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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 

OF THE 

SEVENTY.EIGHTH MEETING OF THE 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 







DUBLIN 

SEPTEMBER 1908 



London 
john murray, albemarle street 

1909 
Office of the AssodaticJi : Biir/i'iigfoii House, London, JV. 



sroTriswooDK and fo. Vfn., t.ondox 
cjLiiixsrr.n and irmx 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Officees and Council, 1908-1909 xxxi 

Rules of the British Association xxxiii 

Tables: Past Annual Meetings: 

Places and Dates, Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local Secretaries xlix 

Trustees and General Officers Ixv 

Sectional Presidents and Secretaries Ixvi 

Chairmen and Secretaries of Conferences of Delegates Ixxxvii 

Evening Discourses Ixxxviii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xcii 

Attendances and Receipts xciv 

Analysis of Attendances xcvi 

Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes xcvii 

Repobt of the Council to the General Committee, 1907-1908 ... cxx 
General Treasurer's Account, 1907-1908 cxxiv 

DUBLIN MEETING, 1908: 

General Meetings ^,., cxxvi 

Secti onal Officers cxx vi 

Conference of Delegates cxxviii 

Committee of Recommendations ; cxxviii 

Research Committees cxxix 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso cxxxix 

Resolutions and Recommendations referred to the Cour.cil cxxxix 

Synopsis of Grants of Money cxli 

Address by the President, Francis Darwin, MA., LL.D., F.R.S 3 

Reports on the State of Science 32 

Transactions of the Sections 579 

Evening Discourses 945 

Index 951 

List of Members, kc 93 pp 

A2 



iv CONTENTS. 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Page 
Experiments for improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
Rayleigh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professors 
W. E. AyRTON, J. Peeey, W. G. Adams, and G. Carey Foster, Sir 
Oliver J. Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors 
A. ScHTJSTEE, J. A. Fleming, and J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fit^patrick, Dr. G. Johstone Stoney, 
Pi-ofessor S. P. Thompson, 'Mi\ J. Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
Sir A. W. RrcKER, Pi-ofessor H. L. Callendar, and Messrs. G. Matthey, 
A. P. Trotter, T. Mather, and F. E. Smith 31 

Appendix I. — On the Secular Changes of the Standards of Resistance 

at the National Physical Laboratory. By F. E. Smith, A.R.C.Sc. 34 

Appendix II. — Specifications for the Practical Realisation of the 
Definitions of the International Ohm and International Ampire, 
and Instructions for the Preparation of the Weston Cadmium 
Cell 51 

JIagnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook 
(Secretary), Pi-ofessor W. G. Adams, Dr. Chree, Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. 
Fox, Sir A. W. Rucker, and Pi-ofessor Schuster 55 

Geodetic Arc in Africa. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir George 
Darwin (Chairman), Sir David Gill (Secretary), Major C. F. Close, and 
Sir George Taubman Goldie, appointed to co-operate in the measure- 
ment of a further portion of the Geodetic Arc of Meridian North of Lake 
Tanganyika. (Drawn up by the Chairman) 56 

Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Lord McLaren (Chairman), Professor Crum Brown (Secre- 
tary), Sir John ]\Iurray, Professor F. W. Dyson, and Mr. R. T. Omond . . 58 

The further Tabulation of Bessel Functions. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill (Chairman), Dr. L. N. G. Filon 
(Secretary), and Professor Alfred Lodge 58 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by means of Kites in co-operation 
with a Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Seventh Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. W. H. 
Dines (Secretary), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, Professor A. Schtjsteb, and Dr. W. 
Watson. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 59 

The Captive Balloon at the Howard Estate Kite Station. By J. E. 
Petavel, F.R.S 59 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. - V 

Page 
Seisolological Investigations. — Thirteenth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor H. H. Ttjeneb (Chairman), Dr. J. Milne (Secretary), 
Dr. T. G. BoNNEY, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Sir George Darwin, Mr. 
Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor J. A. Ewing, Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, Professor J. W. Judd, Professor C. G. 
Knott, Professor R. Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perry, 
Mr. W. E. Pltjmmeb, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, and 
Mr. Nelson Richardson. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 60 

I. General Notes 60 

II. Sites of Stations 62 

III. On the Orientation of an Instrument with regard to the Building 

in which it is placed 63 

IV. The Large Earthquakes for 1907 63 

V. After-shocks of the Jamaica Earthquake, January 14, 1907 .... 64 

VI. On the Dissipation of Earthquake Motion as measured by Ampli- 
tude and Duration 67 

VII. On the Direction in which Earthquake Motion is most freely pro- 
pagated 74 

VIII. A Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes 78 

IX. On a Seismogram obtained in London on October 16, 1907 .... 81 

X. Map of the World. By R. D. Oldham 82 

XI. A Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes. By Shinobu Hirota . , 82 

Dynamic Isomerism. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
H. E. Armstrong (Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry (Secretary), Professor 
Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. M. 0. Forster, 
and Dr. A. Lapworth. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 112 

The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Substances, and 
its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping (Chairman), Professor 
K. J. P. Orton (Secretary), Dr. S. Rtjhemann, Dr. A. Lapworth, and 
Dr. J. T. Hewitt 115 

Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir H. E. Roscoe (Chairman), Dr Marshall Watts 
(Secretary), Sir Norman Lockyer, Professors Sir James Dewar, G. D. 
Liveing, a. Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and Wolcott Gibbs, Sir W. de 
W. Abney, and Dr. W. E, Adeney, appointed to prepare a New Series of 
Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements 119 

Colloid Chemistry. By H. R. Procter, M.Sc 201 

The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. E. Divers (Chairman), Professor A. W. Cbossley (Secretary), 
Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. O. Forster, and Dr. H. R. Le Sueur . . 221 

The Excavation of Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales and 
the West of England.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
C. Lapworth (Chairman), Mr. G. W. Feabnsides (Secretary), Mr. J. 
LoMAS, Dr. J. E. Marb, Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. G. W. Wil- 
liams 231 

On some Excavations in the Cambrian Rocks of Comley, Shropshire, 
1907. By E. S. Cobbold, F.G.S 23) 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 

Erratic Blocks of tlie British Isles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor P. F. Kendall (Chairman), Dr. A. R. Dwerkyhouse (Secre- 
tary), Dr. T. G. BoNNEY, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr. F. W. Harmer, Rev. 
S. N. Harrison, Dr. J. Horne, Mr. J. Lomas, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
and Messrs. J. W. Stather, R. H. Tiddeman, and W. T. Tucker, ap- 
pointed to investigate the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 242 

Photographs of Geological Interest.— Sixteenth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor J. Geikie (Chairman), Professor W. W. Watts 
(Secretary), Dr. T. Anderson, Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. 
H. CoATES, Mr. C. v. Crook, Professor E. J. Garwood, Messrs. W. Gray, 
W. J. Harrison, R. Kidston, and A. S. Reid, Professor S. H. Reynolds, 
Dr. J. J. H. Teall, and Messrs. R. Welch, W. Whitaker, and H. B. 
Woodward (Drawn up by the Secretary) , 245 

Faunal Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone (Avonian) of the British 
Isles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor J. W. Gregory 
(Chairman), Dr. A. Vaughan (Secretary), Dr. Wheelton Hind, and 
Professor W. W. Watts, appointed to enable Dr. A. Vaughan to continue 
his Researches thereon. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 267 

Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. — 
Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Pi-ofessor W. A. Herdman 
(Chairman), Mr. J. Lomas (Secretary), Professor W. W. Watts, Professor 
P. F. Kendall, Professor A. C. Seward, Messrs. H. C. Beasley, E. T. 
Newton, and W. A. E. Ussher, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. (Drawn 
up by the Secretary) 269 

Report on Tracks of Invertebrates, Casts of Plants, &c., and Markings 
of uncertain origin from the Lower Keuper. Part I. By H. C. 
Beasley 269 i 

List of British Triassic Fossils in the Warwick Museum. By H. A. ' 

Allen 274 

Bibliographical Notes on the Flora and Fauna of the Trias, 1826-76. 
By A. R. HoRwooD 277 

Composition and Origin of the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. — Third Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. Harker (Chairman), Mr. E. 
Greenly (Secretary), Mr. J. Lomas, Dr. C. A. Matley, and Professor 
K. J. P. Orton ..." 283 

Investigation of the pre-Devonian Rocks of the Mendips and the Bristol 
Area. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. H. B. Woodward 
(Chairman), Professor S. H. Reynolds (Secretary), Dr. C. Lloyd Morgan, 
and Rev. H. H. Winwood. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 286 

Topographical and Geological Terms used locally in South Africa. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh (Chairman), Dr. 
F. H. Hatch (Secretary), Dr. G. Corstorphine, and Messrs. A. Du Toit, 
A. P. Hall, G. Kynaston, F. P. Mennell, and A. R. Rogers, appointed 
to determine the precise Significance of Topographical and Geological 
Terms used locally in South Africa. (Drawn up by the Secretary) .... 291 

Investigation of the Fossihferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, 
and at various localities in the East Riding of Yorkshire. — Interim Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh (Chairman), Mr. 
J. W. Stather (Secretary), Dr. Tempest Anderson, Professor J. W. 
Carr, Rev. W. Lower Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Mr. F. W. 
Harmeb, Mr. J. H. Howabth, Rev. W. Johnson, Professor P. F. Ken- 
dall, and Messrs. G. W. B. Macturk, E. T. Newton, H. M. Platnauer, 
Clement Reid, and Thomas Sheppard. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 296 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. Vll 

Page 
Index Generum efc Specierum Animalium.— Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bather (Secre- 
tary), Dr. P. L. ScLATER, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, and Lord WaLsingham 297 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples.— Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman). Rev.T. R.R. 
Stebbing (Secretary), Professors Sir E. Ray Lankester, A. Sedgwick, 
and W. C. McIntosh, and Mr. G. P. Bidder 297 

Report of Mr. Richard H. Whitehouse 297 

Report of Mr. C. C. Dobell 298 

Experiments in Inheritance. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman), Mr. Douglas Laurie (Secre- 
tary), Mr. R. C. Punnett, and Dr. H. W. BL^rrett Tims. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary) 298 

Appendix. — Matings involving Yellow Mice 301 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands.— Eighteenth Report of the Com^ 
mittee, consisting of Dr. F. Du Cane Godman (Chairman), Mr. David 
Sharp (Secretary), Pi-ofessor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, and Mi-. 
Edgar A. Smith 301 

The Fauna of the Lakes of Central Tasmania.— Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor G. C. Bourne (Chairman), Mr. J. J. Lister (Secre- 
tary), and Sir E. Ray Lankester, appointed to assist Mr. G. W. Smith 
to proceed to Tasmania to study the Anatomy and Development of 
Anaspides, and to investigate the Fauna of the Lakes of Central Tasmania 302 

Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor A. Dendy (Chairman and Secretary), 
Sir E. Ray L.ankester, Professor A. Sedgwick, and Professor Sydney 
H. Vines 304 

Experiments on the Development of the Frog. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor G. C. Bourne (Chairman), Dr. J. W. Jenkinson 
(Secretary), and Professor S. J. Hickson. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 304 

Investigations in the Indian Ocean. — Third Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir John Murray (Chairman), Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner 
(Secretary), Captain E. W. Creak, Professors W. A. Herdman, S. J. 
Hickson, and J. W. Judd, Mr. J. J. Lister, Dr. H. R. Mill, and Dr. D. 
Sharp, appointed to carry on an Expedition to investigate the Indian 
Ocean between India and South Africa in view of a possible land connec- 
r tion, to examine the deep submerged banks, the Nazareth, and Saya de 
l_ Malha, and also the distribution of marine animals 305 

The Exploration of Pi-ince Charles Foreland, Spitsbergen. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. G. G. Chisholm (Chairman), Dr. W. S. 
Bruce (Secretary), and Major W. L. Forbes. (Dra^\^^ up by the Secre- 
tary) 306 

The Investigation of the Oscillations of the Level of the Land in the Medi- 
terranean Basin.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. D. G- 
Hogarth (Chairman), Mr. R. T. Gunther (Secretary), and Drs. T. G. 
BoNNEY, F. H. Guillemard, J. S. Keltie, and H, R. Mill 308 



VllX CONTENTS. 

Page 
Gaseous Explosions. — First Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
W. H. Preece (Chairman), Mr. Dtjgald Clerk and Professor Bertram 
HoPKiNSON (Joint Secretaries), Professors Bone, Btjrstall, Callendar, 
CoKEB, Dalby, Dixon, Hele-Shaw, Smithells, and W. Watson, Dr. 
Habkee, Lieut. -Colonel Holden, Dr. Petavel, and Captain Sankey, 
appointed for the Investigation of Gaseous Explosions, with special 
reference to Temperature 308 

Appendix. — The Deviation of Actual Gases from the Ideal State and 
the Experimental EiTors in the Determination of their Specific 
Heats. By Professor H. L. Callendar, F.R.S 334 

MegaUthic Remains in the British Isles. ^ — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Professor W. Ridgeway (Chairman), Dr. G. A. Auden (Secre- 
tary), Dr. H. A. Auden, Mr. G. L. Gomme, Pi-ofessor J. L. Myres, and 
Mr. F. W. RuDLEB, appointed to report on the hest means of registering 
and classifying systematically Megalithic Remains in the British Isles . 341 

Notes and Queries in Anthropology.— Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Professor J. L. Myres (Secre- 
tary), Professor D. J. Cunningham, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, Mr. T. A. Joyce, Dr. C. S. Myers, and Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, 
appointed to prepare a new edition of Notes and Queries in Anthropology 3'42 

Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor J. L. Mybes (Chairman), Professor R. C. Bosanquet 
(Secretary), Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, 
and Professor W. Ridgeway, appointed to co-operate with Local Com- 
mittees in Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain 342 

Appendix A. — Report on Plant Remains found in Excavations on 
the Roman Site at Caerwent, 1907. By Arthur H. Lyell . . 343 

Appendix B. — Report of Work on pre-Roman and Natural History 

Remains at Corbridge, 1907-08 343 

Archaeological and Ethnographical Researches in Crete. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir John Evans (Chairman), Professor J. L. 
Myres (Secretary), Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. A. J. Evans, Mr. 
D. G. Hogarth, Professor A. Macalister, and Professor W. Ridgeway 344 

Archseological and Ethnological Investigations in Sardinia. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. D. G. Hogarth (Chairman), Professor R. C. 
Bosanquet (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Pro- 
fessor J. L. Mybes, and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall 350 

Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor D. J. Cunningham (Chairman), Mr. J. 
Gray (Secretary), Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr. C. S. Myers, Professors J. L. 
Mybes and A. F. Dixon, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Sir Edward Brabrook, 
Mr. G. L. Gomme, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, Professor G. D. Thane, Dr. W. 
McDougall, Professor M. E. Sadler, Major H. J. M. Buist, Fleet- 
Surgeon G. T. COLLINGWOOD, and Dr J. Keeb 351 

The Age of Stone Circles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. 
C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour (Secretary), Lord Avebury, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, Professor Boyd 
Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. Lewis, appointed to conduct Explorations with 
the object of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles 400 

The Aveburjr Excavations. 1908. By H. St. George Gray 401 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. IK 

rage 
The Lake Village at Glastonbury. — Tenth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. R. MuNKO (Chairman), Professor W. Boyd Dawkins (Secre- 
tary), Dr. Arthur J. Evans, Mr. Henry Balfour, Mr. C. H. Read, 
and Mr. A. Bulleid. (Drawn up by Mr. Arthur Bulleid and Mr. H. 
St. George Gray) 414 

Anthropological Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 
C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. S. Kingsford (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, 
Dr. G. A. Auden, ]\Ir. H. Balfour, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
Mr. E. Sidney Hartland, Mr. E. Heawood, Professor J. L. Myres, and 
Professor Flinders Petrie, appointed for the Collection, Preservation, 
and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthropological Interest. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 419 

The ' Metabolic Balance Sheet ' of the Individual Tissues. — Final Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor Gotch (Chairman), Mr. J. Barcroft 
(Secretary), Professor E. H. Starling, and Professor T. G. Brodie 43G 

The Ductless Glands. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
ScHAFEB (Chairman), Professor Swale Vincent (Secretary), Professor 
A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. Shore, and Mrs. W. H. Thompson. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary) 440 

The Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease. — ^Third Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir Lauder Bbunton (Chairman), Mr. J. B.arcroft, 
and Lieut.-Col. R. J. S.Simpson (Secretaries), Colonel Sir D.Bruce, Dr. S. G. 
Campbell, Sir Kendal Franks, Professor J. G. McKendrick, Sir A. 
Mitchell, Dr. C. P. K. Murray, Dr. C. Porter, Professor G. Sims Wood- 
head, and the Heads of the Schools of Tropical Medicine of Liverpool, 
London, and Edinburgh 443 

The Conditions of Health essential to the carrying oa of the Woi'k of In- 
struction in Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Sherrington (Chairman), Mr. E. White Wallis (Secretary), Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Dr, C, W. Kemmins, Professor L. C. Miall, Miss A. J. Cooper, 
and Dr. Ethel Williams 458 

The Electrical Phenomena and Metabolism of Arum spadices.^Repovt of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor A. D. Waller (Chau'man), Illiss Sanders 
(Secretary), Professor Gotch, and Professor Farmer , 463 

Fatigue. By William McDougall, M.A., M.B 479 

Body MetaboHsm in Cancer. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor C. S. Sherrington (Chairman) and Dr. S. M. Copeman (Secretary). 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 489 

Studies of Marsh Vegetation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 
F. F. Blackman (Chairman), Mr. A. G. Tansley (Secretary), Professor 
A. C. Seward, and Mr. A. W. Hill 492 

The Structure of Fossil Plants. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. D. H. Scott (Chairman), Professor F. W. Oliver (Secretary), Mr. E. 
Newell Arber, and Professors A. C. Seward and F. E. Weiss 493 

Sequence of Plant Remains. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor J. B. Fabbier (Chairman), Professor R. J. Harvey Gibson 
(Secretary), Dr. J. Horne, Dr. Marr, Air. Clement Reid, and Mr. Francis 
J. Lewis, appointed to examine the Sequence of Plant Remains in the Peat 
Deposits of Teesdale and Stainmore (Cumberland and Westmorland) and 
the Western portion of Iceland 493 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Research on South Afi-ican Cyoads and on Welw-itschia. — Second Interim 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Pi-ofessor A. C. Ssward (Chairman), 
Ml-. R. P. Gregory (Secretary), Dr, D, H. Scott, and Dr. W. H. Lang 494 

Studies most suitable for Elementary Schools. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir Philip Magnus (Chairman), Mr. W. M. Heller (Secretary), 
Sir W. DE W. Abney, Mr. R. H. Adie, Professor H. E. Armstrong, Miss 
L. J. Clarke, Miss A. J. Cooper, Mr. George Fletcher, Professor R. A. 
Gregory, Principal Grepfiths, ]\Ir. A. D. Hall, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
Dr. C. W. KiMMiNS, Professor L. C. Miall, Professor J. Perry, Sir H. R. 
Reichel, Mr. H, Richardson, Mi's. W. N. Shaw, Professor A. Smithells, 
Dr. Lloyd Snape, and Professor W. W. Watts, appointed to report upon 
the course of Experimental, Observational, and Practical Studies most 
suitable for Elementary Schools 495 

Introductory Statement by Sir Philip Magnus, M-P 495 

Report of Sub-Committee on Elementary Experimental Science .... 501 

Appendix A. — Syllabus of Work in Elementary Experimental 

Science 510 

„ B. — Syllabus for Girls' Schools. Domestic Science 515 

„ C— Contracted Scheme of Work for Small Schools where 
the upper classes are grouped for instruction in this 
branch 519 

„ D. — List of Apparatus for Elementary Science Course .... 522 

Changes affecting Secondary Education. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Sir Philip Magnus (Chairman), Professor H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), 
Sir William Bousfield, Dr. S. H. Butcher, Sir Henry Craik, Principal 
Griffiths, Sir Horace Plunkett, and Professor M. E. Sadler, appointed 
to take notice of, and report upon Changes in. Regulations — whether 
Legislative, Administrative, or made by Local Authorities — affecting 
Secondary Education 525 

Curricula of Secondary Schools. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir Oliver Lodge (Chairman), Mr. C. M. Stuart (Secretary), Professor 
H. E. Armstrong, Mr. G. F. Daniell, Mr. W. D. Eggar, Professor J. J. 
Findlay, Dr. H. B. Gray, Professor R. A. Gregory, Principal Griffiths, 
Sir William Huggins, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Sir Philip Magnus, Profes.sor 
H. A. MiERS, Mi-. T. E. Page, Professor J. Perry, Mr. Hugh Richardson, 
Professor M. E. Sadler, and Mr. A. E. Shipley, appointed to consider 
and advise as to the Curricula of Secondary Schools ; in the first instance, 
the Curricula of Boys' Schools ; and to consider through a Sub-Committee 
the question of the Sequence of Studies in the Science Section of the 
Curriculum 526 

The Sequence of Studies in the Science Section of the Curriculum. — 
Report of the Sub-Committee, consisting of Professor R. A. 
Gregory (Chairman), Mr. G. F. Daniell (Secretary), ]\Ii-. W. D. 
Eggar, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Mr. Hugh Richardson, and Mr. 
C. M. Stuart 526 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. W. Whitaker (Chairman), Mr. F. W. Rudler (Secretary), Rev. 
J. O. Bevan, Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. Horace T. Brown, Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. 
HoPKiNsoN, Professor R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. JIill, Mr. C. H. Read. Rev'. 
T. R. R. Stebbino, Professor W. W. Watts, and the President and 
General Officers. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 536 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIEiNCE. xi 

Page 
Report of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 
held at DubUn, September 3 and 8, 1908 538 

Address by the Chairman, Professor H. A. Mieks, F.R.S 540 

Sanctuaries for our Native Flora and Fauna. By Mrs. IVIaby Hobson 547 

On Detailed Natural History Surveys of Restricted Areas, an im- 
portant work suitable for Local Societies. By Professor G. H. 
Carpenter 550 

The Advisability of Re-stocking Haunts whence Fauna and Flora have 
Disappeared. By Henry Davey 550 

List of Corresponding Societies, 1908-1909 552 

Catalogue of the more important Papers published by the Con'osponding 
Societies during the year ending May 31, 1908 557 



XU CONTENTS. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



l^An asterisk * indicates tliat the title only is given. The mark f indieates the same, 
hut with a reference to the Journal or NcKSj)a])ev in which it is j)iiblished in extenso.] 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. Page 

Addi-ess by W. N. Shaw, Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Section . . 579 

1. Discussion on the Isothermal Layer of the Atmosphere 591 

(i) TheodoHte Observations of Balloons penetrating the Isothermal 

Layer. By C. J. P. Cave 593 

(ii) The Warm Stratum in the Atmosphere at Heights exceeding Eight 

Miles in the United States. By Professor A. Lawrence Rotch 594 

2. Report on the Measurement of the Geodetic Arc in Africa (p. 56) 594 

3. Seventh Report on the Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by 

means of Kites (p. 59) 594 

4. Report on the Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory 

(p. 55) 694 

5. Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards (p. 31) 594 

6. Report on Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis (p. 58) 594 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 
* Joint Discussion with Sections B and G on Gaseous Explosions 595 

Department op Mathematics. 

L Report on Bessel Functions (p. 58) 595 

2. The AsjTiiptotic Expansions of Bessel Functions. By J. W. NicnoLSOW, 

D.Sc, B.A 695 

3. On Sir W. R. Hamilton's Fluctuating Functions. By E. W. HobsoN, 

Sc.D., F.R.S 597 

4. On the Law of Equipartition of Energy between Correlated Variables. 

By S. H. BuEBURY, F.R.S 698 

5. The Complementary Theorem. By Professor J. C. Fields 599 

6. *The Genesis of Elliptic Functions. By Robert Russell 601 

Department of General Physics. 

1. Do the Radio-active Gases (Emanations) belong to the Argon Series ? 

By Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S 601 

2. On the Number and Absorption of the ^ Particles emitted by Radium. 

By W. Makower 601 

3. *The Rate of Production of Helium from Radium. By Sir James 

Dewae, F.R.S 602 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. siii 

Department of Cosmicai, Physics (Astronomy). 

Page 

1. Report of the Seismological Committee (p. 56) 602 

2. A Generalised Instrument. By Sir Robert Ball, F.R.S 602 

3. A New Form of Divided Object Glass Telescope. By Sir Howard 

Grubb, F.R.S 603 

4. The New Spectroheliograph for the Madrid Observatory. By Sir 

Howard Grtjbb, F.R.S 603 

5. On the Relation between Intensity of Light, Time of Exposure, and 

Photographic Action. By Profes5or H. H. Turner, D.Sc, F.R.S. . . 604 

6. Systematic Motion of the Stars. By Professor F. W. Dysok, F.R.S.. . 604 

7. The Reflecting Telescope and its Suitabihty for Physical Research. 

By Sir Howard Grtjeb, F.R.S , . , . , 005 

3I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

Discussion on the Theory of Wave-motion, opened by Professor Horace 
Lamb, F.R.S 603 

Department of Mathe.matics. 

1. Linear Vector Functions. By Sir Robert Ball, F.R.S 611 

2. The Inductance of Two Parallel Wires. By J. W. Nicholson, D.Sc. 

BA .'612 

3. On the Ether Stress of Gravitation. By Professor F. PtXRgEa, F.T.C.D. 613 

4. Conservative Systems of Prescribed Trajectories. By Professor E. 

Odell Lovett gl4 

5. Factorisation of the A.P.F. of N=(i/''Tl). By Liout.-Colonel Allan 

Cunningham, R.E , 615 

6. An Elementary Discussion of Schlafli's Double-six. By Professor A. C 

Dixon, Sc.D., F.R.S 616 

7. On the Logarithmic Case in Linear Differential Equations. * By Pro- 

fessor A. C. Dixon, Sc.D., F.R.S 617 

Department of General Physics. 

1. A New Three-Colour Camera. By Sir W. db W. Abney, K.C.B 

F.R.S 618 

2. On the Measurement of Large Inductances containing Iron. By 

Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S., and Benjamin Davies 620 

3. A Remarkable Feature in the Splash of a Rough Sphere. By Pro- 

fessor A. M. Worthington, C.B., F.R.S 621 

4. Analogy between Absorption from Solutions and Aqueous Condensation 

on Surfaces. By Professor F. T. Trouton, D.Sc, F.R.S 621 

5. On the Effect of Pressure on the Boiling-point of Sulphur. By Dr. J. A. 

Harker and F. P. Sexton 621 

6. On the Photometric Standard of the National Physical Laboratory. 

By Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. F.R.S 623 

7. An Improved Dry Daniell Pile. By John Brown, F.R.S 623 



Xiv CONTENTS. 

Department of Cosmical Physics. 

Page 

1. Is our Climate Changing ? By Sir John W. Moore, M.A., M.D 623 

2. A Comparison of the Changes in the Temperature of the Waters of 

the North Atlantic and in the Strength of the Trade Winds. By 
Commander M. W. C. Hepworth, C.B., R.N.R 625 

3. Temperature Conditions in Scottish Lochs. By E. M. Wedderburn, 

F.R.S.E 626 

4. The Constants of the Limar Libration. By F. J. M. Stratton 626 

5. Investigations on the Electrical State of the Upper Atmosphere. 

By W. Makower, Margaret White, and E. Marsden 627 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 
Department of Mathematics. 

1. *Apphcations of Quaternions to Problems in Physical Optics. By 

Professor A. W. Conway '. 627 

2. *0n a GenoraUsation of the Question in Probabilities known as ' Le 

Scrutin de Ballotage.' By Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. . .' 627 

3. On Conformal Transformations of a Space of Four Dimensions and 

their Apphcation to Geometrical Optics. By H. Bate]vl\n 627 

4. On the Extension of Optical Ideas to General Electromagnetic Fields. 

By Professor E. T. Whittaker, Sc.D., F.R.S 629 

5. *Distribution of Electricity on a Moving Sphere. By Professor A. W. 

Conway 629 

6. Tlie Theory of Solids movijig in an Incompressible Fluid. By Pro- 

fessor F. PxTRSER, F.T.C.D 629 

7. On the Analysis of Projection. By Professor R. W. Genese, M-A 632 

Department of General Physics. 

1. A Suggestion Avith regard to the Meaning of Valency. By H. Bateman 634 

2. *Secondary Radiation. By Professor J. A. McClelland 635 

3. *The Scintillations of Zinc Sulphide. By Professor E. Rutherford, 

F.R.S 635 

4. A Determination of the Rate of Evolution of Heat by Pitchblende. 

By Horace H. Poole 635 

5. The Grating Spectrum of Radium Emanation. By T. Royds, M.Sc. . . 635 

6. *Photogi'aphs of Arc Spectra of Metals under Pressure. By Dr. W. G. 

DUFFIELD 636 

7. Secondary Effects in the Echelon Spectroscope. By H. Stansfibld, 

B.Sc 636 

8. Further Experiments on the Constitution of the Electric Spark. By 

T. Royds, M.Sc .637 

Department of Cosmical Physics. 

1. On New Methods of obtaining the Spectra of Flames. By G. A. 

Hemsalech, M.Sc, D.Sc 638 

2. Polar Lines in Arc Spectra. By Dr. W. G. Duffield 638 

3. *The Zeeman Effect in Sun-spots. By Professor J. Larmor, Sec.R.S. . . 639 



THAXSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XV 

rage 

4. On the possible Existence of Steam in the Regions of Sun-fej)ots. By 

Rev. A. L. CoRTiE, S.J., F.R.A.S 639 

5. Sun-spots and Solar Temperature. By Professor E. T. Whittaker, 

Sc.D., F.R.S 640 

6. Recent Researches on the cause of Seiches. By E. M. Wedderburn, 

F.R.S.E 640 

7. Difference of Temperature in the Upper Atmosphere between Equatorial 

and Polar Regions. By L. Teisserenc de Bort 641 

8. Note on the Manchester ' Ballons-Sondes ' Ascents. By W. A. Har- 

wooD 642 

9. The Results of the ' Ballons-Sondes ' Ascents in the British Isles 

during the International Week, July 27-August 1, 1908. By J. S. 
Dines 642 

10. *Observations of Currents in the Upper Air of Egypt and the Sudan. 

By Captain H. G. Lyons, F.R.S 644 

11. An Apparatus for illustrating, by Intermittent Vision, the Surface 

Movement of Air in Travelling Storms. By R. G. K. Lempfert, 
M.A 644 

12. *0n the Asymmetrical Character of Whirlwinds. By Paul Dueandin . . 644 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. Changes of Atmospheric Density in Storms. By J. I. Craig, M.A 644 

2. The Meteorology of the Winter Quarters of the ' Discovery,' 1902-1904. 

By Dr. W. N. Sil4w, F.R.S 645 

3. Results of some Physical Observations taken on the National Antarctic 

Expedition, 1902-1904. By L. C. BernaccHI 645 

4. On the possible Connection between Earthquakes and Great Waves 

in Distant Places. By Rev. H. V. Gill, S.J 647 

6. Some Particulars of the British Association Storm of 1908. By Dr. 

W. N. Shaw, F.R.S 647 

6. *The Great Snowstorm of April 25, 1908. By Miss C. 0. Stevens 647 

7. On the Velocity of the Reducing Action of Electrolytic Hydrogen 

on Ai'senious and Arsenic Acids when hberated from the surface of 
different elements. By W. Thomson 647 

Section B. — CHEMISTRY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Address by Professor F. S. Kipping, D.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S., President of 

the Section 649 

1. *Synthetical Experiments in the Terpene Series. By Professor W. H. 

Perkln, F.R.S 661 

2. The Preparation of Camphor from Turpentine Oil. By Dr. C. Weizmann 661 

3. *BraziHn and Hasmatoxjdin. By R. Robinson 661 

4. *The Dynamic Isomerism of Oxymethylene Camphor Derivatives. 

By Professor W. J. Pope, F.R.S., and John Read 66 I 

5. Benzyl Sulphoxide : a possible Example of Tautomerlsm. By J. A. 

Smythb, Ph;D., D.Sc , 661 



xvi CONTENTS. 

Page 

6. The Action of Halogens upon Aromatic Hydi-azines. By F. D. Chatta- 

WAY, D.Sc, F.R.S 662 

7. Some Reactions of Dichloro Urea. By F. D. Chattaway, D.Sc, 

F.R.S 663 

8. Report on Dynamic Isomerism (p. 112) 665 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

♦Discussion on the Nature of Chemical Change. Opened by Professor 

H. E. Abmsthong, F.R.S 665 

1. Note on a Volatile Compound of Cobalt with Carbon Monoxide. By 

Dr. Ltjdwig Mono, F.R.S., Dr. Heinkich Hietz, and M. Dalton 
CowAP 665 

2. *The Structure of the Open Chain Hydrocarbons. By Professor W. J. 

Pope, F.R.S., and William Baelow, F.R.S 667 

3. The Dj^iamics of Chemical Action and the Meaning of Valency. By 

H. Bateman 667 

4. CoUoid Chemistry. By H. R. Peocter, M.Sc. (p. 201) 667 

5. The Influence of Colloids and Colloid Suspensions on the Solubility 

of Carbon Dioxide in Water. By Dr. Alex. Find lay 667 

6. The Density of Liquids at Low Temperatures. By Dr. J. Timmermans 668 

7. The Work of Two Irish Chemists, Bryan Higgins and William Higgins. 

By Dr. A. Meldrum '. 668 

8. The Action of the Enzymes of Malt on Ungerminated Cereals. By 

Julian L. Baker, F.I.C, and H. F. E. Hulton 670 

9. The Pi-eparation of Pure Maltose. By Julian L. Baker, F.I.C, 

and F. E. Day 671 

*Joint Discussion with Sections A and G on Gaseous Explosions 672 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. *The Inactive Gases. By Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S 672 

2. Lithium in Radio-active Mineral^. By Professor W. N. Hartley, 

D.Sc, F.R.S 672 

3. *The Liquefaction of Helium. By Dr. Kammerlingh Onnes 673 

4. *Anticipations and Experiments on the Liquefaction of Helium. By 

Sir James Dewae, F.R.S 673 

6. A Demonstration on the Rapid Electro-analytical Separation of Metals. 

By Dr. Henry J. S. Sand 673 

6. *Studies on the Electro-deposition of Metals. By W. E. Hughes and 

Dr. F. M. Perkin , 674 

1. Transparent Silver and other Metalhc Films. By Professor Thomas 

Turner, M.Sc 674 

8. Report on Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements 

(p. 119) 074 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 
1. Discussion on Problems of Fermentation : 

(i) The Factors which influence the Rate of Alcoholic Fermentation. 
By Arthur Slator, Ph.D., D.Sc ;,. ,. Ot^ 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. Xvii 

Page 

2. *Tli6 Selective Permeability of certain Seeds. By Professor Adrian 

Brown 675 

3. The Production of Ammonia from Atmospheric Nitrogen by means 

of Peat. By H. C. Wolteeeck, Ph.D 675 

4. *Discussion on Peat 676 

5. Report on the Study of Hydro -aromatic Substances (p. 221) 676 

6. Report on the Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and allied 

Substances, and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives 
(p. 115) 678 

7. *Interim Report on the Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives 

of Benzene 67 5 

Section C— GEOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Address by Professor John Joly, Sc.D., F.R.S,, President of the Section 677 

1. *The Geology of the Dublin District. By Professor Gbenville A. J. 

Cole, F.G.S 697 

2. On the Cave of Castlepook, near Doneraile, co. Cork. By R. J. Ussher, 

H. J. Seymour, E. T. Newton, and R. F. Scharff 697 

3. Probable Cretaceous and Cainozoic Outliers off the Coast of co. Kerry. 

By Professor Grenvillb A. J. Cole, F.G.S 697 

4. On a Section of the Lower Coal Measures at Emerald Pit, Dungannon. 

By H. Bolton, F.R.S.E,, F.G.S 698 

5. *0n the Raised Beeches of the Liffey Valley. By G. H. Kinahan 699 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

1. *0n the Igneous Rocks of the Outer Blasket Islands. By Professor 

J. Joly, F.R.S 699 

2. The Laterite and Bauxite Zone of North-East Ireland. By Professor 

Grenville A. J. Cole, F.G.S 699 

3. The Igneous and Associated Sedimentary Rocks of the Tourmakeady 

District, co. Mayo. By C. I. Gardiner and Professor S. H. Rey- 
nolds 699 

4. The Lower Palaeozoic Rocks around Killary Harbour, co. Galway, 

and CO. Mayo. By R. G. Carruthers and H. B. Muff 699 

6. Notes on the Petrography of Egypt. By W. F. Hume, D.Sc 700 

6. The Chemical Composition and Optical Characters of Dolomite Crystals 

from Algeria. By A. Hutchinson, M.A., Ph.D 701 

7. A Protractor for constructing Stereographic and Gnomonic Projections 

of the Sphere. By A. Hutchinson, M.A., Ph.D 701 

8. Notes on the Microscopical Structure of the Derbyshire Limestones. 

By H. H. Arnold-Bemrose, Sc.D., F.G.S 702 

&. *0n the Occurrence of Native Iron in the Deccan Basalt. By Professor 

J. Joly, F.R.S 703 

10. The Tourmaline Rocks of Cwm Dwythwc, near Llanberis (North 

Wales). By W. G. Fearnsides, M.A 704 

11. Note on the Occurrence of (so-called) Cave Pearls. By Harold 

Brodriok, M.A , 704 

1908. a 



XViii CONTENTS. 

Page 

12. The Derivation of Sand and CJay from Granite. By Professor \V. 

Boyd Daavkins, D.Sc, F.R.S 705 

13. *Iuterim Report on the Microscopical and Chemical Composition of ^ 

Charnwood Rocks 705 

2I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Glacial Erosion in North Wales. By Professor W. M. Davis 705 

2. The Duration and Direction of Large Earthquakes. By Dr. John 

MiL>E, F.R.S 706 

3. Report on the Excavation of Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks 

of Wales and the West of England (p. 231) 706 

4. The Soufritre of St. Vincent : the Changes subsequent to the Eruption 

of 1902. By Dr. Tempest Anderson, F.G.S 706 

5. Recent Earth Movements ^rithin the Basin of the Laurentian Lakes. 

By Professor W. H. Hobbs 707 

6. Report of the Geological Photographs Committee (p. 245) 707 

7. Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles (p. 242) 707 

8. Note on Casts of Dinosaurian Footprints in the Lower Oolite at 

Whitby. By H.\eold Beodrick, M.A 707 

9. Sixth Report on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles 

(p. 269) 708 

10. Report on the Faunal Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone 

(Avonian) of the British Isles (p. 267) 708 

11. Dopplerite from Sluggan Bog, co. Antrim. By R. Welcu 708 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Discussion on Mountain Building 708 

1. Third Report on the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey (p. 283) 711 

2. On the Finding of Silurian Beds in Kent. By W. Wiiitaker, F.R.S. ..711 

3. On a Case of Thrust and Crush Brecciation in the Magnesian Limestone, 

CO. Durham. By David Woolacott, D.Sc, F.G.S 711 

4. Well-water Supply of the North-Eastern Sudan. By G. W. Geabham 712 

6. *Contemporancous Erosion in the Lower Series of Coal Measures of 

the Bristol Coal-field. By H. Bolton 713 

6. Report on the pre-Dovonian Beds of the Mendips and the Bristol 

Area (p. 286) 713 

7. On a Fossil Reptile with a Trunk from the Upper Karroo Rocks of 

Cape Colony. By Professor H. G. Seeley, F.R.S 713 

8. On Distinctions in Dentition between the Fossil Reptilia classed as 

Cjaiodontia and Gomphodontia. By Professor H. G. Seeley, F.R.S. 714 

9. Report on the FossiUferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincolnshire, 

&c. (p. 290) 714 

10. *Interim Report on the Correlation and Age of South African Strata, 

&c 714 

11. Report on Topographical and Geological Terms used locally in South 

Africa (p. 286) 714 

12. *Report on the Exact Significance of Local Terms 714 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XIX 

Sectiok D.-ZOOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Page 
Address by S. F. Harmer, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., President of the Section 715 

1. The Migratory Movemsnts of certain Shore-Birds as observed on the 

DubHn Coast. By C. J. Pattex, Sc.D 731 

2. A Biological Expedition to the Birket el Qurun, Fa3rum Province of 

Egypt. By W. A. Cunnington, B.A., Ph.D., and C. L. Boulenger, 
B.A 732 

3. On the Distribution of Irish Freshwater Mitos [Hydrarachmda). 

By J. N. Halbert 732 

4. On some Arctic and Antarctic Collembola. By Professor George H. 

Carpenter, B.Sc, M.R.I.A 733 

5. On Diaposematism, or the Interchange of Characters between Dis- 

tasteful Forms. By F. A. Dixey, M.A., M.D 733 

6. *(i) Mimicry in the Butterflies of North America, (ii) Recent Investiga- 

tions upon the African SwalloAV-tail Butterfly Papilio dardanus 
(merove) as an Example of Mimicry. By Professor E. B. Potjlton, 
F.R.S 734 

7. *Some of the chief Mimetic Combinations among South American Butter- 

flies. By J. C. MoTJLTON 734 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER -i. 

1. An Inquiry into the Feeding Habits of British Birds. By C. Gordox 

Hewitt, M.Sc 734 

2. On the Abuses resulting from the Strict Apphcation of the Rule of 

Pi'iority in Zoological Nomenclature, and on the means of protecting 
well-estabUshed Names. By G. A. Botjlenger, F.R.S 735 

3. The Vascular System of Stijlodrilus. By Rowland Southern 736 

4. fGiant Nerve Cells and Fibres. By Dr. J. H. Ashworth 736 

5. The Respiration of Land Isopods. By Ernest Ewart Unwin 736 

6. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 

(p. 297) 737 

7. Report on the Index Animahum (p. 297) 737 

8. Report on Experiments in Inheritance (p. 298) 737 

9. Report on the Fauna of the Lakes of Central Tasmania (p. 302) 737 

10. Eighteenth Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands (p. 301) . . 737 

IL *Interim Report on Zoology Organisation 737 

12. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, 

Plymouth (p. 304) '. . . 738 

13. Report on Experiments on the Development of the Frog (p. 394) .... 738 

14. A Recent Visit to the Ceylon Pearl Banks. By Professor W. A. Herd- 

HA^, F.R.S. . ■ ; 738 

15. *Wild Ancestors of the Domestic Horse. By Professor J. Cossar 

Ewart, F.R.S 738 

a 2 



XX CONTENTS. 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

Page 

Joint Discussion with Section K on Determination of Sex. Opened by L. 

DONCASTER, M.A 738 

1. *The Early Development of the MarsupiaUa. By Professor J. P. Hill 739 

2. The Gastrulation and Formation of Layers in Amphioxus. By Pro- 

fessor E. W. MacBride, F.R.S 739 

3. *The Evolution of Fishes. By Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S 740 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Joint Meeting Avith Section I : — 

1. Binomics of Tsetse Flies. By R. Newstead 7-11 

2. Cultures of Amojbee. By J. W. W. Stephens, M.D 741 

3. The Action of Atoxyl and allied Compounds in vivo and vitro. 

By Dr. M. Nierenstein 742 

4. The Morphology of Piroplasma canis. By Dr. A. Breinl and 

E. HiNDLE 742 

5. *The Pharmacological Treatment of Trypanosomiasis. By Pro- ■ 

fessor B. Moore 743 

6. The Life-history of Trypanosomes in relation to the Diseases 

they produce. By J. E. S. Moore and Dr. A. Breinl 743 

7. Hsematozoa from some Ceylon Reptiles. By Muriel Robertson, 

M.A 743 

8. On the Structure of Dendrosoma radians. By Professor Sydney J. 

HiCKSON, M.A., F.R.S., and J. T. Wadsworth 744 

9. *0n some Points connected with the Vertebrate Ahmentary Canal, more 

particularly in that of the Higher Mammalia. By Professor 
Alexander Fraser 744 

10. The Maxilla and Palatine in the MammaUa. By Professor Richard 

John Anderson, M.D., M.A 744 

XL The Epiphyses of Long Bones (chiefly in Sauropsids). By Professor 

R. J. Anderson, M.D., M.A 745 

12. *The Development of Littorina litter ea. By W. M. Tatters all .... 740 

13. The Digestive Enzymes of Invertebrates. By Dr. Herbert E. Roaf . . 746 

Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Address by Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., R.E., President of the Section 748 

1. The Physiographic Subdivisions of the Appalachian Mountain System, 
and their Effects upon Settlement and History. By Professor 

W. M. Davis 761 

2 Ireland : her Coasts and Rivers. By Rev. W. Sfottswood Green, 

C.B 762 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

1 . School Geography as a Mental Discipline. By Professor R. A. Gregoey 762 

2. The Geographical Study of Mediterranean Man, considered as an 

Element in a ' Classical Education.' By Professor John L. Myres, 
M.A 763 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. XXI 

Page 
13. Scientific Results of the Voyage of the 'Scotia.' By William S. 

[Bruce, LL.D., F.R.S.E 764 

4. The Northward Expansion of Canada. By W. L. Grant 765 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 7 

1. New Instruments for Travellers and Surveyors. By E. A. Reeves, 

F.R.A.S 766 

2. Notes on the Cartography of the Counties of England and Wales. 

By Herbert George Fordham 768 

3. The Longitudinal Section of the River Nile. By Captain H. G. Lyons, 

R.E., F.R.S 768 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8, 

1. A Journey into the Primeval Forests of Tropical Peru. By L. C. Beb- 

NACCHI 769 

2. Unique Experiences at the Birth of a Volcano. By Rev. George 

FXTRLONG 770 

3. Report on the Exploration of Prince Charles Foreland, Spitsbergen 

(p. 306) 770 

4. The Marble Arch Caves in co. Fermanagh. By Harold Brodrick, M.A. 770 

5. Mitchelstown Cave. By Dr. C. A. Hill, M.A., M.B 771 

6. Third Report on Livestigations in the Indian Ocean (p. 305) 772 

7. Report on the Oscillations of the Level of the Land in the Mediterranean 

Basin (p. 308) 772 

Skction F.— economic SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Address by W. M. Acworth, M.A., President of the Section 773 

1. The needed Reform in the Assessment of Railways for Local Taxation. 

By F. Oliver Lyons, M.A 784 

2. NationaUsation of Irish Railways. By J. O'Connor 784 

3. On certain Peculiarities of Small Duties on Imports and Exports. By 

Professor F. Y. Edgeworth, D.C.L 786 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

1. The Financial Side of Irish Land Purchase. By Professor C. F. 

Bastable, M.A., LL.D 786 

2. The Housing of the Working Classes in Ireland. By N. J. Synnott . . 787 

3. The Depopulation of Ireland. By Robert H. Murray, M.A 788 

4. The Economic Ideal and its Application to Countries or Nations. 

By Professor Edwin Cannan, M.A., LL.D 789 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. *Interim Report on the Amount of Gold Coinage in Circulation in the 

United Kingdom 789 

2. International Agreements on Labour Legislation. By Professor 

E. Fbanoke, Ph.D 790 



XXli CONTENTS. 

Page 

8. Proposals for an Economic Survey of tlio United ffingdom. By 

Henry W. Macbosty, B.A 791 

4. Industrial Evolution in the Cutlery Industry. By G. I. H. Lloyd, M.A. 792 

5. Trade Unionism in the Tinplate Industry. By J. H. Jones, M.A 793 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 
Joint Meeting with the Agricultural Sub-section : — 

1. Social Aspects of Agricultural Co-operation. By J. Graham Brooks, 

M.A 794 

2. The Psychological Aspect of Agrarian Reform in Ireland. By Moritz 

Julius Bonn, Ph.D 795 

3. The Productivity of Enghsh Agriculturists. By Professor James 

Wilson, M.A., B.Sc 795 

4. Economic and Statistical Investigation in Agricultiu-e. By W. G. S. 

Adam.s, M.A 796 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. , 

♦Discussion on Instruction in Universities as a Pi-eparation for Commerce 

and Business Life 796 

SUB-SECTION OF AGRICULTURE. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Address by Right Hon. Sir Horace Plunkett, K.CV.O.. F.R.S., Chairman 796 

1. *Irish Soil Maps. By Professor Gbenville Cole, F.G.S 80-t 

2. Electricity in Agriculture. By Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S 804 

3. Agricultural Education. By J. R. Campbell, B.Sc 804 

4. ^Agricultural Education for Business and for Knowledge. By Dr. 

Carroll Dunham 805 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

1 . *Discussion on Breeding and the Relation of Modern Theories of Heredity "^ 

to the Problems of the Stock Raiser 806 

(i) *The AppUcation of the Mendelian Theory to Practical Problems. 

By Professor W. Bateson, F.R.S 806 

(ii) *Experimental Breeding Farms. By W. Heape, F.R.S 806 

(iii) *Mendehsm and the Elucidation of Live Stock History. By 

Professor J. Wilson 806 

2. Some Irish Experiments on Warble-flies. By Professor Geo. H. 

Carpenter, B.Sc, M.R.I.A 807 

3. Barley Growing and Selection in Ireland. By Herbert Hunter, B.Sc. 807 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Small Holdings : Some Considerations on their Successful Establishment. 

By Mrs. L. Wilkins 807 

2. *The Small Holdings Problem. By Christopher Turner 808 

3. *The Management of Small Holdings. By F. Impey 808 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XxiU 

Page 

4. *Letters from Small Holders. By W. Beach Thomas 808 

5. *The Economic Importance of judicious Tree Planting for Shelter by 

Farmers. By J. Scott Kerr 808 

0. *A Method of Registering the Colours of Animals. By Major Barrett 

Hamhton 808 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER S. 
Joint Meeting with Section F (p. 794) 808 

Section G.— ENGINEERING. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Address by Dtjgald Clerk, F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E., President of the Section . . 809 

Recent Advances in Steam Turbines. By Gerald Stoney, B.E., M.I.C.E., 

M.I.E.E 824 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 
*Joint Discussion with Sections A and B on Gaseous Explosions 824 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. The Utilisation of Peat for making Gas or Charcoal with Recovery of 

By- Products. By Captain H. Riall Sankey, R.E., M.Inst.C.E. . . 824 

2. Producer Gas. By J. Emerson Dowson, M.Inst.C.E 825 

3. tSuction Gas Producers. By P. W. Robson 826 

4. The Study of Breakages. By Walter Rosenhain, B.A., B.C.E 826 

5. fThe Electrical ConductiWty of certain Light Aluminium Alloys as 

affected by Exposure to London Atmosphere, By E. Wilson .... 827 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 
L The Laws of Fhght. By F. W. Lanchester 827 

2. jThe Causes of Wear in Motor Vehicle Machinery. By F. H. Royce .... 829 

3. Clock-driving Mechanism of Equatorials. By Sir Howard Grubb, 

FRS 829 

WEDNESDA Y, SEPTEMBER 0. 

1. Experiments on Rotating Discs. By J. Brown, F.R.S., and Maxjeice 

F. Fitzgerald, B.A 830 

2. fGeneral Urban and Inter-nrban Transportation and RaiUess Electric 

Traction. By F. Douglas Fox, M.Inst.C.E 830 

3. The Strength of Solid Cylindrical Round-ended Columns. By Pro- 

fessor W. E. Lilly, m!a., D.Sc , . . , 830 



XXIV CONTENTS, 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Page 
Address by Professor William Eidgeway, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D., F.B.A., 

President of the Section 832 

1. The History of Mummification in Egypt. By Professor G. Elliot 

Smith, M.A., M.D., F.R.S 847 

2. A Sequence of Egyptian Stone Implements. By C. T. Currelly 848 

3. The Veddas. By C. G. Seligmann, M.D 848 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

1. Anthropological Work in Egypt. By Professor G. Elliot Smith, 

M.A., M.D., F.R.S 849 

2. Rajputs and Mahrattas. By W. Crooke, B.A 850 

3. On a Collection of Dinka Laws and Customs. By E. Sidney Hartland 850 

4. Four Weeks in New Britain. By Miss B. Pullen-Burry 850 

5. The Northern Mound Builders of North America. By George Bryce, 

D.D., LL.D., F.R.S.C 851 

6. Prehistoric Archaeology in Japan. By N. Gordon Munro 852 

7- Some Ancient Stone Implement Sites in South Africa — their bearing on 

the Problem of the Antiquity of Man. By Rev. W. A. Adams, B.A. 852 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Report on Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain (p. 342) 853 

2. Recent Excavations at Roman Chester. By Dr. R. Newstead 853 

3. Some Remarks on the Irish Horse and its Early History. By Dr. R. F. 

SCHARFF 853 

4. The Distribution of Gold Lunulce. By George Coffey, M.A 854 

5. A Leather Shield found in co. Longford. By E. C. R. Armstrong .... 854 

6. The Survival of La Tene Ornament in some Celtic Penannular Brooches. 

By George Coffey, M.A 854 

7. Note on the Tara Brooch. By George Coffey, M.A 854 

8. The Origin of Irish Motes. By Goddard H. Orpen, B.A 854 

9. On certain Changes in the Lateral Wall of the Cranium due to Muscular 

Development. By Professor J. Symington, M.D., F.R.S 855 

10. *The Development and Adult Form of the Human Brain. By Pro- 

fessor A. Fraser 856 

11. The Significance of the so-called Accessory Dental Masses sometimes 

found in the Upper Jawbones. By Professor A. Francis Dixon . . 856 

12. Who Built the British Stone Circles ? By J. Gray, B.Sc 856 

13. Report on Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles (p. 351) . . 857 

14. Report on Archaeological and Ethnographical Researches in Crete 

(p. 344) 857 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXV 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

Page 

1. Excavations at Caerwent, Monmouthshire, on the Site of the Romano - 

British City of Venta Silurum, in 1907-08. By T. Ashby, M.A., 
DLitt 857 

2. The Work of the Liverpool Committee for Excavation and Research 

in Wales and the Marches. By Professor John L. Myees, M.A. . . 857 

3. Excavations at Caerleon, Monmouthshire. By H. G. Evelyn-White . . 858 

4. Neohthic Culture in North Greece. By J. P. Droop, B.A 858 

5. The Excavations of the British School at Athens at the Sanctuary of 

Artemis Orthia at Sparta. By M. S. Thompson, B.A 859 

G. Report on Archaeological and Ethnological Investigations in Sardinia 

(P- 350) 860 

7. The Sculptured Stones of Norway and their relation to some British 

Monuments. By Dr. Haakon Schetelig 860 

8. The Four Principal Aqueducts of the City of Rome in Classical Times 

By T. Ashby, M.A., D.Litt 860 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9. 

1. Notes on an Ancient Land Surface in a River Terrace at Ipswich and 

on Palseohths from a Gravel Pit in the Valley of the Lark. By 
Miss Nina F. Layard 861 

2. Report on the Age of Stone Circles (p. 400) 861 

3. Tenth Report on the Lake Village at Glastonbury (p. 414) 862 

4. Report on the Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration 

of Photographs of Anthropological Interest (p. 419) 862 

5. Cup- and Ring-markings. By Rev. H. J. Dukinfield Astley, M.A., 

Litt.D 862 

6. Report on Classifying and Registering Megahthic Remains in the 

British Isles (p. 341 ) 862 

7. On the Classification of the Megahthic and analogous Prehistoric 

Remains of Great Britain and Ireland. By George Clinch 862 

8. Report on the Preparation of a New Edition of Notes and Queries in 

Anthropology (p. 342) 862 

9. Perforated Stone Hammers and Axes. By W. J. Knowles 863 

Section I. -PHYSIOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 
Address by J. S. Haldane, M.D., F.R.S., President of the Section 864 

1 . *Proprio-ceptive Reflexes of the Limb. By Professor C. S. Sherrington, 

F.R.S : 871 

2. Final Report on the ' MetaboUc Balance Sheet ' of the Individual 

Tissues (p. 436) 871 

3. Report on the Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease (p. 442) 871 

4. The Physics of High Altitudes in relation to Climate and Health. 

By Michael C. Grabham, M.D 871 

5. Report on the Ductless Glands (p. 440) 871 



SXVl CONTENTS. 

Page 

6. *C'ertain Factors in the Glomerular Secretion of the Kidneys. By 

Professor A, B. Macallum, F.R.S 871 

7. *Surface Tension as a Factor in the Distribution of Salts inside the Living 

Cell. By Professor A. B. Macallum, F.R.S 872 

8. The Prevention of Deaths under Anaesthetics. By Frederic W. 

Hewitt, M.V.O., M.A., M.D 872 

9. Is Alcohol a Food of Muscle ? A Comparison of Chloroform, Ether, 

and Alcohol. By Professor A. D. Waller, F.R.S 873 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

1. Discussion on Mental and Muscular Fatigue: — 

(i) Fatigue. By Dr. W. MacDotjgall (p. 479) 873 

(ii) Fatigue. By Professor T. H. Milroy 873 

(iii) Some Aspects of Mental Fatigue. By H. Sackville Lawsox 874 

2. The Interpretation of the Results obtained from the Study of Cerebral 

Localisation in the Prosimiae. By Professor W. H. Wilson and 
Professor G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S 875 

3. The Localisation of the Human Cerebral Cortex. By Professor 

G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S 876 

4. *0n certain Features of Retinal Photo-electro Phenomena. By Pro- 

fessor Francis Gotch, F.R.S 876 

5. Colour-blindness and Colour-perception. By F. W. Edridge-Grben, 

M.D., F.R.C.S 876 

6. Report on the Electrical Phenomena and Metabolism of Arum spadices 

(p. 463) 877 

7. The Constitution of Lecithin and other Phosphatives. By Dr. Hugh 

MaoLean 877 

8. The Gastro-intestinal Ganglionic Nervous System. By Sir James 

Grant, K.C.M.G 878 

3I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

*Discussion on Instruction of School Teachers in Physiology and Hygiene. 

Opened by Professor C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S 878 

L Report on the Conditions of Health essential to the Carrying-on of 

the Work of Instruction in Schools (p. 458) 878 

2. On Amyloid. By Professor A. Kossel 878 

3. The Relationship of the Pyloric to the Fundic Part of the Stomach. By 

Dr. E. P. Cathcart ... 879 

4. Isolation of a Physiologically Active Substance from Peptone. By 

F. O'B. Ellison, M.D 879 

5. The Haemo-renal Index. By Dr. Dawson Turner 881 

6. Osmotic Growths. By Dr. Dawson Turner 881 

7. Report on Body Metabolism in Cancer (p. 489) 881 

8. Further Observations on a previously imdescribed Tract in the Spinal 

Cord. By Dr. W. Page May 881 

9. Demonstration of the Cells and Tracts concerned in Paralysis and 

Recovery from Paralysis. By Dr. W. Page May 881 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXVll 

Page 

10. *Tlie Action of Two Sera on a Carcinoma occurring in Mice. By C. E. 

Walker 882 

11. The Biological Method of Differentiating Blood-stains. By Professor 

E. J. McWeeney, M.A., M.D 882 

12. The Action of Acid and Alkali on the Growth and Division of Animal 

and Vegetable Cells. By Professor B. Mooee and Dr. H. E. Roaf. . 883 

13. ♦Changes in the Prinitary after Thyroidectomy. By Dr. P. T. Herring 883 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 
Joint Meeting with Section D (p. 741) 883 

*A Review of the Tuberculosis Crusade in Ireland. By Sir Robert E. 

Matheson 883 



Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Address by F. F. Blackman, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the Section. . 884 

1. The Influence of Living Cells on the Transpiration Current. By 

Professor H. H. Dixon, F.R.S 901 

2. The Death-rate of Bacteria under the Action of Disinfectants. By 

Jliss Harrietts Chick, D.Sc 901 

3. *The Death-rate of Cells of Higher Plants in Fatal Conditions. By 

Miss Nora Darwin and Dr. Blackman, F.R.S 902 

4. Colour Changes in Flowers produced by controlling Insolation. By 

Colonel H. E. Rawson, C.B., R.E 902 

5. The Mechanical and Electrical Response of Plants. By Professor 

J. C. BosE, C.I.E., M.A., D.Sc 903 

6. *The Mechanism of Mitosis. By W. L. Balls 904 

7. *A perfectly Fertile Species -hybrid showing Segregation. By Dr. 

J. P. LoTSY 904 

8. *The Natural Crossing of the Cotton Plant. By W. L. Balls 904 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. ' 

1. *Photo-chemical Action in the Test-tube and the Leaf. By Dr. F. F. 

Blackman, F.R.S 904 

2. On Increase in Dry Weight as a Measure of Assimilation. By D. 

Thoday, B.A 905 

3. The Factors influencing Photosjmthesis in Water Plants. By A. M. 

Smith, M.A 906 

4. The Carbohydrates of the Snowdrop Leaf and their bearing on the 

First Sugar of Photosynthesis. By John Parkin, M.A 907 

5. *The Time Factor in Assimilation. By J. M. F. Drummond, M.A 908 

6. The Woodlands of Southern England. By A. G. Tansley, M.A 908 

7. The Woodlands of Northern England. By C. E. Moss, D.Sc c 908 



Xxvm CONTENTS. 



3I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

Page 

Joint Discussion with Section D on the Determination of Sex (p. 738) 909 

1. The Optical Behaviour of the Epidermal CeUs of Leaves. By Haeold 

Wagee, F.R.S 9o:> 

2. The Contractile Roots of the Aroid Sauromatum guttatum. By 

Mrs. D. H. Scott, F.L.S 910 

3. Evaporation in relation to the Stratification of Marsh Vegetation. 

By Professor R. H. Yapp, M.A 911 

4. *Report on the Registration of Botanical Photographs 911 

5. Report on the Structure of Fossil Plants (p. 493) 911 

6. Report on Studies of Marsh Vegetation (p. 492) 911 

7. Interim Report on the Sequence of Plant Remains in the Peat Deposits 

of Teesdale, &c. (p. 493) 911 

8. Second Interim Report on Research on South African Cycads and 

on Welwitschia (p. 494) 911 

9. *A Plant Animal. By Pi-ofessor F. W. Keeble 911 



' TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. The Origin of Dicotyledons. By W. C. Worsdell 911 

2. A Note on the Morphology of Endosperm. By Professor H. H. VV. 

Pearson, Sc.D 914 

3. The Primary Wood of Lepidodendron and Stigmaria. By Professor 

F. E. Weiss, D.Sc 914 

4. On Bensonites fusiformis, sp. vov., a Fossil associated with Stauropteris 

burntislandica, P. Bertrand, and on the Sporangia of the latter. 
By Mrs. D. H. Scott, F.L.S 915 

5. The Structure of Sigillaria scutellata, Brongn. By E. A. Newell 

Arber, M.A., and Hugh H. Thomas, B.A 915 

6. Notes on the Life History of Hcematococcus lacustria By M. Wilson, 

B.Sc 916 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. 

Address by Professor L. C. Miall, D.Sc, F.R.S. , President of the Section. . 917 

1. *The Outlook: A Grand Experiment in Education. By Professor 

H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S 927 

2. Education under a Local Authority. By R. Blair, M.A., B.Sc 927 

3. Special Schools for the Physically Defective and the Mentally Deficient. 

By Mrs. E. M. Burqwin 929 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXIX 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Page 

1. Report on Studies most suitable for Elementary Schools (with Intro- 

ductory Statement by Sir Philip Magnus (p. 495) ) 930 

2. Discussion on Education in relation to Rural Life : — 

(i) Education in relation to Rural Life. By L. C. Miall, D.Sc, F.R.S. 930 

(ii) School Gardens. By Miss Lilian J. Clarke, B.Sc., F.L.S 931 

(iii) The Problem of Rural Education in Irish Primary Schools. 

By the Right Rev. Dr. Foley 932 

(iv) Rural Education. By George Fletcher 932 

3I0NDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. Discussion on Education in Ireland : — 

(i) Character and Educational Efficiency. By T. P. Gill 933 

(ii) The Correlation of Primary, Secondary, and University Education 

in Ireland. By Professor Benjamin Moore, M.A., D.Sc 934 

2. Discussion on Training in Teaching : — 

(i) By Miss C. P. Tremain 935 

(ii) By Charles MacGregor 937 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 8. 

1. Report on the Curricula of Secondary Schools (p. 526) 938 

2. *Discussion on (a) Note-taking and Reports on Work ; (b) Clear Speaking 

and Reading Aloud 939 

3. Discussion on Types of Education and their relative Values : — 

(i) Acquirement in Education. By Dr. G. Archdall Reid 939 

f (ii) Influence of Mental Values of Types of Education. By Professor 

' E. P. CULVERWELL, M.A 940 

4. Discussion on Experimental Studies in Education : — 

(i) Experimental Studies in Education. By Professor J. A. Green . . 941 
(ii) Scientific Method in the Study of Education. By Professor 

J. J. FiNDLAY, M.A., Ph.D., and P. Sandiford, M.Sc 942 

5. Report on Changes affecting Secondary Education (p. 525) 944 



!SXX CONTENTS. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Page 

Halley's Comet. By Professor H. H. Ttjener, D.Sc, F.R.S 945 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 
The Colorado Canyon. By Professor W. M. Davis 948 

Index ^^1 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plates I. to IV. 
lUustrating the Report on Seismological Investigations. 

Plates V. and VI. 
Illustrating the Report on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. 

Plate VII. 
Illustrating Professor Horace Lamb's Paper on the Theory of Wave-motion. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1908-1909. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 



VICE-PATRON FOR THE MEETING AT WINNIPEG. 
His E.\cEllency the GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE DOMINION OF CANADA. 

PRESIDENT. 
FRANCIS DARWIN, M.A, M.B., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.9. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



Tbe Right Hon. Alderman QEnALD O'Reilly, Lord 

Mayor of Dublin. 
The Right Hon. Sir Samdel Walker, Bart , Lord 

Chancellor of Ireland. 
The Right Hon. Adqustise Bibrell, M.P., Chief 

Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 
The Right Hon. the Earl oe Meath, K.P., His 

Majesty's Lieutenant for the County of Dublin. 
The Right Hon. Lord Castletown of Upper 

OssoRY, K.P., Chancellor of the Royal University 

of Ireland. 
Antuoxy Traill, M.D., LL.D., Provost of Trinity 

College, Dublin. 
The Very Rev. William Del any, LL.D., President 

of University College, Dublin. 



The Right Hon. Viscount IVeagh, K.P., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Ardilaun, D.L., LL.D., 

President of the Royal Dublin Society. 
Francis A. Tahletos, LL.D., President of the 

Royal Irish Academy. 
The ' Right Hon. Mr. Justice Madden, M.A., 

LL.D., Vice-Chaucellor of the University of 

Dublin. 
Sir Christopher Nixon, Bart., M.D., LL.D., 

Vice-Chancellor of the Royal University of 

Ireland. 
T. W. RnssRLL, M.P., Vice-President of the 

Department of Agriculture and Technical 

Instruction in Ireland. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

Professor Sir J. J. Thomso.v, So.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. Lotto Strathcosa and Mount 
Royal, G.C.M.G., F.R.S. 

The Bight Hon. Sir Wilfrid LaUrikr, G.C.M.G., 
D.C.L., Premier of the Dominion of Canada. 

His Hon. the Lieutenant-Governor OE the Pro- 
vince op Manitoba. 

Tbe Hon. the Premier of the Province op Mani- 
toba. 

His Hon. the Lieutenant-Governor of the Pro- 
vince op Saskatchewan. 



The Hon. the Premier op the Pkovixce op Sas- 
katchewan. 

His Hon. the Lieutenant-Governor OF the Pro- 
vince of Albkuta. 

The Hon. the Pue-mikr of the Province of 
Alberta. 

His Hon the Lieutenant-Governor op the Pro- 
vince op British Columbia. 

The Hon. the Premier of the Province of 
British Colu.mbia. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor John Perry, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Major P. A. MacMahoN, B,A., D.Sc, F.R.S. | Professor \V. A Herdmas, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
A-fiTHCR Silva White, Burlington House, London, W. 

cHiEP Clerk and assistant treasurer. 

B. 0. Stewareson, Burlington House, London, W. 
LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MBETINQ AT WI.NNI EG. 

John Aird, 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT WINNIPEG. 



G. N. Sell. 

W. SASFORD EVANSi 



Professor M. A. P.rker, B.Sc 
Professor Swale Vincent, M.D, 



[P.T.O, 



XXXll 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Abney, Sir W., K.O.B., F.R.S. 
ANDERSON', Tempest, M.D., D.Sc. 
Bourne, Professor G. 0., D.Sc. 
BowLEY, A. L., M.A. 
Brabrook, Sir Edwabd, O.B. 
Brown, Dr. Horace T., F.R.S. 
Bbdnton, Sir Lauder, Bart., F.R.S. 
Close, Major C. F., E.E., O.M.G. 
Obaigie, Major P. G., C.B. 
Dyson, Professor F. W., F.K.S. 
Forsyth, Professor A. R., F.R.S. 
Glazebrook, Dr. R. T., F.R.S. 

Woodward, 



Dr. 



Hall, A. D., M.A. 
Habtland, E. SroNEY, F.S.A. 
Hawksley, 0., M.Inst.C.E. 
Hogarth, D. G., M.A 
McKendrick, Professor J. G., F.R.S. 
Mitchell, Dr. P. Chalmers, F.R.S. 
PouLTON, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Prain, Lieut.-Colonel D., C.I.E., F.B.S. 
Sherrington, Professor 0. S., F.R.S. 
Shipley, Dr. A. E., F.R.S. 
TuTTON, Dr. A. E. H., F.R.S. 
Watts, Professor W. W., F.R.S. 
A, Smith, F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President and Vice-Presidents for the year, tlie 
President and Vice-Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past- 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 

Meeting. 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

The Right Son. Lord Avebury, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh. MA., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Sir Arthur W. ROckeii, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Slf Joseph D. Etooker, G.C.S.L 
Lord Aveburv, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Bir William Haggins, K.O.B., 

r.R.s. 



Sir Archibald Geikie, 

Pres.R.S. 
Lord Lister, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir William Crookes, F.K.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. RUcker, D.Sc., F.R.S. 



K.O B., Sir James Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 

SlrNomianLockjer,K.O.B.,F.E.S. 
Arthur J. Balfour, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir George Darwin, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir RBay Lankester,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 
Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



F. Gallon, D.0.L.,F.R.8. 
P. L. Sclater, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, F.R.S. 



A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. RUcker, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. A. SJohafer, F.B.S. 



Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Garson. 



AUDITORS. 



Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. 



Professor H. lIcLeod, F.R.B. 



RULES OF 
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

lAdo^ted by the Goieral Committee at Leicester, 1907.] 



Chapter I. 
Objects and Constitution. 

1. The objects of the British Association for the Advance- Objects. 
ment of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in dififerent parts 

of the British Empire with one another and with foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for the objects 
of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

2. The Association shall consist of Members, Associates, Constitution. 
and Honorary Corresponding Members. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall be directed by a Council and conducted by 
General Officers appointed by that Committee. 

3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or Annual 
longer, and at such other times as the General Committee ^s^t^i^g^' 
may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 

in advance ; and the arrangements for these meetings shall 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 



CHAfTER II. 

The General Committee, 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the Constitution, 
following persons : 

(i) Permanent Members — 

(a) Past and present Members of the Council, and past 
and present Presidents of the Sections. 
1908. t 



xxxxv 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Admission. 



Meetina-s. 



Functions. 



(b) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furthered the advancement of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association. 

(ii) TemjJorary Members^ 

(a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(6) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 
sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies. 

(d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 

number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 



2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and 
claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
General Committee shall be final. 

(i) Claims for admission as a Permanent Member must 

be lodged with the Assistant Secretary at least one 

month before the Annual Meeting, 
(ii) Claims for admission as a Temporary Member may be 

sent to the Assistaixt Secretary at any time before or 

during the Annual Meeting. 

3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least during 
every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annual 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 
to summon a meeting of the General Committee. 

4. The General Committee shall 

(i) Receive and consider the report of the Council, 
(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations, 
(iii) Receive and consider the report of the Committee of 

Recommendations, 
(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 

than two years in advance, 
(v) Determine the date of the next Annual Meeting, 
(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting, 
(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council, 
(viii) Appoint General Officers, 
(ix) Appoint Auditors. 

(x) Elect the officers of the Conference of Delegates, 
(xi) Receive any notice of motion for the next Annual 
Meeting. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. XXXV 



Chapter III. 
Committee of Recommendations. 

1. The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution. 
mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 
Association and the President of each Section at the Annual 
Meeting, the General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the 
Trustees, and the Presidents of the Association in former years 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. Every i-ecommendation made under Chapter IV. and Functions. 
every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 

the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Recommendations 
approve such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidei-ed by the General Committee that is nOt so transmitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section or Sub- 
Section, for altering the title of a Section, or for any other 
change in the constitutional forms or fundamental rules of 
the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration and report. 

3. The Committee of Recommendations shall assemble, Procrrliire. 
for the despatch of business, on the Monday of the Annual 
Meeting, and, if necessary, on the following day. Their 
Report must be submitted to the General Committee on the 
last day of the Annual Meeting. *' 



b2 



XXXVl 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Procedure. 



Constitution. 



Proposals by 

Sectional 

Committees. 



Tenure. 



Reports. 



Chapter IV. 

Research Committees. 

1. Every proposal for special research, or for a grant of 
money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

In consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee, composed of Members of the Association, to 
conduct research or administer a grant in aid of research, 
and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; and the 
Committee of Recommendations may include such recom- 
mendation in their report to the General Committee. 

2. Every appointment of a Research Committee shall be 
proposed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 
at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary. 
Such Research Committee, if appointed, shall have power to 
add to their numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes 
of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall 
be forwarded by the Recorder to the Assistant Secretary not 
later than noon on the Monday of the Annual Meeting for 
presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 

4. Research Committees are appointed for one year only. 
If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 
in that year, application may be made through a Sectional 
Committee at the next Annual Meeting for reappointment, 
with or without a grant— or a further grant — of money. 

5. Every Research Committee shall present a Report, 
whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 
that at which it was appointed or reappointed. Interim 
Reports, whether intended for publication or not, must be sub- 
mitted in writing. Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain 
whether a Report has been made by each Research Committee 



RESEARCH COMMITTEE. XSXVU 

appointed on their recommendation, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations on or before the Monday of 
the Annual Meeting. 

6. In each Research Committee to which a grant of money Grants. 
has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call chairman, 
on the General Treasurer for such portion of the sum granted 

as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting W ^^P''^^ °° 
expire on June 30 following. The General Treasurer is not 
authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants. 

The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before (c) Account?, 
the Annual Meeting next following the appointment of ^^ j^^^^^ 
the Research Committee, forward to the General Treasurer 
a statement of the sums that have been received and ex- 
pended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
either return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains 
unexpended, or, if further expenditure be contemplated, apply 
for leave to retain the balance. 

When application is made for a Committee to be re- W Addi- 
appointed, and to retain the balance of a former grant, and 
also to receive a further grant, the amount of such further 
grant is to be estimated as being sufficient, together with 
the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 

In making grants of money to Research Committees, the (e) Caveat. 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal 
expenses to the Members. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
Committee. 

7. Members and Committees entrusted with sums of money Disposal of 
for collecting specimens of any description shall include in their apparatus,' 
Reports particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens &c. 

thus obtained for disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any ap- 
paratus which may have been purchased out of a grant made 
by the Association, and to state whether the apparatus is 
likely to be useful for continuing the research in question or 
for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of 
the Association, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall 
be deposited at the Office of the Association. 



XXXVIU RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter V. 

TJie Council. 

Constitution. 1. The Council shall consist of ex officio Members and of 

Ordinary Members elected annually by the General Com- 
mittee. 

(i) The ex officio Members are — the Trustees, past Presi- 
dents of the Association, the President and Vice- 
Presidents for the year, the President and Vice- 
Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the ensuing Annual Meeting, 
(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty-dve in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty sliall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
previous year. 

Functions. o. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 

on behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the affairs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the next 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual Report, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for election by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the 
Council at the Meeting in February, and the names selected 
shall be issued with the summonses to the Council Meeting in 
March, when the nomination shall be made from the names 
on the list. 

The Council shall have power to appoint and dismiss 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 



THE COUNCIL. XXXIX 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same Elections. 
time as that of the Officers of the Association, 

(i) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary- 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for re- 
election in the ensuing year : 

(a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

longest consecutive period, and 

(b) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 

London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 

Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
order of retirement above set forth. 

Cii) The Council shall submit to the General Committee' 
in their Annual Report, the names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council. 

(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 

Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
members of Council, and, if only two are so proposed, 
they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two are 
so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
unless five members at least require it to be by ballot. 



Chapter VI. 
The President, General Officers, and Staff. 

1. The President assumes office on the first day of the The Piesi- 
Annual Meeting, when he delivers a Presidential Address. 

He resigns office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. In his absence, he shall be represented 
by a Vice-President or past President of the Association. 

2. The General Officers of the Association are the General General 
Treasurer and the General Secretaries. °^'^' 



xl 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The General 
Treasurer. 



The General 
Secretaries. 



The Assistant 
Secretary. 



Assistant 
Treasurer. 



It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Association, in any matter of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

3. The General Treasurer shall be responsible to the 
General Committee and the Council for the financial affairs 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretaries shall control the general 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to 
the General Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general routine of the work of 
the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Assistant Secretary shall hold office during the 
pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 
of the General Secretaries, and in their absence shall repre-. 
sent them. He shall also act on the directions which may 
be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Assistant Secretary shall be charged, subject as afore- 
said : (i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persona 
therein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 

6. The General Treasurer may depute one of the Staff, as 
Assistant Treasurer, to carry on, under his direction, the 
routine work of the duties of his office. 

The Assistant Treasurer shall be charged with the issue of 
Membership Tickets, the payment of Grants, and such other 
work as may be delegated to him. 



Financial 
Statements. 



Chapter VII. 

Finance. 

1. The General Treasurer, or Assistant Treasurer, shall 
receive and acknowledge all sums of money paid to the 
Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 
Council, an interim statement of his Account ; and, after 



FINANCE 



xli 



June 30 in each year, he shall prepare and submit to the 
General Committee a balance-sheet of the Funds of the 
Association. 

2. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, Audit. 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinary pay- Expenditure, 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 

Council. 

4. The General Treasurer is empowered to draw on Investments. 
the account of the Association, and to invest on its behalf, 

part or all of the balance standing at any time to the credit 
of the Association in the books of the Bank of England, 
either in Exchequer Bills or in any other temporary invest- 
ment, and to change, sell, or otherwise deal with such tem- 
porary investment as may seem to him desirable. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable, Cheques, 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 

his office, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 



Local Offi- 
cers and 
Committees 



Chapter VIII. 

The Annual Meetings, 

1. Local Committees shall be formed to assist the General 
Officers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and 
shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General Officers 
and the Assistant Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Treasurers 
shall be empowered to enrol Members and Associates, and to 
receive subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Committees shall under- Functions. 
take the local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 

name of the Association in all matters pertaining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than the work of 
the Sections. 



xlii 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The 

Sections. 



Sectional 
Officers, 



Rooms. 



Sectional 
Committees. 

Constitution. 



Privilege of 
Old Members. 



Daily 
Co-optation. 



Chapter IX. 
The Work of the Sections. 

1. The scientific work of the Association shall be trans- 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time 
to time by the General Committee. 

It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of communica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for each Annual Meet- 
ing in advance, and shall act as the Officers of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting, 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The Section Rooms and the approaches thereto shall 
not be used for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes 
than those of the Association. 

4. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following : — 

(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office. 

(ii) All past Presidents of that Section. 

(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 
any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Committee, 
thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 
meeting : 

Provided always that — 

(«) Any Member of the Association who has served on 
the Committee of any Section in any previous year, 
and who has intimated his intention of being present 
at the Annual Meeting, is eligible as a member of 
that Committee at their first meeting. 

(h) A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 
set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members. 



THE WORK OF THE SECTIONS. 



xliii 



(c) A Sectional Committee may, at any time during the Additional 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons ^gjj^g 
present at the meeting to be Vice-Presidents of the 
Section, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 



5. The chief executive officers of a Section shall be the 
President and the Recorder. They shall have power to act on 
behalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 
be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
mittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be absolute on all points 
of order that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- 
, mission to the Assistant Secretary of the daily programme of 
his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, of the printed returns, abstracts, reports, or papers 
appertaining to the proceedings of his Section at the Annual 
Meeting, and for the correspondence and minutes of the 
Sectional Committee. 

6. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the 
close of the Annual Meeting, not more than six of its own 
members to be members of an Organising Committee, with 
the officers to be subsequently appointed by the Council, and 
past Presidents of the Section, from the close of the Annual 
Meeting until the conclusion of its meeting on the first day of 
the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

Each Organising Committee shall hold such Meetings as 
are deemed necessary by its President for the organisation 
of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and shall hold a meeting 
on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting : to nominate 
members of the Sectional Committee, to confirm the Pro- 
visional Programme of the Section, and to report to the 
Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be offered by a member, or may 
arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 

No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted 
on its Minutes. 



Executive 
Functions 



Of President. 



And of 
Recorder. 



Organising 
Committee. 



Sectional 
Committee. 



Papers and 
Reports. 



xliv 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Kecommen- 
dations. 



Publication. 



Copyright, 



Any report or paper read in any one Section may be read 
also in any other Section. 

No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the 
Annual Report of the Association unless the manuscript has 
been received by the Recorder of the Section before the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

It shall be within the competence of the Sectional Com- 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, further, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the task 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa- 
tion, whether by reference to local authorities, public institu- 
tions, or Departments of His Majesty's Government. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Com- 
mittee. 

7. Papers ordered to be printed in extenso shall not be 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 
to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports 
of Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere 
than in the Annual Report without the express sanction of 
the Council. 

8. The copyright of papers ordered by the General Com- 
mittee to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report shall 
be vested in the authors ; and the copyright of the reports 
of Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
shall be vested in the Association, 



ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. xlv 



Chapter X. 
Admission of Members and Associates. 

1. No technical qualification shall be required on the Applications, 
part of an applicant for admission as a Member or as an 
Associate of the British Association ; but the Council is 
empowered, in the event of special circumstances arising, to 

impose suitable conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

* Every person admitted as a Member or an Associate Obligationa. 
shall conform to the Rules and Regulations of the Association, 
any infringement of which on his part may render him liable 
to exclusion by the Council, who have also authority, if they 
think it necessary, to withhold from any person the privilege 
of attending any Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of 
admission already issued. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Council, on any occasion of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
Meeting. 

2. All Members are eligible to any office in the Association. Conditions 
(i) Every Life Member shall pay, on admission, the sum ^^ M'^^b*^^*^^ 

of Ten Pounds. ship. 

Life Members shall receive gratis the Annual 
Reports of the Association. 
(ii) Every Annual Member shall pay, on admission, the 
sum of Two Pounds, and in any subsequent year 
the sum of One Pound. 

Annual Members shall receive gratis the Report 
of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay, 
without intermission, their annual subscription. An 
Annual Member who omits to subscribe for any 
particular year shall lose for that and all future 
years the privilege of receiving the Annual Reports 
of the Association gratis. He, however, may resume 
his other privileges as a Member at any subsequent 
Annual Meeting by paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound, 
(iii) Every Associate for a year shall pay, on admission, 
the sum of One Pound. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Dublin, 1908. 



xlvi 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Correspond- 
ing Members 



Annual Sub- 
scriptions. 



The Annual 
Report. 



Associates shall not receive the Annual Report 
gratuitously. They shall not be eligible to serve on 
any Committee, nor be qualified to hold any office in 
the Association, 
(iv) Ladies may become Members or Associates on the 
same terms as gentlemen, or can obtain a Lady's 
Ticket (transferable to ladies only) on the payment 
of One Pound. 

3. Corresponding Members may be appointed by the 
General Committee, on the nomination of the Council. They 
shall be entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending tlie meeting may 
make payment at any time before the close of the financial 
year on June 30 of the following year. 

5. The Annual Report of the Association shall be forwarded 
gratis to individuals and institutions entitled to receive it. 

Annual Members whose subscriptions have'^ "been inter- 
mitted shall be entitled to purchase the Annual Report 
at two-thirds of the publication price ; and Associates for a 
year shall be entitled to purchase, at the' same price, the 
volume for that year. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date' of 
publication can only be issued by direction of the Council. 



Affiliated 
Societies. 



Associated 
Societies. 



Chapter XI. 

Corresponditig Societies : Conference of Delegates. 

Corresponding Societies are constituted as follows : 

1 . (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the British Association. 

Each Affiliated Society may appoint a Delegate, 
who must be or become J& Member of the Associa- 
tion and must attend the meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates. He shall be ex officio a Member of 
the General Committee. 
(ii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 
the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and numbers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the British 
Association. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES : CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES, xlvii 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con- 
ference. Such Delegates must be or become either 
Members or Associates of the British Association, 
and shall have all the rights of Delegates appointed 
by the Affiliated Societies, except that of member- 
ship of the General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed Applications. 
on the list of Corresponding Societies. Such application must 

be addressed to the Assistant Secretary on or before the Ist of 
June preceding the Annual Meeting at which it is intended 
it should be considered, and must, in the case of Societies 
desiring to be affiliated, be accompanied by specimens of the 
publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- CorrE' 
nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the spondino 
General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves Committed. 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties and of superintending the preparation of a list of the 

papers published by the Affiliated Societies. This Com- 
mittee shall make an Annual Report to the Council, and 
shall suggest such additions or changes in the list of Corre- 
sponding Societies as they may consider desirable. 

(i) Each Corresponding Society shall forward every year Procedure. 
to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, on or 
before June 1, such particulars in regard to the 
Society as may be required for the information of 
the Corresponding Societies Committee, 
(ii) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the 
Association a list of the papers published by the 
Corresponding Societies during the preceding 
twelve months which contain the results of local 
scientific work conducted by them — those papers 
only being included which refer to subjects coming 
under the cognisance of one or other of the several 
Sections of the Association. 

4. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies shall consti- Conperekce 
tute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, of Dele- 
and Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated annually by ^-^'^^^• 

the Council and appointed by the General Committee. The 
members of the Corresponding Societies Committee shall bo 
ex officio members of the Conference. 

(i) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by procedure and 
the Secretaries to hold one or more meetings during Functions. 



xlviii RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

each Annual Meeting of the Association, and 
shall be empowered to invite any Member or 
Associate to take part in the discussions. 

(ii) The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to 
submit Resolutions to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration, and for report 
to the General Committee, 
(iii) The Sectional Committees of the Association shall be 
requested to transmit to the Secretaries of the 
Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions to be made to the General Committee bearing 
on matters in which the co-operation of Corre- 
sponding Societies is desirable. It shall be com- 
peteiit for the Secretaries of the Conference of 
Delecates to invite the authors of such recom- 
niendations to attend the meetings of the Conference 
in order to give verbal explanations of their objects 
and of the precise way in which they desire these 
to be carried into effect, 
(iv) It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make 
themselves familiar with the purport of the several 
recommendations brought before tlie Conference, in 
order that they may be able to bring such recom- 
mendations adequately before their respective 
Societies. 

(v) The Conference may also discuss propositions 
regarding the promotion of more systematic ob- 
servation and plans of operation, and of greater 
uniformity in the method of publishing results. 



Chapter XII. 

Amendments and New Rides. 

Alterations, Any alterations in the Rules, and any amendments 

or new Rules that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee on the tirst day of the Annual Meeting, and referred 
forthwith to the Committee of Recommendations ; and, on the 
report of that Committee, shall be submitted for approval at 
the last meeting of the General Committee. 



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IxV 



TtlUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831-1908. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. MuECMisON (Bart.), 

B\R.S. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq.. F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R S. 
1862-81 Sir P. EgeeTON, Bart., F.R.S. 



TRUSTEES. 
1872 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 

AVEBUEY), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. SroTTiswooDB, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883 Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir- Lyon (afterwards Lord) 

Playfaie, F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. (Sir) A. W. Ruckee, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Geay, Esq. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottisavoode, Esq., F.R S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



1891-98 Prof. (Sir) A. W. Ruckee, 

F.R.S. 
1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904 Prof. John Peeey, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832 
1835 



35 



-36 



1836-37 



Rev. W. 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 
F.R.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 



Veenon Haecouet, 

Veenon Haecouet, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 

Veenon Haecouet, 
Muechison, 



F.R.S., and R. I. 
Esq., F.R.S. 
1837-39 R. I. Muechison, Esq., F.R.S., 
and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1839-4b Sir R. I. Muechison, F.R.S., 
and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
50 Lieut.-Colonel E Sabine,F.R.S. 
52 General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 
J. F. ROYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. ROYLB, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walkeb, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
63 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 
Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
1863-65 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 
Dr. T. A. HiEST, F.R.S. 



1845 
1850. 

1852 
1853 
1859- 
1861 
1862 



1865- 
1866- 



-53 
-59 
-61 
-62 



66 

68 



1868-71 

1871-72 

1872-76 

1876-81 

1881-82 

1882-83 
1883-95 

1895-97 



1897- r 

1900 1 
1900-02 



1902-03 
1903 



Dr. T. A. HiEST, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Dr.T. TH0MS0N,F.R.S.,and Capt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S.. and 

Dr. Michael Fostee, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balpoue, F.R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S. , 

and A. G. Veenon Haecouet, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
A.'G. Veenon Haecouet, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

SCHAFEE, F.R.S. 
Prof. SCHAFBE, F.R.S., and Sir 

W.C.RoBEETS- Austen, F.R.S. 
Sir W. C. Robeets-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. ScOTT, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. ScoTT, F.R.S., and 

MajorP.A.MAcMAHON,F.RS. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Heedman, 

F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES 
1881-85 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Foebes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Geifpith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. GOEDON, Esq., B.A., 

Assistant Secretary. 
1881 G. Geipfith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 



BONNBY, F.R.S., 



Prof. T. G. 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Geiffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-1902 G. geipfith, Esq., M.A. 
1902-04 J. G. Gaeson, Esq., M.D. 
1904 A. SiLVA WHITE, Esq., Assistant 

Secretary. 



1908. 



Ixvi 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association, 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

183.^. Cambridge 
1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1833. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
184.5. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

18.50. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 
Rev. Dr. Robinson 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool... 
Newcastle 
Birmingham 
Glasgow ... Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 



Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Wlie well, F.R.S.... 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Plymouth Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F. R. S 

Jlanchester Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 
F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.I.A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. AV. Herschel, 

Bart., F.fl.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Swansea ... Lord Wrottcsley, F.R.S 

Birmingham William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Edinburgh Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Ipswich ... Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

■ F.R.S. 
Belfast Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Hull The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Liverpool... Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Glasgow ... Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Cheltenham Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Dublin I Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 

i F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 



1858. Leeds Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

1 V.P.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof, 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Jlajor Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith, 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Kev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stoke.-*. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W.J.MacquornRankine,Prof.Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof . G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankinc, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kinc, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollilt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsli. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Barnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof . Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 



1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 



Presidents 



1878. Bristol,., 
1876. Glasgow 



1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
188.S. 
1884. 
1885. 



Plymouth. 
Dublin.. . 
Sheffield . 
Swansea . 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal .. 

Aberdeen. . 



The Earl of Rosse, M.A.,K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S... . 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D?C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Piof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 



Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof.G.C. Foster, B.A.,F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Pi-of. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A.. F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Prof. Lord Rayleigh, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. 0. Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 
J'.K.S.B. 



Secretaries 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Wliitley, 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof.H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Poster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. ClifPord, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Wliitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher. 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rod well. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. 

Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rod well. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J.W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 
D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 

C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, O. J. Lodge, D. MacAli.ster. 

R. E. Baynea, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof, 
) W. M. Hicka. Prof. W. Ingram. 

d a 



Ixviii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1886, 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895.; 
189G. 

1897. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 
1902 
1903. 
1901. 

1905. 
190C. 
1907. 
1908. 



Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

O.icf ord 

' Ipswich . . . 

liiverpool... 

Toronto ... 

Bristol 



Presidents 



Dover 

Bradford... 

Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 



Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 
I LL.D., F.R.S. 
'Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 
I LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

I Ti' R S 

Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 
R.E., F.R.S. 

J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 
I F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 
I LL.D., F.R.S. 1 

Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 
j F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

I 

I Prof.A.W.Rucker, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S.— Z**-^. 
of Astroiwmij, Dr. A. A. 
Common, F.R.S. 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
• — Dep. of Astrononu/, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 
I — Dep. of Axfronomy, Prof. 
! A. Schu.ster, F.R.S. 

C. Vernon Boy.«, V\\\..'}>.—Dep. 
of Astronomy and Meteor- 
ology S)y.\S ."A. Shaw.F.R.S 

Prof. H. Lamb, F.R.S.— ShJ- 
Seetion of Astrono/nt/ and 
Cosmtcal Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I. E., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester ... 

Dublin Dr. W. N, Shaw, F.R.S 



Principal E. H.Griffiths,F.R.S. 



Prof. A. E. H. Love, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

.Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, .1. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, W. 

Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton. J. C. Gla- 

shan, J. L. Howard, Prof. J. C. 

McLennan. 
A. P. Chattock, J. L. Howard, 

C. H. Lees. W. Watson, E. T. 

Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, W. Wat- 
son, E. T. Whittaker. 
P. H. Cowell, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wagstaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 
H. S. Carslaw, C.H. Lees, W. Stewart, 

Prof. L. R. ^Vilberforce. 

II. S. Car.«law, A. R. Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. B. 
Morton, A. W. Porter. 

D. E. Benson, A. 11. Hinks, R. W. 
H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees. J. 
Loton. A. W. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. II, T. Hudson, 

Dr. C. H. Lees, Dr. W. J. S. Lock- 

yer. A. W. Porter, W. C. D. 

Whet ham. 
A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough. R. T. A. 

Innes, J. H. Jeans. Dr. C. H. 

Lees. 
Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 

A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. W. Porter, 

H. Dennis Taylor. 

E. E. Brooks, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, 
Dr. J. A. Harker, A. R. Hinks, 
Prof. A. W. Porter. 

Dr. W. G. Duffield, Dr. L. N. G. 
Filon, E. Gold, Prof. J. A, 
McClelland. Prof. A. W. Porter, 
Prof. E. T. Whittaker. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES Ot THE SECTIONS. 



Ixix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTKY, MINERALOGY. 



18.^2. 
1833. 
1831. 



1835. 
1836. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



Dublin jDr. T. Thomson, F.R.S 

Bristol I Rev. Prof. Gumming 



1837. Liverpool.. 
1838 Newcastle 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell.F.R.S. 

1830. Birmingham Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

1840. Glasgow ....Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R S. 

Dr. Daubenj', F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I. A.. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Gumming 



1841. Plymouth 

1842. 

1843. 

1844. 



Manchester 

Cork 

York 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. 

1847. 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

18.55. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 
1862. 

1863. 

1864. 



Michael Faraday, D.G.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Richard Phillips, F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. G. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, R. Hunt,W. M. Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. 
I'is.rlcPi* 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. G. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 



Swansea ... Richard Phillips, F.R.S T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

Birmingham John Percy, M.D., F.R.S JR. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Edinburgh Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.B. ... ' Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 
Ipswich ... Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. : T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Belfast Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 1 Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof . 

I Ronalds. 
Hull Prof. J. F.W. Johnston, M.A., I H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. nunt,T. J. 

I F.R.S. Pearsall. 

Liverpool , Prof. W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S.' Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

I Price. 
Glasgow ...Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B.,F.R.S. Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscce. 
Cheltenham Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ...'J. Horsle)', P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

I I Voelcker. 

Dublin Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 

1 M.R.LA. I livan. 

Leeds Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 

I D.C.L. I nolds. 

Aberdeen... Dr.LyonPlayfair,G.B.,F.R.S. J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

I Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

Oxford I Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 'A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

I I A. B. Northcote. 

Manchester Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 



Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 



Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 



H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 
Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
F.R.S. I Stevenson. 

W. Odling, M,B., F.R.S 'A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 

1 Biggs. 



Ixx 



'^PitESibENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 



Presidents 



Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D„ 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Ftankland, F;R.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. B. Ro,sCoe, B.A., 

K R S 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F R S 
W. H.Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. B. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 

W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S 

Prof. V/. A. Tilden, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, -F.R.S 

Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

i Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

I Russell, J. White. 

|A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

I W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 

j sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Ptof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell. 

J. Y. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
B. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Ru.s.sell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cransloun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 
Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 

P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 

|P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

I J. L. Notter. 

iProf. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

\ Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

I T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 

Prof. P.Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon. 
H. Forster Morley, Dr. W. J. 

I Simpson. 

jP. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, H, F. Mor- 

i ley,W.W. J.Nicol, C. J.Woodward. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, U. Forster 

i Morley, W. Thomson. 

Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 
R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 

H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 
W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 

C. H. Bothamley, H, Forster Morley, 

I D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 

C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

! W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 

J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 

1 Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 

J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

I D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 

'a. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

I Harden, H. Forster Morley. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS, 



Ixxi 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION B {continued). — chemistry. 



1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. South Africa 

1906. York 



Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S 

Horace T. Brown, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 

Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sydney Young.F.R.S.... 



1907. Leicester 



1908. Dubhn 



George T. Beilby 



Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S. ... 



E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn.J. W. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn. 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 
C. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddart, T. K. 

Rose. 
A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Rose, 

Prof. W. P. Wynne. 
W. M. Gardner, F. S. Kipping, W. 

J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 
W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 

W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 
R. F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof. 

G. G. Henderson. Prof. W.J. Pope. 
Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope. 
Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. O. Jones, Prof. W. 

J. Pope. 
W. A. Caldecott, Dr. M. O. Forster, 

Prof. G. G. Henderson, C. F. Juritz. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 

Crossley, S. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. 

Pope. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 

Crossley, J. H. Hawthorn, Dr. 

F. M. Perkin. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. A. McKen- 

zie, Dr. F. M. Perkin, Dr. J. H. 

Pollock. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

1832. Oxford R. L Murchison, F.R.S i John Taylor. 

1833. Cambridge. JG. B. Greenough, F.R.S ;W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

1834. Edinburgh . Prof . Jameson j J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie, Rev. J.Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle., 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 



R.J.Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

<r«tf(jr.,R.I.Murchison,F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

6!<;o^.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geographii, Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

tff?tf^.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, ¥.B,.%.~Geog., 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F,a,S, ,.. 



Captain Portlook, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 

T. J. Torrie. 
Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M. Denham, R.N. 
W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock. — 

Geography, Capt. Washington. 
George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick 

land, Charles Darwin. 
W. J. Hamilton,D. Milne, H. Murray, 

H. E. Strickland, J. Secular. 
W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore, M.D., 

R. Hutton. 
B. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 

Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 
F. M. Jennings, _H. E. Strickland, 



Ixxii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIBS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


1844. York 


Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A. 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner, F.R.S 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 


1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Soutliamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 


1848. Swansea ... 
1849. Birmingham 


Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S 


1850. Edinburgh' 


Sir Roderick I. Murchieon, 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. 0. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
S.Benson, Prof. 01dham,Prof. Ramsay 
J. B. Jukes, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 
1 Prof. Nicol. 



SECTION C (^continued). — GEOLOGY. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool.. 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin, 



1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen.., 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 
186i{. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford.., 



WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Lieut.- Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M.A., F.R.S. 
Sir Cliarles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S... 

Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philipde M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, R. H. 

Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, E. Hull, J. W. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E, 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. 0. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L.C.Miall,R.H.Tiddeman,W.Topley, 



• Geography wag constituted a separate Section, see page Ixxix. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxiii 



Date and Place 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. 
1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891, 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 
1897. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 
1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905, 



Bristol.... 
Glasgow . 

Plymouth. 

Dublin.... 



Sheffield .. 
Swansea .. 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



Presidents 



Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr.T.Wright,F.R.S.E.,F.G.S. 
Prof. John YounR, M.D 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Diincan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S,, F.G.S. 



Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S, 
Montreal ... W. T. Blanford, F.R.S,, Sec, 

G.S. 
Aberdeen ,,, Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S,, Sec. 

G.S, 
Birmingham Prof. T, G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S,, F.G.S. 
Manchester Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Bath Prof . W. Boy d Dawkins, M. A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Newcastle- Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 
upon-Tyne F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Leeds Prof. A, H. Green, M.A., 

I F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Cardiff Prof. T. Rupert Jone.<;, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Edinburgh Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D,, 

F.R.S., F.G.S, 
Nottingham J, J, H, Teall, M.A., F.R,S., 

L, Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S, .., 



Secretaries 



Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool.., 
Toronto ,,. 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford ,,, 

Glasgow ,,. 
Belfast 



Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 



W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ,., 

J. E.. Marr, M.A., F.R.S 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 
W, H. Hudleston,F,R.S 

Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 

Prof, W, J, Sollas, F.R.S, .„ 

John Home, F.R.S 

Lieut,-Gen. C. A. McMahon, 

F T? S 
Prof. W. W, Watts, M.A., 

M.Sc. 
Aubrey Strahan, F.R.S 

Prof. H. A. Miers, M,A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 



F, Drew, L, C, Miall, R, G, Symes, 
R, H, Tiddeman. 

L, C, Miall, E, B, Tawney, W, Topley, 

J, Armstrong, F, W, Rudler, W, 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W, Whitaker. 

J, E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 

W. Whitaker. 
T. W, Shore, W, Topley, E, West- 

lake, W, Whitaker. 
R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W, Top- 

ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H, 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W, 

Topley, W, W, Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J, H, Teall, W. Top- 

ley, W, W, Watts, 
Prof G, A, Lebour, W. Topley, W. 

W, Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W, 
I W, Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F, H. Hatch, J. 
I E. Marr, W, W. Watts. 
VV. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W, Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
'j, W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W, W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F, A. Bather, G. W. Laraplugh, H, 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, C. Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W, Lamp- 
lufih, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

G, W, Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H. Pentecost. 

J. W. Gregory, G. W. Lamplugh, 

Capt. McDakin, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H, L. Bowman, Rev, W. L. Carter, 

G, W, Lamplugh, H. W. Monckton, 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 
H, L. Bowman, H, W. Monckton, 

J, St, J, Phillips, H, J, Seymour. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W, Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. Woods, 
H. L. Bowman, J. Lomas, Dr. Molen- 

graaif. Prof. A, Young, Prof, R, B, 

Young, 



Ixxiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 



Presidents 



G. W. Lamplngh, F.R.S. ... 
I'rof. J. W. Gregory, F.B.S. 
Prof. John Joly, F.R.S. ... 



Secretaries 



H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 
Rev. W. Johnson, J. Lomas. 

Dr. F. W. Bennett, Rev. W. L. Carter, 
Prof. T. Groom, J. Lomas. 

Rev. W. L. Cai-ter, J. Lomas, Prof. 
S. H. Reynolds, H. J. Seymour. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

18.S2. Oxford Rev, P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge' Rev. \V. L. P. Garuons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh, Prof. Graham AV. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett, 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 

1844, 

1845. 
1846. 

1847. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 



Cork. 
York. 



W, S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL,D. 



Cambridge 
Soutliamp- 

ton. 
Oxford 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, 

Dr. AUman |J. Curtis, Dr. Litton, 

Rev, Prof. Henslow 'j, Curtis, Piof. Don, Dr, Riley, S. 

Rootsey, 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gra)', Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, K. Forbes, R. Pat- 
I terson. 
John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S, i J. Couch,Dr. Lankcster, R. Patterson. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- [ Dr, Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A, 

bert, LL.D., F.L.S. Turner. 

William Thompson, F,L,S. ... G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Very Rev, the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. i Dr. Lankester. 

Rev, Prof. Henslow, F.L.S,... Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, 
Sir J. Richardson, M,D,, ; Dr, Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

F.R.S. ; Wooldridge. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R,S. Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

I Wollaston, 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology and botany, including PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub. 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixxviii,] 



1848. Swansea ,,. 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



1851, Ipswich 

1852, Belfast.. 

1853, Hull 



L. W, Dillwyn, F,R.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof, Goodsir, F,R,S„ F,R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C, C, Babington, M,A,, F.R,S, 



Dr, R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof, J. H, Bennett, M.D., Dr, Lan- 

kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F, W, Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr, Dickie, George C, Hyndman, Dr, 

Edwin Lankester, 
Robert Harrison, Dr, E, Lankester, 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee 
for Presidents and Secretaiies of which see p. lxx,viii, * 



tltfiSIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxv 



Date and Place 



1864. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



B i r m i n g- 
ham ' 



Ptof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thoitias Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R;S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jdrdine, Batt., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Ptof. SenSlow, F.L.8.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

iProf. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



SECTION D {continued) 

Nottingham Prof. Huxley, Y.n.^.—Bt-p. 

of Phymil., Prof. Humphry, 

I F.R.S. — Dij>. of Antliropol., 

A. R. Wallace. 

Dundee ... Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

I — Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 

I George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 

Norwich ...jRev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Bep. of Phynology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

Exeter 'George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

— Bep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. RoUeston, M. A., M.D., 
F.R.S., ¥.\j.^.—Bep. of 
Anat. and Phyid«l.,Yroi.M.. 
Foster, M.D.,>.L.S.— Z»f^. 
((/ Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
V.B,.^.~Bep. of Bot. and 
.^o«Z.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burden Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— 2)f^. of 
Anat.and Physiol.,Vioi. Ru- 
therford, yi.J).—Bep. of An- 
thropol, Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 



1866. 

1867. 
1868. 

1869. 

1870. Liverpool.., 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .., 

1873. Bradford .. 



Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankesteir. 
William Keddie, Dr. E. Lankestei'. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. E. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A.Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
I Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, ReV. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

, — BIOLOGY. 

Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye- Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 



' The title of Section D was changed to Biology. 



Ixxvi 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow 



1877. Plymouth. 



1878. Dublin , 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea .. 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal'... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. O. Cunning' 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Kudler. 



Prof. Redfern, M.T).—Bep. of 

Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 

C.B.,Pres.R.S.— i>^;/;.o/"^«- 

throp., Sir W. E. Wilde, 

M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S.— -Of^. a/, E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 

Aiiat. and Physiol., Prof.l W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 

Cleland, ¥.n.S>.—Bej>. oJ\ Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 

^////t.,Prof.Rolleston,F.R.S.| W. Spencer. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— B. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 

Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



Bvp. of Zool. and Bot., 
I'rof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Bcp. of An at. and Phymil., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and PhysivL, 
Prof. Macalister. — Bep. of 
Anthropol.,¥.G&\ion,¥.'R.ii. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. B..^.—Bep. 
of Anat. and Phynol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S.— Z>f^A of Anthropol., 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
■ — Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Sraith. 

A.C. L. Gunther,F.R.S.— Z>(:?>. 
of A nat. 4- Physiol., F. M. 
Balfour, F U H.—Bep. of 
Anthropol, F. W. Rudler. 

R. Owen, ¥.li.S.—Bep. of An- 
thropol., Prof. W.H. Flower, 
¥.!{.&.— Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins. F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 
Y.K.^.—Bcp. of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 
Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Puiser, J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nia.s, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 
W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 
Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 
G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, 
A. Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D.,'W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 



LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E 



W. Carruthers, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Pres. L.S., 



Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 



J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse, W. L. Sclater, Prof, 

H. Marshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 

mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 



• Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxxv. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxvii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



Secretaries 



1891. CardiflE. 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham' 

1894. Oxford* ... 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D„ D.Sc. F.R.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 
I M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A„ 
; F.R.S. 



F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver, H. 
Wager, H. Marshall AVard. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
AV. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A, Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

HickBon, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater, 



1895. 
1896. 

1897. 

1898. 

1899. 
1900. 

1901. 
1902. 

1903. 



Ipswich . . 

Liverpool.. 

Toronto .. 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford .. 

Glasgow .. 
Belfast 

Southport 



1904. Cambridge 



SECTION D {continued). 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 

Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. ... 
William Bateson, F.R.S 



1905, 
1906. 

1907. 
1908. 



South Af rica G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. , 
York !j. J. Lister, F.R.S 

Leicester... Dr. W. E. Hoyle, M.A.... 
Dublin I Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S. 



— ZOOLOGY. 

G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
H. O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 
Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 
W. Garstang, J. G. Kerr, T. H. 

Taylor, Swale Vincent. 
J. G. Kerr, .1. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson. 
Prof. J. G. Iv'err, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, A. 

Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashwortli, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Oxley Grabham, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

E. E. Lowe, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. A. Eraser, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 



' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxxvi. 
' The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



Ixxviii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 




Secretaries 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge Dr. J. Haviland IDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh ;Dr. Abercrombie |Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr.J.Brown, Prof. Couper,Prof . Reid. 



SECTION E. PHYSIOLOGY. 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford' ... 



P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. J. Butter, J. Fuge, R. S. Sargent. 



Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D, 
J. C. Pritchard, M.D. ... 
Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S. 



Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. Jolm Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormerod. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham 2 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rolleston,M.D.,F.L.S. 

Dr. John Davy, F.R.S 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
j Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Tutner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[i'or Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. Ixxi.] 



ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



18'lG.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



' Sections D and E were incorporated under the name of ' Section D— Zoology 
and Botany, including Physiology ' (see p. Jxxiv). Section E, being then vacant^ 
w:is assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

'' Vide note on page Ixxiv. 



PtlESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxiic 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. Ipswich ... Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 

1852. Belfast Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 

1853. Hull R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

1854. Liverpool... Sir R. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 

1855. Glasgow ... Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 

1856. Cheltenham Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 

1857. Dublin Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres.R.LA. 

1858. Leeds Sir R.I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 
I85'J. Aberdeen... Rear - Admiral Sir James 
! Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

1860. Oxford Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 

1861. Manchester John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

1862. Cambridge Francis Galton, F.R.S 

1863. Newcastle Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 

1864. Bath Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 

1865. Birming- Major-General Sir H. Raw- 

liam. : linson, M.P.,K.C.B., F.R.S. 

1866. Nottingham Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

1 LL.D. 

1867. Dimdee ... Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

1868. Norwich ... Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 

F.R.S. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr- 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr, 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, \V. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghan, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor^ 

ton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lempri^re, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements K. 
I Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — geogeaphy. 



1860. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.LMurchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C. B. 

MajoT Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.B.,C.S.I.,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B. 



H. W. Bates, Clements H, Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott. Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. O. Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. B. Fox, E. C. Rye. 



IxxX PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 



Secretaries 



John Coles, E. C. Rye. 



H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 



1878. Dublin Prof. Sir C. "Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D.,F.R.8.,F.R S.E. 
Clements R. Markham, C.B.. 

F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 

C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A.,F.R.S. 
Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

F.R.G.S. 
Licut.-Col. II. H. Godwin- John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Austen, F.R.S. Rye. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., Rev.AbblLaflamme.J.S.O'Halloran, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S., V.P.R.G.S. E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., J. S Keltie, J. S. O'Halloran, E. G. 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .. 

1885. Aberdeen.. 



1886. Birming- 

ham. 

1887. Manchester 



1888. Bath. 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.I., C.B.. F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Su- C. W. Wilson, R.E , 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S 



Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 
F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 

B. G. Ravenstein. 
Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 
190.5. South Africa 

1906. York 



Col. Sir F. de Winton, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. | Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert , A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. A. Silva White. 



E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

V.P.R.Scot.G.8. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R.S., F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. 
Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A., 

F.R.G.S. 
Major L. Darwin, Sec. R.G.S. 



J. Scott Keltie, LL.D. 

Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. 

Sir John MuiTay, F.R.S 

Sir George S. Robertson, 

R C S T 
Dr. H.'r. Mill, F.R.G.S 

Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ... 

Capt. E. W. Creak, R.N., C.B., 
F.R.S. 



Douglas W. Freshfield. 



Adm. Sir W. J. L. "Wharton, 
R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Sir George Goldie, 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 



John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva AVhite, Dr. Yeats. 

J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 
Keltie, A. Silva White. 

Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. 0. 
Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 

John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 
Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 

John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 
R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 

Col. F. Bailey, H. N. Dickson, Dr. 
H. R. Mill, E. C. DuB. Phillips. 

Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 
H. R. Mill, J. B. TyiTell. 

H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill, H. C. 
Trapnell. 

H. N. Dickson. Dr. H. 0. Forbes, 
Dr. H. R. Mill. 

H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, E. R. 
Wethey. 

H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 
Sandeman. A. C. Turner. 

G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 
A.J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. Lindsay. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. Under- 
wood. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
H. Y. Oldham. B. A. Reeves. 

A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, H. Y. Old- 
ham. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
1 E. A. Reeves, G. Yeld. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAJtlES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxx! 



Date and Place 



1907. Leicester. 

1908. Dublin..., 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



George G. Chisholm, M.A. ... E. Heawood, 0. J. R. Howartlij 

I E. A. Reeves, T. Walker. 
Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., W. F. Bailey, W. J. Barton, O. J. II. 
R.B. I Howarth, E. A. Reeves. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge' Prof. Babbage, F.R.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh i Sir Charles Lemon, Bart I Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 

SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



183.1. Dublin 'Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

1836. Bristol Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birming- 

ham. 

1840. Glasgovir ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea .., 

1849. Birming- 

ham. 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool. 

1855. Glasgow . 



Colonel Sj'kes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Lord Sandon, M.P., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col.Sykes, F.R.S.... 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E Bromby, C. B. Fripp. 

James Ueywood. 
W. R. Greg,'w. Langlon, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 
I W. Rawson. 

Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 
I W. C. Tayler. 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
Lieut.- Col. Sykes, F.R.S., J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 

F.L.S. I cock. 

Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 

G. R. Porter, F.R.S I J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Nelson, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

I P. Neison. 
J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. P. G. 

Neison. 
Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

V.P.R.S.E. I Stark. 

Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

Dublin. I MacAdam, jun. 

James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. ' Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 

Thomas Tooke, F.R.S JE. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W, H. 

I Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... ' J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 

I march. Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (^continued). — economic science and statistics. 
1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 
1908. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. I Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 
1 M. Tartt. 
His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 



Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines..... 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 



Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 





Izxxu 



PKBSIDENT9 AND SECRBTARIEa GF THE SECTIONS: 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1860. 

18G1. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 
1869. 

1870. 

I, 1871. 
*1872 

187S. 

1874. 

1875. 
1876, 

1877. 
1878. 
187'.). 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

188.5. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 
1889. 
1890. 



Secretaries 



Oxford I Nassau W. Senior, M. A Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

i Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 

Manchester i William Newmarch, F.R.S.... David Chadwick, Prof. E. C. Christie, 
! E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 

Cambridge Edwin Chadwick, C.B H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 

Newcastle .'William Tite, M.P.,F.R.S.... T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 

Bath ' W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 

Birming- ^ Rt. Hon. Lord Stanlej',LL.D., G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 
ham. M.P. E. Macrory. 

Nottingham Prof. J. E. T. Rogers R. Birkin, jun.. Prof. Leone Levij B. 

Macrory. 

Dundee M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 

Norwich.... Samuel Brown Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof . Leone Levi. 

Exeter Kt.Hon.SirStaffordH. North- E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 

cote, Bart., C.l'.., M.P. Acland. 

Liverpool... Prof. W. Stanley Jevous, M.A. Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, B. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 

Edinburgh Rt. Hon. Lord Ncaves J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 

Brighton ... Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... J. G. Fitcli, B.arclay Phillips. 
Bradford ... Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 

Belfast Lord O'Hagan Prof. Donuell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordic. 

Bristol i, James Hey wood, M.A„F.R.S., F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, B. 

Pres. S.S. Macrory. 

Glasgow ... Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.L, A. M'NeelCaird,T.G.P.Hallett, Dr. 
M.P. W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. 

Jack. 
Plymouth... Rt. Hon. tlie Earl Fortescue W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 

Dublin Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. ... W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 

Sheffield ... G.Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pros. Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 
S.S. : Molloy. 

Swansea ... G. W. Hastings, M.P , N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 

York Rt. Hon. M. B. Grant- Duff, C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

M.A., F.R.S. ■ Moss. 

Southamp- Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
ton. M.V., F.R.S. well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 
Southport K. H. Inglis I'algrave, F.R.S. Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

I Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Montreal ... Sir Richard Temple, Bart., Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

G.C.S.I., CLE., F.R.G.S. ' Prof. J. Watson. 
Aberdeen... Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Litt.D. Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. 

Mess. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 
t Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Robert Giffen, LI<.D.,V.P.S.S. Rev. W. Cunningham. F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. 11. Elliott, C. Hughes, 
J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, ; Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

LL.D., F.R.S. i H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 

Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., i Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 



Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester 



Bath . 



J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



F.S.S. 
Prof. A. MarshaU, M. A., F.S.S. 



1891. Cardifi. .. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, F S.S. 



F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Caunan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Conner, H. LI. Smith. 

Prof. W. R. Schley. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxxiii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1892. Edinburgh Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle. Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

K.C.B. I E. C. K. Conner, H. Higg.s, 

I j L. L. F. R. Price. 

1893. Nottingham Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

F S S. ! Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. E. Price. 

1894. Oxford Prof. C. F. B.asiable, M.A., B. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

' F.S.S. I W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 

1895. Ipswich ... L. L. Price, M.A 'e. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

i I H. Higgs. 

1896. Liverpool... Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P....'E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

1 I W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 

1897. Toronto ... ' Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. Ie. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 

1898. Bristol ' J. Bonar, M.A., LL.D E. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Flux, H. 

I 1 Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 

1899 Dover |h. Higgs, LL.B A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 

I VV. Flux, Rev. G. Sarson. 

A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, S. J. 

Chapman, F. Hooper. 
W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan, S. J. Chapman. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. A. Duffin 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 
I Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. Lloyd. 
!j. E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley, Prof 
! S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg. 
1905 SouthAfrica Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D., R. a Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley,Prof. 
I D Sc. H. E. S. Fremantle, H. O. Mere- 

dith. 

1906. York A. L. Bowley, M.A Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Mac- 

I gregor, H. O. Meredith, B. S. 

Rowntree. 

1907. Leicester . . . i Prof. W. J. Ashley, M.A Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Macgregor, 

H. O. Meredith, T. S. Taylor. 

1908. Dublin W. M. Acwortb, M.A W. G S. Adams, Prof. S. J. Chap- 
man, Prof. D. H. Macgregor, H. O. 
Meredith. 

Sub-section of Agriculture — jA. D. Hall, Prof. J. Percival, J. H. 
Rt. Hon. Sir H. Plunkett. ! Priestley, Prof. J. AVilson. 



1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 



Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. 
Sir R. Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

E. Cannan, M.A., LL.D 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D 



SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol i Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

1837. Liverpool... I Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birming- 

ham. 

1840. Glasgow ... 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York , 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton 

1847. Oxford 



.John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macncill, M.R.I.A.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



T. G, Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn.C.Vignoles, T.Wobster. 
W. Carpmael, William H.awkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J, 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 



Kev.Prof.Walker,M.A.,F.R.S.)j. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 



e2 



Ixxxiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

185.5. 
18.56. 
18.57. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862, 
1S63. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 



Swansea ... ' Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S. 
Birmingham ! Robt. Stephenson, M.P.,F.R.S. 

Edinburgh j Rev. R. Robinson 

Ipswich .,.: William Ciibitt, F.R.S 

Belfast John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

i F.R.S. 

Hull William Fairbairn. F.R.S. ... 

Liverpool... John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 

Glasgow ... \V. J. M. Rankine. F.R.S. ... 

Cheltenham George Rennie, F.R.S 

Dublin Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 

Leeds William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 

Aberdeen ... Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A.,F.R.S. 

I 
Oxford Prof.W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

I LL.D., F.R.S. 
Manchester J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

Cambridge, i William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Newcastle . Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Bath I J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Birming- \ Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

ham. j F.R.S. 

Nottingham Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 
I C.E., F.G.S. 

Dundee Prof.W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

I LL.D., F.R.S. 
Norwich ... G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

t 

Exeter C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Liverpool... i Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Edinburgh j Prof. FleemingJenkin, F.R.S. 
Brighton ...'f. J. Bramwell, C.E 



Secretaries 



Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Pl3'mouth.., 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea .., 
York , 



W. H. Barlow, F.R.S. 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport . 
Montreal .., 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 
I 
C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

I 
Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 
I Eng. 

1 J.Abernethy, F.R.S.E 

'Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

I LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

I John Fowler, C.B., F.G.S. ... 

J. Brunlees, Pres.Inst.C.E. ... 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 
1 V.P. Inst. C.E. 



R. A. Le Meeurier, W. P. Struv6. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Tl CTison. 
, J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thorn- 
I son. 

j L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. .Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. JefTery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 
j James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
[ R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 
I Wright. 

P. Le Neve Foster, Rev, F. Harrison, 
j Henry Wright. 

P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 
I H. Wright. 

W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, 

M. O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J."F. Iselin, 

C. Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, 

T. King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. Barlow,H. Bauerman. E.H.Carbutt, 

J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G, Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Balnbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, J, F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison,* F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison.'E. Rigg, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxxv 



Date and Place 



1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
189;i. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 

1901. 
1902. 
190.3. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

1907. 

1908. 



1884. 
1885. 

1886. 

1887, 



Aberdeen... 

Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester 



Bath 

New< 

upon-Tyne. 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

EHinburgh 

Nottingham 

O-xford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool... 

Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford ' 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E. 



....'a. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, K. 
I Bigg, J. N. Sboolbred. 
Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

C.E. I Marshall, E. Bigg. 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A.,C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Mar.shall, 

LL.D., F.K.S. 1 E. Bigg. 

\V. H. Preece, F.R.S., C. AV. Cooke. AV. H. Marshall, E. 
M.Inst.C.E. 1 Bigg, P. K. Stothert. 

Newcastle- W. Anderson. M.Inst.C.E. ... ;C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

I C. A. Parsons, E. Bigg. 
Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.K.S., E. K. Clark, C. \V. Cooke, W. B. 

F.R.A.S. 1 Marshall, E. Rigg. 

T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. C. W. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

I W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.B.S., C. W. Cooke, VV. B. Marshall, W. C. 

M.Inst.C.E. I Popplewell, E. Rigg. 

Jeremiah Head, M.Inst C.E., C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall. E. 

F.C.S. Rigg, H. Talbot. 

Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, ! Prof. T. Hudson Beare.C.W. Cooke, 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. ! W. B. Marsh.all, Rev. F. .1. Smith. 

Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, Prof. T. Hudson Beare,C. W. Cooke. 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. | W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney, 

Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

I S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 
G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. ... Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Callen- 

I dar, W. A. Price. 
Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., I Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

F.R.S. I H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 

Sir W. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 

j E. Stilgoe. 
Sir Alex. R. Binnie, M.Inst. Prof. T. H. Beare, C. F. Charnock, 
C.E. I Prof. S. Dunkerley, W. A. Price. 



SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 

H. Bamf ord, W.E. Dalby, W. A. Price. 
M. Barr, W. A. Price, J. Wylie. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 

W. A. Price. 
J. B. Peace, W. T. Maccall, AV. A. 

Price. 
AV. T. Maccall, W. B. Marshall, Prof. 

H. Payne, E. Williams. 
W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price, J. Trif- 

fit. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, A. C. Harris, 

W. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, Dr. W. E. Lilly, 

AV. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 



Glasgow ...!R. B. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. 

Belfast ... Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 

South port C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Cambridge jHon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. ... 

SouthAfrica Col. Sir C. Scott- Moncrleff, 

I G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E. 
York 'J. A. Ewing, F.R.S 

Leicester ...' Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, 

I F.R.S. 
Dublin Dugald Clerk, F.R.S 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

E. B. Tylor,D.C.L., F.R.S. ... G. AA^ Bloxam, AV. Hurst. 

Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. G. AV. Bloxam. Dr. J. G. Garson. W. 

I Hurst. Dr. A. Macgregor. 
Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., G. AV. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, AV. 
M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. Hui-st, Dr. R. Saundb}-. 

.. IG. AV. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 
I A. M. Paterson. 



Montreal . 
Aberdeen. 

Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A. 



' The title of Section G was changed to Engineering. 



Ixxxvi PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson. J, 
Harris Stone. 



1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 



H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 
Roth. 



)88f?. Bath I Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivers, 

! D.C.L., F.R.S. 

1889. Newcastle- ; Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B.,i G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

upon-Tynei LL.D., F.R.S. ! R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 

1890. Leeds Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

' F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. | Dr. J. G. Garson. 

1891 . Cardiff Prof. F. Max Miiller, M.A. ... : G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 

1892. Edinburgh Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., i G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 
M.D., F.R.S. R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 

Dr. R. Mumo, M.A. F.R.S.E.'g. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

i Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 
J. L. Myres. 
Sir W. H. Flower. K.C.B.. 
F.R.S. 

1895. Ipswich ... Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, J. L. Myres, Rev. J. J. Raven, H. 

j D.C.L. Ling Roth. 

1896. Liverpool... Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 

1897. Toronto ... Sir W. Turner, F.R.S A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

\ Prof. A. C. Haddon. J. L. Myres. 

1898. Bristol B. W. Brabrook, C.B H.Balfour, .L L. Myres, G. Parker. 

1899. Dover ! C. H. Read, F.S.A j H.Balfour, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

1 Haddon, J. L. Myres. 

1900. Bradford... Prof. John Rhys, M.A j Rev. E. Armitage, H. Balfour, W. 

j Crooke, J. L. Myres. 

1901. Glasgow ...Prof. D. J. Cunningham, W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 
F.R.S. Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 

J. L. Myres. 
E, N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 
1 E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres. 

1904. Cambridge H. Balfour, M.A |W. L. H. Duckworth, E. N. Fallaize, 

H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres. 

1905. SouthAfricai Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. 



1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. , 



1900. York E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A.. 

I 

1 

1907. Leicester ...'d. G. Hogarth, M.A 

! 

1908. Dublin Prof. W. Ridgeway, M.A. . 



A. R. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. S. 
Hartland. 

Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize, 
H. S. Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrub- 
sail. 

C. J. Billson, E. N. Fallaize, H. S. 
Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, Dr. 
F. C. Shrubsall, L. E. Steele. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 



1894. Oxford. 



Prof. E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S., 1 Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haldane, 

M.R.C.S. M. S. Pembrey. 

Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. ...\ Prof. R.Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 
Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. I Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 

! ton. Dr. L. E. Shore. 

J. N. Langley, F.R.S i Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 

H. Starling. 
Prof.J.G.McKendrick.F.R.S.j W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

j W. H. Thompson. 
1902. Belfast ...Prof. W. D. Halliburton,' J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne, Dr. 
• F.R.S. I C. Shaw. 



1896. Liverpool 

1897. Toronto . 

1899. Dover .... 
1901. Glasgow . 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxxvii 



Date and Place 



1904. Cambridge 



Presidents 



Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. 



1905. SouthAfricalCol. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. .. 

i 

1906. York jProf. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

1907. Leicester ...Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

1908. Dublin Dr. J. Scott Haldane, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



J. Barcroft, Prof. T. G. Brodie, Dr. 

L. E. Shore. 
J. Barcroft, Dr. Baumann, Dr. Mac- 
kenzie, Dr. G. W. Robertson, Dr. 

Stanwell. 
J. Barcroft, Dr. J. M. Hamill, Prof. 

J. S. Macdonald, Dr. D. S. Long. 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, J. Barcroft, Prof 

J. S. Macdonald, Dr. A. Warner. 
Prof. D. J. Coffey, Dr. P. T. Hening 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. H. E. 

Roaf. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



189.5. Ipswich ... W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S. 

1896. Liverpool... Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S 

I 

1897. Toronto ... Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 



1898, 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 

1902. 

190.S. 

1904. 

1905. 
1906. 
1907, 
1908, 



Bristol I Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. 

Dover ' Sir George King, F.R.S. 

Bradford ... i Prof. S. H. Vines, F.R.S. 
Glasgow .. 



Belfast ... 

Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester . . . 
Dublin 



Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.K.S. ... 

Prof. J. R. Green, F.R.S 

A. C. Seward, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Siib-section of Agriifulture — 

Dr. W. Somerville. 
Harold Wager, F.R.S 

Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S.... 



A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 

Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
A. C, Seward, H. Wager, J. W, White. 
G. Dowker, A. C, Seward, H. Wager. 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, W. West. 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott- 

Elliot, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 
A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 

H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 
H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, H. Wager. 

R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. F, F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 

H. Wager, T. B. Wood, R. H. Yapp, 

R. P. Gregory, Dr. M .rloth, Prof. 

Pearson, Prof. R. H. x'app. 
Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R. H, Yapp. 
W. Bell, R. P. Gregory, Prof. A. G. 

Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. H. H. Dixon, R. P. Gregory, 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAI, SCIENCE. 



1901. Glasgow ...;Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. 



1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 



Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. 



Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... 



Prof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., 
M.P. 
1906. York Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... 



R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 

Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 

H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 

Prof. H. L. Withers. 
Piof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. L. 

Snape. 
J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

W. M. Heller, Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 
A. D.Hall, Prof. Hele-Shaw, Dr. C. W. 

Kimmins, J. R. Whitton. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

Hugh Richardson. 



Ixxxviii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1907. Leicester... Sir Philip Magnus, M.P. 

1908. Dublin 'prof. L. C, Miall, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



W. D. EgguT, Prof. R. A. Gregory', 
J. S. Laver, Hugh Richardson. 

Prof. E. P. Culverwell, W. D. Eggar. 
George Fletcher, Prof. 11. A. 
Gregory, Hugh Richardson. 



CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES OF THE CONFERENCES OF 
DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Date and Place 


Chairmen 


Secretaries 




i8sr). 


Aberdeen... 


Francis Galton, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola. 




1886. 


Birmingham 


Prof. A. W. Williamson,F.R.S. 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. . 




1887. 


Manchester 


Prof.W.Boyd Dawkins.F.R.S. 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 




1888. 


Bath 


John Evans, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 




1889. 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tj'ne 


Francis Galton, F.R.S 


Prof. G. A. Lebour. 




1890. 


Leeds 


G. J. Symons, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 




1891. 


Cardiff 


G. J. Symon.s F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 




1892. 


Edinburgh 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 




1893 


Nottingham 
Oxford 


Dr. J. G. Garson 


T. V. Holmes. 




1894. 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 




1895. 


Ipswich . . . 


G. J. Symons, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 




1896. 


Liverpool... 


Dr. J. G. Garson 


T. V. Holmes. 




1897. 


Toronto ... 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


J. Hopkinson. • 




1898. 


Bristol 


W. Whitaker, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 




1899. 


Dover 


Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S. 


T. V. Holmes. 




1900. 


Bradford... 


Prof. E. B. Poulton. F.R.S. ... 


T. V. Holmes. 




1901. 


Glasgow ... 


F. W. Rudler, F.G.8 


Dr. J. (t. Garson, A. Somerville. 




1902 


Belfast 


Prof. W. VV. Watts, F.G.S. ... 


E. J. Bles. 




1903 


Southport 


W. Whitaker, F.R.S 


F. W. Rudler. 




1904. 


Cambridge 


Prof. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 




1905. 


London ... 


Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 




190C. 


York 


Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B.... 


F. W. Rudler. 




1907. 


Leicester... 


II. J. Mackinder, M.A 


F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 




1908. 


Dublin 


Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 





EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1842. Manchester 


Charles Vignolea, F.R.S 

Sir M.L Brunei 


The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 


1843. Cork 


R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 


The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 


1844. York 


The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the Mgean Sea. 
The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 
Geology of Nortli America. 
The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 

Hills in India. 


. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Ixxxix 



Date and Place 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. 

1850. 



Birming- 
ham. 



1851, 



Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 



1852. Belfast. 



1863. Hull, 



1854. 



1855. 



1856. 



Lecturer 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
r.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astronomer 

Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Subject of Discourse 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



1857. 


Dablin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.... 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof.M''. A. Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof, Odling, F.R.S 



Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Propertiesof theExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Didus ineptus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through tlie 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their Changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 
1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Pliysical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babj'loni.an Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of W^tef. 

Organic Chemistry. 



xc 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



1863, Newcastle 



1864. Bath. 



Lecturer 



1865. Birming- 
bam. 



1866, Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich ,, 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton „ 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 



Prof. Williamson, F.K.S., 



James Glaisher, F.R.S.. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S, 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. „ 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel,F,R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J.Phillips, LL.D.,F.R,S. 
I J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 

' Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S, 

Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



E. B. Tylor, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. P, Martin Duncan, M.B., 
Prof". W.K. CliflEord... 



1875. Bristol ..,, 

1876. Glasgow , 

1877. Plymouth. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart..M.P., 

F R S 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottis woode,LL. D. ,F. R. S . 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S.... 



The Chemistry of the Galvanic 
Battery considered in relation 
to Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The Results of Spectrum Anal}'si9 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archieology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions, 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulas. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagi- 
nation. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis, 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
! Automata, and its History. 
[ The Colours of Polarised Light, 
I Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The ' Challenger ' Expedition. 

Physical Phenomena connected wit h 
the Mines of Cornwall and Devon. 

The New Element, Gallium. 

Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
Chemical Action. 

Radiant Matter. 

Degeneration. 

Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palseour 
tology. 

The Electric Discharge its Forms 
' and it« Functions. 



EVENING DISCOURSfeS. 



XCl 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


1882. 


Southamp- 


Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 




ton. 


Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 


1883. 


Southport 


Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

Prof. J. G. McKendrick 


1884. 


Montreal... 


Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 


1885. 


Aberdeen... 


Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. ... 
John Murray, F.R.S.B 


1886. 


Birming- 


A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 




ham. 


Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 


1887. 


Manchester 


Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 




Bath 


Col. Sir F. de Win ton 


1888. 


Prof. W. B. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 






Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 






F.R.S. 


1889. 


Newcastle- 


Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 




upon-Tyne 


F.R.S. 




Leeds 


Walter Gardiner, M.A 


1890. 


B. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 






Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 


1891. 


Cardiff 


Prof. L. C. Miall, F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Prof.A.W.Rucker,M.A.,F.R.S. 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J.A.Ewing,M.A., F.R.S. 


1893. 


Nottingham 


Prof. A. Smithells. B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 


1894. 


Oxford 


J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 
Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 


Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 
F.R.S. 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F R S 
J. Milne, F.R.S 


1898. 


Bristol 


Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S 




Dover 


Herbert Jackson 


1899. 


Prof. Charles Richet 




Prof. J. Fleming, F.R.S 


1900. 


Bradford ... 


Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 




Glasgow ... 


Prof. W. Stroud 


1901. 


Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 






F. Darwin, F.R.S 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 


1903. 


Southport 


Dr. R. Munro 



Subject of Disconrse 



t Dr. A. Rows 



1 



Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of Power. 

The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 
Crust. 

The Hardening and Tempering of 
Steel. 

How Plants maintain themselves in 
the Struggle for Existence. 

Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 

Some Difficulties in the Life of 
Aquatic Insects. 

Electrical Stress. 

Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 

Flame. 

The Discovery of the Physiology of 
the Nervous System. 

Experiences and Prospects of 
African Exploration. 

Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 

Magnetism in Rotation. 

The Work of Pasteur and its various 
Developments. 

Safety in Ships. 

Man before Writing. 

Canada's Metals. 

Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 

Funafuti : the Stixdy of aCoral Island. 

Phosphorescence . 

La vibration nerveuse. 

TheCentenary of the ElectricCurrent . 

Animal Electricity. 

Range Finders. 

The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plants. 
Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Inheritance. 
Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 

Palaeolithic Period. 
The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 

Teachings. 



xcu 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



t)ate and Place 


liccturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1904. Cambridge 


Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.... 


Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 




Prof. H. F. Osborn 


Palaiontological Discoveries in the 


1905. South 




Rocky Mountains. 


Africa : 






Cape Town ... 


Prof. E. B. I'oulton, F.R.S 


W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South 
Africa. 




C. Vernon Boy.s, F.R.S 


Some Surface Actions of Fluid.s. 


Durban 


Douglas W. Freshfield 


'['he Mountains of the Old World. 




Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 


Marine Biology. 


Pietermaritz- 


Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... 


Sleeping Sickness. 


burg 
Johannesburg 


H T Ferrar ' 


The Cruise of the ' Discovery.' 


Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.RS. ... 


The Distribution of Power. 




Prof. J. 0. Arnold 


Steel as an Igneous Rock. 


Pretoria 


A. E. Shipley, F.R.S 

i 


Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 
ing Sicknes.'J, &c. 


Bloemfontein... 


A. R. Hinks 


The Milky Way and the Clouds of 
Magellan. 


Kimberley 


Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S 


Diamonds. 




Prof. J. li. Porter 


The Bearing of Engineering on 
Mining. 






r.ulawayo 


D. Randall-MacTver 


The Ruins of Rhodesia. 


lOOG. i'ork 1 


Dr. Tempest Ander.son 


Volcanoes. 


1 


Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

1 


The Electrical Signs of Life, and 
their Abolition by Chloroform. 


11)07. Leicester,,. 


W. Duddell, F.R.S 

1 


The Ark and the Spark in Radio-tele- 
graphy. 




Dr. F. A. lixey 

i 


Recent Developments in the Theory 
of Mimicry. 


1908. Dublin 


Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 


Halley's Comet. 




Prof. W. M.Davis 


The Lessons of the Colorado Canyon. 



LECTUKES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



Lecturer 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
187.5. 
1876. 
1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 



Liverpool . 
Brighton . 
Bradford . 
Belfast,... 
Bristol .... 
Glasgow . 
Plymouth. 
Sheifield . 
Swansea . 
York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .. 

1885. Aberd(!en .. 



Prof.J.Tyndall,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S, 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C.W.Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B.... 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 

Sir F. J. BramweU, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A ,.., 



Subject of Lecture 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and otlier 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky 

Fuel. 

! The Discovery of Oxygen. 
i A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Powe. 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
I read it. 
' Talking by Electricity — Telephones. 

Comets. 
!The Nature of Explosions. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



XCIU 



Date and Place 



1886. Birmingham 



1887, 
1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
189G. 
1897. 
1898. 



Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Iieeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
LiverpooL.. 
Toronto ... 
Bristol 



1900. Bradford, 

1901. Glasgow , 



1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester .., 

1908. Dublin 



Lecturer 



Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S, 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.B 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc. F.R.S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. SoUas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. O. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S, 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A 



Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. S. Flett 



Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S, 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 

Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S. 



Subject of Lecture 



The Colours of Metals and their 

Alloys. 
Electric Lighting. 
The Customs of Savage Races. 
The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their Enemits .and Signal to their 

Friends. 
Electricity in the Industries. 
The Movements of Men by Land 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent; the 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 
The Manufacture of Light. 
The Growth of a Crystal. 
The Crystallisation of Water. 



xciv ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 

Table showing the Attendances and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 27 .. 

1832, June 19.. 

1833, June 25.. 

1834, Sept. 8 .. 

1835, Aug. 10 .. 

1836, Aug. 22.. 

1837, Sept. 11.. 

1838, Aug. 10 .. 

1839, Aug. 2G.. 

1840, Sept. 17.. 

1841, July 20 .. 

1842, June 23.. 

1843, Aug. 17.. 

1844, Sept. 26.. 

1845, June 19.. 

1846, Sept. 10 . 

1847, June 23.. 

1848, Aug. 9 .. 

1849, Sept. 12.. 

1850, July 21 .. 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 .. 

1853, Sept. 3 .. 

1854, Sept. 20.. 

1855, Sept. 12.. 

1856, Aug. 6 .. 

1857, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22.. 

1859, Sept. 14 ., 

1860, June 27.. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 .. 

1863, Aug. 26.. 

1864, Sept. 13.. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 22.. 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19 .. 

1869, Aug. 18 .. 

1870, Sept. 14.. 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Aug. 14., 

1873, Sept. 17., 

1874, Aug. 19 ., 

1875, Aug. 25., 

1876, Sept. 6 ., 

1877, Aug. 15., 

1878, Aug. 14., 

1879, Aug. 20 .. 

1880, Aug. 25 ., 

1881, Aug. 31 ., 

1882, Aug. 23 ., 

1883, Sept. 19 . 

1884, Aug. 27. 

1885, Sept. 9 . 

1886, Sept. 1 . 

1887, Aug. 31 . 

1888, Sept. 5 . 

1889, Sept. 11 . 

1890, Sept. 3 . 

1891, Aug. 19 ., 

1892, Aug. 3 . 

1893, Sept. 13. 

1894, Aug. 8 . 

1895, Sept. 11 . 

1896, Sept. 16 . 

1897, Aug. 18 . 

1898, Sept. 7 . 

1899, Sept. 13 . 

1900, Sept. 5 . 

1901, Sept. 11 . 

1902, Sept,. 10 . 

1903, Sept. 9 ., 

1904, Aug. 17., 

1905, Aug. 15., 

1906, Aug. 1 .. 
1807. July 31 ., 
1908, Sept. 2 .. 



Where held 



Presidents 



Tork 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyue. 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dubhu 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Ne wcastle-on-Ty ne. . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 

York 

Leicester 

Dublin 



Old Life 
Members 



New Life 
Members 



Viscount Milton, D.O.L.. F.R.S. ... 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S ' 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd,LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansilowne, F.R.S... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, P.R.S. 
Tlie Rev. \V. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whe well, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egertou, F.G.S. ... 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John F. W.Herschel, Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. luglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquis ofNorthampton,Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D.. F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R^S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S. 

The Earl of Harrowbv, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. 0. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S. .. . 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ..,j 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis,MA.,F.R.S. 
Sir William G. Armstrong.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles LyeU, Bart., M.A.,F.R.S.| 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.I 

William R. Gpve, Q.O., F.R.S | 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B.,F.R.S.i 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S ! 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.O.L., F.R.S I 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ...1 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S.' 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S j 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S ' 

Prof. J. Tyudall, LL.D., F-R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, FJl.S. i 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. 0. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. 0. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S I 

Sir Lyon Playfair. K.O.B., F.R.S.... 

Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S j.l 

Prof. W. H. Flower, O.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, O.B., FJI.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury,K.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B.. F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S.... 
Sir William Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. .. 
Prof. A. W. RUcker, D.Sc, SecJt.S. ... 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 





— 


169 


65 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


IS 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


23B 


20 


225 


IS 


314 


26 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 


267 


13 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


32 


115 


40 


322 


10 


276 


19 


294 


24 



* lAdiea were nut admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



XCV 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 





Old 
Annual 
Members 


New 
Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Grants 

for Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 













— 





353 


— 





1831 







— 


— 


—~ 


— 





— 


— 


1832 



















900 


—1. 


— 


1833 




._ 








— 


_ 


1298 


_ 


£20 


1834 










— 


— 




— 


— 


167 


1835 










— 


_- 





1330 


— 


435 


1836 










— 


_ 


— 


1840 


— 


922 12 6 


1837 













1100» 


— 


2400 





932 2 2 


1838 




^ 










34 


1438 


-^ 


1595 11 


1839 













— 


40 


1333 





1546 16 4 


1840 




4G 


317 





60* 


— . 


891 





1235 10 11 


1841 




fs 


376 


33t 


331* 


28 


1315 


— 


1449 17 8 


1842 




71 


185 


— 


160 


— 


— 


— 


1565 10 2 


1843 




45 


190 


9t 


260 


— 


— 


— 


981 12 8 


1844 




31 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


— 


831 9 9 


1845 




85 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


— 


685 16 


1846 




107 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 


_ 


208 5 4 


1847 




84 


25 


S76 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1S50 




01 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 




S6 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 




131 


121 


765 


824 


10 


1803 


1882 U 


380 19 7 


1854 




143 


101 


1094 


613 


26 


2133 


3311 


480 16 4 


1855 




104 


43 ' 


412 


316 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




186 


' 120 • 


900 


869 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


. 23 


2364 


3783 


684 11 1 


1869 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


nil 5 10 


1861 




150 


^,' 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


2(.19 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


*n 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


'107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


' 80 


937 


912 


43 


2833 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


U 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1981 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 




331 


185 


1365 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


'446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2878 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2857 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 




263 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1883 




330 


323 


953 


811 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60U.5 


1777 


1855 


1173 4 


1884 




332 


'123 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


2533 


995 6 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


609 


12 


1984 


2107 


1511 5 


1888 




412 


113 


1021 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 




341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


80 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 


907 15 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


481 


77 


2321 


2175 


583 18 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 


977 IS 5 


1895 




383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 


1104 6 1 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 


1059 10 8 


1897 




327 


96 


1081 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 


1212 


1898 




324 


68 . 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1323 


1430 14 2 


1899 




297 


45 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


1801 


1072 10 


1900 




374 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


2046 


945 


1901 




314 


86 


647 


305 


6 


1620 


1644 


947 


1902 




319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1754 


1762 


845 13 2 


1903 




449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 


887 18 11 


1904 




937ir 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 


928 2 2 


1905 




356 


93 


817 


352 


22 


1972 


1811 


882 9 


1906 




339 


61 


659 


251 


42 


1647 


1561 


757 12 10 


1907 


_ 


465 


112 


1166 


222 


14 


2297 


2317 


1157 18 8 


1908 



t Including Ladies. } Pellowsofthe American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting 
T Including 848 Members of the South Afrloan Association. 



xdvi 



ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCES AT THE ANNUAL 
MEETINGS, 1831-190G. 

[The total attendances for the years 1832, 1835, 184^3, and 1844 

are unknown.^ 

Average atteitdance at 72 Meetings : 1855. 

Average 
Altendaace 

Average attendance at 5 Meetings begitming during Jum, hetiveen 

1833 and 1860 1260 

Average attendance at 3 Meetings beginning during July, between 

1841 and 1851 917 

Average attendance at 28 Meetings beginning during A ur/ust, between 

1836 and 1006 1978* 

Average attendance at 34 Meetings beginning during Sc2)temher, 

between 1831 and 1903 1933 

Attendance at 1 Meeting lield in October, Cambridge, 1862 . . 1161 



Meetings beginning during August and Septemher. 

Average attendance at — 

4 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in August ( 1st- 7th) . 1905 

5 „ 2nd ( 8th-Hth) . 2130 

8 „ 3rd , (15tli-21sr,) . 1761 1 

11 „ „ „ „ 4lh „ „ „ (22nd-31st) . 2094 

Average attendance at^- 

11 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in September ( 1st- 7th). 2082 

16 „ „ .. „ 2nd ( 8tli_14th). 1860 

5 „ 3rd „ „ „ (15th-21st). 2206 

2 „ , 4th (22nd-30th). 1025 

Ifeetings beginning during June, Juli/, and October, 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1845, June 19) beginning during the 3rd 

week in June (15th-21st) 1079 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during the 4th week in 

./««(■ (22nd-30th) 1306 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1851, July 2) beginning during the 1st 

week in July (lst-7th) 710 

Average attendance at 2 Meetings beginning during the 3rd week in 

Jiili/ (15th-21st) 1066 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1862, October 1) beginning during the 1st 

week in Cc-^oJfr (l8t-7th) 1161 

* Average attendance at 29 Meetings, including South Africa, 1905 (August 15- 
September 1): 1983. 

+ Average attendance at 9 Meetings, iyioluding South Africa, 1905 (August 15- 
geptember )): 1802. 



GKANTS OF MONEV. 



XCVll 



Oeneral Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. . 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology .-■ 10-"> 



1836. 

Tide Discu.'^sions 163 

British Fossillchthyology ... 105 
Thermomelric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 

Rain-gauges 9 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation fJO 

Thermometers • 15 

£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 

£922 12' 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (construc- 
tion) 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (Preservation of) ... 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam- vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 

£9.32 

1908. 



£167 





















1 





13 

















6 


































1 


10 


12 


10 














6 


6 








3 





8 


7 








9 


5 



1839. 

£ 

Fossillchthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at l*l_ymouth, &c 63 

Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars (Lacaille) H 

Stars in R. A. S. Catalogue ... 166 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological 01)- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



s. 


d. 








10 





2 





18 


6 


11 





4 








7 


7 





1 


2 





4 


18 








6 


16 





10 


6 








1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









2 2 



£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 62 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs .. . 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



XCVIU 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons GOO 

Veins and Absorbents 'A 

MudinKivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers C 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness L'O 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs (52 6 

Hallway Sections iiS I 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Kcd Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



£ s. d. 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 111 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 



1842. 

Dynamometrio Instruments. . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannia3 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gaseson Light .30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 1 5 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 

mometric Instruments 90 



£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness ,. 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

atPlj'mouth 55 

Whe well's M e teorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



XCIX 



£ s. d. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Kednction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator C9 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials .^_60 

£1565 10 2 

1844. 

Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory ..; 5(> 7 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland G 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 
of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 2.3 11 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 
^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 
Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds .". 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 
Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 ~12^ 



.S 




G 



10 





«i 

i 

'I 

I 

i 

3 \ 


«| 

i 




1845. 

£ .1. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 II 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation IG 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces ... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

MarineZoology of Cornwall... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 21115 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters '. 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs „ 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 T6~0 

f 2 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1817. 

£ 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves C 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



s. 


d. 











: 











I 


9 


^ 


7 


7 



8 6 
5~4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves .S 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 
Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 
Azores 25 

£345 18 

1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9^7 



1852. 

£ i. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat Ct 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Jlap of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 



185.3. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence 
of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on tlie East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries .5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 

former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax n o 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 

1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 r> 

Vitality of Seeds lo 7 n 

Map of the World 1.5 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 ~4 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory:- - 

1854 £ 75 01 

1855 £500 0] 



575 



GRAFTS OF MONEY. 



C^ 



£ 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Kegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 







13 








13 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Earthquake Wave Exijeri- 

ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seed 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land ■ 10 

£618 18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



£ 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidse 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 3!) 

£684 



s. 


d. 





















































1 


11 





11 


1 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den ... 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 6 

£766~19~6 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 2.'i 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 1 

1861 £22 0/ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... iO 

Chemical Allo3's 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey .and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£1111 










72 











































































5 


10 








5 


10 



Cll 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1862. 

£ g. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

(/Onnection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 i) 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Ualloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1203 16 



] £ $. d. 

d. Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 















6 














1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (otlier ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland '2b 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon iinder pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 76 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressui-e 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Kocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham'sGift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 

















































































5 


8 



























15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining tlie Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Comjjounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American MoUusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Kesearches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 7~10 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



cm 



1866. 

£ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. COO 

Lunar Committee 04; 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee... 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

DredgingAberdeenshireCoast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund.. . 10 

£1750 

1867. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 1 20 

Metrical Committee .SO 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture. . . 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 



rf. 









13 


4 


















































































































































13 


4 







































































































4 





























4 






1868. 

£ s. W, 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall .. 30 o 

British Fossil Carols 50 

Bagshot Leaf- beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 



1869. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

IMetrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture. . . 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 80 








































































































































CIV 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. (I. 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 "o 



1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kcw Observatory GOO 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£■1572 



1871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observation 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Briti.sh Fossil Corals 25 

Heatinthe Blood.... 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects ,,. 20 




































































































































































































2 


6 

































£ i. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 20 

Mo.ab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &;c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 



























































































































1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committe 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... ].50 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 Q 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration .50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Lunriinoug Meteors , 30 

:gI685 



GRANTS OF MONEY, 



CV 



1874. 

& s. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Cond uctors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... ISO 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden j;xplorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids,., 25 



d. 































2 



i 
I 



£ 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetat e 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092 



s. d. 












































10 



































15 












^__0 
4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpeas, Report on ... 20 
Mechaaical Equivalent of 

Heat .35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Teniperat ure , . . 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acjc}, &c.., •i_^^_ 

£1128 















11 


7 



























































































8 























9 


7 



CVl 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1878. 

£ g. d. 
Exploration of Settle Caves 100 

■Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Plieno- 

mena by means of Siphon 

Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 
Investigation of Underground 

Waters iri 

Transmission of Electrical 

Impulses through Nerve 

Structure .SO 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 6G 
Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kenfs Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1870. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Record of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 

Eqaivalect of Heat 12 15 B 



£ $. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients .SO 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 9 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat CoeflScients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraflines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

IMiocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples , 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 60 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



evil 



1881. 

£ 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 2.5 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£47l 



s. 


d. 
































3 


1 

























































1882. 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 1 11 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 
Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Explorationof Raygill Fissure 20 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 1 11 



1883. 

£ 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 60 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Paheo- 

zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 5U 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at -Naples 80 
Scottish Zoological Station ... 25 
Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camj) 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 
Screw Gauges 5 

£i083~ 



3 3 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 4 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palreo- 

zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

£ir73~4~b 



cvm 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



18S5. 

£ s. 
Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Ra)''gill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopodaof Palaeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Gianton Biological Station ... 100 
Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 
Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 



£ 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada : 50 

£99.5" 



*. 


//. 

































fi 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 10 6 

Tidal Observations 60 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food-Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 | 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatorv 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of -lapan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887 grant) 50 

CaeGwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglese)' 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

'Manure' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathj'-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CIS 



1888. 

£ g. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatorj' 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try ~ 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Kecord 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palaeontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 60 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 6 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 

Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on I'hj'- 

sical Development 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature. . . 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 




























£ s. d. 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palffiozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 IG 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' B.aths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



4 8 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

O^cj-gen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 1 q 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palseozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 



ex 



gp;neral statement. 



£ s. d. 

Experimenta with a Tow- 
net 4 3 9 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations .5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20^ 

irgoTe 8 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Jletcorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

intra Violet Rays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel ... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives S.') 

Formation of Haloids 2.5 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopocla 10 

Photographs of Geological 
Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 21) 

Registration of .Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 
deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 
in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1029 10^0 



1892. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 60 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity fi-om 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ...100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthiopometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 
Magnetic Work at tlie Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Lsomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall , &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 





















8 


6 



































































GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXI 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 6 



1804. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Sleteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 5 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 
Claya, &c 20 

Eur5rpterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth-tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 
Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islarids 100 

Zoology of the Irish Seft 40 0. 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Scliools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15 6 



1895. 

£ 

Electrical Standards 5 

Photographs of Meteorological 
Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Element.? ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 4 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palieozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 
Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 
High-level Flint-drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botaoj', and Geology 
of the Irish Sea 35 

Zoology and Botany of the 
West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 
of Animals 50 

Climatologyof Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 
the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£977 



». 


d. 


















































tj 


1 
















































































9 


4 


























































CXll 



GENERAL STATEMENT^ 



1896. 

£ s. d. 

Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 2 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 
Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palieozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Sliell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
mils 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 
by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

Palfeolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 
near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Najjles 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoologj', Botany, and Geology 
of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 
Abnormal Environment ... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Western Tribes of 
Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

£1104 6 1 







































6 


1 



















































































































































189f. 

£ t. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 60 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 

boratorj% Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 6 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Zoology and ]5otany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 
Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 

Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phaeojjhyceaj 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1059 10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations... 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 50 



GRANTS OF MONEV. 



CXlll 



£ s. d. 

Wave-lengtli Tables Df the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 

rhotographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 0« 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters 30 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North -Western Tribes of 
Canada 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits... 125 

Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 

Fertilisation in Phseophycefe 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1212 



1899. 

Electrical Standards 225 

Seismological Observations.,. 65 14 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 19 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 

in Canada 30 

1908. 



1 














































£ s. d. 

Records of Disappearing Drift 
Section at Moel Tryfaen ... 5 

Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium ; 100 

Migration of Birds ;. 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
tic Organisms under Definite 
Physical Conditions 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1899 100 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 35 

New Edition of ' Anthropolo- 
gical Notes and Queries '... 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Res- 
piratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 
Vascular Nervous System... 10 

Histological Changes in Nerve 
Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Histology of Suprarenal Cap- 
sules 20 

Comparative Histology of 
Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Ph3'8eophycea3 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1430 14 2 











































































































1900. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... CO 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 25 

Meteorological Observatory at 
Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution 
of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis 5 



CXIV 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

iBomorpbous Sulphonlc De- 
rivatives of Benzene 20 

The Nature of Alloys 30 

Photographs of Geological 
Interest 10 

Eemains of Elk in the Isle of 
Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 
in Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 
Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratorj', Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 
Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 
Islands 100 

Coral Keefs of the Indian 
Region 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea- Water 1 00 

Future Dealings in Raw 
Produce 2 

Bilchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 

Ethnography of the Malay 
Peninsula 25 

Physiological EflEects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 
(Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 
Cerebral Cortex 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 
Glands ". 10 

Fertilisation in Phieophycese 20 

Corresponding Societies Com. 20 

£1072 10 























































































10 




















































































1901. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 35 



£ i. d. 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium v 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 

Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegrican Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 80 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 15 11 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 

Rabbit 6 

Fertilisation in Pha3ophycea» 15 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
macese 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 

Indian Ocean 50 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXV 



£ s. d. 

Compound Ascidians of the 
Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 15 

Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Haemoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 

under Influence of Drugs... 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycese 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 
Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£947 



1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Waters of North- 
west Yorkshire 40 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 



£ s. d. 
Anthropometric Investigation 5 
Anthropometry of the Todas 

and other Tribes of Southern 

India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phyceie 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com. 20 

£845 13 2 



1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 

Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth CO 

Wave-lengthTables of Spectra 10 
Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 

Drifts 60 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 

Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 

of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 

Lake Village 25 

Anthropometric Investigation 
of Egyptian Troops 8 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 40 

P.otanical Photographs 4 8 11 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 

Heredity.. 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£887 18 11 



g2 



CXVl 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



I'JOS. 

£ s. (I. 

Electrical Stanaards 40 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 60 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitramines 25 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog ... 10 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 4 8 

Kef earches in Crete .. 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions on Egyptian Troops... 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 17 6 

Physiology of Heredity ."iS 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£928~2~2 



1906. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 60 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 90 

Wave-length Tablesof Spectra 5 
Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Aromatic Nitramines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 7 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 





















12 


6 




















8 


11 









£ s. (I. 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples ,.. 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea 15 

Freshwater Fishes of South 

Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lake and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 30 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 

in the British Isles 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 20 

Eflfect of Climate upion Healtli 
and Disease 20 

Research on South African 
Cycads 14 ]9 4 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£882 9 



1907. 

Electrical Standards 60 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 40 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 25 7 6 

AVave - length Tables of 

Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro - aromatic 

Substances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of 

South-West England 15 

Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, &c 10 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Sexual 

Cells 1 11 8 

Oscillations of the Land Level 

in the Mediterranean Basin 50 
Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom ... 8 19 7 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



cxvii 



£ s. d. 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles... 10 

Metabolism ot Individual 

Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 55 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Research of South African 

Cycads 35 

Botanical Photogi'aphs 5 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Marsh Vegetation.., 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 16 14 1 

£757 12 10 



1008. 

Seismological Observations ... 40 

Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Investigation of Upper Atmo- 
sphere by means of Kites... 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 25 

Geodetic Arc in Africa 200 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 40 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitramines 30 

Erratic Blocks 17 16 6 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 10 



£ g. d. 

Pre-Devonian Rocks 10 

Exact Significance of Local 

Terms 5 

Composition of Charnwood 

Rocks 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

atNaples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Hereditary Experiments 10 

Fauna of Lakes of Central 

Tasmania 40 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 50 

Exploration in Spitsbergen ... 30 
Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom 3 7 6 

Electrical Standards 50 

Glastonbury Lake Village ... 30 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 15 

Age of Stone Circles 50 

Anthropological Notes acd 

Queries 40 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 40 

The Ductless Glands 13 14 8 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 35 

Body Metaboli.sm in Cancer... 30 
Electrical Phenomena and 
Metabolism of Arum spa- 
dices 10 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Succession of Plant Remains 18 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1157 18~8 



CXVIII REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



Beport of the Council, 1907-1 908 * 

I. The Council have adopted the following Resolutions : — 

(i) " The President and Council of the British Association desire to 
express their profound regret at the death of Lord Kelvin, 
O.M., G.C.V.O., D.C L., LL.D., F.R.S., &c., and to place on 
record their sense of the great services he rendered to the 
Association in important offices. They recall that h^ was 
President of the Association in 1871 at Edinburgh, and was 
Pi'esident of Section A on no fewer than five occasions. His 
constant attendance at the Meetings and the leading part he 
was in the habit of taking in the proceedings of Section A 
will always be remembered. His loss, indeed, seems to be 
irreparable. 

" The President and Council furthermore desire to express theii* 
sympathy with Lady Kelvin and other members of the family 
in their bereavement." 

(il) " The President and Council of the British Association desire to 
express their deep regret at the death of Sir John Evans, 
K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., and to record their high appre- 
ciation of the services he rendered to the Association as a 
member of the Council during a long period of years, as 
President of the Association in 1897, and as a Sectional 
President in 1878 and in 1890. 

" The President and Council furthermore desire to express their 
sincere sympathy with Lady Evans and the family in their 

bereavement." 

(iii) " The President and Council of the British Association desire to 
express tlieir deep regret at the death of the Earl of Rosse, 
Chancellor of the University of Dublin, and to offer their 
sincere sympathy with the Countess of Rosse and the family 
in their bereavement." 

Sir David Gill, President, represented the Association at the Darwin- 
Wallace Celebration on July 1 by the Linnean Society of London, 

Mr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S., President- Meet, will represent the 
Association at the commemoration next year by the University of Cam- 
bridge of the centenary of Charles Darwin's birth. 

II. Professor J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., has been unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Council to fill the office of President of the Association 
for 1909 (Winnipeg Meeting). 

III. The following Nominations are made by the Council : — 

(i) As an additional Vice-President of the Association for the 
Dublin Meeting : Right Hon. Augustine Birrell, M.P. ; and 
as Local Secretary, John Mulligan, in place of Charles E. 
Martin, deceased. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. CXIX 

(ii) Professor H. A. Miers, F.R.S., Chairman, Professor Crenville 
Cole, Vice- Chairman, and W. P. D. Sfcebbing, Secretary, of 
the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding SociETtES 
to be held at Dublin. 

(iii) Members of the Corresponding Societies Committee for the ensuing 
year : Chairman, Mr. W. Whitaker ; Secretary, Mr. W. P. D, 
Stebbing ; Rev. J. O. Bevan, Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. 
J. Hopkinson, Professor R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. 
F. W. Rudler, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and the President and 
General Officers of the Association. 

IV. A Report has been received from the Corresponding Societies 
Committee, together with the list of Corresponding Societies and the 
titles of the more important Papers, especially of those referring to local 
scientific investigations, published by the Societies during the year ending 
May 31, 1908. 

V. The following Resolution, referred to the Council by the General 
Committee at Leicester, has been considered and acted upon : — 

From Sections L and H jointly. 
" That, in view of the national importance of obtaining data on the 
question of physical deterioration, this Association urges upon 
the Government the pressing necessity of instituting, in con- 
nection with the medical inspection of school children, a 
system of periodic measurement which will provide definite 
information on their physical condition and development." 

A Committee, consisting of Sir Edward Brabrook, Mr. Sidney Hart- 
land, and Professor D. J. Cunningham, was appointed to report -on this 
proposal ; and the following has been received and adopted by the 
Council : — 

"Your Committee, appointed to consider and report on the joint 
Resolution from Sections L and H at the Leicester Meeting, 
report as follows : — 

" (i) The memorial referred to in the Resolution was presented to the 
Board of Education ; and since then a Minute has been issued 
by that Board recommending a system of anthropometric 
observation of the children in Elementary Schools. 

" (ii) Your Committee consider that the Minute concedes as much as 
the Board could reasonably be expected to have adopted as a 
preliminary and experimental measure ; and that, therefore, 
no further action on the part of the Council is at the present 
time called for." 

VI. A Resolution, referred to the Council by the General Committee 
at Leicester, has been received 

From the Conference of Delegates : — 

" That it is desirable (1) to obtain information as to the present 
state of things in Britain in connection with Photo Survey 
work ; (2) to publish instructions or give advice for the 



CXS REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

execution of a scientiflc Photographic Survey ; and (3) to 
endeavour to found, or promote, a Photo-Record of the town 
and district in vi'hich the British Association holds its Annual 
Meeting." 

This Resolution was remitted to the Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for consideration and report to the Council ; and the proposal in 
regard to promoting a photo-record of the city and district in which the 
Association holds its Annual Meeting was forwarded to the Dublin 
Executive Committee for their consideration. It is understood that the 
Local Committee will act upon this suggestion. 

The report of the Corresponding Societies Committee on this subject 
is contained in their Annual Report to the Council. 

VIT. The Resolution by the Committee of Section D, remitted to the 
Council by the General Committee at Leicester, was considered; and the 
Council resolved that no action be taken. 

VII I. A proposed new Rule, referred to the Council by the General 
Committee at Leicester for consideration and report, to the effect that the 
Council shall have power to remove a Member or Associate for conduct 
tending to bring the Association into disrepute, has been considered, 

A Committee, consisting of Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. Carey Foster, 
Dr. Chalmers Mitchell, and the General Officers, was appointed to draft a 
Rule for the consideration of the Council ; and the following Report has 
been received and adopted : — 

'* The Committee appointed by the Council to draft a new Rule, 
giving the Council powers of ejection fi'om the Association, 
recommend the addition of tlie following words to the con- 
cluding paragraph of Chapter X. (1) of the Rules — namely, 
after the word ' exclusion ' to add : 

"... by the Council, who have also authority, if they 
think it necessary, to withhold from any perssou the 
privilege of attending any Annual Meeting or to cancel 
a ticket of admission already issued." 

In accordance with this suggestion the Council recommend that the 
second paragraph of Rule 1, Chapter X., as amended in the above 
Report, be sanctioned by the General Committee to read as follows : — 

"Every person admitted as a Member or an Associate shall con 
form to the Rules .and Regulations of the Association, any 
infringement of which on his part may render him liable to 
exclusion by tiie Council, who have also authority, if they 
think it necessary, to withhold from any person the privilege 
of attending any Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of 
admission already issued." 

IX. The Council have authorised Section F (Economic Science and 
Statistics) to form a Sub-Section for Agriculture for the Dublin Meeting, 
with a Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secretariat to deal with its trans- 
actions. 



KEPORT OF THE COUNCII^. CXXl 

X. The Council have received the following coiuinuuication, proposing 
the constitution of a Section for Astronomy and Cosmical Physics : — 

10 MonETON Gardens, S.W. 
December 31, 1907, 

To Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S., President. 

Dear Sir David Gill, 

The signatories of this letter are those who have acted as 
Chairmen of the Sab-Section of Section A for Astronomy and Cosmical 
Physics. Our purpose is to ask you to bring before the Association a 
proposal for the constitution of a separate Section for the group of 
Sciences included in the title " Astronomy and Cosmical Physics." 

2. The ground for our request is that the applications of Mathematics 
and Physics in Astronomy, Geodesy, Meteorology, Terrestrial Magnetism, 
Atmospheric Electricity, and Seismology, together with the treatment of 
those subjects from the point of view of the organisation and collection 
of observations of natural phenomena, attract papers sufficient in number 
and importance to deserve a separate Section. 

3. The separation of these subjects from Mathematics and Experi- 
mental Physics would have the further advantage that more time would 
be found for the newer developments of those subjects the discussion of 
which is now unduly restricted. 

4. Under existing conditions there is not time to deal with the papers 
on Astronomy and Meteorology prepared for the Meetings, and no 
encouragement can be offered to the comparatively few students of the 
other observational Sciences associated with Mathematics and Physics, 
to bring the progress in their subjects to the notice of the Association. 
In consequence, these subjects lose the advantage of the discussion of 
questions at a Meeting of the Association, and the important influence 
of a Sectional Committee in matters of organisation and co-operation. 

5. For a number of years a Sub-Section for Astronomy and Cosmical 
Physics was formed, but it has been discontinued since the Meeting at 
Cambridge in 1904. It is not necessary to consider here the reasons for 
this suspension, which originated perhaps with the difficulties of manag- 
ing a Sub-Section during the expeditional Session of 1905 to the Cape. 
But the reasons are certainly not connected with any ill-success of the 
experiment tried. There was always plenty of work for the Sub-Section, 
and, in the interval, there has been noteworthy progress, especially on 
the lines of international co-operation, in the oljservational Sciences. 
Consequently, the remedy for the congestion of business in Section A, 
which met with general acceptance up to 1904, is no longer adequate. A 
separate Section for the observational Sciences to which Mathematics 
and Physics are applied has become necessary. 

6. In common with all students of Mathematics and Physics, we recog- 
nise the advantage of the opportunity which is afforded by the Meetings 
of the British Association for the students of a particular branch of 
Science to keep in touch with the progress in allied branches and with 
the developments of Mathematics and Experimental Phy.sics. The 



CXXU REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

advantage is, however, only nominal when the discussion of questions has 
to be so ria;orously curtailed that the proceedings are only intelligible 
to those who are already expert in the particular questions. The 
restriction of the consideration of Sciences of wide scope to a day, or 
half a day, discourages the attendance of Members of the Association 
interested in those Sciences. The influence of the Association would be 
made more effective and more beneficial, both directly and indirectly, by 
the rearrangement which we wish to propose. Nothing short of that 
rearrangement would provide for the adequate representation and discus- 
sion of the questions which form the subject of papeis before the Section 
or of proposals befoi'e the Sectional Committee. 

We are, dear Sir David Gill, 

Yours faithfully, 

{Signed) Arthur Schuster. 

H. H. Turner. 
W. N. Shaw. 
,, John Eliot. 

The Council resolved, without prejudice, to remit this proposal to 
the Organising Committee of Section A, for their consideration and 
advice. 

XI. The following Invitation from Sheffield for the year 1910 
will be presented to the General Committee at Dublin, and be supported 
by a joint deputation representing the City Council and Sheffield 
University : — 

January 24, 1908. 

Dear Sir, — We are directed by the Sheffield City Council and the 
Sheffield University to cordially extend to the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, through its Executive Council, an invitation 
to hold its Annual Meeting in Sheffield in the year 1910. 

Slieffield has an estimated population of 463,222. In addition to 
the University, the ]\lappin Art Gallery, and several museums, there is 
the Ruskin Museum at Meersbrook Park. The city is noted for its great 
steel, iron, and kindred industries, where armour plates, silver and 
electro plate, cutlery, and other goods are manufactured. 

It is scarcely necessary to add that, should the invitation be 
accepted, every effort will be made by the representative life of the city 
to make the Meeting an unqualified success. 

Pray be good enough to bring this invitation before your Executive 
Council, and at your convenience acquaint us with their decision. 

We are. Yours faithfully, 

[Signed) Harry P. Marsh, Lord Mayor. 

„ Norfolk, Chancellor of the University of 

Sheffield. 

XII. The following Invitation from Portsmouth for the year 1911 
•will be presented to the General Committee at Dublin, and be supported 
by a deputation representing the Town of Portsmouth : — 



REPORT OF Ttifi dOUNCIL. 



CXXlll 



June 1, 1908. 

Sir, — I am instructed by the Corporation of Portsmouth to invite the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science to hold their Annual 
Meeting at Portsmouth in 1911. 

A Local Committee will be appointed in order to make all necessary 
arrangements, if the in^dtation can be accepted by the Association. 

I am. Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

{Signed) A. Hellard, Town Clerk. 

XIIT. The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. His Accounts from July 1, 1907, to June 30, 1908; 
have been audited, and are presented to the General Committee. 

XIV. In accordance with the Regulations, the retiring Members of 
the Council are : hy seniority — Professor D. J. Cunningham and Dr. 
A. C. Haddon ; by least attendance — Professor J. N. Langley, C. Vernon 
Boys, and Professor Wyndham Dunstan. 

The Council recommend the re-eleotion of the other ordinary Members; 
with the addition of those whose names are distinguished by an asterisk 
in the following list, leaving two vacancies to be filled up by the General 
Committee : — 



Abney, Sir W., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Anderson, Tempest, M.D., D.Sc. 

Bourne, Professor G. C, D.Sc. 

Bowley, A. L., M.A. 

Brabrook, Sir Edward, C.B. 

Brown, Dr. Horace T., F.R.S. 
*Brunton, Sir Lauder, Bart., Sc.D., F.R.S. 
♦Close, Major C. F., R.E., C.M.G. 

Dyson, Professor F. W., F.R.S. 

Forsyth, Professor A. R., F.R.S. 

Glazebrook, Dr. R. T., F.R.S. 



Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A. 
Hawksley, G., M.Inst.C.E. 
Hogarth, D. G., M.A. 
McKendrick, Professor J. G., F.R.S. 
Mitchell, Dr. P. Chalmers, F R.S. 
Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Prain, Lieut.-Colonel D., CLE., F.R.S. 
Sherrington, Professor C. S., F.R.S. 
Shipley, A. E., F.R.S. 
"Tutton, Dr. A. E. H., F.R.S. 
Watts, Professor W. W., F.R.S. 



Woodward, Dr. A. Smith, F.R.S. 

XV. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council for 
reappointment. 

XVI. The Council recommend that, on the occasion of the Meeting of 
the Association at Winnipeg, the President, Vice-Presidents, and Officers of 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science be invited 
to attend as honorary Members for the year ; and, further, that all Fellows 
and Members of the American Association be admitted Members of the 
British Association on the same terms as old Annual Members — namely, 
on payment of \l., without the contribution of an admission fee, and 
with the additional privilege of receiving a free copy of the Report of the 
Meeting. 

XVII. The following have been admitted as Members of the General 
Committee : — 



Auden, Dr. G. A. 
Bernacchi, Mr. L. C. 
Boeddicker, Dr. Otto. 
Boulton, Dr. W. S. 
Crooke, Mr. William. 
Fraser, Miss Helen. 



Hill, Mr. Arthur W. 
Porter, Professor J. B. 
Reid, Dr. Archdall. 
Stansfield, Mr. Herbert. 
Young, Dr. George. 
Young, Dr. W. H. 



CXxiv GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Df. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1907-1908. RECEIPTS. 

£ «. rf. 
Balance brought forward 2362 18 (5 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 41'J 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 264 

Annual Subscriptions (537 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 053 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 251 

Sale of Publications 100 19 7 

Dividend on Consols 154 g 4 

Dividend ou India 3 per Cents 102 12 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity 24 15 3 

Interest on Deposit , 20 9 

Unexpended Balances returned : — £ .,. ,i^ 

Researches in Crete 50 

Life Zones in British Carboniferous Rocks... 5 15 9 

Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease 4 4 5 

Erratic Blocks 17 16 6 

Fauual Succession in the Carboniferous 

Limestone of South-West England 1 13 6 

Correlation and Age of South African Strata 7 J6 9 

87 6 11 



£5167 9 ? 



InvestmcnU. 

£, s. d. 

2i per Cent. Consolidated Stock 650110 5 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 3600 

£73 Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' 

Annuity^(cost) 1493 6 6 

11,594 16 11 
Sir Frederick Bramwell's Gift : — 
2^ per Cent. Self- cumulating Consolidated 

Stock 65 6 1 

£11,660 ^ 
John Perbt, General Treasurer, 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. CXXV 



from July 1, 1907, to June 30, 1908. Qr. 

1907-1908. PAYMENTS. 

Kent and Office Expenses <jg 14 { 

Salaries, &c Ygy 4 4 

Printing, Binding, &c i)72 5 

Expenses of Leicester Meeting 140 g 2 

Purchase of £73 Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity 1493 G 6 

Payment of Grants made at Leicester : £ ,. ,/. 

Seismolofrical Observations 4U o 

Further Tabulation of Bessel Functions ] 15 g o 

Investigation of tlje Upper Atmosphere bv means of 

Kites ". 25 

Meteorological Observations on Beu Xevis 25 U 

Geodetic Arc in Africa 2U0 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra ...*.*. 10 

Study of Hydro- Aromatic Substances 30 u 

Dynamic Isomerism 40 o o 

Transformation of Aromatic Xitramiues 30 U ' 

Erratic Blocks ]7 ](j (; 

Fauna and Flora of British Trias ! 10 o 

Faiuial Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone in 

the British Isles 10 (1 

Pre-Devonian Rocks 10 o 

Exact Significance of Local Terms 5 o 

Composition of Charnwood Hocks .' 10 U 

Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Hereditary Experiments 10 u 

Fauna of Lakes of Central Tasmania 40 

Investigations in the Indian Ocean 50 

Exploration in Spitsbergen 30 

Gold Coinage in Circulation in the United Kingdom .. .. 3 7 6 

Electrical Standards 50 

Glastonbury Lake Village 30 

Excavations on Roman Sites in IJritain 15 

Age of Stone Circles \ 50 

Anthropological Notes and Queries 40 

Metabolism of Individual Tissues 40 

The Ductless Glands 13 1-i 8 

Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease '. 35 

Body Metabolism in Cancer 30 

Electrical Phenomena and Metabolism of iirwrn .S/)(if//t¥s 10 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Succession of Plant Remains is 

Corresponding Societies Committee .'. 25 

1157 18 8 



£4(J48 12 2 
Balance at Bank of England (Western £ s. d. 

l^ranch) 561 2 s' 

.4<i^/ Cheque not credited 10 

565 2~8 
Ztf«« Cheques not presented 45 5 

519 17~~8 
£ei« Petty Cash overspent 10 3 



618 17 5 
£51G7 9 7 



I have examined the above Account with the Rooks and Vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the Balance at the 
Bankers, and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. 

Approved— \V. B. Kekn, Chartered Accountant. 

Herbert McLeod, \ ....;.„... ^«Zy 28, 1908. 

Edward Brabrook,]^"""""'- 



CXXvi GENERAL MEETINGS. 

General Meetings at Dublin. 

On Wednesday, September 2, at 8.30 p.m., in the Great Hall of the 
Royal University, Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S., resigned the office of 
President to Mr. Francis Darwin, M.B., LL.D., F.R.S., who took the 
Chair and delivered an Address, for which see p. 3. 

On Thursday, September 3, at 8 p.m., a Conversazione was held at 
Leinster House. 

On Friday, September 4, at 8.30 p.m., in the Great Hall of the 
Royal University, Professor H. H. Turner, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse 
on ' Halley's Comet.' 

On Monday, September 7, at 8.30 p.m., in the Great Hall of the Royal 
University, Professor W. I\I. Davis delivered a Discourse on ' The Lessons 
of the Colorado Canyon.' 

On Tuesday, September 8, a Garden Party was given by the Local 
Committee in the Gardens of the Royal Zoological Society. 

On Wednesday, September 9, at 3 p.m., the concluding General 
Meeting was held in the Royal University Buildings, when the following 
Resolutions were adopted : — 

1. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Lord Mayor and 
Corporation of the City of Dublin for the reception which they have 
accorded to the British Association. 

2. That a cordial vote of thanks be given (i) to the Provost and 
Senior Fellows of Trinity College and to the Senate of the Royal Univer- 
sity of Ireland ; (ii) to the governing bodies of the public institutions 
which have granted the use of their buildings for sectional proceedings ; 
and (iii) to the authorities of the schools and works thrown open to the 
inspection of the members of the Association. 

3. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Local Executive 
Officers and Committees for the admirable arrangements made for the 
meetings. 

4. That the grateful thanks of the Association be given to the citizens 
of Dublin for the generous hospitality shown to its members on the 
occasion of this meeting. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE DUBLIN MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— V>r. W. N. Shaw, F.Il.S. Vice-Presidents.— Vrot. W. F. Barrett, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. W. S. Bm-nside, F.T.C.D. ; Prof. C. H. Lees, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. E. H. 
Love,F.R.S. ; Prof. F. Purser, F.T.C.D. ; Prof. H. H.Turner, F.R.S. Secretaries. 
—Prof. A. W. Porter, B.Sc. (Recorder) ; Dr. W. Geoffrey Duffield; Dr. L. N. G. 
Filon ; E. Gold, M.A. ; Prof. J. A. McClelland ; Prof. E. T. Whittaker, F.R.S. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President. — Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Sir Charles A. 
Cameron, M.D. ; Prof. W Keel Hartley, F.R.S.; Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S.; 
Prof. Sydney Young, F.IC.S. Secretaries. — Dr. E. F. Avmstrong {Recorder) ; Dr. 
Alex. McKenzie: Dr. I''. M. J'erkin ; Dr. James H. Pollok. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. CXXVll 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. John Joly, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. Grenville A. Cole ; 
Prof. W. M. Davis ; Sir A. Geikie, K.C.B., Sec. R.S. ; Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. ; 
A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S. Secretaries. — J. Lomas (Recorder) ; Rev. W. Lower 
Carter, M.A. ; Prof. S. H. Reynolds, M.A. ; II. J. Seymour, B.A. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY. 

Presidejit.—DT. S. F. Ilariner, F.R.S. Vice-Preside7its.— Dr. VV. E. Hoyle 
Prof. A. A. W. Hubrecht; Prof. E. W. MacBride, F.R.S.; Dr. R. F. Scharff ; 
A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. Secretaries.— H. W. Marett Tims, M.D. (Recorder) ; J. H. 
Ashworth, D.Sc. ; L. Doncaster, M.A. ; Prof. Alex. Eraser, M.13. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Msijov E. H. Hills, C.M.G., R.E. Vice-Presidents. — J. Bolton; 
Major C. F. Close, R.E., C.M.G. ; Major Leonard Darwin, R.E. ; Prof, W. M. 
Davis ; Rev. W. Spotswood Green, G.B., M.A. ; Dr. A. J. Herbertson ; Captain 
H. G. Lyons, R.E., F.R.S. Secretaries.— 0. J. R. Howarth, M.A. (Recorder); 
AV. F. Bailey, C.B. ; AV. J. Barton, B.A. ; E. A. Reeves. 

SECTION p. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — VV. M. Acworth. Vice-Presidents.— VyoL W. J. Ashley ; Prof. 
C. F. Bastable ; Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, K.C.B. Secretaries.— VroL S. J. Chap- 
man, M.A. (Recorder); AV. G. S.Adams, M.A. ; Prof. D. II. Macgregor, M.A. ; 
H. 0. Meredith. 

SUB-SECTION. — AGRICULTUKE. 

Chairman.— Kight Hon. Sir Horace Plunkett, K.C.V.O., F.R.S. Vice-Chair- 
men.— Prof. J. R. Campbell, F.R.S.E. ; Major P. G. Craigie, C.B. ; Colonel N. 
Everard ; David Houston; Prof. F. Keeble. Secretaries. — A. D. Hall, M.A. 
(Recorde?-) ; Prof. J. Percival, M.A. ; J. II. Priestley, B.Sc. ; Prof. James 
Wilson, M.A. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President.— Dngfild Clerk, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Sir Charles Douglas 
Fox; Sir Howard Grubb, F.R.S.; Charles Ilawksley ; Bindon B. Stoney, F.R.S. ; 
Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, F.R.S. Secretaries. — W. A. Price, M.A. ( Recorder); 
Prof. E. G. Coker, D.Sc. ; Dr. W. E. Lilly, Sc.D. ; H. E. AVimperis, M.A. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President — Prof. AVilliam Ridgeway, F.B.A. Vice-Presidents. — George 
Coffey, M.A.; Prof. A. Francis Dixon, Sc.D. ; D. G. Hogarth, M.A. ; Prof J. L. 
Myres, M.A. ; Prof. George Sigerson, M.D. Secretaries. — E. N. Fallaize, B.A. 
(Recorder) ; H. S. Kingsford, M.A. ; F. C. Shrubsall, M.A., M.D. ; Laurence E. 
Steele, M.A. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — Dr. John Scott Haldane, F.R.S. Vice-Presideiits. — Sir Rubert 
Bovce, F.R.S.; Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S.; Prof. E. J. McAVeenev, M.D. ; 
Prof. J. M. Purser, M.D. ; Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. H. Thompson ; 
Dr. A. D. AValler, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Yiexhext E. Roaf, M.D. (Recorder) ; Prof. 
Denis J. Coffey, M.B. ; P. T. Herring, M.D. ; Prof. J. S. Macdonald, B.A. 



CXXVui OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL C0:\IM1TTEES. 



StdTION K. — BOTANV. 

rresident.—Dr. F. F Blackinan, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— T). II. Scott, F.R.S. ; 
Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. Secretaries.— A. G. Tansley, M.A. (Recorder); 
Trof. Ilenvy II. Dixon, F.R.S. ; R. P. Gregory, M.A. ; Prof. R. II. Yapp, M.A. 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Vrof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Jl. Blair ; Very Rev. 
William Delany, LL.D. ; Rev. Dr. H. Evans; Sir Oliver Lodpp, F.R.S.; Sir 
I'hilip MagDU.«, M.P. ; A. Traill, M.D. Secretaries — Prof. R. A, Gregory 
(Recorder); Prof. E. P. Culverwell, M.A,; AV. D. Eggar, M.A ; George Fletcher, 
F.G.S. ; Hugh Ricbardson, M.A. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES. 

Chalrman.—VroL II. A. Miers, F.R.S. Vice- Chairman. — Prof. Grenville Cole. 
Secretary. — W. P. D. Stebbing. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of the Association ; the General Secretaries ; 
tbe General Treasurer ; the Trustees ; the Presidents of the Association in 
former years; Dr. W. N. Shaw; Dr. R. T. Glazebrook ; Prof. F. S. Kipping, 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong ; Prof. John Joly ; J. Lonias ; Dr. S. F. Harmer ; Dr. 
W. H. Marett Tims ; Major E. H. Hills ; O. J. R. Howarth ; W. M. Acworth ; 
Prof. S. J. Chapman; Dugald Clerk; AV. A. Price; Prof. W. Ridgeway ; 
E. N. Fallaize ; Dr. J. Scott Ilaldaue ; Prof. F. Gotch ; Dr. F. F. Blackman ; 
A. G. Tansley ; Prof. L. C. Miall ; Prof. R. A. Gregory; Prof. H. A. Miers ; 
and Prof. G. A. J. Cole. 



KESEAKCH COMMITTEES. 



CXXIX 



Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
AT THE Dublin Meeting : September 1908. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Grants 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Seismological Observations. 



To co-operate with the Rojal 
Meteorological Society ia the 
Investigation of the Upper At- 
mosphere by means of Kites. 



To co-operate with the Committee 
of the Falmouth Observatory 
in their Magnetic Observations. 



To aid the work of Establishing 
a Solar Observatory in Australia. 



Chairman,. — Professor H H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. Milne. 

Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. 
Boys, Sir George Darwin, Mr. 
Horace Darwin, Major L Dar- 
win, Professor J. A. Ewing, 
Mr. M. H. Gray, Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, Professors J. W. 
Judd, C. G. Knott, and R. 
Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, 
Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. 
E. Plummer, Professor J. H. 
Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, 
and Mr. Nelson Richardson. 

Chairman. — Dr. W. N. Shaw. 
Secretary. — Mr. W. H. Dines. 
Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon 

Boys, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, Professor J. E. 

Petavel, Dr. A. Schuster, and 

Dr.-W. Watson, 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretary Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professor W. G. Adams, Captain 
Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Professor 
A. Schuster, Sir A. W. liiicker, 
and Dr. Charles Chree. 

Chairman. — Sir David Gill 
Secretary. — Dr W. G. Duffield. 
Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, Mr. F. 

McClean, and Professors A. 

Schuster and H. H Turner. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY . 



Preparing a new Series of Wave- 
length Tables of the Spectra 
of the Elements. 



1908. 



ClMiirman. — Sir H. B. Roscoe. 
Secretary. — Dr. Marshall Watts 
Sir Norman Lockyer, Professors 

Sir J. Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. 

Schuster, W. N. Hartley, and 

Wolcott Gibbs, Sir W. de W. 

Abuey, and Dr. W. E. Adeney. 



£ s. J. 
60 



10 



50 



50 



10 



cxxx 



KESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving (rraiits of Money— cotiimued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Tlie Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Dynamic Isomerism. 



The Traiisfonnation of Aromatic 
Nitiamines and allied sub- 
stances, and its relation to Sub- 
stitution in Benzene Deriva- 
tives. 

Electroanalysis. 



Members of Committee 



Cliairmin — Professor E. Divers. 
Secretary. — Professor A. W. Cross - 

ley. 
Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. O. 

Forster, and Dr. Le Sueur. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

Professor Sydney Young, Dr. Descb, 
Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. A. Lap- 
worth, and Dr. M. O. Forster. 

Chairman.— ?ToiQSior F. S. Kip- 
ping. 

Secretary. — ProfessorK.J.P.Orton. 

Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. Lapworth, 
and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 

Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kip- 
ping. 

Secretary. — Dr. F. M. Perkin. 

Dr. G. T. Beilby, Dr. T. M. Lowry, 
Professor W. J. Pope, and Mr. 
U. J. S. Sand. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 




To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



To report upon the Fauna and 
Flora of the Trias of the British 
Isles. 



To investigate the Fossiliferous 
Drift Deposits at Kirmington, 
Lincolnshire, and at various 
localities in the East Riding 
of Yorkshire. 



To enable Mr. E. Greenly to com- 
plete his Researches on the 
Composition and Origin of the 
Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. 



Chairman.— Islx. R. H. Tiddeman. 
Seeretarii. — Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse. 
Dr. T. G.Bonney, Mr. F. M. Burton, 

Mr. F. W. Harmer, Rev. S. N. 

Harrison, Dr. J. Home, Mr. J. 

Lomas, Professor W. J. Sollas, 

and Messrs. J. W. Slather and 
,W. T. Tucker. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herd- 
man. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Lomas. 

Mr. H. 'C. P.easley, Mr. E. T. 
Newton, Professor A. C. Seward, 
Mr. W. A. E. Ussher, Professor 
W. W. Watts, and Dr. A. Smith 
Wood ward. 

Chairman.— "^It. G W. Lamplugh. 

Secretary.— Mr. J. W. Stather. 

Dr. Tempest Anderson, Professor 
J. W. Carr, Rev. W. Lower 
Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 
Mr. F. W. Harmer, Mr. J. H. 
Howarth, Kev. W. Johnson, and 
Messrs. G. W. B. Macturk, 
E. T. Newton, H. M. Platnauer, 
Clement Reid, and T. Sheppard. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. Harker. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. Greenly. 
Mr. J. Lomas, Dr. C. A. Matley, 
and Professor K. J. P. Orton. 



£ s. d. 
15 



35 



10 



■M 



12 



8 



11 



10 



RESEAKCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



CXXXl 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To enable Dr. A. Vaughan to 
continue his Researches on tlie 
Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles. 

To excavate Critical Sections in 
the i'alteozoic Rocks of Wales 
and the West of England. 



To investigate the Microscopical 
and Chemical Composition of 
Charnwood Rocks. 



The Investigation of Igneous and 
Associated Rocks of Glensaul 
and Lough Nafovey Areas, Cos.- 
Ma3'o and Galway. 



To investigate the Ancient Salt 
Lakes and other Desert Phe- 
nomena at Biskra, Algeria, 
in particular relation to the 
British Trias. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman.— VicoiessQV J. W. Gre- 
gory. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. Vaughan. 

Dr. Wheelton Hind and Professor 
W. W. Watts. 

Chairman. — Professor C. Lap- 
worth. 

Secretary Mr. W. G. Fearnsides. 

Mr. J. Lomas, Dr. J. E. Marr, Pro- 
fessor W. W. Watts, and Mr. 
G. W. Williams. 



Chairma,n. — Professor W. W. 

Watts. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. T. Groom. 
Dr. F. P. Bennett, Mr. C. Fox- 

Strangways, and Dr. Stracey. 

Chairman. — Professor W. W. 
Watts 

Secretary. — Professor S. H. Rey- 
nolds. 

Messrs. H. B. Muflf and C. I. 
Gardiner. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Joly. 
Secretary. — J. Lomas. 
Mr. AUorge, Dr. A. Hutchinson, 
and Professors Sollasand VV. W. 

Watts. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY.' 

To aid competent Investigators Ckairma/n. — Professor S. J. Hick- 



selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 



Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



To enable Mr. Laurie to conduct 
Experiments in Inheritance. 



son. 
Secretary. — Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 
Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor 

A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 

Mcintosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, 

and Mr. G. P. Bidder 

Chairman.— T)x. H. Woodward. 

Secretary. — Dr. F. A. Bather. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, the 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, and 
Lord Walsingham. 

CJtairman. — Professor W. A. 

Herdman. 
Secretary.— Mr. Douglas Laurie. 
Mr. R. C. Punnett and Dr. 

H. W. Marett Tims. 



Grants 

£ 6. d. 
10 



15 







20 



SO 



75 



75 



10 



La 



CXXXll 



RESEAKCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Meceiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To investigate the Feeding Habits 
of British Birds by a study of 
the contents of the crops and 
gizzards of both adults and 
nestlings, and by the collation 
of observational evidence, with 
the object of obtaining precise 
knowledge as to the economic 
status of many of our commoner 
birds affecting rural science. 



Members of Committee 



CItairman. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 
Secretanj. — Mr. C. Gordon Hewitt. 
Messrs. J. N. Halbert, Kobert 

Newstead, A. G. L. Rogers, and 

P. V. Theobald. 




Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



To carry on an Expedition to 
investigate the Indian Ocean 
between India and South Africa 
in view of a possible land con- 
nection, to examine the deep 
submerged banks, the Nazareth 
and Saya de Malha, and also the 
distribution of Marine Animals. 

The Quantity and Composition of 
Rainfall, and of Lake and River 
Discharge. 



Chairman. — Sir John Murray. 35 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Stanley Gar- 
diner. 

Captain E. W. Creak, Professors 
W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 
and J. W. Judd, Mr. J. J. Lister, 
Dr. H. R. Mill, and Dr. David 
Sharp. 

Chairman. — Sir John Murray. 10 

Secretaries. — Professor A. B. Mac- 
allum and Dr. A. J. Herbertson. 

Professor W. M. Davis, Professor 
P. F. Frankland, Mr. A. D. Hall, 
Mr. N. F. Mackenzie, Mr. E. H. V. 
Melville, Dr. H. R. Mill, Pro- 
fessor A. Penck, Mr. A. Strahan, 
and Mr. W. Whitaker. 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The Amount of Gold Coinage in 
Circulation in the United King- 
dom. 



The Amount and Distribution of 
Income (other than Wages) be- 
low the Income-tax exemption 
limit in the United Kingdom. 



C/iairma/L — Mr. R. H. Inglis Pal- 
grave. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Stanley Jevons. 

Professor Edgeworch and Messrs. 
A.L. Bowley andD.H. Macgregor. 

Chairman. — Professor E. Cannan. 

Secretary. — Professor A. L. Bow- 
ley. 

Messrs. W. G. S. Adams and A. B. 
Clark and Professors F. Y. Edge- 
worth and H. B. Lees Smith. 



6 



15 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



The Investigation of Gaseous Ex- 
plosions, with special reference 
to Temperature. 



Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretaries. — Mr. Dugald Clerk 
and Professor B. Hopkinsou. 

Professors W. A. Bone, F. W. Bur- 
stall, H. L. Callendar, B. G. 
Coker, W. E. Dalby, and H. B. 
Dixon, Drs. R. T. Glazebrook, 
J. A. Harker, and H. S. Hele- 
Shaw, Colonel H. C. L. Holden, 
Mr. J. E. Petavel, Captain H. 
Riall Sankey, ;ind Profesors A. 
Smilhells and W. Watson. 



75 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
I . Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To investigate the Lake Villages 
in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury in connection with a 
Committee of the Somerset 
Archasological and Natural 
History Society. 

To co-operate with Local Com- 
mittees in Excavations on 
Roman Sites in Britain. 



To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 



To prepare a New Edition of Notes 
and Queries in Anthropology. 



Boyd 



To conduct Archffiological and 
Ethnological Researches in 
Crete. 



Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 

Secretary. — Professor W. 
Dawkins. 

Professor W. Ridgeway and Messrs. 
Arthur J. Evans, C. H. Read, 
H. Balfour, and A. Bulleid. 

Chairman. — Professor .J. L. TMyres. 
Secretary, — Professor R. C. Bosan- 

quet. 
Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. T. 

Ashby, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, and 

Professors W. Ridgeway and 

W. Boyd Dawkins. 

Chairman — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Lord Avebury, Professor W. Ridge- 
way, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. A. J. 
Evans, Dr. R. Munro, Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. 
Lewis. 

Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 
Secretary — Professor J, L. Myre.-^. 
Professor D. J. Cunningham, Mr. 

E.N. Fallaize,Dr. A. C. Haddon, 

Mr. T. A. Joyce, and Drs. C. S. 

Myers, W. H. R. Rivers, C. G. 

Seligmann, and F. C. Shrubsall. 

Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogartli. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. 
W. L. H. Duckworth, Dr. A. J. 
Evans, Professor A. Macalister, 
and Professor W. Ridgeway. 



Section T.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



Tlie Ductless Glands. 



Body Metabolism in Cancer. 



The Electrical Phenomena and 
Metabolism of lirnm Spadices. 



Chairman. — Professor Schiifer. 

Secretary. — Professor Swale Vin- 
cent. 

Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. 
Shore, and Mrs.W. H. Thompson. 

Chairman. — Professor C. S. Sher- 
rington. 
Secretary. — Dr. S. M. Copeman. 

Chairman. — Professor A. D.Waller. 
Secretary. — Miss Sandars. 
Professor Gotch and Professor 
Farmer. 



CXXXlll 



Grants 



.5. d. 





.57 



30 



40 



ro 



35 



20 



10 



CXXXIV 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
I. Receiving Grants of Money— conivavied.. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



To aid competent Investigators 
selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 



Reflex Muscular Rhjthm. 



To acquire further knowledge, 
Clinical and Experimental, con- 
cerning Anesthetics, especially 
chloroform, ether, and alcohol, 
with special reference to deaths 
by, or during, anaisthesia, and 
their possible diminution. 

Tissue Metabolism, for the inves- 
tigation of the Metabolism of 
Special Organs. 



Mental and Muscular Fatigue. 



Cli airman. — Vroies^Qr S.J. Hick- 
son. 

Secretari/. — Rev.T. R. R. Stcbbing. 

Sir B. Ray Lankester, Professor 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Jlclntosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, 
and Mr. G. P. Bidder. 

CJiairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Miss Buchanan. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Seeretai"]/. — Dr. Hewitt. 
Sir Frederick Treves. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



To carry out the scheme for the 
Registration of Negatives of 
Botanical Photographs. 



The Experimental 
Heredity. 



Study of 



The investigation of Symbiosis 
between Turbellarian Worms 
and Algfe. 

A Botanical, Zoological, and Geo- 
logical Survey of Clare Island. 



Chairman. — Dr. D. H. Scott. 
Secreta/ry. — Professor F.W. Oliver. 
Mr. E. Newell Arber and Professors 
A. C. Seward and F. E. Weiss. 

Chairman. — Professor F.W. Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Dr. W. G. Smith, Mr. A. G. Tansley, 
Dr. T. W. Woodhead, and Pro- 
fessor R. H. Yapp. 

Chairman. — Mr. Francis Darwin. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. G. Tansley. 
Professors Bateson and Keeble. 

Chairmnn.— 'Dr. F. F. Blackman. 
Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 
Professors Keeble and Nuttall. 



Grants 



£ H. (1. 

25 



10 
25 



Chairman. — Professor E. H. Star- 20 
ling. 1 

Secretaries. — Professor W. D. 
Brodie. j 

Dr. J. S. Haldane. 

Chairman. — Professor C. R. Sher- 40 

rington. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. MacDougall. j 
Professor J. S. MacDonald and | 

Mr. H. Sackville Lawson. I 







10 



30 



10 



C7iairw(ffl//.— Professor T. Johnson. 6.^) 
Secretary. — Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger. 
Professor Grenville Cole, Dr. 
Scharff, and Mr. A. G. Tansley. 







RRSEARCn COMMITTEES. 
1. Ilceeirhig Grants of Money — continued. 



CXXXV 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To report upon the Course of Ex- 
perimental, Observational, and 
Practical Studies most suitable 
for Elementar}' Schools. 



To consider and to advise as to 

the Curricula of Secondary 
Schools. 



Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secretary. — Mr. \V. M. Heller. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. 
Adie, Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong, Miss L. J. Clarke, Miss 
A. J. Cooper, Mr. George Flet- 
cher, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Principal Griffiths, Mr. A. D. 
Hall, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Professor L. C. 
Miall, Professor J. Perry, Mrs. 
W. N. Shaw, Professor A. iSmith- 
ells. Dr. Lloyd Snape, Sir H. K. 
Reichel, Mr. U. Richardson, and 
Professor W. W. Watts. 

Chairman. — Sir Oliver Lodge. 

Secretary. — Jlr. C. M. Stuart. 

Professor H. E. Armstrong, Mr. 
G. F. Daniell, Mr. W. D. Eggar, 
Professor .1. J. Findlay, Dr. 
Gray, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Principal Griffiths, Sir W. 
Huggins, Mr. O. H. Latter, Sir 
Philip Magnus, Professor H. A. 
Miers, Mr. T. E. Page, Professor 
J. Perry, Mr. Hugh Richardson, 
Professor M. E. Sadler, and 
Dr. A. E. Shipley. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Grants 



£ s. d 
5 



5 



Corresponding Societies Com- ' Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

mittee for the preparation of Secretary. — Mr. W.P. D. Stebbing. 

their Report. Rev. J. O. Bevan, Sir Edward 

r.rabrook. Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. 
V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Professor R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. 
Mill, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Rev. 
T. R. R. Stebbing, and the 
President and Gem ral Officers 
of the Association. 



21 



CXXXVl 



KESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Making Experiments for improving 
the Construction of Practical Stan- 
dards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments. 



To continue the Magnetic Survey of 
South Africa commenced by Pro- 
fessors Beattie and Morrison. 



To carry out a further portion of the 
Oeodetic Arc of Meridian North of 
Lake Tanganyika. 

The further Tabulation of Bessel Func- 
tions. 



To report upon the provision for the 
Study of Astronomy, Meteorology 
(inclnding Atmospheric Electricity), 
and Geophysics in the Universities 
of the British Empire. 



To report on the present state of our 
Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 
as obtained by the use of Kites, 
Palloons, and Pilot Balloons. 



Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professors W. E. Ayrton, J. Perry, W. G. 
Adams, and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver 
Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir W. H 
Preece, Professor A. Schuster, Dr. 
J. A. Fleming, Professor J. J. Thom- 
son, Dr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bot- 
tomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. 
Johnstone Stoney, Professor S. P. 
Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal 
E. H. Griffiths, Sir Arthur Rucker, 
Professor H. L. Callendar, and Messrs. 
G. Matthey, A. P. Trotter, T. Mather, 
and F. E. Smith. 

Chah-man. —Sir David Gill. 
Secretary.— Froiessor J . C. Beattie. 
Mr. S. S. Hough, Professor Morrison, and 
Professor A. Schuster. 

Chairman. — Sir George Darwin. 

Secretary. — Sir David Gill. 

Major Close and Sir George Goldie. 

Chairman. — Professor M. J. M. Hill. 
Secretary. — Dr. L. N. G. Filon. 
Professor Alfred Lodge and Mr. J. W. 
Nicholson. 

Chairman. — Sir Arthur Riicker. 
Secretary. — Professor A. E. H. Love. 
Sir Oliver Lodge, Professors C. G. Knott, 

E. Rutherford, A. Schuster, J. J. 

Thomson, and E. T. Whittaker, Drs. 

W. G. Duffield and G. T. "Walker, and 

Mr. R. T. A. Innes 

Messrs. E. Gold and W. A. Harwood. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic 
Derivatives of Benzene. 



Chairman. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Professors W. P. Wynne and W. J. Pope. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. JVot receiving Grants of Money — continued. 

Members of Committee 



CXXXVll 




Section C— GEOLOGY. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- | Cliairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 



tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



To investigate and report on the Corre- 
lation and Age of South African 
Strata and on the question of a Uni- 
form Stratigraphical Nomenclature. 



To determine the precise Significance 
of Topographical and Geological 
Terms used locally in South Africa. 



Secretaries. — Professors W. W. Watts and 

S. H. Reynolds. 
Dr. T. Anderson, Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. 

T. G. Bonney, Mr. H. Coates, Mr. C. V. 

Crook, Professor E. J. Garwood, 

Messrs. W. Gray, R. Kidston, and A. S. 

Reid, Dr. J. J. H. Teall, and Messrs. 

R. Welch, W. Whitaker, and H. B. 

Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor J. W. Gregory. 

Secretary. — Professor A. Young. 

Mr. W. Anderson, Professor R. Broom, 

Dr. G. S. Corstorphine, Mr. Walcot 

Gibson, Dr. F. H. Hatch, Mr. T. H. 

Holland, Mr. H. Kynaston, Mr. F. P. 

Mennell, Dr. Molengraaff, Mr. A. J. C. 

Molyneux, Mr. A. W. Rogers, Mr. 

E. H. L. Schwarz, and Professor R. B. 

Young. 

Chairman. — Mr. G. W. Lamplugh. 

Secretary.— Dr. F. H. Hatch. 

Dr. G. Corstorphine and Messrs. A. Dii 

Toit, A. P. Hall, G. Kynaston, F. P. 

Mennell, and A. W. Rogers. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To continue the Investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Royal Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
pose of specimens where advisable. 

To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by corre- 
spondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To nominate competent naturalists 
to perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 



Cliairman. — Dr. F. Du Cane Godman. 
Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
and Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 



Chairman. — Sir E. Ray Lankester. 

Secretary. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Professors G. C. Bourne, T. W. Bridge, 
J. Cossar Bwart, M. Hartog, W. A. 
Herdman, and J. Graham Kerr, Mr. 
O. H. Latter, Professor Minchin, Dr. 
P. C. Mitchell, Professors C. Lloyd 
Morgan, E. B. Poulton, and A. Sedg- 
wick, Mr. A. E. Shipley, and Rev. 
T. R. R. Stebbing. 

Chairman and Secreta/ry. — Professor A. 
Dendy. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor A. Sedg- 
wick, and Professor Sydney H. Vines. 



CXXXVUl 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
'?. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To enable Dr. J. W. Jenkinson to con- 
tinue his Researches on the Influence 
of Salt and other Solutions on the 
Development of the Frog. 



Members of Commitiiee 



Chairman. — Professor G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. W. Jenkinson. 
Professor S. J. Hickson. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of Photo- 
graphs of Anthropological Interest. 



To organise Anthropometric Investiga- 
tion in the British Isles. 



To conduct Archseologioal and Ethno- 
logical Investigations in Sardinia. 



To report upon ArcVajological Investi- 
gations in British East Africa. 



To establish a sj-stem of measuring 
Mental Characters. 



To excavate Neolithic Sites in Northern 
Greece. 



Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. S. Kingsford. 

Dr. T. Ashby, Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. H. 

Balfour, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. H. O. 

Forbe.s, Dr. A.C. Haddon, Mr.E.S.Hart- 

land, Mr. E. Heawood, Professor J. L. 

Myres, and Professor Flinders Petrie. 

Chairman. — Professor D. J.Cunningham. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Gray. 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 
Secretary. — Professor R. C. Bosanquet. 
Dr. T. Ashby, Dr. W. L. H. Duckworlh, 

Professor J. L. Myres, and Dr. F. C. 

Shrubsall. 

Chairman.— Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 
Secntary. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. C. T. Carrelly. Dr. 
H. O. Forbes, and Professor J. L. Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor D.J. Cunningham. 

Secretary.— Mr. J. Gray. 

Miss Cooper and Drs. W. McDougall, 

C. S. Myers, W. H. R. Rivers, W. G. 

Smith, and Spearman. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Mr. J. P. Droop and Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease. 



Chairman. — Sir T. Lauder Brunton. 

Stcretary. — Mr. J. Barcroft and Lieut.- 
Col. Simpson. 

Colonel Sir D. Bruce, Dr. S. G. Camp- 
bell, Sir Kendal Frank.«, Professor 
J. G. McKendrick, Sir A. Mitchell. Dr. 
C. F. K. Murray, Dr. Porter, Dr. J. L. 
Todd, Professor Sims Woodhead, Sir 
A. E. Wright, and the Heads of the 
Tropical Schools of Liverpool, London, 
and Edinburgh. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To take cotice of, and report upon i Chairman.— ^\r Philip Magnus, 
changes in, Regulations — whether 
Legislative, Administrative, or made 
by Local Authorities — affecting 
Secondary Education. 



' Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Sir William Bousfield, Mr. S. H. Butcher, 
Sir Henry Craik, Principal Griffiths, 
Sir Horace Plunkett, and Professor 
M. E. Sadler. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. CXXXIX 

2. Not reedring Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject tor Investigation, or Purpose 

1 

The Conditions of HeaKh essential to 
the carrying on of the work of In- 
struction in Schools. 

To inquire into and report upon the 
methods and results of research into 
the Mental and Physical Factors 
involved in Education. 


Members of Committee 


Chairman. — Professor C. S. Sherrington. 

Secretary.— Mr. E. White Wallis. 

Sir E. Brabrook, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 

Professor L. C. Miall, Miss A. J. 

Cooper, and Dr. Ethel Williams. 

Chairman.— Vrolessox J. J. Findlay. 

Secretary. — Professor J. A. Green. 

Professors J. Adams and E. P. Culver- 
well, Mr. G. F. Daniel), Miss B. Foxley, 
Professor R. A. Gregory, Dr. C. W. 
Kimmins, Miss IMajor, Dr. T. P. Nunn, 
Dr. Spearman, Jiliss L. Edna Walter, 
and Dr. F. Warner. 



Communications ordered to he j)rinted in extenso. 

The Theory of Wave-motion, by Professor Horace Lamb, and the Discussion 
thereon. 

Colloid Chemistry. By Professor H. R. Procter. 
Fatigue. By Dr. MacDougall. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, 

for action. 

From Sections A and E jointly. 

That the Council should approach the Board of Agriculture with a view of 
ascertaining whether it is not possible for the Director-General of the Ordnance 
Survey of Great Britain and Ireland to undertake the remeasurement of the two 
principal arcs (meridional and longitudinal) as part of the current work of his 
Department. 

From Section A. 

That the Committee of Section A has received with interest information respect- 
ing the Meteorological and Astronomical Observatory at Bulawayo, and desires the 
Coixncil to inform the Chartered Company of the importance from the scientific 
point of view attached to the continuance of the observations, and to express the 
hope that the Chartered Company will see its way to continue its financial support 
to the Observatory. 

From Section D. 

That the Council be requested to communicate a Resolution of Section D rel&ting 
to Zoological Nomenclature to the International Commission on Nomenclature and 
to certain British scientific societies. 

From Section H, supported hy Section E 

That the Council of the British Association be requested to lend their support to 
the project for an Imperial Bureau of Anthropology set on foot by the Royal 
Anthropological Institute. A memorial in favour of the scheme has already been 
nutcerously signed by distinguished Indian and Colonial administrators, heads and 
Parliamentary representatives of universities, principals of university colleges, 
anthropologists, directors of steamship companies, leading manufacturers and 
heads of other mercantile enterprises ; and it will be presented to the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer in the coming session of Parliament by a deputation composed of 
some of the chief signatories. 



CXl RESOLUTIONS REFEKRED TO THE COUNCIL. 

Prom, Section L. 

1. That, in the opinion of this Committee, it is desirable that the Committee of 
EecommendatioDs should meet on Tuesday afternoon with a view lo the considera- 
tion of the papers recommended by Sectional Committees to be printed in extenso in 
the Annual Report. 

2. That 1,000 reprints of the Report presented this year upon Practical Studies 
in Elementary Schools, with the introduction prepared by Sir Philip Magnus, be 
supplied to the Secretary of the Committee for distribution. 

3. That 500 reprints of the Report presented this year upon the Sequence of 
Science Studies in Secondary Schools be supplied to the Secretary of the Sub- 
Committee for distribution. 

From the Conference of Delegates. 

The Conference desires to represent to the Committee of Recommendations that 
whenever a Committee of the British Association enters upon a local investigation 
notice should be given to any local scientific or arcbffiological society, .so as to 
enable that society to ofEer any co-operation that may be desirable. 

Recommendations referred to the Council for consideration, and, ij 

desirable, for action. 

1. That the following Committees be authorised to receive contributions from 
sources other than the As.sociation : — 

(i) 'To conduct Explorations with a view to ascertaining the .Age of Stone 

Circles.' (Section H.) 
(ii) ' On the Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease.' (Section L) 

2. That the Committee of Section G be authorised to publish the Report of their 
Committee on Gaseous Explosions, presented to and read before the Section on 
Septeniber 4, in such public journals as may seem desirable, in view of the purpose 
for which they are appointed. 

3. That the Council be requested to consider the recommendation of the Com- 
mittee of Section H, requesting them to direct that the Report of the Anthropo- 
metric Committee be printed in the annual volume in full, with the addition of the 
illustrations from the blocks in the possession of the Association, which are an 
integral part of the Report. 

4. That the Council be requested to consider a Resolution by the Committee of 
Section A, recommending that the Reports of the Electrical Standards Committee 
from 1 862 be reprinted, after careful editing, and published as a memorial to the 
late Lord Kelvin. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. cxli 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriided for Scientific Purposes by the 

General Committee at the Dublin Meeting, SejJtemher 1908. The 
Names of Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer for the 
Grants are prefixed to the respective Research Goomnittees. 

Mathematical and Physical Science. 

£ s. d. 

*Turner, Professor H. H. — Seismological Observations 60 

*Shaw, Dr. W. N. — Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere 

by means of Kites 10 

*Preece, Sir W. H.— Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ... 50 
Grill, Sir David — Establishing a Solar Observatory in 

Australia 50 

Chemistry. 

*Roscoe, Sir H. E. —Wave-length Tables of Spectra ... 10 

*Divers, Professor E. — Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 15 

* Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism 35 

*Kipping, Professor F. S. — Transformation of Aromatic Nitro- 

amines 10 

Kipping, Professor F. S. — Electroaualysis 30 

Geology. 

*Tiddeman, R. H.— Erratic Blocks 12 

*Herdman, Professor W. A. — Fauna and Flora of British Trias 8 

*Lamplugh, G. W.— Fossiliferous Drift Deposits 11 

■' Harker, Dr. A. — Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 10 

*Gregory, Professor J. W. — Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the British Isles 10 

*Lap worth, Professor C. — Palteozoic Rocks of Wales and the 

West of England 15 

* Watts, Professor W. W. — Composition of Charnwood Rocks 2 
Watts, Professor W. W. — Igaeous and Associated Rocks of 

Glensaul, >fcc 20 

Joly , Professor J. —Investigations at Bisk ra 50 

Zoology. 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 75 

"•Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Animalium 75 

*Herdman, Professor W. A.— Hereditary Experiments 10 

Shipley, Dr. A. E.— Feeding Habits of British Birds 5 

Carried forward £564 

• IvL'uppointed. 



* 



cxlii SYNOPSIS OF GKANTS OF MONEY. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 564 

Geography. 

*Murray, Sir John — Investigations in the Indian Ocean 35 

*Murray, Sir John —Rainfall and Lake and River Discharge 10 

Ecoibomic Science aiui Statistics. 

*Palgrave, R. H. Inglis — Gold Coinage in Circulation in the 

United Kingdom 

Cannan, Professor E. — Amount and Distribution of Income 

below the Income-tax Exemption Limit 15 

Enyineering. 
Preece, Sir W. H. — Gaseous Explosions 75 

AiUhropoloyy , 

*Munro, Dr. R. — Lake Village in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury 5 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Excavations on Roman Sites in 

Britain 5 

*Read, C. H.— Age of Stone Circles 30 

*Read, C. H. — Anthropological Notes and Queries 40 

*Hogarth, D. G. — Researches in Crete 70 

Physiology. 

*Schafer, Professor E. A. — The Ductless Glands 35 

•Sherrington, Professor C. S. — Body Metabolism in Cancer... 20 
* Waller, Dr. A. D. — Electrical Phenomena and Metabolism 

of Aruvi Spadices 10 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 25 

Waller, Dr. A. D.— Reflex Muscular Rhythm 10 

Waller, Professor A. D. — Anesthetics 25 

Starling, Professor E. H. — Tissue Metabolism 20 

Sherrington, Professor C. S. —Mental and Muscular Fatigue 40 

Botany. 

*Scott, Dr. D. H.— Structure of Fossil Plants 5 

*01i ver, Professor F. W. — Botanical Photographs 10 

Darwin, Dr. F. — Experimental Study of Heredity 30 

Blackman, Dr. F. F. — Symbiosis between Turbellarian Worms 

and Algai 10 

Johnson, Professor T. — Survey of Clare Island G5 

Carried forward £1160 

* lleappointed. 


















































































SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Cxliii 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward 1160 

Education. 

*Magaus, Sir P. — Studies suitable for Elementary Schools ... 5 

*Lodge, Sir Oliver. — Curricula of Secondary Schools 5 



* 



Correspotiding Societies Commillec. 
*Whitaker, W.— For Preparation of Report 21 

Total £1191 

* Reappointed. 



Annual Meetings, 1909, 1910, and 1911. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1909 will be held at 
Winnipeg, Canada, commencing August 25 ; in 1910 at Sheffield, and in 
1911 at Portsmouth. 



PBESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1908. 8 



ADDRESS 

BY 

FRANCIS DAEWIN, M.A., Pii.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 



Before entering on the subject of my Address, I may be allowed to 
refer to the loss which the British Association has sustained in the death 
of Lord Kelvin. He joined the Association in 1847, and had been for 
more than fifty years a familiar figure at our meetings. This is not the 
occasion to speak of his work in the world or of what he was to his 
friends, but rather of his influence on those who were personally un- 
known to him. It seems to me characteristic of him that s(>mething of 
his vigour and of his personal charm was felt far beyond the circle of his 
intimate associates, and many men and women who never exchanged a 
word with Lord Kelvin, and are in outer darkness as to his researches, 
will miss his genial presence and feel themselves the poorer to-day. By 
the death of Sir John Evans the Association is deprived of another 
faithful friend. He presided at Toronto in 1897, and since he joined 
the Association in 1861 had been a regular attendant at our meetings. 
The absence of his cheerful personality and the loss of his wise counsels 
will be widely felt. 

May I be permitted one other digression before I come to my subject ? 
There has not been a Botanical President of the British Association since 
the Norwich meeting forty years ago, when Sir Joseph Hooker was in 
the chair, and in 'eloquent and felicitous words' (to quote my father's 
letter) spoke in defence of the doctrine of evolution. I am sure that 
every member of this Association will be glad to be reminded that Sir 
Joseph Hooker is, happily, still working at the subject that his lifelong 
labours have so greatly advanced, and of which he has long been recognised 
as the honoured chief and leader. 

You will perhaps expect me to give a retrospect of the progress of 
evolution during the fifty years that have elapsed since July 1, 1858, when 
the doctrine of the origin of species by means of natural selection was 

b2 



4 PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 

made known to the world in the words of Mr. Darwin and Mr. Wallace. 
This would be a gigantic task, for which I am quite unfitted. It seems 
to me, moreover, that the first duty of your President is to speak on 
matters to which his own researches have contributed. My work — such 
as it is — deals with the movements of plants, and it is with this subject 
that I shall begin. I want to give you a general idea of how the changes 
going on in the environment act as stimuli and compel plants to execute 
certain movements. Then I shall show that what is true of those tem- 
porary changes of shape we describe as movements is also true of the 
permanent alterations known as morphological. 

I shall insist that, if the study of movement includes the problem of 
stimulus and reaction, morphological change must be investigated from 
the same point of view. In fact, that these two departments of inquiry 
must be classed together, and this, as we shall see, has some important 
results — namely, that the dim beginnings of habit or unconscious memory 
that we find in the movements of plants and animals must find a place 
in morphology ; and inasmuch as a striking instance of correlated mor- 
phological changes is to be found in the development of the adult from 
the ovum, I shall take this ontogenetic series and attempt to show you 
that here also something equivalent to memory or habit reigns. 

Many attempts have been made to connect in this way the phenomena 
of memo?'y and inheritance, and I shall ask you to listen to one more 
such attempt, even though I am forced to appear as a champion of what 
some of you consider a lost cause — the doctrine of the inheritance of 
acquired characters. 

Movement. 

In his book on 'The Power of Movement in Plants' (1880)' my 
father wrote that ' it is impossible not to be struck with the resemblance 
between the foregoing movements of plants and many of the actions 
performed unconsciously by the lower animals.' In the previous year 
Sachs - had in like manner called attention to the essential resemblance 
between the irritability of plants and animals. I give these statements 
first because of their simplicity and directness ; but it must not be for- 
gotten that before this Pfeffer^ had begun to lay down the principles 
of what is now known as Reizphysiologie, or the physiology of stimulus, 
for which he and his pupils have done so much. 

The words of Darwin which I have quoted afibrd an example of the 
way in which science returns to the obvious. Here we find revived, in a 
rational form, the point of view of the child or of the writer of fairy 
stories. We do not go so far as the child ; we know that flowers do not 
talk or walk; but the fact that plants must be classed with animals as 
I'ftwards their manner of reaction to stimuli has now become almost a 

> p. 571. " Arheiten, ii. 1879, i). 282. 

s Osmntisclw rnter.nichwngen, 1877, p. 202. 



president's address. 5 

comluouplace. of physiology. And inasmuch as wu ourselves ate animals, 
this conception gives us a certain insight into the reactions of planty 
which -we should not otherwise possess. This is, I allow, a very dangerous 
tendency, leading to anthropomorphism, one of the seven deadly sins of 
science. Nevertheless, it is one that must be used unless the great mass 
of knowledge accumulated by psychologists is to be forbidden ground to 
the physiologist. 

Jennings ' has admirably expressed the point of view from which we 
ought to deal with the behaviour of the simpler organisms. He points 
out that we must study their movements in a strictly objective manner : 
that the same point of view must be applied to man, and that any 
resemblances between the two sets of phenomena are not only an allowable 
but a necessary aid to research. 

What, then, are the essential characters of stimuli and of the reactions 
which they call forth in living organisms ? Pfeffer has stated this in the 
most objective way. An organism is a machine which can be set going 
by touching a spring or trigger of some kind ; a machine in which energy 
can be set free by some kind of releasing mechanism. Here we have 
a model of at least some of the features of reaction to stimulation. 

The energy of the cause is generally out of all proportion to the 
effect, i.e., a small stimulus produces a big reaction. The specific 
character of the result depends on the structure of the machine rather 
than on the character of the stimulus. The trigger of a gun may be 
pulled in a variety of different ways without affecting the character of 
tlie explosion. Just in the same way a plant may be made to curve by 
altering its angle to the vertical, by lateral illumination, by chemical 
agency, and so forth ; the curvature is of the same nature in all cases, 
the release -action diffei-s. One of those chains of wooden bi'icks in which 
each knocks over the next may be set in action by a touch, by throw- 
ing a ball, by an erring dog, in short by anything that upsets the 
equilibrium of brick No. 1 ; but the really important part of the game, 
the way in which the wave of falling bricks passes like a prairie fire 
round a group of Noah's Ark animals, or by a bridge over its own dead 
body and returns to the starting-point, &c. — these are the result of the 
magnificent structure of the thing as a whole, and the upset of brick 
No. 1 seems a small thing in comparison. 

For myself I see no reason why the term stimulus should not be 
used in relation to the action of mechanisms in general ; but by a 
convention which it is well to respect, stimulation is confined to the 
protoplasmic machinery of living organisms. 

The want of proportion between the stimulus and the reply, or, as it 
has been expressed, the unexpectedness of the result of a given stimulus, 
is a striking feature in the phenomena of reaction. That this should be 
so need not surprise us. We can, as a rule, only know the stimulus and 

' The Beharior of t lie Loiver Organi$me, 1904, p, 124. 



6 rHESIDEN'T's ADDRESS. 

the response, wliile the intermediate processes of the mechanism are 
hidden in the secret life of protoplasm. We might, however, have 
guessed that big changes would result from small stimuli, since it is clear 
that the success of an organism in the world must depend partly at least 
on its being highly sensitive to changes in its surroundings. This is the 
adaptive side of the fundamental fact that living protoplasm is a highly 
unstable body. Here I may say one word about the adaptation as 
treated in the Origin of Sj)ecies. It is the present fashion to minimise 
or deny altogether the importance of natural selection. I do not propose 
to enter into this subject ; 1 am convinced that the inherent strength of 
the doctrine will insure its final victory over the present anti-Darwinian 
stream of criticism. From the Darwinian point of view it would be a 
remarkable fact if the reactions of organisms to natural stimuli were 
not adaptive. That they should be so, as they undoubtedly are, is not 
surprising. But just now I only call attention to the adaptive character 
of reactions from a descriptive point of view. 

Hitherto I have implied the existence of a general character in 
stimulation without actually naming it ; I mean the indirectness of the 
result. This is the point of view of Dutrochet, who in 1824 said that 
the environment suggests but does not directly cause the reaction. It 
is not easy to make clear in a few words the conception of indirectness. 
Pfeffer ^ employs the word inchictioji, and holds that external stimuli act 
by producing internal change, such changes being the link between 
stimulus and reaction. It may seem, at first sight, that we do not gain 
much by this supposition ; but since these changes may be more or less 
enduring, we gain at least the conception of after effect as a quality of 
stimulation. What are known as spontaneous actions must be considered 
as due to internal changes of unknown origin. 

It may be said tha,t in speaking of the ' indirectness ' of the response 
to stimuli we are merely expressing in other words the conception of 
release-action ; that the explosion of a machine is an indirect reply to 
the touch on the trigger. This is doubtless true, but we possibly lose 
something if we attempt to gompress the whole problem into the truism 
that the organism behaves as it does because it has a certain structure. 
The quality of indirectness is far more characteristic of an organism than 
of a machine, and to keep it in mind is more illuminating than a slavish 
adherence to the analogy of a machine. The reaction of an organism 
depends on its past history ; but, it maybe answered, this is also true of a 
machine the action of which depends on how it was made, and in a less 
degree on the treatment it has received during use. But in living things 
this last feature in behaviour is far more striking, and in the higher 
organisms past experience is all-important in deciding the response to 
stimulus. The organism is a plastic machine profoundly affected in struc- 
ture by its own action, and the unknown process intervening between 

' Physwlogy, Engl, edit., i. p. 11, 



TRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 7 

stimulus and reaction (on which the indirectness of the response depends) 
must have the fullest value allowed it as a characteristic of living 
creatures. 

For the zoological side of biology a view similar to that of Pfeffer has 
been clearly stated by Jennings ' in his admirable studies on the beha- 
viour of infusoria, rotifers, &c. He advances strong arguments against 
the theories of Loeb and others, according to which the stimulus acts 
directly on the organs of movement ; a point of view which was formerly 
held by botanists, but has since given place to the conception of the 
stimulation acting on the organism as a whole. Unfortunately fur 
botanists these movements are by the zoologists called iropitims, and are 
thus liable to be confused with the geotropism, heliotropism, &c., of plants: 
to these movements, which are not considered by botanists to be due to 
direct action of stimuli, Loeb's assumptions do not seem to be applicable. 

Jennings's position is that we must take into consideration what he 
calls 'physiological state, i.e., "the varying internal physiological conditions 
of the organism, as distinguished from permanent anatomical conditions." ' 
Though he does not claim novelty for his view, I am not aware that it has 
ever been so well stated. External stimuli are supposed to act by altering 
this physiological state ; that is, the organism is temporarily transformed 
into what, judged by its reactions, is practically a different creature. 

This may be illustrated by the behaviour of Stentor, one of the fixed 
infusoria."^ If a fine jet of water is directed against the disc of the 
creature, it contracts ' like a flash ' into its tube. In about half a minute 
it expands again and the cilia resume their activity. Now we cause the 
current to act again upon the disc. This time the Stentor does not con- 
tract, which proves that the animal has been in some way changed by the 
first stimulus. This is a simple example of ' physiological state.' When 
the Stentor was at rest, before it received the first current of water, 
it was in state 1, the stimulus changed state 1 into state 2, to which 
contraction is the reaction. When again stimulated it passed into 
state 3, which does not produce contraction. 

W^e cannot prove that the contraction which occurred when the 
Stentor was first stimulated was due to a change of state. But it is a 
fair deduction from the result of the whole experiment, for after the 
original reaction the creature is undoubtedly in a changed state, since it 
no longer reacts in the same way to a repetition of the original stimulus. 

Jennings points out that, as in the case of plants, spontaneous acts 
are brought about when the physiological state is changed by unknown 
causes, whereas in other cases we can point to an external agency by 
which the same result is effected. 

' H. S. Jeunings, Cuntrihiitioiis to the Study of the Behavior of the Lower 
Organisms. Carnegie Institution, 1904, p. 111. 

' Jennings, Behavior of the Lower Organisms, 1906, p. 170, 



8 president's address. 

Morphological Changes, 

Let us pass on to the consideration of the permanent or morphological 
changes and the stimuli by which they are produced, a subject to which, 
in recent years, many workers have devoted themselves. I need only 
mention the names of Vochting, Goebe.l, and Klebs among botanists, and 
those of Loeb, Herbst, and Driesch among zoologists, to remind you of 
the type of research to which I refer. 

These morphological alterations produced by changes in environment 
have been brought under the rubric of reaction to stimulation, and must 
be considered as essentially similar to the class of temporary movements 
of which I have spoken. 

The very first stage in development may be determined by a purely 
external stimulus. Thus the position of the first cell-wall in the develop- 
ing spore of Equisetum is determined by the direction of incident light." 
In the same way the direction of light settles the plane of symmetry of 
Jfarchantia as it develops from the gemma.- But the more interesting 
cases are those where the presence or absence of a stimulus makes an 
elaborate structural diflference in the organism. Thus, as Stahl ^ has shown, 
beech leaves developed in the deep shade of the middle of the tree are so 
different in structure from leaves grown in full sunlight that they would 
unhesitatingly be described as belonging to different species. Another 
well-known case is the development of the scale-leaves on the rhizome of 
Circma into the foliage leaves under the action of light.'' 

The power which the experimenter has over the lower plants is shown 
by Klebs, who kept Saprolegnia mixta, a fungus found on dead flies, in 
uninterrupted vegetative growth for six years ; while by I'emoving a 
fragment of the plant and cultivating it in other conditions the repro- 
ductive oi'gans could at any time be made to appear.'^ 

Chlamydomoyias media, a unicellular green alga, when grown in a 
04 per cent, nutrient solution continues to increase by simple division, 
but conjugating gametes are formed in a few days if the plant is placed 
in pure water and kept in bright light." Numberless other cases could 
be given of the regulation of form in the lower organisms. Thus Sporo- 
dinia grown on peptone-gelatine produces sporangiferous hypha, but on 
sugar zygotes are formed. Again, Protosiphon botryoides, if grown on 
damp clay, can most readily be made to produce spores by tranference to 
water either in light or in darkness. But for the same plant cultivated in 
Knop's solution the end can best be obtained by placing the culture in the 
dark.^ Still these instances of the regulation of reproduction are not 
so interesting from our point of view as some of Klebs' later results/ 
Thus he has shown that the colour of the flower of Campanida trachelium 

' Stahl, Ber. d. Bot. Ges., 1885, p. 334. - Pfeffer, in Sachs' Arbeiten, i. p. 92. 

» JenaiscJw Zeitsch:, 1883, p. 1(;2. ■• Goebel in Bot. Zeitung, 1880. 

■'' WiUMrUclie Entmclt., p. 27. '■ Klebs, Bcdingvngen, 1896, p. 130. 

• Binl. Cfvtrnm. 1904, pp. 451-3. * JaJirh./. iviss, Bot,, xlii. 1906, p. 168. 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS, 9 

can be changed from blue to white and back again to blue by varying the 
conditions under which the plant is cultivated. Again, with Sempervivum l 
lie has been able to produce striking results — e.g., the formation of 
apetalous flowers with one instead of two rows of stamens. Diminution 
in the number of stamens is a common occurrence in his experimental 
plants, and absolute loss of these organs also occurs. Many other 
abnormalities were induced, both in the stamens and in other parts of the 
flowers. 

There is nothing new in the character of these facts ; ^ what has 
been brought to light (principally by the work of Klebs) is the degree 
to which ontogeny is controllable. AVe are so much in the habit of 
tliinking of the stable element in ontogeny that the work of Klebs 
strikes us with something of a shock. Most people would allow that 
change of form is ultimately referable to changed conditions, but many of 
us were not prepared to learn the great importance of external stimuli 
in ontogeny. 

Klebs begins by assuming that every species has a definite specific 
structure, whicli he compares to chemical character. Just as a substance 
such as sulphur may assume different forms under different treatment, 
so he assumes that the specific structure of a plant has certain poten- 
tialities which may be brought to light by appropriate stimuli. He 
divides the agencies affecting the structure into external and internal 
conditions, the external being supposed to act by causing alterations in 
the internal conditions. 

It will be seen that the scheme is broadly the same as that of Pfeffer 
for the case of the movement and other temporary reactions. The internal 
conditions of Klebs correspond also to the ' physiological state ' of Jennings. 

From what has gone before, it will be seen that the current con- 
ception of stimulus •* is practically identical whether we look ab the 

' Ahhandl. Naturforsch. Ges. :u Halle, xxv., 1006, pp. 31, 34, &c. 

^ See the great collection of facts illustrating the ' direct and definite action of 
the external conditions of life ' in Variation of Animals and Plants, ii. 271. 

^ With regard to the terminology of stimulation, I believe that it would greatly 
simplify matters if our classification of causal conditions coul'l be based on the 
relation of the nucleus to the rest of the cell. But our knowledge does not at present 
allow of more than a tentative statement of such a scheme. It is now widely be- 
lieved that the nucleus is the bearer of the qualities transmitted from generation to 
generation, and the regulator of ontogeny. May we not therefore consider it probable 
that the nucleus plays in the cell the part of a central nervous system? In plants 
there is evidence that the ectoplasm is the sensitive region, and, in fact, plays the 
part of the cell's sense-organ. The change that occurs in the growth of a cell, as 
a response to stimulus, would on this scheme be a reflex action dependent for its 
character on the structure of the nucleus. The ' indirectness ' of stimulation would 
then depend on the reception by the nucleus of the excitation set up in the ectoplasm , 
and the secondary excitation reflected from the nucleus, leading to certain changes 
in the growth of the cell. 

If the nucleus be the bearer of the [)ast history of the individual, the scheme here 
(♦ketched would accord with the adaptive character of normal reactions ,ind would 



10 president's address. 

phenomena of movement or those of structure. If this is allowable — 
and the weight of evidence is strongly in its favour — a conclusion of 
some interest follows. 

If we reconsider what I have called the indirectness of stimulation, we 
shall see that it has a wider bearing than is at first obvious. The ' internal 
condition ' or ' physiological state ' is a factor in the regulation of the 
organism's action, and it is a factor which owes its ciiaracter to external 
agencies which may no longer exist. 

The fact that stimuli are not momentary in effect but leave a trace of 
themselves on the organism is in fact the physical basis of the phenomena 
grouped under memory in its widest sense as indicating that action is 
regulated by past experience. Jennings ^ remarks : ' In the higher 
animals, and especially in man, the essential features in behaviour depend 
very largely on the history of the individual ; in other words, upon the 
present physiological condition of the individual, as determined by the 
stimuli it has received and the reactions it has performed. But in this 
respect the higher animals do not differ in principle, but only in degree, 
from the loM'er organisms. . . .' I venture to believe that this is true 
of plants as well as of animals, and that it is further broadly true not 
only of physiological behaviour, but of the changes that are classed as 
morphological. 

Semon in his interesting book. Die Mneme,^ has used the word 
Engram for the trace or record of a stimulus left on the organism. In 
this sense we may say that the internal conditions of Pfeffer, the 
physiological states of Jennings, and the internal conditions of Klebs 
are, broadly speaking, Engrains. The authors of these theories may 
perhaps object to this sweeping statement, but I venture to think it is 
broadly true. 

The fact that in some cases we recognise the chemical or physical 
character of the internal conditions does not by any means prevent our 
ascribing a mnemic memory-like character to them, since they remain 
causal agencies built up by external conditions which have, or may have, 
ceased to exist. Memory will be none the less memory when we know 
something of the chemistry and physics of its neural concomitant. 

fall into line witla what we know of the regulation of actions in the higher organisms. 
Pfeffer {Physiology of Plants, Eng. trans., iii. 10) has briefly discussed the possibility 
of thus considering the nucleus as a reflex centre, and has pointed out difficulties in 
the way of accepting such a view as universally holding good. Delage {L'Hereditc, 
2nd edit., 1903, p. 88) gives a good summary of the evidence which induces him 
to deny the mastery of the cell by the nucleus. Driesch, however (Anahjtische 
Theorie der organischen EntwieUung , 1894, p. 81), gives reasons for believing that 
the cjtoplasm is the receptive region, while the nucleus is responsible for the 
reaction, and it is on this that he bases his earlier theory of ontogeny. 

' P. 121 (1901). 

^ Die Miieme, ah erhaltendes Priiizij) im ^\^ecJlSl'l des organischen Oeschehens, 
von Kichard Semou, 1" Auflage, Leipzig 1904, 2" Auflage, 1908. It is a pleasure 
to express my indebtedness to this work, as well as for the suggestions and criticisms 
which I owe to Professor Semon personally, 



president's address. 11 

Habit illustrated by Movement. 

In order to make my meaning plain as to the existence of a mnemic 
factor in the life of plants, I shall for the moment leave the morphological 
side of life and give an instance of habitual movement. 

Sleeping plants are those in which the leaves assume at night a 
position markedly different from that shown by day. Thus the leaflets 
of the scarlet-runner (Phaseolus) are more or less horizontal by day and 
sink down at night. This change of position is known to be produced 
by the alternation of day and night. But this statement by no means 
exhausts the interest of the phenomenon. A sensitive photographic 
plate behaves differently in light and darkness ; and so does a radiometer, 
which spins by day and rests at night. 

If a sleeping-plant is placed in a dark room after it has gone to sleep 
at night, it will be found next morning in the light-position, and will 
again assume the nocturnal position as evening comes on. We have, in 
fact, what seems to be a habit built by the alternation of day and night. 
The plant normally drops its leaves at the stimulus of darkness and 
raises them at the stimulus of light. But here we see the leaves risine: 
and falling in the absence of the accustomed stimulation. Since this 
change of position is not due to external conditions it must be the result 
of the internal conditions which habitually accompany the movement. 
This is the characteristic par excellence of habit— namely, a capacity, 
acquired by repetition, of reacting to a fraction of the original environ- 
ment. We may express it in simpler language. AVhen a series of actions 
are compelled to follow each other by applying a series of stimuli 
they become organically tied together, or associated, and follow each 
other automatically, even when the whole series of stimuli are not 
acting. Thus in the formation of habit post hoc comes to be equivalent 
to projHer hoc. Action B automatically follows action A, because it has 
repeatedly been compelled to follow it. 

This may be compared with Herbert Spencer's ' description of an 
imaginary case, that of a simple aquatic animal which contracts its 
tentacles on their being touched by a fish or a bit of seaweed washed 
against it. If such a creature is also sensitive to light the circumstances 
under which contraction takes place will be made up of two stimuli — 
those of light and of contact — following each other in rapid succession. 
And, according to the above statement of the essential character of 
associative habit, it will result that the light-stimulus alone may suffice, 
and the animal will contract without being touched. 

Jennings'^ has shown that the basis of memory by association exists in 
so low an organism as the infusorian Stentor. When the animal is stimu- 
lated by a jet of water containing carmine in suspension, a physiological 
state A is produced, which, however, does not immediately lead to a visible 

' Psychology, 2nd edit., 1870, vol. i. p. 4S5. 

' Beha/vior offhe Lower Organisms, 1906, p. 289, 



12 PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 

rcactiuii. As the carmine stimulus is continued or repeated, state 13 is pw- 
duced, to which the Stentur reacts by bending to one side. After several 
repetitions of the .stimulus, state C is produced, to which the animal 
responds by reversing its ciliary movement, and C hnally passes into D, 
which results in the Stentor contracting into its tube. The important 
thing is that after many repetitions of the above treatment the organism 
' contracts at once as soon as the carmine comes in contact with it.' In 
other words, states B and C are apparently omitted, and A passes directly 
into D, i.e., into the state which gives contraction as a reaction. Thus we 
have in an infusorian a case of short-circuiting precisely like the case 
which has been quoted from Herbert Spencer as illustrating associa- 
tion. But Jennings' case has the advantage of being based on actual 
observation. He generalises the result as the ' law of the resolution 
of physiological states ' in the following words : ' The resolution of one 
physiological state into another becomes easier and more rapid after it 
has taken place a number of times.' He goes on to point out that the 
operation of this law is seen in the higher organisms, ' in the pheno- 
mena which we commonly call memory, association, habit-formation, and 
learning.' 

In spite of this evidence of mnemic power in the simplest of organisms, 
objections will no doubt be made to the statement that association of 
engrams can occur in plants. 

PfefFer, whose authority none can question, accounts for the behaviour 
of sleeping plants principally on the more general ground that when any 
movement occurs in a plant there is a tendency for it to be followed by a 
reversal— a swing of the physiological pendulum in the other direction. 
Pfeffer ^ compares it to a released spring which makes several alternate 
movements before it settles down to equilibrium. But the fact that the 
return movements occur at the same time-intervals as the stimuli is 
obviously the striking feature of the case. If the pendulum-like swing 
always tended to occur naturally in a twelve hours' rhythm it would be a 
different matter. But Pfeffer has shown that a rhythm of six hours can 
equally well be built up. And the experiments of Miss Pertz and myself * 
show that a half-hourly or quarter-hourly rhythm can be produced by 
alternate geotropic stimulation. 

We are indebted to Keeble^ for an interesting case of apparent habit 
among the lower animals. ConvohUa roscoffensis, a minute wormlike 
creature found on the coast of Brittany, leads a life dependent on the eblj 
and flow of the sea. When the tide is out the Convoluta come to the 
surface, showing themselves in large green patches. As the rising tide 
begins to cover them they sink down into safer quarters. The remarkalile 
fact is that when kept in an aquarium, and therefore removed from tidal 

' See Pfeffer, Ahhandl, K. Sticks. Ge^., Bd. xxx. 1907. It is impossible to do 
justice to Pfeffer's point of view in tlie above brief statement. 
2 Annals of Botany, 1892 and 1903, 
=" Gamble and Keeble, Q. J. Mic. Science, xlvii. p. 401. 



phesident's address. 13 

action, they continue for a short time to perform rhythmic movements in 
time with the tide. 

Let us take a human habit, for instance that of a man who goes a 
walk every day and turns back at a given mile-post. This becomes 
habitual, so that he reverses his walk automatically when the limit is 
reached. It is no explanation of the fact that the stimulus which makes 
him start from home includes his return — that he has a mental return- 
ticket. Such explanation does not account for the point at which he 
turns, which as a matter of fact is the result of association. In the same 
way a man who goes to sleep will ultimately wake ; but the fact that he 
wakes at four in the morning depends on a habit built up by his being 
compelled to rise daily at that time. Even those who will deny that 
anything like association can occur in plants cannot deny that in the 
continuance of the nyctitropic rhythm in constant conditions we have, in 
plants, something which has general character of habit, i.e., a rhythmic 
action depending on a rhythmic stimulus that has ceased to exist. 

On the other hand, many will object that even the simplest form of 
association implies a nervous system. With regard to this objection 
it must be remembered that plants have two at least of the qualities 
characteristic of animals— namely, extreme .sensitiveness to certain agencies 
and the power of transmitting stimuli from one part to another of the 
plant body. It is true that there is no central nervous system, nothing 
but a complex system of nuclei ; but these have some of the qualities of 
nerve cells, while intercommunicating protoplasmic threads may play the 
part of nerves. Spencer^ bases the power of association on the fact that 
every discharge conveyed by a nerve * leaves it in a state for conveying 
a subsequent like discharge with less resistance.' Is it not possible that 
the same thing may be as true of plants as it apparently is of infusoria ? 
We have seen reasons to suppose that the ' internal conditions ' or 
' physiological states ' in plants are of the nature of engrams, or residual 
etFects of external stimuli, and such engrams may become associated in 
the same way. 

There is likely to be another objection to my assumption that a simple 
form of associated action occurs in plants — namely, that association 
implies consciousness. It is impossible to know whether or not plants 
are conscious ; but it is consistent with the doctrine of continuity that 
in all living things there is something psychic, and if we accept this point 
of view we must believe that in plants there exists a faint copy of what 
we know as consciousness in ourselves.^ 

I am told by psychologists that I must define my point of view. I 
am accused of occupying that unscientific position known as ' sitting on 
the fence.' It is said that, like other biologists, I try to pick out what 
suits my purpose from two opposite schools of thought — the psychological 
find the physiological. 

' Psi/chology, 2nd edit., vol. i. p. 615. 

'-' See James Ward, Naturalism and Agnosticism, vol. i., Lecture X. 



14 president's address. 

What 1 claim is that, as regards reaction to environment, a plant and 
a man must be placed in the same great class, in spite of the obvious 
fact that as regards complexity of behaviour the difference between them 
is enormous. I am not a psychologist, and I am not bound to give an 
opinion as to how far the occurrence of definite actions in response to 
stimulus is a physiological and how far a psychological problem. I am 
told that I have no right to assume the neural series of changes to be the 
cause of the psychological series, though I am allowed to say that neural 
changes are the universal concomitants of psychological change. This 
seems to me, in my ignorance, an unsatisfactory position. I find myself 
obliged to believe that the mnemic quality in all living things (which 
is proved to exist by direct experiment) must depend on the physical 
changes in protoplasm, and that it is therefore permissible to use these 
changes as a notation in which the phenomena of habit may be expressed. 

Habit illustrated by Mor2)hology. 

We have hitherto been considering the mnemic quality of movements ; 
but, as I have attempted to show, morphological changes are reactions to 
stimulation of the same kind as these temporary changes. It is indeed 
from the morphological reactions of living things that the most striking 
cases of habit are, in my opinion, to be found. 

The development of the individual from the germ-cell takes place by a 
series of stages of cell-division and growth, each stage apparently serving 
as a stimulus to the next, each unit following its predecessor like the 
movements linked together in an habitual action performed by an animal. 

My view is that the rhythm of ontogeny is actually and literally a 
habit. It undoubtedly has the feature which I have described as pre- 
eminently characteristic of habit, viz., an automatic quality which ia 
seen in the performance of a series of actions in the absence of the com- 
plete series of stimuli to which they (the stages of ontogeny) were originally 
due. This is the chief point on which I wish to insist — I mean that the 
resemblance between ontogeny and habit is not merely superficial, but 
deeply seated. It was with this conclusion in view that I dwelt, at 
the risk of being tedious, on the fact that memory has its place in the 
morphological as well as in the temporary reactions of living things. 
It cannot be denied that the ontogenetic rhythm has the two qualities 
observable in habit — namely, a certain degree of fixity or automaticity, 
and also a certain variability. A habit is not irrevocably fixed, but may 
be altered in various ways. Parts of it may be forgotten or new links 
may be added to it. In ontogeny the fixity is especially observable in 
the earlier, the variability in the later, stages. Mr. Darwin has pointed 
out that ' on the view that species are only strongly marked and fixed 
varieties, we might expect often to find them still continuing to vary in 
those parts of their structure which have varied within a moderately 
recent period,' These remarks are in explanation of the ' notorious ' fact 



president's address. 15 

that specific are more variable than generic characters — a fact for which it 
is ' almost superfluous to adduce evidence.' ' This, again, is what we find 
in habit : take the case of a man who, from his youth up, has daily 
repeated a certain form of words. If in middle life an addition is made 
to the formula, he will find the recently acquired part more liable to vary 
than the rest. 

Again, there is the wonderful fact that, as the ovum develops into 
the perfect organism, it passes through a series of changes which are 
believed to represent the successive forms through which its ancestors 
passed in the process of evolution. This is precisely paralleled by our 
own experience of memory, for it often happens that we cannot reproduce 
the last learned verse of a poem without repeating the earlier part ; each 
verse is suggested by the previous one and acts as a stimulus for the 
next. The blurred and imperfect character of the ontogenetic version 
of the phylogenetic series may at least remind us of the tendency to 
abbreviate by omission what we have learned by heart. 

In all bisexual organisms the ontogenetic rhythm of the offspring is 
a combination of the rhythms of its parents. This may or may not be 
visible in the offspring ; thus in the crossing of two varieties the mongrel 
assumes the character of the prepotent parent. Or the offspring may 
show a blend of both parental characters. Semon ^ uses as a model the 
two versions of Goethe's poem — 

• Ueber alien Gipfeln. ist Ruh, in alien I Z^^fT ' ^'^■^'\ f' l"'"'" ^^"""u v, - 
^ ' (^ Wipieln, spurest du, kaum einen Hauch. 

One of these terminations will generally be prepotent, probably the one 
that was heard first or heard most often. But the cause of such pre- 
potency may be as obscure as the corresponding occurrence in the forma- 
tion of mongrels. We can only say that in some persons the word ' alien' 
releases the word ' Waldern,' while in others it leads up to ' Wipfeln.' 
Again, a mixture of the terminations may occur leading to such a mongrel 
form as : 'in alien Waldern horest du kaum einen Hauch.' The same 
thing is true of music ; a man with an imperfect memory easily interpolates 
in & melody a bar that belongs elsewhere. In the case of memory the 
introduction of a link from one mental rhythm into another can only occur 
when the two series are closely similar, and this may remind us of tho 
difficulty of making a cross between distantly related forms. 

Enough has been said to show that there is a resemblance between 
the two rhythms of development and of memory ; and that there is at 
least a jjrimajacie case for believing them to be essentially similar. It 
will be seen that my view is the same as that of Hering, which is 
generally described as the identification of memory and inheritance.^ 

' Origin of Spcckst 6th edit,, p. 122. 

» Die Mneme, 2nd edit.; pp. 147, 221, 303, 345. 

' Everyone who deals with this subject must take his stand on tha foundation 
laid by Hering in his celebrated address given at Vienna in 1870 and reprinted in 
No. U3 of Ostwald's Exakt Klassi/cer. The passage quoted (p. IG) is from Samual 



16 president's address. 

Hering says that ' between the me of to-day and the me of yestef- 
day lie night and sleep, abysses of unconsciousness ; nor is there any 
bridge but memory -with which to span them.' And in the same way 
he claims that the abyss between two generations is bridged by the 
unconscious memory that resides in the germ cells. It is also the same 
as that of Semon and to a great extent as that of Rignano.^ I, however, 
prefer at the moment to limit myself to asserting the identity of ontogeny 
and habit, or, more generally, to the assertion in Semon's phraseology, 
that ontogeny is a mnemic phenomenon. 

Evolution, in its modern sense, depends on a change in the onto- 
genetic rhythm. This is obvious, since if this rhythm is absolutely fixed, 
a species can never give rise to varieties. This being so, we have to ask 
in what ways the ontogenetic rhythm can be altered. An habitual action, 
for instance, a trick learned by a dog, may be altered by adding new 
accomplishments ; at first the animal will persist in finishing his per- 
formance at the old place, but at last the extended trick will be bonded 
into a rhythm of actions as fixed as was the original simpler performance. 
May we not believe that this is what has occurred in evolution ? 

We know from experiment that a plant may be altered in form by 
causes acting on it during the progress of development. Thus a beech 
tree may be made to develop different forms of leaves by exposing it to 
sunshine or to shade. The ontogeny is different in the two cases, and 
what is of special interest is, that there exist shade-loving plants in 
which a structure similar to that of the shaded beech-leaf is apparently 
typical of the species, but on this point it is necessary to speak with 
caution. In the same way Goebel points out that in some orchids the 
assimilating roots take on a flattened form when exposed to sunlight, but 
in others this morphological change has become automatic, and occurs 
even in darkness. - 

Such cases suggest at least the possibility of varieties arising as 
changes in or additions to the later stages of ontogeny. This is, briefly 
given, the epigenetic point of view. 

But there is another way of looking at the matter — namely, that 
upheld by Galton and Weismann. According to this view ontogeny can 
only be changed by a fundamental upset of the whole system — namely, 
by an alteration occurring in its first stage, the germ cell, and this view 
is now very generally accepted. 

The same type of change may conceivably occur in memory or habit ! 
that is, the rhythm as a whole may be altered by some cause acting on 
the nerve-centres connected with the earlier links of the series. The 

Butler's translation of Hering in Unconscious Memory, 1880, p. 110. Butler hait 
previously elaborated the view that ' we are one person with our ancestors' in his 
entertaining book Life and Habit, 1878, and this was written in ignorance of 
Bering's views. 

' Sur la tratismissiblliie des earacteres acquis, Paris, 1906. 

' Goebel's OrganofjrapTiy of Plants, part ii. p. 285. 



Resident's address!. 17 

«,iiulogy is liDi bxuiSl, but such au imaginary caso is at least 6i ii diti'ereiiL 
type from a change in habit consisting in the addition o£ a new link or 
the alteration of one of the latest formed links. If we were as ignorant 
of the growth of human actions as we are of variation, we might have a 
school of naturalists asserting that all changes in habit originate in the 
earliest link of the series. But we know that this is not the case. On the 
other hand, I fully admit that the structure of an ovum may in this way 
be altered, and give rise to a variation which may be the starting-point of 
a new species. 

But how can a new species originate according to an epigenetic theory ? 
How can a change in the latter stages of ontogeny produce a permanent 
alteration in the germ-cells t Our answer to this question will depend on 
our views of the structure of the germ-cella. According to the mnemic 
theory they have the quality which is found in the highest perfection 
in nerve-cells, but is at the same time a character of all living matter — ■ 
namely, the power of retaining the residual effects of former stimuli and 
of giving forth or reproducing under certain conditions an echo of the 
original stimulus. In Semon's phraseology germ-cells must, like nerve-cells, 
contain engrams, and these engrams must be (like nerve-engrams) bonded 
together by association, so that they come into action one after another in 
a certain order automatically, i.e., in the absence of the original stimuli. 

This seems to me the strength of the mnemic theory — namely, that it 
accounts for the preformed character of germ- cells by the building up in 
them of an organised series of engrams. But if this view has its strength, 
it has also its weakness. Routine can only be built up by repetition, but 
each stage in ontogeny occurs only once in a lifetime. Therefore if 
ontogeny is a routine each generation must be mnemically connected 
with the next. This can only be possible if the germ -cells are, as it 
were, in telegraphic communication with the whole body of the organism ; 
so that as ontogeny is changed by the addition of new characters, now 
engrams are added to the germ-cell. 

Thus in fact the mnemic theory of development depends on tho 
possibility of what is known as somatic inheritance or the inheritance 
of acquired characters. This is obvious to all those familiar with tlic 
subject, but to others it may not be so dear. Somatic inheritance is 
popularly interesting in relation to the possible inherited effects of educa- 
tion, or of mutilations, or of the effects of use and disuse. It is forgotteii 
that it may be, as I Iiave tried to show, an integral part of all evolutionary 
development. 

WeismcDitis Theory. 

Everyone must allow that if Weismann's theory of inheritance is 
accepted we cannot admit the possibility of somatic inheritance. This 
may be made clear to those unfamiliar with the subject by an illusti-atiou 
taken from the economy of an ant's nest or beehive. The queen ' on 

' Nor do the drones share the activity of tlie workers. 
1908. c 



18 president's address. 

whom depends the future of the race is cut off from all active experience 
of life : she is a mere reproducing machine, housed, fed, and protected by 
the workers. But these, on whom falls the burden of the struggle for 
life and the experience of the world generally, are sterile, and take no 
direct share in the reproduction of the species. The queen represents 
Weismann's germ-plasm, the workers are the body or soma. Now 
imagine the colony exposed to some injurious change in environment ; 
the salvation of the species will depend on whether or no an improved 
pattern of worker can be produced. This depends on the occurrence of 
appropriate variations, so that the queen bee and the drones, on whom 
this depends, are of central importance. On the other hand any change 
occurring in the workei's— for instance, increased skill due to practice in 
doing their work or changes in their structure due to external conditions — 
cannot possibly be inherited, since workers are absolutely cut off from the 
reproduction of the race. According to Weismann, there is precisely the 
same bar to the inheritance of somatic change. 

The racial or phyletic life of all organisms is conceived by him as 
a series of germ-cells whose activity ia limited to varying, and whose 
survival in any generation depends on the production of a successful soma 
or body capable of housing, protecting, and feeding the germ-cell. Most 
people would a priori declare that a community where experience and 
action are separated must fail. But the bee's nest, which must be 
allowed to be something more than an illustration of Weismann's theory, 
proves the contrary. 

It is clear that there must be war to the knife between the theory 
of Weismann and that of the somatists — to coin a name for those who 
believe in the inheritance of acquired characters. A few illustrations 
may be giveii of the strength of Weismann's position. Some trick or 
trivial habit appears in two successive generations, and the son is said to 
inherit it from his father. But this is not necessarily a case of somatic 
inheritance, since according to Weismann the germ-plasm of both father 
and son contained the potentiality of the habit in question. If we keep 
constantly in view Weismann's theory of continuity, the facts which are 
supposed to prove somatic inheritance cease to be decisive. 

Weismann has also shown by means of his hypothesis of ' simultaneous 
stimulation ' ' the unconvincingness of a certain type of experiment. 
Thus Fischer showed that when chrysalids of Atxtia caja are subjected to 
low temperature a certain number of them produce dark-coloured insects ; 
and further that these moths mated together yield dark-coloured offspring. 
This has betn held to prove somatic inheritance, but Weismann points 
out that it is explicable by the low temperature having an identical effect 
on the colour-determinants existing in the wing-rudiments of the pupa, 
and on the same determinants occurring in the germ-cells. 

It does not seem to me worth while to go in detail into the eyi- 

' I borrow this convenient expression from Plate's excellent book, Ueher die 
Bedeutung des JJarrvin'soheii Se'leotionspritioipt, 1903, p. 81* 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 19 

deuce by which somatists strive to prove their point, because I do not 
know of any facts which are really decisive. That is to say, that though 
they are explicable as due to somatic inheritance, they never seem to me 
absolutely inexplicable on Weismann's hypothesis. But, as already pointed 
out, it is not necessary to look for special facts and experiments, since if 
the mnemic theory of ontogeny is accepted the development of every 
organism in the world depends on somatic inheritance. 

I fully acknowledge the strength of Weismann's position ; I acknow- 
ledge also most fully that it requires a stronger man than myself to meet 
that trained and well-tried fighter. Nevertheless, I shall venture on a 
few remarks. It must be remembered that, as Romanes ^ pointed out, 
Weismann has greatly strengthened his theory of heredity by giving up 
the absolute stability and perpetual continuity of germ-plasm. Germ plasm 
is no longer that mysterious entity, immortal and self-contained, which 
used to suggest a physical soul. It is no longer the aristocrat it was 
when its only activity was dependent on its protozoan ancestors, when it 
reigned absolutely aloof from its contemporary subjects. The germ-plasm 
theory of to-day is liberalised, though it is not so democratic as its brother 
sovereign Pangenesis, who reigns, or used to reign, by an elaborate system 
of proportional representation. But in spite of the skill and energy 
devoted to its improvement by its distinguished author, Weismannism 
fails, in my opinion, to be a satisfactory theory of evolution. 

All such theories must account for two things which are parts of a 
single process but may logically be considered separately : (i) The fact 
of ontogeny, namely, that the ovum has the capacity of developing into a 
certain more or less predetermined form ; (ii) The fact of heredity — the 
circumstance that this form is approximately the same as that of the 
parent. 

The doctrine of pangenesis accounts for heredity, since the germ-cells 
are imagined as made up of gemmules representing all parts of the adult ; 
but it does not account for ontogeny, because there seems to me no 
sufficient reason why the gemmules should become active in a predeter- 
mined order unless, indeed, we allow that they do so by habit, and then 
the doctrine of pangenesis becomes a variant of the mnemic theory. 

The strength of Weismann's theory lies in its explanation of heredity. 
According to the doctrine of continuity, a fragment of the germ-plasm is, 
as it were, put on one side and saved up to make the germ-cell of the new 
generation, so that the germ-cells of two successive generations are made 
of the same matei'ial. This again depends on Weismann's belief that 
when the ovum divides, the two daughter cells are not identical ; that in 
fact the fundamental difference between soma and germ-cells begins at 
this point. But this is precisely where many naturalists whose 
observations are worthy of all respect difi'er from him. Weismann's 
theory is tlierefore threatened at the very foundation. 

' A71, Examinatiun of Weismann, 1893, pp. 169, 170. 

C2 



20 peesident's address. 

Even if we allow Weismanu's method of providing for the identity 
between the germ-cell of two successive generations, there remains, as 
above indicated, a greater problem — namely, that of ontogeny. We no 
longer look at the potentiality of a germ-cell as Caliban looked on Setebos, 
a.s something essentially incomprehensible ruling the future in an un- 
known way — ' just choosing so.' If the modern germ-cell is to have 
a poetic analogue it must be compared to a Pandora's box of architectonic 
sprites which are let loose in definite order, each serving as a master 
builder for a prescribed stage of ontogeny. Weismann's view of the 
mechanism by which his determinants — the architectonic sprites — come 
into action in due order is, I assume, satisfactory to many, but I confess 
that I find it difficult to grasp. The orderly distribution of determinants 
de23ends primarily on their arrangement in the ids, where they are held 
together by ' vital affinities.' They are guided to the cells on which they 
are to act by difterential divisions, in each of which the determinants are 
sorted into two unequal lots. They then become active, i.e., break up into 
biophores, partly under the influence of liberating stimuli and partly by 
an automatic process. Finally the biophores communicate a ' definite 
vital force ' to the appropriate cells.' This ma^/ be a description of what 
happens ; but inasmuch as it fails to connect the process of ontogeny 
with physiological processes of which we have definite knowledge, it does 
not to me seem a convincing explanation. 

For myself I can only say that I am not satisfied with Weismann's 
theory of heredity or of ontogeny. As regards the first, I incline to deny 
the distinction between germ and soma, to insist on the plain facts that 
the soma is continuous with the germ-cell, and that the somatic cells 
may have the same I'eproductive qualities as the germ-cells (as is proved 
by the facts of regeneration) ; that, in fact, the germ-cell is merely a 
specialised somatic cell and has the essential qualities of the soma. With 
I'egard to ontogeny, T have already pointed out that Weismann does not 
seem to explain its automatic character. 

The Mnemic Theory. 

If the mnemic theory is compared with Weismann's views it is 
clear that it is strong precisely where these are weakest — namely, in 
giving a coherent theory of the rhythm of development. It also bears 
comparison with all theories in which the conception of determinants 
occurs. Why should we make elaborate theories of hypothetical deter- 
minants to account for the potentialities lying hidden in the germ-cell, 
and neglect the only determinants of whose existence we have positive 
knowledge (though we do not know their precise nature) ? We know 
positively that by making a dog sit up and then giving him a biscuit we 
build up something in his brain in consequence of which a biscuit becomes 
the stimulus to the act of sitting. The mnemic theory .assumes that the 

' The Erohitiiiri Tltrari/, Eng. trans., i. .37:? el st'/j. 



phesident's address. 21 

ileteruiinaiits of uiorpliological change are of llic .s.iiuo type ub the 
structural alteration wrought in the dog's brain. 

The mnemic theory — at any rate that form of it held by Semon 
and by myself — agrees with the current view, viz., that the nucleus 
is the centre of development, or, in Semon's phraseology, that the 
nucleus contains the engrams in which lies tlie secret of the ontogenetic 
rhythm. But the mode of action of the mnemic nucleus is com- 
pletely different from that of Weismann. He assumes that the nucleus 
is disintegrated in the course of development by the dropping from it 
of the determinants which regulate the manner of growth of successive 
groups of cells. But if the potentiality of the germ nucleus depends on 
the presence of engrams, if, in fact, its function is comparable to that of 
a nerve-centre, its capacity is not diminished by action ; it does not cast 
out engrams from its substance as Weismann's nucleus is assumed to 
drop armies of determinants. The engrams are but cut deeper into the 
records, and more closely bonded one with the next. The nucleus, con- 
sidered as a machine, does not lose its component parts in the course 
of use. We shall see later on that the nuclei of the whole body may, 
on the mnemic theory, be believed to become alike. The fact that 
the mnemic theoi-y allows the nucleus to retain its repeating or repro- 
ductive or mnemic quality supplies the element of continuity. The 
germ-cell divides and its daughter cells form the tissues of the embryo, 
and in this process the original nucleus has given rise to a group of 
nuclei ; these, however, have not lost their engrams, but retain the 
potentiality of the parent nucleus. "We need not therefore postulate the 
special form of continuity which is characteristic of Weismann's theory. 

We may say, therefore, that the mnemic hypothesis harmonises with 
the facts of heredity and ontogeny. But the real difficulties remain to 
be considered, and these, I confess, are of a terrifying magnitude. 

The first difficulty is the question how the changes arising in the soma 
are, so to speak, telegraphed to the germ-cells. Hering allows that such 
communication must at first seem highly mysterious.^ He then proceeds 
to show how by the essential unity and yet extreme ramification of the 
nervous system ' all parts of the body are so connected that what happens 
in one echoes through the rest, so that from the disturbance occurring in 
any part some notification, faint though it may be, is conveyed to the 
most distant parts of the body.' 

A similar explanation is given by Nageli. He supposes that adaptive, 
in contradistinction to organic, characters are profluced by external 
causes ; and since these characters arc hereditary tliere must be com- 
munication between the seat of adaptation and tlie germ-cells. Tliis 
telegraphic effect is supposed to be effected by the network of idioplasm 
which traverses the body, in the case of plants by the intercellular proto- 
plasmic threads. 

' E. Hering in Ostwald's Klasmker der exakten. U'issenscliufte/i, No. 118, p.,14; 
see also S. Butler's translation in Unconscious Memory, p. liy. 



22 president's address. 

Seiiioii faces the dilliculty boldly. When a new cliaraoter appears in 
the body of an organism, in response to changing environment, Semon 
assumes that a new engrain is added to the nuclei in the part affected ; 
and that, further, the disturbance tends to spread to all the nuclei of the 
body (including those of the germ-cells), and to produce in them the same 
change. In plants the flow must be conceived as travelling by intercellular 
plasmic threads, but in animals primarily by nerve-trunks. Thus the 
reproductive elements must be considered as having in some degree the 
character of nerve-cells. So that, for instance, if we are to believe that 
an individual habit may be inherited and appear as an instinct, the 
repetition of the habit will not merely mean changes in the central nervous 
.system, but also corresponding changes in the germ-cells. These will be, 
according to Semon, excessively faint in comparison to the nerve-engrams, 
and can only be made eflicient by prolonged action. Semon lays great 
stress on the slowness of the process of building up efficient engrams in 
the germ- cells. 

Weismann ^ speaks of the impossibility of germinal engrams being 
formed in this way. He objects that nerve-currents can only differ from 
each other in intensity, and therefore there can be no communication 
of potentialities to the germ-cell. He holds it to be impossible that 
somatic changes should be telegraphed to the germ-cell and be re- 
produced ontogenetically — a process which he compares to a telegram 
despatched in German and arriving in Chinese. According to Semon ^ 
what radiates from the point of stimulation in the soma is the primary 
excitation set up in the somatic cells ; if this is so, the radiating influence 
will produce the same effect on all the nuclei of the oi'ganism. My 
own point of view i^ the following. In a plant (as already pointed out) 
the ectoplasm may be compared to the sense-organ of the cell, and the 
primary excitation of the cell will be a change in the ectoplasm ; but 
since cells are connected by ectoplasmic threads the primary excitation 
will spread and produce in other cells a faint copy of the engram im- 
pressed on the somatic cells originally stimulated. But in all these 
assumptions we are met by the question to which Weismann has called 
attention — namely, whether nervous impulses can differ from one another 
in quality 1 ^ The general opinion of physiologists is undoubtedly to the 
opposite effect — namely, that all nervous impulses are identical in quality. 
But there are notable exceptions : for instance, Hering,'' who strongly 

' Weismann, The Eoolntion Theory, 1904, vol. ii. p. 63 ; also his Richard Semon'x 
^ Afneme ' u/id die Vererhmig ermorhener Elgenschaften,m ihe Archiv fur Jiassen- 
und Gesellschafts-Biologie, 1906. Semon has replied in the same journal for 1907. 

^ Semon, Mneme, ed. i. p. 142, does not, however, consider it proved that the 
nucleus is necessarily the smallest element in which the whole inheritance resides. 
He refers especially to the regeneration of sections of Stentor which contain mere 
fragments of the nucleus. 

' I use this word in the ordinary sense without reference to what is known as 
modality. 

* Zwr Thsorie der Nerventhdtigkeit, Akademische Vortrag, 1898 (Veit, Leipzig), 



president's address. 23 

supports what may be called the qualitative theory. I am not competent 
to form an opinion on the subject, but I confes.s to being impressed by 
Bering's argument that the nerve-cell and nerve- fibre, as parts of one 
individual (the neuron), must have a common irritability. * On the other 
hand there is striking evidence, in Langley's ^ experiments on the cioss- 
grafting of efferent nerves, that here at least nerve impulses are inter- 
changeable and therefore identical in quality. The state of knowledge as 
regards afferent nerves is, however, more favourable to my point of view. 
For the difficulties that meet the physiologist — especially as regards the 
nerves of smell and hearing — are so great that it has been found simpler 
to assume differences in impulse-quality, rather than attempt an explana- 
tion of the facts on the other hypothesis."^ 

On the whole it may be said that, although the trend of physiological 
opinion is against the general existence of qualitative differences in nerve- 
impulses, yet the question cannot be said to be settled either one way or 
the other. 

Another obvious difficulty is to imagine how within a single cell the 
engrams or potentialities of a number of actions can be locked up. We 
can only answer that the nucleus is admittedly very complex in structure. 
It may be added (but this not an answer) that in this respect it claims no 
more than its neighbours ; it need not be more complex than Weismann's 
germ-plasm. One conceivable simplification seems to be in the direction 
of the pangenes of De Vries. He imagines that these heritage units are 
relatively small in number, and that they produce complex results by 
combination, not by each being responsible for a minute fraction of 
the total result. 3 They may be compared to the letters of the alphabet 
which by combination make an infinity of words.'' Nitgeli * held a 
similar view. ' To understand heredity,' he wrote, ' we do not need a 
special independent symbol for every difference conditioned by space, 
time, or quality, but a substance which can represent every possible com- 
bination of differences by the fitting together of a limited number of 
elements, and which can be transformed by permutations into other com- 
binations.' He ajiplied {loc. cit., p. 59) the idea of a combination of 
symbols to the telegraphic quality of his idioplasm. He suggests that as 
the nerves convey the most varied perceptions of external objects to the 
central nervous system, and there create a coherent picture, so it is not 
impossible that the idioplasm may convey a combination of its local altera- 
tions to other parts of the organism. 

Another theory of simplified telegraphy between soma and germ-cell 

'Pm-. It. Soe., 1904, p. 99. Journal of Physiology, xxiii. p. 240, and xxxi. 
p. 365. 

'■^ See Nagel, Handbuch der Fhysiologic des Menschen, iii. (1905), pp. 1-15. 
' De Vries, Intracellular Pangenesis, p. 7. 

* I take this comparison from Lotsy's account of Do Vries' theory. Lotsy, 
I'orlesungen ilber Deszendenztheorien, 1906, i. p. 98. 

* Nageli's Ahstammungslehre, 18S4, p. 73. 



24 president's address, 

is given Ijy Rigiiano.' I regret that the space at my command does not 
permit me to give a full account of his interesting speculation on somatic 
inheritance. It resembles the theories of Hering, Butler, and Semon in 
postulating a'quality of living things, which is the basis both of memory 
and inheritance. But it differs from them in seeking for a physical 
explanation or model of what is common to the two. He compares the 
nucleus to an electric accumulator which in its discharge gives out the 
same sort of energy that it has received. How far this is an allowable 
parallel I am not prepared to say, and in what follows I have given 
llignano's results in biological terms. What interests me is the con- 
clusion that the impulse conveyed to the nucleus of the germ-cell is, as 
far as results are concerned, the external stimulus. Thus, if a somatic 
cell (A) is induced by an external stimulus (S) acting on the nucleus to 
assume a new manner of development, a disturbance spreads through the 
organism, so that finally the nuclei of the germ-cells are altered in a 
similar manner. When the cellular descendants of the germ-cells reach 
the same stage of ontogeny as that in which the original stimulation 
occurred, a stimulus comes into action equivalent to S as regards the 
results it is capable of producing. So that the change originally wrought 
in cell A by the actual stimulus S is now reproduced by what may be 
called an inherited stimulus. But when A was originally afTected other 
cells, B, C, T), may have reacted to S by various forms of growth. And 
therefore when during the development of the altered germ-cell some- 
thing equivalent to S comes into play, there will be induced, not merely 
the original change in the development of A, but also the changes which 
were originally induced in the growth of B, C, D. Thus, according to 
Rignano, the germ-nucleus releases a number of developmental processes, 
each of which would, according to Weismann, require a separate deter- 
minant. 

If the view here given is accepted, we must take a new view of 
W^eismann's cases of simultaneous stimulation, i.e., cases like Fischer's 
experiments on Arctia caja, which he does not allow to be somatic 
inheritance. If we are right in saying that, the original excitation of 
the soma is transferi-ed to the germ-cell, and it does not matter whether 
the stimulus is transferred by ' telegraphy,' or whether a given cause, 
e.g., a low temperature, acts simultaneously on soma and germ-cell. In 
both cases we have a given alteration produced in the nuclei of the 
soma and the germ-cell. Nageli used the woi'd telegraph)/ to mean a 
dynamic form of transference, but he did not exclude the possibility of 
the same effect being produced by the movement of chemical subistances, 
and went so far as to suggest that the sieve tubes might convey such 
stimuli in plants. In any case this point of view - deserves careful 
consideration. 

' For what is here given I am partly indebted to Signor Rignano's letters, 
? Poo Pemon, ArcHr f. Jia^sm- vntl frt'urllsuIinftn-Ti'ioIoqic, 10^7, p. HO. 



president's address. 25 

Still another code of communication Beems to me to be at least con- 
ceivable. One of the most obvious characteristics of animal life is the 
guidance of the organism by certain groups of stimuli, producing either a 
movement of seeking (positive reaction') or one of avoidance (negative 
reaction). Taking the latter as being the simplest, we find that in 
the lowest as in the highest organisms a given reaction follows each 
one of a number of diverse conditions which have nothing in common 
save that they are broadly harmful in character. We withdraw our 
hands from a heated body, a prick, a corrosive substance, or an electric 
shock. The interesting point is that it is left to the organism to discover 
by the method of trial and error the best means of dealing with a sub- 
injui-ious stimulus. May we not therefore say that the existence of 
pleasure and pain simplifies inheritance 1 It certainly renders unnecessary 
a great deal of detailed inheritance. The innumerable appropriate move- 
ments performed by animals are broadly the same as those of their 
parents, but they are not necessarily inherited in every detail ; they are 
rather the unavoidable outcome of hereditary but unspecialised sensitive- 
ness. It is as though heredity were arranged on a code-system instead of 
by separate signals for every movement of the organism. 

It may be said that in individual life the penalty of failure is pain, 
but that the penalty for failure in ontogenetic morphology is death. But 
it is only because pain is the shadow cast by Death as he approaches 
that it is of value to the organism. Death would be still the penalty of 
creatures that had not acquired this sensitiveness to the edge of danger. 
Is it not possible that the sensitiveness to external agencies by which 
structural ontogeny is undoubtedly guided may have a similar quality, 
and that morphological variations may also be reactions to the edge of 
danger. But this is a point of view I cannot now enter upon. 

It may be objected that the inheritance of anything so complex as 
an instinct is diflBcult to conceive on the mneroic theory. Yet it is impos- 
sible to avoid suspecting that at least some instincts originate in indi- 
vidual acquirements, since they are continuous with habits gained in the 
lifetime of the organism. Thus the tendency to peck at any small object 
is undoubtedly inherited ; the power of distinguishing suitable from un- 
suitable objects is gained by experience. It may be said that the engrams 
concerned in the pecking instinct cannot conceivably l)e transferred from 
the central nervous system to the nucleus of the germ- cells. To this I 
might answer that this is not more inconceivable than Weismann's 
assumption that the germ-cell chances to be so altered that the young 
chicken pecks instinctively. Let us consider another case of what 
appears to be an hereditary movement. Take, for instance, the case of a 
young dog, who in fighting bites his own lips. The pain thus produced 
will induce him to tuck up his lips out of harm's way. This protective 
movement will become firmly associated with, not only the act of fighting, 

t f'l^tt ,1pnr)inf,s, Jiehtifior of /!ie Lmirr Or<inii'sniH. 



26 president's address, 

but with the remembrance of it, and will show itself in the familiar snarl 
of the angry dog. This movement is now, I presume, hereditary in dogs, 
and is so strongly inherited by ourselves (from simian ancestors) that 
a lifting of the corner of the upper lip is a recognised signal of adverse 
feeling. Is it really conceivable that the original snarl is due to that 
unspecialised stimulus we call pain, whereas the inherited snarl is due to 
fortuitous upsets of the determinants in the germ-cell 1 

I am well aware that many other objections may be advanced against 
the views I advocate. To take a single instance, there are many cases 
where we should expect somatic inheritance, but where we look in vain 
for it. This difficulty, and others equally important, must for the present 
be passed over. Nor shall I say anything more as to the possible means 
of communication between the soma and the germ-cells. To me it seems 
conceivable that some such telegraphy is possible. But I shall hardly 
wonder if a majority of my hearers decide that the available evidence in 
its favour is both weak and fantastic. Nor can I wonder that, apart 
from the problem of mechanism, the existence of somatic inheritance is 
denied for want of evidence. But I must once more insist that, accord- 
ing to the mnemic hypothesis, somatic inheritance lies at the root of all 
evolution. Life is a gigantic experiment which the opposing schools 
interpret in opposite ways. I hope that in this dispute both sides will 
seek out and welcome decisive results. My own conviction in favour of 
somatic inheritance rests primarily on the automatic element in ontogeny. 
It seems to me certain that in development we have an actual instance of 
habit. If this is so, somatic inheritance must be a vera causa. Nor does 
it seem impossible that memory should rule the plasmic link which connects 
successive generations — the true miracle of the camel passing through the 
eye of a needle— since, as I have tried to show, the reactions of living 
things to their surroundings exhibit in the plainest way the universal 
presence of a mnemic factor. 

We may fix our eyes on phylogeny and regard the living world as a 
great chain of forms, each of which has learned something of which its 
predecessors were ignorant ; or we may attend rather to ontogeny, where 
the lessons learned become in part automatic. But we must remember 
that the distinction between phylogeny and ontogeny is an artificial one, 
and that routine and acquisition are blended in life.^ 

The great engine of natural selection is taunted nowadays, as it was 
fifty years ago, with being merely a negative power. I venture to think 
that the mnemic hypothesis of evolution makes the positive value of 
natural selection more obvious. If evolution is a process of drilling 
organisms into habits, the elimination of those that cannot learn is an 

' This subject is dealt with in a very interesting manner in Professor James 
Ward's forthcoming lectures on the Realm of Eoids. Also in his article on 
Mechanism and Morals in the Hihlert Journal, October 1905, p. 92 ; and in his 
article on Psychology in the JEwyclopa>dia Britannica, 1886, vol. xx. p. 44. 



president's address. 27 

integral part of the process, and is no less real because it is carried out 
by a self-acting system. It is surely a positive gain to the harmony of 
the universe that the discordant strings should break. But natural 
selection does more than this ; and just as a trainer insists on his per- 
forming dogs accommodating themselves to conditions of increasing com- 
plexity, so does natural selection pass on its pupils from one set of 
conditions to other and more elaborate tests, insisting that they shall 
endlessly repeat what they have learned and forcing them to learn some- 
thing new. Natural selection attains in a blind, mechanical way the ends 
gained by a human breeder ; and by an extension of the same metaphor 
it may be said to have the power of a trainer — of an automatic master 
with endless patience and all time at his disposal. 



EEPOKTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



REPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Experiments for improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Lord Rayleigh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretart/), 
Professors W. E. Ayrtox, J. Perry, W. G. Adams, and G. Carey 
Foster, Sir Oliver J. Lodge, Dr. A. MuiRHEAD,*Sir W. H. 
Preece, Professors A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming, aiid J. J. 
Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. 0. 
Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, Professor S. P. 
Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Sir A. W. 
RiJCKER, Professor H. L. Callendar, and Messrs. G. Matthey, 
A. P. Trotter, T. Mather, and F. E. Smith. 

API'KNDIX PAGE 

I. On the Secular Changes of the Standards of Resistance at the National 
Physical LahoTatonj. By F. E. Smith, A.R.C.Sc. {From tlie National 
Physical Laboratory) .......... 34 

II. Sj)ecificatio7is for the Practical Realisation of the Definitions of the Inter- 
national Uhm and loiter national Ampere, and Instructions for the 
Preparation of the Weston Cadmium Cell. {From the National 
Physical Laboratory) 51 

The Committee desire in the first place to record their deep sense of 
the loss they have sustained by the death of Lord Kelvin. He was an 
original member of the Committee appointed at Cambridge, October 3, 
1862, and he continued his active interest in their work up to the end. 
His name will always be associated witli the establishment of the 
absolute system of electrical measurement and with the determination 
of the absolute units. The Reports of the Committee from 1862 onwards 
contain a large amount of valuable information in a form which is not 
generally very accessible — the reprint of the earlier reports, issued under 
the editorship of Fleeming Jenkin in 1873, is out of print — and the 
Committee suggest that their reports from 1862 up to the present time 
might be reprinted as a memorial to Lord Kelvin. The present time is 
in other respects specially suitable for such a reissue, for it is hoped that 
the proposed International Congress, to be held in London in October, 



32 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCfi. 

will suttlc in u defuiito luauuei- the few luatters relating to the fuudd- 
inental units which are still outstanding, and will organise a method 
whereby a close agreement may be maintained among the electrical 
standards in use throughout the world. 

The electrical measurements of certain of the fundamental units, 
which have been in progress for some time at the National Physical 
Laboratory, have been brought to a conclusion, and the results 
publislied in three papers in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' of the 
Royal Society. 

1. 'A New Current Weigher and a Determination of the Electromotive Force 
oE tlie Normal Weston Cadmium Cell.' By Professor W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S., and T. 
Mather, F.R.S., Central Technical College, London; and F. B. Smith, A.R.C.Sc, 
National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Phil. Trans., A, vol. 207, pp. 463-549. 

2. ' On the Normal Weston Cadmium Cell.' By F. E. Smith, Phil. Trans., A, 
vol. 207, pp. 393-420. 

3. ' On a Comparison of many forms of Silver Voltameters.' By F. E. Smith ; 
and ' A Determination of the Electrochemical Equivalent of Silver.' By F. E. Smith 
and T. Mather, F.R.S., Phil. Trans., A, vol. 207, pp. 545-58L 

' The Chemistry of the Silver Voltameter.' By F. E. Smith and T. M. 
Lowry, D.Sc, Phil. Trans., A, vol. 207, pp. 581-599. 

From the first of these it appears that to a very high degree of 
accuracy the electromotive force of the Weston cadmium cell, as set up 
at the National Physical Laboratory, when expressed in terms of the 
ampere (10"^ C.G.S. units of current) and the international ohm is 
l-018.3o at a temperature of 17° C. 

The second Paper deals with the preparation of the Weston cadmium 
cell, and contains a comparison between cells set up at the Laboratory 
and others constructed elsewhere, the general conclusion being that cells 
can be nrepared by different persons in different countries which will 
agree in'E.M.F. to 1 or 2 parts in 100,000. 

In the third Paper there is given an account of a comparison of some 
six forms of silver voltameters, and it is shown that the silver deposited 
by a current of one ampere in all these various forms is the same if 
proper precautions are taken, and amounts to 

1 •11827 milligramme per second. 

After this work was completed a comparison was made by Messrs. 
T. Mather and F. E. Smith, by tlie kindness of Mr. Trotter, between the 
ampere standard of the Board of Trade and the ampere as realised by the 
new Ayrton Jones balance at the National Physical Laboratory. The 
comparison, an account of which appears in the ' Proceedings of tlic 
Royal Society,' A, vol. 80, 1908, was very satisfactory. 

It was found that the Board of Trade ampere will deposit silver at the 
rate of I'll 79, milligramme per second, a value which is nearly identical 
with the number 1*1179^ given by Lord Rayleigh and Mrs. Sidgwick in 
1884. Indirectly the E.M.F. of the normal Weston cadmium cell was 
found to be 1-01879 Board of Trade volts at 17° C, the Board of Trade 
volt being defined as the potential difference between the terminals of a 
resistance of 1 Board of Trade ohm when 1 Board of Trade ampere is 
passing through it. 

During the year the ten mercury standards at the National Physical 
Laboratory have again been set up and intercompared. An account of 
this work appears in an Appendix by Mr. F. E. Smith, the value 
vf the international ohm, as realised by the mean of the ten tubes, l^eing 



ON PRACTICAL StANDAUDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



no 
OJ 



taken as unit. The following table givea the values of the individual 
tubes as found in 1903 and 1907 ; — - 





Value in Mean International Ohms 




Mercury 
Standard 




Difference value 
1907-1903 


1903 


1907 


M 


0-971705 


0-97169„ 


-o„ 


P 


1-00038, 


1-00042, 


+ 3, 


T 


l-00019j 


l-00020s 


+ 1. 


U 


0-97349, 


0-97348, 


-0, 


V 


1-00137„ 


1-00137, 


-o» 


X 


100106, 


1-00106., 


-o„ 


T 


1-00026, 


100026, 


-0., 


Z 


1-00130, 


1-001295 


-0, 


G 


l-OOlOoj 


1-00104, 


-Os 


S 


1-00097, 


1-000972 


- 0, 



Except in the case of Tube P, where there is an apparent change of 
3 to 4 parts in 100,000, the differences are negligible. 

Mr. Smith has also compared with the mercury tubes a large series of 
wire standard resistances, including those made by Matthiessen and 
Hockin for the B. A. Committee in 1865-67, and various other old 
standards kindly lent to the Committee by their owners for the purpose. 
The general conclusion is that all the original coils except D and E, 
which are made of platinum, have changed appreciably since they were 
constructed, though since 1888, during a period of twenty years, for which 
the coils have been very carefully watched, the changes also in A, B, C, H, 
and Flat have been small. F and G have, however, in the same period 
changed considerably. 

Resistance at 16°-0 in terms of the orujinal B.A, unit (18G7). 



Coil 


Material 


1867 


1876 


1879-81 


1888 


1908 


Maximum ' 
Change 


A 


Pt. Jr. 


1-00000 


1-00077 


1-00056 


100147 


1 00122 


000147 


]i 


Pt. Ir. 


100029 


1-00121 


1-00080 


100104 


100098 


000092 


C 


An. Ag. 


1-00050 


1 00141 


1-00101 


1-00146 


1-00173 


000123 


D 


Pt. 


1-00092 


100092 


1-00092 


100092 


1-00092 


0-00000 


E 


Pt. 


1-00152 


1-00152 


1-00152 


100152 


1-001.52 


000000 


V 


Pt. Ag. 


— . 


— 


1 00016 


100072 


1-00160 


0-00144 


CJ 


Pt. Ag. 


100022 


1-00030 


99982 


1 00025 


1 00175 


00019:? 


H 


Pt. Ag. 


1-00020 


— 


— 


1 -00^)42 


100044 


0-00024 


Flat 


Pt. Ag. 


— 


~ 


1 00079 


1-00120 


100125 


0-00046 1 



The mean resistance of 6 other platinum -silver coils, first measured in 
1888, appears to have increased since that time by 14 parts in 100,000 ; 
and .5 more platinum -silver coils, first measured in 1894-7, have now a 
greater mean value by 8 parts in 100,000. 

It would appear also that in many of the variable coils the changes 
have occurred mainly, if not entirely, at the soft-soldered joints, and with 
a view of testing this the' Committee have authorised the Secretary to 
open and examine one of the coils. 

A comparison, given in the Appendix, has also- been made of all the 
Qianganin resistancea in the possession of the Standards Department of 

1908. D 



34 REPORTS ON TBE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

the Laboratory. The behaviour of the various coils is somewhat different ; 
while some have been very constant, others appear to have changed con- 
siderably. 

At the Conference on Electrical Units, held at the Reichsanstalt in 
1905, it was suggested that the Jena glass 59"' was, from its good elastic 
properties, the best glass to employ for mercury resistances, and accord- 
ingly efforts have been made to get some suitable tubes. Five tubes of 
16'" have recently been secured, after great difficulty, which will probably 
do for standards. Tubes of 59'" have not yet been obtained : the 
difficulty of drawing them is a serious obstacle to their use. 

A number of tubes of French glass, ' verre dur,' are also on order. 

Progress has also been made during the year in the design of the 
Lorenz apparatus, to be given by the Drapers' Company, and the manu- 
facture of the bed and the heavy-metal work has been entrusted to Messrs. 
Armstrong, Whitworth &, Co., who have kindly undertaken it. The 
marble cylinders required have been delivered at the National Physical 
Laboratory. 

Preparations for the holding of an International Congress on Electrical 
Units in London in October next are well advanced. 

Specifications dealing with the international ohm, the international 
ampere, and the Weston cadmium cell, which have been prepared at the 
National Physical Laboratory after consultation with other workers to 
serve as a basis of discussion at the Congress, are given in the Appendix 
with a view of making them known. 

The grant of 50^. made to the Committee at Leicester has been spent 
in great part in the purchase of materials for the Weston cells and the 
silver voltameter research and in obtaining suitable tubes for use for 
standards of resistance. 

The balance now in hand is 11. Os. 4c?., and the Committee recommend 
that they be allowed to retain this for the purpose of continuing the 
experiments now in progress. 

The Committee therefore recommend that their Reports from 1862 
onwards be reprinted, after careful editing, as a memorial to Lord Kelvin, 
and that they be reappointed, with a grant of 100/. in addition to the above 
unexpended balance, for the purpose of undertaking this work and con- 
tinuing their researches on the standards ; that Lord Rayleigh be Chairman 
and Dr. R. T. Glazebrook Secretary. 



APPENDIX I. 



On the Secular Changes of the Standards of Resistance at the National 
Physical Laboratory. By F. E. Smith, A.R.C.Sc. 

(b'rom the National Physical Laboratory.) 

It has long been known that many resistance coils of platinum -silver, 
of manganin, and of other resistance alloys do not keep constant in 
resistance. The causes of the changes may lie in some alteration in 
structure of the alloy, of some change in strain, of surface action, of 
faulty joints, or, as suggested by Dr. Rosa, they may lie in the insulating 
medium. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 35 

The question of the permanence of mauganin standards has been 
discussed recently by Messrs. Rosa and Babcock ^ and by Drs. Jaeger 
and Lindeck,- and it seemed desirable to bring together all the informa- 
tion available regarding the changes which have taken place in the coils 
of the Association, and of others which have from time to time been 
compared with them. 

At the National Physical Laboratory the primary standards of resistance 
are of mercury, and the secondary standards are of platinum, platinum- 
iridium, gold-silver, platinum-silver, and of manganin. It will be shown 
that the mercury standards have kept constant, that the platinum coils 
have probably kept constant, that the platinum-iridium, gold-silver, and 
a few of the platinum-silver coils have changed considerably, while other 
platinum-silver coils have kept very nearly constant. Of the manganin 
coils a few have kept very nearly constant, bur. most of them have 
increased in resistance. 

The platinum, platinum-iridium, and some of the gold- silver and pla- 
tinum-silver coils are the property of the Association, and many of them 
were first compared by Matthiessen and Hockin in 1865-7. Most of tlie 
manganin standards were constructed by O. Wolff, Berlin, but four were 
built by Mr. Melsom at the National Physical Laboratory. These 
standards vary in nominal value from one-thousandth of an ohm to 
10,000 ohms. 

The method of comparing resistances has been dealt with in a previous 
Report,^ and for the purposes of this communication it will be sufficient tc 
state that, on all occasions when mercury standards were erected, the 
resistance coils were measured in terms of the mean unit represented by the 
mercury columns, with a probable error of about 5 parts in 1,000,000. 
In the intervals between the comparisons with mercury standards the 
values of the coils in international ohms were at times uncertain within 
1 to 2 parts in 100,000, but the relative values of the unit coils of man- 
ganin with potential leads could at all times be determined with an error 
not greater than about 2 parts in 10,000,000, and the one-thousandth 
ohm and 10,000 ohms manganin standards could in general be measured 
in terms of the unit coils within about 5 parts in 1,000,000. In the 
intervals between the erections of the mercury tubes a very careful survey 
of the history of the coils was often necessary to determine the most prob. 
able changes in the coils, and a slight readjustment of the values allotted 
to the coils was sometimes made when the mercury standards were next 
employed. The probable error of the resistance values assigned to the 
manganin standards on any date is almost certainly less than 1 part in 
100,000. ^ 

Mercury Standards of Resistance. 

The mercury standards of resistance are 10 in number, and were con- 
structed in 1902-3. The mean international ohm as realised by the ten 
standards is taken as the unit, and each tube is measured in terms of it. 

' The Electrician, June 14, 1907, and November 15, I!)07. 

" Ibid., August 2, 1907. 

' B.A. Report, Section A, 1906. 

D 2 



36 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



In practice two manganiii coils act as intermediaries. The measured 
values in 1903 and 1907 are given in the following table : — 

Table I. 
Givinff the Values of the Mercury Standards in 1903 and 1907. 



1 


Value in Mean International Ohms 


1 


1 Mercury 

1 Standard 

1 




Difference 


1903 


1907 


1907-1903 


ji 


0-971703 


0-97169, 


-% 


p 


100038, 


1 000421 


+ 3, 


T 


lOOOlSj 


1-000205 


H-1, 


IT 


0-97349, 


0-97348, 


-0, 


i ^' 


100137,, 


100137, 


-o„ 


X 


l-OOlOtJs 


1 00106, 


-0. 


T 


100026, 


1-00026, 


-0, 


Z 


l-00130e 


1-00129„ 


-0, 


G 


1 00105., 


1-00104^ 


-0, 


S 


1000974 


1-00097., 


-0., 



With the exception of P the relative values of the standards have kept 
remarkably constant, and in the case of P the increase in resistance may- 
be apparent only, for only in 1907 has an increase been noted. It is 
thought that a very thin film of grease may be coating a portion of the 
inner wall of the tube. As the tubes M, G, and S are of French verre 
dur, and the remainder of Jena 16'" glass, there is justification for 
assuming the constancy of the standards. It is of interest to state that 
the relative values of the French mei'cury standards in 1885 and 1905, and 
of the mercury standards of the Reichsanstalt in 1893 and 1904, are also 
in very good agreement. 



Wire Standards of Platinum, Platiauni- Iridium, Gold-Silver, and 

Platinum,-Silver. 

The original coils of the Association are six in number : two are of 
platinum, two of platinum-iridium, one of gold-silver, and one of platinum- 
silver. They were compared together by Messrs. Matthiessen and Hockin 
in 1865-G7, by Messrs. Chrystal and Saunder in 1876, by Dr. Fleming in 
1879-81, by Dr. Glazebrook and Mr. Fitzpatrick in 1887-88, and by the 
author in 1908. In addition to these six coils, Messrs. Chrystal and 
Saunder examined a platinum-silver coil marked No. 29 F, and also a coil 
known as Flat, while measui-ements of another platinum-silver coil H are 
given in the Report for 1888. These coils— in all, 9 — have remained in 
charge of the Secretary. 

In a report to the Association in 1888 Dr. Glazebrook discussed the 
probable changes which had taken place in the coils since 1867, and 
changes in the platinum-silver coils only are discussed in the Reports for 
1892 and 1903. In 1865-67 the probable error of the comparisons appears 
to have been of that order which would be introduced by an error in the 
temperature of the coils of about 0°'l C. In 1888 and 1903 the error of 
the comparisons corr responds with an error in the temperature of the coils of 
!i little less than 0°'l C, and in 1908 the error has been i-educed so as to 



ON rRACTICAl, STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. -Jt 

coriuspuml with about 0"-02 C. All of the coils are surrounded by paratiin 
wax, and it is only by maintaining a constant temperature for many hours 
that very accurate observations can be made. The scale of temperature 
employed for the 1908 measurements is the hydrogen scale ; that used for 
previous observations is almost certainly the Kew glass scale. Dr. J. A. 
Marker has recently shown ^ that the difference between these two scales 
is negligibly small ; hence we may assume that the same scale of tempera- 
ture has been used throughout. 

The present method of comparing the coils is by substitution in one 
arm of a Wheatstone shunt bridge, of which the other three arms 
consist of manganin resistances. The high-temperature coefficient coils 
are kept in a room remaining constant in temperature to 0°'01 C. over 
several days, and the temperature does not diifer from lG°-0 C. by more 
than 0°-5 C. About 16 measurements, spread over several days, are 
made of each coil, and the value at 16°-0 C. is deduced from these 
measurements. During 1908 approximate values for the temperature 
coefficients of resistance of the coils have been obtained by varying the 
temperature from 14^ to 17° C. These values are given in Tables III. 
and IX. 

In 1867 the temperatures are given at which the coils were 1 B.A. 
unit, and this procedure was in part followed in 1876, 1879, and 1888. 
The unit of 1867 Avas, however, probably different to those of 1876, 
1879, and 1888. Messrs. Chrystal and Saunder (1876) assumed one of 
the coils (B) to have remained constant between 1867 and 1876, and 
expressed the values of the other coils in terms of it. The unit, in terms 
of which the measurements of 1879-81 were made, is the mean B.A. 
unit as indicated by Fleming on his chart ; it is supposed to represent 
the mean of the resistances of the six coils A, B, C, D, E, G at the tem- 
peratures at which they were originally correct. It is this unit which 
was used by Lord Rayleigh in his work on the ohm, and by Dr. 
Glazebrook since about 1880, and it has been closely adhered to in all 
measurements made by the Committee since that date. 

A close examination of the chart at the present day shows that 
tiie mean of the values of the six coils is really about 0"99985 unit ; 
hence if this interpretation be accepted, the mean B.A. unit is really 
15 parts in 100,000 less than the unit which has been taken since 
1880 ; but it has not been thought wise to attempt any correction on 
this score, except in the compilation of Table III. At times a sudden 
change in a coil has been recorded, as in 1888, when Dr. Glazebrook 
reported that F had suddenly risen in value by 0-00048 B.A. unit,- and 
that Flat had fallen by 1 part in 10,000.^ Similar changes may have been 
observed when the coils wei-e comparatively new, and it is possible that a 
slightly variable coil was disregarded, or a correction applied because 
of it, when the chart summarising the observations for 1879-81 was 
constructed. 

The chart gives the values of the coils from 0° C. to 25° C, and the 
graphs are such that the value of a coil can be read with an error not 
greater than 3 parts in 100,000, which is equivalent to a change in tem- 
perature of 0°-l C. of a platinum-silver coil. The resistances of the, coils 
at various temperatures as given by the chart are given in Table II. 

' Proe. U.S., A, voL 78. • B.A. Report, 1888. 

» Phil. Tram., A, 1888, p. 364. 



38 



REPORTS ON THE STATR OP SCIENCE. 



Table II. 
Giving the Values of the Coils in 1879-81, //-(mw Flemings Chart. 



Coil 

A 
B 
C 
D 

E 
F 
G 

Flat 


Temperature at which 

coil was stated to be 

correct in 1867 


Value of coil, from 

Fleming's chart, 

at temperature given 

in 1867 


Value of coil, from 

Fleming's chart, 

at 16°-0 C. 


16-0 C. 

15-8 

15-3 

15-7 

15-7 

15-2 


1-00011 
1-00006 
1-00007 
0-99960 
100010 

0-99916 


1-000 11 
1-00035 
1 00056 
100052 
1-00102 
0-99971 
0-99937 
1-00034 



If we tentatively adopt as the B.A. unit at any date the exact mean 
of the resistances of the coils A, B, C, D, E, G at the temperatures at 
which they were originally said to be equal, the values of the coils at 
16°-0 C. in 1867, 1876, 1879-81, 1888, and 1908 are as given in 
Table III. This table has been very easy to compile, because only the 
differences between the resistances of the coils at the various dates, and 
their temperature coefficients, were required. 

In all the tables of this Appendix the values of high-temperature 
coefficient coils are given within 1 part in 100,000 ; but as the errors of 
observation must often have exceeded the change in resistance corre- 
sponding with a change in temperature of a coil of 0°-05 to 0°-l C, too 
much significance must not be attached to an apparent change in resist- 
ance, corresponding with a difference in temperature of a coil of a tenth of 
a degree. 

It is clear that changes of very considerable magnitude have taken 

Table III. 

In this table it is assumed that the B.A. unit is equal to the mean of the coils 
A, B, C, -D, E, G at the temperatures at which they were found by Hockin 
in 1867 to be correct, and that this mean has not altered. 

Values at 16°-0 C. 







Approx. 


1 
















Tempera- 














Coil 


Material 


ture Co- 
efficient 


18G7 1876 


1879-81 


18S8 


1892 


190.3 


1908 


A 




(1908) 














Pt. Ir. 


0C0148 


1-00000 1-00021 


1-00026 


1-00083 


. 


_ 


1-00084 


B 


Pt. Ir. 


000148 


1-00029 1-00065 


1-00050 


1-00040 


— 


— . 


1-00010 


C 


Au. Ag. 


0-00070 


1000.50 1-00085 


1-00071 


1-00082 








1-00085 


D 


Pt. 


0-00312 


1-00092 100036 


1-00067 


100028 


— 


_ 


1-00004 


E 


Pt. 


0-00314 


1-00091* 1-00099 


1-00117 


1-00088 


— 


— 


1-00064 


F 


Pt. Ag. 


0-00027 


— — 


0-99986 


1-00008 


1-00051 


1-00083 


100072 


G 


Pt. Ag. 


0-00028 


1-00022 0-99974 


0-99952 


0-99961 


0-99925 


0-99975 


1-00087 


H 


Pt. Ag. 


0-00028 


1-00020 — 




0-99978 


0-99943 


0-99976 


0-99956 


Flat 


Pt. Ag. 


0-00027 


— — 


1-00049 


1-00056 


1-00033 


1-00050 


1-00037 


Mean of 














A, B, C,D, E, G = 


100047 1-00047 


1-00047 


1-00047 


— 




1-00047 



For a note as to this value see p. 39. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



39 



place, and the task before us is to select the most constant and the most 
variable coils. In all such cases a table of difference values is most 
helpful. Table IV. gives such values for the six coils A, B, C, D, E, G 
in 1 X 10--' B.A. units at 16°0 C. 

We conclude from the differences given in column 7 and the tempera- 
tures given in the last column of Table IV. that B and E have possibly 
remained constant during the period 1867-1908 and that C and D are 
ne.xt in order of constancy. The coils D and E have remained relatively 
constant since 1876. 

Dr. Glazebrook in 1888 measured the B.A. unit in terms of the 
specific resistance of mercury, and found that the value of the resistance 
of a column of mercury, 1 metre long, 1 sq. mm. in section, at 0° C. was 

0-95352 B.A. unit. 
For the purposes of the comparison. Dr. Glazebi-ook used the two coils F 
and G, and their values are given by him as 

F =0-99807 B.A.U. at 10' C. 

G=0-99778 „ „ 10° C. 

These values were taken from Fleming's chart, and when corrected to 
16° C. they are practically identical with those recorded in Table II., as 
they should be. Flat was also used (0-99857 B.A.U, at 10° C), but 
observations during the two years preceding 1888 showed that it was 

Table IV. 

Difference Values mix 10"^ B.A. Units. 

















The Difference 
















in Column 7 
















is equivalent 














Maximum 


to an Uncer- 














Difiereuce 


tainty of 


Coil 


1867 


1876 
-44 


1879-81 


1888 


1908 


between 

Difference 

Values 


Temperature 
of the Coil 
with the 
Largest Tem- 
perature Co- 
efficient of 


A-B 


-29 


-24 


43 


24 


87 




6C. 


A-C 


-50 


-64 


-45 


1 


-51 


65 


0-4 


A-D 


-92 


-15 


-41 


55 


30 


147 


0-5 


A-E 


-91 


-78 


-91 


- 5 


-30 


86 


0-3 


A-G 


-22 


47 


74 


122 


-53 


175 


1-2 


B-0 


-21 


-20 


-21 


-42 


-75 


65 


0-4 


B-D 


-63 


29 


-17 


12 


6 


92 


0-3 


B-E 


-62 


-34 


-67 


-48 


-54 


33 


Oil 


B-G 


7 


91 


98 


79 


-77 


175 


1-2 


C-D 


-42 


49 


4 


54 


81 


123 


0-4 


C-E 


-41 


-14 


-4G 


- 6 


21 


67 


0-2 


C-G 


28 


111 


119 


121 


- 2 


123 


1-8 


D-E 


1* 


-63 


-50 


-60 


-60 


64 


0-2 


D-G 


70 


62 


115 


67 


-83 


198 


06 


E-G 


69 


125 


165 


127 


-23 


188 


0-6 



* Hockin (1867 Report) gives the temperatures at which D and E were correct 
in 1865, 1866, and 1867. From the values given by him it appears that the difference 
D-E was -59 X 10"* B.A.U. at 16°-0 C. in 1865, -59 x lO"' in 1866, and 1 in 1867. 
These diflferences, taken in conjunction with those given in the above table, make 
it practically certain that the difference given for 1867 is incorrect, and should be 
replaced by a difference of the order -60. 



40 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



relatively lower than when examined by Dr. Fleming, and its value was 
not, therefore, taken from the chart. 

In 1908 the individual coils were compared with the new mercury 
standards set up at the N.P.L. and their values found in terms of mer- 
cury. If we assume that the mean value of the coils A, B, C, T>, E, G, 
is the same as when Fleming's chart was constructed, we obtain as the 
resistance of 1 metre of mercuiy, 1 sq. mm. in section, at 0° C, the value 

0-9.5.333 B.A.U., 

an alteration of 20 parts in 100,000 since 1888. 

If, on the other hand, we suppose that the mercury units set up in 
1908 agree exactly with those constructed in 1888, then the mean value 
of the six coils in question has altered by 000020 B.A.U. At the 
present date, assuming as found in 1888, the resistance of 1 metre of 
mercury, 1 sq. ram. in section, at 0° C. to be 0'95352 B.A.U. , the indi- 
vidual coils have the values given in Table V., column 3. 

Table V. 

Values of Coils at 16°0 C. in 1883 and 1908 obtained from comjjufison with 
Mercury Tubes, assumimj the Resistance of 1 Metre of Mercury to be 
0-95352 B.A. Unit. 





Value in 1888 at Time of 


1 


Coil 


Determination of Specific Resistance 


Value in 1908 




of Mercury * 


100042 


! A 


100068 


1 B 


100025 


100018 


C 


lOOOfiT 


1-00093 


D 


1 -0001 3 


1 00012 


E 


1-00073 


1-00072 


F 


o-99'j:o 


1-00080 


G 


09993G 


1-00095 


H 


0-99963 


0-99964 


Flat 


1-00023 


1-00045 



* In Dr. Glazebrook's experiments the terminals of the mercury standards were 
not exactly at 0° C, and an error of about 4 parts in 100,000 was probably intro- 
duced because of this. No correction on this score has, however, been applied, as 
the magnitude of the error is only of the same order as the probable error of the 
observations. 

The apparent changes in resistance of the coils, together with the 
alterations in temperature of the coils necessary to produce equal 
changes in the resistance, are given in Table VI. 

Table VI. 



Coil 


Resistance of Coil in 1908 minus 


Change equivalent to 


A 


Resistance of Coil in 1888 


Difference of Temperature of 




-26x10= B.A.U. 


0-l°8 C. 


B 




— 7 


0-05 


1 




+ 26 


0-37 


D 




-1 


000 


E 




-1 


000 


F 




+ 110 


40 


G 




+ 159 


.V7 


11 




+ 1 


0-03 


Flat 




+ 22 


0-81 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR . ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 41 

From Tables V. and VI. it appears to be practically certain that tlio 
coils B, D, E, and H have the same resistance in 1908 as they had in 
1888. The agreement of the values for D and E is very remarkable, for 
the temperatures at which these coils were believed to be correct in 1888 
are stated to the nearest tenth of a degree only ; an apparent change in 
resistance of 15 parts in 100,000 would, therefore, have been negligible. 
With respect to G, it has risen by over 1 part in 1,000 during the past 
5 years and Flat changed by 17 parts iii 100,000 in 1902.^ The fluctu- 
ations in the value of H are believed to have amounted to about 1 part in 
10,000 during the period 1888-1908.^ 

Of the four coils B, D, E, H, apparently constant for the period 1888- 
1908, we have already concluded fi-om the diflerences given in Table IV. 
that B, D, and E have remained approximately constant since 18G7. 
One of the coils D-E, appears, from Table IV., to have changed in the 
interval 1867-1876, and the apparent change corresponds with the change 
resulting when one of the coils is lowered 0°*2 C. in temperature. It is, 
however, practically certain that the change is only apparent. The tem- 
peratures at which the platinum coils were stated to be correct in 1865, 
1866, and 1867 are given by Mr. Hockin in the Report for 1867. They 
are as follows : 

1 B.AU. at 15°-7 C. January 7,1863 
Coil No, 35 (D). ■{ 1 „ „ ]5°-7C. August 18,18(515 



1 „ „ 15° 7 C. February 10, 1867 

15°-5 C. January 7, 1863 

Coil No. 36 (£),<{ 1 „ „ 15°'5 C. August 18, 1866 

15°-7 C. February 10, 1867 



'■{; 



In the Report for 1888 the temperature coefficient of D is given us 
0-00308 B.A. Unit, and of E as 000302 B.A. Unit. These values agree 
closely with those given in Table III., and they have been used in the 
compilation of the following complete list of the difference values (D-E) 
which now deserves attention : 

D-E = -59 X 10-' B.A.U. at 16°0C. Year 1865 

„ = —59 „ „ ,, „ 1860 

,, = 1 ,) .1 .1 i< 1867 

„ = -G3 ,, „ „ „ 1876 

= -50 ., „ „ „ 1879-81 

„ = —60 „ ,. „ „ 1888 

= -60 „ „ ,. „ 1908 

The conclusion is obvious. The original difference between the coils 
was approximately 60x10"^ B.A. unit and has remained constant ever 
since. There is little doubt that the difference recorded for 1867 is 
incorrect ; it may easily happen that there is a difference of 0°'2 C. 
between the apparent and true temperatures of a coil embedded in paraffin 
wax, and such a difference would completely explain the 1867 result. 

This conclusion necessitates a revision of the difference values in 
Table IV. The corrections are easily made, for the differences A-E, 
B-E, C-E and E-CI should be respectively equal to the differences A-I>, 
B-D, &c. 

We believe that the two platinum coils have remained constant in 
resistance since 1867, and that the values in 1867, 1879-81, 1888, and 
1908 of these and other coils in terms of the original B.A. unit (1867) 
ftre Q,s follows : 

I firit, Assoc. Sep., 1903, . - ? Thid. 



42 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Table VII. 

Resistances at 16°'0 C. in terms of the original B.A. Unit (1867). 
( Values obtained through the two Platinum Coils D, E.) 



Coil 


Material 


1867 


1876 


1879-81 


1888 


1908 


Maximum 
Difference 


A 


Pt. Ir. 


1-00000 


1-00077 


1-00056 


1-00147 


1-00122 


147 X 10-s B.A.U. 


B 


Pt. Ir. 


1-00029 


1-00121 


1-00080 


100104 


1-00098 


92 „ 


C 


Au. Ag. 


1-00050 


1-00141 


100101 


1-00146 


1-00173 


123 „ 


D 


Pt. 


100092 


100092 


100092 


100092 


1-00092 


„ 


E 


Pt. 


1-00152 


1-00152 


1-00152 


100152 


1-00152 


•> 


F 


Pt. Ag. 


— 


— 


100016 


1-00072 


1-00160 


144 „ 


G 


Pt. Ag. 


1-00022 


1-00030 


0-99982 


1-00025 


1-00175 


193 


H 


Pt. Ag. 


1-00020 





— 


1-00042 


1-00044 


24 „ 


Flat 


Pt. Ag. 


— 


— 


1-00079 


1-00120 


1-00125 


46 „ 



From Tables IV. and VII. it is clear that the maximum number of 
coils which can have kept constant is two, and if the platinum coils have 
not remained constant then one only of the other coils can have done so. 
Since D and E are of pure platinum, and not of an alloy, it is probable 
that these would change least. 

If our conclusions are correct, the results are not only of some value 
as showing the changes which may take place in the resistance of certain 
alloys when embedded in paraffin wax, but they are also of value because 
the coils link together so many determinations of the ohm in absolute 
measure and of the specific resistance of mercury. It is not convenient 
1o collect the various determinations here, but as an instance of the 
uses to which the data given in this Appendix might be put we take 
Lord Rayleigh's and Mrs. Sidgwick's determination in 1881 ^ of the 
specific resistance of mercury. It was found that 0-95412 B.A. unit was 
equal in resistance to a column of mercury 100 cm. long, 1 sq. mm. in 
section, at 0° C. Now in Lord Rayleigh's experiments the terminals of 
the mercury standards were not at 0° C, but at 5° or 6° C, and it was 
shown by Dr. Glazebrook ^ in 1888 that an error of about 0-00024 was 
almost certainly introduced because of this. If we apply a correction of 
this amount, Lord Rayleigh's value becomes 0-95388 B.A. unit as the 
resistance of 100 cm. of mercury at 0° C. The coils F and Flat were used 
in the 1881 determination, and the values of these coils were taken from 
Fleming's chart. They were therefore : 



r = 0-99971 B.A. unit at lG°-0 C. 
Flat = 1-00034 B.A. unit at 16°-0 C. 



(From Table II.) 
(From Table II.) 



From Lord Rayleigh's observations, therefore, 

F at 16°0 C. = 0-99971/O-95388 = 104-805 cm. mercury ; and 
Flat at 16°0 C. = 1-00034/0-95388 = 104-871 cm. mercury. 

At the present time (1908) 

F at I6°-0 C. = 104-959 cm. mercury ; and 
Flat at 16°0 C. = 104922 cm. mercury. 

Using the 1908 values and the changes in F and Flat, recorded in 
Table VII., we conclude that in 1881 

F at 16°0 C. was equivalent to 104808 cm. mercury; and 
Flat at 16°-0 C. was equivalent to 104874 cm. mercury. 

' Phil. TruM., vol. 174, p. 173. 
« Ibid., A, 1888, pp. 375-6. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 



43 



The difference from the values given by Lord Rayleigh is 3 parts in 
100,000, which is less than the probable error of the observations. We 
conclude, therefore, that the determination of Lord Rayleigh and Mrs. 
.Sidgwick in 1881 is in excellent agreement with that made at the 
N^ational Physical Laboratory in 1908, and this latter has already been 
shown to agree with that made by Dr. Glazebrook in 1888. 

The following is now a very useful sumtnary. The values of the 
coils in centimetres of mercury in 1881, 1888, and 1908 are given in 
Table VIII. 

Table VIIL 

Giving the Values at 16°'0 0. of certain Coils in cm. of Mercury in 1881, 1888, 
and 1908 obtained from comparisons %oith Mercury Standards, 





1881 








Values deduced from ' 1888 


1908 

Values directly 

Determined through 

N.P.L. Blercury 

Standards of 

Resistance 




i 


Lord Eayleigh's De- Values at time of Dr. 




Coil 


termination of the i Glazebrook's Deter- 
Specific Resistance of mination. F, G-, and 
Mercury. F and Flat Flat were used ; for 
were used ; for Rela- , Relative Values of 


Maximum 
Difference 




tive Values of Coils Coils see Table V. 






see Table VII. 








cm. 


cm. 


cm. 


cm. 


A 


101-847 


104-946 


104 918 


0071 


B 


101-872 


104-901 


104 893 


0-029 


C 


104-894 


101-94.5 


104-972 


0078 


D 


104-885 


104-888 


104-887 


0-003 


E 


104-948 


104-951 


101-950 


0003 


F 


104-805 


104-843 


104-959 


0-154 


G 


104-769 


104-807 


104-974 


0-205 


H 


— 


104-836 


104-837 


0-001 


Flat 


104-871 


104-898 


104-922 


0-051 



The preceding comparison strengthens the conclusions already arrived 
at respecting the most constant coils. From Table VIIL, D and E have 
apparently kept constant in resistance since 1881, while H appears to 
have remained constant since 1888. 

It is of some importance to note that in 1892 the ratio of the B.A. 
unit to the ohm was accepted as being 

1 ohm = 1-01358 B.A. unit, 

this being based on the values 

100 cm. mercury = 0-9535 B.A. unit. 
106-3 cm. mercury =1 ohm. 



Other Platinum -Silver and Gold- Silver Coils. 

In addition to the platinum-silver coils, V, G, H, and Flat, originally 
constructed to represent the B.A. unit at a particular temperature, there 
are three other platinum-silver coils, numbered 3715 (Nalder Brothers) 
and 269 and 270 (Elliott Brothers), made to represent the ohm = l-01358 
B.A. unit. There are also two 10-ohm platinum-silver coils, numbered 
288 and 289 (Elliott Brothers). All these coils are the property of the 
Association, and they were extensively used from 1888 to 1903 for the 
standardising of other coils. From the results of observations recorded 
in the Report for 1903 it appears that from 1894 to 1903 Nos. 3715 and 



•It 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



1' 7 ruD) allied constant in resistance, aud that from IbD" to l'J03, '26S 
and 281) remained constant. In 1903 the N.P.L. mercury standards of 
resistance were constructed, and since then the mercury standards have 
been taken as constant, and the resistances of all coils expressed by 
means of them. The B.A. unit (as obtained from all the platinum- 
silver coils, taking the values given in 1888 as correct, and applying 
corrections for estimated changes in the coils) was in 1903 found to 
be equal to 1/1-01367 international ohm. Accepting this ratio for the 
time being, the resistances at 16°-0 C. of certain coils, comjiared in 1888, 
1894, 1897, 1903, and 1908, are given in the following table :— 



Table IX. 



Coil 


Material Apin-ox. 




Resistance 






iraximnni 

Difference 

(Parts in 100,000 ) 

7 


of Con- 
struction 


efficient 


1888 


1894 
1-00050 


1897 


1903 


1908 


*0715 


Pt. Ag. 


000030 





' 1-00050 


1-00057 


*269 


JJ 


0-00029 


— 


1-00070 


— 


, 1-00089 


1-00089 


19 


*270 


)> 


0-00032 


— 


1-00000 


— 


' 1-00006 


1-00003 


3 


*'2S8 


)) 


0-0030 


— 


— 


10-0060 


10-0060 


100056 


4 


•289 


»l 


0-002G 


— 


— 


10-0026 


10-0020 


10-0031 


5 


C4 


9) 


0-00033 


0-9997G 


— 


— 





0-99987 


11 


19 


Au. Ag. 


0-00071 


0-99923 


— 


— 


— 


0-99937 


14 


68(H) 


Pb. Ag. 


0-00029 


0-99909 


— 


— 





0-99982 


23 


1 C.F.T. 


»j 


0-00028 


0-99927 


— 


— 


— 


0-99941 


14 


34 


Au. Ag. 


0-00071 


0-99980 


— 


— 


— 


1-00006 


20 


3 


Pt. Ag. 


0-0031 


9-9950 


— 


— 


— 


9-9963 


7 


4 


fj 


0-0033 


9-9941 


— 


— 





9-9964 


23 


10 C.F.T. 


M 


0-0030 


0-9934 


— 


— 


— 


9-9940 


6 



* The resistances of these coils are given in ohms (1 ohm = 1-01358 B.A.U.). The remain- 
ing coils have their resistances given in B.A. miits. 

For the loan of coil No. C4 we are indebted to Professor Trouton, of 
ITniversity College ; originally this coil was in the possession of Professor 
Carey Foster. For the loan of the coils numbered 19, 68 (H), 1 C.F.T., 
34, 3, 4, and 10 C.F.T. we are indebted to Mr. H. A. Taylor, of Victoria 
Sti-eet, London. We tender our hearty thanks to Professor Trouton and 
j\[r. Taylor. All the coils, excepting 19 and 34, are of platinum-silver ; 
1 9 and 34 are of gold-silver. 

In Table IX. maximum differences of the order 1 to 5 parts in 
100,000 may prol)ably be neglected if this maximum difference does not 
occur in the period 1903-1908. In 1903 and 1908 the errors of observa- 
tion were very small, and a recorded difference of 1 or 2 parts in 
1 00,000 must be taken as indicating a true change in the resistance of a 
coil. The method of measuring a very small change in resistance will be 
made clear in the next section on manganin coils. 

The most constant coils appear to be 270, 288, 289, 10 C.F.T., 3, and 
3715. Of these six resistances two only are unit coils; the remainder 
are coils of 10 ohms each. In Table IX. the values of eight unit coils 
and of five 10-ohm coils are tabulated, and of the latter four have kept 
nearly constant. This fact is important, as it points to the changes of 
resistance being largely due to actions at the soft-soldered joints, and 
not entirely, if at all, to the action of paraffin wax (possibly acid) on 
platinum-silver. In addition, part of the changes may be due to change 
in structure of the alloy. 

The values at 16^0 C. of the coils A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and Flat, in 



ox PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASHRE^IENTS. 45 

terms of the unit of resistance employed for the purposes of Table IX. 
are approximately 

A = l-OOOoO F = 1-0008S 

B = 100026 G = 1-00103 

C = l-OOlOl H = 0-99972 

D = 1-00020 Flat = 1-00053 

E = 1-00080 

Manganin Standards of Resistance. 

The manganin standards of the National Physical Laboratory are in 
constant use and have proved of very great value. They not only facilitate 
electrical measurements, but they bring them to a far higher degree of 
accuracy than was formerly attainable. Nevertheless, the variations in 
these resistances have ift many cases been a source of trouble, and attempts 
have been made, and are being continued, to construct standard coils of 
manganin -which shall remain practically constant in resistance. 

Since 1903 the manganin standards have been intercompared at least 
four times every year, and the probable changes have been deduced from 
occasional comparisons with mercury standards and from tables of dif- 
ference values, due regard being also paid to the past history of the coils. 
As an example of the comparisons we take the case of seven 1-ohm coils 
which wei-e intercompared in January, April, July, and October 190G. 
The observed differences are given in Table X. 

Table X. 



Coils 




Differences 


in 1 X 10--5 ohm at 17°-0 C. 










Jan. 1906 


Api-il 190G 
6-87 


July 1900 Oct. 1906 

1 


1690-780 


6-83 


7-05 5-93 


1690-2351 


2-17 


2-35 


2-04 1-47 


1690-2483 


0-26 


0-48 


0-26 -0-30 


1690-381 


-.5-80 


-6-05 


-5-97 -6-27 


1690-L-17 


15-63 


13-41 


12-69 11-80 


1690-L-18 


16-69 


16-05 


15-54 14-92 



Maximum | 

Difference j 

- 1 

1-12 
0-88 

0-78 5 

0-47 I 

3-83 I 

1-67 I 



Any one of these differences was not obtained from a single observa- 
tion, but is the mean of six differences. All possible combinations of the 
seven coils were taken — 21 in all— and the differences observed. From 
these 21 observations six values resulted for the difference between any 
two of the coils ; it is the mean of these six values which is recorded. 
The temperature during the observations was very nearly 17°-0C,and 
the differences were corrected to 17° C. before taking the mean. 

An analy.sis of the figures given in Table X. indicates that the coils 
L-17 and L-IS probably changed most during 1906, and that the other 
five coils changed by amounts less than 3 parts in 1,000,000 from January 
to July 1906. From July to October the difference 1690-780 changed 
by an appreciable amount and the differences in the values for July and 
October, viz. : 

1690- 780 Change = 1 12 X Kr ohm. 
1690-2351 „ = -0 57 ., 

1690-2483 „ = -0-5(; „ 

1690- 381 .,, = -0.30 „ 

indicate that 1G90 probably fell in resistance in this period by about 
G parts in 1,000,000, and 780 rose by about 5 parts in 1,000,000. The 



46 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 




Chart I : Showing the Variations in Resistance of Manganin Standard Coils of 
Nominal Values, 1 Ohm, 10 Ohms, and 100 Ohms. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 47 



J/N .UN J«M JAN J»N /«N 

OJ I90S 04 190* OS I90S ■ 06 1906 0? 1907 08 1908 

























.-•' — 














V_sii- 


OHhf 


^^^^ 


"^/ 




- — 




— 






o-i 


O H M 


23S2 




/ 

V-r- 








• 




OOl 


OHM 


a->5r~ 


^ 


-/ 






-- 












j^OO^ 


^ 


^ 




/ 


'■'"''^ 










o^!:u- 




/ 












^ 


,^ 


J°>^ 


£i9e 


/ 


/ 


^ 


/ 






X 


-^ 


rc 


O OOl 


OHM 


£493 




ooo< 


OHM 






~i-^ 








_- 


— 






J^ 




■ 


^"VaO 














^^ 


T 


-- 


^^^^^^ 
















,y\l 




■^0° 
















P 






















V 


'^'^y 




















'"!'/ 


/ 




















i 

0/ 
0/ 

° 

0/ 


/c 


















y 


/o 

h 
/° 

/o 
















— 




1 


















"^ 


^ 





















Chaet II : Showing the Variations in Resistance of Manganin Stardards of 
Nominal Values, 0001, O-Ql, 01 Ohm, and 1,000 and 10,000 Ohms. 



■J 8 



EEroRTS ON THE STAtE Of" SCIENCE;. 



other siiiall cliangeti are difficult lo assign and are possibly due to variable 
humidity. The eri'Ors in the differences recorded are certainly less than 
1 X 10"*' ohm. 

The above is only part of the analysis of the differences which is in 
general made. Comparisons with coils other than units are also often 
desirable, but need not be dealt with here. 

Table XI. gives the resistance of a number of manganin coils in the 
October of each year from 1903 to 1907, and charts Nos. 1 and 2 show 
the complete changes in most of the coils from March 1903 to June 190S. 
In Table XI. the resistances are given in the same month of each year 
in order to eliminate from the table (as much as possible) the effects of 
Jiumidity on the resistances of the coils. 

Resistances L19, 2448, and 2449 were placed in atmospheres of vary- 
ing humidities in the interval October 1907-April 1908, and hence the 
curves for these coils are not continued on the charts after January 
1908. 



Table XI. 
liesistaiices in International Ohms at 17°'0 C. 




At first limiting our attention to the unit coils, we see from the charts 
that these have varied during the past five years by the following 
amounts : — 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 

Tablk XII. 



49 



Coil 


Maximum Change in Resist- 


Difference Value. 




ance in 5 years 


Resistance in 1908 minus Resistance in 


1903 


1690 


3-7 X 10-5 ohm 


-3-7x10-^ ohm 




780 


46 „ 


4 6 „ 




2351 


7-8 


-0-2 „ 




2483 


4i „ 


32 




381 


2-6 


-0-2 „ 




LI 7 


10-2 


9 6 „ 




L18 


88 


8-8 „ 






Mean = 60 „ 


Mean = +4 2 „ 





If we neglect L'17 and L'lS the mean value of tlie other five coils 
is 2-2 X 10-= ohms greater in 1908 than in 1903. 

Apart from the cause of these changes, it is interesting to form some 
idea of what interpretation of the differences might reasonably have been 
applied if mercury standards had not been the master standards. If the 
mean value of the seven coils had been taken as remaining constant, the 
error in five years would have amounted to 42 parts in 100,000. A com- 
parison with coils of nominal values differing from unity might, however, 
be made, and such might largely influence the result. 

The maximum changes which have taken place in the other resistance 
standards and the difference values (1908-1903 values) are given in 
Table XIII. 

Table XIII. 



Resistance 
Standard 



O.W. 2196 
O.W. 2493 

O.W. 2200 
O.W. 2492 

O.W. 2352 
O.W. 2484 

O.W. 738 
O.W. 1693 

LI 9 

L-20 

O.W. 739 
O.W. 2450 

O.W. 740 
O.W. 2449 

O.W. 2448 



Nominal 
Value 



0001 ohm 

001 „ 

01 „ 

01 „ 

01 
01 

10 ohms 

10 „ 

10 „ 

10 „ 

100 „ 

100 „ 

1000 
1000 

10000 



Maximum 

Change since 

1903. 

Parts in 100,000 



1908 Vahie 

minus 

1903 Value. 

Parts in 100,000 



Mean Difference. 
Parts in 100,000 



22-4 
20 

330 
19 

20 
80 

2-2 

80 

ll'O 

8-3 

1-2 
18-0 

11-8 

89-4 

40'0 



22-4 
1-8 

330 
0-2 

1-4 
80 

1-7 
7-2 

96* 
7-6* 

-10 
180 

11-4 

89-4 

368 



+ 121 
+ 16-6 

+ 4-7 

+ 6-5 

+ 8-5 

+ 50-4 
+ 368 



Mean difference value (1908-1903 values) = + 16-5 parts in 100,000. 

Mean difference value (1908-1903 values) including the unit coils = + 12 6 parts 

in 100,000. 



1908. 



* These are the difference values (1908-J904 values), 



50 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

The mean difference in the values of all the manganin coils for 1908 
and 1903 is 12-6 parts in 100,000. The oldest coils are 381 (seventeen 
years old), 780, 738, 739, and 740 (thirteen years old), and 1693 and 
1690 (eight years old), the ages being approximate only. The remainder 
of the coils are from five to six years old. 

The most constant coils belonging to various groups are : — 

.S81 — most constant of the unit coils. 
738 „ „ 10 ohms coils. 

730 „ „ 100 

710 „ „ 1.000 „ 

In general, therefore, the older the coil the more constant does it 
appear to be. 

With reference to the sudden changes in resistance, as shown by the 
curve for 2351 in 1903, of 381 in 190-1-5, and of L-20 in 1906, we can 
offer no complete explanation : but it is possible that variable humidity of 
the surrounding medium, such as might arise from the presence of a 
small quantity of moisture in the insulating oil, was responsible for part 
of these changes. 

The breaks in the curves for 2183, 2351, L-17, L-18,_1693, and 2484 
are due to these coils being away from the National Physical Laboratory ; 
they were being compared with the wire standards of the Reichsanstalt. 

The increase in resistance of No. 2449 is phenomenal. The daily 
rate of change for 1906 is over four parts in 10,000,000 ; that is, in 
about twenty-two days the coil changed in resistance by about one part 
in 100,000. In April 1907 we attempted to measure the change fi-om 
day to day, and for this purpose we compared 2449 and 740 every 
working day for four weeks. The results obtained are as follows : — • 

Day of Observation . 
Difference (2449-740) 

Parts in 100,000 
Day of Observation . 
Difference (2449-740) 

Parts in 100,000 

The change was, therefore, a very gradual one, and easily detected. 
It is of interest to note that the rate of change for the last six months of 
1907 is less than that for 1903-6. 

The possible causes of the changes in the manganin resistances may 
be classified under the following heads : — 

1. Change in structure of the alloy. 

2. Surface action. 

3. Humidity effect. 

4. Change in the soldei'ed joints connecting the wires of high- 

resistance coils to the current leads. 

5. Change at the junctions of the potential leads with the 

resistance standard. 

Only the first of these appears to fully explain the gradual rise in 
i-esistance. Causes 2 and 4 would have an inappreciable effect on very 
low resistances ; yet some of these — e.g. 2196 — have changed by con- 
siderable amounts. Cause No. 5 would have no effect on high-resistance 
coils, since these are not provided with potential leads ; but Table XIII. 
shows that all of the high-resistance coils have changed. Cause No. 3 
produces in general a cyclic change, and, while being without doubt a 



1 


3 


5 


8 


10 


12 


15 


17 


j 5205 
19 


52-15 


5230 


52-35 


52-P.5 


52-30 


52-55 


52-65 


22 


24 


26 


29 








1 52-75 


52-95 


53-00 


5300 


5315 









ON PKACTICAL STANDARDS KOK ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 51 

cause of variation, it cannot be modified to explain all the gradual 
increases in resistance, owing to the negligible effect of humidity on very 
low-resistance standards. Cause No. 1 appears, therefore, to have been 
the chief agent in the cases we have considered. 

It is necessary, however, that we should say something about other 
manganin coils. In 1903 the resistances were measured of some manganin 
coils (1 to 5,000 ohms) in a box by R. W. Paul, London. The coils 
could not readily be immersed in oil, and the measurements were 
therefore uncertain to about 1 part in 100,000. The resistances were 
again measured in 1904, 1906, and December 1907. The maximum 
change in the resistance of any coil is 5 parts in 100,000, while the 
mean increase in resistance during 1903-7 is 4 parts in 100,000. 

In 1902, and again in 1907, the resistances were measured of some 
manganin coils (1 to 10,000 ohms) in box No. 1723 by O. Wolff, Berlin. 
The maximum change in resistance during the period 1902-8 is about 
6 parts in 100,000, and a few of the coils have kept practically constant. 
Many manganin coils in other boxes are known, however, to have 
changed very considerably. 

It will be seen that of the manganin standards we have examinea 
some have kept remarkably constant, while others are practically useless 
as standards. It must not be concluded, however, that all manganin 
resistances are subject to such changes. Drs. Jaeger and Lindeck have 
shown that the manganin standards of the Reichsanstalt keep very 
constant, and the manganin coils at the Bureau of Standards also appear 
to be of a fairly constant type, though subject to considerable cyclic 
changes owing to variable atmospheric humidity. The manganin 
standards reported on in this Appendix comprise every standard resistance 
of manganin in use in the Standards Department of the National 
Physical Laboratory. 

APPENDIX II. 

Specifications for the Practical Realisation of the Definitions of the Inter- 
national Ohm and International Ampere, and Instructions for the 
Freparation of the Weston Cadmium Cell. 

(From the National Physical Laboratory.) 

The following specifications have been prepared after consultation 
with various authorities, and will form a basis for discussion at the 
forthcoming Congress on Electric Units in London. They have not 
been authoritatively adopted, and are subject to amendment. 

In the last Report specifications for the realisation of the inter- 
national ampere and for the construction of the cadmium cell were 
given, the processes of preparation, Ac, being described with considerable 
detail. These specifications appeal to a much wider circle than the 
present ones, for the latter are intended mainly to serve as a guide to the 
standardising institutions of the various countries in order to obtain, as 
far as possible, complete agreement in the units of electric measurements. 
Certain instructions, such as the purification of mercury, have therefore 
been omitted, but all which is thought to be essential for jm exact repro- 
duction of conditions is still included. Instructions for the erection of 
mercury standaids have not previously been issued. 

E 2 



52 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 



I'he International Ohm. 

The international ohm shall be equal to the resistance offered to an 
unvarying electric current by a column of mercury at the temperature of 
meltin" ice, 14'4521 grammes in mass, of a constant cross sectional area, 
and of 106-300 centimetres in length, arranged in accordance with the 
following specification. 

The column of mercury shall be of circular section, or nearly so, and 
shall be contained in a tube of suitable glass which has been carefully 
annealed. The tube shall be straight to the eye, and the maximum 
variation in its area of cross section shall not exceed 2 parts in 100. The 
tube is to be carefully calibrated, and the correction for its conicality 
determined. 

In determining the weight of mercury contained by the tube when 
filled at the temperature of melting ice, the column of mercury is to be 
bounded by planes at the terminal cross sections of the tube. The tube 
should not be unduly heated, and it should be filled with mercury by 
exhaustion of air. 

The axial length of the tube should be measured at 0° C. if possible, 
otherwise the coefficient of expansion of the glass should be determined 
and the axial length of the tube at 0° C. calculated from axial measure- 
ments made very near to that temperature. To facilitate measurements 
of the axial length, the ends of the tube should be ground very slightly 
convex. 

For the electrical measurements the ends of the tube are to be 
connected to spherical bulbs of glass, the ends of the tube forming, 
approximately, portions of the internal spherical surfaces of the bulbs. 
Each bulb is to be provided with current and potential leads, the point 
of entry of the former being at the opposite end of a diameter of the bulb 
from an end of the tube. The potential lead shall be situated in a 
plane midway between the point of entry of the current lead and the 
end of the tube, and at right angles to the line connecting them. 

Contact with the mercury shall be made by means of platinum 
wires. 

The diameter of a bulb is to be from 30 to 33 times the diameter 
of that end of the tube to which it is connected. 

If L is the axial length in centimetres of the mercury column con- 
tained by the tube at 0° C., W the weight of the column in grammes, and 
c the correction for the conicality of the tube, the resistance of the 
column at 0° C. is 

" (IWO-OP • ^^ = 0-001278982 c ^ international ohms. 

When the spherical bulbs are fitted to the ends of the tube and the 
whole filled with mercury, if r is the mean radius of the tube and r,, rj, 
the mean radii in centimetres of the terminal sections, the resistance a,t 
0° C. between the potential leads is 



L2 

0-001278982 ^ 



( rx + r., \ I * 



O-SOr^ \ r, rg / }• international ohms, 



ox TRACitlCAL STANDARDS t^OR ELECTRICAL MEAPUREMEiXTS. 53 
correct to 1 per cent, of the added resistance 

0-001278982 ~[ 0-8 Or (-~^^')Y 

* The end correction factor is given in these formulst as 080 : this Vtiiuo is. 
however, subject to amendment. 

The electrical measuronients are to be carried out at 0° C, the tube and 
spherical vessels being surrounded by melting ice and about 1 5 centi- 
metres below the upper surface of the ice. The connecting wires employed 
for the current and potential leads must be thin, the flow of heat through 
them to the mercury being insufficient to warm the mercury so as to 
produce appreciable error. 

The insulation resistance between the mercury column and the ice 
surrounding the tube must not be less than 10,000,000 ohms. 

The current employed in comparing the mercury resistance with other 
resistances shall be limited by the condition that the mercury shall not 
be warmed sufficiently to produce appreciable error. 

The mean of at least five tubes must be taken to determine the value 
of the mercury unit. 

The mean of at least three fillings shall be taken as the value of the 
resistance of a tube. 

Specification /or the Practical A-ppUcation of the Definition of the 
International Ampere, 

Conditions under which silver is to be deposited to measure currents 
from 05 to 8 amperes: — 

The solution shall consist of from 15 parts to 25 parts by weight of 
pure crystallised ailver nitrate in 100 parts of distilled water free from 
chlorine. It shall be used for one determination of current only. 

In cases in which it is desired to measure a current of about 1 ampere 
the anode shall consist of a disc or plate of pure silver about 60 square 
centimetres in area and 3 or 4 millimetres in thickness. It is supported 
by a silver rod riveted through its centre. The anode shall be inserted 
into a cup of filter paper separately supported. 

The kathode shall consist of a platinum bowl about 10 centimetres in 
diameter and 7 centimetres in depth. 

About 300 cubic centimetres of the silver-nitrate solution are to be 
placed in the kathode bowl, and the anode is to be supported near the top 
of the solution and is to be just covered by it. Not more than from 7 to 
10 grammes of silver should be deposited. 

(For the measurement of smaller currents, say from j to g^ ampere, a 
bowl holding about 60 cubic centimetres of solution may be used, the 
anode being proportionately reduced in size and from 2 to 3 grammes of 
silver being deposited.) 

The deposit should be rinsed with distilled water free from chlorine 
until the addition of a drop of neutral solution of sodium chloride in water, 
to the wash water, produces no milkiness. The kathode bowl is then 
nearly filled with distilled water and left for at least three hours ; it should 
be rinsed three times, the last of these wash waters remaining in the bowl 
for ten minutes. This last wash water should give no milkiness when 
ftdded to a neutral solution of sodium chloride in water. The deposit is 



54 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

to be dried in an electric oven at a temperature of about 160° C. ; it is 
placed in a desiccator to cool, and is afterwards weighed. 

The mass of the deposit, expressed in grammes, divided by the number 
of seconds during which the current has been passed and by 0"001118, 
gives the mean current in amperes. 

Preparation of the Weston Cadmium Standard Cell. 

The cell has mercury for its positive electrode, and an amalgam con- 
sisting of from 12 to 12-5 parts by weight of cadmium in 100 parts of the 
amalgam for its negative electrode. The electrolyte consists of a saturated 
solution of cadmium sulphate, and solid cadmium sulphate is contained 
within the cell. A paste, consisting of solid mercurous sulphate, mercury, 
and solid cadmium sulphate, rests on the positive electrode. 

For the positive electrode, pure distilled }7iercury should be used. 

The amalgam may be made either by electrodeposition or by mechani- 
cal mixing. It should be fused and freed from oxide by washing with 
dilute sulphuric acid. 

For the preparation of the cadmium sulphate crystals and solution, 
commercially pure recrystallised cadmium sulphate should be dissolved in 
pure distilled water so as to form a clear saturated solution. Evaporation 
at about 35° C. is then allowed to proceed, when crystals separate from 
the solution. The crystals are washed with successive small quantities of 
distilled water, and part of them is dissolved in distilled water to form 
a saturated solution. The solution should be neutral to congo red. 

The mercurous sulphate should be quite pure, and its crystals should 
not be so small as to have an abnormal solubility or so large as to be in- 
efficient as a depolariser. The following is an example of a method for 
preparing the salt satisfactorily : — - 

Add 15 cubic centimetres of pure strong nitric acid to 100 grammes of 
pure mercury, and place on one side until the action is over or nearly over. 
Transfer the mercurous nitrate thus formed, together with the excess of 
mercui'y, to a beaker containing about 200 cubic centimetres of dilute nitric 
acid (1 volume of acid to about 40 volumes of water) ; a clear solution 
should result. Prepare about 1 litre of dilute sulphuric acid (1 volume of 
acid to 3 of watei'), and while the mixture is hot add the acid mercurous 
nitrate solution to it. The solution should be added as a very fine stream 
from the narrow orifice of a pipette, and the mixture violently agitated 
during the mixing. Mercurous sulphate is precipitated. Decant the hot 
clear liquid and wash the precipitate twice by decantation with dilute sul- 
phuric acid (1 volume of acid to 6 of water). The precipitate should then 
he filtered and washed three times with dilute sulphuric acid (1 to 6), and 
afterwards 6 or 7 times with saturated cadmium sulphate solution to 
remove the acid. The mercurous sulphate should then be flooded with 
saturated cadmium sulphate solution and left for one hour, after which the 
solution is tested with congo red paper. In general no acid will be 
detected, and if so the r:jercurous sulphate is ready for use. 

To set up the cell the H form of vessel is the most convenient. The 
platinum wires inside the vessel should be amalgamated by passing an 
electric current to each in turn through an acid solution of mercurous 
nitrate. The vessel must afterwards be washed out twice with dilute 
nitric acid and several times with distilled water ; it must be free from 
stains and scrupulously clean ; it is dried by the application of heat. The 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 55 

amalgam is fused and its surface flooded with very dilute sulphuric acid ; 
sufficient of it to cover the amalgamated platinum wire completely should 
then be introduced into one of the limbs of the H vessel. To fi-ee from 
acid the amalgam may be remelted and washed with distilled water. Into 
the other limb of the vessel sufficient mercury is introduced to cover the 
amalgamated platinum wire completely. Then the paste, finely powdered 
crystals of cadmium sulphite, and saturated cadmium sulphate solution 
are added in the order named and the cell sealed. 

Its electromotive force at 20^" 0. is I'OlSj volt. 

The electromotive force at any other temperature (t) may be obtained 
from the equation : — 

E,=l-0185-0-000038 («-20)-0-00000065 (t-20y, 
the limits of temperature being — (these have not yet been fixed). 



Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Ueport of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. Preece {Chairman), Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook {Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, Dr. Chree, 
Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, 8irA. W. Rucker, awci Professor 
Schuster, 

The results of the magnetic observations at the Falmouth Observatory 
have been published in the Annual Report of the National Physical 
Laboratory, as well as in that of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic 
Society. 

The mean values of the magnetic elements for the year 1907 were : — 

Declination, . . . 18° 0''4 W. 

Horizontal Force . , 0-18799 C.G.S. 

Vertical Force , . . 043330 CG.S. 

Inclination . . . .66° 32' 7 N. 

The Observatory has been inspected by Mr, T. W. Baker, who found 
the instruments recording satisfactorily. He also took some absolute 
observations, which accorded well with those taken by Mr. Kitto. 

The Committee are informed that the observatory at Eskdalemuir has 
only commenced work during the current year, so that comparative 
results are not yet available, while the disturbances due to electric 
traction in the neighbourhood of London have a natural tendency to 
increase. The maintenance of magnetic work at Falmouth in full 
efficiency has thus lost none of its importance. It is most desirable to 
secure this for at least another year, and the Committee ask for 
reappointment, with a grant of 50^. 



56 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 



Geodetic Arc in Africa. — Jxeiwrt of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
Geoege Darwin (Chairman), Sir David Gill (Secretary), Major 
C. F. Close, ami Sir George Taubman Goldie, appointed to 
co-operate in the Measurement of a further portion of the Geodetic 
Arc of Meridian North of Lalce TanganyiJm. (Draum up hij the 
Chairman.) 

On May 7, 1907, Sir David Gill, Sir George Goldie, and Sir George 
Darwin wrote a joint letter to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
suggesting that advantage should be taken of the presence of a Boundary 
Commission in Uganda to measure a further portion of the arc of 
meridian of the 30 th degree of east longitude, and offering, on behalf of 
the Royal Society, the Royal Geographical Society, the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society, and the British Association, to contribute the sum of 
1,000Z. towards the cost of the work. 

This Committee was appointed at the meeting of the Association lield 
at Leicester. 

On August 5 and August 20 the Secretary of State wrote to Sir David 
Gill agreeing to the proposal, and offering the post of skilled observer to 
Mr. G. T. McCaw. 

On September 4 the Foreign Office suggested to the Government of 
the C-^ngo Free State the desirability of their co-operation. This was 
agreed to on December 13, and that Government agreed further to send 
and pay for a skilled observer, namely, M. Dehalu, of Liege. 

It was agreed that the whole operation of measuring the arc should 
be under the joint control of the Boundary Commissioners. 

Technical instructions were handed to Mr, McCaw on his departure 
from England, and he arrived at Toro, a point on the arc, on March 14, 
1908, having with him all his instruments. He was joined by M. Dehalu 
at Toro on April IG, 1908. 

The state of the work, as described in letters from Colonel Bright, 
the officer in charge of the Boundary Commission, and from Mr. McCaw 
on May 9, was as follows : — 

The arc-measuring party consists of Captain Jack, R.E. ; Mr. 
McCaw ; two British non-commissioned officers ; one Belgian officer ; and 
M. Dehalu. 

The preliminary reconnaissance of the arc from Lake Albert to 1° of 
S. latitude had been completed by the Commission. The final recon- 
naissance of two figures had been completed and six stations had been 
built. The base had been selected and marked and observations at one 
station had been completed. 

On the annexed map the portion of the survey, for which the stations 
are built and the corresponding triangles measured, are shown with firm 
lines. The proposed triangles for the rest of the arc are shown in dotted 
lines. 

The information contained in this report has been furnished by thp 
Wfir Office through Major C. F. Close, R.F,. 



GEODETIC ARC IN AFRICA. 



57 



Progress on Arc up to 911? May 1908. 




R A G W E 



Scale 2:000,000 or 1-014 Inches to 32 Miles 

10 go 40 



J B artholomijw S.Cc £da£ 



^ " «'''•« 



58 BEP0RT8 ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Meteorological Observations on Ben Nevis.— Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Lord McLaren (Chairman), Professor Crum Brown 
(Secretary), Sir John Murray, Professor F. W. Dyson, and Mr. 
II. T. Om'ond. 

Since the closiDg of the Ben Nevis Observatories in October 1904 the 
Committee has directed its attention to the completion of the publication 
of the meteorological observations made at the observatories. The obser- 
vations from the opening of the observatories, 1883, to the end of 1897, 
have been published in extenso in volumes xxxiv., xlii., and xliii. of the 
'Transactions' of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. The records down to 
the end of 1900 are in type, and the printing of those of the remaining 
years is being proceeded with. 

The British Association last year gave a grant of 251. to assist the 
publication of these records. This has been wholly expended in printing. 
This sum and grants received from other sources have provided sufficient 
funds to ensure the publication in the ' Transactions ' of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh of all the hourly observations made at the Ben Nevis 
Observatories, and of certain discussions of these observations made by 
the late Dr. Buchan, Mr. R. T. Omond, and others. 

The arrangements for the publication of the final volume of obser- 
vations having now been completed, the Committee do not desire 
reappointment. 



The further Tabulation qf Bessel Functions. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill (Chairman), Dr. L. N. G. 
FiLON (Secretary), and Professor Alfred Lodge. 

Further progress has been made this year with the calculations. The 

values of log sin a and thence of a have been worked out for ?i=^, 1^, 

2^, . . . 6^ (the notation being identical with the one employed in last year's 

a;" 
Report). Values of log j, where A;=|(4n^—1), have also been calculated. 

These were found to give a sequence suitable for interpolation. The 
accuracy of the results have been tested from the formula 

sec. (a„^i-«„)=R„R„+i. 

The work, however, is not sufficiently advanced for the tables to be 
printed. As the greater part of the work will now be done by members 
of the Committee personally, the necessity for a grant disappears, and 
the Committee therefore ask for reappointment without a grant. 



INVESTIGATION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE BY KITES. 50 



Iiuvcstigation of the Upper Atmosphere by means of Kites in co-opera- 
tion uith a Committee of the Royal Meteor olorjical Society. — Seventh 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Br. W . N. Shaw {Chairman), 
Mr. W. H. Dines (Secretary), Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon 
Boys, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. H. R. Mill, Professor A. 
Schuster, and Dr. W. Watson. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Meetings of the Joint Committee were held in the rooms of the 
Royal Meteorological Society on October 16, 1907, and January 22 and 
May 5, 1908. 

During the year the Committee arranged with Captain Ley tliat 
he should send up registering balloons on some of the days appointed 
by the International Committee, more particularly during the period 
July 27 to August 1, 1908, and also that he should continue the 
investigation on the direction and velocity of the upper currents V)y 
the method devised by himself, which requires only one theodolite. 

Captain Ley has carried out a valuable series of observations, and 
the results will be published in due course. 

The grant of 25^. made last year by the Association has been 
allotted to the Howard Estate Station, at Clossop Moor, for the purpose 
of supplementing the observations made there by means of a captive 
balloon, and a report on the subject by Professor Petavel is appended. 

The Committee ask for I'eappointment and for a grant of 251. 

The Captive Balloon at the Howard Estate Kite Station. 
By J. E. Petavel, F.B.S. 

The funds granted by the British Association Committee and by 
the Royal Meteorological Society have been used to erect the necessary 
gasometer and generating plant at Glossop. 

The gasometer, of some 250 cubic feet capacity, is arranged so that 
by a manipulation of the counterweights the pressure can be varied, and 
the gas passed out into the balloon or drawn back from it as may be 
required. 

Rubber balloons are used having a capacity of some 200 cubic feet. 
These are filled whenever the wind proves insufficient to raise a kite, and 
are sent up usually at sunset. The height reached varies from 5,000 feet 
above sea level in a calm to 1,500 feet or 2,000 feet in a light breeze. 
Fine steel wire, weighing 4 lb. per mile and having a breaking strain of 
50 lb., is used for the ascent. 

Up to the present an ordinary Dines kite meteorograph has been 
employed. 

The balloon is deflated and the gas drawn back into the gasometer 
each evening. 

At present some thirty ascents have been made, which are of consider- 
able value, as they maintain the continuity of the observations on days 
on which it is not possible to send up a kite. 

The apparatus has also been used by Captain Ley and others for pilot- 
balloon ascents. 



CO REPORTS 0?f THE STATE 01-' SC'lEKCE. 



63 
f.3 
Gt 



and 



Sewnologlcal Investigations. — Thirteenth Report of the Committee, con. 
sisting of Professor H. H. Turner {Chairman), Dr. J. Milne 
(Secretary), Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Sir 
George Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Professor 
J. A. EwiNG, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, Professor 
J. W. JuDD, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor E. Meldola, IMr. 
R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor 
J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, and Mv. Nelson Richardson. 
{Braini up hy the Secretary.) 

[Plates I.-IV.] 

Contents. 

I. Ocneral Notes on Stations and Registers. Relatiomhip to the Interna- 

tional SelsmoJogieal Association. New .Installations. Catalogue of 
Earthqval-e Literature. Time Signals GO 

II. Sites of Stations 62 

III. On the Orientation of an Instrument n-it/i regard to the Bvtldingin nhich 

it is placed .......... 

IV. The Large Earthqwakes of 1907 

V. After-shoclis of the Jamaica Earthqualw, Janvary II, 1907 

VI. Tlw Dissipation of Earthquahc Motion as measured hg Amplitude 
Duration .......... 

VII. On the Direction Earthquake Motion is most freely propagated . 
Vril. xi Catalogue of Destrnctirc Earthquakes . . . . 

IX. On a Seismogram obtained in London on October 16, 1007 . 

X. Map of the World. X'y R. D. Oldham 

XL .1 Catalogvc of Chi new Earthquakes. .By Shinobu HiROT.v 

I. General Notes. 

Fou assistance in the complication of this report and earthquake registers, 
together with general services rendered in the laboratory, my thanks are 
due to Mr. S. Hirota, Mr. J. H. Burgess, and Mr. H. C. O'Neill. For 
financial support, which extends to the observatory at Bidston, I have 
to thank the Royal Society, the British Association, the administrators 
of the Gray Fund, and Mr. Richard Cooke. The Committee ask to be 
reappointed and for a grant of 601^. — J. Milne. 

liegisters. — During the past year the registers issued are contained 
in Circulars Nos. 16 and 17. They refer to Shide, Kew, Bidston, Edin- 
burgh, Faisley, Haslemere, San Fernando, Malta, Capo of Good Hope, 
Azores, Calcutta, Bombay, Kodaikanal, Batavia, Cairo, Trinidad, Toronto 
Victoria, B.C., Perth, Sydney, Christchurch, Lima, Irkutsk, Beirut, 
Cordova, Baltimore, and Honolulu. 

Records have not yet been received from Melbourne and Arequipa, 
while registers from Philadelphia, Mexico, Wellington, and ]\tauritius 
should be brought up to date. 

The Sydney Register for August 1906, Circular 16, omits any reference 



67 
74 
7S 

SI 
82 
82 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 61 

to the disturbance which on the 17th of that month destroyed Valparaiso. 
The omission is due to the fact that the original seismogram had been 
loaned to the International Seismological Association, and was not 
returned in time for publication in its right place. It, however, appears 
in Circular 17. 

In other cases also the International Seismological Association have 
communicated directly with stations which for some years past have 
kindly co-opei-ated with the British Association. The result has been 
that serious inconvenience has been experienced. In connection with this 
attention may be drawn to the following resolution of the Council of the 
Royal Society of London, dated December 6, 1906 ; — 

' Eesolved — That the Council are of opinion that no change should bo 
}nade in the practice whereby all seismological reports and observations 
for the United Kingdom are collected and transmitted by Professor Milne.' 
It is fully recognised that every station which has kindly given assist- 
ance to the British Association Seismological Committee is an independent 
unit, and will therefore act upon such lines as seem best fitted to advance 
seismological investigation. 

All circulars issued by the British Association Committee are sent 
not only to cooperating stations, but to others who express a wish to 
receive them. It has been thought advisable, however, not to send original 
seismograms anywhere by post, since on several occasions these have been 
lost. As far as possible photographic copies are sent to those who desire 
them. 

Instruments. — In January and February 1907 two single-boom instru- 
ments were despatched to Capt. H. G. Lyons, Director-General Survey 
Department, Egypt. Each gives an open diagram (similar to Plate II.), 
and is oriented at right angles — one recording JST.S. motion and the other 
E.W. motion. The station is at Helwan, near Cairo. 

On January 21 a similar instrument was forwarded to W. G. Davis, 
Esq., Director of the Argentine Meteorological Observatory at Buenos 
Ayres. In October a fourth instrument, also giving an open diagram, was 
despatched to the order of the Agent- General for South Australia, to 
Adelaide. 

In May 1908 a single-boom instrument was forwarded for the Cosego 
del Servicio Geografico, Madrid ; while in J une a twin-boom seismograph 
was constructed to be used by the National Physical Laboratory in their 
new station at Eskdalemuir, South Scotland. 

Catalogues. — Considerable time has been spent in cataloguing the 
papers and books which relate to earthquake phenomena. Those in the 
English language have been completed, and Mr. O'Neill is now engaged 
upon those in foreign languages. 

Time Signals. — The clock which gives us the time for the instruments 
at Shide is regulated by a Greenwich signal which is sent daily to all 
chief post offices throughout Great Britain. From time to time this 
signal, which is not visible to the public, is kindly given to me by the 
officials at the General Post Office at Newport. This involves a 
journey of two miles. To avoid this, and to assure greater accuracy, an 
attempt was made to obtain this signal at Shide. With this object 
in view the Astronomer-Royal, and subsequently the Council of the 
British Association, wrote to the Postmaster-General. It was pointed 
out that the observatory at Shide ' has been of universal interest and of 
recognised public importance. This station serves a-s a centre for stations 



62 KEPOKTS ON liiE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

in many of our colonies and in foreign countries. Many of tliese 
foreign and colonial stations were established as the direct result of the 
action taken by the Foi-eign Office, the Colonial Office, and the India 
Office, whose assistance was given partly on the ground that the object 
in view was considered to be of practical value to her late Majesty's 
Government. The Royal Observatory at Greenwich, and other observa- 
tories, refer to Professor Milne in matters of earthquake phenomena ; 
and his observations throw light upon certain cable interruptions, indi- 
cating the times when " regulators " and other instruments found in 
observatoi'ies may have been disturbed. But, for the precise rectification 
of these observations, it will be highly desirable for Professor Milne tc 
receive time signals. Inasmuch as the observations made at Shide and 
the co-operating stations, directly or indirectly are of assistance to several 
Government departments, the Council of the British Association desire 
to urge you to authorise the transmission of the time signal to Professor 
Milne, not as a member of the public, but as an official carrying out 
observations which are of service to the State.' From the General Post 
Office the matter was referred to the Lords Commissioners of the 
Treasury. When it was found that the only condition under which 
the signal could be obtained was ' the usual rental terms,' the rental for 
the wire being 221. per annum, under an agreement for five years, 
together with the payment for installation, which was very high, the cor- 
respondence closed. 

II. Sites of Stations. 

Perth, Western Australia.^ — The instrument is established at the 
observatory, which is situated on a hill 200 feet high quite away 
from the city. The building stands in the middle of a reserve of 
11 acres and the traffic is slight. About a quarter of a mile away 
there is an electric tram. The seismograph is mounted on a concrete 
pedestal, and the clockwork on a marble slab on the top of solid 
brickwork, the whole being embedded in the concrete floor of the 
basement of the dome building. The character of the soil all round 
Perth is loose sand, which transmits vibrations only too well. Mr. Cooke, 
the Government Astronomer, fcays, ' We have had a lot of trouble and 
have taken rather unusual precautions to get rid of these vibrations in our 
transit house, but without any great success.' The Perth Mint authorities 
have had practically to give up their standard weighings owing to the 
impossibility of obtaining sufficient stability for their balances. They 
are right in the centre of the town. The sand seems to be in a state of 
perpetual quiver, and it is impossible to keep mercuiy steady — unless in 
an amalgamated trough — on any of our piers. 

Lima. — The observatory is in the Exhibition Gardens, one mile south 
of the cathedral. Long. 79° 21' 5"-2 W. of Paris. Lat. 12° 3' 5"-8 
south. Lima is built on a gently sloping plain formed of ejecta from 
Rimak during recent times. It is bounded on three sides by foot-hills 
or spurs of the Andes. Formation is gravel and conglomerate I'esting 
on andesites. Distance from sea, 4 miles ; height, 400 feet ; slope to the 
sea, 1^ per cent. ; foundations for the pillar and table are stone and 
cement to a depth of 10 feet. The boom runs north to south, the 
clock -box being at the south end. — Mr. H. Hope- Jones, Geographical 
Society, Lima. 

' Also see £.A. Eejjnrts, 1905, p. 84 ; 1906, p. 93 ; 1907, p. 87. 



BnlaM AMweiatim, 18lh Beport. DuhUn, 1908. Tht^ Large Eirthquaka of 1007. 

Oiigiai lor ISOT u« indiatcd bj tbiit B A, Bbidi B^iitei UBinbcr. EulhqB&ie dutncU m iniliFalcil &. B, C.Ac. uid tfat nnmbu a( BaiihiiiMkw t)oc« IXM which 

origiDftlcd tnHn IbeM u ■iprcaani id Urge DamuBlt. 



I 




/liiuiT<ii.nfl (A, /{epoTi im Stnmotogval Inveitigatumt 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



63 



III. On the Orientation of an Instrument with regard to the Building in 

which it is 2>laced, 

At Shide, in the Isle of Wight, one portion of the observatory runs 
east and west. It has two north and south cross- walls ; it is therefore 
very much more stiff in an east and west direction, or along its length, 
than in a direction at right angles. Storms generally strike the buildino- 
from the south or south-west — that is to say, in the direction it is most 
likely to yield. In the building there are two very heavy horizontal 
pendulums, one of which points to the south and the other towards the 
east. At the time of strong winds, or even in light gales the latter 
pendulum, even in spite of damping arrangements, responds to wind 
impacts from the south or south-west. It does this to such an extent - 
that during stormy weather it is useless as a recorder of earthquakes. I 
may add, the building is very solidly constructed ; the support for the 
pendulum is a heavy mass of concrete entirely free from the foundation 
of the building. The pendulum which points north, south, or end on to 
the direction from which gusts of wind come, remains quite steady even 
during the heaviest of storms. Both pendulums are attached to the same 
support, which is a lamp-post embedded in the concrete foundation already 
mentioned. 

IV. The Large Earthquakes of 1907. 

On the accompanying map (Plate I.) v/e find the origins of large earth- 
quakes which have occurred during 1907 indicated by their numbers as 
given in the Shide Register. The accuracy of the position of an origin which 
is indicated by the position of a number greatly varies, and is naturally 
dependent upon the data available for its determination. In certain 
instances a number only means that a particular disturbance originated 
within a certain district. For the year 1907 we see that certain of these 
districts were entirely free from megaseismic disturbances. The area which 
suffered the greatest disturbance was district F. This and its Himalayan 
continuation is one where irregularities of surface contour are pronounced, 
and it is therefore a district in which seismic instability should be ex- 
pected. The following table gives the number of large earthquakes which 
have occurred in the principal earthquake-producing regions since 
1899:- ° 



East 
Pacific 



A 
B 
C 
D 



1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 Total. Batio to D 

13 9 3 2 .3 2 2 34 IG 

5 4 10 7 6 4 3 10 49 23 

4 6 4 6 3 4 2 29 1-4 

9 113 10 4 2 21 1-0 



Total 



West 
Pacifi 



«4f : 



Total 
Grand total . 



31 20 18 18 13 6 13 14 13.S 

18 3 7 9 9 14 9 15 7 91 

4 2 8 22 22 5 15 14 6 98 

8 11 12 14 10 9 16 24 25 129 

30 16 27 45 41 28 40 53 38 318 

61 36 45 63 54 28 46 66 52 451 



43 
4-7 
61 



The first four districts are on the eastern side of the Pacific and in the 
Caribbean Sea, while the last three refer to the western side of the Pacific 



64 REPORTS ON tBe STATE OF SCIENCE. 

aud the Himalayan ridges. The totals for these groups of districts show 
that the greatest seismic activity has been on the Asiatic side of the Paciflo 
Ocean, particularly in the East Indian Archipelago. The least disturbed 
district has been the west side of South America. Another feature of 
interest shown by these totals is that from the year 1902 they rise and fall 
together ; that is to say, seismic frequency on the two sides of the Pacific 
has fluctuated similarly. From this we may infer that seismic frequency 
in a district is not entirely governed by local influences, but largely by 
influences which extend over very large areas. As illustrative of the.«e 
latter influences attention may be called to the redistribution of surface 
materials by ocean currents, or to stresses which may accompany unusual 
changes in the path followed by the pole of our earth. 

V. A/ter'-shocks of the Jamaica Earthquake, January 14, 1907. 

In an official report. No. .33a, on the earthquake of January 14, 1907, 
by Maxwell Hall, the time given for the commencement of the main dis- 
turbance is 3.29 P.M. (Jamaica time). The difference in longitude between 
Kingston and England is equivalent to 5h. 7m., and the time which 
laro-e waves would take to travel between these places or 67° would be 
43m. The time at which this particular phase of motion would be 
recorded in England would approximately be 21h. 19m. (Gr.M.T.) 
Inasmuch as Mr. Maxwell Hall's time refers to an observation made at 
Chapleton, and not at Kingston, we should expect the arrival of waves 
in England to be one or two minutes earlier than the time we have just 
given, and as a matter of fact they were recorded at the Isle of Wight at 
21h. 17m. During the night of the 14th and 15th, we learn from the 
same report that 15 shocks were counted at Kingston. The times at which 
these occurred are not given, but as they appear to have been noted by 
persons out of doors we regard them as the more violent members of 
a much larger series. In the Isle of "Wight small disturbances were 
recorded on the 14th at 23.40, 23.45, 23.52, and on the 15th at 0.2, 0.22, 
0,32, 0.41, 0.43, and 0.45. We cannot say with certainty that these had 
their origin in the West Indies ; it is, however, extremely likely that 
this is the case. With regard to many of the shocks in Jamaica, the 
times of which are given by Mr. Maxwell Hall, the case is different. 
Between January 14, 7.5 p.m., and July 5, 2.10 p.m. (Jamaica time), 14S 
disturbances were recorded. Corresponding to 51 of these a seismograph 
in the Isle of Wight shows groups of tiny tremors, each of which was 
recorded at practically 43 minutes after a shock in Jamaica. The con- 
clusion therefore is that the tremor groups i-epresent after-shocks which 
have been sufficiently intense to traverse a distance greater than the 
width of the Atlantic. They do not appear to have been recorded at 
Strassburg, Gottingen, or I^aibach, although the distance of these places 
is but little greater than the distance to the Isle of Wight. As this is 
the first time that a series of after-shocks has been recorded so far from 
their origin, and as the records of the same illustrate the high sensibility 
of the Milne horizontal pendulum, I give a list of these movements. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



A^ter-shoclis of the Earthquake at Jamaica, which icerc recorded 
in England, Januari/ 14, ]907. 







G.M.T.— Time 


G.M.T.-Timo 




Jamaica Time 


when Shock 


when a Disturbance 





should reach 


was recorded in 






England 


England 


2. January 14 


8.3 P.M. 


January 15, 1.53 


1.52 


3. 


9.2 P.M. 


2.52 


2.53 


4. 


10.0 P.M. 


3.50 


3.39 and 3.51 


5. 


11.15 P.M. 


55 


5.4 


G. January 15 


1.40 A.M. 


7.30 


7.25, 7.40 


7. 


3.0 A.M. 


8.50 


8.45 to 8.50 


8. 


3.30 AM. 


9.20 


9.19 


9. 


G.O A.M. 


11.50 


11.45 


10. 


10-0 A.M. 


15.50 


15.45 


11. 


11.25 A.M. 


17.15 


17.14 


12. 


11.58 A.M. 


17.48 


18.12 


13. January 1 


2.55 A.M. • 


8.45 


8.45 to 8.57 


14. January 17 


11 30 A.M. 


17.20 


17.19 


15. January 18 


11.30 A.M. 


17.20 


17.20 


IG. January 10 


3.0 A.M. 


8.50 


8.50 


17. 


9.30 A.M. 


15.20 


15.22 


18. 


10.50 A.M. 


16.40 


16.35 


19. January 21 


G.O P.M. 


23..50 


23.45 


20. January 28 


4.33 A.M. 


10.23 


10.18 


21. 


8 A.M. 


13.50 


13.53 


22. January 30 


7.21 A.M. 


13.11 


13.11 


23. 


8.20 A.M. 


14.10 


14.11 


24. February 4 


4.0 A.M. 


9.50 


9.45 


25. 


7.0 AM. 


12.50 


12.55 


26. February 5 


1.30 A.M. 


7.20 


7.11 


27. 


5.15 A.M. 


11.5 


11.15 


28. 


10.59 P.M. 


February G, 4.49 


4.38 


29. February G 


2.55 A M. 


8.45 


8 to 9 


30. February 10 . 


12.20 A.M. 


6.10 


6.10 


31. 


2.0 P.M. 


19.50 


19.48 


B2. Februrry 1 1 . 


5.30 P.M. 


23.20 


23.22 


33. Februc-ry 22 . 


6.15 P.M. 


February 23, 0..5 


as 


34. February 28 . 


7.40 A.M. 


13.30 


13.35 


3.".. March 1 . 


4.15 A.M. 


10.5 


10.7 


3t). March 8 . 




4.15 AM. 


10.5 


10.4 


37. March 9 . 




5.45 A.M. 


11.35 


11.30 


38. March 11 




1.50 A.M 


7 40 


7.42 


39. March 1 4 




11.0 P.M. 


March 15, 4.50 


4.53 


40. March 17 




G.30 A.M. 


12.20 


12.15 


41. 




7.45 P.M. 


March 18, 1.35 


1.20 


42. March 19 




6.10 A.M. 


120 


12.7 


43. March 27 




8.55 A.M. 


14.45 


14.40 


44. March 28 




8.30 A.M. 


14.20 


14.25 


45. April IG 




7.0 A.M. 


12.50 


12.58 


4G. May 1 




3.45 P.M. 


21.35 


21.2.T 


47. „ 




8.30 P.M. 


May 2, 2.20 


2.20 


48. May 3 




11.10 a.m. 


17.0 


17.2 


49. June 13 




1.18 AM. 


7.8 


7.1 


50. June IG 




ll.O A.M. 


16.50 


16.56 


51. July 1 




5.10 A.M. 


11.0 


11.1 


52. July 5 




2.10 P.M. 


20.0 


20.3 



The decay in seismic activity, as indicated by a decrease in the frequency of 
aCtcr-shocki, is shown by the left-band curves in fig. 1. 

1908. F 



66 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Fig. 1. 
After-shocks of the Jamaica Earthquake, January 11, 1907. 



« 
/3 
iz 
II 
10 

I' 















/ 


48 
4'y 














/ 


4£ 


\ 












/ 


S9 


\ 












/ 


,16 


\ 












/^ 


.1."? 


\ \ 










y 




an 


\ \ 










y 




?7 


\ Y 










y 




?4 


\ \ 








/' 




?l 


\n \ 








nr^ 






IS. 


\ > 


^ 












let 


\ 


^v 




^^ 








iP^. 


\ 


^x. 




^^^ 








9^ 


\ 


^ 












e 5 
















.-'i^ 




'*«...^ 












< 











14 I 5 JAN. 19 



e 



13 



18 



Z4 29 3 FEB. 

I = After-shocks in Jamaica. 
I[ = After-shocks which reached Great Britain. 
Ill = Mean time intervals between after-shocks in Jamaica. 

The Time hitervals between After-shocks. 

As we recede from the primary shock the intervals between the after- 
shocks ought to become greater and greater, the increase in time interval 
indicating the nearness of approach to complete settlement. But in 
taking means of the intervals, as pointed out by Mr. O'Neill, a grave 
error may creep in by reckoning the means over arbitrary periods. In 
this way, to reckon the mean interval between the shocks for each day, 
three dajs, or each week, may or may not give any satisfactory result. It is 
mere chance in either case. But if we take tlie intervals over a sufficiently 
long period, and take means at points where the intervals have appreciably 
increased, we stand to obtain a result which more nearly approaches a true 
statement of the case. Thus means were first taken from day to day 
between January 14 and February 17, and the daily means worked out 
as follows : Ih. 19m., 2h. 31m., 5h. 20m., 5h. Im., 3h. 11m., 2h. 41m., 
4h. 48m., 6h. 21m., 3h. 38m., 5h. Om., llh. 51m., 19h. 30m., lOh. 52m., 
18h. 40m., 14h. 10m., 6h. 38m., 18h. 18m., 28h. Om., 23h. 55m., 24h. 10m., 
13h. 57m., 7h. 10m., 8h. 28m., 35h. 8m., Gh. 5m., 82h. 40m. Now it will 
be noticed that there are appreciable increases on the ITtb, when the 
mean becomes about 5 hours. Another occurs on the 21st, when the 
interval has reached bh. 21m. On the 25th it has become 19h. 30m., on 
the 31st, 28h. Om., on February 6, 35h. 8m., and on the 11th, 82h. 40m. 

If, then, we take means at these points we obtain results as follows, 
which show a constant increase in the time intervals as the distance from 
the primary shock increases. 

Between January 14 and January 17, for 24 intervals, the mean is 3h. lOra. 
17 „ 21, „ 27 „ „ ah. 48m. 

7h. 21ni. 

12h. 3m. 

14h. 4fim. 

„ 4Cb. 52m. 

The right-hand curve in fig. 1 shows the rate at which the intervals 
between after-shocks increased and seismic stability was approached. This 
curve, which should be the inverse of the upper curve in the left-hand side 
of the figure, is now shown, I believe, for the first time. 





21 „ 2.5, 


» 12 


)1 


25 „ 21, 


.. 15 


t» 


31 and February 6, 


,, 14 


lar 


y C „ 17, 


,- 4 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 67 

VI. On the Dissipation of Earthquake Motion as measured hy 
Amplitude and Duration. 

In order to obtain some idea of the manner in which a very large 
earthquake approaches extinction as it radiates, a comparison has been 
made of the amplitude and duration of motion of twenty-two large earth- 
quakes, as recorded by instruments installed at varying distances from 
megaseismic origins. 

The iirst question which arises relates to the comparability of the 
records. The instruments which give the records here used are, for the 
most part, the type adopted by the British Association — viz., Milne hori- 
zontal pendulums. A single record of a world-shaking earthquake from 
one of these instruments or from any other instruments would by two 
observers be interpreted for amplitude in a similar manner. For duration 
however, this would not necessarily be the case. An examination of the 
film by one observer might make the duration a few minutes longer or 
shorter than that determined by another observer. Again, two similar 
and similarly adjusted instruments beneath the same roof may yield 
records showing slight differences, particularly with regard to duration. 
A complexity of factors conspire to render seismograms obtained from 
what we regard as similar, similarly adjusted, and similarly installed 
seismographs not strictly comparable. They are, however, to a certain 
extent comparable, and an estimate of this comparability may be obtained 
by an examination of a series of teleseismograms obtained from instruments 
installed over an area like that of Great Britain, each part of which is 
practically at the same distance from all very distant origins. In Britain 
we have stations at Shide (Isle of Wight), Kew, Bidston (near Liverpool), 
and at Edinburgh, each of which is provided with British Association 
pendulums. The foundations at these places are respectively chalk, 
alluvium, red sandstone, and volcanic rock. The records for amplitudes 
for earthquakes with distant origins have been as follows.^ 

Amplitudes. — For seventeen large earthquakes the average amplitudes 
measured in millimetres were as follows : Shide, 2'1; Bidston, 1*4 • Edin- 
burgh, 1-4 ; and Kew, 1-5. Three of these are distinctly comparable. 

1. Decrease in Amplitude. 

As illustrative of the decrease in amplitude six large earthquakes have 
been selected from the catalogue of earthquakes recorded in the Antarctic 
regions in the years 1902-3. This catalogue is now being published. The 
dates and origins of the selected disturbances are the tirst six given on 
page 72. At distances varying between 30° and 165^ from the above 
origins, records were made of each of these earthquakes at many stations. 
The actual number of observations are given on page 72. The instruments 
used were in all cases Milne horizontal pendulums. The amplitudes in 
millimetres in relation to distances from origins measured in degrees are 
shown in tig. 2. The small figures on a curve indicate the number of 
stations at or near given distances from an origin which were used to com- 
pute an indicated amplitude ; thus for earthquake No. I., at a distance of 
25° from its origin, one station gave an amplitude of 5-8 mm. At about 
50° the average amplitude for four stations was 3mm., &c. 

' See Brit. Assoc. Reports for 1901, p. 48, and 1903, p. 82. 



68 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Fig. 2. 
Curves of Amplitude from Mibtc Il.P. 



f3 


1 


1 


\ 


n 


l^ 


































\ 


\ 




























1? 








\ 






























n 






\ 


1 




























10 












2 


























.9 










\ 


\ 






































V 


\ 
























fl 




, 








\ 


\ 
























7 














^ 


\ 






















e 
















\ 


\ 




















5 






\ 


I 










\ 


\ 


























\ 












\ 


^ 
















4 








\ 












\ 


\ 
















3 




1 




VI 


\ 


4 










\ 


^ 




















i 


? 


\ 


\ 


S. 










•-i 


^ 


- 


-^ 




e 




■ ? 






\ 


\, 






\> 


s 










\ 












1 






2 


^ 


:\ 




S 


^^ 


\ 


7 


>. 


5 




\ 


..3 








i. 










2^ 




^ 


?■ 


3 

^4 




\ 


\3 


^ 


^ 


■^ 


/ 







1 2 3 4 5 6 7 d 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 160° 
Decrees en tens. 

Curves for earthquakes I., II., III., and V. eIiow that up to a certain 
distance from an origin, amplitude is inversely proportional to distance. 
After this the curves for amplitude rapidly become less steep and 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVKSTIGATIONS. .69 

tend to be asymptotic to the ordinate for distance. The distance from 
an origin at which a curve tends to be asymptotic is apparently dependent 
upon the intensity of the originating impulse, which may be estimated by 
the magnitude of the records near to an origin and the distance at which 
cQects of the impulse have been recorded. 

The rapid decrease in amplitude shown in the curves is probably in 
large measure due to the spreading out of the waves as they approach 
their equatorial region, and also to frictional resistance. An estimate of 
this latter factor has been made by Dr. C. G. Knott. The data on which 
the estimate is based will be found in the chapter on Seismic Radiations 
in his forthcoming work on the Physics of Earthquake Phenomena. By 
a comparison of the maximum amplitudes of the records of an earthquake 
produced at any one station, a.s the tremors have passed through the 
minor arc or through the major arc connecting the epicentre with the 
station, he found that, in virtue of viscosity of the material, the amplitude 
of the Large Waves is cut down to half its amount at a distance of 41°"2. 

Observations which indicate that certain earthquakes, although not 
recorded in their quadrantal region, but may be recordable in antipodean 
regions, suggest that the curves we have given would, if continued, have 
a slight rise upwards.^ 

2. Changes in Duration. 

An indication of the value which may be placed upon a set of similar 
instruments as recorders of the duration of earthquakes which have 
originated at great distances, the following figures are quoted fi'om 
the British Association Reports in 1901, p. 47 ; 190.3, p. 82. For 
cwenty-four large earthquakes recorded at Shide, Edinburgh, Bidston, and 
Kew, the total durations were respectively 1,493, 1,-516, 1,464, and 1,.371 
minutes. The average durations of these earthquakes were therefore 62, 
63, 61, and 57 minutes. These figures show that although the instru- 
ments at these stations wei-e installed upon very difTerent foundations, 
already described, the records they yielded were in close accordance. 
They also tend to confirm the idea I have frequently expressed — viz., that 
with megaseismic movements the crust of the world moves much in the same 
way as a raft does upon the ocean. All parts of it, whether alluvium or 
crystalline, respond to forced oscillations. For a small earthquake, by 
which is meant one which only disturbs a small area, the result is dif- 
ferent. In this case stations in close proximity to each other may yield 
records of duration and amplitude which, amongst other things, depend 
upon the nature of the strata upon which the instruments have been 
installed. If a list is made of the duration of local shocks, and this is com- 
bined with a list giving the duration of teleseismic movements, it would 
appear that the duration of earthquakes increases with the distances of their 
origins. Such a result, however, is based upon records which are hardly 
comparable — one is a vibration of the earth's crust, whilst the other, to a 
great extent at least, appears to be due to a mass movement in the mate- 
rial beneath the crust. Attention was drawn to this in a British Associa- 
tion Report, 1892, pp. 225-227. In that report I expressed the view that 
both types of disturbance as they radiated exhibited a duration which 
became less and less. Now that we have many records of durations for 
given large earthquakes, which wei-e obtained at widely separated station.s, 

' Proc. Roy. Soc, Vol. A76, 1805, p. 293 



70 REPORTS ON TflE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

the statement made nine years ago, so far as it relates to megaseisms, 
requires modification. In many instances it appeared that as a given 
world-shaking earthquake travelled away from its origin, there had 
been an increase in its duration. The matter seems to be of sufficient 
interest to demand close examination. This was undertaken by Mr. H. C. 
O'Neill, and the results at which he arrived are as follows : — 

' The difficulty in attacking this problem plainly emerged when a num- 
ber of earthquakes had been plotted on squared paper, with distance and 
duration as ordinates and absciss* respectively. It is known that 
earthquake motion starts from (what may be regarded as) a point, and 
that it communicates its motion to distant parts of the earth's surface. 
At times the intensity of the shock is not sufficient to send waves as far 
as the antipodes of the centrum. "We have therefore a point whence the 
motion starts and a point beyond which it is not recorded ; and as the latter 
has zero duration, it seems probable that the former has the maximum dura- 
tion, and that the durations grow less as they approach the zero position. 
It was with the object of testing this inference that the investigation was 
commenced. The " Katalog der im Jahre 1904 Registrierten Seismischen 
Storungen," published by the Central Bureau of the International Seis- 
mological Association, offered the material ready made. Twenty-six 
earthquakes were taken from Liste A, giving 991 observations in all. 
Several of these were plotted on squared paper, but the curves were too 
irregular to yield any satisfactory conclusion, and an attempt to delete 
the most irregular observations offered too much opening to unconscious 
selection. Professor Pearson's method ' for deriving correlation between 
two variables was therefore selected in order to avoid this. But it was 
necessary to secure a large number of comparable observations. Taking 
the mean of all the observed durations for a given earthquake, it is clear 
that the durations of different earthquakes are not comparable as they 
stand. The means for several earthquakes (in minutes) were 108'7, 
94-13, 56-66, 52-42, 86-96, 67-6-2, 29-11, 49-62, 93-0, 199-2 ; and these 
show with sufficient clearness the point suggested. Some method was 
therefore required to obtain figures that should be more or less indepen- 
dent of any given earthquake. The readiest and simplest method that 
seemed to achieve this (suggested by Professor Pearson) is as follows : 
if X be the duration of a given earthquake at a given distance d, and if 
X be the mean of all the observed durations for the same earthquake, 
then the new duration character X at the given distance d is given by 

ac — X X , 

Since —1 is common to all, it may be neglected for calculating the corre- 
lation when X for distance c? = -. The 991 observations treated by this 

method were then arranged for correlation, when the result was "06, with 
the probable error ± -02. This means that if 1 represents perfect corre- 
lation and complete absence of it, then -06 represents the degree of 
correlation between distance and duration. And the result is to be 
interpreted as showing that the correlation is very small, but may be 
just significant, as it is three times the probable error ; or, that the^ 

' A good account of this method and the nature of problems it is designed to 
treat is to be found in Frequency Curves and Correlation, by W. Palin Elderton. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



71 



variants are sufficiently numerous to render a larger correlation non- 
emergent. . 

« A tabulated list was then made of the stations which stood out, on 
the curves plotted originally, as abnormal— i.e., those that stood at the 
head of very steep gradients when the points representing the observations 
were joined ; such observations represented in numbers 2 to 4 a: A list 
of these showed that the results from six stations were consistently abnor- 
mal at whatever distance from the origin they might be situated in different 
earthquakes. These stations were Irkutsk, Taschkent, Dorpat, Niko- 
laiev, Potsdam, and Hamburg, and they were accordingly deleted as 
representing a negligible variant. The curves were not much improved 
by this treatment, however, and so the correlation was re-calculated. 
This time thirty-one earthquakes were taken from Liste A in the 
Katalog, six from " Earthquakes and other Earth Movements recorded in 
the Antarctic Regions, 1902-3 " (Royal Society— in press), and the Great 
Indian Earthquake of 1905 from Part II. of the report (Earthquake 
Investigation Committee, Tokyo, 1907). These gave 1,029 observations 
in all, and the correlation came out as -10, with the probable error ± -02, 
a more significant correlation.' 

The next step in the investigations was to plot the duration of a given 
earthquake as recorded at stations situated at different distances from an 
origin upon squared paper. This was done for twenty-two disturbances, 
the distances of stations from origins varying from between 20° and 160°. 
The resulting curves or figures were, as might be expected, serrated in 
appearance (see dotted line, tig. 3), but still the greater number of them 
suc^sested that duration increased as the distance from the origin increased. 



Fig. 3. 



Mins 
200 



150 



100 



5 



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 10 H 12 13 14 150° 

Degrees in tens. 

No. I, March 28, 1903. Shide List, No. 601. 
Origin Banda. Nineteen observations. 

When a number of stations at approximately the same distance from an 
origin were taken in groups and a mean time for each group was plotted 
against a mean distance an increase of duration with distance became 
more pronounced. The general trend or approximate curves for the first 
twelve of these figures is shown in fig. 4. The meaning of line No. I., 
for example, is that this earthquake at a distance of 25° from its origin 
had a duration of 135 minutes, while at 130° distant the duration was 
about 178 minutes. It is identical with the thick line shown in fig. 3. 
These durations are those indicated on seismograms jjIus the time taken 
for preliminary tremors to travel from an origin to the observing stations. 
Whether this correction is or is not necessary, because it is small, its 
effect upon the general result is small also. For four of the earthquakes, 



72 



HEPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Nos. II., III., XL, and XII., the duration at the commencement and at 
the end of the movement is practically the same. It cannot be said to 
be less. For the remainder the duration at tlie eud is distinctly greater 
tlian near the beginning. The greatest duration has generally been in 
regions lying between 70° and 110° from an origin; that is to say, in 
a quadrantal region where amplitude is least and approaches a constant 
value. 

/ The following is a list of the twelve earthquakes employed, with their 
origins and the number of observations which were used in determining 
each curve : — 



No. 


Date 


Shide No. 


Origin 


No. of 
Observations 


1 


March 28, 1902 


601 


Hanrla 


19 


2 


Mav 2, 1 902 


607 


N.E. Japan 


8 


a 


May 8, 1<)02 


609 


N. of Philippines 


13 


4 


Sept. 22, 1902 


641 


Guam 


22 


5 


Sept. 23, 1902 


642 


Guatemala 


20 


6 


Nov. 21, 1902 


659 


Formosa 


24 


7 


Jan. 20, 1904 


806 


Costa Rica (?) 


35 


8 


March 19, 1904 


826 


29° S. 71° W. (?) 


26 


9 


March 31. 190 1 


832 


95° E. 40° N. 


3.-. 


10 


April 4, 1904 


834 


23° E. 41° N. 


28 


11 


April 5, 1904 


835 


102° E. 30° N. 


27 


12 


Aug. 24, 1901 


881 


Philippines 


43 



For Nos. 1-6 only records from Milne instruments were employed. 
For the remainder the records were obtained from stations for the most 
part employing Milne instruments, but not in all cases. One explanation 

Fig. 4. 
Duration of Selected Eartliquahcs in relation to Distan e. 

250\ 




Degrees. t- t- >. -r- 



C5 o o 
lO <« t^ 



oo 



for the observations which have been made upon amplitude and duration 
is that at the time of a very large earthquake the material inside our 
earth is moved as a whole, 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



73 



Fig. 5 indicates that the mean duration of an earthquake increases 
with the distance to which it is propagated. This in turn is dependent 

Fig. 5. 
Mean Duration of nercral FartJiquaJtes and the Dhtance they hare travelled. 



feo 

170 










'877 


j 


659 


'806 


f60 








8'38 


857 

• 


J847 


• 


884- 


150 












/ 


»82e 




140 








889 




8581 








130 






93.0 


759' 
'835' 


886/ 




'899 




120 








887' 


/ .834 








//a 






609, 


904/ 


971 










100 








857/96 
832 


^3 
'872 








90 








1 










80 






j 












70 






1 












60 


















50 






1 












40 




1 














30 




/ 














20 


6i 


836 


873 












b /o 










The n 
the 


umbers 
Shide 


refer 
Resist 


to 
er. 


^0 


) 

















O 15 30 45 60 75 90 705 720 
Minutes. 

upon the intensity of tlio initial impulse. Fig. 4 leads to similar 
conclusion^. 



74 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

VII. On the Direction in which Earthquake Motion is most freely 

2)ropagated. 

We frequently see the isoseists of an earthquake in the form of 
ellipses, which indicate that motion of a given intensity has been propa- 
gated farthest in a particular direction. In a discussion of earthquakes 
observed in the Antarctic regions, see 'Proceedings, Royal Society,' Vol. 
A76, 1905, p. 293, I showed that certain large earthquakes had travelled 
round the world in bands, the length of which had their greatest exten- 
sion from their origins in particular directions. The object of the pi'esent 
note is to show that certain large earthquakes with approximately known 
origins in the Northern Hemisphere have been recoi'dable at a greater 
distance measured towards the west than towai'ds the east. Also the 
distance to which the motion extended across and to the south of the 
equator was less than the distance to which it travelled east or west in 
the Northern Hemisphere. The phase of motion here referred to is that of 
the large waves which travel to greater distances than their precursors. 
This particular phase has a practically constant speed, whether its path 
is across the alluvial plains of Asia, the granites of North America, or 
beneath an ocean. The crust of tlie world is apparently influenced by 
movement in a medium which it covers. The number of earthquakes 
considered has been seventy-four, and they are designated by their Shide 
number given in tiie registers published by the British Association. Their 
origins were in one of the following three districts ; — 

Distiiet No. 1 is south of the Caucasus, approximately 40° N. lat. and 
45° E. long. The earthquakes considered are 588, 595, 598, 704, 705, 
7136, 948, 1,077, 952, and 1,351. 

District No. 2 is north of Eastern India, approximately 80° E. long, 
and 30° N. lat. The earthquakes considered are 618, 6136, 663, 626, 
640, 644, 662, 632, 653, 676, 696, 692, 689, 793c, 720, 684, 679, 832, 
833, 982, 1,070, 1,052, 1,036, 1,038, 963, 9,836, 1,0446, 1,320, 1,293, 
1,184, 1,133, 1,240, 1,208, 1,135, 1,264, 1,167, 1,129, 1,153, 1,468, and 
1,475. 

District No. 3 is east coast of Japan and north of the Philippines, 
approximately 1 30° E. long, and 30° N. lat. The earthquakes considered 
are 899, 8966, 935, 1,150, 857, 963, 1,166, 1,145, 1,387, 861, 859, 860, 863, 
1,111, 1,266, 858, 903, 1,010, 1,274, 1,116, 1,130, 1,163, 1,386, and 
862. 

In the following three tables which refer to these districts we find in 
the successive columns — 1st, the names of stations where earthquakes were 
recorded ; 2nd, the approximate distance of a station from an origin ; 
3rd, the number of earthquakes which we should expect to have been 
recorded ; 4th, the number of earthquakes which were actually recorded ; 
5th, the percentage of possible records. Stations the names of v/hich are 
printed in italics are in the Southern Hemisphere. 

In Great Britain there are five stations, and therefore the opportunities 
for obtaining records have been greater than they were at isolated stations. 
This partly may explain the high percentage of records obtained in 
Britain. But if we reduce the number of records obtained in Britain to 
the number obtained at San Fernando in Spain, where there is only one 
instrument, the general result is but little altered. A similar remark 
applies to India, where there are three stations. In New Zealand there 
are two stations. In Manila the instrument is not of the Milne type. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



75 



District No. 1, South of the Caucasus. 



Station 


Distance 


Possible 
Records 


Actual 
Records 


Percentage of 
Records 


Beirut .... 




10 


4 


4 


100 


Cairo 




16 


7 


2 


28 


British stations 




32 


10 


10 


100 


San Fernando . 




38 


10 


8 


80 


Indian stations 




38 


10 


6 


60 


Irkutsk . 




44 


9 


5 . 


55 


Mauritius 




60 


7 


2 


28 


Japan 




72 


9 








Batavia . 




74 


10 


2 


20 


Cape Tonn 




75 


10 


3 


30 


Toronto . 




80 


10 


4 


40 


Victoria . 




88 


10 


4 


40 


Australia . 




98 


10 


2 


20 


Honolulu . 




115 


7 


2 


28 


Cordova . 




125 


10 


2 


20 


New Zealand . 




135 


10 


2 


20 


^ 


Vistric 


t No. 2, Nort} 


i of Eastern India. 









Possible 


Actual 


Percentage of 


Station 


Distance 


Eecords 
40 


Records 


Records 


Indian stations 


o 

12 


38 


95 


Irkutsk . 






28 


38 


35 


92 


Beirut 








36 


23 


16 


69 


Manila 








38 


17 


11 


61 


Cairo 








40 


33 


17 


50 


Batavia . 








45 


40 


30 


75 


Japan 








50 


32 


14 


45 


Mauritius 








55 


31 


14 


45 


British stations 








62 


40 


39 


97 


San Fernando 








70 


40 


25 


62 


Australia . 








70 


40 


17 


42 


Cape Town 








85 


39 


16 


41 


Victoria, B.C. 








95 


40 


24 


60 


Toronto . 








100 


40 


21 


52 


Honolulu . 








105 


26 


16 


66 


Ne7v Zealand 








105 


36 


5 


14 


Cordova . 








155 


28 


7 


24 



District No. 3, Japan 


and the Philippines. 




Station 


Distance 


Possible 
Eecords 


Actual 
Records 


Percentage of 
Records 


Irkutsk .... 


o 

30 


22 


17 


77 


Batavia . 




40 


21 


11 


52 


Indian stations 




45 


24 


18 


75 


Honolulu . 




60 


24 


17 


71 


Australia . 




60 


24 


13 


64 


Victoria, B.C. . 




72 


24 


12 


50 


Mauritius 




75 


24 


7 


29 


Beirut 




78 


22 


14 


64 


New Zealand . 




82 


24 


4 


17 


British stations 




88 


24 


24 


100 


Toronto . 




98 


24 


13 • 


53 


San Fernando . 




100 


24 


17 


71 


Cape Town 




120 


24 


7 


29 


Cordova . 




165 


24 


5 


21 



76 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIEKCE. 



From the above three tables, if we omit Batavia, it being near the 
Equator, we obtain the following results : — 

In District No. 1 the live stations in the Southern Hemisphere have 
an average distance from an origin of 98°, and the average number 
of records has been 23 per cent. The remaining nine stations in the 
Northern Hemisphere had an average distance of 51°, while the average 
percentage of their records is 59. 

For District No. 2 the average distsjice from an origin for five 
southern stations was 94°, and the average psrcentage of records was 33. 
The corresponding figures for the eleven northern stations are 58° and 
68 per cent. 

For District No. 3 the figures for the five southern stations are 100° 
and 30 per cent. The corresponding figures for the eight northern stations 
are 71° and 70 percent. 

The averages for the three districts taken together are for the 
southern stations 97° distance and 39 per cent, of records, while for the 
Northern Hemisphere we get 60° and 66 per cent. 

When looking at the above three tables it must be remembered that 
amplitude of motion decreases rapidly with distance from an origin, and 
therefore too much stress should not be put upon the fact that stations in 
the Southern Hemispliere were at greater distances from origins than those 
in the Northern Hemisphere. On p. 77 we compare stations in the two 
hemispheres which are at equal distances from origins. 

Comparison of Records obtained from Stations lyir.r; to the D'fst of Oiiyirs ivilh 
those ichich lie to the East. The S/ationx comjjared are approxitnatcly at Ike 
same Distance from the Oritjins considered. 



Stations to 



Station 



San Fernando 

Toronto 

Victoria 

Average . 



District No. 1. 



West. 
Dis- 
tance 

o 

38 
80 
80 

69 



Percentage 
of Records 

80 
40 
40 

63 



Station 

India 

Batavia 

Honolulu 

Average 



Stations to East. 
Dis- 
tance 

o 

. :5S 

. 74 
. 115 



Percentage 
of Records 

60 
20 

28 

36 



Beirut . 
Cairo . 

Average 



36 
40 

38 



District No. 2. 



69 

50 

59 



Mauritius 
Japan . 

Average 



38 
50 

44 



61 
45 

63 



Beirut . 

San Fernando 

fcan Fernando 

Average . 



78 
100 
100 

93 



District No. 3. 



64 

71 
71 

69 



Victoria 
Toronto 

Victoria 

Average 



72 


60 


98 


53 


72 


60 



78 



51 



The ger.eral average for the three districts combined is for the 
westeria stations a distance of 66° and 60 per cent, of records; whilst 
for the eastern stations the distance is also 66°, but the number of 
records fall to 4C per cent. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



77 



These figures, whetlier taken collectively or as entries for any pair of 
stations, apparently indicate that earthquake motion is propagated more 
freely towards the west than it is to the east. 

Comparison of Records obtained from Stations in the Koi'thern Hemisphere un'tJi 
those obtained in the Souther?! Hemisphere. All Stations which arc comiiared 
are at approximately the same distance from the Origins considered. 

District No. 1. 



Stations in Southern Hcmhjjheje. 



Stations ill Xortlicrii Hemisphere. 



Station 

Cape Town . 
Australia 
Cordova 
Nev/ Zealai d 

Average . 



Mauritius . 
Australia 
Cape Town . 
New Zealand 

Average . 



Australia 
Mauritius . 
New Zealand 
Cape Town , 
Average . 
If we take 



Dis- Percentage 
tance of Records 



75 
98 

125 
135 

108 



70 . 

85 
105 

79 • 



60 
75 

82 
120 



30 
20 
20 
£0 



22 



Station 

Toronto 

Victoria 

Victoria 

Honolulu 

Honolulu 

Average 



Dis- 


Percentage 


tance 


of Kecords 


o 

80 


40 


88 


40 


88 


40 


115 


28 


115 


28 








97 



3t 



District No. 2. 

45 
42 
41 
14 



35 



Japan . 


. 50 


45 


San Fernando 


. 70 


62 


Victoria 


. 95 


60 


Honolulu . 


. 108 


6G 


Toronto 


. 100 


52 


Victoiia 


. 95 


60 



Average 



86 



57 



District No. 3 
54 
29 



88 



17 
29 
33 



Honolulu 

Victoria 
Victoria 
Beirut . 
Beirut . 
British stations! 
San Fernando 

Averajje . 



60 


71 


72 


50 


72 


50 


78 


64 


78 


64 


88 


100 


00 


71 



68 



an average for the above three districts we get for the 
Southern Hemisphere an average distance of 90°, with an average per- 
centage of records of 29 per cent. For the Northern Hemisphere the 
corresponding figures are 87° and 53 per cent. 

General Conclusions. 

The General Conclusions are^ ^rsf, that a greater percentage of earth- 
quakes travel farther west, or against the motion of the earth, than they 
do towards the east ; and second, that the range of recorded motion across 
the Equator to the south is shorter than it is towards the east or west. 

In any hypothesis to explain these observations we should bear in 
mind that the direction in which a given earthquake travels farthest will 
Involve, amongst others, the following considerations : — 

1. What wag the direction in which a given initial impulse was 
delivered 1 If the seventy-five carthauakes wc have discussed all 



78 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

originated from faults which ran north and south and haded to the west, 
which, however, is not likely, we should have a complete explanation of 
what has been noted. 

2. Has the direction in which a primary impulse was delivered been 
southwards towards the Equator, or in the direction of the latitude of its 
origin 1 

3. Have the wave paths been sub-oceanic or sub-continental 1 In the 
first case we have a ' tapping ofif ' of energy by a layer of water, and in the 
second by a layer of air. 

4. The wave movement we are considei'ing has been recorded upon the 
upper surface of the crust of our earth. To what depth beneath this 
covering does this movement extend ? Are we dealing with a movement 
which is merely superficial or one which extends to a considerable depth 
in the material beneath the crust ? Are the factors which govern wave 
speed within our earth the same in all directions ? 

VIII. A Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes. 
(Still iu preparation.) 

The catalogue to which I wish to draw attention only refers to earth- 
quakes which have caused structural damage. The earthquakes which 
are marked I. ai'e those which have had an intensity sufficient to crack 
walls or break chimneys. Tliis implies that the acceleration or rapidity 
of change of motion may have been about 1,000 mm. per second, and 
the destructivity has usually been confined to a single town or village. 
Those which are marked II. have had a destructivity so far in excess of 
Class I. that a few buildings have fallen. For this class the acceleration 
may be about 1,500 mm. per second, and the area may be represented 
by a radius of twenty miles. Class III. refers to earthquakes which 
have destroyed towns or caused widespread disasters. Although these 
earthquakes have occasionally been local, it is usually found they have 
been severe 50 or 60 miles round their origin and have produced effects 
similar to those of Class I. at distances of 200 or 300 miles. It is 
clear this classification is imperfect ; certain earthquakes under Class II. 
might be included in Class III., whilst others under the head of Class I. 
might be included in Class II. It is, however, probable there are few 
mistakes about the entries in Class III. Earthquakes which have been 
described as slight or feeble, which have wakened up a few people, which 
have even rattled or broken a few windows, moved furniture, or have been 
simply described as being very violent, are altogether excluded from the 
catalogue. 

The object of compiling a register of this sort is that it will be more 
uniform in its character and more nearly up to date than its predecessors. 
If we turn to large earthquake catalogues which have hitherto been pub- 
lished, as, for instance, those of Mallet and Perrey, in the first place we 
notice that the material they contain is very heterogeneous in character, 
and the heterogeneity is variable in different periods. The earlier records 
they give refer to earthquakes which have devastated districts, or to 
Class III., whilst as we approach modern times equivalent disturbances 
are eclipsed by a large number of tremors which have not been sufficiently 
intense to be included even in Class I. Another factor which tends to 
disturb the uniformity of the older earthquake registers is the fact that 
the entries in the same increase in number with the spread of civilisation. 
For example, records of earthquakes greatly increased a.bout 100 years 



/5 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 
Fig. 6. 























































































\ 








Destructive Eaethquakes. 

I. These have cracked walls or shattered 
chimneys. Acceleration 1,000 mm. per 
sec. per sec. 

II. Destructivity exceeds Class I. Acceleration 
1,500 mm. per sec. per sec. 

III. Have destroyed towns and caused wide- 
spread disaster. 






\ 








3; 










i 










) 












































>\ 


















1 




>\ 












+ + 


• 


1 




' 




-1 










A 


J 


\ 








'1 
1 




/h 




J 


V 
1 ^ 


II 


// 










// \ 


\ J 


7 \ 






' / 








■ 


/^ 


•J \ 


\ N 


\ i / 


/ 










X 


/ 


v\ /> 




V, 


/ 


/ 












/ 


\ / 








/ 










V 


/ A 


\^ 




■ ■■ 




/ 










\ 


//\ 






111 




/ 










v_ 


_/ / 










J 








1 


\ ^ 


^/ 


\ y 


Vs 


^ ^ 


"''''^'-'^^ 


*^ 










\ 


/ 


\x 
















V 


-^ 



















1000 



I2O0 



MOO 

YEARS 



I600 



I700 



laoo 



I900 



80 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

after the discovery of the two Americas. To this we may add that it has 
only been of late years that the records of certain countries with an ancient 
civilisation have become accessible to us. Up to the year 18.50 Europe 
imagined that in Japan there were from one to six earthquakes per year. 
Now we know there are at least 1,000. We also know that the Japanese 
have for a long time past published ' Jishin-Nendaiki,' or earthquake 
calendars, which give records of very destructive earthquakes since 
extremely early times. 

As an illustration of the difference between the new catalogue and 
the one published by Mallet, who endeavoured to exclude from his 
registers very small disturbances — such as ' after-shocks ' — I find that 
between ISOO and 1808, which are yeai-s taken at random. Mallet 
gives 407 entries, but of these only thirty-seven are stated to have pro- 
duced structural damage. All other large catalogues appear to be of the 
same nature. Large earthquakes which have announced changes of geo- 
logical importance in the earth's crust stand side by side with great 
numbers of seismic trivialities, many of which may not even have rattled 
a window. To give each unit in such collections an equal value, and this 
has frequently been the case, would not for many analyses lead to satis- 
factoi'y results. For example, the old catalogues when taken en bloc, 
could hardly be expected to give us accurate information about the distri- 
bution of seismic energy in time. 

The sources from which material has been obtained to form the present 
catalogue are various. From a.d. lb to 1842 I am indebted to Mallet's 
catalogues, from that date to 1864 I have in great measure relied upon 
Alex. Perrey. Some of his writings, however, appear to be only in MS., 
and therefore have not been accessible. To obtain records of the last 
forty-three years, however, has been a matter of considerable difficulty. 
Appeals to daily journals like the ' Times ' have proved to be very disap- 
pointing. For example, the records of large earthquakes in the 'Times ' 
fur 1855 and 1864 were respectively five and one, while references to 
foreign journals and the Transactions of learned societies show that verv 
destructive earthquakes occurred in each of those years from twenty- seven 
to thirty times. 

If this catalogue proves to have more homogeneity in its character 
thaa its predecessors, it is to be hoped that analyses of the same will 
lead to more definite results than have hitherto been obtained from 
earthquake statistics. 

An addition to this work is a Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes. It 
has been compiled by my assistant, Mr. Shinobu Hirota, and, so far as I 
am aware, it is the most important collection of records relating to 
earthquakes in China which have ajDpeared in a European language. 

As an illustration, and al.so as an introduction to analyses which 
may be made from a catalogue of destructive earthquakes, I give the 
following : — 

Oyi the Seismicity in Europe and adjacent Countries between the Years 

A.D. 1000 and 1850. 

The subjoined table shows the number of very destructive earth- 
quakes which have been recorded between a.d. 1000 and 1850. The 
grouping is in periods of fifty years. Under the heading marked III. 
we have the number of exceedingly destructive earthquakes, the records 



I 



Is 



Bnliih AtxKuiltoit 


:m Lcpott. Dahlin, 190S. (I'LATE 11. 


1 




10 Pu 


"QUIETNESS AT N1CMT" II P-M. | 




1 


' VIBRATIONS DUE. TO MACHINERY" \ 










I-V CR 2 PM 
10 


ORIGIN PRoeA6l-V W-COAST OT S AMtRICA '" 


EARTHQUAKE RtCOftOED AT CORNWALL ROAO. SOuTm TOTTENHAM OCTOBER i907. 
(the riR^T Ever recorqco "^ lonoon .) 






I 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



81 



of which It is assumed have not been lost to history or tradition. In the 
next column we find the sum of earthquakes of values III. and II., 
•whilst in the last column is given the sum of earthquakes having an 
intensity of Classes III., II., and I. The destructivities of Classes I., 
II., and III. have already been defined. 



1 


III. 


Il.-rll 


III. + II. + 1. 


I000-I050 


3 . 


6 


7 


1050-1100 . 











3 


9 


1100-1150 . 








1 


3 


8 


1150-1200 . 








G 


12 


1 { 


1200-1250 . 








1 


5 


7 


1250-1300 . 








3 


« 


7 


1300-1350 . 










10 


12 


1350-1400 . 








3 


10 


11 


1400-1450 . 








2 


8 


18 


1450-1500 . 








2 


8 


14 


1500-1550 . 








3 


7 


16 


1550-lGOO . 








2 


7 


16 


1600-1650 . 








3 


12 


25 


1650-1700 . 








10 


31 


42 


1700-1750 . 








15 


43 


70 


1750-1800 . 








17 


87 


169 


1800-1850 . 








30 


90 


202 



These figures are also shown as three curves (fig. G). An inspection 
of these will show that they have a striking similarity. Between the 
years 1150 and 1250 each indicates an increase in seismic activity during 
that period. The next increase commences about the year 1650, since 
which records even of the most destructive type of earthquake have 
during successive periods each of fifty years rapidly increased in number. 
Inasmuch as all these records refer to a European area, it is difficult to 
imagine that the great increase in numbers from the middle of the 
seventeenth century should be accounted for by a sudden stimulus to keep 
better records from that period. Earthquakes of Class III. may be 
regarded as events of historical importance ; and, if this is so, it would 
seem that records of the very destructive disturbances between a.d. 1300 
and 1600 should approximate in their correctness to those which occurred 
subsequently to the latter date. My own idea is that about 1650 there 
was a very marked increase in seismic and, I may add, volcanic activity. 
Whether this has any connection ^s-ith the observations of geologists or 
those who study magnetics or other branches of earth physics must be left 
for their consideration. 

IX. On a Seismogram obtained in London on October 16, 1907. 

The accompanying seismogram, Plate II., was recorded in the engineer- 
ing workshops of Mr. R. W. Munro, South Tottenham, where an instru- 
ment had been set up for examination before shipping for South Australia. 
Vibiations due to machinery are marked, while at night the instrument 
yielded a fairly straight line. This steadiness at night, notwithstanding 
casual traffic, suggests that a seismograph might find a sufficiently steady 
site in a London square or park. The seismograph is identical with those 
first adopted by the British Association, the record -receiving surface, 
Jiowftver, instead cf only moving at 60 mm. per hour now moves at four 

1908. o 



82 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

times that rate. Because the paper is on a cylinder and not used as a 
band, about half the quantity of fiim is employed, an open scale is 
obtained, and in many cases, owing to the absence of halation due to 
long exposure, the Hhide Registers, as published by the British Asso- 
ciation, show that earlier commencements are obtained. With the 
present receiver, it is distinctly the most satisfactory instrument with 
which I have had any experience. Its value as a recorder of minute 
tremors is indicated on p. 64. For a description of the instrument see 
British Association Report, 1904, p. 44. 

X. Map of the World. By R. D. Oldham. 

Tfte accompanying map of the world, Plate III., was made by Mr. 
R. D. Oldham for certain purposes of his own, but as it was thought 
it night be of general use to seismologists we have, with his consent, 
added it to this report. Mr. Oldham describes the map as follows : — 

'The map is constructed on the zenithal projection, with Greenwich 
as the centre. All great circles passing through the centre of the map 
are n-presented by straight lines, and equal distances measured along 
these great circles on the surface of the earth by equal radial distances 
on the map. Meridians and parallels of longitude and latitude are 
drawn at intervals of 15°, and intervals between the concentric circles 
represent intervals of 15° of arc, or an average linear distance of 900 
nautical miles, or 1,G67 kilometres. Fur convenience, and to avoid 
excessive distortion, the wliole surface of the earth is divided into two 
hemispheres ; in the one, distances are to be measured directly from the 
centre outwards, in the other they are measured from the circumference 
inwards, and added to the length of the radius of the map. This 
represents one quarter of the circumference of the globe. The direction 
of the straight line drawn from any point to the centre of the map 
gives the azimuth of the great circle at Greenwich. The map may also be 
used for obtaining the distance between any two points situated on tlie 
same great circle with each other and Greenwich, but cannot be used 
with accuracy for measurements between two points not so situated. 

' Though constructed to Greenwich as a centre, it can be used with 
sufficient accuracy for many purposes for any place in the British Isles 
or the nearer parts of Europe.' 

XI. A Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes. .B^ Suinobu Hirota. 

In May 1839 Ed. Biot presented to the Academie des Sciences a 
' Catalogue General des tremblements de tcrre, atiaissements et soulcve- 
ments de montagnes, observes en Chine depuis le tenips anciens jusqu'a 
nos jours.' This was published in the ' Annales de Chiuiie et de Physique,' 
tome ii. 18-il, p. 372. Ic contains references to about 480 earthquakes. 
In the twenty-ninth volume of the Reportsof the Imperial Earthquake 
Investigation Committee, 1899, Dr. F. Omori gives a Catalogue of 
Chinese Earthquakes. It is printed in Chinese ideographs, and the 
characters he uses are apparentjy those in the works from which he 
quotes. Both M. Biot and Dr. Omori quote from the Chinese author 
Matouanlin, who made a catalogue of earthquakes and the historical 
annals called Thoung-kien-khang-mou. Dr. Omori has also referred to 
other Chinese histories. By combining these two catalogues one result 
is that the 480 entries in M. Blot's catalogue is now extended to 889, 



Plate III. 




90 E. 



Circles 
represent intervals 
of 15 Degrees of arc 
(about 1,036 miles.) 






Brititk AMpxiatioH, 78th Report. Dublin. . 




I nd Icata AzI m uth 
froin Oreanwich, 



lUutlrattiig thf Report on Stitmaiagicai Invuiigationt. 



Map of the World 

Showing 

Distance and Direction 

from 

Greenwich. 



Clnotei 
rapr«aent Interval* 
of IB Degpeei of arc 
(about 1,036 milea ] 



J 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 83 

the wreater number of which are to be found in the catalogue of Dr. 
Omori. The 324 which are common to both, and which refer to the same 
events we should expect to find strictly identical, but this is not the case. 
For example, the names of provinces and places are frequently different. 
In certain instances this has apparently resulted from the use of old 
names rather than modern ones. This difficulty was not overcome until 
we received from Japan a series of fourteen maps which show the various 
chances which have taken place with regard to the provinces and the 
names of places since very early times. Another striking difference 
between these two catalogues is the_ differences in dates. The dates I 
prefer to use are those given by Dr. Omori. The reason for doing this is 
that in Japan we are familiar with the Chinese lunar chronological system, 
and also that tables have been compiled which give the European equi- 
valent of Chinese dates. In cases where differences in dates have exceeded 
a few days both dates have been given. The first date is a translation of 
ideographs used by Dr. Omori. 

Mallet, in his large catalogue of earthquakes published by the British 
Association in 1852, 18-53, and 1854, makes but few references to seismic 
disturbances in China. When we think of the enormous labour he spent 
upon tlie collection of statistics relating to this work, it is difficult to 
understand how the registers brought together by Biot had escaped his 

attention. 

In the 'Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles,' April 1899, 
F. de Montessus de Ballore gives us a general description of the distribu- 
tion of seismic activity in China. However, he does not give us a catalogue 
of earthquakes. The map which accompanies his paper is based upon the 
records of Biot and a catalogue by Mouchketoft' and Orloff of the earth- 
quakes in the Russian Empire. In the ' Trans. Seis. Soc. Japan,' vol. x. 
1887, there is a short Paper on earthquakes in China by Dr. Macgowan. 
Unfortunately Dr. Macgowan's list of earthquakes was nearly all destroyed 
by fire, and therefore he is only able to speak in general terms. One 
curious remark about tremors which were experienced in Chekiang, 
Kiano-su, and in the western regions is that they ai'e followed by the 
appearance on the ground of substances which in Chinese books are styled 
' white hairs several inches in length, like horse-tail hair.' Dr. Macgowan's 
impression is that the regions where these appear are all, or nearly all, in 
alluvial valleys. 

Crystallisation of exhalations may be curious, but in making this 
translation I have met with notes which are equally remarkable. In the 
fourteenth century the names of two towns, Pingyang and Taiyuan, were 
changed to Chinning and Chining. This alteration was made by imperial 
decree with the hope that earthquakes, which had so frequently visited 
these places, would, as the result of the change, be reduced in their 
numbers. 

In addition to the translation a map has been drawn, on which earth- 
quake centres are indicated. From this we see that earthquakes have 
been most frequent in the north of Peking, the extreme north of Kansu, 
along the course of Hoang-Ho, where it divides the provinces of Honan, 
Shensi, and Shansi, around Nanking, on the coast of Fu-Kiang, and in 
the centres of Yunnan and Ssuchuan. The high frequency along the 
Hoang-Ho, particularly at its two great bends, which are respectively 
near to the Peling Mountains and the Ala Shan Mountains, suggests that 
the sudden changes in the trend of a valley may be connected with 

g2 





Ykab, 




B.C. 


1 


1820 


2 


1155 


3 


618 


I 


557 


5 


523 


C 


510 


7 


492 


8 


4G6 


9 


233 





193 



84 REPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

rock-folding, which from time to time has been accompanied with rock- 
fracture. No records are given for the extreme west of China or for 
Mongolia. In all probability this means that these districts were in past 
time as sparsely inhabited as they are at present. We now know that 
to the west of China, in Tibet, large earthquakes occur very frequently. 
I believe this to be the first time that anything approaching a complete 
catalogue of Chinese earthquakes has appeared in a European language. 

Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes. 
15 = statement in Bioi's ' Catalogue.' The names of provinces are in italics. 



Mount Taishan, Chinan, Sliantinig. Shock. 
Fenghsiang Fu, Shcnsi. 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. It lasted seven day.', ; nd many killed. 
Earthquake. 
Jan. Great earthquake, Lunghsi, Kungchang Fu, A'ainu. More 

than four hundred houses were destroyed. 
11 18G Jan. A great earthquake took place at Wutu, south east of Lung hsi. 

Kungchang Fu, Xaiisn. The face of a mountain slipped 
down and about 7G0 people were killed. 
Earthquake. 
Earthquake. 
Earthquake at Chengho, Chienuing Fu, Fuliliien. Many 

people killed. 
Earthquake. 

South of Yellow River, Horan Fu, Honan. 
A great earthquake took place from Honan Fu, ITunan, to 
Pehhai in Laichou Fu, Shantunfj. Forty-nine piefectures 
were damaged. More than six thousand killed. 
18 68 Sept. A great earthquake, Lunghsi, Kungchang Fu, ^a««?/, in which 
many castle walls, temples, and houses were destroyed- 
about six thousand people were killed. 
Earthquake. 

Great earthquake at Lunghsi, Kungchang Fu, Ka7isu, and 
Loyang, Honan Fu, Hunan. Many castle walls and temples 
were destroyed and many people were killed. 
Earthquake. 
Earthquake. 
Earthquake. 
Earthquake. 

A great earthquake look place at Kienwei, in Chiating Fu, 
Ssiichnan. Two mountains were displaced and the rocks 
fell into the river and changed its course. The ground did 
not come to rest for 21 days, and there were 121 shocks. 
Many castles, temples, and houses were destroyed, and 
about thirteen people were killed. 

26 "7 Nov. 10. Earthquake in the Imperial City, Changan (now Hsian), 

Shcnd, and the northern district. It destroyed more thaii 
thirty castle walls, and 415 people were killed. 

27 16 March Earthquake Hsian Fu, Shensi. 

28 46 Oct, Earthquake in forty-two counties. Most damage was done at 

Nanyang, Honan ; the ground opened and water l)urst out 
from the fissure?, and many people were killed (B, 43 
earthquakes), '- 



12 


175 


Feb. 


13 


143 


May. 


14 


131 


June, 


15 


88 


Aug. 


16 


72 




17 


70 





19 


67 


Oct. 12. 


20 


47 


April 17. 


21 


41 




22 


39 




23 


31 




21 


30 




25 


26 


July 23. 



A.D. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 85 



Earthquake at Tiingpiiig (Taian Fu), Shanyang, now Ye-chou 

Fu, Shantung. 
Earthquake in thirteen counties and towns. 
Earthquake at Lunghsi, Kungchang Fu, Kansii. 
Earthquake at the Imperial City, Loyang, Honan Fn, Ilonan. 
Yiyang, Honan Fu, Honan. 

Earthquake at Lunghsi, Kungchang Fu, Kansu. 
Eighteen counties and towns shaken (13, 18 earthquakes). 
Twelve countiej were shaken (B, 12 earthquakes). 
Nine counties were shaken. 
Four counties were shaken. 
Ten counties were shaken. (Date given by Biot is slightly 

different.) 
18 counties were shaken. 
18 ditto. 

1.5 ditto (B, 15 earthquakes). 

10 diito. 

10 ditto. 

ditto. 

i:! ditto (B, 13 earthquakes). 

H ditto. 

Earthquake at the Imperial City, Loyang, Honan Fu, Ilonan. 

It was felt over fort)--two counties; the ground was 

cracked, many castle walls and houses were destroyed and 

many killed. 
Eight counties were shaken. 
Twenty-three counties were shaken. 
Thirty-five counties were shaken and towns damaged. The 

land was cracked, many castle walls and houses were 

damaged, and many people were killed. 
Earthquake at the Imperial City, Loyang, Honan Fu, Ilonan, 

and in thirteen counties. 
An earthquake in twenty-seven counties, and towns were 

shaken. 
Earthquake at the Imperial City, Honan Fu, Ilonan., and 

in thirty-two counties (B, 32 earthquakes). 
Earthquake at the Imperial City, Honan Fu, Ilonan, and in 

twenty-three counties (B, 23 earthquakes! 
Earthquake at the Imperial City, Honan Fu, Honan, and in 

sixteen counties (B, U) earthquakes). 
57 128 Earthquake at the Imperial City and Hanyang, now Fuchiang, 

Kanchang Fu, Kama. At Hanyang great damage was 

done, and many people were killed and water burst out 

from the ground. 
r.8 133 June 18. Earthquake at Imperial City, Loyang, Honan Fu, Ilonaii. 
5'J 136 Feb. 18. Ditto. 

GO 137 May. Ditto. 

(11 137 lec. 21. Ditto. 

C2 138 Feb. 28. Earthquake at Imperial Cily and Chinching, Lanchou Fu, 

Lunghsi, Kungchang Fu, Kansu. Many castle walls and 

houses were destroyed and many people were killed. 

63 138 Jr.ne 2. At the Imperial City, Loyang, Honan Fu, Honan. 

64 13<J /pril2P. Ditto. 

65 140 Aprils. Ditto. , „ „ , 
C6 144 Feb. A great earthquake took place at Liangchou Fu, Kansu, and 

six neighbouring districts ; the ground did not come to rest 
from October last year to April this year, about 180 days. 
The land opened and mountains were displaced; many 
houses were destroyed and many people were killed. 

G7 144 Oct. 24. Earthquake at Imperial City, Loyang, Honan Fu, Honan. 

68 147 May 26. Ditto. 

(J>J 147 Oct. 31. Ditto. 





Date. 


Ko. 


A D. 




29 


76 


April 25. 


33 


92 


Aug. 8. 


31 


93 


April 7. 


32 


93 


Nov. 8. 


33 


96 




34 


97 


April 7. 


35 


107 




30 


108 




37 


110 


Jan. 11. 


38 


110 


April 14 


39 


111 


Feb. 1. 


40 


113 


Feb. 5. 


41 


113 




42 


114 




43 


115 


Dec. 11. 


44 


116 


March. 


45 


117 


Jan. 17 


46 


117 


Feb. 


47 


118 




48 


119 


March 9 


49 


119 


Winter. 


50 


120 




51 


121 


Oct. 8. 


52 


122 


June 21 


53 


122 


Oct. 23. 


54 


123 




55 


121 




5i; 


125 





86 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



No. 
70 


Date. 
149 Oct. 31. 


71 


149 


Nov. 11. 


72 


151 


Dec. 23. 


73 


152 


Feb. 


74 


152 


Dec. 11. 


75 


154 


March 4. 


76 


156 




77 
78 


156 
156 


Aug. 
Dec. 


79 


161 




80 


162 


June 21. 


81 


165 


Nov. 4. 


82 


167 




83 
84 

85 


171 

173 
177 


April 3. 
July. 

Nov. 


86 


178 


Mar. 26. 


87 
88 
89 


178 
179 
180 


May 10. 

April. 

Jan. 



90 
91 


191 
194 


July 30. 
July 6. 


92 


225 




93 


234 


Dec. 


94 


237 


June. 


95 


237 


July. 


96 


239 


Feb. 


97 


241 


Dec. 


98 


242 


Aug. 31 


99 


243 


Jan. 


100 


245 


Mar. 31. 


101 


248 




102 


263 




103 


264 




104 
105 
106 


269 
271 
276 


May 18. 
April 3. 
Aug. 28 


107 


278 


July 16, 


108 
109 


278 
281 


Aug. 2. 
Mar. 15. 


110 
111 


284 
285 


April. 
Aug. 


112 
U3 


285 
286 


Sept. 9. 
March. 



Earthquake. 

Earthquake. Same year fourth moon there were several 

earthquakes at six places. 
Earthquake at the Imperial City, Loyang, Honan Fu, Honan. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Earthquake. 

Hotung (now Pingyang Fu, Puchou Fu), Sliansi. 
Earthquake at the Imperial City, Loyang, Honan Fu, Honan. 
Loyang, Honan, Fenghsiang Fu, Shend, and Liangchou Fu, 

Xa,?isH. 
Earthquake at the Imperial City, Loyang, Honan Fu, Honan. 

Ditto. 
Pingyu, Loyung (now Honan Fu), Honan, Kaoping, Tsechou 

Fu, Shansi. 
Earthquake in Hotung, Pingyang Fu, Puchou Fu, Shansi. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Earthquake at the Imperial City, Loyang, Honan Fu, Honan. 
A great earthquake at Chiuchuan, in Kanchou Fu, Kansu. 
The ground did not come to rest until spring ne.xt year. 
There were about eighty shocks. Water burst out from the 
ground, many houses were destroyed, and many people were 
killed. 
Earthquake. 
Ditto. 

[Between the years 195 and 226 no records were kept 
on account of the great Rebellion.] 
Chiangtung (Nanking), Eiangsu. 

Loj'ang (Honan Fu), Honan. Many houses were destroyed. 
Chiangtung (now Nanking), Kiangsu. 
Loj ang (Honan Fu), Honan, and Nanking. Many houses were 

destroyed. 
Two earthquakes. 
Nanau, Kungchang, Kansu. 

Ditto. 
Wei district, Changte Fu, Honan (northern part of). 
Nanan, Kungchang Fu, A'a?isv.. 
Chiangtung (Nanking); Kiangm. 
Shu (Chengtu), Ssuckuan. 
Earthquake at Shu, comprising the west part of Ssuehi/aii. It 

was the Imperial residence. Now forming Chengtu. 
Earthquake. 

Earthquake, Loyang, Honan Fu, Honan. 

Honan Fu, Honan ; Hotung (comprising Puchou Fu, Ping- 
ting, Chiang, Ho, and Chieli) and Pingyang Fu, Shansi 
(B, July 6). 
Earthquake at Yinping Fu (now Lungan Fu), Ssvchuan, and 

Kuangwu, Ninghsia Fu, Jiansu. 
Earthquake at Yinping Fu (now Lungan Fu), Ssuchiian. 
Earthquake at Huainan (now Ho), Taiping Fu, Anhui, and 
Tanyang (comprising Chenchiang Fu, Kiangsu, and Anhui). 
Earthquake at the Imperial City, Loyang, Honan Fu, Honan. 
Earthquake, Nanyung Fu, Honan. 
Nanking, Eiangsv. 

A violent earthquake took place at Chushih (now Chengtu Fu, 
Chiating Fu), and Yinping, Lungan Fu, SsucJivan. There 
was a great landslip, and many houses were destroyed. At 
Yingping a dam was destroyed. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



87 



No. 
114 
115 


DATI!. 
A.D. 

286 Aug. 
286 Sept. 


116 
117 
118 


287 
287 
287 


June. 
Aug. 


119 


288 


Feb. 


120 


288 


June 7. 


121 


288 


July-Au 


122 
123 
124 
125 
126 


288 
289 
290 
291 
291 


Oct. 
Jan. 
Oct. 6. 
Jan. 
Jan. 18. 


127 


294 


March. 


128 


294 


June. 



129 294 Sept. 



130 


294 


Nov. 


131 


294 


Dec. 


132 


295 


Jan. 


13.S 


295 


June. 


134 
1.35 


295 
296 


July. 
Mar. 12. 


136 


298 


Feb. 


137 


302 


Jan. 


138 


303 


Dec. 


139 


304 


Jan. 


140 


309 


Nov. 


141 
142 
143 
144 


310 
314 
315 
318 


May. 
May 6. 
July 23. 
May. 


145 


319 


Jan. 


146 


319 


June. 


147 


320 


May. 


148 


327 


March. 


149 


327 


April. 


150 
151 


327 
332 


May 13. 
April. 



Earthquake at Kienwei and Nanan, in Chiating Fu, Ssuchwm. 

Earthquake at the Imperial City, Loyang (now Honan Fu), 
Honan. 

Earthquake at Kienan, Chienning Fu, FuTilden. 

Earthquake at Yinping, Lungan F"u, Ssiichitan.. 

Earthquake at Tanyang (comprising Chenchiang Fu, Kiangsn^ 
and Taiping Fu, Anlnii). 

Earthquake at Kueinhi (comprising CheliMang, see Shaoh- 
sing Fu, the south of Anlnii, and the north of Fvhlticn), 
Tanyang, Taiping, AnJni'i, and Wuhsing (now Huchou Fu), 
Clieliltiang. 

Earthquake at Changsha Fu, Hunan, Nanhai, Canton, Kuang- 
chou Fu, and eight neighbouring districts, Kiiangtung. 
g Earthquake. Four more shocks, and three of them accom- 
panied by noise. 

Earthquake at Linho, Tingle Fu, Kuangsi. 
Ditto. 

Earthquake in Tanyang, Taiping Fu, AnJii/i. 
Ditto. 

Earthquake at Loyang (now Honan Fu), Honan (B, 292, 
January 18). 

Earthquake at Liaotung, SlUngJdng, Shangku, Hsuanhui Fu, 
north of Chilili, and Shangyana:, in Chingchou Fu, Hnpeli. 

Earthquake at Shu, Chengtu Fu (comprising west part of 
SsvcliiMn'). A mountain was shaken down, water burst out 
from the ground, and many people were killed. 

Earthquake at Shangku, Hsuanhua Fu (comprising the north 
part of Chilili). The ground was fissured and water burst 
out from the cracks, and about 100 people were killed. 

Earthquake at the Imperial City, Loyang (now Honan Fu), 
Honan. 

Earthquake at Kaifeng and Nanyang, Kia. The whole of 
Honan. 

Earthquake at the Imperial City, Loyang, Honan. 

Earthquake. 

Earthquake at Chincheng, in Lanchou Fu, Kansu. 

Earthquake. 

Earthquake at Ching, in Hochien Fu, Chihli, and Chenchou 
Fu, Hunan (B, March 6). 

Earthquake. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 

Earthquake at Hsiangyang and Chingchou, Hupeh. 

Earthquake in Tenchou, Shantung, and Hsian Fu, Shensi. 

Earthquake. 

Earthquake at Changan, in Hsian Fu, Shensi. 

Earthquake at Hsiping, in Juning Fu, Honan. Water burst 
out. Same time at Kungchang Fu, Xansit, and 
Fu, Hupeh. 

A great earthquake at Luling, in Chian Fu, Tuchang (literary 
name of Kiaiigid), Wuchang, and Hsiling (now Yichang 
Fu), Hupeh. A mountain shattered and water burst out. 

Earthquake at Chishan, in Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. Great land- 
slip, and many people killed. 

Earthquake at Tan 3 ang, in Chenchiang Fu ; Wu, in Suchou 
Fu ; Tsinling (now Changchou Fu), Kiangsu. 

Earthquake at Chiangling, Chingchou Fu, Hupeh. 

Earthquake at Yichou, comprising parts Yunnan and Lungan 
Fu, Sauchuan. 

Yuchou (now forming Taiping Fu, Anhui). 

Kueichi, comprising Huchou, Chchltiang (Shaohsing), Taiping 
Fu, Anhui, and the north of Fuhkien. 



Wuchang" 



88 



KErOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Date. 



No. 


AD. 




152 


334 


May 14. 


1.'53 


345 


Aug. 10. 


154 


347 


Jan. 


155 


347 


Feb. 


156 


347 


Oct. 


157 


348 


Nov. ]8. 


158 


349 


Feb. 17 


159 


353 


Oct. 1. 


160 


35t 


Feb. 28. 


161 


335 


May J 2. 


162 


355 


June 3. 


163 


358 


Dec. 


164 


361 


Sept. 


165 


362 


May 24. 


166 


363 


May 19. 


167 


364 


April 23. 


168 


366 


March. 


169 


372 


Nov. 24. 


170 


373 


Nov. 19. 


171 


374 


March 1 


172 


374 


Aug. 


173 


377 


May 13. 


174 


377 


July 6. 


175 


386 


July 22. 


176 


390 


April 2. 


177 


390 


Aug. 


178 


391 


Feb. 6. 


179 


392 


July 14. 


180 


393 


Jan. 26. 


181 


393 


Jan. 30. 


182 


393 


Mar. 27. 


183 


400 


May 25. 


184 


400 


Oct. 10. 


185 


408 


Mar. 1. 


186 


408 


Nov. 7. 


187 


409 


Feb. 10. 


188 


412 


Jan.-Ap. 


189 


414 


April 25. 


190 


420 


Aug. 6. 


191 


435 


May. 


192 


438 


Aug. 10. 


193 


458 


May 27. 


194 


462 


Aug. 23. 


195 


476 


June 


196 


477 




197 


499 


Aug. 


198 


507 


Jan. 


199 


522 


Feb. 


200 


526 


Jan. 


201 


533 


Feb. 


202 


537 


Nov. 



Kueichi, comprising CJiehkian//, the south of AnJiui, and the 

north of Fuhkien. 
Earthquake, Loyang, Honau Fu, Honan, 

Ditto. 
Earthquake, Kengchong, Puchou Fuj Shansl. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
At the Imperial City, Kienyeh or Nanking (now Chiangning), 

Kia7}gsu, acconapanied by a noise like thunder. 
Earthquake with a noise like thunder. Hens and pheasants 

cried before the earthquake. 
Earthquake. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Liangchou Fu, Eansu. 
Earthquake. 
Yangchou Fu, Kiangsu. Walcr became muddy in ponds, 

which overflowed. 
Kiangling, Chingchou Fu, Hupeli (B, March 29). 
Liangchou, Kansn. Water burst out. 
Anclieng (now Chian Fu), Kiangsi. 
Earthquake. 

Ditto. 
Liangcliou, Kayisu. A mountain slipped down. 
Earthquake. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
At the Imperial City, Pingcheng, Taiyuan Fu, Shans'i, and 

Nanking. 
Earthquake. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Earthquake (B, March 2). 
Earthquake. 

Ditto. 
Earthquake. A noise was heard. 
Earthquake, 
llsunyang (now Chiuchiang Fu), Kiangsi. AVith a noise like 

thunder. 
Nankang Fu and Luling, in Chian Fu, Kiangsi. Shocks 

occurred four times a day. 
Earthquake. 

Ditto (B, Sept. 10). 
Imperial City, Nanking, Kiangxu. 
Earthquake. 

Ditto. 
Earthquake, with a noise like thunder. Most damage was 
done st Yencbou, in Lu, comprising the south part of 
S/iaiitviig. 
Earthquake. 

Ditto. 
Earthquakes night and day till next year. Many small houses 

were destroyed. 
Kienyeh, now Chiangning Fu, Kiangm. 
Kienkang, in Chiangning Fu, Kiangsu. Present name is 

Nanking (the Imperial City). 
Earthquake, Nanking, Klavgsn. 
Earthquake, Kienkang, Kiangsu (now Chiangning), 
Ditto. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



89 





D.VTE. 


No. 


A.D. 




203 


537 


Dec. 


204 


541 


March. 


205 


543 


Feb. 


20B 


546 


Jan. 


207 


549 


May. 


208 


558 


June. 


209 


563 




210 


572 


Nov. 


211 


573 




213 


587 


March. 


213 


594 


June. 


2U 


GOO 


Dec. 16. 


215 


602 


April. 


2ir. 


G19 


Nov. 


217 


624 


July. 


218 


6.^3 


Nov. 30. 


219 


638 


Feb. 15. 


220 


646 


Nov. 8, 


231 


649 


Sept. 15. 


222 


649 


Sept. 17. 


223 


650 


Jan. 5. 


224 


6.50 


May 9. 


225 


650 


May 19. 


22G 


650 


July 19. 


227 


651 


Nov. 


228 


652 


Jan. 8. 


229 


677 


Feb. 29. 


230 


G80 


Nov. 9. 


231 


682 


Nov. 13. 


232 


686 


Sept. 


233 


687 


Aug. 29. 


234 


688 


Aug. G. 


235 


C88 


Sept. 16. 


236 


694 


May 7. 


237 


705 


July 2. 



238 706 



239 
240 


710 
712 


July 2. 

Feb. 18. 


241 


729 


May 21. 


212 


734 


Mar. 24. 


243 
244 


738 
756 


April 23, 
Dec. 1. 



Earthquake, Kienkang, Kiangsti (now Chiangning). 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Kienkang, two earthquakes. 

Earthquake at Kienkang, Kiangsu (now Cuiangning). 
ringlieh, Chengte Fa, CMhli. 

Earthquake, Pinechou, now Shnnsi (see ' Taiyuan Fa '). 
Liangchoa Fu, Kaiisu. Many castles and houses destroyed. 
Earthquake. 

[Biot says from the year 402 to 587 civil war interfered 
with keeping of registers. ] 
The Imperial City, Changan, Hsian Fu, Shensi. 
All China was shaken. 
Chiyung (now Fenghsiang Fu), S/ien.u. 
Imperial City, Changan, Hsian Fu, Shensi. 
Tsunchcu (now Changyang), in Wuchang Fu, Hupeh. Ground 

slipped down from mountains and a river overflowed. 
Imperial City, Changan, Hsian Fu, Shensi. 
Sung and Tsung, Lungan Fu, Ssuchnan. Many houses 

destroyed. (One book gives the date as the 22nd ) 
Lingchou, Ninghsia, Kansu. It made a noise like thunder. 

(One book gives the date as the 15th.) 
Hotung, comprising Puchou Fu, Pingling, Chiang-Ho, Chieh, 

Shansi. i\Jost damage occurred at Puchou ; more than fifty 

people killed. (One book gives the date as Aug. 1st.) 
Earthquake, ditto. (.One book gives the date as the 3rd.) 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Earthquake. 

Ditto. 

Tinghsiang, Hsin, Shansi. 

Imperial City, Chingan, Hsian, Shensi (B, April 25). 
Earthquake, ditto. 

Ditto. 
Hsingfeng, Kanchou Fa, Xansu (B, earthquake ?). Mountain 

displaced and water rose to a height of 20 feet. 
Imperial Citv, Changan, Hsian, Shensi (B, Oct. 25). 

Ditto. 
Sheutu. 

Changchou Fu, Kiangsu. 
Yangchou Fu, Changchou Fu, Jun (now Chenchiang), and 

Suchou Fu in Kiangsn. These places are at opposite sides 

of the river Yangtsze. 
Chiennan and six other districts, Ssvchuan. Chiennan is now 

called Chentu 
Yengchou Fu, /{iangsu (B, June 23). 
Pingyacg Fu, Fenchou Fu, Chiang, in Shansi. Many houses 

destroyed, and more than a hundred people killed. 
Earthquake and thunderstorm at Lantien, Hsian, Shensi. A 

mountain was displaced. 
Chinchou (now Kungchang), Kansu. The shock was followed 

by many loud noises ; many houses were destroyed, and 

about four thousand people were killed. 
Imperial City, Changan, Hsian Fu. Shensi. 
Hohsi (north-west of Ninghsia Fu, Kansu), Changych, in 

Kanchou, and Chiuchuan (now Suchou Fu), Kansn. It was 

followed by a loud noise. The greatest damage occurred 

at Changyeh and Chiuchuan, where many houses were 

destroyed, and many people lost their lives. The ground 

did not come to rest until March, 757 



Made a noise like thunder. 



90 



KErORTS ON THE 8TATE OF SCIENCE. 



No. 
245 

246 

2-17 



Date. 

A.D. 

767 Dec. 25. 

768 May. 
777 



2J8 


780 


May 17. 


249 


782 


July 31. 


25C 


783 


May 27. 


251 


783 


July 3. 


252 


786 


June 25. 


253 


788 


Jan. 13. 


254 


788 


Feb. 16. 


25 


788 


Feb. 17. 


256 


— 


Feb. 18. 


257 


788 


Mar. 4. 


258 


788 


Mar. 7. 


259 


788 


Mar. 11. 


260 


788 


Mar. 14. 


261 


788 


Mar. 15. 


262 


788 


Mar. 16. 


263 


788 


Mar. ] 8. 


264 


788 


Mar. 20. 


265 


788 


Mar. 21. 


266 


788 


April 1. 


267 


788 


April 20. 


268 


788 


April 25 


269 


788 


May 6. 


270 


788 


May 7. 


271 


788 


July 1. 


272 


788 


July 2. 


273 


788 


Sept. 27. 


274 


788 


Oct. 3. 


275 


792 




276 


793 


May 31. 


277 


794 


May 13. 


278 


794 


May 18. 


279 


797 


Aug. 12. 


280 


812 


Sept. 


281 


814 


April 5. 


282 


815 


Nov. 


283 


816 


Mar. 23. 


284 


820 


Jan. 


285 


828 


Feb. 7 


286 


833 


July 12. 


287 


835 


April 15 


288 


836 


Feb. 28. 


289 


837 


Feb. 10. 


290 


839 


Dec. 


291 


842 


Mar. 17. 


292 


843 


Feb. 13. 


293 


844 


Jan. 16 



Imperial City, Chang-an, Hsian Fu, Shend. Motion was from 

N.E., and a loud noise was repeated three tinoes. 
Imperial Citj', Changan, Hsian Fu, Shensi (P., July 2). 
In the Tingho Circuit, C/iihli. The greatest damage was at 
Tzulu, in Paoting Fu, and Ningchin. The land was fissured, 
and sand and water were ejected. Many houses were 
destroyed and many people were killed. The ground did 
not come to rest for many days. 
Imperial City, Changan, Hsian, Shensi. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 

Ditto. (B, June.) 

Ditto. 
Tangtu fnow Honan Fu), Shan, in Honan, and Pu, in Hsi, 

Shan si. 
Imperial Ciij. 

The whole of China was shaken, but the most damage was 

done at Kin, in Hunan, and Fang, in Yunyang Fu, Hupeh. 

^ A mountain was displaced, the ground opened, and water 

gushed forth, many houses were destroyed, and people 

lived in the open air until movement had ceased. 

Imperial City. (B, Feb. 13, 14, 29 ; also March 1, 3, 6, 7, and 8.) 



The whole of China. The Imperial City was destroyed. 
(R, March 17, 18, 29; April 16, 21; May 2, 3; also 
June 27 and 28.) 



The Imperial Citj'. The shocks were followed by noise like 

thunder. 
Imperial City. 
Earthquake. 
Imperial City and neighbouring districts. Most damage was 

done at Hochung Fu (Puchou Fu), SJiansi, and Kuannei, 

She7isi. Many of the castle walls and houses were destroyed. 

The ground opened and water burst forth. 
Imperial City. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Imperial City. Many trees fell down. 
Suichou, Lichiang Fu, Yunnan. During a day and night there 

were more than eighty shocks. There was a landslip thirty 

Chinese miles (about ten miles) in length, and more than a 

hundred people were killed. 
Imperial City, Changan, Hsian, Shoisi. 
Imperial City (B, April 12). 
Imperial City, Changan (B, March 13). 
Imperial City, Changan. 
Imperial City, Changan (B, August 4). 

Imperial City, Changan. Many tiles shaken down from roofs. 
Imperial City. 

Imperial City (also a slight shock in old Tungsjiu). 
Imperial City. 

Sung and Po, now forming Honan Fu, Honan (B, 843, March 8.) 
Imperial City, Changan, Hsian Fu, Shensi. 
Earthquake. 



295 


858 


Oct. 13. 


296 


8G0 


May 


297 


865 


Dec. 


298 


867 


Feb. 23. 


299 


872 


May 15. 


300 


876 


July 18. 


301 


876 


July 


302 


876 


Dec. 


303 


877 


Aug. 7. 


304 


879 


March. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 91 

Date. 
No. A.l). 

294 849 Oct. 24. Shangtu (also called Luanching), CJtihli, also Cheuwu, 

Kueihuacheng, Sopiug Fu, Shand, Hosi (now Chaoyi), in 

Hsian Fu, Tiente, Lingwu in Hsienyang and Venhsia, 

Shensi. Many houses destroyed and many people killed 

(B, 848, Oct. 25). 
Taiyuan in Chinning, Shami. 
Shangtu, Chilili. 
Chin, Chiang in Hotung (Taiyuan Fu), SJiansi. Many houses 

destroyed ; the ground was cracked and water came forth. 
Hochung, Puchou Fu, Chin and Chiang, Taiyuan Fu, in Shansi. 

Many houses destroyed and many people killed. 
Chetung and Chesi, Hangchou Fu, Chehkiang . 
Hsiungchou in Paoting Fu, Chihli. The town was destroyed ; 

a landslip took place, many people were killed, and shocks 
» continued for four months. 
Puchou, Tsaechou Fu, Shangtung. 
Imperial City, Changan, Hsian Fu, Shensi. Shocks were 

accompanied by sounds. 
Hsingchou in Paoting Fu, Chihli. 
Imperial City. Followed by a loud noise like thunder. A 

mountain was displaced and water burst out at Lantien in 

Hsian Fu, Shensi. 
305 883 Chinchou, Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. It was followed by a noise like 

thunder. 
Chengtu in Ssuchuan. Many shocks during a single month. 
Weichou, comprising the lower part of Shansi (Puchou Fu) 

and part of Honan. 
Hotung, now Shansi (Puchou Fu, Pingyang Fu). 
Chenchou, Kuangtung. 
Wei (now Changyin), Honan Fu, Honan ; Po in Tungchang, 

Shangtvng ; Hsuchou Fu, Kiangsu ; Su in ITengyang Fu, 

Anhui. 
Cheng in Kaifeng Fu, Honan. 
Taiyuan in Shami. The ground did not come to rest until the 

27th, and there were twenty shocks. 
Chin (now Kungchang), Kansu. 
Imperial City, Kaifeng, Honan. 
Yuting (now Yungping Fu), Tsuang in Tientsin Fu, Shen in 

Chinho, and Pei in Kuangping Fu, Chihli. Most damage 

was done at Yuting. 

316 953 Nov. Wei (now Changyin), Shangte Fu, Lo (Honan Fu), Honan, 

and Hsing (now Shunte Fu), Chihli. Most damage at 
Weichou. There were about fifteen shocks, and the ground 
did not come to rest for several days. 

317 965 Imperial City, Kaifeng Fu, Honan. 

.S18 996 Oct. Tung (now Tzutung), Paoniug Fu, Ssiichnan ; Kuansi forming 

Shettsi (Hsian) ; Ling in Ningbsia Fu, Kansu ; Hsia 
(Puchou), forming iwi'fr S/(a«.si (Pingyang Fu), Huan and 
Ching in Chingyang Fu, Kansu. Many castle walls and 
houses were destroyed. 

319 999 Oct. Changchou Fu, containing the cities of Wuchin and Yanghu 

in Kiangsu. Many military stations and houses were 
destroyed. 

320 1001 Sept. Chingchou (now Chingyung), Kansu. 

321 1003 Feb. Yichou, comprising parts of Yunnan and Ssuchuan (Chengtu 

Fu). 

322 1004 Feb. 10. Imperial City, Kaifeng, Honan. 

323 1004 Feb. 17. Ditto. 

324 1004 Feb. 21. Imperial City, Kaifeng, ZS/^aw. Many houses badly shaken, 

and there was a great noise. 

325 1004 Feb. 27. Chichou, comprising Chihli (Chengting), Shansi, and part of 

Honan and Manchuria. 



306 
307 


886 
887 


Spring. 
Jan. 


308 
309 
310 


895 
924 
925 


April 11. 
Dec. 
Dec. 18. 


311 
312 


928 
932 


July 
July 


313 
314 
315 


932 
932 
949 


Sept. 
Dec. 
May 9. 



92 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Ko. 
320 

327 
328 
3^D 
330 

331 
332 
333 

334 
336 
336 



338 
339 
340 



Date. 

A.I). 

1004 Ward). 

1004 April. 

1004 ■ May 23. 

1004 June. 

1C04 Dec 22. 

1004 Dec. 23. 

1007 Sept. 12. 

lOOr Sept. 15. 

1009 April. 

1011 July. 

1011 August. 



337 1022 March. 



1027 May 12. 
1029 Dec. 5. 
1037 Dec. 



311 


1038 


Jan. 


312 


1038 


Mar. 7. 


343 


1038 


Dec. 


344 


1C39 


Jan. 5. 


345 


1043 


June 19. 


3tG 


1043 


June 24, 


347 


1045 


Sept. 3. 


318 


1045 


Sept. 9. 


349 


1046 


Feb. 12. 


350 


1046 


April 24 


351 


104(3 


June 17. 


352 


1047 


Nov. 20. 


353 


1050 


Deo. 6. 


354 


1056 


Jan. 4. 


355 


1057 





350 


1060 


June 


■8. 


357 


1067 






358 


10G7 


Oct. 


10. 


359 


1068 


Aug. 


20, 


360 


1068 


Aug. 


21, 


361 


1068 


Aug. 


27, 


362 


1068 







Yi;bou, comprising parts of Yunnan nnd Snuchuan (Chengtu), 
Lichou in Linan Fu, Yunnan, and Yachou in Ssuchuaii. 

Chingcliou Fu, Hiipeh. 

Yingchou (now Hochien Fu), CMldi. 

Chingchou Fu, Ihipeli. Shocks were repeated several times. 

Jihnan (now called Yuenan), Tonqldnrj. The shock extended 
to the Imperial City, Kaifeng, Ilnnan. 

Shihchou, Wenchou Fu, Chehkiang. 

Vichou, comprising parts of Yvmtan and Snuchuan (Chengtu). 

Weichou (now called Kungcliang) and Wating, Pingliang Fu, 
Kansu. During the day there were four shocks. 

Taichou, north part ot Shansl. 

Changchou and Meichou, Ningyuan Fu, Smchitan. 

C'hengching (now called Chingting) in Chingho, Chihll. Over- 
turned walls. , 

Liao, Ying, in Tatung Fu, and Yuan, iii Chiang, Shansi. 
Many houses were destroyed. 

Taichou in Yangchou Fu, Kiangsu, and Hsin, Shansi. 

Imperial City, Kaifeng Fu, Ilonaii (B, Nov. 29). 

Taichou, Pingchou (Taiyuan Fu), and Hsinchou. These places 
are in the north part of Shansi. The greatest damage was 
done at Hiinchoa, where 19,742 people were killed, 5,655 
were wounded, and more than 50,000 cattle were killed. At 
Taichou 759 people were killed, and at Pingchou 1,890 
people killed (1?, Jan. 24, 1038). 

Imperial City, Kaifeng, Ilonan. (One book gives date as 
Dec. 1037.) 

Tai, Ping and Hsinchou, Shansi. This is where the earthquake 
took place in December 1037. 

Hsinchou, Shan.ii. 

Imperial City, Kaifeng Fu, Jlvnan. 

Hsinchou, Shansi. Followed by a loud noise. 

Hsinchou, Shansi. 

Kuangchou or Cantong Fu, Kuxngtunff. 

Kingnan and Yochou, Hunan. 

Chingchou Fu, Shantvng (B, April 6). 

Tengchou Fu, Shantung. A mountain was displaced and 
there was a noise in the sea. 

Imperial City, Kaifeng Fu, Ilonan. 

A^ang and Hsuchou, Honan. 

llsiuchou, Chian, Kiangsi. A loud noise like thunder came 
from the north-west. 

Chiahsing Fu, Chehkiang. 

Hsiungchou in Paoting Fu and Pachou in Shuntien Fu, Chilili. 
The greatest damage was at Yuchou in the northern part of 
Hsiungchou. Mure than twenty or thirty thousand people 
were killed. 

Imperial City, Kaifeng Ya, Honan. 

Cliuanchou, Changchou, Chienchou, Shaowu, Hsingliuachun, in 
Fuhldcn, and Chaochou Fu, in Xuangtting. Most damage 
was done at Chaochou Fu : the ground opcneJ, water burst 
forth, and many people were killed. 

Imperial City, Kuifeng t'u, Ilonan. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 

Ilui and Tucga in Yuccliou (now called Tungping), Taian Fu, 
Shantung. .Shocks were repeated all day ; a violent earth- 
quake occurred at Tsangchou, C'hingchih and Mochou, 
Hochian Fu, (J/ii?ili, and Hopei in //o««.», comprising Chant e 
Fu, Weihui Fu, and Huaiching Fu. Many castle walh and 
houses were destroyed and many people killed. 





Date. 




Ko. 


A.T). 






303 


10G8 






364 


1068 


Sept 


. 3. 


365 


1068 


Dec. 


20. 


366 


1069 


Jan. 


6. 


367 


106'J 


Jan. 


20. 


3G8 


10G9 


Jan. 


24. 



370 


1072 


Nov. 3. 


371 


1085 


June 14. 


372 


1087 


April 10. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVEbTIGATIONS. 03 



Yijangin the Chansha Fu, Hunan. A mountain was displaced 

with a loud noise. 
Mochou, Hochien Fu, CJiUill. Accompanied with loud noise. 
Imperial City, Kaifeng, Jlonan; also at Mochou, ClUhli. 
Yingchou, Hsuchou Fu, Sfuchnan. 
Chichou in Chingho, Paoting Fu, ChiliU. 
Tsungchou in Tientsin Fu, Cldhli. Muddy water burst out 

from the ground, bringing with it wood, nuts, shells, &c. 
369 1069 Jan. Chaochou Fu, Knangtunj. Shocks were repeated more than 

ten times in the day, and the ground did not come to rest 

for more than six months. 
Hua, Tungchou Fu, ShensL 
Imperial City, Kaifeng, Honan. 
Taichou, northern part of Shansl. The shock was followed 

by a loud noise. 

373 1089 Spring. Shensi, comprising part of Shensi and Kansu (see Hsian Fu) ; 

also Hopei, Huaching Fu, in Honan. 

374 1092 Nov. 7. Lanchou, Cheniung, Pingliang Fu, in Kansu; aLso Yunghsing 
(now called Hsian Fu), Shmsi. 

Huanchou, Chingyang Fu, Kansu. 

Taiyuan Fu in Shcinii. 

Honan Fu, Honan. 

Suchou Fu, Kiangsu. Shocks were repeated many times frcm 
summer to autumn. 

Chiennan and Tungchuan (now called Chengtu Fu, Ssuclman'). 

Cliuchou, Anhui, and Yichou, Shantvng. 

Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. It was followed by a loud noise 

There was an earthquake which lasted a long time. 

Enchou in Tungchang Fu, Shantung. 

Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. 
Ditto. 

Chin, Hsi, Tai, Lan, Kelan, Paote, Ningwu, in Taiyuan Fu, 
Shansi ; Shih (now Wupao) and Weisheng, Suite Fu, 
Shensi. Those places are on opposite sides of the valleys 
through which the Yellow River runs in a north-south 
direction. Shocks were repeated day and night, and many 
castle walls and houses were destroyed and many people 
were killed. 

387 1122 Hsingchou in Paoting, Chihli. 

388 1124 Feb. Imperial City, Kaifeng, iZbwftM. The ground did not come to 

rest for several days. Shocks were followed by aloud noise. 

389 1125 Sept. 6, In the Hsiho Circuit, in the northern part of Kansu. Most 

damage done was at Lunchou. The ground sank to a depth 

of 40 or 60 feet, and several hundred houses and people 

were buried. 
Changan, the prefectural city of Hsian Fu, Shensi. 
Pingchiang, Yochou Fu, Hunan. Most damage was done at 

Huchou (B, Oct. 12). 
Hsingtu, in Chenting Fu, Chihli. 
Chengtu Fu, Ssuchuan. 
Yuhang, Hangchou Fu, Chehldang. Shock was followed by 

loud noise like thunder. 
Earthquake. 

Imperial City, Kaifeng, Honan, 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Earthquake. 

Earthquake (B, April 28), 
Earthquake. 
Hotung (Puchou and Pingyang), Shansi, and Tungchou Fa, 

Shensi. 
Ditto. 
Ditto (B, Aug, 25), 



375 


1092 


Nov. 8. 


376 


1095 


Jan. 13. 


377 


1095 


Nov. 


378 


1095 




379 


1096 


April 9. 


380 


1096 


Oct. 17. 


381 


1097 


Aug. 4. 


382 


1098 


Aug. 31. 


383 


1099 


Feb. 27. 


384 


1099 


Aug. 28. 


385 


1100 


June 19. 


386 


1102 


Jan. 23. 



390 


1128 


Feb. 22. 


391 


11 33 J 


i_Sept. 9. 


392 


1134 




393 


1135 


June. 


394 


1136 


July 16. 


.395 


1137 




396 


1137 


Aug. 21. 


397 


1141 


Jan. 23. 


398 


1141 


Nov. 30. 


399 


1154 


Mar. 17. 


400 


1155 


May 5. 


401 


1158 


Sept. 28. 


403 


1160 


April 7. 


403 


1161 


April 23. 


404 


1162 


Sept. 1. 



94 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Date. 

No. A.D. 

405 1163 July 21. 

406 1163 Nov. 24. 

407 1164 March. 

408 1165 Aug. 14. 

409 1165 Aug. 16. 

410 1166 Oct. 9. 

411 1167 Nov. 6. 

412 1169 Jan. 31. 



413 1175 

414 L180 

415 1183 

416 1184 

417 1185 

418 1187 

419 1195 



420 
421 
422 
423 
424 
125 



1195 
1200 
1200 
1200 
1200 
1209 



Jan. 16. 

June 16. 
Jan. 8. 
Jan. 27. 
June 14. 
June 15. 
April 10. 

Sept. 
July 15. 
Oct. 

Dec. 19. 
Dec. 26. 
Dec. 11. 



426 1209 Dec. 23. 



427 1210 Mar. 31. 



428 1213 May. 

429 1213 July 3. 

430 1216 Mar. 25. 

431 1217 Mar. 28. 
■132 1219 June 9. 



433 


1219 


June. 


434 


1219 


July. 


435 


1220 


July 30. 


436 


1221 


Feb. 10. 


437 


1221 


June 11 


438 


1223 


Oct. 1. 


439 


1241 


Jan. 16. 


440 


1242 


Feb. 25. 


441 


1255 




442 


1270 




443 


1274 


Oct. 23. 


444 


1284 


Oct. 19. 


445 


1289 


Feb. 4. 


446 


1290 


Mar. 28. 


447 


1290 


Mar. 31 


448 


1290 


Sept. 27 


449 


1291 


Sept. 


450 


1295 


Aprilll 



Accompanied by a loud 



The movement 



continued 
The tiles 



Earthquake. 

Ditto. 
Imperial City, Kaifeng, Ilonan. 
Imperial City, Kaifeng, Honan. 

noise. 
Imperial City, Kaifeng, Honan. 

Ditto. 
Earthquake. 
Shihchou, Suiting Fu, Ssuclinan. 

for three days, and was accompanied by sounds, 
fell from many roofs. 
Imperial City, Kaifeng, Ilonan. 

Ditto. 
Earthquake, Kaifeng, Honan. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Earthquake, Kaifeng, Honan, accompanied by a thunder- 
storm. The Palace gate was damaged. 
Imperial City, Kaifeng, Honan. 

Ditto. 
Earthquake in North-East China (Shangtu '). 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Pingyang Fu, Shansi. The motion was from north-west, and 

was followed by a loud noise. 
In the same district. The greatest damage was at Fashan in 
Pingyang Fa. Man}' castles and houses were destroyed and 
many people were killed. 
Heavy shook in the same district. Movement did not cease 
until the end of September. The shocks were accompanied 
with noise. 
Hsingtu. 

Yenchou Fu, Chelildang (B, June 26). 
East Hsichuan, Hsining Fu, Kaiisu. 

come to rest for four days. 
Imperial City, Kaifeng Fu, Honan. 

Pingliang and Chenjung in Pingliang Fu, Kansu. It was 
accompanied by a loud noise and followed by a dust storm, 
which made the whole day dark The damage was so 
great that it was impossible to find out how many houses 
had been destroj'ed and how many people had been killed. 
Imperial City, Kaifeng, Honan. 
Hsichuan, Hsining, Xansii. 
Eartliquake. 

Earthquake and thunderstorm. 
Hsichuan, Hsining Fu, Kansu. 
Earthquake. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Shu (the literary name of Ssnelivan'), Chengtu Fu. 
Chiating Fu (now Sungpan), Lungan Fu, Ssnchiian. 
Imperial City, Tatu (now Peking). 
Peking. 

Earthquake, Peking. 
Chuanchou Fu, Fuhlden. 
Earthquake, Chuanohou Fu, Fulilden. 

Shangtu (also called Luanking), Chihli, and Wuping, Ting- 

chou Fu, Fuhlden. At Wuping 100,000 people were killed. 

Pingyang Fu, Shansi. Eighteen thousand houses wero 

destroyed. 
Earthquake. 



The ground did not 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 95 

Date. 

No. A.D. 

451 1302 Dec. 29. Yunnan Fu, Yunnan. The ground did not come to rest for 

several days. 

452 1302 Dec. Ditto. 

453 1303 Sept. Ping-yang Fu, Taiyuan Fu, S/iansi. The land opened, and 

water and sand came out of i he fissures ; 10(J,000 houses 
were destroyed and many people were killed. A landslip, 
more than ten Chinese miles in length, took place. This 
was a^. Chaoching in Pingyang Fu. At Hsukou, Chi, and 
Pingchou, in Taij uan Fu, the ground opened and water 
burst out to foim a stream. At Pingchou the north castle 
wall was destroyed for the length of one Chinese mile; on 
the east side it was destroyed for a length of 200 feet. At 
Pingyang Fu the ground did not come to rest until 
February 1301. (D Chinese = 1 English mile.) 

454 1304 Feb. Pingyang Fu, Sliansi. Many Jiouses were destroyed. 

455 1305 May. Tatung Fu, Shansl. It was accompanied with a noise like 

thunder, and 5,800 houses were destroyed and 1,400 people 
were killed. At Huaijen in Tatung Fu water burst out at 
two places to form lakes, and was black in colour : one of 
these lakes had an area of 18 pu (240pu = l acre) and a 
depth of 115 feet ; the other was 61) pu and 10 feet in depth. 

456 1305 June 18. Pingyang Fu and Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. In order to stop the 

continually occurring earthquakes the Government ordered 

the names Pingyang and Taij uan to be changed to Chinning 

and Cluuinsj. 
Tatung Fu, Shanisi. 
Earthquake. 
The shocks still continued at Chinning and Chining. Thty 

apparently commenced in 1303. 
Kaicheng, Yenan Fu, Shensl. 
Kaicheng, Yenan Fu, Shensi. 
Ningyuan district in the Lungiisi of Kungchang, Eansu. 

Also there was a great earthquake in Wumeng in Chaotuug 

Fu, Ymman. There were six heavy shocks in three days. 
Puchou, Shatisi. 

Puchou, S/iansi, and Ling, in Ninghsia Fu, Kansii. 
Yangchu in Taiyuan Fu, Shansl. The shock was followed by 

a great noise. 
Chining (Pingyang), Shansi. 
Ninghsia, Kansu. 
Kanchou Fu in Kanliang, Kansu. There was a noise like 

thunder and a huriicane. 
Ninghsia, Kansu. 

Imperial City, Peking, Chilili (B, June 21). 
Imperial Cit}', Peking, ChilUi. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Taning, Hsi, Shansi. 

Taning, Hsi, Shanni. Followed by noise. 
Piengliang (now Kaifeng), Chih (now VVuchili), in Huaiching 

Fu, Wuan, in Chante Fu, Honan (B, Oct. 5). 
Taning in Hsi, Shand, accompanied by a noise like thunder. 
Chining and Cliinning, Shansi. Accompanied by a noise like 

thunder (B, Oct. 7). 
Honan Fu, Hunan. 
Chining, Shansi. Accompanied by a noise. 

Ditto. 
Lingpei (outside the great wall to the north of Kansu). 

Shocks were repeated for three days. 
Earthquake, Yichou, Liaotung, Shinghlng . 
Honing in Lingpei, Kansu. 
. Teching in Chaoching Fu, Kuantjtung (B, June 18). 



457 


1305 


Dec. 2. 


458 


1305 


Dec. 


459 


1306 


Jan. 


460 


1306 


Mav 12. 


461 


1307 


Sept. 15. 


462 


1308 


July 6. 


463 


1308 


Sept. 


464 


1308 


Oct. 30. 


465 


1310 


Jan. 22. 


466 


1311 


Jan. 3. 


467 


1311 


April 24. 


468 


1311 


Aug. 6. 


469 


1311 


Sept. 16. 


470 


1313 


July. 


471 


1313 


July 3. 


472 


1313 


July. 


473 


1313 


July 22. 


474 


1314 


Mar. 8. 


475 


1314 


May 23. 


476 


1314 


Sept. 14. 


477 


1315 


Jan. 2. 


478 


1316 


Aug. 


479 


1316 


Nov. 6. 


480 


1317 


Feb. 13. 


481 


1317 


Sept. 11. 


482 


1317 


Oct. 9. 


483 


1318 


Feb. 21. 


484 


1318 


Mar. 12. 


485 


1318 


April 27, 





Eate. 


No. 


A. p. 


486 


1322 Nov. 17 


487 


1322 Dec. 25 


488 


1324 Jan. 1. 



96 REPORTS ON TOE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Earthquake, Peking. 

Ditto. 
Fengyuan (now Changan) in Hsian Fu, Shew. Accompanied 
by a noise. 

489 1326 Jan. 10. NingLisia, Kaimi. Accompanied by sound. Shocks repealed 

tlireo times. 

490 1327 Aprils. Honing in Lingpei, /r«»«?^ Accompanied by loud noise. 

401 1327 Aug. Tungwei in Kungchang Fu, Kansv. A mountain was dis- 

placed. At Tiaomen the shock made a great noise. On 
the same day there was also .a shock at Fenghsiang Fu and 
Hsingyuan, Hanchung Fu, Shenyi ; Chentu, Ssuchuan ; Shen- 
chou and Chiangling in Chingchou, Iliijjek. 

Ninghsia, Knmn-. 

Earthquake, Kansxt. 

Taning, Hsi, Shansi. 

Taning, Hsi, Shansi (B, 14tli) 

In the Chih district (now Wuchih) in Huaiching Fu, Ihmnn, 
and Chenting Fu, Chihli. The ground shook continucui-ly 
for more than a month. 

Liaotung, or Liaoyang, Shingk'mg. 

Peking. 

Lunghsi, Kungchang, Kansw. 

Earthquake. 

Taning, Hsi, Shansi. 

Imperial City, Peking. Accoraj^anied by sound, 

Lurgbsi in Kungchang, Kansii. 

Hsunshan district in Anching Fu, Anhii't. 

Leping and Tehsing districts, in Jaochou Fu, Kiangsi. 

H>ingchou, now forming Chi, Shuntien Fu, Chihli. 

Imperial Cit}^ Peking. A cock crowed before the earthquake 
commenced. A mountain disappeared, and where it stood 
a lake was formed, the area of which was a hundred square 
miles. Jlany people were killed. 

Hsingkuo, Wuchang Fu, Hiipeh. 

Anching, Anhui. The most damage was done in Susung, 
Taihu, Hsunshan districts. At the same time there was an 
earthquake at Lucliou in Anhid, Chichou, Huangchou Fu, 
Hnpch. 

Jaochou, Kiangsi. 
Mar. 9. Susung, Anching, Anhui. 

Sept. 17. Im{.eiial City, Peking. Many houses were destroyed, and 
many people and cattle were killed at Shunchou, near 
Shunyi, Lungching, Huailai, Hsuante (now Hsuanhua), 
Chihli. 

Imperial City, Peking. 

Paoan, Hsuanhua Fu, Chihli, anl Hsinchang in Juicliou Fu, 
Kiangsi. 

Hsinchou, Shuntien Fii, Chihli. Mount Ling was displaced, 

Paoanchou, Hsuanhua Fu, Chihli. 

A mountain was displaced at Knngchang, Kansu. 

Imperial City, Peking. Shocks occurred two or three times 
during the day. 

Piugliang (now Kaifeng), Honan. 

Pingchin in Chining (now Taiyuan), ShanA. Accompanied 
by a loud noise like thunder. Lind opened and many 
houses were thrown out of the vertical. 

Imperial Ciry, Peking. 

Chunchou (now Yu), Hsincheng and Mi in Kaifeng Fu, 
Honan. 

Chiaochou, Kaomi, Laichou Fu, Shantung. 

AVenchou Fu, Chehkiang. 

Chu and Mingyin in Yichou Fu, Shantung. 



492 


1327 


Sept. 30. 


4'.t3 


i:i28 


Aug. 11. 


494 


132S 


Sept. 1. 


49.5 


1328 


Nov. 21. 


496 


1331 


May. 


497 


1332 


May 4. 


498 


1332 


June. 


4 99 


1332 


Sept. 2. 


500 


1332 


Oct. 


501 


1333 


May. 


502 


1333 


June. 


503 


1333 


Sept. 


601 


1333 


Dec. 28. 


505 


1333 


Dec. 


506 


1331 


May. 


507 


1331 


Sept. 22. 


508 


1335 


Dec. 17. 


509 


1336 


Jan. 21. 



510 


1336 


511 


1336 


512 


1337 



513 
514 


1337 
1338 


Sept. 18 


515 
516 
517 
518 


1338 
1338 
1338 
1338 


July. 
Aug. 10. 
Aug. 
Sept. 6. 


519 
520 


1341 
1342 


March. 
June 7. 


521 
522 


1313 
1313 


Jan. 17. 
March. 


G23 
524 
525 


1313 
1344 
1344 


Dec. 
Aug. 9. 
Sept. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS, 



97 



Date. 

Ko. A.l>. 

520 1315 Jan. 

527 1315 June. 

528 1346 Jan. 

529 1 340 March. 

530 134G April. 

531 1346 Sept. 

532 1347 March. 

533 1347 April. 

534 1317 June 



C35 1347 July 12. 

636 1349 July 

537 1350 Nov. 

538 1351 May 22. 



539 1351 Sept. 

640 1352 

641 1352 April 



542 


1363 




543 
544 
545 


13.54 
1354 
1354 


May 
Aug. 
Dec. 


646 


1354 


Dec. 


547 


1355 


Jan. 


648 


1355 


Aug. 9. 


649 


1356 


Spring. 


655 
650 


1.356 
1358 


July 
Mar. 25 


521 


1358 


June 


553 


1359 


Feb. 


554 
555 


1360 
1362 


April 
April 


56G 


1.363 


Feb. 3. 


557 


1.365 


Oct. 


658 
559 
5G0 


1366 
1366 
1366 


April. 
July. 

Aug. 


661 


1366 
1908. 





Tangping, Tunga in Taian Fu, Yangku in Yenchou Fu, 
Pingyin, Chinan Fu, SImntvng, and Hanyang, Kupch. 

At four districts in Chicliou, Shuntien Fu, Chihli, and Tung- 
ping, Taian Fu, in Shantung. 

Chenchiang Fu, Kiangsu, and Chinan Fu, Shantung, 

Yitu, Changle, Shoukuang in Chingchou Fu, Peihai in 
Weichou, and Chiaochou in Laichou Fu, Shantung. 

Kaoyuan in Chingchou Fu, Shantung. Many houses were 
destroyed. 

Shaowu Fu, Fiihkien. Next day drum-like sounds were heard 
in the ground, and also in the following night. 

Yitu, Lintsu, Linchu in Chingchou Fu, Changyi of Weichou, 
Kaomi of Chiaochou in Laichou Fu, and Tichou of Chinan 
Fu, Shantung. 

Tungping, Tunga in Taian Fu, Yanka in Yenchou Fu, Pingyin 
in Chinan Fu, Shantung. 

Lintzu, Chingchou Fu, Shantung. The ground dii not com? 
to rest for several days; at Ilotung (Puchou, Pingvang), 
Shansi, the ground was fissured and water burst forth ; 
many houses were destroyed and many people killed. 

Tanyang, Chenchiang Fu, Kiangs-t. 

Taichou Fii, Chehkiang. 

Hsukao in Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. 

Fen, Hsin, Wenshui, Pingchin, Yutzu, and Shouyang, in 
Taiyuan Fu, Yushe of Liao in Chinning (now Pingyang Fu, 
Shansi), and Honei, Hsiuwu, Menchou, in Huaiching Fu, 
Honan. The shock was followed by a noise like thunder; 
many houses were destroyed and many people killed and 
wounded. 

Kungan, Sungtsu, Chelichiang, Chingchou Fu, Ilsia (now 
Yichang Fu), and Chingmen, Chengtien Fu (now Anlu Fu), 
Ilupeh. 

Lingshih in Ho (Pingyang Fu), Shansi. 

Shensi (the provinces comprise part of Kansu, the north-west 
part of Ssuchuan, and the present Shensi). Most damage 
was done at Chuanglang Tinghsi in Liangchou Fu, Ching- 
ning in Pingliang Fu, and Huichou (now Huan) in Chingyang, 
Kansu. Many houses were destroyed ; a mountain was 
moved and a valley filled up. 

Chuanglang, Liangchou Fu, Tingsi, KungchangFu, (^hingning, 
Pingliang Fu, and Huichou, Lanchou Fu, Kansu. 

Chiehhsiu, Fenchou Fu, Shansi. Water burst out. 

Hsiaoyi, Fenchou Fu, Shansi. 

Ningkuo, Chingte in Ninakuo Fu, Anhui. 

Haichou in Huaian Fu, Kiangsu. 

Shaohsing Fu, Chehldong. 

Paote in Chining (now Taiyuan Fu), Shansi. 

Chichou (Shuntien Fu) and four other districts in Chihli. The 
ground did not come to rest for ten days. 

Leichou Fu, Kuantung. 

Linchou in Chinning (Taiyuan Fu), Shansi. 

Yitu in Chingchou, Shantung. 

Chingyuan in Chuchou Fu, Chchldang. 

Shunchang in Yenping Fu in Fuhkien. 

Nanhsiung, Kuan^tting. 

Taichou Fu, Chehkiang. 

Hsinghua Fu, Fuhkien. With a noise like thunder. 

Haichou in Huaian Fu, Kiangsu. With a noiise like thunder. 

Chiehhsiu in Fenchou Fu, Shansi. 

Hsin, Lin, Shih in Hsukao of Taiyuan and Hsiaoyi, Pingyao in 
Fenchou, Shansi. Many people were killed. 

Kung, Honan Fu, Honan. A mountain was displaced, 

n 



98 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Date. 

No. A.I). 

562 1.S67 June. CliiDan, Shantung. 

563 1367 Nov. 13. VahchoM, FuhUen. 

561 1368 Jan. 26. Ywhchou, Fuhkien. With a noise like thunder. 

565 1368 June. Wenshui, Hsukao in TaiyuanFu.Hsiaoji, Chiehhsiu in Fenchou 

Fu, Paote of Linchou, Shihlou of Shi, SJiand and Shensi 
(comprising Sfiensi and Eansu) (tee Hsian Fu, Shensi). 

566 1368 Dec. 2. Shensi, now represented by Shensi and Kansu {see Hsian). 

567 1371 Kungchang, Lintao, and Chingyang, Kansu. 

668 1372 June 1. Tsangwu in Wuchou Fu, Hochou, Kungcheng and Lishan 
(now Yungan in Pingle Fu), Kuangsi. 

569 1372 Aug.6,13. Yangchu, Taiyuan Fu, /S/fansi. 

570 1372 Aug. 24. The Imperial City, Nanking, Kiangiu. Sixteen people were 

killed. 

571 1372 Sept. 14. Hsukao, Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. The ground did not come to 

rest for three days, and loud noises came from the north- 
west. 
Yangchu, Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Yangchu, Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. The shocks were repeated 
seven times during the year ; the ground did not come to 
rest for eight years. 
Imperial City, Nanking (now Chiangning), Kiangsu. 

Ditto. 
Ninghsia in north Kansu. It destroyed many castle walls. 
Fuhchou Fu, Fuhhien, Kuangchou Fu or Canton, Kiuingtung, 

and Hochou, Lanchou Fu, Kansu. 
Yunnan Fu, Yuntian. 

Ditto. 
Chinan, Shantung. 
Imperial City, Nanking, Kiangm. 
Peking, Taiyuan Fu, Shinsi, is^inghsia, in Kansu. 
Imperial City, Nanking, Chinan Fu, Shxntung, and Kaifeng Fu, 

Honan. 
Imperial City, Nanking. 

Ditto. 
Peking. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Nanking. 

Liuan, Luchou Fu, Anhui, and Nanking, where the ground 
did not come to rest for seven days ; there were about 
forty-two shocks. 

594 1426 Aug. 14. Imperial City, Peking. The motion was from south-east to 

north-west, and there was a loud noise. 

595 1427 Nanking. Shocks occurred ten times in a day. 

596 1428 Nanking. 

597 1429 Peking and Nanking. 

598 1430 Feb. 12. Nanking. 

599 1430 Feb 21. Ditto. 

600 1438 April 18. Imperial City, Peking. 

601 1438 April 19. Ditto. 

602 1438 April 23. Ditto. 

603 1439 Aug. 7. Ditto. 
601 1439 Sept. 12. Ditto. 

605 1440 Nov. 4. Chuanglang in Liangchou Fu, Kansu. The ground did not 

come to rest from October to the end of November ; there 
were about twenty shocks ; castle walls and houses were 
destroyed iind many people were killed. 

606 1445 Mar. 30. Imperial City, Peking. 
e07 1451 Aug. £2. Ditto. 



672 


1372 


Sept. 29. 


573 


1372 


Oct. 23. 


574 


1372 


Nov. 8. 


675 


1372 


Nov. 21. 


576 


1372 




577 


1375 


May. 


578 


1376 


Jan. 2. 


579 


1378 


May 8. 


580 


1382 


Jan. 22. 


581 


1386 


July 21. 


582 


1390 


Dec. 27. 


683 


1394 


Feb. 9. 


584 


1399 


May 7. 


585 


1403 


Dec. 18. 


586 


1404 


Dec. 26. 


587 


1408 


June 17. 


588 


1413 


Sept. 22. 


589 


1415 


Nov. 8. 


590 


1419 


Oct. 14. 


591 


1420 


Aug. 9. 


592 


1424 


Aug. 3. 


593 


1425 


Mar. 16. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 99 

Date. 
No. A.n. 

608 1452 Nanking. . ^ u , j • 

609 1454 Nov. 21. Imperial City, Peking. Accompanied by a loud noise; motion 

north-west to south-east. 

610 1457 Nov. 11. Nanking. 

611 1465 Feb. Hsiangyang Fu, Hupeli. 

612 1465 May 12. Tiaochou, Tientsin Fu, ChlhU. The ground did not come to 

rest for twenty-two dajs. 

613 1465 May 12. A strong earthquake also occurred in Chengtu Fu, SsvcJiuan, 

and shocks were repeated 375 times. 

614 1467 Earthquake. 

615 1467 June 28. Hsuanhua Fu, Chlhli, and Tatung Fu, Shansi. There was 

also a strong earthquake at Sochou in Soping Fu and 
Weiyuen, Sliniisi ; many people were wounded. 

616 1468 Sept. 1. Imperial City, Peking. Accompanied with sound. 

617 1469 Jan. 3. In Hukuang. This province compiises Changsha Fu, Hunan, 

and Wuchang Fu, Ilupeh. 

618 1470 Jan. 18. Juning Fu. Honan, Wuchung Fu, Hanyang Fu. Hupeh, and 

Yochou Fu in Hunan. 

619 1470 Feb. 18. i7b«a«and Hukuang comprising ^(t«««andS^i//^eA("Wuchang). 

620 1470 Hukuang, Wuchang, Hu/ieJi. 

621 1474 May 23. Hoching in Lichiang Fu, Yunnan. Shocks were repeated 

fifteen times ; many houses were destroyed and many people 
killed. 

622 1474 Dec. 3. Tashaching in Lingchou, Chingyang Fu, Kansu. It made a 

noise like thunder: shocks were repeated day and night, 

and many houses were destroyed. 
Nanking, A'iangsv. 
Imperial City, Peking. 

Fenyang and Linhuai, Anhui. Accompanied by sound. 
Lintao and Kungchang in Knnsu. It destroyed many castle 

walls. 

627 1477 May 22. Kanchou, Ninghsia, Liangchou, Kansu, Yulin, SJien.si, and 

Yichou in Shavgtunff. The greatest damage was done at 
Ninghsia and Kanchou, where the ground was cracked and 
the castle walls were damaged in eighty places'. 

628 1477 Oct. 25. Imperial City, Peking. Shocks were repeated three times 

during the day. 

629 1478 July Taiping Fu, Kuangsi. Shocks were repeated seven times 

during the day, and the ground was moving until the end 
of August. 

630 1478 Aug. Chengtu, Ssuohuan. Many houses destroyed and many people 

were killed. 

631 1480 June Changle, Fuchou Fu, Fukkien. 

632 1480 Sept. 23. Yuehsui in Ningyuan Fu, Ssuchvan. Shocks were repeated 

seven times during the day, and it was several days before 
the ground came to rest. 

633 1481 Mar. 19. Nanking, Huaian Fu, Yangcbou Fu, Kiangsu, Fengyang Fu, 

Luchou Fu, Hochiu, Ymgchou Fu, Anhui, Yenchou Fu, 
Shantung, and Houan Fu in Honan. 

634 1481 June 30. Tsunhua and Suchou, Shuntian Fu, CA?AZz. 

635 1481 July 6. Another earthquake at the fame places, and Yungping Fu, 

Chihli, Liaotung, and Shingldng. Shocks repeated three 
times during the day. 

636 1484 Feb. 7. Imperial City, Peking, Yungping, Hsuenhna, ChihU,&n6. Liao- 

tung. Most damage was done at Hsuenhua ; many castles 
destroyed and many people killed. 

637 1484 June 4. Taichou, Shansi. Shocks were repeated seven times. 

638 1485 Mar. 15. Tamn ¥a, Shantum/. 

639 1485 Mar. 26. Ditto. Four days later the shock was repeated. 

640 1483 April 5. Earthquake. 

641 1485 April 8. Ditto. 

642 1485 April 13. Ditto. 

h2 



623 


1476 


Feb. 


10. 


624 


1476 


Nov. 


6. 


625 


1477 


Feb. 


22. 


626 


1477 


Mar. 


28. 



]00 



KEPORTS 0>' THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



No. 
613 



Date. 

A.D. 

H85 May 23. 



G14 1485 June 4. 



61.5 
G4(! 


1483 
1485 


July 4. 
Oct. 23. 


C47 
648 


U83 
148G 


Dec. 3. 
July 29. 


649 


14SG 


Oct. 15. 


650 


1488 


Sept. 25. 


651 


1183 


Oct. 1. 



652 


148 


Jan. 12. 


653 


1489 


June 10. 


654 


1491 


Jan. 30. 


655 


1491 


July 21. 


65B 


1491 


Sept. 23. 


657 


1493 


March. 


G58 


1493 


Mav 4. 


659 


1494 


Apiil 3. 


6G0 


1193 


April 20. 


661 


1495 


Oct.11-18 


662 


1495 


Nov. 8. 


663 


1495 


Nov. 10. 


604 


1495 




fcG5 


1496 




666 


1497 


Feb. 27. 


667 


1497 


July 13. 



GGS 1497 



669 


1500 


Aug. 


21. 


G70 


1500 


Nov. 


28. 


C7l 


1501 


Jan. 


29. 



Kuyuan in Pingliang Fu ; Lanlio,Tao, and Min, in KuDgchang 
Fu, Kansii. The shock v?as followed by a loud noise. 

Chichou, Shuntien Fu, Tsunhua, in Chihli. The shock was 
followed by a loud noise, and the ground did not come to 
rest for several days. Many castle walls and houses were 
destroyed. 

Imperial City, Peking. 

lAtnchon, Kuaiigtmig ; and Wuchou, Kuavgsl. Shocks were 
repeated many times, and the ground did not come to rest 
for si.xteen days. 

Imperial City, Peking. 

Ningchiang, in Hanchung Fu, and Paochi, in Fengsiang Fu, 
Shcnsi. At Ningchiang the ground was cracked for a length 
of 60 to 100 feet. At Paochi there was a crack three 
Chinese miles in length and 10 feet wide. 

Chengtu Fu, Ssuchiian. Shocks were repeated seven or eight 
times during the day and continued until the day follow- 
ing: thej' made a noise like thunder. 

Han, Mou, Chengtu Fu, Ssvchuan. Thirty-seven houses were 
damaged and many people were killed. 

A land.slip took place at Hsuanhua Fu, ChiMi : it was 
150 yards long, 10 feet wide, and 3 feet in depth. A 
narrow footpath was elevated in the middle of tlie river 
SI a. It was one foot above the surface of the water and 
70 yards in length. 

Clionglu Ya in Ssuchiian. Shocks were repeated many times 
for three days. 

Chengtu Fu, Ssuchvan. Shocks were repeated for three 
days and noises were heard. 

Imperial City, Peking. 
Ditto. 

Nanking, Huaian, and i'angchou Fu, Kiangsn. 

Ninghsia, Xansu. Shocks were repeated twenty times in 
three years. 

Kaifeng Fu, Weihui, Ilonan, Tungchang Fu, Shantung. 

Chuching Fu, Yunnan. Many houses destroyed and many 
people killed. Also at Peking and Nanking. The shocks 
were repeated six times during the year. 

Ninghsia, Xansu. Shocks occurred twelve times, and were 
followed by loud noise. Walls and houses were damaged, 
and many people were wounded. 

Annan, Hsingyi Fu, Xiieichoii. There were twelve shocks. 

Haichou, Xian^jsu. 
Ditto. 

Nanking. 

Peking and Nanking. 

Imperial City, Peking, and Taiyuan Fn, Shansi. 

Haifeng in Wuting Fu, Shantung. Shocks were followed by 
.1 loud noise and continued for several days. 

Chenting Fu (now^ forming Chengting) in Chinho, Chihli; 
Taiyuan Fu, Tunlin, in Luan Fu, Shansi ; Yulin Fu, Shensi ; 
Chenfan in Liangchou Fu, Lingchou, Ninghsia Fu, Xansu. 
The greatest damage was at Tunlin, where tiles fell from 
the roofs. 

Imperial City, Peking. 

Peking, Nanking, and Fengyang, Anhvi. 

Yenan, Tung, Hua, Hsingyang, Chaoyi, Changan, in Hsian 
Fu, Tungkuang, in Tungchou Fu, Hsientung, Finghsiang 
Fu, Shensi ; Chingyang, Xansu. The greatest damage was 
done at Chaoyi and Hsiengtung, where castle walls and 
houses were destroyed and people were killed. Fissures 
were formed, froni which water flowed to form a small 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 101 



Date. 

No. A.I). 



C77 


1502 


Oct. 27. 


678 


1502 


Dec. 4. 


G79 


1.'502 


Dec. 7. 


680 


l.o03 


Mar. 31. 


681 


1505 


July 21. 


682 


1505 


Oct. 19. 


683 


1505 


Oct. 20. 



river. Movement continued for several mouths. Each shock 
was followed by a loud noise. A fetrong earthquake also 
occurred at Yungning, Luahi. in Shan Fu, Uonan ; Ping- 
yang and Anyi, Junglio, in Puchou Fu, and Puchou, 
Shansi. 

672 1501 Feb. 26. Puchou Fu, Hsinghua Fu, Chuauchou Fu, and Changchou Fu, 

Fahlden. 

673 1501 Mar. 14. Puchoo, Shansi. Shocks were repealed twenty-nine times 

and the ground did not come to rest until the middle of 
next month. 

674 1501 Oct. 20. In the province of Kueichou. Shocks were repeated three 

times. 

675 1501 Dec. G. Nanking. 

676 1502 Oct. 27. Nanking, Hsuchou Fu, Kiangsu; Taming Fu, Sbunte Fu, 

CIdhli ; Chinan, Tunchang, Yenchou, and Puchou in 

Tsaochou Fu, Shantung. The greatest damage was at 

Puchou, where the ground was cracked and water burst 

forth. More than one hundred people were killed. 
Kaifeng Fu, Changte Fu, Honan ; Pingyang Fu, Tsechou Fa, 

and Luan Fu, Shansi. 
So, Tai, Ying, Shanyin, Yangchn, and Mayi, Tatung Fu, 

Shansi. The earthquake made a loud noise. 
Nanking. 

Ditto. 
Ninghsia, Kansu. The shock was followed by a loud noise ; 

many castles and houses were thrown out of the vertical. 
Hangchou Fu, Chiahsing Fu, Shaohsing Fu, and Ningpo Fu, 

Chekkiang. The shock was followed by a loud noise. 
Nanking, Suchou Fu, Sunchiang Fu, Changchou Fu, Chen- 

chiang Fu, Huaian Fu, Yangchou Fu, and Tung, Kiangsu ; 

Ningkuo Fu and Hochou, Taiping Fu, Anhui. 
684 1G05 Oct. 27. Puchou, Chieh, .Chiang, Shansi; Hsuanhua Fu, Chihli. 

Greatest damage occurred at Anyi in Chieh and Wan- 

chuan in Hsuanhua Fu, Chihli ; many houses destroyed 

and many people killed. 
Hoyang in Tungchou Fu, Shoisi. Shocks were repeated 

more than ten times, and each was followed by a loud noise 

like thunder. 
Yunnan Fu, Yunnan. The ground did not come to rest for 

three or four days ; many houses were destroyed and many 

people were killed. 
Aoshanwei, Laichou Fu, Shantung. Many castle walls were 

damaged ; there were many shocks, and each was followed 

by a loud noise ; the ground did not come to rest until 

December. Altogether there were about forty-five shocks. 
688 1507 Nov. 14. Anchou, Hsinhsingchou, Yunnan Fu, Yunnan. Many people 

were killed. The ground did not come to rest for three 

days. 
Wuchang Fu, Ilvpeh. The shock was followed by a loud 

noise and lightning. 
Chuhsiung Fu, Yunnan. The ground did not come to rest for 

three days; there were about five shocks. 
Chuhsiung Fu, Ytinnan. Movement continued for thirteen 

days. 
Tengchuan, Tali Fu, Chienchuan, and Hoching, Lichiang Fu, 

Yunnan. The greatest damage was done at Chienchuan 

and Hoching, where many people were killed and many 

houses destroyed. 
Imperial City, Peking, Paoting Fu, Hochien Fu, and eight 

districts and three towns in C/(?7<Zf, ' and Wuting Fu in 

Shantung. In three days there were nineteen .shocks. 
Chuhsiung Fu, Yunnan. There were many shocks, each of 

which was followed by a noise like thunder. 



685 


1506 


Mar. 27 
to 29 


685 


1.506 


May 6. 


687 


1506 


Sept. 7. 



689 


1509 


June 5. 


690 


1509 


June 5. 


691 


1510 


May. 


692 


1511 


Nov. 27. 


693 


1511 


Dec. 12. 


694 


1512 


June 3. 



102 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Date. 
No. AJ). 

695 1512 Oct. 17. Tengcliung (now Teiigyuen) in Yungcbang ¥ a, Yunnan. 
Movement continued for three days ; red water came out 
from the ground ; many castle walls and houses were 
destroyed and many people were killed. 

69t 1514 Jan. 9. Clieogtu Fu, Chungching Fu, Tuogchuan Fu, &«cA«a»«. 

697 1514 July 15. Fengyang Fu, J«/tMi. Followed by a loud noise. 

698 1514 Sept. i:]. Peking. 

699 1514 Oct. 3. Hsuchou Fa, SMichuan, Taiyuan Fu, and Tatung Fu, SJiansi. 

Shock folljwed by a loud noise. 

700 1515 June 27. Yunnan Fu, Chaocbou in Tali Fu and Tungning (now 

Nanning), Chuching Fu, Yunnan. For more than a month 
twenty or thirty shocks occurred each day ; the ground was 
cracked and water burst out ; the damage was so great that 
it was impossible to find out how many houses had been 
destroyed or how many people had been killed. 

701 1515 Oct. 10. Tali Fu, r?/;i7ja«. 

702 1515 Oct. 29. Ditto. 

703 1516 Sept. 25. Nanking (forming the present Anliui and Kiangsu') and 

Wuchang Fu in Hupek. 

704 1517 Jan. 15. Chuh.'iiung Fu, Tali Fu, Jlenghun, and Chingtung, Yunnan. 

705 1517 May 19. Yukan, Fengcheng in Fuchon Fu, and Chuanhsi Fa, Xianri; 

Chinhsiang, Chinning Fu, Shantung ; Hangchou Fu, 
Chehhiang. The ground did not come to rest until the 
end of August, and there were about fifteen shocks. 

706 1517 July 22. Hosi, Hsio, Tunghai, in LinanFu and Hsinhsing, Chengchiang 

Fu, Yunnan. Many houses and castles were destroyed, and 
many people were killed. 

Chinan, Chingchou, Laichou, and Tengchou Fu, Sluintung. 

At Chuanchou Fu, Fvh'kicn. The ground did not come to rest 
from February to June ; at Chinhua, Chehkiang, the move- 
ment lasted from Februarj' to July. 

Chao, Tengchou, LaKgchiung, in Tali Fa, and Menghua, 
Yuniian. 

Imperial City, Peking. 

Hsuanhua Fu, Changping, in Shuntien Fu, and Kaiping, ChiMi. 

Fuchou Fu, Hsingchou Fu, Chuanchou Fu, Fuhkien. 

Anning, Yunnan Fu, Hoching, LichiangFu, Yaoin Chuhsiung 
Fu, Pinchuau in Tali Fu, and Menghua, Yunnan. The 
greatest damage occurred at Menghua. Many castles and 
houses were destroyed and many people were killed. 
716 1520 Aug. 28. Chingtung Fu, Yunnan. The whole district was damaged 
and the shocks were followed by a loud noise. 

Chinan, Tungcbang, Shantung, and Kaifeng. Honan. 

Nanking (comprising the present Anhui and Kiangtu"), Shan- 
tung ; Honan, and Hsian Fu, Shensi. 

Tinghai and many neighbouring districts in Chehkiang. Many 
buildings were destroyed. 

Peking, Nanking; Honan Fu, Honan; Chinan, Shantung; 
Taiyuan, Shansi ; and Hsian, Shensi. 

Sachou Fu, Changchou Fu, Kiangsu, and Nanking. 

Hsuchou Fu, Kiangsu; Fenyang, Anhui; Huaiching and 
Kaifeng, Honan. The shock was followed by a loud noise. 
Ditto. 

YuDgchang Fu, Tengchung Fu (now Tengyueh), Yunnan, and 
Annan, Kueichou. Accompanied by sound. 
Ditto. 

Imperial City, Peking. 
Ditto. 

Imperial City, Peking, and many neighbouring districts. 
Followed by a loud noise. 

Yunnan Fu, Yunnan. ^ 

Linan Fuand Chuhsiung Fu, Yunnan, andPingle Fu, Euanggi. 



IQl 


1517 


Oct. 21. 


708 


1517 




709 


1518 


July 18. 


710 


1518 


Deo. 10. 


711 


1518 


Dec. 19. 


712 


1519 


Mar. 23. 


713 


1519 


Oct. 18. 


714 


1519 


Oct. 28. 


715 


1520 


April 5. 



717 
718 


1520 
1523 


Sept. 1. 
Jan. 


719 


1523 


Aug. 24. 


720 


1524 


Feb. 12. 


721 
722 


1524 

1525 


Feb. 27. 
Sept. 13. 


723 
724 


1525 
1.526 


Oct. 12. 
May 31. 


725 
726 

727 
728 


1526 
1527 
1533 
1536 


June 9. 

Nov. 27. 
Sept. 25. 
Nov. 1. 


729 
30 


1537 
1539 


Oct. 
Aug. 19. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



108 



No. 

731 
732 



735 
736 

737 
738 

739 
740 
741 
742 



743 
744 
745 

746 
747 

748 
749 
760 
751 



754 
753 
756 



Date. 

A.D. 

1540 May 25. 
1542 Nov. 14. 



733 1542 Dec. 26. 

734 1543 April 14. 



1543 May 19. 

1544 April 3. 



1.548 
1548 



Aug. 18. 
Sept. 22. 



1551 Oct. 10. 

1552 Mar. 16. 
1552 March. 
1555 Feb. 3. 



1558 Feb. 9. 

1558 April 27. 

1558 June 16. 

1658 July 3. 

1558 Nov. 22. 

1558 Nov. 28. 

1558 Dec. 4. 

1559 Aug. 25. 

1560 May. 



752 1561 Mar. 3. 
763 1561 Auff. 16. 



1562 Feb. 24. 
1566 Feb. 1. 
1568 Aprilll, 



767 1568 May 5. 



758 


1568 


May 10. 


759 


1568 


May 12, 


760 
761 
762 


1569 
1570 
1571 


Dec. 28. 
May 15. 
July 3. 



Taochou, Kungchang, and Kansu (present Kanchou), Kansv. 

Pingyang, Shansi ; Kuyuan, Pingling Fu, Ninghsia Fu, an 
Taochou, Kansu. Followed by a loud noise. 

Kungchang Fu, Kuyuan, Pingling Fu, Kansu; Hsian Fu and 
Fenghsiang Fu, Sheiid. 

Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. The ground did not come to rest for ten 

days, and shocks were followed by a loud noise. 
Fnchou, Changchou, Chuanchou, and Hsinghua Fu, Fuhkien. 
Taiyuan, SJiatisi. The ground did not come to rest for ten 
days ; the shocks were followed by a loud noise. 

Imperial City, Peking, Shuntien Fu, and Paoting Fu, Cliihli. 

Imperial City, Peking, Tengchou V\\, ShanUmg ; Kuangning 
in Chaoching Fu, Kuancjtimg. 

Imperial City, Peking. Shocks followed by a loud noise. 

Fengyang Fu, Anhni. Shock followed by a loud noise. 

Taiyuan Fu, Shansi. Shock followed by a loud noise. 

Shansi, Shensi, and Honan. Followed by a noise like thunder. 
The greatest damage was done at Weinan, Chaoyi, Sanyuan, 
in Hsian Fu, Huachou, Tunarchou Fa, Shensi; Pucnou Fu, 
Shansi. A mountain was displaced and a new mountain 
was formed on level ground. The land was fissured and 
water burst forth to form a small pond in which were 
many small fish. Many houses were destroyed and about 
830,000 people were killed. Shocks were repeated several 
times each day and the ground did not come to rest for 
several days (B, 1556, January). 

Shensi. 

Changping, Shuntien Fu, Chihli. 

Puchou Fu, Shami. The ground did not come to rest for 
three days, and each shock was followed by a loud noise. 
Ditto. 

Huachou, Tuugchou Fu, Shensi. Each shock was followed 
by a loud noise. 
Ditto. 

Huachou, Tungchou Fu, Shensi. Many houses were destroyed. 

Nanking, Kiangsu. Followed by a loud noise. 

Chiahsing Fu, Huchou Fu, Chehhiang. Many fish jumped 
out of the river. 

Shantan in Kanchou Fu, Kansu. Many houses and castles 
were damaged. 

Taiyuan Fu, Tatung Fu, Shansi; Yulin Fu, Shensi ; Ninghsia 
Fu and Kuyuan in Pingling Fu, Kansu. The greatest 
damage was done at Ninghsia and Kuyuan. Many houses 
were destroyed, and many people lost their lives. 

Imperial City, Peking, Ninghsia and Hosi, Kansu. 

Fiichou, Hsinghua, and Chuanchou, Fuhkitn. 

Hsian Fu, Hanchung Fu, Shensi ; Chingyang Fu, Ninghsia, 
Kansu ; Puchou Fu, Anyi, Shansi ; also Vunyang, Hvpeh. 

Imperial (Uty, Peking, Leting, Yungping Fu, Chihli ; 
Tengchou, Shantung ; Shunching, Ssuchuan. The greatest 
damage occurred at Leting. At two places the land opened 
for a length of 30 feet and water burst out of the cracks. 
The Castle of Ningyuen, in Ssuchuan, was destroyed. 

Huaiching Fu, Nanyang Fu, Juning Fu, IIuna7i,,a.nd Ninghsia, 
Kansu. 

Fenghsiang Fu, Hsian Fu, Shensi ; Pingling Fu, Chingyang 
Fu, Kansu. Many castles and houses were destroyed and 
many people were killed. 

Imperial City, Peking. 
Ditto. 

Imperial City, Peking. Shocks repeated three times during 
the day. 



No. 


A.D. 




763 


1573 


Sept. 7. 


761 


1571 


Mar. 21, 



104 KEPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Date. 

Chingchou Fu, Hvpeh. 

Changting in Tingchou Fu, FiiltUen. The land was cracked 
and many houses and people were buried. 
7G5 1575 Feb. Hukuang (comprising the present provinces oi Hunan and 

Iliijjiih) and Kiangsi. 

766 1575 June 19. Hsiangyang Fu, Yunyang Fu, iT»/;p/(, and Nan3-ang in ZTi/iw*. 

There was a movement for three days. 

767 1575 June. Hsinyang, Juning, Jlonan. 

768 1575 Aug. 7. Fuohou Fu, Tingchou Fu, Changchou Fu, FuliUcn, nnd 

Haiyung, Chaochou Fu, Kuangtimg. 

769 1575 Nov. 5. Imperial City. 

770 1575 Nov. 15. Ditto. 

771 1575 Nov. 27. Minchou in Kungchang Fu, Kansu. Shocks were repeated 

many times during the day. 

772 157G Mar. 26. Su and Liaotung, Shinghing. 

773 1576 Mar. 27. Ditto. 

774 1577 Mar. 22. Tengyueh in Yungchang Fu, Yunnan. During the day there 

were twenty shocks. 

775 1577 Mar. 23. The same district. A land.^lip took place; a mountain was 

displaced ; water burst out ; many people were killed. 

776 1579 Aug. 16. Imperial City, Peking. 

777 1580 July 7. Tsunhua, Yungping Fu, Chihll. For a week there were many 

shocks every day. 

778 1580 Sept. 16. Chingping, Piaglu, Pingjang Fu, 5/(a«si. A thousand yards 

of the castle wall were destroyed. 

779 1581 May 27. Y'uchou in HsuanhuaFu, ChlhU ; Tatung Fu and neighbouring 

districts in Shausi. It was followed by a loud noi.sc. 

780 1583 Feb. 27. Chengtien Fu (now Anlu Fu), ^w/e/i, 

781 l.'^Sl Mar. 31. Imperial City, Peking. 

782 l.'<84 June 27. Ditto. 

783 1585 Feb. 7. Iluaian Fu, Yangchou Fu, Chiangning Fu, Kiangsv, and 

Luchou, Anliui. 
781 1585 April 6. Shanyin in Tatung Fu, 5/ta7m. 

785 1585 Sept. 4. Imperial City, Peking. 

786 1586 May 27. Ditto. 

787 1587 April 10. Kaifeng, Changte, Weihui, and Huaiching Fu, Honan. Three 

shocks during the day, 

788 1587 June. Taiyuan Fu, Sluinsi. 

789 1588 Julyl. Imperial Cit}% Peking. 

790 15S9 Aug. 24. Hangchou Fu, Wenchou Fu, Shaohsing Fu, CliehMang. 

791 1590 July 7. Kanchou and Lintao, Kamu. The damage was great, and it 

is impossible to estimate the same. Very many peojle 
were killed. 

792 1590 Aug. Fuchou Fu, Fuhlden. Very many shocks. 

793 1591 April 27. Changpingchou in Shuntien Fu, CAjZi/i. 

794 1591 Nov. 21. Sbantan in Kanchou Fu, Kansu. 

795 1595 July 2. Imperial City. 

796 1596 Jan. 24. Ilsian Fu, in Shcnsi, where the shock was followed by a loud 

noise. 

797 1596 Dec. Ywchan, Fitliliten. 

798 1597 Feb. 17. Ssuchuan in Liaotang, SIdngldng. The ground was moviug 

for three days. 

799 1597 Oct. 2. Liaoyang and Kuangning, S/nngking. Water burst out of the 

ground, and it did not cease for three days. 

800 1597 Oct. 6. Imperial Citv, Peking, and neighbouring districts. 

801 1598 Feb. 5. Ditto. 

802 1598 Feb. 6. Ninghsia, A'aimi. 

803 1598 Feb. 7. Changle in Y'ichang, Uupeh. There was a landslip 20 yards 

in depth. 

804 1598 Sept. 24. Imperial Cit)'. It was followed by a loud noise. 

805 1699 Sef)t. 13. Chengtien, Aniu Fu, Mienyang, in Hanyang Fu, Huveh; 

Yochou Fu, Hunan. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 105 

Daie. 

806 1600 Mar. 18. Imperial City, Peking. The shocks were from north-east to 

south-west, and were repeated twice. 

807 1C02 May 30. Shunghsiang iu Anlu Fu, Uvjii'h. Many houses were 

destroyed. 

808 1G02 July 2. Imperial City, Peking. 

60'J 1604 Oct. 25. Kungchang Fu, Kansu ; Lecluian, Hsian Fu, Sltensi ; Paij-ang 
in Kuangbsin Fu, Mangsi ; Wu in Suchou, Kiangm. The 
shocks were repeated ten times in the day; many houses were 
destroyed and many people were killed. At Paiyang the 
ground opened for a length of ten yards and water burst 
out. 
810 1605 July 14. Luchuan in Yulin, Knangsi. The shock was followed by a 
loud noise, city walls and houses were destroyed, and many 
were killed. 
Sll 1606 Nov. 6. Imperial City, Peking. The motion was from northeast to 
south-west. 

Taiyuan Fu, Shanai. 

Sungpan, Lungan Fu, Mou, "Wenchou, Ssiichvan. The groucd 
moved for several days. 

Imperial City, Peking. « 

Ditto. 

Kanchou Fu, Xansv. Many city walls and houses were 
destroj-ed, and about 840 people were killed. At Tungkuan, 
Shaohsiiig Fu, Chehltiang, the land opened for a length of 
870 li (about 310 miles). 

Tali, Wuting, and Chuching Fu, Yunnan Fu, Yunnan. 

Yunnan Fu and Chuching Fu, Yuivnav. 

Yunnan Fu and Chuching Fu, Yunnan. Many houses were 
destroyed. 

Taiyuan Fu, SJiami, and Honan Fu, Honan. 

Yangchou Fu, Mangsu, and I^angshan (now Changyang), 
Yichang Fu, Hupeh. In Langshan a temple was thrown 
out of the vertical. 

822 1615 Aug. 24. Chuhsiang Fu, Ymmaoi. The shock was followed by a loud 

noise and people were frightened. 

823 1G15 Dec. 8. Imperial City, Peking. 

824 1G16 May Hsinfeng Fu, Chenchiang Fu, Kiangsv. The ground did not 

come to rest for twenty-eight days. 

825 1617 June 14. Fengyang Fu, Anlnd. 

826 1617 June 15. Ditto. 

827 1618 Aug. 15. Imperial City, Peking. 

828 1618 Nov. 17. Imperial City, Peking, Shenchih, Ningwu Fu, and seventeen 

other districts in Shansi. 

829 1620 Mar. 5. Yunnan Fu, r?/«wrt?!.; ChaochingFu,Huichou, JSTwaw^^wwi?, and 

Wuchang, and the whole of Hvpth. 
8C0 1C22 Mar. 18. Tungchang, Shantung; Honan Fu, Honan; and Haining, 
Hangchou Fu, CJiehMang. 

831 1622 April 17. Tungchang and eight other districts in ShanUing. Many 

people were killed and many houses destroyed ; the move- 
ment did not cease for three days. 

832 1622 Oc\ 25. Lungte and neighbouring districts in Pingliang, Kansu. It 

destroyed the city walls for a length of 30,000 yards ; about 
11,800 houses were damaged and about 12,000 people were 
killed or wounded. 

833 1622 Dec. 13. Hsian, Shcmi. 

834 1623 April 30. Imperial City, Peking. 

835 1623 Oct. 18. Ditto. 

836 1623 Dec. 23. Yunnan Fu, Yunnan. 

837 1624 Feb. 10. Nanking and six other districts. The greatest damage was 

at Yangchou Fu, Kiangsu. 

838 1624 Feb. 11. Imperial City, Peking. 

839 1624 Mar. 31. Suc'^ou. Shuntien Fu, and Yungpicg Fu, r/^Ac'i 



812 
813 


1606 
1607 


July 23. 
Sept. 16. 


814 
815 
816 


1608 
1608 
1609 


Mar. 27. 
Aug. 23. 
July 13. 


817 
818 
819 


1612 
1612 
1612 


Mar. 12. 
Mar. 13. 
July 5. 


820 
821 


1614 
1615 


Oct 24. 
Mar. 1. 



848 


1626 


Aug. 22 


849 


1626 


Oct. 24. 


850 


1627 


Feb. 17 


851 


1627 




852 


1627 





106 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

D.\TE. 
No. A.D. 

840 1624 April 17. Leting in Tungping Fu and the neighbouring district of 

Cldhli. The land opened and water burst out : it rose to 
a height of one foot. 

841 1624 April 18. Ditto. 

842 1624 April 21. Ditto. 

843 1624 April 23. Leting in Yungping Fu. There were three shocks in one 

day. 

844 1624 July 20. Paoting Fu, Chihli. City walls and houses were destroyed 

and many people were killed. 

845 1624 Sept. 15. Sheiisi (Hsian). 

846 1625 Jan. 31. Nanking. 

847 1626 June 28. Taming and Kuangping, Chihli; Tungchang Fu, Shantung; 

'RonanV -a. Ho nan; and Pingyang, iS'A««.si. The ground did 
not come to rest for several months : the damage was so 
great that it was impos-sible to find out how many houses 
were destroyed and how many people were killed. 

Honan. 

Fuchou, Fuhhien. 

Ninghsia, Kanm. A stone temple fell and killed many priests. 

Another shock at Nanking. 

Ninghsia. The shocks were followed by a loud noise ; the 
ground did not come to re.«t for several months; there 
were about one hundred shocks ; many buildings were 
destroyed and many people were killed. 
853 1627 Nov. 27. Nanking. The motion was from north-west to south-east, 
and it was followed by a loud noise. 

Imperial City, Peking. 

Nanking. 

Lintao and Kungchang, Kansu. Many houses were destroyed 
and many people and cattle were killed. 

Nanking and Chengtu, Ssuehuan. 

Sha/isi (Taiyuan). 

Yunnan (Yunnan). 

Shensi (Hsian). 

Shanti (Taiyuan). 

Fuhkien (Fuchou). 

Nanking, Kian/jsu. 

Yunnan. 

Chengtu, Ssuchuan. 

Hsian Fu, Shensi. The ground did not come to rest for 
several months. 

Liaotiing, Shinfiliing. 

Imperial City, Peking. 

Nanking. 

Fuhkien (Fuchou). 

Changsha, Hunan, and ifwy^eA (Wuchang). 

Kansu (Kungchang). 

Fuhltien (Fuchou). 

Ssuchuan (Chengtu). 

Kuangchou, Kuangtwng, and Pingle, Kuangsi. 

Sliansi (Taiyuan). 

Fengyang in Anhui. 

Shantung (Chinan). 

Fengyang in Anhui. 

Kiiangtung (Kuangchou). 

Nanking. 

Peking and Tungchou (comprising Tung, Tsunhua, and Yung- 
ping), Chihli. Three thousand two hundred and fifty 
people were killed and the earthquake lasted three months. 
883 1720 June 11. 9.45 A.m., at west of Peking. The castle Chacheng destroyed ; 
one thousand people were killed. Shocks continued twenty 
days. 



854 


1628 


Oct. 7. 


855 


1630 


Oct. 27. 


856 


1631 


July 22. 


857 


1632 


June 17. 


858 


1632 


Nov. 4. 


859 


1632 


Dec. 31. 


860 


1633 


Aug. 12. 


861 


16.35 




862 


16.36 


April 28. 


863 


1637 


Jan. 31. 


864 


1637 


Sept. 5. 


865 


1637 


Dec. 7. 


866 


1638 


Jan. 


867 


1638 


Aug. 10. 


868 


1639 


Mar. 9. 


869 


1640 


Dec. 23. 


870 


1641 


April 12. 


871 


1641 


May 30. 


872 


1641 


June 22. 


873 


1641 


July 9. 


87-4 


1641 


Oct. 25. 


875 


1642 


June 15. 


876 


1642 


Aug. 22. 


877 


1643 


Oct. 


878 


1643 


Dec. 16. 


879 


1644 


Feb. 8. 


880 


1644 


Feb. 9. 


881 


1644 


Mar. 5. 


882 


1676 


July. 



on SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 107 

Bate. 

884 1730 Sept. 30. Teking. About one Uiousand people were killed and sbocks 

continued uatil October 8. 

885 1817 Jan. 28. 3 A.M., Macao (Aomen) Kuarigtung. Two shocks : it was 

strong at fifty leagues from Macao. 
880 1824 Jan. 2. Macao. Slight. 

887 1824 Aug. 14. Canton, Kuangtung. Great destruction "and many lives lost. 

888 1834 Yunnan Fu, Fwajiftw. The whole city was destroyed. 

889 1834 June 28-July 19. Changte Fu, Honan, and on the boundaries of throe 

provinces, Kuangping Fu, Taming Fa, Chikli, Pingyang 
Fu, Shansi, and Tungchang Fu, Shantung. About forty 
thousand people were killed; ten thousand houses were 
destroyed. 

The Distribution of EartJiqualce Destructivity in China. 

In the following tables the numbers correspond to the numbers in the 
preceding catalogue. If a disturbance was severe at several places its 
number appears after several names. The earthquakes which are said to 
have shaken the whole of China took place between the years a.d. 600 
and 788. At this time the Imperial City was Changan (present Hsian in 
Shensi). The province of Yunnan was not then included in China. 

Imperial cities referred to were as follow : — 

Changan, Hsian, Shen.si, 206 B.C. to A.D. 25 and A.D. 589 to 907. 
Honan (Loyang), Honan, A.D. 2(5 to 194 and 222 to 265. 
Chengtu, Ssuchuan, A.D. 221 to 263. 

Nanking, Kiangsu, a.d. 222 to 277 and 317 to 589 and 1268 to 1425. 
. Taiyuan, Shansi, a.d. 386 to 535. 
Kaifeng, Honan, A.D. 907 to 1278. 
Peking, Chihli, A.D. 1260 to 1368 and 1425 to present time. 

Earthquakes at Unknown Places. (91 Entries.) 

9, 12, 13, 15, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 30, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45. 46, 47. 
49, 50, 51, 53, 70, 71, 76, 90, 91, 96, 104, 133, 13.5, 137, 138, 139, 142, 160, 161, 162, 
163, 165, 170, 171, 17.3, 174, 175, 176. 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 189, 
190, 192, 193, 195, 196. 197, 212, 235, 275, 2;t3, 382, 395, 399, 400, 401, 411, 435, 436, 
428, 438, 439, 440, 450, 458, 481, 500, 614, 64.0, 641, 642— total, 91. 

Earthquakes which Shook the Whole of China. (18 Entries.) 

214, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 
272— total, 18. 

Anhui. (3.3 Entries.) . . 

Anching (lat. 30° 32', long. 117° 07'). 504. 509, 511— total, 3. 

Chu (lat. 32° 15', long. 118° 20'), 380— total, 1. 

Fengyang (lat. 32° 54', long. 117° 35'), 310, 625, 633, 670, 697, 722, 723, 740, 825,- 
826, 877, 879 -total, 12. 

Luchou (lat. 31° 50', long. 117° 15'). 509, 593, 633, 783— total, 4. 

Ningkuo (lat. .30° 50', long. 118° 41'), 545, 683— total, 2. 

Taiping (lat. 31° 18', long. 118° 21'), 109, 118, 119, 124, 125, 150, 151, 152, 6S3— 
total, 9. 

Yingchou (lat. 32° 23', long. 116° 30'), 633, 683— total, 2. 

Chehkiang. (30 Entries.) 

Chiahsing (lat. 30° 48', long. 120° 43'), 354, 682, 751— total, 3. ; 

Chinhna (lat. 29° 11', long. 110° 51'), 708— total, 1. 

Chuchou (lat. 28° 26', long. 119° 57'), 553— total, 1. 

Hangchou (lat. 30° 12', long 120° 12'), 299, 394, 682, 705, 790, 830— total, 6. 



108 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Huchou Clat. 30" 48', long. 120° 3'), 119, 151, 152, 751— total, 4. 

Ningpo (lat. 29' 49', long. 121° 35'), 082— total, 1. 

Shaohsing (lat. 29° 50', long 120° 39'), 119, 151, 152, 547, 632, 790, 81G— total, 7. 

Taichou (lat. 28° 54', long. 121° 06'), 530, 556— total, 2. 

Tinghai (lat. 30° 01', long. 122° 14'), 719— total, 1. 

Wenchou (lat. 22° 47', long. 120° 45'), 331, 524, 790-total, 3. 

Yenchou (lat. 29° 27', long. 119° 35), 429— total, 1. 

ChihU. (161 Entries.) 

Chengte (lat. 40° 59'. long. 117° 59'), 209— total, 1. 

Chengting (lat. 37° 38', long. 115° 42'), 325, 336, 392, 496, 608— total, 5 

Hochien (lat. 38° 33', long. 110° 00'), 13o. 328, 302, 364, 365, 693— total, 6. 

Hsuanhua (lat. 40° 29', long. 116° 03'), 127, 129, 512, 514, 510, 615, 036, 651,684, 
713, 779— total, 11. 

Kuangping (lat. 36° 46', long. 114° 55'), 315, 847, 889— total, 3. 

Paoting (lat. 38° 53', long. 115° 36'), 247, 300, 303, 355, 367, 387, G93, 737, 844- 
total, 9. 

Shangtu (lat. 42° 15', long. 116° 11'), 291, 296, 422, 423, 424, 448— total, 6. 

Shunte (lat. 37° 07', long. 114° 39'), 310, G70-total, 2. 

Tsunhua (lat. 40° 11', long. 117° 53'), 034, 035, 644— total, 3. 

Shuntien, Peking (lat 39° 57', long. 110° 29'), 355, 443, 444, 445, 470, 471, 472, 
473, 480, 487, 498, 502, 506. 507, 512, 513, 515, 518, 521, 527, 649, 585, 589, 590, 591, 
594, 597, 600, GOl, 002, GO!, 604, 006, 007, 609, 016, 624, 628, 634, 635, 036, 644, 645, 
647, 654, 055, 059, 065, 060, 009, 670, 093, 098, 712, 713, 720, 720, 727, 728, 737, 738, 
739, 744, 754, 757, 760, 761, 762, 709, 770, 776, 781, 782, 785, 786, 789, 793, 800, 801, 
804, 800, 808, 811, 814, 815, 82.3, 827, 828, 834, 835, 838, 839, 854, 868, 882, 833, 884 
—total, 97. 

Taming (lat, 36° 21', long. 115° 22'), 076. 847. 889— total, 3. 

Tientsin (lat. 39° 07', long. 117° 11'), 315. 362, 368, 012— total, 4. 

Yungping (lat. 39° 50', long. 118° 50'), 315, 035, 036, 757, 777, 839, 840, 841, 842, 
843, 882— total, 11. 

Fuhkien. (42 Entries.) 

Changchou (lat. 24° 31', long. 117° 43'), 357, 072, 735, 708- total, 4. 

Chienning (lat. 27° 04', long. 118° 25'), 14, 110, 357— total, 3. 

Chuanchou (lat. 24° 56', long. 118° 51'), 357, 440, 447, 072, 708, 714, 735, 755— 
total, 8. 

Fnhchou (lat. 20° 03', long. 119° 25'), 503, 564, 580, G31, 072, 714, 735, 755, 7G8, 
792, 797, 849, 802, 870, 873— total, 15. 

Hsinghua (lat. 25° 25', long. 119° 17'), 350, 557, G72, 714, 735, 755— total, G. 

Shaowu (lat. 27° 22', long. 117° 33'). 357, 531— total, 2. 

Tingchou (lat. 2.5° 45'. long. 110° 30'), 448, 704, 7G8- total, 3. 

Yenping (lat. 2G° 38', long. llb° 18'), 554— total, 1. 

Honan. (138 Entries.) 

Changte (lat. 3G° 07', long. 114° 30'), 99, 31G, 302, 470, G77, 787, 847, 889— 
total, 8. 

Honan (lat. 34° 43', long. 112° 28'), 16, 17, 20, 32, 33, 48, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 
59, GO, 61, 02, 03, 64, 65. 07, 08, 69, 72, 73, 74, 75, 78, 79, 80, SI, 82, 88, 93, 9.), 105, 
106, 110, 115, 126, 130, 132, 153, 151, 253, 291, 307, 310, 310, 377, 479, 561, 033, 718, 
720, 742, 820, 8.30, 847, 848— total. 59. 

Hsu (lat. 34° 00', long. 114° 00'), 352— total, 1. 

Huaiching (lat. 35° 07', long. 113° 00'), 302, 373, 476, 490, 538, 722, 723, 758, 
787— total, 9. 

Juning (lat. 33° 01', long. 114° 21'), 144, 018, 758, 707- total, 4. 

Kaifeng (lat. 34° 57', long. 114° 33'), 131, 311, 314, 317, 322, 323, 324, 330, 339, 
341, 344, 351, 356, 358, 359, 300, 301, 365, 371, 388, 390, 397, 398, 407, 408, 409, 410, 
413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 431, 433, 470, 519, 522, 658, 077, 717, 722, 
723, 787— total, 47. 

Nanyang (lat. 33° 07', long. 112° 34'), 28, 111, 131, 758, 7G6— total, 5. 

Shan (lat, 31° 45', long. 111° 03'), 253, G7I— total, 2. 

Weihui (lat. 35° 25', long. 114° 10'), 802, G58, 787— total, 3. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 109 



Ilunan. (21 Entries.) 

Cbangsha (lat. 28° 12', long. 112° 47'), 120, 121, 363, G17, 619, 620, 765, 871— 
tot.il, 8. 

Chenchou flat. 28° 22', long. 110° 09'), 136— total, 1. 

llengchou (law 26° 55', long. 112° 23'). 25r., 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262- 
tot.il, 8. 

Yochou (lat. 29° 18', long. 113° 02'), 348, 391, 618, 805— total, 4. 

Hupeh. (47 Entries.) 

Anlu (lat. 31° 07', long. 112° 39'), 539, 780, 805, 807— total, 4. 

Chingchou (lat. 30° 27', long. 112° 05'), 127, 140,148,167,327,329,491,530. 
763— total, 9. 

Hanyang (lat. 32° 32', long. 114° 14'), 526, 618, 805— total, 3. 

Hsiangyang (lat. 32° 06', long. 113° 05'), 140, 611, 766- total, 3. 

Huangchou (lat. 30° 26', long. 114° 54'), 509— total, 1. 

Wuchang (lat. 30° 33', long. 114° 27'), 144, 145, 217, 508, 617, 618, 619, 620, 689, 
703, 765, 829, 871— total, 13. 

Yichang (lat. 30° 49', long. 111° 10'), 145, 539, 803, 821_total, 4. 

Yunyang (lat. 32° 49', long. 110° 52'), 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 263, 756, 
766— total, 10. 

Kansu. (117 Entries.) 

Chingynng (lat. 36° 03', long. 107° 43'), 318,320,375,641,567,622,671, 756, 

ygc) total 9. 

" Hosi (lat. 39 00', long. 106° 00'), near Ninghsia, 244, 754— total, 2. 

Hsining (lat. 36° 39', long. 101° 48'), 430, 434, 437— total, 3. 

Kanchou (lat. 39° 00', long. 100° 56'), 89, 232, 244, 468, 627, 731, 752, 791, 794, 
816— total, 10. 

Kungchang (lat. 34° 56', long. 104° 44'), 10, 11, 18, 20, 31, 34,57,62,97, 08, 
100, 144, 242, 313, 333, 462, 491, 499, 603, 517, 542, 566, 567, 626, 643, 731, 732, 733, 
771, 809, 856, 872— total, 32. 

Lanchou (lat. 36° 08', long. 103° 55'), 62, 134, 374, 389, 542, 580— total, 6. 

Liangchou (lat. 37" 59', long. 102° 48'), 66, 79, 164, 168, 172, 211, 541, 542, 605, 
627, 668— total, 11. 

Lintao (lat. 39° 40', long. 98° 20'), 567, G26, 791, 856-total, 4. 

Lingpei (lat. 42° 00', long. 99° 00'), 482, 481, 490— total, 3. 

Ninghsia (lat. 38° 33', long. 106° 08'), 107, 220, 318, 464, 467, 469, 489, 492, 493, 
579, 585, 627, 657, 660, 668, CSl, 732, 753, 754, 756, 758, 802, 850. 852— total, 24. 

ringliang (lat. 35° 35', long. 106° 41'), 333, 374, 432, 541, 542, 643, 732, 733, 753, 
759, 832 -total, 11. 

Suchou (lat. 39° 46', long. 99° 07'), 237, 244— total 2. 

Kiangsi. (16 Entries.) 

Chian (lat. 27° 02', long. 115° 05'), 145, 169, 188, 353— tota\ 4. 
Chiuchiang (lat. 29° 42', long. 116° 08'), 187, 18S, 765— total, 3. 
Chuanhsi (lat. 27° 34', long. 118° 28'), 705— total, 1. 
Fuchou (lat. 27° 56', long. 116° 18'), 705— total, 1. 
Jaocbou (lat. 28° 59', long. 116° 46'), 505, 510— total, 2. 
Juichou (lat. 28° 25', long. 115° 14'), 511— total, 1. 
Kuanghsin (lat. 28° 28', long. 118° Of)'), 809— total, 1. 
Nankang (lat. 29° 23', long. 116° 10'), 188, 675, 676— total, 3. 

Kiangsu. (107 Entries.) 

Changchou (lat. 31° 47', long. 119° 56'), 147, 236. 319, 683, 721— total, 5. 

Chenchiang (lat. 32° 10', long. 119° 21'), 109, 118, 119, 124, 125, 147, 237, 528 
635, 683, 824— total, 11. 

Chiangning (Nanking) (lat. 32° 05', long. 118° 47'), 92, 94, 95, 101, 112, 118 159 
177, 191, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 20i, 205, 206, 207, 208, 570, 577, 678, 584, 586) 



110 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

587, 588, 592, 595, 596, 597, 598, 599, 608, 610, 623, 633, 656, 659, 664, 665, 670, 673, 
674, 679, 680, 683, 703, 718, 720, 721, 750, 783, 837, 846, 851, 853, 855, 857, 863, 869, 
881— total, 62. 

Haichou (lat. 34° 29', long. 119° 27'), 662, 663— total, 2. 

Hsuchou (lat. 34° 11', long. 117° 32'), 310, 676, 722, 723— total, 4. 

Huaian (lat. 33° 25', long. 119° 22'), 546, 558, 633, 656, 683, 783— total, 6. 

Suchou (lat. 31° 28', long. 120° 44'), U7, 237, 378, 683, 721, 809— total, 6. 

Sungchiang (lat. 31° 03', long. 121° 15'), 683— total, 1. 

Yangchou (lat. 32° 21', long. 119° 16'), 166, 237, 239, 338, 633, 656, 683, 783, 821, 
837— total, 10. 

Kuangsi. (9 Entries.) 

Pingle (lat. 24° 8', long. 111° 17'), 122, 123, 568, 730, 875- total, 5. 
Taiping (lat. 22° 25', long. 107° 07'), 629— total, 1. 
Wuchou (lat. 23° 29', long. 110° 51'), 568, 646— total, 2. 
Yalin (lat. 22° 43', long. 109° 45'), 810— total, 1. 

Kuangtung. (20 Entries.) 

Chaoching (lat. 23° 05'. long. 112° 30'), 485, 738, 829— total, 3. 

Chaochou (lat. 23° 34', long. 116° 36'), 357, 369, 768— total, 3. 

Chenchou (lat. 24° 40', long. 116° 30'), 309— total, 1. 

Huichou (lat. 23° 02', long. 114° 13'), 829- total, 1. 

Kuangcbou (lat. 23° 08', long. 111° 1 7'). 120, 121, 347,580, 875, 880, 887— total, 7. 

Leichou (lat. 20° 52', long. 109° 40'), 550— total, 1. 

Lienchou (lat. 21° 39', long. 108° 59'). 646— total, 1. 

Macao, or Aomen (lat. 22° 12', long. 1 13° 30') 885, 886— total, 2 

Nanhsiung (lat. 25° 26', long. 1 13° 52';, 555— total, 1. 

Kueichou. (4 Entries.) 
Hsingyi (lat. 25° 15', long. 106° 00'), 661, 674, 724, 725— total, 4. 

Shansi. (182 Entries.) 

Chiang (lat. 35° 37', long. 111° 29'), 240, 297, 298, 337, 684— total, 5. 

Fenchou (lat. 37° 19', long. 111° 41'), 240, 538, 543, 544, 559, 560, 565— total, 7. 

Hsi (lat. 36° 40', long. 110° 56'), 2.i3. 474. 475, 477, 494, 495, 501, 565— total, 8. 

Hsin (lat. 38° 26', long. 112° 43'), 228, 338, 340, 342, 343, 345, 346, 638, 560— 
total, 9. 

Luan (lat. 36° 07', long. 113° 13'), 668, 077- total, 2. 

Ningwu (lat. 39° 15', long. 112° 00'), 828— total, 1. 

Pingryang (lat. 36° 06', long. 111° 33'), 77, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 106, 221, 222, 223, 
224, 225, 226, 227, 240, 308, 318, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 425, 426, 427, 449, 453, 454, 
456, 459, 466, 478, 534, 538, 540, 671, 677, 732, 778, 847, 889— tota', 41. 

Puchou (lat. 34° 54', long. 100° 15'), 77, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 106, 155, 156. 157, 158, 
221, 222, 223, 224, 225. 226, 227, 253, 276, 298, 307, 308. 318, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 
463, 464, 534, 671, 673, 684, 742, 745, 746, 756— total, 39. 

Soping (lat. 40° 10', long. 112° 13'), 294, 615— total, 2. 

Tatung (lat. 39° 39', long. 113° 14'), 337, 455, 457, 615, 678, 699, 753, 779, 784— 
total, 9. 

Taichou (lat. 39° 06'. long. 112° 58'), 334, .340, 342, 372, 386, 637— total, 6. 

Taiyuan (lat. 37° 54', long. 112° 31'), 8, 146, 177, 210, 295. 297, 298, 305, 312, 
340, 342, 376, 381, 384, 385, 386, 453, 456, 459, 465, 478, 480, 520, 537, 538, 548, 551, 
560, 565, 569, 571, 572, 573, 574, 675, 576, 585, 666, 668, 699, 720, 734, 736, 741, 753, 
788. 812, 820, 858, 861, 876— total, 51. 

Tsecbou (lat. 35° 30', long. 112° 50'), 82, 677— total, 2. 

Shantung. (61 Entries.) 

Chiuan (lat. 36° 40', long. 117° 1'), 1. 526, 528, 532, 533, 562, 583, 586, 707, 717, 
718, 720, 878— total, 13. 

Chining (lat. 36° 50', long. 116° 58'), 705— total, 1, 



Brtttih Atioeiatvm, ?8th Report. Dublin. 1908. 



I 




I 



O 



niiulralin^ tht JUport on Sntmological Invttltgati 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. HI 

Chingchou (lat. 36° 44', long. 118° 44'), 349, 529, 530, 532, 534. 552, 707— 
total, 7. 

Laichou (lat. 37° 10', long. 126° 10'), 17, 523, 529, 532, 687, 707— total, 6. 

Taian (lat. 36° 10', long. 117° 15'), 29, 362, 526, 527, 533, 638, 639— total, 7. 

Tengchou (lat. 37° 45', long. 120° J 2'), 350, 707, 738, 757— total, 4. 

Tsaochou (lat. 35° 20', long. 115° 35'), 301, 676- total, 2. 

Tungchang (lat. 36° 37', long. 116° 12'), 310, 383, 658, 676, 717, 830, 831, 847, 
889 -total, 9. 

Wuting (lat. 37° 32', long. 117° 41'), 667, 693— total, 2. 

Yenchou (lat. 35° 47', long. 116° 59'), 29, 141, 194, 626, 533, 633, 676— total, 7. 

Tichou (lat. 35° 15', long. 118° 35'), 380, 525, 627— total, 3. 

Shensi. (108 Entries.) 

Fenghsiang (lat. 34° 35', long. 107° 50'), 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 79, 215, 491, 648, 671, 
733, 759— total, 13. 

Hanchung (lat. 32° 56', long. 107° 12'), 491, 648, 756-total, 3. 

Hsian (lat. 34° 17', long. 108° 58'), 26, 27, 141, 143, 213, 216, 218, 229, 230, 231, 
233, 234, 241, 243, 245, 246, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 
269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 
289, 290, 292, 294, 302, 304, 318, 373, 374, 390, 488, 565, 566, 671, 718, 720, 733, 742, 
743, 756, 759, 796, 809, 833, 845, 830, 866— total, 74. 

Suite (lat. 37° 38', long. 110° 03'), 386— total, 1. 

Tungchou (lat. 34° 50', long. 109° 61'), 370, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 671, 685, 742, 
747, 748, 749— total, 12. 

Yenan (lat. 36° 42', long. 109° 28'),. 460, 461— total, 2. 

Yulin (lat 38° 18', long. 109° 33'), 627, 668, 753— total, 3. 

Shingking. (11 Entries.) 

Fengtien (lat. 41° 10', long. 123° 27'), 799— total, 1. 

Liaotung, or Chinchou (lat. 41-06', long. 121° 18'), 1?7, 483, 497, 635, 636, 772, 
773, 798, 799, 867— total, 10. 

Ssuchuan. (47 Entries.) 

Chengtu (lat. 30° 41', long. 103° 11'), 102, 103, 107, 108, 113, 128, 238, 306, 321, 
326, 332, 379, 393, 441, 491, 613, 630, 649, 650, 652, 653, 696, 857, 865, 874— total, 25. 

Chiating (lat. 29° 28', long. 103° 55'), 25, 113, 114, 442— total, 4. 

Hsuchou ('at. 28° 38', long. 104° 46'), 366, 699— total, 2. 

Lungan (lat. 32° 33', long. 103=36'), 107, 108, 113, 117, 149, 219, 442, 813— 
total, 8. 

Mou (lat. 31° 40', long. 106° 15'), 813— total, 1. 

Paoning (lal. 31° 32', long. 105° 59'), 318— total, 1. 

Ningyuan (lat. 27° 50', long. 102° 12'), 335, 032- total, 2. 

Shnnching (lat. 30° 49', long. 106° 08'), 757— total, 1. 

Chungching (lat 29° 42', long. 106° 42'), C96— total, 1 

Suiting (lat. 31° 27', long. 107° 51'), 412 -total, 1. 

TuDgchuan (lat. 31° 9', long. 105° 11'), 696— total, 1. 

Tongking. (1 Entry.) 
Jihnan (lat. 24° 26', long 108° 25'), 330. 

Yun7ian. (64 Entries.) 

Chaotung (lat. 27° 20', long. 103° 50'), 462— total, 1. 

Ghengchiang (lat. 24° 42', long. 103° 04), 706 -total, 1. 

Cbingtung (lat. 24° 31', long. 101° 4'), 704, 716— total, 2. 

Chnhsiung (lat. 25° 06', long. 101° 43'), 690, 691, 694, 704, 715, 730, 822— total, 7. 

Chuching (lat. 25° 32', long. 103° 50'), 659, 700, 817, 818, 819— total, 5. 

Lichiang (lat. 26° 62', long. 100° 27'), 281, 621, 692, 715— total, 4. 

Linan (lat. 24° 18', long. 103° 5'), 326, 703, 730— total, 3. 

Menghua (lat. 25° 18', long. 100° 30' , 701, 709, 710, 711, 715— total, 5. 



112 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, 



Tali (lat. 75° 14', long. 100° 22'), 692, 700, 701, 702, 70t, 703, 710, *11, 715, 817, 
818, 819— total, U. 

Wuting (lat. 25° 32'. long. 102° 33'), 817, 818, 819— total, 3. 

Yunnan (lat. 25° 06'. long. 102° 52'), 451, 452, 581, 582, 686, 688, 700, 715, 729, 
817, 818, 819, 829, 836. 859, 864, 888— total, 17. 

Yungchang (lat. 25° 05', long. 99° 26'), 695, 724, 725, 774, 773— total, S. 

Monthly and Seasonal Distribution of Earthquakes. 



Warm Season 


Cold Season 






Spring 1 Summer j 


Autumn 


Winter 


Total 


Mar. April 


May June \ Jaly : A.ug. 


Sept.l Oct. 


Nov. 


Due. 1 Jon. Feb. 




78 66 

216 


72 C5 


67 67 
199 


66 ' 62 

188 


60 


65 C8 77 
210 


76 


889 


415 ; 


398 


— 



Bi'v.amic Isomerism.— Ueport of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
II. E. Armstrong (Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, Dr. J. J. Dorbie, Dr. 
M. 0. Forster, and Dr. A. Lapworth. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 

A. — Since tlie appearance of the last report the experiments on the 
influence of acids, bases, and salts in accelerating isomeric change in 
solutions of nitrocamphor have been completed and published.^ 



B.— Carbonyl Chloride as an Agent for Arresting Isomeric 

Change. 

The most important feature of the year's work has been the discovery 
of a group of agents by means of which the isomeric change of nitro- 
camphor can be retarded or completely arrested. As long ago as 1899 - 
it was observed that solutions of nitrocamphor in chloroform behaved in 
an abnormal manner in that isomeric change was sometimes arrested 
during a period of one or two weeks and then abruptly started by some 
slight change of conditions, eij., by transferring the solution from a flask 
to a polarimeter tube. 

The abnormal properties of this solvent were again noticed in the 
recent experiments on the influence of acids and bases. The basic 
chloroform solutions showed a marked decrease of activity when kept 
for a few days, whilst dilution produced a loss of catalytic power out of 

' Lowry and Magson, 'The Influence of Nitrocamphor on the Mutarotation of 
Nitrocamphor,' Tra?is. Cliem. Soc, 1908, 93, 107-119 
■■' Lowry, Tran.s. Chem. Soc, 1899, 75, 211 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 113 

all proportion to the decreased concentration of the base. In one 
extreme case the isomeric change in a solution to \vhich a trace of 
piperidine had been added practically ceased at the end of a fortnight, 
although the final condition of equilibrium had not by any means been 
reached. The more concentrated acid solutions produced an acceleration 
of isomeric change, but a retardation was noticed when smaller concentra- 
tions were used : in one case the rotatory power of the solution remained 
absolutely constant during a period of twenty-four days. 

The earliest observations of arrested isomeric change had led to the 
conclusion that in non-oxygenated solvents the change was conditioned 
by the presence of a third substance, probably a basic impurity. The 
retardation produced by the acid chloroform solutions could not be 
attributed to mere neutralisation, since an acceleration was observed 
when benzene was used as the solvent. It was noticed, however, that 
the chloroform solutions acquired a pungent and unpleasant odour, 
which was ultimately traced to the formation of carbonyl chloride by 
oxidation of the chloroform CHCI3 + = C0C1_> + IIC1 ; to this substance 
the curious behaviour of the chloroform solutions was undoubtedly due. 

The action of the chloride probably depends on its power of converting 
ammonia and bases such as piperidine into neutral carbamidcs 

COCl, + 2NH3=2HC1 + CO(NH 2) , 
COC12 + 2NC5Hh = 2HC1 + CO(NC5H,o).. 

It was found that the chloride was capable of retarding or arresting the 
isomeric change of nitrocamphor dissolved in benzene or in ether, and 
that acetyl chloride produced a similar effect in benzene and in carbon 
disulphide. Phenyl-carbimide did not retard the isomeric change of 
nitrocamphor dissolved in benzene, and acetyl chloride proved inefficient 
when added to a solution in acetic acid. In the latter case it is probable 
that the solvent has itself a catalytic action, and this may also be true 
when water and alcohol are used. The bearing of these observations 
on the problem of chemical change has been discussed elsewhere.^ 



C. — Relationship between Absorption Spectra and Isomeric 

Change. 

As the lesult of a series of experiments on the absorption spectra of 
substances of the ethyl aceto-acetate group, Baly and Desch ^ were led 
to the conclusion that there was a close relationship between the 
absorption bands which appeared in the spectra of some of these com- 
pounds and the property which they possess of undergoing reversible 
isomeric change. In view of the importance of this hypothesis in 
relation to the subject of dynamic isomerism it was thought to be 
desirable to test it in the case of a number of optically active 
compounds. These have the advantage that many of them can be 
crystallised out in a pure enolic or in a pure ketonic form, that it is 
possible by means of polarimetric observations to determine the actual 
velocity with which they undergo isomeric cliange, and that in a number 

' Trans. Chem. Sue, 1908, 93, 110-132. 

' Ibid., If 04, 85, 1029; 190.J, 87, 760, 

1908. I 



114 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

of cases the proportions in which the isomerides are in equilibrium can be 
determined by means of solubility measurements. Photographs have 
therefore been taken of the absorption spectra of the majority of the 
camphor-derivatives which have formed the subject of previous investiga- 
tions, and we are now in a position to summarise the principal results 
that have been obtained. 

Halogen-derivatives of Camphor. 

(1) The camphor band observed by Baly and by Hartley at a concen- 
tration of N|10 piactically disappears when the concentration of the 
alcoholic solution is reduced to N|1U0 (thickness of liquid 250 to 2 5 inm.), 
but can be restored by the addition of alkali. /j-Bromocamphor, 

/CH, 
C«H,3Br/ I 

at a concentration cf NjlCO behaves in the same way as camphor. 

(2) a-Chlorocamphor and a-bromocamphorat a concentration of N|100 

show a band in the same position (-- 3400] as the camphor band. 

The band is eliminated when the second a -position is occupied by 
bromine or by a nitro group, but remains unaffected when the halogen is 
introduced in the /3 or in the tt position. 

(3) No marked change in persistence is produced by the addition of 
alkali to a-chlorocamphor, a-bromocamphor, or their /3 and ir bromo- 
derivatives. All these compounds are quite stable when alone, but 
undergo isomeric change rapidly in presence of a small proportion of 
alkali. It is therefore evident that in this case at least there is no 
direct quantitative relationship between the velocity of isomeric change 
and the persistence of the absorption band. 



Kitro-derivati ves. 

(4) Nitrocamphane shows no absorption band, whether the solution 
be prepared by dissolving the crystals of the normal form or by adding 
acid to the sodium salt of the pseudo form. Even in presence of ten 
equivalents of alkali no definite band is developed. It is therefore clear 
that dynamic isomerism, even of a well-pronounced type, is not neces- 
sarily associated with the production of a band. 

(5) Nitrocamphor dissolved in alcohol shows a shallosv band at 

— 3000 ; it differs in position from that produced by bromocamphor — 
A 

a result that is in accord with the view, consistently advocated, that the 

mobile hydrogen atom in this compound wanders to the nitro and not 

to the carbonyl group. The band disappears in the a-chloro and ti bromo 

derivatives, and also in the anhydride derived from the pseudo form by 

loss of water ; its occurrence appears, therefore, to be limited by the same 

conditions as those which determine the occurrence of isomeric change. 

(6) In marked contrast with the behaviour of the — CHX-CO — 
compounds described above, the nitrocamphor band is enormously inten- 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMKKLSM. 115 

siSed by the addition of alkalies. This result is, perhaps, associated in 
some way with the fact that nitrocamphor form? a stable sodium salt 
whilst bromocamphor does not. 

(7) Camphoryl oxime — the isomer of nitrocamphor — -resembles it in 
giving a very intense band in presence of alkalies, although the head of 

the band occurs at a considerably smaller wave-length ( 3650). The 

band does not appear in solutions of the oxime alone, and is not given by 
the acetyl derivative. Camphoric anhydride, the parent-substance from 
which the oxime is derived, is very diactinic and shows no band. 

Sidphonic-derivatives of Ca\nphor. 

(8) /> and tt sulphonic derivatives containing the group 

,CHX 

/ 

'2 '^S^-' 13n 



y-so,-c,H,-/ 



usually show an absorption band, but this does not appear in camphor 
/3-sulphonamide and some of ics derivatives. The replacement of both 
a-hydrogen atoms by halogens causes the band to disappear. 

D. — Camphorcarboxtlic Acid. 

Investigations of the mutarotation phenomena and absorption spectra 
of^camphorcarboxylic acid and its derivatives are in progress, but as the 
work is not yet complete it is proposed to reserve the discussion for a 
subsequent report. 



The Transformation of Aro^natic Nitroamines and Allied Substances, 
and its Relation to Sitbstitidion in Benzene Derivatives. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping {Chairman), 
Professor K. J. P. Orton {Secretary), Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. 
Lapvvorth, and Dr. J . T. Hewitt. 

I. Transformation of Nitroaminohenzenes into Nitroanilines. 
(With W. W. Reed, M.Sc , A.I.C.) 

The investigation of the transformation of 2-4-dichloro-lnitroamiDo- 
benzene into "2 : 4dichloro-6-nitroaniline, reported on last year (Reports, 
1907, p. 101) has been continued. 

Transformation of the Crystalline Nitroamine. 

The object of the new experiments on the transformation of the 
crystalline; nitroamine was to determine with greater accuracy the 
limiting value of the pressure of the gaseous catalyst, below which no 
transformation occurred. The method employed was substantially that 
described in last year's report, but more elaborate methods were used 



116 llErORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

for determining the partial pressure of the reagent, hydrogen chloride. 
The form of the experimental tube was so modified that, after the change 
had occurred (or failed to occur), the tube could be opened, attached to 
a Sprengel pump, and its exact volume measured by collecting the air 
iillinf it at a given temperature and pressure. The hydrogen chloride 
was introduced as dilute standardised solutions, known weights of which 
were used. A series of such experiments has shown that at 13° the 
hydrogen chloride must be at a pressure of 14 mm. of mercury for a 
change to take place. 

Transformation of the Niiroamine in Solution. 

Inasmuch as the nitroamine is colourless, whilst the nitroaniline is 
intensely coloured, the change can be quantitatively followed by com- 
paring the colour of the solution, during the course of the tx-ansformation, 
with that of standard solutions of the nitroaniline. The method is 
exceedingly delicate ; with practice it is easy to detect the difference 
in tint between 49 and 50 c.c. of a solution of nitroaniline containing 
0000225 gram in 100 c.c. when the tint of these volumes is compared 
in columns 12 cm. in length; that is, 00225 milligram of the aniline 
can be measured. 

The low solubility of the nitroaniline (100 c.c. at 14° dissolve 
00022 gram) allows only of the use of solutions of the nitroamino 
containing 0'003 gram per 100 c.c. in these experiments. 

The measurements of the speed of transformation show that the 
reaction is one cf the first order. The change into the nitroaniline 
is accompanied by a conversion (reduction) of the nitroamine into 
diazonium salt to the extent of 30 per cent. This fact only permits of 
the determination of an apparent value of the velocity coefficient. 

(i) Solvent. —The only solvents which could be used were water, acetic 
acid, or mixtures of these. Alcohol and acetone, which are .solvents of 
the catalysts, react with the nitroamine. 

As the proportion of the acetic acid in the solvent is increased 
the rate of change slowly rises until, with 74 per cent, acetic acid, 
the rate is double that in pure water. But the use of higher concentra- 
tions of acetic acid is followed by a rapid rise in the speed of the 
change, which in glacial acetic acid is several hundred times as great as 
in water. 

(ii) Nature of the Acid {Catalyst). — The efficacy of acids as catalysts 
in this transformation is roughly in the order of their activities as 
measured by other reactions. Nevertheless, chloric and perchloric acids 
appear to bring about the change twice as rapidly as hydrochloric acid, 
although they are somewhat less active as catalytic accelerators in 
hydrolyses, &c. The reduction of the nitroamine to diazo-compound is, 
however, much less in the case of these acids, a fact which may account 
for the more rapid formation of nitroaniline. 

Hydrobromio and hydriodic acids reduce the nitroamine ; the former 
reacts quantitatively according to the equation, 

Ar.NH.NOa + 3HBr= Ar.NaBrg -f- 2H2O, 

the diazonium perbromide crystallising out when acetic acid is the, 
solvent. Hydriodic acid carries the reduction further. 



ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES. 117 

(iii) Concentration of the Acid. — The effect of the concentration of 
the acid catalyst on the rate of change has been carefully tested with 
several acids both in aqueous and acetic acid solution. 

In aqueous solution the rate is proportional to the square of the 
concentration of the acid — that is, on doubling the concentration of 
the acid the velocity is quadrupled. 

In acetic acid solution this proportionality does not hold, the increase 
of velocity being less for given increases of concentration of acid. For 
example, the ratio of the velocity coefficients for IST/IO and N/20 H2SO4 
in glacial acetic acid at 25° is k^^ ^ : A;n,.2o= 2'14 instead of 4. 

(iv) Effect of Temi}erature. — Within a range of temperature of 0-35" 
the products of the transformation of the nitroamine were not moditied. 
When the nitroamine was melted under water or other solvents, a more 
profound decomposition was observed accompanied by oxidation of the 
benzene nucleus. 

In aqueous solution the rate of the transformation was greatly 
increased by a rise of temperature. At 25^ the rate of change is 
approximately thirty times as great as at 0° ; the ratio of the velocity 
coefficients, when 2N HCl is the catalyst, at 25° and 35° C. is 
^35° : /c:6°=0-002488/0-00108 = 2-3. 

Exp&riments on Hitroaminobenzene, C5H5.NH.NO2. 

A number of preliminary experiments have been made with the 
unsubstituted nitroaminobenzene. In its main features the molecular 
rearrangement of this nitroamine resembles that of its dichloro- 
derivative, but it is complicated by the simultaneous formation of 
both 0- and ^^-nitroaniline — 



Nil, 




Experiment has shown that the latter is only formed to the extent of 
some 10 per cent., but the difference in the intensity of the colours 
of the solutions of the nitroanilines has so far m.ade any accurate 
measurement of the rate of change impossible by the method above 
described. Under like conditions (temperature and concentration of 
catalyst) the velocity is about one and a half times greater in the case 
of the unsubstituted than with the dichloro-compound ; in glacial 
acetic acid, however, the change was roughly ten times as rapid. 

Reduction to the diazo-compound also takes place, and since in this 
case the diazo-compound is unstable, the subsequent decomposition intro- 
duces another factor, which prevents quantitative measurements of the 
velocity. 



118 KEPOKTrf ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

The viesvs expressed in last year's report are confirmed by these more 
extended observations. The most simple interpretation of the facts seem 
to b3 that the catalyst (the acid) and the nitroamine form an additive 
compound, which alone is capable of molecular rearrangement. 

For what reason the speed of the transformation should be proportional 
to the second power of the concentration of the acid is not very obvious. 
Blanksma ^ observed that the rate of the analogous transformation of 
ftcetylchloroaminobenzene into p-chloroacetanilide bore the same relation 
to the concentration of the hydrogen chloride, which is the only catalytic 
accelerator of this change. Acree ^ has suggested that the existence of 
the additive compound of the chloroamine and the catalyst is conditioned 
by the equilibrium : Ar.NClAc,HCl;l Ar. NCI. Ac + H' + CI', when the 
concentration of the complex would depend on the square of the concen- 
tration of the acid. That the ratios of the accelerating effects of hydro- 
chloric, nitric, and sulphuric acids, A-hce : ^'hno, '• ^''h.so, = 1:1: 2/3, are 
approximately in the ratio of their ionisation in normal solutions is in 
harmony with this view. 

II. The Wandering of Bromine in the Transformation of Nilroamino- 

bromobenzenes. 

(With C. Pearson, B.Sc.) 

In the transformation of 2 : 6-dibromo-l-nitroaminobenzene, in all 
circumstances •when such a change will take place, we have observed 
a remarkable rearrangement of the points of attachment of the sub- 
stituting groups. 

NH.. 



NH.NO., /- 





Not only is the normal product, 2 : 6-dibromo-4-nitroaniline, I, in 
which the nitro group passes to the vacant para-position formed, but 
also 2 : 4-dibromo-6-nitroaniline, II. In the production of the latter 
compound, the migrating nitro group displaces one ortho -placed bromine 
atom, which then becomes attached to the para carbon atom. 

The direct nitration of 2 ; 6-dibromoacetanilide is not accompanied 
by any such rearrangement ; the nitro group only enters the para- 
position. 

> Bccueildes Trav. CJiim., 1903, 22, 290. 
^ Amer. Cliem. Jour., 1907, 38, 258. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 119 



Wave-length Tables of the Spectra of the Elements. — Beport of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir H. E. RoscoE (Chairman), Dr. Mar- 
shall Watts (Secretary), Sir Norman Lockyer, Professors Sir . 
Jami s Dewar, G. D. Liveing, A. Schuster, W. N. Hartley, 
and Wolcott Gibes, Sir W. de W. Abney, cmd Dr. W. E. Adeney, 
appointed to prepcLre a New Series of Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements. 

Taut ALUM. 

Riitten and Morsoh, ' Zeitsohrift fiir wissenschaftliche Photographie,' iii. 181 
(1905). 

Exner and Hasohek, ' Sitziingsber. kais. Akad. Wissensch. Wien,' cvii. (Ha.), 
p. 813. 

Exner and Hasohek, ' Wellenlangen-Tabellen der Fogenspcktren der Elemente.' 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


"Wave-length 1 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 








1 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


Riitten and 
Morach 


Esner and 
Haschek 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


\-l- 




5780-858 










1-58 


4-7 


17293-8 


76-908 










1-57 


99 


17305-6 


5699-417 




<1 






1-55 


4-8 


17540-9 


88-338 




< 1 






>» 


>f 


75-0 


65-054 










1-54 


9» 


17647-3 


46-077 










f» 


»» 


17706-6 


40-364 










9* 


>» 


24-5 


20-845 










1-53 


» 


86-1 


5599-581 










ff 


4-9 


17853-6 


48-356 










1-51 


»> 


18018-5 


19-113 










9» 


»> 


181140 


01-084 




< 1 






1-50 


5-0 


73-2 


5499-691 




In 






5J 


» 


77-8 


1 95-004 










99 


9* 


93-3 


1 90-231 










>f 


99 


18209-2 


61-498 










1-49 


99 


18305-0 


58-584 




< I 






99 


J» 


14-8 


35-471 










1-48 


99 


92-7 


19-353 










99 


>» 


18447-4 


05-169 Sa ? 










9* 


>» 


18500-3 


02-743 










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f» 


041 


5354-855 










1-46 


51 


18669-4 


49-764 Nd? 










>> 


>» 


87-3 


49-283 Sa ? 










»> 


'» 


89-0 


43-719 










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18708-8 


36-552 










)> 


99 


33-6 


5295-153 




la 






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18-825 










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56-590 




< 1 






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f> 


87-4 



120 



KEPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Tantalum — coniinued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 






Intensity 
and 




Intensity 
and 




1_ 

A 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 






Kiitten and 
Morsch 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 



<1 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A-l- 




5153-592 






1-41 


5-3 


19393-6 


47-847 




<1 








» 


19420-3 


43-853 




<1 








>> 


35-4 


36-G39 




2 








»» 


62-7 


15-986 




1 






l'40 


5-4 


19541-2 


5087-657 




1 






1-39 


)> 


19650-0 


68-033 La 


W? 


1 








>» 


19726-1 


43-451 




1 






1-38 


>» 


19822-2 


37-819 




1 








J> 


44-5 


37-532 




2 








»> 


45-6 


4936-555 




1 






1-35 


5-6 


20251-4 


26153 




1 








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94-2 


21-397 




1 








)> 


20313-8 


04-946 




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82-0 


4884-085 




1 






„ 


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20469-1 


52-298 




1 






1-33 


5-7 


206031 


46026 




1 








>» 


29-8 


32-337 




1 






1-32 


it 


88-2 


25-571 




1 








if 


20717-2 


19-685 




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42-5 


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71-8 


4781-100 




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4692-036 




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1-28 


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21306-7 


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ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 121 



Tantalum — oontinvcd. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Keduction to 
Vacuum 




"Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity . 
and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 




!_ 








iu Vacuo 


Kiitten and 


Exner and ( 


2/haracter 


Exner andl characterl 


\ + 




Morpoh 


Haschek 


^^A^%M*- *^\J v^/^ 


Hascnek 






A. 




4573-484 




1 


1 
1 




125 


60 


21859-2 








4573-31 


3 




)» 


60-0 


66-034 


4566-02 


4 




1 




1 


94-9 








64-77 


2 




6-1 


21900-9 


61-678 




1 








9» 


15-6 


59-629 




1 








»J 


25-5 


56-509 


56-53 


2 








>> 


40-5 


i 






54-28 


I 




J) 


51-3 








54-09 


1 




$9 


52-2 


53-893 i 


53-87n 


1 








ff 


53-2 


52-115 


52-13 


4n 








f> 


61-7 


47-922 ; 




1 








>> 


82-0 


1 

! 


47-33 


In 








» 


84-8 








47-00 


3 




>> 


86-4 


30-966 


30-98 


5 


3100 


1 


1-24 


J> 


22064-2 








27-9 


lb 




>> 


79-2 


27-692 


27-68 


2a 








99 


80-2, 








24-3 


In 




rt 


96-8 








23-61 


3 




jj 


22100-1 


21-203 


21-27 


3n 








„* 


11-7 


11-613 


11-66 


2a 








>» 


58-8 








11-25 


2n 




99 


60-7 


11-133 


1116 


10 








99 


61-2 


09-416 


09-46 


2a 








»» 


69-7 








08-65 


la 




99 


73-5 








03-26 




1-23 


!9 


22200-0 








00-0 


la 


>> 


9* 


16-1 








4493-2 


lb 




6-2 


49-6 


4473-683 


4473-70 


In 


72-75 






)> 


22346-6 








71-50 






99 


57-7 








69-95 






»> 


65-4 








64-42 




1-22 


>» 


93-0 








64-30 






*f 


93-7 








60-6 


lb 




>> 


22412-3 


59-944 


59-99 


2a 


57-60 






1 

1 99 

1 

1 ?> 


15-5 
27-4 








57-00 






** 


30-4 


50-890 


50-95 


la 








99 


61-1 








47-31 


3 


i ,, 


' 99 


79-3 








46-35 


IP 




J» 


84-0 


41-905 


41-93 


3a 








» 


22506-6 


41-214 


41-22 


3a 








' „ 


10-1 








37-38 


2 




99 


29-6 


33-159 




1 






1-21 


6-3 


51-0 


30-611 


30-61 


In 








>f 


64-0 








29-62 


In 




" 


69-0 








27-5 


In 




! '* 


79-8 








26-87 


1 




>« 


83-0 


25-256 


2516 


In 








19 


91-5 








20-82 


In 




»» 


22614-0 


19-729 


19-73 


2 








99 


19-5 








19-63 


2 




J» 


20-0 


15-868 


15-90 


4 


15-97 


1 




>* 


39-1 








11-72 


1 




1 " 


60-6 








10-41 


3 


i» 


1 „ 


67-3 



122 



EEFOETS ON THE STATE OK SCIENCE. 



Tantalum — continued. 



Aro Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Eeduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 






Intensity 




Intensity 

and 
Character 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Riitten and 
Morsch 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


\ + 


1 
\ 


4402-644 Nd 


4402-70 


4 


4402-8 


lb 


1-21 


6-3 


22707-2 


4398-606 


4398-65 


3 






«9 


*> 


28-1 








4392-93 


1 


1-20 






57-5 








88-55 


1 








80-3 


86-223 


86-25 


4 


86-25 
85-1 


In 
In 








92-3 

98-2 


78-965 


78-99 


3 












22830-1 








78-14 


1 








34-4 


75-289 


75-30 


2ii 












49-3 


69-657 Nd 


69-51 


1 










79-2 








68-64 


2 




t-4 


84-0 








68-18 


1 






86-4 


64-973 


65-00 


2q 








t9 


22903-2 


62-171 




In 










17-9 


60-965 


61-01 


2n 








f> 


24-2 








60-1 


lb 


i-ig 




28-8 


55-257 


55-27 


la 








»» 


54-3 








51-80 


o 


), 


>» 


72-6 








49-26 


I 




»> 


86-0 








48-88 


1 




»> 


88-0 








45-55 


In 




>9 


23005-6 


44-438 Ti ? 


44-47 


In 








)> 


11-5 








43-06 


1 




>> 


18-8 








31-57 


2 




}| 


79-9 


29-745 


29-80 


. In 








»> 


89-5 








27-56 


1 




»» 


23101-3 








26-50 


2 




}> 


07-0 


22-897 


22-93 


In 










26-2 


18-966 


18-99 


In 






i-'i8 




47-2 


14-696 


14-71 


2n 


12-63 


1 




»> 


70-2 








11-50 


3 




J} 


81-3 

87-4 


03-116 


03-10 


In 


09-72 


1 




9* 


97-0 




01-25 


InTi 


01-17 


4 




)9 


23232-6 




00 70 


InTi 


00-72 


1 




f» 


45-5 








4299-76 


4 




»> 


60-7 








98-83 


1 




»» 


55-6 








96-34 


1 




0-5 


69-1 








95-80 


1 




99 


72-1 








92-59 


I 


„ 


99 


89-5 








92-23 


1 




• y 


89-4 








91-37 


1 




)> 


96-1 








89-55 


3 




Jf 


23306-0 








87-15 


2 




99 


19-0 


4286-549 


4286-55 


2n 


86-4 


lb 




VT 


22-3 


r. -w. .-j 






83-17 


2 




J» 


40-7 








80-76 


1 


i-i7 


Jf 


53-8 


80-606 


80-65 


2 








»> 


54-6 








79-65 


In 


" 


») 


59-9 


79-189 


79-20 


4 








Ty 


62-4 








77-66 


1 




>t 


70-8 


u 






74-95 


In 




>» 


85-6 








70-87 


2 




)» 


23417-9 








6P-8 


In 






19-3 


68-380 Nd 


68-43 


2n 










*v 


21-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 123 







Tantalum — continued. 








Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 1 


Eeduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 




1_ 




1 


Riitten and 


Exner and ' 


Character 


Exner and 


Character 


A + 




Morsch 


Haschek 


V^XAdV^ LUV.' V\.f^ 


Haschek 


2 




A. 










4266-18 


117 


6-5 


23433-7 








62-22 


3 






54-4 








55-58 


2 






92-1 








54-81 


1 






96-3 








54-49 


1 






98-1 








5311 


In 




6-6 


23505-6 








49-60 


1 






250 








46-42 


1 ! 






42-6 


4245-445 


4245-48 


3n 


45-43 


lb 






48-0 








42-8 


lb 


l'l6 




G2-7 








39-45 


In 






81-4 








38-0 


In 






90-0 








32-12 


I 






23622-2 








30-46 


1 






31-5 








29-98 


2 






34-2 








29-29 


3 






38-0 


28-734 


28-78 


3n 


27-86 


1 






41-0 
46-0 








18-09 


3 






23700-8 








14-90 


2 






18-8 








12-71 


1 






311 








12-20 


1 






34-0 








08-30 


1 






56-0 


06-663 


06-54 


4 










65-8 


06-029 


06-01 


10 


06-03 


1 






68-8 








05-46 


5 


1-15 




72-0 








01-67 


2 






93-5 








iI99-02 


1 




6-7 


23808-4 


' 






98-65 


1 






10-5 








95-82 


1 






26-5 








95-25 


4 






29-8 








92-22 


4 






47 








9105 


6 






59-7 








86-28 


1 






80-8 








84-60 


2 






90-4 








81-50 


1 






23907-2 


4181-302 Sa 


4181-36 


4 


81-32 


1 






08-2 


81-042' 


81-05 


In 










10-8 








79-99 


1 






16-8 




79-55 


lb 










19-3 


78-062 


78-08 


4 


78-04 


1 


1 
1 >> 




27-8 




77-60 


1 










30-5 


77-103 


77-15 


1 


77-1 


In 






33-2 


75-344 


75-40 


3 


75-3 1 


In 






43-2 








74-48 


1 






48-4 








74-08 


1 






50-7 
63-0 




71-94 


1 


69-70 


1 




»» 


75-8 








68-28 


8 


i-i4 




84-0 


67-861 


07-85 


In 










86-4 








66-00 


1 






97-1 








64-80 


8 






240041 








63-82 


8 






09-7 








62-9 


lb 






15-0 








61-35 


In 




1 


24-0 



124 



REPORTS ON The STATE OP SCIENCE. 



TATSiA-LVii—continned. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-lensth 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 






I ntensity 




Intensity 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Eiitten and 
Morsch 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


A + 


1 

A." 


4160100 


4160-10 


2n 






1-14 


67 


24030-2 


58-202 


58-25 


2n 


4158-15 


1 






42-2 


5C-395 


56-46 


2a 










52-4 








52-70 


3 






74-0 








52-20 


1 






76-9 


50-891 


60.93 


2n 










84-4 








50-26 


4 






88-2 








49-36 


1 






93-4 








48-89 


1 




6-8 


96-0 


48-051 


48-03 


5 


48-05 


2 




" 


24100-9 








47-35 


2 






05-0 








46-68 


1 






08-9 








43-35 


2 






28-3 








42-42 


1 






33-7 








39-91 


8 






48-3 








39-56 


3 






50-4 








38-6 


lb 






56-0 








37-29 


7 






63-6 


30-347 


36-32 


5 


36-35 


1 






69-2 








35-6 


In 




", 


73-5 








34-77 


2 






78-3 








31-7 


lb 




>» 


96-3 








31-0 


3b 






24200-4 








30-10 


4 


i-'i3 


99 


05-7 


29-567 


29-55 


5 


29-59 


4 






08-8 


2800 


28-05 


3r 


28-2 


2b 






17-8 








271 


In 






23-3 








26-4 


In 






27-4 








25-75 


In 


■ 




31-2 








25-45 


In 






33-0 




21-97 


1 










35-8 








24-03 


10 






41-3 








22-98 


1 






47-5 








19-41 


4 






68-5 








17-05 


3 






82-4 








14-11 


2 






99-8 








12-32 


1 






24310-4 








11-03 


1 




99 


18-0 








10-50 


1 






21-1 




10-05 


In 










23-8 








06-36 


1 






45-7 


05-160 


05-17 


4 


05-21 


1 






52-3 


04-341 


04-39 


2 


04-40 


2n 






57-4 


01-437 




1 










74-9 




01-06 


2 


0112 
00-56 


10 
3 


,, 




77-0 
80-1 








4099-24 


2 




6-9 


87-9 








98-40 


1 






92-9 


4097-325 


4097-35 


2 










99-2 








96-17 


1 






24406-1 


• 






95-76 


1 






08-0 








94-25 


lb 






17-6 








93-25 


lb 


i-'i2 




23-6 


91-383 


91-41 


2n 










34-7 








90-36 


I 






40-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF TOE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 125 



Tantalum— co«/i«Me<Z. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 
Frequency 








1_ 
\ 

6-9 


in Vacuo 


Riitten aud 
Morsch 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A + 
1-12 










4086-80 


1 


24462-1 


4085-901 1 


4089-95 


1 








)» 


67-5 








85-6 


In 




»» 


69-3 








85-03 


2 




>» 


72-7 








84-35 


1 




f* 


77-8 








81-40 


1 




SS 


94-5 




79-89 


3Nb? 


79-92 


12 


»J 


)> 


24503-5 


79-358 


79-31 


2 


79-4 
77-23 


In 
1 






06-9 
19-6 


76039 


f 7C-09 
1 70-01 


1} 


73-28 


1 






26-7 
43-3 




73-17 


In 


72-89 
71-15 
68-40 


1 
1 
1 


;; 


99 


44-0 
45-7 
56-2 
72-8 


68-080 


68-06 


6u 


68-06 


1 




99 


74-8 


67-418 


67-36 


3 


67-35 
66-30 
64-98 


2 

1 
1 




99 

99 


79-0 
85-5 
93-5 


64-739 


64-76 


5 


64-76 
64-27 


1 

1 






94-8 
97-8 


62-960 


02-98 


1 








M 


24605-6 








62-20" 


2 




J» 


10-3 


61-528 


61-53 


5 


61-57" 


2 




» 


14-3 








60-96 


2 




»J 


17-8 








60-50 


1 




}f 


20-6 








59-85 


1 




»» 


24-5 








59-65 


1 




l> 


25-8 




59-10 


2Nb? 


59-12 


15 




»f 


29-0 


58-618 


58-65 


2ii 








»» 


31-9 




58-32 


In 








J» 


33-8 








5710 


1 




»> 


35-2 




55-53 


In 


55-33 


In 


j> 


» 


51-4 




54-57 


1 


54-6 


In 


111 


99 


56-6 








51-68 


1 




J* 


74-2 








49-88 


1 




7-0 


85-1 








48-76 


In 




>f 


91-9 








44-88 


1 


)> 


9) 


24715-6 








43-30 


In 




it 


25-3 








42-71 


1 


s» 


» 


28-9 


41-204 


41-21 


2n 


41-1" 


1 


»» 


9f 


38-1 


41025 


41-06 


3n 








»> 


39-1 








40-7" 


1 


»» 


J> 


41-2 


39-748 


39-77 


In 


39-68 


3r 


j> 


)) 


47-2 








39-23 


1 


y* 


>» 


50-2 








37-8 


lb 


»» 


>> 


59-0 


36-070 


36-05 


In 


36-05 


1 


ti 


»» 


69-7 








35-25 


1 


ft 


»> 


74-0 








33-36 


2 


99 


»» 


86-2 








32-67 


5 


99 


»» 


90-5 • 








31-5 


In 


»» 


>l 


97-7 


30101 


30-10 


3 


30-13 


1 


99 


J» 


24806-2 








28-12 


I 


»> 


>» 


18-5 








27-46 


1 


f* 


J> 


22-6 



126 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







Tantalum— ew^iftwerf. 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


1 
Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave- 


ength 




Wave-length 








Intensity 

and 
Character 




Intensity 
1 and 
Character 




Frequent y 
in Vacuo 


Riitten and 
Morsch 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Exner and 
I Haschek 


\ + 


1_ 

\ 


4027091 


4027-09 


5 


4027-10 




1-11 


70 


24824-8 








26-51 




ft 




28-4 








24-71 




»> 




39-5 








23-40 


In 


»l 




47-6 








23-30 




»» 




48-2 








22-5 


In 


>» 




53-2 








17-68 




>» 




83-0 


15-382 


15-40 


2n 






1-10 




97-2 




13-48 


1 






1 >• 




24909-0 


13-327 


13-39 


In 


13-41 


2 


1 >' 




09-7 


12-298 


12-26 


In 


12-30 


2n 


9> 




16-4 








08-43 


1 


>> 




40-4 


07-273 


07-38 


1 






»> 




47-3 


06-982 


06-99 


4 


07-00 


1 


»S 




49-3 


03-889 


03-85 


3 






>» 




68-8 








01-3 


lb 


»f 


7-1 


85- 








00-77 


2 


J> 




88-1 


i 3999-411 


3999-44 


4 


3999-35 


2 


9> 




96-7 


96-295 


96-32 


4 


96-34 


1 


J» 




25015-9 




92-65 


la 






»» 




38-9 








91-87 


1 






43-8 








91-3 


In 


» 




47- 




90-58 


1 






l» 




51-9 


88-856 


88-85 


2 


88-83 


1 


9» 




62-8 








88-30 


1 


99 




G6-2 


84-011 


84-02 


1 










93-2 


82-054 


82-11 


3 


82-15 


1 


»* 




25105-2 




81-19 


1 


81-17 


1 






11-1 








80-65 


2 


»» 




14-4 


79-390 


79-43 


2n 


79-50 


1 


ft 




22-1 








78-90 


1 


9y 




25-5 








78-09 


1 


19 




30-6 








76-80 


1 


99 




38-8 








76-67 


1 


99 




39-6 








73-80 


1 


1-09 




57-7 








72-69 


2 






64-8 








72-04 


2 






68-9 








70-79 


1 






76-8 


70-237 


70-25 


3 


70-25 


1 „ I 




80-3 








66-40 


5 „ 1 




25204-7 








65-85 


3 


>» 


» 


08-2 




59-90 


1 






>» 


" 


46-1 








59-48 


1 


99 


" 1 


48-7 








55-82 


2n 


99 


7-2 i 


72-0 




54-47 


In 






tt 


i 


80-6 








53-20 


1 


99 


" [ 


88-8 








52-50 


2 


)* 




93-2 


52-290 


52-31 


2 






>» 


„ 


94-5 








49-60 


2n 


9T 




25311-8 




47-90 


1 






19 




22-7 








47'67 


1 


99 




24-2 








43^80 


3 


99 




491 




42-40 


la 






99 




58-1 








41-41 


2 


19 




64-4 








38-71 


2n 


l» 




81-8 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 127 







Tantalum — continued. 












Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 




Wave-length 




Oscillation 




Intensity 




Litensity 




Frequency 
iu Vacuo 


Eiitten and 
Morscli 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


Exner and 1 
Haschek 


and 

Character 

! 

2 


109 


1_ 
A 

7-2 


3937-951 


3937-39 


2n 


3938-10 


25386-3 








37-56 


3 


99 




89-2 




36-70 


In 


36-60 
36-18 


1 
2n 


1-08 






95- 1 
98-1 








35-60 


1 


>> 








25401-9 








32-0 


In 


J» 








25- 


31-056 


31-10 


2 






»s 








31-1 








30-00 


ITi? , 








38-1 








29-7 


In 


> 








40- 








29-44 


1 


> 








41-7 




26-54 


1 


26-76 


1 


* 








59-8 




25-41 


1 


25-38 
25-14 


1 
1 


J 


1 

1 
1 






67-9 
69-6 


23-112 


2308 


2n 




1 


J 


1 






82-9 


22-919 


22-94 


2a 




1 










84-0 




22-60 


1 


22-55 
20-95 
19-85 


2n 
In 
2 


> 
J 








86-4 

96-5 

25504-0 




19-61 


1 


19-30 
19-18 


1 
1 


J 
> 


» 
i 






05-5 
07-6 
08-3 


18-638 


18-66 


3 


18-76 


1 










11-6 








14-83 


4 


> 






36-7 




13-62 


In 


13-64 
13-16 


ITi 

1 


J 








44-6 
47-6 




12-61 


1 






> 








51-2 




12-30 


1 






J 








53-2 




09-50 


In 


09-76 


1 










69-8 
71-5 


09071 


08-08 


1 
In 


09-11 
07-40 


2 

1 


i 

> 




7 


3 


741 

80-7 
85-2 


■ 






05-77 : lOr 


) 








95-8 








04-33 1 


9 






„ 


25605-3 




04.06 


1 






1 






fj 


07-0 




00-68 


1 


00-68 


ITi 










29-3 


3898-902 


3898-95 


1 


3898-65 
98-41 


1 
1 2 








99 
99 


40-8 
42-6 
44-2 








96-05 


1 2 


1- 


07 






59-7 








94-17 


\ 4 






1 


99 


721 








93-86 


3 










74-1 




93-23 


In 


91-43 

90-49 

89-8 

86-20 

85-82 


3 
1 

lb 
1 

4 






1 

1 


99 


78-3 
90-2 
96-4 
25701- 
24-8 
27-3 


85-697 


85-65 


1 


85-54 


4 








fS 


28-3 
291 


85-322 


85-37 


2n 












Jf 


30-4 








83-28 


4 




»» 




9J 


44-1 








79-50 


3r 




)» 






69-2 








7905 


2n 




>) 




99 


72-2 








77-67 


3 




t9 




99 


81-4 



128 



lifiPORtS OJ^ THE STAtE 01^ SdlENCti. 



TASTALVM—COIltin lied. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 




Intensity 




Intensity 

and 
Charaotei 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Riitten and 
Morsch 


Esner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


' Exner and 
Haschek 


.. 


\ 




1 




3877-11 


1 


107 


7 3 


25785-1 








75-88 


2 


9> 


99 


93-3 


1 






75-55 


1 


9) 


if 


95-6 


3873-037 




1 






i )) 


if 


25812-2 




i 




71-32 In 


1 

' 99 


99 


23.7 






70-80 ' In 


1 " 


99 


271 


■' 






68-06 


2 


1 1) 


99 


45-5 








66-4 


lb 


J) 


9) 


66-5 








65-17 


2n 


I» 


9) 


64-8 


1 






64-50 1 


S» 


J» 


69-3 


i 






64-02 


1 


Ji 


• 9 


72-6 








63-52 


2 


„ 


99 


75-8 


i 






63-20 


2n 




99 


78-0 


1 

1 






62-7 


3b 




99 


81- 








59-09 


3 




9) 


25905-5 


57-247 




2 


57-3 In 




99 


14-2 














99 


17-9 


i 






561 


2b 


1-06 


j» 


26- 


i 






55-60 


2 




J9 


290 


i 






55-30 






99 


31-0 


f 






54-9 


In 




99 


14- 








53-73 






99 


41-6 


1 






53-53 






99 


42-9 








48-16 






99 


79-1 








46-02 




," 


9) 


93-6 


1 






44-21 


1 




99 


26005-8 








42-83 






99 


15-2 








41-95 


In 




99 


211 


; 






3917 






99 


40-0 


1 
I 






37-18 


Y 




99 


53-5 








36-87 






99 


55-6 








36-56 


1 


» 


99 


57-7 








36-08 






99 


610 


i 






35-30 


2 




99 


66-3 


{ 33-939 


3833-90 


3n 


33-87 


3 


1 


99 


76-8 


' 






32-00 


6 




99 


88-7 








31-3 


In i 




99 


93-5 








30-13 


1 




J9 ^ 


26101-3 








29-06 


1 




if 


08-8 








28-37 


2n 




a 


13-4 








27-15 


1 




a 


21-8 








25-02 


4 




•9 


36-3 


23-712 


21-95 


12 








99 ( 

1 


45-3 

57-4 


20-878 


20-99 


2 




\ 




99 


64-3 








19-00 


5 




1 
99 


77-6 








15-64 


3 


1-05 


7-4 


26200-5 


15-333 




la 








99 


02-6 








11-18 


3 




99 


31-2 








10-65 


4 




99 


34-9 








06-35 


1 




99 


64-5 








04-90 


4 




99 


74-5 








04-02 


4 


49 1 99 


80-6 








03-10 


5 


99 99 


86-9 








01-45 


2 


» 1 


„ 1 


98-3 



ox AVAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 129 



Tantalum — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 






Intensity 




Intensity 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kiitten and 
Morseh 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 

2 


- I- 

1-05 7-4 






3801-30 


26299-4 








0117 


1 


!• 


26300-3 








3798-26 







20-4 


3797-535 




1 


96-99 
96-72 
96-65 
95-73 


In 
In 


?• >• 


25-5 
29-2 
31-1 
31-6 
38-0 


94-546 


3794-50 


3n 


94-62 






46-1 


92142 




2 


92-17 






62-8 








91-36 





57 ,1 


68-4 








89-63 


1 




80-4 


88-474 




In 






. 


88-5 


87-306 


87-30 


3C? 


87-20 
86-38 


5 
lPb=? 


,- 


'' 96-9 
' 26403-1 


86-182 Ti ? 




1 








04-4 


85-407 


85-49 


2 








9-5 


84-399 


84-41 


2 


84-41 


1 




16-8 




84-02 


2 








19-5 


83-909 




3C? 


84-00 


1 




20-0 








83-1 


In 




26- 


- 






82-57 


4r 




29-5 


82-096 


80-64 


1 


81-17 

79-7 
79-33 

77-8 


4 

lb 
In 
In 




32-9 
39-4 
43-2 
49-7 
52-3 
63- 








74-40 


In 




65-8 








77-22 


In 




67-1 








75-58 


1 


1-04 ". 


78-6 








74-58 


1 






85-6 








73-30 


1 






94-6 








71-98 


2 


',1 ! 7-5 


26503-8 








70-87' 


2n 


1 


11-6 




70-38 


1 


70-12 


1 


?» y> 


150 
16-9 








69-28 


1 




22-8 


68-445 


68-37 


2 








28-9 








06-27 


2 




44-0 








65-21 


2 




61-4 








64-26 


1 




59-1 








63-63 


3 




62-6 


61-555 


01-47 


2 


61-45 


3Ti 


J » >> 


77-6 








61-3 


In 




79- 


_ 1 






60-9 


lb 




82- 


59-892C? 




1 


59-69 


5 


" )> 


89-7 


1 


59-41 


2n 








92-4 








55-88 


2 


20617-4 


55-221 


55-25 


1 






.. 


22-0 


54-639 1 




1 


64-65 


7? 97 

I 


26-2 








83-30 


2 




35-7 




53-03 T 


i 1 


53-00 


2 




37-7 








61-77 


In 


»> »> 


46-6 








51-4 


lu 




49- 


190S. 










,, 


?» 


, K 



130 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Tantalum- continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 








Intensity 

and 
Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 

3750-75 


Intensity 

and 
Character 

In 


\ + 


I- 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Eiitten and 
Morsch 


Exner and 
Haschek 






1-04 


7-5 


26653-8 


3750-322 


3750-35 


1 






„ 


)* 


56-8 ' 


50-003 


50-00 


1 










59-2 








48-69 


1 


?> 


,, 


08-5 








44-15 


2 




■» 


26700-8 








42-56 


5r 


») 




12-2 




41-21 Ti 


1 


41-18 
40-99 
40-90 
40-11 


2 
3 
3 
3 




»> 


21-9 
23-4 
24-0 
29-7 




39-93 Nb? 


1 

A. 


39-95 


5 


;» 


.^ 


30-9 


37-231 




In 






>1 


., 


50-3 




36-92 


2 


36-90 


1 


103 


)» 


52-5 








32-20 


1 


)) 


?» 


86-3 


31-097 


31-15 


2 






)y 


99 


94-1 




29-95 Ti 




29-97 


1 


99 


9* 


26802-5 








27-39 


1 


»» 


7-6 


20-8 




26-37 Nb? 


1 


26-40 


5 




J» 


28-0 


25-632 




1 


25-4 


In 


^? 


99 


33-5 


24-939 


24-95 


1 






)» 


„ 


38-4 








23-61 


1 


>» 


)* 


48-1 


23-197 


23-24 


1 






•» 


•9 


50-9 








21-72 


1 




)> 


61-6 




20-59 


1 


20-63 


3 


,^ 


*t 


69-7 


20-105 Fe ? 










,^ 


99 


73-4. 








17-68 


1 


•» 


»' 


90-9 








17-25 


8 


?T 


»' 


94-0 




14-00 


1 


13-95 


3 




-* 


26917-7 


13-324 










)• 


)» 


22-4 




13-17 Nb? 


2 


13-20 
11-93 


Or 

1 


)» 




23-4 
32-5 








11-49 


2 


»> 


»> 


35-7 








10-01 


1 




»» 


42-1 








06-35 


In 


J» 


'J 


73-1 








04-29 


1 


^ 


1» 


88-1 








04-07 


1 


5> 


J) 


89-7 








03-34 


1 


i* 


J> 


95-0 




3698-00 


1 


3698-01 


4 


99 


., 


27034-0 








96-06 


3 


1-02 


» 


48-2 


3C95-523 


95-55 


In 






?J 


»» 


52.1 


94-685 


94-65 


2 


94-8 
93-55 


lb 

1 


?• 


)» 


58-4 
67-6 


93-181 


93-20 


2 








.J 


69-3 


92-799 


92-80 


1 


92-1 


lb 


-' 


- 


721 

77- 




91-55 


In 


91-36 


1 






82-1 


89-879 


89-90 


2 








,, 


93-5 








89-20 


I 


>f 


?> 


98-5 








88-85 


1 




,, 


27101-1 








88-15' 


5 


^, 


., 


06-3 


87-608 


87-63 


1 






„ 


,. 


10-2 


86-979 


86-96 


1 Nd? 






„ 


»» 


14-9 


86-373 


86-36 


1 






yj 




19-4 








83-09 


8 


»> 


7-7 


390 




83-25 


1 






ft 


>• 


42-2 



ON WAVE-LExNGTH TABLED OF THE SPECTliA OF THE ELEMENTS. 131 



Tantalum — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Biitten and 
Blorsch 



3G81-388 



75-276 
74-969 



69-055 

67-840 
67-040 

62-489 
61-855 



58-931 
57-649 
57-454 
57-039 

53-908 
53-540 
52-559 



42-192 



Exner and 
Haschek j 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



Wave-length 



f 3681-42 
I 81-23 

77-05 
75-30 
74-98 



31-613 Fc? 



In 

In 

In 

1 

1 



71-85'ri 1 
1 



68-49 
68-38 



In 
1 



Exner and 
Haschek 

3681-85 



78-20 
77-21 

74-91 

73-4 

71-7 

69-88 

69-15 

68-77 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



A.-H 



42-81 Ti 2 
42-20 10 



36-60 Ti 2 
33-951 33-94 In 



I 



In 



2 
1 

2 
lb 

InPb? 
1 
2 
1 



67-90 


1 






67-22 


In 


67-22 




67-09 


In 






66-72 


In 


66-70 


J 






64-83 








63-80 




02-47 


2 


62-48 








62-23 




61-84 


2 


61-9 


In 






60-51 








59-73 




58-93 


In 


58-9 


lb 


57-65 


2 






67-42 , 


InSa? 


67-3 


lb 


57-04 


1 






1 




56-09 




53-98 


1 






53-58 


1 






52-56 


1 







101 



51-32 





60-93 


1 


50-01 


2 


45-07 


1 


43-5 


In 


42-82 


9 


42-21 


2 


40-78 


1 


39-73 


6 PM 


39-47 


i 


39-17 


1 


38-91 


1 


37-98 


o 


37-70 


1 


37-58 


I a 


35-60 


2 


34-60 


2 


33-85 


III 


33-46 


"> 


33-2 


ll> 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



1-02 7-7 



30-75 



27152-6 

66-1 

79-5 
87-0 
27201-0 
03-4 
15- 
26-6 
41-1 
46-9 
49-4 
51-5 
52-3 
57-1 
60-9 
62-1 
64-7 
78-7 
86-4 
96-2 
98-1 
27300-9 
10-9 
16-7 
^2-7 
32-2 
33-8 
36-8 
43-9 
60-0 
62-9 
70-4 
79-6 
82-6 
89-5 
27426-6 
38- 
43-6 
48-2 
59-0 
66-9 
68-8 
71-0 
73-0 
80-0 
82-1 
83-0 
98-0 
27505-5 
10-7 
14-2 
16- 
28-2 
34-7 



132 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Tantalum — continued. 



Ai 
Wave-1 


c Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 


ength 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 






Intensity 
and 

Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Intensity 

and 
Character 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Riitten and 
Morsch 


Exner and 
Haschek 


A.+ 
1-01 


i_ 








3629-6 


In 


7-8 


27543- 


3628-881 


3628-85 


In 


28-81 


1 


,, 


>» 


49-2 








28-30 


1 


• » •» 


53-3 


27-188 


27-20 


1 






)» 


61-7 


26-757 


26-78 


9 


26-73 
25-87 


3 

1 




65-0 
71-8 


25-312 


25-39 
24-25 


1 
In 


25-32 
21-16 


1 
1 


9* -» 


75-8 

84-1 

27607-6 








19-83 


4 


J' 9i 


17-8 




19-54 


<> 


19-62 


4 




19-8 


17-475 


17-45 


T 


15-66 


1 


100 Z 


35-9 








14-94 


1 


.. 


55-2 








13-60 


In 




65-4 








13-22 


In 


„ 


68-3 


11-284 

1 

1 


11-29 
10-12 


2 
In 


10-8 


lb 




83-2 

87- 
92-1 


09-485 


09-30 


1 






»> •> 


97-7 


09-011 


08-90 


2 








27701-1 


07-557 


07-53 


7 


07-54 


2 


,' 


11-9 


05-487 Cr? 


05-14 


1 






»» »* 


27-7 
30-4 


04-673 




In 






"» •» 


340 


0>659 


02-63 


1 


02-70 


3 




49-4 


1 


00-85 


In 


01-34 

3599-78 

99-45 


1 

1 
1 




61-6 
71-7 
74-2 


3597-014 


3597-02 


In 








930 


95-795 


95-79 


3 


95-79 


1 


>* »* 


27802-5 








94-13 


3 


7-9 


15-3 


93-644 Cr? 

i 


r 93-88 

1 93-48 

93-10 


inl 
In J 
In 


93-67 


1 


»> »♦ 


18-9 

23-2 


92-638 


92-67 
92-32 


In 
In 






'♦ •> 


26-7 
29-3 


92-038 


92-05 


In 






'» ?> 


31-4 


91-665 










»> »» 


34-3 


91-504 Fc? 




In 


91-40 


1 


" >> 


35-2 


90-522 


90-50 Cy? 


3 






>' «> 


43-3 ; 








89-50 


3 


»» »» 


511 








89-23 


3 


>» » 


63-2 








88-15 


In 


'» )» 


61-6 


86-435 


86-46 


2 






'> !» 


671 








85-11 


2 


J' 9* 


85-2 








84-67 


1 


»» ! >» 


88-7 




84-38 


2 


84-37 


1 


5» ?» 


90-9 


84-078 C ? 




T 


82-52 


1 




93-3 

27905-4 


81-987* 


82-00 


1 






'^ ?> 


09-5 


80-391 


80-42 Nb? 


2 


80-45 


6 


•> •» 


21-8 


79-233 


79-21 ^ 


o 


79-10 


In 


;) •» 


31-4 






1 


78-82 


1 


,. 


»» 


34-3 



* 3581-994 La, 81-991 Sa, 81-979 Nd. 



fc ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS, 133 

Tantalum — conthmed. 



\ Art 


- Spectrum 




Spark Spec 


Iruni 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 1 


Oscillation 












, Wave-length 

1 


Intensity 
and 


Wave- length 


Intensity 
and 


[ 


1 _ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 








Eiitten and 


Exner and 


Character 


Exner and 


Character 


^ + 




Morscli 


Hasohek 




Haschek 
3577-86 


1 




\ 








1 


j 0-99 


7-9 


27941-8 








77-00 


1 


1 »» 


' 


48-5 






1 


76-00 


5 


" 




66-3 


3574-482 Nd? 




1 






»j 




68-2 


73-574 


3573-59 


3 


73-10 


In 


9? 




76-2 
79-0 








72-96 


InPb- 


., 




80-1 








72-63 


1 


*J 




82-7 


72-004 


7201 


2 






•f 




87-6 


71-389 Fe? 




1 






?> 




92-4 


70-259 Fe? 




1 


69-64 
68-89 
68-65 
68-20 


1 
1 
1 
1 






28001-3 
06-1 
12-0 
13-9 
17-4 


66-873 


00-89 


4 


66-SS 
65-78 


1 
2n 


?' 




27-8 
36-4 








63-76 


2 


»» 




52-3 








63-64 


2 


>J 




53-3 








59-74 


2 


•J 




84-0 


58-034 


58-08 


2ii 






?J 




97-1 








56-77 


I 


»J 




28107-5 




55-85 


1 






»5 




14-8 






- 


64-81 


f: 


J» 




23-0 


54-494 


54-50 


Ill 


54-69 


1 


»> 




25-5 


53-670 


53-57 


In 






»> 




32-8 








52-14 


1 


>> 




.44-1 








61-31 


In 


J) 


8-0 


50-6 








60-63 


2 


JJ 




560 








49-45 


1 


>l 




65-4 


49-207 


49-16 


2 


49-24 


I 


>» 




67-3 






2 


48-28 


1 


?) 




74-7 








47-87 


1 


)> 




77-9 








44-81 


3 


?) 




28202-3 








44-17 


3 


?> 




07-4 








43-15 


1 


•J 




15-5 








42-75 


In 


»» 




18-5 


42 054 


42-02 


2 


42-03 


1 


>» 




24-4 


40-965 


40-93 


2n 


41-11 


4 


?> 




32-6 








39-78 


1 


>» 




42-3 








37-78 


3 


0-98 




68-3 


37-649 


37-60 


1 


37-60 


4 


J, 




59-6 




36-43 


2 






,, 




69-1 


35-808 




In 






»» 




74-1 


35-514 


35-50 


2n 


35-47 


6 


,♦ 




76-6 


34-704 


34-66 


1 






J» 




83-1 








34-35 


2n 


»» 




86-7 








33-83 


1 






89-9 


32-353 


32-33 


1 






J» 




28301-8 


31-735 


31-72 


3 

i 


31-77 
29-03 




)• 


" 


06-6 

28-4 


28-739 


28-71 


2 


28-65 


In 


)> 




31-1 


27-212 


27-20 


i 2 


27-23 




J> 




43-0 


23-399 


23-30 


In 


23-30 




>» 




74-2 


I 




i 


20-82 


In 


i >» 




94-5 



134 



REPORTS ON THE STATK OF SCFENCR. 



TA'STAhVM— continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 








Intensity 

and 
Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Intensity 


Riitten and 
Morsch 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


3520-595 


3520-60 


In 


3520-66 


1 


20-274 




1 


20-21 


1 


19-971 




1 


19-73 


1 




17-60 


In 


17-82 
17-20 
17-02 


3 
1 
1 


15-580 


15-57 


I 


15-59 


4 


13-764 


13-76 


2 






11-174 


11-20 
07-03 


8 
1 


11-20 
10-47 
08-09 


1 

5 
2 


05-312 


05-32 


2 


05-28 


1 


05105 


05-10 


3 






04-011 


04-00 


3 


04-05 
03-35 


1 
In 


03-018 


03-02 


2 


03-05 


1 


02-648 


02-65 


2 






02-124 


02-13 


1 


00-10 
3498-79 


In 
2 


3498 003 


3497-98 


5 


97-2 
96-37 


lb 

2 


93-841 Fe? 


93-60 


In 






91-069 


91-10 


2 


91-18 


2 


90-^17 


90-70 


1 


89-23 


2 


88-996 


88-99 


1 


88-96 


2 


87-533* 


87-53 


1 






86-825 


86-83 
86-17 


1 
1 






84-767 


84-77 


1 


84-80 
84-25 
83-16 
81-3 


Jn 
In 


80-640 


80-67 


5 


80-69 
80-40 


2 
1 


79-680 


79-59 


1 


79-75' 
78-90 


4 
3 


77-586 


77-58 


2 


77-60 


1 


77-356 


77-35 


2 


77-38 


ITi 




74-45 


In 


74-4 


lb 


74-034 


74-05 


1 


74-1 


lb 


73-464 


73-48 


1 






72-976 


73-00 


1 


73-20 


1 


72-680 


72-67 

67-03 
65-50 


2 

1 

In 


71-3 

70-47 
69-59 


lb 
In 
1 


i 63-912 


63-94 


4 


63-94 


2 



Reduction to 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 




Frequency 






1 


in Vacuo 


A + 


\~ 






_ 


~ 


0-98 


8-0 

9* 


28396-1 

99-1 

28402-3 


)> »> 


19-6 


;> " 


23-7 


ft '* 


25-2 






37-0 






51-5 






72-3 


" 


8-i 


78-1 
97-4 
28506-0 
20-2 
21-8 
30-5 
36-1 
38-6 
41-7 
46-0 
62-5 


0-97 




73-2 
79-7 
86-1 
93-0 
28614-7 
36-0 
39-1 
51-5 
53-6 




65-5 




71-2 




76-7 




88-1 




92-6 




28701-5 




17- 




22-0 




24-2 




30-3 




36-6 




,, 


47-4 


,, 


>' 


49-4 






73-4 




)> 


76-7 






81-5 




\^ 


84-6 




if 


88-2 




ff 


99-6 


1 <> 


8-2 


28806-3 
13-6 
34-9 
47-7 
60-8 



3487-548 Yb, 87-547 Sa. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OK THE ELEMENTS. 135 



Tantalum — oo/itinved. 



Arc 


Spectrum 


1 
1 


Spark Spectrum 


Eeduction to \ 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


[nteusity 

n.iu1 


Wave-length j 


[ntenaity 
and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


1 






1 1 


in Vacuo 


Riitten and ! 


Exuer aud (^,i„;Vfl~t,p,. 


Exnerand character i 


A + 






Morsch 


Haschek 


- 


Haschek i 
3463-20 i 


1 


0-97 


A 

8-2 1 


___ 






28866-8 


1 


346304 


Ill 


1 




J* 


S» ' 


08-2 








62-75 


In 


?j 


,, 


70-6 








59-88 


In 


„ 


,, 


94-5 




58-65 


1 






0-96 1 


28904-8 








56-6 


In 


22- 








55-03 


2 


35-1 








54-85 


1 


36-0 




53-52 


In 






,, 


47-8 


3453-041 


53-11 


1 






,, 


51-2 








52-47 


1 


56-6 








51-8 


In 


, , ,, 


62- 








50-89 


1 






69-8 


50-528 


50-53 


1 


; 








72-9 


49-046 


4903 


1 






«&-f> 








48-83 


In 


87-1 








48-36 


1 


91-1 


47-429 


47-42 


1 






•' •>> 


990 


47-004 


/ 47-04 
\ 46-95 


\la 


47-01 


1 


-> 


•» 


29002-5 


46-051 


46-03 


1 










10-6 




45-82 


1 






1> *f 


12-5 


45-662 


45-65 


1 






9T Jf 


13-8 


45-220 


45-22 


1 






-.t rr 


17-5 


44-820 


44-81 


1 






ft ' 7' 


20-9 








44-45 




»* jr 


24-0 


44-199 


44-21 


1 


42-9 


In 


• ; >f 


26-1 
37- 


40-746 










'•> ft 


55-3 


40-385 


40-38 


1 






Tt fy 


58-3 








40-06 




?» »» 


61-1 


39-180 






39-1 


In 


*» •» 


68-5 


38-538 


1 38-63 
138-44 


In 

1 


1 38-55 




„ 


73-9 








38-37 


1 


») >> 


75-3 




i 37-60 


1 






)> ! >» 


82-7 




; 37-20 


1 






5» 


yj 


85-2 








37-05 


In 


., 


?> 


86-5 


' 36-138 


36-13 


3 


36-16 


1 lu 


,, 


7> 


94-2 


34-039 


34-64 


2 






»f 


99 


29106-9 




32-77 


In 


32-87 


1 5 


» 


8-3 


22-3 


31054 


31-08 


3 


31-07 


1 n 

1 ** 


>» 


»> 


37-1 




29-46 


1 




1 


?J 


»» 


50-8 








29-17 


1 


»» 


53-3 








27-57 




66-9 


26-855 


26-88 


2 




1 . 






72-9 








26-71 


1 4 






74-2 


26-337 

1 

1 




i 


25-98 
25-59 




•' 




77-4 

80-4 

1 83-7 


24-578 


24-55 


2 










92-5 








23-H8 




'f t* 


98-3 








22-95 


lu 


-> fy 


1 29206-3 




21-95 


1 




M »» 


14-8 








20-86 


1 


«■ 


t» 


24-1 



13G 



REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIE^X•E. 



Tantalum — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


1 
Reduction to 


1 


"Wave-length 1 




"Wave-length 1 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 






Intensity 
and 

Character 


^ 1 


Intensity 

and 
Character 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Riitten and , 
Morseh | 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Exner and 
Haschek 


A.+ 


1_ 1 
A 


3419-856 * 


3419-84 


2 






0-96 


8-3 


29232-8 


19-077 


19-64 


2n 






1 




34-4 


18-382 1 


18-44 


1 










45-1 


17153 1 


17-15 


2 










55-8 


t 






3416-13 


In 


0-95 




64-7 


15-996 


15-99 


1 










65-7 


15-392 


15-39 


1 


15-40 


1 


>» " 


70-9 


14-259 


14-26' 


2 


14-25 


1 






80-6 




13-77 


1 










84-8 


13-032 


13-03 


2 


13-07 


3 






91-1 


11-842 


11-84 


1 










29301-4 








09-34 


2 






22-9 








08-82 


3 






27-4 








08-52 








30-0 


07069 


07-09 


4 


07-Ot) 








42-3 


06-810 


06-79 


2 


06-81 
06-30 








44-7 
49-1 








05-56 




JT 99 


55-4 




04-31 


1 






„ 


» • 


66-2 




03-11 


1 


03-15 


In 




j» 


76-4 




01-98 


1 


3399-9 


In 


y. 


!» 


86-3 
29404- 


3398-449 


3398-43 


3 


98-45 




' 


«» 


16-9 


97-556 


97-55 


1 










24-6 








96-55 


In 




8-4 


33-2 








96-05 




9J 


9» 


37-6 








95-13 






?f 


45-5 




94-76 


1 


94-77 
92-47 
92-11 


1 




9} 
9$ 


48-7 
68-6 
71-8 


88-952 


88-95 


1 


89-0 


In 




99 


99-2 


88-464 


88-46 


1 


88-45 


In 


99 


9* 


29503-5 




87-96 


ITi 


87-95 




99 


*» 


07-9 


87-561 


87-59 


1 








»» 


11-2 


87-367 


87-36 


1 


86-39 




99 


99 


13-0 


85-176 


85-20 


3 


85-18 




)t 


99 


32-1 


83-975 


83-92 


2 


8303 




99 


99 

19 


42-9 
50-9 


82-068 


82-11 


1 


81-05 




99 


99 


59-1 
68-2 


80-745 


80-78 


1 


80-55 




9i 


99 


; 70-7 
1 73-0 




80-44 


1 Ti 






99 


)» 


73-6 






! 


80-20 




»^ 99 


75-6 


79-641 


79-65 


3 


79-61 




■• 9t 


80-6 








, 79-47 








82-0 




78-30 


In 






»J 




92-3 




77-88 


1 1*^ 






0-94 




96-0 


76-614 


76-61 


1 2 










29607-1 


76-180 


76-17 


3 


76-20 




^^ 




10-8 








75-03 




99 »• 


200 








74-37 


In 




26-8 


74-064 


74-15 








J, 


»> 


29-1 




72-95 




72-8 


In 


)♦ 


99 


39-2 


71-663 


1 71-6G 


1 5 


71-65 




»> 


' ., 


1 50-6 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELKMENTS. 137 



Tantalum — contin ued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Riitten and 


Exner and 


Morsch 


Haschek 


3369-972 


3369-99 


69-408 


69-40 


68-869 


68-87 


68-570 


68-55 




67-64 


66-811 


66-79 


65-154 


65-15 




63-74 


62-646 


62-65 


61;769 


61-78 


59-101 


59-11 


58-651 


58-62 


56-752 


56-75 


66-154 


56-15 


55-718 


55-71 


52-631 


52-66 


51-637 


51-66 


51-104 


5111 




47-19 


45-233 


45-24 




43-85 


43-597 


43-60 




43-53 




42-02 


40-035 


40-02 


38-612 


38-60 


37-908 


37-93 




33-24 


32-933 


32-95 


32-792 


32-84 


32-537 


32-55 


31-138 


31-12 




29-03 




28-42 


28-065 


28-06 


27-560 




25-865 


25-87 



Intensity 
and 

Character! 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Exner and 
Haschek 



I 

2 

1 

In 



1 
1 

2Ti 



3 

2 
2 

1 

1 

1 
o 

iJ 

3 
1 

In 
1 

1 



3371-48 



6107 
58-52 

54-83 

49-61 
48-40 

4701 
46-88 

4410 
43-83 



42-10 
41-74 
40-6 
4005 



35-35 



32-8 
32-3 
31-16 



26-76 

24-8 
241 
22-12 
20-98 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



69-30 
68-50 

67-07 ! 1 

I 
65-71 1 



1 



2b 
In 



In 



4 
1 

1 
1 

2 
2 



3 

2 

In 

1 



lb 

In Ms; ? 
2 



In 
In 
1 
I 



Rcduc 


tion to 




Vacuum 








Oscillation 






Frequency 








1 


in Vacuo 


\ + 








A 




0-94 


8-4 


29652-2 


>» 


?> 


65-4 


5» 




70-4 
71-4 


,, 


!» 


75-1 




)5 


78-0 
86-0 


,, 


>» 


91-0 


») 


•» 


93-4 
29703-0 


,, 


J> 


07-9 






20-4 
30-1 
37-8 


♦ > 


8-5 


43-9 
61-3 


J» 


>' 


65-8 




»5 


82-2 

87-5 

91-4 

99-3 

29818-8 

27-6 

[32-4 

146-6 


?» 


»> 


56-5 


?> 


>» 


67-3 


J) 


JS 


68-9 


)» 
») 




70-1 

84-7 


»» 


)> 


94-9 


»» 


5» 


97-2 


»» 


•> 


99-4 


)> 


JJ 


29900-0 


>» 


J» 


13-2 


•» 


»» 


160 


)> 


„ 


26- 


J> 


?J 


31-3 


0-93 




44-1 


»» 


>» 


50-3 


J» 


J» 


73-4 


)» 


?> 


92-3 


?> 


»> 


950 


»» 


J> 


96-1 


l> 


)> 


98-6 


?) 


J> 


30011-3 


)5 


>J 


30-3 


»> 


}) 


35-8 


J» 


J> 


390 


»» 


;j 


45-5 


»» 


■ »» 


50-8 


)» 


8-6 


68- 


»> 


>> 


75- 


>> 


>» 


92-7 


)» 


1 

1 >• 


30103-0 



i'38 


KEPORTS ON 


THE STATE 


OF SCIENCE. 










Tantalum— CO /iii«tte(i. 


Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum | ^^^^^^ 


ion to 
lum 




Wave-leiizth 


Wave-lengtli 


j Vaoi 


Oscillation 






Intensity 
and 1 

Character 




Intensity | 


Frequency 


Riitteii and 
Morsch 


Exiier and 
Hasohek 


Exner and 
Hascliek 


and ' 
Character A + 


1_ 
A 

8-6 


in Vacuo 


1 






3319-75 


1. 0-93 


301 14- 1 




3319-61 


In 








15-4 


3319-559 






19-38 
19-10 


1 " 
1 




15-9 
17-5 
20-0 


18-968 


18-99 


5 


18-97 


1 




21-2 


18-062 


18-66 


2 








24-0 


18-030 


18-04 


5 


18-10 
15-37 
12-75 


1 " 

1 

1 




29-5 
63-9 

77-8 


11-259 


11-30 


9 


11-28 


2 




91-3 


09-905 


09-94 
07-23 

05-48 
05-27 


2 
1 

1 
1 


08-19 

08-50 
05-78 

04-97 


1 ", 

1 ',', 
1 

„ 

In ", 


" 


30203-6 
20-2 
26-2 
34-9 
41-4 
44-2 
46-1 
48-9 


04-499 


04-54 


2 








53-0 


04-163 


04-20 


2 


03-50 


In " 




66-0 
62-3 


02-892 


02-91 


1 








67-8 


02-023 


02-05 


1 


01-7 


In " 




78-8 


3299-892 


3299-91 
99-41 


2 

1 


3299-8 
96-16 


lb 0-92 
1 ',1 




96-3 

99-8 
30329-7 


95-451 


95-49 
94-87 


3 
In 


94-55 


1 " 




36-1 
41-6 
44-6 


94-058 


94-09 


2 








49-7 


92-627 


92-64 


2 


92-20 


2 




62-2 
66-2 


92-069 


92-04 
90-00 


1 
In 


91-17 
88-02 


1 ',', 
1 ',', 




67-6 

75-7 

86-5 

30404-8 




87-42 


In 






8-7 


10-3 




85-81 


In 


85-80 


1 " 




25-2 




85-26 


In 








30-3 




84-75 


1 


83-63 


3 ;; 




35-0 
45-4 


80-991 


80-99 


2 


80-95 


1 


',', 700 








80-82 


1 


„ i 71-5 








80-1 


lb 


78-0 


79-404 


79-36 


2 


79-38 


1 


84-9 


, 






77-80 1 


99-6 




77-32 


1 




30504-0 


76-013 


76-02 


In 




16-2 


75-802 


75-76 


2 


75-78 1 


18-4 


75-041 


75-02 


3 


75-02 1 


26-4 


74-487 


74-57 


1 






29-6 


73-252 


73-25 


2 


73-22 


1 




42-0 








72-37 


lu 


" 50-2 




71-26 


In 


J 


1 ,. 




64-3 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE Sl'KCTHA OF THE ELEMENTS. 139 



Tantalum — conUnned. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity! 

and 1 

!l!haracter 


Wave-length 


Intensity 

and 
Character 


Riitten and 


Exner and 


Exner and 


\ + 


i_ 


Morsch 


Haschek 


^mJ^^iM^ LVV VV^^ 


Haschek | 

1 




0-92 


A 
8-7 




3269-283 


3269-26 


1 






30579-1 




67-00 


1 


1 




,t 




30600-4 


65-736 


65-68 


1 






,< 




12-5 


65-4C2 


65-50 


1 


3264-77 \ 


1 






14-7 
21-3 


64-209 


64-25 


1 






,, 




26-4 


63-889 


63-91 


2 






„ „ 1 


29-5 








63-61 


3 


„ 


33-2 




63-14 


In 




J» 5» 


36-6 








60-73 


3 


59-3 


60-332 


60-34 


2 


60-3 


In 






63-0 


60-001 


60-02 


2 










66-0 


59-761 


59-76 


2 






0-91 




69-4 


58-333 


68-36 


2 










81-7 




57-98 


1 










85-2 


66-863 


56-90 


1 


54-98 


In 






96-5 
30713-4 








54-20 


3 


)* J» 


20-8 


63-258 


53-29 
f'3-08 


1 

1 










29-5 
31-4 








61-78 


1 


,, 


8-8 


43-6 




51-47 


1 


61-5 


In 


„ 


J? 


46-2 


51-398 










?» ») 


47-2 


50-493 


50-62 


2 


49-68 


1 


?' ?» 


65-6 
63-5 


48-638 


48-65 


2 


4910 


1 


,, ,, 


69-0 








47-69 


2Cu? 


»» 


73-3 




47-05 


1 






<. 


82-3 


45-510 


45-41 


1 






„ 


*) 


88-4 




43-50 


1 






„ 


)» 


30803-5 


42-955 


42-98 


3 






•» »» 


22-1 


42-176 


42-19 


3 


42-15 


ITi 


»» )» 


27-2 


41-059 


41-09 


3 


41-12 


1 




34-6 
45-0 


40-098 


40-13 


2 






*. J* 


64-3 








38-2 


In 


72-5 


37-980 


37-99 


2 


37-87 


In 


74-9 




36-71 


2Ti 


36-51 


O 


87-7 


34-806 


34-81 


2 


34-65 


2Ti 


30904-9 




32-41 


1 






27-9 




31-80 


In 






33-7 


30-996 


31-01 


3 






41-3 


30-020 


29-95 


2 






>» 


60'1 








29-70 


1 




?» 


53-8 


29-344 


29-34 


2 


29-36 


1 


M 


67-2 


27-444 


27-44 


2 








,, 


75-5 


26-979 


27-00 


2n 








•) 


79-8 




26-45 


1 






., 


j» 


85-0 








25-62 


6 




,, 


93-0 


23-054 


23-98 


I 4 


[ 23-97 
23-50 


1 

1 


1 n 

! 


'» 
»> 


31008-9 
13-4 


21-442 


21-46 


2 








)» 


33-1 




20-20 


In 




0-90 


» 


45-2 


19-701 


19-73 


1 


i 




'• 


r» 


49-8 


17048 




, 


i 


, 


1 ., 


ir 


75-6 



140 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



TANTAi.UM—co)iti)iiied. 



• — f 

Arc Spectrum 


t 


Spark Spectrum | 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 






t 


1 




Wave-lensth 


I 


Wave-length 1 








Oscillation 






Intensity 




Intensity 






Frequency 






Riitten and I 


Exner and 


and 
Character 


Exner and 


and 

Zlharacter 


A-l- 


1_ 


in Vacuo 


Morsch 


Haachek 




Hascbek 


1 




"a 




3217-041 


3217-04 


3 


3217-1 


lb 


0-90 


8-8 


31075-7 




16-27 


1 








8-9 


830 




16-OQ i 

i 


1 


15-72 


3 




" 


84-8 
88-3 




1400 i 


3 








., 


311050 




09-97 i 


1 








,, 


44-0 


08-721 


08-74 : 
08-30 


I 
I 








j» 


66-1 
60-3 


07-970 


07-95 


2 








J) 


63-5 


06-500 


06-49 


2 


06-50 


3 




., 


77-S 


05 095 


05-10 
03-86 : 


2 


0514 


1 






91-2 
31203-4 








03-50 


2 




>» 


07-0 


02-085 


02-08 


1 








!» 


20-8 


00-582 


00-59 


1 








»» 


35-5 


3198-777 


3198-79 


3 








>> 


43-2 


96-494 


96-50 . 


1 








»? 


75-3 


95-390 


95-40 


1 








>» 


861 




95-09 


1 


3195-11 


4 




?» 


890 




95-00 


1 








J» 


900 








94-50 


1 




»» 


94-9 


92-369 


92-35 


2 








9* 


31315-9 








91-59 


2 




T> 


23-4 


91-265 


91-29 


;> 


91-25 


2 




ft 


26-6 


89-844 


89-80 


i 








D 


40-8 








89-45 


1 




J» 


44-5 




88-55 


1 








>» 


63-3 








87-57 


1 




>» 


62-9 


84-656 


84-66 


3 








>J 


91-6 








84-36 


1 




99 


94-6 


82-688 


82-70 


2 








>» 


31411-0 


81-810 


8182 


2 








9-0 


19-6 


81-068 


81-08 


4 


81-02 


1 


0-89 


j» 


271 








80-42 


3 




j» 


33-4 


79-609 


79-65 


1 


79-6 


InCa 




)» 


41-2 


78-373 1 

78-278 J 


78-31" 


2 






1 ',. 
1„ 




54-0 
54-6 


78-042 


78-04 


1 








j» 


56-9 


76-410 


76-40 


3 








>f 


73-1 








75-97 


1 




>» 


77-4 


73-700 


73-69 


4 








,^ 


31500-0 






. 


73-35 


1 




,^ 


03-4 


72-980 


73-00 


2 








,, 


07-0 


70-404 


70-40 


4 








>» 


32-7 


68-365 


68-36 










» 


53-1 


68-276 


68-30 










>» 


63-8 


67-641 


67-65 
66-83 


2 
In 










60-2 
68-6 


66-541 


66-51 










r» 


71-4 


63-948 


63-95 


2 








»» 


97-1 


63-648 


63-64 










yf 


31600-1 




63-56 




63-50 


4 




)9 


01-3 


63-232 


63-22 


2 








y* 


04-3 


1 62-835 


62-85 
62-76 


2 

1 








*9 


08-1 
1 08-9 



ON 



WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 141 



Tantalum — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Spark Spectrum Reduction to 



Wave-length 



Eiitten and 
Morscli 



Exner and 
Haschek 



Intensity; 

and I 
Character 



Wave- length 



101-548 ' 


3161-55 I 


1 


59-141 


59-16 


1 


58-042 1 


58-06 


2 


57-769 1 


57-77 


1 


50-883 


56-85 


2 




55-60 


1 


55-361 


55-36 


2 


54-572 


54-60 


1 




64-05 


In 




53-25 


In 




52-64 


In 




52-10 


In 


50-967 


50-98 


1 


48-142 


48-14 


2 


47-482 


47-49 


2 




46-87 


In 


43-042 


43-06 


2 




41-53 


1 


38-588 


38-60 


1 


37-538 


37-56 


1 


35-999 


35-99 


2 


34-009 


34-03 


1 


33-672 


33-68 


1 


32-756 


32-77 


3 




31-36 


In 




30-90 


In 


30-682 


30-70 


3 


30-391 


30-43 


1 


30 053 


30-09 


2 


29-654 


29-68 


2 


29-226 


29-25 


1 


27-859 


27-90 


3 


25073 


25-10 


3 


21-001 


21-06 


1 


19-692 


19-70 


1 


17-545 


17-52 


2 


15-972 


15-95 


2 


13-996 


14-00 


o 




10-93 


In 




10-22 


In 




07-89 


In 


07-311 


07-32 


2 


04-519 


04-54 


1 


03-353 


03-37 


4 


01-817 


01-84 


1 


01-110 


01-15 


2n 


3095-498 


' 3095-50 


3 




94-28 


In 


93-965 


93-98 


3 




93-10 


1 


92-546 


92-54 


3 


92-151 


92-19 


1 




88-11 


2Ti 



Exner and 
Haschek 



3159-0 lb 



Vacuum 



Intensity 

and 
Character A - 



52-2 



45-52 



lb 



0-88 



30-90 1 3 



27-6 



2n 



1 
\ 



089 ! 9 



3094-30 

93-0 i lb 

88-0 I lb 



9-1 









5J 





















55 




)> 1 


i » 


s> 




'» 




9-2 




" 




'» 




»> 




55 


0-87 


?9 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



31621-1 
45-1 
50-1 
58-9 
08-0 
80-7 
83-1 
90-9 
96-3 
31704-3 
10-4 
15-9 
27-2 
55-8 
62-4 
68-5 
82-1 
31807-1 
22-5 
52-3 
62-9 
78-7 
98-8 
31902-3 
11-6 
25-9 
30-6 
32-7 
35-6 
39-1 
43-2 
47-5 
61-4 
64-3 
90-0 
32031-3 
45-3 
67-5 
83-7 
32103-8 
35-5 
42-9 
67-0 
72-9 
325!01-8 
13-9 
29-8 
37-1 
95-8 
32308-4 
11-7 
21-2 
f 26-6 
i 30-5 
73-1 



142 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Tantalum — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Kiitteu and 
Morsch 



3087-855 

87-624 
85-630 
82-543 

81-950 
80088 



78-335 
77-334 

76-483 
75-429 
73-495 

73-451 



69-342 
66-876 



Exuer and 
Haschek 



3087-85 
87-61 
85-64 
82-57 

81-95 
80-08 
79-67 
79-40 
78-34 
77-33 

76-50 
75-39 
73-52 
73-11 
72-48 
70-66 

69-32 
66-87 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



2 
2 
2 
1 

2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
3 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 



63-988 


64-00 


1 


63-667 


63-69 


3 




63-24 


In 


60-385 


60-40 


3 


58-748 


58-76 


9 




67-36 


1 


57-206 


67-27 


la 


56-715 


56-73 


1 


54-914 


54-93 


1 


52-026 


6202 


1 


50-204 


50-20 





49-661 


49-63 


4 


48-970 


48-92 


3 


48-384 


48-35 


lu 


46-058 


46-05 


2 


44-033 


44-01 


1 




42-66 


In 


42-147 


42-16 


O 


41-095 


41-06 


I 


40-858 


40-80 


1 


40-570 


40-57 


1 


37-647 1 
37-507 1 






37-58 


2 


36-401 


36-36 


1 


30-401 


30-38 


I 


29-64S 


29-65 


1 


28-895 


28-87 ' 


2 



Exuer and 
Haschek 



Intensity 

and 
Character A. -f- 



1 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



3082-3 



76-96 



6l)-9 



64-7 
64-0 



65-7 



44-87 



27-008 



27-Cl 



39-9 



32-88 



28-51 





0-87 9-2 


32376-8 






78-2 




>) 99 


99-0 




9-3 


32431-3 


lb All 


»» >» 


34-0 
37-7 






67-3 






61-7 




»♦ )» 


64-6 




»» >» 


75-8 




»? J> 


86-4 


1 




90-3 
95-3 
32506-7 
26-8 
31-0 




5> >» 


37-9 
57-0 


lb 


>» •? 


65-0 
71-1 
97-2 


lb 


»' >> 


32620-3 


lb 


?) J» 


27-8 
31-2 




0-86 

»» ■' 


35-9 
66-2 
83-7 
98-7 
32700-0 
05-5 


lb 


'» >> 


16-4 




99 i 99 


24-8 




„ ' 9-4 

99 •■> 


55-8 
75-3 
81-3 

88-8 

950 

328200 


lu 




32-7 
41-9 
57-6 


: 


»» 99 


62-1 
73-7 
76-4 
79-2 


lu 


1 „ r', 
1 „ 


86-4 

32910-8 

12-3 

24-5 


1 




62-6 
89-6 
97-7 




•■• 1 99 


:;3006-l 


1 

1 


:; 1 :: 


10-1 
20 



ox ^VAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 143 



Tantalum — continved. 



Arc 


Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-lens'tli 1 




■Wave-length 


_ 1 


Oscillation 




-- 13 


Intensity _ 
and 1 
character 


Intensity 
Exnerand e,,^r"^ter 


A + 


1_ 


Frequency 


Eiitten and 


Exner and ( 


in Vacuo 


Morsch ' 

1 


Haschek | 


H^XALVX t.V\J VKyt, 


Haschek 






A 




3025-280 


3025-26 









0-86 ' 


9-5 


33045-4 








3024-85 


In 


1) 


55 


60-0 


24-388 


24-36 
24-21 










55 
55 


65-2 
67-0 








22-90 


In 


1 


" 1 


.71-3 




22-40 








0-85 j 


1 
" 1 


76-8 


21-187 


1 








>. 1 


55 


90-1 


20-761 


1 










55 


94-7 


20-619 










^, 


,, 


96-3 


19-779 


19-76 










5' 


33105-6 


16-473 


16-49 


I ! 








,♦ ■ 


41-7 


12-653 


12-62 


5 


12-65 


In 


., 


ri 


84-0 


11-980 


12-00 


4 






r» 


., 


91-1 


11-230 


11-21 


3 






»» 


55 


99-6 


10-952 


10-92 


2 






55 


" 


33202-8 


06-680 


06-63 


1 






55 


55 


50-0 




05-10 


In 






J5 


55 


67-3 


05-024 


05-04 


1 






,, 


*» 


68-0 


04-246 


04-26 


1 






51 




76-6 




02-10 


1 






55 


55 


33300-5 


01-657 


01-65 
01-25 


1 

1 






5' 


55 
55 


05-5 

10-0 


01-060 












'5 


121 




2999-48 


1 


2994-90 


1 


,, 


55 


30-2 


2994-559 










.55 


9-6 


82-4 


91-358 


91-34 


1 






55 


55 


33420-1 








90-45 


2 


55 


55 


30-2 


89-612 


89-56 


2 






SI 


55 


39-8 


89-164 


89-15 


1 






., 


55 


44-6 


88-694 


88-65 


2 






f9 


55 


50-1 


86-928 


86-89 


2 






55 


55 


69-8 




80-52 


1 






55 


S) 


74-2 


86-165 










•5 


55 


78-2 


1 84-469 


84-45 


1 






,, 


,, 


97-3 


81-325 


81-32 


1 






0-84 


55 


33632-6 








80-86 


1 


1 

55 


55 


37-8 








80-02 


1 


55 


55 


47-2 


1 






79-10 


1 


" 


55 


66-6 


78-871 


78-85 


2 






55 


^5 


60-3 


78-305 


78-27 


1 






5» 


^' 


66-7 








77-77 


1 


5» 


55 


72-6 


76-896 


70-86 


1 






1 ■' 


i " 


82-6 


76-382 


76-31 


1 






! " 


1 

55 


88-6 




76-21 


1 






55 


55 


90-2 


75-678 


75-06 
74-67 


2 

1 






?5 

I 

55 


5» 


1 96-3 
' 33607-6 








74-23 


2 


1 

»5 


55 


12-5 


73-358 












55 


22-4 








72-20 


2 


5» 


,, 


1 35-5 


70-026 


70-00 


1 






yy 


9-7 


60-3 


69-582 


69-58 
68-40 


2 

In 






" 


55 

15 


65-2 

78-4 


66-041 


66-03 


2 






1 

55 


1 " 


33705-3 


65-669 


65-66 


3 






I 55 


1 


09-6 


1 65-284 


65-26 


4 






* 55 


}> 


14-0 



144 


KEPORTS ON 


rHE STATE 


OF^SCIENCE. 








TASTAi.VM—eontinv.ed. 


Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


"Wave-length 




Wave-length 








Intensity 




Intensity 

and 
Character 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Riitteu and 
Morsch 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Charactei 


Exner and 
Haschek 


0-84 ' 9-7 


2964-033 


2964-04 


1 






33728-1 


63-440 


63-43 


3 








34-9 


63-190 


63-19 


1 








37-7 


57-994 


58-00 


1 






" 


96-9 


57-720 


57-72 


; '"> 








3380M 


56-974 


57-00 


In 


2966-98 


1 


,. 


08-5 


65-583 


55-56 


1 








24-7 


54-060 




1 








42-0 


53-683 


53-65 


3 








46-6 


53120 


53-10 


2 






" i " 


52-9 


52-034 


62-05 


3 








65-2 






1 


51-01 


3 




77-0 


47-028 


47-01 
45-80 


2 

1 


47-00 
46-0 


1 
lb 




33923-0 
34-6 
36-9 




43-89 


1 




',', 9-8 


68-9 


42-249 


42-25 


2 




0-83 


77-8 


41-656 


41-68 


In 


41-61 3 




84-7 


[ b^.l 


41-48 


1 








86-7 


40-326 


40-31 


3 








34000-1 


40-223 


40-20 


2 






01-3 ' 


. 39-384 


39-36 


2 








11-1 


j 38-541 


38-56 


1 






20-6 


34-960 


34-95 


1 






62-3 


33-666 


33-67 


3 






1 

77-2 : 


32-798 


32-79 


2 


31-55 1 


>» J» 


87-4 
34101-8 


i 


31-10 


1 






07-1 


1 






27-91 3 


44-2 


26-569 


26-55 


1 




60-0 


i 25-769 


25-75 


1 






69-3 


25-334 


25-32 


3 






74-4 




22-97 


In 




1- 1 ft 


34202-0 


19-098 


19-06 


1 


19-07 1 


9-9 


47-5 


17-217 


17-21 


1 


17-18 1 




69-2 


15-605 


15-67 


2 




" 


88-5 


15-449 


15-44 


2 




y* >» 


90-2 




15-06 


1 




„ „ 


94-7 


14-240 


14-22 


2 




34304-5 


13-560 


13-56 


In 


" ',', 12-5 




13-45 


In 


1 >*>»■* 

13-8 








11-88 2 


») ft 


32-2 








10-71 2 




46-0 


09-024 


09-02 


2 


09-05 


In 


«« «• 


65-8 








08-39 


2 .... 


73-4 


05-354 


05-35 


2 


05-40 


1 




34409-3 


04-193 


04-20 


2 ! 






0-82 ! ',', 


23-0 


02-131 


02-17 


3 








47-3 


01-159 


01-18 ' 


1 






" " 


68-9 


00-858 


00-88 


In 




»* »» 


62-6 


00-473 


00-48 


2 ! 




>> J> 


69-2 


2899-154 


2899-16 


2 


2899-39 2 


9* 9f 


81-9 


98-512 


98-54 


1 






90-4 








97-94 2 '.'. '.'. 


97-4 


95 -209 i 


05-22 


1 




1 


]<i-o 


34529-8 



WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 145 



Tantalum — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 

Vacuum 




Wave-length | 

1 


Intensity 
fincl 


Wave-length ' 


[ntensity - 


Oscillation 
Frequency 










1 


in Vacuo 


Riitten and 


Exner and ( 


!jharacter 


Exner and ohiTmcterl 


A.-(- 




Morsch 


Haschek 


1 


Haschek 


j 




A 
10-0 




2894-275 


2894-28 ! 


0-82 


34549-9 




92-07 


In 






9> >» 1 


67-3 


91-954 


91-95 


3 


] 


„ ,, 


68-7 


91-148 , 


91-15 


1 


1 




,, ,, 


78-3 


90-414 


90-40 


1 


• 2890-47 


In 


„ \ 


86-9 


89-485 


89-48 


1 






,, ,, 1 


98-3 








88-96 


1 




34604-5 


' 85-526 


85-52 


1 


83-31 


I 

3 : 




45-8 
72-4 


82-444 


82-45 


1 






,, ,, 


82-7 








81-9 


4b 


»» »» 


89-3 


81-343 


81-34 


1 






)« ,, 


96-1 








80-89 


1 


JJ ,, 


34701-5 


80-123 1 


8012 


2 




i 


it »» 


10-8 


79-847 


79-85 


1 


1 


1 


)» 91 


14-0 




79-60 


1 


79-5 lb 




17-0 


i 
1 


79-18 


In 






22-1 




79-06 


lu 






M *• 


23-6 


77-795 


77-77 


1 


77-8 
77-14 


lb 
3 


>» )» 


39-0 

46-7 


76-224 


76-20 


1 


75-52 


3 


«* ?» 


58-0 
06-3 


: 75-023 










/I »» 


72-3 


74-652 


74-60 


In 






„ ,, 


77-1 


74-277 


74-26 


2 






,, ,, 


81-6 


73-666 


73-67 


2 






,, ,, 


88-8 


73-466 


73-47 


2 








91-1 


72-929 










,, *» 


97-7 


71-522 


71-51 


2 






101 


1 34814-7 


68-769 


68-74 


2 


(38-66 


3 


»» »» 


48-8 




67-48 


In 


67-55 


In 


J> »' 


63-5 




66-26 


In 






J» »1 


78-6 




65-44 




65-8 


In 


,, ,, 


88-6 


64-609 


64-60 


In 


1 


1 


if •• 


98-7 


62-116 


62-10 


O 






>> ,, 


34929-2 


01-223 


61-22 


o 


61-23 


2n 


0-81 


40-0 


60-999 


61-01 


1 




i 


,, ,, 


1 42-7 


58-542 


58-64 


o 


68-57 


'■ In 




72-7 


57-386 


57-37 
66-81 


1 

] 


' 




,. 


87-0 
94-0 




52-46 


1 


52-49 
52-2 


In 

i In Mg- 


„ 


, 35047-2 
1 62-9 


51-090 


51-09 


3 


1 




»» 


64-3 


50-597 


50-59 


3 






>» )» 


70-3 


49-935 


49-90 


1 


49-7 


In 




78-6 
81-3 


48-630 


48-58 


2 


48-4 


lb 


yt »» 


94-8 


4S-159 Ky 


1 4814 


1 






10-2 


35100-3 


46-934 Ky 


46-85 


1 


46-36 
45-95 


2 

In 




15-8 
22-4 
27-4 


45-457 


45-44 


2n 






)» »* 


33-6 


44-859 


44-85 


1 






»» 1 )» 


41-0 


44-561 


44-55 


2 


44-55 


2 


»l »» 


44-7 


44-347 


44-34 


2 




1 


it 


' .. 


47-3 



1908. 



116 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Tantalum — continued. 



Ai 


c Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 


Oscillation 

Frequency ' 

in Vacuo 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Vacuum 






1 


Kiitten and 
Morsoli 


Exner and 
Haschek 

2842-91 


Character 


Exner and 
Haschek 


Character 


A. + ' 


1 
A. 




2842-914 


2 


2842-73 


2 , 0-8! 


10-2 


35165-8 








41-25 




85-6 


40-526 


40-50 




40-5 


In 


94-7 




38-36 




38-3 


lb 


35221-4 


38-051 


38-04 






<» »i 


25-3 








35-20 


1 


60-7 


34-515 


34-50 






,. 


69-3 


33-744 


33-74 


^-1 


33-3 


lb 


78-8 


32-807 


32-81 






J» •! 


90-5 




29-90 








35326-7 


28-679 


28-68 




28-63 


1 " " 


42-2 




27-70 


Id 


27-0 


In 


54-2 


27-272 


27-26 


I 






59-6 
61-1 


26-339 


26-29 




27-15 


1 


71-6 


24-945 


24-92 






0-80 1 „ 


89-0 


22155 


22-19 






10-3 


35423-2 


19-464 


19-46 






. ff ft 


57-5 


17-818 


17-59 






>* >» 


81-0 


17-195 


17-17 




17-16 


2 


85-9 








16-80 


1 !' !! 


91-0 


15-214 


15-20 


1 




»' j» 


35511-1 


15-097 


15-13 








12-3 


14-900 


14-90 






>* '» 


14-9 




14-40 




14-42 


In 


21-1 








11-83 


1 


53-7 


11-015 


11-03 




10-99 


1 


64-1 


((6-677 


06-68 


2 




,, 


35619-0 


00-403 


06-40 


o 




,. 


22-4 


04-950 




1 




.. 


41-0 








03-9 


In 


54 








t)2-82 


3 Mg ? i, 


68-1 


02-166 


02-17 


2 


02-1 


In Pb ?, ,, 


76-3 


10-259 








,. 


88-0 


00-691 


00-66 


1 




,. 


95-4 


2798-493 


2798-50 


1 




',, 10-4 


35723-1 


97-858 


97-87 


3 




„ 1 ., 


31-2 


96-658 


96-66 


1 




1 


46-5 


90-435 


90-45 


2 




1 

9* ' >) 


49-3 








95-65 


4 Mg ? ,. 


59-5 




93-98 


1 


94-02 


1 


80-4 


95-008 




f 1 




•» >». 


67-6 








93- 15 


1 


91-5 


92-081 




<:! 




<> »f 


35805-2 








91-90 


1 


07-5 


91-763 


91-80 


1 




,, 


08-9 


91-475 


91-49 


(> 


91-49 


1 


12-8 


90-806 


90-83 


1 




„ 


21-4 


89-838 








f* Jt 


34-0 


88-388 


; 88-40 


1 






52-5 


87-789 


1 87-79 


2 




„ 


60-3 




86-89 


1 




,. 


71-9 


85-073 


85-06 


2 


85-06 


1 0-79 


ft 


96-4 


»l-448 


81-49 


1 




*t 


^» 


35941-8 




80-10 


J 1 


80-37 


2 ■ 


If 


1 
If 


54-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 147 



Tantalum — eontimied. 



Arc 


Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum | 

1 


Beduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


-+ -X- 


in Vacuo 








Riitten and 


Exner and ' 


Character 


Exner and 


Character 




Morscli 


Hasehek i 


1 


Hasehek 

1 




0-79 i 10-4 




2779-180 i 


2779-20 1 


, 35971-3 


75-968 


75-99 


o 






>) »» 


36012-9 


75-475 


75-46 


1 






10-5 


19-5 


75-222 


75-22 


1 


2875-20 1 


1 


*» »J , 


22-8 








71-9 


In 


•>» »> 


25-7 


74-984 


75-00 


1 


71-50 


1 


»» »» 


65-8 




68-17 ! 


In 


68-24 


2 


l» 5» 


71-0 








66-05 


In 




14-0 
36142-7 








65-43 


In 


>» >» 1 


50-2 








63-75 


In 


1 


72-5 




63-46 


2 


63-50 


1 


„ 1 


76-8 


GI-769 


61-78 


3 






) 


98-1 




59-16 


1 


59-1 


In 


■>■* »> 


36231-4 








58-9 


In 


>» >» 


35-8 


58-403 


58-40 


o 


58-45 


In 


>' 5» 


42-2 








54-67 


1 


>' >» 


91-5 








53-17 


2n 


„ 


36311-3 


52-598 


52-60 


3 


52-59 


1 


)> >» 


18-8 


52-410 


52-40 


1 






yy ,, 


21-2 


1 


50-42 


In 


50-5 


In 


10-6 


47-5 


49-946 


49-90 


2 


49-93 


1 


, , ,, 


54-0 


48-883 


48-85 


2 


48-89 


1 




67-9 


47-366 


47-22 


1 








89-1 


46-778 


46-87 
46-76 


In 

1 


2745-85 
45-40 
45-07 


1 

In 

In 


*> •» 


95-1 
95-9 
36408-0 
14-0 
18-3 


43-695 


43-65 


1 






i» ' t 


36-9 


42-508 




1 






., ,, 


52-4 


41-270 


41-25 


1 


40-31 


1 


0-78 


69-0 
81-6 


39-368 


39-35 


2 


39-34 


1 


»* >* 


94-4 


37-429 












36520-0 


38-350 


36-32 


1 






»» *» 


34-6 




35-34 


1 


35-34 
33-37 


1 
Ir 


i 


47-9 
74-3 


33-094 


33-00 


la 






»» ,, 


78-6 


32-079 


32-15 


In 


30-45 


1 


») »? 


91-1 
36613-4 


27-872 


27-85 


£> 






1* >» 


48-1 


27-549 


27-51 


3 






• » >» 


52-« 




25-52 


In 


25-55 


I 


10-7 


79-3 








23-98 


In 


M 


36700-3 








23-77 


In 


»* »» 


03-1 








22-12 


2 




25-4 


21-916 


21-91 


1 






,, ., 


28-2 


' ■ 20-984 






21 03 


In 


.» 


40-6 


20-844 


20-84 


2 


20-4 
20-0 


lb 

lb 


„ 


42-7 
48-6 
54-0 


10- 110 






19-12 


I 


1* »t 


65-9 


18-478 


18-45 


1 






,, ,^ 


74-8 






1 


17-74 


! 1 


i •> 
i 


84-6 



148 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Tan talum — continued. 



Are Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 




Wave-length 




Wave-length 




Vacuum 


Oscillation 






Intensity 

and 
Character 


Exner and 


Intensity 

and 
Character 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Eutten and 


Exner and 


\ -1- 


1 _ 


Morsch 


Haschek 




Haschek 


^m^^-^%V^ \M^J UV>^ 




A. 




• 




2717-43 


In 


0-78 


10-7 


36788-8 


2717-269 


2717-25 


2 






>* 


»» 


91-1 








16-75 


2 


>♦ »» 


98-0 


1 






16-00 




>» J» 


36808-1 








15-45 




ft »» 


15-6 


1 14-75G 


14-75 


3 


14-80 
10-88 




24-8 

77-7 


10-213 


10-22 


2 


10-28 


1 »» 


»» 


86-4 


09-363 


09-36 


2 


09-38 




98-3 








07-99 


1 


»» 


>» 


36917-1 


06-773 


06-78 


2 


06-58 


1 






33-6 
36-3 


04-396 


04-40 


1 


04-44 




»j 


»* 


65-9 


03-141 


0316 


1 






,, 


10-8 


831 




02-89 


1 


02-8 
02-64 
02-31 
00-28 
2099-00 


111 


it 
y* 

0-77 


»» 
»» 


86-6 
90-1 
94-6 
37022-4 
40-0 


2698-376 


269S-37 


2 


98-4 
97-21 


In 
3 


»> 




48-6 
64-5 


96-890 


96-90 


1 






.y 


»> 


68-9 




95-85 


1 


95-7 


lb 


yj yj 


83-2 




95-60 


2 






,, ,, 


86-7 


94'83f> 










»» »» 


97-2 


94-603 






94-63 


2 


y* )» 


37100-3 


93-434 


93-46 


1 






M 


>» 


16-3 


92-475 


92-49 


2 




»* 


ft 


29-6 








91-89 


1 


)) 


37-8 


91-370 


91-40 


2 








J> 


44-7 




89-35 


I 


89-38 
86-50 






72-7 
37212-3 


85-235 


85-24 


4 


85-25 




,, ,, 


29-8 


84-343 


84-37 


2 


84-40 




,, ,, 


41-9 


81-949 


81-99 


) 








J» 


75-2 


80-720 


80-79 


2 


80-75 






» 


92-1 


80-130 


80-17 


2 


80-17 






»» 


37300-5 








78-8" 


In 




10-9 


19-2 








77-80 






»» 


33-2 


75-954 


75 -9! 1 


3 


75-99 
73-70 








58-6 
90-4 




72-61 


1 


72-61 
72-04 


1 Mn? 




»» 

»» 


37405-7 
13-7 


71-696 


71-75 


1 








»» 


18-1 








71-40 




,, 


j» 


22-7 




69-70 


1 


69-65 




., 


46-8 


68-675 


68-72 


2 


68-69 








60-6 


68-130 


68-18 


1 










68-2 








67-86 








72-3 








67-40 




yy 




78-8 








67-20 


In 






81-6 




65-70 


2 


65-68 








37503-8 








65-34 








07-8 








64-31 








22-3 








•68 




„ 




301 



ON A^^AVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 140 



Tantalum —continued. 



A 


I'c Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 




Wave-length 

Exner and 
Haschek 








Intensity 
and 

Character 


Intensity 

and 
Character 

in 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Eiitten and 
Morsch 


Exuer and 
Haschek 


1 

^+ a" 

0-77 10-9 






2663-20 


37537-9 


2662-164 


2662-18 


1 






,. 


52-4 


61-932 


61-99 


1 






t* y* 


55-4 


61-402 


61-45 


2 


61-42 


1 


»» »' 


61-0 




59-51 


1 


59-48 


1 


'* ** 


90-2 




58-96 


1 


58-93 
58-16 


1 
1 


9t *> 


98-0 
37609-1 


67-300 


57-40 


1 






" ;: 


20-6 


56-651 


56-69 


3 


56-65 
56-16 


1 

2 




30-3 
37-4 








54-50 


1 


0-70 11 -0 


60-9 


53-356 


53-36 


3 


53-35 


1 




77-0 




51-34 


2 


61-27 


2 


„ 


37706-3 


47-560 


47-56 


3 


47-55 


1 


>» »» 


59-7 


46-862 


46-88 


In 








69-5 


46-439 


46-45 


1 






»» ff 


76-5 


46-280 


46-32 


1 


46-34 


1 


»» )» 


77-3 




45-20 


1 


45-17 


1 


)» Jf 


93-5 




44-67 


In 


44-65 


1 


1> »> 


37801-0 


43-941 


43-97 


I 


42-32 
41-13 


2 

1 


J* >» 

9> 99 


11-1 
34-5 
51-6 




38-76 


1 


38-70 
38-20 
38-05 


In 
In 
In 


J) »l 


86-0 
93-6 
95-8 


36-965 


36-99 


2 


36-98 


1 


»> -»> 


37911-2 


36-742 


36-75 


2 






»» 5» 


14-5 


36-131 


36-02 


1 






»» »> 


24-2 


35-650 


35-66 


3 


35-64 
33-86 


? 


»» >» 


30-3 
56-1 


33-595 




1 


33-25 
32-62 
32-37 


lb 

1 

1 


J» >9 

" 


59-9 
74-0 
77-6 




30-63 


In 


30-65 

28-9 

27-51 


1 
lb 

1 


„ IM 

9* 99 


38002-5 
27-6 

47-7 




25-56 


1 






99 99 


76-0 


24-180 


24-23 


1 


23-08 
20-53 


1 
1 


»» 19 
99 »> 


96-7 

38112-0 

49-1 


15-745 


16-77 


1 






99 ft 


38218-8 


15-564 


15-56 
15-38 


1 
1 


14-2 


lb 


f> 1 99 


21-6 
24-3 
41-5 




12-74 


1 


12-72 


1 


»> >> 


63-0 


11-426 


11-46 


1 






J» »> 


81-9 


09-092 


09-10 


1 


09-08 


1 


0-75 11-2 


38316-3 


08-711 


08-71 


2 


08-72 


1 


>» j» 


21-9 


08-258 


08-33 


In 






»» »» 


28-0 




07-95 


1 


07 93 
06-55 
06-26 
05-19 


1 
1 
1 

1 




33-4 
53-7 
58-0 
73-7 








04-90 


1 


78-0 








04-65 , 


1 


1 
»f It 


81-7 



150 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Tantalum — cmitinued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Eiitten and 
Morscli 



2G03-585 

02-476 
01-150 

00-210 
2599-478 

96-718 



95-337 



93-645 
93-172 



84-810 



80-262 
79-713 



Exner and 
Haschek 

2603-95 
03-60 

02-49 
01-16 
00-84 
00-25 



2596-55 
96-23 
95-68 
95-36 

94-35 
93-80 
93-20 



I Intensity 
i and 
Character 



89-89 



80-27 
79-75 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave-length 



2 
1 
2 

2 

2 

2 Mil 
2 



Exner and 
Haschek 



2603-57 
03-06 
01-40 
01-13 
00-82 
00-26 

2599-0 



85-99 


In 


85-75 


In 


84-82 


1 


84-61 


1 


84-15 


1 



79-12 
78-30 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



lb 



77-876 


- 77-90 


1 






77-456 


77-46 


2 


77-42 
76-52 
76-13 


2 
1 
1 


75-598 


75-57 


1 


74-94 


1 


74-511 


74-50 


1 






73-882 


73-91 


1 






73-637 


73-66 


1 


73-23 


1 


71-562 


71-61 


1 


71-51 
71-41 


1 
1 




69-24 


1 


69-20 
68-10 
65-51 
64-90 


1 
1 
1 
1 




63-82 


1 








62-20 


1 






60-865 


60-77 


1 


60-72 
59-96 


1 
1 


59-256 


59-o4 


1 


59-49 


1 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



96-55 


2 


96-26 


1 


95-67 


1 


95-37 


1 


94-82 


1 


94-35 


1 


93-78 


2 


92-66 


1 


92-23 


In 


91-05 


2 


89-90 


1 


88-97 


In 


84-58 


1 


84-10 


3 


81-65 


In 


80-68 


1 



A-H 



0-74 



1 
K 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



0-75 11 



11 



38392- 
97' 

38405' 
14' 
33' 
38- 
46' 
58- 
65- 
99' 

38501' 
06' 
14' 
19' 
27' 
34' 
43 
51' 
59 
65 
83' 

38600 
14 
58 
62 
76 
79 
86 

38725 
38 
44 
52 
61 
74 
80 
86 

38800 
06 
14 
24 
31 
40 
44 
50 
75 
77 

38911 
27 
67 
76 
82 

39017 
39 
61 
58 



Ox\ \VAVE 


-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF 


THE ELEMENTS. J 1 






Tantalum— wwiiTOw//. 




Ai 


c Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 

Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Wave-length 


Intensity 
and 


Oscillation 
Frequency 







- 




1 _ 


in Vacuo 


BUtten and 


Exner and 


Oliaracter 


Exner and 


Character 


A + 




Morsch 


Haschek 


Vp/.lLCv^ CW U\-i ^ 


Haschek 






11-4 










2558-40 


1 


0-74 


39075-5 








68-U 


In 






f9 


81-0 




2557-80 


1 


57-75 
57-00 


1 
1 








85-1 
96-9 




56-60 


1 


56-56 

55-70 


1 

1 






1> 


39103-3 
16-8 




55-13 


1 










)» 


25-5 




5501 


1 


64-95 


In 






yj 


27-8 




54-73 


o 


54-67 
53-58 
53-20 


2 
1 

1 






J) 


32-1 
49-3 
55-1 




51-84 


1 


51-79 
51-46 


1 
1 






ij 


76-4 
81-8 


2551-281 


51-27 
51-20 


1 
1 








' 




84-7 
85-8 


49-471 


49-46 
46-86 


1 
1 










ii'-5 


39212-5 
52-5 








45-77 






-»> 


69-3 




45-56 


1 


45-62 
44-96 
44-53 

4406 






»' 

)» 


72-1 
81-8 
88-5 
95-8 








42-49 




, 




,, 


39320-0 








41-56 








,, 


34-4 




38-03 


1 


38-05 
34-15 








89-0 
39448-5 




32-23 


1 


32-24 
31-39 
31-06 


J- » 






79-3 
92-5 
97-6 








28-69 


2nr 


> 




11-6 


39534-6 








28-02 




» 




>> 


45-0 








27-51 


I 






»» 


53-0 


26-557 


26-56 
26-49 
26-14 

■ 


1 
1 

1 


24-30 
21-52 
19-40 
18-18 


3n 

1 
2 
1 








67-9 
69-0 
74-5 
39603-3 
47-0 
80-4 
99-6 








16-12 Ti ? 


3nr 


0-' 


73 


,, 


39732-1 








14-5 


2b r 






»» 


67-7 








13-98 


1 






»» 


66-0 




13-23 


In 


13-19 


1 






if 


78-1 




12-76 


1 


12-G 

1108 

10-75 


In 

1 
1 






111 


85-3 

39811-8 

17-0 


07-585 


07-55 


1 


07-02 


2nr 






^j 


67-6 
76-3 








05-36 


1 






39902-7 


04-557 


04-45 


1 








,, 


16-4 








03-07 


1 






,, 


39-2 




02-09 


1 


. 02-05 
' 01-5 
2499-80 
98-37 


1 
lb 

1 
1 








55-2 

64-3 

91-5 

40014-4 



Id: 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



TastAIjVH— continued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Wave-lengtli 



Eiitten and 
Morsch 



2492-27 

90-58 
88-78 



85-03 



7C-76 

74-71 
73-20 

7101 



67-45 
67-09 



44-20 



33-65 
32-75 



Exner and 
Haschek 



Intensity 

and 
Character: 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave-length 



111 
1 



In 



In 
2 



Exner and 
Haschek 

2492-22 
9212 
90-34 
88-74 
88-23 
87-69 
84-98 
83-9 
83-35 
81-91 
80-00 
78-33 
77-42 
76-71 
75-36 

73-17 
73-0 

70-95 

69-43 

68-45 

67-41 

63-85 

62-1 

61-08 

60-03 

58-17 

57-55 

54-70 

63-97 

51-90 

50-4 

49-50 

44-7 

44-19 

43-90 

43-45 

42-74 

42-22 

41-90 

41-40 

40-10 

39-87 

38-73 

38-23 

37-80 

37-48 

36-56 

36-00 

35-2 

33-86 

33-63 

32-75 

3111 



Intensity 

and 
Character 



2ur 
n 



2n 



2b 



Eeduction to 
Vacuum 



A + 



0-73 



1 
A 



11-8 



0-72 



11-9 



120 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 

























121 







































" 




" 
























1 » 


„ 1 



40112-7 


14-7 


41-4 


68-8 


77-4 


86-1 


40229-6 


47-5 


56-4 


79-7 


40310-8 


380 


52-8 


63-8 


86-2 


96-9 


40421-8 


25- 


57-4 


68-3 


83-3 


99-3 


40516-1 


75-0 


03-8 


20-7 


37-9 


68-1 


78-9 


40726-2 


38-3 


72-7 


97-7 


40812-7 


92-8 


40901-3 


06-1 


13-6 


25-5 


34-2 


39-6 


480 


69-8 


75-7 


92-8 


41001-2 


08-5 


13-9 


29-4 


38-8 


62-3 


74-9 


78-6 


93-6 


41121-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 153 



T A NT ALUM — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Eeduction to 


Dscillation 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave Length ^ 


intensity 
and 


Wave-length . 


intensity 
and 


Vacuum 








1 




Kiitten and 


Esner and ( 


Character 


Exner and Character! 


A + 


1_ 




Morsch 


Haachek 




Haschek 


In 


1 


A 






2430-3 


0-72 


12-1 ! 


41135-1 




2429-74 


1 


29-75 


1 


1 


>» 


44-5 




1 




29-52 1 


1 




99 


48-3 








28-08 


1 


" 12-2 : 


72-6 




27-70 


1 






1 


79-0 








26-92 


In 


»» 


92-3 








25-98' 


1 


„ 1 


41208-2 








23-55 


1 


'* 1 


99 


49-6 








21-96 


2 


0-71 


99 


76-7 




1 




18-78 


2 


99 


99 


41350-9 


i 


17-94 


1 


17-40 


1 


»> 


J» 


45-3 

54-6 




16-99 


1 


17-02 
16-27 


2n 


,, 1 


99 


61-3 
73-9 




15-28 


1 


15-30 




») ! 


)> 


90-7 








14-58 




,, 


9t 


41402-9 








14-01 






99 


12-6 








12-50 






12-3 


37-4 








08-33 




i» 


»> 


41510-3 


■ 




05-97 






»» 


51-0 








05-44 




,, 




60-1 








03-77 




,, 


„ 


89-0 




02-23 


1 


02-22 




,, 


^, 


41614-0 




00-71 


2 


00-70 






»» 


42-1 








00-02 




J, 


'» 


54-0 








2398-58 






>> 


79-0 








89-62 


1 


>* 


12-4 


41835-3 








89-18 


1 




99 


42-6 








88-4 


lb 




>» 


56-6 








87-59 




,, 


)» 


70-8 




2387-17 


1 


87-16 




,, 


J> 


78-3 








84-43 




„ 


>> 


41926-3 








83-82 




j» 


J* 


371 




81-63 


In 


81-66 




•» 


12-5 


75-3 




81-26 


In 


81-24 




i '* 


" 


82-2 








78-40 


In 


! - 


1 


42032-6 








76-49 






" 


66-4 








74-03 


In 


0-70 


>» 


42110-0 








72-86 


In 


j» 




30-7 








71-12 




«» 


»l 


61-7 








70-88 




»» »» 


65-9 








70-05 


i •''"^ 




»' 


80-7 








69-40 


1 


,, 


1 


92-3 








67-33 


In 


12-6 


42222-1 








65-29 


] 1 


** f> 


65-6 




64-34 


1 


64-35 
57-02 


1 1 


'• 


- 


82-4 
42414-2 








56-15 


1 1 


»» 


29-5 


1 






55-67 


1 1 




»J 


38-2 








54-10 


\ 




12-7 


66-4 








53-92 






>♦ 


69-6 








62-98 








86-6 








52-48 




»' »» 


95-6 






' 


52-07 




»» »» 


425030 


1 






49-33 


1 In 


»i 


1 '* 


52-6 



154 



liEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Ta:stai,vm— continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


1 Reduction to 
Vacuum 












Wave-length 




Wave-length 






Oscillation 




Intensitj 




Intensity 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kiitten and 
Morsch 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Charactei 


Exner and 
Haschek 


and 
Character 


1 A+ 1- 




1 


2347-09 


0-70 12-7 


42593-2 






1 40-60 


111 


>♦ i 


42602-1 




46-15 


' In 




10-3 




43-7 


In 




64-9 


[ 


42-62 


2 


',', 


74-6 




41-73 






90-8 






41-02 




','. 12-8 


42703-6 






40-13 




** 9f 


19-9 






38-73 




»> 9t 


46-4 






38-3 


In 


.. 1 .. 


42853-3 






35-83 




»» >» 


98-5 






34-97 




»♦ 1 >> 


42914-3 






34-22 






28-1 


2332-30 


1 


32-22 




", 12-9 


64-7 


32-14 


1 


3210 






66-9 






24-35 




0-69 


91-4 






24-22 






43012-3 






24-07 






15-1 






19-20 






43105-4 






16-16 


In 




62-0 






16-54 






73-6 






14-98 




i „ 


84-0 






13-40 




13-0 


43213-4 






12-73 


■a 


'* 1 fi 


25-9 


. 




11-30 






52-7 






09-35 


1 




89-2 






08-61 






43313-7 








04-88 


In 




73-2 








03-58 






97-7 








03-00 


1 




43408-6 








02-32 






31-4 








02-20 






23-7 








01-57 






35-6 








00-92 


. 


„ 13-1 


47-8 








00-42 






57-2 








2299-06 






82-9 , 








98-20 


1 




99-2 








96-90 






43523-8 








95-80 




' 


44-7 








92-65 






43604-5 








92-28 






11-6 








90-49 






45-7 : 








89-25 






69-3 i 








87-36 




," 1 13-2 


43705-3 1 








85-35 






43-8 








85-10 


In 




48-6 








84-48 


In 




60-4 








83-25 


In 




84-0 








83-10 


1 j 




86-9 i 








82-26 






43803-0 








81-61 






15-5 








80-60 


In 


»» »» j 


34-9 








75-74 


1 


0-68 13-3 ! 


43928-4 








75-28 


In j 


*« 99 


37-3 








74-25 


In 


.. ■ » 1 


57-:< 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 155 



Ta n t a l u m — cmitin/ued . 



Arc Spectrum Spark Spectrum 


1 
Eeduction to 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Wave Length intensity, 


Wave-length 


1 
Intensity 


Vacuum 




i and 1 




and 






Biitten and 


Exuer and Character 


Exner and 


Character 


\ + 


1 




Morsch 


Haschek 1 


Haschek , 


In 




^ ! 






2273-73 


0-G8 


13-3 


43967-3 




72-70 




>» »» 


87-2 




71-95 






44001-7 


• 


71-03 


In 


*1 >» 


19-6 


... i 


70-28 , 




„ 


» 1 


341 




69-C7 , 








46-0 




69-30 








53-1 




65-67 1 


In 




»» 


44123-7 








62-39 




,, 


13-4 


87-6 








61-70 


In 






44201-1 








61-50 








05-0 








60-65 








21-6 








59-65 








41-2 








58-78 








58-3 








56-57 




5> 




44301-6 








55-8 


In 






16-8 








52-31 








85-5 








50-85 






13-5 


44414-2 








49-81 








34-7 








48-49 








60-8 








43-90 








44551-8 








42-7 


In 






75-6 








39-51 








44639-1 








39-02 








48-9 








37-5 


In 




13-6 


79-1 








37-3 


In 






83-1 








27-90 




0-67 




44871-7 








26-57 


.. 




13-7 


98-4 








23-40 








44962-5 








1812 








45069-5 








17-89 








74-2 








16-71 








98-2 








15-63 


1 






45120-2 






14-5 


lb 




13-8 


43-1 






12-50 








83-9 


, 1 


11-9 


In 






96-2 




11-00 








45214-6 




10-2 


In 


" 




31-0 






08-02 








76-6 








07-17 




>> 




931 






03-7 


lb 




13-9 


45364-3 




2199-7 


In 






45446-8 




96-10 


In 






45521-4 






93-96 


^ 






65-8 






93-31 








79-3 


1 i 
1 1 


" 82-75 






li'-O 


45799-8 



156 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Zirconium. 

Exner and Haschek, ' Sitzungsb. kais. Akad. Wiss. Wien,' cvii. Abth. Ila. p. 825. 
Exner and Haschek, ' Wellenlangen Tabellen der Bogensp. der Elemente.' 
Kowland and Harrison, 'Astroph. J.,' vii. p. 37C (1898). 
Demar^ay, ' Spectres Electriques ' (1895). 
Lohse, ' Astroph. J.,' vi. p. 112 (1897). 



Arc Spectrun: 






Spark Spectrum 
















Reduction to 
Vacuum 


















Wave- 


engtli 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 






sity 
and 







sity 
txnd 




Frequency 














in Vacuo 


Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 
Qay 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


A-l- 
1-35 


1 
\ 

5-6 




4934-236 




1 






20261-0 










4851-7 




2 


1-33 


5-7 


20606- 










38-8 




3 


1-32 




60- 










28-1 




2 






20706- 










25-3 




2 






18- 










15-8 




8 






59- 










10-3 




2 






83- 


4806-047 




1 




06-0 




2 






20801-4 


4788-853 




1 




4789-1 




2 


1-31 




76-1 


85-094 




1 




84-7 




2 






92-5 


72-489 




2 




72-6 




8 




5-8 


20947-6 


62-947 




1 




631 
53-6 




4 

1 


1-30 




89-6 
21031- 


39-651 




1 




39-8 




9 






92-8 


32-507 




1 




32-6 




3 






21124-6 


19-291 




In 




191 







1-29 




83-8 


17-795 




In 














90-5 


12-087 




1 














21216-2 


10-252 




3 




10-5 




10 






24-5 


07-954 




In 




03-4 




4 


" 


5-9 


34-8 

55- 


4688-625 


4688-63 


5 




4688-9 




12 


„ 




21322-3 


87-975 


88-00 


9 




86-1 




1 


" 




25-2 
24- 




84-44 


1 




84-5 




6 






41-4 


83-590 


P3-62 


2 














45-2 


67-318 


67-34 


In 




62-9 




4 






21419-6 
40- 


61-962 


59-70 


In 

1 














44-2 
54-7 


57-799 


57-83 


2 




45-7 




4 






63-4 
21520- 


44-986 


45-00 


2n 


4645-01 


41-1 




2 
3 






22-7 
41- 


40-294 


40-30 


In 


40-31 
38-05 






1 
In 






44-4 
54-9 








34-87 


34-7 




1 






69-6 


34-143 


34-17 


8 


34-20 


29-8 


4633-91 


3 
4 






731 
93- 


29-227 




1 


29-33 

27-90 


27-2 


29-12 


1 

In 

3 






95-9 
21602-1 

06- 




26-60 


3 


26-62 
25-60 
22-90 




26-42 
21-53 


3 

1 

1 
3n 






08-4 
12-8 
23-4 
31-9 



ON WAVE-LEX(iTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



157 



Z[KC0X1UM — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


. 




Spark Spectrum 




Eeduc 

Vaci 

A-1- 
1-29 


;ion to 
mm 

1_ 
A 




"Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 

1 


Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 


Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Exner 
and 

Haschek 


Demar- 

•.■ay 


Lohse 






46210 


5-9 


21634- 








4620-10 






In 


99 




38-6 










15-0 




3 


Ji 




62- 


4614096 




1 


14-20 
13-55 




4614-07 


In 

1 






66-6 
69-3 




4610-27 


In 


10-30 
10-00 






1 
1 


j> 




84-6 
86-0 




09-40 


In 


09-45 
09-32 


09-8 




1 
1 


1-26 


6-0 


88-7 
89-2 




04-60 


2 


04-59 


04-9 


04-49 


1 


>» 




21711-6 








02-80 


03-3 


02-70 


2 


»» 




20-1 








02-20 




4596-39 


3 

2n 




" 


22-7 
50-2 


4590-691 


4590-72 


2u 


4590-73 


45911 


90-66 


2 






77-2 




90-34 


In 


90-35 

85-9 

85-13 






1 

In 

1 


•■ 




78-8 
21800- 
03-6 




84-41 


2 


84-44 


84-1 




1 

] 




,, 


07-0 
09- 


82-449 


82-49 


2 


82-50 


82-2 


82-50 


1 






16-2 




76-38 


1 


76-37 






1 


1-25 




45-3 




75-69 


10 


75-78 


75-8 


75-73 


3 


,, 




48-4 


74-640 




In 


74-78 
70-9 


72-2 


74-78 
72-24 


4 

lu 

In 


'• 




53-2 
65- i 

72- 


65-599 


65-64 


2 


63-70 


65-5 


65-64 


2 


,j 




97-7 








64-0 




6404 


In 


,, 


6-'i 


21904-3 




62-30 


1 


62-33 




62-35 


1 


,^ 




12-5 




58-87 


1 


58-90 






In 


,, 




29-1 


58-18G 


58-22 


2 


58-25 
56-46 




58-23 


1 
lu 


'• 




32-3 

40-8 


55-670 


55-70 


3 


55-74 




55-63 


2 


' 




44-5 




55-30 


3 


55-30 
54-29 


55-3 


56-30 

64-24 


2 
7 






46-4 
51-4 


' 54-185 




2 










>» 




56-7 


54111 




1 




53-9 




7 


»» 




52-1 


53153 


5319 


3 


53-25 




53-23 

52-58 


1 
In 






56-4 
59-5 








50-9 




* 


In 


»» 




68- 


50-271 




2 


50-2 


48-1 


49-81* 
48-98* 

44-89* 


In 

4 

2 

2 






710 

72-8 
76-9 
81- 
96-6 


-1^-361 


42-40 


5 


42-49 


42-4 


42-37 


3 


1-24 




22008-5 




40-17 


3 


40-19 
38-9 




4011 


In 
In 


91 




19-6 
26- 








37-8 






In 


tf 




31- 


35-887 


35-90 


8 


36-00 
33-88 


35-6 


36-98 

35-00* 

34-19 


6 
3 
1 




' :: 


40-0 

44-6 

1 49-3' 



* Titanium 4549-80,'4548-98, 4544-88, 4534-95. 



158 



KEPOKTH ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 









Zirconium — 


continued 












Arc Spectrum 






Spark Spectrum 




















■Reduction to 
Vacuum 
















Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 






sity 
and 






sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Rowland 
and 


Exner 
and 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 
and 


Demar- 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


\ + 


1_ 
\ 




Harrison 


Hasohek 




Haschek 


9^y 




In 


1-24 


6-1 


22051-9 




4533-4 


4633-48 










31-35 


2 




, 


>» 


62-4 








28-2 




In 






f* 


78- 










27-58 


2 


' 




80-7 


4526-275 




In 


26-32 


26-33 


ILa 


9 




87-0 




4524-11 


1 


24-10 




1 






97-7 




23-31 


1 


23-33 
23-17 


23-00* 


1 
1 






22101-6 
02-3 














2 




t 1 «« 


03-1 








22-2 




20-49 


In 
2 






07- 
15-4 








19-10 




18-26* 


1 
2 






22-2 
26-3 








16-03 


i 


1 








37-2 








15-62 






1 








39-2 








13-66 






In 








49-4 








13-08 




12-98 


1 








56-9 


07-260 


07-32 


7 


07-39 


4507-2 


07-33 


3 








79-5 








04-3 




04-23 


In 


l- 


23 




95-2 








04-07 




In 








960 








01-7 




01-47* 


lb 
2 








22207-7 
08-9 








00-9 






In 






,, 


12- 








4499-2 






lb 








20- 


4497-149 


4497-16 


', 


97-27 


4497-3 4497-22 


9 






6-2 


29-9 


95-598 


95-14 


1 

1 


95-76 


95-69 


2 








37-4 
40-0 


94-560 




3 


94-78 


94-8 94-75 


8 








42-3 




91-74 


1 


91-78 


91-75 


1 








56-8 


90-402 




In 


90-47 




90-53 
89-38 

88-55 


In 

2 

2 








63-2 
68-6 

72-7 


85-577 




In 


85-71 
82-72 


86-2 
84-4P 


85-76 

t? 84-45 

82-56 


2 

2n 

1 








87-0 

93-1 

22302-1 


82-180 




m 


82-28 


81-7 


81-58 


2 
2 








04-1 
07-3 




80-95 


1 


81-00 
78-66 
75-48 


711 


80-95 


1 
1 
1 
8 


> 






10-4 
21-9 
37-8 
60- 


70-698 


70-72 


4 


70-80 


70-72 


5 






„ - 


61-5 


70-461 


70-46 


2 


70-52 






2 








62-8 


69-664 




In 


69-75 




69-70 


In 




', 


66-7 




08-95 


2 


68-98 




1 1- 


22 


70-3 












68-69 


•> 


1 >9 


71=7 


68-364 


68-38 


2 


68-42 






1 ' 


1 »J 


73-3 


67-064 


67-07 


3 


07-12 


07-1 


67-13. 


2 


t ,, 


75-6 








66-62 






1 


» 


» »* 


. 82-1 








64-35 






1 




, ,, 


93-6 




01-37 


3 


61-50 


01-2 


01-44 


5 


', 




.. 


22408-1 



Titanium 4523-00, 4518-25, 4501-46. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF 


' THE SPECTRA 


OF THE ELEMENTS. 159 






Zirconium — continued. 




Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum ; 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 

( 




AVave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length Inten- i 


Dscillation 




sity 
and 




sity 


1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


1 




1 


1 




and 


t 




Kowland i 

and ' 
Harrison [ 

l_ 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 

1 


Exner 

and 

Haschek | 


Demar- 
9ay 


Lolise 


ona- j 
vactcr 


1 
A-1- 


1 ! 

6-2 




4460-930 






_. 


1-22 ' 


22410-7 


60-495 ! 


4460-52 


3 


4460-57 




4460-57 


2 






12-6 




59-19 


2 


59-22 






1 






19-4 




58-04 


1 






1 








25-2 


57-562 


57-58 


4 


57-71 : 


4457-5 


57-66 ' 


5 




" i 


27-3 


56-438 


66-44 


2 


56-50 




56-60 


2 




1 


33-1 


55-574 


55-60 


2 


65-64 




55-59 


2 






37-4 


54-939 


54-97 


5 


55-08 


55-1 1 


66-00 i 


3Ca.' 






40-5 












53-89* 


5 i „ i 


^j 


46-1 


i 










53-52* 


2 


,. ' „ 1 


48-0 








! 


! 


51-12* 


o 


1 


CO-1 




50-46 


3 


50-49 


50-6 


50-49 


2 1 


J» 




63-3 




49-10 


1 


49-14 




49-31 


2 ! 


y* 




69-8 








48-18 






1 


>» 




74-9 












47-34 


In 


>> 




79-2 


I 






46-59 






1 


>» 




82-9 








44-74 






1 






92-3 




44-46* 


1 


44-53 




43-98 


1 
2 


" 




93-5 
96-1 


1 


43-17 


5 


43-31 


43-4 


43-25 


10 


j> 




99-9 




42-67 


1 


42-70 






1 






22502-7 




40-60 


3 


40-80 


40-6 


40-72 


5 


,^ 




12-8 




38-19 


3 


38-23 




38-33 


2 


„ 




25-2 










37-8P f: 


>» 




27-5 


36-910 


36-89 


In 


36-94 




37-09 


1 




31-8 








36-65 






1 


»» 




33-8 


35-986 


36-00 


In 


35-7 




36-16 


1 

In 


yy 


X 


36-4 
38-2 


31-629 


31-63 


4 


31-70 


31-9 


31-74 


3 


»> 


6-3 


68-5 




31-25 


1 


31-30 






1 


j> 




60-6 










30-lP 


t? 


1 


1-21 




66-5 








29-55 




29-53 


2 


» 




69-4 


29-245 


29-24 


2 


29-28 




29-34 


2Ca? 


)» 


1 ' 


70-8 


27-383 


27-42 


3 


27-44 
22-97 


27-5 

1 
1 
1 


27-49 
26-26* 


3 

In 

1 




I 


80-2 

86-1 

22602-9 








21-22 


1 




1 


1 


11-8 


20-598 


20-61 


4 


20-70 
19-60 


20-4 


20-65 


3 
1 


14-9 
20-7 








18-40 






1 






26-3 








17-6 






2n 


>. 




30-4 








16-10 






1 






38-1 


14-675 


14-70 


3 


14-80 




14-75 


4r 


I 11 


I 


45-1 


14-449 


14-29 


2n 


14-37 


14-4 




4 


i 




47-0 




13-20 


4 


13-28 


130 


13-24 


3 


1 


52-8 




12-10 


1 


12-15 






1 




58-5 




11-78 


1 


11-83 


11-6 




1 


.. 


60-2 




09-79 


1 


09-82 






1 




70-4 




08-54 


4 


08-50 
04-98 


1 




1 
2 


i .. 


1 " 


77-0 
95-3 


\ 03-482 


03-50 


2n 


03-67 


1 


03-63 


1 5 




.> 


22702-6 



Titanium 4453-91, 4463-52, 4451-53, 44440, 4426-20. 



IGU 



REPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
Zirconium — continued. 



Arc 


Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 














1 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 












. , 1 






Wave-length , 


Inten- 


Wave-length | 


[nten- 




Oscillation 






sity 
and 




1 


sity 




Frequency 












and 






in Vacuo 


Eowlaud 


Exner 


Cha- 


Exner 


T^piTiar- 




Cha- 


i_ 




and 
Harrison 


and 
Haschek 

4403-13 


racter 

2 


and 
Haschek 


A-/KjLLXail. 


Lohse 


racter 
1 ■ 


A-h 


\ 




4403-10 


4403-3 




1-21 ! 6-3 


22704-7 


4401-491 \ 


01-52 


1 1 


01-57 




4401-54 


2 


)» »> 


13-1 




01-04 


1 ; 


01-10 






1 


»» »» 


15-4 


00-375 


00-40 


3 I 


00-45 




00-42 


^ »* >» 


18-9 


i 


4399-60 


1 


4399-62 


4399-7 
97-2 




1 

6 


23-0 
35- 




95-40 


3 


95-42 




4395-22* 


2 

5 




44-7 
45-7 


4395-076 


95-10 


3 


9514 






2 




46-3 




94-67 


2 


94-73 






1 




48-4 










91-7 


91-12 

90-68 


2Th? 
2 


1'20 


66-9 
69-2 




90-33 


1 


90-36 






1 




71-0 


89-756 


89-75 


In 


89-81 




89-72 


2 




74-0 




88-65 


1 


88-72 






2 




79-6 




86-63 


1 


86-70 

84-53 

84-4 

83-35 

83-20 






1 

In 
In 

1 
1 




90-1 
22801-2 
01-8 
07-3 
08-1 


79-909 


79-91 


7 


80-12 
75-7 


80-1 


79-98 


10 
lb 




25-1 
47-2 


73-213 


73-26 


2 


73-28 




73-27 


1 




60-0 




72-70 


1 


72-73 






1 




62-8 


71-088 


71-14 


6 


71-27 

68-7 

68-1 


71-1 


71-17 


7 

In 

In 


Z ' o'-i 


70-9 
84- 

87- 


06-581 


06-63 


5 

1 
1 


66-69 
64-50 
64-30 


66-8 


66-63 


3r 
In 
In 


i .. >, 


94-5 

22905-7 
06-8 




02-14 


' 1 


62-19 






1 




18-0 




61-00 


■ 5 


61-01 


60-^,) 


61-07 


3 




24-0 


60-437 




1 4 












27-1 


59-862 


59-91 


; 7 


60-05 


00-2 


60-01 


lOGr 




29-2 


R 


59-47 


; 1 












32-1 


58-880 


58-92 


^ 


68-95 

56-6 

55-7 




59-01 


2Yt 

lb 

lb 


1-io ", 


35-1 

47- 

52- 




54-08 


! 1 


54-08 
50-71 


54-4 




1 

1 


'■ ;; 


60-6 

78-4 




49-09 


2 


i 49-10 






1 




86-9 


48-019 


4S-03 

1 


8r 


48-15 
47-53 


48-3 


48-22 
47-47 


5 
In 


1 


91-9 
95-3 


. 47-479 


47-42' 


2n 


47-42 






1 


95-6 


1 47-359 




1 










.. 


96-1 


46-651 


46-67 


! 2 


46-70 




40-81 
45-90 


2 
In 




99-5 
23003-8 




45-71 


1 


45-69 






1 


04-6 




45-13 


In 


1 




45-32 


111 


00-4 


' 43-527 


43-55 


In 


i 43-59 




43-69 


1 


„ 


tt 


10-1 



Titanium 4:!!>r,-19. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 161 

Zirconium — continued. 



Arc 


; Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 






















Reduction to 
Vacuum 




















Wave- 


length 


Inten- 


Wave-leng 


th 


Inten- 




Oscillation 






sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 








sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

1 Haschek 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 


Lolise 


A-l- 


i_ 

A 


4343-170 


4343-20 


2 


4343-23 




4343-39 


2 


1-19 


6-4 


23017-8 




42-82 


1 


42-80 






1 


„ 




20-2 


42-366 


42-40 


In 


42-42 




42-50 


2 


„ 


ji 


22-2 


41-258 


1 41-31 


6i- 


41-40 


4341-7 


41-32 


4 


j» 


*> 


28-0 




40-64 


In 


40-7 






In 


j» 


99 


31-7 




39-70 


1 


39-80 




39-74 


3Gr: 


)t 




36-4 




39-29 


1 










s» 


»» 


38-8 


37-751 


37-80 


1 


37-90 


38-2 


37-01 


4 






41-2 




36-89 


1 


36-87 


36-9 




In 


„ 


)t 


51-7 


36-473 




In 


36-54 




30-55 


InCfi? 


»> 


99 


53-6 




36-26 


1 


36-30 
34-9 






1 
In 


>> 
»> 




54-8 
62-2 


33-390 


33-45 


2 


33-59 


33-7 


33-46 


7 


1 J 




69-8 


29-695 


29-72 


2 


29-76 
27-65 




29-81 


2 
1 




»» 


89-6 
23100-8 


25-564 


25-60 


4 


25-62 


25-8 


25-63 


4 






11-8 


24-156 


24-20 


3 


24-24 
23-81 


24-2 


24-17 


2 
2 


" 


'• 


19-3 
21-3 




23-15 


1 


23-19 
22-50 




22-81 


1 
2La? 

1 




99 

99 


24-8 
26-7 
28-4 




21-63 


In 


21-62 






1 


„ 




33-0 


21-298 


21-34 


2 


21-35 
20-9 


21-1 
19-6 


21-28 
19-82 


2 
1 

In 
In 




»» 


34-7 

36- 

36-9 

42-7 


19-175 


19-22 


2 


19-24 




19-21 


1 






46-0 


17-435 


17-48 


4 


17-57 


17-5 


17-47 
15-10* 



5 


i-'is 




55-2 
68-0 




14-12 


1 


14-17 


13-0 


13-08 


1 

2 






73-2 

78-9 


12-354 


12-40 


1 


12-47 
11-02 




12-38 


1 






82-5 
90-0 


09-944 


09-98 


2 


09-99 
09-36 




09-96 


2Ce? 
1 






95-6 
98-9 




09-25 


1 


09-20 


09-4 




4 






99-6 




09-11 


1 


68-13 




09-11 


3 
1 




6-5 


23200-2 
05-4 




07-60 


1 


07-62 






1 






08-2 




07-39 


1 


07-42 






1 






09-2 




06-79 


1 


06-4 






lb 






12-6 


06-048 




1 






06-04* 


3 






16-6 


05-817 


04-89 


4 


04-92 


05-0 


04-82 


4 






17-9 
23-0 




03-60 


1 


03-60 






1 






29-9 


03-005 


03-10 


5 


0312 


03-1 


02-99 


5 




^ 


32-8 




02-76 


1 


02-80 


V 




1 






34-3 




02-00 


2 


02-10 


02-1 


01-96 


5 






38-4 




01-75 


2 


01-2 




01-21 


In 






39-9 
42-8 


00-696 


00-73 


In i 


00-76 




00-66 


-' 1 




•> 


45-5 



1908. 



* Titanium 4315-12, 4306-04. 



M 



162 



REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 









Zirconium— 


continued 










Arc 


Spectrum 






Spark Spectrum 


1 ■ 














Reduction to 
Vacuum i 

Oscillation 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-lengf 


h 


Inten- 






sity 
and 








sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Dem ar- 
ray 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


A-t- 


1 












... 


4300-04 

4298-80* 


2 

2 


M8 


6-5 


.23249-1 
55-8 








4297-00 


4297-1 











65-5 


4296-927 


4296-92 


2 






96-86 


2Ce? 






66-7 




95-38 


1 




95-5 


95-98* 


2 




» 


72-7 


94-914 


94-99 


6 


95-08 




94-98 


5 






76-7 




94-65 


1 


94-67 






1 






78-2 




93-31 


2 


93-41 


93-8 
021 


95-35 


5 
3 






85-3 
92- 


91-470 


91-57 


3 


91-64 




91-53 


3 






95-2 




91-40 


3 


91-38 




01-20* 


1 
2 


»i »» 


96-0 
97-0 


90-332 


90-38 


In 


90-41 


89-8 


90-45 
89-94 


2 

ICe? 


'» >» 


23301-4 
03-8 


89-284 


89-32 


In 


89-45 




89-33 

87-54 


2 

2 


.. 


06-5 
16-9 


86-634 


86-67 


2n 


86-78 


87-1 


86-71 
86-20* 


3 
2 


.. 


21-5 
24-2 


85-373 


85-41 


2n 


85-44 


85-7 


85-46 


InCe? 


»• %* 


28-4 




84-92 


1 


84-95 






1 




31-1 


82-326 


82-36 


8 


82-53 


82-8 


82-33 


8 






45-0 




80-50 


1 


80-51 






1 


I'i: 




55-2 


77-487 


77-52 


2 


77-60 


77-8 


77-50 


3Th? 






71-5 




76-88 


3 


76-91 




76-86 


2 






75-0 


74-884 


74-91 


3 


74-95 




74-92 


2Cr? 






85-8 


73-643 


73-09 


4 


73-80 
73-07 


74-1 


73-68 


5 
1 






92-4 
95-9 




72-42 


1 


72-48 
70-37 
69-90 
69-40 






1 

1 
1 
1 






99-3 

23410-7 

13-2 

16-0 


68-141 


68-20 


5 


68-22 


68-4 


0819 


5 






22-6 




67-46 


1 


67-55 
67-2 C 






1 

2b 






26-4 
28-1 


66-853 


66-90 
65-95 


1 
1 


66-96 




66-97 


2 






29-6 
34-9 








65-17 


65-2 


65-13 


2 






39-3 


65-041 


65-05 


1 










»» 




39-9 


64-141 


64-20 


In 


64-23 




64-33 


2 






44-4 




62-13 


1 






63-36* 


2 






49-2 


61-553 


61-63 


2 


61-65 




61>67 2 






58-7 


61-331 


61-35 
60-95 


2 
1 


61-42 


61-5 


61-47 


3 






60-0 
62-4 


58-171 


58-22 


5 


58-31 


58-5 
57-3 


58-22 


7 
1 


,, 




77-4 
82-6 


56-575 


5()-G0 


3 


56-66 




>56-67 


2 






86-3 




56-18 


1 


56-26 






1 






88-5 




55-50 


1 


55-55 


54-3 


54-55 


1 
3Cr? 






92-4 

97-7 


53-690 


63-71 


3 


53-76 
50-89 




53-76 


2 

1 


„ 


6-6 i 


23502-3 
17-9 



* Titanium 429S-80, 4295-D3, 429119, 4286-19, 4263-31. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OK THE ELEMENTS. 163 









Zirconium— 


continued 














Arc Spectram 






Spark Spectrum 






















Reduction to 
Vacuum 




















Wave-length 


Liten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 






sity 








sity 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


and 
Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 


Lohse 


and 
Cha- 
racter 


A-t- 


1 
A 








4249-55 




In 


1-17 6-6 


23525-3 




4248-38 


1 


46-50 
46-65 
44-4 






111 
In 
lb 








31-8 
42-2 
47-4 
.'■)4- 




43-71 


1 


43-74 






1 


1- 


16 ', 




57-6 




42-78 


1 


42-83 






1 








62-7 




42-20 


In 
















66-1 


4241-803 


41-83 


6 


41-98 


4242-1 


4241-99 


7 








67-7 


41-319 


41-37 


6 


41-50 




41-41 


4 








70-5 


40-454 


40-52 


8r 


40-59 


40-6 


40-57 


3 








75-3 


39-428 


39-49 


9r 


39-58 


39-7 


39-60 


6 








81-0 












37-72 


3 










91-0 


37-554 


37-59 


2 


37-57 






2 










91-8 




36-71 


3 


36-81 


36-8 


36-89 
36-37 


4 
5 










96-1 
98-5 


36-190 


36-21 


4 


36-23 






2 










99-2 


34-755 


34-79 
32-67 
32-25 


3 

In 

1 


34-89 
32-64 


35-1 
32-2 


34-90 


3 

1 
7 










23607-1 
19-2 
21-5 


31-755 


31-79 


2 


31-88 




31-88 


6 










23-8 


31-683 


30-33 


4 
In 


30-37 






1 










24-9 
32-1 


27-880 


27-94 
26-58 


10 

1 


27-98 
26-58 


28-3 


27-99 


7 

1 










45-7 
53-8 




25-70 


2 


25-67 


25-7 




1 




, 






.58-2 




25-40 


1 


25-40 






1 










59-8 




24-85 


2 


24-8 






In 






* 




62-9 




24-41 


2 


24-42 


24-5 




2 




. 






65-3 




22-61 


1 


22-67 


22-6 




2 




, 






75-3 




20-81 


2 


20-30 
20-08 


20-6 




1 
1 




; 






87-0 
89-0 




18-60 


3 


18-60 
17-45 
15-96 
15-50 
14-58 


18-7 
171 
16-1 




2 
lu 

1 
1 
3 




' 






97-9 
23704-4 
12-8 
15-4 
21-5 




14-05 


5 


13-45 

12.79 
1217 


14-3 
12-2 


14- 15 

12-95 
1217 


6 

In 

2 

7 




' 


\ 




23-3 
26-9 
30-2 
34-1 




12-06 


3 


11-50 

10-87 
10-50 


11-1 


11-58 

10-92 


1 
2 
3 
1 










34-7 
37-7 
40-2 
41-3 
43-5 




09-13 


4 


09-21 
03-30 
06-20 
05-00 


09-4 
06-2 


09-23 
06-20 


10 

1 
2 

In 


1- 


15 






50-9 
56-0 
67-8 
74-6 




01-63 


6 


01-69 


01-8 


01-71 


() 










93-4 




4199-24 


6 


4199-30 
98-5 


4199-5 
flS-2 


419934 


'I'n 






n 


•7 

» 


23806-8 
1 12-2 



164 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



ZiR::oyivM.— continued. 



Arc Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Rowland 

and 
Harrison 



419G-297 
94-925 

94-163 

91-947 
91-650 



80-834 



83-472 
82-722 

79-964 



71-625 
69-503 

66-509 

61-352 

56-383 

52-793 

51-123 
49-443 

46-038 

40-161 



Exner 

and 

Hasehek 



4194-95 



87-69 

83-49 
81-09 



66-58 



61-40 
60-06 



56-40 



52-83 
52-46 
51-18 
49-35 



Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



3 
4 

2 

1 

2 

5 
2 



4 
5 

3n 
3 



4 

2ii 

4 

8 



In 



Spark Spectrum 



Wave-length 



Exner 

and 

Hasehek 



4197-95 
96-50 
96-32 
95-00 
94-66 
94-20 
92-30 
92-03 
91-75 
87-80 
87-30 
86-89 
86-25 
84-62 
83-51 
82-75 
81-13 
80-08 
77-75 
74-56 
73-36 
71-65 
70-75 
69-55 
68-90 
68-40 
67-88 
67-30 
66-60 
65-80 
65-55 

63-6 

62-60 

61-48 

69-77 
5910 
57-93 
56-49 
55-30 
53-96 
52-87 

51-23 
49-43 

47-53 



Demar- 
?ay 


Lohse 


4196-6 


4196-43 


95-1 


95-00 




94-23 


! 91-9 


92-01 




91-77 


' 87-7 

1 


87-r)7 


87-0 


86-83 


83-5 


83-43 


80-2 


79-93 


71-6 


71 -(iS 


69-6 


69-49 



66-6 



61-4 



56-7 

53-8 
52-9 

51-0 
49-6 



66-51 
63-98 
61-45 

56-49 

52-89 

51-18 
49-45 
47-94 







46-12 


45-30 






43-39 


43-4 




40-18 


40-5 


40-22 


37-20 







Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 



In 

3Ce? 

1 

5 
1 
2 

1 

2 

3 

6 

1 

6Cc? 

1 

1 

3 

In 

In 

8 

In 

1 

1 

3U? 

In 

2 

In 

In 

In 

In 

5 

In 

In 

In 

In 

1 

9 

1 
1 
1 
8 
1 
1 
3La? 

7 

14 

2 

1 

In 
In 

1 i 
2b 
1 



Reduction to 
Vacuum 



\ + 



1-15 



1 

A 

6-7 



Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



23814-4 
22-9 
23-8 
31-4 
33-1 
35-8 
46-5 
48-3 
49-9 
72-6 
75-0 
77-6 
81-0 
90-3 
96-9 

23901-0 
10-4 
16-8 
29-6 
47-9 
54-8 
64-7 
69-8 
76-9 
80-4 
83-3 
86-3 
89-6 
93-9 
98-3 
99-7 

24008-8 
11-0 
16-7 
23-5 
31-4 
32-9 
37-0 
43-7 
52-3 
58-9 
66-7 
73-2 
75-4 
82-9 
93-1 

24101-7 
03-9 
12-4 
16-9 
28-0 
46-7 
64-1 I 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTBA OF THE ELEMENTS. 165 



Z I RCON I u M — continued. 



Ate 


Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 






















T<orln/'f.i An trt 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-leng 


th 


Inten- 


Vacuum 






sity 
and 








sity 
and 














Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 
Qay 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


A-H 


1_ 

A 


4135-830 


4135-86 


4 


4135-85 
34-46 
33-91 
33-16 
32-14 
31-50 
30-63 


4135-9 
34-4 

32-2 


4135-88 
33-19 


2 
2 

InCe? 


114 

i-'i3 


6-8 


28-127 




1 


28-08 
23-53 

22-70 

21-87 


28-0 
23-7 


28-08 


2aV? 






21-603 


21-61 


5 


21-68 


21-8 


21-55 


5Ce? 






20-311 




1 


20-38 




20-32 


2 








20-00 


2 


19-99 


19-9 


19-92 
19-38 
14-55 


2Ce; 

2 

2 


* 




13-117 




1 




11-7 


12-84 
1219 


2 

2 






10-803 




1 


10-84 




10-85 


2 






10-197 




1 


10-29 


10-1 


10-19 


3 






08-546 


08-55 


3 


08-60 


08-5 


08-59 


3Th; 






07-692 


07-69 


3 


07-75 
02-7 


07-7 
03-5 


07-73 


3 

1 
lb 






4099-460 


4099-47 


2 


4099-50 


4099-3 


4099-52 


2 




6-9 


96-783 


96-77 


2 


96-80 
96-33 


96-5 


96-85 


4 
1 






94-418 


94-45 


2 


94-42 


94-3 


94-48 


2 






93-313 


93-32 


2 


93-32 




93-40 


2 


1-12 




90-945 


90-98 


3 


91-00 




90-97 


13 
J 6 






90-664 


90-69 


5 


90-70 


90-7 


90-68 








88-34 


1 


88-3 






In 


„ 




87-838 


87-85 


2 


87-88 


87-8 


87-88 


2 




^^ 


85-840 


85-83 


3 


85-89 


85-9 


85-91 


4 




>> 


84-452 


84-47 


3 


84-50 


84-3 


84-48 


3 






83-241 


83-25 


2 


83-29 


830 


83-28 


2Ce? 


,, 




82-441 


82-46 


2 


82-45 




82-51 
81-98 


2 
2 






81-361 


81-40 


10 


81-48 
80-64 
80-3 


81-3 


81-38 


7 
1 
In 






78-457 


78-48 


4 


78-49 


78-1 


78-51 


3 






77-201 




2 


77-27 




77-25 


3 






76-678 


76-70 


3 


76-70 
75-20 


76-6 


76-74 
75-14 


3 
4 


" 




75-072 


75-10 


4 


75-09 


74-9 




4 






72-842 


72-89 


9 


72-90 


72-8 


72-89 


7 


", 




71-242 

1 


71-25 


2 


71-30 
69-73 


70-9 


71-26 


3 

1 






68-872 


68-87 


2 


68-90 
68-10 
65-37 


68-8 


68-93 


2Ce? 

1 
1 







Oscillation 

Frequency 

in Vacuo 



24172-0 
80-2 
83-4 
87-7 
93-7 
97-5 

24202-6 
17-5 
44-3 
49-1 
64-0 
55-5 
63-1 
64-7 
68-7 
97-2 

24305-7 
07-3 
11-1 
19-2 
22-8 
32-5 
37-6 
62-6 
67-4 
86-4 

24402-4 
05-2 
16-4 
23-0 
37-2 
38-9 
52-9 
55-8 
67-7 
76-0 
83-3 
88-2 
90-9 
94-5 
99-1 

24501-1 
12-0 
19-5 
22-7 
320 
32-4 
45-7 
55-5 
64-8 
69-8 
74-6 
91-1 



166 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 









Zirconium— 


continued 














Arc 


Spectrum 






Spark Spectrum 






















Reduction to 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 






sity 
and 








sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demav- 
Qay 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


X + 


1_ 

A 




4064-303 


4064-34 


7 


4064-38 


4064-1 


4064-31 


7 


1-12 


6-0 


24597-4 




63-49 


In 


63-47 
62-83 






1 
1 


, 








24602-6 
06-5 


61-678 


61-70 


4 


61-70 


61-5 


61-66 


4 










13-5 


60-730 


60-75 


2 


60-78 




60-72 


2 










191 










60-4 


60-32 


3 

2 








21-2 
21-7 


60-233 


60-25 


2 


60-25" 
59-37 






1 
In 










22-2 
27-5 


58-771 


58-83 


2 


58-78 
58-30 


58-4 


58-80 


2 
1 










30-9 
34-0 


67-984 




2 






67-94 


2 










36-0 


56-655 


56-65 


1 


56-65 




66.60 


2 










44-0 


55-851 


55-88 


4 


55-90 


55-6 


65-84 


5 










48-7 


55-173 


55-20 


5 


55-20 


64-9 


55-16 


5 


1-' 


11 






52-9 


64-681 


54-60 


3 


54-60 
53-3 




64-64 


2 
In 










56-6 
64-4 








52-9 






In 




» > 




66-8 




50-67 


3 












7 


-0 


80-3 


50-467 


50-51 


3 


50-52 


60-4 


60-46 


7 




' » 




81-4 


49-71G 




5 












t » 




86-1 


48-813 


48-80 


6 


48-93 
48-15 


48-7 


48-78 


9 
In 






> 




91-5 
95-6 


45-972 


46-26 


2 


46-3 






In 








24708-1 


45-758 


45-78 


5 


45-90 


45-6 


45-92 


8Ce? 








09-7 




44-73 


5 


44-80 


44-6 


44-76 


4 








16-3 


43-722 


43-71 


5 


43-80 


43-5 


43-78 


4 








22-6 


42-373 


42-39 


3 


42-49 


42-1 


42-45 


3 








30-6 


41-789 


41-80 


2 


41-90 


41-7 


41-82 


2 








34-3 


40-388 


40-40 


2 


40-49 
39-7 
38-35 
36-70 


40-3 
39-3 


40-46 


3 

lb 
In 

1 








42-8 
48-5 
66-6 
66-7 


3G-039 


36-03 


5 


36-10 
35-01 


35-9 


36-10 


4 

1 








69-6 
76-1 


34-231 


34-24 


3 


34-30 
33-8 


34-0 


34-34 


3 
In 








80-6 
83-5 


32-211 




111 




32-1 


32-25 


2 








93-2 


32197 




4 
















93-4 


31-497 


30-87 


1 
2 


31-57 
30-87 


31-1 


31.58 


2Ce? 

1 

2 








97-4 

24800-1 

01-5 


30-188 


30-20 


4 


30-26 




30-21 


3 








05-5 


39-821 


29-81 


5 


29-88 


29-8 


29-85 


7 








07-9 




29-08 


4 


29-17 


29-1 


29-19 


3 








12-1 


28-099 




3 
















18-6 


27-350 


27-35 


5 


27-40 


27-2 


27-42 


5 








23-0 


25-060 


25-07 


5 


25-16 




2613 


3 








371 


24-il83 


24-/-.7 


3 


24-70 


24-9 


24-66 


8 








40-0 




24-14 


5 


24-20 


24-1 


24-20 


6 








42-8 




23-45 


1 


23-47 






1 








47-2 




23-20 


1 


23-22 






1 








48-1 








22-6 






In 






> 




61-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE 


SPECTRA 


OF THE ELEMENTS. JO/ 




ZiECONiUM — contimied. 




Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Ttprlnpf.inn fn 


Oscillation 
frequency 
in Vacuo 


Wave-length 

1 


Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
suy 
and 
Cha- 
racter 

In 


Vacuum 


Eowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 
?ay 


Lohse 


\ + 


1 








4021-15 




1-11 


7-0 


24861-5 




4020-44 


1 


20-51 1 


4020-6 




1 




»» 


65-7 


4018-520 


18-50 


2 


18-60 


18-4 


4018-56 


5 




>» 


77-6 




18-25 


1 


17-49 






2u 




79-5 
84-2 




17-10 


3 


1716 


17-0 




4 






86-4 








16-10 






1 






92-8 








13-99 ; 






1 


1-10 




24905-9 


12-395 


12-41 


4 


12-48 


12-2 




4 






15-6 








10-96 


10-7 




1 






24-8 




09-64 


1 


09-56 


09-0 




1 






33-5 




07-73 


4 


07-80 


07-6 




4 






44-6 




05-00 


2ii 


05-02 


04-8 




2n 
4 






61-7 
63-0 




04.54 


o 

tu 


04-51 






■2 






64-8 




03-22 


3 


03-28 


03-2 




3 


,, 


7'1 


72-6 




02-69 


3 


02-68 






2 






76-1 




01-33 


2 


01-37 






1 






84-5 




01-23 


2 


01-21 


01-1 




2 






85-3 




3999-09 


3 


3999-18 


3999-1 




14 


„ 




98-3 




98-81 


1 


96-98 
94-20 
93-23 






1 
1 

1 






25000-4 
11-8 
28-8 
35-3 




92-59 


In 


92-6 






2n 






39-3 




92-18 


In 


92-2 






In 






41-9 


3991-268 


91-25 


6 


91-31 


91-3 




14 






47-5 




89-62 


3 


89-65 


89-5 




3 






57-8 




89-39 


o 


89-39 


89-5 




3 






59-4 




88-79 


2 


88-80 
88-31 


88-8 




2 
I 






63-1 
66-2 




87-95 


1 


87-94 
87-4 






1 
In 






68-5 
71-9 




86-95 


1 


86-96 
86-22 


86-7 




1 

1 




9« 


74-9 
79-3 




84-87 


3 


84-90 
84-15 
83-45 


84-8 


3 

1 
1 






87-7 
92-3 
96-8 


82-304 


82-28 


2 


82-30 

82-20 


82-0 


2 
3 






25104-0 
04-7 


81-726 


81-70 


8ii 


81-79 

79-7 


81-7 


4 
In 






07-6 
20-4 


79-374 




3 


79-50 




In 






221 




78-85 


2 


78-86 


78-7 


2 




1 

1 " 


25-8 




78-37 


1 


78-35 




2 




.. 


28-9 




77-60 


3 


77-60 


77-6 


3 






33-7 


77-421 


77-48 


2 




! 






34-8 




76-34 


1 


76-30 76-2 


1 






41-8 


75-434 


75-43 


4 


75-47 


75-3 


4 


1 -09 


,, 


47-3 








74-97 


1 






50-3 








74-3 


1 


In 




t* 


54-6 




73-63 


10 


73-68 


73-7 


5 




»> 


58-7 


73-549 


: 72-46 


»> 


72-43 


72-4 




1 2 




>t 


1 59-8 



16S 



REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 









ZlECONlUM- 


—continued. 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 














Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave- 


engtli 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 






i sity 
and 




sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 
<;ay 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 

In 


A + 


1_ 

A 








3971-00 






1-09 


7-1 


25175-5 








68-61C 


Ja 




2 


?» 


»» 


90-6 




3968-39 


4 


68-39 


3908-4 




6 




>» 


92-0 




66-81 


5 


t 66-80 




1 


3 






25202-1 


3966-417 




In 


65-07 


j 




1 




f» 


04-6 
13-1 




63-85 


2b 


i 63-90 

62-4 
! 61-71 
j 60-82 


63-8 

' 61-7 

1 




2n 
In 



i. 




f9 


20-7 
301 
34-5 
40-2 


58-354 


58-34 


6 


58-39 


i 58-6 




]4 




»> 


55-9 




57-53 


1 


57-50 






1 




»> 


61-3 




56-93 


1 


56-90 
55-94 




j 


2 
I 




7-2 


651 
71-2 




55-75 


1 


55-79 






In 




r» 


72-2 










54-4 


1 




f» 


81-1 




53-00 


In 


53-00 
51-96 


52-8 




1 

1 






90-0 
96-7 




51-46 


In 


51-45 


51-4 




1 




>» 


99-9 








49-7 


49-2 

47-4 




lb 
1 




>» 


25311-2 
25-9 








46-96 






1 






28-8 








46-4 


46-3 




lb 




,, 


32-0 








46-2 






lb 




>* 


33-6 








45-5 






lb 




>» 


38-1 








45-2 






lb 




j» 


40-1 








44-14 






1 




» 


46-9 




42-95 


1 


42-96 
42-09 


41-9 




1 
3 
5 




it 


54-5 
60-1 
61-3 


41-758 


41-76 


3 


41-75 

40-78 

39-8 

38-9 

38-3 


39-7 




3 
1 

lb 
lb 
lb 






62-2 
68-5 
75-1 
80-6 
84-5 


36-191 


36-21 


2 


36-28 


301 




4 


1-08 




97-8 


34-919 


34-93 


3 1 


34-99 




4 




„ 


25406-1 


34-254 


34-27 


3 


34-39 34-5 
33-8 Ca 




6 
3 




yy 


10-2 
13-5 




33-36 


1 


33-34 




2 






16-4 






1 


32-52 






In 




„ 


21-8 








31-55 


31-7 




In 




>t 


28-0 








31-07 






In 




>» 


31-2 


29-066 


29-71 


8 


29-71 


29-8 




7 




»> 


40-1 




27-59 


1 


27-60 


27-2 




2 




*f 


53-7 




26-90 


lb 


26-96 
25-8 






2n 
In 




19 


68-0 
65-3 




25-03 


1 


25-02 
24-05 
23-65 
23-27 
22-51 


23-7 




1 
2 

1 
1 
1 






70-4 
77-0 
79-3 
81-7 
86-7 


21-928 


21-99 


5 


21-99 


21-8 




5 




»l 


90-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 169 









Zirconium— 


continui'd 










Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 












Wave-length 


Inten- 


"Wave-length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 




sity 
and 




sity 
and 


1 


t requency 
in Vacuo 






1 




Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Hasohek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 
?ay 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


\ + 


1_ 


25495-4 








3921-17 






1 


1-08 7-2 








20-35 ; 




1 




»» 


25500-7 








18-25 


3918-3 




1 




yy 


14-4 








17-63 






1 


»* j >» 


18-4 




3916-77 




16-80 


16-8 




2 


t» i >» 


23-9 


3916-067 


16-10 


5 


16-16 


16-2 




8 


>» i >» 


28-2 








14-59 


14-3 




6 


»t 1 >» 


38-3 








12-3 


11-5 




2nr 
8 




99 


53-2 

58-4 








09-1 






In 




7-3 


74-0 








08-25 


08-4 
07-9 




In 

1 






79-6 
81-9 








06-30 


06-3 




1 




)> 


92-4 








03-92 






1 




rt 


25608-0 




01-64 


4 


01-70 


01-8 




In 




?» 


22-7 


00-649 




5 


00-71 
00-08 


00-9 




6 

1 






29-2 
33-2 




3898- 6 


1 


3898-72 






1 




>» 


42-3 








98-07 


98-1 




2 




j» 


46-4 


3897-798 


97-80 


1 


97-82 






2 




„ 


48-8 


96-664 


96-67 


2 


96-73 

94-52 


96-9 




3 

1 


1-07 


)* 
** 


55-5 
69-8 








94-00" 


93-9 




2 




»> 


73-2 








92-66 






1 




»f 


82-1 


92-161 


92-14 


In 


92-19 






2 


»> »» 


85-3 


91-516 


91-53 


5 


91-61 


91-6 




6 


J» 1 '» 


89-4 




90-49 


10 


90-58 
89-62 
89-47 


90-5 




7 
1 
1 




96-1 

25702-1 

03-1 




85-53 


6 


85-61 


85-8 




7 


J» 1 >> 


28-9 








82-20 


82-3 
81-2 




6 

1 




»» 
>> 


51-3 
57-9 




79-20 


2 


79-21 


3879-2 




4 




tt 


71-2 




77-70 


3 


77-78 


77-7 




7 


1 


80-6 








74-56 


74-6 
72-4 




1 

1 






25802-4 
16-5 


- 








67-2 




1 






51-2 








64-57 


64-6 




6 






68-8 




6401 


3 


64-12 


64-1 
61-2 




7 

1 






72-2 
91-4 








65-61 


55-7 




3 


106 




25928-9 








53-30 


53-4 




3 






44-5 








52-60 






1 


„ 1 „ 


49-2 




49-41 


3 


49-48 
48-83 


49-5 




•6 
In 


» 1 '». 


70-5 

74-7 




47-13 


3 


47-22 


47-2 
45-1 




6 
1 


♦» »» 


85-8 
99-8 








43-30 


43-3 




9 


99 )> 


26012-0 








38-49 


38-5 




5 


)* *> 


44-6 








36-98 


37-2 




12 




»» 


54-9 




36-12 


4 


36-18 


36-3 




5 




»» 


60-5 








34-00 

i 


341 
32-4 




2 
1 






75-1 
86-0 



170 



REPORTS OX THF: STATE OF SCIENCE. 



ZiECOXiUAi — cuiitiiiiied. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




sity 

and 

Cha- 

racter 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 

26092-1 


Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Hascliek 


Exner 

and 

Hascbek 


Demar- 
?ay 


Lohse 


\ + 


1_ 
\ 










3831-5 


1 


1-OC 


7-3 










30-9 




1 „ „ 


96-2 










29-3 




1 


,, ,, 


261071 








3827-05 


27-6 




3 


»» i» 


18-4 








27-40 






2 


>» 1 


»» 


20-1 








25-91 


25-6 




3 „ ! 


1 


30-3 








24-90 






2 


i 


37-2 








24-55 






2 


39-6 










23-7 




2 


>» 


45-4 




3822-53 


3 


22-60 


22-7 
20-9 




6 
1 




531 

64-5 








20-00 


20-0 




1 


«» 


»> 


70-7 








18-90 


18-0 




1 
9 




7-4 


78-2 
84-3 








17-80 






6 


** 


y» 


85-7 








16-86 


17-0 




2 




t> 


921 








15-18 


15-3 




3 


jt 


f* 


26203-7 








14-15 


14-4 




1 


*> 




10-8 








09-85 


10-0 




2 


,, 


40-3 








08-38 


08-8 




3 !! 


tt 


50-5 








07-55 


07-7 




3 


99 


56-2 










06-5 




2 


»» 


»» 


63-4 










01-5 




3 




98-0 








00-91 






6 


,, 


26302-2 








3796-71 


3797-1 




9 


,, 


31-2 








93-53 






!> 

^ >» 


9* 


53-3 








92-55 


02-7 




4 1-05 


99 


50-1 




3791-53 


4 


91-60 


91-8 


6 


., 


67-0 








90-13 ! 90-5 


1 


19 


76-9 








88-8 


1 




86-2 








1 87-4 




2 1 „ 


»» 


95-9 








86-80 


85-5 
84-8 




6 ' „ 

2 

5 




26400-1 
09-2 
14-1 








82-97 


83-4 




5 


„ 


26.9 








82-48 


S2-7 




4 


, 


t» 


30-3 








81-80 






1 


,, 


»» 


. 35-0 




80-71 


8 


80-78 
77-82 
76-17 
75-61 
74-75 
74-25 
73-7 


31-1 




6 
1 

In 
In 

1 
1 
In 


1 „ 
1-04 

1 " 

1 " 
99 


99 

>9 


42-4 
62-9 
74-5 
78-4 
84-4 
87-9 
91-8 








72-29 


72-6 




6 


?1 


»» 


26501-7 




* 




71-53 
1 68-05 


68-3 




1 
3 


7-5 


06-9 
31-4 




66-85 


4 


' 66-99 
65-33 


67-3 




10 
1 


•• 


39-3 
50-6 




4-52 


4 


64-60 
62-70 


64-9 




1 




560 
69-2 








6110 


61-4 




2n 


** 


80'0 








59-3 






In 


i .. 


' »• 


93-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 171 









ZlKCONIUM— 


-cffntimwd 










Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 













Reduction to 
Vacuum 










Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 




sity 
and 






sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


1 












Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Deraar- 
98-7 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


A.+ 












3758-40 






1 


104 


7-5 


26599-6 








57-99 


3758-2 




5 


f9 


t> 


26602-5 






57-10 






1 


»» 


*t 


08-8 






56-42 


56-7 




1 


99 1 J> 


13-6 






54-95 






2 


1 


24-0 




1 


54-25 






In 


>. ' „ 


29-0 




3751-79 


3 


51-85 

50-87 

48-07 

46-18 

4616 

44-7 

44-2 

42-4 

42-0 


52-0 
51-0 

46-4 




12 
3 
In 

11 
1 

In 
In 
2b 
lb 


" i " 

" 1 " 
j> t »» 

»» 99 
99 »» 

J> »» 
>> 1 99 


46-2 
63-0 
72-9 
86-4 
93-6 
96-9 
26700-5 
13-3 
16-2 








40-50 






1 


99 




26-9 








39-95 






1 


99 




30-8 








39-6 


39-3 




1 


99 




33-3 








38-32 


38-3 




4 


»» 




42-6 




37-55 


2 


37-54 

36-70 

35-75 

33-93 

33-48 

31-50 

30-61 

29-98* 

28-83 


37-6 

31-4 
29-7 




2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
6 
1 
4 
1 


1-03 

99 

99 

J» 
»» 

)* 
99 


>> 


48-0 
54-1 
60-9 
73-9 
77-2 
91-4 
97-8 
26802-3 
10-6 






27-90 


27-7 




8 


99 


f'c 


17-2 








26-80 


26-9 




1 


,, 


" 


25-2 








24-94 


24-8 




1 


1 


38-6 








24-2 


24-2 




In 


>» *» 


43-9 








23-40 


22-8 




1 

1 


„ 


49-7 
54-0 








21-86 






2 


99 99 


60-7 


1 






19-46 






1 


99 99 


78-1 








19-02 


18-5 




5 


'> »» 


81-2 








17-94 


17-5 




1 


»J 99 


89-0 








17-18 






1 


,, ,, 


94-5 




16-23 


In 


16-23 


16-2 




1 


1 


26901-4 




14-92 


In 


14-99 


14-8 




8 


", ", 10-6 




14-29 


4 


14-30 
13-13 
1215 
11-85 
11-2 


14-0 




2 

in 

2 

In 

In 


16-4 
23-8 
31-0 
331 
37-9 








09-61 


09-4 




11 


50-1 




06-80 


3 


06-79 
05-70 


06-6 




5 

1 


69-6 
77-8 






05-58 






1 


78-7 








05-0 






lb 


» 


»f 


82-9 j 



• Titanium 3729-97. 



172 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Zirconium — contimied. 



Arc Spectrum 






Spark Spectrum 
















Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 






sity 
and 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 














Eowland 

and 
Harrison 


liixner 

and 

Hascliek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Hascliek 


Demar- 
(•ay 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


\ + 


1_ 

A 


26992-4 








3703-71 




1 


1-03 


7-6 








03-0 






lb 






97-5 








02-05 






In 






27004-5 








01-30 






2 






09-9 










3701-lt 




2 






11-4 








00-82 


X 




In 






13-4 








3699-90 


3699-5 




1 






20-2 




3698-32 


3 


98-41 


98-4 




11 






31-3 


3697-603 


97-63 


2 


97-70 


97-5 




5 


1-02 




36-6 


96-430 




1 


94-6 

94-00 

92-75 


93-8 




2n 
3n 

1 






45-5 
58-9 
63-3 
72-5 


91-530 




8 


87-22 


87-4 




1 






81-4 
27113-1 








841 






lb 




» 


36-1 










83-6§ 




2 




7-7 


39-7 








82-81 






2 






45-5 








82-32 


82-2 




2 






49-1 


80-674 


80-53 


4 


80-54 
79-80 
79-10 
75-90 


79-0 




1 
1 
7 
1 






61-9 
67-7 
72-9 
96-5 


74-850 


74-84 


3 


74-98 
72-81 


74-8 
72-6 




10 
2 






27203-7 
19-3 


71-410 


71-40 


2 


71-49 
69-2 


71-3 




9 
In 


" 




29-6 
46-2 




68-55 


] 


68-69 


68-6 




6 


„ 




50-5 








67-53 


67-6 




2 






58-6 








67-20 






2 






61-1 








65-98 






1 






70-1 








65-51 






1 






73-6 








65-20 






1 






75-9 


63-784 


63-79 


8 


63-81 


63-8 




7 






86-4 








62-32 


62-2 




6 






97-4 








61-49 
61-40 


i 61-3 




(3 
13 






27303-6 
04-3 




61-33 


3 


61-10 

58-7 






2 
In 






04-8 
06-5 
24-4 


58-290 




In 


58-5 


57-4 




In 

1 


1-01 




27-5 
341 




57-00 


2 


57-01 






1 


'* 




371 








55-72 


55-8 
55-1 
53.5 
52-2 




5 
1 
1 
1 






46-7 
51-3 
63-3 
73-1 








51-65 


51-5 




3 






77-2 








50-90 


50-7 


6 






82-8 








49-30 




1 






94-8 








48-55 






I 






27400-4 



•[• Ru 3701 ■!. 



X Ell 3701-1. 



§ Pb 3683-6. 



OS WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OP 


THE SPECTRA 


OF THE ELEMENTS. 17y 




Zirconium — continued. 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Keduc 


inn to 












Vacuum 1 




Wave-lengtli 


Inten- 


Wave length 


Inten- 






Oscillation 




sity 




sity 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 




and 






and 






Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haachek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 
Haschek 

3647-08 


Dcmar- 


Lolise 


Cha- 
racter 


A-l- 


1_ 


27411-5 












1 


1-01 


7-7 








45-04 




1 






26-8 








44-54 


3644-4 




2 






30-6 


1 




40-67 j 






1 






59-8 




3638-83 


1 


38-87 






1 




7-8 


73-4 


3636-601 


36-57 


2 


36-69 


36-3 




6 






90-3 


34-298 


34-28 


3 


34-33 


34-1 




4 






27507-6 








33-70 


33-5 




7 






12-3 








32-52 






1 






21-3 








32-23 






1 


.. 




23-5 








31-64 






1 


)> 




28-0 


30-169 


30-20 


2 


30-30 
29-20 

27-7 


301 

28-8* 





2 
4 
In 






38-7 
46-5 
49-5 
57-9 








26-6 






In 






66-6 








25-57 






1 






74-1 


24-005 


24-02 


6 


24-10 
22-0 


23-8 




6 
lb 






85-7 
27601-3 








21-65 


21-5 




2n 






03-9 








20-08 






1 






15-9 








18-96 






2 






24-4 








18-61 


18-3 




2 






27-1 








17-02 






1 


1-00 




39-3 








16-90 






1 






40-2 


14-925 


14-92 


5 


15-09 


14-9 




10 






54-9 




13-84 


2 


13-88 


13-6 




2 






63-4 


13-247 


13-26 


4 


13-30 


13-1 




7 






68-0 








12-61 


12-4 




2 






73-0 


12-042 


12-05 


2 


12-13 


12-0 




10 






77-1 








09-8 


09-8 




lb 






94-6 








08-47 






1 






27704-8 




07-50 


2 


07-60 
06-06 


07-3 




7 
1 






11-8 
23-3 








05-6 






lb 






26-8 








04-92 


05-0 




1 






32-1 








03-95 






In 






39-5 








02-97 






1 






47-1 








02-57 






1 






50-2 


01-331 


01-37 


7 


01-40 


01-2 




7 






59-4 








00-11 


000 




7 






69-1 








3599-55 


3599-4 


• 


2 






73-4 








99-2 






In 






76-9 






97-60 


97-6 




In 






88-5 






96-45 






In 






97-4 






94-35 






In 




7-9 


27813-5 








93-80 






1 






17-9 






93-31 


93-2 




1 






21-6 






91-87 


90-8 




1 
1 






32-7 
41-0 






1 


88-96 






2 






55-3 



♦ Ir 3628-8. 



174 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



ZiHCONiUM — contimwd. 



Arc Spectrum 






Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 






sity 
And 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 








, 






Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 

vay 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 

3 


\ + 


1_ 










3588-51 


3588-3 




100 


7-9 


27878-8 




3588-07 


3 


88-19 
87-12 


88-0 




6 
In 






61-6 
69-6 




86-40 


3 


86-42 


86-3 




6 




,, 


76-1 








85-70 


1 


1 




if 


80-7 








82-30 


82-0 




3 






27907-1 








81-36 






1 


" 


,, 


14-4 








80-65 


80-8 




1 




,, 


20-0 








80-11 






1 


"„ 


»» 


24-2 








78-40 


78-4 




6 




»» 


37-5 




77-68 


2 


77-74 


77-7 




3 


0-99 


»» 


42-9 




76-95 


5 


77-10 


76-9 




10 




»» 


48-3 




75-91 


4 


75-89 


75-8 




5 




11 


57-1 




73-24 


2 


73-30 


73-1 




4 




,, 


77-7 


3572-606 


72-60 


9 


72-70 
70-25 


72-6 




12 

1 




»» 

>» 


82-6 
28001-3 








69-50 




1 






07-2 








69-18 




1 


„ 




09-7 




69-00 


2 


69-03 
68-32 
67-46 


69-0 
68-3 


3 
3 
1 






100 
16-5 
23-2 




66-25 


5 


66-30 


66-2 


6 




,, 


32-6 




65-50 


2 


65-61 
64-33 
63-9 

62-66 
61-81 
61-37 

60-37 


65-5 
64-2 

63-1 

61-8 

()0-9 


(i 
1 
la 

1 
1 
2 

1 
1 

1 




»» 
/» 


38-2 
47-7 
49-0 
55-0 
61-0 
67-7 
71-2 
74-9 
79-1 




59-10 


3 


59-13 


59-3 i 


2 




)i 


89-0 


58-944 




1 




' 






,, 


90-3 


56-744 


56-75 


6 


56-89 
5-70 
54-31 
53-54 
52-91 


56-9 
55-3 
54-3 
53-5 


13 
1 
6 

1 

1 




99 


28107-3 
16-0 
27-0 
33-0 
38-0 


52093 


52-12 


5 


52-20 


52-2 


10 




99 


44-2 




50-61 


4 


50-67 


50-7 


4 




8-0 


55-9 




49-90 


4 


49-90 
49-73 
48-60 


50-0 
48-8 


5n 

3 

3n 






61-8 
63-1 
72-1 




47-82 


8 


47-90 
46-3 


48-2 


3 

lb 




?» 
)» 


78-0 
90-4 




42-75 


3 


42-87 
40-05 
39-17 
38-31 


43- 1 
39-6 
37--. 


10 

1 
3 

1 
2 


o-'m 




28218-2 
40-2 
47-2 
54-1 
610 






37-11 


37 -1 


.-! 




,, 


(i3-7 




1 




30-8 




In 




„ 


()6-l 




1 

1 




35-67 


36-1 


1 


2 




,. 


75- 1 \ 



ON A\'AVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF 'J'HE ELEMENTS. 175 









ZlECONIUM — 


eontinued. 








Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 




1 








Beduction to 

Vacuum 














Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 






Oscillation 




sity 
and 




sity 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 




. 












Eowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 

cay 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


A + 


1_ 

A 






3535-31 


2 


3535-30 


3535-5 




2 


0-98 


8 


28278-1 




33-37 


3 


33-35 


33-8 




4 






93-7 








31-00 


31-5 




6 


' 




28312-6 




30-37 


2u 


30-35 
30-17 
27-58 


30-8 

28-2 




3 
2 

6 


" 




17-7 
19-2 
40-0 




25-95 


2 


26-00 
24-69 
24-38 
23-78 
23-20 
22-35 


26-5 




6 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


" 




52-9 
63-3 
65-8 
70-6 
75-3 
82-1 








21-01 


21-6 




4 






92-9 








20-45 


20-5 




5 






97-4 


3519-736 


19-75 


7 


19-80 
18-9 






3 

In 






284030 
10-0 








18-4 






In 


„ 




14-0 








17-56 






1 






20-8 








14-79 


14-4 




3 






43-2 








12-81 






2 






59-2 








12-50 






1 






61-7 








11-70 


11-7 




2 






68-2 




10-60 


2 


10-61 


10-9 




4 






77-1 




09-49 


3 


09-48 


10-0 




3 




8-1 


86-1 










08-7' 




3 






92-5 








07-80 


07-3 




3 
3 






99-8 
28503-9 








06-66 


06-9 




2 






09-1 








06-23 






2 






12-6 


05-813 


05-83 


4 


05-88 






4 






15-7 


05-582 


05-C6 


2 


05-67 






5 






17-4 








03-3 


03-4 




In 






36-0 


- 






02-2 


02-2 




In 






45-4 




01-65 


1 


01-67 


01-9 




1 






49-8 




01-53 


1 


01-50 






1 






510 








00-31 






3 






60-8 


3499-727 


3499-74 


1 


3499-78 






4 






65-4 








98-00 






8 


0-97 




79-7 








97-21 






1 






86-1 


96-343 


96-38 


9 


96-40 






20 






93-0 








94-3 






lb 






28609-9 








93-46 






1 






16-8 








92-8 






In 






22-2 








87-1 






In 






09-0 








85-48 






3 






82-4 




84-98 Cy 1 


84-8 






In 






86-5 


83-679 


83-ti8 


3r 


83-70 






7 






97-1 




83-16 


2 


83-17 






1 






28701-4 


82-949 


82-95 


3 


82-96 






1 






03-2 


81-300 


81-30 


4r 


81-36 






10 






16-6 




80-55 


2 


80-59 






3 






22-8 




79-54 


4r 


79-58 






10 






31-2 




79-17 


2 


79-19 






3 






34-3 



176 



HEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 









Zirconium— 


-continued. 








Arc 


Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 
















Ttpflnptiion to 














Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 






Oscillation 






sity 
and 




sity 
and 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Rowland 

and 
Harrison 

3478-929 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Domar- 

vay 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


A-t- 


1_ 

A 




3478-94 


3 


0-97 


8-1 


28736-2 




78-64 


1 


3478-68 






2 




>» 


38-6 


78-455 


78-45 


2 


78-45 

77-8 
76-1 






2 

In 

In 






40-3 
45-7 
59-8 








75-60 






1 


>i 


»> 


63-9 




73-05 


1 


73-02 






1 




f f 


85-1 








72-53 






1 




9t 


89-4 


71-329 


71-33 


4 


71-31 






4 




ff 


99-4 




70-10 


1 


70-10 






3 




8-2 


28809-4 




69-25 


1 


69-18 
66-6 






1 
In 




♦ » 


16-8 
38-5 




65-76 


1 


65-76 
65-3 






1 
lb 


" 




45-5 
49-3 


63-106 


63-16 


3 


63-23 






12 




>* 


67-0 




61-80* 


1 












.. 


78-5 


61-244 


61-25 


3 


61-22 






2 




»l 


83-2 








60-10 






3 




„ 


91-7 


59-083 


59-08 


2 


59-10 






5 




»» 


28901-2 


67-715 


57-71 


3 


57-75 






e, 


0-96 


>♦ 


12-0 


57-340 


57-34 


2 


57-30 






1 




)* 


15-9 


56-056 


56-00 


3 


56-02 






2 




»» 


26-7 


1 


54-71 


1 


54-71 






3 




9* 


37-8 




53-67t 


1 












»» 


46-5 




50-07 


1 


50-03 






I 




»» 


76-9 


47-514 


47-50 


4 


47-45 






3 




»» 


98-5 


46-770 


46-75 


3 


46-71 






2 




>» 


29004-7 




43-72 


1 


43-69 






3 




»» 


30-3 








42-72 






1 




yf 


38-6 








41-8 






In 




>» 


46-4 








41-12 






1 




» 


521 




40-77 


2 


40-70 






1 




>» 


55-3 




40-59 


O 


4()-54 






2 




)» 


56-8 


38-381 


38-41 


7 


38-39 






15 




** 


75-2 


37-291 


37-27 


3 


37-30 






4 




9f 


84-0 








34-9 






lb 




ft 


29104-7 




3405 


1 


34-08 






4 




39 


11-8 




32-56 


1 


32-59 






4 




8-3 


24-3 




31-74 


1 


31-71 






3 




t> 


31-6 


30-683 


30-70 
30-46 


4 
1 


30-73 
27-23 






10 

2 




It 


40-3 
42-3 

69-8 


24-978 


24-95 


2 


25-02 
24-0 






3 
2b 




»» 


89-0 
97-3 








21-6 






In 




»» 


29217-8 








21-05 






1 




»» 


22-5 


19-813 


19-78 


o 


19-76 






1 




>» 


33-3 




19-24 


i 


19-22 






3 




»> 


38-0 








16-80 






1 


0-95 


>9 


59-5 




14-89 


2 


14-87 






6 




»* 


75-5 


14-8] r, 


U-82 


2 












»» 


75-8 



* Ni 3461-80. 



t Co 3453-67. 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 177 



ZmcoNiVM— continued. 



1908. 



Arc 


Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave- 


length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 






sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Rowland 

and 
Harrison 

1 _ _ 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 


Lohse 


A-l- 
0-95 


1_ 

A 

8-3 


3413-60 


1 


3413-55 




3 


29286-9 








12-0 






lb 


ft 




29300-0 


3410-405 


10-41 


5 


10-44 






8 






13-6 


10-366 






08-90 






1 


ft 




14-1 
26-0 


08-235 


08-20 


4 


08-23 






5 






32 6 


07-627 




In 










** 




37-7 


04-987 


04-98 


4 


05-03 






6 






60-3 


03-840 


03-83 


2 


03-89 






4 






70-2 


03-011 


03-02 


3 


03-10 
02-68 






4 
1 


9* 

ft 




77-2 
80-3 




01-96 


1 


01-94 






1 


" 




86-6 




3399-94 


1 


3399-95 






2 






29403-9 




99-50 


3 


99-51 






4 






07-7 


3398-997 




7 














12-1 




98-08 


1 


98-10 






2 


ft 




20-0 




96-78 


1 


96-71 






3 






31-6 


96-468 


96-48 


4 


96-51 






3 






33-9 




94-70 


1 


94-79 






2 




8'4 


48-9 


94-389 




1 














52-0 


93-268 


93-26 


5 


93-30 






4 






61-6 


92-378 


92-14 


10 


92-20 
89-95 






15 
1 


" 




70-6 
90-6 


88-371 


88-45 


6 


88-49 






5 






29504-3 


88-802 


88-03 
85-95 

83-06 


5 

1 

1 


88-07 

85-40 
84-8 






6 

1. 


99 
f9 
99 
99 




07-2 
25-4 
30-2 
35-4 
50-6 


80-060 


80-10 


1 


80-07 






1 






76-7 




78-47 


1 


78-47 






3 






90-8 


77-685 


77-57 


3 


77-61 






3 


0-94 




98-5 


76-395 


76-42 


3 


76-42 






3 






29608-8 




74-87 


3 


74-89 






5 






22-3 




73-67 


2 


73-61 
73-05 






4 

1 






33-6 

38-4 




70-85 


2 


70-73 






1 






58-2 




69-44 


1 


69-42 






2 






70-2 




68-80 


1 














79-8 




67-98 


2 


68-01 






3 






83-6 




63-99 


2 


64-00 






3 






29718-2 




62-87 


1 


62-77 

62-1 

61-35 






3 

In 
In 






28-5 
36-9 
41-5 




60-64 


2 


60-61 






1 




8-5 


47-9 




60-14 


2 


60-20 






4 . 






61-9 




57-43 


3 


67-48 






4 i 






76-0 




56-24 


4 


56-28 






4 1 






86-6 




54-55 


2 


64-59 






3 






29801-6 


53-783 


63-80 


2 


63-80 
53-3 
52-21 
61-4 






1 

lb 
1 
lb 






08-5 
12-8 
22-6 
29-8 



N 



178 



REPOKTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Zirconium — continued. 



* Ti 3:^2:J-10, 33HG0, 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 










Rpductioii to 






-- 






Vacuum 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 




sity 
and 




sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Kowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 
Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 

3350-75 


Demar- 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 

lb 


A-1- 


1_ 










0-94 


8-5 


29835-6 


3344-917 


3344-95 


5 


45-00 
44-00 






4 
2 


" 




87-3 
95-8 


40-614 


40-72 


6 


40-80 






(i 


,, 




29925-3 


38-545 


38-55 


6 


38-61 






4 


0-93 




44-6 




38-07 


1 


38-07 






2 


f» 




48-9 


34-744 


34-75 


5 


34-81 






4 


>> >< 


78-6 


34-382 


34-40 


5 


34-49 






4 




81-7 




33-70 


1 


33-75 






1 


M ,, 


88-0 




32-90 


1 


32-88 
32-08 
29-0 

27-85 






1 
1 
lb 

1 


>y » ♦ 


95-5 

30002-8 

30-5 

40-9 


26-544 




1 


27-05 






5 




51-1 




25-95 


2 










" 




58-1 




25-59 


1 


24-30 






1 




8-6 


61-3 

72-9 


23-114 


2316 


5 


23-21* 






4 






83-1 




22-47 


1 


21-51 
21-0 






2n 
lb 






89-3 
30102-8 


19-148 


19-18 


5 


19-19 






3 






19-4 


18-642 


18-67 


3 


18-70 






3 






23-9 


16-325 


16-35 


1 


16-35 






1 






45-1 


14-615 


14-65 


5 


14-70* 






4 






60-4 


13-832 


13-85 


4 


13-89 
13-02 






3 

1 


" 




67-7 
75-3 


11-482 


11-53 


2 


11-53 






3 






89-1 


10-024 


10-07 


2 


10-10 






3 






30202-3 


06-411 


06-50 


6 


06-48 













35-2 




05-32 


4 


05-33 






4 




J, 


46-6 




02-81 


1 


02-89 






3r 






68-3 




3290-55 


1 


3296-59 
95-20 






3 
1 


0-02 




30326-0 
38-6 


3288-935 


88-82 


4 


88-99 
88-52 






3 
1 




8-7 


96-5 
30400-1 




87-40 


1 


87-46 






2 


,, 




10-2 


86-025 


86-03 


2 


86-01 






4 






23-2 


84-827 


84-85 


7 


84-89 






4 






33-9 


82-969 


82-98t 
82-89 


2 

1 


83-09 






4 






51-1 
52-3 




81-85 


1 


81-5 
80-92 






lb 
2 






61-9 
70-5 


80-600 




In 














73-5 


79-399 


79-42 


7 


79-45 
79-03 
76-55 
75-80 






5 
3 
1 
1 






84-5 

88-1 

30511-1 

18-2 




75-30 


1 


75-28 
74-13 






1 

1 






22-9 
35-4 


73-168 


73-23 


6 


73-22 






8 






42-7 


72-333 


72-33 


5 


72-39 






4 






50-2 



t Ni :!282itt; 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTKA OF THE ELEMENTS. 179 






Zirconium —oontinued. 








Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 














Eeduction to 
Vacuum 














Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 






Oscillation 




sity 
and 




sity 
and 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 










Eowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschelv 

3271-27 


Cha- 
racter 

9 


Exner 

and 

Hasehek 


De>^"- Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 

3 


A-l- 

0-92 


1_ 
\ 

8-7 


■ 


3271-30 


30560-3 


3269-788 


69-81 


5 


69-81 


1 


>> 


tJ 


74-2 


64-945 


64-98 


3 


64-96 


'> 


J» 


>> 


30619-0 


60-240 


60-25 


3 


60-24 


1 


1 


9> 


>> 


63-9 








59-4 


1 
i 


lb 


0-91 


j> 


71-8 






57-8 




11. 


J' 


j> 


86-9 






56-67 




1 


»» 


ft 


97-5 








56-11 




1 


»> 


t> 


30702-8 








55-4 




In 


>> 


rt 


09-5 




54-40 


1 


54-42 




1 


,, 


y* 


18-8 








53-81 




1 


iy 


9> 


24-5 


50-563 


50-55 


5 


50-62 




4 


yy 


8-8 


54-9 


47-672 




1 


47-67 




2 


>* 


»? 


82-4 


44-108 


44-13 


1 


44-10 




1 


>J 


,, 


30816-3 




42-29 


1 


42-32 




3 


J» 


„ 


33-4 


41-171 


41-18 


5 


41-26 




4 


)5 


,, 


43-9 








37-66 




1 


if 


9t 


77-7 








36-75 




2 


tt 


J> 


86-4 




1 


36-26 




1 


,, 


»J 


91-1 


35-874 










,, 


)» 


94-8 


34-94 


1 








5» 


J7 


30903-7 


34-240 


34-26 
33-27 


1 


34-24 




2 


'• 


>7 


10-3 
19-6 




31-85 


4 


31-89 




4 


»» 


?» 


33-0 








30-0 




lb 


)» 


>y 


51-0 


■ 28-922 


28-95 
22-65 


5 

1 


29-00 
24-04 

22-19 




4 

1 

3 


)» 


• » 


60-9 

31008-2 

21-5 

2G-0 








20-80 




1 


o'go 


yy 


39-4 








18-84 




1. 


,, 


■.- 


58-3 


14-306 


14-31 


5 


14-40 




4 


'? 


S-9 


31101-7 


12-962 


12-96 
12-68 


2 
1 


1301 




o 


" 


" 


14-9 
17-8 


12-123 


1214 


4 


12-17 
11-10 




2 

1 


») 




22-9 
33-1 


08-432 


08-42 


2 


08-42 




I 


yy 


,< 


59-0 


05-016 


05-01 


2 


05-05 




1 


.y 


<> 


92-1 


04-473 




3 


04-50 
00-79 
3199-55 
97-2 




1 

1 

111 

In 




- 


97-3 

31233-4 

45-5 

08-5 


3196-.832 




1 


96-9 




In 


»' 


,. 


72-9 


94'.536 




1 


94-27 
; 93-18 




1 

1 


J' 


•• 


94-4 

971 

31307-8 


92-012 


3192-04 


5 


i 92-11 




3 


.^ 




18-9 


91-328 


91-35 


5 


91-31 

84-2 




1 
lb 


" 


" 


26-0 
96-2 


82-933 


8301 


7 


83-08 




r> 


}■* 




:!1407-8 


82-038 


82-10 


4 


82-16 




3 


9* 


,, 


^ 16-9 


j 81-69 


2 


81-79 




3 


0-80 


,. 


i , 20-4 


' Sl-171 ' h. . 


8 


81-17 




I 


>» 


»> 


1 ^ 20-0 




"~ 














X 2 



180 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OK SCIENCE. 



ZiECONiUM — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 












Vacuurn 


"Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
- sity 
and 




Oscillation 

(Frequency 

in Vacuo 




1 


1 








Eowland 

and 
Harrison 


1 Exner 
1 and 
Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 

4 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 
?ay 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


AH- 


1 

A 

1 




3178-193 


3178-18 


3178-30 






"1 
3 


0-89 


9-0 


31455-1 








77-00 






1 


19 


)» 


67-2 








75-8 






lb 


39 


' »» 


79-1 








74-9 






lb 


99 


>» 


88-1 








72-3 






lb 


99 




31513-9 


66-837 




1 


66-79 






1 


>> 


}9 


68-5 


66-375 


66-40 


4 


66-48 






2 


99 




72-4 


66-064 


66-10 


^' 


66-17 






3 


99 


5» 


75-4 


65-558 


65-60 


4 


65-68 






2 


99 


»> 


80-4 


64-411 


64-45 


7 

1 


64-54 
61-12 
59-26 






3 

Ir 

1 




»» 


91-9 

31625-4 

44-0 


67-932 


57-95 


' 5 


57-94 






1 ! „ 


)» 


57-2 


57-096 


57-13 


5 


57-19 






2 


99 


»» 


65-2 


55-780 


55-80 


5 


55-90 






3 




>» 


78-4 


49-925 

t 


48-92 


3 
2 


49-98 
49-4 






1 

lb 


J> 




31737-4 
43-0 
47-9 


1 

1 


39-94 


3 


39-96 






1 


0-88 


9-1 


31838-5 


38-764 


38-81 


7 


38-88 




' 4 




„ 


50-0 


I 37-072 

i 


37-09 
34-85 


4 


37-08 
34-85 




! 


9* 

99 


>» 
>» 


67-6 
90-3 


33-584 


33-62 


8 


33-70 




4 


>> 


99 


31902-7 


33-324 
















05-9 


32-166 


32-21 


5 


32-22 






1 


99 


»» 


17-3 




31-25 


3 


31-23 




1 




yj 


27-1 








30-75 




lu 


99 


32-1 




30-20 


1 








»* 


37-7 


29-854 


29-90 


7 


29-96 




4 




40-7 


29-275 


29-33 


7 


29-38 




4 


1 
" 1 


n 


46-6 




28-95 


1 


28-96 






1 




»> 


60-5 


26-010 


26-07 


7 


26-10 






3 


99 


)9 


80-0 


25-308 


25-35 
2212 


3 

1 


25-33 






2 1 

1 


J> 


»f 


87-5 
32020-4 


20-851 


20-90 


6 


20-90 






1 


99 


9) 


331 


19-320 


1 


1 


16-8 






lb 


99 


• > 


49-2 
75-1 




15-85 


1 


15-86 
14-15 


i 




1 

In i 


99 


>f 1 

9-2 


84-8 
32102-3 




13-65 . 


1 i 










»> 


r» 


07-4 




11-30 


1 










>J 


J J 


31-7 


10-971 


11-00 


6 


11-02 






1 


ff 




35-8 


10-645 


!■ .--r, 


1 










9* 


9f 


37-4 


09-414 ! 


09-25 

08-50 ; 


lu 
2 


09-27 






1 


99 

9* 


>» 


621 

60-7 


06-674 ' 


06-72 - 
3099-81 j 


7 

1 


06-79 






4 




»» 


79-0 
32250-8 


3099-324 


99-39 
95-95^! 


7 ; 

2 


5099-42 






3 


0-87 




55-3 
91-1 


95-435 




1 










tt 




96-4 


95-174 


95-22 


6 


95-29 






3 






98-6 ! 


94-908 


94-94 
93-46 


2 

1 






1 

1 




" 1 


.. 1 


32301-7 
17-1 i 



ox WAVE-I-ENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 181 



Zirconium — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


RpflnpfiVm to 










] 


Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 




sity 
and 




sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 
<;ay 


Lohse 


Cha- 
racter 


A + 


1_ 

A 






3092-41 


1 










0-87 


9-2 


32328-0 




90-57 


2 














47-3 




89-14 


1 














62-3 




86-57 


1 


3086-57 






In 






89-2 


3085-461 


85-49 
73-05 


2 
1 


85-5 
75-72 






lb 
1 




9-3 


32400-1 

32503-4 

31-7 


72-238 


68-91 


In 
1 


68-2 






lb 






40-2 
75-0 
83-1 


65-313 


65-34 


3 


65-34 






1 






32613-6 


64-746 


64-85 


3 


64-78 






1 






19-3 




63-74 


1 


63-8 




- 


lb 






30-5 


61-449 


61-46 


3 


61-49 






1 


0-86 




54-8 


60-218 


60-24 


4 


60-24 






1 






68-3 


* 


57-34 


2 


57-37 






1 






99-7 




57-15 


] 














32700-9 


54-927 


54-98 
52-95 
52-16 
50-91 
50-50 
49-45 
48-94 


7 
1 
1 

1 
1 
2 

1 


55-00 






4 




9-4 


24-3 
45-8 
54-3 
67-7 
72-1 
83-4 
88-9 




48-51 


1 


48-45 






In 






93-8 




48-38 


1 














94-9 




45-95 


2 














32821-1 




44-23 


1 


44-3 






In 






39-6 




43-37 


1 














48-9 




36-60 


3 














32922-3 




36-51 


3 


36-57 






3 






23-1 




31-04 


3 


31-04 






2 






32-6 




29-65 


5 


29-63 






1 






97-8 




28-17 


3 


28-18 






3 






33013-8 




27-75 


1 


26-3 






lb 




yf 


18-4 
340 




25-73 


1 


25-87 






1 






39-7 




25-29 


1 


25-25 
24-85 






In 
In 




9-5 


45-4 
50-0 








21-3 






lb 


0-85 




89-0 




20-74 


2 














95-0 




20-59 


3 


20-53 






2 






96-9 




19-96 


3 


19-96 






1 






33103-5 




18-40 


In 


18-6 






lb 






20-6 




16-90 


In 














37-1 




14-56 


1 














62-8 




13-45 


2 


13-44 






1 






75-1 




13-01 


1 














79-9 




11-90 


6 


11-88 






1 






92-2 




10-01 


1 








1 






332130 




09-71 


1 


08-24 






1 






16-3 
32-5 




05-62 1 


2 


05-6 




1 


lb 






61-5 



182 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 









ZlRCONlUM- 


- ooiitinued. 








■ Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


• Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


1 
Inten- 


"Wave-length 


1 
Inten- 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 
; Cha- 
racter 




sity 






Frequency, 
in Vacuo | 

33262-8 


Eowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 

<,'ay 


Lohse 


and 
Cha- 
racter 


A + 
0-85 


1 
9-5 




3005-50 


2 








03-88 


3 


3003-88 
00-8 






2 
lb 


•• 




80-8 
33314-0 




2990-66 


1 














27-6 1 




98-60 


I 


2998-6 






lb 






39'4 i 




98-46 


1 










)* 




41-0 i 




91-55 


1 


91-52 






In 




9-6 


33418-0 




00-26 


1 








t* 




32-3 








S9-0 






In 






46-0 




87-87 


111 


87-93 






1 






58-7 




85-52 


4 


85-53 






1 






85-5 




81-15 


3 


81-18 




2 


0-84 




33634-3 




80-97 


1 












36-5 




79-30 


3 


79-35 






2 






56-0 




78-18 


3 


78-21 






2 


** 




67-8 




76-73 


2 


76-76 






2 






84-1 




76-00 


1 


76-00 






1 






92-5 




73-80 


1 














33617-4 




73-00 


1 














26-5 




69-76 


3 


69-77 






3 




s"? 


630 




69-31 


2 














68-2 , 




69-08 


3 


69-10 






3 


'* 




70-6 




64-99 


1 














33717-2 




64-68 


1 


6t-7 






In 


a 




20-7 ! 




62-82 


3 


62-81 






2 






42-0 




61-00 


3 














62-7 




65-90 


3 


55-92 






3 






33820-8 




54-33 


1 














38-9 




53-46 


1 














48-9 




52-36 


2 


52-40 






1 






61-3 




51-60 


3 


51-66 






2 






69-9 




50-80 


1 














79-4 




49-07 


3 


49-12 






3 




■ 9 


99-0 




45-56 


1 


45-56 






1 




9-8 


33939-6 




40-85 


1 














94-0 i 




37-85 


1 


37-88 






1 


0-83 




34028-7 




36-41 


3 


36-42 






1 






45-3 1 




84-71 


3 


34-73 
31-25 






1 
In 


»» 




65-0 
34105-3 




29-70 


1 














23-4 




27-10 


3 


27-15 






4 






63-4 




25-74 


1 


25-7 






In 


" 




69-6 




24-75 


1 


24-75 






1 






81-1 ' 




23-99 


1 














34200-0 




18-37 


3 


18-39 






3 




9-9 


65-9 




16-74 


2 


16-78 






1 






74-8 i 




16-60 


I 














76-7 ' 




16-33 


1 










"^ 




79-9 


^ 


16-10 


3 


1612 






3 






82-5 




10-36 


1 


10-40 






In 


>* 


„ 


34350-0 








08-05 






In 






77-4 




07-51 


1 


07-50 






1 


„ 




83-S 




05-35 1 


2 1 


05-32 






2 


f » 




34409-5 



ox WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPEGTIU OK THE ELEMENTS. 188 



ZlECOXlUM — contimied. 



Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-lengtli 


1 
Inten- 


"Wave-length 


1 
Inten- 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Rowland 
and 


Einer 
and 


Exner 
and 


Demar- 


Lohse 


\-l- 


1_ 


Harrison 


Haschek 


Haschek 


<?ay 






\ 


34414-7 




2904-90 


1 










0-83 9-9 




04-54 


1 


1 




»* *t 


18-9 




04-42 


1 


' 




Jf J* 


20-4 




03-67 


1 


2903-75 




2n 


0-82 


28-8 




02-40 


1 


02-40 




1 


** )* 


44-3 




01-95 


I 


01-97 , 




1 


)} «t 


49-6 




01-75 


1 


10-74 1 




1 


^ 


52-1 




2898-84 


2 


2898-85 ' 




1 




86-6. 




98-40 


1 


! 






)» J» 


91-9 








95-45 i 




In 


10-0 


34520-9 




92-39 


2 


920 






lb 


?> t* 


63-5 




89-53 


1 


89-54 






1 


f > )* 


97-6 




88-15 


1 


8S-16 






1 


>* 7> 


34614-2 








86-8 i 




lu 




30-4 




84-55 


1 


84-2 




2b 


9> )» 


54-4 
61-7 




83-92 


1 


83-93 




1 




65-0 




82-22 


1 


82-23 


1 


„ 


85-4 




80-95 


1 




., 


34700-8 


77-65 


2 


77-69 1 


., 


40-3 






76-60 


I 


" »> 


53-3 


76-10 


3 






'♦ >» 


59-3 






74-3 


lb 




81-1 


72-65 


1 


72-68 


1 


", 101 


34800-8 




69-93 


3 


69-94 3 
69-26 2 


»» »» 


33-9 
42-1 




66-50 


1 


j 




it ** 


75-6 




65-73 


2 


65-77 ' 






84-8 




65-21 


1 


65-28 




«• *> 


90-9 




61-82 


1 


61-85 




0-81 


34932-5 




60-97 


1 


611 ! 




lu 




43-1 








59-7 




lb 


f ' ** 


68-6 




58-10 


1 








9> ]> 


78-2 


56-18 


1 


5C-21 






>» *> 


35001-5 


54-55 


1 


54-55 
53-8 1 




lb 


»» »> 


21-7 
30-9 


5210 


2 


5211 
51-40 






3 

In 


M 


51-7 
60-4 






50-75 






2n 


. " '* 


G8-4 






49-30 


i 1" 


*> »> 


86-2 




48-62 


2 


48-62 


1 


jj 9i 


94-7 ' 


48-27 


2 

1 


48-28 2 
46-27 1 


10-2 


98-8 
33123-5 


44-69 


3 


44-75 4 


t> >* 


42-6 


43-63 


2 


43-64 2 




56-1 


1 


39-46 


1 


39-41 


2 


,, 


35208-1 




38-15 


I 


38-13 




1 




24-1 


37-39 


3 


37-32 




1 




*l «* 


33-9 




36-61 


1 




\ 




*• »* 


43-2 








36-28 2 






47-2 




34-54 


I 


34-48 I 






69-3 




34-05 


I 


34-01 2 






75-2 , 




29-94 , 


1 












>» 


*• 1 


?5326-3 1 



184 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 









ZlBCONIITM— 


-oontinued. 








Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 














Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


■ 
Inten- 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 

In 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 

2828-00 


Demar- 


Lohse 


\ + 


1_ 












0-81 


10-2 


35350-5 




2827-65 


1 


27-64 






1 




9f 


54-9 




25-69 


3 


25-65 






3 




$9 


79-6 








24-44 






1 


0-80 




950 








22-79 






1 




10-3 


! 36415-6 




21-69 


1 












99 


1 28-2 




20-34 


1 


20-32 






1 




97 


46-5 




19-66 


1 


19'4 






lb 




9J 


55-0 




18-85 


3 


18-81 






3 




99 


65-4 




15-62 


1 










[ >) 


9> 


35505-9 




15-02 


3 


15-00 






1 


1 


99 


13-6 




11-05 


2 


11-01 






3 




99 


63-8 








09-53 






1 


„ 


99 


82-8 




08-28 


1 


08-25 






1 




99 


98-9 








08-0 






lb 




f » 


35602-2 








07-23 






1 




»» 


12-0 




06-90 


1 


06-80 






2n 




99 


16-8 




2799-25 


1 


2799-27 






2 




99 


23-4 








98-85 






In 




99 


28-7 




97-01 


2 


97-02 






2 




99 


421 




95-20 


1 












99 


66-3 




93-51 


1 












99 


87-0 




9215 


1 












t9 


35804-4 




90-26 


1 


90-27 






1 




10-4 


29-5 








89-85 






1 




99 


33-8 








89-6 






In 




99 


37-0 




86-98 


1 


87-1 






2b 




99 


70-7 








86-00 






In 




99 


83-3 




83-67 


1 


83-68 






1 


0-79 


99 


35913-3 








77-1 






lb 




99 


98-4 








76-7 






lb 




99 


36003-6 








75-38 






I 




10-5 


20-6 




74-27 


2 


74-28 






3 




99 


350 








73-47 






1 




99 


45-4 




68-86 


2 


68-88 






3 






36105-3 




63-12 


1 












Jf 


80-5 




62-01 


1 


62-01 






1 




»» 


95-0 








60-2 






lb 




>9 


36218-8 




59-59 


1 












»> 


26-8 




58-92 


3 


58-91 






3 




>» 


35-8 




54-33 


1 


54-30 




- 


1 






96-2 








53-3 






lb 






36309-6 








52-67 






In 






17-9 




62-32 


3 


52-32 






3 






22-5 




51-05 


1 - 


51-03 






I 




10-6 


39-3 








60-50 






In 




>t 


46-4 








49-94 






In 






63-8 








49-40 






In 




sy 


610 








48-90 






In 




9) 


67-6 








47-02 






1 






92-7 




45-97 


3 


45-99 






3 






36406-3 








44-55 






In 




99 


252 




42-65 


3 


42-70 






3 




99 


60-1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OK THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 185 



ZlECONiTTM — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 












' Keduction to 
! Vacuum 














"Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 




j Oscillation 




sity 




sity 




! Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Bowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


and 
Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 
?ay 


Lohse 


and 
Cha- 
racter 


\ + 


1_ 
A. 




2741-65 


2 


2741-61 






2 


0-78 


10-6 


36464-0 




40-60 


1 


40-60 






2 


>> 




77-8 




40-46 


1 


40-47 
39-8 






2 
In 


>> 


( 


79-6 
88-4 








38-84 






1 


ii 


! " 


36501-2 








38-46 






1 


i >» 




06-3 




37-95 


1 










»> 




13-0 








35-91 






3 


\ 99 




40-3 




34-92 


3 


34-99 






3 


I 




63-1 




32-80 


3 


32-80 






3 






81-9 








30-00 






1 


>9 




36619-4 








28-64 






1 


>9 




37-7 




2714 


1 


27-01 






1 


99 


10-7 


68-6 




26-60 


3 


26-61 






4 


9t 




64-9 




25-57 


1 


25-52 






1 


99 




79-2 




22-69 


3 


22-71 
21-48 






1 

2 


y> 




36717-5 
34-0 




20-44 


1 


20-46 






3 


>f 




47-9 








20-14 






3 






52-1 




18-37 


1 










»> 




76-0 




17-60 


1 










99 




86-8 








15-85 






3 


>» 




36810-2 




14-35 


2 


14-32 






3 


99 




30-7 




12-51 


2 


12-50 






3 


»> 




55-6 




11-60 


2 


11-60 






1 


99 




68-9 




09-43 


1 


09-13 






1 






97-4 
36901-5 




06-25" 


1 


06-48 






In 


JJ 




39-2 








04-80 






lb 


J» 




60-6 








03-40 






In 


J> 




79-8 


% 






01-2 






lb 


)9 


10-8 


37009-8 




00-22 


3 


00-29 






4 


99 




22-7 




2699-71 


2 


2699-70 
98-47 






2 
3 


0-77 




30-3 

47-2 




95-55 


1 


95-53 






2 


)f 




87-5 




94-16 


2 


94-16 






3 


99 




37106-5 




93-65 


2 


93-62 






3 


>» 




13-8 




93-02 


1 i 


1 








»» 




22-5 




92-73 


1 


92-71 
92-11 
90-63 




1 


2 
2 
4 


>> 




26-4 
34-8 
56-2 




89-65 


1 


89-56 






2 


ty 




70-1 




87-85 


1 


86-42 
83-46 ■ 






4 

1 


99 




93-7 
37213-5 

54-5 








82-31 




' 


6 






70-5 




81-86 


1 


81-88 ; 






1 


)y 




76-6 




78-72 


3 


78-78 j 






5 


*> 


10-9 


37319-9 








75-6 i 






lb 


>9 




63-9 








71-06 






2 






37427-4 




70-09 


1 














41-0 




69-56 


1 


69-53 






2 


f * 




48-7 




67-90 


2 


67-89 




1 


2 1 


,. 1 




72-8 



18G 



KEPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Zirconium— continved. 



Arc Spectrum 




spark Spectrum 


■r? -, j,,^i 






Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Keauctioii lo 
Vacuum 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 

1 


A + 


1 
\ 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 

37509-3 


Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Demar- 
<jay 


Lohse 






2065-23 




0-77 


10-9 








64-40 


4 






21-0 








62-58 




1 






46-6 








61-98 




1 






56-1 




2658-80 


1 


56-58 




4 






37600-0 
31-5 




50-48 


1 


50-45 




2 


0-76 


li-o 


37718-2 




47-91 


1 


47-34 
43-90 




2 
5 






54-6 

62-8 

37811-9 




43-51 


1 


43-46 

42-6 

41-48 




1 

lb 
2 




<t 


17-9 
30-5 
46-6 




39-19 


2 


39-17 


1 


3 






79-6 








38-78 






1 






85-3 




35-54 


1 


34-39 




2 






37931-9 

48-4 




30-97 


2 


30-99 




4 




li'i 


97-6 




30-55 


1 


28-32 
27-04 




4 
1 






38003-8 
36-0 
54-6 




26-52 


1 


26-51 
22-86 
21-34 
20-70 
19-29 
18-48 




1 

1 
2 
8 
In 

1 




" 


62-2 
38115-4 
37-3 
46-6 
67-5 
79-0 








16-06 1 


In 






38214-3 








15-65 


In 




,j 


20-3 








13-70 




1 






48-8 




12-27 


1 


11-99 




1 






69-8 
74-2 




09-53 


1 


09-80 
08-72 
07-08 




2 

In 

1 


0-75 


11-2 


38308-0 
21-8 
45-9 








06-43 


1 


,, 




55-5 








04-93 


In 






77-6 








04-30 


In 






86-9 








00-45 


In 






38443-7 








2599-45 


1 






58-5 








93-78 




5 






38542-6 




2589-15 


1 


89-13 




3 






38611-6 




83-74 


1 








" 


11-3 


92-9 




83-50 


1 


83-49 
74-03 




2 
1 


,9 




96-0 
38838-3 




71-52 


3 


71-50 




8 






76-4 




68-96 


2 


68-99 




7 


,, 




38914-7 




67-72 


2 


67-73 




5 


" 


li'4 


33-6 




67-64 


1 












36-4 




67-19 


1 


67-18 




2 






41-8 








68-16 


In 


U-74 




39079-3 








51-50 


1 






39181-2 




60-86 


o 


50-86 






4 


» 




91-1 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 187 









Zirconium— 


^oiitinvea 










Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


ileductiou to 
Vacuum 














Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 

39194-1 


Bowland 

and 
Harrisou 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Exner 

«uid 
Haschek 


Demar- 


Lohse 


A-l- 

0-74 


1_ 

A 

11-4 




2550-64 


1 










42-22 


2 


2542-21 




4 i 




11-5 


39324-4 




39-74 


1 










»> 


62-7 








35-28 






1 




J» 


39432-0 




32-57 


1 


32-60 




3 




>> 


73-8 




32-52 


1 


22-03 








9> 

11-6 


74-9 
39639-0 








17-00 






0-73 


f* 


39718-2 








13-15 








J» 


79-1 








12-81 








99 


84-5 








12-20 




1 




*7 


94-1 








09-25 




1 




11-7 


39840-8 




04-07 


1 


04-10 
2496-61 
95-27 
94-17 
92-27 






1 
2 
1 

1 
1 




99 

99 
99 

11-8 


39923-2 

40042-6 

64-1 

81-8 

40102-3 








87-94 




3 




99 


82-1 








85-72 




1 




>» 


40218-0 








78-67 C 




4 




>> 


40332-4 








69-30 




In 


0-72 


11-9 


40485-4 








65-51 




1 




»» 


40647-6 








64-30 






1 




9* 


67-6 1 








60-61 






1 




97 


40628-4 1 




2457-05 


1 


57-54 






6 




12-0 


84-0 




49-96 


1 


49-91 
48-92 
47-30 
44-19 






5 
6 

1 
4 






40805-5 
22-3 
49-4 

40901-4 




4210 


1 


42-07 
38-83 
34-66 
33-63 
26-48 






2 
In 
2 
1 

1 




12-1 
12-2 


36-5 

91-2 

41061-4 

78-8 
41199-7 . 








20-76 




4 


o'71 


J» 


41287-1 1 




19-51 


1 


19-51 
17-78 




3 
1 




9* 
1* 


41318-5 
48-0 








10-21 






1 




12-3 


41477-8 








06-93 






1 




99 


41534-4 








06-80 






3 




»» 


36-6 








05-91 






3 




9* 


52-0 




05-61 


1 


05-51 
00-22 
2399-08 
93-90 
93-4 
92-78 
89-63 
89-43 






1 
1 
1 
1 

In 
2 

2n 1 
2n i 




99 

12-4 

99 


68-1 

50-5 

41670-3 

41760-4 

69-2 i 

80-0 

41835-1 

38-2 1 








89-26 






1 1 




>» 


68-2 1 








88-08 






1 




>» 


64-9 ! 




2387-26 


1 


87-26 




2 




»» 


76-6 




84-25 


1 






1 


i 




,. 


41929-6 1 



188 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 









ZlBC( 


)NUIM — 


continued 











Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 












Reduction to 
Vacuum 














Wave-leDgth 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 




Oscillation 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Exner 

and 
Haschek 


Demar- 
9ay 


Lohse 


\ + 
0-71 


l_ 

A 








2383-62 




1 


12-4 


41940-6 








82-71 






1 


• » 


12-5 


56-5 








82-61 






1 


»> 


)» 


60-0 








82-15 






1 


>» 


99 


66-4 








80-4 






In 


f * 


It 


42097- 




2374-54 


1 










jy 


f » 


42100-9 




73-75 


1 










91 


9f 


14-9 




73-26 


1 










V* 




23-6 




73-04 


1 


73-02 
70-27 
63-97 
61-87 
59-2 






2 
In 

1 
1 
lb 


0-70 

1) 
99 
99 
9f 


126 

»» 
ft 


27-7 

76-8 

42289-1 

42326-7 

75- 




57-52 


1 


57-50 

63-29 

51-77 

51-28 

61-02 

47-60 

47-23 

42-45 

36-58 

31-6 

30-44 






4 
1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

In 

In 

lb 

3 


f> 

J» 
99 

99 
99 

>> 

99 


12-7 
12-8 


42405-0 
81-0 

42508-5 
17-3 
22-0 
85-8 
90-7 
77-7 

42784-8 

42876- 
97-5 








24-89 






3 


0-69 


»> 


42900-0 








24-60 






1 


9t 


12-9 


43015-2 








22-58 






1 


)J 


f> 


42-7 








22-00 






1 


99 


»t 


53-4 








17-33 






3 


>> 


>» 


43140-2 








13-53 






1 


)» 


13-0 


43211-0 








08-18 






2 


99 


»> 


43311-2 




0318 


1 


01-6 

2296-96C 

95-59 






In 

3 

3 


f9 


131 

9f 


43405-2 
35- 

43522-7 
48-7 




2294-18 


1 


94-14 






3 


ft 


J9 


75-9 




91-25 


1 


91-22 
86-73 
80-43 






3 
3 

1 


»» 
» 
»» 


13-2 

99 


43631-5 
43717-4 
43838-2 








77-27 






1 


0-68 


» 


99-0 








76-5 






In 


»y 


99 


43914- 








27-88 






In 


0-67 


13-7 


449720 








2163-81 






3 


0-66 


14-2 


46200-6 








38-70 






In 


f» 


14-4 


467430 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS, 189 



Lanthanum. 

Exner and Haschek, ' SitzuDgsb. kais. Akad. Wiss. Wien ' cviii Abth lla 
p. 1085. , . . . 

Exner and Haschek, ' Wellenlangen Tabellen der Bogenspektren der Elemente.' 

Kowland and Harrison, ' Astroph. J.' vii. p. 387 (1898). 

Lohse, ' Astroph. J.' vi. p. 106 (1897) ; 'Berlin Akad.' (1897) 

Wolff, ' Zs. wissensch. Phot.' iii. p. 395. 

Kellner, ' Das Lanthanspektrum,' Inaug. Diss. Bonn (1904) 

Kayser, ' Abh. Berl. Akad.' 

K — Observed also by Kellner. 
Ky — Observed also by Kayser. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 






Wave-length 


, Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 


t 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 

1 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Kowland 

and 
Harrison 


Wolff 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Lohse 


A-l- 


1_ 

A. 


6930-330 












1-62 


4-6 


16857-9 


5874-941 






In 








' 1-60 




17016-8 


74-200 






In 












19-0 


63-902 






2 












48-9 


65-792 






1 












72-5 


48-684 






In 








1-59 




93-6 


45-243 






In 








■ • 




17103-3 


29-929 






In 






■ ' 


4"7 


48-2 


24-037 






1 






1 " 




65-5 


22-185 






1 












71-0 


08-524 






2 








1-58 




17211-4 


05-984 






2 












18-9 


5795-785 






4 












52-1 


91-539 






4 












61-9 


89-438 






6 












68-1 


69-545 






5 






1-57 




27-7 


69-285 






5 










17328-5 


62-044 


5762-040 




6 






1 ,, 




50-3 


44-625 


44-619 
43-136 




6 

2r 






» 


>> 


17402-9 
07-4 


40-871 


40-862 




6 






1-56 




14-3 


35-159 


35-152 




2n 










31-6 




27-481 




3 












65-0 


20-223 


20-222 
14-736 
14-230 




2n 
2n 
3 








9f 


4-8 


77-0 
93-8 
95-4 




12-612 


6 








9t 




17500-3 




11-014 


2a 












05-2 


03-530 


03-470 
02-765 
01-352 
00-448 
6699-584 - 
96-400 
90-615 
83-897 




1 

2 

2ii 

3n 

3n 



In 

In 








1-55 

tf 
19 

fr 




28-3 
30-5 
34-9 

37-7 
40-3 
60-1 
68-0 
88-8 



190 



liEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Lanthanum— continved. 





Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


! 

Oscillation 




Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 






sity 
and 




sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Rowland 




Exner 


Oha. 


Exner 




Cha- 




1 




and 
Harrison 


Wolff 


and 
Haschek 


vjua- 

racter 


and 
Haschek 


Lohse 


racter 


K + 
1-55 


A. 






5682-446 




In 








4-8 


17593-3 


5671-765 


71-753 
70-190 
67-801 
64-786 
61-587 




3 

In 

In 

In 

In 








1 


•54 




17626-4 
31-3 
38-1 
48-1 
58-3 


57-940 


57-927 
56-786 
55-059 
48-444 
39-491 
32-213 
31-423 




5 

2 
2r 
10 
6 
6 
8 














69-5 
73-1 
94-] 
99-2 

17727-3 
50-2 
52-7 




13-074 




In 








1 


•53 


>l 


17810-7 




10-765 




In 












>» 


18-1 




5591-705 




1 












4-9 


78-7 


5688-558 


88-544 K 
82-168 
78-218 
70-586 




6 
In 
In 
2 








1 


•52 




88-8 

17912-6 

22 

46-5 


68-674 


68-674 K 
67-140 




6 
3 














52-8 
57-6 


65-931 


65-935 K 




4 












,, 


01-5 


65-660 


65-632 
62-760 




5 
In 












»» 


62-5 
71-8 


45-132 


45-136 
41-472 




3 

7 








1 


51 




18028-9 
40-8 


35-889 


35-889 K 

32-261 

30-095 

26-730 

24-615 




5 
3 

4 

2n 
2n 










" 


J* 


58-0 i 

70-9 

78-0 

89-0 

95-9 


17-562 


17-563 K 




4 












>» 


18119-0 


15-502 


15-493 




5 












>» 


25-8 




07-550 




In 








1 


50 


?> 


52-0 




06-211 K 




6 












»» 


56-4 


04-021 


04-013 K 




6 












5-0 


63-5 


02-878 


02-861 




3 












>». 


67-3 


02-465 


02-440 




3 












•>9 • 


68-7 


01-559 


01-545 K 
5498-907 




9 
2n 












" 


75-0 
80-4 


5493-656 


93-654 K 




4 












• ■ '»9 » 


97-8 


91-277 


91-252 




3 












99 » 


18205-7 




87-014 




In 












"■>» t 


19-9 


82-474 


82-465 K 




5 












■»• i 


35-0 


80-940 


80-916 




2n 












'm 


40-1 


75;-450 


75-358 
67-113 




5 
4 








1- 


49 


^\: 


58-5 
86-2 


64-574 


64-508 K 




4 












,, 


!t4-7 


58-887 


r.8-876 




o 










. 1 


,, 


I an 13 -7 


55-351 


66-340 K 




8r 








1 
• 1 


J* 


•2r,-2 




37-748 




3 








1-48 1 


99 


81-6 




22-312 




2 








f 


1 

7 


)» 


37-3 



ON WAV'E-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. Hi] 

Lanthanum — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 




Wave-length 


Li ten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 

3 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




; Frequency 
: in Vacuo 

1 


Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


1 

Wolff 


! Exner 

and 
Haschek 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


Lohse 


\ + 
1-48 


1_ 

A 

5-0 




5415-873 






18359-2 


5381-168 


5381-187 K 
80-214 




4 
1 








?J 




78-2 
81-5 


77-265 


77-290 K 
66-077 




3 

2 








■' 


s'i 


91-7 
18630-5 




59-911 




1 








1-46 




61-9 


58-044 


58-060 




3n 












58-4 


40-836 


40-879 K 

23-745 

20-335 




3 

2 

1 








5) 

1-45 




18718-6 

78-7 
80-7 




07-716 




2 










',] 18835-4 




04-187 




3 










47-9 


03-708 


03-727 K 




4 












49-6 


02-793 


02-813 K 




5 








?> 


5-2 


52-7 


02-135 


02-159 K 




(5 












55-1 


5290-988 


5291-010 K 
87-596 
79-303 
76-586 




4 
In 
2 
3 








1-44 




94-8 

18907-0 

36-7 

46-4 


71-337 


71-359 K 




4 












65-3 


59-539 


59-549 K 




3 












19006-4 




68-019 




1 










" 13-4 




63-621 




5 












29-3 




40-981 




3 








1-43 




75-2 




39716 




2 












79-8 




38-277 




In 












85-1 


34-435 


34-445 K 




5 








J' 




99-0 


12-014 


26-362 
12-037 K 




2 
8 








1-42 




19128-6 
81-1 


04-293 


04-321 




5 










5-3 


19209-5 


5188-371 


5188-374 K 
84-063 




8 
4 








J'" 


68-6 
84-6 


83 664 


83-584 K 
79-275 




7n 
2 








" 


86-2 
19302-4 


77-453 


77-471 K 
74-015 




6 
3 








1-41 


09-2 
220 




73-065 




2 












25-6 




67-958 




3 












44-7 




64-197 




InC? 










" 


58-8 


63-768 


63-787 K 




3 












60-4 


58-846 


58-863 K 




5 








>' 




78-8 
83-6 


57-582 


67-612 K 




3 












56-888 


56-910 K 




3 








' 




86-2 


45-582 


45-594 K 
35-621 




4 
In 








1-40 




19428-8 
66-5 


23-149 


23160 K 
21-040 




6 
2 








9* 




19513-9 
22 


14-723 


14-732 K 
09-290 




6 
In 






J> 


r -1 

If •* 

„ 1 


46-0 
66-4 


06-395 


06-414 K 
03-310 




4 
In 








»» 


! 


77-8 
89-7 




5096-799 




In 




1 


1-39 




19614-8 




90-733 




1 




f 


J 


9> 




38-1 



192 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Lanthanum — continued. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 






Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 






sity 
and 




sity 
and 




Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Rowland 




Exner 


Cha- 


Exner 




Cha- 




1 




and 
Harrison 


Wolff 


and 
Haschek 


racter 
In 


and 
Haschek 


Lohse 


racter 


A-l- 


6-4 






6080-384 










1-39 


19678-2 




79-546 




In 










fy 


81-4 




79-119 




In 








ft 




83-1 




72-295 




In 








>> 


,, 


19709-4 




68-040 




2 








tt 


>* 


26-1 


5063-097 


63 070 




2n 








1-38 


tf 


46-5 


56-628 


56-628 




3 








J, 




70-6 


50-734 


50-737 
48-182 




3n 








9> 




93-7 
19803-7 


47-051 


47-043 




3n 








*» 


99 


08-2 




19-685 




2n 








1-37 


5-5 


19916-1 


02-305 


02-282 




2n 








j» 


9* 


85-4 


01-979 


01-960 




2n 








) J 




19986-6 


4999-642 


4999-641 K 
96-974 
94-821 
94-024 




8 
2 

In 
3 








9» 




95-9 

20006-6 

15-2 

18-4 


91-452 


91-436 K 




4 








fy 




28-8 


87-059 


86-989 K 

85-089 

78-096 




6 

In 

2 








1-36 




46-9 
64-3 
82-5 


70-566 


70-552 K 
68-757 
64-982 
56-230 




5 
In 

1 
In 








>J 




20112-9 
20-2 
36-5 
7M 


52-238 


52-213 




3 








1-35 




87-4 


49-947 


49-940 K 
40-602 
46-004 
35-773 




5 
5 

1 
2 










6-6 


96-8 

20210-4 

12-9 

64-6 


35-003 


34-999 K 
25-553 




4 
1 










97 


57-8 
96-7 


21-979 


21-952 K 




7 












20311-5 


21-149 


21-129 K 

16-780 
05-294 
02-037 




7 

In 
2 
3 








1-34 




14-9 
32-9 
80-6 
94-1 


00-096 


00-085 K 
4894-414 
87-780 
86-990 
79-020 
70-734 
69-077 




7 

In 

2n 

In 

3 

2 

In 








l'33 




20402-2 
26-9 
63-8 
56-9 
90-3 

20525-2 
31-8 


4861-081 


61-062 K 
55-110 




6 
3 










6-7 


65-9 
91-2 


51-000 


50-078 




3n 












20608-5 


50-772 


50-742 
43-452 




3n 
In 












09-6 
40-7 


40-203 


40-183 




4 








1-32 




54-6 


39-697 


39-689 
30-682 
27031 




4 
2 
3 


1 






>r t 




56-8 

95-3 

20710-9 



ON U'AVfe-LfiKofij tABtfeS OF Thfe SPECtRA OF 'JhE ELE^IEK'TS. 190 





Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduc 
















tion to 






Wave-length 


Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Vacuum 


Oscillatio 






sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




sity 
and 

Cha. 

racter 






Frequenc 
in Vacuc 


Rowland 




Exner 


Exner 






1_ 
A. 


and 
Harrison 


Wolff 


and 
Haschek 


and 
Haschek 


Lohse 


^ + 




4824-239 


4824-220 K 


7 








1-32 


5-7 


23723-C 




17-333 




2r 












52-7 


09-690 






5 








)» 


)) 


85-7 


09-183 


09182 K 




6 












87-£ 


04-219 


04-218 K 




6 








1-31 


;* 


20809-3 




00-426 




3 










fj 


25-S 




00-178 




3 












26-8 


4796-862 


4796-8&i 




3n 












41-2 




94-749 




2n 










9f 


m-4 




92-644 




In 










iJ 


59-C 




91-570 




1 










f» 


64-3 




80-734 




In 










5-8 


20911-5 




80-082 




3 










If 


14-3 




76-339 




2 












35] 




70-629 




5 












55-? 


67 073 


67-085 K 




6 












tjtj c 

71-4 




59-890 




In 








1-30 


j> 


21003-1 




58-586 




In 












08-J 




57-744 




In 












12-€ 




67-342 




In 












14-3 




67-147 




In 










j> 


15-2 




53-305 




In 












32-2 




53-000 




In 












33-;; 




52-561 




2 












35 'S 




50-593 




5 












44-2 


48-911 


48-897 K 




6 










" 


51-7 


43-273 


43-255 K 
42-289 




9 
In 










^ J 


*J 1- i 

76-7 
81-1 


















)) 




40-433 




8 












89-3 




39-961 




3 










" 


91 --J 




37-494 




In 










j5 


21102-4 




33-978 




3 












18-C 




29-273 




In 








1-29 




39-1 


28-594 


28-555 K 




8 












42-J 




24-565 K 




5 












60-2 




23-862 




3 












63-i 




20-827 




In 












76-G 




20-081 




8 












80-3 




19-212 




In 










)» 


84-2 




17-743 




5 












90-8 


lG-704 


16-594 K 




5n 










1* 


95-4 
95-9 




16-631 




In 










J * 


21200-3 




14-307 




3 












06-2 




13-081 




8 












11-7 




08-350 




6 












33-] 


03-429 


03-416 K 
02-809 




3 
In 










5-9 


05-1 

68-0 

71-6 

21303-9 


4699-811 


4699-796 K 




2n 










" 


92-680 


02-681 K 




6 


4692-67 




3 




»» 


91-364 


91-344 K 




4 








1-28 




09-£ 


88-824 
71-994 


72-005 K 


467200 


In 
3 


72-00 ' 


i 


3 




>* 
» 


21-4 
C8-2 



1908. 



194 



i{Et»ORtS OK tat; StAtte OP SClfiNOE. 









LAHtKAHVii—contimied. 












Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 






















Reduction to 
Vacuum 






Wave-lengtli 




Inten- 


Wave- 


length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 








sity 
and 






sity 
find 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 




1 








Rowland 




Esner 


Cha- 


Exner 




ChfL 




1 




aud 
Harrison 


Wolff 


and 
Haschek 


racter 
4 


and 
Haschek 

4669-10 


Lohse 


racter 
3 


A + 


6-9 




4669-080 


4669-097 K 


4669-09 




1-28 


21411-5 


63-943 


63-972 K 


63-95 


4 


63-97 




4 






351 


62-678 


62-718 K 


62-69 


5 


62-73 




3 






40-9 




60-907 




2C? 












49-1 


55-667 


55-714 K 


55-67 


6 


55-71 




6 






73-2 




52-290 K 


52-30 


1 








1-27 




88-9 




50-528 




2 












97-0 




48-844 K 


48-78 


3 












21506-0 




47-673 




2? 


47-64 




1 






10-3 




46-542 




1 












15-4 




45-488 K 


45-44 


4 


45-46 




1 






20-5 




36-603 




In 


36-60 




In 




6-0 


21661-6 


20-054 


20-059 K 


20-02 


3 


20-06 


4619-93 


5 






38-9 




15-240 Ky 




2n 








1-26 




61-3 


13-557 


13-576 


13-53 


5 


13-60 


13-54 


4 






69-2 


05-951 


05-962 
05-268 


05-95 


3 
In 


05-99 


06-00 


2 






21704-9 
08-2 




04-410 Ky 




In 












12-3 




02-213 


02-20 


2n 












22-7 




4596-353 




2 












50-4 




81-383 Ky 




2n 












21821-5 


4580-245 


80-249 K 


4580-25 


5 


4580-28 


4580-37 


3 


1-25 




26-7 


75-059 


75-073 K 


75-03 


7 


75-08 


76-05 


4 






61-6 




71-144 Ky 




2n 












70-4 


70-215 


70-210 K 


70-20 


5 


70-28 


70-33 


1 




,, 


74-7 


68-094 


68-095 K 
65-023 Ky 


68-07 
65-03 


5 
2 


68-15 


68-20 


In 






84-8 
96-7 




69-467 K 


69-46 


4 


69-51 


59-57 


2 




6-'l 


21926-1 


58-660 


58-650 K 


58-62 


7 


58-66 


58-72 


4 






30-2 




52-677 Ky 


52-65 


2n 












69-1 


50-956 


50-948 


50-95 


2n 












67-3 


50-337 


50-333 Ky 




In 












70-3 


49-679 


49-682 K 


49-67 


5 












73 5 




41-953 


41-95 


2 








1-24 




22010-9 




30-755 Ky 




In 












65-3 


26-293 


26-287 K 


26-27 


6 


26-30 


26-33 


5 






87-0 


25-466 


25-480 K 


25-45 


4 


25-45 


25-50 


4 






91- 


22-544 


22-550 K 


22-55 


7 


22-61 


22-62 


8 






22105-2 




01-761 K 


01-73 


2n 








1-23 




22207-5 




00-411 K 


00-36 


4 


00-4 




In 






14-2 


4499-223 


4499-240 K 


4499-20 


2 


4499-0 




In 






20-0 




94-869 K 


94-85 


3 










6-2 


41-4 




93-986 Ky 




2 












45-8 




93-308 


93-26 


3 












49-2 




91-951 Ky 


91-90 


2Y? 












56-2 




86-244 K 


86-19 


3 












84-3 




79-990 Ky 


79-96 


2 












22315-4 




74-716 Ky 




3 












41-6 




74-232 Ky 




In 












44-0 




69-144 K 


69-15 


3 












69-4 


55-965 


65-985 K 


55-97 


5 


65-99 


4456-07 


2 


1-22 




22435-4 




55-402 Ky 




2n 












38-5 




54-018 Ky 




2n 












45-4 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 



195 







Lanthanum — continited. 












Arc Spectrun 






Spark Spectrum ; 


















! 


■Rprliir>f 


ion to 
lum 






Wave-length 




Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Vaci 


Oscillation 








sity 
and 




sity 
and 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Rowland 




Exner 


Cha- 
racter 


Exner 




Cha- 
racter 




1 




and 
Harrison 


Wolff 


and 
Haschek 


and 
Haschek 


Lohse ! 


\ + 


6-2 




4452-327 


4452-338 K 


4452-34 


6 






1-22 


22453-9 




45-289 Ky 




2 










»» 


89-5 




44-369 K 


44-37 


2n , 










>) 


94-2 




44-119 Ky 




In 










>» 


95-4 




42-839 K 


42-80 


3 












22502-0 




40-902 




In 










f> 


11-7 




37-086 




2 










)» 


311 




36-013 K 


35-98 


3n 


443602 


4436-11 


1 




?» 


36-5 


35-392 






In 




35-29 


1 




»> 


40-0 


35139 






4 










)» 


41-0 




33-121 Ky 






33-15 


33-22 


2 




>9 


61-0 


32-296- 






In 










.. 


65-5 


30-075 


30-064 K 


30-09 


12 


30-11 


30-26 


8 


1-21 


6-3 


66-4 


27-741 


27-750 K 


27-73 


6n 


27-73 


27-84 


5 




»> 


78-5 


25-598 






In 




25-73 


1 




,, 


89-2 


24-082 


24-080 K 


24-06 


4 


24-08 


24-18 


In 




»» 


97-2 


23-354 






In 


23-37 


23-42 


In 




.»« 


22600-8 


19-329 


19-328 K 

17-276 

13-612 


19-27 


3 

In 

In 


19-30 


19-42 


2 






21-6 
32-1 
50-9 


11-379 


11-382 Ky 




2 


11-45 


11-55 


In 




»» 


62-0 




03-195 Ky 




3 










»» 


22704-5 




02-825 K 


02-82 


3n 










>♦ 


0()-4 




4397-207 




In 










99 


35-1 




96-958 




2n 










99 


30-7 




96-477 KKy 




2n 










»» 


39-2 




93-778 KKy 




3 








1-20 


9> 


63-2 




90-060 K 


4390-05 


3 










99 


72-5 


4385-364 


85-380 KKy 


85-34 


4 


4385-37 


4385-45 


3 




99 


96-7 


83-624 




83-62 


4n 


83-62 


83-70 


6 




J» 


22805-7 




80-721 K 


80-70 


3 










»J 


21-0 




79-421 




In 










J> 


27-8 


78-274 


78-280 K 


78-23 


7n 


78-24 


78-04 


3 




,, 


34-1- 




68-071 




In 










6-4 


87-0 




64-845 K 


64-80 


6 


64-85 ( 


:;e 


3 




■»> 


22904-0 


63-221 


63-236 KKv 
61-024 




3 

1 


63-25 


63-33 


1 




if 


12-2 
24-0 




60-649 




2nTi? 










tf 


26-0 




58-085 Ky 




2 






*" 




f» 


39-5 




54-972 K 


54-96 


4 








1-19 


>> 


55-9 


54-665 


64-570 K 


64-56 


l- 


54-54 


54-64 


6-- 


>» 


>f 


68-0 


- - 


53-987 




1 










ft 


61-0 


-■ 


40-898 K 


40-90 


3 










ft 


23030-3 




40-105 Ky 


40-09 


1 










f» 


34-5 




39-600 K 


39-60 


In 








' 


>> 


37-2 






1 




38-25 




In 




>» 


44-4 


' 




1 




37-95 




In 




jy 


46-0 


35134 


35-135 K 


35-13 


5 


35-18 


35-27 


6 




tf 


00-P. 


33-934 


33-933 K 


33-98 


16 


33-97 


3408 


12 




»f 


071 




22-673 K 


22-69 


6 






5 




9> 


23127-4 


18^825 






1 


22'19 


18-90 




I'is 


f> 


4?-8 


ie-o?6 


16068 K 


1605 


4 


1604 


16-12 


1 


« 


tt 


62-8 




1 ll-ftOlSI K 


n-90 


8a 




1 




n 


n 


1 i 86a 
09 



196 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Lanthanum — eontimied. 





Ave Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 






Wave-length 




Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 








sity 
and 






sity 
and 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Eowland 




Exner 


Cha- 


Exner 




Cha- 
racter 




1 




and 
Harrison 


Wolff 


and 
Haschek 

4306-16 


racter 
3n 


and 
Haschek 


Lohse 


\ + 


G-5 






4306-160 K 








M8 


23216-1 


4302-G99 


02-689 K 




lu 




4302-70 


1 


t> 


it 


34-7 


00-782 


00-606 K 


00-59 


3 


4300-59 


00-62 


3 


it 


it 


45-6 


4296-210 


4296-213 K 


4296-23 


9 


4296-21 


4296-25 


7r 


ii 


»> 


69-7 


87-128 


87-137 K 


87-10 


8 


87-09 


87-12 


15 


I) 


»» 


23319-2 


83-180 






1 






1 


»> 


ti 


40-6 


82-560 






2 




82-23 




>♦ 


tt 


44-9 


80-418 


80-429 K 


80-43 


4 


80-44 


80-45 


2 


1-17 


tt 


55-6 


75-797 


75-802 K 


75-81 


4 


75-80 


75-82 


4 


>» 


tt 


80-9 












74-27 


6 


it 


a 


89-3 




69-662 K 


69-64 


6 


69-65 




10 


*> 


tt 


23414-6 


63-742 


63-760 K 


63-75 


6 


G3-73 


63-76 


7 


a 


it 


47-1 




62-510 K 


62-51 


3 








a 


a 


53-8 




57-080 K 


57-06 


3 








t> 


ti 


83-7 


54-504 






1 








it 




97-9 


50-144 


50-170 K 


50-14 


4 


50-22 


50-26 


5 


t* 


6-6 


23521-8 


38-543 


38-558 K 


38-55 


15 


38-57 


38-67 


9 


1-16 


it 


86-2 


31-107 


31-122 K 


31-11 


4 


31-10 


31-26 


5 


tt 


it 


23627-7 


26-898 






6 




27-03 


6 


tt 


ti 


51-0 


17-733 


17-716 K 


17-70 


6 


17-70 


17-85 


8 


it 


it 


23702-8 


15-683 






2 




15-85 


2 


it 


it 


13-9 


04-218 


04-195 K 


04-18 


5 


04-20 


04-26 


4r 


1-15 


>» 


79-1 




4196-710 K 


4196-70 


9 


4196-74 


4196-69 


8 


ti 


6-7 


23821-5 


4194-654 
94-369 


} 




1 


94-57 


94-53 


2nr 


tt 


tt 


33-8 


92-501 


92-507 K 


92-49 


6 


92-60 


92-47 


6 


tt 


„ 


45-5 




87-472 K 


87-47 


6 


87-49 




1 


tt 


tt 


74-0 




77-634 K 


77-65 


3 








tt 


»i 


23930-2 




72-467 K 


72-48 


3 








it 


tt 


59-9 


. 


71-878 Ky 




2n 


71-88 




1 


tt 


„ 


63-3 




71-257 


71-27 


2 








t* 




66-9 




63-461 


63-50 


3 


63-50 




In 


1-14 


» 


24011-6 






61-44 


o 








tt 


j» 


23-5 




60-408 K 




4 


60-43 




1 


it 


a 


29-3 




57-653 K 


57-68 


1 








tt 




44-3 


i 54-120 






2 








a 


?» 


65-8 




62-915 K 


52-94 


4 


52-97 


62-99 


5 


it 


«» 


72-3 


52-119 


52-108 K 


52-14 


7 


52-17 


62-17 


9 


ty 


'» 


76-2 


44-092 




44-10 


2ii 




44-07 


1 


>i 


U-8 


24124-0 


41-872 


41-871 K 


41-92 


9 


41-90 


41-95 


8 


ti 


it 


36-5 




37-182 K 


37-25 


3 


33-5 
32-7 


37-21 


1 

lb 

lb 






64-1 
85-8 
90-5 


23-394 


23-379 K 


23-38 


8 


23-39 


23-46 


20r 


i-'i3 




24245-0 




17-836 K 


17-85 


2d 


13-55 




Ibr 


tt 




77-8 
24303-1 




09-965 K 


09-95 


2 








ii \ 




24-3 




09-641 K 


09-65 


In , 








a 




26-2 


05-026 


05-029 K 


05-04 


5 


05-07 


05-07 


I 


tt 




53-5 


4099-678 i 


4099-695 K 


4099-70 


6 


4099-71 


4099-73 


7 


it 




85-0 


95-278 






3 








j» 


6-9 


24411-5 


90-920 j 






4 








tt 




37-5 



ON \VaVE-LKNGTS tables OF THE SPECTfiA OF TflE ELEMENTS. 197 







LAHHHAyun—iwitinucd. 










( 


Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 






















^< <aH iiff 1 rt>T tn 






Wave-length 




Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Vacuum 


Oscillation 








sity 
and 






sity 
and 






Frequency 
















in Vacuo 


Rowland 




Exner 


Cha- 


Exner 




Cha- 




1 




and 
Harrison 


Wolff 


and 
Haschek 


racter 


and 
Haschek 


Lohse 


racter 


\ + 


\ 




4090-547 




1 






1-13 


6-9 


24439-7 


90-167 






1 








»> 


J» 


420 


89-752 


4089-767 K 


4089-75 


1 


4089-76 


4089-85 


1 


112 


>> 


44-3 


86-848 


86-866 K 


86-86 


10 


86-90 


86-97 


15 




it 


61-6 




79-327 K 


79-32 


3 


79-37 


79-47 


1 




>* 


24506-5 


78-890 






1 










J» 


09-6 


77-856 










77-96 


2 




J» 


15-5 


77-503 


77-487 K 


77-50 


10 


77-51 


77-58 


12 




ft 


17-8 


76-845 


76-853 


76-87 


3 


76-89 


76-97 


2 




„ 


21-6 


07-519 


67-547 K 


07-56 


6 


67-52 


67-61 


6 




j» 


77-9 


65-715 


65-734 K 


65-75 


3 


65-75 


65-82 


1 




" 


88-8 


64-922 


04-939 K 


64-95 


4 


64-94 


64-99 


1 




„ 


93-7 


63-735 






1 










jy 


24601-0 


62-888 






In 










tt 


06-1 


60-459 


60-476 K 


60-50 


5 


60-52 


60-51 


1 




J? 


20-6 


59-633 
















tt 


25-9 








In 


58-30 




1 




»» 


340 


50-217 


50-241 K 


50-24 


5 


50-25 


50-27 


7 


i-'ii 


7-0 


82-9 


45-962 






10 




4601 


3 




tt 


24708-9 


43070 


43066 K 


43-04 


8 


43-18 


43-11 


14r 




J» 


26-5 




37-371 K 


37-26 


4 


37-35 


37-44 


1 




>> 


61-6 


36-974 






In 










tt 


M-O 




36-747 K 




In 


36-74 


36-78 


2 




tt 


65-4 


35-878 






In 


35-90 




1 




99 


70-7 


35-328 






la 










» 


74-1 


31-847 


31-848 K 


31-85 


7 


31-86 


31-88 


13 




>9 


95-5 


26013 


26-038 K 


26-01 


5 


26-03 


26-08 


3 




t> 


24831-3 


25-786 






3 










9* 


32-9 


23-999 






4 










>» 


43-9 


23-717 


23-734 K 


23-74 


3 


23-72 


23-79 


O 




* 9t 


45-5 


15-531 


15-557 K 


15-52 


4 


15-56 


15-44 


1 


I'lo 


,, 


96-4 


13-535 






1 










J» 


24908-7 


13-399 






1 


07-82 




In 






09-5 
44-2 


3995-903 


3995-911 K 


3995-90 


10 


3995-91 
94-67 




5r 
2n 




71 

9t 


25018-5 
26-3 


88-669 


88-668 K 


88-69 


10 


88-66 




30 




J» 


63-9 










81-55 




In 




tt 


25108-7 










79-3 




lb 


1-09 


99 


23-0 










66-3 N 


d? 


lb 




J> 


25205-3 










62-3 




lb 




3) 


30-8 




53-827 


53-82 


1 


63-2 




lb 




7-2 


84-9 
88-8 


49-256 


49-240 K 


49-27 


12 


49-22 




50 




99 


25314-1 


36-351 


36-367 K 


36-35 


6 


36-40 




3 


1-08 


»> 


96-9 




29-359 K 


29-34 


8 


29-40 




15 




99 


25442-2 




27-709 K 


27-69 


3 


27-72 




1 




tt 


53-0 




21-684 K 


21-69 


8 


21-71 




10 




tt 


92-0 


16-053 


16-186 KKy 


16-16 


7 


16-21 




10 




9* 


26528-1 




10-952 Ky 




2 










J» 


62-0 




02-717 K 


02-72 


2 








w 


7-3 


2j»ie-9 




3898-743 K 


3898-84 


2 








99 


i* 


41-7 



108 



REPOliTS 0\ THE STATR Of SCIENCE. 









hxaTHAWil— continued. 












Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


















Reduction to 
Vacuum 






Wave-length 




Inten- 


Wave-length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 








sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 






Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Rowland 




Esner 


Exner 






1 _ 


and 


Wolff 


and 


and 


Lohse 


A -f 




Harrison 




Haschek 


Haschek 






A 






3895-801 


3895-80 


3 






1-07 


7-3 


25661-4 


3886-495 


86-464 K 


86-50 


8 


3886-51 




15 






26722-8 


83-955 






2 












39-7 




71-764 K 


71-80 


8 


71-89 




20 






25820-4 










64-67 




3nr 






68-1 










65-60 




3 


1-06 




26929-0 




49167 K 


49-14 


7 


49-20 




10 






72-3 




46-784 
















88-5 






4615 


2 


46-16 




3 






92-7 




40-831 K 


40-88 


6 


40-92 




5 






26028-4 






38-42 


2 












46-1 






35-24 


2 


35-29 




5 






66-5 






32-46 


2n 












85-6 










08-89 




2 


l-OS 


7'4 


26248-0 










05-57 




1 






69-9 




3794-916 K 


3794-90 


10 


3794-99 




50 






26343-5 


3793-904 






7 












50-7 


90-953 


90-967 K 


90-99 


8 


91-02 




50 






710 










87-31 




2 






96-6 




84-945 


84-95 


2 


84-95 




2 






264130 










84-02 




1 






19-6 










83-67 




1 






22-0 




80-823 K 


80-84 


3 


80-85 




3nr 






41-8 










80-70 




2 






42-7 










79-88 




1 






48-5 










73-8 




2b 


1-04 




911 










73-30 




2 




7-5 


94-5 










66-76 




1 






26540-6 


59-217 


59-227 K 


69-22 


8 


69-33 




20 






93-6 










48-2 




lb 






26672-0 










36-6 




2nr 


1-03 




26754-8 




35-988 




3 


36-02 




1 






59-1 


35-001 






3 












66-3 










31-6 




In 






90-7 




25-199 K 


25-21 


2 


25-24 




3 




fe 


26836-5 




24-921 
















38-7 




15-675 K 


15-66 


6 


15-67 




4 






26905-5 




15014 K 


15-02 


6 


15-03 




3 






10-1 




13-696 K 


13-69 


6 


13-71 




6 






19-7 




05-968 K 


05-94 


5 


0602 




5 






75-9 




04-660 


04-65 


4r 












85-6 




01-945 




1 


01-9 




2nr 






27005-2 










01-47 




1 






08-7 




3699-684 




1 












21-7 










3694-26 




In r 


1-02 




61-5 


3680-048 
















fV 


27166-8 


72-147 


72-164 K 


367213 


2 


66-6 




lb 






27224-3 




62-220 K 


62-24 


2 


62-24 




3 






98-0 










58-7 




In 






27324-4 


50-313 


50-328 K 


50-38 


4 


50-31 




4 


1-01 




p» 87-1 


49-661 


49-663 


49-69 


4 


49-66 




1 






' 92-0 


46-647 


46-561 K 


45-58 


5 


45-57 




8 






27422-9 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES OF THE SPECTRA OF THE ELEMENTS. 199 



Lanthanom — cmtinved. 





Arc Spectrum 




Spark Spectrum 


















Reduction to 
Vacuum 


















Wave-length 




Inten- 
sity 
and 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 




\ 


Oscillatior 
Frequency 
in Vacuo 
















Rowland 




Exner 


Cha- 


Exner 




Cha- 




1 




and 


Wolff 


and 


rQ(Ct6r 


and 


Lohs(! 


racter 


A + 


A. 




Harrison 




Haschek 




Haschek 
3641-8 




2b 






3641-675 


3641-677 K 


3641-69 


4 


101 


7-7 


27452-1 




37-303 K 


37-30 


3 


37-45 




3 




7-8 


84-7 




36-819 K 


36-80 


2 










J> 


88-8 




28-980 K 


28-97 


3 


29-00 




1 




,, 


27548-1 




21-893 




In 


21-96 




1 




)« 


27601-8 




13-249 K 


13-24 


2 










it 


68-1 




12-496 K 


12-50 


1 


12-53 

10-5 

09-4 




2nr 

2n 

In 


1-00 


»> 

>> 


73-6 
89-2 
97-0 




01-201 K 


01-19 


1 


01-20 




1 






27760-7 




3593-443 




2 










7-'9 


27820-7 




81-994 K 




2 


3582-0 
80-3 
79-1 




lb 
lb 
lb 






27909-6 

22-8 

fe 32-2 


, 3574-565 


74-561 K 
66-254 
63-943 
60-726 


3674-57 


4 


74-60 
J7-88 




1 
1 


0-99 




67-5 
28032-7 
50-9 
76-3 
98-7 




57-396 


57-40 


2 












28102-5 




53-732 
















31-5 




60-962 K 


50-98 


1 


50-98 




1 




8-0 


53-3 




45-095 




3 


45-0 




In 






28200-0 




37-626 












0-98 




59-5 




34-713 
















82-8 




30-805 


30-79 


1 


30-80 




1 






28314-2 




28-726 






17-26 




50r 






30-8 
28423-2 


14191 


14-209 K 


14-20 


3 












47-2 


13-050 


13-064 


13-07 


3 


13-06 




1 






57-1 


10121 


10-133 K 


10-14 


3 


10-13 




1 




s'l 


80-8 




3480-750 


3480-77 


1 


, 






0-97 


,, 


28721-3 


3461-327 


61-331 K 


61-30 


2 










8-2 


28882-5 


53-312 


63-311 K 


53-30 


3 


3453-32 




2 


0-90 




28949-5 


52-330 


62-364 K 

60-785 


62-33 

60-79 


3 

1 


52-35 




2 


,, 




^57-7 
70-7 










11-95 




In 


o''J5 


8-3 


29300-4 




04-653 


04-61 


1 












63-4 




3397-882 




1 












29421-8 




88-735 


3388-70 


3 








„ 


8-4 


29501-3 




81-556 


81-55 


1 








„ 




63-8 


3381-046 


81-024 K 


81-10 


8 


3381-10 




10 






651 


76-472 


76-451 K 
62-167 K 


76-48 
6217 


3 
1 


76-45 




3 


0-94 




29608-4 
29734-3 




57-603 


57-62 


1 










8-5 


75-6 




49-945 
















29842-7 


44-05 


44-682 K 


44-74 


7 


44-71 




7 






89-5 




42-356 K 


42-38 


3 












29910-4 


37-630 


37-611 K 


37-66 


7 


37-67 




15 


0-93 




52-8 




07-115 K 


07-15 


1 


07-05 




I ; 




8-6 


30228-9 


03-241 


03-239 K 


03-29 


5 


\ 




•i 






64-5 










02-36 




5 






73-7 



200 



REFORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Lanthanum — continued. 





Arc Spectrum. 




Spark Spectrum 


















Reduction to 
Vacuum 






Wave-length 




In ten 


Ware-length 


Inten- 


Oscillation 








sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 

~5~ 




sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 




1 


Frequency 
in Vacuo 


Rowland 




Exner 


Exner 




and 
Harrison 


Wolff 


and 
Haschek 


and 
Haschek 


Lohse 


\ + 


\~ 




3265-795 


3265-792 K 


3265-81 


3265-79 




0-92 


8-7 


30611-7 


49-481 


49-483 K 


49-50 


4 


49-49 




3 


0-91 


8-8 


30765-3 




47-159 


47-15 


1 








>* 


•J 


87-4 


45-250 


45-248 K 


45-26 


5 


45-24 




4 


t9 


)* 


30805-5 


3C-671 


35-703 


35-76 


1 










>9 

99 


87-1 
95-8 


15-935 


15-929 K 


15-94 


2 








0-90 


8-9 


31086-2 




3193-130 K 


3193-15 


2 


3193-09 




1 


tf 


99 


31308-4 




85-505 




In 








** 


*» 


83-3 




84-087 




In 








0-89 


»» 


97-3 




79-888 


79-91 


la 








t9 


0-0 


31438-5 






79-46 


In 








it 


>f 


42-9 


76-103 


70-088 


76-11 


1 








>> 


99 


76-1 










71-79 




20 


»» 


»» 


31518-9 




48048 












•» 


f> 


31750-7 


42-831 


42-880 K 


42-91 


2 


42-99 




1 


0-88 


9-1 


31808-5 




09-544 K 


09-55 


o 
•J 








f* 


9-2 


32149-8 




08-568 


08-57 


■> 








»» 


t> 


60-0 


04-702 


04-702 K 


04-70 


3 


04-76 




1 






99-9 




3096-124 


30[)615 


1 








0-87 


„ 


32289-1 




10-924 K 




2 








0-85 


9-5 


33202-9 




2963-036 Kv 




1 








0-84 


9-7 


33739-5 




50-615 K Kv 




3 


2950-70 




In 


► » 


»* 


33881-0 




2899-861 




la 








0-82 


9-9 


34474-5 




93-185 K 




4 


2893-20 




2 


>» 


100 


34553-9 




85-249 K 




4 


85-25 




2 


»» 


9* 


34649-0 




80-743 K 




2 


80-85 




1 


,, 


99 


34702-6 




63-056 




2 








0-81 


10-1 


34917-6 




59-842 




2 








>f 


»> 


56-9 




56-001 K 




3 


56-0 




In 


»» 


99 


35003-9 




48-445 




1 








9f 


9* 


96-8 




15-450 Kv 




la 








0-80 


10-2 


35108-1 




08-468 K Ky 


2808-48 





08-46 




3 


f> 


10-3 


35596-3 




2798-645 K 




2 


279805 




In 


f» 


10-4 


35721-2 




96-468 Ky 




1 


91-60 




1 




99 


49-0 
35811-3 




80-336 Ky 




2 


80-3 




In 


0-79 


9* 


66-5 




29-987 Ky 




o 








0-78 


10-6 


36619-6 










2695-59 




1 


0-77 


10-8 


37086-8 










85-1 




lb 


>» 


»» 


37231-8 








2 Cr ? 


82-5 




lb 


99 


9* 


67-9 




2077-988 












99 


10-9 


37330-6 










73-03 




1 


U 


tt 


99-8 






2660-51 


1 








99 


ft 


37575-9 










51-78 




8 


0-76 


11-0 


37699-5 




10-t28K 


10-43 


2b 


10-40 




5 


• » 


11-1 


38296-7 










2596-20 




In 


0-75 


11-2 


38506-6 










00-50 




In 


0-74 


11-4 


39043-5 










19-31 




o 


ff 


11-0 


39681-8 










2487-65 




1 


0-73 


11-8 


40186-8 










76-80 


7n 


*» 


»» 


40362-9 




2f47 1-9,99 




\ 


78-0 




i" 


»» 


\> 


m-ii-2 



ON WAVE-LENGTH TABLES Ol-' THE 8PE0TBA OK THE ELEMENTS. 201 



Lanthanum — continved. 



Arc Spectrum 


Spark Spectrum 


Reduction to 
Vacuum 


; 


"Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 


Wave-length 


Inten- 
sity 
and 
Cha- 
racter 

In 

10 

1 

I 

1 

7 

1 
o 


Oscillation 
Frequency 


Rowland 

and 
Harrison 


Wolff 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 


and 

Cha- 
racter 


Exner 

and 

Haschek 

2399-73 
79-49 
28-87 
19-55 
17-90 

2297-85 
56-80 
16-12 


Lohse 


\ + 

0-71 

" 

0-70 
0-69 

0-68 
0-67 


1- 

A. 


in Vacuo 

1 
1 
1 








12-3 
12-5 
12-8 
12-9 

13-1 
13-4 

13-8 


41659-0 
42013-3 
42926-5 
43098-9 
43129-6 1 
43505-8 ' 
44297-1 
45110-1 



Colloid Clieiaistry. Bij H. R. Puogter, M.Sc. 
[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.] 

MoDEBN colloidal chemistry may be said to begin with the work of 
Graham about 18G1, though the colloids had long been known to 
chemists, and Faraday ^ had prepared and described colloidal gold 
solutions. Graham first pointed out the radical differences between 
the colloid and crystalloid state, and introduced most of the nomenclature 
cow in use, such as ' sol ' and ' gel ' for the apparent solution and the 
precipitate or jelly, and distinguished their various liquid media by the 
prefixes 'hydro-,' 'alco-,' Arc. It would be impossible to refer in detail 
to the various workers who have since contributed to its advance, but 
the following may be mentioned as marking distinct steps in its progress. 
Wiedemann ^ showed that the absorption of water by solid colloids is in 
its earlier stages accompanied by considerable evolution of heat, actual 
solution and the fusion of jellies by abiorption, while in gelatinisation 
heat is evolved. He later published researches on electrical osmose and 
cataphoresis which liave important beir^ngs on colloidal theory. The 
work of Van Bemmelen, 1888 et seq., on i^olloidal jpHies and precipitates 
is of permanent value, and his theory of thp network or cellular structure 
of jellies has been very generally accepted by later workers, though, in 
your reporter's opinion, on insufficient evidence. In 1889 M. Carey Lea 
published extensive researches on ' allotropic ' (colloidal) silver,-* and in 
1892 Picton and Linder's work on ' Solution and Pseudo-solution ' ^ opened 
new ideas on the nature of colloidal solution, and perhaps of solution 
in general. In 1893 Siedentopf and- Zsigmondy, building on the earlier 
work of Tyndall on the scattering and polarisation of light by non- 
homogeneous media, invented the ultra-microscope, in which, by a special 
form of dark-ground illumination, particles which were much too small 
to give an actual microscopic image were rendered visible as points of 

• P?ia. Trans., i. 1857, pp. 145-152 ; Phil. 2Iag. (4), 14. ^01-417, .'■>12-530, 

- Verh. d. 2)hysili. Ges. zu Berlin, 18S4, p. 44. ' 

■■* SiUiinan's Jour. (3), 37, 476-491, 38, 47-50, 1SH9. 

^ Chcm. Xews and Jour. Ch. Soc, 1893. 



202 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

light. By this means the suspended matter in many colloid solutions 
has been rendered visible and the number and size of the colloid particles 
estimated. 

Since sodium and potassium chlorides have been obtained in colloidal 
form in organic solvents, it is no longer possible to distinguish between 
colloid and crystalloid substances, but only between the colloid and 
crystalloid sfate. In the typical crystalloid solution of an electrolyte 
the dissolved body is separated into its molecules, and to a large extent 
into individual ions, while in the colloid sol the units of distribution are 
either large and often conjugated molecules or more frequently minute 
particles composed of many molecules united by cohesive attraction. 
Whether there is in principle any clear line dividing these conditions, 
or whether they do not rather shade off into each other by insensible 
gradations is very doubtful, but in typical cases the distinction is 
sufficiently marked. As osmotic pressure, and all its attendant effects 
are proportional to the nuiaher of the dissolved molecules, and therefore, 
for a given quantity of substance inversely to the mass of the molecules 
or particles, these physical effects are almost absent in the colloid sol, 
and in most cases diffusion, lowering of freezing point, raising of boiling- 
point, and a Jorliori electric conductivity which demands ionic dissocia- 
tion are barely, if at all, perceptible, and may perhaps be attributable 
to the traces of electrolyte which appear essential at least to inorganic 
colloid solution. In the cases of many organic colloids of known high 
molecular weight, boiling- and freezing-point determinations have yielded 
numbers not inconsistent with the view that the particles are actual 
single molecules. While crystalloid bodies can usually only be separated 
from solution by evaporation or freezing of the solvent, or by chemical 
changes, colloid sols are unstable, and liable, either spontaneously or 
through very slight disturbing causes — such as the addition of an 
electrolyte, change of temperature, or concentration — to separate into an 
amorphous precipitate, or 'gel,' and the practically pure solvent. While 
crystalloid solutions are optically homogeneous, all colloid sols exhibit, 
in a greater or less degree, the ' Tyndall effect ' of scattering and polarising 
light, and, in most, minute suspended particles may be detected by the 
ultra-microscope. The relation of colloid sols to mechanical suspensions 
of very finely divided solids and to emulsions of immiscible liquids is a 
Tery close one, and may depend merely on the size of the particles. 
Many sols are visibly opalescent, but those with very small particles 
may be perfectly transparent, and metallic .sols are often deeply coloured ; 
gold sols vary from deep red to bluish violet. 

The organic colloid sols differ in many respects from the inorganic, 
often approaching very closely to true solutions ; and being usually 
bodies of high molecular weight, and little subject to electrolytic 
dissociation, their true solutions would necessarily possess many of the 
properties associated with colloids. It is in fact by no means impossible 
that very large molecules or molecular aggregates may disperse and 
polarise light, and may even be made visible by the ultra-microscope. 
Organic sols are usually more stable than inorganic, and are flocculated 
or precipitated by different causes, so that it will be appropriate to defer 
their consideration till after tliat of the simpler and better investigated 
inorganic, or, as they are sometimes called, ' suspension ' colloids. 

Inorganic colloid sols are invariably suspensions of very finely 
divided substances in media in which they are extrein^ly insoluble, 



COLLOlt) CHEMISTRY. 203 

Von Weimat'u ' lias shown that even the most definitely crystalloid 
bodies may be obtained in colloidal or gelatinised solution if produced 
in solutions in which they are very insoluble. An ordinary pre- 
cipitate, such as barium sulphate, is at first formed by the combination 
of the ions in very minute crystal elements which are sufficiently soluble 
in water rapidly to unite to form crystals, which gradually increase in 
size by absorbing the smaller crystal elements. It is well known in 
ordinary analytical work that such precipitates will pass at fii'st through 
any filter, but gradually become filterable by the effect of time and 
warmth. If, however, their insolubility is sufficiently increased by large 
excess of a common ion, or by efTecting the combination in a medium, 
such as methyl alcohol, in which sulphates are extremely insoluble, the 
molecules cannot coalesce in the crystalline form, and a colloidal sol 
results. Even sodium and potassium chlorides have been obtained in 
colloidal form by the double decomposition of their organic compounds 
in organic media in which the salts were sufficiently insoluble. 

Though inorganic sols are precipitated by the addition of an electro- 
lyte, the presence of free dissociated ions in small quantity seems 
essential to their formation and existence. If a solution of ferric chloride 
be dialysed through a colloid membrane into water, the hydrochloric acid 
formed by hydrolysis passes out into the water, leaving the ferric oxide 
in the dialyser as a colloid sol, and this goes on till the sol is prac- 
tically free from chlorine, but if absolutely the last traces are removed, 
the ferric oxide flocculates and precipitates. Conversely, many oxide or 
hydroxide sols may be obtained by washing the precipitated hydroxide 
sufficiently free from electrolytes, or the precipitated and washed hydroxide 
may be redissolved by boiling with a very small quantity of neutral salt 
or free acid, when the precipitate will gradually' pass into colloidal solu- 
tion. This process (peptisation, Anatzung) has been extended to the 
colloidal solution of mechanically finely powdered oxides by the agency 
of small quantities of acids or salts, and has been employed by Kuzel ^ 
to bring many metallic oxides into the plastic condition requisite for the 
formation of the so-called ' colloid ' electric-lamp filaments, now rapidly 
superseding the carbon fibre. Colloid sols are frequently formed by 
the free dilution of salts liable to hydrolytic dissociation, and especially 
salts of weak organic acids which from their low electrolytic dissociation 
do not readily cause precipitation. Even ferric chloride at a dilution of 
1 : 125000 is completely dissociated in the cold in twenty -four hours, and 
much stronger solutions suffer partial dissociation, especially on heating. 
This is the cause of the darkened colour of hot ferric solutions. Acetates 
are still more readily hydrolysed, and especially by boiling, by which the 
free acetic acid is volatilised. Many solutions of hydroxides in alkalies 
are colloidal, but those in ammonia are u.sually true complex salts. Colloidal 
solutions are obtained of sulphides of metals of which the oxides, like those 
of arsenic and antimony, are soluble in water, by precipitation with H.,S, 
only water and the sulphide being formed in the reaction ; and metallic 
sols of gold, silvei-, platinum, and other noble metals are formed by reduc- 
tion of their dilute solutions, particularly with organic reducing agents. 
Many sols may also be made by precipitation in presence of organic 

> Z. Ch. u. Iiul: d. Kolloide, ii. 1907, p. 76. 

= D. R. P. Ammeld, Ug. K. 30900 of Dec. 12, 1905. 



204 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SClENCi!. 

' protective colloids ' which prevent precipitation by electrolytes. I'hiis 
silver halides may be obtained in colloidal solution in presence of gelatine, 
a fact of great importance in photographic-plate making. An interesting 
point is that in many cases the nature of a sol may be changed by 
oxidation, reduction, or chemical substitution without destroying its 
colloidal character. 

An important method of producing metallic sols is that of Bredig,' 
which differs in many respects from those just described. He employs 
the metal as cathode of an electric arc formed under water, which forms 
a sol with the particles projected from the cathode. Svedberg^ has 
applied the same method to the productioji of so's in ether, isobutyl 
alcohol, and other organic liquids, and of carbon, silicon, sulphur, and 
phosphorus in water.^ Bredig and Haber ' have also shown that under 
certain conditions sols can be produced by electrolysis, especially in 
alkaline solution. 

The ultra-microscope of Siedentopf and Zsigmondy '^ has rendered 
many details of colloid sols accessible to direct observation. In its 
original and most complete form it consists of a rectangular cell on the 
stage of the microscope, through the side of which a powerful horizontal 
beam of light is concentrated by appropriate lenses and adjustable slits ; 
but several other types have been constructed for special purposes. No 
light can reach the observer but that from the brilliantly illuminated 
particles, which are thus rendered visible irrespective of size, as stars are 
visible to the naked eye on which the most powerful telescope can raise 
no measurable disc. As the field of view, and the vertical thickness of 
the beam can be accurately measured, it is possible to count the visible 
particles in a given volume of liquid, and as the total concentration is 
known, their weight (and on certain assumptions as to form, their size), 
can be calculated. While the diameter of the smallest particles which 
could be seen by ordinary illumination, even with a magnifying power 
of 2250 diameters, is about 140 /i/t (mm. xlO'^') Zsigmondy has ob- 
served particles in gold sols of from 20 to 80 *(/i (submicrons) while still 
smaller particles (amicrons) exist, which scatter and polarise light, but 
cannot be separately distinguished. Zsigmondy estimates the size of the 
smaller of these amicrons as from 1-7 to 3 /</j (0-0000017 to 0-000003 mm.). 
Ostwald '' gives the probable size of a hydrogen molecule of molecular 
weight 2 as about 0-16 fifi. As organic substances certainly exist having 
a molecular weight of several thousand, it seems quite probable that 
some of them may be visible to the ultra microscope. Vanino and 
Hartl ^ have shown that if a small quantity of a ready-formed gold sol 
be added to a solution of a gold salt and a reducing agent, the colloid 
particles act as nuclei for the reducing gold. It is thus possible to build 
up amicrons to sub-microns which can be seen and counted. Some similar 
action takes place in gold ruby glass, which has been shown by Zsigmondy 
to owe its colour to colloid gold particles, but which is sometimes colour- 
less until, by reheating, the gold germs have been allowed to grow liy 
absorbing amicrons or reducing gold salts. 

' ^./. Anffew. Ch., 1898, 951-954; Z.f. Elektr., 1898, 4, 514-515. 

- Ber., 1905, 38, 3616-3620, 

» LAd., 19U6, 39, 1713. * Ibid., 1898, 31, 1741. 

'■" ZuT JE-rhenntniss der Eollmde, Jena, 1905. 

"■ Grmidius, p. 82. 

' Bcr., 1906, 39, 1696 -1700. 



COLLOID CHExMISTRY. - 205 

Other metallic and iuoi'ganic Eols appear to contain particles of the 
same order of magnitude as the gold sols, but different sols vary con- 
siderably, and any sol contains a mixture of particles of various sizes. 

As seen by the ultra-microscope, the particles are not at rest, but in 
constant rapid vibrating movement, and, according to Zsigmondy, gold 
particles have also a translatory motion. This vibration, which certainly 
plays its part in the physics of colloid sols, is identical with the 
Brownian or pedetic motion common to all minute particles suspended in 
liquid, but more marked in the ultra-microscopic, since it increases 
inversely with the size of the particles. This motion increases with 
temperature and diminishes with increased viscosity of the liquid, but is 
permanent and unaffected by time, or apparently by the exclusion of 
radiant heat and light. All theories therefore which ascribe the energy 
involved to outside iniluences would seem to be excluded, but it mu^t be 
remarked that it is impossible to observe the phenomenon without light, 
and, ultra-microscopically, without light of a very intense character, so 
that the view suggested by Regnauld ' that it was due to the warming of 
the particles by radiant heat cannot perhaps even yet be entirely ignored. 
Sir W. Ramsay - suggested that the motion was directly due to the heat- 
vibration of the water-molecules, though he thought it necessary to 
assume highly complex water-molecules to account for the disturbance of 
the much heavier solid particles. Einstein ^ and Smoluchowski ** have 
discussed the phenomenon mathematically from two entirely different 
physical standpoints, and have reached results which not only show a 
scarcely expected concordance with each other, but a close relation to 
observed facts. The experimental work of Svedberg •'^ also strongly 
supports this view, so that, without presuming to discuss the mathe- 
matical evidence, it appears that a strong case is made out for regarding 
the motiim as a direct consequence and evidence of the kinetic theory of 
heat. It may be remarked that if external sources of energy can be 
excluded, heat-motion seems the only available cause, since all the energy 
involved in overcoming internal friction of the liquid is converted into 
diffused heat, whieh in a space of uniform temperoture cannot be 
ret-ansformed into any othe- form of energy. 

If an electric current of sufficient strength be passed through an 
aqueous electrolysable solution in which the anode and cathode are 
separated by a diaphragm of porous earthenware, the liquid will pass 
through the latter towards the cathode till a certain equilibriun? 
pressure is established. The phenomenon is known as 'electrical osmose ' 
or 'cataphoresis.' Although observed by Eeuss in 1809, the subject was 
first svstematically investigated by Wiedemann.*' He showed that, with 
uniform difference of pressure, the quantity of liquid which passed 
through the diaphragm was proportional to the current-strength and in- 
dependent of the area or thickness of the porous plate ; and the pressure 
attained, when equilibrium was reached, to the potential ditlerence 
between the two sides of the diaphragm. Quincke,^ substitutnig a 

• J. d. Pharr.1. (3), 18oT, 34. 141. ■ Chom. Xcvs, 1892, 65, 00. 

^ Ann. F/i!/s. (4). 1905, 17, 549-560 ; and 1906, 19, 2. 

' JMd. (4), 1906, 17, 756-780. 

" Ark. fir Kemt, Min. och Gcol, 1907, 2, Kr 29 and 34. 

« Ann. Plnjs. (2), 1852, 87, 321; and Die LeJire der MeMrizitnf, IbO.., LJ. I,, 
993-1019. ' - ;^ 

' ' .\Hn. Phjs. (2), 18G1, 113, 513 .V.)S, 



20G REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

capillary tube for the diaphragm, confirmed these laws, and sliowed 
further that the equilibrium -pressure increased with diminished bore 
and relatively increased surface of the capillary ; and that not only the 
pressure, but the direction of the flow were dependent on the nature of 
the material of the capillary and the liquid employed ; oil of turpentine 
flowing to the anode in a glass capillary, and in the reverse direction in 
one lined with sulphur. It is obvious, therefore, that the action is 
between the surface of the liquid carrying the electric current and that 
of the capillary, and that if the liquid were fixed and the capillary 
surface free to move, it would be carried in the opposite direction to 
the flow of the liquid. This will be the case with suspended particles ; 
and it has long been observed that these are carried in one or other 
direction according to their material and that of the liquid, most sub- 
stances moving toward the anode in water and the cathode in turpentine, 
with a velocity proportional to the current-strength, but independent 
of their distance from each other, and of the electromotive force. 
Quincke assumed that the particles possessed electrical charges different 
from the liquid, and usually negative as compared with aqueous solutions ; 
so that in a current the — particles would tend to move to a region of 
higher -f potential, that is, towards the anode. The relation of these 
facts to the contact- theory and to the phenomena of frictional electricity 
is obvious ; a stream of liquid forced through a capillary of different 
potential would necessarily give rise to an electric current if furnished 
with appropriate conductors. 

Helmholtz supported and somewhat amplified the hypothesis of 
Quincke.^ According to him, the limiting surfaces of two bodies of 
opposite electric character form a ' double layer ' (Doppelschicht) ; the 
-\- charge of the one layer exactly equalling the — charge of the other, 
and thus exerting no outside effect. Under the influence of a fall of 
potential the liquid layer tends to move over the other, and by friction 
communicates its motion • to the adjacent liquid. Billitzer '^ supposes 
that the liquid coating of the double layer communicates its charge by 
diffusion to the remainder of the liquid, and, as this charge is constantly 
renewed by contact-action, both liquid and particles assume permanent 
charges, so that the' latter behave, in a certain sense, like free ions. 
It is possible, or indeed likely, that the pai'ticles owe their original 
charges to the actual attachment of free ions by their residual affinities. 
It is not necessary to suppose, or even probable, that when two or more 
atoms unite to form a molecule their affinities are quantitatively saturated, 
but merely that, under the conditions, the residual atiJnity is insufficient 
to attach another atom. Under these circumstances it is likely that a 
mass of molecules may be able to hold additional ions in a way probably 
identical with what is known as 'adsorption' ; and these ions will affect 
the charge of the mass. The bearing of this on the phenomena of 
tiocculation will be referred to later. 

The phenomenon of electric cataphoresis was first studied with fine 
mechanical suspensions, and has been employed technically for clearing 
turbid liquids, and more recently for drying pasty mixtures, such as 
alizarine paste or ground peat ; currents of high potential being used. 
It is, however, very marked in colloid sols, and closely simulates actual 

' Ann. Phy$. (3), 1879, t, 337. 
» Wien. JBer., 1903. 113. 9S-139, 



Wander to Kathode. 
+ 
Metallic hydro-oxides generally. 
Methyl violet. 
Methylene blue. 
Magdala red. 
Titanic acid. 



COLLOit) CHEMlSl'RY. 207 

electrolysis. Spring,' Lottermoaer,- and others give the following lists as 
to the behaviour of particles in aqueous sols :-- 

WandtT to Anode. 

Colloidal metals. 

Metallic sulphides. 

Silver halides. 

Sulphur. 

Selenium. 

Aniline blue. 

Indigo. 

Eosin. 

Fuchsin, 

Mastic. 

Many organic colloids, and some mineral ones {e.g., silicic acid), 
wander to the anode in alkaline and the cathode in acid solution, while 
certain neutral substances in water, and many others in suitable mixtures 
of water and alcohol, are electrically indifferent. Definite charge in 
relation to the medium is not therefore essential to the colloid state, 
though it appears to be so to electrolytic flocculation. 

From what has just been said, it may be concluded that colloidal 
solutions must possess a sort of pseudo-electrolytic conductivity ; but if 
this is the case, the amount is so slight that it is difficult to decide 
whether it depends on the colloid particles or on the residual traces of 
electrolyte, from which it is impossible to free the sols, as it but slightly 
exceeds that of the purest attainable water. Undoubtedly the particles 
do carry charges ; but the charges are small, and the motion slow, and 
the number of moving particles very small compared with the ions in an 
ordinary electrolyte. It is also uncertain whether the j^articles are 
actually discharged at the electrodes, though occasionally particles appear 
to be repelled from both poles, and to collect in the middle of the 
liquid, which may be due to those which have reached the electrode 
and received a contrary charge wandering backwards, and encountering 
and attracting originally charged particles proceeding in the opposite 
direction. 

All inorganic sols are flocculated and precipitated by the addition of 
electrolytes, though they vary in sensitiveness. Oi-ganic sols are much 
less sensitive in this respect, but are frequently flocculated by the 
addition of organic solvents such as ether or alcohol, to which inorganic 
sols are usually indiflerent. The precipitate is usually termed the ' gel,' 
but the term must not be confounded with 'jelly ' to which many of the 
gels are but distantly related. Gels may be ' reversible,' and may readily 
return to the sol state on restoring the original conditions, such as 
removing the added electrolytes ; but frequently they are ' irreversible,' 
that is, the sols cannot be restored without going through the oftea 
complicated operations by which they were originally produced. 

While the phenomenon of flocculation is apparently similar in in- 
organic and organic sols, it probably often difiers rather widely in its 
causes, that of inorganic sols being closely connected with the electric 
chai'ges of the particles ; while in organic sols, osmotic effects which will 
be best discussed in connection with the properties of jellies, have 

' Bull. Acad. Roy. Be.lg. (3), 1898, 35, 780, 
' Anorganitche Kolloide, p. 76. 



208 itEroRTS ox the state of science:. 

probably a pr&ponderatiug influence. Organic sols which have received 
definite charges usually behave with electrolytes like the inorganic. 

Spring has pointed out that ' coagulation ' (flocculation and precipi- 
tation) takes place in two stages, though both may proceed simulta- 
neously. In the first, the particles flocculate or adhere in larger 
aggregates ; and in the second, these precipitate or settle under the 
influence of gravity. The rapidity of this second stage is much in- 
fluenced by the size and density of the aggregates and the viscosity of the 
liquid, while the first stage is more clearly marked by the beginning of 
turbidity or opalescence, and, though not usually instantaneous, is better 
suited to observation. 

Numerous expei-iments have shown that in order to produce floc- 
culation, the concentration of the electrolyte must reach a certain 
minimum value ('Schwellenwert'), which varies with the electrolyte and 
the sol from a mere trace to a considerable amount. 

Below this value, lapse of time produces no change, but, once it is 
passed, the sol is rapidly or slowly precipitated. In each case that ion of 
the electrolyte which has the opposite charge to the particles of the sol, 
has the determining eflect, which increases rapidly with its valency. It 
has been stated that with divalent and trivalent ions it is proportional to 
the square and cube of that of monovalent, and Wetham ' has shown 
that such a relation can be accounted for on the theory of probabilities 
with certain assumptions as to the electric charge required for coagu- 
lation ; but the agreement of the observed numbers with each other 
and with those required by theory is not sufficiently close to make such 
speculation of much importance. It is also evident that the proportion 
will vary with the numerical value assumed for the monovalent ion. 
Perhaps more important is the observation of Hardy ^ that the specific 
conductivities (ionic dissociation) of acid solutions exerting equivalent 
coagulating powers on negative and of alkaline on positive colloids are 
appi'oximate constants : while acid solutions on positive and alkaline 
solutions on negative colloids have very varied values. This probably 
simply means that free H and free OH ions each have constant precipi- 
tating values for the colloids of opposite sign, while the acid and basic 
ions act according to their nature and valency. 

It has been stated by Spring^ and others that the superior influence 
of polyvalent ions was not due directly to their valency, but to the usually 
greater hydrolytic dissociation of their salts, and, though this has been 
contradicted, it is not probable that the difl'erent ionic concentration 
produced by hydrolysis is without influence. Jordis '' considers that the 
colloid state and its phenomena are due to complex chemical compounds. 

When a colloid sol is precipitated by an electrolyte the resultant 
gel always contains a small and apparently definite quantity of the 
precipitating ion of opposite sign to the particles, which cannot be removed 
by washing without restoring the gel to the sol condition, or destroying 
its colloidal character. This quantity is proportional to the equivalent 
Aveight of the precipitating ion, and may, in many cases, be substituted 

' Phil. Mag., 1899 (5), 48, 47-1-77. 

•■^ Proc. Roy. Soc, 1899, 66, 110-125. 

" Pec. Trav. chim. Pays-Pas, 1900, 19, 201-236. 

* Z.f. Plel'tr, 1904; 10, 509-518 ; Situinf/sbcr d. phys.-med. Soc. Erlangen, 1904, 
36, 47-U7 ; Z. f. Elekirotech., 1904, 10, 500-518 ; and Kaiiter, Z. aiwra. Ch., 1903, 36, 
lG-22. 



t!0Lt.0lt) CtlEMlS'fllY. 200 

by ahother ion of tlie same sign by washing with the appropriate salt.' 
In each case an equivalent quantity of the non-precipitating ion is set 
free, and in the case of the stronger acids and bases may be estimated in 
the residual liquid by titration. These phenomena are not confined to 
inorganic colloids, but are very marked in many organic colloid precipita' 
tions, and apparently the same laws hold good in many pseudo-solutions, 
such as that of clay or of gum mastic in water, which are generally dis- 
tinguished as mere mechanical suspensions. The phenomenon of the 
retention of a portion of the precipitating ion with the precipitate is well 
known in many ionic reactions, and is usually termed ' co-precipitation ' 
or ' adsorption.' It is in fact common to all bodies of largely extended 
surfaces and to jellies, though the question whether in the last case the 
action is surface, or extends throughout the substance, must be discussed 
later. Even with solids, this is still, to a certain extent, an open ques- 
tion. Davis ^ has shown that in the absorption of iodine by carbon, an 
equilibrium is established with the surface action in a few hours, but that 
a further absorption goes on for weeks or months, which he considers due 
to solid solution. The quantity of absorbed or adsorbed substance varies 
with the concentration of the solution with which it is in equilibrium, 
relatively more being taken from weak than from stronger solutions. 
The laws by which it is governed show close relations to those of solu- 
tion-equilibria, and the phenomenon might perhaps be not improperly 
described as surface-solution. If a body be brought in contact with two 
immiscible solvents, it distributes itself between them in a ratio which, 
so long as its molecular condition is the same in both solvents, is, in 
accordance with Henry's law, a constant fraction dependent on its rela- 
tive solution-pressure in the two solvents ; or if C„ and C(, be its concentra- 
tion in the solvents a and b and ft a constant, C^,=/3Ci,. If, however, its 
molecular weight in the solvent b is n times as great as in a, the equation 

takes the form C„=/3C(,". Written in a general form, where x is the 
weight of the absorbed substance and ??i that of the absorbent, while C(, 

X -* 

is the concentration of the solution, the equation becomes — =Ca=/3C4 '',' 
where /3 and p are constants to be determined experimentally, and repre- 
sents very approximately most adsorption-equilibria ; but it is evident 
that p cannot represent the molecular weight in the ordinary sense, since 
it is seldom a whole number, and usually indicates greater complexity in 
the solvent than in the adsorbent, which is impossible, when, as in the 
case of most electrolytes in very dilute solutions, the dissolved body is 

' Lindcr and Picton, Jour. Chem. Sue, 189.3, C7, C3. 
" Trans. Ok. Soc, 1907,91, 1666-1683. 

' The exponential character of a curve of experimental results is easily tested 
by plotting the logs, either natural or common. If the logs of the equation 

C„ = fiCt' be taken, we obtain log C„^log /3 + ^log C,, x -V Hence, if we plot the 

experimental logarithmic concentrations of the solution as abscisstB and those of 
absorbed substance as ordinates, we shall, if the reaction is rigidly exponential, obtain 

a straight line, of which the slope (tangent) is ~, and which cuts the vertical line, 

passing through the origin log C't, = (or Ci,= ]) at log /8. It must not be forgotten 
in plotting logarithms that in fractional numbers the indices are -, while the 
mantissajare always +. Exponential curves rise rapidly at first, but afterwards 
much more slowly and approximate to a straight line. 

1908. p 



210 kEPORl'fcl OA THt; StAtfe Ol<' SClENCtl. 

not merely llionomolecularj but almost wholly ionised.' The extloC 
physical sigiiiticance of p therefore remains to be determined, but where 

the case is one of surface-action is obviously an arbitrary expression, 

which is proportional for any one adsorbent in a uniform state of division, 

but gives no indication of the absolute surface involved. Even if the 

surface is molecular, as it probably is in jellies, we have little knowledge 

of the complexity of the molecules, it can hardly be doubted that 

adsorption is dependent on the same forces as solution, as it is obviously 

selective and influenced by the chemical relations of the adsorbed and 

adsorbing substances, and in some cases is a preliminary to actual chemical 

combination. 

JPreundlich'^ has suggested a somewhat diH'erent em^airical formula from 

that given above for expressing adsori^tion, the so-called X formula, in 

which A. for a given original concentration of the adsorbed solution is 

constant and independent, of the quantity of adsorbent, and takes the place 

ot /J in the simple equation expressing Henry's law. If, however, 

the concentration of the solution (i.e., the relation of the dissolved sub- 

/'a\ _- 
stance a to the volume of the solution v) is varied, /\=a I - ) ", where 

a and n are constants dependent only on temperature and the nature of 
the dissolved substance. This formula has been severely criticised by 
Bain,-* who shows that in some cases it leads to quite anomalous results. 
Freundlich adopts the view of Lagergreen,^ that adsorption is due to 
surface-tension, and points out that a dissolved body which lowers the 
surface-tension between solution and solid must become concentrated on 
that surface. That this is an actual factor in adsorption admits of no 
doubt ; but our knowledge is not jet sufficient to enable us to calculate 
its magnitude ; and it would seem to imply that adsorption was inde- 
pendent of any direct relation between the adsorbed and adsorbing body, 
which does not appear to be the case. It may be, however, that chemical 
relations between the solid and the dissolved substance influence the 
tensions of the solid-liquid surface, and so aflect the results. 

Inorganic sols are frequently coagulated by freezing or evaporation, 
and this is often really due to the traces of electrolytes always present in 
llie sols, which become concentrated in the remaining liquid till they 
reach the minimum necessary for tlocculation. 

Colloid sols are not only flocculated by ions but by other sols of oppo- 
site charge, the two colloids precipitating together in a way which closely 
simulates an ionic reaction ; and many precipitations usually considered 
chemical, such as those of tannin and gelatiue, tannin and bisic colours, 
and basic with acid colours are of this character. If the two sols are 
present in exactly the right proportions the ptecipitatijn is complete, a^d 
the precipitate ot almost constant composition ; but if one be in excess 
neither is completely precipitated. Probably in this Cdse, as in tloccu- 
lation by electrolytes, there is a miuimum coucentration below which pre- 
cipitation does not take place. 

The cause of this minimum concentration being needed is not clear, 

' Cp. Walker and Appleyard, Traits. C'h. Sue, 189(3, 69, 1334. 

* ' Ueber die Absorptioo ia Losungeu,' UabUitatiousschri/t, Leipzig, 1906. 
» Trans. Lh. Sor., 1907, 91, 1683. 

* mhany t. Scumka Vvt. Ak. MauM., 1899, 24, II., Nr. 4, 49; /i. 2>ht/s. CL, IJOO 
82, 174, 175. 



COLLOID CHEMISTRY. 2tl 

but it seems to indicate a certain initial resistance which must be broken 
down, and which is probably connected with the surface-tension between 
the particles and the liquid, or possibly with the stability of the electrical 
double layer, with which the surface tension is closely connected, as shown 
by the work of Quincke and Lippmann. The resistance to electrolytes 
is somewhat affected by the ra+^e at which they are added, being greater 
when the addition is slow or in small quantities than when the necessary 
amount is added at once. 

It can hardly be doubted that flocculation, whether by added electro- 
lytes or by other colloids, is dependent on the neutralisation of the charges 
of the particles. In the case of electrolytes, the ions of which the charges 
are much greater than those of the particles, probably act as nuclei round 
which a number of particles are aggregated. The greater efficiency of 
polyvalent ions may thus depend on the larger aggregates which their 
larger charges are able to neutralise, and which naturally fall sooner 
under the influence of gravity and of cohesive attraction. As the 
particles probably owe their charges to attached ions, both Hocculation 
and adsorption are in a sense chemical reactions. As one ion probably 
neutralises many particles, the quantity carried down with the gel is 
relatively very small. 

The action of ' protective ' colloids has been already mentioned, and is 
usually most marked in the effect of organic colloids on inorganic sols, but 
certain inorganic sols have also protective effect. Biltz ' found that 
zirconium hydroxide exerted a protective action on gold sols even stronger 
than that of gelatine ; and Ruer,'^ that zirconium and ferric sols contain- 
ing traces of chlorine gave no precipitate with silver nitrate, the silver 
chloride remaining in colloidal solution. Kuspert has also produced gold 
and silver sols by reduction in presence of silica jelly. The efficiency of 
protective colloids extends to both positive and negative sols, though 
usually in difJ'erent degrees, and is marked in a large number of organic 
colloids, many of which, it may be remarked, are amphoteric, and take 
different charges according to the acidity or alkalinity of the medium. 
Thus gelatine and its peptones are among the most powerful with regard 
to gold sols, less than 1 nigr. being sufficient to protect a litre of gold sol 
from precipitation by salt, while 80 mgr. were required to exert an equal 
protective effect on a (much more concentrated) AsgSj sol. Most other 
colloids are less powerful in their effects, 10-20 mgr. of egg albumen, a 
somewhat larger amount of gum arable, and from 0-6 to 2 grm. of dextrine 
or starch being required to proiiuce on gold sol an equal effect to 1 mgr. 
of gelatine. Zsigmondy •' has taken advantage of this difference of eflfect 
for the detection and identification of colloids in mixtures. He calls the 
number of mgr. of a colloid required to protect 10 c.c. of a stable gold sol 
containing 0005:3-0-0058 per cent, of gold from the precipitating action 
of 1 c.c. of a 10 percent, salt solution the 'gold-value' of the colloid. 

The cause of protective action is not fully explained. It is not due to 
the viscosity of the colloid, since the effect is produced by quantities too 
hmall to have any appreciable influence either on the vis.-osity of the 
liquid or on the pedetic motion. IS^either does it appear due to direct 
influence on the charges of the particles, since many tollods protect both 
positive and negative sols. It is more probably due to an actual coating 
of the particles of the sol with the protective substance. Bechhold * 

' Ber., 1902, 35, 4431-S. "- Z. atwrg. Ch., 1905, 43, 8C-93. 

• Z. anal. Ch., 1902, 40, 697-719, •• Z.phys. Ch., 1904, 48, 385-423. 

pa 



212 REPOKTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

ascribes this to surface-tension. Quincke ^ has shown that in a system of 
immiscible liquids A, B, and C, if the sum of the surface- tensions between 
A — B and B — C is less than that between A — C, B must spread between 
A and C, forming an intermediate layer. Bechhold shows numerically 
that this is the case in the system mastic-gektine-water, and that the 
mastic particles must therefore become coated with gelatine, which acts 
as a protective colloid ti a mastic suspension. It is obvious that as the 
felatine- coated particles have greater attraction for water and less for each 
other as compared with mastic, they will have less tendency to coa'esce. 
It may also be suggested that the gelatine may form a permanent double 
layer in the electric sense, which will render the neutralisation of the 
parti'-les by oppositely charged ions difficult or impossible. 

Platinum and gold sols exert a strong catalytic influence similar to 
that of platinum black and spongy platinum, decomposing hydrogen 
peroxide, ctusing combination of oxygen and hydrogen, and other similar 
effects. These seem merely due to the extended surface and very fine 
division of the metals, and belong rather to tbe general theory <<f catalysis 
than to thdt of the colloid state. Metallic sols have, however, been 
styled ' inorganic ferments ' from the analogy of their action to that of 
tiie catalases, which are also colloidal, and which bring about similar 
reactions. Like them the action of the metallic sols is favoured by 
warmth, and in the case of hydrogen peroxide by small additions 
of alkali, while larger quantities slow or prevent it. In both cases 
certain substances, such as hydrogen sulphide and cyanide, exert a 
i so nous ' or inhibitory efl'ect on the catalyst, which if slight is slowly 
recovered from. It is doubtful, however, if the resemblance is more than 

analogy. 

The colour of metallic hydrosols is often intense, and varies with their 
condition, and especially on approaching flocculation ; that of silver from 
dark brown to brown-violet, changing to deep green before flocculation. 
Gold hydrosols vary from intense red to blue-violet, taking the latter tint 
before precipitation by electrolytes, though some blue-gold sols are stable. 
The change of colour does not depend on the average size of the particles, 
but apparently on their aggregation. Kirchner and Zsigmondy - found 
that a red-gold sol rendered stable by gelatine becomes blue on e-vapora- 
tion to dryness, and under the microscope shows intensely coloured masses 
of many submicrons in a colourless medium. On moistening or redissolving 
these become again distributed, and the red colour is restored. Planck -* 
has shown that the light absorbed by small particles, which act as ' optical 
resonators ' to the electro-magnetic light-wave, must become redder and 
that transmitted bluer as they approach each other. Seen in the ultra- 
microscope the gold particles usually reflect yellow light. 

It has been noted that the precipitated gels of inorganic colloids are, 
in the opinion of the writer, not identical in structure with the true 
or'^anic jellies, but at least in many cases they possess strong points of 
resemblance, and from their fine state of division I'etain many colloidal 
properties, most marked, of course, when they are reversible. They 
usually retain a portion of water with great obstinac}-, so that it has often 
been miste-ken for water of true chemical hydration. In some cases, 
however, the gels are probably true hydrates, which retain additional 
water by their surface-attraction. Van Bemmelen, Biitschli, and others 

' 'inn Phy.^. (3), 1888. 35, 580-642. = Jbld. (4), IflOl, 15, GTI^-r.R.o. 

^ Jhiif. (4), 191)0, 1, 09-122. 



COU.OtD CHEMrSTMY, 213 

liave assUuicd \ariuiis netted, cellular, and micellar structures in gela- 
tinous gels, and to a certain extent these must have a real existence, 
though the extension of the theory to the true organic jellies is of doubtful 
validity. Von Weimarn ' has shown that gelatinous precipitates are 
obtained when concentrated solutions of crystalloids are mixed which 
react with each other to produce a compound which is very insoluble in 
the liquid ; as, for instance, when concentrated solutions of barium thio- 
cyanate and manganese sulphate are shaken together. These 'jellies' 
may even be perfectly clear and transparent, and consist of drops of 
one or other solution, surrounded by a thin lilm of practically colloidal 
precipitate, which prevents coalescence and further reaction with the 
surrounding liquid. A very similar effect has been observed by the writer 
when a concentrated solution of calcium phosphate in hydrochloric acid 
is mixed with strong ammonia, when the mixture, though smelling 
strongly of ammonia, may yet contain acid calcium phosphate in excess, 
which is only slowly decomposed by the diffusion of ammonia into the 
isolated droplets.- The colloid particles are necessarily extremely insoluble 
in their media, and whenever precipitation occurs by the mixture of a 
precipitating solution the gel will be likely to take such cellular forms, 
the dimensions of which will depend on the conditions of precipitation. 
In other cases where the precipitation is more gradual the particles will 
still adhere to loose amorphoys masses, presenting a very large surface to 
the liquid, and it is probable that where dilute colloid solutions coagulate 
in which the surface-tension between the particles and water is con- 
siderable they will cohere to a more or less molecular network, which 
will contract in order to lessen surface and tear into flocculent masses, 
entangling and carrying down with them, as albumen does, all suspended 
particles in the liquid. Biitschli^ found that many gels showed network 
structures under the microscope with magnifications of about 2,000 diams. 
when suitably treated, and detected similar structure in gelatine when 
hardened with alcohol or chromic acid ; but as the unhardened gelatine 
appeared quite structureless it is very probable that the cavities were 
produced by the hardening process, and it may be noted that gelatine 
rapidly hardened by dehydrating agents is always more or less opaque and 
non-homogeneous. 

The drying of gels is a continuous process, proceeding rapidly at first 
with vapour pressures not materially below that of water, but gradually 
becoming slower, and the vapour-pressure lower as dryness is approached. 
Owing to the structure of the gel some time (days or weeks) is required 
for the mass to reach equilibrium with any definite vapour-pressure. 
The curve of vapour-pressures as compared with gradually diminishing 
percentage of water, though continuous, is not always regular, and 
does not appear to lie exponential, and the process is usually irre- 
versible with inorganic gels, or at least partially so, indicating a per- 
manent change of state, thougii in some cases it may be connected with 

' Z. Ch. 11. Tnd. d.Kollolde, 1907, ii. 7fi. 

" Cp. p 2 of reprint. Von Weimarn holds that the sole difference betwetn the 
colloid and cr^ stalloid condition lies in the extreme insolubility of the minute crystal- 
line elements tjrsi formed, which prevents thoir uniting to form larger crystals, and 
considers that all matter is potentially crystalline. 

' Untersuchungen uber viikrosh)})' tche ScTiiLuine und das Protnplasma, Leipzig, 
1892; Verb. dc9 natnrh.-njed. Vereins m Heidelbe^, iV'.Z^., 18"9Z, 5, 28-41, 42-43; 
1894, 5, 89-102, 230-292; 1806, 5, 457-472. 



2M' HEPORTS OK TflE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

eurface-tension, as in that of swollen gelatine drying in saturated watet*- 
vapour, which will be mentioned later. Silica-jelly, which was very fully 
investigated by Van Bemraelen,' may be taken as an example. The fresh 
gel was dried at a temperature of 15°, at which water has a vapour- 
pressurejof 12*7 mm., in a series of exsiccators containing sulphuric acid 
diluted to known vapour-pressures, until equilibrium was established. 
The fall of vapour- pressure was at first very gradual, but became more 
marked at 1 1 mm. when a water-content of 3*7 was reached. (Tt is not 
clear from the diagram whether this is 3"7 mols. per mol. of SiO.2 or 
3"7 grm. per grm., but probably the former.) At a pressure of about 
5 mm. and a water- content of about 1'5 the gel, which had previously 
been transparent, became opalescent, and finally porcelain-white, and the 
curve ran horizontally, that is, the vapour-pressure remained constant 
until a water- content of 1 was reached. This constant pressure indi- 
cates some change, chemical or physical, which takes place at this 
pressure, and if the proportions are molecular, might correspond to the 
decomposition of a definite hydrate (Si0.2)20H., with a vapour-pressure 
of 5 mm., or to a change of form to one with lessened attraction for 
water. The opacity would also correspond to some definite change, as 
during the horizontality of the curve the gsl would be a non-homo- 
sreneous mixture of the two substances or two forms. Below 5 mm. 
the gel again becomes homogeneous and transparent. Van Bemmelen 
supposes that during the change a further coagulation takes place with 
contraction of the gel and the production of air-spaces. Up to this 
point the curve is irreversible, that is, the gel will not absorb moisture 
in the same way, but only a much lessened quantity in saturated water- 
vapour. Probably in the earlier part of the curve the surface-tension 
between the water and silica is different from its surface-attraction for 
water-vapour, and the change indicated by the opaque state is not 
likely to be a reversible one. Below 4 or 5 mm. pressure the drying 
is a reversible one, and of the character common to all porous or finely 
divided substances. The drying of ferric hydroxide is very .similar in 
character, but has no marked horizontal in its curve, which is throughout 
irreversible. From some, perhaps rather fanciful, resemblance of the 
curves produced to those caused by the hysteresis or ' lag ' in the magneti- 
sation and demagnetisation of iron, the phenomenon has been described 
by that name. It produces some curious consequences, of which space 
does not permit discussion. 

Most organic colloids seem to differ somewhat widely from the inor- 
ganic sols and gels which have been described, and in many cases their 
solutions, though possessing colloidal properties, approximate closely to 
what we should anticipate of true solutions of bodies of the high mole- 
cular weights which many of them are known to possess. They present 
more analogy to emulsions of immiscible liquids which become more 
miscible at higher temperatures than to suspensions of solid particles 
like the metallic sols, and have hence been called ' emulsion colloids.' 
Their sols usually show the Tyndall effect, and frequently, but not 
always, submicrons are visible to the ultra-microscope ; but both may 
disappear with rise of temperature or the addition of a ' common 
(solvent.' They are not usually sensitive to small additions of an electro- 

» Z, anorg. Ch., 1896, 13, 233-256. 



COLLOID CnEMTSTRV. 215 

lyte, and when ' salted out ' by larger quantities tlie effect seems often 
more osmotic than electrical. In some cases, however, when the colloid 
has acquired a de6nite positive or negative (ionic) charge it becomes 
much more sensitive to electrolytes, and where organic sols mutually 
precipitate each other, the presence of a trace of electrolytes is probably 
essential to communicate the necessary charges. It is stated that gela- 
tine free from inorganic constituents oidy gives a slisjht opalescence with 
tannin, and in ordinary cases the rapidity and completeness of the 
precipitation are much increased by the presence of salts. 

Many aqueous organic colloid solutions are flocculated by additions of 
alcohol, ether, itc, and, conversely, alcoholic by addition of water, which 
have usually no action on inorganic sols. These effects are probably 
purely osmotic and dependent on the solubility of the substance in the 
different media, but such additions often change the electrical charge of 
the solvent. 

In most cases organic sols are simply viscous liquids which on con- 
centration become more and more viscous till they reach a practically 
solid form without any break of continuity ; but others, usually by 
change of temperature, pass into the semisolid state known as jelly. 
This solidification generally occurs with comparative suddenness, and is 
sometimes irreversible, but usually jellies have pretty definite melting- 
points at or slightly lower than their points of solidifi'^ation, and varying 
only slightly with the concentration of the solution, but, like the melting- 
points of fats, not reaching their full value till some time aftpr apparent 
solidification. Like crystallisation also, the change to the solid form is 
accompanied by evolution of heat, and liquefaction by its absorption. 

Conversely, organic colloids in the solid form are capable of absorbing 
water or some other solvent, sometimes passing back without break to 
the viscous condition, but often reaching a maximum absorption and 
retaining the jelly state. Gelatine, for instance, dissolves direct to a 
viscous solution at temperatures above 25° or 30", but swells to a jelly at 
lower ones, which melts if the temperatore is raised. Cellulose and 
many of its derivatives and many animal and vegetable tissues swell, 
but do not dissolve without hydrolysis or other chemical change, and may 
be viewed as irreversible iellies. Thus dyeing, tanning, and many other 
industries may be regarded as branches of colloidal chemistry. 

The absorption of the solvent is accompanied by swelling or increase 
of volume, but especially in the early stages by marked contraction of 
the sum of the volumes of solvent and colloid, and considerable evolution 
of heat ; and, conversely, in dehydration heat is absorbed. Consequently 
cold promotes swelling (as distinguished from solution), and heat has the 
opposite efFect, though in dilute jellies, which can usually only be sub- 
jected to a small range of temperature, these effects are not very marked, 
and are often masked by other influences such as bacterial fermentation. 
As an illustration, it may be mentioned that gelatine is most rapidly and 
satisfactorily dissolved for culinary purposes by swelling in cold water, 
which may be thrown away with the dissolved impurities, and then by 
melting the swollen jelly by setting the vessel in hot water. 

The absorption of water-vapour by most solid organic colloids is a 
cyclical and reversible process, the colloid returning by evaporation to its 
original condition, and it therefore follows that Clausius' equations can 
be applied in this case as well as in the expansion of bodies by heat. 



21G REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Rodewald ' has done this in the case of starch, and ha? calculated irom 
the results its internal pressure, which was found to vary from 2073 
kilos, per sq. cm. in dry starch to 561 kilos, in starch fully saturated with 
aqueous vapour. He also calculated from its vapour- pressure its mole- 
cular weight in the solid form as 4370, closely corresponding to twenty - 
seven times the empirical formula CgHidO.^. [Phis is interesting as 
derived in a different way from the molecular weight determinations in 
liquid^. The method is obviously applicable to other solid colloids. 

The pressures exerted in the early stages of colloid swelling are very 
large, though they become almost inappreciable as the maximum is 
approached. The ancient use of dry wood wedges subsequently moistened 
is an instance of this, and it may be mentioned that stones of the 
trilithon at Baalbec in Syria, weighing over 1,000 tons, have obviously 
been split in this way. The effect has usually been ascribed to capillary 
contraction, but a little consideration will show that capillarity cannot 
produce expansive effects. A pile of thin plates (e.g., cover-glasses on the 
microscope stage) will be compressed and not expanded if water is allowed 
to be drawn between them by capilhirity. The effect is necessarily mole- 
cular and osmotic, the liquid getting vytthin the sphere of molecular 
attractions, and so sustaining and liberating for expansion a portion of the 
enormous internal pressures which have just been mentioned (in the case 
of'starch some 1,500 atmospheres). 

The point of maximum swelling, v/hether in liquid or vapour, is 
obviously a definite equilibrium which is reached when the attraction of 
the colloid for the liquid or vapour is balanced by the internal attractions 
of the colloid and the liquid in themselves. The liquid and the colloid 
are in complete osmotic equilibrium, and consequently, according to a 
well-known law, are both in equilibrium with the vapour. P. von 
Schroeder ^ draws attention to an apparent exception to this law, which 
is of considerable importance, and for which he was unable to offer a 
satisfactory explanation. He found that agar and gelatine jellies swelled 
to a considerably larger extent when immei-sed in water than they did in 
saturated aqueous vapour, and that when the jelly, saturated by im- 
mei'sion, was suspended in saturated vapour it dried till it was again 
in equilibrium with the vapour ; thus evidencing a greater vapour- 
pressure than the liquid water with which it was in osmotic equilibrium. 
He found, however, that when the jelly^ was swollen with an N/ 100000 
solution of a sulphate instead of water, no contraction, but slight further 
swelling, occurred ; while an N/ 1000000 solution diminished but did not 
prevent the evaporation. As the N/IO"' solution may be assumed to be 
completely ionised it will contain three gram-ions in 2 x 10* c.c, and at 
0' C. will exert an osmotic pressure of 340 dynes per cm.-. This would 
involve work of 340 ergs per gram of water removed, and would cor- 
i-espond to raising a gram of water only 0-344 cm. in height, but Von 
Schroeder took special precautions to avoid difference in level. If, 
however, a portion of water is removed from the mass, the surface is 
extended and work is done (on the assumption of spherical form) of 
370 ergs per gram. The .surface-tension is less, and the osmotic pressure 
greater, at laboratory temperature (about 365 dynes at 20°), so that the 

» E. f. Phys. Ch., 1897. 24, 193 ; and UnUrsucMngen iibfr Hie Quellung der 
Starke, Lepsius and Fischer, Leipzig, 1896, 
» Ibid., 1903,^5, 75-U7. 



COLLOID CHEMISTRY. ' 217 

eaergy of sui-face-tensioii agrees well with that found to produce the 
effect, and is a suflBcient cause. The figures are perhaps less important 
as explaining an apparent anomaly than as illustrating the smallness of 
the forces involved in considerable changes of volume near the maximum 
swelling. The relation of surface-tension to the drying of gels consisting 
of aggregates of particles, as that of silica, may be here again referred to. 
If the common tension between the surfaces of the particles is less than 
that of water itself, as in gels is necessarily the case, they will retain a 
large amount of water by surface attraction, the vapour-pressure of which 
will be equal to or somewhat less than that of liquid water according to the 
tenuity of the film. As the water is removed by evaporation the particles 
will cohere by their mutual attraction, and if this cohesive attraction is 
greater than the difference between the tension of water and that of the 
common surface, or, in other words, than the difference between the 
attraction of the particles for water and the attraction of water for itself, 
water will not again spread between the particles, aod the drying will be 
irreversible as in the earlier stages of the silica jell}'. 

The rate of absorption of liquid by solid colloids has been studied 
by Hofmeister ^ and more recently by Pauli (Paschelcs).'-' The latter 
showed, both mathematically and by experiment on agar and gelatine, 
that if Q be the degree of swelling and M its mass, the rate of swelling 

■ at any given time is equal to (jM — Q)C, the difference between tl.e 
etc 

actual and the maximum swelling multiplied by a constant, which 
varies with the material and probably with the temperature. This 
is a law common to many chemical and physical changes, but compli- 
cated in this case by the constantly increasing thickness of the swelling 
colloid. For very thin plates, where this can be neglected, and 
Ijetween the times t and <, and the swelling Q and Q, the constant 

C = Id. ,- — ^ , and for agar is about 95 x 10^. 

ty-t M— Qi ° 

The swelling of gelatine jelly is much influenced by acids and alkalies, 
both of which largely increase alike its amount and its rapidity. The action 
of neutral salts on swelling, as regards gelatine, has been investigated by 
Hofmeister ; ^ their effect on melting and gelatinising temperatures by 
Pauli,* and on viscosity by von Schroeder All these effects are prac- 
tically parallel ; salts which lessen swelling raise the melting-point of 
jellies and increase the viscosity of the sols. The effect seems an 
additive one in which anions and cations take part, but no definite laws 
have been established. The order of the salts investigated, placing these 
first which most raise the melting-point, is sulphates, citrates, tartrati s, 
acetates, water, chlorides, chlorates, nitrates, bromides, iodides as anions ; 
and K, Ca, Na, Sr, and Mg as cations ; those placed before water 
raising, and those after it lowering, the melting-point. Whether the same 
order applies to other colloids than gelatine is uncertain, but no doubt 
the effects depend to a considerable extent on the specific affinities of salt 
and colloid. 

The swelling, though mainly an osmotic efft^ct, is influenced by the 
solid cohesion of the jelly, and there can be little doubt that at tho 
moment of setting a network is formed, whether molecular or coarser, 

' Archlvf. exp. Path, loid PhoTm., ISOO, 27, 305-413. ■ Ibid., 1895, 36, luO. 

s Jbid., 1891, 28, 210-238, ^ fflager, Arckiv, 1898, 71, l-3i. 



218 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIEXCE. 

whicli remains intact during the existence of the jelly. Experiments 
made by the writer show that the volume of the jelly at the moment of 
setting has considerable effect on the maximum of swelling, though con- 
centrated jellies after drying swell in water to more, and dilute to less, 
than their original volume. A solution originally containing 23 grra. of 
water reabsorbed 14'5 grm., one of 11 grm. 7"8 grm, and one of 5 grm. 
6 grm. per grm. of dry gelatine. Tf weak jellies are mechanically squeezed 
a considerable amount of liquid, mostly water, can be expressed, and this 
has been used as an argument for the cellular (two-phased) structure of 
jellies. It is obvious, however, that near the swelling maximum this 
must be possible in any case, since it has bepn already shown that con- 
siderable changes of volume can be produced by changes of osmotic pres- 
sure equivalent to less than 1 cm. of water. 

The phenomenoTi of ' semipermeability ' is frequently exhibited by 
colloid gels and jellies, and, in fact, all the usual semipermeable mem 
branes are colloidal. Just as solids will dissolve in one solvent, and not 
in another, so jellies are selective in the liquids which they will absorb. 
Tndiarubber will absorb hydrocarbons but not water ; gelatine and agar, 
water but not hydrocarbons or alcohol ; and the process of transfusion in 
a semipermeable membrane is not one of mere mechanical filtration of a 
finer order, but of absorption and solution on one side of the membrane, 
and solution and diffusion on the other, and is intimately connected with 
the chemical character of the membrane and with its ionic charge. 
Colloid jellies or membi'anes are usually impermeable to other colloids, 
while most dissolved salts diffuse in them with nearly the same rapidity 
as in pure watev, though they are sometimes semipervious to those 
containing a com^mon ion. In dilute jellies, however, some diffusion of 
finely divided colloids takes place ; and Bechhold ' has used dilute jellies 
(under pressure, supported on coarser media) for the fractional filtration 
of colloid solutions. Gelatine and gelatinous membranes are semi- 
permeable to alcohol, which exerts considerable osmotic pressure in a 
gelatine-lined cell, and jelly is easily dehydrated in absolute alcohol till 
it contains less than its own weight of water, very little alcohol diffusing 
into the jelly. On the other hand, if alcohol is mixed with a warm gela- 
tine solution in insufficient quantity to cause precipitation and is allowed 
to set, the jelly will show much more than its normal maximum swelling 
when immersed in water, from the osmotic pressure of the contained 
alcohol which cannot escape. This observation proves clearly that the 
contraction is not due to any chemical action of the alcohol, but to simple 
osmotic causes. If alcohol in sufficient quantity be added to a warm and 
ungelatinised solution nf gelatine, it causes separation of the latter, first 
as a milky liquid, which rapidly flocculates, and, if stirred, coheres into 
a solid mass, thus showing all the usual phenomena of coagulation, from 
what are obviously purely osmotic causes. Similar effects occur with 
gums, dextrine, and most other water-soluble colloids. With egg- 
albumen the coagulation is irreversible, but in most cases re-solution 
takes place on again substituting water. 

Dilute acids and alkalies greatly raise the maximum swelling of gelatine 
and all gelatinous animal tissues such as skin. French gelatine with a 
maximum absorption of seven to eight times its weight of water will absorb 
over fifty times in hydrochloric acid of 0'00.3 grm.-mol. per litre, at about 

> VoTtr. 78. Vers, 4- N^aturf. V. Aerzfe, Stwttgart, 1906, 



COLLOID CHEMI«TkY. 210 

wliicli concentration the swelling reaches a maximum, falling gradually 
to below twenty times at 04 grm.-mol. per litre, much beyond which the 
experiment cannot be carried because of solution of the jelly in the acid. 
Similar effects occur with all other acids which the writer has investigated 
in which a sufficient concentration can be employed without causing solu- 
tion. The concentration of the ac d in the swollen jelly is always greater 
than in the external solution, increasing (in the case of gelatine at least) 
somewhat rapidly at first, before the maximum of swelling is reached, and 
later remaining nearly constant at 0002 or t<-003 mol. per litre above 
the outside solution ; while the total quantity of absorbed acid per grm. 
of gelatine increases by a law very approximately exponential. The 
whole of the hydrochloric acid can be estimated by titration with caustic 
alkali in presence of phenolphthalein, but only a portion with methyl 
orange, showing that one part of the acid exists in a less ionised state 
than the remainder. The swollen jelly can no longer be dehydrated by 
absolute alcohol, showing that the osmotic pressure of water into the jelly 
is now greater than that into the alcohol, but a part of the acid, approxi- 
mately corresponding to that estimated by methyl orange, can be removed 
by repeated treatment with alcohol. The jelly is still pervious to acid and 
salt solutions, though probably to a less extent than neutral jelly, and it 
is obvious that one portion of the acid exists in some sort of combination 
with the jelly, while another is merely osmotically absorbed. It is clear 
that no definite conclusions can be drawn until in some way these portions 
can be distinguished ; and as a first approximation (obviously not quite 
correct) it was assumed that the acid absorbed in swelling was of the same 
concentration as that of the outer solution, the less ionised and more con- 
stant portion, which may be called 'fixed acid,' being ascertained by sub- 
tracting the calculated value of the acid in the absorbed liquid from the 
total found in the jelly. The result showed that the ' fixed acid ' rapidly 
reached a maximum coincident with the concentration of maximum 
swelling, after which it remained approximately constant, a slight down- 
ward curve being probably due to the inaccuracy of the assumption that 
the strength of the absorbed solution was equal to that outside, or, what 
amounts to the same thing, that the whole of the water in the jelly was 
present as absorbed outer solution. With a small correction in this sense 
the amount of ' fixed acid ' obtained in this way closely corresponds to 
that not estimated by phenolphthalein, and incapable of being washed 
out by alcohol. From inspection of the curves it is obvious that that 
of total acid per grm, of gelatine is of an exponential type, but it is com- 
pounded of that of ' fixed acid ' the character of which strongly suggests 
chemical combination somewhat complicated by dissociation or hydrolysis ; 
and of the curve of swelling, which after its maximum is reached, is 
of a hyperbolic character. If, as is probable from the empirical formula, 
the molecular weight of gelatine is about ISOO, or its multiple, it 
would roughly correspond to the fixation of two mols. of HCl by one of 
gelatine. 

The action of salts on unacidified gelatine has been mentioned, and 
common salt causes a small increase of swelling as compared with water, 
and even saturated solutions have no dehydrating eflFect. If, however, 
salt is added to jelly swollen with hydrochloric acid, swelling is imme- 
diately reduced, and very powerful dehydration comparable with that of 
absolute alcohol is obtained by saturated salt solutions in presence of the 
amount of acid necessary to the maximum swelling effect. At the same 



220 REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

tiiue lilt; total acid iu the jelly is diuiiiiisliutl, but tlic ' lixcd acid ' la 
gradually, though nob largely, increased. It is probable that if the con- 
centration of the hydrochloric acid could be increased to an equal extent 
to that of the salt without causing solution an equal dehydration would 
be produced, and it is difficult to resist the conclusion that the swelling 
is due to the chlorine ion iu the acid gelatine, and is osmotically 
repressed by the increase of the same ion in the solution. Other acids 
with their neutral salts produce similar effects. The fact that similar 
dehydration is produced by other acids, e.r/., sulphuric, in conjunction with 
sodium chloride, and probably with other salts, does not contradict the 
conclusion that it is the common anion which is operative, since in the 
case suggested an equilibrium of sodium and gelatine sulphates and sodium 
and gelatine chlorides would result. The cause of the general swelling 
effect of acids must, however, in some way be intimately connected with 
their common H ion, and that of alkalies, which is equally powerful, 
with the hydroxyl ion. The alkaline swelling is not repressed by sodium 
chloride, even when caused by sodium hydrate, but is repressed by 
sufficient concentration of the hydroxyl ion in the outer solution. The 
above are the summarised results of a research on which the writer has 
been some time engaged, and which he hopes shortly to publish with a 
more detailed discussion of the operating causes. It may be remarked 
that the dehydration of ;icidiHed gelatinous tissues has an important 
technical application in the preservation of sheep pelts by ' pickling ' 
with salt and suljahuric acid, and its bearing on mineral tannages in 
which salt is employed with alums and other compounds of acid reaction 
is very obvious. As gelatine is decidedly amphoteric, and is known 
to be capable of decomposing many salts in solution, it is quite pos- 
sible that some of the complicated effects of unacidified salt solutions 
which have been referred to may be due to partial absorption of the 
acid of the salt and the osmotic effect of the remainder on the compound 
formed. 

.Space will not allow of any detailed discussion of the coagulation of 
the various albumins by heat and precipitating agents, which, important 
as they are from the physiological aspect, have not yet yielded many facts 
which can lie explained on general principles. Albumins, carefully freed 
from electrolytes by dialysis, are electrically neutral and incompletely 
coagulated by heat or by those precipitants which do not at the same time 
communicate an electrical charge. The addition of a trace of acid which 
gives a positive charge renders them liable to complete coagulation by 
heat and much more sensitive to the action of electrolytes ; but larger 
([uan titles of acid, perhaps by producing soluble acid albumins, prevent 
coagulation. Traces of alkalies which give a negative charge have a 
similar effect, though the precipitation is usually less complete, and excess 
again prevents or lessens precipitation. Coagulation by heat is usually 
irreversible, and so also that by alcohol, though zymases are precipitated 
by the latter in a reversible (soluble) form. Salts of the heavy metals, 
even in small quantities, produce irreversible coagulation, very possibly 
connected with combination, or colloidal precipitation with a colloidal 
compound of the metal. Excess of the precipitant frequently prevents 
precipitation, probably by the formation of new complex compounds. 
Possibly there may be some connection between these phenomena and 
the irreversible (tanning) effects of some metallic solutions on gelatinous 
tissues. These solutions are usually of 'basic salts ' containing metallic 



COLLOID CHEMISTRY. 221 

oxides colloidally dissolved. Precijjitations of albumins by alkali salts, 
especially in neutral solution, are generally reversible.^ 

The relations of colloid chemistry to technology can here only be 
briefly alluded to. The industries of indiarubber, gutta-percha, gums, 
dextrine, glue and gelatine, and cellulose derivatives are of course all 
colloidal, and it is probable that many reactions which have been 
described as chemical may really be those of absorption compounds. 
Tanning and dyeing are particularly concerned with the mutual precipi- 
tation of colloids and that by inorganic reagents, and in these industries 
also the distinction between pliysical and chemical reactions in any given 
case is one of extreme difficulty, which is much accentuated by the want 
of any method for the separation of colloids comparable with crystallisa- 
tion, or even fractional distillation. 

Among industries with inorganic colloids may be mentioned the com- 
paratively new one of the manufacture of colloid fibres for electric glow- 
lamps from difficultly fusible metals, and both earthenware and agricul- 
ture are largely dependent on the properties of colloidal suspensions. 
Glass manufacture is also a colloid industry, and coloured glasses solid 
colloidal solutions : and modern pigments are largely colloidal precipitates 
and colour-lakes. 

In conclusion it is only right to acknowledge indebtedness to the 
excellent work of Dr. Arthur M tiller, ' AUgemeine Chemie der Kolloide,' -^ 
with its extensive bibliography ; and to the ' Zeitschrift fiir Chemie und 
Industrie der Kolloide,' edited by Dr. Wolfgang Ostwald, without which 
the preparation of such a report would have been extremely laborious. 
Owing to the very numerous and often somewhat inaccessible journals in 
which important work has appeared, it has been necessary in many cases 
to trust to abstracts, and it is possible that from this cause full justice 
has not been done to some authors. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Snhstances. — Report of the Committee, 
consistinij oft)v. E. Divers (Chairman), Professor A. W. Crossley 
{Secretary), Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. 0. Forster. and 
Dr. H. E. Le Sueur. 

1 : ^-Dirnethyl-;^--^-dihydroheni:ene and 1 : l-diinethyl-l-'-'^-dihydro- 
benzene.^ — An account of the preparation of 1 : 1-dimethyl-A-^-dihydro- 
benzene (II) by the reduction of 3 : 5-dichloro-l : l-dimetLyl-A-=*-dihy- 
drobenzene (I) with sodium in moist ethereal solution appeared in 1902.^ 

/CH=CCk /CH— CH. 

CileZ Vh -> CMe.,< >Cir. 

\CH.,.CC1'^ ■\CH..CH'^ 

(0 a I) 

Shortly after the publication of this work. Harries and Antoni ^ 
expressed doubt, not only as to the constitution but also as to the com- 
position of this hydrocarbon. Their criticisms were, in part, answered 

' The work of Cobnlieim, Chemie der Ebvi'iss]iuri>cr, 1904, aad of Pauli and S.iiio 
in the Beitr. z. Chem. Plnjs. und Path, from 1903 onwards seems specially wonhy 
of attention. ^ j ^ Barth, Leipzig, 1907. 

■' Cro.ssley and Renouf, J.C.S., 1908, 93, 629. 

♦ Crossley and Le Rnciir, J.C.S., 1902, 81, S2I. ' Annnlrn, 190.1, 328 SS 



222 KEPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE 

at the time,' but it was considered desirable to try to prepare the sub- 
stance by another method, in the hope that a comparison of the two 
specimens of the hydrocarbon would throw further light on the problem. 
This has now been done, with the result that the correctness of the 
earlier experiments and deductions are completely confirmed, allowing 
the following conclusions to be arrived at : — 

1. The dimethyldihydrobenzene described by Crossley and Le Sueur 
is 1 : 1 dimethyl- A-"*-dihydrobenzene, containing as impurity a very small 
amount of some oxygenated substance, probably a methoxy- compound. 

2. The hydrocarbon described in this report (dimethyldihydro- 
benzene C and R),'- and prepared by the elimination of two molecules 
of hydrogen bromide from dibromodimethylhexahydrobenzene, is a mix- 
ture, in approximately equal quantities, of pure 1 : 1 dimethyl- A'"*-di- 
hydrobenzene and pure 1 : l-dimethyl-A-="'-dihydrobenzene. 

The starting-point in the synthesis was again dimethyldihydroresorcin 
(Til), which was first converted into its ethyl ether (IV),-* and this by 
reduction with sodium in absolute ethyl-alcoholic solution into 3-hydroxy- 
5-ethoxy-l : 1-dimethylhexahydrobenzene (V) :■ — 

,CH.. COv .CH CO. 

CMe„< ' >CH CMe< ' Vh 

■\CH...C(OH)'^ \CH.,.C(OEt)'^ 

(111) (IV) 

/CH,-CH(OH). 

CMe/ ' \CHj. 

'^CHjCHCOEt)/ 

(V) 

The ethoxy- compound gives with fuming hydrobromic acid dibromo- 
dimethylhexahydrobenzene (VI), which when treated with quinoline 
loses readily and completely two molecules of hydrogen bromide, with 
formation of dimethyldihydrobenzene, and this reaction takes place in 
two ways, giving rise to 1 : l-diraethyl-A'^-*-dihydrobenzene (VII), or 
to 1 : 1 dimethyl A-='-dihydrobenzene (v'lll) ; in approximately equal 

amounts. 

/CHj.CHBr. 

CMe < >CH2 

■\CHj.CHBr/ 

(VI) 

/ \ 

<^ \ 

/CH=:CHv /CH : CHv 

CMe/ >CH CMe/ >CH,. 

"\CH,.CH'^ '^CH : Cfl/ 

(VII) (VIII) 

• 5t'?-., 1903, 36, 2092. 

- To avoid confusion as far as possible, the hydrocarbon described in this 
report, which is a mixture of pure 1 : 1 -dimetbyl-A^^^ dihydrobenzene and of 
pure 1 : l-dimethyl-A2:>>-dihydrobenzHne, is referred to as dimethyldihydrobenzene 
(C and R), the 1 : l-dimethyl-A'-=*-dihydrobenzene, prepared by Crossley and 
Le Sueur, as dimethyldihydrobenzene (C and S), and the supposed 1 : 1-dimethyl- 
A'^:5-dihydrobenzene of Harries and Antoni {loo. cit.) as dimethyldihydrobenzene 
(H and A). 

» J.C.S., 1899, 75, 775. 



ON TMe STUUV Oi-' liVDiiO^AROiViAl'lC SUBSTANCEfci. 



223 



riie folluwing is a tabulated comparison of the properties of tliis 
hydrocarbon with those of the dimethyldihydrobenzene prepared by 
Crossley and Le Sueur : — 



B.p 

Sp. gr. at 15°/15° . 
Index of refraction . 
Molecular refraction 
Magnetic rotaiion . 
Colour with H^SO^ . 

Fuminff HBr . 



Bromine . . . . 

NOCl . . . . 

Nitrating mixture . 

Oxidation products , 

Oxidation products of 
monohydrobroujide 



DimethyldiliydrobeuEeues 



(C and S) 



to 



111° 

0-8153 
1-4518 
00-217 
11024 
Blood-red turning 

violet -purple 
Monohydrobromide, b. p 
yO-o°/3G mm. 



Dibromide, unstable 
liquid 

Nitrosochloride, m. p. 

121° 
No definite product 

as-dimethylsuccinic acid 

ftx-diiDethylsuccinic acid, 

/8y8-dimethylglutaric acid, 

lactone of o-bydruxy-^yS- 

dimethylglutaric acid 



(C and Rj 



to 



P- 



111-2° 
U-8147 
1-4535 
CO-251 
10-450 
Blood-red turning 

vioiet-puiple 
Monohydrobromide, b 

83°/20 mm. 
Dihj drobromide, b. 

137°/25 mm. 
Dibromide, unstable 

liquid 
Tetrabromide, m. p. 102° 
Nitrosochloride, m. p. 

121° 
Trinitro-«-sylenes, m. p. 

71° and 115° 
a«-dimethylsuccinic acid, 
dimethylmalonic acid 
««-dimetbylsuccinic acid, 
/3;8-dimetby]glutaric acid, 
lactone of c;.-hydroxy-/3/3- 

dimetbylglutaric acid 



From the above table the most important chemical properties of 
dimethyl-A-=^ dihydrobeuzene and dimethyl- A'-^-'-dihydrobenzene would 
appear to be : — 



1 : 1-Dimetbyl-A^ '• ^-dihydrobenzene 


1 : l-Dimethyl-A^ '• S-dihydrobenzene 


Hydrobromide, CsHuBr, b. p. 83°/20 mm. 
Nitrosochloride, m.p. 121° 
Dibromide, Cgri,.jljr„, unstable liquid 
No iiitro-deri\atives obtainable 
Oiidatiou product, rti-dimethylsucciuic 
acitl 


Hydrobromide, C^H, ,Br.,, b. p. 137°/25inm. 1 
Iso nitrosocbloriclt; irolaled 
Tetrabromide, C:„H,^Br^, m. p. 102° 
Trinitro-o-xylenes, ni. p. 71° and 115° 
Oxidation product, dimethylmalonic 
acid 



The criticisms of Harries and Antoni {loc. cit.) may then be replied to 
as follows. 

In the first place, these authors consider that the analyses given by 
Crossley and Le iSueur (ibid.) are midway betweeu those for a dimethyl- 
dihydro- and a dimethyitetrahydro-benzene. The mean of the two analy- 
ses quoted gave C=S8-30 and H=;ir27, and it is obvious from the 





Calculated 




Calculated 




ifEdreuce 


CsHi_i 


Found 


CaHi-, 


DifEereuce 


+ 103 


87-27 


C = 8S-30 


88 88 


- 58 


- 1-40 


12-73 


H = 11-27 


11-11 


-1- 0-16 



annexed comparison that the numbers do not lie midway between tho 



22 i EbPORtS ON tHe Stat£ of sdiENcfi. 

calculated figures, the diflerences in those found and calculated for 0^1^14 
being very large, and the errors in the ^vrong direction ; for as a rule 
carbon is found too low and hydrogen too high and not ince versa. 
Moreover, if any appreciable quantity of dimethyltetrahydrobenzene had 
been present it could hardly have escaped detection, as on oxidation it 
would have yielded /3/>dimethyladipic acid, which presents no difficulty of 
isolation or identification. 

If the above quoted figures for dimethyldihydrobenzene (C and S) are 
examined, it will be found that they add up to 99-57 ; and it is considered 
most probable tliat the discrepancy is due to oxygen present in the form 
<if traces of a niethoxy- compound. 

Another suggestion made by Harries and Antoni is that dimethyl- 

dihydrobenzene (C and S) is not a true dihydrobenzene but contains a 

trimethylene ring as represented in formula IX. Altogether apart 

from the probable incapability of existence of such a body, it may be 

/CH : CCK ,CH=C 

CMe/ \CH -> Cile.< | ^CH^ 

(IX) 

mentioned that the magnetic rotation of the hydrocarbon would have 
at once proved the presence of a trimethylene ring, and, moreover, 
there is now evidence that the same dimethyldih^drobenzene is produced 
by the reduction of dichlorodiuiethyldihydrobenzene, and by the removal 
of the elements of hydrogen bromide from dibromodimethylhexahydro- 
benzene. 

/CH : CH. 

cMc,< \cn 

\CH,.CH'^ 

/ \ 

/Cn:CC)v /CH„.CUBr. 

CMp/ \CH CMc,< " >Ce.,. 

V'H, CCi^ \CH.,.CHBr/ ' 

This can only be explained if the substance be designated 1 : 1 -di- 
methyl- A- -'-dihydrobenzene, and hence the possibility of a trimethylene 
ring being present in the hydrocarbon is precluded. 

The whole question is further complicated by the fact that Harries 
and Antoni prepared a hydrocarbon, which they believed to be 1 : 1-di- 
methyl-A^ -^.dihydrobenzene also from dimethyldihydroresorcin as a 
starting-point ; but, unfortunately, no information is given as to any 
derivatives which would enable a comparison to be made with the hydro- 
carbon ha\ing that undoubted structure described in this report ; and it 
would appear that the present evidence is insufficient definitely to 
establish the constitution of Harries and Antoni's hydrocarbon. The 
single piece of evidence on which the supposed constitution of this latter 
substance is based is oxidation, whereby oxalic, a succinic, and malonic 
acids were obtained, none of which bodies afford any direct proof that 
the hydrocarbon contained the (/ej^-dimethyl group. 

Nor is there any apparent reason for supposing that the elimination 
of ammonia from the cyclic diamine would take place in one way and one 
way only. Harries and Antoni have themselves shown that, when the 
phosphate of diaminohexahydrobenzene (X) is submitted to dry distilla- 



ON THE STUDY OF HyDRO-AJJOMATIC SUBSTANCES. 225 

tion, ammonia is evolved in both of the possible directions, giving rise to 
a mixture of A^-'-dihydrobenzeue (XI) and A^ ■ ^-dihydrobenzene (XIl) 

/CH : CHv yCHj . CH(NHjK 

CH/ >CHj ^- CH,< >CH, -^ 

\CH : CIK \CHj . CHCNHj)/ 

(XI) (X) 

CIIj . CH*^ 
(XII) 

and they therefore conclude that ' the (/ewi-dimetliyl group influences the 
position taken up by the double bonds,' 

/CH„ . CH(NH..)\ /CH : CH. 

CMe./ ' ■ >CH.. -> CMe./ \CH„. 

\CHj.CH(NHj)/ \CH : CH-^ ' 

If this is so, why does it not influence the position of the double 
bonds when hydrogen bromide is eliminated from dibromodimethyl- 
hexahydrobenzene ? For this is a reaction strictly analogous to the 

/CH : CH. /CH, . CHBr 

CMe,< >CH, «- CMe„<^ >CH„ 

\CH : CH^^ ^CH, . CHBr/ ' 



/CH : CH\ 
^CH„. CH^ 



C.Me.< "^CH . 



reaction used by Harries and Antoni, and yet it takes place in both 
ways, giving rise to a mixture of the two possible hydrocarbons in equal 
amounts. The presence of the (7e»i-dimethyl group certainly does not 
exercise any apparent influence in this case, nor in the position of the 
double bond formed when 3-bromo-l : 1 -dimethylhexahydrobenzeue loses 
the elements of hydrogen bromide.' 

Harries and Antoni state that 2 grams of their diraethyldihydro- 
benzene gave, on treatment with a nitrating mixture, 06 gram of 
trinitro-7n-xylene, which might be regarded as a proof that dimethyl- 
dihydrobenzene (H and A) does not contain the £/em-dimethyl group, for 
though many cases of the wandering of a methyl group in derivatives of 
gieni-dimethyldihydroresorcin have been recorded,''^ no single instance has 
been observed in which a methyl group has wandered into anything 
but an ortho- position. Moreover, dimethyldihydrobenzene (C and B) 
undoubtedly contains dimethyl - Ji''=' - dihydrobenzene, and under the 
influence of a nitrating mixture it is this hydrocarbon which is converted 
into the two possible trinitro-o-xylenes. 

Recent Work on Hydro-aromatic Substances. 

Iiydrocarbo7is. — Methylenecyclohexane (I) has been submitted to 
detailed investigation by Faworsky and Borgmann,^ who conclude that 
the hydrocarbons of this supposed constitution, previously described by 
Sabatier, VVallach, and Zelinsky and Gutt, are in reality mixtures of 
methylenecyclohexane and 1 : methyl- -'-tetrahydrobenzene (II). For 
the preparation of the pure hydrocarbon cyclohexylcarbinol, obtained by 

' J.C.S., 1906, 89, incr.. 2 Ibid., 1904, 85, 264 ; 1906, 89. 875. 

" Ber., 1S07, 40, 4863. 

1908. Q 



226 



l{EPORtS ON TfiE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



the Grignard reaction from broraohexahydrobenzene, was conveftecl into 
the corresponding iodide, and this latter body heated with alcoholic potash. 



HjC 



CH, 



CH, 



Tl.fi .J CH, 

C^CH., 
(1) 



Bfi 



HjC 






CH, 



CH 



C . CH 

(II) 



HjC 



H.,C 



CH, 



CH, 



.y CHj 

COH . CH,OH 
(III) 



tt,C 



H.,C 



CH, 



CH„ 



i^^' CH, 

CH .CBO 
(IV) 



Methylenecycloliexane absorbs two atoms of bromine, and the resulting 
dibromide gives, on warming with 10 per cent, potassium carbonate 
solution, the glycol having formula III. When treated with very dilute 
sulphuric acid this glycol gives an aldehyde (IV), which can also be 
obtained directly from the dibromide by treatment with lead oxide and 
water. These facts conclusively prove the constitution of the dibromide 
and of the hydrocarbon. 

Methylenecyclohexane is unaltered on boiling with quinoline, but is 
converted l)y a mixture of quinoline and quinoline-hydriodide into the 
isomeric methyltetrahydrobenzene (11). This fact would account for the 
hydrocarbon obtained by Zelinsky and Gutt from the iodide of cyclo- 
hexylcarbinol by heating with quinoline, being a mixture of the two 
isomerides. 

Auwers ' has shown that the alcohols V and VI, prepared from the 
ketone VII by Grignard's reaction, lose water to give unstable inter- 
mediate products, which readily pass into benzene derivatives. Thes« 
reactions 

CII, CHCl., CH, CHCl,, CH3 . CHCl, 

\/ ' \/ \/ 

/\ /\ /\ 



II 

O 

(Vll) 



/\ 

Ho CH3 
(V) 



/\ 

HO CHo.CH^ 

(VI) 



have been very fully investigated, and are described in detail in this 
lengthy memoir. The hydroaromatic alcohols V and VI and their homo- 
logues are not very stable substances, and inany, if not all, exist in two 
modifications, probably due to cis- and <>'a?is-isomeri3m. The above- 
mentioned intermediate products are considered to be alkylidenedihydro- 
benzenes, 

CH, CHCl., CH, CHCL 

\/ 



OH CH, 



\, 



II 
oHj 



the general chemical and physical properties of which substances are 
' Annalen, 1907, 352, 219, 273, 288. 



ox THE STUDY OF HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 227 

discussed, compared with other closely related compounds, and shown to 
support the above conclusions as to their constitution. 

Ketohexahydrobenzene is acted on by dry hydrogen chloride ^ to give 
a substance having the formula Ci2H,nOCl, which loses the elements of 
hydrogen chloride to give cyclohexene-2-cyclohexanone. 

O 



When this dicyclic ketone is reduced it yields the corresponding saturated 
alcohol, and this, by treatment with hydrogen iodide, the fully hydro- 
genised dicyclohexy 1 C^H , , . CgH , , . 

^1 /coAo/,«.— Aromatic quinones ■^ give, when treated with hydrogen in 
presence of reduced nickel, a variety of products, the nature of which 
depends largely on the reaction temperature ; if moderately low the 
dihydric alcohols of the hexahydrobenzene series are formed. 

INIonohydric alcohols may be obtained ■' by the action of various alkyl 
magnesium iodides on eth3'l hexahydrobenzoate. The latter is readily 
prepared by treating cyclohexylmagnesium iodide with carbon dioxide.^ 

Ketones. — The action of light on ketohexahydrobenzene and the three 
isomeric ketomethylhexahydrobenzenes has been studied by Ciamician 
and Silber,^ who find that the ring is broken with production of a fatty 
acid containing the same number of carbon atoms together with the 
corresponding unsaturated aldehyde. 

Not only ketohexahydrobenzene itself,"' but also a number of other 
simple ring ketones, such as ketomethyl- and ketoraethylisopropylhexa- 
hydrobenzerie are found to be capable of reacting in the enolic form.'' 

The influence of a very reactive agent, for example acetic anhydride, 
is necessary to bring about the change and the resulting acetates are 
converted on saponification into the original ketones. 

Homologues of ketohexahydrobenzene may be prepared ^ by the slow 
distillation of the anhydrides of substituted pimelic acids. 

Ketohexahydrobenzene and the three isomeric ketomethylhexahydro- 
benzenes condense with ethyl a-chloropropionate * in presence of sodium 
ethoxide, to the corresponding glycidic esters, the product in the first 
case having the formula 



<; 



^C— C.COOCjH,. 
O CH,. 



On saponification these esters give free acids, which decompose on 
distillation in a vacuum giving hexahydroacetophenone or its homologues. 
This latter ketone is, however, best prepared ^ by treating the magnesium 
compound of cyclohexyliodide with acetaldehyde, and oxidising the 

' WalJach, Ber., 1907, 40, 70. 

'^ Sabatier and Mailhe, Compt. rend., 1908, 146, 4.57. 

=• Hell and Schall, Ber., 1907, 40, 4162. ■• Reports, 1907, 110. 

* Ber., 1908, 41, 1071. « Mannich and Hanen, Ber. 1908, 41, 564. 

' Blanc. Covijpt rend., 1907, 144, 1.^56. • Darzens, Coiwpt. read., 1907, 144, 1123. 

» Hell and Schall, Ber., 1907, 40, 4163. 

q2 



228 



KEPOUTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



resulting methylcyclohexylcarbinol 
acid. 



CgHii.CHOH.CHj with chromic 



In the preparation of ketones by elimination of carbon dioxide from 
ketocarboxylic acids Kotz ' liiids that the reaction takes place readily in 
the case of l-ketohexahydrobenzene-2-carboxylic acid, but it does not 
proceed at all with acids and less readily with alkalis, as the hydrogen 
atom marked with a x is replaced by methyl, ethyl, or isopropyl. 



CH., 



CH, 



H,C I . CO 

UH.COOH 



CH, 
H.,C /\ CH., 



H.C v^/ CO 
CH, 



1 ■ keto-3-raethyl- A^-tetrahydrobenzene - 

CH C.CH3 
\CH, 

CH.. CH.. 



0C<^' 



exists in two isomeric forms, which must have the same structure, as on 
oxidation with potassium permanganate both yield y-acetobutyric acid. 
The molecular refraction would lead to the conclusion that both are 
doubly unsaturated alcohols and not ketonic in nature. Chemically the 
two forms are identical except in their behaviour towards ferric chloride, 
when the one gives a pale wine-red colour, whereas the other becomes 
violet. The present data do not suffice to explain this case of isomerism. 
Dimethyldihydroresorcin (I) reacts towards nitrous acid as a di- 



C(CH3), 
H..C ^^ CH., 



HOC ... CO 



H..C 



C(CH,)., 

-/NcH, 



CCCH,)., 



H.,C 



/\ 



CH 

(I) 



OC . . CO 

V = N.OH 
(II) 



CH., 



HON:C .y C = NOH 

C=:N.OH 

(III) 



ketone,-' for the resulting isonitrosodimethyldihydroresorcin (II) reacts 
with two molecular proportions of hydroxylamine to give a compound of 
formula III. Oxides of nitrogen convert dimethyldihydroresorcin into 
the nitre- derivative (IV), which substance, on reduction, yields an amine. 



CCCH,), 
H.,C /^ CH.. 



OC 



CCCH,)., 
H„0 /\ CH., 



^/CO 

CH NO, 
(IV) 



\ 



OC I /j c- , 
C-— N/^ 



and this gives with nitrous acid a compound whose constitution may be 
represented by formula V. The relation of colour to constitution in 



' An»a!m, 1907, 357, 102. 



Uans,J.r.S., 1007, SJ, l43;-{. 



= Rabe, Bcr., 1907, 40, 2482. 



ON THE STL'DY OF IIYDKO-AROMATIC SI'IISTANCES. 220 

these compounds is somewhat striking. Thus, while dimethyldihydro- 
resorcin 

I I 
OC CO 

\/ 

€H., 
is colourless, isonitrosodimethyldihydroresorcin 

I I 
OC CO 

\/ 

C : N.OH 
is yellow ; its potassium and ferrous salts are deep blue, and its ammo- 
nium salt violet : the monoxime 

1 I 
OC C : N.OH 

C : N.OH 
is colourless, but dissolves in alkalis to a yellow solution, and gives with 
ferrous sulphate a deep azure blue. The dio.xime 

1 I 
HO.N : C C : N.OH 

U : N.OH 

on the other hand, is greyish pink, but gives a yellow solutioii in caustic 
alkalis, and produces with ferrous sulphate a violet colour. Replace- 
ment of one of the carbonyl oxygen atoms in isonitrosodimethyldihydro- 
resorcin by the imino group 

II 
OC C : NH 

\/ 

C ; N.OH 

changes the colour from yellow to deep violet ; tlie potassium salt of 
this compound is magenta, while the ferrous salt is deep blue. 

Acids. — A number of carboxylic acids of the hydroaromatic serie.s 
have been synthesised by Wallach ' by condensing cyclic ketones with 
ethyl bromoacetate. The hydroxyl group in the resulting esters is 
replaced by bromine through the agency of hydrogen bromide, and the 
halogen free acids obtained by treatment with zinc and acetic acid. 






\<i Y^^"^ Y-^' \<i.CH.,COOH 

CH.COOH ^CH.,.COOH 

Skita- concludes from a study of ethyl 4-amino-2 : 6 : 6-trimethyl- 
hexahydrobenzene - 1 - carboxylate, prepared from ethyl isophorone- 
carboxylate, that hydroaromatic amino- acids show cis-<?'a?2s-isomerism ; 
that they are similar in their chemical behaviour to the aliphatic amino- 
acids, and also physiologically, in that they possess the property of pro- 
ducing local anaesthesia. 

Amines. — Gutt^ has prepared hexahydrobenzylamine and the five 

' Cent. Blatt., 1907, ii. 52. • Ber. 1907, 40, 4167. ' Ibid., 1907, 40, 2061. 



230 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIE^'CE. 



theoretically possible aminomethylhexahydrobenzenes, which are easily 
characterised by the melting-points of their benzoyl derivatives. The- 
preparation is realised as follows : — 



CH3 



CH3 



CH3 



\/ 



CHOH 



\/ 



Mg 
+ + 
CHCl CO., 



CH, 



\/ 



CH.COOH 



\/ 



CH.CO.NH, 



On treatment with bromine in presence of sodium methoxide the 
amide gives a urethane, which on distillation with lime yields the amine. 

Aromatic from Hydro -aromatic Substances. — Kcitz and Gotz • have 
studied the action of chlorine or bromine on hydroxyhexahydi'obenzene 
and on hexahydrosalicylic acid, and have isolated a number of products 
intermediate between the fully saturated hydro-aromatic bodies and the 
corresponding aromatic derivatives. An indication of the course of the 
various reactions may be gleaned from the following scheme : — 



H.,C 



CHj 



CH.. 



H,C^ 
CH.J 

CH, 
H.,C /N 



CHOH 



H,C 



\/ 

CHBr 



CH, 



CO 



CHj 
H.,C ^\ CH., 



-1- Br, 



H.,C 



t;H.. 



CO 



-t- Br.. 



CH, 
H..C /\ 



HBr 



HC 



CH 



CH., 
CO 



CH 
HO -^N CH 



HC ^J, C.OH 
UH 



CH, 
H..C /'\ CH 



BrHC v/ CO 
CHBr 



Reference may also be made to the following papers, which contain 
a description of many interesting hydro-aromatic substances : ' Hydro- 
aromatic Sulphur Compounds,' ^ ' Hydrophthalic Acids,' ^ ' Synthesis of 
Alcohols of the Hexahydi-obenzene Series,'* 'Derivatives of Phenylcyclo- 
liexane,' ^ ' Hexahydrobenzaldehyde.' •* 

' Annalcn, 1908, 358, 183. 

■■^ Borsche and Lange, Ber., 1907, 40, 2220. 

» Abali, J.C.S. Abst:,, 1907, 1, 419, 420. 

* Sabatier and Mailhe, Ann. Chim. Phyg., 1907 (8), 10, 527. 

* Kursanow, J.C.S. Abst., 1907, 1, 599. 

« Zelinsky and Gutt, Ber., 1907, 40, 3050, 3055. 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PALAEOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, &C. 231 



The Excavcdion of Critical Sections in the Palceozoio RocJcs of Wales 
and the West of England. — Report of the Gommittfre, consisting of 
Professor C. Lapworth (Chairman), Mr. CI. W. Fearnsides 
(Secretary), Mr. J. Lomas, Dr. J. E. Marr, Professor W. W. 
Watts, arid Mr. G. W, Williams. 

On some Excavations in the Cambrian Rocks of Comleij, Shropslbire, 1907. 

By E. S. CoBBOLD, F.G.S. 

The locality of Coiuley has long been classical in geology as the only 
place in Shropshire where Lower, Middle, and (so-called) Upper Cambrian 
rocks, occurring in juxtaposition, are all known to yield fossils. 

The chief point of interest has been the little Quarry of Comley, in 
which both the characteristic genera of Trilobites of the Lower and 
Middle divisions of the Cambrian system — namely, Olenellus and Para- 
doxides — occur in close association. 

These rocks of the Comley district were first claimed as Cambrian by 
Dr. Chas Callaway ' in 1878, and paralleled by him with the Hollybush 
sandstone of the Malvern district. 

In 1888 Professor Lapworth announced ^ the discovery of an Olenellus 
[0. Callavei, Lapw.) from the band of purplish-red calcareous sand- 
stone of the Comley Quarry, which band has become generally known 
among English geologists as the Olenellus Limestone band of Comley, 
or, locally, the Olenellus Limestone. 

In 1891 Lapworth described and figured the Olenellus,^ and at the 
same time announced his discovery of a Paradoxides (which he named 
P. Groomii) from the conglomerates and limestones overlying the 
Olenellus Limestone in the same quarry. 

Although it was thus well known that both Lower and Middle 
Cambrian rocks were present in the locality, the line between them had 
not hitherto been exactly determined. 

The Cambrian formations of the Comley area hitherto recognised are 
as follows : — 

III. Uirper Cambrian Shales, so called (the Shineton Shales of 
Callaway, op. cit.). 

II. The Comley Sandstone of Lapworth, op. cit., divisible into a 
lower and an upper portion, the latter representing parts of the Middle 
Cambrian, and the former parts of the Lower Cambrian of other regions. 

I. The Wrekin Quartzite of Callaway at the base. 

The excavations described in this report have been confined to the 
Comley Sandstone Series above mentioned. 

The geology of the Comley area presents considerable difficulties 
owing to the obscure and faulted nature of the ground. It will be seen 
from the, accompanying sketch-map that the main mass of the area 
under description is occupied by the Comley Sandstone Series. This 
is underlain to the west by the Wrekin Quartzite, but the only fairly 

• Callaway, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxiv. 1878, p. 759. 

* Lapworth, Geol. Jfiiff., December 3, vol. v. 1888, p. 484, 
» ibid., vol. viii. 1891, p. 539. 



232 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



consecutive section hitherto known has been a thickness of about 30 feet 
of Comley Sandstone exposed in the Quai-ry itself, which has been worked 
at frequent intervals for more than thirty years for the extraction of 
road stone. 

There are, however, many patches of Lower and Middle Cambrian 
i-ocks to be seen in the Comley area, but they are isolated, and the 




CeLrcix2oC 






stratigraphical relationships and lithological details of such beds as have 
hitherto yielded fossils have necessarily remained undetermined for want 
of sufficient evidence. 

Professor Lapworth has mapped the area, and has freely shown his 
maps to myself and others, but the results of his investigations are ag 
yet unpublished. 



ox EXCAVATIONS IN THE PALAEOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, &C. 233 

Fairly large collections of fossils have been made from Comley, but 
many of the species appear to be new to Britain or are as yet unde* 
scribed. It is impossible, therefore, to give complete lists. 

Dr. Callaway quotes ' from the Quarry ' a minute roundish Lingula, 
Kutorgina cingulata, Bill., and Serpulites fistula, Holl.' 

Professor Lap worth quotes - as associated with his Olenellus Callavei 
in the Olenellus Limestone ' Kutorgina cingulata, Bill., Linnarsonia 
sagittalis, Walcott, Ilyolithellus, of. //. micans, Walcott, and EUipto- 
cephalus sp. ' ; and from the beds yielding his Para,doxides Groomii 
' forms of Ptychoparia, Obolella, and Frotospongia.' 

In 1892 Mr. Rhodes collected largely in the area for H.M. Geolo- 
gical Survey under the direction of Professor Lapworth, and his 
specimens are still under examination. Numerous other geologists, 
including myself, have collected fossils from the Quarry and neighbour- 
hood, obtaining them to a large extent from loose blocks of material, and 
it is often difficult, or even impossible, to assign the specimens to their 
respective lithological horizons. 

Being desirous of establishing the exact horizon of some specimens of 
Microdiscus lobatus. Hall, which I had collected from a spot that was 
pointed out to me by Mr. Rhodes in 1892, situated in the fields about 
200 yards south of the Quarry, which species was being described, among 
others, by Mr. Philip Lake in his Monograph on the Cambrian Trilo- 
bites,^ I commenced an excavation, in June 1907, at the spot in question, 
and exposed a series of grey limestones (which had not hitherto been 
recognised in the Quarry) lying just above, and conformably Avith the 
Olenellus Limestone. 

Professor Lapworth, being interested, kindly contributed to the pre- 
liminary expenses, and considered it most desirable to extend the 
excavations, if possible, to several other critical spots in the area. 
Subsequently, on the appointment of the Geological Excavation Com- 
mittee, Section C, at the Leicester meeting of the British Association, 
a grant was awarded by the Committee for the purpose of carrying out 
these excavations, and the present I'eport summarises the results of this 
work down to the present time (June 1908). 

Description of the Excavations. 

The positions of the excavations already carried out are shown on the 
accompanying sketch map. They are of two kinds : — 

(a) Transverse excavations, numbered 1 to 5 on the rnap, and indi- 
cated by short thickened lines. These are trenches for the purpose of 
ascertaining the sequence of the strata above or below known exposures 
of rock. They are cut through the soil and subsoil (where the depth is 
not excessive) to solid rock, and allow of the observation of the lithological 
characters of the various layers, and in some cases of the collection of 
fossils. 

(6) Vertical excavations or trial holes, numbered 6 to 19 on map, 
put down to ascertain the nature of any solid rock existing between 

' Op. jam cit. 

« Op. jam cit., p. 532 ; also ' The Geology of S. Skropphire,' Lapworth apd Watts, 
Proc. Geol. Asioc, London, 1894, p. 310. 

' Pal. tSoc, vpl, Ixi. 1907, ' Cambrian Trilobites,' p. 33. 



234 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

known natural exposures and the feasibility or otherwise of opening up 
additional transverse sections. 

Note. — The letters distinguishing the various beds on the following 
pages are only applicable in each case to tlie individual sections under 
description, and are not to be taken as implying correlation of strata. 
The names employed are either existing appellations for strata or groups 
of strata in use among geologists, or new names now proposed for adoption. 
The latter, where used for the first time, are given with quotation marks. 
The beds are in all cases described in descending order. 

No. 1. The Coinley Quarry Section. 

The rocks described in Part I. are those of the eastern portion of the 
Quarry enclosure, and have long been exposed by the ordinary quarrying 
operations carried out for the extraction of road metal. 

The rocks described in Part II. are those of the western portion of 
the Quarry enclosure as laid bare for the first time by the present exca- 
vations and by the clearing away of debris and overgrowth from an old 
disused quarry face. 

All the strata have an approximately N. and S. strike, with an 
easterly dip of about 70°. 

Owing to the working back of the Quarry face and some faulting the 
section now to be seen is not quite the same as it was formerly. 

P.\RT I. Rocks previously exposed by the ordinary Quarryimj Operations. 
East End of Section : — 

a. The Comley ' Quarry Ridye Grits,' with Paradoxides. 

Ft. 111. 

rt, Brownish, coarse, quartzose Orits with much glauconite and, in 
places, becoming conglomeratic. Bedding planes, ill-defined, 
at 2 to 3 feet intervals (top not seen) . . . . . 21 

fflj Conf/Ionwratic bed, becoming calcareous at the base, with a matrix 
quite similar to that of the grits above (a,), but containing 
(i) pebbles, (ii) rather large subangular to angular blocks of 
rocks deri\ed from the beds below, and (iii) very many black 
or brown lumps of phosphatic material ..... 3 

The included materials comprise : — 

(i) pebbles, more or less rounded, of quartz and of igneous rocks, one 
of which compares very closely with the ' granitoidite ' of the 
Cardington Hill volcanic group. 

(ii) lenticular pieces of limestone, some of which exactly corre- 
spond with the ' French Grey Limstone ' bed d below, and 
have, in the quarry, or in Section No. 2 (see page 236), or in 
intervening natural exposures, yielded man}' fragments of 
Olenellui referred to O. (^Holmia) Callavei, Lapw. ; Anomooare 
(Aff7-aulos in the sense used by Walcott), a pustulate species 
not yet identified ; Liniiarsonia and other Brachiopods ; and 
subangular to angular pieces of greenis-h and yellowish mica- 
ceous sandstone very similar to beds /below. 

(iii) black or brown lumps of phosphatic material, which are very 
irregular in shape, often weathered out so as to form cavities ; 
they may be contemporaneous with the formation of the bed 

Where very calcareous the matrix of the conglomerate is of a pinkish 
grey colour very siruilar to that of th^ ' French Grey l^ime- 



ON EXCA\'ATI0NS IN THE PAL.EOJiOlC KOCKS OF WALES, &C. 235 

Ft. In. 
stone ' bed d below, but usualljr showing an admixture of 
glauconite grains and earthy matter not found in that bed. 
It is from the grey portions of the bed that I have collected 
fragments of a large Paradoxides referable, with doubt, to 
P. Groomii, Lapw. 

b. The Black JAmestone (Callaway and Lapworth) :— 

A very dark rock with rounded quartz grains, much glauconite, and 
abundant black lumps of phosphatic material. This bed 
is sometimes found soldered to the overljing conglomerate 
(rfj), especially in the deeper parts of the Quarry. Near the 
surface it is, or was (for it is nearly all quarried av/ay at the 
higher levels), separated from it by clayey matter. 

Maximum thickness 9 
Hyolitlms fistula (.''), Salferella (perhaps 2 speofes) and 
Brachiopods. 

c' Grey Limestone and Fault rock . , . . , .09 

d. The ' French Grey Limestone ' : — 

A pinkish grey compact limestone becoming purple or red in 
places and crowded with fossil fragments, which are shown 
upon the yellowish weathered surfaces, without glauconite or 

phosphatic inclusions 10 

Aristozoe, cf. A. rotnndata,, Walcott, and Brachiopods. 

• *■••••...« 

e. The Olenellits Limestoiie : — 

A red and green deposit, sandy as a rule and almost shaley in the 
upper part, but becoming very calcareous in certain layers, from 
the presence of nodules of compact sandy limestone the 
weathered surfaces of which exhibit abundant fragments of 
OleneUus about 2 6 

The fossils detected include OleneUus {Holmia) Callavei, Lapw. ; 
Anomocare sp. ; Agraulos, possibly two species; Microdiscvs 
sp., cf. M. Helena, Walcott; HyoUthus sp., probably nov.; 
H. soaialis, Linnrs , Linnarsonia and other Brachiopods. 

f. The ' Lower Comley Sandstone ' : — 

/, Soft red and green micaceous sandstone, with sandy shales in 

thin layers 4 

Part II. — Hocks exposed by the new excavation. 

f„ Green and rusty micaceous sandstones, being the downward 
continuation of /„ in beds 1 to 3 feet thick, with at least 
three separate layers (situated at 7, 11, and 14 feet below 
the base of the OleneUus Limestone), exhibiting rusty spots 
weathering out into cavities ' . . 27 

f^ Green micaceous sandstone rather softer in texture than e„, 
weathering brown, in thin beds 1 to 2 inches thick (base not 
seen 20 

Total thickness observed . . 80 



West End of Section. 
Note.— Similar sandstones to the above (/) are traceable at intervals along the 
roadside for a distance of twenty yards south-westerly from the end of the 
excavation, indicating (if there is no repetition and the dip remains constant) a 
further downward thickness of the sandstone on the E. and W. line of section of 
about 40 feet. 

' The rock marked c probably represents some portions of the 'Orei/ Linwstonei 
of Section No. 2, p. 6, but is a good deal crushed by strike faulting. 



236 REPOfttS ON THE StAtE OF SClExVCE. 

No. 2. — Excavation and Section in fields 200 yards south of 

the Cornley Quarry. 

At this spot there was an old cutting overgrown with grass in a little 
knoll near the southern termination of the Quarry Ridge (see map). 
It showed protruding bosses of grit and conglomerate similar to those 
seen in the Quarry, together with loose angular pieces of grey or purplish 
limestone. 

I had one side of this cutting cleared of soil, and prolonged the 
section thus obtained in both directions by a new trenching excavation. 
The beds have a strike approximately north and south, and dip to the 
east at an angle of about 65°. 

The old cutting and the new trenches are not quite at right angles 
to the strike, but allowance for this has been made in taking the 



measurements 



Ft. In. 



Ead m?}d of Section, 

a. The Quarry Ridge Shales : — 

Comminuted pale greenish grej' sbale, including (in the lower part 
of its section) a band of hard glauconitic grit 3 inches thick, 
striking parallel with the beds below. The base of this shale 
group not seen owing to the presence of a fault running 
nearly parallel with the ttrike and hading easterly. The 
thickness of this group may be as much as 200 or 300 feet . 10 

i. The Quarry Ridge Grits : — 

6, Grit broken into angular fragments, say 5 

b.. Well-bedded grit 5 

h^ Conglomeratic grit with black flaggy material about the 

middle and at the base 12 

These grits and conglomerates agree precisely with those 

of the Quarry ((7,, a.,. Section No. 1). 

c. The Black Limestone : — 

The upper half of this shows a dark grey sandy matrix with many 
black phosphatic lumps ; the lower half has less of the 
phosphatic material ......... 1 

Hyolithus fistula, HoU. (?). 

d. The ' Grey Limestones ' : — 

A series of fossiliferous limestones varying in colour from a reddish 

purple ihrough greenish grey to pale grey. 
(l^ A pale grey limestone very full of fossil fragments ... 3 
Fossils: — Protoleniis sp. ; Mivrodisous lohatus, Hall; M. s^p.^ of 

medium size and having a punctate test.; i1/. sp.„ somewhat 

intermediate between the two ; Hijolithus, cf. II. corneohis, 

Holm.; Il.fistvla. HoU. (?), and Brachiopods. 

d. A reddish purple limestone becoming pale grey in places . . 6 
Fo.'-sils are very plentiful : — Microdiscus lubatns. Hall ; M. 
gpeciosus. Ford ; Anomocare (Affraulos of Mathew and Wal- 
cott), cf. A. stremms, var. nasutus, Walcott ; A. sp.,, wiih 
glabella furrows transverse ; A. sp.^, with glabella furrows 
directed backwards; A. sp 3, a smaller form, with front 
margin reflexed and glabella almost keeled ; Hyolithut 
fistula, HoU.C?); H. sp., cf. H. lenticulo/ris. Holm.; H". sp. ; 
Helenia (J) sp. nov. and Brachiopods. 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PALEOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, &C. 2o7 

Ft. lu. 
<fj A dark grey limestone with many phosphatic lumps, some 

glauconite, and having purple and green patches of colour . 1 
[Fossils more fragmentary, not yet separately collected.] 
<f, A greenish grev rock with plentiful black phosphatic lumps . 9 

[Fossils fragmentary, not yet separately' collected.] 

e. The French Grey Limestone : — 

A pale pinkish grey limestone in two bands, each about 3 inches 

thick, with a few pieces of dark phosphatic material . , G 

There are some patches of this limestone v/hich have a granular or 
sandy aspect, and the colour is then greenish. 

Anomocare rel Agraulos sp., a very pustulate form ; fragments of 
Olenellus sp. and Brachiopods. 

f. The Olenelhos Limestone : — 

Immediately below the French grey limestone the cutting showed 
some red sandy clay, and embedded in this material there 
protruded from the botrom of the excavation some nodules of 
red sandy limestone characteristic of the Olenellus Limestone, 
as seen in the C'omley Quarry, and j-ielding fragments of 
Olenellus and Microdiscus sp. 

Total thickness of red material .... 2 G 

g. The Lower Comley Sandstone : — 

jfi Greenish soft sandstone or sandy shale, cf. bed/,, Section 
No. 1 (base not seen) 




Some 12 feet be3'ond the end of the trench a trial hole (No. G on 
map) was excavated disclosing — 

Qo Green sandstone, cf. beds/.. Section No. I. 

West End of the Section. 

NoTE.^About 30 feet east from the eastern end of the Trench a trial-hole (No. 7 
on map) was sunk at the site of an old saw-pit, disclosing comminuted pale grey 
shale exactly like that of bed a, Section 2, above. 

At a further distance of about 60 feet in tlio same directio'i another trial-hole 
(No. 8 on map) was sunk near the Comley Brook. This disclosed clayey material 
similar to that found above the shale in Trial-hole No. 7, but having in it some 
angular pieces of brownish green, flaggy, glauconitic gri', with small quartz pebbles. 
No dip or strike could be determined here. 

Excavation No. Z.— North End of Dairy Ilill, about 200 yards 
south-east of the Comley Quarry, 

I made this excavation for the purpose of ascertaining the structure 
of .Dairy Hill. Professor Lapworth had mapped it as a dome, and had 
found fragments both of the 01enellu.s Limestone and of the Quarry 
Ridge grits in the surface of an old lane, which curves round the north 
end of Dairy Hill (see nap), but it was uncertain if they were in situ. 
Holes were mads in the south bank of the lane, which is here about 
8 feet high, and disclosed plentiful nodules of the Olenellus Lime- 
stone and of a green standstone referable to the Lower Comley Sand- 
stone (beds f of the Quarry) beneath it. The Quarry Ridge grit (the 
conglomeratic portion) is traceable along the road surface in a curved line 
more or less parallel to the contour of Dairy Hill, and the whole of the 
bods dip north, 



238 REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

It is obvious that the lane has at this point cut well into the northern 
end of a dome of the Quarry Ridge grits and has just reached the 
Olenellus Limestone and the Lower Comley Sandstone below it. I 
found no traces of any of the French Grey, Grey, or Black Lime- 
stones in this excavation ; further excavations are necessary before 
their apparent absence can be accounted for. 

The Olenellus Limestone in the bed and bank of the road yielded 
fragments of Olenellus having characteristics of 0. (ffolmia) CcUlavei, 
Lapw., and Linnarsonia. 

Excavation No. 4. — North Spur of Little Caradoc, 200 yards west- 
south-west of the Comley Quarry. 

The object of this excavation was to open up a section of the lowest 
beds of the Lower Comley Sandstone and to ascertain the character of theii* 
junction with the underlying Wrekin Quartzite below. The Quartzite is 
known to wrap round the eastern side of Little Caradoc Hill, and there 
are traces of it in this northern spur. There are also at this point 
some natural exposures of greenish micaceous sandstone, not unlike the 
Comley Sandstone of the Quarry, and of a coarse grained dolerite which, 
higher up the hill, intervenes between tlie Quartzite and the core of Pre- 
Cambrian rocks. 

Two trenches were opened in a piece of uncultivated ground west of 
the Comley Quarry, and separated from it by nearly 200 yards of culti- 
vated land showing no exposure of solid rock. 

One of these trenches was continued east, as far as circumstances 
allowed, into the arable field ; the other was carried west, to find the 
Quartzite and iix its point of contact with the dolerite. 

Some of the beds in the tirst trench could be exactly matched in the 
second, and the sections displayed in both are given below as one con- 
tinuous whole. 

The beds dip west, but as they are, in all probability, invertetl, 
the section is described from east to west, as representing the descending 
order of the beds. 



a. Lower Comley Sandstone. 



Ft. 111. 



a, Fiue-grained greenish micaceous sandstones in compact, or 
flaggy, or rubbly beds, dipping about .50" westwanis, and 
var\ ing a good deal in hardness .... About 30 
Yielding Hyulichns sp. near H. tenvistriata, Linn. 
a„ Fine grit with well-rounded grains, 2 inches. 
Sandy clay, 4 incties. 
Very dark coarse grit with some dark green grains (?) glauconite, 

2 inches. 
Bluish-grey cilcareous giit weathering to a dark incoherent sand- 
rock, 12 inches. 
Grey clayey shale, 6 inches 

Rib of hard fine-grained micaceous sandstone, 18 inches. 
Sandy clay, 12 inches .... Total thickness of a.j 5 
flj Fine-grained greenish fla?gy micaceous sandstones . . . 15 
a^ Hard greenish micaceous sandstones in more compact beds dip- 
ping westerly at about 50° 12 

a-^ Much harder brownish micaceous sandstone having a more quart- 

zite-like aspect 4 

* . . 

Total thickness of sandstones seen , . , . 66 U 



1 








6 





6 


2 


6 


22 


6 



0^ EXCAVAtlONS IJJ tHE PALAEOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, &C. 2S9 



Interval of about 20 feet, in which no rock showed at the bottom of 

the trench, 

b. The ' Wrekin Quartaite.' 

Pt. In. 
J, Broken angular fragments of fine-gfained Quartzite, totlch brec- 

ciated, the cracks onlj' partially tilled . . . about 4 
b^ Bottom of trench showing no bedded rock but much clayey 

material with fragments of Quartzite flags 1 to 2 inches thick, 

representing a thickness of ..... about 10 
Jj Coarse granular Quartzite, much broken and weathered in places 

to a dark incoherent grit ...... about 4 

h^ Well-bedded coarse-grained Quartzite, dipping west at about 85°, 

underlain by a clay-partiiig ...... 

?>3 Compact glistening fine-grained Quartzite and clay -parting . 
bg Compact glistening Hne-grained Quartzite and clay-parting . 

b, Coarse-grained white Quartzite, weathering in places to a dark 

incoherent quartz grit . . . . . 

Total thickness of Quartzite seen .... 

Possible Fault: — 

c. Dolerite, weathered or sheared into small lenticles ^ to i inch 

thick and much decomposed, becoming rather more compact 
at a distance of 2 feet from the Quartzite. 

This Section is of interest as showing :— 

A. The general nature of the higher beds of the Wrekin" Quartzite with their 

varying thicknesses and clayey partings ; 

B. A continuous section of about 6(3 feet of the I^ower Comley Sandstone, 

with the occurrence in it of a HyoUthns and some calcareous gritty 
bands and shales ; 

C. A certain amount of graduation from beds with a thoroughly quartzite 

facies to those of the sandstone facies. 

It is uncertain whether the 20 feet interval between the two forma- 
tions represents a fault or not. The subsoil at this point is a very loose 
sandy gravel (probably glacial), and it was considered unsafe to deepen 
the narrow trench sufficiently to find solid rock. 

Excavation No. 5. — Hill House Ridye, North End. 

At the northern extremity of Hill House Rid