potsdam,' xii. (1902). 

Adeney, ' Photographs of Ultra-violet Spirk-spsctra,' 'Trans. Roy. Dublin Boc' 
(2), vii. 331. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 






j 


" 




Vacuum 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 




1 


OscUlation 




Intensity 




Intensity 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Exner aud 
Haschek 


and 
Charactei 


Exner aud 
Haschek 


and 
Character A. 4- 


1_ 

A 

4-6 


5894-324 




2 




j 1-61 


16960-9 


5625-772 




3 






1-53 


4-8 


17770-5 


20-266 




1 






99 


99 


88-0 


5469-648 




1 






1-49 


6-0 


18277-7 


54-724 


2 ■ 






99 


99 


18324-4 


49-716 


4 






99 


»9 


44-6 


1 5364-507 


2 






1-47 


5-1 


18656-0 


! 57-081 


! 




_. 


1-46 


99 


61-8 


40-932 


1 






9) 


99 


18718-2 


5239-091 


1 






1-43 


5-2 


19082-1 


; 5178-128 


1 






1-42 


5-3 


19306-7 


5050-001 











1-38 


5-4 


19796-6 


46-227 











99 


99 


19811-4 


09-323 











1-37 


5-5 


19957-3 


02-874 




1 






99 




83-0 


4999-898 




2 










94-9 


70-629 











1-36 


99 


20112-7 


39-311 









1-35 


5-6 


20240-1 


38-225 




1 










44-6 


4845-539 




(1 






1-33 


5-7 


20631-8 


40-934 


2 






1-32 


99 


51-5 


09-636 


2 










20785-9 


07-302 


(t 










96-0 


1 4795-827 


3 






1-31 




20845-8 


78-330 


4 






99 


5-8 


209220 


58-107 


2 






1-30 




21011-0 


56-613 




4 






99 


99 


17-6 


32-014 




1 






99 




21126-8 


29-005 




4 






1-29 




40-3 


09-034 




2 






99 


99 


21230-0 


02-751 











99 


5-9 


58-2 








4696-0 


1 


99 


,, 


21289- 








94-0 


1 


»> 


99 


98- 








92-7 


1 


1-28 


„ 


21304- 








83-8 


1 


f > 


>) 


44- 








83-0 


1 


J> 


>» 


48- 








81-5 


1 


99 


,, 


55- 








78-6 


1 


>; 


,, 


68- 








74-2 


In 


» 


,, 


89- 








73-4 


In 


9) 


,, 


92- 








72-0 


In 


»» 


,, 


98- 








71-4 


In 


fi 


fl 


21401- 








69-7 


In 


JJ 


>y 


09- 








69-4 


In 






10- 


4669130 




2 




1 


fy 


>» 


114 



128 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SClEiNCE. 



iKiDiUiM — coiit'uiuecl. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 

character 


Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
character 

In 


Vacuum 


Kayser 


Ex-ner and 
Haschek 


Exner and \^ 
Haschek j 


A-t- 
1-28 


1_ 

A 

5-9 






4665-0 ! 


21430- 








56-5 


1 


" 


»» 


69- 


4656-329 




4 




1 


99 9t 


70-2 








55-9 


In 


» 


»» 


72- 








55-4 


In 


99 


»t 


74- 








64-9 


In 


1-27 


j> 


77- 








54-4 


la 


5> 


»> 


79- 








50-7 


1 


,, 


»> 


96- 


40-231 




2 


40-3 


In 


»> 


9t 


21544-8 






2 


27-5 


In 


" 1 


60 


21604- 


16-549 


4616-55 


4 


16-6 2 


1-26 1 


» 


21655-2 


14-342 









»» 


»> 


65-6 








04-7 1 


J» 


»> 


21711- 








4586-5 


In 


JJ 


>> 


97- 








85-7 


In 


»» 


>> 


21801- 








84-5 


In 


» 


»» 


07- 








82-0 


1 


i> 


>» 


19- 








79-5 


In 


1-25 


J» 


30- 


1 






70-5 


In 


>> 


91 


73- 


4570-183 




2 


70-1 


1 


>» 


9t 


75-0 


68-246 


4568-30 


3u 


68-2 


2 


9> 


f« 


84-1 








65-0 


In 


»> 


61 


21900- 








64-2 


1 


»» 


>> 


04- 








61-0 


1 


»» 


99 


19- 








58-7 


1 


»> 


99 


30- 








58-0 


1 


J» 


J» 


33- 




54-72 


1 


54-7 


1 


)» 


»> 


49-1 








54-2 


1 


)> 


)> 


52- 








52-5 


In 


>» 


>» 


60- 


50-941 




2 


50-9 


1 


J» 


>> 


67-4 


1 48-645 


48-64 


3ii 


48-7 


2 


>> 


» 


78-5 


45-837 


45-84 


3 


45-8 


2 


•» 


9* 


92-0 








43-0 


1 


1-24 


)> 


22006- 








42-4 


1 


J» 


If 


09- 








39-3 


1 


»» 


)» 


24- 


38-819 




1 


38-7 


1 


>> 


)» 


26-1 








34-5 


lb 


»> 


>t 


47- 


33003 




2 


33-0 


1 


>> 


>) 


54-3 








15-3 


In 


» 


»» 


22141- 








14-4 


In 


>> 


9> 


45- 








12-0 


1 


>» 


9> 


57- 








11-0 


lb 


J> )» 


62- 








09-0 


In 


»> ! ,, 


72- 






05-7 


la 


1-23 


88- 






05-1 


1 In 


>» >> 


91- 


1 






01-7 


I 111 


»» )» 


22208- 


I 


1 




1 01-0 


In 


») *» 


11- 


i 4496-20U 




1 


4496-1 


1 


6-2 


34-8 


95-525 


4495-52 


2 


95-4 


i 2 


»> »> 


38-2 


1 92-333 




1 


92-3 


1 


)» 5» 


53-9 


1 91-523 




2 


91-4 


2 


1 >> »> 


58-0 








84-0 


lu 


1 >* 


f> 


95- 








82-1 


1 


>> 


»l 


22305- 


78-649 


78-65 


3 


78-4 
7U-5 


4 
In 




99 


22-0 
63- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 129 

Iridium —continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


[ntensity 

and 
Character 


Wave-length 


jitensity - 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Kayser 


Exner and ( 
Haschek 


Exner and ^ 
Haschek 

4467-4 


and 
Character 


\ + 


1 
\~ 

6-2 


in Vacuo 




lb 


1-22 1 


22378- 








66-8 


1 


»» 


»? 


81- 








60-0 


1 


?J 


" 1 


22415- 








58-2 


1 


»J 


>» 1 


24- 


4452-987 




1 


52-9 
52-7 
51-4 


1 
In 

1 


" 1 




50-6 

52- 

59- 








50-9 


1 




J> 


61- 




4450-41 


In 






„ 


)» 


63-6 


50-346 
49-540 




2 



50-2 


1 






63-9 

68-0 








44-0 


lu 


79 


>S 


96- 








431 


1 


)» 


)> 


22501- 


26-459 


26-45 


5 


26-5 


4 


1-21 


6-3 


85-1 


25-936 











J> 


9) 


87-8 


22121 




1 


22-0 
21-3" 


1 
lu 






22607-3 
12- 


11-344 




2 


11-2 


1 


>J 


JJ 


62-5 








10-5 


1 


») 


JJ 


67- 


06-926 







06-9 


1 


?» 


J» 


85-3 


03-952 


03-98 


3 


04-0 
01-4 


2 
1 






22700-5 
14- 


4399-645 


4399-68 


4 


399-7 


6 


J> 


J» 


22-7 


92-758 


92-80 


2 


92-8 


1 


1-20 


>» 


58-3 








90-4 


lu 


)» 


J5 


71- 








88-5 


1 


>J 


)» 


81- 








88-1 


1 


J» 


>J 


83- 








81-2 


In 


SJ 


»J 


22819-9 


80 930 




- 


80-4 
80-0 


1 
1 




J1 


23- 
25- 


77-175 




3 


77-2 


1 


}* 


„ 


39-6 


76-575 







76-6 
74-9 


1 
1 






42-6 
51- 








73-8 


In 


»» 


J» 


57- 








73-0 


In 


?> 


»» 


61- 








72-3 


1 


J> 


J» 


65- 








72-0 


In 


JJ 


«) 


67- 








69-2 


In 


»> 


»• 


81- 


62-289 




1 








6-4 


22917-3 








61-3 


1 


J? 


»» 


23- 








60-9 


1 


»J 


>j 


25- 








60-2 


1 




j» 


29- 








59-6 


1 


J) 


»» 


32- 








58-4" 


In 


1? 


)> 


38- 








55-8 


In 


1-19 


)> 


52- 








54-3 


In 


>» 


>» 


59- 








53-5 


1 


»? 


?j 


64- 


52-720 




2 


52-7 


1 


J» 


»» 


67-7 


51-462 




1 






I) 


j» 


74-4 








48-1 


lu 


») 


ij 


92- 








43-7 


lb 


»> 


1 


23016- 








42-2 


In 


>» 


>» 


23- 








39-6 


lb 


J, 


)j 


37- 


32-490 











>» 


>» 


75-0 


30-060 







30-0 


1 


>> 


»» 


88-0 



1907. 



K 



130 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Iridium — contimied. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 






Intensity 
and 




Intensity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 










1_ 

6-4 


Kayser 


Exaer and 
Haschek 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


\ + 
1-19 






4328-8 


lb 


23095- 








24-7 




)> 


yf 


23117- 


4316-456 




1 


16-6 
14-0 
13-2 


In 


118 




60-7 

74- 

78- 


11-669 


4311-68 


4 


11-7 
11-5 






)> 


86-4 

87- 


10-750 


10-76 


3 


08-3 






6-5 


91-4 
23205- 




06-10 


1 


06-2 






>> 


16-4 


05-359 







05-4 






jy 


20-4 


01-776 


01-79 


3 


01-8 






9» 


39-7 


00-802 




1 


00-9 

4297-7 

95-8 






99 


45-0 
62- 

72- 


4286-776 


4286-79 


1 


86-7 
86-0 
86-2" 


In 
In 


„ 




23321-0 
25- 
24- 








79-0 




M7 „ 


63- 








76-7 


lb 




,^ 


76- 








74-8 






»> 


86- 


69-101 







69-0 






»> 


23417-6 


68-251 


68-25 


5 


68-3 






) J 


22-3 


66-532 







66-5 


In 




>J 


31-7 


65-450 


65-47 


In 


65-3 




" 


5J 


37-6 
39- 


62-051 







62-0 




„ 


»» 


56-4 


61-408 




2 


61-3 
60-2 




" 


>> 


69-9 
67- 


59-280 


59-26 


3 


69-2 




" 


») 


71-7 


57-528 




2 


57-5 






99 


81-3 








49-0 


In 




6-6 


23528- 








47-5 






j> 


37- 








47-2 






s» 


38- 


43-944 











i'-i6 


» 


56-4 


41-198 













J» 


71-6 


40-644 











^^ 


)» 


74-7 


30-486 







27-6 
26-9 
25-5 


1 


',[ 




23631-3 

48- 
51- 
59- 


23-327 


21-25 




1 


22-2 
21-5 


In 


" 


J) 

9J 


71-4 
78- 
82- 
83-1 


20-950 




2 


20-8 
18-9 




,, 




84-7 
96- 


18-428 




1 


18-3 




„ 


)» 


98-9 


18-243 











,J 


SJ 


99-9 


17-908 




2 


17-8 
15-2 
14-6 
13-4 
12-6 


1 
In 


« 


J) 


23701-8 
17- 
20- 

. 27- 
32- 


12-383 




2 








JJ 


32-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 131 







ImmvM— continued. 








Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 




Wave-length j 


Intensity 

and j 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 




- "■- 1 




1 
A. 

6-6 


Kayser 
4212197 


Exner and 
Hascliek 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 

4212-1 


Character 
1 


AH- 
1-16 


23734-0 











11-2 


1 






40- 








10-7 


lb 






42- 








09-7 


1 






48- 








06-7 


lb 






65- 








02-5 


IbFe? 


1-15 




89- 


00-031 


4200-07 


2 


00-1 

4197-8 


1 
1 




6-7 


23802-7 
15- 








95-8 


lb 






27- 








93-0 


1 






43- 








83-4 


2 






97- 


4182-626 


4182-62 


In 


82-7 


2 






23901-7 








81-8 


In 






06- 


72-736 


72-81 


2 


72-8 
66-9 


2 
1 


1-14 




57-2 
92- 


66-224 


66-22 


3 


66-3 


2 






95-9 








65-3 


1 






24001- 








63-8 


1 






10- 








63-5 


1 






12- 








62-3 


In 






18- 








61-7 


In 






22- 








61-1 


In 






25- 








58-2 


1 






42- 




55-90 


In 


55-8 


2 






55-5 








51-4 


1 






82- 








39-3 


1 




6-8 


24152- 








38-3 


1 






58- 








37-8 


1 






61- 








36-5 


lb 




9t 


68- 








29-6 


1 


1-13 


J> 


24209- 








29-2 


1 




if 


11- 








28-5 


1 






15- 








28-0 


1 






18- 








27-6 


1 




>> 


20- 








26-6 


1 




99 


26- 








26-2 


1 




J» 


29- 








23-2 


In 




5) 


46- 








17-5 


1 




JJ 


80- 








16-7 


1 




»> 


84- 








16-4 


1 




>> 


86- 


15-957 


15-95 


3 


15-8 


4 




it 


88-9 








13-8 


1 




a 


24302- 








10-3 


In 




a 


22- 








08-4 


1 




j> 


34- 








08-3 


In 




a 


34- 








07-8 


1 




99 


37- 




04-35 


1 








9> 


57-6 








00-3 


In 




a 


82- 


4092-767 


4092-79 


2 


4092-6 


4 


1-12 


6-9 


24426-4 








91-6 


In 




9f 


33- 








90-3 


lb 




tf 


41- 








89-6 


1 




)) 


45- 








86-0 


1 




?> 


67- 


82-542 




1 


82-6 
82-3 


1 

1 




J) 


87-6 
89- 



K 2 



132 



REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Iridium — continved. 



Are Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












in Vacuo 


Kayaer 


Exner and 
Hascliek 


Character 


Exner and ^ 
Haschek 


Character 
1 


A-l- 
112 


1 




4081-564 







4081-5 


6-9 


24493-5 


80-737 


4080-75 


2 


80-6 


1 


») 


>> 


98-5 








78-2 


1 


J> 


»> 


24514- 


75-774 


75-76 


2 


75-7 ' 


1 1 


!» 


>» 


28-4 


72-532 




2 


72-4 


2 1 


»» 


" 1 


47-8 


70-822 


70-88 


2 


70-7 


2 ! 


J> 


.' ! 


57-9 


70-067 


70-10 


3 


70-0 


6 


?) 


j» 


62-6 








68-5 


1 


J? 


j> 


72- 








68-2 i 




>» 


jj 


74- 








66-8 I 


lb 


>» 


99 


82- 








65-0 ! 




>> 


»> 


93- 








64-4 




9> 


»» 


97- 








62-5 




ft 


>> 


24608- 








62-1 




>> 


»> 


11- 


59-377 


59-43 


In 


59-3 




J» 


J> 


27-3 








59-2 




y> 


>» 


28- 








56-9 1 




ft 


)J 


42- 


56-620 


56-65 


In 


56-5 




7* 


»> 


44-1 


55-833 







55-7 


In 


)» 


»» 


48-9 








55-4 


In 


»> 


>» 


52- 








54-1 


In 


1-11 


>> 


59- 








53-8 


In 


tf 


»> 


61- 








53-2 


In 


>S 


» 


65- 








51-9 




>> 


)» 


73- 


51-538 







51-5 


In 


»> 


J> 


75-1 


51-071 




2 


51-0 




>> 


7-0 


77-8 




50-81 


In 






>> 


jj 


79-4 


48-782 











)> 


j> 


91-8 








47-6 




tf 


?j 


99- 








47-1 




99 


>) 


24702- 








46-6 




»» 


>j 


05- 








45-2 




9> 


J^ 


14- 








44-0 


In 


>» 


*> 


21- 








43-2 


In 


)> 


J» 


26- 








41-4 


2 


99 


>j 


37- 


40-578 




1 






19 


)J 


41-9 


40-224 


40-24 


3 


40-3 


2 


)> 


>» 


44-1 


33-923 


33-91 


3 


33-8 


1 4 


99 


i " 


82-8 








32-2 


1 


»» 


»» 


93- 








31-6 


1 


>J 


j» 


97- 








310 


1 


>) 


>> 


24801- 








30-5 


1 


»J 


ij 


04- 








29-4 


In 


»» 


»» 


11- 








25-5 


1 


99 


»> 


35- 








221 


i 1 


*) 


9> 


56- 








21-6 


1 


99 


>> 


59- 


20-194 


20-20 


4 




1 


" 


)9 


67-4 








20-0 


6 


>» 


f> 


69- 








16-6 


1 


i >' 


99 


90- 








15-7 


1 


1-10 


99 


95- 








15-3 


1 


9* 


99 


98- 








13-8 


1 


9) 


99 


24907- 








11-6 


1 


>> 


99 


21- 








11-3 


1 


JJ 


99 


23- 








090 


1 


>» 


99 


37- 



ON 



WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 133 



Iridium— continued. 



Arc Spectrum 
Wave-length 



Spark Spectrum 



Kayser 



4005-717 
05164 



3996-602 
92-277 



Exner and 
Haschek 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



4005-19 



3992-30 



Wave-length 

Exner and 
Haschek 



1 
In 



4008-5 
07-9 
07-5 
06-7 
06-3 
05-6 
05-0 
02-0 
01-8 
00-6 

3999-0 
96-6 
95-9 
92-2 
90-5 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A-1- 



110 



1_ 

\ 

7-0 



7-1 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



24940- 
44- 
46- 
51- 
54- 
57-3 
60-7 
81- 
82- 
89- 
99* 

25014-2 
19- 
41-2 
63- 



Ikidium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 
















Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 

2 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


Wave- 
length 

Lohse 


Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




1 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


\ + 
1-10 


1 


Kayser 
3989-575 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 










71 


25058-2 








3989-2 


1 








j» 


61- 


87-963 




2 


88-0 
87-5 
86-5 


1 
1 
1 










68-4 

71- 

78- 


85-003 




2 


85-0 


1 








>j 


87-0 








84-1 
83-7 


1 

1 








99 


93- 
95- 








81-2 


In 








>t 


25111- 








80-0 


1 








9» 


19- 








79-6 


1 






,, 


9» 


21- 








79-3 


1 








99 


23- 








78-9 


1 








» 


26- 








78-6 


1 








»» 


27- 


78-240 







78-3 
77-0 


1 

1 






„ 


>9 


29-6 
37- 


76-466 


3976-49 


5 


76-5 
75-8 
75-5 
73-3 
70-3 


6 

1 
1 
2 
1 






1-09 


99 

» 
» 

>• 


40 s 
45 
47 
61 , 

80 1 












3969-35 


0-3 


if 


» 


8-^9 : 








67-6 


1 






99 


» 


97- 








66-5 


1 


66-52 




>> 


»j 


25203-9 








66-2 


1 






9t 


i» 


06- 








65-0 


1 






*> 


•I 


14- 



1 SI- 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 









Iridium — continvcd. 












Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum | 












1 


Tfpflnp'hinTi i;n 




Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Ji.\iBLI.UL>L.lUXX U\J 

Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Freqtiency 
in Vacuo 




1 








Kayser 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


1-09 


1_ 

A. 

71 










3964-5 


1 




25217- 












3963-78 


0-4 




»« 


21-3 


3962-926 




2 


630 


1 


63-00 
61-66 
61-24 


0-1 
0-1 




1 
1 




26-5 
34-9 
37-5 








60-6 


1 


60-63 
59-03 


0-ln 
0-4 






9t 

it 


41-4 
51-6 








56-8 


1 










?» 


66- 


56-262 











56-09 
54-60 


l-5b 
0-8b 






7-2 


69-2 
70-3 

79-8 









52-7 


1 


52-85 


0-3n 






»» 


91-0 


52-099 


3952-15 


1 


52-0 
521 


4 
1 


52-12 


1-0 








95-6 


50-259 











50-34 


0-3n 






J) 


26307-4 


48-459 


48-47 


In 






49-42 
48-45 


0-1 
0-3 






»» 
»> 


130 
19-2 


46-420 


46-40 


4 


46-4 


4 


46-44 


1-1 






»J 


32-2 








45-7 


1 


45-74 
45-22 


0-6 
0-2n 






9> 

99 


37-6 
39-9 


44-534 


44-52 


In 


44-5 




44-50 


0-2 


J 




)» 


44-4 


44-534 


44-52 


In 


44-5 
43-4 




44-50 

42-83 
4215 


0-2 

0-1 
0-1 






9> 

" 


44-4 
52- 
55-3 
59-7 


41-242 







41-2 












>> 


66- 








38-5 


In 


38-70 


0-2 






99 


81-9 








37-8 


In 










99 


88- 








36-6 


In 






1- 


08 


>» 


95- 


35-005 


34-99 


3 


35-0 




35-00 








>> 


25405-8 


34-063 




2u 


34-0 
32-3 












99 
99 


11-8 
23- 


31-903 







32-0 

29-0 
28-6 




31-93 
31-34 

28-55 
27-28 


0-1 

0-1 
0-1 






99 
>» 

J) 
>» 


25-7 

29-4 

45- 

47-5 

55-7 




26-05 


In 


26-1 
25-5 




26-07 
25-35 


0-9 
0-1 






99 
99 


f3-6 

67- 

68-2 


24-573 


24-55 


In 


24-6 
24-1 




24-66 


01 






J) 


73-1 

76- 


23-634 


23-63 


1 


23-7 

21-1 

18-3 
16-8 


1 

i 1 


23-63 
23-10 
21-02 
19-25 


0-9 

0-3 

0-1 

lb 








79-4 
82-8 
96-4 
25507-9 
14- 
24- 


15-538 


15-53 


3 


15-6 


I n 


15-53 


1-8 




9i 


»> 


32-1 


15-055 


15-06 


1 


15-1 
14-5 
14-0 
13-4 




15-08 
14-46 


0-2 
0-1 




ft 


1 „ 


351 
39-1 
42- 
46- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 135 



Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 








« 




_ 




Eeduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 






_ and 








Exner 


Cha- 


Exner : ^j^^. 




Cha- 




1_ 




Kayser 


and 


racter 


„ ^^°^ , vacter 


Lohse 


racter 


X + 


A. 




— 


Haschek 




Haschek 
3912-6 










7-2 








In 


3912-23 


0-6b 


1-08 


25653-7 








11-7 


1 










57- 








11-2 


1 










60- 








10-6 


1 










64- 








09-7 


1 










70- 


3909-219 











09-25 


0-5 






73-2 








07-6 


In 


07-85 


0-2b 




7-3 


82-2 








06-9 


In 


06-5 








89-7 








06-0 


1 


05-64 


0-2 






94- 

96-7 








04-3 


In 


04-48 


0-ln 






25604-3 


02-807 


3902-78 


2 






02-97 








15-0 


02-632 


02-65 


4 


02-7 


8 


02-68 


2-0 






16-3 








01-5 


In 


01-82 
01-40 


0-1 
0-1 






21-8 
24-5 








01-0 


1 


00-95 


0-2 






27-5 








00-0 


In 


3899-37 
99-06 


0-3 
0-ln 






34- 

37-9 

40-0 








3898-5 


In 


98-57 
97-99 
97-40 


0-ln 
Oln 
0-ln 






43-1 
46-9 
50-8 












96-61 


0-ln 


1-07 




56-0 








95-6 


6 


95-73 
95-07 


3 

0-3n 






61-8 
66-2 








94-0 


In 










68- 








94-0 


In 


94-00 
93-49 


0-ln 
0-ln 






73-2 
76-6 








93-0 


In 










80- 








92-2 


In 


92-32 
92-14 
91-56 


0-4 
0-4 
0-1 






84-3 
85-5 
89-3 








90-3 


1 


90-39 


0-ln 






07-1 


3889-715 







89-6 
89-1 


1 

1 


89-72 


0-2 






25701-5 
06- 








87-5 


1 


87-88 


0-ln 






13-7 








86-0 


1 










26- 








85-5 


1 


85-58 


0-1 






28-9 








84-7 


1 


84-86 


0-ln 






33-6 








84-3 


In 


84-29 


0-ln 






37-4 








83-3 


In 










44- 








82-5 


In 


82-44 


0-6b 






49-7 








81-0 


In 


80-89 


0-ln 






59- 
60-0 








79-6 


1 


79-19 


0-ln 






69- 
71-3 








78-0 


1 


77-46 


0-ln 






79- 
82-8 








77-1 


1 


76-93 


0-4 






85- 
86-3 








75-5 


In 


75-93 


0-lb 






93-0 








75-0 


1 










99- 








73-7 


4 


73-74 


0-5b 






25807-5 



136 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Iet di um — continued. 



Arc 


Siiecti'um 


3l5ark Spectrum 
















T?Pf1npf'.i(Tn fiA 








Wave- 




Wave- 




Vacuum 




Wavo-lenglh 


Inten- 


length 


Inten- 


length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 




sity 
and 




sity 
and 


sity 
and 




Frequency 












in Vacuo 


Kaysci- 


Exnei- 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and ■ 

Haschek 

3873-3 


Cha- 
racter 

4 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


A + 


1_ 
A 






3873-28 


2 Co? 


3873-31 


0-5 


107 


7-3 


25810-5 








72-0 


1 


71-94 


0-ln 








19-5 








71-8 


1 












20- 








70-9 


1 


70-22 


0-2n 








26- 
310 








69-5 


2 


69-66 


0-3 








34-8 








69-0 


In 












39- 








68-8 


1 












41- 




67-92 


1 






68-00 


0-4 








46-1 




65-75 


3 


65-7 


6 


65-78 
04-73 


1-0 
0-3n 








60-8 

67-7 








63-7 


In 


63-68 


0-ln 








74-8 








63-1 


In 


62-85 


0-4 








79- 
80-3 








62-2 


4 


62-16 


0-5b 








85-0 








62-1 


1 












85- 








61-5 


1 


61-44 
60-84 


0-2n 
Olii 








89-8 
93-8 








56-8 


1 


57-71 


1-2 








25914-8 








56-7 


4 


56-62 


0-5n 


1-06 






22-1 








56-2 


2 


56-25 


0-2 






, 


24-6 








54-8 


In 


54-87 
54-12 


0-ln 
0-ln 








33-9 
39-0 








52-6 


In 












49- 








50-8 


In 


50-58 


0-3n 








61- 
62-8 








501 


In 












66- 








49-0 


1 


49-00 


0-4\ 








73-5 








48-5" 


In 


48-31 


0-ln 








78-1 








47-5 


1 


47-41 
46-82 


0-2n 
0-ln 








84-2 
88-2 








46-0 


1 


46-07 


0-2n 








93-3 








45-1 


1 


45-16 


0-ln 








99-4 








44-7 


1 


43-05 


0-2n 








26003- 
13-7 








42-8 


In 












15- 








42-2 


1 












19- 








41-8 


1 












22- 








39-6 


1 












37- 








39-2 


2n 


39-15 


0-5b 








40-1 








37-7 


2 


37-86 
36-21 


0-1 
0-ln 


,, 






48-9 
60-1 








35-8 


1 












63- 








35-2 


1 


35-26 


0-2n 








66-5 








32-7 


1 


34-06 
32-47 


0-1 
0-ln 




> 




74-7 
85-5 








31-9 


1 


31-74 


0-5b 








90-5 








31-6 


1 












91- 








30-5 


2 


30-48 


0-4n 








99-1 








29-8 


lb 


28-61 


0-2n 








26104- 
11-8 








27-1 


1 


27-05 


0-2n 








22-5 








26-0 


1 












30- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 137 



Iridium — continued. 



Arc 


Spectrum 




. 


Spark Spectrum 




Wave- 


engtli 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 






and 




and 




and 


Kayser 


FiXner 

and 

Hascliek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 

3825-2 


Cha- 
racter 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 




3825-2 


2b 


In 


3825-13 


0-2ii 












24-62 


0-4 








23-5 


1 


23-50 
22-32 
21-58 
20-99 


0-3n 
0-4 
0-ln 
0-ln 








20-0 


In 


19-95 
19-52 


O-ln 
In 








19-2 


In 


19-19 

18-82 


0-3 
0-2 








18-6 


1 


18-33 


0-1 


3817-385 


17-40 


3 


17-3 


4 


17-42 
16-59 


1-0 
0-ln 








15-7 


1 


15-70 
15-10 


0-2 
0-ln 








14-7 


1 












14-5 


1 












13-8 


1 


13-91 


0-2n 








13-0 


1 












12-8 


1 


12-89 
12-40 


0-5 
0-ln 








11-8 


1 












10-5 


1 


10-57 


0-2b 








10-4 


1 












09-7 


1 


09-81 


0-ln 








08-3 


In 


08-83 


0-2 








07-1 


1 


06-86 


0-ln 








04-6 


1 


0609 


0-ln 




05-44 


2n 
















04-1 


1 


04-77 
04-26 
03-80 
03-00 
02-53 


0-ln 

0-1 

0-4 

0-2 

0-2 


00-243 


00-25 


10 


00-2 


8 


00-29 


2-0 




3799-65 


2n 






3799-51 


1-3 


3799-047 


99-05 


3 


3799-1 


4 


99-07 


1-1 








98-2 


1 


98-18 


0-4 








98-1 


1 


96-77 


0-3 








96-3 


In 


95-97 
95-56 


0-2 
0-1 


94-211 


94-20 


1 


941 


4 


94-18 


0-3 




93-95 


2 


93-9 
91-6 


4 

2 


93-95 
93-40 

90-67 
90-29 


1-0 
0-3 








89-6 


1 


89-67 
88-67 


0-2 
O-ln 








87-4 


1 












87-1 


1 


87-18 


0-ln 


1 






86-2 


1 


86-22 


1-Os 



Reduction to 

Vacuum 



\ + 



1-06 



05 




Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



26135-3 
39-1 
46-7 
54-9 
59-9 
63-9 
71-0 
74-0 
76-3 
78-8 
82-2 
88-4 
94-0 

26200-1 
04-2 
07- 
08- 
12-4 
19- 
19-4 
22-8 
27- 
35-4 
37- 
40-6 
47-4 
610 
66-3 
70-8 
75-4 
78-9 
82-1 
87-6 
90-9 

26306-6 
11-3 
15-0 
20-0 
30-8 
34-0 
36-3 
39-2 
48-4 
50-3 
64-2 
67- 
73-2 
75-8 
80-1 
87-3 
96- 
97-5 

26404-2 



138 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Iridium — continiied. 



Arc Spectrurr 


I 


Spark Spectrum 

















Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave- 




Wave- 




Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 












Kayser 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Lohse 
3784-85 


Cha- 
racter 

0-3n 


K + 


1_ 

A 










105 


7-4 


26413-7 












84-35 


0-ln 


»> 




17-0 












82-37 


0-9 








31-0 








3781-5 




81-33 


0-3n 






" 


38-3 








79-8 














49- 








79-2 


In 


78-85 


01 








63- 
55-7 








77-7 




77-73 
77-14 


0-5 
0-2 








63-5 
67-7 








75-3 




75-32 


0-1 


1 


■04 




80-4 








74-5 




74-59 


0-2n 








85-5 








74-0 














90- 








71-8 




71-76 


0-2 






7-5 


26505-3 




3770-89 


1 


70-9 
70-4 




70-86 


0-2 








11-5 
14-9 


3768-817 


68-83 
59-64 


1 

1 


68-8 
66-6 

66-3 

62-1 
61-8 

67-2 

56-0 
55-7 

64-8 
53-4 

52-5 
50-8 




68-84 
67-48 
66-59 

62-40 
62-11 
61-68 
60-90 
60-16 
67-31 
56-69 
56-11 

55-29 
54-68 
53-60 
53-08 
52-70 

50-89 


0-4 
0-4 
0-lb 

0-3n 

0-6 

0-5 

0-ln 

0-8 

0-ln 

0-ln 

0-4 

0-ln 

0-3 

0-4b 

0-ln 

0-6 

0-ln 








25-9 
35-4 
41-7 
54- 
71-3 
73-3 
76-4 
81-9 
87-1 
26607-3 
11-7 
15-8 
19- 
21-6 
25-9 
33-6 
37-3 
40-0 
41- 
52-8 


50-539 


50-55 


1 


50-5 

48-2 




50-53 


0-2s 








55-3 
72- 


47-352 


47-36 


5 


47-3 
46-4 
46-0 

45-6 
45-2 
44-6 

43-6 
43-4 


In 


47-39 
46-50 

45-77 

44-52 
43-99 

43-02 


1-0 
0-2 

0-9 

0-5b 
0-ln 

0-8b 








77-9 
84-1 
88- 
89-3 
90- 
93- 
98-3 
26702-1 
05- 
06- 
08-9 


42-948 




1 


42-8 












JJ 


09- 




42-44 


2 


42-4 
41-8 




42-47 
41-92 
40-73 
39-63 


1-0 
0-2n 
0-2b 
0-3J 


) 
1 






12-9 
16-7 
25-2 
33-1 



ON \^^AVE-LENG 


TH TA 


BLES OF 


THE 


SPECTRA 


OF T 


HE EL 


EMENTS. 189 




Iridium — continued. 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum | 














1 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 






1 


Wave- 




Wave- 






Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


length 


[nten- 
sity 
and 


length 


[nten- 
sity L 
and 





Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 








Kayser 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 
Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


A.+ 


1_ 
\ 










3739-69 


0-ln 


104 


7-5 


26737-0 


3738-682 


3738-66 


2 


3738-6 


4 


38-67 


0-3 


>J 


>» 


40-0 












36-19 


0-1 


103 


>> 


57-7 












35-60 


0-1 


,, 


s» 


62-0 


34-900 


34-90 


3 


34-8 


6 






)j 


>J 


67-0 












34-54 


0-1 


j» 




69-6 






, 


34-4 








>j 




71- 








34-0 




34-05 


0-2 


>> 


)J 


73-1 








33-4 








j> 


>> 


78- 








33-3 




33-25 


0-1 


>5 


)> 


79-8 








32-7 




32-76 


0-1 


>> 


J> 


82-3 








32-1 










»» 


87- 


31-504 


31-51 


2 


31-3 


6 


31-51 


0-8 


J> 


J» 


91-3 




30-58 


3 


30-6 




30-60 


1 


J> 




97-9 












29-75 


0-2n 


S> 




26804-0 












29-40 


0-1 


JJ 


»J 


06-5 




28-16 


5 


28-1 


2 


28-19 


1-2 


)> 


7-6 


15-2 








27-4 


1 


27-57 


0-3n 


»J 


5J 


19-5 




27-05 


4 


27-0 


2 


27-10 


Is 


)> 


>» 


231 












26-25 


0-3 




)J 


29-0 


25-536 


25-55 


2 


25-6 


4 


25-57 


0-7 




») 


34-0 












24-75 


0-1 


)> 


>) 


39-8 












23-61 


0-3n 


)) 


)J 


48-1 


22-904 




3 


22-9 


2 








)> 


53- 








22-6 


2 


22-57 


0-6 




»J 


55-6 








22-2 


1 


22-12 


0-1 


)> 


>J 


78-8 


21-628 




1 


21-7 


1 


21-65 


0-2 


J J 


Jt 


62-3 








21-2 


1 






>» 


9J 


65- 












20-93 


0-ln 


JJ 


»J 


67-4 












19-51 


0-ln 


J» 


J» 


77-7 








17-6 


1 






>J 


J> 


91- 












17-14 


0-1 


J) 


J> 


94-8 












16-34 


0-lb 


)> 


») 


26900-6 








15-8 


1 






>) 


)) 


05- 








14-5 


1 


14-48 


0-ln 


JJ 




141 












13-85 


0-1 


J> 


J> 


18-6 












12-86 


0-5 


J> 




25-8 


12-630 


12-66 


2 


12-7 


4 






;; 


J) 


27-3 








11-5 


1 






J> 


)> 


36- 












11-27 


0-ln 




)) 


37-3 












10-53 


0-ln 




J» 


42-7 








08-8 


1 


08-83 


0-ln 


}* 


>J 


55-1 








08-3 


In 


08-18 


0-2n 


J) 




59-8 


07-147 


07-17 


1 


07-1 


1 


07-14 


0-3 


)) 




67-4 








06-7 


1 


06-70 


0-2 


>» 


)9 


70-6 












06-20 


0-ln 


>> 




74-2 








05-8 


1 






)> 




77- 








05-5 


1 


05-43 


0-1 


»f 


y» 


79-8 












04-57 


0-ln 




)» 


86-1 








03-7 


1 








>» 


92- 








03-5 


1 


03-40 


0-ln 


}> 


J> 


94-6 


01-107 




2 


01-2 


4 


01-08 


0-8 


1) 


j; 


27011-4 


3698-261 


3698-25 


i 2 


3698-1 




3698-27 


0-5 


>> 


J> 


321 



140 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Iridium — continued. 



Arc Speotrnn] 




Spark Spectrum 


















Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Liten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 












Kayaer 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 

3696-6 


Cha- 
racter 


Lohse 
3696-71 


Cha- 
racter 

0-2 


\ + 


1_ 

\ 

7-6 


27043-5 








1 


1-02 


3696-308 


3696-27 


In 


96-3 


In 


96-23 


0-3n 


19 




46-7 








96-0 


1 


95-74 


0-2n 


>> 




50-6 


92-851 


92-85 


2 


92-7 


2 


92-84 


0-8 


jj 




71-8 








92-3 


6 


92-44 
90-86 
90-17 


1-Ob 
0-ln 
0-3 






74-8 
86-4 
91-4 


89-476 







89-4 


6 


89-45 


1-0 


99 




96-6 


88-321 




1 


88-2 




88-26 


0-2n 


99 




27105-2 




87-24 


2 


87-1 




87-24 
86-09 


0-2 
0-ln 


99 
99 




130 
21-4 








84-4 




84-51 


0-5 


99 




33-0 








83-6 




83-71 


0-ln 


99 




39-0 








83-0 




83-09 


0-ln 


>> 


7-7 


43-4 








82-4 




82-62 


0-ln 


99 




47-6 








81-9 




81-75 


0-ln 


J» 




52- 
53-3 








81-6 




81-10 


0-ln 


99 




58-1 








79-5 




79-58 


0-2n 


»J 




69-3 








78-3 




78-51 


0-2n 


»J 




77-2 








77-1 








99 




88- 








76-7 




76-83 


0-2 


»> 




89-6 


75-160 


75-15 


5 


75-0 




75-16 


1-0 


ij 




27202-0 








74-0 




74-26 


0-ln 


j» 




08-7 








73-2 




73-30 


0-ln 


)» 




15-8 








72-0 




72-15 
71-75 
71-03 
69-70 


0-3 
0-1 
0-2 
0-5 


99 
>9 




24-3 
27-3 
32-6 

42-5 








68-2 




68-36 


0-ln 


99 




52-4 








67-8 




67-92 
66-35 


0-2n 
0-ln 


99 




65-7 
67-4 








65-1 




65-12 


0-2b 


99 




76-5 


64-780 


64-77 


5 


64-7 
64-3 




64-78 


0-8 






79-1 
83- 








63-5 




63-54 


0-3 


)> 




88-3 








63-3 








S> 




92- 


61-867 


61-86 


5 


61-7 




61-88 


0-9 


»J 




27300-7 


61-527 


61-52 


2 


61-4 
60-6 

59-2 
58-7 




61-52 
60-18 

58-15 


1-0 
0-ln 

0-7 


99 

99 
99 
JJ 




03-3 

10-2 

13-4 

21- 

24- 

28-5 


57-774 







57-6 




57-72 
57-06 
5505 


0-3 

0-ln 

0-ln 


1-01 

99 




31-5 
36-7 
51-7 








54-5 


In 


54-55 


0-2 


>> 




55-4 








54-0 


In 






»J 




60- 


53-358 




1 


53-2 
51-5 


10 
In 


53-34 


2-3 


99 




64-4 
78- 








50-3 




50-47 


0-1 


J» 




850 


47-857 


47-85 


2n 


47-8 


2 






»» 




27405-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OV THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 141 



Iridium — continiied. 



Arc 


Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum | 
















1 


R.pflnptiioTi \,Ci ' 




Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Vacuum 1 
( 


Dscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 












Exner 


Cha- 


Exner 


Cha- 




Cha- 




j_ 




Kayser 


and 
Haschek 


racter 


and 
Haschek 

3647-0 


racter 


Lohse 
3647-02 


racter 


K + 


A 






Oln 


101 1 


7-7 


27411-9 












46-21 


0-ln 


1 




18-0 


3645-468 


3645-47 


1 


45-4 


In 


45-34 


Oln 


;; 




23-6 
24-6 








44-0 


la 


43-20 


Oln 


" j 




35- 
40-0 








43-0 












42-2 


-'1-037 


41-03 


3 










" 1 




57-0 








40-9 




40-91 


0-3b 


1 




58-0 








40-7 




39-72 


0-ln 






60- 
66-9 








38-8 




38-95 


0-1 




7-8 


72-6 








38-3 












78- 








38-1 


In 










79- 












37-58 


0-1 






83-1 












37-19 


0-ln 






86-0 


36-370 


36-36 


8 


36-2 


4 


36-35 


1-0 






92-2 








36-5 


2 


35-64 


0-3 






91-2 
97-8 








35-0 


1 


35-08 


1-0 






27501-9 












34-08 


01 






09-5 








33-7 


1 










12- 








31-7 


IFe? 










28- 








31-5 


IFe? 










29- 








30-8 


In 










34- 


29-911 


29-91 


3 


29-9 


1 










41-1 








29-8 


1 


29-80 


0-3b 






41-9 


29-317 


29-31 


2 


29-3 


1 








J, 


45-6 


28-843 


28-84 


10 


28-8 


4 


28-82 


1-2 






49-3 








28-3 


1 










53- 




27-95 


1 


27-9 


1 










56-0 








26-7 


1 


26-88 


0-2n 






64-1 


26-460 


26-44 


5 


26-4 


4 


26-44 


0-6 






67-4 


25-872 


25-87 


3 


25-8 
25-4 


2 

1 


25-89 


0-3 






71-7 
75- 








24-7 


1 










80- 








24-3 


1 










84- 


23-976 


23-95 


3 


23-8 
22-0 
21-7 


1 
1 
1 


23-97 
20-54 


0-2n 
0-ln 






86-3 
27601- 
04- 
12- 








19-9 


1 


19-94 








17- 


19-236 


19-30 


2 


19-3 
17-9 


2 
1 






I'bo 




22-1 
33- 


17-378 


! 17-37 


8 


17-3 


4 


17-39 


0-7 






36-5 




' 




16-4 


1 


16-62 


0-2n 






42-2 








15-6 


1 


15-68 


0-ln 






49-5 








14-5 




14-59 


Oln 






57-8 












13-95 


0-ln 






68-7 












13-28 


0-ln 




>> 


67-9 




i 








12-59 


0-2n 




)i 


73-2 


09-933 


09-91 


8 






09-94 


0-5 




>i 


93-6 




i 




09-0 


, 1 








it 


27701- 



142 




REPORTS ON 


THE i 


STATE 


['' SCIENCE, 








IllIDlUM— 


-continued. 


Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 












Keduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 




sity 
and 


sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


1 T, 








Kayser 


iixner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


\ + 


1 


27714- 








3607-3' 


1 




1-00 


7-8 


3605-958 


3605-99 


3 


05-9 
04-9 


10 
1 


3605-99 


2-5 


99 


99 


23-9 
32- 








04-5 


1 


04-67 


0-8 


)) 




34-0 








03-8 


1 


03-96 


0-2 


99 


f) 


39-5 








02-2 


1 






J» 




53- 


01-568 


01-56 


4 


01-5 


1 


01-59 


0-3 






57-9 








00-5 


2 


00-54 


0-1 


)) 




65-8 








3599-8 


1 


3599-94 


0-5 


99 




70-6 


98-936 


98-91 


3 




1 


98-92 
98-29 
97-9 
97-30 


3- 

Oln 
0-ln 
0-2 


)> 




78-3 
83-1 
86-1 
90-8 


96-356 







96-4 
95-6 
95-0 


1 

1 


96-37 


11 




99 

7-9 


98-1 
27804- 
08- 


94-557 


94-56 


5 


94-5 


4 


94-60 


0-8 






11-8 


94-308 


94-30 


3 


94-3 


1 










13-9 




93-16 


3Ru? 


93-1 
92-2 
91-9 

91-3 


2 

1 
1 

1 


93-21 

91-55 
89-90 


1-1 

0-ln 
1-ln 




99 
99 
99 

99 


22-6 

30- 

32- 

35-2 

37- 

48- 




89-34 


3Pt? 


89-3 
88-9 
88-3' 


2 

In 
la 


89-43 


1-1 




99 


52- 
56- 

60- 








87-3 


1 


87-41 


0-3b 






67-4 








87-1 


1 








?} 


70- 








86-3 


1 


86-39 


0-ln 






75-3 








85-8 


1 










80- 








85-3 


In 


85-50 


0-ln 






83-2 








84-6 


1 


84-72 


0-2n 






88-3 








83-5 


2 


83-62 


0-2n 






96-8 




83-24 


10 Rh 


? 83-2 


2 


83-30 


0-1 






99-6 








81-0 


1 


80-97 


0-ln 






27917-5 








78-2 


1 










39- 








77-7 


1 






0-99 




43- 








77-3 


1 


77-24 


0-2n 






46-6 








76-9 


1 










49- 








76-3 


1 










54- 








75-9 


1 










67- 








75-6 


1 










59- 








75-2 


1 










62- 








74-9 


In 










65- 








74-6 


1 


74-75 


0-ln 






66-1 


3573888 


73-89 


10 


73-8 
73-1 
72-9 
72-5 
72-1 
71-9 


8 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


73-87 


1-45 






72-9 

79- 

80- 

84- 

87- 

88- 








70-7 


1 


70-74 


0-4 






97-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 143 









lEID 


[UM — continued. 










Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 




Keduction to 
"Vacuum 




"Wave-length 


Inten- 


"Wave- 
length 


Inten- 


"Wave- 
length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 

1 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




F requency 
in "Vacuo 


Kayser 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Lohse 


\ + 


1_ 








3570-0 






0-99 


7-9 


28003- 












3569-95 


0-1 


ft 


fl 


03-7 








69-5 


In 






*' 




07- 


3568-156 






68-1 

64-8 
63-0 

61-5 

60-5" 

60-0 

59-8 


2 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 


68-17 
67-40 
66-59 
64-96 
63-02 
62-78 
61-03 

59-95 


2- 

0-ln 

0-6 

0-2n 

0-ln 

0-1 

0-5 

0-2 


J) 


>) 
»J 
J» 
>> 
99 
»J 
99 
»J 
J» 
99 


17-7 

23-7 

30-1 

42-9 

58-2 

60-1 

73-9 

78- 

82- 

82-4 

84- 


59-160 


3559-15 


8 


58-2" 


1 


59-17 


1- 


99 


*> 


88-6 
96- 


57-325 


57-35 
53-26 


5 
2Pd? 


67-3 
56-6 
55-9 
55-8 
54-7 
63-9 
53-7 

52-7 


4 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 


67-36 
66-90 

54-05 


1- 
0-ln 

0-1 


99 
JS 
JJ 

s» 

99 

99 
99 


99 
99 


28102-9 
09- 
14-4 
15- 
24- 
29- 
32- 
35-3 
40- 


52-223 


52-27 


2 


52-2 


2 


52-31 


0-1 


99 


99 


431 








51-4 


1 


51-54 


0-1 


fy 


8-0 


48-0 








50-7 


1 










56- 








50-3 


1 


49-74 


0-ln 






59- 
63-1 








48-7 


2 


48-77 


0-ln 


if 


J J 


. 70-8 








47-2 


In 










83- 




46-60 


In 


46-5 
46-2 
45-8 
45-2 
44-7 
44-2 

42-7 
42-1 

41-6 
40-8 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 


4415 
43-46 
42-88 

41-81 


0-ln 
0-ln 
0-1 

0-ln 


99 

99 
99 
>9 

J) 

»> 

>» 

9* 
J) 


9) 
J> 
1> 
99 
99 
)J 
)> 
99 
J> 


88- 
91- 
94- 
99- 
28203- 
07-5 
13- 
17-6 
24- 
26-1 
28- 
34- 








39-5 


1 


39-47 


0-2 


99 


»> 


44-8 








38-7 


1 


38-10 


0-ln 


99 




51- 

55-8 








37-6 


1 






0-98 


») 


60- 








37-2 


1 






>} 


)) 


63- 








36-9 


1 








)j 


65- 








36-7 


1 






f9 


}» 


67- 








36-4 


1 






99 


)f 


69- 








35-9 


1 


35-99 


0-4 


)> 


)» 


72-6 








34-5 


I 






99 


i >. 


85- 



144 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 









IRIDIVM— continued. 












Arc 


Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 




















Eeduction to 
Vacuum 










Wave- 




Wave- 






Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Kayser 


Exner 

and 

Hascliek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Hasohek 


Cha- 
racter 

1 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


A-l- 

0-98 


1_ 

A 








3534-3 


8-0 


28286- 












3532-99 


0-ln 








96-6 








32-4 




32-41 


0-1 








28301-3 








31-7 














07- 








31-5 




31-47 


0-ln 








08-8 








30-8 




30-88 


0-ln 








13-6 








28-7 




28-75 
28-15 


0-2 
0-3 








30-6 
35-5 








26-8 




26-87 


0-1 ii 








45-8 








240 








,, 






69- 








23-4 














74- 


3522-191 


3522-21 


6 


22-4 
20-3 
19-7 

18-6 


4 
In 

1 


22-17 
20-19 

18-85 

17-03 


0-6 
0-ln 

0-ln 

0-ln 








83-3 
99-6 
28404- 
10-4 
12- 
251 


16-110 


16-11 


6 


16-0 


4 


16-07 
14-60 


0-3 
0-1 








32-6 
44-7 


13-807 


13-82 


10 


13-7 


6 


13-80 


1-2 








51-1 


12-356 


12-36 


3 


12-3 


2 


12-35 


0-1 








62-9 


12-054 


12-04 


3 


11-9 




12-04 


0-1 








65-4 


10-793 


10-80 


3 


10-7 
10-3 
09-4 
09-0 




10-79 
09-37 


0-2 
0-5 




8- 


i 


75-6 
82- 
87- 
90- 


08-731 


08-71 


1 


08-4 
06-2 




07-64 
06-13 


0-2 
0-1 








92-5 
95- 
28501-1 
13-4 








05-2 
04-3 


In 


04-78 


0-ln 








21- 

24-3 

28- 


03-088 


03-09 


2 


03-0 

01-6 
00-8 
00-5 


In 
In 


02-69 
00-85 


0-3 
0-ln 








381 

41-4 

50- 

56-4 

69- 


3499-271 




1 


3499-0 
98-3 
97-8 




3499-08 
97-14 


0-2 


0-97 






70-8 
77- 
81- 
86-7 


96-580 


3496-59 


1 


96-5 
96-0 

95-5 


In 
In 

In 


95-93 


0-ln 








91-2 
96- 
96-5 
28600- 


94-787 


94-79 


3 


94-8 
93-7 
93-2 




94-81 


0-1 








05-9 

15- 

19- 


92-217 


92-21 


1 


92-3 
92-0 
91-3 
89-2 
90-9 














27-0 

29- 

35- 

38. 

41- 



Oi\ WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 145 



iRiDiVM—co/itinucd. 



Arc Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Kaysev 



Exiier 

and 

Haschek 



3488-727 3488-73 



85-660 
84-649 
84-256 



82-760 



81-254 



77-930 
76-611 

76182 



68-749 



65-390 



55-949 



50-916 

49-133 
48-621 

1907. 



85-68 
84-66 
84-26 
83-63 

82-78 



81-26 

76-60 
76-17 



69-79 
68-75 
68-02 



65-39 



58-10 

57-25 
55-95 



50-93 

49-13 
48-61 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



72-98 1 



10 
1 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave- 
length 

Exner 

and 

Haschek 



3490-5 
88-7 
88-2 
87-6 
86-2 
85-6 
84-6 
84-3 

83-2 

82-5 
81-5 



80-7 
79-9 
79-4 
78-0 
76-7 
76-3 

75-8 

74-5 

73-6 
73-3 

72-7 
72-0 

70-2 



68-1 
67-1 
66-2 
65-5 

61-8 
61-3 
60-0 
58-8 

57-4 

56-0 
551 
52-1 
51-7 
51-0 
50-3 
49-2 
48-8 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 

racter 



4 
1 



Wave- 
length 



Lobs 



3484-65 
84-21 



82-73 



79-50 
77-90 
76-62 



74-96 
74-36 

70-85 



65-38 
62-23 



58-85 



4910 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



Eeduction to 
Vacuum 



A + 



! 0-97 



0-1 
0-1 



0-1 



81-35 0-ln 



0-1 

0-ln 

0-ln 



0-ln 
0-ln 



0-1 



0-1 
0-1 



0-1 



0-3 



1_ 

A 

8-1 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



28652- 
55-7 
60- 
65- 
77- 
80-8 
89-2 
92-5 
97-6 

28701-1 
04-7 
07- 
15- 
16- 
17-2 
22- 
28- 
31-7 
44-8 
55-6 
58- 
591 
62- 
69-2 
73- 
74-2 
80- 
83- 
85-6 
94- 

28803-2 
09- 
11-9 
21-5 
26-7 
34- 
42- 
48-6 
74-9 
79- 
83- 
94- 

28903-1 
09-4 
15- 
16-5 
27-4 
35- 
60- 
63- 
69-6 
75- 
84-7 
88-9 



14G 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Ieidi um — CO ntin ued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark S] 


pectrum 

Wave- 1 
length j 


i 

Inten- 
sity 
and 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


1 
Inten- j 
sity 


Wave- 
length 

-T-t 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Vacuum ' 




j 


and 










Exner | nu" ; 


Exner 


Cha- 




Cha- 




1_ 




Kayser 


^^'^'^ , racter 
Haschek 


and 
Haschek 


racter 


Lohse 


racter 


A.-t- 

i 


\ 




3446-793 


3447-90 

46-79 


1 

2 


3448-0 
46-8 


1 

1 




0-96 


8-2 


28995- 
29004-3 


46-476 


46-49 


2 


46-4 


1 


3446-48 


01 


J» 




06-9 
13-6 
26- 


45-682 







45-5 
44-2 


In 

1 






if 

9? 














40-71 


O-ln 


?? 




55-6 








39-0 


In 






?» 




70- 


38-244 


38-21 


2 


38-2 


In 






)» 




76-6 
81-3 
85-3 
88- 


37-670 


37-65 


4 


37-6 


4 


37-69 


0-3 


J> 




37-189 


37-20 


10 


37-2 


6 


37-19 
36-88 


0-3 
0-1 
























99-2 


35-554 






2 










»> 




29102-2 


35-200 
34-915 








35-07 


0-2n 






04-6 
16-9 
21-4 
27-5 
33- 


33-475 
32-930 


33-46 
32-92 


2 
I 


33-4 


1 






J» 


8-3 




32-20 


1 


32-3 








J> 










31-6 








J) 




31-476 


31-45 


1 










)» 




33-8 
38-2 
44-5 

48-4 


30-941 


30-94 


1 


31-1 








»> 




30-197 


30-20 


1 


30-0 








»» 




29-748 















>> 




54-6 

58- 


29-026 


29-01 


2 


29-1 
28-6 








>» 






28-47 


3 






28-47 


0-1 


»» 




59-2 
61- 








28-3 








„ 










27-7 








tJ 




66- 








27-3 


1 






99 




69- 








26-8 


In 






»» 




74- 








26-0 


In 






>> 




80- 


25-526 


25-50 


1 


25-5 








>> 




84-4 
90-0 
98- 


24-854 


24-85 


3 


24-9 
23-9 








?> 




21-923 


21-93 


2 


22-0 
21-5 








J> 




29215-0 
19- 
23-8 


20-895 
20-646 


20-64 



3 


20-8 








J» 




26-0 
30-5 


20111 







20-2 












35-0 
44-0 


19-592 


19-57 


3 


19-6 








9> 




18-533 


18-54 


1 


17-5 
16-3 




17-46 


O-ln 


0-95 




53-2 
63- 


15-906 


15-87 


2 


15-8 








J> 




66-7 
70-8 

75- 


15-408 


15-39 


3 


15-4 
14-9 


In 










12-762 


12-75 


2 


13-4 
12-6 








JJ 




88- 
93-6 
29302-3 


11-730 


11-72 


2 


11-7 
10-3 










>j 


15- 


10-180 


10-19 


1 


10-2 








99 


)» 


15-6 
17-9 


09-931 


09-91 
09-40 


1 
In 


10- 
09-5 








JJ 




22-4 
31-7 








08-2 




08-32 


O-ln 


>) 


j> 








05-5 








99 


»» 


56- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 

IBJDIUM — continued. 



117 



Arc 


Spectrum 




1 


Spark Spectrum 














T? ort n/^t.l/^v^ ^■^^ 


Wave-length 


1 

Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


XbcUUCulUU UO 

Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Hasohek 


Cha- 
racter 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


\ + 
0-95 


1 
A 










3403-6 


In 


8-3 


29372- 


3402-962 


3402-95 


2 


03-0 


1 










77-8 


02-182 


02-17 


2 










^^ 




84-6 


01-927 


01-92 


3 


01-9 
3398-3 
97-5 
97-1 
96-3 
96-0 


1 

In 

1 

1 

1 
1 








8-4 


96-8 
29418- 
25- 
29- 
36- 
38- 


3395-129 


3395-14 


3 


95-2 
93-6 
92-7 
91-5 


2 

1 
2 

1 










45-5 
59- 

67- 

77- 


91032 


91-05 


1 


91-1 


1 










81-0 : 


89-473 




1 


88-9 


1 










94-7 
29500- 


88-158 


88-15 


1 


88-1 


1 










06-2 


88-023 


88-05 


1 


87-8 


1 










07-1 
09- 


86-678 



















19-0 


86-330 


86-34 
85-91 


3 

1 


86-4 


1 










221 
25-7 


85-752 


85-76 


2 


85-7 


1 










27-1 


85-272 


85-27 


2 


85-3 
85-0 


1 
1 










31-3 
34- 


83-917 


83-91 


1 


83-9 


In 










43-2 


83-474 







82-2 
81-6 
81-3 


1 
1 
1 








" 


47-0 
58- 
63- 
66- 


81-151 


81-18 


3 














67-2 


79-993 


80-01 


1 


80-0 
79-5 


1 

1 








,, 


77-4 
82- 


78-550 




On 


78-5 


1 










90-1 


78-219 




On 


78-1 


1 










93-9 


77-288 




On 










0-94 




29601-2 


76-146 


76-15 


1 


76-2 
75-5 


1 
In 










11-2 
16-8 


74-942 



















21-7 


74-597 


74-61 


1 


74-6 


1 










24-7 




74-16 


1 


74-1 ' 


1 










28-6 


72-958 


72-96 


1 


72-7 


2 










39-2 


71-594 


71-60 


4 


71-5 


2 










51-1 


70-785 


70-78 
69-14 


3 

1 


70-7 


1 








,, 


58-3 
72-8 


68-640 


68-64 


8 


68-0 


1 


3468-57 


0-ln 




„ 


77-2 


67-210 


67-21 


2 














89-8 


67-063 


67-09 


2 


67-0 
66-6 
66-3 


1 

1 
1 








^^ 


91-0 

96- 

98- 


65-678 


65-69 


1 


65-6 


1 








^^ 


29703-2 


65-273 











64-75 


0-ln 




'.', 06-9 
,, 1 11-5 



L2 



148 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OK SCIENCE. 
Ieioium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Intensity 


Wave-length 


Intensity 




Exner and 


and 
^haractpr 


Exner and 


and 
Uharacter 


\ + 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Haschek 


v> A4UJA CV^ U^l^ 


Haschek 






\ 




3364-380 


3364-40 


1 

2 


3364-4 




0-94 


8-4 


29714-7 








61-8 








38- 








61-6 








39- 








61-2 








43- 


60-950 




7 








8-5 


45-0 








60-2 


In 






52- 


60-038 


60-00 


In 










53-1 




59-90 


3 


59-9 


In 






54-3 




59-63 


2 


59-7 








56-7 


59-262 







58-3 

58-2 








59-9 

68- 

69- 


56-697 















82-7 


56-342 















85-8 


55-942 


55-95 


2 


55-9 








89-3 


55-739 















91-2 








55-5 








93- 








55-3 








95- 


53-696 


53-70 


1 


53-7 








29809-3 


52-987 


53-00 


2 


52-9 








15-6 








52-3 


In 






22- 








51-5 


In 






29- 








50-2 








40- 








50-0 








42- 








48-1 








59- 


48-015 




1 


48-0 








60-0 


47-695 


47-72 


2 


47-6 








62-7 


46-609 


46-61 


1 


46-6 


In 






72-5 








45-5 








82- 








44-7 


In 






90- 


44-360 


44-36 


2 


44-4 








92-6 


43-745 


43-55 


In 










98-9 


43-182 







43-1 








29903-1 


42-930 













',', 


05-5 








42-5 








09- 








42-0 


In 






14- 








41-0 








23- 


40-485 


40-50 


3 


40-6 
40-3 








27-2 
29- 




39-70 


In 


39-6 








34-3 


39-532 


39-56 


4 










35-6 


39-028 















40-3 


38-535 


38-56 


5 


38-5 


2 


0-93 




44-6 


37-985 




1 


37-9 


2 






49-7 


37-637 







37-5 


1 




! " 


52-8 


36-195 


36-21 


1 


36-2 


1 






65-7 








35-7 


1 






70- 


35185 















74-8 








34-9 


1 






77- 


34-318 


34-35 


6 


34-3 


4 






82-5 


33-600 















89-1 


30-968 







27-9 


1 






30012-6 


27-688 















42-4 


27-039 


27-04 


2 










48-3 



UN \\ AVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 149 

Ibidium — ccmtinued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduc 


tion to 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


length 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 






Intensitj 
and 




, Intensity 
1 and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 






1 




Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Oharactei 



Exner and 
Haschek 


Charactei 


A-l- 

0-93 


1 
A. 

8-5 


30051-4 


3326-687 






26-245 


3326-25 


1 


3326-3 


1 


) J 




55-4 


26-056 











J> 




57-1 




25-58 


1 


25-5 


lb 


J) 




61-4 








23-9 


1 


JJ 


8-6 


77- 


23011 


23-03 


4 


23-1 


2 


J> 




84-5 








22-9 


4 


>> 




86- 


22-750 


22-77 


5 


22-7 


4 






86-9 


21-901 











J> 




94-6 








20-7 


In 


J» 




30106- 


20-504 




1 






}) 




07-3 


19-680 











)> 




14-8 


19-231 


19-2") 


1 


19-2 


In 


yj 




18-X 


18-812 











jj 




22-6 


18-596 


18-60 


1 


18-6 


In 


>j 




24-6 


17-664 











)» 




33-1 


17-457 


17-45 


1 


17-5 


1 






35-0 


16-771 


16-80 


2 


16-7 


1 






41-1 


16-534 




On 










43-4 


16-129 











j> 




47-1 


13-472 














71-2 


12-268 


12-31 


4 


12-3 


1 






82-0 


11-365 







11-3 


In 






90-4 


11161 


11-16 


1 










92-3 


10-674 


10-69 


5 


10-7 


2 






96-6 


10-032 















30202-6 


09-535 


09-65 


1 


09-6 


1 






07-0 


08-939 















12-6 


08-581 


08-57 


In 










15-9 


07-774 


07-78 


1 


07-8 


In 






23-2 








06-6 


1 






34- 


05-980 


05-99 


1 


06-0" 


In 






39-6 


05-787 


05-80 


1 


05-2 


1 






41-3 

47- 


05-057 


05-07 


2 










48-0 


04-460 















53-5 


03-771 


03-78 


2 


03-7 


1 






59-8 


03-236 


03-24 


2 










64-7 








02-7 


In 






70- 


01-900 




1 


02-0 


1 






77-0 


01-735 













yy 


78-5 


01-502 















80-6 


00-732 















87-6 








3299-3 


In 


0-92 




30301- 








99-0 


1 






04- 








98-3 


1 






10- 


3297-655 


3297-65 


2 


97-6 


1 






16-0 








97-4 


In 






18- 


95-220 


95-24 


2 


95-3 


1 






38-3 








94-7 


1 






43- 


94-251 







94-3 


1 






47-3 


94-150 















48-2 








93-6 


1 




". 


53- 








93-3 


1 1 




.. 1 


56- 



150 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 






Intensity 
and 




Intensity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 










1_ 
A 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


Exiier and 
Hasohek 

3292-6 


Character 


\ + 

0-92 


30363- 








8-6 








92-2 




J, 




66- 








91-6 






, 




72- 


3291187 







91-4 






} 




75-6 


91010 

















77-2 


90-640 







90-2 
89-2 
88-7 
88-4 






* 

> 
J 


8-7 


80-6 
94- 
99- 
30401- 


87-726 


3287-72 


5 


87-7 






y 




07-5 


87-198 


87-20 


4 


87-2 






J 




12-3 


85-721 







85-7 


In 








26-0 


84-695 


84-69 


2 


84-6 










35-5 


84-456 




1 


84-0 






1 




37-7 

42- 


82-458 


82-46 


2 


82-5 
82-3 


1 




> 
i 




56-3 

58- 


82-024 













J 




61-3 




81-85 


1 


81-8 
81-2 


In 




9 




67-9 
68- 


80-705 




1 


80-6 






) 




72-5 


80-011 







79-6 
79-1 






J 




79-0 
83- 

87- 




78-41 


1 


78-2 
77-9 






» 




93-9 
99- 


77-422 


77-41 


5 


77-4 






, 




30503-1 


76-291 


76-28 


1 


76-3 






i 




13-7 


75-735 


75-74 


2 








) 




18-8 


75-452 


75-45 


1 


75-6 






> 




21-4 


75-167 


75-15 


1 


75-0 






) 




24-0 


74-686 


74-68 


2 


74-2 










28-6 
33- 


72-772 







72-7 
72-5 








^^ 


46-4 
49- 


71-936 


71-94 


3 


71-8 


1 




9 




54-2 


71-372 


71-38 


4 


71-4 






5 




59-5 


69-835 







69-5 


In 




i 




73-9 

77- 


68-663 







68-7 
68-5 






J 




84-9 
86- 


67-236 


67-22 


1 


67-2 


In 




fi 




98-3 


66-580 


66-59 


8 


66-5 






, 




30604-3 


65-399 







64-6 
64-3 






> 




15-4 

23- 

26- 


63-436 


63-44 


In 








) 




33-8 


63-062 


63-09 


1 


63-1 






y 




37-2 


62-852 


62-85 


1 


62-6 






> 




39-3 
42- 


62-147 


62-15 


5 


62-1 
61-4 
61-0 


In 




9 


>> 
J) 


45-9 
54- 

57- 








59-7 


In 





•91 


>» 


69- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



151 



Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


"Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 








1_ 

A 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A-l- 






3259-0" 


I 


0-91 


8-7 


30676- 


3267-916 












97 


86-8 




3256-92 


2 


66-9 


In 




)> 


95-1 


56-346 




1 








») 


30700-6 


56-194 




2 


55-9 


1 






02-0 
05- 




55-20 


2 


55-1 


1 




»J 


11-4 


64-542 


54-54 


4 


54-4 


4 




9f 


17-6 


53-497 




1 


53-4 


2 




>» 


27-4 








52-0" 


In 




8-8 


42- 


49-866 


49-87 


3 


49-8 


1 






61-7 


49-638 


49-63 


2 


49-6 


1 




., 


63-9 


47-417 




1 








>» 


84-9 


46-951 







46-9 


1 




»» 


89-3 


46-431 




2 


46-3 


1 




91 


94-2 


45-510 







45-4 


hi 






30803-0 


45-022 


45-02 


1 


45-0 


1 




a 


07-6 


44-887 















08-9 


43-568 







43-8 


1 




) J 


21-4 


42-734 


42-78 


1 








9f 


29-1 


42-462 


42-47 


1 


42-4 


1 






32-9 


42-132 




1 










36-1 


41-640 


41-65 


6 


41-6 


4 




it 


39-7 


41-395 















42-1 


40-688 


40-69 


1 


40-7 


1 




99 


48-8 


40-351 


40-35 


3 


40-4 


1 






52-2 








39-6 


lb 




„ 


60- 


38-675 







38-5 


1 




>t 


67-1 


38-414 




1 








»» 


70-6 


38-003 







37-9 
37-4 


1 
In 


;;' 




74-4 
80- 


37-115 







37-0 
36-1 
35-7 


1 
1 
1 


:: 


ft 


82-9 

93- 

96- 


36-537 











" 




98-0 


35-370 







35-3 


1 




>f 


99-6 








34-5 


1 




ij 


30908- 








33-0 


1 




tf 


22- 


32-618 







32-8 


1 






25-9 


32-342 




1 








)t 


28-5 


32-145 


32-14 


4n 


32-0 


4 




i> 


30-4 








31-7 


In 




J) 


35- 








31-2 


1 




it 


39- 


30-903 


30-90 


4 








)t 


42-3 








30-7 


2 


„ 


)» 


44- 


29-412 


29-40 


5 


29-3 


4 


„ 


)f 


66-6 


28-672 







28-6 


2 




>> 


63-7 


27-675 







27-8 
27-0 






)t 


73-2 

80- 


26-840 


26-83 


2 


26-7 
26-8 
26-5 






tt 

tt 


81-3 

91- 

94- 


24-637 







24-5 








31002-4 


24 016 


24-06" 


In 


i 






j> 


08-2 



152 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Iridium — eontimwd. 



Ai 


c Spectrum 


1 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 








Intensity 

and 
Charactei- 


Exner and 
Haschek 

3223-6 


Intensity 

and 
Character 

1 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kayser 
3223-645 


Exner and 
Haschek 


A-t- 
0-91 


1 

1 

^ 1 
8-8 


3223-65 


1 


31012-0 


23-138 







23-0 


1 






16-9 


22-854 















19-6 


22-600 




1 


22-5 


4 






22-0 








22-4 


2 






24- 


21-415 


21-40 


4 


21-3 


2 






33-5 


20-924 


20-91 


10 


20-7 


6 


0-90 




38-2 




19-66 


6 


19-6 


2 






50-4 


18-593 


18-60 


4 


18-6 


1 






60-6 


17-700 


17-70 


1 










69-3 


17-301 







17-3 


In 






73-2 


16-905 




1 










77-0 


16-431 







16-5 


1 




8-9 


81-5 








15-2 


1 






93- 








14-3 


1 






31102- 








14-0 


1 






05- 


13-681 


13-68 


3 


13-6 


1 






081 








13-2 


1 






13- 


12-629 















18-2 


12-350 


12-37 


4 


12-1 


8 






20-8 


12-240 


12-22 


4 










22-1 








11-5 


1 






29- 








11-4 


1 






30- 


10-131 




2 










42-5 








09-9 


1 






45- 








09-6 


1 






48- 


09-050 







09-1 


1 






53-0 


08-287 


08-27 


2 


08-1 


1 






60-5 




07-22 


1 


07-0 


1 






70-8 








06-3 


1 






80- 


05-837 







05-7 


1 






84-2 


05-227 


05-22 


3 


05-1 


1 






90-2 


04-587 




2 


04-5 


1 






96-4 


04-230 















99-8 








03-2 


1 






31210- 








02-7 


1 






15- 


02-250 















19-1 


02-023 















21-3 








01-8 








24- 


01-027 


01-02 


2 


01-0 


1 






31-1 


00-166 


00-16 


In 


00-1 


1 






39-5 


3199-058 


3199-06 


5 


3199-0 


2 




" 


50-3 


98-226 


98-23 


1 


98-1 


1 






58 4 








97-5 


1 






65- 


95-882 







95-7 


1 






81-4 








94-2 


1 






98- 


93-345 




2 






»» 




31306-2 


93-240 




1 


93-2 


1 


;> 




i 07-3 








90-6 


1 


?» 


i " 


33- 






1 


90-2 


In 




' » 


1 37- 


89-486 


89-47 


1 


89-4 


1 


a 


J7 


44-2 


88-702 




1 


88-7 


1 






51-8 


88-487 











99 


it 


53-9 


87-267 


1 





87-3 


1 


1 ii 


*f 


65-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 153 

lmDivis,i—conti7H'ed. 



Arc 


; Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-leneth 1 




Wave-lengtli 




Vacuum 




fj 


Intensity; 

and 
Character 


Exner and ^ 
Haschek 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


. 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


A.+ 
0-90 


1_ 
\ 

8-9 


318fi-G67 


1 


3186-8 i 


31371-8 


86-184 











,, 


J> 


76-6 


86-030 











)» 


99 


78-1 






! 


85-7 




j» 


99 


81- 








85-4 






»» 


84- 








84-8 




,, 


)) 


90- 








83-7 


In 


»> 


»J 


31401- 


82-924 




1 






»» 


»> 


08-7 








82-8 


In 




>» 


10- 


82-514 













99 


12-8 








82-0 


In 


JJ 


99 


18- 








81-4 




0-89 


J» 


24- 


80-487 


3180-48 


4 


80-4 




,, 


9-0 


32-8 


79-328 


79-32 


3 


79-2 


In 


?» 


>j 


44-2 


79-811 


78-80 


1 


78-7 
78-4 




9J 




49-4 
53- 


77-712 


77-70 


4 


77-6 




JJ 


,j 


60-2 


77-325 







77-2 






,, 


64-0 








76-7 




jj 


»» 


70- 


76-106 







76-0 




»> 


»» 


76-1 








75-3 


In 


>» 


»» 


84- 








74-8 




?J 


)» 


89- 


73-466 




3 


73-3 


1 


)> 


j» 


31502-3 


73-222 













)> 


04-7 


72-915 


72-91 


3 


72-9 




J) 


)j 


07-8 


71-812 


71-80 


2 


71-7 






?j 


18-8 








71-5 






» 


22- 








71-3 




J) 


j> 


24- 








70-0 




tf 


)j 


37- 


69-010 


69-01 


6 


69-2 


4 


)» 


J) 


46-6 


68-673 











>» 


jj 


49-9 


68-404 




1 


68-4 


2 


>» 


)> 


52-6 


68-297 


68-30 


4 






)) 


)j 


53-7 


67-792 











)> 


J) 


58-7 


67-328 


67-30 


3 


67-3 


1 


»5 


)j 


63-5 


66-886 


66-85 


1 


66-8 


1 


>» 


)> 


67-9 








66-3 


In 


>J 


J) 


74 


65-833 




1 






»» 


» 


78-3 


65-323 




1 


65-3 


1 


>> 


j> 


83-4 


64-376 







641 


2 


J) 


)j 


92-8 


63-972 




1 






JJ 


j» 


96-8 


62-953 







63-0 


1 


99 


»> 


31607-0 


' 62-871 













1 '* 


07-8 


62-445 







62-5 


1 


»J 


>i 


12-1 


61-948 


61-95 


i 2 


61-9 


1 


99 


>> 


171 


61-477 


61-49 


2 


61-4 


1 


99 


)> 


21-7 


59-992 




i 1 


60-1 


1 


99 


j» 


36-6 


59-644 


59-64 


! 2 


59-6 


1 


99 


)> 


40-2 


59-280 


i 59-29 


4 


59-2 


1 




>y 


43-7 








68-6 


1 




t> 


50-6 


57-836 




! 






T9 


yj 


68-5 


57-614 


1 57-60 


i 2 


57-6 


1 




J» 


60-6 








i 67-1 


1 




»> 


66- 


56-274 


56-28 


2 


1 56-3 


1 


>> 


»> 


73-9 



154 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Iridium — conUmied. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum ■□ j l- l 

^ 1 Reduction to i 




Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Wave-length 


Intensity 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Esner and 
Haschek 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


\ + 


i_ ! 

K 

9-0 








3155-2 


In 


0-89 


31685- 


3154-874 


3154-85 


3 


54-8 


2 






88-1 


54-679 


54-66 


3 


54-7 

52-7 








90-0 
31710- 


51-748 


51-75 


la 


51-7 


In 






19-4 


50-727 


50-76 


4 


50-7 








29-6 


50-128 







49-6 
49-0 


1 
1 






35-7 

41- 

47- 


48-346 







48-1 








53-7 

56- 


47-860 


47-85 


1 


47-9 
46-9 
46-6 






9-i 


58-7 

68- 

71- 








45-7 


In 






80- 




45-17 


3 


45-2 
44-5 
44-4 
44-0 








85-7 
93- 
94- 
98- 


43-668 















31800-9 


42-994 















07-7 


42-371 




1 










14-0 
18-3 


41-946 




1 


41-2 


2 


0-88 




26- 




40-52 


3 


40-4 


1 






32-8 


39-704 


39-70 


1 










41-1 








38-6 


In 




" 


52- 








37-8 


6 




'J 


60- 


36-418 


36-56 


In 


35-5 


In 




,, 


73-7 
84- 


35-358 















85-2 








35-0 


In 






89- 








34-2 


1 






97- 




33-89 


1 










31900-1 


33-432 


33-45 


8 nr 


33-4 


6 




>> 


04-7 


33-210 


33-23 


3 


32-7 
32-3 


1 
1 




" 


07-0 

12- 

16- 








29-9 


1 






41- 








29-7 


1 






43- 








29-3 


] 






47- 


28-510 


28-51 


3 


28-6 
26-9 


\ 






55-0 

72- 








25-0 


1 






91- 


24-203 


24-20 


1 


24-3 


1 






99-1 


24-024 













)j 


32000-9 


23-334 




2 










08-0 




22-82 


1 


22-62 








13-2 


22-509 


22-50 


3 








" 


16-5 


21-894 


21-91 


4 


22-1 


4 






22-7 


20-885 


20-90 


5 


20-9 
20-5 


I 




„ 


33-0 
37- 








19-8 


1 






44- 


19-422 















481 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TAIJLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 155 

Ikidium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum ' 




Wave-lenerth | 




Wave-length 




Oscillation 






Intensity 

and 1 




intensity 
and 






Frequency 










1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 
3118-967 


Exnei- and 
Haschek 


Cliaracteri 

1 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A.-I- 






3118-9 


2 


0-88 


91 


32052-8 


17-968 













1 


63-1 


17-645 


3117-64 


I 










66-4 








17-4 


2 


fj 




69- 








16-3 


1 


91 




80- 


14-669 


14-69 


3 


14-6 


1 






96-9 


14170 


14-16 


3Pd? 


14-2 


1 




9-2 


32101-1 


13-908 




1 






}f 




04-9 


13-229 




1 










121 


12-475 


12-48 


2 


12-5 


1 






19-5 








12-2 


1 


?> 


jj 


23- 








10-4 


1 


J> 


)> 


41- 








10-0 


1 


5» 


f) 


45- 




09-49 


1 


09-5 


1 






50-4 


08-670 


08-67 


1 


08-7 


1 


•J 


i) 


58-9 








08-2 


1 






64- 








07-7 


1 


?» 


>> 


69- 








07-3 
06-8 


1 

1 




>j 


73- 

78- 


06-072 







06-2 


1 






85-8 








05-3 


1 






94- 


04-301 







04-3 


1 






32204-2 


03-875 


03-88 


1 


03-9 


1 


if 


)j 


08-6 








02-8 


In 






20- 


01-288 


01-29 


2 


01-3 


1 


0-87 


}* 


35-5 


00-586 


00-50 


8 


00-5 


6 


> J 


)t 


43-2 








3099-9 


1 


)) 


It 


50- 








99-6 


1 


9} 


99 


53- 








99-2 


1 


M 


99 


57- 


3099055 


309905 


In 


98-7 


1 


J> 


99 


58-7 
62- 


98-555 















63-9 








98-4 


1 


)> 




66- 


97-931 


97-94 


2 


97-9 


1 


tt 


)9 


70-4 








95-4 


1 


9t 


99 


97- 




94-49 


1 


94-6 


1 


fi 




32306-3 


94-326 




1 


94-3 


1 


it 




08-0 


94-144 


94-14 


2 


94-1 


In 


)> 


J) 


09-9 








93-5 


1 


>J 




17- 


• 






931 


1 


99 




21- 








92-8 


1 


9t 


)J 


24- 








92-5 


1 


99 


»J 


27- 








91-6 


In 


99 


J1 


37- 


91-254 











9j 




40-1 


90-871 











99 


JJ 


44-1 


90-277 


90-29 


2 


90-1 


1 






50-3 


89-600 















56-8 


88-103 


88-15 


5 


88-2 


6 


99 


99 


52-6 






1 


87-7 


1 


)> 


>J 


77- 






1 

1 


87-3 


1 


99 


»> 


82- 


86-504 


86-58 


1 4 


86-5 


2 


i 99 


»> 


89-2 








86-0 


In 


1 " 


»> 


95- 






, 


85-3 


1 


i >* 


J> 


32403- 


85-088 




1 






1 „ 


»> 


04-8 



15(3 



KEPORTH ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
IKIDIUM — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Kediiction to 




Wave-lengtli 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 




Intensity 


T 


Intensity 

and 
Character 

4 




. Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Hascliek 


and 
Characte 


. Exner and 
Haschek 


A + 

0-87 


i_ 

K 


3083-343 


3083-37 


4 


3083-3 


9-3 


32422-9 


83-085 




1 


83-0 


4 






25-7 


82-823 











)} 


>» 


28-4 









82-2 


In 






35- 


81-709 




1 


81-6 
81-0 


lu 
la 




>> 


40-2 
48- 








80-2 


1 






56- 


79-892 







79-9 


1 






69-4 


78-793 


78-70 


2 
1 








J> 


710 
71-9 


77-996 


78-00 


1 










79-4 




77-75 


2 


77-7 


1 




» 


82-0 


76-800 


76-80 


3 


76-8 


2 




1 


920 


75-577 







75-6 
75-0 


2 
1 


J> 


>> 


32504-9 
11- 


74-864 


74-87 


2 


74-5 


1 


>> 


J) 


12-4 
16- 


73-800 















23-7 


73-390 


73-42 


2 


73-5 


2 






27-9 


72-904 







72-7 
72-2 


1 

1 


J» 


" 


33-2 
41- 


72-078 







71-7 
71-4 

70-5 


1 
1 
1 






42-0 
46- 
49- 
59- 


69-825 


69-82 


3 


69-9 


1 






65-9 


69-220 


69-18 


4 


69-2 


6 






72-5 


69-005 


69-00 


5 


69-0 


6 






74-6 


68-507 




1 


68-6 
67-7 
67-3 


1 

1 
1 






79-8 

sa- 


66-760 







66-5 


1 






98-4 


66167 











j> 


ii 


32604-7 


65-944 







65-7 


1 






07-1 


65-292 


65-27 


1 










14-0 


04-904 




3 


64-9 


8 






18-1 


64-622 


64-65 


2 










21-0 


64-216 







64-3 


1 


9y 




25-5 








61-6 


2 


0-86 




53-4 


61-515 


61-53 


3 


61-5 
61-1 


1 
1 


»> 


^> 


54-2 
59- 


60-950 


60-96 


2 










60-2 


60-460 







601 


1 






65-5 


60114 




1 








}) 


69-2 


59-858 




1 


59-9 


1 




J) 


71-9 








68-8 


1 


)j 




83- 


58-438 







58-5 


1 






87-1 


58-087 







57-7 


1 


j> 


jj 


90-8 
95-0 


57-590 




2 






J) 


99 


96-3 


57-398 


57-40 


4 


67-3 


1 


9i 


>> 


98-2 
99-3 


66-770 











j> 


,',' j 32705-0 1 








55-4 


In 


f > 


„ i 


20- 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 157 

Ieidium — continved. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Keduction to 


Oscillation 


"Wave-length 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 






Intensity 

and 
Charactei 

1 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Intensity 
and 

Character 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 

32728-5 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Hasohek 


A.+ 
0-86 


1_ 

A 

9-3 


3054-570 




64-351 







3054-2 




99 


9-4 


30-8 


53-709 


3053-70 


2 


53-7 


In 




J> 




37-7 








53-2 






>> 




^. 


43- 


52-288 


52-30 


2 


52-3 
51-5 






»> 
»> 




JJ 


52-8 
61- 


51-243 


51-25 


1 


51-3 
50-6 






»» 

JJ 




5> 

J) 


64-1 
71- 


50-134 




1 


50-2 






J» 






76- 


49-559 


49-52 


5 


49-4 






>» 






82-4 


48-783 




1 


48-9 






?J 






89-6 


47-904 




1 


48-0 


In 




J) 






32800-0 


47-277 


47-27 


5 








J> 






06-8 


45-768 







45-7 
45-3 










99 
99 


23-8 
28- 


44-255 













J) 






39-4 


43-671 







43-6 






J» 






45-7 


42-760 




2 


42-7 






>J 






55-5 


42-429 













JJ 




99 


59-1 


41-979 




1 


42-0 
41-6 










99 


63-9 
68- 


41-056 




1 


40-9 










>> 


73-9 
75-6 


40-580 


40-58 


3 


400 










99 


79-1 

85- 


39-378 


39-38 


5 


39-3 






yy 






92-0 


37-861 


37-86 


3 


37-7 
37-2 










>5 


32908-5 
16- 


36-361 







36-5 
35-0 






»» 

»> 




») 


25-8 
40- 


34-675 


34-66 


2 


34-6 
34-4 
34-2 










J» 


43-1 

46- 

48- 


33-744 


33-75 


2 


33-7 
33-0 






9 




>J 


531 
61- 


32-528 


32-55 


2 


32-6 












66-3 


30-568 













J 






87-7 


30-365 




1 








> 






89-9 


29-487 


29-50 


5 


29-5 


2 




> 






99-4 


26-489 




1 


26-5 


4 




» 






33032-2 




25-99 


3 


25-8 
25-3 
25-0 


2 




> 
» 

> 


9 


6 


37-6 
40- 
45- 
48- 


24-410 




2 


24-4 
23-4 
23-2 






> 
> 
9 






54-8 

66- 

68- 


22-807 


22-81 


2 


22-7 







85 






72-3 


22-536 


22-54 


2 


22-5 
21-6 
21-1 
20-7 






> 
> 


J 

9 




76-3 
86- 
91- 
95- 


20125 


20-12 


3 


20-1 


1 




> 


> 




33101-7 


19-350 


19-35 


3 


19-2 


2 




f 


» 




09-2 1 



158 



BEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Ieidium — contimied . 



Arc 


Spectrum 


! 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 1 
and 


Wave-length 1 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum j 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 






1_ 
A. 

9-5 j 


in Vacuo 


Kayser | 


Exner and 
Haschek | 


Character 
2 


Exner and '^ 
Haschek 


Character 
In 


X + 
0-85 




3018-151 




3018-1 


33123-5 


17-450 


3017-43 


4 


17-4 

16-8 




39 1 


99 1 


31-2 
36- 


16-550 


16-55 


3 


16-4 
15-8 
15-1 




" i 

" i 


99 
>J 

93 
5J 


40-9 
43- 
49- 
57- 


14-854 




1 


14-9 




J> 


?» 


59-6 


14-585 




1 


14-6 
14-3 
13-2 




)J 


J) 


62-5 
66- 

78- 


12-984 




1 


13-0 




>9 


)J 


80-2 


12-695 


12-71 


2 


12-4 








83-3 

87- 


11-812 


11-84 


3 


11-7 




J> 


>J 


92-0 


10-020 


1003 


2 






9* 


)> 


33212S 


08-753 




1 


08-8 
08-5 




99 

J) 




26-8 
30- 


07-838 











99 


'1 


37-0 


07-745 







07-7 
06-5 
06-3 
05-7 


J 


>» 

»> 
»» 


5> 

>» 
J) 
JJ 


38-0 
52- 
54- 
61- 


05-338 


05-33 


2 


05-1 
04-7 




99 


»» 

>J 

JJ 


64-7 

67- 

72- 


04-429 











»J 


JJ 


74-7 


03-761 


03-78 


4 


03-7 




)> 


JJ 


82-0 








03-2 


In 


)> 


JJ 


88- 


02-375 




1 


02-0 
01-6 




) J 


JJ 
JJ 


97-5 
33302- 
06- 


01-383 







01-2 
01-0 




99 


JJ 
JJ 

JJ 


08-5 

10- 

12- 


00-149 


00-15 


2 


00-2 
2999-7 




99 


JJ 
99 


23-7 

27- 


2999-155 







99-2 

98-7 
97-8 


In 


99 
J? 


99 
JJ 


33-2 

38- 
48- 




2997-54 


3 


97-6 




J> 


9-6 


51-1 


97-314 


97-31 


2 


97-4 




JJ 


JJ 


53-6 


96-785 











)5 


\ 33 


59-5 


96-202 


96-20 


4 






99 


1 " 


66-0 








95-5 


In 


»» 


JJ 


74- 








94-8 




J» 


JJ 


82- 








94-7 






J? 


83- 


93-751 







93-8 




99 


i " 


93-3 








93-5 




»> 


33 


96- 


93184 




2 


93-2 


In 


»> 1 »> 


99-6 








91-9 


In 


»» 


\ 

1 JJ 


33414- 


91-520 




1 


91-7 


In 




JJ 


18-2 


90-746 


90-77 


3 


90-7 
90-1 




99 
JJ 




26-7 
34- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES 01' THE SPECTIU OF THE ELEMENTS. 159 



Iridium — eontimied. 



Are Spectrum 


1 


Spark Spectrum 


1 
Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 1 


Wave-length 




Vacuum 




1 


Intensity ■ 
and 





Intensity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


1 


1 




1_ 
\ 


1 
Kayser 


Exner and , 
Hasehek 


Character 


Exner and 
Hasehek 


Character 


\ + 








2989-6 


1 


0-85 


9-6 


33440- 


2988-335 







87-6 
86-7 




;; 




53-8 

62- 

72- 


85-921 


2985-94 


3 


85-9 
83-8 








80-8 
33505- 








83-7 


IFe? 






06- 


82-962 







82-9 
82-7 




0-84 




141 
17- 




82-55 


1 


82-5 








18-8 






2 


81-8 








27- 


81-042 




2 










35-7 


80-776 


80-80 


4 










38-6 


80-578 















40-9 


80-375 







80-0 
79-8 
79-2 
78-5 
78-2 








43-2 

47- 

60- 

66- 

64- 

68- 


78-056 




2 


78-0 








69-3 




77-80 


1 


77-6 
77-3 








72-2 
78- 


76-857 







76-4 
75-6 


In 






82-9 

88- 

97- 


75-062 




4 










33603-1 




75-07 


3 


75-1 








03-0 


74-659 


74-66 


1 


74-6 








07-7 


74-220 


74-24 


2 


74-3 
74-2 
73-7 








12-5 

13- 

19- 


72-646 







72-5 


In 






30-4 


71-205 


71-20 


2 


71-6 
69-7 




yy 


9-7 


46-8 
64- 




69-07 


1 


69-2 








71-6 




68-60 


1 


68-7 


In 






76-2 


68-334 


68-32 


2 


68-4 








79-3 








67-8 


In 


?» 




85- 


67-360 







67-4 
67-1 




99 




90-3 
93- 


66-245 


66-24 


2 


66-3 
65-7 




99 




33703-0 
09- 


65-329 


65-34 


3 


65-4 




99 




13-3 


65-095 











9) 




16-0 








64-3 




f» 




26- 


63-111 


63-11 


3 


63-2 




99 




38-6 








63-1 




)9 




39- 








62-7 




)> 




43- 


62-580 




1 






)J 




44-7 








61-8 




99 




54- 


61-595 


61-59 


2 


61-7 




>9 




55-9 


61009 


61-03 


I 


61-2 




>> 




62-4 








60-3 


2 


l> 




70- 



160 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Ibioium — continved. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum ' 


Reduction to 


Oscilhxtiou 


Wave-lenffth ' 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 




o 


Intensity 
and 




Intensity \ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 








and 




1_ 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Hascliek 1 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


33778-9 


2959-573 









0-84 


9-7 








2959-2 


1 


f9 


tj 


83- 


59-049 















J> 


84-9 


56-699 







56-7 
56-0 
55-5 


1 

1 
In 






5> 


33811-8 
20- 
26- 


54-909 




1 


54-9 


4 






>> 


32-3 


53-205 







54-6 


1 Fe? 






)* 


52- 


52-686 







52-7 


In 






)> 


57-8 


51-363 


2951-35 


8 


61-3 


4 






)» 


72-9 


51-266 




2 










!J 


74-1 


50-883 


50-89 


2 










;j 


78-4 


50-606 


50-61 


1 


50-6 
50-4 


1 
1 








81-6 
84- 


49-882 


49-89 
47-48 


3 
1 


49-8 
48-5 


1 
In 








89-7 
33906- 
17-6 


47-093 


47-10 


3 


47-1 
45-7 
44-0 


2 
1 
1 






9) 

9-8 


22-0 

38- 

58- 


43-287 


43-30 


8 


43-3 


4 






!» 


65-4 








42-7 


1 


0- 


83 


»J 


72- 


41-197 


41-20 


2 


41-2 


1 




, 


>> 


90-0 


40-669 


40-66 


3 


40-7 


2 






)» 


961 


40-548 















,, 


97-5 


39-390 


39-40 


3 


39-4 
39-2 


4 
1 






»? 


34010-8 
13- 


38-877 


38-87 


1 










»» 


16-8 


38-606 


38-60 


3 










») 


19-9 


38-097 















?J 


25-2 


37-656 















55 


30-9 


37-371 







37-3 


1 






» 


34-2 


36-814 


36-85 


8 


36-7 


4 






J) 


40-5 




36-20 


In 


36-2 


1 






5? 


47-8 


35-427 















») 


66-8 


35-305 


35-30 


1 


35-3 


1 






»» 


58-2 


34-748 


34-76 


6 


34-7 


4 




»» 


5> 


64-6 


33-252 


33-25 


1 




32-7 
32-7 
32-2 


1 
1 

1 








82-1 

88- 

94- 


31-821 















JJ 


98-7 


30-743 


30-75 


2 


30-7 


1 






)J 


34111-2 


30-298 


30-30 


1 


30-3 
29-8 


1 
4 








16-4 

22- 


27-833 







27-7 


1 






9» 


45-1 
47- 


27-129 


27-14 


1 


27-1 
26-7 


1 
1 








53-3 

58- 


26-212 







26-2 
25-2 


1 
4 






)5 


64-1 

76- 


24-912 


24-94 


10 


24-9 
24-0 


4 
1 








79-1 
90- 


21-237 







21-3 
20-9 


2 
1 






9-9 


34222-2 
26- 



ON WAVE-LENGTfl TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OP THE ELEMENTS. 161 

Iridium — otvitinued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 




Wavelength 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




t^ T 






in Vacuo 


Kayser 


liisner and 
Haschek 


Character 


Exnev and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 


1 










2919-9 


1 


0-83 


9-9 


34?38- 


2919-299 







19-3 


4 






44-9 


18-683 


2918-69 


3 


18-7 
18-1 


4 


99 
99 


:: 

yy 


52-1 

59- 


17-885 


17-86 


1 


17-9 
16-8 


^ 


99 


99 


61-6 

74- 


16-479 


16-49 


4 


16-4 








78-0 


15-793 







15-7 




fy 




86-1 


15-625 







141 
13-9 
13-7 




99 

99 
99 
9) 


99 

99 
99 


88-1 
34306- 
08- 
11- 


13-592 











9) 




12-0 




12-36 


IPt? 


12-4 
11-4 




99 
9) 


99 
yy 


26-5 
38- 








10-7 


In 






46- 


09-912 















55-4 


09-669 


09-66 


2 


09-6 
08-8 
08-4 
07-7 


r 
In 


99 
59 
99 


99 

99 
99 


58-3 
68- 
73- 
81- 


07-353 

i 


07-36 


3 


07-3 
06-5 
06-0 


In 


99 
91 
fy 


99 
99 


85-G 
96- 
34402- 


05-774 


05-75 


2 


05-7 


1 






04-5 


04-913 


04-93 


4 


04-9 








14-5 


03-995 













" 


25-4 


03-852 







03-7 
03-4 


In 
In 


0-82 


99 


271 
32- 


02-430 















44-1 




02-09 


3 


01-9 
01-2 




99 


99 


48-0 
59- 


00-492 


00-50 


1 


00-4 






" 


68-0 


00-165 













99 


70-9 


2899-733 


2899-74 


2 


2899-6 








76-0 


99-055 















84-1 


98-455 




2 


98-5 
98-0 


In 


99 


99 


91-2 

97- 


97-783 











„ 




99-2 


97-260 


97-27 


5 


97-1 




yy 




34505-4 




97-07 


1 








10-0 


07-6 


95-705 







95-7 








23-9 


94-388 







94-0 




99 


99 


39-6 
44-2 


93-785 















46-8 


92-371 




1 


92-3 
91-7 




99 


99 


63-7 
72- 


90-634 







• 








84-5 


89-688 




1 


89-7 
88-3 




99 


99 


95-8 
34612- 


87-240 




2 


86-9 




99 


99 


25-1 
29- 


85-615 











99 9) 


44-7 








85-4 


lb 


99 


„ 1 


47- 



1907. 



162 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
IRIOIUM — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 








1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Esner and 
Hasoliek 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A.+ 










2884-7 




0-82 


10-0 


34656- 








84-2 








62- 


2883-549 


2883-55 


1 


83-5 








69-5 


82-970 















76- 


82-742 


82-77 


5 


82-6 








79-0 








82-2 








86- 








81-7 








92- 


81-270 


81-30 


2 


811 








96-7 


80-324 


80-29 


1 


80-2 








34708-5 


80-174 







80-1 








10-1 


79-878 















13-7 


79-515 


79-51 


3 


79-5 








18-1 


78-632 




2 


78-7 


In 






28-7 


77-781 


77-79 


4 


77-7 








38-9 


77-108 







77-1 








47-1 


76-096 


76-10 


4 


76-1 








59-3 


75-721 


75-72 
75-10 


4 

1 


75-7 








63-9 
71-4 


73-929 







73-8 








85-6 




73-46 


2 


73-4 








91-2 


72-227 















348062- 








71-9 








10- 








71-7 








13- 








71-2 








19- 








71-1 








20- 


70-698 















24-8 


70-304 







70-2 


In 






29-5 


69-815 


69-80 


2 


69-6 








35-5 
38- 




68-70 


1 








101 


48-9 








67-8 








60- 


66-798 


66-76 


3 


66-7 
65-6 








72-3 

87- 


63-955 


63-95 


3 


62-8 




0-81 




34906-7 
21- 




62-60 


1 


62-6 








23-2 


62-455 


62-49 


In 










24-7 








61-0 


In 






43- 


60-767 


60-77 


2 


60-7 








45-5 








60-4 








50- 


60-126 















53-4 








60-0 








55- 








59-4 








62- 


59-138 















65-5 








58-9 








68- 








58-5 


1 Fe? 






73- 


57-058 


57-05 


1 


57-0 








91-0 


56-048 


56-03 


1 


56-1 


In 






35003-4 


55-931 


55-96 


1 










04-6 








55-7 








08- 








55-5 








10- 


54-722 















19-6 


53-416 


53-43 


1 


53-5 








35-5 


52-605 







52-6 








45.6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 163 

Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Wave-length 

Exner and 
Haschek 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Vacuum 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschelc 


\ + 
0-81 


1_ 

A. 




2852-3 


1 


101 


:«C49- 


2851-648 


2851-65 


In 


51-6 


1 


„ 




57-3 


51-518 


51-56 


In 






J, 




68-7 


61-161 







50-8 


1 






63-3 


50-906 







50-5 


In 






66-5 

81- 


49-848 


49-86 


8 


49-7 


6 






79-4 


49-557 















83-1 


48-557 







48-4 


1 


„ 




95-4 


46-753 







46-8 
46-5 
46-3 


1 
1 

1 


" 


10-2 


35117-5 
21- 
23- 


45-245 




1 










36-0 


45-009 







44-6 


1 






39-2 


42-390 


42-40 


2 


42-1 


1 


;; 


,, 


71-4 

75- 


41-798 


41-80 


1 


41-6 


1 


.. 


if 


78-8 
81- 


40-332 


40-35 


4 


40-2 


4 






96-8 
99- 


39-287 


39-32 


6 


39-2 
38-3 


4 
In 






35209-7 
11- 
21- 


37-421 


37-42 


3 


37-2 


2 






33-1 
36- 


36-506 


36-51 


4 










44-4 


36-197 


36-21 


1 










48-2 


35-762 


35-75 


3 


35-7 


1 






53-8 


35-408 














58-1 









34-2 


1 






73-1 


33-777 















78-4 


33-337 


33-35 


3 


33-2 


8 






83-8 


32-874 




2 


32-6 


1 






89-6 


31-912 


31-93 


1 


31-8 


1 






35301-5 


31-455 


31-46 


1 










07-3 


30-964 














13-4 


30-601 


30-57 


2 


30-4 


In 






18-2 


30-264 




3 










21-2 


29-720 


29-73 


1 


29-8 


1 






28-9 


27-259 


27-27 


1 


27-2 


1 






69-7 


26-316 







26-3 
25-7 
25-5 


In 

1 
1 






71-6 

79- 

82- 


24-546 


24-59 


6 


24-4 


2 


0-80 




93-4 


24-228 




1 










97-7 


23-831 







23-7 


1 






35402-7 


23-280 


23-34 


4 


23-3 


1 




10-3 


09-1 


20-738 




2 


20-6 


1 






41-4 


20-614 















43-0 


■ 19-848 







19-8 
19-3 
17-6 


In 

1 
1 






62-4 

60- 

81- 


17-284 















84-9 


17-039 


17-04 


1 


17-0 


1 






88-4 



M 2 



164 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Ieidium — continued. 



Are Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave- length 




Vacuum 






Intensity 




Intensity 

and 
Character 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


- Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


\-l- 


1_ 

10-:'. 


2816-409 







2816-5 


0-80 


35495-9 


15-744 







15-9 
15-5 


1 
In 






,i 


35504-3 

07- 


14-966 


2815-00 


1 


15-0 










14-1 


14-532 


14-52 


1 


14-5 
14-1 
13-6 
13-3 










19-8 
26- 
31- 
35- 


12-896 


12-91 


2 


12-7 
12-0 
11-4 
11-3 


In 








40-2 
52- 
59- 
60- 


10-657 


10-65 


1 


10-5 
08-7 










68-6 
93- 


08-249 







08-1 










99-1 


07-754 


07-75 


1 


07-6 










35605-4 


06-772 

















17-8 


06-479 


06-50 


1 


06-3 
05-8 


lb 
lb 








21-4 
30- 


04-300 







04-6 
03-2 
02-7 
01-9 
01-5 
01-1 










49-2 

63- 

70- 

80- 

85- 

90- 


00-923 


00-91 


3 












92-3 


00-755 




1 


00-6 










94-4 


2799-835 


2799-84 


2 


2799-6 










35706-1 


99-522 







99-3 
98-7 


In 






10-4 


10-0 

13- 

20- 


98-283 


98-29 


4 


98-1 


2 








25-7 




97-82 


5 


97-6 


2n 








31-7 


97-456 


97-45 


4 


97-3 


2 


, 






36-5 


96-558 


96-55 


2 


96-3 
95-7 
95-4 


1 
In 

2 








47-9 

59- 

63- 


94-189 


94-20 


1 










... 


78-1 


93-907 







93-6 
92-2 
91-4 


2n 
In 








85-7 
35804- 
14- 


90-795 







90-6 
90-2 
89-7 
89-4 


In 








21-7 
29- 
36- 
40- 


89-066 







89-1 
88-5 


In 








43-9 
61- 


87-687 







87-8 
87-4 










61-6 
65- 


87-099 




1 


86-3 
85-9 
85-6 


I 








69-2 
79- 
85- 
89- 


85-319 


85-33 


3 












92-J 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SFECTIU OF THE ELEMENTS. 



165 



I Ri Di UM — continued. 



' Arc Spectrum 





Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-lenstli 


Wave-length 




Vacuum 






Intensity 




Intensity 
and 


j 


Frequency 






and 








in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 
1 


A + 


1_ 
A 


35894- 






2785-2 


0-80 


10-4 


2783-797 











0-79 




35911-8 


83-492 







83-5 
83-1 




„ 




15-7 
21- 


82-885 











n 




23-5 








82-5 


In 






27-5 


82-342 







81-7 








30-5 
39- 


81-401 


2781-42 


4 


81-3 








42-6 


81-047 


81-07 


1 


81-0 




„ 




471 


80-507 


80-55 


1 






„ 




54-0 


79-752 




1 


79-3 
78-6 
76-0 








69-9 
79- 

87- 


77-645 














91-3 


77-536 


77-55 


2 


77-4 




" 




92-6 


77-149 






76-3 








97-7 
36009- 


75-646 


75-65 


3 


75-5 








17-2 


75-073 


75-09 


1 


74-9 






10-5 


24-5 


74-685 


74-73 


1 






,, 




29-3 




74-05 


1 


73-8 
73-5 
73-0 


A 






37-9 
45- 

52- 


72-547 


72-58 


3 


72-5 








57-2 


71-711 


71-76 


3 


69-6 
69-3 
68-8 
68-5 








67-0 
96- 
36100- 
06- 
10- 


67-764 


67-76 


1 


67-6 








19-8 


67-423 


67-47 


2 


66-9 
66-3 
65-9 
65-4 
65-2 
64-8 
64-1 
63-9 
63-5 


1 

X 

* 






23-9 

31- 

39- 

44- 

51- 

53- 

58- 

68- 

70- 

76- 


63-287 







63-3 

62-7 


2 






78-S 
86- 








62-1 


In 






94- 


61-700 













" 


99-1 


61-227 







61-3 


In 






36205-3 


60-474 















15-2 


60-207 







60-6 


1 




»} 


18-7 


60-009 


60-00 


2 


59-8 






„ 


21-4 
24- 


59-405 


59-42 


2 


59-4 








29-1 


59-100 


59-11 


In 










33-5 








58-8 


In 






37- 








58-4 








42- 



166 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 




Intensiti 


f ^ 


Intensity 


_ Frequency 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Characte 


^. Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character A -t- 


1_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


2758-325 


2758-33 


o 


2758-2 
57-6 




0-79 


10-5 

! » 


36243-4 
45- 
63- 








56-6 






St 


66- 


56-206 


56-20 


1 


56-0 
55-8 
55-2 






99 
99 

i " 
9, 


71-3 
74- 

77- 
85- 








54-6 




f» 


99 


92- 


53-954 







53-8 




»> 


99 


36300-9 








53-2 




99 


>» 


11- 








62-8 




?> 


99 


16- 








52-3 




)) 


99 


23- 








61-8 




>> 


99 


29- 








50-8 




9) 


10-6 


43- 








60-0 


In 


JJ 


>9 


53- 








49-3 




jf 




62- 


49075 







48-8 




J) 


99 


65-3 
69- 


48-395 







48-3 




)» 


»» 


74-3 








48-0 




if 


99 


80- 


47-602 


47-62 


1 










94-7 


47-383 







461 
45-5 
45-2 
44-5 




,9 
9t 
>» 


>> 

'» 
JJ 
9) 


87-7 
36405- 
13- 
17- 
26- 


44-091 


44-09 


3 


44-1 


2 






31-3 


43-769 







43-9 1 


1 


„ 


9f 


35-6 


43-477 







43-5 1 


2 






39-5 


40-432 










0-78 


99 


800 


40-267 


40-22 












82-5 


40-166 


40-16 












83-6 


40-085 ! 


40-08 












84-7 


39-413 


39-39 




39-4 
39-3 


2 
1 




99 


93-7 
95- 


38-875 







38-7 


1 




»> 


36500-7 








38-4 


1 


)) 


99 


07- 








37-6 


InRh? 


jf 


9) 


18- 




37-38§ 


2 


37-3 


1 




J> 


20-7 








36-8 


1 


f9 


9) 


28- 


36-509 











9> 


)> 


32-3 








36-3 


1 


)> 


)J 


35- 




35-78 


In 


35-7 ' 


1 


)> 


>> 


42-1 








35-3 


1 






48- 


35-165 




1 


' 






)) 


50-3 








350 


In 






52- 


34-596 











}» 


99 


58-1 


j 




34-3 


1 




99 


62- 


1 34-03" 


5 ! 








99 


65-4 


' 


1 33-4 


2 


J> ») 


74- 




§ Occurs also in Pt. 








" Occui 


s also in Pt ai 


1(1 Pd. 









ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 167 

Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 

Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-lensth 1 


1 


Wave-length 


1 






Intensity 

and 
Character 


1 


Intensity _ 

and 
Character 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 

36582-6 


Kayser 
2732-752 


Exner and ( 
Haschek 


Exner and ^ 
Haschek 


\ + 


1 
\ 


2732-75 


2 




0-78 


10-6 








2732-5 


4 


J» 




86- 


31-954 











>> 




93-2 








31-2 


1 






36603- 








31-1 


1 


79 




05- 




30-79 


2 










08-8 


30-500 











)> 




12-7 


29-638 


29-64 


1 


29-6 


1 


>j 




24-3 








28-S 


1 


>» 




35- 








28-6 


1 


99 




38- 


28-494 




1 










39-6 


28-224 











yy 




43-2 








28-0 


1 


99 




46- 








27-6 


2 


99 




51- 








26-9 


1 


> J 


10-7 


61- 


26-566 


26-56 


1 


26-6 


1 






65-5 








25-6 


1 


»> 




78- 








25-3 


1 


>) 




83- 


24-884 







24-8 


1 


)) 




88-1 


23-849 


23-85 


2 










36702-1 


# 


23-68 


2 


23-7 


1 






04-3 


23-248 







23-3 


1 






10-2 








22-7 


1 


99 




18- 








22-3 


1 






23- 


21-443 















34-f 








20-9 


In 


if 




42- 


20-534 


20-55 


2 


20-4 


1 






46-7 


19-906 







18-9 


1 


99 

t9 




55-3 
69- 








18-6 


In 


)y 




73- 


17-730 















84-7 


16-612 







16-6 
16-5 


1 
1 


)> 




99-9 
36801- 








16-1 


In 






07- 








15-2 


1 


if 




19- 






1 






ff 




26-5 


14-643 


13-95 


1 


14-1 


4 






35-9 


13-195 




1 










46-2 


12-817 


12-82 


3 


12-8 




ff 




52-7 








12-3 




jj 




68- 








120 








62- 


11-402 







11-6 




*) 




70-6 








10-8 




)> 




79- 








10-6 




»J 




81- 


10-177 


10-18 


1 


10-3 








87-2 








09-5 




»» 


)> 


96- 








09-2 




ft 


jj 


36900- 








08-8 




ff 


tt 


06- 


08-752 







08-7 




ff 


)> 


06-7 








07-9 




>» 


)j 


18- 








07-7 




>) 


)j 


21- 


07-265 







07-3 




ft 


)i 


26-9 


06-985 







07-1 




)j 


)f 


30-8 


05-632 


05-65 


1 


05-5 




99 


tt 


49-1 



108 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Ieidium — cnntinveil. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


Wave-length 






Intensity 
and 




Intensity 
and 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 








1_ 
10-7 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


Exuer and 
Haschek 


Character 


\ + 




2705-453 











0-78 


36951-7 


05-296 












s» 


53-8 


05-213 


2705-21 


In 








J> 


55-0 - 




05-02 


1 


2705-1 






9» 


57-8 








04-8 


In 




» 


61- 


04-722 













>» 


61-7 


04117 


04-12 


2 


04-0 
02-8 




>» 


9» 


69-9 
88- 








01-7 






10*8 


37003- 








01-4 


1 




>j 


07- 


01-200 


01-21 


In 


01-1 
00-5 






>> 

99 


09-7 

11- 

19- 


2698-688 




2 


2698-7 
98-1 
97-5 
97-2 
96-9 




0-77 


9> 

99 
99 
>» 


44-2 

52- 

60- 

64- 

69- 


96010 


96-04 


1 








9t 


80-8 


95-550 


95-57 


In 


95-6 
95-1 








87-2 
94- 


94-320 


94-33 


5 


94-3 






,9 


37104-2 


93-571 


93-60 


1 


93-5 
93-4 






99 


13-8 
17- 


92-964 


92-99 


1 








99 


22-8 








92-8 


In 




99 


25- 


92-429 


92-45 


3b' 


92-4 






»* 


30-2 


92-267 







92-2 




„ 


)> 


32-6 


91-998 











„ 


» 


36-3 








91-5 




„ 


)9 


43- 


91-154 


91-19 


1 






„ 


»J 


47-7 








90-7 






99 


54- 


89-769 











>> 


»» 


67-3 


88-381 







88-2 
87-6 
87-1 
86-8 
86-3 
85-7 
85-1 
84-8 


^ 
1 


'> 


99 
19 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 


86-3 
97- 
37204- 
08- 
15- 
23- 
32- 
36- 




84-15 


2 


84-0 




„ 


99 


44-9 


83-387 







83-2 

82-8 






9) 

» 


55-5 
64- 


82-536 


82-55 


1 


82-6 
82-2 






9» 
99 


67-3 

72- 


81-184 


81-22 


1 


81-3 

80-5 
80-1 






99 
99 


85-9 
96- 
37301- 


79-506 


79-51 


1 


79-3 






99 


09-5 




79-17 


2 








99 


13-2 








78-7 






10-9 


21- 








78-3 






99 


26- 


77-899 







77-7 


1 




» 


31-8 1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 169 

Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


/ 


Spark Spectrum 


Keduction to 




Wave- 


eugth 




Wave-length 


1 


Vacuum ' Oscillation 






Intensity 
and 




■ Intensity 

and 




1' re(|uenc5' 




1 




i_ 

A 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


1 Exner and 
, Haschek 


Charactei 


! Exner and 
Haschek 


Charactei 

1 


A + 




2676-911 


2076-93 


2 


' 2676-7 


0-77 


10-9 37345-5 








76-2 


1 


jj 


,, 55- 








75-7 


1 


» 




62- 


75-376 







75-4 
75-2 
74-3 


1 
1 
1 






67-0 

69- 

82- 


73-694 


73-70 


3 


73-8 


1 


j» 




1 90-5 








73-5 


2 


>> 


',', 93- 


72-888 







73-0 


1 


„ I „ , 37401-8 


71-930 


71-93 


4 


71-9 


1 


>) 1 )> 


15-2 


70-006 


70-01 


4 


70-0 


1 


1 

„ 1 „ 


42-2 




69-66 


1 


69-6 


1 


5) JJ 


48-5 


69-070 


69-09 


2 


69-0 


1 


» i » 


55-2 








68-5 


1 


9i 




63- 


68-362 







68-2 
67-9 


1 
1 






67- 

72- 


67-540 


67-54 
66-50 


1 

1 


67-5 
66-6 

66-4 
65-7 


1 
1 

1 
1 






76-8 
90- 
91-4 
93- 

37602- 


65-144 











9f 




10-5 


64-871 


64-87 


5 


C4-9 
64-6 


2 

2 


J) 




14-4 
18- 


63-400 


63-42 


2 


63-5 


1 






34-9 


62-706 


62-71 


3 


62-7 


1 


99 


" 


44-8 


62-080 


62-10 


5 


62-2 


1 


^9 




53-6 








61-7 


1 


99 




59- 








61-3 


2 


" 




65- 


60-163 











}J 




80-8 


60-040 







59-7 
58-3 


In 
In 


99 
9* 




82-5 
87- 
37607- 


57-993 















11-5 


57-799 


57-82 


1 


57-7 
57-6 


1 
1 


;; 




14-2 
17- 


66-898 


56-91 


2 


56-8 

• 56-2 

66-1 


1 
1 
1 




" 


26-4 

37- 

38- 








55-7 


In 


9> 




44- 


54-670 







54-7 


In 


0-76 ; 


li'-o 


58-6 


1 54-033 


54-05 


2 


53-9 


1 






67-5 1 


53-853 


53-86 


2 


53-9 


1 


f 


» ' 


70-1 ! 






j 


53-7 


1 




,' 72- 






! 


53-2 


1 




79- 


53124 


53-13 


1 








» ! 


80-5 




1 
1 




53-0 


1 


» 1 


1 


82- 




52-76 


In 






» 




85-6 




52-60 


In 










87-9 








52-1 : 


1 






95- 








61-8 


1 


,, I 




99- 








51-4 


1 


'* 




37705- 








CO-7 , 


1 


1 


» 


15- 



170 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 1 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 




Intensity 

and 
Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 

2650-5 


Intensity 

and 
Character 

1 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Hascliek 


\ + 
0-76 


1 

~K 

11-0 


2650-584 







37716-5 








50-2 


1 


JJ 




22- 








49-7 


In 


)> 




29- 








48-7 


1 


)» 




43- 








48-4 


1 


)) 




48- 








47-3 


In 


)> 




63- - 








46-8 


1 


S) 




70- 


46-334 


2646-35 


1 






jf 




77-0 








46-1 


1 


99 




80- 








45-8 


1 


J» 




85- 








45-7 


1 


ii 




86- 








45-3 


1 


)) 




92- 








44-5 


1 






37803- 


44-279 


44-28 


2 










06-4 








44-1 


1 


J? 




09- 








43-5 


In 






18- 








43-3 


In 






20- 








41-5 


1 


»» 




46- 








41-0 


1 


9J 




53- 


40-462 


40-45 


1 


40-4 


1 


ji 




62-2 




39-80 


4 


39-8 


4 


S) 




70-7 


39-510 


39-51 


2 


39-4 


1 






74-8 


39-073 


39-06 


1 


38-7 


1 






81-2 
86- 








38-3 


1 


)t 




92- 








37-8 


1 


ti 




99- 








37-5 


1 


Jt 




37904- 


37-407 











ti 




05-0 








37-3 


1 


>> 




07- 


36-967 











}9 




11-4 








36-7 


1 


99 




15- 








36-4 


1 


99 




20- 








35-7 


1 


99 




30- 


35-353 


35-35 


2 






)) 




34-6 








35-1 


1 


»> 




38- 


34-513 











99 




46-7 


34-340 


34-33 


3 


34-2 


2 






55-2 








33-1 


1 






67- 








30-5 


1 


99 


111 


38004- 








300 


1 






12- 


29-498 


29-49 


1 


29-4 
29-1 


1 
1 


a 




19-0 
25- 








28-7 


1 


99 




31- 


28-271 











99 




36-7 








28-0 


1 


J> 




41- 








27-1 


1 


»> 




54- 


26-844 


26-85 


2 










57-4 






[ 


25-6 


1 






76- 


25-396 


25-43 


i 2 


1 

24-6 


1 


99 

99 




78-1 
90- 








24-1 


1 


99 




97- 


23-736 


23-75 


In 






J, 




38102-4 








23-5 


1 






06- 








23-0 


1 


» 




13- 



ON WAVE 


-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPEC 


TllA OF 


THE I 


LLEMEI 


MTS. lyj 






iBXDivii—cooitinued. 




Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 








1_ 
A. 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 
2G22-203 


Exner and 
Hascliek 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A-l- 











0-76 


Ill 


38124-8 


21-610 







2621-6 


1 




33-4 








21-1 


1 




41- 








20-6 


1 




48- 


20-102 


2620-00 


2 








56-1 


19-967 




2 


19-9 


1 




57-3 








18-7 


lb 






76- 


18-352 















80-5 


17-872 


17-86 


3 


17-8 


1 






87-8 


17-514 















93-1 


17-177 







17-1 
16-3 


2 
1 






98-0 
38211- 








16-2 


1 






12- 


16-090 


16-08 












14-0 




16-00 




15-8 


1 






15-2 








15-5 


1 




j» 


23- 


15-064 


15-06 


^ 


15-1 


1 






28-9 








14-9 


1 






31- 


14-287 


14-27 




14-1 


1 






40-4 








13-7 


1 




» 


49- 


12-344 


12-35 




12-2 


1 






68-6 


12-136 


12-13 




12-2 


1 






71-8 








11-8 


1 






77- 


11-384 


11-40 


3 


11-4 


2 






82-7 








10-5 


In 






96- 


10-198 







10-0 


1 


6-75 


» 


38300-2 


09-996 















03-1 








09-8 


1 






06- 


08-314 


08-30 


3 








11-2 


27-8 








08-1 


2 






31- 


07-608 


07-60 


2 










38-2 








07-3 


1 






43- 








07-0 


1 






47- 


06-668 . 















51-9 








06-4 


2 






56- 


06-081 











,, 




60-5 


04-645 


04-64 


1 






"^ 




81-7 








04-5 


1 






84- 








04-1 


1 


j^ 




90- 








03-8 


In 






94- 








02-8 


1 






38409- 


02-122 


02-15 


1 










18-8 








02-0 


1 






21- 








00-9 


1 






37- 








00-7 


1 






40- 


2599-224 







2599-4 


2 






61-8 


99-129 


2599-15 


2 










63-1 








99-0 


2 






65- 








98-3 


2 






76- 








97-5 


1 






86- 


95-914 


95-93 


In 










38510-8 








95-7 


4 






14- 


95-188 







95-2 


1 






21-7 








94-6 


1 






30 



172 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 






Intensity 




Intensity 




Frequency 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


Exner and 
Haschek j 


and 

Character 


A-l- 

1 


1 


in Vacuo 


2593-224 




1 


2593-0 
92-7 


1 
1 


0-75 

» i 


11-2 


38550-8 
54- 
59- 


92-146 


2592-15 


3 


92-0 


2 






66-i 


91-927 




1 


91-5 


1 


" i 




70-1 
76- 


91129 




1 


91-0 
90-5 


2 

1 


" 




82-0 

84- 

91- 


90-296 







90-1 
89-6 


1 
1 


" 




94-4 
97- 
38605- 


89-470 















06-7 


89-231 















10-3 


89-057 







89-1 


1 






12-9 








88-5 


1 




11-3 


21- 








87-5 


1 






36- 








87-1 


1 






42- 


86-146 


86-14 


1 


860 


8 






56-3 


84-867 







84-8 
83-6 


1 

1 






75-4 
94- 


83-261 


83-26 


1 


83-0 
81-8 


1 
1 






99-5 
38721- 


81-523 















25-5 


81-019 







81-2 


1 






331 


79-860 















50-5 


79-573 




2 


79-6 


6 






54-8 








79-4 


6 






57- 


79-008 


79-00 


2 






„ 




63-4 


78-794 


78-78 


2 


78-8 
78-6 
78-2 




» 




66-6 

69- 

75- 


77-622 


77-35 



3 


77-8 

75-2 

74-5 

74-2 








84-1 
88-2 
38821- 
31- 
36- 


73-338 







73-5 


1 






48-7 


72-784 


72-79 


2 


72-7 








57-0 


72-459 


72-47 


1 


72-5 








61-9 


72156 


72-16 


1 


72-2 
71-9 








67-6 
70- 




70-70 


1 


70-5 








88-6 
91-6 


69-962 


69-97 


2 










99-7 


68-407 







68-6 
08 -1 
67-6 
67-0 
06-7 








38923-3 
28- 
35- 
45- 
49- 


66-442 







66-2 


In 






53-1 
57- 








05-3 


In 


s> 




\ 70- 


64-922 











0-74 


1 ,, 


1 76-1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 173 

Iridi UM — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


"Wave-length 


Wave-length 




Vacuum 






Intensity 
and 





Intensity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 






1 ■, 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


C/haracter 


A + 


i. 
\ 

11-3 








2564-4 


0-74 


38984-1 


2564-253 


2564-27 


2 






Jj 




86-5 








64-0 




J> 




90- 


63-365 


63-36 


1 


63-3 


In 


„ 




99-9 


62-999 











5? 




39005-3 








62-8 


o 


i> 




08- 








62-5 




99 




13- 








61-8 




t> 




24- 








61-7 




»> 




25- 








61-1 




99 




34- 








60-1 


In 


99 




50- 


59-643 











99 




56-5 








59-2 




99 




63- 


58-821 











97 




69-1 








58-3 




99 




77- 








67-7 




99 




86- 


57-285 







57-2 




99 




92-6 


56-860 




1 






>9 




99-1 








56-5 




>> 




39104-6 


55-955 


55-95 


1 






99 




130 








55-6 




>) 




18- 


55-425 




2 






., 




21-0 








551 




>> 




26- 


54-480 


54-47 


2 






>9 




35-6 








541 




>> 


„ 


41- 








53-6 




99 




49- 


51-475 


51-50 


2 






>> 




81-4 








51-2 




>9 




86- 


50-987 











99 




89-: 








49-4 




J) 


,, 


39214- 








49-3 




>» 




15- 








49-0 




99 


li'-s 


20- 








480 




>» 




35- 




47-76 


1 


47-6 




99 




38-7 








47-5 




>> 




41- 


47-278 


47-26 


1 


47-2 


In 


>J 




46-2 


45-868 







45-9 




)» 




67-8 


45-620 


45-62 


1 






99 




71-7 








44-4 




» 




91- 


44-059 


44-08 


4 






99 




95-6 








43-9 




»> 




98- 








43-5 




)J 


„ 


39304- 








43-2 




** 




09- 








42-7 




» 




17- 


42-097 


4211 


2 






99 




26-0 








41-7 




»l 




32- 


41-556 


41-56 


1 






JJ 




34-6 








41-3 




>J 




38- 








40-8 




»l 




46- 


40-483 


40-49 


1 


40-5 




»» 




511 








40-3 




9* 




64- 








39-6 




»» 




65- 


38-949 











>' 




74-9 








38-7 


1 


.. 




79- 



174 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 








1_ 
\ 

11-5 


Kayser 
2538-548 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


Exner and 
Hasehek 


Character 


K + 













0-74 


39381-1 








2538-2 


1 






86- 


37-770 


2537-78 


1 










93-1 








37-6 


1 






96- 


37-309 


37-30 


2 










39400-4 








37-1 


1 






04- 


36-760 







36-7 


1 






08-9 








36-2 


1 






18- 








36-0 


1 






21- 








35-3 


111 






32- 


34-103 







34-2 


2 






50-2 








33-7 


1 






56- 








33-4 


1 






61- 




33-24 


3 










63-6 








33-0 


2 






67- 




32-63 


1 










73-1 


32-290 


32-29 


In 


32-3 


1 






78--) 








32-0 


1 






83- 








31-7 


1 






88- 








31-1 


1 






97- 


30-786 







30-8 


1 






39502-1 


30-498 







30-4 


2 






06-4 


30-200 













11-6 


11-0 


29-870 















16-1 


29-559 


29-56 


2 


29-6 


1 






21-0 








29-4 


1 






23- 








28-4 


2 






39- 


28-011 















45-1 


27-868 







27-7 


1 






47-4 








27-4 


1 






55- 


26-856 







26-7 


1 






63-1 








26-5 


1 






69- 








25-7 


4 






81- 








25-3 


1 






88- 




25-16 


1 


25-1 


1 






89-8 


24-953 


24-99 


1 


24-9 


1 






93-1 








23-9 


1 






39610- 








23-7 


1 






13- 


23-290 















19-1 








22-8 


1 






27- 








21-7 


1 






44- 


21-175 







21-2 


2 


• 




52-4 








19-9 


1 






73- 








19-5 


1 






79- 








191 


1 




99 


85- 








18-6 


1 




J> 


93- 








181 


2 




99 


39701- 








17-8 


2 


0-73 


99 


06- 


15-448 


15-45 


1 


15-4 


1 




)» 


42-7 


13-799 


13-80 


2 






>> 


»> 


69-8 








13-6 


1 




99 


72- 








13-2 


1 


9f 


>» 


78- 


12-665 


12-66 


2 


12-5 


8 




f) 


86-8 


12-191 











>> 


„ 


94-3 



OJf WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 175 



Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 1 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-lenstli 


1 


Wave-length | 




Vacuum 






Intensity 

and 
Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Intensity 

and 
Character 

4 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kayser 
2512-096 


Exner and 
Haschek 


i 


1 


2512-02 


1 


2512-0 


0-73 


11-6 


39797-0 


09-798 


09-80 


1 


09-7 


1 




11-7 


39832-1 


08-434 


08-42 


1 


08-3 


1 






53-9 


07-712 


07-70 


1 


07-6 


1 






65-4 








07-0 


1 






76- 




06-70 


1 










81-4 








06-5 


1 






85- 








06-2 


1 






89- 


05-814 


05-82 


1 










95-4 


05-308 















39903-5 


04-446 


04-44 


1 










17-3 


03063 


03-08 


3 










39-2 


02-710 


02-72 


2 


02-7 
01-0 








44-9 
72- 


00-357 


00-36 
2499-36 


1 


00-2 
2499-5 

98-4 
97-9 


In 






82-6 
96- 
98-5 
40014- 
22- 








97-0 


In 






36- 


2496-360 




2 


96-3 








46-6 


95-951 







94-9 
94-4 
94-2 








53-2 
70- 
78- 
82- 








93-6 






11-8 


91- 


93-163 


93-16 


2 


93-2 








97-9 


92-406 







92-3 








40110-1 


91-778 







89-6 
89-4 








20-2 

55- 

58- 


89-293 







89-2 








60-2 


88-325 




Ou 


88-4 
87-6 
87-1" 








75-8 

88- 

96- 


86-826 















40200-1 


86-463 







86-3 
85-9 




" 




06-0 
15- 




85-46 


1 


85-3 
84-7 
84-5 
84-3 
83-0 








22-2 

25- 

35- 

37- 

41- 

62- 


82-383 















72-1 


81-262 


81-27 


3 


81-2 








90-2 


80-685 







79-8 








99-6 
40314- 


79-255 







79-4 
78-9 
78-6 






f> 


23-1 

28- 

34- 


78-190 


78-20 


1 


78-2 
77-7 
77-3 




" 


" 


40-1 

48- 

55- 



176 



tlEPORTS ON TSE state OP SCIENCE. 
Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


I 
Reduction to 


1 
Oscillation 


WaVe-leneth 


' 


Wave-length 




Vacuum 






Intensity 
and 




Tntpnaifcy 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 








and 


1_ 


Kilyser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Charactei 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 










2476-0 


1 


0-73 


11-9 


40376- 


2475-209 


2475-19 


3 


75-1 


1 


„ 


89-0 


74-170 




1 


74-3 


1 


)} ! JJ 


40405-7 








73-3 


1 


>s 


99 


20- 


72-709 







72-6 


2 


«" 


99 


29-6 








71-6 


1 


» 




48- 1 


70-607 







70-7 


1 


»> 


99 


64-0 i 


70-143 











0-72 


99 


71-6 ! 


69-848 











99 


99 


76-4 1 


69-594 







69-5 


2 


J» 


99 


80-6 : 








69-0 


1 


99 


99 


90- i 


68-705 




1 






)» 


99 


95-2 


68-263 







68-4 


1 


9) 


99 


40502-4 




67-45 


ipt? 


67-5 


1 


>> 


99 


15-8 


67-382 


67-37 


2 


67-3 


1 


99 


99 


17-0 








66-7 


1 


»> 


99 


28- 








66-1 


1 


99 


99 


38- 








65-5 


1 


»J 


99 


48- 




65-16 


1 


65-0 


1 


99 


99 


53-4 




64-96 


1 






J> 


99 


56-7 ' 


64-462 










,y 


99 


64-9 


63-118 


63-10 


1 


63-2 


1 


5» 


99 


87-2 








62-8 


1 


>> 


99 


92- 1 


62-454 


62-47 


1 


62-3 


1 


)J 


99 


97-9 ' 








61-8 


1 


)J 


99 


40609- 1 








58-0 


1 


»J 


12-0 


71- 1 


67-312 


57-31 


1 






„ i » 


82-9 


57-123 


57-12 


1 


56-5 


2 


99 »> 


86-6 


56-882 










97 1 J» 


90-0 


55-949 


55-95 


1 






J> 


„ 


40705-4 


55-691 


55-69 


2 


55-5 


2n 


9f 




09-7 


54-945 






54-9 


2 


99 




22-1 




54-67 


In 






99 


If 


26-7 








54-5 


1 


99 




29- 


54-212 


54-20 


1 


541 


1 


JJ 




34-4 








53-7 


1 


>» 




43- 


52-893 


52-89 


2 


52-7 


1 


99 




56-2 








52-5 


1 


J» 




63- 








52-2 


1 


99 




68- 








51-7 


la 


99 




76- 








50-8 


1 


99 




91- 








60-4 


1 


99 




98- 


49-916 











99 




40805-8 








49-5 


1 


99 




13- 


49-112 


49-10 


In 


48-8 


1 


99 




191 








48-6 


1 


99 




28- 


48-316 


48-30 


1 






99 




32-4 


47-850 


47-84 


1 






99 




40-3 




47-53 


1 






99 




45-5 








47-3 


1 


99 




49- 


46-926 











99 




55-6 








45-5 


1 


99 




79- 




45-39 


1 






99 




81-3 


45-184 




1 


45-2 


1 


99 




84-7 



ON WAVE-LEXGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OV THE ELEMENTS. 177 

Iridium— continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 




Intensity 
and 


-- ■ 


Intensity 
and 










1 


Kayser 


Exuci- and 
Hascliek 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 

2444-5 


Character 


\ + 


40896- 


0-72 


12-0 








44-1 






»» 


40903- 








43-3 






121 


16- 








42-6 








28- 








41-8 








41- 








41-3 








50- 








40-8 








58- 








40-3 








67- 








39-7 








77- 








39-3 








83- 








37-3 






» if 


41017- 


2436-513 


2436-50 


In 


36-2 
351 
34-5 


In 






30-3 
35- 

54- 
64- 


34107 







341 








70-7 


33-433 


32-64 




1 


33-6 
33-0 








82-1 

89- 

95-5 


32-439 


32-41 


1 


32-5 








99-1 


32021 


32-04 


2 










41105-8 


31-331 


31-34 


2 


31-3 
30-7 
30-5 
30-0 






" 


17-6 
28- 
32- 
40- 


29-830 







29-7 
29-0 


In 






43-0 

57- 


27-878 




2 


27-8 


2 




12-2 


76-0 


27-694 


27-71 


2 










79-0 


27-189 















87-7 


26-875 















93-0 


26-622 


26-61 


1 


26-5 
26-2 


I 
1 




" 


97-4 
41205- 


25-744 


25-75 




25-8 


1 






12-2 


25-069 


25-07 












23-7 


24-971 


25-01 




24-9 


2 






25-1 


24-741 


24-74 




24-7 


2 






29-3 


24-406 


24-40 




24-3 


1 






35-1 


22-286 













„ 


71-2 


21-306 







19-2 


1 


0-71 


" 


87-8 
41324- 


18-657 







18-5 


1 






33-0 


18-190 


18-18 


2 


18-1 
18-0 
17-3 


1 
1 
1 






411 

44- 

56- 


16-672 







16-8 


1 






67-0 


16-334 















72-8 


15-950 


15-95 


1 


16-0 


2Rli? 






79-4 


14-473 







13-3 
13-2 


1 

1 






41405-7 
24-8 

27- 








12-8 


2 




12-3 


33- 








12-5 


In 


,, ,, 


38- 








11-9 


In 




n 


49- 



1907. 



N 



178 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SClEXCE. 
Iridium— contmued. 



Art 


i Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum | 

i 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 

1 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 






Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Oharacter 


A.+ 


J. 

A 


41464- 






2411-0 


1 


0-71 


12-3 


2410-818 


2410-82 


1 






J> 


i> 


67-4 


10-264 


10-26 


2 






»> 


>> 


77-0 








10-1 


2 


»» 


»^ 


80- 


09-465 


09-46 


1 


09-5 


1 


»J 


j» 


90-7 








09-1 


1 


»» 


?» 


97- 








08-5 


2 


?» 


)> 


41507- 








08-0 


1 


>J 


»> 


16- 




07-66 


1 






>> 


») 


21-8 








07-1 


1 


J> 


?» 


31- 


06-115 











)» 


j> 


48-5 


05-955 







05-8" 


In 


J» 


i> 


51-2 








05-0 


1 


>» 


>» 


68- 








03-6 


1 


J> 


'? 


92- 


03113 







03-1 
02-8 


1 
1 






41600-4 
06- 


02-379 




1 






>> 


») 


131 


01-866 


01-86 


2 


01-7 
01-2 


1 
1 






22-0 
34- 








00-4 


1 


J» 


>j 


47- 








2399-2 


1 


J» 


>> 


68- 


2398-824 







98-7 


6 


>> 


»i 


74-8 








97-2 


1 


>» 


12-4 


41703- 








96-1 


1 


Jl 


»» 


22- 


95-974 











J> 


>) 


24-3 








95-4 


1 


)) 


J> 


84- 


94-404 


2394-41 


In 






j> 


»J 


51-6 








94-1 


1 


)J 


a 


67- 








93-1 


1 


>» 


>» 


74- 








92-9 


1 


>J 


>» 


78- 


91-282 


91-29 


3 


91-2 


2 


)> 


)5 


41806-1 


90-706 


90-71 


2 


90-5 
89-7 
89-4 


2 

1 
1 






16-2 

34- 

39- 








89-0 


1 


J> 


»» 


46- 








88-6 


1 


»> 


jj 


53- 








87-8 


1 


»» 


jj 


67- 


86-981 


86-98 


2 






JJ 


J> 


81-5 


86-665 


86-67 


1 


86-7 


2 


3> 


)» 


86-9 








86-4 


2 


)> 


»j 


92- 








84-8 


6 


»» 


J» 


41920- 


83-840 











)> 


)> 


36-7 








83-1 


In 


»> 


12-5 


50- 


82-270 




1 






J> 


»> 


64-3 




81-86 


1 


81-8 


6 


»> 


>j 


71-5 


81-714 


81-7^ 


1 


80-9 






9> 


74-0 
88- 








80-3 




JJ 


>S 


99- 




79-45 


1 


79-5 
78-0 








14-0 
40- 








77-2 




>) 


>> 


54- 








76-5 


In 


>» 


»J 


66- 








75-8 




J> 


>> 


79- 








75-6 




»» 


f9 


82- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 179 

Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


' 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Wave-length 

Exner and 
Haschek 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


\ + 


1_ 

X 


2375-195 


2375-21 


1 


2375-2 


1 


0-71 


12-5 


41989-2 








74-8 


1 




)> 


96- 








73-8 


1 


0-70 


»> 


42114- 




73-23 


In 


73-3 


In 




»» 


24-2 


72-856 


72-86 


3 


72-8 


2 




>J 


30-8 


70-462 




2 








»» 


73-4 








69-2 


1 




)» 


96- 


68-486 













12-6 


42208-5 


68-120 




4 


68-2 


1 




»» 


15-0 




6811 


2 


68-1 


8 






15-2 


67-469 













„ 


26-7 




67-12 


In 








JJ 


32-8 








661 


1 




f» 


510 


65-849 




1 


64-0 


1 






55-5 
89- 


63134 


63-14 


2 


63-2 


2 




J» 


42304-0 








62-7 


i 




>» 


12- 








61-7 


1 




J» 


31- 


60-790 


60-80 


1 


60-6 


1 




>» 


45-9 


59-668 













>> 


66-2 








59-4 


2 




>» 


71- 








58-8 


2 




»> 


82- 




58-25 


1 








>> 


91-7 








58-0 


2 




)» 


96- 


57-623 













>» 


42403-0 








57-3 


1 




?» 


09- 


56-674 


56-68 


1 


56-7 


1 




)> 


20-0 


56-388 













>> 


25-2 


56122 













•) 


30-0 








55-9 


1 




»J 


34- 








55-5 


1 




)> 


41- 


55-082 


55-11 


1 








>» 


48-5 








53-1 


2 




12-7 


84- 








50-5 


2 




jj 


31- 


52-705 




1 








>» 


91-6 








52-0 


1 


,, 


J» 


42504- 


61-492 




1 


51-4 


In 




J» 


13-5 








50-5 


2 




9J 


31- 


50-136 













)» 


38 


49-790 













»> 


44-3 








48-2 


1 




)> 


73- 








47-9 


1 




9} 


79- 


47-329 




1 


47-4 


1 




9f 


88-9 








46-8 


1 




J» 


99- 








46-5 


1 




J> 


42604- 








46-2 


1 




l> 


09- 








45-3 


1 




>) 


26- 


43-684 


43-68 


2 


43-6 


1 




)> 


55-2 


43-255 


43-25 


2 


43-3 


2 




J> 


63-0 


43-062 













J) 


66-5 


42-763 




1 








»» 


71-9 


42-573 







42-5 


1 




»> 


75-4 








41-6 


2 




'» 


93- 








40-3 


1 




12-8 


42717- 



N 2 



180 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Iridium — cnntln iicd. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


"Wave-length 


[ntensity 
and 


Wave length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


„ 








1 _ 

A 

12-8 


Kayser 


Exner and , 
Haschek 


Character 


Bxner and 
Haschek 


Character 
2 


A-1- 
0-70 










2340-0 


42722- 








39-2 


1 




»» 


37- 


2337-628 


j 











)f 


65-6 








36-8 


1 




») 


81- 


34-575 


2334-57 


1 


34-5 


1 




»> 


42821-6 


34-406 







34-3 


1 




J> 


24-6 


33-917 


33-95 


1 


33-8 


1 




») 


33-3 


33-372 


33-37 


1 










43-7 








32-7 


1 






56- 








32-3 


1 




»> 


63- 








31-8 


1 




99 


73- 








30-5 


1 




99 


96- 


29-469 







29-5 


2 




99 


42915-4 








290 


1 




99 


24- 


28-790 













>J 


27-9 


28-598 













»» 


31-5 


28-324 













»> 


36-5 








28-1 


la 






41- 


28046 















41-7 








27-2 


2 




12-9 


57- 








26-0 


1 




)> 


79- 








25-8 


1 




)» 


83- 








25-5 


1 




99 


89- 


25-029 




1 








»» 


97-3 


24-754 













»> 


43002-4 


24-006 







24-1 


1 




)» 


16-2 








23-7 


2 




»> 


22- 








22-7 


1 




»> 


40- 








22-3 


1 


0-69 


)* 


48- 


21-622 


21-61 


1 


21-5 


1 




99 


60-5 


21-481 


21-49 


1 








»» 


63-0 








20-0 


1 






91- 








18-3 


1 






43122- 








17-4 


2 




99 


39- 








16-8 


1 




)> 


50- 




15-46 










»» 


75-1 








14-9 


4 




»» 


86- 








141 


1 




13-0 


43200- 








12-5 


1 




»> 


30- 








12-0 


1 




J) 


40- 








11-6 


1 




>» 


47- 








10-9 


1 




*f 


60- 








10-4 


1 




» 


70- 








10-1 


1 




i> 


75- 








09-6 


1 




» 


84- 








09-4 


1 




it 


88- 




09-00 


1 








>» 


95-8 








08-8 


1 




» 


43300- 








06-7 


1 




j» 


39- 




05-54 


1 


05-5 


In 




>> 


60-8 








04-6 


In 




»j 


78- 




04-30 


2 








*) 


84-1 








04-0 


1 




)f 


90- 








01-5 


1 




>t 


43437- 



ON WA\E-LENGTH TAliLKS UF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 181 

Iiiiui CM — cmitinued. 



Arc Spectrum 





Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 




Wavc-leiigth 


Wave-length 




Vacuum 


OsciHation 




Intensity 




Intensity 




Frequency 






and 




and 




1 

A 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Charactei- 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A.+ 










2300-8 


1 


0-69 


13-1 


43450- 








00-5 


1 




»» 


56- 




2300-11 


1 








)> 


63-1 








2299-8 


1 




}) 


69- 








97-3 


2 




>> 


43516- 








96-3 


1 




y? 


35- 




2295-19 


1 


95-2 


1 




)? 


56-3 








94-5 


1 




)i 


69- 








93-7 


1 




jj 


85- 








92-5 


1 




)j 


43607- 








91-8 


1 




)j 


21- 








91-0 


4 




5> 


36- 








89-5 


2 




)> 


65- 








88-3 


2 




13-2 


87- 








87-0 


o 




>) 


43712- 








85-7 


1 




J> 


37- 








84-6 


1 




S» 


58- 








81-7 


2 




JJ 


43814- 








81-2 


2 




>J 


23- 








80-6 


2 




IJ 


35- 








78-5 


1 




J5 


75- 








77-7 


1 


0-68 


>J 


91- 








77-3 


1 




)J 


98- 








77-1 


1 




JJ 


43902- 








76-3 


1 




J> 


18- 








75-6 


1 




13-3 


31- 








72-5 


In 




)» 


91- 








71-4 


2 




>J 


44012- 








68-9 


2 




J» 


Cl- 








68-5 


2 




>> 


eg- 








68-1 


1 




)J 


76- 








67-8 


1 




>> 


82- 








65-3 


2 




>» 


44131- 




64-73 


1 


64-7 


In 




JS 


42-1 








63-0 


In 




13-4 


76- 








62-4 


In 




»> 


87- 








62-2 


1 




J> 


91- 








59-3 


2 


„ 


>> 


44248- 




59-00 


1 








J> 


54-0 








58-8 


1 




»> 


58- 








58-4 


2 




» 


66- 








57-5 


2 




»> 


83- 








67-1 


2 




>> 


91- 








56-5 


1 




J> 


44303- 








56-0 


1 




)» 


13- 








55-5 


1 




S> 


23- 




55-22 


1 


55-3 


1 




J) 


28-2 




53-60 


In 








J> 


60-0 








53-3 


1 




)> 


66- 








52-0 


1 




»9 


92- 








51-5 


1 




»» 


44401- 








50-7 


1 




13-5 


17- 








49-4 


1 




)9 


43- 








48-8 


1 




»» 


55- 



182 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 
Iridium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Kayser 



"Wave-length , ^ , 
Intensity 

Esner and chamcter 
Haechek 



2242-80 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Exner and 
Hasohek 



2247-7 
46-7 
45-5 
43-8 
42-6 
40-5 
38-7 
38-3 
38-1 
37-1 
36-3 
34-3 
34-0 
33-2 
320 
24-2 
20-6 
19-3 
18-9 
12-4 
11-2 
10-2 
08-7 
05-0 

2197-5 
961 
92-2 
90-3 
87-0 
78-5 
69-3 
52-6 
51-7 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



Intensity - 

and 
Character 



\ + 



0-68 



0-67 



0-66 



A 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



13-5 


44476- 




96- 




44520- 


S» 


54- 


99 


73-6 




44610- 


13-6 


65- 


99 


63- 


99 


67- 


»> 


87- 




44703- 


)> 


43- 


)J 


49- 


99 


65- 


9* 


89- 


13-7 


44946- 




45019- 


»> 


46- 


)) 


54- 


13-8 


45186- 




45211- 


99 


31- 




62- 




45338- 


13-9 


45492- 


}» 


45521- 


140 


45602- 


9> 


42- 




45711- 


141 


45889- 


14-2 


46184- 


14-3 


46441- 


>> 


61- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 183 



Osmium. 

Kayser, ' Abhandl. konigl. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin,' 1897. 

Exner and Haschek, ' Sitz. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' cv. p. 727 (1896), cvi. 
p. 53 (1897). 

Rowland and Tatnall, ' Astroph. J.' ii. 186 (1895). 

Exner and Haschek, ' WeUenlangen-Tabellen der Bogenspektren der Elemente,' 
Leipzig und Wien, 1904. 

Adeiiey, Photographs of Ultra-violet Spark Spectra, ' Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc' 
(2), vii p. 331. 





Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Eeduction to 
Vacuum 
















Wave-lengtli 




Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 






Oscillation 
Frequency 














Rowland 


Exner 


and 


- 


and 




1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 








Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 
2 


Haschek 


racter 


1-56 


K 




5728-735 








4-7 


17451-2 


5523-786 






2 






1-51 


4-9 


18098-6 


02-789 






3 






1-50 


5-0 


67-6 


6149-895 






2 






1-41 


5-3 


19412-7 


03-670 






2 






1-40 


5-4 


19588-3 


5031-988 






1 






1-38 


»> 


19867-5 


4937-522 













1-35 


5-6 


20248-1 


12-771 






1 






1-34 


J> 


20349-5 


4899-386 













f$ 


99 


20405-1 


65-759 






2 






1-33 


S» 


20546-2 


16-105 






2 






1-32 


5-7 


20758-0 


4794-177 






5 






1-31 


>» 


20852-9 


63-263 













1-30 


5-8 


20983-8 


55-332 






1 








»> 


21023-2 


44-050 






2 








JJ 


73-2 


38-508 






2 








)» 


97-9 


38-215 






1 








)J 


99-2 










4696-8 


In 


1-29 


5-9 


21285- 


4692-220 




4692-20 


2 


92-2 
70-6 
67-5 
64-1 


In 
In 
In 

1 


1-28 


99 


21306-0 
21405- 
419- 
434- 


63-977 




63-99 


3 








J» 


435-0 


42010 













1-27 


99 


21536-5 


34-930 




34-94 


In 








6-0 


569-3 


32-000 




3201 


4 


320 






S> 


582-9 


16-948 


4616-944 


16-94 


3 


16-9 




1-26 


J> 


21653-3 


4597-321 




4597-35 


2 


4597-3 


In 




99 


21745-7 


95-206 




95-22 


In 


95-2 
88-1 
79-3 
72-9 
66-6 
57-7 
66-9 


In 
In 


1-25 


99 
J» 
99 

6'i 


755-8 
790- 
21831- 

862- 

892- 

21935- 

939- 


51-461 


4551-463 


51-50 


4 


51-5 






>> 


964-8 


50-584 


50-571 


50-59 


8 


50-58 






»> 


969-1 


48-836 


48-827 


48-85 


3 


48-8 
46-2 
45-2 


In 




>> 


977-5 

990- 

995- 


40-093 


40-087 


40-10 


2 


401 
37-8 




1-24 


ft 


22019-9 
031- 


29-848 


29-842 


29-88 


1 


29-9 






Jt 


069-7 


25-035 


25035 


2503 


1 


25-1 






>» 


093-2 



184 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Osmium — eontinued. 





Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
















Vacuum 




Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 






Oscillation 

Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland 


Exner 




1 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A.-I- 








Tatnall 


Hasolielv 


racter 


Haschek 
4523-5 


racter 

Tb" 1 


1-24 


A 










6-1 


22101- 










20-06 


10 






14-6 










20-5 


1 






15- 










20-2 


1 






17- 


4519-050 









191 


1 






22-4 


14-445 

















45-0 










110 


lb 






62- 


07-590 

















78-7 


03-474 













1-23 




99-0 










01-1 


1 


„ 




22211- 










4490-3 


In 




6-2 


64- 


4488-771 


4488-766 


4488-75 


1 


88-7 


1 






71-7 


84-935 


84-930 


84-94 


3 


84-9 


2 






90-7 










84-3 


1 






94- 


79-974 


79-976 


79-98 


2 


80-0 


1 






22315-4 


66-134 


66-121 




1 


66-2 


In 


1-22 




84-6 


62-473 


62-470 




1 


62-5 


1 


»» 




22402-9 


59-790 


59-781 


59-80 


1 






>» 




16-4 


59-646 


59-658 


59-68 


1 


59-7 


2 


9t 




17-0 










58-5 


1 


i9 




23- 


47-535 


47-520 


47-52 


4 


47-5 


2 


9t 




78-3 


45-854 


45-850 




1 


45-8 


1 


>» 




86-7 


45-582 






1 






9) 




88-0 


39-808 


39-810 


39-80 


2 


39-8 


1 


J) 




22617-3 


37-258 


37-257 


37-26 


1 


37-3 


1 


»» 




30-2 


36-490 


36-488 


36-48 


5 


36-5 
360 


2 

1 


J> 




34-2 
37- 


32-584 


32-582 


32-59 


3 


32-6 


2 


J» 




54-0 


28-059 






1 






)> 


6-3 


77-0 










24-7 


lb 


1-21 




94- 










23-7 


1 


J5 




99- 


20-639 


20-633 


20-64 


12 


20-66 


10 


)> 




22614-9 


11-298 




11-30 


1 






J> 




62-8 


10-899 






1 


05-0 


1 


>J 




64-8 


04-375 


04-378 


04-40 


2 


04-3 


1 


1 " 




98-3 


02-901 


02-904 


02-92 


3 






" 




22706-0 


• 00-751 


00-747 


00-75 


2 


00-7 


In 


99 




17-1 


4397-424 


4397-427 


4397-45 


4 


4397-5 


2 


99 




34-2 


95-040 


95-042 


95-05 


8 


95-08 


8 


99 




46-6 


91-251 


91-242 


91-30 


2 


91-3 


2 


1-20 




66-2 


90-406 













yy 




70-6 










90-0 


In 


7> 




73- 


86-485 






1 


86-5 


1 


yf 


6-4 


90-9 


85-068 









85-1 


In 


99 




98-3 


77-070 


77-068 


77-05 


In 


77-0 


1 


99 




22840-0 


70-826 


70-824 


70-84 


3 


70-8 


2 


» 




72-6 


65-835 


65-837 


65-85 


5 


65-83 


4 


99 




98-7 


61-126 









61-2 


In 


»> 




22923-5 


58-318 


58-304 


58-31 


1 


58-3" 


2n 


»> 




22938-3 


58-157 


58-153 


58-16 


1 






99 




39-1 










56-6 


1 


1-19 




47- 


54-631 


54-626 


54-64 


1 


54-6 


1 


)> 




57-6 










63-7 


1 


>t 




63- 


51-695 


51-691 


51-72 


3 






>» 




73-2 



ON WAVE 


-LENGTH 


PAIiLES OF THF 


SPECTRA OF THE El 


.EMEN^ 


rs. IbO 






Osmium— 


■continned. 












Arc Specti- 


um 


Spark Spectrnm 


Reduct 


on to 
















Vacunm | 




Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Kowland 


Exner 






1 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Sxner and 


Cha- 


A-l- 


\ " 






Tatnall 

1 


Haschek 


racter 
1 


Haschek 


racter 






4345-75 






1-19 


6-4 


23000- 






44-83 


1 






>> 


>J 


09- 


4342-681 


4342-678 


42-70 


2 






J» 


>J 


20-8 


38-913 


38-919 


38-91 


3 


4338-9 


2 


J» 


>J 


40-8 






33-11 


1 






J» 


»> 


71-7 


28-838 


28-840 


28-85 


5 


28-83 


6 


>l 


>) 


94-5 


26-413 


26-416 


26-41 


4 


26-4 


2 


>J 


99 


23107-4 










22-9 


1 


>» 


>> 


26- 


19-513 


19-502 


19-50 


2 






»> 


>) 


44-4 






18-15 


In 






1-18 


99 


51-7 


17-754 


17-743 


17-73 


1 






>l 


>> 


53-8 










12-4 


1 


99 


J» 


83- 


11-561 


11-560 


11-57 


7 


11-55 


8 


9f 


>J 


87-0 


09-041 


09-041 


09-05 


3 


09-1 
07-9 




99 


6-5 


23200-6 
07- 




05-440 


05-45 


1 


05-5 
00-0' 








19-9 
49- 


4299-870 


4299-856 


4299-87 


1 






JJ 


)) 


50-1 










4298-6 


In 


99 


?J 


57- 


97-556 


97-538 


97-56 


1 


97-6 


In 


99 


>» 


62-6 


96-381 


96-383 


96-40 


3 


96-4 




»» 


l> 


68-9 


94-105 


94113 


94-14 


10 


94-05 


10 


)) 


>> 


81-2 






9310 


1 


93-1 
92-0 


In 
In 


99 
^99 




86-7 
93- 






88-13 


1 






>» 


J» 


23313-7 


86-056 


86-056 


86-05 


3 


86-1 


n 


>> 


)» 


25-0 






84-44 


1 


84-6 


In 


J» 


J> 


33-8 


81-535 


81-529 


81-54 


1 


81-5 




99 


)» 


49-6 


77-315 


77-302 


77-30 


2 


77-4 




1-17 


>> 


72-7 


75-074 


75-064 


75-10 


2n 


75-2 


1 


» 


99 


84-9 


73-984 








72-0 




99 

99 




90-9 
23402- 


70-952 


70-945 


70-95 


2 


71-0 
69-9 




99 




07-5 
13- 


69-767 


69-767 


69-78 


3 


69-7 




>J 


99 


13-9 


09-526 


69-521 


69-53 


2 






)» 


99 


15-3 


64-893 


64-903 


64-91 


3 


65-0 
64-6 




99 
99 




40-7 
42- 


01011 


60-993 


61-01 


15 


60-98 


10 


>> 


J» 


62-1 


52-718 


52-690 


52-73 


2 


52-7 




99 


6-6 


23507-8 


51-321 


51-331 


51-40 


2 


51-4 


In 


>> 


\> 


15-3 






47-69 


In 






>> 


>> 


35-6 






43-32 


In 






1-16 


J> 


59-9 


41-682 


41-679 


41-70 


2 






JJ 


J> 


68-9 






37-31 


1 


33-6 


2 


99 


1) 


93-3 


33-630 


33-613 


33-65 


4 






99 


>» 


23613-8 






32-20 


1 






99 


»» 


21-8 


29-531 




29-51 


1 






JJ 


J) 


36-7 


' 


26-675 


26-72 


2 






99 


» 


52-5 






19-84 


1 


19-9 


In 


»> 


>S 


91-0 


19-005 


i 18-991 


19-02 


1 


19-0 


In 


>» 


?) 


95-7 






15-33 


3 


15-4 


1 


»> 


SI 


1 23716-3 


i 




14-06 


4 


14-0 


2 


)» 


J> 


23-5 


i 12-028 


12-007 


12-06 


1 15 


12-02 


i 10 


>• 


19 


34-9 



186 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Osmium — continued. 





Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum ' 


Reduction to 
















Vacuum 


Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length j 


Inten- 
sity 




Oscillation 
Frequency 














Rowland 


Bxner 


and 




and 




1_ 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


' A-t- 






Tatnall 


Hasohek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




A. 


23757- 






4208-1 


In 


1-16 


6-6 






4205-40 


2 


05-4 


In 


1-15 




72-3 






04-76 


2 


04-8 


In 


»> 




76-0 






02-25 


5 






j» 




90-2 


4201-541 


4201-528 


01-59 


4 


01-5 


2 


»i 




94-1 






4195-31 


2 


4195-4 


1 


»> 


6-7 


23829-4 






94-37 


1 


94-5 


1 


JS 




34-8 






93-06 


1 


93-0 


In 


>> 




42-2 






92-80 


2 






J? 




43-7 






92-35 


2 


92-5 


1 


?♦ 




46-3 


4190-059 


4190-052 


90-07 
86-50 
85-18 


5 
1 
1 


90-1 


2 






59-3 
79-6 
87-1 






84-30 


3 


84-4 


2 


*» 




92-2 






82-64 


2 


82-6 
80-4 


In 
In 


4* 




23901-6 
14- 


75-783 


75-781 


75-78 


6 


75-78 


8 


») 




40-9 






74-77 


1 


75-0 


1 


»» 




46-7 


73-391 


73-386 


73-40 


8 


73-35 


8 


j> 




54-6 


72-708 


72-710 


72-71 
70-97 


8 

1 


72-7 

66-5 
66-0 
65-0 


2 

1 
1 
1 


1-14 




58-6 
68-5 
94- 
97- 
24003- 






61-09 


1 


61-1 


1 


»> 




25-5 






60-45 


2n 


60-5 


1 


9) 




29-2 






60-15 


2 


60-2 


1 


it 




30-9 




58-948 


58-98 
53-80 
53-53 
52-79 


3 
1 

2 

1 


59-0 


2 






37-7 
67-6 
69-2 
73-5 


52-448 


52-455 




5 






j> 




75-5 






50-90 


2 


51-0 
48-4 


1 
1 


?> 
)> 




84-5 
99-0 






47-50 


2 


47-5 


1 


)» 


6-8 


24104-1 






44-74 


1 






»> 




20-2 






43-33 


1 


38-9 


1 


>? 




28-4 


38-021 


38-013 


38-00 


4 


380 


2 


jj 




59-4 


35-955 


35-945 


35-96 


16 


35-93 


10 


»• 




71-4 






35-20 


2 


35-0 
32-3 


1 
lb 






75-8 
93- 






31-20 


2 


31-2 


lb 


»j 




99-2 


29-114 


29-124 


2912 


3 


29-2 
291 


2 
IRh ? 


1-13 




24211-4 
12- 






27-45 


1 


27-5 


1 


)j 




21-2 






26-26 


1 


26-2 


1 


}9 




28-2 






25-44 


1 


25-5 


1 


JJ 




33-0 


24-760 


24-762 


24-76 
16-71 


3 

In 


24-8 


2 






37-0 
84-4 






16-40 


In 


15-0 


lb 


>) 




86-3 


12-177 


12185 


12-19 
11-19 


12 
2 


12-12 


8 






24311-2 
171 






09-22 


1 


09-3 


In 


JJ 




28-7 






08-14 


2 


08-0 


In 


>> 




35-1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE STECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 187 







Osmium • 


-continued 










Arc Spect 


cura 




Spark Spectrum 


Eeduction to 
Vacuum 












Wave-length 




Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- 




1 








sity 
and 


length 


sity 
and 








Rowland 


Exuer 






1 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 


X 




Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 
4106-3 


racter 

1 


1-13 


A 


6-8 






4105-60 


2 














03-80 


3 


00-5 


2 






4100-436 


4100-446 


00-46 


3 










4098-233 


4098-264 


4098-29 


3 


4098-3 


1 




6-9 


97-087 


97-090 




2 












97-004 




2 














96-26 


1 










91-980 


91-977 


91-99 


6 


91-98 


4 


1-12 








91-18 


In 












90-922 


90-99 


In 


91-0 


1 






88-598 


88-593 


88-58 


3 


88-6 


1 




») 










84-8 


In 










76-85 


1 














75-02 


1 










74-829 


74-834 


74-83 


4 


74-9 


2 






73-768 


73-763 


73-78 


4 


73-8 


1 




9, 




71-716 


71-71 


3 


71-7 


1 






71-169 


71-162 


71-15 


2n 


71-2 


2 






71-020 


71-008 


71-01 


4 










66-862 


66-848 


66-85 


10 


66-82 


10 






66-460 


66-464 


66-47 


2 
















1 


62-8 


In 










61-78 
















60-85 


1 


60-9 


1 










56-49 


In 










55-859 

















55-646 


55-641 


55-65 


2 


55-6 


1 










53-96 


In 


53-9 


1 


1-ii 




53-417 


53-407 


53-40 


1 


53-4 


1 


" 




61-584 


51-580 


51-59 


2 


51-6 


1 










50-72 


1 


50-7 


1 




7-0 










50-3 


1 






48-216 


48-197 


48-20 


3 


48-3 


1 










42-95 


1 










42-081 


42-073 


42-09 


4 


42-1 


2 














39-6 


1 






38-813 

















38-809 


38-782 


38-80 


1 

2 


38-8 


1 




>9 




38-017 


3800 


2 


37-9 


1 






36-640 


36-634 


36-61 


1 


36-6 


1 






35-249 


35-250 


35-26 


1 


35-3 


1 








33-095 


3312 


IGa? 


330 


1 














30-8 


In 














29-7 


In 














24-0 


In 














22-9 


In 










20-56 


1 


20-6 


In 






18-425 


18-430 


18-38 


4 


18-4 


2 






15-203 


15-211 


15-18 


2 


15-2 


1 


1-io 












15-1 


1 




„ 






12-60 


ITi? 


12-6 


lb 




>. 






11-14 


1 


11-0 


1 


„ 





, Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



24346- 
50-2 
60-9 
80-8 
93-7 

24400-8 
00-8 
05-6 
31-1 
35-9 
37-3 
51-4 
84- 

24521-8 
32-9 
34-0 
40-4 
52-8 
56-1 
57-0 
82-1 
84-5 

24607- 
12-8 
18-5 
44-9 
48-8 
50-1 
60-3 
63-7 
84-8 
80-0 
83- 
95-3 

24727-4 
33-2 
48- 
52-7 
52-8 
52-9 
57-7 
66-1 
74-6 
87-8 

24802- 
09- 
44- 
51- 
65-2 
78-5 
98-4 
99- 

24914- 
23-6 



188 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







OSMIUM- 


-cnntlnucd 












Arc Spect 


vum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


















Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 






Oscillation 
Frequency 














Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 


J. 







Tatnall 
4005-327 


Haschek 
4005-29 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 


1-10 


7-0 




6 




24969-9 


4004-184 


04-193 


04-18 


3 


4004-2 


2 


99 


99 


66-9 


03-652 


03-652 


03-64 


4 


03-6 


2 


9» 


7-1 


70-1 






01-50 


1 


01-4 


lb 


J> 


99 


83-5 


3999-110 


3999-103 


3999-10 


2 


3999-2 


1 


J> 


99 


98-5 










98-2 


In 


>J 


99 


26004- 


96-979 


96-972 


96-99 


2 






)» 


99 


11-8 


95-103 


95-096 


95-10 


2 






}j 


99 


12-3 




91-640 


91-66 


2 






9i 


99 


32-9 


88-785 


88-783 


88-76 


1 






iJ 


99 


63-2 


88-340 


88-343 


88-32 


2 


88-3 


1 


»J 


99 


66-0 










85-6 


1 


»> 


99 


83-2 


79-524 


79-521 


79-53 


1 


79-5 


In 


9t 


99 


25121-5 


77-389 


77-391 


77-39 


10 


77-33 


4 


)» 


99 


35-0 


75-596 


75-598 


75-59 


3 


75-5 


1 


1-09 


99 


46-4 






74-00 


1 






>» 


99 


56-5 










71-5 


1 


»9 


99 


72- 










71-6 


1 


J9 


'9 9 


72- 


69-832 


69-835 


69-82 


4 


69-8 


1 


i> 


99 


83-1 










66-6 


1 


9f 


99 


25203- 


65-106 


65-112 


65-08 


3 


65-1 


1 


» 


99 


12-9 


63-774 


63-777 


63-80 


10 


63-80 


6 


JJ 


99 


21-3 






63-48 


1 






99 


99 


23-3 


61-159 


61-163 






61-2 


2 


>> 


99 


38-0 


60-656 


60-653 


60-65 


3 


60-6 


1 


)> 


99 


41-3 










58-0 


1 


J> 


99 


58- 






57-80 


In 






J» 


99 


59-5 






55-53 


2 






»> 


7-2 


73-9 






54-72 


In 






99 


99 


790 










53-5 


1 


99 


99 


87- 


52-904 


62-911 


62-91 


2 


53-0 


1 


99 


99 


90-6 


49-925 


49-921 


49-93 


3 


49-9 


1 


99 


99 


25309-7 










49-3 


In 


99 


99 


14- 






40-20 ■ 


1 






99 


» 


72-2 


39-704 


39-708 


39-71 


3 


39-7 


1 


J> 


99 


75-4 


38-739 


38-739 


38-74 


1 


38-7 


2 


»> 


99 


81-6 










36-6 


1 


1-08 


99 


95- 






35-67 


1 


35-7 


lb 


99 


99 


25401-4 


31-660 


31-660 


31-70 


2 


31-7 


1 


99 


99 


27-3 


30-148 


30-138 


30-14 


4 


30-1 


1 


J> 


99 


37-2 


28-691 


28-681 


28-68 


3 


28-0 


In 


}) 


99 


46-6 


28-557 


28-554 


28-57 


2 






99 


99 


47-4 






28-31 


1 






99 


99 


49-0 






27-40 


1 






>l 


99 


54-9 


26-923 


26-916 


26-93 


2 


26-9 


1 


99 


99 


68-0 


25-253 


25-244 


25-25 


2 


25-2 


1 


J' 


9» 


68-9 






22-15 


2 


22-2 


1 


)9 


99 


89-0 






21-00 


2 


21-0 


1 


99 


99 


96-5 




19-107 


19-09 


1 






99 


99 


25608-9 




18-888 


18-85 


2 






99 


99 


10-4 


15-543 













99 


99 


32-0 






11-95 


2 






99 


99 


55-5 










10-7 


1 


99 


99 


64- 






07-78 


1 






99 


7-3 


82-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TARLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



189 







Osmium— 


■continued. 










Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Beduction to 
Vacuum 
















Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 






Oscillation 
Frequency 














Kowland 


Exner 


and 


— - - 


and 




1_ 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Sxner and 


Cha- 


A.-I- 






Tatnall 


Haschelc 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




\ 








3906-28 


1 


3906-2 


lb 


1-08 


7-3 


25592-5 






05-65 


ISi? 






J» 




96-6 










05-2 


lb 


J? 


,, 


25600- 










03-2 


lb 


" ! 




13- 










02-0 


lb 


1 




21- 


3901-851 


3901-843 


01-87 


5 


01-8 


2 


>» 




21-5 






01-16" 


2 


01-1 


1 


>> 




26-1 


00-541 


00-527 


00-54 

3899-18 

97-30 


4 


00-5 


1 


97 


" 


30-2 
39-1 
51-5 


' 3895-331 


3895-305 


95-34 




3895-3 


1 


1-07 




64-5 




95-023 


95-05 
94-83 




95-0 


2 






66-4 
67-8 






93-40 


In 


92-1 


lb 


>s 




77-2 






92-99 








99 




79-9 






91-75 








J> 


j» 


88-1 






■ 88-97 








JJ 


„ 


25706-5 






86-91 


2 


86-9 


1 


>J 




20-1 






85-90 


2 


85-9 


1 


ii 


9) 


26-8 






84-75 


1 






>> 




34-4 










83-5 


In 


jj 




43- 






82-02 


4 


82-0 


2 


j> 




52-5 






80-93 


2 


80-9 


1 


)» 




59-7 






78-65 


3 






)» 




74-9 






78-05 


3 






jj 




78-9 






77-45 


2 


77-5 


1 


>j 




82-8 




76-971 


76-91 
75-82 
75-26 


8 

In 

1 


76-95 
74-2 


4 
In 






86-2 
93-7 
97-4 
25804- 






73-86 


2 


73-S 


In 


79 




06-7 






73-17 


1 






99 




11-3 










71-1- 


1 


99 




25- 






69-15 


1 






99 




38-2 






68-83 


2 


68-8 


1 


)9 




40-3 






66-65 


2 






»» 




54-9 






66-19 


1 






JJ 




58-0 






65-59 


6 






99 




62-0 






65-19 


2 






»> 




64-7 










62-7 


lb 


99 




81- 






60-95 


1 






»} 




93-1 










59-8 


1 


99 




25901- 






57-24 


10 


57-2 


2 


>J 




18-0 






54-86 


2 


54-8 


1 


1-06 




34-0 






53-75 


2n 






99 




41-4 






53-60 


3 


53-6 


1 


J» 




42-5 






50-11 


10 






9) 




66-0 






48-94 


1 


49-0 


I 


»» 




73-9 






47-71 


1 






»> 


1 " 


82-2 










47-4 


1 


>» 




84- 






47-01 


1 






>f 




! 86-9 






46-55 


2 


46-6 


In 


>» 




90-0 






45-81 


1 






9» 




95-0 






44-95 


1 






»> 


1 !! 


1 26000-8 



190 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







OSMIUM- 


— continued. 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 












Wave-lengtli 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 
Frequency 








sity 








Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1_ 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A-l- 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 



3843-7 


racter 

1 


1-06 


A 




3843-77 


3 


7-3 


26008-8 






42-40 


1 






J) 




18-1 






41-80 


1 






»« 




22-2 






41-41 


6 


41-4 


2 


>) 




24-8 






40-44 


10 


40-4 


2 


j> 




31-4 






36-18 


10 


36-2 


2 


J» 




60-3 


, 








32-5 


1 


}» 




85- 






32-33 


2 


32-3 


IPd? 


J» 




86-5 






31-55 


1 






>J 




91-8 






30-26 


1 






>» 




26100-6 






29-20 


1 






iy 




07-8 






27-30 


3 


27-2 


1 


tf 




20-8 






26-78 


2 


26-7 
26-5 


1 
1 


99 




24-3 
26-2 






23-47 


1 










47-0 






22-06 


2 


22-1 


In 






56-6 






21-80 


2 


21-8 


In 






58-4 






18-80 


2Pt ? 


18-7 


1 






78-9 
80- 






18-21 


2 


18-0 


lb 




7-4 


82-9 
84- 






17-78 


2 










85-8 






14-42 


2 


14-4 


1 


1-05 




26208-9 






14-20 


1 










10-4 






12-45 


2 


12-4 
11-1 


1 
1 






22-5 
32- 






10-59 


1 


10-6 


1 






35-3 






09-80 


1 


09-7 
07-8 


1 
1 






40-7 
54- 






04-27 


1 










78-9 






02-77 


2 


02-7 


1 






89-2 






01-75 


2 


01-7 


1 






96-3 






01-40 - 


In 










98-7 






01-23 


1 










99-9 






00-90 


1 










26302-2 






00-58 


3 


00-6 


1 






04-4 






00-06 


1 










08-0 






3797-86 


1 










23-2 






95-83 


3 


3795-8 
95-2 


1 
1 






37-3 
42- 






94-84 


3 


94-9 


1 






44-2 




3794-054 


94-08 

92-18 
91-23 


10 

1 

1 


94-1 
94-02 


4 
4 






49-5 
49-9 
62-7 
69-3 






90-90 


4 


90-9 


2 






71-6 




90-244 


90-29 


6 


90-26 


4 






76-0 






89-26 


3 


89-2 


1 






83-0 






89-04 


1 










8-} -5 






86-14 


ITi? 


86-1 


1 






264C1-7 






85-88 


1 


85-8 


In 






06-5 






85-82 


1 


84-6 
84-3 


1 
1 






07-0 

15- 

18- 



ON WAVE-LEiNGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 

Os MI u M — continved. 



191 




Ai-c Spectrum Spark Spectrum „ 3 i- , \ 
Reduction to j 

■iir 1 i.1- ' Tr, I Vacuum 

Wave-length i„ten- Wave- ' inten- 1 Oscillation 

sity length gity j ■ Pi-equency 

and and ! < in Vacuo 



3746-612 



Rowland 
and 

Tatnall 



Exner 
and 



3771040 



Cha- Exner and Cha 
Haschek , racter , Haschek racter 



3783-82 


2 


82-90 


1 


82-34 


20 


81-99 


In 


80-74 


1 


80-37 


2 


77-13 


5 


76-40 


3 


76-16 


1 


76-10 


1 


74-77 


3 


74-55 


3 


74-30 


1 


73-95 


2 


72-09 


2 


71-78 


2 


71-00 


2 


70-48 


1 


69-44 


1 


68-27 


4 


66-43 


4 


64-83 


1 


60-40 


2 


58-25 


1 


67-21 


3 


56-91 


1 


56-70 


1 


54-65 


In 


53-99 


1 


52-69" 


20 


52-06 


2 


51-45 


2 


50-95 


2 


50-72 


2 


49-99 • 


1 


49-18 


2 


47-18 


1 


46-60 


4 


44-52 


1 


44-00 


1 


43-80 


1 


41-66 


2 


41-22 


2 


40-39 


1 


40-20 


I 


35-66 


2 


35-36 


1 



3783-8 

82-34 

80-7 
80-3 
79-6 
77-1 
76-4 
76-2 

74-7 
74-5 



72-0 
71-7 
711 



68-3 
66-4 
64-8 
64-1 
60-9 
60-4 

57-2 

56-8 

54-6 

52-68 
52-1 
51-9 
51-4 



48-4 
46-5 



41-7 
41-2 



371 
35G' 



1 



1 
1 
lb 



1 

1 

In 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

10 
1 
1 
1 



In 
1 



A-f 



1-05 



04 



03 



1_ 
A 

7-4 



26420-9 
27-4 
31-3 
33-7 
42-5 
45-0 
50- 
67-7 
72-8 
74-5 
75-0 
84-3 
85-8 
87-6 
90-0 

265030 
05-2 
10-7 
14-3 
21-6 
29-9 
42-8 
54-1 
59- 
82- 
85-4 

2GG00-6 
08-0 
101 
11- 
11-6 
26-1 
30-8 
40-1 
44-5 
46- 
48-8 
62-4 
54-0 
69-2 
65-0 
71- 
79-2 
83-3 
98-2 

26701-9 
03-3 
18-6 
21-7 
27-7 
29-0 
61- 
61-5 
63-7 



192 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Osmium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


1 
Reduction to 


j 




1 




Vacuum 


Wave-length 


Inten- ' 
sity 
and 


Wave- I 
length ! 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Oscillatioi 




Rowland 1 


Exner 1 


^ _ 1 




1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 1 


Cha- 1 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 


A." 

7-5 






Tatnall 


Haschek ^ 
3734-70 


racier ! 
1 


Haschek 


racter 


1-03 








1 




26768-4 






33-50 


1 








» 


77-0 






32-99 


1 


3732-9 


In 




,9 


80-7 






31-95 


2 


31-9 


1 


„ 


99 


88-1 






30-88 


3 


30-9 , 


1 




»> 


95-8 






29-37 


3 


1 
1 






9) 


26806-7 




28-85 j 


1 








» 


10-4 




28-52 


2 


28-5 , 


1 




9» 


12-8 






26-13 


1 








7-6 


29-9 






25-45 


2 


25-4 


1 




>5 


34-8 






22-11 


2 


221 


1 




99 


58-9 






20-27 


10 


20-3 
20-1 


2 

9 






72-2 
73- 






19-64 


10 


19-6 


2 




„ 


76-7 






18-87 


1 








» 


82-3 






18-49 


3 


18-5 


1 




>» 


85-0 






18-06 


2 


18-1 


1 




" 


88-1 






17-54 


1 








» 


91-9 






17-00 


1 








" 


95-8 






16-48 


2 








» 


99-6 






16-38 


3 


16-4 
15-2 


In 
lb 






26900-2 
09- 






1413 


2n 








J> 


16-6 






13-88 


4 


13-9 


2 




>l 


18-4 






12-99 


2 








'> 


24-9 






12-60 


2 


11-9 


1 






27-7 
32-8 






09-30 


5 








>» 


51-7 






06-72 


4 


06-6 
04-2 


2 

1 




9» 


70-4 
89- 


3703-391 




03-40 
02-95 
01-75 


4 
2 

2 


03-4 
01-6 


2 

1 


») 




94-6 
97*9 
27006-6 
08- 






01-45 


1 


01-4 


1 


„ 


>» 


08-8 


00-688 






1 








JJ 


14-4 






00-45 


2 


00-4 


1 




J» 


16-1 






3698-98 


2 


3098-9 
95-9 


1 

In 


1-02 


9> 


26-9 
49- 






95-80 


1 








>> 


50-1 






95-35 


1 


95-4 


In 




J> 


53-4 






94-53 


1 


94-4 
93-8 


In 
In 


I J, 


IS 


59-4 

60- 

65- 






93-15 


1 






9y 


»J 


69-5 






92-80 


1 


92-75 


4 


99 


99 


721 






92-41 


1 






J» 


99 


76-0 


3691-750 




90-88 




2 


89-5 


1 


>> 


99 
99 
99 


79-8 
86-2 
96- 


89-191 




89-21 
88-05 
87-40 


5 
1 
1 


1 89-1 


2 




1 " 

' 99 
99 


98-5 

27107-0 

11-8 






87-19 


1 1 


1 87-1 


1 


i » 


>9 


13-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH tABLfiS OF THE SPECXfiA OK tHE ELEMENTS. 193 



OnMlVM.— continued'. 



1907 



Arc Spectrilra 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


1 














Vacuum 


Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland 


Exner 












i_ 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 






Tatnall 


fiaschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 
1 




A 












3686-2 


1-02 


7-6 


27121- 






3685-55 


1 










25-4 






84-70 


2 


84-5 


1 


" 




31-6 
33- 






84-00 


1 


84-2 


1 


)? 




36-8 


3681-705 




81-74 
78-40 


3 

1 


81-7 


1 




7-7 


53-5 
78-0 






78-15 


2 


78-2 


1 






79-9 


75-599 




75-60 
74-67 


4 
1 


75-5 


1 






98-7 
27205-6 










73-3 


lb 




i9 * 


16- 






7301 


1 


721 


1 






17-9 
25- 






71-60 


1 










28-4 


71040 


3671-040 


7105 
69-85 
69-63 
69-25 


6 
1 

1 

1 


711 


2 






32-6 
41-4 
430 
46-8 






68-34 


1 


68-4 


2 






52-6 






66-48 


4 


66-4 
65-1 


2 

2 






66-4 

77- 






61-40 


2 


61-4 


1 






27304-3 






60-92 


1 


59-8 


In 


1-01 




07-8 
16- 






57-57 


1 










32-9 


57-048 


57-053 


57-05 
56-55 
54-95 


6 

1 
1 


571 


2 


" 




36-7 
40-6 
62-5 


54-631 


54-639 


54-64 


5 


54-6 


2 






54-8 


53-873 




53-86 
53-35 
50-52 


3 
2 
2 


53-9 
60-4 


1 

1 






60-6 
64-4 
85-7 
87- 


48-0G2 




48-94 


3 


48-9 


1 






97-4 






48-45 


2 


48-4 


] 




" 


27401-2 






45-28 


1 










25-0 






42-65 


2 


42-6 
42-3 


1 
1 


99 


", 


44-8 

47- 






41-40 


2 


41-4 

40-8 


1 
2 




" 


54-3 
69- 


40-487 


40-484 


40-50 

39-44 
38-72 


8 


40-48 
39-73 


4 

8 


; 


7-8 


611 
66-9 
74-4 
78-3 






38-20 




38-1 


lb 






79- 






35-40 


In 


32-2 


In 






99-5 
27524- 






31-95 












25-6 






30-95 












33-2 






30-56 












36-2 


30099 




3012 
27-39 
26-05 


1 


301 


1 






39-6 
60-2 
70-4 



194 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Osmium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


1 


j 




I 




1 


Wave-length 


[nten- 


Wave- ] 
length ■ 

t 


Inten- 




Oscillation 


1 


sity 
and 


sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo , 




Rowland 


Exner 




1 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 


A 


i 


Tatnall 


Haachek 


racter 


Hasehek i 

1 


racter 


1-01 


1 






3625-53 


1 






7-8 


27574-4 










3621-7 


1 


>> 




27604- 1 






21-26 


1 i 


21-2 


1 


»> 




06-9 






20-40 


2 


20-4 


1 


»» 


99 1 


13-5 




19-59 


3 


19-5 


1 


J» 


99 1 


19-6 








17-1 


1 


1-00 


1 


39- 


3616-726 


16-73 


8 


16-7 


2 


») 




41-5 






15-77 


1 






99 




48-8 


i 




13-50 


3 


13-4 


1 


99 




66-2 


i 




1 




12-9 


1 


99 




71- 


• 








12-4 


1 


99 




75- 










10-5 


In 


99 




89- 






09-83 


1 






» 




94-3 






09-30 


3 


09-3 


1 


J» 




98-4 1 










09-0 


1 


»> 




27701- 






07-54 


1 






>» 




11-9 






05-97 


1 






99 




24-0 


04-624 




04-65 


2 


04-62 


4 


>J 




34-2 






04-50 


In 






99 




35-3 


! 


04-02 


1 






»J 




39-0 










03-9 




9» 




40- 










03-2 




»» 




45- 






02-99 


1 






99 




46-9 






02-64 


2 


02-5 




»» 




49-6 


01-984 




02-00 


4 


02-0 




>> 


' 


64-5 


3598-266 


3598-264 


3598-25 


10 


3598-2 




99 




83-4 






97-66 


2 


97-6 




99 




88-1 






95-96 


1 






]) 




27801-2 










93-8 


In 


» 


7-9 


18- 










93-0 


In 


»f 




24- 






92-49 


3 


92-4 




»» 




27-9 






91-77 


1 


91-6 
91-3 




99 


99 


33-6 

35- 

37- 






90-28 


3 


90-2 




99 




45-1 






89-48 


1 






9» 


99 


51-3 






88-11 


1 


1 




99 


99 


61-9 






87-48 


4 


87-4 


2 


99 


99 


66-8 






86-65 


3 


86-5 


1 


99 
99 


" 

1 >» 


73-3 

74- 




84-56 


2 


84-5 


2 


99 


99 


89-5 


r . 


83-55 


2 


83-4 


1 


99 


99 


97-4 




83-21 


2 


1 83-2 


1 


99 


99 


279000 




82-95 


1 


82-9 


1 


99 


99 


02-1 




\ 






82-3 


1 


1 99 


99 


07- 










82-2 


1 


i 

99 


9f 


08- 




i:. 


80-68 


1 


1 




■ " 


»9 


25-0 






80-01 


1 


77-8 


1 


1 >' 


♦ 9 


42- 


' 


77-65 


1 






: 0-99 


99 


43-4 






74-9 


1 


1 " 


99 


65- 


74-25 


3 


i 74-2 I 


99 


99 


70-0 






72-93 


i 1 


' 72-(l In 


1 99 >) 
99 99 


80-3 
83- 


r 




71-70 


1 


. 


1 


99 


i .1 


900 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 195 







Osmium— 


comtiimed. 










Arc Spectrum ' 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




1 




1 




Wave-length 


Inten- \ 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 






Oscillation 




sity 1 
and 


sity 
and 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Rowland 


Exner 




1 


Kayser and 


and 


Cha- 


3xner and 


Cha- 


A-t- 1 


x 




; 


Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 


i 


1 


1 


3569-94 


4 


3569-9 


2 


0-99 


7-9 


28003-8 1 


1 


69-17 


1 


69-2 


In 




>» 


09-8 




68-75 


1 


1 






>» 


13-1 


, 


67-23 


1 






1 
'* 1 


1 


25-1 








65-3 


1 


» 1 


» 


40- 




64-25 


2 


64-2 1 


In 




J> 


48-5 








63-4 


In 




}» 


55- 








631 


In 




»» 


58- 




62-51 


4 


62-4 i 


1 




>• 


62-2 




61-55 


1 






„ 


»> 


69-8 




61-03 


10 


61-08 


8 


»' ! 


» 


73-9 




60-61 


1 








9) 


77-2 








60-02 


6 




JJ 


81-8 




59-97 


10 


59-8 


6 


t 


1 
>> 


82-2 




58-96 


1 








'* 1 


90-2 




5810 


1 






„ 


»> 


97-0 








57-4 


In 




9t 


28103- 




5611 


2 








J> 


12-7 




55-85 


2 








J> 


14-8 




54-70 


1 








f > 


23-9 




54-20 


1 


54-1 


1 




») 


27-8 




5109 


1 


51-0 


1 




9* 


52-4 




50-86 


1 


50-8 


1 




8-0 


54-2 




49-81 


1 








JJ 


62-5 




49-65 


2 






„ 


5> 


63-8 




49-17 


1 








9» 


67-6 


1 






490 


In 




9t 


69- 


1 
1 


48-87 


1 








J> 


70-0 




4803 


1 








99 


76-6 








47-7 


1 




99 


79- 






46-25 


1 


46-1 


In 




99 


90-8 










45-6 


In 




,9 


96- 






44-70 


2 


44-6 


1 




99 


28203-1 






43-85 


2 


43-7 


1 




99 


09-9 






43-43 


1 


43-3 


1 




99 


13-2 






42-85 


5 


42-6 


2 




99 


17-9 




4203 


2 


42-0 


1 




99 


24-4 




41-68 


1 








99 


27-2 




1 40-35 


1 








99 


37-8 




40-01 


1 








19 


40-5 








38-4 


1 




99 


53- 




3813 


1 








99 


55-5 








37-8 


1 


0-98 


99 


58- 




! 37-64 


1 








99 


59-4 




i 37-20 


1 


37-2 


1 




99 


62-9 




33-55 


4 


33-4 


1 




99 


92-1 




32-98 


8 








99 


1 96-7 








32-8 


2 




1 99 


98- 




31-26 


2 


31-2 


1 




99 


28310-5 




30-20 


, 3 






,, 


! »> 


19-0 




1 




301 


2 




S9 


20- 


3528-743 


28-75 


10 


28-80 


6 




1 „ 


30-7 








28-0 


6 




\ " 


32- 






1 26-16 


3 


26-1 


2 


1 ",. 


' >» 


51-5 



o •/ 



196 



BEPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







OSMIUM- 


-continued 










Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Eeduction to 












Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 






Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 




Eowland 


Exner 




1 




Kaysev 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 








Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 


0-98 


8-0 






3525-45 


1 






28357-2 






23-78 


5 


3523-87 


4 


J» 




70-6 










23-6 


4 


J» 




72- 






23-34 


1 






» 




74-2 






22-12 


2 


22-1 


1 


>> 




84-0 










21-2 


In 


>> 




91- 






20-15 


3 


20-1 


1 


)> 




99-9 






19-32 


2 






?» 




28406-6 






19-08 


1 






,, 




08-5 






18-87 


3 


18-7 


2 


!J 




10-2 










17-9 


1 


») 




18- 






17-41 


2 






»» 




220 






17-30 


2 


17-3 


1 


„ 




22-9 






16-75 


3 


16-6 
15-4 


1 
lb 






27-3 
38- 


3513-791 




13-91 


2 


13-9 


IFc 


J» 


V 


50-8 


13-145 




13-15 


5 


131 


2 


)» 




56-5 










11-5 


1 


JS 




70- 






11-38 


2 


11-2 


1 


9J 




70-8 

72- 










10-5 


1 


)> 


8-1 


77-9 






09-00 


1 






)J 




90-1 






07-21 


1 






99 




28504-6 










06-9 


In 


»! 




07- 






05-14 


ITi? 






99 




21-4 










05-0 


In 


99 




23- 


04-811 


3504-815 


04-81 





04-85 


4 


99 




24-1 






03-61 


1 






99 




33-9 










03-5 


In 


>• 




35- 






01-85 


1 






»> 




48-2 










01-6 


In 


»» 




50- 


01-314 




01-33 


4 


01-2 


2Ba 


!> 




52-5 






3499-70 


1 


3499-6 


1 


»» 




65-8 






99-43 


1 


99-4 


1 


,, 




68-0 


3498-686 




98-69 


3 


98-6 


2 


0-97 




74-0 






98-24 


1 


98-3 


1 


)J 




77-7 










98-0 


1 


)J 




80- 










97-2 


2 


»J 




86- 






95-99 


1 






»5 




96 1 






95-77 


2 


95-7 


lb 


>J 


,j 


97-9 






91-65 


2 


91-6 


1 


>» 




28631-7 






91-24 


1 






»» 




350 


90-464 




90-46 
89-01 


2 
1 


90-4 


2 


)» 


»4 


41-4 
53-3 


88-915 




88-91 


2 


88-9 


2 


»» 




541 


87-610 




87-62 


3 


87-6 


2 


,, 




64-8 


87-387 




87-40 


3 


87-4 
84-1 


1 
In 


" 




66-6 
94- 


82-380 




82-38 


3 


82-3 


2 


»> 


>» 


28707-9 


82-269 




82-28 


3 


79-5 


2 


99 
9» 




31-7 
39- 


78-670 




78-67 


3 


78-6 


2 . 


,, 




45-9 


77-798 




77-76 


1 


77-8 


16Rh 


*» 




52-5 






1 76-98 


1 


76-7" 


, lb 


>• 




54-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPEuTHA OF THE ELEMENTS. 197 







Osmium- 


-contimied 










Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 












Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 




Oscillation 
Frequency 














Rowland 


Exnei- 


and 




and 




1 


in V^acuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


K + 


i 






Tatnall 


Haschck 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




\ 








3475-5 


1 0-97 


8-1 


28765- 






3474-25 


1 


73-2 
72-9 


1 
1 


" 


75-1 

84- 

86- 










70-8 


2 1 „ 


8-2 


28804- 










69-7 


In 






13- 


34G9-517 




69-51 


1 


68-8 
66-1 


In 

1 






14-3 

20- 

43- 


G5-585 




65-59 


3 


65-6 


2 






46-9 






65-03 


1 


64-9 


In 






51-6 












i » 




53- 


62-335 




62-35 


1 


62-3 
61-7 


In 1 „ 


), 


74-0 
79- 


59163 




59-15 


2 


59-2 


2 , „ 


„ 


28900-6 






58-54 


4 


58-5 


2 1 0-9G 


05-7 








57-5 


lb „ „ 


14- 






56-27 


1 


56-2 


lb „ „ 


24-7 


65-172 




55-16 


2 


55-2 


2 , „ 




34-0 






53-17 


1 


53-1 
52-5 


In ! „ 
1 




50-7 

se- 










51-5 


In 


9* 




es- 






50-54 


1 


50-5 


In 


J» 




72-8 


49-352 


3449-346 


49-36 


5 


49-3 
48-2 


\ ' :: 




82-7 
92- 










46-1 


1 


29010- 


45-695 


45-699 


45-69 


3 


45-6 


2 


13-6 


44 -GIG 




44-60 


3 


44-6 


1 


22-7 








44-1 


1 




27- 








41-2 


1 Pel ? „ 




61- 








40-6 


1 




56- 








40-4 


In 




58- 






39-97 


1 








61-8 


39-639 




39-63 


2 


39-5 


In 






64-6 


38-792 




38-76 


1 








719 


37-642 















81-5 


37150 






2 








85-7 






35-40 


1 


35-5 


In 




29100-5 






35-04 


1 








03-5 


34-023 






4 


34-0 


In 




9> 


12-1 










32-2 


In 


8-3 


28- 






30-20 


1 




„ 


44-5 






30-10 


1 


30-0 


In 


„ 


45-4 










28-7 


1 


57- 


27-8 IG 




27-79 


3 


27-8 


"^ »» ?» 


64-9 


27-590 1 




27-56 


1 


27-6 
26-6 


1 


66-8 
75- 










25-1 


1 


„ 


88- 










24-8 


1 




90- 


i 








23-5 


2 






29202- 


22-800 






1 










07-5 






22-43 


1 


22-4 


1 






10-7 


21-837 




21-85 


2 


21-8 


1 




f9 


15-7 


21-558 i 








1 


■ 


ft 1 


•> 1 


18-2 I 



198 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Osmium — continued. 



Arc Sped 


rum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 








1 






Vacuum 


Wave-length 




Inten- 
. sity 


Wave- 
length 

1 


Inten- 




Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 


) 


sity 






, Rowland 
Kayser ! and 


1 Exner 
and 


and 
Cha- 




and 
Cha- 






in Vacuo 


Exner and 


\ \ + 


1_ 


! Tatnall 


Haschek 
3421-34 


racter 
1 


Haschek 


racter 




A 






0-96 


8-3 29220-0 








3420-4 


lb 


>J 


. 


28- 








20-3 


In 


»> 


9 




29- 








18-8 


lb 


J> 


9 




42- 






1 


17-5 


1 


0-95 


9 




53- 




15-36 


1 


! 14-9 


1 




9 
1 9 




71-2 

75- 


3414-390 


14-38 


2n 


14-4 


1 


)9 


9 




79-5 


12-946 











if 


9 




91-9 


12-908 


12-91 


2 


12-8 


1 


}f 


9 




92-2 


08-906 


08-90 


2 


08-8 


2 


f9 


9 




29326-2 


06-816 


06-83 


2 


06-7 


1 


" 


9 
9 




44-5 
46- 


06-423 


06-45 


2 


06-3 


1 


:: 


9 
9 




47-9 
49- 


02-855 











99 


9 




78-8 


02-643 3402-654 


02-66 


6 


02-6 


2 


9) 






80-5 


! 02-001 


02-01 


6 


02-00 


4 


)» 


f 




86-1 


01-315 : 


01-31 


2 


01-3 
00-6 


2 
1 


99 

99 


9 

9 




92-1 
98- 


00-264 


00-26 


1 


00-2 


1 


„ 


) 




29401-2 


3398-713 


3398-71 


1 


3398-7 


1 


„ 


9 




14-6 


97-910 


97-90 


1 






99 


9 




21-6 








97-6 


In 


99 


f 




24- 








97-12 


4 


99 


9 




28-4 


96-973 




2 






>> 


9 




29-7 


95-862 j 


95-85 


2 


95-8 


1 


99 


8- 




39-3 








95-2 


In 


9* 


91 




46- 




94-72 


2 


94-6 


1 


t» 


9) 




491 








93-0 


1 


99 


91 




64- i 








92-6 


1 


99 


f1 




68- 1 


91-401 

1 


91-41 
89-154 


1 
1 






99 
99 


99 

91 




77-9 1 
93-3 i 


88-794 : 


88-79 


1 


88-G 


In 


99 


99 




29500-7 




88-46 


1 






99 


99 




03-6 


87-970 


88-00 


6 


87-9 


2 


99 


99 




07-7 








87-0 


In 


99 


99 


16- 




86-76 


1 






99 


99 


18-3 


86-277 


86-27 


2 






9> 


9> 


22-G 


86-077 


86-06 


2 


86-1 


In 


99 


99 


24 4 








86-0 


2 


9f 


99 




2C- 


84-732 


84-74 


2 


84-7 


1 


99 


99 




39-0 




84-16 


5 


84-1 
83-8 


2 
In 


99 
99 


99 

99 




41-0 
44- 


83-042 




2 


83-0 


1 


99 


99 




60-8 I 


81-814 


81-81 


2 


81-7 


1 


99 i 


9t 




61-6 








81-3 


In i 


99 


99 




66- 


80-674 


' 





80-7 


1 


99 


9» 




71-6 , 








79-5 


In 


99 


99 




82- 1 




78-80 


2 


7R-8 


1 


99 


*9 




87-9 




77-75 1 


1 






0-94 




97-1 


77-088 


77-10 


1 






99 99 




29602-8 




76-80 


1 






99 Vt 




05-4 


75-268 


75-28 


1 






99 


9* 


1 


18-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



199 



Osmium — con tinued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Eeduct 
Vacu 


ion to 


1 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 


um 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 


sity 






Frequency 




Kowland i 


Exner j 




and 




1_ 


in Vjifiin 






J 11 ¥ tXKj 11'.' 


Kayser 


and 
Tatnall 


and 
Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 

1 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


A + 


A. 








3374'35 






0-94 


8-4 


29626-9 










3374-0 


1 




»» 


30- 


3373-337 




73-35 


1 








>* 


35-8 






73-21 


1 








>> 


36-9 


72-929 














>» 


39-4 






72-70 


I 








9J 


41-4 






72-21 


3 


72-2 


2 




»> 


45-7 


71-602 




71-69 


1 








>J 


50-7 


70-725 


3370-730 


70-74 


8 


70-70 


6 




»» 


58-7 


70-340 




70-37 


3 


70-3 
69-7 








621 
68- 


68-617 






2 








J» 


77-4 










66-3 


In 


)» 


» 


98- 






66-04 


2 






^^ 


»> 


29700-1 


64-486 




64-50 


1 


64-6 






>» 


13-8 


04-250 




64-29 
63-09 


3 
1 


64-3 


1 




J) 


15-7 
26-2 


62-716 




62-72 


1 






>» 


»» 


29-4 


61-905 















>9 


36-6 


61-280 




61-31 


3 


61-2 


2 




?♦ 


42-0 


59-876 




59-90 


1 








8-5 


54-4 


58-096 




58-11 


3 


58-1 


2 




>> 


70-2 






57-69 


1 








>> 


73-9 


54-042 




54-05 


3 








>» 


29806-2 


51-853 




51-90 


3 








99 


25-6 


48-791 




48-79 


1 








9> 


53-0 


42-018 




42-05 


1 








M 


29913-4 


40-851 




40-85 


1 








99 


240 


39-601 















M 


35-2 






37-28 


1 






0-93 


)J 


560 


36-282 


36-301 


36-30 


8 


36-3 


2 




9) 


64-9 






35-62 


1 








J) 


70-9 


34-295 




34-30 


1 








99 


82-8 


33-986 




34-00 


1 








99 


85-5 






29-35 


1 








>» 


30027-4 


29-252 




29-26 


1 








99 


28-3 


27-562 




27-59 


4 


27-6 


2 




>» 


43-4 






26-65 


1 


26-6 


lb 




9* 


51-8 






26-55 


1 








99 . 


62-7 


25-644 









25-6 


lb 




9* 


60-9 


25-518 






2 








»> 


62-0 


24-876 




24-89 


1 








8-6 


67-7 


24-486 




24-51 


3 


24-5 


2 




J» 


71-1 






23-30 


In 


23-5 


2 




>5 


82-0 


22-734 






1 








„ 


87-1 


22-175 




22-20 


1 


22-2 


In 




" 


920 






20-58 


In 


20-8 


lb 




>> 


30106-6 






20-05 


In 








99 


11-4 


18-724 




18-74 


In 


18-8 


lb 




>» 


23-4 


' 18-284 




18-31 


In 








J> 


27-3 


17-998 




18-01 


In 








)» 


30-0 


17-420 




17-40 


In 








>J 


35-4 


, 16-822 




16-81 


2 


Ki-S 


1 




M 


40-8 


15-816 




15-83 


O 


ir.-'.t 


1 




•> 


49-8 


15-555 




15-56 


2 


1 15-7 


1 1 


1 » 


.. 


1 52-2 



200 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Osmium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 












Vacuum 




"Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 


■ — ^1 


Oscillation 
Frequency 












Rowland Exner 


and 




and 




1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 


X" 






Tatnall Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 
3314-1 


racter 








i 


3314-88 
13-60 


1} 


0-93 


8-G 1 

9* 


30168-4 
70-1 


3312-178 




12-18 


1 








99 


830 


11-035 




11-05 
09-83 


4 

1 


11-1 


2 




99 
99 


93-4 
30204-4 


06-352 




06-34 


3 








>9 


36-3 


05-501 




05-51 


1 








99 


44-0 


i 04-980 


1 













" 


48-8 


01-990 






1 




'» 


99 


76-2 


01-692 


3301-708 


01-70 


10 


01-7 


2 


)9 


78-8 


3298-374 









3297-3 


2 0-92 


)9 


30309-4 


i 




3293-29 


1 




! " 


99 


56-2 


91-259 




91-25 


1 




1 

9) 


99 


74-9 






90-40 


4 


90-5 


2 


99 


82-8 


89-387 






4 




»» 


9» 


92-2 


88-960 




88-96 


2 




»> 


8-7 


96-0 


88-616 




88-57 


1 




J> 


9» 


99-4 






86-81 


1 






•» 


99 


30415-9 


84-680 




84-68 


1 






)) 


99 


35-7 


81-028 




81-06 


2 






9> 


99 


69-4 


79-590 




79-55 


1 






»J 


99 


831 


78-086 




78-09 


4 






»> 


99 


96-9 


76-533 




76-54 


1 


75-5 


1 


f> 


99 


30511-3 


75-320 




75-31 


4 


75-3 


2 


if 


99 
99 


22-7 


73-513 




73-54 


1 


74-2 


2 


99 


99 
99 


39-4 


72-607 




72-63 


1 






JJ 


J» 


47-9 


72-301 




72-30 


2 


72-3 


1 


If 


9> 


50-8 


72-118 




72-12 


1 


72-0 


1 


9) 


" 

99 


52-5 
54- 


71-320 













99 


9» 


600 


71-002 




71-02 


1 






99 


99 


62-9 


70-025 




70-05 


1 






,, 


99 


72-0 


69-340 




69-36 


5 


69-38 


4 


9* 


99 


78-4 


68-080 


3268-078 


68-10 


10 


68- 10 


8 


99 


90-2 


67-338 




67-34 


1 


67-40 


8 JS ?S 


97-2 


66-890 




66-89 


1 






9» »9 


30601-4 


66-565 






2 






M 99 


04-5 


64-820 




64-85 


1 


64-8 


In 


J> »9 


20-7 


62-880 




62-89 


4 


63 00 


4 


,, 




39-0 


62-428 




62-44 


8 


62-48 
61-2 


8 

1 


.5> 




43-3 
54-9 


60-683 




60-70 


1 


60-7 


i 1 


>» 




59-6 


60-420 




60-43 


3 


60-5 


o 


99 




62-1 


59-530 




59-56 


111 




0-91 




1 70-4 


57-051 




57-05 


3 


571 2 


1 " 


! ,, 


93-9 


55-414 




55-41 


1 




99 




30709-4 


55-139 


1 









I " 


; „ 


11-9 


55038 




55-04 


3 


; 551 2 
1 54-4 In 
53-4 In 


99 
9> 
99 




12-9 
18-9 

28-4 






i 52-14 


2 




1 >> 


8-8 


40-2 






51-03 


1 




1 

)> 1» 


50-7 


50-974 


1 

1 




1 


1 




1 » 


>i 


i 51-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 201 



Osmium — contimied. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 












Vacuum 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- 




Oscillation 




sity 


length 


sity 





Frequency 












» 


Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


K + 






' 32oO-6fl5 


Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 


0-91 


A. 

8-8 




3250-50 


1 


3250-7 


2 


20754-7 


48-IOG 


48-14 


2u 


48-1 


1 


)» 




78-1 










47-80 


4 




82-2 






45-79 


In 


45-3 


2 




" 30800-3 
05-0 


43-700 













jj 


20-2 


42108 




42-11 


1 


42-0 


lb 




35-3 
36-4 


41-933 




41-94 


1 


41-2 


2 




37-0 


41-642 




41-56 


1 








„ 


40-1 


41-159 




41-18 


3 








... 


44-2 


39-398 















„ 


61-1 


38-751 




38-75 


3 








„ 


67-3 






38-30 


1 


38-3 
37-0 
36-6 
36-2 


In 
In 




„ 


71-6 
84-0 
87-8 
91-6 


34-858 




34-86 


1 


34-8 


1 






30904-4 


34-651 




34-81 


1 








" 


05-7 


34-318 




34-34 


1 


34-3 






,, 


09-5 


32-672 




32-67 


1 


32-6 


1 






25-4 


32196 


3232-195 


32-19 


8 


32-20 


10 






29-9 


32-072 






2 










31-1 


31-543 




31-56 


1 


31-5 








36-1 


31-410 




31-45 


1 










37-2 


30-525 




30-53 


1 


30-6 


In 






45-9 










300 


In 


5) 1 J> 


51- 


29-336 




29-35 


1 


291 

28-8 


In 




SJ 

J. 


67-2 

60- 

62- 


27-409 




27-41 


2 


27-4 
27-0 


■1 






75-8 
81- 


26-579 









26-5 






J. 


83-8 


23-987 




23-99 


1 


24-0 
22-5 


, 




5. 


31008-7 
23- 






21-53 


111 


21-5 


In 


JJ 


» 


32-3 


21-444 






4 








)J 


33-1 


20-895 













0-90 


s> 


38-5 


20-408 






1 


20-4 






M 


43-2 


20-318 




20-36 ' 


2 








S) 


43-8 


19-260 




19-26 


1 


19-3 






»» 


54-2 


18-153 




18-15 


1 


17-4 








64-9 
72- 


17-177 




17-17 


1 


17-2 
16-8 
16-6 


1 


)f 




74-4 

78- 
80- 


16-340 









15-8 
13-8 


In 
2n 




8-9 
»> 


82-3 

88- 
31107- 






13-59 


1 


13-50 


10 




J) 


C8-9 


13-418 




• 13-44 


1 






' 


.. 


10-5 


12-840 




12-85 


1 


12-9 




J, 


»» 


16-2 








12-6 






9. 


19- 


12-249 






2 








>> 


22-0 



202 



BEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Osmium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Kayser 



3205-909 
04-646 
04-155 
02-956 



3197-310 


96-152 


96-082 


95-494 


94-805 


94-350 


93-986 


89-566 


87-443 


87-096 


86-643 


86-516 


85-439 


85-304 


84-458 


83-905 


83-661 



Rowland 

and 
Tatnall 



83-341 



81-907 
80-237 

78-357 
78-184 
77-522 
75-781 

74-284 
74-037 
73-609 
73-306 



Exner 

and 
Haschek 



3205-90 
04-64 



03-44 
02-95 



00-89 
3198-26 
97-30 
96-11" 

95-50 
94-80 
94-37 
93-99 
91-31 

89-56 
87-45 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



87-08 
86-65 



n\ 



85-42 
84-46 



82-92 
82-68 
82-35 
81-99 
80-23 
79-37 
78-36 
78-18 
77-51 
75-77 



74-05 

73-31 

72-96 

71-75 



1 

1 

2 
1 
2 



1 
1 
1 
3° 

3 

2 
3 

2 
1 

3 
2 

3 
1 
2 
2 
3 

1 

1 



1 

2 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
5 
1 
1 

1 
1 

2 
1 



Wave- 
length 



Exner and 
Haschek 

3209-4 
08-1 
05-9 
05-3 
04-6 
04-3 

03-5 
03-0 
01-3 
01-0 

3198-3 
97-3 

96-2 

95-5 
94-8 
94-4 
94-0 

90-9 
89-6 
87-5 
87-2 



86-50 
85-4" 



83-5 

83-0" 
82-7 

82-0 
80-3 
79-6 
78-3 



75-7 
75-0 

74-03 

73-4 

72-6 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha-- 

racter 



1 

2 

In 

In 

In 

1 

In 
1 
1 
In 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



\ + 



1 
A 



Oscillation' 
Frequency' 
in Vacuo ' 



0-90 ! 8 



In 




1 




i 2 








2 


1 


1 




2 




1 


" 1 






In 




2 




1 




2 
















4 




1 




















! 1 






» 


1 


" 


2 


»» 




>» 1 


2 


0-89 


1 




lb 


99 


2 


>» 




»» 




99 


In 


99 


In 


99 




99 


8 


99 




" 1 


1 


" 




99 


1 


99 




.. 1 



•9 i 


31150- 


1 


62- 




83-5 




89- 




95-8 




99- 




31200-6 




07-5 




11-9 


" 


28- 




31- 




32-4 




58-1 




67-2 


„ 


78-9 


„ 


79-4 


99 


85-1 




920 




96-3 




99-9 




31326-2 




30-2 




43-4 




64-2 




67- 




67-7 




720 




72-1 




73-3 




84-0 




85-3 




93-6 




98-2 




31401-5 




03- 




04-6 




09- 




11-2 




14-4 




18-4 


9-0 


35-2 




43-8 




53-8 




55-5 




62-1 




79-4 




87-1 




94-2 




96-6 




31500-9 




03-9 




07-3 


M 10-9 




19-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 203 







OSMIUM- 


-continued 


• 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 












Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 
Frequency 








sity 








Rowland 


Exner 


and 


— 


and 




1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 


± 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haechek 


racter 




A. 




3171-249 











0-89 


90 


31524-3 










3170-6 


1 






31- 










68-9 


In 






48- 










68-5 


2 






52- 


68-390 




3168-39 


2 


68-2 


In 


tt 




62-8 
66- 


66-611 




66-62 


3 


66-65 


4 






70-5 


65-772 






2 


65-82 
64-8 


8 
1 






78-9 
89- 


64-718 




64-75 


2 


64-7 


1 


„ 




89-2 


64-550 













jj 




91-1 


61-837 




61-86 


2 


61-8 


1 






31618-1 


61-647 




61-55 


2 


61-6 


1 






21-1 


60-540 




60-57 


2 










31-1 


60-397 




60-44 


1 


60-4 


1 






32-4 


59-477 

1 




59-48 


1 


68-6 
58-2 


1 
1 






41-8 
51- 

55- 


j 57-342 




57-35 


2 


57-3 


1 






63-2 


57-102 




57-11 


1 


57-1 


1 






65-6 


56-878 




56-89 


3 


56-9 


2 






67-8 


56-365 


3156-384 


56-38 


" 8 


56-35 


10 






72-9 


55-450 




55-45 


1 










82-2 


54-666 









54-5 


lb 






90-1 


53-727 




53-72 


3 


53-7 


2 






99-6 


52-806 




52-80 


3 


52-8 


2 






31708-8 


62-181 




52-19 


2 


52-1 


2 






15-0 


51-005 

















26-9 


60-730 






On 


60-7 


1 






29-7 


50-260 

















34-4 


49-927 




49-93 


In 


49-9 


1 






37-8 


49-365 

















43-4 


47-601 
















61-2 


. 46-843 









46-5 


1 




9-i 


68-8 
■ 72- 


46-074 




46-08 


1 


46-1 
45-4 


1 
In 






76-5 
83- 


44-471 




44-50 


2 


44-6 


2 






92-6 


43-169 




43-19 


1 


43-2 


1 






31806-8 


41-056 




41-06 


1 


41-1 


1 


0-88 




27-3 


40-431 




40-44 


1 


40-5 


1 






33-6 


39-745 

















40-6 


38157 






1 


38-2 


1 






56-7 


37-636 




37-65 


1 


37-7 


1 






62-0 


37-421 

















64-2 


36-785 

















70-7 


36-334 

















75-2 


35-126 

















87-6 


34-805 

















90-8 


33-953 









34-0 
32-8 


1 
lb 






99-1 
31911- 


31-995 




31-62 



In 










19-4 
23-3 


31-027 




31-23 


3 


31-3 


2 






27-2 



204 



l^EPOftTS ON tHE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Osmium — continued. 





Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 




Rowland 


Exner 




1 


Kayser 


and 


an J 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 


A 


Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 


0-88 


3131021 











9-1 










3130-5 


1 








30125 




313014 


1 


30-2 


1 








29-348 




29-35 


1 


29-3 
29-0 


1 

1 








28-G77 




28-55 


In 


28-6 


1 








27 •(520 









27-0 


1 


" 






25-643 




25-05 



In 


25-6 
24-4 


In 
In 








24142 




2414 


In 


23-5 

22-8 


In 
In 








21-592 



















21-307 



















20-777 




20-77 


1 


20-8 


1 








20-016 




20-00 


1 


20-0 


1 


>> 






19-196 









19-2 
18-5 


In 
2 








18-450 




18-44 


2 












18-242 


% 


18-24 


1 


is-s" 


2n 








18-014 




18-00 


1 












17-215 













" 






16-593 




16-59 


1 


16-6 


1 








15-838 









15-6 


In 








15-150 




15-13 


1 


15-1 


1 






) 


14-932 




14-92 


1 


150 


1 








13-405 









13-5 


1 




9- 


2 


12-630 















» 




11-196 




11-20 


2 


11-3 


2 




• 




10-743 




10-75 


1 


10-7 


1 








10-538 






1 


10-5 


1 








09-800 




09-79 


1 


09-8 


2 








09-504 




09-50 


3 


09-5 


2 








09-102 




09-09 


3 


09-1 


2 


,, 






08-846 









08-9 


1 








08-098 




08-08 


1 


08-2 


1 








07-989 




08-00 


1 












07-495 




07-49 


1 


07-5 


1 








07-119 



















06-762 









06-8 


In 








06- 114 




06-10 


3 


06-2 
05-7 
05-5 


2 
1 
1 


'^ 






05-098 




05-09 


2 


05-2 
04-0 


1 
1 








03-412 




03-53 


In 


03-5 


1 








02-835 






2 


02-9 


1 








02-503 




02-50 


1 


02-5 


1 












01-64 


3 


01-7 
01-3 


2 0-87 










3099-38 


1 


3099-4 


] 


i» 







Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



31929-4 
35- 
38-4 
46-4 
50- 
53-9 
64-1 
70- 
84-3 
90-4 
97- 
99-7 

32006- 
13- 
25-8 
28-8 
34-2 
42-0 
50-4 
58- 
58-2 
60-3 
62-7 
70-8 
77-6 
85-0 
87-4 
92-2 
94-4 

32110-0 
180 
32-8 
37-4 
39-6 
47-2 
50-3 
54-5 
57-1 
64-9 
65-9 
71-1 
75-0 
78-7 
85-4 
90- 
92- 
95-9 

32207- 
12-8 
19-4 
22-7 
31-8 
35- 
55-3 



ON WAVE-LEi\OTH TABLES OF THE Sl'ECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 205 



Os.M lUM — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


i Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Liten- 


Vacuum 








sity 






Frequency 




Rowland 


Exner 


and 





and 




1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


1 Cha- 


\ + 






Tatnall 


Hasehek 

1 


1 racter 


Hasehek 
3098-7 


racter 


0-87 


9-2 


1 

' 32202- 














95-2 


lb 


., 


99- 


3094-192 




3094-20 


1 






i 


»* ») 


32309-4 


93-704 


i 


93-70 


1 t) 


93-8 
92-8 


In 


( 




14-5 

1 24- 


92-613 















)S >) 


! 25-9 


i 








91-5 


2 




f f 




) 38- 


91-368 




91-38 


1 






( 


JJ 




38-9 


90-613 




90-62 


1 


90-7 






99 


i » 


46-8 


90-410 




90-42 


1 


90-5 




1 


t9 


1 


48-9 


90-205 


90-21 


2 


90-3 






JJ 




51-1 








1 


89-5 


In 




>» >» 


58- 


88-545 






) 


88-5 






»» ♦» 


68-5 


88-385 




88-37 


1 


88-0 






fj 99 


70-2 
74- 


87-868 






2 


87-3 






J3 


! " 


75-0 

82- 


87-125 















99 




83-4 


86-394 




86-40 


1 


86-5 






)» 




910 


85-982 









85-2 






5) 
99 




95-4 
32404- 


i 85-004 






2 


85-0 






99 




05-7 


84-715 




84-72 


1 


84-0 
83-7 






f 
» 
9 


9-3 


08-7 

10- 

19- 


83-565 









82-9 
82-6 






9 

9 
9 




20-7 

28- 

31- 


81-313 













) 


9 




44-4 


80-907 









80-7 


In 




9 
9 




48-7 
51- 


80-614 




• 









f 


9 




51-8 






79-C7 


1 


79-7 
79-4 




J 

» 


9 

9 


99 

99 


61-7 
65- 


78-496 




78-48 


2 


78-6 




J 


9 


" 1 


74-2 


78-227 




78-20 


3 


78-3 


2 


i 


9 


99 ■ 


771 


77-834 


3077-841 


77-82 


4 


77-82 


4 1 


i 


9 


J) 


811 


77-557 


1 


77-55 


2 


77-6 


2 


) 


9 i 


)) 


84-0 


77-167 




77-16 


2 


77-2 


2 


> 


9 


99 


88-2 


76-845 

! 


1 
i 


76-86 


In 


70-8 
76-5 


1 1 
2 




1 


" 1 


91-4 
95- 


75074 




75-06 


2 


75-2* 


2 t 


} 


y 




32510-3 


74-771 





















74-192 




74-21 


3 


74-3 
73-3 


2 1 
2 




» 


»j 


13-4 
29- 


72-681 













* 




)i ' 


35-6 


71-974 






1 




[ 


5 




" 


34-1 


70-374 




70-38 


1 


70-5 


1 1 








60-0 


70-049 


1 
. . 1 


70-05 
69-25 


2 
1 


70-1 


2 


• 




" ! 


63-5 
71-9 


66-945 




66-97 


1 


67-1 


1 


9 




» 


96-3 


06-715 




66-71 


1 


660 


1 


J 




»» 


98-9 


06-225 




66-25 


2 


66-3 


1 


? 


1 


>> ! 


32604-0 


05-783 1 













J 


1 


»» 


08-8 



* 3076-0 (10> Zn? possibly belongs to Osmium. 



206 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Osmium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 



"Wave-length 



Kayser 



3065-391 
63-480 
62-803 
62-584 
62-297 
62-039 
61-814 
60-412 
60-248 
58-782 



Eowland 
and 

Tatnall 



Exner 

and 

Haschek 



Spark Spectrum 



57-014 
56-315 
55-726 
55-326 

65-086 
54-780 
54-620 
54-091 
63-743 

53-004 
52-540 

51-280 
50-517 
49-580 
49-172 
47-574 
46-200 

45-898 

45-430 

45031 

44-525 

44-191 

44-040 

43-793 

43-622 

42-860 

41-021 

40-184 

36-668 

33-843 
33-331 
32-924 
31-828 
31-418 
31122 
30-817 
2')-496 



3062-80 
62-59 
62-31 



60-44 



3058-766 1 58-80 



41-023 



5703 



55-33 

56-09 



52-55 

51-29 
50-53 
49-58 
49-17 



45-90 
45-43 
45-04 
44-54 
44-20 

43-78 
43-62 
42-85 
41-03 



32-94 

31-41 
3113 

30-83 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 
2 

8 



1 




1 
1 



1 

2 




1 
1 

2 
2 
1 
1 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
2 
1 
4 
1 
2 


2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 



"Wave- 
length 



Kxner and 
Haschek 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



\ + 



3062-23 



60-5 

58-76 
58-4 
58-2 
57-0 



55-4 
55-2 



53-5 
530 
52-5 
51-4 

50-6 
49-6 
49-2 
47-6 
46-3 

46-0 
45-4 
45-1 
44-6 



0-87 
0-86 



1_ 
X 

9-3 



10 
1 
1 
1 



44-2 


43-8 
43-7 
42-83 
41-00 


35-3 


33-4 
330 


31-5 
31-2 

30-82 



1 
1 
1 

1 i 

2 i 

I 

InFe! 
]♦ 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

8Ti? 
8 



2 
1 

I 
1 

8 



»> 


») 


" 


»» 


1 " 


9* 


>> 


>> 


f9 


*» 


»» 


y> 


>» 


" 


»> 


» 


>' 


99 


»l 


»» 


tf 
99 


9-4 


99 


»> 


99 


>» 


99 


>» 





»» 


" 


99 




)» 




»» 




>> 




J» 




)J 


»5 


?» 


99 


»» 


»5 


)> 


99 


»» 


9* 
99 





Oscillatiou 
Frequency' 
I in "Vacuo 



32613-0 
33-3 
40-5 
42-8 
45-8 
48-7 
511 
65-9 
67-8 
83-4 
88- 
90- 
32702-3 
09-8 
16-2 
20-4 
22- 
23-0 
26-3 
28-0 
33-6 
37-3 
40- 
45-2 
50-2 
62- 
63-7 
71-9 
82-0 
86-4 
32803-6 
17- 
i 18-4 
1 21-6 
26-7 
310 
i 36-4 
i 40-0 
41-7 
44-4 
46-2 
54-5 
74-2 
83-4 
32921-4 
36- 
521 
57-6 
62-0 
74-0 
78-5 
81-6 
84-9 
99-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 207 



Osmium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 












Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 






Oscillation 
Frequency 














Kowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1 


ill Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


X-t- 








Tatnall 


Hasohek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 


0-86 


\ 


33004-5 






3029-03 


1 


3029-1 


1 


9-4 










28-8 


1 


J> 




07- 


3028-032 






2 






»J 




15-3 


27-790 













5J 




18-1 


27-669 






1 


27-6 


2 


»» 




19-4 










25-5 


1 


JJ 




43- 


24-434 













» 


9-5 


54-5 










23-7 


lb 


>> 




63- 










22-9 


In 


0-85 




71- 


22-382 













)5 




77-0 


21-226 













>» 




89-6 










21-1 


1 


J> 




91- 










20-9 


1 


99 




93-2 


20-782 






3 






>y 




94-5 






20-63 


2 






»> 




96-2 


19-498 




19-50 


3 


19-6 


2 


99 




33108-6 


18-744 













»9 




16-9 


18-440 













f> 




20-2 


18-169 


3018-155 


18-16 


4 






>J 




23-3 










1813 


8 


»> 




24- 


17-380 




17-38 


3 


17-4 


2 


»> 




31-8 


15-772 




15-77 


1 


15-8 


1 


)9 




49-5 










15-4 


In 


» 




54- 


15-158 













9) 




56-3 










14-4 


1 


9* 




65- 


14-068 






2 


14-00 


4 


>» 




68-2 


13-194 




13-22 


3 


13-3 


2 


19 




77-7 


12-902 






1 






19 




81-1 






12-52 


1 






99 




85-3 






10-05 


1 


10-1 


lb 


99 




33212-5 










08-7 


1 


99 




27- 


08-022 




08 05 


1 


08-0 


1 


99 




34-8 






07-00 


1 






99 




46-2 


05-878 













99 




58-6 


05064 













99 




67-7 


04-872 













99 




69-8 


i 03-605 




03-62 


1 


03-6 


2 


„ 




83-7 










02-8 


1 


99 




93- 


' 








02-0 


1 


99 




33302- 








01-1 


1 


99 




12- 


00-234 






1 


00-2 


1 


99 




21-2 










2999-2 


1 


99 




33- 


2997-777 




2997-75 


2 


97-8 


2 


99 




48-7 


96-385 













99 


9-6 


63-9 


95-762 






2 


95-7 


1 


99 




70-9 


95-298 













99 




75-3 


94-908 









94-9 


1 


99 




80-4 


93-698 




93-70 


1 


93-7 


1 


99 




93-9 










92-5 


1 


99 




33407- 


92-240 




92-24 


1 


92-3 


1 


19 




10-2 


90-763 






1 






99 




26-7 


89-963 













99 




35-0 










89-8 


111 


»9 




37- 


%9-655 




. 89-65 


1 






99 


1 ,t 


39-1 , 



208 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENC:^. 







OSMIUAI- 


-continticd 










Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 












Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland 


Exner 




1 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 


J. 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




A 




2989-253 




2989-25 


1 


2989-2 


1 


0-85 


9-6 


33443-0 


88-396 




88-37 
87-76 


1 
1 


88-5 
86-2 


1 
1 






53-3 
60-3 

78- 


85-752 




85-75 


1 


85-7 


I 






82-8 1 


85-084 









85-0 


1 






90-3 


84-751 

















93-8 ; 


84-419 




84-43 


In 


83-6 
83-2 


2 
1 






97-7 
33507- 
11- 


83-032 




83-05 


2 






^9 




13-2 


82-680 




82-70 


1 






0-84 




17-2 


82-252 




82-25 


1 


81-7 


lb 






22-1 

28- 


80-453 









80-5 


1 






42-3 


79-802 











„ 




49-7 


79-555 


79-54 


1 


79-5 


1 


„ 




52-5 


78-645 


78-63 


1 


78-7 


I 






62-7 


78-338 




78-31 


1 


78-4 


1 






66-3 


77-757 




77-75 


2 


77-7 
77-5 


2 

1 






72-8 
76- 


76-470 

















87-2 


75-401 




75-45 


1 


75-5 
75-3 


1 
1 




" 


98-7 
33000- 






72-36 


1 


72-3 


In 






33-7 


71-098 




71-10 


3 


71-10 


4 


>. 




48-0 


70-825 




70-80 


1 






» 


9-7 


51-1 


69-938 

















01-0 






68-55 


1 


68-5 


lb 


"^ 




76-8 


67-860 









67-0 


1 


» 




84-6 
94- 


60-685 

















97-9 


66-428 









66-4 


1 






33700-9 


66-217 









65-6 


1 






03-3 
10- 


65-215 






1 


65-3 


1 






14-7 


64-890 

















18-4 






64-75 


1 


64-7 


1 






20-0 


64 190 




64-21 


3 


64-2 


2 






26-2 


63-178 









63-1 


1 




,, 


37-8 


63-005 






1 










39-8 


02-819 













„ 




41-9 


02-405 




62-45 


2 










46-1 


62-272 




62-29 


2 


62-3 


2 






48-1 


61-526 

















56-7 


01-140 




61-15 


2 


61 1 


2Cu? 


>> 




61-1 


58-467 




58-48 


1 






J> 




91-5 


57-774 

















99-5 


57-214 




57-20 


1 


57-2 








33806-0 


56-629 




56-62 


1 


56-6 
56-3 








12-6 
16- 


55-128 




55-13 


1 


55-1 
54-7 
53-7 


1 






29-8 

35- 

46- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OK THE SPECTBA OP TBE ELEMENTS. 209 



Osmium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Kayser 



2952-412 

51-357 
50-986 

49-930 

49-635 
49-635 
48-328 

46-705 
45-437 

43-756 
43-291 
42-981 
42-692 
42-348 
42-267 
41-989 

40-873 
40-694 
40-208 
39-519 
38-590 
38-491 
37-111 
36-817 

35-083 
34-779 
34-420 
34-111 
32-585 

31-879 
31-416 
30-704 
30-334 
29-646 
27-370 

25-708 
25-414 
24-617 
23-298 
23-109 
22-818 
21-193 
20-974 
20-204 
19-935 

1907. 



Rowland 

and 
Tatnall 



Exner 

and 

Haschek 



2952-45 



50-00 
49-93 



49-63 
48-33 



42-96 
42-32 



34-75 



31-42 
30-69 
30-32 
29-62 



25-69 
25-41 
24-64 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



I 



21-20 



19-94 



1 
1 
1 
1 

3 
3 

4 




1 

2 

2 



In 

1 










2 


2 

3 
2 


2 
1 
1 
2 


2 
1 
1 
2 


1 

1 
4 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave- 
length 



Exner and 
Haschek 



2952-4 
51-7 
51-3 
50-9 



49-8 



49-62 
48-30 



45-5 
44-2 



43-03 



41-0 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



6 
4 



1 
In 



38-4 
370 

35-6 

34-7 

341 
32-6 
32-4 

31-3 
30-6 
30-3 
29-5 

26-0 
25-6 

24-6 

23-1 

21-3 

19-85 



lb 



In 
2n 

IbZn? 

, ! 

1 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

In 

lb 



A.+ 


1 
A 


0-84 


9-7 




)» 




»> 




)J 




»» 




99 




99 




" 




" 




») 


" 


J? 




9-8 




jj 


5> 


1 99 




1 >> 



0-831 



9-9 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo | 



33860-7 
69- 
73-0 
77-3 
88-6 
89-4 
91- 
92-8 
92-8 
33907 '8 
19-9 
26-5 
410 
55- 
60-4 
65-8 
69-5 
72-7 
76-8 
77-6 
80-8 
92- 
93-7 
95-8 
34001-4 
09-4 
20-1 
21-3 
37-3 
40-7 
55- 
60-8 
64-5 
68-5 
721 
89-8 
92- 
98-0 
34103-4 
11-8 
161 
24-2 
50-5 
67- 
701 
73-4 
82-6 
98-1 
34200-4 
03-8 
22-6 
25-2 
34-3 
37-4 



210 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Osmium — continved. 



Arc Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Kayaer 



Rowland 

and 
Tatnall 



2919-380 
19053 
17-946 
17-383 
16-193 
15-586 
15-382 
14-841 
14-341 
13-969 
12-470 
11-939 
11-695 
11-466 
11-269 
10-801 



09-797 I 2909-79 



09-185 
08-468 
08-150 

06-909 

06-103 
05-862 
03-354 
03-193 
01-455 
01-308 



2899-372 
98-023 
96-183 

93-014 
92-466 
91-961 
90-970 
89-654 
89-280 
86-622 
86-368 
86-182 
85-295 
84-967 
84-537 
84-064 



Exner 

and 

Haschek 



2917-94 
17-37 



14-84 

13-96 
12-47 



11-47 



09-20 
08-15 



06-09 
05-85 
03-34 
03-21 
01-45 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



2896-19 


95-19 


92-47 


91-98 


91-00 


86-65 


84-55 





2 
3 




1 
1 

1 

3 




1 



1 





2 
1 



1 
1 
1 



1 

In 









1 

1 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave- 
length 



Exner and 
Haschek 



80-477 



2917-8 
17-3 

15-7 

14-7 

13-8 
12-40 



11-2 

10-6 

09-6 
09-05 

08-1 
07-1 

06-7 
060 
05-8 
03-2 



01-2 

00-3 

2899-3 

96-2 
95-3 

92-4 

90-9 



86-3 

85-2 

84-4 

83-4 
82-6 
81-8 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



\ + 



2 
2 

1 

1 

1 

8 



lb 

2 

In 
10 

1 
In 

1 

1 
1 

2 



2 

2 

lb Zn? 

In 
lb 
In 






0-83 I 9-9 



0-82 



10-0 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



























)> 





34243-9 
47-8 
60-8 
67-5 
81-4 
88-5 
90-9 
97-3 
34303-2 
07-6 
25-2 
31-5 
34-4 
37-2 
39-4 
44-9 
47- 
56-8 
59- 
63-9 
72-5 
76-2 
89- 
90-9 
94- 

34400-5 
03-4 
33-1 
34-8 
55-6 
67-3 
59- 
69- 
80-3 
96-4 

34518-2 
30-0 
56-0 
62-6 
68-5 
80-3 
96-2 

34600-7 
32-4 
35-4 
37-8 
48-5 
52-4 
57-5 
63-3 
71- 
81- 
91- 

34706-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF. THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 211" 

Osmium — continued. 



I Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 


Vacuum 


1 




" 






Frequency 


1 


Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1_ 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A-f 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 
2 


Haschek 
2880-3 


racter 
2 


0-82 


A 




' 2880-327 




10-0 


34708-3 


79-956 









• 79-4 


2 


ft 


12-7 ' 
19- 


79-095 













«« 


23-1 


78-524 




2878-52 


2 




»9 


30-1 










78-4 


2 




32- 1 










77-7 


1 






40- 


77-464 




77-46 


2 


77-4 


1 




3f 


42-8 


76-602 















S) 


53-2 


75-930 









75-4 


2 




61-4 
68 


75-083 




75-07 


3 


75-0 


2 




71-7 


74-700 




74-73 


1 


74-7 


1 




75-4 










74-2 


1 


99 


9) 


82- 


73-534 






3 








7) 


90-4 


73-126 

















95-3 


72-529 




72-52 


2 


72-4 
71-3 
69-0 
67-5 


1 
2 
In 
lb 


" 


101 

J) 

99 
99 


34802-5 
04- 
17- 
45- 
64- 


67-216 






1 








99 


66-9 


65-892 















9) 


83-0 


1 65-802 




65-80 


1 


65-7 


1 




9f 


84-3 


65131 















„ 


92-3 


64-366 






2 


64-3 
63-4 
62-0 


In 

2 

1 


0-81 


91 
99 

99 


34901-6 
13- 
30- 


61-895 















99 


31-8 


61-075 




61-09 


3 


61-00 


4 




99 


41-7 


60-184 




60-17 


1 


60-1 


1 




99 


52-8 


58-733 















99 


70-4 


58-210 















99 


76-8 


57-659 




57-65 


1 








99 


83-6 


57-117 









57-0 
56-8 


1 
1 






90-2 

92- 

94- 


55-455 




65-45 


1 


55-3 


1 






35010-6 
13- 


53-971 









54-2 


In 






26-0 
29- 


53-441 









53-5 
521 
51-2 


In 
In 

1 






35-3 

52- 

63- 


50-877 




50-89 


3 


50-82 


4 






66-7 


49-427 




49-40 


In 


49-3 


1 


,, 




84-8 
86- 


49-175 




49-15 


1 


49-1 


1 






87-9 


48-360 




48-35 


2 


48-3 


2 




10-2 


97-8 


47-408 

















35109-5 


46-707 




46-65 


1 










18-5 


46-507 




46-50 


2 


46-4 
45-5 


2 
In 






20-7 

22- 

33- 



P 2 



212 



REPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



OSMIVM.— continued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Wave-lengtli 




2845-067 
44-802 
44-501 



41-711 

40-557 

39-792 
38-751 
38-283 
37-542 



32-345 
31-693 



29-468 
29-390 
29-138 

27-670 
27-038 
25-437 

25-013 
24-918 

24-283 
24-051 
23-687 
21-367 

20-682 

20-298 
19-601 
19-349 

18-897 



[15-895 
15-380 
114-962 
! 14-602 
114-318 



Rowland 

and 
Tatnall 



Exner 

and 

Haschek 



2844-80 
44-51 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
! racter 


1 
3 



38-74 
38-28 
37-53 



29-40 



24-27 

21-37 
20-66 
20-30 



15-90 
15-40 
19-98 

14-34 



Exner and 
Haschek 



41-70 2 
2 




4 
2 

2 



32-35 1 



2 
2 






1 


1 




1 



1 



1 





2 

In 

In 



o 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave- 
length 



2844-42 
43-0 

41-5 

40-0 
39-7 
38-70 
38-2 

37-4 
36-2 
34-3 
32-6 
32-3 

31-5 
31-3 
29-9 

29-3 

28-4 



25-3 



24-8 
24-2 



21-2 

20-5 
20-2 



18-8 
181 
17-2 
16-7 
16-3 
15-8 



14-2 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



Inten- 






Oscillation 


sity 






Frequency 


and 




1_ 


in Vacuo 


Cha- 


A-l- 




racter 


0-81 


K 




10-2 


35138-4 




ff 




41-7 


5> 




45-3 


6 i 


»» 




46-4 


1 






64- 
79-9 


1 1 


»» 


1 
» 


82- 


1 


1 


94-2 


1 „ „ 


35201- 


1 „ 


03-7 


8 i „ 


16-6 


2 1 „ ' „ 


22-4 


,, ,, 


31-6 


In 


33- 


1 


„ 


48- 


1 




72- 


1 




93- 


1 




96-2 




" 35304-3 


1 


5» JJ 


07- 


1 


99 


99 


09- 


1 




JJ 

JJ 


27- 
32-5 


1 




JJ 

JJ 


33-1 
36-2 


1 


9f 


99 
9J 

9J 
JJ 


45- 
54-6 
62-5 
82-5 


1 


)) 


JJ 


84- 




)> >5 


87-9 




0-80 


J9 


89-0 


1 


99 


JJ 


91- 


1 


99 


J» 
J» 


970 
99-9 




99 

99 


10-3 


35404-4 
33-5 


2 


99 




36- 
42-3 


1 


99 


J? 


44- 


2 


99 


i " 

99 


47-3 
55-7 
58-9 


1 


J» 


»» 


64-6 


1 


jj 


19 


75- 


1 


99 


>» 


86- 


2 


1 99 


•J 


92- 


1 


»> 


}) 


97- 


2 


" 

9* 


I 99 
99 


35502-4 

08-8 




^9 99 


14-0 


1 


99 19 


18-7 




9* «• 


22-1 


2 


)» 


*) 


1 24- 



UN WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OK THE ELEMENTS. 213 



Osmium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Keduction to 






1 


: 


1 


Vacuum 




■Wave-length 


i Inteo- 

1 sity 


Wave- 
length 


1 Inten- 
sity 




Oscillation 
Frequency 




, 








Eowland 


Exner 


j and 





and 




\ 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


1 Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 








Tatnall 


{ Haschek 


racter 


1 Haschek 


racter 




\ ^~~ 




2813-904 


2813-94 


2 


2813-8 2 


0-80 ' 10-3 


'• 35527-3 
29- 


13-130 







; 1 " " 


37-3 


11-683 


o 


1 99 M 


55-6 


10-680 '■ "■ 





10-7 


lb 


1 




68-3 


10-468 









' 




1 ;; 


71-0 


09-816 















79-2 


09045 


09-04 


3 










89-0 




1 , 




08-8 2 






92- 


08-357 


. 





1 






97-7 


07-910 




' 





. 






35603-4 


07-025 




07-03 


4 








14-6 










06-9 


2 






16- 


05-576 




i 













33-0 


04185 


■ 


04-19 


2 








% >> 


50-7 


04 055 




. 













52-3 


02-039 






1 


020 


2 Pb| „ 




78-0 


/99-692 






1 






99 




35707-9 


96-833 




2796-84 


2 






J5 


l6-4 


44-3 


96-221 









2795-9 


2b 


99 




52-2 
66- 


95-275 






1 






9> 




64-3 


94-309 




94-30 


1 


94-2 


InPt 


99 




76-7 


94-091 




94-10 


1 






99 




79-3 


92-844 









921 


In 


99 

99 




95-4 
35805- 


91007 






2 






99 




19-0 


89-620 













99 




36-8 


87-153 






1 






9* 




68-5 


86-904 




86-90 


1 


86-8 


1 


99 

99 




71-7 
73- 


86-414 




86-41 


3 


86-4 


2 


99 




78-0 


80-061 






1 






99 




82-6 


85147 






2 


85-2 
84-8 
84-0 


1 Ba 
In 

2 


99 
99 

99 




94-3 
99- 
35909- 


82-658 




82-69 


2 


:82-7 


2 


0-79 




26-2 


81-972 








81-2 


In 


99 
99 




35-3 
45- 


80-970 













99 




48-3 


80-269 













99 




57-3 


79-584 













99 


", 


66-2 


79197 






1 






99 




71-2 


77011 




77-01 


1 






99 




99-5 


75-004 1 




75-01 


1 






99 


lO-l, 


36025-4 


74-488 




74-50 


1 






99 




32-1 


74-257 




74-25 


1 






»9 




35-2 


74-125 




7413 


1 






99 




36-9 


73-592 









I 




99 




43-8 


73-176 




73-18 


1 


1 




99 




49-2 


71-869 













1 
" 1 




66-2 


71-150 






1 






ft 




75-6 


70-825 






4 






»* 




79-8 


70-213 




70-22 


1 






99 


» 1 


87-8 



214 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



OSM lUM — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 


Vacuum 


1 




■ 




Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1 


in Vacuo ' 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


X + 


X 




1 


Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 
1 


Haschek 


racter 


0-79 


\ 

10-5 


36090-7 


2769-976 


2770-00 


69-385 






3 








„ 


98-6 


68-369 















36111-8 


67-236 




67-25 


1 








„ 1 26-5 


66-650 






1 








„ ' 34-3 


65-541 




65-55 


1 


2765-5 


1 




48-7 


65-143 






2 


65-2 


2 




„ ■ 54-0 


64-637 















60-6 






64-15 


2 


64-1 


1 






67-0 1 


64-032 




64-05 


2 
1 








" 


68-5 
68-3 


63-371 




63-39 


2 


63-4 


2 






77-1 


62-745 

















85-4 


61-530 




61-54 


2 


61-6 


2 






36201-2 


61-184 





61-21 


1 










05-5 


60-168 

















19-2 


58-923 




58-95 


1 








., 


35-3 


58-775 

















37-5 


57-902 




57-91 


1 










48-9 


56-095 

















73-8 


55-680 















" 


78-2 


54-780 

















90-0 


53-792 




53-83 


1 










36302-3 


51-875 

















28-4 


51-246 




51-25 


1 


51-3 


1 




10-6 


36-5 


50-970 









50-6 
50-4 


1 
1 




»» 


40-2 
45- 
48- 1 








49-4 


2 






61- 




49-30 


1 










62-3 1 








49-1 


1 






65- 


48-964 


48-97 


1 










66-7 1 


48-003 


48-01 


1 


48-1 


2 






79-5 


45-632 




1 










36410-9 


44-981 















19-5 








44-6 


In 






25- 








44-2 








30- 


42-801 















48-5 








42-6 








51- 






42-3 








. 55- 




41-50 


1 


41-5 




0-78 




65-8 


40-862 


40-84 


1 










74-4 


40-701 


40-70 


1 


40-7 








76-4 


40-414 




40-42 


1 


40-4 








80-2 


38-636 






2 


38-6 


In 




93 


36503-9 ' 


38-427 









37-8 


1 






06-7 
15- 




i 




37-5 








19- 








37-1 






24- 








30-7 


In 




30- t 


36-479 




1 








32-7 


35-848 













41-1 


32-905 


32-90 


3 


32-0 


2 


>> >i 


80-5 


31-931 






A 








ft 


93-5 



ON WAVE-LENGTH, tables: OF THE SPECTRA OF THE. ELEMENTS. 215 



OsMitTM — contimied. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 












Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- 




Oscillation 




sity 


lengtli 




Frequency 






1 


sity 








Rowland 


Exner 


and 


- - - -— - - 


and 




1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


1 and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\-l- 






2731-467 


Tatnall 


[ Haschek 


racter 
1 


Haschek 


racter 




10-6 






0-78 


36599-S 










2731-38 


4 


JJ 




36600-9 


30-782 




4 


30-8 


2 


»> 




08-9 


29-093 











9) 




31-6 






2728-63 


1 






y» 


i, 


37-8 


28-364 






2 


28-2 


2n 


99 




41-4 
44- 


27-357 









23-8 


1 


9t 


10-7 


54-9 
36703- 


22-867 









22-9 


In 


99 




15-3 


22-700 













99 




17-5 


21-959 




21-97 


3 


22-0 
21-1 


2 
1 


99 




27-5 
39- 


20-578 






1 






»9 




46-2 


20-130 




20-15 


3 


20-2 
19-2 
19-0 


2 

IPt? 
1 


99 
99 




52-2 
65- 

68- 


18-796 






1 


18-6 


1 


99 




70-3 
73- 


17-839 













99 




83-2 


17-488 













»> 




88-0 


17-162 













99 




92-4 








16-0 


1 


99 




36808- 








15-9 


1 


J9 




10- 


15-726 


15-72 


1 






99 


jj 


11-9 


15-471 


15-46 


2n 


15-5 


1 


99 




15-4 


14-997 











99 




21-8 


14-744 


14-74 


2 


14-7 


2 


99 




25-2 


1 13-300 











' 


99 




44-8 


12-848 











>> 




50-9 








11-1 


In 




75- 








10-5 


1 


„ 


83- 


09-953 


09-96 


1 


10-0 


1 




90-3 










09-2 


In 




36901- 


08-276 


08-27 


1 


08-25 


4 


", 


13-2 


07-519 


07-51 


1 


07-6 


1 




23-5 








07-2 


1 


J, 


28- 


06-804 




06-80 


2 


06-8 


2 


99 


33-3 






06-04 


1 










44-2 


05-547 









05-6 


In 






49-7 


04-695 




9 










62-0 


04-551 


04-55 


1 






99 99 


64-0 










04-2 


1 


99 99 


69- 


03-203 









03-2 


In 


10-8 


82-3 










03-0 


1 


99 99 


85- 






02-92 


1 






9> 99 


86-2 




' 






02-7 


1 


99 99 


89- 










02-6 


IPt? 


99 99 


91- 






02-50 


1 




„ < 


92-0 








1 


01-4 


1 


99 99 


37007- 


00-840 




00-82 


1 


00-9 


1 


99 9» 


.14-9 










00-6 


1 


f9 9» 


. 18- 


2699-688 




2699-68 


2 


2699-7 


2 


99 »9 


• 30-6 


1 








88-6 


In 1 




.. 1 


- 47- 



216 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Osmium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 












Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- 




( 


Dscillation 




sity 


length 


sity 


, 




5'requency 










Kowland 


Exner 


and 




and 


i 


\ 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- i] 


5xner and 


Cha- 


A + 








Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 



Haschek 


racter 

1 


0-77 


A 

10-8 




2698-321 






37049-3 










2698-0 ! 


1 


» 


5J 


54- 










97-6 


1 


JJ 




59- 


97-338 




2697-34 


1 


97-4 


1 


}j 


>? 


62-8 










97-0 


1 


j» 


»» 


67- 


96-709 















»» 


71-4 










96-4 j 


1 




»» 


76- 










95-0 1 


1 


»» 


»» 


95- 


94-854 




94-86 . 


1 


1 
94-7 ' 


1 


)» 


») 


96-9 
99- 


94-615 




94-61 


1 






J, 


»9 


37100-3 








\ 


92-9 i 


2 


»» 


»» 


24- 


92-790 




92-77 


1 






») 




25-5 


92-021 









92-1 


2 






360 


91-483 









91-5 


2 


,j 


5, 


43-4 


89-904 




89-89 


3 


89-85 


4 


)» 


)5 


65-3 


89-447 




89-44 


1 


89-4 
89-2 


1 Cw ? 
In 






71-6 

75- 


88-174 




88-18 


1 


88-2 


1 


)» 


J5 


89-1 


87-277 









87-3 


1 


s» 


?> 


37201-6 


86-777 









86-8 


In 


)» 


>> 


08-5 


86-624 













>» 


»> 


10-6 


85-973 









86-0 


1 


J» 


,, 


19-7 


84-497 






2 






^j 


>» 


40-1 


83-974 















5» 


47-4 










82-8 


1 


»» 


»» 


64- 


82-279 




82-30 


1 


82-3 


1 


)» 


S» 


70-9 


80-806 













M 




91-4 


79-825 




79-83 


In 


79-8 


1 


»> 




, 37305-0 


79-457 









79-5 


1 


JJ 


5» 


10-2 


78-870 













1 

1 »» 


10-9 


18-3 


77-473 


1 







77-5 


2 


») 


JJ 


37-8 


74-969 




75-00 


2 


75-0 


2 


»J 


15 


72-5 


74-793 













i 


»5 


75-2 


74-654 




74-68 


2 


74-7 


2 


9) 


55 


76-9 










73-7 


1 


»9 


19 


90- 










73-4 


1 


S> 


55 


95- 


72-145 









71-9 


1 






37412-2 

16- 










71-3 


lb 




55 


24- 


70-640 




70-66 


In 




1 






33-2 


1 








69-9 


1 


55 




44- 


6C-606 




69-61 


1 


69-6 


1 


i " 


55 


47-8 


6&-158 













1 " 


1 „ 


54-1 


67-593 









67-6 


1 2 


S» 


,, 


76-1 










67-0 


! 1 


J» 


»> 


84- 










66-8 


1 


» 


,, 


87- 


66-295 




66-31 


In 


i 66-3 
1 66-2 


1 

1 


" 




94-2 
96- 


66-079 




66-08 


In 


1 








97-4 


65-370 











1 






37507-3 


64-879 






4 






»» 


jj 


14-3 


64-390 









64-5 


In 


1 9) 


?5 


21-1 


63-960 









64-0 


1 In 


1 » 


' »f 


i 27-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 217 



Osmium— contitmcd. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to ' 




1 








Vacuum 




Wave-length 1 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 


Oscillation 
1 ■c.o^,,^^^^ 












1. Acyju^ij\/j 




Rowland 


Exuer 


and - 





and 




1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- ] 


Cxner and 


Cha- 


\ + 








Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter , 

2 ' 


Haschek 


racter 


1 


A 


37536-4 


2663-314 




! 


2663-3 


6Pb 


0-77 I 


10-9 


62-653 




2662-63 i 


1 


62-6 


1 


»> 


" 


45-8 


62069 




t 


2 


620 


1 


»J 


" i 


53-9 






1 




61-8 


1 


" 1 


" ' 


58- 






61-29 


2 


61-3 


2 


)* I 


99 


64-9 


61011 




6105 1 


1 


61-1 


1 


5J 1 


J» 


68-5 


59-924 




59-91 


2 


600 


2 




99 


84-3 






59-55 


2Pt? 


59-6 


1 


>J 


1 
99 


89-4 


58-682 




58-69 


3 


58-68 ! 


6Pd?l 


9f 


» ! 


37601-7 ! 


57-203 






• 










22-7 


56-774 




56-76 


2 


56-7 


o 


" 1 


99 


28-8 










56-3 


In ! 


J> 


99 


35- 


55-879 




55-89 


In 1 


55-9 


1 ! 


>l 


99 


41-3 


55-297 




55-29 


In ! 


55-6 


1 1 


)» ' 


99 


49-7 


! 






1 


55-3 


1 


» 1 


99 


50- 










54-7 


1 


0-76 


11-0 


58- 


53-860 




53-86 


1 


53-8 


1 


» 


)9 


70-0 


53-388 






1 


53-3 


1 


Ji 


99 


76-7 


53-068 




5306 


1 


53-1 


1 




99 


81-2 










52-5 


1 


»> 


99 


89- 


52-369 















99 


91-1 


51-562 













99 


99 


37702-6 i 










61-2 


1 


J» 


99 


08- 










61-1 


1 


1? 


99 


09- 


50-754 









50-7 


In 


9) 


99 


14-1 








49-7 


In 


99 


99 


29- 


49-428 




49-43 


2 


49-4 


2 


99 


9» 


33-0 










48-2 


1 


J9 


99 


50- 


47-817 




47-82 


2 


47-8 


2 


99 


99 


55-9 






47-00 


2Pt? 


47-0 


2Pt? 


99 


99 


67-6 










46-4 


1 


99 


99 


76- 










45-7 


In 




)9 


86- 


45-207 









45-3 


In 




99 


93-2 


j 44-211 




44-23 


3 


44-13 


4 


99 


99 


37807-2 


43-727 




43-74 


1 


43-7 


1 


99 


99 


14-3 


43-132 






1 






99 


« 


22-9 










i 42-8 


I 1 


99 


99 


28- 


41-700 






2 


1 41-6 


1 1 


J9 9» 


43-4 


41-271 




41-30 


In 


41-3" 


1 


>9 »' 


49-4 


40-625 









40-6 


I 2 




t s» 


i 58-8 


40-079 











1 


91 


99 


66-7 


1 39-533 


1 









I 


99 


'> 


74-5 


t 








39-2 


i 2 


99 


1 99 


79- 


38-428 









! 38-4 


2 


99 


99 


90-4 


38-081 




38-10 


1 


38-0 


1 


99 


1 "9 


95-2 


! 37-223 




37-25 


3 


3712 





J» 


99 


37907-5 


34-547 




34-55 


In 


1 






1 99 


46-2 


34-375 




34-38 


In 


34-4 


I 1 


99 


48-6 










33-2 




\ " 


i " 


66- 


32-994 




32-99 


1 


i 33-0 

1 32-0 

31-4 

31-2 

29-5 


\ 


1 


S9 

HI 

») 


68-G 
83- 
91- 
94' 
38019- 



218 



REPORTS ON TJaE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Osmium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 1 


Vacuum 

■ 


Dscillation 


t 


sity 
and 


sity 
and 






frequency 




Rowland 


Exner 






1_ 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 1 


Cha- ] 


Sxner and 


Cha- 


A-t- 


A. 






Tatnall 


Haschek | 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 
1 














2628-5 


0-76 


IM 


38032-5 


2628-377 




2628-56 


2 


28 4 


IFe 


" 


99 


35-2 










27-8 


1 


>5 


99 


44- 










27-3 


1 i 


?> 


9> 


51- 










26-5 


1 


J> 


99 


62- 


25-436 













JJ 


99 


77-8 


■ 24-677 









24-7 


In 


" 1 


99 


88-8 










24-3 


1 


»> ] 


99 


94- 


. 23-711 













*» 


99 


38102-8 










23-6 


In 


99 1 


»J 


05- 




... 






23-3 


1 


»' 1 


99 


09- 


21-912 ! 




21-95 


2 


21-9 


1 


>» 


99 


28-7 


21-473 1 




21-50 


1 


21-5 


1 


99 


99 


35-2 


20-723 




20-75 


1 


20-7 


1 


99 


99 


46-1 


20-035 




20-05 


3 


20-1 


1 


99 


99 


56-2 










19-5 


1 


)> 


99 


64- 


18-923 













>» 


99 


72-5 


18-435 













J) 


99 


79-6 


17-895 









17-S 


2 


»» 


99 


87-5 


17-062 













9» 


99 


38200-0 






16-05 


In 






» 


99 


14-5 


15-122 













» 


99 


28-0 


14-158 













>» 


99 


42-1 


13-167 




13-17 


3 


13-1 


2 


99 


99 


56-6 


12-732 




12-75 


2 






99 


99 


62-9 










12-6 


1 


99 


99 


65- 


11-410 




11-45 


1 










82-1 


10-881 




10-89 


2 


10-8 


1 


>> 


99 


90-1 


09-669 




09-67 


2 






0-75 


9> 


38307-9 


09-303 




09-30 


1 






99 


11-2 


13-2 


08-342 













99 


» 


27-3 










05-2 


lb 


99 


>. 


74- 


05-051 













»J 


99 


75-8 


04-701 




04-70 


1 






99 


99 


80-9 


03-554 













99 


» 


' 97-8 


03-323 




03-30 


1 






99 


>> 


38401-2 










03-1 


1 


99 


99 


05- 


02-444 




02-43 


j 1 






99 


ft 


1 14-3 


00-855 




00-86 


1 






99 


fft 


^ 37-7 

1 t n ■* 


00-5 .0 




00-56 


1 


1 




>9 


99 


\ 42-1 


00-0 J8 




00-03 


1 






9* 


»» 


1 50-1 








1 


2599-9 


1 


99 


■ J> 


52- 






2599-25 


! 1 






99 


>» 


61-4 


2597-9 









; 97-9 


1 


99 


>> 


81-4 


97-664 




97-69 


1 






99 


9» 


84-7 










97-5 


1 


99 


91 


j 87- 






97-38 


1 






99 


>» 


89-1 


97-319 




97-32 


1 






99 


>» 


! 90-0 
93-4 


97-092 













99 


»» 


96-783 
96-474 




96-81 


1 

\ 


96-7 


1 


99 

9> 


99 
99 


97-8 
38502-6 










96-3 


i 1 


9» 


» 


05- 


96-101 




9611 


1 






99 


n 


08-0 








- - 


96-0 


I 


99 


•» 


10- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TAHLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 219 





Osmium— 


-continued. 










Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum. 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 














Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- 




Oscillation 






sity 
and 


length 


sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland Exner 






1 


Kayser 


and and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 








Tatnall Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 
2595-9 


racter 

1 




A. 

11-2 








0-75 


38511- 


2594-238 


2594-25 


1 


94-2 


1 


„ 




35-7 


94-000 















39-3 








92-7 


1 






69- 


92-082 


92-10 


1 


921 


1 






67-7 


90-859 


90-87 


2 






„ 


y, 


86-0 








90-7 


2 


i> 




88- 


89-595 


89-59 


1 


89-6 


In 


^^ 




38604-9 


89-495 


89-50 


1 






„ 




06-3 


88-517 













11-3 


20-9 








88-4 


1 






23- 


87-675 


87-56 


In 


87-5 


1 






35-0 


86-995 







86-9 


1 






43-6 








86-1 


1 






57-0 








83-0 


In 




»» 


94- 


82-027 


82-06 


2 


82-0 


1 






38717-7 


81-154 


81-17 


1 


81-1 


1 




99t 


30-9 


80-120 




2 


80-08 


4 




99 


46-6 


79-839 















60-8 


78-430 


78-42 


1 


78-4 


2 






72-1 


78-284 


78-26 


1 








99 


74-4 


77-141 















91-4 








76-5 


1 






38801- 


74-852 




1 










25-9 


73-601 











99 


»» 


44-8 


73-198 















60-8 


72-572 


72-60 


In 










60-4 


71-878 


71-90 


1 


71-8 


1 






70-6 


71-611 















74-8 


71-244 


71-25 


1 










80-3 


70-855 















86-3 


68-937 


68-95 


1 


69-0 


1 






38115-2 


67-335 













11-4 


39-5 








67-0 


1 






45- 


66-595 


66-62 


2 


66-6 


1 






50-5 


65-816 









>» 




62-6 


65-261 


65-28 


1 




*» 




70-8 


64-469 


64-50 


1 




0-74 




82-8 


64-287 




1 




)> >J 


85-8 


63-257 




2 


63-3 


2 


3rooo-8 


62-771 


62-78 


1 




IJ )» 


08-8 


60-831 









»» J» 


38-4 


60-578 











»« *» 


42-3 


60-308 











H »5 


46-4 


58-191 


58-20 


1 






»> »» 


78-6 


57-868 


57-87 


1 






83-6 


56-179 


56-17 


1 






39109-6 


55-902 


55-90 


1 






13-7 


65-378 


65-35 


1 






22-0 


56-205 


55-20 1 






24-4 


54-558 


54-55 1 






34-4 


60-873 









HO-9 


48-930 


1 


48-9 


2 


„ ll-"> 


302-2U-6 








48-4 


1 


f» 


»• 


29- 



220 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OK SCIENCE. 



Osmium —continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 












Vacuum j 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- 


j 


Dscillation 




sity 


length 


sity 




1 


Frequency! 




Bowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1 
1 


in Vacuo 


Kaysei- 


and 


and 


Cha- ] 


i^xner and 


Cha- 


A + 








Tatnall 


Hasohek 

1 


i-acter 
2 


Haschek 


racter 




A 

11-5 1 




2548-193 


2548-2 


0-74 


39231-9 




2547-80 


1 


47-7 




99 9t 


38-0 


47-280 













J* J! 


45-9 






1 




47-1 




J» 99 


49- 


; 






46-9 


1 


99 99 


52- 


46-261 


40-25 


1 


46-2 


In 


99 




61-9 




• 




45-0 


iCii? 


" 1 




81- 


44067 




1 


4 


44-1 




1 
99 




95-4 


43-892 




43-90 


1 


43-9 




99 




98-3 






1 


1 


43-0 




99 




39312- 


42-592 




42-00 


I 


42-0 




99 




18-4 






1 




42-2 




99 




25- 


41-747 









41-6 




»9 
99 




31-5 
34- 


40-835 




40-85 


I 


40-8 
40-4 


In 


99 
99 


„ 


45-5 
62- 


40-230 




40-25 


1 


40-2 




99 




64-9 


39-751 













99 


99 


62-4 








■ 


39-0 




99 


99 


74- 










38-8 




99 


„ 


77- 


38-500 













99 


99 


81-8 


38-174 




38-17 


1 






99 


99 


86-9 


38-087 




38-10 


3 


38-10 
36-8 


4 
InZn? 


99 


99 
99 


88-1 
39408- 


30184 













99 


99 


17-8 


35-484 







35-5 


1 


99 


99 


28-7 


34-270 




34-25 


1 






99 


» 


47-7 


32-732 













99 


99 


71-6 






32-53 


1 


32-5 


1 


99 


99 


74-7 


32-083 






1 


32-0 


2 


99 


99 


82- 










31-5 


In 


99 


,, 


91- 










290 


iCu? 


99 


11-6 


39520- 


29-047 













99 


tf 


29-0 


27-832 






1 


27-8 


1 1 


99 


99 


48-0 


27-335 













99 


ft 


55-8 


27-174 




27-15 


1 






99 


99 


58-5 


26-833 













99 


S» 


63-6 










26-4 


1 


99 


99 


70- 






2610 


1 


26-1 
25-4 


1 
1 


" 


99 


176-1 
86- 


24-879 












9) J» 


94-3 










24-3 


1 


99 9» 


39603- 










22-9 


1 


99 99 


25- 


20-150 













99 99 


68-5 


19-886 




19-86 


1 


19-9 


1 


99 99 


72-9 










19-1 


2 


99 99 


85- 


18-533 




18-52 


1 


18-5 


2 


! J9 99 


94-1 


18006 




18-00 


1 


i 18-0 


1 


' 99 ! 99 


39702-4 


15-140 




15-13 


1 


1 151 


1 


j 0-73 „ 


47-7 


13-340 




13-34 


1 


i 13-3 


2 


99 99 


76-1 


12-970 




12-98 


1 


13-0 


1 


1 

99 


9) 


81-9 










12-3 


In Zn^ 


1 " 


^, 


93- 










10-8 


1 


! » 11-7 


39816- 


10-591 









10-5 


1 1 


1 » 


» 


19-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 221 



Osmium — contimied. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 








1 




Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave- 1 


Inten- 






Oscillation 




sity 


length 1 


sity 






Frequency 










Rowland 


Exner 


and 


1 


and 




1 
-- 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and \ 


Cha- 


A + 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 

1 


Haschek i 


racter 




11-7 




2510-024 




2510-04 


0-73 


39828-4 


09-809 









1 








32-0 










2509-7 ' 


2 






34- 


08-707 




08-71 


1 










49-4 


07-282 









07-2 


1 






72-1 


06-767 

















80-3 


06-481 









06-5 


In 






84-6 


04-603 

















39914-8 






04-59 


1 






^ 




15-0 


04-486 




04-49 


1 






„ 




16-6 


03-766 






2 


03-7 


1 


,, 


" 


28-7 


02-382 




02-38 


1 










50-2 


01-963 

















56-9 


01016 




01-00 


1 










72-2 


00-820 




00-80 


1 










75-3 


2498-512 




00-01 


1 










88-1 






2498-50 


2 




'" 






40012-2 










2497* 1 


2 






35- 


96-425 






1 






?* 




45-6 










95- 1 


lb 






69- 


93-935 















11-8 


85-5 


93-710 




93-70 


1 










89-2 










93-6 


1 






91- 


92-477 




92-46 


1 


92-5 
92-1 


1 

1 






40109-1 
15- 


91789 




91-76 


1 










20-2 


91-106 




91-11 


1 








„ 


310 










90-7 


In 






38- 










89-7 


1 




„ 


54- 


89-370 









89-3 


2 






59-6 


89-113 













" 




631 


88-890 













' 




66-8 


88-640 




88-64 


3 


88-65 


4 






70-8 


88-415 






1 


88-3 


In 


99 


" 


74-4 
76- 


86-326 




86-33 


2 


86-3 


4Zn 




11 


40208-2 










85-7 


1 


J> 




18- 


85-424 

















22-8 










85-3 


1 






25- 










84-3 


In 






41- 










83-4 


1 






5(Y 










82-8 


1 


»> 


„ 


65- 


82-524 




82-50 


1 


82-5 


1 






70-0 


81-892 




81-89 


1 


81-9 


1 






80-1 


80-825 

















97-4 










79-9 


1 




" 


40312- 


77-100 













'* 




58-0 


76-923 




76-93 


1 


76-9 


2 






60-8 


76-179 















11-9 


72-9 


75-769 

















79-6 


75-064 









75-1 

74-9 

, 74-1 


1 

1 


■ 


>♦ 


91-1 
94- 
\ 40407- 



!22 


REPORTS ON 


THE i 


STATE OF 


scIE^ 


rcB. - 








Osmium— 


-continued. 








Are Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to , 
Vacuum 




1 


1 




Wave-length 


Inten- ' 


Wave- 1 


Inten- 


Oscillation 




sity 

and i 


length I 


sity 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


1 


Rowland 


Exner 


** 1 


and 


1 


Kayser 


and 


and 1 


Cha- : 


5xner and 


Cha- A+ 1 


A 






Tatnall i 


Haschek i 


racter 



Haschek [ 


racter 


1 


40412-6 


2473-756 




0-73 ' 


11-9 ' 




i 




2473-6 


1 1 „ 


99 


15- 










73-3 


1 


99 


20- 










72-9 


1 


J» 


26- 


72-378 


2472-37 


1 


72-4 


1 


»» 


>» 


35-0 


70-925 


1 







70-8 
70-5 
70-2 


1 i 

1 


)» 1 

1 

f9 


99 
99 


58-8 
61- 
66- 
71- 










69-6 


1 


0-72 


99 


80- 










68-92 


4 1 


99 


99 


92- 


6;-209 











1 


99 


9* 


40503-3 


07-420 













)l 


>» 


16-3 


66-535 













>> 


99 


30-8 










65-3 


2 


5> ft 


51- 


64-577 




64-59 


In 






99 »» 


62-9 






64-11 


In 






») 




70-7 


61-508 




61-51 


2 


61-5 


2 


>> 




40613-6 


5S-940 









58-8 


1 




12-0 


39-4 

58- 


57-804 









57-7 


2 


5> 

99 




74-7 
76- 


57-273 













» 




83-5 


56-555 




56-55 


1 






99 




95-4 


55-716 













»> 




40709-3 


55-422 









55-1 


2 


19 




14-2 
20- 


55-002 






1 


54-7 


1 






22-2 
26- 


54-278 













» 




33-2 


53-989 




54-00 


1 


64-0 
53-5 


1 
2 


>> 
99 




37-9 
46- 


53-392 













99 




47-9 


52-869 




51-84 




1 


52-7 

51-7 
51-4 


1 

1 
2 


Jf 

)» 
»9 




56-6 

59- 

73-7 

76- 

81- 


51-290 













99 




82-8 


50-833 


2450-83 


50-85 


1 


50-8 


2 


99 




90-3 


50-581 













99 




94-6 


49-987 









48-5 

1 47-4 

46-4 


1 
1 
In 


99 

99 




40804-5 
29- 
48- 

- 64- 


46125 




46-11 


1 


46-1 


1 


19 




69-1 


45-980 




46-00 


1 


45-2 
44-6 
44-3 
43-8 


InZn': 

1 
1 
2 


99 
99 
99 
99 


„ 
121 


71-4 
84- 
94- 
40900- 
08 


42-104 









41-1 


1 


99 

99 




36-2 
53- 


40-913 













19 




56-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTEA OF THE ELEMENTS. 

OsMi VML — continued. 



223 



I Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 










' 


Vacuum 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 




Oscillation 
Frequency 




\ 






1 




Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1_ 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 






Tatnall 


Haschek 




racter 


Haschek 


racter 
2 




A 










2440-8 


0-72 


12-1 


40958- 








40-5 


1 




63- 


2437-798 






p 






>} iJ 


41008-5 










35-7 


1 


y> 99 


44- 


34-731 













60-2 


34-605 













62-3 










32-9 


2 


)* «) 


91- 


31-699 




2431-70 


1 


31-7 


1 




41111-4 


31-299 




31-30 


1 


31-3 


1 




18-2 


29-801 













99 99 


43-5 


29-025 













99 99 


56-7 










28-4 


1 


99 '» 


67- 


27-997 









28-0 


2 


12-2 


64-0 


27-386 















84-4 


27-280 













99 ?» 


86-2 


26-907 




26-90 


1 






99 99 


92-6 


26-297 













»» J> 


41202-9 






2506 


1 


25-1 


2 


J> J J 


23-9 


24-820 




24-82 


1 






»> 99 


28-0 


24-655 




24-67 


1 


24-7 
24-2 


1 
2 




30-7 
39- 


24-102 

















40-2 


23-158 






2 


23-13 


4 






56-3 


22-106 

















74-2 


21-949 













0-71 


',', 76-9 










21-7 


In 




81- 


21-268 









20-7 




r, „ 88-5 
98- 


20-137 









20-2 
19-8 




41307-8 
14- 


18-618 




18-61 


1 


18-6 




33-8 


18-457 













„ • „ 36-5 


18-081 




1807 


1 


181 
16-8 




43-0 
65- 


15-436 









15-5 




88-2 


14-639 




14-63 


In 


14-7 






41401-9 


14-198 









14-1 






09-4 


14042 















12-1 


11-992 















12-3 47-2 


11-536 






1 






", ,. 550 


10-282 













76-6 










09-(> 


2n 




88- 


09-476 















90-5 


09010 






1 








98-5 


08-764 




08-76 


1 








41502-8 


06053 




0606 


111 








49-5 


05-531 




05-55 


1 






,. 


58-2 


05-176 















64.7 


03-944 




03-95 


1 








86-0 


02-620 















41608-9 


02-328 




02-31 


1 






J, 


14-1 


01-219 




01-23. 


1 


01-2 


2 






33-1 


2398-300 

















83-9 



224 



llEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIIBNCE. 



OsM lUM — vuntinued. 



Aire Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 








1 




Vacuum 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 




Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 








Rowland | 


Exner 


and 




and 




i_ 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 1 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cba- ; 


X + 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




A 




2397-730 









1 




0-71 


12-4 


41693-7 


96-855 




2396-88 


In 






S> 




41708-7 


95-969 




95-99 


1 


2395-9 1 


1 


JJ 




24-2 


94-379 




94-40 


1 


94-4 


1 


>J 




51-9 


93-986 









92-6 
91-9 


1 

1 




!l 


58-9 

83- 

95- 


91-248 













" 




41806-8 


87-378 




87-37 


1 


87-4 
86-1 


1 

1 




" 1 


74-6 
97- 


84-715 




84-71 


1 


84-7 
83-2 


In 
In 




12-5 


41921-4 
48- 


82-595 













9» 




58-5 


79-931 




79-90 


In 






JJ 




42005-8 


79-730 




79-70 


In 






>> 




09-3 


79-482 




79-46 


1 


79-5 


1 


)» 




13-6 


78-842 









78-9 
78-6 


1 
1 




» 


24-8 
29- 


77-704 




77-66 


1 


77-7 


1 


J) 


„ 


45-3 


77-128 




77-11 


1 


77-2 


2 


»> 




55-2 


76-398 









76-2 


1 






680 
71- 










75-2 


2 


)» 




89- 










74-8 


1 


»» 




96- 










730 


In 


0-70 




42128- 










72-0 


1 


J> 




46- 


71-270 




71-27 


1 


71-3 


1 


»> 




59-0 


70-796 




70-79 


1 


70-7 


1 


»> 




67-4 


09-346 




69-34 


1 


69-3 


1 


)» 




93-3 


67-434 




67-46 


1 


67-40 


6 


»» 


12-6 


42227-0 


63-421 






1 






»» 




98-9 


63128 













»> 




42304-2 


62-855 




62-85 


1 






>J 




09-1 


62-498 




62-50 


1 






9f 




15-6 










58-7 


2 


»> 




84- 










57-9 


1 


J» 




98- 


57-344 




57-35 


In 






»»■ 




424080 


56-999 




57-00 


In 






! M 




14-2 


55-378 




5310 




1 


55-4 


2 


t " 
1) 


12-7 


43-4 

84-4 


51-826 













»» 




42507-4 


51-678 













1 




101 


50-323 









50-3 


2 


9J 




34-7 


47-480 




47-50 


1 






99 




86-0 


45-855 













)9 




42615-7 


43-831 






1 


43-9 


1 


J» 




52-5 


42-043 













91 




851 


40-732 













>J 


12-8 


42708-9 


38-723 






1 






*> 




45-6 


36-876 




36-89 


In 






91 




79-2 


34-640 






1 






>J 




42820-4 










33-0 


1 


»» 




50- 


32-288 






1 






9> 




63-5 


29-356 













r» 




42917-5 



U.\ WAVE-LENUTII. TABLES 01'' THEl SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 225 

OSMIUM — continued. 



1 


Arc Spectrum 




Spark Speotruih 


Reduction to 














Vacuum 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- 




Oscillation 






sity 
and 


length 


sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland 


Exner 












•1_ 


Kayaei- 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 






Tatnall 


Haaohek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




A 




2327-081 











0-70 


12-9 


42959-4 


25-636 













0-69 




86-1 






2324-37 


In 






99 




43009-5 






24-07 


In 


2320-4 


1 


" 


J1 


15-1 
83- 










13-9 


2 




13-0 


43204- 






08-40 


In 






„ 




43307-1 










06-2 


2 


J9 


JJ 


48- 










050 


1 


JJ 


J) 


71- 










93-7 


1 


,, 


131 


43585- 










88-2 


1 


91 


13-2 


43689- 










86-6 


In 




„ 


43720- 










85-6 


In 






39- 










85-0 


In 






50- 






2283-76 


1 










74-2 










83-3 


2 


99 




83- 






82-35 


1 


82-41 
79-2 


4 
1 


JJ 


" 


43801- 
62- 










77-4 


1 


0-68 




97- 










72-6 


2 


JJ 


13-3 


43989- 










70-8 


1 






44024- 










58-5 


1 


JJ 


13-4 


44264- 










52-2 


1 






44388- 






50-97 


1 






99 


13-5 


44411-8 










04-5 


2 


0-67 


13-8 


45348- 



Rhodium. 

Kayser, 'Abhandl. Konigl. Akad. Wissenscb. Berlin,' 1897. 

Rowland and Tatnall, ' Astroph. Journ.,' iii. p. 286 (1896). 

Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' civ. p. 960, or. 
p. 561. 

Snyder, ' Astrophysical Journal,' xiv. p. 179 (1901). 

Exner and Haschek, ' Wellenlangen-Tabellen der Bogensjiektren der Elemente,' 
Leipzig und Wien, 1904, p. 126. 

Adeney, Photographs Ultra-violet Spark Spectra, 'Trans. Pioy. Dublin See' (2), 
vii. p. 331. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


Wave- 
length 

Exner and 
Haschek 


Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


Vacuum 


Kayser 

6983-830 
52-791 
41-743 
18-698 
07-478 
5899-128 
, 71-947 


Rowland 

and 
Tatnall 


-■■ — 

Exner 

and 

Haschek 


\ + 


1_ 


] 


I- 


4 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 






1-63 
1-62 

1-61 
» 

1-60 


4-5 
4-6 

j> 
?• 

9> 
9t 


16707-2 
94-2 

16825-5 
91-0 

16923-1 
47-1 

17025-5 


1907. 




-• 












Q 



226 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 




IlH ODI UM — LViiii i ual . 



Spark Spectrum 



5833-808 
31-730 
21-991 
07-058 
03-482 
5797-668 
95-936 
92-824 
55-894 
42-985 
30-600 
27-466 
26-875 
18-038 
13-799 
08-930 
00-628 
5695-823 
86-543 
59-924 
59-791 
51-46G 
34-847 
32-954 
26-254 
08-541 
07-898 
05-214 
5599-620 
95-043 
68-495 
57-364 
56-968 
55-288 
44-797 
42-260 
35-235 
34-074 
04-845 
03-776 
5497-197 
92-048 
84-421 
81-602 
80-997 
75-318 
71040 
68-921 
68-288 
45-424 
44-508 
41-547 
39-783 
32-224 



4 





2 

3 

In 



In 

On 

4n 

1 

4 

2n 

4 

In 

2 

2 

2 

4 

3 



6n 

2n 



In 

3 



6b 



5n 

In 

4n 

2n 



2n 

4n 

2n 



2n 

5n 

2n 

3n 

4n 

2n 

4n 

4 

2n 



"Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


Exner and 
Haschek 







Reduction to 
Vacnum 



A + 



1-57 
1-56 



1-55 
1-54 

99 

99 

1-53 

99 
»> 

S> 
51 

1-62 

5> 
99 

1-51 

J» 
99 

1-50 



X 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



1-59 4-7 



1-58 



)> 


J* 


)» 


>s 


J) 

1-49 


>» 


J> 


»» 


1 »» 


>» 


1-48 

1 

»> 



17136-8 
42-9 
71-6 
17215-7 
26-3 
43-6 
48-8 
58-0 
17368-8 
17407-9 
45-5 
55-0 
56-8 
83-8 
96-8 
17511-7 
37-1 
51-9 
80-6 
l'?663-3 
63-7 
89-7 
17741-9 
47-9 
69-0 
17825-0 
27-1 
35-6 
53-5 
68-1 
17953-3 
89-2 
90-5 
96-0 
180300 
38-2 
61-2 
65-0 
18160-8 
64-3 
86-2 
182031 
28-5 
37-8 
39-9 
58-8 
73-0 
80-1 
82-2 
183590 
62-1 
72-1 
78-1 
18403-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OV THE -SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 227 



Rhodium— continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 












Vacuum 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 








sity 






Frequency 




Rowland 


Exner 


and 


i 


and 




1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 








Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




^ 




5431-813 




2a 


1-48 


50 


18405-1 i 


25-636 




4ii 


)9 




26-0 


24-910 




4 


„ 




28-6 


23-483 




2n 


>> 




33-3 


08-972 






2 


» 




82-8 


04-898 




4n 


>> 




96-7 


5390-622 






5 


1-47 


5-i 


18545-6 


84-214 











j» 




67-7 


81-683 









99 




76-4 


79-275 






5 






)S 




84-8 


69-470 






1 






)> 




18617-7 


64-290 













»J 




36-7 


59-850 













1-46 




52-1 


56-638 






3 






y> 




63-3 


54-573 






7 






ft 




70-5 


49-463 






2 






)» 




88-4 


39-845 













)> 




18722-0 


36-794 











9» 




32-7 


31-237 






2 






9) 




52-3 


29-890 






4 






99 




57-0 


29-571 











»» 




58-1 


14-911 




3 






1-45 




18809-9 


5292-279 


' 


4 






)» 


5-2 


90-3 


80-250 




2 






1-44 




18933-3 


69-429 




3 






>f 




72-2 


68-092 











l> 




77-0 


59-382 




3 






9» 




19008-4 


51-549 






2a 






9J 




36-8 


48-918 









, 




1-43 




46-3 


37-918 






1 


■ 




f9 




86-4 


37-284 






5 






59 




88-7 


30-752 






4 






9» 




19112-5 


25-706 






1 






>* 




31-0 


22-783 






4 






. >» 




41-7 


14-913 






3 




99 




70-6 


13-491 




2 




99 




75-8 


12-866 


4 




1-42 




78-1 


11-637 


4 




J9 




82-6 


07-099 


3 






9» 


5-3 


96-0 


03-468 


2 






99 




19212-7 


5197-697 


1 




9> 




34-0 


93-276 


7 




)* 




50-4 


87-088 









J9 


ff 


73-3 


85-172 


1 






99 




80-5 


84-342 




4 




99 


)> 


83-6 


78-311 









99 




19306-0 


77-396 


3 




99 




09-4 


76-110 6 




„ 




14-2 


74-883 







1-41 




18-8 


65-561 






. 






19 




53-7 


60-464 


i 


On 






99 




72-8 


57-814 




5 






99 




82-8 


57-224 


1 


2 






99 99 


85-0 


55-691 


5 


' 


.. 1 „ 


90-7 


















Q2 



228 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Rhodium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 












Vacuum 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 
Frequency 








sity 








Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




I 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A.-1- 








Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




5-3 


19430-6 


5145-110 






2 




1-41 


30-903 






2 






1-40 




84-5 


20-824 






1 






„ 




19522-8 


10115 






2 






i< 


5-4 


63-6 


5090-795 






5 






1-39 




19637-9 


88-949 













)9 




45-0 


85-676 






4 






t« 




57-7 


73-607 













»f 




19704-4 


64-475 






4 






ff 




40-0 1 


57-576 




2 






1-38 




. 66-9 


46-583 




2 










19810-0 


28-492 






2 










81-3 


25-692 






1 






1-37 


5-5 


92-2 


12-538 

















19944-5 


4997-919 






1 






99 




20002-8 


96-012 













J4 




10-5 


85-107 






2 






1-36 




54-2 


77-969 






4 










83-0 


66-511 






2 






9f 




20129-4 


63-831 






4 






9) 


„ 


40-2 


61-012 













fy 




51-7 


60-318 






1 






5* 




54-5 


44-975 






2 






1-35 




20217-1 


22-633 






2 






)) 


5-6 


20310-6 


19-821 






2 






}9 




20-3 i 


18-953 






2 










23-9 


13-649 






2 






1-34 




45-9 


08-744 






2 










66-2 


4898-022 






1 






ft 




20410-8 


88-045 

















52-5 


65-922 






4 






1-33 




20545-5 


61-808 






On 






99 


5-7 


62-8 


61-497 






2n 










64-1 


56-614 













ff 




84-8 , 


51-777 






6 






fj 




20605-3 


44-145 






6 










37-8 , 


42-556 






4 






)* 




44-5 : 


33-627 













1-32 




82-7 1 


17-233 













jf 




20753-1 I 


13-678 






1 










68-4 


10-645 






6 






ft 




81-5 


03-393 













1-31 




20812-9 


01-517 






In 










21-0 


4798-829 






4 










32-7 


94-364 

















52-1 


91-640 













„ 




64-0 


91-164 






3 






), 




06-0 


77-304 






2 








5-8 


20926-5 


71-687 






2 








" 


51-1 


70-938 






3 




„ 




54-4 


55-717 






4 






1-30 




21021-5 


50-007 

















46-8 ' 


, 45-27() 






6 






" ()7-8 


1 31-333 






In 






J* 




21129-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 229 



Rhodium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Knvser 



4724-483 
21148 
19-545 
07-108 
04-230 

4696-463 
89-610 

83093 

77-532 
75-187 
66-261 
43-337 
39-526 
34-017 
26105 

20-059 
08-294 
01-792 
4599-553 
72-794 

71-466 
70-489 
69-181 
68-538 
65-373 

61-062 
58-897 
57-343 
51-828 

44-447 
30-763 

28-904 



06-815 

03-955 

4492-644 

84-015 



33-495 



Rowland 
and 



24-215 
23-835 
21-383 
20-178 



Exner 
and 



Tatnall Haschek racter 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 



4569-184 



28-901 



03-955 
4492-643 



33-489 



24-217 
23-824 



4683-15 



77-55 


In 


75-20 


10 




2 


43-35 


3 


39-53 


2n 


3405 


In 


26-12 


In 



20-07 
08-30 
01-82 
4599-6 
72-81 

71-48 
70-51 
69-19 
68-55 
65-37 

61-08 
68-90 
57-35 
51-83 
48-89 
44-45 
30-77 
28-91 



06-83 

03-96 

4492-65 

84-00 



33-50 



24-23 
23-84 
21-38 
20-17 



2 

6 

2 

In 

5 

1 

1 

In 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave- 
length 



Exner and 
Haschek 



3 
4 
1 

In 
1 

2 

In 

6 

1 

3 

3 

3 

2n 

4 

3 

3 

1 

9 



2 
1 

In 
In 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



4686-0 
83-0 
81-7 
77-6 
75-2 



40-5 

20-2 
08-3 



4572-7 
72-5 
71-6 

69-3 

65-3 
63-0 
61-0 
58-9 
57-3 
51-8 
48-8 
44-6 
30-9 
29-Ob 
25-5 
08-0 
06-8 
04-1 
4492-7 
84-0 
78-3 
48-5 
43-5 
33-6 
26-6 
26-3 
24-3 



In 
In 
In 
In 

2 



In 

In 
2n 



1 

1 

1 

1 

In 

1 

1 

1 

1 

4 

1 

In 

In 

1 

5 

1 

In 

lb 

lb 

1 

1 

1 

1 



Reduction to 

Vacuum 



A + 



1-29 ' 5-8 



5-0 



1-28 



1-27 

)» 
S> ■ 

1-26 
1-25 



1-24 



li 



6-0 



6-1 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



J» 


;» 


■ » 


»> 


1-23 




}] 


6-2 


J> 


J> 


1-22 




1-21 


6-3 


>> 


)» 


J? 


99 


99 


f> 


99 


" 1 


» 


» 1 



21160-6 
75-5 
82-7 

21238-6 
51-6 
86-7 

21317-8 
34- 
47-4 
54- 
72-9 
83-6 

21424-5 

21530-3 
48-0 
73-5 

21610-4 
38- 
38-7 
94-0 

21724-6 
351 

21862-4 
64- 
68-8 
73-4 
79-7 
82-8 
98-0 

21909- 
18-8 
29-0 
36-5 
631 
77-3 
98-8 

22065-2 
74-3 
91- 

22177- 
82-5 
96-6 

22252-4 
95-3 

22324- 

22473- 
99- 

22549-4 
84- 
86- 
96-7 
98-6 

22611-1 
17-2 



230 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Rhodium — oontinued. 





Arc Spect 


rum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
















Vacuum 


Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 




Oscillation 
Frequency 






• 








Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




\ 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 








Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 
In 


Haschek 


racter 


1-21 


A 




4410-449 




4410-45 


0-3 22667-1 










4405-8 


In 




91- 


02-725 


4402-716 


02-74 


1 










22706-9 


4388-224 


4388-215 


4388-24 


2 


4388-2 


1 


1-20 




82-0 


80-097 


80-082 


80-11 


8 


80-1 
79-2 


In 
1 




;; 


22824-2 
29-, 










77-0 


In 




» 40- 


76-350 


76-347 


76-35 


1 


76-2 


1 






43-8 
45- 


74-976 


74-981 


75-00 


lOr 


74-9b 


8 






50-9 


73-212 


73-212 


73-22 


6 


72-5 
64-0 


2 
In 




6-4 


60-2 
64- 
22908- 


62-393 




62-40 


In 










16-8 


49-336 


49-333 


49-32 


2 






I'-ig 




85-6 


45-629 


45-626 


45-62 


3 










23005-2 


45-247 


45-245 


45-25 


2 


45-3 


1 




„ 


07- 


42-608 


42-604 


42-60 


4 


42-5 
39-5 


1 
In 




:: 


21-3 

22- 

38- 


36-181 


36-176 


36-19 


1 


28-8 


lb 






56-4 
95- 


25-584 


25-578 




1 


23-2 
20-0 
17-3 


lb 
In 
In 


1-18 




23111-9 
25- 
42- 
56- 


15-126 


15-123 


15-14 


3 


15-2 
13-6 
10-7 


1 

lb 

1 




" 


67-9 

76- 

92- 


08-982 


08-988 


08-99 


2 


09-0 
00-7 


1 
In 




6-5 


23200-8 
45-5 


4296-926 


4296-931 


4296-93 


5 


4296-8 


4 




J, 


65-9 
67- 


88-883 


88-867 


88-89 


lOr 


88-8b 
84-6 
82-0 
79-3 


8 
In 
lb 
In 


I'-'n 


u 


23309-6 
33- 
47- 
62- 


78-744 


78-755 


78-74 


4 


78-7 


2 






64-8 










78-2 


1 




68- 


76-962 


76-974 


76-97 


2 


77-0 
76-5 
76-1 

74-8 


1 

In 
In 


" " 


74-5 
77- 
79- 
86- 


73-578 


73-581 


73-59 


4 


73-5 
72-4 


2 
1 


„ 


93-1 

23400- 


70-696 


60-706 


70-72 


2 


70-7 
69-7 
69-2 
65-3 
64-5 
63-8 
62-3 
607 
60-1 


1 

In 

1 

In 

In 

In 

In 

IFe 

In 




>> 


08-9 

14- 

17- 

39- 

43- 

47- 

55- 

63-8 

67- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OK THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 231 



'RJioiiiv'M—eontinjted. 



Arc Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Kayser 



Eowland 

and 
Tatnall 



Exner 

and 

Haschek 



Inten- 
sity 
' and 
: Cha- 
I racter 



4258-608 4268-617 4258-62 i In 



44-598 44-599 44-60 



30-354 I 30-368 i 30-36 
28-002 I 



58-615 

54-495 

37-008 

I 35-448 

29-080 
25-063 

21-870 

I 19-855 

16-496 



4097-690 



88-646 
87-950 



84-442 



58-634 

54-621 
37-025 
36-445 

29-054 
25-068 

21-855 
19-852 
16-496 

07-665 
4097-692 



88-651 
87-948 



84-450 



21-362 



18-142 18-153 1815 

11-306 11-304 11-26 

06-770 06-777 06-75 

4196-672 4196-661 4196-68 



77-780 77-803 \ 77-80 



58-64 

54-52 
37-01 
35-45 

29-06 
26-05 

21-86 
19-85 
16-49 

07-65 
4097-69 



88-64 
87-94 



2 




1 

20r 

3 

7 
2 



4 

1 

13r 

lOr 
1 

9r 

5 

4 

4 
6 



84-45 I 2 



Spark Spectrum 


Wave- 


Inten- 


length 


sity 




and 




Exner and 


Cha- 


Haschek 


racter 


4259-7 


In 


59-3 


In 


58-4 


In 


56-6 


In 


56-3 


1 


52-7 


In 


49-1 


1 


48-0 


lb 


45-4 


In 


44-7 


2 


32-7 


In 


32-3 


In 


30-3 


1 


21-5 


1 


21-2 


1 


20-0 


In 


18-2 


1 


ll-4b 


10 


06-7 


2 


04-1 


In 


4196-6 


6 


96-7 


lb 


82-7 


1 


77-8 


2 


75-8 


2 i 


71-6 


In 1 


66-9 


In 1 


66-2 


llr 

i 


57-4 


1 1 


54-5b 


6 


37-0 


1 


36-4b 


6 ' 


33-9 


1 


29-Ob 


8 


25-0 


1 


22-7 


1 


21-7b 


6 


19-8 


4 


16-4 


2 


13-G 


In 


07-5 


2 


4097-7 


6 


93-0 


lu 


91-0 


1 


88-0 


2 \ 


85-5 


1 


85-4 


1 


84-6 


1 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



\ + 



1-17 



1-16 



1-15 



1-14 



113 



1-12 



1 



6-5 



6-6 



6- 



Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 



23469- 

72- 

75-3 

76- 

86- 

88- 

23508- 
28- 
34- 
48- 
52- 
52-7 

23619- 
21- 
32-1 
45-2 
82- 
82-4 
83- 
90- 

23700-5 
39-1 
64-6 
80- 

23821-7 
27- 

23901- 
29-4 
41- 
65- 
92- 
96- 

24039-7 
47- 
63-5 

24165-2 
73-4 
83- 

24211-8 
35-3 
49- 
54-1 
65-9 
85-7 

24303- 
38-0 
97-1 

24425- 
37- 
51-1 
55-3 
70- 
71- 
7(i-2 



23i 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







Rhodium 


— continved. 










Arc Sped 


rum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
















Vacuum 




Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 




Oscillation; 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 




Rowland 


Exner 




1 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 


0-9 


i 


4082-942 


Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 
8 


1-12 


24485-1 


4082-949 


4082-99 


10 


4083-Ob 


81-961 


81-975 


81-98 


2 


82-0 


1 


J) 




91-1 


80-690 


80-699 


80-70 


1 


80-9 


1 


»9 




98-8 


77-739 


77-748 


77-74 


4 


77-8 
61-0 
59-5 


2 

lb 

lb 


55 




24516-5 
24618- 

27- 


56-491 


56-503 


56-50 


2 


56-5 


2 


J> 




44-9 


53-602 


53-603 


53-60 


2 


53-7 


2 


1-11 




62-5 


49-188 


49-200 


49-17 


2 


49-2 


2 


)> 


7-0 


89-3 


48-572 


48-571 


48-56 


3 


48-6 
43-6 
43-0 
40-3 
34-0 
28-6 


2 

In 

In 

lb 

1 

1 


J' 




93-1 
24723- 

27- 

44- 

82- 
24816- 1 


26-089 




26-09 


1 


26-2 


la 


SJ 




31-5 ' 


23-302 


23-301 


23-29 


4 


23-3 


6 


»» 




48-2 










20-3 


1 


»» >» 


67- 










17-1 


1 


J> 


)J 


87- 










05-5 


In 


1-10 


,, 


24959- 










03-3 


In 


)> 


7-1 


72- 


3996-313 


3996-307 


3996-31 


6 


3996-2 


8 


s> 


»9 


250160 


95-768 


95-766 


95-77 


5 


95-7 


6 


" 


,. 


19-4 










86-6 


In 


)) »» 


77- 


84-555 


84-556 


84-56 


5 


84-5b 


6 


5» 


J) 


89-8 


76-240 








76-3 
76-1 


1 
1 






25142-3 
43- 


75-472 


75-465 


75-48 


5 


75-3b 


6 


1-09 


5> 


47-1 










73-5 


In 


JJ »> 


60- 










69-3 


In 


)J >> 


86- 


68-320 




68-33 


2 






s) yy 


92-4 


64-688 


64-688 


64-68 


3 






>» 


» 


25215-6 


59-006 


59-009 


59-00 


20r 


590b 


lOb^ 


9» 




57-8 


58-313 




58-31 


4 


58-3 


4 


»> 


,. 


56-2 


53-214 




53-20 

44-10 


1 
2 


50-6 


lb 


99 


7-2 


88-7 
26305- 
471 


42-862 


42059 


42-88 


5 
8 


42-9b 

40-6 
39-8 
38-7 


6 

1 
2 
1 


99 
99 
99 

99 

99 




55-0 

60-2 

70- 

75- 

82- 






3805 


1 


38-0 


1 


99 




86-1 


35-982 


35-983 


35-99 


6 


35-9b 


4 


1-08 




99-4 


35-123 


35-120 


35-11 


4 


35-1 


2 


99 




254060 


34-384 


34-368 


34-39 


lor 


34-30 


8 


99 




09-8 j 










29-5 


In 


99 




41- 










26-6 


1 


99 




60- 










26-2 


1 


99 




63- 










25-1 


1 


J» 




70- 










24-7 


1 


?J 




72- 


22-340 


22-337 


22-34 

16-55 


5 

1 


22-4 


4 






87-8 
25625-7 






1 




15-8 1 


1 1 


.. 1 


"> \ 


30- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 233 







Rhodium- 


—continued. 










Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
















Vacuum 




Wave-length 




Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- 




Oscillation 








sity 


length 


sity 




Frequency 














Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 


A 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 
1 












3914-3" 


1-08 


7-2 


25540- 


3913-657 


1 "913-648 


3913-64 


4 


13-7 


In 






If 


44-4 


. 12-971 


12-904 


12-98 


2 


13-0 
12-0 
11-7 
11-2 
10-6 
10-0 
08-6 
08-3 
07-6 
07-0 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
In 




r 


99 
»J 
99 
)» 
)» 

7-3 

99 
JJ 


48-9 

51- 

57- 

60- 

64- 

68- 

77- 

79- 

84- 

88- 










06-2 


1 






93- 1 










05-5 


1 






98- 


05-423 




05-41 


1 










98-2 










05-1 


1 




', ',', 25600- 










04-5 


2 




04- 


04-362 


04-369 


04-35 


2 








05-2 










03-0 


1 








14- 




b.. « 


02-06 


1 


02-3 


1 








16-2 
19- 










02-1 


1 






',', 20- 1 










01-5 


1 








24- 










01-1 


1 








26- 










00-2 


1 








32- 










3899-0 


1 








40- 










98-6 


1 








43- 


' 




3898-13 


2 


98-1 
97-8 
97-3 


1 
1 
1 








46-0 

48- 

51- 










96-8 


1 


1- 


07 




55- 










96-1 


1 








59- 










94-8 


In 


? 






08- 










93-8 


In 








75- 


3891-953 









92-0 
90-5 
89-0 
891 


In 

1 

In 

In 








86-7 
96- 
25702- 
C6- 


88-475 

1 
1 


3886-470 


88-48 


2 
3 


88-5 
87-5 

860 


2 

1 

In 








09-7 
16- 
230 
26- 










84-3 


lb 


1 


', V 37- 










83-2 


lb 




•» 


45- 










82-4 


In 




9 ii 


50- 










810 


1 




J )» 


59- 










80-2 


1 




) >J 


65- 


1 








77-9 


1 




» )J 


80- 


77-470 


77-482 


77-47 


4 


77-4b 
76-6 


4 

1 






JJ 

99 


82-7 
88- 










74-8 


1 




» J» 


25800- 


72-534 


72-532 


72-57 


3 


72-5 
70-4b 


2 
2 






15-5 
30- 


70140 1 


70-151 i 


70-16 1 


5 


70-2 







J i 


tf 


31-5 1 



234 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







Rhodium- 


—continued 










Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum ' 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 












1 




Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 
and 


"Wave- 1 
length 1 


Inten- 
sity 
and 






Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


! 


Rowland 


Exner 


' 


1 


Kayser i 


and 

Tatnall 


and 
Hasohek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


t 


a" 










3869-2 


1 


1-07 


7-3 


25838- 


3865-291 






1 






„ ' 


»> 


63-9 










63-7 


1 




*» 


75- 


56-663 


3856-654 


3856-62 


20r 


56-7b 


10 


1-06 


9f 


25922-0 


56-167 


56-165 


56-15 


4 


56-3 


2 


„ i 


99 


25-2 






54-81 


3 


54-8 


2 


„ 


99 


34-3 










53-5 


In 




99 


43- 










52-7 


la 




99 


49- 






49-14 


2 


49-2 


2 




9* 


72-5 






44-55 


1 








99 


26003-5 










44-0 


lb 




9* 


07- 










41-3 


1 


** 


99 


26- 










40-6 


1 




99 


30- 










40-3 


1 




99 


32- , 










38-9 


lb 


„ 


99 


42- 


34-893 


34-895 


34-89 


3 


35-0 


2 


„ 


99 


69-1 


34-016 


34-020 


34-03 


15r 


34-lb 


6 




99 


75-0 


33-733 















99 


76-9 






29-17 


1 








99 


26108-0 


28-623 


28-615 


28-61 




28-7b 


6 




99 


11-8 


27-505 






15r 






,y 


99 


19-4 











24-8 


1 




J> 


38- 


22-397 


22-399 


22-43 


15r 


22-5b 


6 




99 


54-2 






18-90 


1 








99 


78-2 


18-345 


18-339 


18-34 


4 


18-4b 


8 




99 


82-1 


17-990 









18-0 


la 




7-4 


84-4 


17-524 















99 


87-6 


16-611 


16-611 


16-62 


4 


16-7b 


6 


1-05 


99 


93-8 


15-169 


15-166 


15-18 


3 


15-2b 


4 




99 


26203-7 


12-599 


12-603 


12-61 


3 


12-7 


1 




99 


21-4 










11-9 


1 




99 


26- 


09-655 


09-648 


09-65 


3 


09-7 


2 




99 


' 41-7 


06-920 


06-908 


06-91 


4 


06-9c 


4 




99 


60-6 


06-071 


06-070 


06-08 


4 


06-lb 


4 




99 


66-4 


3799-466 


3799-461* 


99-46 


7r 


•• 3799-6 


10 




9> 


26312-1 










98-3 


1 




99 


20- 










95-0 


1 




99 


43- 


93-366 


93-364 


93-40 


4r 


93-3b 


8 




99 


54-4 






92-33 


4 


92-4 


i 4 




1 " 


61-6 








^ 


91-6 


1 




>' 


67- 






90-58 


' 1 








" 


73-8 










89-8 


t 1 




1 

99 


79- 


88-033 


88-624 


88-64 


G 


88-7b 


G 




99 


87-4 










86-0 


2 




99 


26406- 


1 








85-4 


la 




99 


10- 










81-0 


la 




99 


41- 










80-0 


In 




99 


48- 


78-279 


78-279 


78-28 


4 


78-3b 


4 




99 


59-7 


i 








77-0 


1 




99 


69- 


75-864 




75-85 


2 


76-0 


2 


l-b4 


1 » 


76-6 










72-8 


1 




7-5 


98- 


71-779 




71-77 


2 


71-8 


2 




f> 


26505-2 


70-130 


70-125 


70-13 


5 


70- lb 


. 2 




*' 


16-8 



♦ Distinct from Ru 3799-489. 



ox WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 235 







Rhodium 


— continued. 










Arc Spect 


rum 




Spark Spectrum 


Keduction to 
Vacuum 




1 












Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 






Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 




Rowland 


Exnei- 






X 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 








Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 
1 




A 












3768-8 


1-04 


7-5 


26526- 










67-2 


1 






37- 


3765-232 


3765-227 


3765-24 


8r 


65-2b 


10 






51-3 










60-9 


1 






82- 


60-554 


60-559 


60-55 


2 


60-6 


2 






84-3 






. 




59-6 


1 






91- 










57-3 


In 






26607- 


55-748 


55-736 


55-73 


2 


55-7 


2 






18-4 


55-290 






1 










21-6 


54-441 


54-431 


54-44 


5 










27-7 


54-269 


54-268 


64-26 


5 


54-3b 


6 






28-8 










50-6 


1 






55- 


48-383 


48-362 


48-37 


6 


48-4C 


8 






70-8 










46-1 


1 






87- 










45-7 


1 






90- 


44-325 


44-325 


44-32 


4 


44-2b 


8 






99-6 


j 37-448 


37-421 


37-43 


4 






1-03 




26700- 










37-3b 


6 






48-8 




36-295 


36-00 


4 










50- 


35-429 


35-429 


35-44 


6 


35-4b 


8 






58-0 
63-1 










35-0 


1 






66- 






34-34 


1 










71-0 










33-4 


In 






78- 










31-6 


2 






90-7 










26-8 






7-6 


26825- 


25-091 




25-10 


2 


25-1 








37-4 










22-3 


In 






68- 






20-91 


1 










67-6 










17-2 








94- 










16-3 








26908- 


14-989 


14-975 


14-99 


4 


15-0 








10-4 






13-98 


1 


14-0 








17-7 


13-593 


13-575 


13-60 


3 


13-6 








20-4 


13-156 


13172 


13-18 


4r 


13-lc 








23-6 




09-773 




2 


09-8 








48-2 










08-6 








57- 










07-1 








68- 










05-2 








81- 










04-5 








87- 










02-7 


In 






27000- 


01-057 


01-056 


01-07 


20r 


011b 
00-3 


8 

1 






11-7 
17- 


3699-461 


3699-458 


3699-46 


2 


3699-5b 


2 






23-4 


98-758 


98-742 


98-76 


5 


98-7 


4 






28-5 


98-415 


98-410 


98-40 
96-24 


3 

1 


98-4 


4 


1-02 




310 
46-9 


95-674 


95-669 


95-65 


5 


95-7b 


6 






61-1 


96- 105 


95-099 


95 10 


2 


95-1 


2 






55-3 










94-3 


1 






61- 


92-506 


92-502 


92-51 


25r 


92-5 


10 






74-3 










91-6 


2 






81- 


91-481 


91-477 


91-50 


2 










81-7 


90-872 


90-853 , 


90-88 


8r 


90-9b 


8 , 




»» 1 


86-3 1 



236 



SEPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIE.XCE. 



Khodium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduc 


lion to 1 












1 




Vac 


uum 




Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 






Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


] 


Eowland 


Exner 


sity 
and 




1 
1 




Kiiysor 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A -1- 






1 


Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




A 1 












3688-7 


In 


102 


7-6 


27102- 










88-0 


1 




1* 


07- 




3683-615 




4 


83-3 


In 




7-7 


39-6 
42- 




83-030 




2 


1 






1 
99 


43-9 


3681-205 


81-184 


3681-19 


C i 


81-2b 


10 




9> 


57-4 










80-3 


1 




99 


64- 




79-353 




2 








99 


71-0 










79-0 


1 




9 9 


74- 










77-5 


lb 




>' 1 


85- 










75-9 


1 




„ 1 


97- 


74-924 


74-916 


74-92 


5 


74-9 


4 




99 


27203-8 




73-710 




2 








99 


12-7 










73-5 


In 




>♦ 1 


14- 










70-7 


lb 




1 
99 


35- 










69-2 


I 




99 


46- 


67-070 


67065 


67-08 


6 


67-1 


4 




99 


62-0 


66-381 


66-366 


66-39 


7 


66-3b 


8 


^j 


99 


67-2 










64-9 


1 




?•> 


78- 


62-027 


62-018 


62-02 


3 


62-Ob 


4 




99 


99-6 


61-760 


61-748 


61-77 


2 








99 


27301-6 






61-55 


1 








»> 


03-1 


58-148 


58-135 


58-15 


15r 


58-2b 


10 




99 


28-6 




56-994 




2 






I'-bi 


„ 


37-2 


55044 


55 026 


55-04 


8 


55-Oc 


4 




99 


51-8 




54-569 




1 








J» 


55-3 






53-64 


1 








99 


62-3 


51-516 


51-505 


51-53 


2 








>> 


78-2 










49-8 


1 




>f 


91- 


; 








49-0 


In 




J> 


97- 






48-51 


1 








" 


27400-7 


44-363 









43-8 


lb 






31-9 
36- 


43-301 















?9 


39-9 






42-83 


I 


42-8 
42-2 


lb 
In 




99 


43-5 

48- 


j 








41-3 


2 


99 


>» 


55- 


39-684 


39-662 


39-69 


6 


39-7 
37-1 
35-9 
33-8 


4 
1 
In 

1 


»* 

*» 
»» 


7-8 


67-3 
87- 
96- 
27512- 










33-0 


1 


>> 


»> 


18- 










32-3 


1 




j» 


23- 










30-5 


1 


,. 


jj 


37- 










29-7 


lb 


J, 


>» 


43- 


27-958 


27-957 


27-95 


4 


28-0 


2 


»» 


)? 


56-9 


27-342 


27-334 


27-30 


4 


27-3 


1 


J» 


»> 


60-7 


j 26-759 


26-744 


26-75 


7 


26-7b 


10 


>> 


J) 


65-1 










25-0 


1 


»» 


)> 


78- 


! 








24-5 


1 


SJ 


9> 


82- 


1 




i 




23-2 


1 




tj 


92- 






1 




23-0 


1 


1 '* 
1 " 


?» 


' 94- 










22-2 


1 1 


1 


>» 


27600- 


1 20-621 


1 20-605 


, 20-61 


5 


20-6 


1 4 


t* 


>> 


11-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 237 



Khodium — continued. 





Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum | 


Reduction to 












1 




Vacuum '■ 




Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 
and 


"Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 




Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


1 


Rowland 


Exner 




1 i 






Kaysor 


and ' 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A.+ 


A' : 

_ 1 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 


1 






"l 






3619-1 


1 


l-OI 


7-8 


27(-23- 




\ 






16-6 


In 


1-00 „ 


42- 










15-2b 


1 • „ „ \ 


53- 


seu-as-t ; 


3614-931 

1 


3614-93 1 


4 


14-8 


79 )9 

8 


55-2 

56- 


14-674 


I 


14-67 


1 




57-2 


14099 




I 


1 


13-9 


61-6 
In „ „ 63- 


12-621 


12-618 


12-62 


6r 


12-5 


8 ',', 


72-9 
74- 




1 


10-93 


In 






J» 1* 


85-9 










09-0 


In 




99 


27701- 










08-5 


1 




05- 


08-246 


08-243 


08-25 


4 


08-2 
07-9 


2 
1 




06-5 
09- 


06029 


06-019 
02-182 


06-05 


6 
2 


05-8c 
03-0 


6 
In 




23-5 
25- 
47- 
53-1 


00-911 




00-90 


4 






',', " 63-0 










00-6 


In 




65- 


3598057 


3598-051 


3598-05 


4 


3598-0 


2 




85-0 


97-300 


97-294 


97-31 


12i- 


97-3b 


8 




90-8 


96-343 




96-32 


4r 


96-3b 


10 




98-3 


96-183 


96185 




4 








99-4 










95-5 


lb 




J, 


27805- 










94-8 


1 




7-9 


10- 


94-054 




94-07 











99 


15-8 


93-685 




93-70 


3 


93-7 
93-0 


2 
1 




99 
^9 


18-7 
24- 


90-688 


90-678 


90-65 


1 


90-6 

85-8 
85-0 


2 
2 

1 


*7 ?» 


42-0 

80- 

86- 




83-683 


83-67 


4 


83-6b 


4 




96-4 




• 83-252 


83-24 


20r 






)S 99 


99-8 










83-1 


6 


f J 




27901- 










80-8 


1 






19- 






80-41 


1 


80-5 
79-7 
78-6 


1 

In 

1 


" 


„ 


21-9 

27- 

36- 










77-0 


1 


0-99 


48- 










76-6 


1 




52- 










76-2" 


1 


99 »» 


55- 










75-7 


1 


, »» 


59- 










75-4 


1 


9* 99 


61- 










74-0 


1 


99 »» 


72- 










73-4 


1 


J> 99 


77- 










72-5 


1 


99 ?» 


84- 










72-1 


■I »> ?> 


87- 










1 71-8 


1 


89- 










71-0 


2 


»» •» 


95- 




70-333 




10 

1 


1 70-3 
69-2 


8 

! 1 „ „ 


28000-7 
10- 


t 


1 




1 


1 68-9 


1 1 


1 » 


»» 


1 12- 



238 



REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Rhodium — cantinued. 





Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Keduction to 
















Vacuum 




Wave-length 




Inten- 


"Wave- 


Inten- 




Oscillation 








sity 


length 


sity 


TTl 








1 


r requency 




Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 


A+ 1- 


in Vacuo 






Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Ha schek 


racter 


X 

\ 










3568-6 


1 0-99 7-9 28014- 










68-3 


1 


17- i 










67-1 


In 






26- 










66-3 


1 




yj 


32- 


3564-290 


3564-282 


3564-31 


3 


64-2 
62-2 
63-0 


2 
2 
In 




99 
99 


48-2 ' 

58- 

65- 










61-8 


In 


99 


68- 


' 




60-53 


1 


60-3 

60-1 

59-2 

69-0 

58-6 

58-0" 

57-5 

57-2 

56-8 

53-9 

53-6 

531 

52-8 

51-8 

50-4 


1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

In 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

lb 




99 

J» 
99 
» 

99 

99 

99 

s'b 

99 


77-8 
80- 
81- 
88- 
90- 
93- 
98- 
28102- 
04- 
07- 
30- 
33- 
37- 
39- 
47- 
58- 


50165 


50-145 


50-15 


1 


500 


1 




9) 
99 


59-8 
61- 


49-681 


49-689 


49-70 


5 


49-6C 


10 




99 


63-5 


44122 


44-097 


44-13 


5 


43-9 


8 




99 


28207-8 
09- 


42068 


42-065 


42-05 


4 


41-9 


4 




9* 
19 


24-2 
25- 


38-409 


38-391 


38-41 


4 








99 


53-3 


38-269 


38-293 


38-27 


3 


38-2b 

37-3 

36-6 

36-4 

34-3 

32 3 


8 

1 

1 

1 

111 

1 


0-98 
" 


99 
99 
99 
9J 
99 
99 


54-4 
62- 
68- 
69- 
86- 
28302- 




30-536 




2 


30-6 


1 


>y 


91 


16-3 


28183 


28-177 


2818 


15r 


28-lb 


10 




9> 


35-2 


25-805 


25-808 


25-80 


2 


25-7 
22-5 
20-9 


6 
2 
1 




»9 

>9 
99 


54-3 
55- 
81- 
94- 


19-690 


19-692 


19-67 


2 


19-6 
17-7 
17-3 
16-8 
14-8 
13-7 


2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
4 




99 
99 

'> 
99 
19 
39 


28403-6 
20- 
23- 
27- 
43- 
52- 


13-258 


13-258 


13-25 


4 


13-2 


4 




ft 


55-6 


11-942 


11-940 


11-94 


4 


11-9 


2 




„ 


66-3 


11-696 


11-691 


11-69 


3 


11-6 

10-7 


2 
1 


;; 


8-i 


68-3 . 
76- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TAfiLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 239 



Rhodium — continued. 





Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
















Vacuum 


Wave-length 




Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- 




Oscillation 








sity 


length 


sity 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 














Kovvland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1_ 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A-l- 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




A 




3509-444 






3 






0-98 


8-1 


28486-4 


08-754 




3508-65 


1 










92-5 


07-471 


3507-466 


07-48 


8r 


3507-4b 


8 


" 




28502-5 


05-559 


05-558 


05-55 


4 


05-5 


2 


99 




18-0 


02-686 


02-674 


02-67 


15r 


02-6a 


10 






41-5 






00-70 


1 


00-7 
3499-3 


1 
1 






57-6 
69- 


3498-887 


3498-878 


3498-88 


15 


98-8b 

96-6 

96-0 


8 
1 
1 


0-97 
9> 




72-4 

91- 

96- 


94-585 


94-591 


94-58 


5 


94-5 


2 






28607-6 


91-365 


91-353 


91-35 


3 










341 


91-216 


91-218 


91-21 
89-81 


3 

1 


91-2" 

90-6 

90-3 


2 

1 
1 


>» 
'* 




35-2 
40- 
43- 
46-8 


87-621 


87-609 


87-61 


3 


87-5 


1 




;; 


64-8 
66- 


87-366 


87-363 


87-36 


3 


87-2 


1 






66-9 
68- 


85-031 






2 










86-0 


84-186 


84-184 


84-19 

83-20 
81-33 


4 


2 


84-0 


4 




:: 


930 
95- 
28701-1 
16-5 


80-658 













" 




22-1 


79-064 


79-053 


79-07 


lOr 


79-Ob 


2 






35-3 


78-646 


78-640 


78-65 


2 










38-7 






77-96 


1 


77-9b 


8 






44-4 


77-354 






1 










49-4 


74-939 


74-920 


74-95 
73-93 


lOr 
1 


74-9a 
73-8 


8 

1 


" 




69-4 

77-7 
79- 


72-994 

















85-5 


72-402 


72-393 


72-40 
71-46 


5 

2 


72-3 


4 




" 


90-4 
98-2 


70-817 


70-805 


70-82 


lOr 


70-6b 


8 


,, 


8-2 28803-5 
05- 


70-515 






1 








OG-0 i 


69-774 


69-770 


69-80 


6 


69-7 


5Ni 




12-0 


69-355 















15-6 1 










64-9 


1 






53- 


02191 


62-184 


62-19 


12r 


02-2a 


8 


,, 




75-3 


59-375 




59-36 


3 


59-3 


1 






98-7 


58-815 













0-96 




28903-4 


58-070 


58-072 


58-07 


3 


58-1 


4 


" 




09-7 


57-219 


57-216 


57-21 


5 


57-2 


4 






16-8 


56-284 

















24-6 


55-595 


55-571 


53-57 


4 


55-5 


1 






30-5 


55-369 


55-365 


55-36 


4 


55-4 


4 






32-2 


54-617 









52-7 


2 




" 


38-6 
65- 


61-294 


, 51-298 


51-30 


4 








" 


66-4 



240* 



REPORTS ON THE STATU OF SCtENCE!. 



. 




Rhodium 


—continued. 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum ! 


Eeduction to 
Vacuum 

■ 
1 




Wave-length i 


Inten- ! 
sity 
and 1 


Wave- 
length 


1 
Inten- ' 
sity 
and , 


Dscillation 
F'requency 
iii Vacuo 








Rowland 1 


Exner 






1 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- ! 


Exner and 


Cha- i 


\-!- 


A 






Tatnall 


Haschek 
3450-47 


racter | 


Haschek 


racter 






3450-437 


3450-435 


5 


3450-4 


1 ' 


0-96 


8-2 


28973-5 


48-715 


48-723 


48-72 


5 


48-7 


2 




>> 


88-1 


47-897 


47-883 


47-89 


6 


47-8 


2 ; 




99 


95-0 








1 


46-7 


1 




S» 


29005- 


46-202 i 






j 








J> 


09-2 


1 








45-4 


1 




J» 


16- 










43-1 


1 




>» 


35- 


43-001 






2 








»> 


36-2 




1 


42-87 


1 








» 


37-3 


42-781 


42-775 


42-79 


4 


42-8 ' 


2 


„ 


J> 


38-0 


42-243 i 









1 




,, 


s» 


42-6 


40-675 


40-671 


40-69 


4 


• 40-6b 


6 


" 


») 


55-8 


35-037 


35-039 


35-03 


15r i 


35-Ob 


10 




JJ 


29103-6 








1 


33-7 


INi 




»» 


15- 


32-234 


32-238 


32-24 


2 


32-3 


1 


" 


8-3 


27-2 










31-0 


1 




>J 


38- 


28-559 




28-52 


2 








»J 


58-6 










28-2 


In 




J» 


62- 


24-533 


24-532 


24-49 


6 


24-5 


4 




)J 


92-9 


23-699 















J> 


99-9 


22-430 


22-434 


22-43 


3 


22-4 


1 




99 


29210-7 










21-3 


8 




99 


20- 


20-307 


20-312 


20-32 


4 


20-3 


2 




99 


28-8 










18-1 


1 




99 


48- 


16-901 













0-95 


?> 


58-0 


15-824 















J> 


67-2 










15-2 


2 




J> 


73- 


12-425 


12-417 


12-43 


6 


12-4b 


8 




» 


96-4 


10-625 






1 








?» 


29311-8 


10-074 















>J 


16-6 


08-990 









09-0 


1 




>J 


25-9 


07-884 


07-883 


07-87 


2 


08-0 


1 




J> 


35-5 


07-387 




07-38 


2 


07-4 


INi 


>» 


99 


39-7 


06-690 


06-694 


06-70 


5 


06-7 


4 


99 


?> 


45-7 


04-021 




0403 


2n 


04-0 


In 


9t 


»» 


68-7 


03-247 













J) 


»5 


75-4 










02-2 


1 


J» 


I *' 


84- 


01-109 




01-11 


3 


01-2 


1 


99 


>> 


93-9 








1 


00-3 


1 


>J 


)> 


29401- 


3399-823 


3399-839 


3399-82 


7 


3399-9b 


4 


9t 


>J 


05-0 


96-956 


96-960 


96-95 


15r 


97-Ob 


10 


») 


>J 


29-8 








1 


j 95-6 


2 


)» 


8-4 


41- 


95-014 


95-040 


95-01 


1 3 






99 


»J 


46-5 








1 


92-8 


1 


\ " 


I !> 


66- 


92-230 




92-24 


' 1 






^, 


J» 


70-7 


91-935 


91-927 


91-92 




92-0 


1 


J> 


i " 


72-7 


91-847 




91-85 


2 






1 '* 


1 

1 " 


73-4 
84-8 


90-608 






In 






99 


J) 






1 




89-5" 


1 


1 

1 " 


jj 


94- 


89-340 
87-960 


89-361 


89-34 


3 








1 " 




95-8 
29507-9 










87-3 


1 


1 


>> 


14- 


87-174 


■ 


87-16 


2 






>t 


1 " 


14-8 










86-3 


1 


»J 


' >> 


22- 



ON WAVE-LENGTfi TABLES OP THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 241 



Rhodium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


! 
Reduction to 














1 


Vacuum 




Wave-length 




Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- 




Dscillation 
Frequency 








sity 
and 


length 


sity ! 
and : 






Rowland 


Exner 


' 


1 I 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 


1 




) 


Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 1 


! 




3385-919 


3385-924 


3385-92 


6 


33860 


4 , 


0-95 8-4 


29525-7 










82-6 


1 


>J " 


65- 




1 


' 




81-7 


2 


99 r> 


63- 


81-578 


81-589 


81-60 


4 






" " 1 


63-5 


81-208 













»> »s 


66-8 




1 






81-0 


1 


)> JJ 


69- 


80-775 




80-80 ' 


4 




1 


T> )> ' 


70-6 










78-7 ! 


1 j 


»» >J 


89- 


77-850 


77-856 


77-81 


4 


77-8 


2 1 


0-94 




96-3 


77-742 I 




1 


2 




i 


J> 




97-2 


77-275 


77-282 ] 


77-28 ; 


5 


77-2 


4 


>J 




29601-2 










76-5 


1 ; 


»> 




08- 


76017 













>» 




12-3 


75-735 






On 






>l J» 


14-8 


73-879 













>J »» 


311 


72-930 













>> 9> * 


39-4 


72-672 


72-668 


72-68 


2 






99 


)> 1 


41-7 


72-379 






7 


72-4c 


2 


>? ( 


j> 


44-2 










71-6 


1 


99 


j> 


51- 










71-3 


1 


99 


>> 


54- 










70-9 


1 


99 


» 


67- 










70-6 


1 


» 


»9 


60- 










70-2 


1 


99 


J» 


63- 


69-824 




69-82 


5 


69-8 


2 


99 


)» 


66-7 


68-914 


68-918 


68-91 


3 






»» 


JJ 


74-8 










68-8 


1 


>J 


s> 


76- 


68-518 




68-52 


6 


68-5 


6 


J5 


99 


78-2 










66-9 


Id 


9) 


»J 


93- 


65-650 













>> 


J> 


29703-5 


65-138 









65-1 


1 


>» 


J» 


08-1 


64'281 









64-3 


1 


J> 


>> 


15-6 










63-7 


1 


99 


J» 


21- 


63-382 













SJ 


9» 


23-6 


62-321 


62-330 


62-33 


5 


62-4 


2 


99 


)> 


32-9 


60-952 


60-947 


60-95 


8 


61-0 


6 


»» 


8-5 


45-0 


60-043 


60038 


6004 


6 


60 


4 


»S 


)> 


530 


58-962 













J» 


>> 


62-6 


57-980 




68-00 


2 






>» 


s> 


71-4 


57-560 













99 


99 


750 


56-670 






1 


56-7 


1 


l> 


»> 


82-9 










56-3 


2 


99 


>J 


86- 










560 


1 


95 


>» 


89- 










55-5 


1 


J> 


)» 


93- 


54-853 




54-85 


4 


54-7 
54-5 
54-1 


1 
1 
1 


1 " 




99-1 
29800- 
02- 
06- 


53-834 




53-84 


2 


53-7 
53-6 
53-2 
52-8 


i 1 
1 
1 
1 


1 " 

1 " 


»5 


08-1 

09- 

10- 

14- 

17- 


62-510 




52-52 


2 






>» 


J> 


19-9 










52-3 


1 


1 » 


»> 


22- 


1907. 
















B 



242 



REPORTS OX THE STATE OV SCIENCE. 



Khoditjm — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vflpuum 




Wave-length 


1 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


inten- 
sity 
and 


- 


DsoiUationj 
frequency 
in Vacuo 




1 


Rowland 


Exner j 




1 




Kayser 


and 
Tatnall 


and 
HaBchek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner and 
HaBchek 

3352-0 i 


Cha- 
racter 

1 


A + 

0-94 


A 

8-6 


i 
29824- 


















51-6 ' 


1 


99 


99 


28- 






1 




51-2 


1 


fj 


99 1 


31-5 










51-1 


1 ! 


ft 


99 , 


32-5 










50-7 


1 1 


9f 


99 1 


36* 










50-6 


1 


99 


99 I 


38* 
41- 
44- 










50-1 


1 


>J 


99 










49-8 


1 


99 


99 










49-6 


1 


>» 


99 


46- 
60- 










49-1 


1 


>) 


99 










49-0 


1 


}f 


91 


51* 

67- 

59- 

62- 

63-3 

651 

70- 

72- 










48-4 


1 


99 


99 




j 






48-1 


1 


)> 


99 


3347-660 









47-8 


1 




99 
»9 


47-437 






1 


47-1 


1 


ft 


99 










46-9 


1 


*i 


99 










46-7 


1 


99 


99 










46-2 


In 


9» 


99 


76- 




3346-071 




1 


46-1 


1 


" 


99 


77-3 
80-6 
86-5 
91- 




45-707 




4 






)» 


»» 




45-156 




10 






>> 


99 










44-5 


2 


)f 


99 


44-337 


44-340 


3344-34 


5 






»» 


99 


92-8 
99-7 
29903- 


43-573 




43-55 


2 


43-2 


2 


9) 


99 
99 


43-036 


43-039 


43-05 


5 






>> 


99 


04-4 
08- 
14- 
21- 










42-6 


1 


99 


9) 










42-0 


1 


99 


J9 










41-2 


1 


99 


99 


















22-8 


40-987 













JJ 


99 


24- 










40-8 


In 


>» 


99 


38-672 


38-087 


38-69 


7 


38-7 


4 


0-93 


99 


43-4 

59-9 
73-6 


36-842 




36-85 





36-9 


4 


99 


99 


35-328 













99 


99 


97-6 
30008-9 
10-3 
58- 


32-648 
31-393 


31-381 


32-66 
31-42 


1 

4 


31-4 


2 


9) 

99 


99 
99 


31-233 


1 31-230 


31-26 


4 






99 


99 










26-0 


1 


;j 


99 


23-232 


23-228 


23-24 


6r 


23-3b 
20-0 


8 
1 


99 


8-6 
»» 


82-6 
30112- 
25- 










18-5 


1 


99 


9y 








i 










42-1 


16-670 













99 


59 


60-3 

74- 
90- 
30205-9 
19- 
20-6 


14-665 




14-67 


2 


14-7 


In 


1 J> 


5> 










13-2 


In 


99 


J> 


09-063 




09-67 


2 


10-7 
09-7 


In 
In 


99 
9* 


» 

)9 










08-2 


1 


99 


91 


08-067 




08-06 


3 






99 


99 


26-0 


07-474 




07-47 


i 


07-5o 


4 


99 


99 


29-4 


07-091 




07-10 


I 1 






>9 


99 


44- 


03-293 




05-30 


1 

4 


05-5 
05-3 


1 

1 


1 99 
99 


99 

t 99 


46-8 
55*4 


I 0t-23S 




04-25 


1 2 


1 04-2 


1 1 


99 


1 99 





ox AVAVE-LENG-TH TAI5LES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 213 







Rhodium- 


—contin ued. 










Arc Spect 


rum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 

Vacuum 


















Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Kowland 


Exner 




1 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 


a" 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 



Haschek 


racter 


0-93 


30258-9 


3303-872 




8-6 


03-474 


3303-068 


3303-49 









>9 

99 


99 
99 


62-5 
66-3 




02-712 




4 


3302-7 


1 


»9 


99 


69-5 


■ 01-820 




02-49 


5 






)9 


99 


71-6 






01-80 









)> 


9» 


77-8 










01-5 


1 


J> 


19 


81- 






01-40 








99 


19 


81-6 


i 00-604 


00-593 


00-56 


4 


00-5 


1 


ly 


9» 


890 


1 00-479 






4 






M 


99 


900 


00-133 













j> 


99 


93-2 


3299-066 




329906 


2 






0-92 


99 


303030 










3298-5 


1 


f) 


9» 


08- 










98-3 


1 


»» 


99 


10- 


97-667 













99 


>9 


15-9 


97-409 




97-41 


2 


97-5 


1 


99 


99 


18-2 


96-847 


3296-842 


96-86 


4 


96-8 


2 


99 


99 


23-4 










95-7 


1 


99 


99 


34- 


94-843 













99 


99 


41-9 


94-400 


94-404 


94-42 


5 


94-5 


4 


99 


99 


45-9 










93-8 


1 


99 


99 


51- 


93-533 













9» 


99 


53-9 


93-012 













>9 


99 


58-7 










92-9 


In 


99 


99 


60- 


92-531 













}9 


99 


63-2 










92-3 


In 


99 


99 


65- 










91-6 


1 


99 


»> 


72- 










89-9 


2 


»» 


>> 


87- 


89-739 


89-750 


89-73 


5 






19 


99 


88-9 










89-4 


4 


99 


99 


92- 


89-274 


89'266 


89-26 


5 






99 


9» 


93-3 


88-159 




88-16 


2 






99 


8-7 


30403-4 










86-7 


1 


99 


99 


17- 


86-520 




86-54 


4 






99 


9> 


18-5 


85-964 




85-99 


2 






99 


99 


23-6 


84-151 













99 


99 


40-6 


83-705 


83-695 


83-71 


4r 


83-7b 


6 


»» 


99 


44-7 


82-932 













>> 


99 


52-0 




82-455 




5 


820 


4 


99 


99 


56-3 


81-827 


81-822 


81-83 


4 






9> 


» 


62-1 










80-8a 


8 


99 


99 


72- 


80-680 


80-664 


80-68 


2r 






„ 


99 


72-8 


78-620 




78-60 


2 






99 


99 


92-0 










77-0" 


1 


99 


>> 


30507- 


76-122 




76-11 


4 






)J 


99 


15-2 










75-1 


1 


99 


99 


25- 


74-908 




74-90 


4 






99 


39 


26-5 










74-3 


2 


99 


99 


32- 






73-47 


1 






>> 


» 


39-9 










73-2 


1 


99 


»> 


42- 










71-9 


4 


99 


99 


54- 


71-748 


71-736 


71-75 


8 






99 


9» 


56-0 


70-702 




70-72 


3 


70-7b 


1 


>9 


»> 


66-7 










69-9 


1 


»» 


,. 


73- 

k2 



244 



fiEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Rhodium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 

Vacuum 

j 


Dscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 




Rowland 


Exner 


sity 
and 




1 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A-l- 


A~ 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




30584- 






3268-7 


2 


0-92 


8-7 


3268-597 




3268-62 


5 






1 
99 1 


$t 


85-4 




i 






67-7 


6 




99 


94- 


67-605 




67-62 


1 








99 


94-7 










66-7b 


1 




99 


30603- 


66-511 




( 


1 








!» 


05-0 










65-5 


2 




99 


14- 










04-§ 


2 




99 


23- 


64-313 















99 


25-6 


63-924 




63-95 


2 








99 


29-1 










63-4b 


6 




99 


34- 


63-280 


3263-268 


63-30 


8 








99 


35-3 










62-3 


1 




99 


45- 




61-175 




2 


61-2 


lb 




99 


55-1 


60-938 




60-97 


2n 








99 


67-2 


59-994 













0-91 


99 


66-2 


58-352 















99 


81-7 










57-2 


In 




9f 


93- 










56-6 


In 




99 


98- 










55-3 


1 




99 


30710- 


55-104 




55-10 


4. 








99 


12-3 










54-8 


1 




99 


15- 










54-2 


1 




99 


21- 










53-7 


In 




» 


26- 


53-457 




53-47 


2 








„ 


27-8 










51-2 


In 




8-8 


49- 










50-4 


In 


99 


if 


67- 


60-151 




50-16 


2 






»* 


j> 


68-9 










49-6 


In 


99 


t> 


64- 






49-30 


1 






99 


9> 


671 










47-2 


1 


99 


3J 


87- 










45-1 


lb 


99 


9> 


30807- 










440 


1 


ff 


it 


17- 










43-5 


1 


99 


a 


22- 


42-820 




42-81 


1 






9» 


a 


28-6 


42-111 













99 


a 


36-3 










41-8 


I 


99 


a 


38- 


41-602 






6 






99 


a 


40-1 


40-998 













99 


a 


45-9 










40-7 


2 


99 


it 


49- 


40-644 













" 


a 


49-3 


1 








39-3 


2 


1 >' 


?» 


62- 










38-6 


In 


99 


») 


69- 










37-9 


2 


99 


)) 


75- 


37-781 


37-777 


37-80 


4 


37-5 


In 






i 76-5 
79- 










36-3 


1 


»» 


a 


91- 










36-0 


1 


)» 


" 


94- 


35-910 




35-92 


2 








ii 


94-3 


34-656 













99 


: " 


30906-4 










34-3 


1 


\ 99 


it 


1 10- 


33-440 




33-45 





33-6 


4 




J» 


180 


32-027 




32-65 


4 


32-7 


1 


99 


I " 


25-7 


i 




I 


1 


1 32-3 


1 


1 99 


S) 


29- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMs:NTS. 245 



Rhodium — contimted. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 

1 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 












Wave-length 




Inten- 


Wave- 


Inten- ' 






Oscillation 








sity 
and 


length 


sity , 
and i 





— 


Fiequency; 




Rowland 


Exner 




1 


in Yiicuo 1 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


K + 


K 

8-8 


i 




Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




30938- 










3231-3 


4 


0-91 










29-5 


1 


' 


»J 


50- 




i 






29-0 


I 


>9 1 


»? 


61- 


• 








25-4 


1 




J> 


95- 










24-7 


2 




)S 


31002- 


3221-589 









21-5 


1 




»J 


31-8 


21-422 






1 








>» 


33-4 


21-193 















>> 


35-6 










210 


2 




J» 


37- 


20-893 






2 








JJ 


38-5 


18-655 













0-90 


»s 


60-1 










18-5 


2 




>> 


62- 






3218-40 


3 






" 


>> 


62-5 


18009 




18-00 


4 


18-1 


2 




>> 


66-3 1 










17-5 


1 




>3 


71- 










. 170 


1 




»J 


76- 










16-5 


In 




l» 


81- 










15-1 


1 




8-9 


94- 


14-984 




15-00 


4 








>» 


95-4 


14-628 









14-6 


1 




)) 


98-9 


14-440 


3214-440 


14-44 


4 








)) 


31100-7 










13-8 


1 




)) 


07- 










13-1 


2 




J> 


14- 


12-667 















9i 


17-9 










11-7 


1 




J> 


27- 


11-504 




11-52 


3 








»» 


29-1 










10-7 


In 




J> 


37- 










09-6 


In 




>» 


48- 


07-390 




07-41 


2 


07-4 


6 




» 


69-0 


06-202 




06-21 


4 


06-3 
05-3 
020 


1 

In 

1 




it 


80-6 
89- 
31222- 










01-7 


In 




j» 


25- 


3199-979 




3199-99 


1 








)> 


41-2 


97-257 


3197-248 


97-26 


4 


3197-2 


4 




)» 


67-9 


94-671 


94-660 


94-69 


4 


94-6 


1 




>> 


93-2 


93-963 




93-96 


2 


94-0 


1 




» 


31300-2 


93-633 






1 








» 


03-4 


92-336 















f> 


16-1 


92-112 















>* 


18-3 


91-313 


91-305 


91-33 


6 








9» 


26-1 










91 -2b 


4 




99 


27- 


90-466 




90-49 


3 


90-5 


1 




99 


34-4 










90-1 


1 




99 


38- 


89-162 


89164 


8916 


5 


89-2 


2 




99 


47-3 










88-7 


4 




99 


52- 


88-408 




88-41 


1 








99 


54-7 


87-998 




88-00 


1 


88-Ob 


6 




99 


68-7 


87-740 















99 


61-3 


87-265 















99 


66-0 


85-702 


85-710 


85-72 


i 5 


' 85-6 


2 




99 


81-3 










84-7 


In 




99 


82- 


84-485 















99 


91- 


83-558 















' 99 


31402-5 



246 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Rhodium — contimied. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 

^ 


1 


Wave-length 


[nten- 
sity 
and - 


Wave- 
length 


jiten- 
sity 
and 


)scillation 
frequency] 
in Vacuo j 




1_ 




Rowland 


Exner 




Kayser 


and 
Tatnall 


and 
Hascliek 


Cha- 
racter 


3xner and 
Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 

1 i 
1 


x + 

0-90 
0-89 

»» 
99 


8-9 

9> 
99 

9-0 




3183-012 
82-519 
81-330 




3181-38 

1 




3 


3181-3 
80-5 


31407-9 
12-8 
24-2 
33-. 


79-833 


3179-843 


79-84 1 


5 


800 


2 


»» 


99 


39-2 
52-2 
60- 


78-517 




78-51 


4 


78-6 
77-7 


1 
1 


99 


99 
99 










77-3 


1 


»» 


»» 


64- 


77-201 




77-20 


4 






99 


>» 


65-2 
67-0 


77-020 













99 


>» 


70-6 


76-666 









76-3 


1 




99 


74- 










74-6 


4 


99 


99 


91- 










73-7 


2 


J» 


99 


31500- 


72-392 
71-625 




72-40 
71-65 


4 
2 


72-4 
71-5 


1 

In 


99 


99 
99 


12-9 
20-4 
33-0 


70-379 









69-0 


1 




99 
99 


47- 


67-072 




67-07 





671 
66-4 


2 

1 




99 
99 


66-5 
73- 










64-3 


2 


t> 


99 


94- 


63-551 




63-55 


1 






99 


99 


31601-1 
08-1 
10-5 
12- 






62-84 









99 


99 


. 62-608 









62-5 


2 


99 
99 


99 

99 


62-388 




62-40 


1 






»» 


99 


12-6 
431 

56-5 


59-354 




59-35 


2 


59-3b 


8 


9> 


99 


59-001 
68-063 




58-06 


2 
2 


58-0 


In 


9» 

99 


99 
99 


56-0 
77-7 
81-8 
92-2 
31700- 




55-890 


55-90 




65-8 


2 


»> 


99 


55-489 






6 






99 


99 


64-453 









63-7 


2 


9» 

99 


99 
99 


52-724 


62-719 


52-73 


6 


52-6 


2 


9» 
If 


99 
99 


09-6 
11- 






51-50 


4 


61-5 


2 


»» 


99 


219 










50-7 




99 


99 


30- 


50-385 
49-978 




50-40 


4 



50-3 
49-9 




99 


99 
9> 


33-1 
37-2 
53-7 
67- 


48-350 






1 


48-0" 


In 


99 
99 


99 

99 


47-736 

47-274 

1 46-327 

45-734 




47-74 
45-71 


4 


2ii 


47-2 
45-7 


In 


»9 
99 

99 
99 


99 
99 

9-1 


69-8 
64-5 
74-0 
80-1 
82-2 


45-518 
41-314 






1 



41-3b 




99 

0-88 


99 


0*4 *d 

31824-7 
28-3 
32-5 
34- 


40-963 













» 


>f 


40-549 






1 


40-4 




9t 
ft 


99 


40-355 









38-7 


In 




99 


34-4 
61- 


38-506 


1 


38-50 


1 


1 




» 


99 


68-2 



UN WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE Sl'ECTRA OV THE ELEMENTS. 247 



Rhodium — continued. 





Aro Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 
















Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland 


Exner 




1 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


k + 


~- — to 
K 

91 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 
5 


Haschek 


racter 


0-88 




3137-825 


3137-824 


3137-83 




31860-1 










3137-6 


1 


>> 




62- 


37-450 




37-45 


4 






»> 




63-9 


35-590 




36-69 


2n 






»f 




82-8 


34-710 













>9 




91-8 


34-047 






1 






»f 




98-5 


30-918 




30-91 


4 


31-0 


2 


» 




31930-5 










300 


In 


*» 




40- 










29-2 


In 


99 




48- 










28-5 


lb 


99 




55- 


26-990 




2700 


2 






»» 




70-5 










26-2 


1 


>» 




79- 


25000 













»» 


» 


90-9 










24-6 


In 


» 




95- 


24-508 




24-50 


2 






99 




96-0 


23-818 


23-814 


23-81 


6 


23-8 


4 


9f 




32003-1 










23-1 


1 


99 




10- 


21-879 


21-873 


21-89 


6 






99 




23-0 


21-381 













„ 




28-0 










21-2 


2 


99 




30- 


20-714 













>» 




34-8 










200 


1 


>t 




42- 


19-846 













>» 




43-8 










18-2 


4 


»f 




61- 










17-7 


1 


99 


»» 


66- 










16-6 


In 


»» 




77- 










15-2 


2 


»> 




92- 


15-027 


16-026 


1502 


5 






»> 


„ 


93-4 










12-4 


lb 


»f 


9-2 


32120- 










10-6 


In 


9f 


„ 


39- 










090 


2 


f» 


„ 


55- 


08-405 




08-40 


2 






99 




61-7 










06-1 


In 


9> 




86- 


05-756 






4 






99 




89-1 


05-110 




05-11 


4 


05-2 


1 


99 




95-8 










03-5 


2 


99 




32212- 


02-634 




02-65 


4 


02-7 


1 


99 




21-4 




00-556 






00-6 


1 


0-87 




43- 




00-407 




2 
2 






9f 




431 

44-6 


3099-667 













99 




53-4 






3097-06 


2n 


30970 


4 


99 




79-5 


96-834 






1 






9t 




81-8 


96-722 













»» 




830 










96-6 


In 


99 




95- 


94-691 




94-69 


2 






99 




32304-2 










93-7 


6 


99 




15- 


93-592 




93-58 









99 




15-7 










92-5 


2 


99 




27- 


91-840 













99 




340 










90-8 


4 


99 




45- 


90-506 




90-62 


2 






99 




47-9 


89-775 













99 




55-6 


89-480 













99 




68-7 



248 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







Ehodium 


— continued. 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 














Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 






Oscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland 


Exner 




1 






Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


^+. 


9-2 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 
2 


Haschek 


racter 


0-87 




3088-428 




3088-42 




32369-8 










3087-7 


1 


JJ 


99 


77- 


87-534 




87-52 


4 






99 


99 


79-2 


87-180 













»» 


99 


82-8 










SCO 


In 


)5 


99 


96- 


85-790 




85-78 


2 






>J 


S> 


97-5 


84-078 


3084-081 


84-10 


4 


84-2 


4 


»> 


99 


32415-3 










83-5 


1 


99 


9-3 


21- 


81-714 









81-8 


2 


99 


99 


40-2 


80-449 













99 


99 


53-5 


78-905 













f» 


99 


69-8 










78-5 


In 


>f 


»> 


74- 










77-0 


1 


»» 


99 


90- 


76-736 




76-75 


2 






tP 


n 


92-6 




76-006 




6 






» 


99 


32500-4 










75-8 


1 


JJ 


99 


03- 


74-806 




74-82 


<> 






99 


99 


13-0 










74-4 


1 


99 


99 


17- 










74-0 


1 


J» 


99 


22- 


73-550 













99 


99 


26-4 










72-4 


In 


99 


99 


39- 


71-716 






1 






99 


jj 


45-8 










71-3 


1 


99 


99 


50- 


71-134 




71-15 


3 






9» 


99 


61-9 


70-467 






1 






99 


99 


590 










69-9 


1 


99 


99 


65- 


69-034 






2 






99 


99 


74-2 


67-395 




67-42 


6 


67-5 


2 


99 


99 


92- 


66-475 













99 


99 


32601-4 


66-333 













99 


99 


02-9 


65-800 













99 


99 


08-6 










64-5 


In 


99 


99 


22- 










63-9 


In 


99 


99 


29- 


63-700 






1 






99 


99 


31-0 


62-544 









62-5 


4 


0-86 


99 


43-3 


61-782 




61-80 


2 






99 


99 


51-3 


60-001 













99 


99 


70-4 










59-9 


2 


99 


99 


72- 


59-473 




59-47 


2 






ft 


99 


76-1 


58-974 






1 






99 


99 


81-4 










68-2 


1 


99 


99 


90- 


57-996 




58-01 


4 






99 


99 


91-8 










57-5 


1 


99 


99 


97- 


56-452 













99 


99 


32708-4 


55-755 




55-76 





55-8 


6 


99 


99 


16- 


54-980 













99 


99 


24-1 










54-2 


In 


99 


9-4 


32- 


63-988 




5401 


2 






99 


99 


34-5 










52-7' 


1 


99 


99 


48- 


51-780 




51-83 


2 






99 


99 


581 


50-842 




60-92 


2n 






9> 


99 


680 


50-050 













99 


99 


76-9 


49-919 













9> 


99 


78-3 










4 -6 


1 


99 


9> 


82- 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE ELEMENTS. 249 







Khodium 


—ooniinued. 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Eeduction to 
Vacuum 












Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 






Oscillation 
Frequency 














Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1_ 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


\ + 






TatnaU 


Haachek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




A 




3049-334 


3049-35 


2 


1 




0-86 


9-4 


32784-6; 










3049-1 


G 


>J 




87- 


49003 




4900 







1 


»9 




88-2 


48095 




48-10 


2 


1 




JJ 




97-9 


47-440 




47-45 









>» 




32805-0 






47-26 


1 


47-3c 


G 


1) 




07-0 


46-871 




46-87 


4 






>> 


yy 


111 


46-304 




46-30 


2 


46-3 


1 


J) 




17-3 










46-0 


1 


SJ 




21- 


45-887 




45-90 


3 






5S 




21-7 


43-586 









42-9 


2 


5) 




46-6 
54- 










41-8 


In 


J> 




66- 










40-6 


In 


»9 




79- 


38-583 






2n 


38-6 


1 


5> 




32900-7 










37-6 


2 


JJ 




11- 


36-483 













JJ 




23-4 


i 




36-15 


1 


35-2 


4 


J» 




37-9 ; 


34-474 









34-3 
33 


In 
In 




^, 


45-2 

47- 

61- 


31-573 













»» 




76-8 










29-6 


1 


)> 




98- 


28-975 













99 


9-5 


33005-1 










28-8" 


2 


99 




07- 


28-545 




28-57 


4 






99 




09-5 


27-817 




27-82 


1 






9» 




17-6 ! 










27-1 


In 


99 




25- 


27053 




27-05 


2 






J> 




26-0 










26-0 


1 


t* 




37- 


25-517 




25-54 


2 






9* 




42-6 










25-3 


2 


9t 




45- 










24-6 


1 


99 




63- 


24018 


3024-019 


2406 


3 






99 




58-9 


23-164 













»> 




68-4 


22-673 













0-85 




73-8 


22-117 













99 


» 


79-9 










21-2 


1 


99 




90- 










20-8 


1 


M 1 




94- ! 






20-60 








99 




96-5 


19-928 




19-95 





200 


c 


JJ 




33103-7 


19-664 




19-62" 


2 


1 


' 


99 




07-1 


19-569 






2 






1 
99 




07-8 


18-194 













9> 




22-9 


17-225 






1 


17-2 


2 1 


9f 




33-5 


16-930 






In 




' 


99 




36-8 


15-960 




j 









99 




47-4 






1 




16-0 


1 


>» 




68- ; 


14-352 




14-37 


2 


11-8 


1 


99 




65-0 , 

93- ; 


11-021 











99 


i 


33201-8 


1 






10-5 


In 


99 


.. 


08- 


10-369 




1 






99 


I 


09-0 1 










09-7 


4 


.. 1 


» 1 


16- 



250 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENtE, 



Rhodium — contimied. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum i 












Wave-length 

1 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 






Oscillation 
Frequency ' 




1 






1 




Rowland | 


Exner 


and 




and 




1_ 


in Vacuo 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 
1 


Haschek 
3009- Ic 


racter 

1 




A. 




3009-103 




3009-10 ' 


6 


0-85 i 


9-5 


33223-0 


i 




07-38 


1 








„ 


420 










06-6 


1 


! 


99 


51- 


05-929 




05-91 


2 


06-0 


1 


9* 


99 


58-2 


0l-565 


3004-555 


04-58 ! 


5 


04-5 


2 


»> 


9* 


73-6 










02-4 


1 


S> 


99 


97-^ 










02-2 


1 


»9 


99 


99- 


01-582 






1 






»* 


99 


33306-3 i 










01-2 


1 '• 


99 


99 


11- 










2998-0 


In 


If 


99 


46- 






2997-45 


la 


97-4 


1 


*' i 


9-6 


52-1 










97-3 


1 


>» { 


99 


54- 










96-8 


1 


»» 


99 


59- 










96-1 


1 


»> 


99 


67- 


2995-828 













99 


99 


70-2 










95-7 


2 


99 


99 


72- 


91-881 




91-87 


2 






99 


99 


33414-2 










91-6" 


IQ 


»> 


99 


17- 










90-7 


1 


»J 


99 


27- 


90-158 













*» 


99 


33-4 


90-048 




9007 









*» 


99 


34-5 








2 


89-5 


la 


»> 


99 


41- 


89-302 













>» 


99 


430 


88-977 




88-97 





88-9b 


6 


»» 


99 


46-7 


' 88-487 




88-47 





88-4 


4 


»» 


99 


52-2 


87-568 




87-56 


3 






»f 


9> 


62-5 










87-4 


2 


99 


99 


64- 


87-117 




87-11 


5 






f» 


99 


67-5 










87-0 


2 


>» 


99 


69- 


1 








86-7 


1 


• » 


99 


72- 


86-330 


2986-321 


86-32 


7 






»» 


99 


76-4 










86-2 


4 


>» 


99 


78- 










85-2 


1 


»» 


99 


89- 


84-593 













)» 


99 


95-8 


84-135 













>» 


99 


33500-9 


1 






83-7 


1 


>» 


99 


06- 


83-194 


83-20 


4 


83-2 


1 


)» 


99 


11-5 


82-514 


82-51 


3 


82-5 


1 


0-84 


99 


19-2 










81-9 


1 


>» 


99 


26- 


81-238 


81-25 


2 


81-2 


1 


99 


99 


33-4 










79-6 


1 


99 


99 


52- 










79-5 


1 


»» 


99 


53- 


77-809 




77-81 


5 






»» 


99 


72-1 










77-7 


2 


>9 


99 


73- 










76-5 


la 


» 


99 


87 


75-935 




75-92 


2 


! 




»» 


99 


93-4 










75-7 


In 


9f 


99 


96- 










75-0 


I 


»> 


99 


33604- 


74-156 




74-15 


3 


74-2 


1 


*» 


99 


13-4 






73-28 




73-2 


1 In 


99 


99 


23-3 








1 


72-6 


lb 


»> 


99 


31- 


71-741 











1 


99 


99 


40-7 










71-6 


1 


»« 


99 


43- 


70-807 








70-8 


In 


99 


9-7 


1 51-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 251 







Rhodium- 


—continued. 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


1 










Vacuum 




Wave-length 

] 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 






Oscillation 
Frequency 




" 








Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 


A~ 




2968-790 


Tatnall 


Haschek 
2968-79 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 
4 






6 


2968-7 


0-84 


9-7 


33674-1 










68-2 


1 


»> 


l> 


81- 








67-1 


1 


99 


ff 


93- 


65-801 











» 


ff 


337080 




65-26 


2 


65-2 


1 


9t 


ff 


14-2 


65018 











»» 


ff 


16-9 








64-8 


1 


»» 


ff 


19- 


63-664 


63-64 


2 


63-6b 


10 


99 


ff 


32-5 










62-2 


4 


99 


ff 


49- 


61-805 




61-78 


2 






99 


ff 


53-7 


60-773 













yy 


ff 


65-3 


60-686 













ff 


ff 


66-3 










60-0 


1 


» 


it 


74- 


59-769 




59-76 


4 






M 


it 


76-8 


59-478 




59-48 


1 






>9 


99 


80-0 


58-899 




58-89 


4 






99 


ff 


86-7 










58-7 


1 


99 


ff 


89- 


58-504 






, 






y» 


ff 


91-2 










68-4 


1 


9t 


ff 


92- 










67-6 


1 


ff 


ff 


33801- 










67-5 


1 


ff 


ff 


03- 










57-0 


1 


ff 


f> 


08- 


66-406 






1 






ff 


ff 


151 


56-229 













» 


ff 


17-2 


65-942 













ff 


ff 


20-5 










55-7 


1 


ff 


ff 


23- 


55-641 




55-54 


2 


55-5 


1 


ff 


ff 


25-1 


55-395 




66-43 


2 






ff 


ff 


26-6 










63-9 


1 


ff 


ff 


44- 










63-5 


1 


ff 


)f 


48- 


61-957 






1 






ff 


f» 


66-1 










50-6 


1 


ff 


ff 


82- 


50023 




60-02 


2n 






ff 


If 


88-4 










49-8 


1 


ff 


ff 


91- 


49-476 






1 






ff 


ff 


94-6 










48-8 


1 


ff 


ff 


33902- 


48-388 













ff 


ff 


07-1 










48-1 


4 


ff 


ff 


10- 










47-6 


4 


ff 


ff 


16- 










46-7 


4 


ff 


f> 


27- 


46-042 




46-03 


2 


46-1 


1 


ff 


f» 


34-2 










44-9 


4 


ff 


9-8 


47- 


42-116 













0-83 


ff 


79-3 


41-246 




41-26 


3 


41-2 


1 


ff 


ff 


89-4 










40-6 


1 


ff 


ff 


97- 


40175 













>J 


ff 


34001-8 










39-7 


I 


it 


>> 


07- 


39-688 




39-58 


2 




>» 


99 


08-6 


38-403 




38-39 


2 


38-2 


lb 


99 

ff 


ti 
it 


22-4 
25- 


37-286 






2 






» 


fi 


36-2 










36-0 


1 


» 


ff 


60- 










36-2 


1 


» 


ff 


69- 


34-088 




^ 









99 


ff 


61*9 



252 



RErORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Rhodium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Eeduction to 












Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 






Dscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 




Eowland 


Exner 




1 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- ] 


3xner and 


Cha- 


A + 


X 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




34071- 










2934-2 1 


1 


0-83 


9-8 ' 










33-3 1 


1 


J» 


)1 


81- 


j 








32-6 


1 


99 


5» 


90- 


2932065 


2932-07 


4 1 


321 


2 


» 1 


)> 


95-8 








31-6 


1 


99 


»> 1 


34101- 


29-256 


29-25 


4 


29-2 


2 


99 


Jl 


28-6 


28-559 







28-6 


2 


99 


99 


36-4 


27-062 







270 


e 


>J 


>» 


54-5 


26-953 




26-94 









>» 


1) 


55-5 










26-4b 


1 


»9 


9» 


62- 


26-322 













») 


>> 


62-8 


26-160 ! 













99 


1» 


64-7 


24-140 




24-15 


4 ' 


24-2b 


s 


»> 


'1 


88-2 


23-239 




23-23 


4 


23-2 


1 


»> 


»» 


98-9 


21-229 









21-0 


1 




9-9 


34222-3 
25- 


20-296 






1 






»J 


)» 


33-2 










19-7 


2 


JJ 


*) 


40- 


17-028 









17-0 


In 


>. 


?> 


71-6 


15-534 




15-52 


3 


15-5 
15-0 


2 
2 


t9 




89-2 
95- 


1 14-691 













J» 


J» 


99-1 


14-114 




14-09 


3 






J> 


»» 


34306-0 


13-715 




13-70 


2 


13-5 


4 






10-7 
13- 


13-474 













99 


>> 


13-4 


13-185 













»» 


J» 


16-8 


12-746 




12-74 


3 


12-7 


1 


99 


»» 


220 


10-281 




10-30 


4 


10-3b 


10 


»» 


»> 


50-9 


09-837 













»> 


f> 


56-3 


07-835 






1 








„ 


79-9 


07-335 




07-33 


3 


07-3 
07-1 


2 
2 


19 




85-9 
89- 


' 05-106 




05-07 


o 








»» 


34412-4 










05-0 


1 




»» 


14- 










04-7 


1 


99 


»> 


17- 


04-440 









04-3 
04-1 


1 
1 


•9 




20-1 

22- 
24- 


03-960 













82 


: » 


25-8 


03-428 






2 


\ 






:> 


32-1 










03-0 


In 


»» 


j» 


37- 


02-975 













s» 


1 

1 *> 


37-5 


00-080 




CO-07 


; 4 






»» 


>» 


71-9 


1 




! 




00-0 


1 


>> 


>» 


73- 


' 2899-800 


j 


1 2899-79 


1 2 


2899-0 


1 


»> 




75-3 

85- 


97-806 









97-7 


1 

4 


)> 

»» 


99 


99-0 
34500- 


97-171 


i 











y> 


>» 


06-5 










96-2 


4 


» 


10-0 


18- 


95-823 






1 






»> 


)> 


22-5 










95-7 


2 




>» 


24- 










93-3 


In 


»> 




1 63- 



Oi\ WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPEGTEA OF THE ELEMENTS. 253 

'RnoBivti— continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 












Vacuum 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 


Inten- 
sity 
and 




Oscillation 




Rowland 


Exner 


XOJ-lg ill-L 






Frequency 








1 


m Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A-t- 


J*. 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




\ 


34554-5 


2898142 






1 






0-82 


100 


92-817 






4 










*» 


58-4 


92-320 




2892-33 


3 


2892-0 
910 
90-0 


In 
In 

1 






64-3 
68- 
80- 
92- 


89-962 




89-96 


3 










92-5 


89-623 






1 


89-3 


2n 






96-6 
34600- 


89-222 




89-21 


3 










01-5 


88-986 









87-8 


1 






04-2 1 
18- ! 


87-082 













f 




27-0 


86-112 




86-10 


3 


86-0" 
85-4 








38-8 

40- 

47- 


85-364 









850 








47-7 
52- 


84-683 




84-67 


2 


84-3 


2n 








55-9 
60- 










82-7 


"■ 1 1 ' 






80- 


82-497 




82-50 


4 


82-5 


1 


, 




82-1 










82-0 




f 






88- 


81-400 




ei-39 


2 


81-4 


1 


> 


> J> 


95-4 


80-912 




80-91 


2 


81-0 


4n 






34701-2 


80-775 




£0-80 


1 




1 9 






02-8 


79-628 









79-3 






, 




16-7 
21- 


78-770 




78-76 


* 


78-7 
78-3 


2n 


, 




" 


271 
33- 


78-139 









780 










34-7 
36- 


76-592 









76-2 






' 




53-4 

58- 


75-764 






2 


75-5 
74-6 


4 


' 






63-4 

67- 

77- 


74-507 













\ 




" 


78-6 


74-115 




74-10 


2 












83-4 


73-742 




73-75 


4 


73-8 
73-2 


2 








87-8 
94- 


73-104 









720 


la 


, 




101 


95-6 
34809- 


71-489 




71-49 


5n 


70-8 




, 


; 




150 
23- 


70-551 




70-54 


2 


70-5 










26-5 


70-108 




70-10 


2 








, 




31-8 


69-746 









69-0 


In 




f 




36-2 

45- j 


68-400 




68-37 


2 


68-4 
68-3 


In 

2 








52-7 
54- 


67-973 






1 








, 




57-7 ' 






67-55 


1 


67-5 


2 








C2-9 


65-755 




65-75 


o 


65-8 


2 




. 




84-7 j 



254 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Rhodium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to ! 
Vacuum \ 




Wave -length 


Inten- 


Wave- 


[nten- 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 


length 


sity 
and 


|] 


Trequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland 


Exner 




1 

1_ 




Kayser 


and 
Tatnall 


and 
Hascliek 


Cha- ] 
racter 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


x + 
0-81 


A 




2864-7 


1 


101 


34898- 


2864-517 




2864-51 


3 


63-8 


4 


i 
»» 1 




99-8 
34909- 


1 








63-2 4 


>» 


tt 


16- 


63057 




63-06 


6 




tf 


tt 


17-6 


62-572 , 













f* 


>» 


23-5 


61-877 1 

1 









61-7 
61-0 


1 

1 




tf 

tt 
tt 


32-0 

34- 

43- 


60-886 




60-84 


4 






II 


91 


44-4 


60-774 






3 






f» 


tt 


45-5 


60-208 













»J 


tf 


52-4 


59-908 ! 




59-86 


2 






1 


ft 


56-4 


59-735 




59-73 


2 


59-7 
58-2 
57-0 


1 

In 

1 


»» 


it 
tt 


58-2 

77- 

92- 






56-25 


2 


56-2 


1 


>» 


tt 


35000-8 


55-273 






4 






» 


tt 


12-8 


54-848 




54-84 


2 


54-4 


1 


ft 


It 
ft 


18-1 
24- 


54-237 









53-6 
53-5 
53-0 


1 
1 
1 


>9 
»> 

If 


tf 

tt 

tt 


25-5 
33- 
35- 
41- 


52-809 













tf 


»f 


43-1 


52-459 






I 


52-3 


In 


ft 


tt 


47-4 
49- 


51-526 









51-6 


1 


tf 


ft 


58-8 










51-2 


1 


ft 


ft 


63- 


50-608 






1 






tt 


ft 


70-2 










50-5 


2 


ft 


ri 


71- 


49-461 




49-43 


2 






tt 


tt 


84-5 










48-9 


1 


ft 


ft 


91- 










48-5 


1 


ft 


ft 


96- 










47-7 


I 


tf 


10-2 


35106- 


45-868 




45-84 


2 


45-8b 


8 


ft 


f» 


28-6 


44-917 













tf 


r» 


40-2 










44-6 


lb 


tt 


f> 


44- 


44-463 




44-45 


4a 






tt 


» 


45-9 










43-1 


In 


tt 


ff 


63- 


42-270 




42-24 


4n 


42-3 


1 


tt 


tf 


73-2 


41-909 




41-90 


4ii 






tf 


»9 


77-5 










410 


2 


tf 


t* 


89- 


39-666 













tt 


»> 


35205-2 


i 38-425 


i 


38-40 


2 


38-4 


1 


ft 


f* 


20-8 


1 








37-3 


In 


tt 


*f 


35- 


36-799 




36-78 


4 


36-8 


1 


*t 


t> 


40-9 










36-5 


1 


ft 


»l 


45- 


35-671 




35-61 


1 


35-6 


1 


>» 


f> 


55-2 






35-52 


1 






tt 


*t 


66-7 


34-990 






1 






ft 


»r 


63-3 










34-3 


2 


t* 


»* 


72- 


34-233 




34-22 


3 






tt 


ft 


72-8 


33-981 






1 






t> 


tf 


75-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTflA OF THE ELEMENTS. 255 

RuoDi vu — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 










Frequency 




Rowland ] Esner 


and 




and 




1_ 


in Vacuo 






Kayser 


and and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A.-^ 






Tatnall i Haschek 

1 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




A 
10-2 


35283- 








2833-4 


2 


0-82 


2832-893 2832-87 


2 


32-6 


1 


7* 


99 


89-6 
93- 


31-398 









99 


j» 


35308-0 


29-664 


29-65 


2 


29-5 


1 


99 

„ 




29-8 
32- 


29-421 




29-39 


2 


28-5 


lb 


it 


" 


33-0 
44- 


28-259 









27-5 


1 


$9 

$9 


9> 
9> 


47-2 

57- 


27-433 




27-41 


4 


27-0 


4 


99 


9* 
9) 


57-7 
63- 


26-798 




26-78 


4 


26-8 


2n 


99 


99 


65-6 


26-532 




26-63 


4 






)9 


99 


68-9 


23-988 













0-80 


91 


35400-7 


23-756 













t> 


10-3 


03-5 


23-604 




23-47 


2 




*' 


99 




06-9 


22-979 




22-97 


2 






yy 


99 


13-3 


. 22-850 


1 









9» 


99 


14-9 




j 




22-6 


2 


»» 


99 


18- 




i 




21-8 


1 


• * 




28- 


21-620 


1 

1 


1 






99 


99 


30-3 










21-1 


1 


9f 


99 


37- 


20-946 




20-95 


3 


20-8 


1 


99 

99 


99 


38-8 
41- 


19-742 




19-72 


3 


19-50 


8 


99 


99 

99 


54-1 

57- 


19-367 




19-35 


2 






99 


99 


58-7 








18-7 


In 


yj 




67- ! 


16-979 




1 


16-8 


. 


»> 


99 


88-7 ! 
91- 


14-817 







13-9 
13-4 
12-9 
12-3 

11-6 


2 
2 
2 

1 
In 


99 
99 

99 

■ 
99 

99 

99 


99 
99 
99 

99 
99 


356160 
28- 
34- 
40- 

48- 
57- 


10-999 


1100 


3 


10-8 


1 


99 
99 


99 


64-2 1 
67- 


09-853 


! 





09-8 


In 


99 


99 


78-7 










07-6 


In 


99 


99 


35607- 


07-270 




07-25 


2 










11-6 


06-212 






1 






99 


99 


24-9 


05-908 




05-89 


2 


05-7 


2 


99 

99 


99 


28-9 
31- 


04020 




0403 


2 


04-1 
02-4b 


4 
4 


99 

9j 


99 


52-7 ! 
73- i 


02-113 









01-7 


1 


99 
99 


99 


77-1 
82- 


01-674 




01-68 


3 


01-G 
00-9 


1 
In 


99 

99 


99 


82-6 
93- 


00-021 













99 




35703-7 


2799-705 













99 




07-7 


99-536 













99 


10-4 1 


09-8 i 



256 



REPORTS ON TH£ state Of SClENCfi. 



Rhodium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Eeduotion to 












Vacuum 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 
sity 




Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 










Eowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1 


in Vacuo 




Kaysar 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 


i. 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 




A. 












2798-3 


1 


0-80 


10-4 


35726- 










97-9 


1 






31- 










97-1 


In 






41- 


2796-743 




2796-75 


3 


96-4 


1 






45-4 
60- 


95-824 






2 


95-6 


In 






57-2 
60- 


95-366 




95-37 


1 










63-1 


94-587 













„ 




73-1 


94-020 






2 


94-0 


1 






80-3 


92-886 




92-88 


2 


92-8 


4 






94-9 


91-270 




91-27 


4 


91-2 


In 






35815-6 


90-872 




90-88 


2 


90-9 


4 






20-6 


90-493 




90-50 


2 


89-1 


In 






25-5 
43- 


86-934 




86-93 


2 










70-6 


85-920 









85-3 
84-8 
84-3" 
83-6 


1 
1 
1 
1 


0-'79 




84-4 
92- 
99- 
35905- 
14- 


83140 




'3-14 


5 


83-2 
82-8 
82-Ob 


1 
1 
6 






20-2 

25- 

35- 


81-184 






1 


81-2 
80-6 


1 
In 






45-5 
53- 


80-439 




80-45 


3 


79-8 


1 






65-1 
63- 


79-654 




79-05 


3 










65-3 


78-967 




78-90 


3 


78-8 
78-4b 


1 








74-2 

76- 

82- 


78-162 




78-16 


4 


76-0 


6 






84-6 
36013- \ 


75-869 




75-86 


2 


75-2b 


1 




10-5 


14-3 

23- 1 


74-557 




74-56 


2 


74-4 


4 






31-3 i 
33- 


73-397 






2 


73-2 
72-5b 


4 
1 






40-4 
49- 

58- 


71-615 




71-63 


4 


71-2 


1 






69-4 
75- 


70-277 






1 










87-0 


68-336 




68-33 


4 


68-3 


1 






36112-3 


67-832 




67-83 


4 


67-8 


1 






18-9 






66-64 


1 


66-6b 


4 






34-4 


64-909 




64-92 


2 


65-0 
64-2 
64-0 


4 

1 
1 






57-0 

66- 

69- 


62-938 




62-94 


2 










82-8 i 


62-311 









62-3 
61-3 


1 

2 






91-2 I 
36204- I 


60-541 




60-55 


2 








„ 


14-2 ' 



01^ WAVf!-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA Of THE ELEMENTS. 257 

Rhodium — ountiuucd. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 


Vacuum 




Rowland 


Exner 


'Sity 
and 






Frequency 










i_ 


in Vacuo 1 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A.+ 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 
' 1 


0-79 


A 




1 


1 


2759-7 


1 10-5 


36225- 


! 




59-3 


In 


1 " 


99 


31- 


i 








57-6 


111 






53- 


1 2757-005 




i 


1 


56-9 


2 


! » 


1 ," 

] 


60-7 
62- 


54-845 




1 









1 " 


» 


89-2 




' 




54-3 


4 


fi 


1 7» 


96- 








53-3 


1 


" 


>J 


36310- 






1 




53-2 


1 


it 


f» 


11- 






I 




53-1 


1 1 






12- 


62-941 


1 
1 


2752-95 

1 


2 


i 52-3 
51-6 


2 

1 


99 


I 


14-2 

23- 

32- 


51-450 




51-47 


2 










340 


51-140 




49-38 




1 


48-4 
47-7 
45-8 
44-8 


I 
4, 
1 
lb 


99 


10-6 

99 


38-0 
61-2 
74- 
83- 
36409- 
22- 


43-568 




43-55 











ti 


38-4 






41-85 


2 


41-8 
41-7 


1 

1 


0-78 


» 


61-1 
63- 


40-647 




40-63 


2 










77-2 


40-487 













jf 


„ 


79-3 


40-304 




40-30 


2 


1 






81-7 


40-027 




4000 


1 


40-Ob 8 






85-6 


39-845 




39-80 


1 










88-1 


38-359 




38-34 


2 








" 


36507-7 


37-717 




37-67 


2 










16-5 


37-509 




37-47 


2 


37-5b 


8 




" 


19-2 t 


36-860 




36-84 


3 


30-8 
35-7 
35-2 


1 
1 
1 


" 


99 
99 


27-9 

43- 

60* 


34-906 




34-89 


2 


34-2 


1 




99 
99 


53-8 
63- 


32-261 
31-874 









1 
1 
1 

1 


31-7 
30-8 


1 

4 




99 
99 
99 

99 

1 


89-1 
94-3 
97- 
36609- 


29-611 






: 


29-7 


1 


«• 1 


" 


24-7 


29-034 




29-00 


6 \ 


29-lb 

27-7 


6 

1 


1 
" 1 


" 1 
19 

i 


32-6 
50- 


26-934 













» ! 


10-7 


60-5 


25-961 









25-8 
25-1 
24-1 
23-1 
22-9 


1 

1 
1 
1 
1 


" i 


99 
99 

99 

99 
99 


73-0 
76- 
85- 
99- 
36712- 
15- 


22-389 






1 


22-3 


1 




99 


21-7 
2^-8 


22-243 




22-23 


2 j 








» 






20-60 


2 ' 


20-6 


1 




99 


45-9 
60-9 1 


20-235 i 


20-23 


3 ' 








99 


1907. 



















258 



REPO:<rs ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 







RHODIUM- 


— ooiUmued. 








Arc Specti-um 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 












Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave- 
length 


Inten- 






Oscillation 




sity 
and 


sity 
and 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 




Rowland 


Exner 






1 




Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner and 


Cha- 


A + 


A. 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 


Haschek 


racter 
1 




36753- 










2720-1 


0-78 


10-7 


2718-640 




2718-63 


2 










72-4 










18-5 


1 






74- 


18111 









18-1 


4 






79-6 


17-606 




17-56 


3 






" 




86-7 










17-4 


1 






89- 


16-912 




16-89 


2 










95-9 


16-645 









16-7 


1 






99-4 


15-399 




15-40 


2 


15-4b 


8 






36816-3 


15149 




15-14 


2 










19-8 


14-881 

















23-3 


14-499 




14-50 


4 


14-3 


1 






28-5 
31- 










13-3 


2 






45- 


09-613 




09-60 


3 










95-0 


07-896 






On 










36918-3 


07-320 




07-32 


2 


07-3 


1 






26-2 










06-7 


2 






35- 


06135 






2 








»> 


42-4 


05-718 




05-73 


3 


05-7b 


10 






48-0 


05059 




05-05 









„ 




57-1 










04-9 


4 






59- 


03-820 




03-84 


6 










73-9 










03-7 


1 






76- 










03-5 


1 


„ 




78- 










03-3 


1 


„ 


l" 


81- 


02-621 















10- 


90-3 


02-337 




02-33 


2 








U. 


94-3 


02-158 




02-17 


2 






ff 




96-6 










01-3 


1 






37008- 


00-688 




00-69 


1 


00-7 


4 


„ 




16-8 


00-384 




00-39 


2 










20-9 










2699-9 


2 






28- 










99-0 


In 






40- 


2697-955 




2697-95 


2 






0-77 




54-3 










97-1 


2 






66- 










96-0 


4 






81- 


94-405 




94-40 


4 










37103-2 










94-3 


2 






05- 


93-726 




93-73 


2a 










12-5 










93-5 


2 






16- 










92-9 


1 






24- 


i)-2'M0 






2 


92-4 


1 






30-9 










92-2 


1 






34- 










91-2 


4 






47- 










90-4 


1 






58- 


89-716 




89-71 





89-7 


4 






67-9 


89-022 

















77-4 










88-3 


1 






87- 


88-173 




88-18 


2 










89-1 


87-411 




87-40 


2 










99-8 


87-015 




87-01 


3 










37205-2 










86-7 


1 






10- 


86-608 




86-63 


3 


. 








10-7 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 259 







Rhodium 


—continued. 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Eeduction to 


1 




1 


1 


Vacuum 




"Wave-length 


' Inten- 


"Wave- 


Inten- 




Oscillation 




I s'ty 


length 


sity 




Frequency 














Rowland 


Exner 


and 




and 




1 


in Vacuo 


Kayser 


and 


and 


Cha- 


Exner anc 


' Cha- 


A.+ 


X 






Tatnall 


Haschek 


racter 



Haschek 


racter 


; 0-77 


A 




2685-551 


i 




10-8 37225-5 


j 






2684-4 


8 


*> 




41- 


84-301 ' 


2684-30 


2 






>» 




42-9 


83-660 ! 


83-66 





83-7b 


8 






51-7 


82-624 i 


82-64 


2 






Jf 


1 


52-1 


81-873 


81-87 


3 






»» 




76-6 


1 






' 81-7 


4 


>> 




79- , 


80-717 




80-72 


4 










92-6 


80-379 


1 


80-37 


1 ' 


78-8 


1 


9