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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

S.i.A.-ji. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



SEVENTY^NINTH MEETING OF THE 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 





WINNIPEG: 1909 

AUGUST 25— SEPTEMBER 1 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1910 

Ojficc of the Association : Burlington House, London, W. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Ol*PiCEKs ANii CouNCir,, 1909-1910 - xxxi 

Rules of the Briti8H Association ;...; •' xxxiii 

Tables: Tast Annual Meetings: 

Places and Dates, Presidents, Vice-Presideats, aud Local Secretaries xlix 

Trustees and General Officers Ix^ 

Sectional Presidents and Secretaries Ixvi 

Chairmen and Secretaries of Conferences of Delegates Ixxxviii 

Evening Discourses Ixxxviii 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xcii 

Attendances and Receipts ....•' xciv 

Analysis of Attendances xcvi 

Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes xcvll 

Report of the Council to the General Committee, 1008-1000 ... cxviii 
General Treasurer's Account, 1008-1909 cxxiv 

WINNIPEG MEETING, 1909: 

General Meetings cxxvi 

Sectional Officers cxxvi 

Committee of Recommendations < cxxviii 

Research Committees cxxix 

Communications ordered to be printed in e.xtenso cxxxi* 

Resolutions referred to the Council cxxxi-^? 

Recommendations referred to the Council cxl 

Synopsis of Grants of Money cxli 

Address by the President, Professor Sib J. J. ThomboNjM.A., LL.D., 

D.C.L.,F.R.S S 

Reports on the State of Science..,.. 33 

Transactions of the Sections , 373 

Evening Discourses 736 

Appendix A.— Papers read at tub Discussion on Wheat 747 

Appendix B. — Narrative of the Winnipeg Meetinci and Itinerary 

of the Western Excursion.,! i 809 

Index ..i 814 

List of Members, &c. i 06 pages' 

A2 



CONTENTBk 



REPORTS ON THE STATJE OF SCIENCifi. 



Page 

The Further Tabulation of Bessel Functions. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill (Chairman), Dr. L. N. G. 
FiLON (Secretary), Professor Alfeed Lodge, and Dr. J. W. 
Nicholson ■ • • 33 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir W. H. Peeece (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glaze- 
fiitooK (Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, Dr. Cheee, Captain 
Ceeak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Sir AETHtrn ROckee, and Professor 
SchuStee ; 36 

Geodetic Arc in Africa. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
Geoege Daewin (Chairman), Sir David Gill (Secretary), Colonel 
C. F. Close, and Sir Geoege Goldie, appointed to carry out a further 
portion of the Geodetic Arc of Meridian North of Lake Tanganyika... 37 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by means of Kites in co-operation 
with a Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Eighth Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. 
W. H. Dines (Secretaiy), Mr. D. Aechibald, Mr. C. Veenon BoY3, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebeook, Dr. H. R. Mill, Professor J. E. Petavel, 
Professor A. Schustee, and Dr. W. Watson. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 37 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Lord Rayleigh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebeook (Secretary), 
Professors J. Peeey, W. G. Adams, and G. Caeey Fostee, Sir Olivek 
Lodge, Dr. A. Muiehead, SirW. H. Peeece, Professors A. Schustee, 
J. A. Fleming, and Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. 
BoTTOMLEY, Rev. T. C. FiTZPATEicK, Dr. G, Johnstone Stoney, 
Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal E. H. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. ill 

Page 
Geiffiths, Sir Arthur RIjcker, Professor H. L. Callendae, and 
Messrs. G. Matthey, A. P. Teottee, T. Mather, and F. E. Smith ... 38 
Appendix.— Report of the International Conference on Electrical 

Units and Standards, London, 1908 41 

Seismological Investigations. — Fourteenth Reijort of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor H. H. Turner (Chairman), Dr. J. Milnh 
(Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Sir George Darwin, Mr. Horace 
Daewin, Major L. Darwin, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, 
Professor J. W. Judd, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor R. Meldola, 
Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, 
Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, and Mr. Nelson 
Richardson. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 48 

I. General Notes 48 

II. Sites of Stations : Eskdalemuir, Agincourt, Porto Rico, 

Stonyhurst 49 

III. The Large Earthquakes of 1908 51 

IV. The Records of Small Earthquakes from Jamaica "51 

V. Quick Vibrators as applied to Seismometry 55 

VI. On a possible Synchronism between Seismic Activity in 

Different Districts 56 

VII. The Time of Maximum Motion as indicated by three 

differently installed Horizontal Pendulums 58 

VIII. The Number of Earthquake Records obtained at British 

Stations 59 

IX. Luminous Effects obtained from Rock Surfaces 60 

X. A Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes 61 

XI. Developing, Fixing, and Copying a Film 61 

XII. Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes, .1638-1891. By 

Professor E. H. Parker 62 

Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia.— Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir David Gill (Chairman), Dr. W. G. Duffield 
(Secretary), Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, Mr. F. McClean, and Professors 
A. Schuster and H. H. Turner, appointed to aid the work of Esta- 
blishing a Solar Observatory in Australia 66 

The Present State of our Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere as obtained 
by the use of Kites, Balloons, and Pilot Balloons.— Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Messrs. E. Gold and W. A. Harwood 71 

I. Introductory 72 

II. Historical Summary 72 

III. (a) Apparatus and Instruments 79 

(b) Testing of Instruments ; 84 

A 3 



JV CONTENTS. 

Page 
IV. Temperature: (a) Mean Temperatures and Gradients of 

Temperature 92 

(h) Temperatures under Cyclonic and Anti- 
cyclonic Conditions 96 

(c) The Advective and Convective Regions... 102 

(cZ) Annual Variation of Temperature 109 

(e) Diurnal Variation of Temi^erature 115 

V. Wind : Changes in Velocity and Direction with Height 116 

Anode Rays and their Spectra. By Dr. Otto Reichenheim 124 

On Threefold Emission-Spectra of Solid Aromatic Compounds. By 
Professor E. Goldstein 129 

Some Properties of Light of very short Wave Lengths. By Professor 
Theodore Ijyman 132 

Dynamic Isomerism. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
H. E. Armstrong (Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. M. 0. 
Forster, and Dr. A. Lapworth. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 135 

The Study of Isomorjjhous Sulphonic Derivatives of Benzene. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Principal Miers (Chairman) and 
Professors H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), W. J. Pope, and W. P. 
Wynne 141 

Electroanalysis. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. 
Kipping (Chairman), Dr. F. M. Perkin (Secretary), 'Dr. G. T. 
Beilby, Dr. T. M. Lowry, Professor W. J. Pope, and Dr. H. J. S. 
Sand 144 

The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. E. Divers (Chairman), Professor A. W. Crossley 
(Secretary), Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. 0. Forster, and 
Dr. H. R. Le Sueur 145 

The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Substances, 
and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping (Chairman), 
Professor K. J. P. Orton (Secretary), Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. 
Lapworth, and Dr. J. T. Hewitt 147 

Topographical and Geological Terms used locally in South Africa. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh (Chair- 
man), Dr. F. H. Hatch (Secretary), Dr. G. Corstorphine, and 
Messrs. A. du Toit, A. P. Hall, G. Kynaston, F. P. Mennell, and 
A. W. Rogers, appointed to determine the precise Significance of 
Topographical and Geological Terms used locally in South Africa. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) , 149 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. V 

Page 
Investigation of tlie Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British Isles.— 
Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. A. 
Herdman (Chairman), Mr. H. C. Beasley (Acting Secretary), Mr. 
E. T. Newton, Professor A. C. Seward, Mr. W. A. E. Ussher, 
Professor "W. "W. Watts, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. (Drawn 
up by the Acting Secretary) 150 

Report on Footprints from the Trias. Part VI. By H. C. 

Beasley 151 

On a Skull of Rhynchosaurus in the Manchester Museum. By 
D. M. S. Watson, B.Sc 155 

Bibliographical Notes upon the Flora and Fauna of the British 
Keuper. By A. R. Horwood 158 

Preliminary Notice of the Occurrence of Footprints in the Lower 

Keuper Sandstone of Leicestershire. By A. R. Horwood ... 162 

Investigation of the Igneous and Associated Rocks of the Glensaul and 
Lough Nafooey Areas, Co. Galway. — RejDort of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor W. W. Watts (Chairman), Professor S. H. 
Reynolds (Secretary), Mr. H. B. Maufe, and Mr. C. I. Gardiner. 
(Drawn up by Mr. C. I. Gardiner and the Secretary) 163 

Composition and Origin of the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. — Fourth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. Harker (Chairman), 
Mr. E. Greenly (Secretary), Dr. C. A. Matley, and Professor 
K. J. P. Orton 164 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. R. H. TiDDEMAN (Chairman), Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse 
(Secretary), Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr. F. W. 
Harmer, Rev. S. N. Harrison, Dr. J. Horne, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
and Messrs. J. W. Stather and W. T. Tucker 169 

Investigation of the Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lin- 
colnshire, and at various Localities in the East Riding of Yorkshire. — - 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh (Chair- 
man), Mr. J. W. Stather (Secretary), Dr. Tempest Anderson, 
Professor J. W. Carr, Mr. W. Lower Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerry- 
house, Mr. F. W. Harmeb, Mr. J. H. Howarth, Rev. W. Johnson^ 
Professor P. F. Kendall, and Messrs. G. W. B. Mactu^k, E. T. 
Newton, Clement Reid, and Thomas Sheppard. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 177 

The Excavation of Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales and 
the West of England. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor C. Lapworth (Chairman), Mr. G. W. Fearnsides (Secretary), 
Dr. J. E. Marr, Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. G. W. Williams... 181 
On some further Excavations among the Cambrian Rocks of 
Comley, Shropshire, 1908, by E. S. Cobbold, F.G.S 181 



VI CONTENTS. 

f age 
Faunal Succession in the Lower Carboniferous Limestone (Avonian) of 
the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
J. W. Gebgory (Chairman), Dr. A. Vaughan (Secretary), Dr. Wheel- 
ton Hind, and Professor W. W. Watts, appointed to enable Dr. A. 
Vaughan to continue his Researches thereon. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 187 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing (Secretary), Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. McIntosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, and 

Mr. G. P. Bidder 191 

Report of Mr. W. J. Dakin, B.Sc 192 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bather 
(Secretary), Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Dr. W. E. 
HoYLE, Hon. Walter Rothschild, and Lord Walsingham 195 

Experiments in Inheritance. — Second Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman), Mr. Douglas Laurie 
(Secretary), Mr. R. C. Punnett, and Dr. H. W. Marett Tims, on 
the Inheritance of Yellow-coat Colour in Mice. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 195 

Feeding Habits of British Birds. — First Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt 
(Secretary), and Messrs. J. N. Halbert, Robert Newstead, Clement 
Reid, a. G. L. Rogers, and F. V. Theobald, appointed to investigate 
the Feeding Habits of British Birds by a study of the contents of the 
crops and gizzards of both adults and nestlings, and by collation of 
observational evidence, with the object of obtaining precise knowledge 
of the economic status of many of our commoner birds affecting rural 
science 196 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Nineteenth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. F. Du Cane Godman (Chairman), Mr. D. 
Sharp (Secretary), Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, and 
Mr. Edgar A. Smith 197 

Zoology Organisation. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir E. Ray Lankester (Chairman), Professor S. J. Hickson (Secre- 
tary), Professors G. C. Bourne, T. W. Bridge, J. Cossar Ewart, M. 
Hartog, W. a. Herdman, and J. Graham Kerr, Mr. O. H. Latter, 
Professor Minchin, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, Professors C. Lloyd Morgan, 
E. B. Poulton, and A. Sedgwick, Dr. A. E. Shipley, and Rev. 
T. R. R. Stebbing 198 

Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor A. Dendy (Chairman and Secre- 
tary), Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor A. Sedgwick, and Professor 
Sydney H. Vines 198 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. Vll 

Page 
Investigations in the Indian Ocean. — Fourth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir John Mtjreay (Chairman), Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner 
(Secretary), Captain E. W. Creak, Professors W. A. Herdman, S. J. 
HiCKSON, and J. W. Judd, Mr. J. J. Lister, Dr. H. R. Mill, and Dr. 
D. Sharp, appointed to carry on an Expedition to investigate the 
Indian Ocean between India and South Africa in view of a possible 
land connection, to examine the deep submerged banks, the Nayareth 

and Saya de Malha, and also the distribution of marine animals 198 

Mr. Fryer's Preliminary Report 200 

The Amount of Gold Coinage in Circulation in the United Kingdom. — 
Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir R. H. Tnglis 
Palgrave (Chairman), Mr. H. Stanley Jevons (Secretary), and 
Messrs. A. L. Bowley and D. H. Macgeegor 208 

Agricultural Development in the North-West of Canada, 1905 until 
1909. By Professor James Mayor : 209 

The Development of Wheat Culture in North America. By Professor 
Albert Perry Brigham 230 

Gaseous Explosions. — Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
W. H. Preece (Chairman), Mr. Dugald Clerk and Professor 
Bertram HoPKiNSON (Joint Secretaries), Professors Bone, Bttrstall, 
Callendar, Coker, Dalby, and Dixon, Drs. Glazebrook and Hele- 
Shaw, Professors Petavel, Smithells, and Watson, Dr. Harker, 
Lieut. -Colonel Holden, and Captain Sankey, appointed for the In- 
vestigation of Gaseous Explosions, with special reference to Tem- 
perature 247 

Appendix A. — Regnault's Corrections 264 

,, B. — Deville's Experiments on the Dissociation-of Gases. 

By Dr. J. A. Harker 265 

The Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. R. Mttnro (Chairman), Professor W. 
Boyd Dawkins (Secretary), Professor W. Ridgeway, and Messrs. 
Arthur J. Evans, C. H. Read, IT. Balfour, and A. Bulleid, ap- 
pointed to investigate the Lake Villages in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury in connection with a Committee of the Somerset Archaeo- 
logical and Natural History Society 270 

Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain. — ^Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor J. L. Myres (Chairman), Professor R. C. 
BosANOUET (Secretary), Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. 
D. G. Hogarth, and Professors W. Ridgeway and W. Boyd Dawkins, 
appointed to co-operate with Local Committees in Excavations on 
Roman Sites in Britain 271 

The Age of Stone Circles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 
C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour (Secretary), I;ord Avebury, 
Professor W. Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. A. J. Evans, Dr. R. 
MUNBO, Prqfessor Boyd Pawkinf), and Mr. A. L. L^WTS, appointed 



Viii CONTENTS. 

Page 
to conduct Explorations with the object of ascertaining the Age of 

Stone Circles. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 271 

The Avebury Excavations, 1909. By H. St. George Gray 273 

Notes and Queries in Anthropology.— Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Mr. C. H. Read (Cha'irman), Professor J. L. Myres (Secretary), 
Professor D. J. Cunningham, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
Mr. T. A. Joyce, and Drs. C. S. Myers, W. H. R. Rivers, C. G. 
Seligmann, and F. C. Shrubsall, appointed to prepare a New Edition 
of ' Notes and Queries in Anthropology '..... 285 

Anthropological Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. S. Kingsford (Secretary), Dr. T. 
AsHBY, Dr. G. a. Auden, Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. 
H. O. Forbes, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. Sidney Hartland, Mr. E. 
Heawood, Professor J. L. Myres, and Professor Flinders Petrib, 
appointed for the Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registra- 
tion of Pliotographs of AnthroiDological Interest. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 285 

Anthropometric Investigation in the British Lsles. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor D. J. Cunningham (Chairman), Mr. 
J. Gray (Secretary), and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall 286 

Archseological Investigations in British East Africa. — Interim Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Mr. D. G. Hogarth (Chairman), Dr. 
A. C. Haddon (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. C. T. Currelly, 
Dr. H. O. Forbes, and Professor J. L. Myres 286 

Archteological and Ethnographical Researches in Crete. — Interim Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. D. G. Hogarth (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor J. L. Myres (Secretary), Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. 
W. li. H. Duckworth, Dr. A. .1. Evans, Professor A. Macalister, 
and Professor W. Ridgeway 287 

Archaeological and Ethnological Investigations in Sardinia.— Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Mr. D. G. Hogarth (Chairman), Pro- 
fes.sor R. C. Bosanquet (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Dr. W. L. H. 
Duckworth, Professor J. L. Myres, and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall 291 

The Excavation of Neolithic Sites in Northern Greece.— Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. Ridgeway (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. J. P. Droop, and Mr. D. G. 
Hogarth 293 

The Ductless Glands.^ Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Schafer (Cliairman), Professor Swale Vfncent (Secretary), Professor 
A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. Shore, and Mrs. W. H. Thompson. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 293 

Anaesthetics.— Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. A. D. 
Waller (Chairman), Dr. F. W. Hewitt (Secretary), and Sir F. 
Treves, appoinled to acquire furthor knowledge, Clinical and Evpeyir 



BEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. ix 

Page 
mental, concerning Ansesthetics — especially riiloroform, Ether, and 

Alcohol — with Special Reference to Deaths by or during Ansesthesia, 

and their possible Diminution , , 296 

Appendix I. Report upon the Routine Use, by the Open Method, 
of a Mixture of Chloroform and Ether. By 
Dr. F. W. Hewitt, M.V.O., and Dr. J. 
Blumfeld, B.A 298 

,, II. Description of the Chloroform Balance. By Dr. 

A. D. Waller, F.R.S 503 

,, III. On the Physiological Effects of Mixed Ansesthetics. 

By Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 305 

,, IV. The Comparative Power of Alcohol, Ether, and 
Chloroform as measured by their Action upon 
Muscular Contraction. By Dr. A. D. Waller, 
F.R.S. (Royal Society, June 24, 1909) 307 

,, V. Quantitative Estimations of Chloroform in Blood. 

By J. A. Gardner and Dr. Buckmaster 307 

,, VI. The Comparative Physiological Power of Chloro- 
form, Ether, and Alcohol, gauged by Intra- 
venous Injection. By Dr. A. D. Waller and 

Mr. W. L. Symes 312 

The Electrical Phenomenon and Metabolism of Anim Spadicex.. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. D. Waller 
(Chairman), Miss Sanders (Secretary), Professor Gotch, and 
Professor Farmer 315 

The Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease.— Fourth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir Lauder Brunton (Chairman), Mr. J. 
Barcroft and Lieut. -Colonel R. J. S. Simpson (Secretaries), Colonel 
Sir D. Bruce, Dr. S. G. Campbell, Sir Kendal Franks, Professor 
J. G. McKendrick, Sir A. Mitchell, Dr. C. F. K. Murray, Dr. C. 
Porter, Dr. J. L. Todd, Professor G. Sims Woodhead, Sir A. E. 
Wright, and the Heads of the Schools of Tropical Medicine of Liver- 
pool, London, and Edinburgh gl9 

The Structure of Fossil Plants.— Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. D. H. Scott (Chairman), Professor F. W. Oliver 
(Secretary), Mr. E. A. Newell Arber, and Professors A. C. Seward 
and F. E. Weiss ' 320 

The Experimental Study of Heredity.— Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. Francis Darwin (Chairman), Mr. A. G. Tanslev 
(Secretary), and Professors Bateson and Keeble. (Drawn up by 
Professor Bateson) 320 

Clare Island.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor T. 
Johnson (Chairman), Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger (Secretary), Professor 
Grenville Cole, Dr. Scharff, and Mr. A. G. Tansley, appointed to 
arrange a Botanical, Zoological, and Geological Sufypy of Clare 
Inland , ^.. 321 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education. — Interim Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor J. J. Findlay (Chairman), 
Professor J. A. Green (Secretary), Professors J. Adams and E. P. 
CuLVEEWELL, Mr. G. F. Daniell, Miss B. Foxley, Professor R. A. 
Gbegory, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Miss Major, Dr. T. P. Ntjnn, Dr. 
Spearman, Miss L. Edna Walter, and Dr. F. Warner 321 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Mr. W. Whitaker (Chairman), Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing 
(Secretary), Rev. J. O. Bevan, Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. 
HoPKiNsoN, Professor R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. F. W. 
RuDLER, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and the President and General 
Officers. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 325 

Report of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies, 
held in the Rooms of the Geological Society in London, 
October 25 and 26, 1909 326 

Address by the Chairman, Dr. A. C. Haddon (Regional Surveys) 327 
National Anthropometry : its Objects, Methods, and Local 
Organisation. By John Gray 332 

The Financial Position of our Local Societies. By John 
HoPKiNsoN 337 

List of Corresponding Societies, 1909-10 344 

Catalogue of the more important Papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the year ending May 31, 1909 349 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



\_An asterisk * indicates that the title only is given. The mark -f- indicates the same, 
but nnth a reference to the Jowrnal or Newspaper inwhich it is published in extenso.] 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THVIfSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Page 
Address by Professor E. Rtjtheefoed, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President 

of the Section 373 

1. Preliminary Note on the Pressure of Radiation against the Source. 

The Recoil from Light. By Professor J. H. Poynting, F.R.S., 
and Gut Baelow, D.Sc 385 

2. Some Properties of Light of very short Wave-Lengths. By Professor 

Theodore Lyman (p. 132) 385 

3. The Lowell Observatory Photographs of Jupiter. By Professor 

Peecival Lowell 386 

4. *Early Drawings of Jupiter. By Sir William Huggins, F.R.S.... 386 

5. On the Motion of some of the Small Stars in Messier 92 (Herculis). 

By Professor E. E. Baenaed 387 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 27. 

Department of Mathematics. 

1. Theorems in General Analysis. By Professor E. H. MooUE, Ph.D., 

LL.D., ScD 387 

2. On the Present State of the Theory of Aggregates. By Professor 

E. W. HoBsoN, F.R.S 389 

3. Generalisation of the Icosahedral Group. By Professor G. A. 

MiLLEE, Ph.D 389 

4. A New Proof of Weierstrass's Theorem. By Professor G. A. Bliss 389 

5. *0n Ideal Numbers. By J. H. Geace, M.A., F.R.S 390 

6. *0n a Correspondence in the Theory of the Partition of Numbers. 

By Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S 390 

7. A Continuant of Order N+I which is expressible as the Product of 

N + I Factors. By Professor W. H. Metzlee, Ph.D 390 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 

8. Imaginary Geometry of the Conic. By Professor Ellery W. Davis, 

Ph.D 391 

9. On the Invention of the Slide Rule. By Professor Floeian Cajori . . . 391 

10. The Asymptotic Expansions of Legendre Functions. By J. W. 

NicHOLsox, M.A., D.Sc 391 

11. Report on Bessel Functions (p. 33) 394 



Department of General Physics. 

1. On Threefold Emission-Spectra of Solid Aromatic Compounds. By 

Professor E. Goldstein (p. 129) 394 

2. The Influence of Electrolytes on Colloidal Ferric Oxide Solutions. 

By E. F. BuliToN 394 

3. Separation of New Radio-active Disintegration Products. By Dr. 

Otto Hahn 394 

4. On the Secondary Rays excited in different Metals by Alpha Rays. 

By Professor J. C. McLennan 395 

5. On some Phenomena associated with the Radiations from Polonium. 

By V. E. Pound, M.A 396 

6. Anode Rays and their Spectra. By Dr. Otto Reichenheim (p. 124) 396 

7. On Clark and Weston Standard Cells. By H. L. Bronson, Ph.D., 

and A. N. Shaw, B.A 396 

8. *0n the Action of Alpha Rays upon Glass. By Professor E, 

Euthebfoed, F.R.S 398 

Depart.mext of CosMicAL Physics. 

1. Results of some Recent Terrestrial Magnetic Work. By Dr. L. A. 

Bauee 398 

2. The Surface Movement of Air in certain Circular Storms. By J. I. 

Ceaig, M.A., F.R.S.E 399 

3. *The Distribution of Atmospheric Pressure in Canada. By R. F. 

Stupaet 400 

4. On the Size of Hailstones observed during a Storm in Western 

Canada. By J. W. Shipley, B.A 400 

5. Some Results of Stellar Parallax Investigations made at the Radcliffe 

Observatory, Oxford. By Dr. A. A. Rambaut, F.R.S 400 

6. *Two curiously similar Spectroscopic Binaries. By J. S. Plaskett 

and W. E. Hakpee 401 



M OX DAY, AUGUST 30. 

*Discussion on Positive Electricitv. Opened by Professor Sir J. J. 

Thomson, F.R.S '. ^ 402 

1. The Law of Distribution of Stellar Motions. By A. S. Eddington, 

M.A., M.Sc 402 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. xiii 

Page 

2. The Variation of the Specific Heat of Mercury at High Temperatures. 

By Professor H. T. Barnes, D.Sc 403 

3. The Relation of Vocal Quality to Sound Waves. By T. Proctoe 

Hall, M.A., Ph.D., M.D 404 

4. Electric Splashes on Photographic Plates. By Alfred W. Porter, 

B.Sc 404 

5. *The Photographic Action cf Alpha Raj's. By T. Kinoshita 405 

6. *0n Secondary Radiation by Gamma Rays on different Metals. By 

Professor A. S. Eve 405 

7. On the Active Deposits fi'om Actinium in Uniform Electric Fields. 

By W, T. Kennedy, M.A 405 

8. The Effect of Light on Sulphur Insulation. By F. W. Bates 405 

9. The Charge on Gaseous Ions. By T. Franck and Dr. W. Westphal 406 

10. The Recombination of Ions in Air at different Temperatures. By 

Dr. P. Phillips 407 

11. The Terminal Velocity of Fall of Small Spheres in Air. By 

Professor John Zeleny and L. A. McKeehan 407 

12. Report on the INIagnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory 

(p-36) 408 

13. Report on the Geodetic Arc in Africa (p. 37) 408 

14. Eighth Report on the Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by 

Means of Kites (p. 37) 408 

15. Re^Dort of the Committee on Electrical Standards (p. 38) 408 

16. Report of the Seismological Committee (p. 48) 408 

17. Report of the Committee to aid in Establishing a Solar Observatory 

in Australia (p. 66) 408 



TV BSD AT, AUGUST 31, 
Discussion on Earth Tides. Opened by Profes.sor A. E. H. Love, F.R.S, -108 

Depabtment of General Physics. 

1. The Lengthening of Loaded Wires when Twisted. By Professor 

J. H. Poynting, F.R.S 409 

2. The Angular Momentum in a Beam of Circularly Polarised Light. 

By Professor J. H. Poynting, F.R.S 409 

3. The Effect on the Persistence of Vision of Fatiguing the Eye with 

Red, Orange, and Yellow. By Professor Frank Allen, Ph.D.... 410 

4. A New Method of Measuring the Luminosity of the Spectrum. By 

Professor Frank Allen, Ph.D 410 

5. The Effect of Low Temperatures on Fluorescence Spectra. By 

Professor Edward L. Nichols and Ernest Merritt 4l(j 

6. Absorption and Fluorescence of Canary Glass at Low Temperatures. 

ByR. C. GiBBs , , 4li 



COUTENTS. 



Department of Cosmical Physics. 

Page 

1. *Seasonal and Storm Vertical Temperature Gradients. By 

Professor W. J. Humpheeys 412 

2. Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Upper 

Atmosphere (p. 71) 412 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 
Department of General Physics. 

1. The Effect of Temperature Variations on the Luminous Discharge 

in Gases for Low Pressures. By Robert P. Eaehabt 412 

2. *Diffraction of Electric Waves. By Professor H. M. Macdonald, 

F.R.S 412 

3. *The Instantaneous Propagation of a Disturbance in a Dispersive 

Medium. By Dr. T. H. Havelock 413 

4. The Relative Motion of the Earth and -^ther and the FitzGerald- 

Lorentz Effect. By C. W. Chambeelain 413 

5. *0n some New Methods under Trial for Tables of the Moon's Motion. 

By Professor E. W. Beown, F.R.S 413 

6. A Cemented Triple for Spectroscopic Use. By Lieut. -Colonel J. W. 

GlFFOED 413 

7. On Magnetostriction. By H. G. Doesey, Ph.D 414 

8. The Photographic Registration of Sound Waves. By Professor 

Deayton C. Millee, D.Sc 414 



Department of Cosmical Physics. 

1. The Highest Meteorological Observations in America. By Professor 

A. Laweence Rotch 415 

2. *The Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere over the British Isles, 

July 27-29, 1908. By Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S 415 

3. Results of Twenty-five Registering Balloon Ascents from Manchester 

during the period June 2, 7 p.m., to June 3, 7 p.m., 1909. By 
W. A. Haewood, M.Sc 415 

4. *A Balloon Spectrograph. By Professor W. J. Humpheeys 417 

5. The Effect of Atmospheric Pressure upon the Earth's Surface. By 

F. Napiee Denison, F.R.Met.Soc 417 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Address by Professor H. E. Aemsteong, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 

President of the Section 420 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS* XV 

Page 

1. Molecular Rearrangements in the Camphor Series. By Professor 

William A. Notes, Ph.D 455 

2. *Combustion. By Professor W. A. Bone, D.Sc, F.R.S 455 

3. The Atomic Weight of Iridium. The Analysis of Potassium 

Chloroiridate. By E. H. Archibald 455 

4. The Electrical Conductivity of Solutions of Iodine and of Platinum 

Tetraiodide in Ethyl Alcohol. By E. H. Archibald and W. A. 
Patrick 455 

6. Anti-putrescent Effects of Copper Salts. By Dr. Alfred Springer 455 

6. Report on the Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives of 

Benzene (p. 141) 456 

7. Report on Electroanalysis (p. 144) 456 

8. Report on the Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances (p. 145) 456 

9. Report on the Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied 

Substances, and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Deriva- 
tives (p. 147) 456 

FlilDAYt AUGUST 27. 

Joint Meeting with Section A. 

1. Report on Dynamic Isomerism (p. 135) .....;,....; 4S^ 

2. On the Constancy of the Hydrogen Gas Electrode. By Charles 

J. J. Fox, B.Sc, Ph.D 456 

3.' The Measurement of Rotatory Dispersion. By T. Martin Lowry. 

D.Sc. ....^ ;. 457 

4. Mercurous Sulphate for Standard Cells. By Charles J. J. Fox, 

B.Sc, Ph.D 457 

5. A New Method of producing a Cadmium Arc. By T. Martin 

LowRy, D.Sc 458 

6. Mercury and Cadmium Lines as Standards in Refractometry. By 

T. Martin Lowry, D.Sc 458 

MONDAY, AUGUST 30. 

Joint Discussion with Section K and Sub- Section K (Agriculture) on 

Wheat (Appendix A) 459 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

Joint Discussion with Section I on the Chemistry of Food. Opened by 

Professor H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S 469 

(i) Proteins : the Relations between Composition and Food Value. 

By E. Frankland Armstrong, Ph.D., D.Sc 459 

(ii) *Some Physiological Problems in Agriculture. By E. J. 

Russell, D.Sc 461 

(iii) ^Economic Aspects of Cattle Feeding. By Professor J 

Wilson, M.A., B.Sc 461 



Xifi GONTEKTS. 

Skction C— GEOLOGY; 

TTHVESDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Page 

Address, by Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President of the Section ... 462 

1. The Geology of Western Canada. By J. B. Tyeeell, M.A 471 

2. The Distribution of the Ice Sheets in Western Canada. By Dr. A. P. 

Coleman '^'^^ 

3. The Glacial Lake Agassiz. By Warben Upham, A.M., D.Sc 472 

4. The Rainfall Run-off Ratio in the Prairies of Central North 

America. By Professor E. F. Chandler 473 

rilWAY, AVCUSf 27. 

i. The Bearing of Pre-Cambrian Geology on Uniformitarianism. By 

Dr. A. P. Coleman •■ ■•■ 473 

5. The Pre-Cambrian Rocks of Canada. By Professor W. G. Miller... 474 

3. Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles (p. 169) 475 

4. *An Outline of the Glacial Geology of Britain, illustrative of the 

work of the Committee on Erratic Blocks. By A. R. Dwerky- 
ttousE, D.Sc 475 

5. The Glacial Phenomena of South Wales. By AubRey STrAHan, 

ScD., r.R.S 475 

6. Preliminary Note on the Classification of the Permiah of the North- 

East of England. By David Woolacott, D.Sc, F.G.S. 476 

7. New Faunal Horizons in the Bristol Coal-field. By Herbert 

Bolton, F.R.S.E., F.G.S 477 

8. *Description of the Avon Section, Bristol, in illustration of Dr. A. 

Vaughan's work on the English Carboniferous Limestone. By 
Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A 477 

9. *Lithology of the Carboniferous Limestone of Burrington Coombe, 

Somerset. By Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A 477 

10. Unconformities on Limestone and their Contemporaneous Pipes and 

Swallow-holes. By E. E. L. Dixon, B.Sc, F.G.S 477 

M OX DAY, AUGUST 30. 

1. Gold and Silver Ores of Canada. By Professor W. G. MttlEB ...... 479 

2. Copijer and Nickel Deposits of Canada. By Dr. A. P. Coleman ... 479 

3. Iron Deposits of Canada. By Professor W. G. Miller 480 

4. Placer Gold Mining in Canada. By J. B. Tyrrell, M.A 480 

5. *The Rare Metals of Canada. By Professor T. L. Walker, Ph.D- .., 481 

6. *Exhibition of the Material described as Geyserite from the Mount 

Morgan Mine, Queensland. By Professor J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. 481 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XVll 

Page 
7. Topogi'apliical and Geological Terms in Local L'sc in South Africa. 

By Chaeles F. Juritz, M.A., D.Sc, F.I.0 481 

6. Report on Topographical and Geological Terms used locally in South 

Africa (p. 149) 482 

9. Report on the Faunal Succession in the Lower Carboniferous Lime- 
stone (Avoiiian) of the British Isles (p. 187) 482 

'rUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

1. The Vok-ano of Matavanu. By Dr. Tempest Anderson 482 

2. On Remains of a RIegalosaurian Dinosaur from New South Wales. 

By A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S 48r, 

3. (_)n a Tooth of a Triassic Dinosaur from San Paulo, Brazil. By 

A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S 483 

4. "^Certain Aspects of British Scenery, as illustrating tiic work of 

the Geological I'hotographs Committee. By Professor S. H. 
Reynolds, M.A '. 483 

5. Seventh Report on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British 

Isles (p. 150) 483 

6. Rejjort on the Igneous and Associated Rocks of the Glensaul and 

Lough Naf ooey Areas, Co. Galway (p. 163) 483 

7. Report on the Excavation of Critical Sections in tlie Palteozoic 

Rocks of Wales and the West of England (p. 181) 483' 

8. *Interim Report on the Correlation and Age of South African 

Strata, etc 483 ■ 

9. Report on the Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, Lincoln- 

shire, etc. (p. 177) 483' 

10. Fourth Report on the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey (p. 164) 483' 

11. *Interim Report on the Microscopical and Chemical Composition of 

Charnwood Rocks 483 

12. *Interim Report on the Ancient Salt Lakes at Biskra, Algeria 483 



Section D.—ii OOLOGY. 
THUItSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

1. On the Origin of the Vertebrates. By E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S 484 

2. *0n the Subcutaneous Fat Bodies in Bufo. By C. L. Boulengek ... 484 

flltDAY, AUGUST 27. 

Address by A. E. SMIpLBy, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the Section 484 

1. On the Osteology df the Lop7iO?>ra/ic7u'/. By Professor H. JuNctiRsfiN 503 

2. *Texas Fever in Cattle : its Cure by the Use of Drugs. By Dr. S. 

Had WEN , , , 504 

a 



jjyiii CONTEJNTS. 

Page 
3 Report oto the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station, Naples 

(p. 191) ^^ 

4. Report on the ' Index Animalium ' (p. 195) • 504 

5. First Report on the Feeding Habits of British Birds (p. 196) 504 

6. Report on Experiments in Inheritance (p. 195) 504 

7. Nineteenth Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands (p. 197) ... 504 

8. Interim Report on Zoology Organisation (p. 198) 504 

9 Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, 

Plymouth (p. 198) °"'* 

10. *Interim Report on Experiments on the Development of the Frog ... 504 

MOXDAY, AUGUST 50, 

1. *Pal8eobiology and the Age of the Earth. By Professor A. B. 

Macallum, F.R.S 505 

2 The Pre-Nuptial Plumage in C'alidris arenaria. By C. J. Patten, 

ScD. .... 505 

3. The Germinal Disc in Naturally Incubated Eggs of Passer 

domesticus. By C. J. Patten, Sc.D 606 

3. British Pleistocene Canidse. By Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A. 507 

4. The Role of Visual Function in Animal and Human Evolution. By 

Geoege M. Gould, M.D 507 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

1. On the Distribution of the Rotifera. By ChablEs F. RciussElet, 

F.R.M.S • 508 

Resolutions 510 

2. *Autotomy in the Crustacea. By fir. J. Pearson 511 

3. On the Distribution of Fresh-water Eels. By Dr. Schmidt 511 

4. On the Parallelism between the Nymijhaline Genera Adelpha and 

Chlorippe. By F. A. Dixey, m'a., M.D 515 

5. *Histiology of the Eye of Pecten. By W. J. Dakin 516 

6. *Coral Reefs. By J. Stanley Gakdiner, F.R.S 516 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THUESDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Address by Colonel Sir Duncan Johnston, K.C.M.G., C.B., R,.E., 

F.R.G.S., President of the Section 517 

1. Floods in the Great Interior Valley of America. By Miss L. A. 

Owen 528 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XIX 

Page 

2. *The Nomenclature of the Islands and Lands of Arctic Canada. By 

James White 529 

3. The Hudson Bay Route to Europe. By Robert Bell, I.S.O., M.D., 

F.R.S 529 

Joint Meeting with Section F and Sub-Section K (Agriculture) (p. 699) 530 



FBI DAY, AUGUST 27. 

1. The Economic Geography of Canada. By Professor James Mayor 530 

2. The Seychelles. By J. Stanley Gardiner, F.R.S. (p. 198) 531 

3. The Cycle of Alpine Glaciation. By Professor William Herbert 

HoBBs 531 

.4. The Formation of Arroyos in Adobe-filled Valleys in the South- 
western United States. By Professor Richard E. Dodge . ... 531 

5. Water Routes from Lake Superior to the Westward. By Lawrence 

J. Burpee 532 

MONDAY, AUGUST 30. 

Joint Discussion with Section L on Geographical Teaching 532 

(i) Secondary School Geography in the United States. By Pro- 
fessor Richard E. T)odge 532 

(ii) *The Teaching of Geography in Secondary Schools. By Dr. 

C. H. Leete 533 

Some Characteristics of the Canadian Rockies. By Arthur O. 

Wheeler, F.R.G.S 533 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

1. The Relation of Local Mechanical Transportation to the Structure 

of Modern Cities. By G. E. Hooker 534 

2. Yellowhead Pass and Mount Robson, the Highest Point in the 

Canadian Rockies. By Dr. A. P. Coleman 534 

3. The Australian Sugar Industry and the White Australia Policy. 

By Professor J. W. Gregory, F.R.S 535 

4. The Development of Nantasket Beach. By Professor Douglas 

Wilson Johnson 535 

5. Wauwinet-Coscata Tombolo, Nantucket, Massachusetts. By F. P. 

Gulliver 536 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. *The Progress of Geographical Knowledge of Canada, 1497-1909. 

By James White 536 

2. *Th6 Economic Development of Canada, 1867-1909. By James 

White 636 

a2 



XX CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. A Great Geographer. By J. B. Tyrrell, M.A ■ 536 

4. The Progress of the Magnetic Survey of the Carnegie Institution of 

Washington. By L. A. Bauer 537 

5. The Eastern (Tunisian) Atlas Mountains: their Main Structural 

and Mori^hological Features. By M. M. Allorge 537 



Section F.-ECONOMIC SCIENCE .\ND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Address by Professor S. J. Chapman, M.A., M.Com., President of the 

Section 539 

1. The Influence of the Devilopment of Urban Conditions on Public 

Welfare. By A. H. Steel-Maitlanu 553 

.Joint Meeting witli Section E and Sub-section K (Agriculture) (p. 699) 554 

Fill DAY, AUGUST 27. 

1. The Gold Coinage of British Columbia, 1862. By J. Bonar, LL.D. 554 

2. Small Holdings and Co-operation. By C. 11. Fay, :\I.A., D.Sc. ... 554 

3. Is Increasing Utility Possible? By W. R. Scott, M.A., Litt.D., 

D.Phil 555 

4. Interim Report on the Amount of Gold Coinage in Circulation in the 

United Kingdom (p. 208) 555 

5. *Interim Report on the Amount and Distribution of Income below 

the Income-tax Exemption Limit 556 



MONDAY, AUGUST 30. 

1. The Policy of Preferential Duties. By Archibald B. Clark, M.A. 556 

2. The Insufficiency of a National Basis for Economic Organisation. 

By Professor Edwin Canna.v, M.A., Lli.D 557 

3. Local Taxation in Manitoba. By W. Manahan, Ph.D 558 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

L Phases of Canadian Labour Conditions. By Adam ShoRTT 558 

2. *Recent Progress in the United Kingdom as shown by Statistics. 

By Professor A. L. Bowley, M.A 561 

3. Some Economic Results of Specialist Wheat Production for Export. 

By Professor James Mayor 561 

4. The Economic Efficiency of the Chinese. By N. C. Home, 

B..\., LL.B < 661 



tRAis^SACtlONS OF THE SECTIONS. XSl 

Section G.— ENGINEERING. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Page 

Hydroplanes or Skimmers. By Sir John Thornycroft, F.R.S 563 

Address by Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., President 

of the Section 563 

*Hydro-electric Power Plant for the City of Winnipeg. By C. B. Smith, 

M.Inst. C.E 583 

Fin I) AY, AUGUST 27. 

1. tlmprovements in the Navigation of the St. Lawrence. By Lieut. - 

Colonel William P. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E 583 

2. *The St. Lawrence River, the Great Imperial Highway of Canadian 

Transportation. By Major G. Stephens 584 

3. *The Georgian Bay Canal. By Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. 584 

4. +The Engineering Works of the Panama Canal. By Colonel G. W. 

GOETHALS 584 



MOXDAY, AUGUST 50. 

1. tTlie National Transcontinental Railway. By Duncan Macpher- 

SON, M.Inst.C.E ". ". 584 

2. tGreat Engineering Works on the Canadian Pacific Railway. By 

J. E. SCHWITZER 584 

3. *The High-pressure Service of the City of AVinnipeg. By Colonel 

H. N, RuTTAN 584 

4. +The Distribution of Dielectric Stress in Three-phase Cables. By 

Professor W. M. Thornton, D.Sc, and O. J. Williams, B.Sc... 584 

5. f Atmospheric Loss off Wires under Direct-current Pressures. By 

E. A. Watson, M.Sc ,". 584 

6. +0n the Calculation of tlie Charging Currents in Three-core Cables 

and Overhead Transmission Lines supplied with Three-phase 
Currents. By E. W. Marchant, D.Sc 584 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

1. fThe Development of the Grain Industry of Western Canada and 

its Future Possibilities. By G. Harcourt 584 

2. +Grain Handling. By W. B. Lanigan 584 

3. Note on the Application of Polarised Light to determine the Con- 

dition of a Body under Stress. By Professors S. P. Thompson, 
F.R.S., and E. G. Coker, D.Sc 585 

4. Second Report on Gaseous Explosions (p. 247) 586 

5. tThe Woi'k of the British Association Committee on Gaseous Ex- 

plosions. By Dtjgald Clerk, F.R.S 586 



CONTENTS. 



WEDNESDAY, SEPT EM BE II 1. 

Page 

1. + International Electrical Standardisation. By Obmond HIgman 586 

2. The Behaviour of Ductile Material under Torsional Strain. By 

C. E. Laraed, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E 587 

3. *A New Lifeboat. By James Mitchell 588 

4. +An Outline of an Investigation now being conducted for the 

Dominion Government of the Coals of Canada. By Professor 

J. B. PoETEK, D.Sc 588 

5. tThe Development of the Grain Industry in the West and Grain 

Storage. By John Millee 588 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Address by Professor John L. Mykes, M.A., F.S.A., President of the 

Section 589 

1. Report on the Investigation of the Lake Villages in the Neighbour- 

hood of Glastonbury (p. 270) 618 

2. Report on Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain (p. 271) 618 

3. Report on the Age of Stone Circles (p. 271) 618 

4. Report on the Preparation of a New Edition of Notes and Queries on 

Anthropology (p. 285) v 618 

5. Report of the Anthroiiological Photographs Committee (p. 285) 618 

6. Report of the Committee to Organise Anthropometric Investigation 

in the British Isles (p. 286) 618 

7. Report on Archaeological Investigations in British East Africa 

(p. 286) 618 

8. *Interim Report on the Establishment of a System of Measuring 

Mental Characters 618 

9. Race-types in the Ancient Sculptures and Paintings of Mexico and 

Central America. By Miss A. C. Beeton 618 



F HI DAY. AUGUST 27. 

1. Interim Report on Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in 

Crete (p. 287) 619 

2. tRecent Hittite Research. By D. G. Hogaeth, M.A 619 

3. Researches in the Maltese Islands in Recent Years. By T. Ashby, 

M.A., D.Litt., andT. E. Peet, M.A 619 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXIU 

Page 

4. Report on Archaeological and Ethnological Investigations in 

Sardinia (p. 291) 620 

5. *The Influence of Geographical Factors on the Distribution of 

Racial Types in Africa. By Dr. F. C. Shrubsall 620 



MONDAY, AUGUST 30. 

Papers and Discussion relating to a proposed Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 620 

A. — The Aboriginal Peoples : — 
(i) *Retrospect of previous "Work by the British Association and 

other Agencies. By E. Sidney Haetland, F.S.A 620 

(ii) Ethnological Problems of Canada. By Dr. F. Boas 621 

(iii) The Anthropological Work of the University of Pennsylvania. 

By Dr. G. B. Gordon 621 

B.— *Ethnographic Study of the White Settlers. By Dr. F. C. 

Shrubsat.t, 622 



TUESDAf. AUGUST 31. 

1. On a recent Find of Copper Implements in Western Ontario. By 

Professor E. Guthrie Perry 622 

2. On the Ethnology of the Okanagan of British Columbia. By 

C. Hill-Tout 622 

3. *A Nubian Cemetery at Anibeh. By Dr. D. Randall-MacIver ... 622 

4. Arms and Accoutrements of the Ancient Warriors at Chichen Itza. 

By Miss A. C. Breton 622 

5. Ethnological Researches in Alaska. By Dr. G. B. Gordon 623 

6. The Archaeology of Ontario and Manitoba. By Henry Mont- 

gomery, M.A., Ph.D 624 

7. The present Native Population and Traces of Early Civilisation in 

the Province of New Brunswick, Canada. By William 
McIntosh 624 

8. The Excavations at Sparta of the British School at Athens. By 

R. M. Dawkins 625 

9. Report on the Excavation of Neolithic Sites in Northern Greece 

(p. 293) 626 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. tA Study of Malaria in Ancient Italy. By W. H. S. Jones 627 

2. *0n a Cult of Executed Criminals in Sicily. By E. Sidney 

Hartland, F.S.A ". 627 

3. The Blackfoot Medical Priesthood. By John Maclean 627 



XXlf CONTENTS. 

Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Page 

1. *Observations on the Osmotic Pressure in the Blood of Fishes. By 

Professor A. B. Macallum, F.R.S 628 

2. *Observations on the Inorganic Composition of the Blood of Fishes. 

By Professor A. B. Macali^um, F.R.S., and Dr. C. C. Ben.son 628 

3. Report on Anresthetics (p. 296) , , ,,,...,•: , ■..,■■. 628 

4. *Discussion on Ansesthetics 628 

5. On the Use of Atropine or the Allied Drugs Hyoscine, Hyoscya- 

mine, Scopolamine, Daturine, Duboisine, in conjunction with 
Ansesthetics. By W. Webster, M.D., CM 628 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 27. 

Address by Professor E. H, Starling, M.D., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 633 

1. *The Inorganic Composition of the Blood in Puerperal Eclampsia. 

By Professor A. B. Macallum, F.R.S 643 

2. Report on the Ductless Glands (p. 293) 643 

3. *0n the Comiiarative Anatomy and Histiology of the Thyroid and 

Parathyroid Glands. By Mrs. W. H. Thompson 643 

4. *0n the Comparative Physiology of the Thyroid and Parathyroid 

Glands. By Dr. Branrson and Dr. J. A. Halpennv 643 

MONDAY, AUGUST 30. 

1. Preliminary Note on the Origin and Function of the Postero-Septal 

Tract. By W. Page May, M.D., D.Sc 644 

2. Degenerative Changes, with especial reference to the Brain, follow- 

ing Lesions of the Spinal Cord. By W. Page May, M.D., D.Sr. 644 

3. The Pyramid Decussation in the Sheep. By J. Luella King, 

A.B., and Sutherland Simpson, M.D., D.Sc 645 

4. The Cortico-Sijinal Tract in the Guinea-pig. By Ida Z. Revei.ey, 

M.A., and Sutherland Simpson, M.D., D.Sc 645 

5. Ascending Tracts in the Spinal Cord of the Cat. By E. G. Peter- 

son, A. B 646 

6. On the Natural Secretion of tlie Adrenal Bodies. By Dr. F. A. 

Young 647 

7. The Opposite Electrotaxis of Animal and Vegetable Cells. By 

Professor "W. M. Thobnton, D.Sc 647 

8. Casual Factors in the Diurnal Variation in Body Temperature. 

By Sutherland Simpson, M.D., D.Sc 648 

9. Report on the Electrical Phenomena and Metabolism of A rum 

Spadices (p. 315) . 650 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXV 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

Page 
Joint Discussion with Section B on the Chemistry of Food (p. 459) ... 650 

1. Observations on the Micro-organisms of the Gaertner Group 
(' Meat-poisoning Bacilli '), with special reference to their 
Agglutination Reactions and their Behaviour on Coloured Sub- 
strata. By Professor E. J. McWeeney, M.A., M.D., D.P.H. ... 650 



WEDXESDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. *Ohlorofoi'm Ansestliesia witli known Percentage of Vapour Demon- 

stration. By Dr. N. H. Alcock 651 

2. *Discussion on the Nucleus 651 

3. Fourth Report on the Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease 

(p. 319) 651 



Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Address by Lieut. -Colonel David Prain, C.I.E., LL.D., F.R.S., Presi- 
dent of the Section 652 

1. The Evolution of the Inflorescence. By J. Parkin, M.A 662 

2. The Prothallium and Embryo of Dansea. By Professor Douglas 

H. Campbell 664 

3. On the Ancestry of tlie Osmundacese. By R. Kidston, IjL.D., 

F.R.S., and Professor D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, M.A 665 

4. Preliminary Note on the Structure of a new Zygopteris, from 

Pettycur, Fife. By W. T. Gordon, M.A., B.Sc 665 

5. The Number of Bacteria in the Air of Winnipeg. By Professor 

A. H. Reginald Buller, Ph.D., and Chas. W. Lowe 666 

6. Some Problems connected with the Life History of T richodiscus 

elegans, Welsford, n.gen. n.s. By Miss E. J. Welsford 666 

7. *The New Industry of Rubber Cultivation. By J. Parkin, M.A. 667 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 27. 

1. The Chemistry of Chlorophyll. By Professor R. Willstatter ... 667 

2. The Fundamental Causes of Succession among Plant Associations. 

By Professor Henry C. Cowles 668 

3. The Rocky Mountain Flora as related to Climate. By Professor 

Francis Ramaley 670 

4. The Porous Cup Atmometer as an Instrument for Ecological 

Research. By Professor Bui'Tox Eoward Livingston ,,.,,,....,, 671 



XXVI CONTENTS. 

Page 
6. Some Observations on Spircea TJlmaria. By Professor R. H. Yapp, 

M.A 673 

6. The Delayed Germination of Seeds. By Professor L. H. Pammel . . . 673 

7. The Perception of Light in Plants. By Harold Wager, F.R.S. ... 674 



MONDAY, AUGUST 30. 

Joint Discussion with Section B and Sub-section K (Agriculture) on 

Wheat (Appendix A) 674 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

1. The Production, Liberation, and Dispersion of the Spores of 

Hymenomycetes. By Professor A. H. Reginald Buller, Ph.D. 675 

2. The Destruction of Weeds in Field Crops by means of Chemical 

Sprays. By Professor Henry L. Bolley 676 

3. Some Effects of Tropical Conditions on the Development of certain 

English (Enotheras. By Dr. R. R. Gates 677 

4. The Organisation and Reconstrixction of the Nuclei in the Root- 

tips of Podophylluvi peltatum. By Professor James Bertram 
Overton 678 

5. The Nuclear Phenomena of Ascomycetes in relation to Heredity. 

By Miss H. C. L Eraser, D.Sc 679 

6. The Nucleus of the Yeast Plant. By Harold Wager, F.R.S., and 

Miss Annie Peniston 680 

7. Interim Report on the Structure of Fossil Plants (p. 320) 681 

8. Report on the Survey of Clare Island (p. 321) 681 

9. Interim Report on the Experimental Study of Heredity (p. 319) . . . 681 



SUB-SECTION OF AGRICULTURE. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Address by Major P. G. Craigie, C.B., F.S.S., Chairman 681 

1. ^Methods of Crop-reporting in different Countries. By E. W. 

Godfrey 698 

2. Moisture Studies of Semi-Arid Soils, By F. J. Alway, B.A., 

Ph.D , 698 

Joint Meeting with Sections E and F : — 

1. Agricultural Development in the North- West of Canada, 1905 until 

1909. By Professor James Mayor (p. 209) 699 

2. The Development of Wheat Culture in North America. By Pro- 

fessor A. P. Brigham (p. 230) 699 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXvii 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 27. 

Page 

1. Some Economic Aspects of the Western Cattle Trade. By Dr. 

J. G. RuTHEEFOBb 699 

2. Some Special Features of the Danish System of Cattle Breeding. 

By Dr. P. A. Morkbberg 700 

3. The Evolution of a Bi-eed of Cattle. By Professor J. Wilson, 

B.Sc 702 

4. The Relationship of Manuring to Meat Production. By Professor 

SOMEBVILLE, D.Sc 703 

5. The Development of the Dominion Experimehtal Farms. By Dr. 

W. Saunders, C.M.G 704 

6. *The Fruit Industry of British Columbia. By J. C. Metcalfe 705 

MONDAY, AUGUST 30. 
Joint Discussion with Sections B and K on Wheat (Appendix A) 705 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 31. 

1. The Outlook for Timber Supplies. By Professor W. Somerville, 

D.Sc 705 

2. The Forests of Canada. By K. H. Campbell 706 

3. Some Injurious Insects of Canadian Forests and Methods of 

- Control. By Professors W. Lochhead and J. M. Swaine 707 

4. Some of the most Injurious Insects of Field Crops in Canada. By 

Professor William Lochhead 708 

5. Chemical Characteristics of Western Prairie Soil. By Frank 

T. Shutt, M.A., F.R.S.C. 708 

6. The Nitrogen Problems of Dry Farming. By F. J. Alway, B.A., 

Ph.D 710 

7. The Conservation of the Fertility of the Soil. By A. D. Hall, 

M.A., F.R.S., and E. J. Russell, D.Sc 710 

8. The Functions, Availability, and Conservation of Soil Moisture in 

Crop Production. By Professor F. H. King 713 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 26. 

Address by Rev. H. B. Gray, D.D., President of the Section 715 

1. Discussion on Moral Instruction in Schools : — 

(i) Moral Education in Schools. By Professor L. P. Jacks ... 724 
(ii) The Evidences of Moral Education. By Hugh Richardson 725 

2. *Exhibit of School Drawings illustrative of English Life. By 

F. S. Marvin 725 



xxviii Contents. 



FBI DAY, AUGUST 27. 

Page 

1. The Aims of MacDonald College. By Principal J. W. Robertson, 

C.M.G., LL.D 725 

2. *Practical Studies in Elementary Schools. By W. M. Heller, 

B.Sc 726 

3. Manual Instruction in Elementary Schools. By Walter Sargent 726 

4. London Trade Schools. By C. W. Kimmins, M.A., D.Sc 727 

5. University Policy. By Dean F. F. Wesbrook, M.A 729 

6. The Activities of the State University. By Dr. W. A. McIntyre ... 730 

;i/OAV>.ir, AUO'UST 30. 

Joint Discussion with Section E on Geographical Teaching (p. 532) ... 731 

1. Practical Work in Evening Schools. By W. Hewitt, B.Sc 731 

2. *Nature Study in Secondary Schools. By Miss Lilian J. Clarke, 

B.Sc 732 

TUKSDAY, AUGUST 31. 

1. Education and Experimental Psychology. By Professor Huco 

MUNSTERBEEG 752 

2. Discussion on Education as a PrejDaration for Agricultural Ijife in 

Canada, with special reference to Sch(X)lboys from the Mother 
Country. Opened by the Rev. Dr. H. B. Gray 732 

(i) Agricultural Courses in High Schools. By S. E. Lang ... 732 

(ii) Household Science Teaching in Canada, with particular 
reference to Advanced Work in Ontario. By Miss C. C. 
Benson 733 

(iii) Colonisation of English Women in Western Canada. By 

Mrs. HoPKiNsoN 734 

(iv) Practical Work in Higher Education. By Miss H. D. 

Oakley 734 

3. *The Orgasiisation of Education in Manitoba. By R. Fletcher ... 735 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 
TUUnSDAY, AUGUST 26. 



The Seven Styles of Crystal Architecture. By Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, 

F.R.S 736 

TUISSDAY, AUGUST 31. 
Our Food from the Waters. By Professor W, A. HerdMaN, F.R.S 738 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXIX 



APPENDIX A. 

PAPERS READ AT THE DISCUSSION ON WHEAT. 

Page 

Introduction 747 

1. On the General Economic Position of Wheat-growing and the Special 

Considerations affecting the North-West of Canada. By Major 
P. G. Cbaigie, C.B., with rvs^ime of Papers by Professor J. 
Mavob and Professor A. P. Brigham 750 

2. The Factors determining the Yield of Wheat. By A. D. Hall, 

M.A., F.R.S., and E. J. Russell, D.Sc 756 

3. The Breeding of Wheat. By Professor R. H. Biffen, M.A 760 

4. Wheat Breeding in Canada. By C. E. Saundees, Ph.D 764 

5. The Influence of Good Seed in Wheat Production. By Professor 

C. A. Zavitz 769 

6. Individuality in Plants. By L. S. Klinck 773 

7. Quality in Wheaten Flour. By A. E. Humphbies 775 

8. The Chemical Properties of Wheaten Flour. By E. Frankland 

Abmstrong, Ph.D., D.Sc 779 

9. An Analysis of the Factors contributing to Strength in Wheaten 

Flour.' By W. B. Hardy, F.R.S 784 

10. Chemical Work on Canadian Wheat and Flour. By F. T. Shutt, 

M.A., F.I.C 787 

11. A Comparison of the Baking Qualities of the Flour from some of the 

Grades of Wheat produced in the Western Provinces of Canada. 
By Professor R. Harcourt 795 

12. Tlie History of the Wheats. By Dr. Otto Staff 799 

Concluding Remarks 807 



APPENDIX B. 

Narrative of the Meeting of the British Association at Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, and Itinerary of the Party invited to take part in the 
Excursion through the Western Provinces after the Meeting 809 



Index 815 



XX3? CONTENTS. 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plate I. 
Illustrating the Repoi't on Seismological Investigations. 

Plate II. 

Illustrating the ReiJort on the Present State of Our Knowledge of the 
Upper Atmosphere. 

Plates III. and IV. 

Illustrating the Seventh Report on the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the 

British Isles. 

Plates V. to VIII. 
Illustrating the Second ReiDort on the Investigation of Gaseous Explosions. 

Plates IX. to XIII. 
Illustrating the Interim Report on Ansesthetics. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1909-1910. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 
fiioFErtSdR Sir J. J. THOMSON, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. Loitn Stbathcona and Mount 
Royal, G.O.M.G., G.G.V.O., LL.D., High Oom- 
missioner in Loudou for the Domiilioil of 
Canada. 

The Right Hon. Sir WiwaiD Lauiukh, G.O.M.G., 



The Hon. Ameuee i3. Forget, Lieuteuant-Govferubt 
of Sasliatcliewan. 

The Hon. Walter Scott, Premier of Saskatchewan. 

Tlie Hon. George H. V; BULVEAi Lieutenant- 
Governor of Alberta. 



P,C., D.L., Prime Minister and President of l The Hon. Alex. 0. itiJTHERKORir, B.A., LL.D., 



Privy Council. 
The Hon. Sir D.^niel Hunter McMillan, 

K.C.M.G., Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba. 
The Hon. Rodmond Palen Roblix, Premier of 

Manitoba. 



Premier of Alberta. 
The Hon. JAMES DunkMuir, Lieutenant-Governor 

of British Columbia. 
The Hon. Richard McBride, LL.B., K.C, Premier 

of British Columbia. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Rev. Professor T. G. BUnnev, Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S, 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. the Lord Maj-or of Sheffield, Tlie 
EArl Fitzwillum, D.S.O. 

the Master Cutler of Sheffield, Herbert Barber. 

His Grace the Lord Archbishop of Torki 

His Grace the Duke of Norfolk, E.M., K.G., 
G.C;V.O., Litt.D., Chancellor of Sheffield 
University. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Harewood, K.C.V.O., 
Lord-Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire. 

Alderman George Franklin, Litt.D., Pro-Chan- 
cellor of Sheffield University. 

Sir Ch ARLF.S Eliot, K.C J\I.G., O.B.; Vice-Ohancellor 
of Sheffield University. 



Alderman H. K. STEnlENsoN, Deputy Lord Jfayor 

of Sheffield 
The Right Kev. J. N. Quirk, D.D., Lord Bishop of 

Sheffield. 
A. J. Hobson, President of the Sheffield Chamber 

of Commerce. 
Alderman Sir William Clego, J.P., Chairman of 

the Sheffield Education Committee. 
Colonel Herbert HuoHEhi, C.M.G. 
Professor W. M. HiCKrt, Sc.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. E. H. Titchmabsh, M.A., President of ths 

Sheffield Free Church Council. • 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor John Perry, D.Sc, LL.D., F.'R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, R.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. | Professor W. A. Hehd.man, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
0. J. R. Howarth, M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 

CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 
H. 0. Stewardson, Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT SHEFFIELD. 
Alderman H. K. Stephenson. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT SHEFFIELD. 
R. M. Prescott. I W. M. Gibbons, M.A. 



[p.t.o- 



X2CX11 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Af.NEy, Sir W., K.O.B., F.E.S. 
AVDKRSOX, Tempest, M.D., D.Sc. 
Ar.mstho.vg, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
BBiiKKLEV, Rt. Hon. the Eaiil of, F.EiS. 
BowtEY, A. L.j M.A. 
Brabrook, Sir Edward, O.B. 
Brown, Dr. Horace T., F.R.S. 
BHtSTON, Sir Lacder, Bart., F.R.S. 
Close, Colonel C. F., R.E., O.M.G. 
Oraigie, Major P. G., C.B. 
Dyson, Professor F. W., F.R.S. 
Glazebkook, Dr. R. T., F.R.S. 

Woodward, Dr. 



Hall, A. D., F.K.E. 
Habtland, E. Sidney, F.S.A. 
Hogarth, D. G., M.A. 
Mitchell, Dr. P. CHALMBBa, F.R.S. 
Myres, Professor J. L., M.A. 
PouLTON, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Pbain, Lieut.-Colonel D., O.I.B., F.E.S. 
Sherrington, Professor 0. S., F.R.S. 
Shipley, Dr. A. E., F.E.S. 
Teall, J. J. H., F.R.S. 
TuTTOX, Dr. A. E. H., F.R.S. 
Wolke-Baruy, Sir John, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
, Smith, F.E.S, 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL, 

the Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President and Vice-Presidents for tlic year, the 
President and Vice-Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past- 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 

Meetinp. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

The Bight Hon. Lord Avebcry, D.C.L,, LL.D., F.R.S., P.L.S. 

The Right Hon. Lord Rayi.eigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Sir Arthur W. EecKEii, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 



PAST PRESIDENTS OP THE ASSOCIATION. 



Sir Joseph D. Hooker, G.C.S.L 
Lord Avebury, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Sir H. E. Eoscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir William Huggins, K.O.B., 
F.R.S. 



Sir A.Geikie, K.O.B., Prcs. R.S. ' Sir Norman Lockyer,K.C.B.,F.B.S, 



Lord Lister, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir William Crookes, F.R.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.G.B., F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. Rucker, D.Sc, F.E.S. 
Sir James Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 



I Arthur J. Balfour, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir George Darwin, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

SirE.BayLankester,K.O.B.,F.R.S, 
1 Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.E.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



felr F. Gallon, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
P. L. Sclater, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., F.R.S. 



A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. RUcker, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. A. Sohiifcr, F.R.S. 



Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S 
Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Garson, 



Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. 



AUDITORS. 
I 



Professor H. McLeod, F.R.S. 



RULES OF 
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

[Adopted by the General Committee at Leicester, 1907.] 



Chapter I. 
Objects and Constitution. 

1. The objects of the British Association for the Advance- Objects, 
ment of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in different parts 

of the British Empire with one another and with foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for the objects 
of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

2. The Association shall consist of Members, Associates, Constitution, 
and Honorary Corresponding Members. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall' be directed by a Council and conducted by 
General Officers appointed by that Committee. 

3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or Annual 
longer, and at such other times as the General Committee Meetings, 
may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 

in advance ; and the arrangements for these meetings shall 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 



Chapter II. 

The General Committee. 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the Constitution. 
following persons : 

(i) Permanent Members — 

(a) Past and present Members of the Council, and past 
and present Presidents of the Sections. 
1909. b 



XXxiv RULES OF THE BKITISH ASSOCIATION. 

(6) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furthered the advancement of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association, 

(ii) Temporm-y Members — 

(a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(6) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 
sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies. 

[d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 

number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 

Admission. 2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and 

claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
General Committee shall be final. 

(i) Claims for admission as a Permanent Member must 

be lodged with the Assistant Secretary at least one 

month before the Annual Meeting, 
(ii) Claims for admission as a Temporary Member may be 

sent to the Assistant Secretary at any time before or 

during the Annual Meeting. 

Meetings. 3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least during 

every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annual 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 
to summon a meeting of the General Committee. 
Functions. 4. The General Committee shall 

(i) Receive and consider the report of the Council, 
(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations, 
(iii) Receive and consider the report of the Committee of 

Recommendations, 
(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 

than two years in advance, 
(v) Determine the date of the next Annual Meeting, 
(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting, 
(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council, 
(viii) Appoint General Officers, 
(ix) Appoint Auditors. 

(x) Elect the officers of the Conference of Delegates, 
(xi) Receive any notice of motion for the next Annual 
Meetinsr. 



COMMITTEE OF KECOMMENDATIONS. XXXV 

Chapter III. 
Committee of Recommendations, 

1. * The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution. 
mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 
Association, the Pi'esident of each Section at the Annual 
Meeting, tlie Chairman of the Conference of Delegates, the 

General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and 
the Presidents of the Association in former years. 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. Every recommendation made under Chapter IV. and Functions, 
every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 

the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Recommendations 
approve such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidered by the General Committee that is not so transmitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section or Sub- 
Section, for altering the title of a Section, or for any other 
change in the constitutional forms or fundamental rules of 
the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration and report. 

3. The Committee of Recommendations shall assemble. Procedure, 
for the despatch of business, on the Monday of the Annual 
Meeting, and, if necessary, on the following day. Their 

Report must be submitjted to the General Committee on the 
last day of the Annual Meeting. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Winnipeg, 1909. 

b2 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Procedure. 



Constitution. 



Proposals by 

Sectional 

Committees. 



Tenure. 



Reports. 



Chapter IV. 

Research Committees. 

1. Every proposal for special research, or for a grant of 
money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

In consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee, composed of Members of the Association, to 
conduct research or administer a grant in aid of research, 
and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; and the 
Committee of Recommendations may include such recom- 
mendation in their report to the General Committee. 

2. Every appointment of a Research Committee shall be 
propo.sed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 
at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
.settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its etiicient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary. 
Such Research Committee, if appointed, shall have power to 
add to their numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes 
of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall 
be forwarded by the Recorder to the Assistant Secretary not 
later than noon on the Monday of the Annual Meeting for 
presentation to the Committee of Reconnnendations. 

4. Research Committees are appointed for one year only. 
If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 
in that year, application may be made through a Sectional 
Committee at the next Annual Meeting for reappointment, 
with or without a grant— or a further grant — of money. 

5. Every Research Committee shall present a Report, 
whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 
that at which it was appointed or reappointed. Interim 
Reports, whether intended for publication or not, must be sub- 
mitted in writing. Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain 
whether a Report has been made by each Research Committee 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



appointed on their recommendation, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations on or before the Monday of 
the Annual Meeting. 

6. In each Research Committee to which a grant of money 
has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call 
on the General Treasurer for such portion of the sum granted 
as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting 
expire on June 30 following. The General Treasurer is not 
authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants. 

The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before 
the Annual Meeting next following the appointment of 
the Research Committee, forward to the General Treasurer 
a statement of the sums that have been received and ex- 
pended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
either return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains 
unexpended, or, if further expenditure be contemplated, apply 
for leave to retain the 1>alance. 

When application is made for a Committee to be re- 
appointed, and to retain the balance of a former grant, and 
also to receive a further grant, the amount of such further 
grant is to be estimated as being sufficient, together with 
the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 

In making grants of money to Research Committees, the 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal 
expenses to the Members. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
Committee. 

7. Members and Committees entrusted with sums of money 
for collecting specimens of any description shall include in their 
Reports particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens 
thus obtained for disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any ap- 
paratus which may have been purchased out of a grant made 
by the Association, and to state whether the apparatus is 
likely to be useful for continuing the research in question or 
for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of 
the Association, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall 
be deposited at the Office of the Association. 



Grants. 

(a) Drawn by 

Chairman. 



(b) Expire on 
June 30. 



(c) Accounts, 
and balance 
in hand. 



id) Addi- 
tional Grants 



(e) Caveat. 



Disposal of 
specimens, 
apparatus, 
&c. 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter V. 

The Council. 

Constitution. 1- The Council shall consist oi ex officio Members and of 

Ordinary Members elected annually by the General Com- 
mittee. 

(i) The ex officio Members are — the Trustees, past Presi- 
dents of the Association, the President and Vice- 
Presidents for the year, the President and Vice- 
Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the ensuing Annual Meeting, 
(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty-hve in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty shall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
previous year. 

Functions. 2. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 

on behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the affairs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the nei'.t 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual Report, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for '^lection by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the 
Council at the Meeting in February, and the names selected 
shall be issued with the summonses to the Council Meeting in 
March, when the nomination shall be made from the names 
on the list. 

The Council shall have power to appoint and dismiss 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 



THE COUNCIL. XXXIX 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same Electiona. 
time as that of the Officers of the Association, 

(i) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for re- 
election in the ensuing year : 

(a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

longest consecutive period, and 

(b) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 

London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 
Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
order of retirement above set forth. 

^ii) The Council shall submit to the General Committee, 
in their Annual Report, the names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council, 
(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 

Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
members of Council, and, if only two ai'e so proposed, 
they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two 
are so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
unless five members at least require it to be by ballot. 



Chapter VI. 
The President, General Officers, and Staff. 

1. The President assumes office on the first day of the The Presi- 
Annual Meeting, when he delivei's a Presidential Address, "^'^t. 

He resigns office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. In his absence, he shall be represented 
by a Vice-President or past President of the Association. 

2. The General Officers of the Association are the General General 
Treasurer and the General Secretaries. Officers. 



xl 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The General 
Treasurer. 



The General 
Secretaries. 



The Assistant 
Secretary. 



Assistant 
Treasurer. 



It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the nanie of the Association, in any matter of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

3. The General Treasurer shall be responsible to the 
General Committee and the Council for the financial affairs 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretaries shall control the general 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to 
the General Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general routine of the work of 
the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Assistant Secretary .shall hold office during the 
pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 
of the General Secretaries, and in their aksence shall repre- 
sent them. He shall also act on the dii'ections which may 
be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Assistant Secretary shall be charged, subject as afore- 
said : (i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persons 
tlierein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 

6. The General Treasurer may depute one of the Staff, as 
Assistant Treasurer, to carry on, under his direction, the 
routine work of the duties of his office. 

The Assistant Treasurer shall be charged with the issue of 
Membership Tickets, the payment of Grants, and such other 
work as may be delegated to him. 



Financial 

Statements. 



Chaptkb VII. 

Finance. 

1. The General Treasurer, or Assistant Treasurer, shall 
receive and acknowledge all sums of money paid to the 
Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 
Council, an interim statement of his Account ; and, after 



FINANCE. 



xli 



June 30 in each year, he shall prepare and submit to the 
General Committee a balance-sheet of the Funds of the 
Association. 

2. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, Audit, 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinary pay- Expenditure, 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 

Council. 

4. The General Treasurer is empowered to draw on the Investments, 
account of the Association, and to invest on its behalf, 

part or all of the balance standing at any time to the credit 
of the Association in the books of the Bank of England, 
either in Exchequer Bills or in any other temporary invest- 
ment, and to change, sell, or otherwise deal with such tem- 
porary investment as may seem to him desirable. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable, Cheques, 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 

his office, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 



Chapter VIII. 



The Annual Meetings. 

1. Local Committees shall be formed to assist the General Local Offi- 
Officers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and Committees 
shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General Officers 
and the Assistant Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Treasurers 
shall be empowered to enrol Members and Associates, and to 
receive subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Committees shall under- Functions, 
take the local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 

name of the Association in all mattei's pertaining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than the work of 
the Sections. 



xHi 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The 
Sections. 



Sectional 
Officers. 



Rooms. 



Sectional 
Committees. 

Constitution. 



Chapter IX. 
The Work of the Sections. 

1. The scientific work of the Association shall be trans- 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time 
to time by the General Committee. 

It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of communica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for each Annual Meet- 
ing in advance, and shall act as the Officers of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting. 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The Section Rooms and the approaches thereto shall 
not be used for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes 
than those of the Association. 

4. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following : — 

(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office. 

(ii) All past Presidents of that Section. 

(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 

any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Committee, 

thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 

meeting : 



Privilege of 
Old Members. 



Daily 
Co-optation. 



Provided always that — 

(a) Any Member of the Association who has served on 
the Committee of any Section in any previous year, 
and who has intimated his intention of being present 
at the Annual Meeting, is eligible as a member of 
that Committee at their first meeting. 

(h) A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 
set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members. 



THE WORK OF THE SECTIONS. xliii 

(c) A Sectional Committee may, at any time during tlie ^^*^**'o°».^ 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons ^ignts. 
present at the meeting to be Vice-Presidents of the 
Hection, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 

5. The chief executive officers of a Section shall be the Executive 
President and the Recorder. They shall have power to act on unctions 
behalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 

be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
mittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- Of President 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be absolute on all points 
of order that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- And of 
mission to the Assistant Secretary of tlie daily programme of Recorder. 
his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, of the printed returns, abstracts, reports, or papers 
appertaining to the proceedings of his Section at the Annual 
Meeting, and for the correspondence and minutes of the 
Sectional Committee. 

6. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the Organising 
close of the Annual Meeting, not more than six of its own Committee. 
members to be members of an Organising Counuittee, with 

the officers to be subsequently appointed by the Council, and 
past Presidents of the Section, from the close of the Annual 
Meeting until the conclusion of its meeting on the first day of 
the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

Each Organising Committee shall hold such Meetings as 
are deemed necessary by its President for the organisation 
of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and shall hold a meeting 
on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting : to nominate 
members of the Sectional Committee, to confirm the Pro- 
visional Programme of the Section, and to report to the 
Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- Sectional 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be ofiered by a member, or may 
arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 

No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been Papers and 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted *P°' *' 
on its Minutes. 



xliv 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Recommen- 
dations. 



Publication. 



Copyright. 



Any report or paper read in any one Section may be read 
also in any other Section. 

No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the 
Annual Report of the Association unless the manuscript has 
been received by the Recorder of the Section before the clo.se 
of the Annual Meeting. 

It shall be within the competence of the Sectional Com- 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, further, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the task 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa- 
tion, whether by reference to local authorities, public institu- 
tions, or Departments of His Majesty's Government. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Com- 
mittee. 

7. Papers ordered to be printed in extenso shall not be 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 
to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports 
of Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere 
than in the Annual Report without the express sanction of 
the Council. 

8. The copyright of papers ordered by the General Com- 
mittee to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report shall 
be vested in the authors ; and the copyright of the reports 
of Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
shall be vested in the Association. 



ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. xlv 



Chapter X. 
Admission of Members and Associates. 

1. No technical qualification shall be i-equired on the Applications, 
part of an applicant for admission as a Member or as an 
Associate of the British Association ; but the Council is 
empowered, in the event of special circumstances arising, to 

impose suitable conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

* Every person admitted as a Member or an Associate Obligations. 
shall conform to the Rules and Regulations of the Association, 
any infringement of which on his part may render him liable 
to exclusion by the Council, who have also authority, if they 
think it necessary, to withhold from any person the privilege 
of attending any Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of 
admission already issued. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Council, on any occasion of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
Meeting. 

2. All Members are eligible to any office in the Association. Conditions 
(i) Every Life Member shall pay, on admission, the sum and Privileges 

p rri -n 1 of Member- 

of Ten Pounds. gjjj 

Life Members shall receive gratis the Annual 
Reports of the Association, 
(ii) Every Annual Member shall pay, on admission, the 
sum of Two Pounds, and in any subsequent year 
the sum of One Pound. 

Annual Members shall receive gratis the Report 
of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay, 
without intermission, their annual subscription. An 
Annual Member who omits to subscribe for any 
particular year shall lose for that and all future 
years the pi'ivilege of receiving the Annual Reports 
of the Association gratis. He, however, may resume 
his other privileges as a Member at any subsequent 
Annual Meeting by paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound, 
(iii) Every Associate for a year^shall pay, on admission, 
the sum of One Pound. 

* Amended bj' the General Committee at Dublin 1908. 



xlvi 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Correspond- 
ing Members. 



Annual Sub- 
scriptions. 



The Annual 
Report. 



Associates shall not receive the Annual Report 
gratuitously. They shall not be eligible to serve on 
any Committee, nor be qualified to hold any office in 
the Association, 
(iv) Ladies may become Members or Associates on the 
same terms as gentlemen, or can obtain a Lady's 
Ticket (transferable to ladies only) on the payment 
of One Pound. 

3. Corresponding Members may be appointed by the 
General Committee, on the nomination of the Council. They 
shall be entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending the meeting may 
make payment at any time before the close of the financial 
year on June 30 of the following year. 

5. The Annual Report of the Association shall be forwarded 
gratis to individuals and institutions entitled to receive it. 

Annual Members whose subscriptions have been inter- 
mitted shall be entitled to purchase the Annual Report 
at two-thirds of the publication price ; and Associates for a 
year shall be entitled to purchase, at the .same price, the 
volume for that year. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of 
publication can only be issued by direction of the Council. 



Affiliated 
Societies. 



Associated 
Societies. 



Chapter XL 

Correspondiiig Societies : Conference of Delegates. 

Corresponding Societies are constituted as follows : 

1. (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the British Association. 

Each Affiliated Society may appoint a Delegate, 
who must be or become a Member of the Associa- 
tion and must attend the meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates. He shall be ex officio a Member of 
the General Committee, 
(ii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 
the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and nurtibers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the Britisli 
Association. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES : CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES, xlvii 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
• to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con- 

ference. Such Delegates must be or Vjecome either 
Members or Associates of the British Association, 
and shall have all the rights of Delegates appointed 
by the Affiliated Societies, except that of member- 
ship of the General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed Applications. 
on the list of Corresponding Societies. Such application must 

be addressed to the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of 
June preceding the Annual Meeting at which it is intended 
it should be considered, and must, in the case of Societies 
desiring to lae affiliated, be accompanied by specimens of the 
publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- Cobre- 
nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the sponding 
General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves com^mittee 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties and of superintending the preparation of a list of the 

papers published by the Affiliated Societies. This Com- 
mittee shall make an Annual Report to the Council, and 
shall suggest such additions or changes in the list of Corre- 
sponding Societies as they may consider desirable. 

(i) Each Corresponding Society shall forward every year Procedure. 
to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, on or 
before June 1, such particulars in regard to the 
Society as may be required for the information of 
the Corresponding Societies Committee, 
(ii) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the 
Association a list of the papers published by 
the Corresponding Societies dui-ing the preceding 
twelve months which contain the results of local 
scientific work conducted by them — those papers 
only being included which refer to subjects coming 
under the cognisance of one or other of the several 
Sections of the Association. 

4. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies shall consti- Confeeencb 
tute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairman °^ Dele- 
and Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated annually by 
the Council and appointed by the General Committee. The 
members of the Corresponding Societies Committee shall bo 

ex officio members of the Conference. 

(i) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by Procedure and 
the Secretaries to hold one or more meetings duriu" Functions. 



GATES. 



xlviii RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

each Annual Meeting of the Association, and 
shall be empowered to invite any Member o'r 
Associate to take part in the discussions, 
(ii) The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to 
submit Resolutions to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration, and for report 
to the General Committee. 

(iii) The Sectional Committees of the Association shall 
be requested to transmit to the Secretaries of the 
Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions to be made to the General Committee bearing 
on matters in which the co-operation of Corre- 
sponding Societies is desirable. It shall be com- 
petent for the Secretaries of the Conference of 
Delegates to invite the authors of such recom- 
mendations to attend the meetings of the Conference 
in order to give verbal explanations of their objects 
and of the precise way in wliich they desire these 
to be carried into effect. 

(iv) It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make 
themselves familiar with the purport of the several 
recommendations brought before the Conference, in 
order that they may be able to bring such recom- " 
mendations adequately before their respective 
Societies, 
(v) The Conference may also discuss propositions 
regarding the promotion of more systematic ob- 
servation and plans of operation, and of greater 
uniformity in the method of publishing results. 



Chapter XII. 

Amendments and Neio Rides. 

Alterations. Any alterations in the Rules, and any amendments 

or new Rules that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee on the first day of the Annual Meeting, and referred 
forthwith to the Committee of Recommendations ; and, on the 
report of that Committee, shall be submitted for approval at 
the last meeting of the General Committee. 



Places and dates of past meetings, etc. 



xiix 



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PAST PRESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES. 



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PLACES AND DATES OF PAST MEETINGS, 



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PLACES AND DATES OF PAST MEETINGS, ETC. 




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Ixv* 



TEUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICEES, 1831-1909. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. Muechison (Bart.), 

r.R.s. 

1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 



TRUSTEES. 
1872 



1881- 



1883 
1883- 



1898 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 
AVEBUEY), F.R.S. 
83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 
R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
98 Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord) 
Playpaie, F.R.S. 
Prof. (Sir) A. W. RtJCKEE, F.R.S. 



1831 Jonathan Geay, Esq. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 

1891-98 Prof. (Sir) A. W. RiJCKEE, 

F.R.S. 
1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904 Prof. John Peeky, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832-35 
1835-36 

1836-37 

1837-39 

1839-45 

1845-50 
1850-52 

1852-53 
1853-59 
1859-61 
1861-62 
1862-63 

1863-65 

1865-66 
1866-68 



Rev. W. Veenon Haecouet, 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. Veenon Haecouet, 

F.R.S., and F. Baily, Esq., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. Veenon Haecouet, 

F.R.S., and R. I. Muechison, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
R. I. Muechison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Muechison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut. -Colonel E. Sabine,F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. ROYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. RoYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walkee, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



1868-71 

1871-72 

1872-76 

1876-81 

1881-82 

1882^83 
1883-95 

1895-97 



1897- / 

1900 \ 

1900-02 



1902-03 
1903 



Dr. T. A. HiEST, F.R.S., and ]3r 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Dr.T. Thomson,F.R.S. , and Capt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
CapD. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. ScLATER, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balfour, F.R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Veenon Haecouet, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
A. G. Vernon Haecouet, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

SCHAFER, F.R.S. 
Prof. SCHAFEE, F.R.S., and Sir 

W.C.Robeets-Austen.F.R.S. 
Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S,, and 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. AV. A. Heedman, 

F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES, &c. : 1831-1904. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Forbes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
'1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A., 

Assist a7it Secretary. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-1902 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1902-04 J. G. Garson, Esq., M.D. 



ASSISTANT SECRETARIES. 



1904-09 A. Silva White, Esq. 
1909. 



1909 



0. J. R. Howartii, Esq., M.A. 
d 



Ixvi 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



18.^2. Oxford...... 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



1S3.5. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

184.5. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.n.S. 
Rev. I'ruf. Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.I.A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.B. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D.. 
V.P.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof, 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, 6. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof.Smyt-h, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. SoUitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Pnckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C.Turnbull.' 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine,. 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy,. 

Prof . Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof, 

Tyndall. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixvii 



Date and Place 



1859, 
1860. 
1861. 
1862, 
1863, 
1864. 
1865. 

1866, 
1867, 
1868, 
1869, 
1870. 



Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



Presidents 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. 
1873. 



Brighton... 
Bradford ... 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1878, 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883, 
1884. 
1885. 



Bristol.... 
Glasgow . 

Plymouth. 
Dublin.... 
Sheffield . 
Swansea . 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal .. 

Aberdeen. . 



The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 
G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

Prof. ' J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 



Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof . G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 
F.R.S.E. 



Secretaries 



J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 

J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.FulIer,F.Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Wliitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G." 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof.H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, J. W. L.Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Her.scliel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. 

Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. O. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 
D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 

C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 

R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof, 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Intrram. 
d 2 



Ixviii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895." Ipswich ... 
1896. Liverpool... 



1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York 



1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg 



Presidents 



Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F R S 
Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

R.E., F.R.S. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 
Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof.A.W.Riicker, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S. — Dep. 
of Astronnmy, Dr. A. A. 
Common, F.R.S. 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 
—Bc}}- of Astronomy, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S.— !)(?/;. 
of Astronomy and Meteor- 
ology, Di:\V .•^. Shaw.F.R.S. 

Prof. H. Lamb, F.R.S.— ;?!<&- 
Section of Astronomy and 
Cosmical Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth. M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Principal E. H.Griffiths,F.R.S. 



Prof. A. E. H. Love, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Dr. W. N. Shaw.F.R.S 



Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, W. 

Watson. 
Prof.W.H. Heaton, J. C.Glashan, J.L. 

Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 
A. P. Chattock, J. L, Howard, C. H. 

Lees. W. Watson, E. T. Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, W. Wat- 

son, E. T. AVhittaker. 
P. H. Cowell, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wagstaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 
H.S.Carslaw,C.H. Lees, W. Stewart, 

Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. B. 
Morton, A. W. Porter. 

D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 
H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees, J. 
Loton, A. W. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. H. T. Hudson, 
Dr. C. H. Lees, Dr. W. J. S. Lock- 
yer, A. W. Porter, W. C. D. 
Whetham. 

A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough, R. T. A. 
Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. C. H. Lees. 

Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 
A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. W. Porter, 
H. Dennis Taylor. 

E. E. Brooks, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, 
Dr. J. A. Harker, A. R. Hinks, 
Prof. A. W. Porter. 

Dr. W. G. Duffield, Dr. L. N. G. 

Filon, E. Gold, Prof. J. A, 

McClelland, Prof. A. W. Porter, 

Prof. E. T. Whittaker. 
Prof. F. Allen, Prof. J. C. Fields, 

E. Gold, F. Horton, Prof. A. W. 

Porter, Dr. A. A. Rambaut. 



fHESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. Ixix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY, &e. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Jolin Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 

1845, 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 



Dublin . 
Bristol . 



I Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Camming .. 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 



Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 



Hull, 



1853. 

1854. Liverpool 



1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 
1862. 

1863. 

1864. 



Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S, 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S, 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A,, 

F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ... 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 
Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S. 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 
Oxford 



Manchester 
Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 



Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

Prof. W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaus, R. Hunt,W. M. Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. 
Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 



T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

Dr.LyonPlayfair,C.B.,F.R.S. J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
I Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

Prof.B. C. Brodie, F.R.S i A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

I A. B. Northcote. 



Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F R S 
W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S 



A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R, 

Biggs. 



Ixx 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878, 

1879. 

1880. 

1881. 
1882. 

188.3. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 



Birmingham 
Nottingham 
Dundee , . . 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 
Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 



York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 



Presidents 



Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H, E. Roscoe, B.A., 

K R S 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 



Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. ... 



Secretaries 



A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Russell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
t W. J. Russell. 

iDr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
j sell, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 

Russell, Dr. Atkinson, 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 

Dr. W. J. Russell. 
J. T. Buchanan, W. N, Hartley, T. 

E. Thorpe. 
Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 

W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 
Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 
Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A.,'Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
F.R.S. I Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 

W. H. Perkin, F.R.S JW. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

F. A. Abel, F.R.S Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills, 
H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, 
I J. M. Thomson. 
Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

F.R.S. I Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 

Prof.A. W. Williamson.F.R.S. P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T.Gough. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

F.R.S. J. L. Notter. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

j Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 
Prof. Sir H. E. Eoscoe, Ph.D., !Prof . P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

LL.D., F.R.S. I T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 

Prof. H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
F.R.S., Sec. C,S. \ H. Forster Morley, Dr. W. J. 

Simpson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, H. F. Mor- 
ley ,W.W. J. Nicol, C.J.Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 
I Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. W, A, Tilden, D.Sc, Prof. H.B.Dixon, H. Forster Morley, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. I R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 

Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart.,|H, Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 
D.C.L., F.R.S. W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 

Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 'C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 



W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S 



Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S 



D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 
J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 
Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. j D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 

Piof.H. B.Dixon,M.A.,F.R.S.[A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 
J Harden, H. Forster Morley. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxi 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1895. Ipswich 



1896. 
1897. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905, 
1906. 
1907, 



Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 



SECTION B (continued). — chemistry. 
Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S. 



Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford , . . 
Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport 
Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 
York 

Leicester 



Dr. Lud wig Mond, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S 

Horace T. Brown, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Percy ¥. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 

Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, 

F R S 
Prof. Sydney Young, F.R.S.... 



George T. Beilby 

Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, 
Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. ... 



1908. Dublin Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S. .. 

1909. Winnipeg... 



Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. 



E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 
Kohn. J. W. Rodger. 

Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn. 

Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 
Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 

C. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddart, T. K. 
Rose. 

A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Rose, 
Prof. W. P. Wynne. 

W. M. Gardner, F. S. Kipping, W. 
J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 

W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 
W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 

R. F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof. 
G. G. Henderson. Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. O. Jones, Prof. W. 

I J. Pope. 

W. A. Caldecott, Dr. M. 0. Forster, 

I Prof. G. G. Henderson, C. F. Juritz. 

' Dr. E. F.Armstrong, Prof . A.W. Cross- 
ley, S. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 
Crossley, J. H. Hawthorn, Dr. 
F. M. Perkin. 

Dr. E. F.Armstrong, Dr.A. McKenzie, 

i Dr. F. M. Perkin, Dr. J. H. Pollock. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. T. M. Lowry , 
Dr. F. M. Perkin, J. W. Shipley. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S i John Taylor. 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

Prof. Jameson J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie, Rev. J.Yates. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle.. 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

R. J. Griffith ^ Captain Portlook, T. J. Torrie 

Rev. Dr. Buckland 



F.R.S.— 

G'«o9'.,R.I.Murchison,F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

6^eo5'.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.«., V.P.G.S.— 

Geography, Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

6'e<;.(7.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

Charles liyell, Y.'K.%.— Oeog., 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S. ... 



William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M. Denham.R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt, Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H, E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton,D. Milne, H. Murray, 
H. B. Strickland, J. Scoular. 

W.J.Hamilton,EdwardMoore,M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 



Ixxii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



Presidents 



1848. Swansea ... 
1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh' 



Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 
Kev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A. 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Homer, F.R.S 

j Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 

' Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Sir Roderick I, Murchison, 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Ramsay, 
Rev. W. Thorp. 

Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 
j Prof. Oldham, Dr. 0. T. Beke. 
I Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 
j Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 

S.Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. Ram say 

J. B. Jukes, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 
I Ramsay. 

'a. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 
i Prof. Nicol, 



SECTION c (continued). — geology. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds ...,,. 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton... 

1873. Bradford ... 



WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

WilliamHopkins,M.A., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D. 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S... 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington "W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
SirPhilipde M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, R. H. 

Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, E. Hull, J. W. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. bawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. 0. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L.C.Miall.R.H.Tiddeman.W.Topley. 



' Geography was constituted a separate Section, see page Ixsix. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxiii 



Date and Place 



1874, Belfast. 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield .. 

1880. Swansea .. 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal .. 

1885. Aberdeen.. 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Presidents 



Prof. Hull, M.A., F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr. T. Wright, F.R.S.E.,F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



Secretaries 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1 893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich 



1896. 

1897. 


Liverpool... 
Toronto . . . 


1898. 


Bristol 


1899. 


Dover 


1900. 


Bradford ... 


1901. 
1902. 


Glasgow ... 
Belfast 


1803. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


South Africa 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S,, Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S,, F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. 'S. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S, 
L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Hudleston, F.R S 

Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

John Horne,|F.R.S 

Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, 

F T? S 
Prof. 'w. W. Watts, M.A., 

M.Sc. 
Aubrey Strahan, F.R.S 

Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 



F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G, Symes, 

R. H. Tiddeman. 
L. C. Miall, E. B.Tawney,W.Topley, 
J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W, 

Topley. 
Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 

man, W. Topley. 
E. T. Hardman, Prof, J, O'Reilly, 

R, H. Tiddeman. 
W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 
W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 
J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 

W. Whitaker. 
T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 

lake, W. Whitaker. 
R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
I ley, W. Whitaker. 
1 F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
I Topley, W. Whitaker. 
C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. TeaU, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 

ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof G. A, Lebour, W. Topley, W 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W, 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F, H. Hatch, J. 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Raid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Eeid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 
Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, C. Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H. Pentecost. 

J. W. Gregory, G. W. Lamplugh, 

Capt. McDakin. Prof. H. A. Miers. 
H. L. Bowman, Eev. W. L. Carter, 

G. W. Lamplugh, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton, 

J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. Seymour. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, 11. Woods. 
H. L.Bowman, J. Lomas, Dr. Molen- 

graaff, Prof. A. Youpg, Prof, R. B. 

Young. 



Ixxiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 



Presidents 



G, W. Lamplugh, F.R.S 

Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S... . 

Prof. John Joly, F.R.S 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 
FRS. 



Secretaries 



H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Rev. W. Johnson, J. Lomas. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Prof. T. Groom, J. Lomas. 
Rev. W. L. Carter, J. Lomas, Prof. 

S. H. Reynolds, H. J. Seymour. 
W. L. Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 

R T.Hodgson, Prof. S.H. Reynolds. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...|Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge ' I Rev. W.L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh IProf. Graham W. Tarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 

1844. York. 



1846. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



Dr. Allman 

Rev. Prof. Henslow 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 

Very Rev, the Dean of Man- 
chester. 
Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S. ... 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 
C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 
J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 
E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 
Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
J. Couch,Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankier. 
Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
Dr. Lankest«r, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology and botany, including PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. Ixxviii.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1 849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 

1853. Hull 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S iDr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey. Dr. Lankester. 

William Spence, F.R.S iDr. Lankester, Dr. Rassell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 



Prof, Goodsir, F.R.S.,F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 



' At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. Ixxviii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxv 



Date and Place 


1864 


Liverpool... 


1U56. 


Glasgow ... 


1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 


1864. 


Bath 


1865. 


Birming- 




ham.' 


1866. 


Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee ... 


1868. 


Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1869. Exeter. 



1870. Liverpool,.. 



1871. Edinburgh, 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford ... 



Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

SirW.Jardine,Bart.,F.R.8.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



SECTION D (continued) 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S.— i?e^. 

of Phygwl., JProf. Humphry, 

F.R.S.— Z>e^. of Anthropol, 

A. R. Wallace. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Dep. of Zool. and Bat., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 

— Dep. of Phygiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Dep. of Bot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Etlmo., B. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. RoUeston, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. — 2)e/?. of 
Anat. and Pliynol.,Yiol.'M.. 
Foster, M.D., Y.\j.'&.—Bep. 
o,' Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— 2>e/>. of Bot. and 
^^oZ.jProf.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

SirJ.Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Phygiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman,F.R.S.— Z)<?p. of 
Anat. and Phygiol., Frof. Ru- 
therford, M.D. — Bep. of An- 
thropol., Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 



Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. E. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A.Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

. — BIOLOGY. 

Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner, 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr, 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye- Smith. 

Prof. Thisel ton- Dyer, Prof. Lawson. 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 



' The title of Section D was changed to Biology. 



ixxvi 



Presidents and secretaries of the sections* 



Date and Place 



1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol - 



1876. Glasgow .. 



1877. Plymouth... 



1878. Dublin , 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea ... 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal'... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. Eedfcrn, M.D.—Bi^. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
CJ'Q.,Yres.B,.^.—Dep.ofAn- 
throj)., Sir W. R. Wilde, 
M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, V.B,.^.—Dep.of 
Anat. and Physiol., Prof. 
Cleland, ¥.n.^.—Dep. of 
^«fA.,Prof.Rolleston,F.R.S. 

A. Eussel Wallace, F.L.S.— 
J)C2>. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Bcj). of Anat. and Phydol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 

J. GwjTi Jeffreys, F.E.S.— 
Bej). of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. Macalister. — Bej). of 
^/rf/;wj'wZ.,F.Galton,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. 'R.^.—Bep. 
of Anat. and Physiol., E. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S.— Z»e/A of Anthropol., 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A.C. L. Giinther, F.R.S.— 7)<'j?. 
of Anat. J)- Physiol., F. M. 
Balfour, ¥.\i.^.—Bep. of 
Anthropol., F. W. Rudler. 

R. Owen, F.R.S.— Z»e/;. of An- 
thropol., Prof. W.H. Flower, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of. Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. RayLankester, M.A., 
F.R.S.— i>f7A of Anthropol, I 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. | 

Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 

Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., 
F.R.S., F.G.8. 

Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.E.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. E. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. E. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. E. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 

E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Kingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B, Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 
Dr. E. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. E. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Purser, J. B. Eowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthm- Jackson, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, 
J. B. Eowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schiifer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Eev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. E. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, 

A. Sedgwick, Prof. E. E. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Eobertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse. W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 

mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 



' Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxxv. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxvii 



Date and Place 



1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 



Presidents 



1890. Leeds , 

1891. Cardiff. 



1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham' 

189i. Oxford 2 ... 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

' Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner, 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer. Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murraj', W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater, 



SECTION D (c07llinued).^Z00L0GY. 



1895. 

1896. 

1897. 

1898. 

1899. 
1900. 

1901. 
1902. 

1903. 



Ipswich . 

Liverpool. 

Toronto . 

Bristol . , , . 

Dover .... 
Bradford . 

Glasgow . 
Belfast.... 

Southport 



1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 



Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 

Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. ... 

William Bateson, F.R.S 

G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S 

J. J. Lister, F.R.S 

Dr. W. E. Hoyle, M.A 

Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S 

Dr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. ... 



G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
H. O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof, 

E. E. Prince. 
Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 
W. Garstang, J. G. Kerr, T. H. 

Taylor, Swale Vincent. 
J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson, 
Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft. A. 

Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpfson, Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

OxleyGrabham, Dr. H.W.M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

E. E. Lowe, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. A. Fraser, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 
C. A. Baragar, C. L. Boulenger, Dr. 

J. Pearson, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 



' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxsvj. 
* The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



Ixxviii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge Dr. J. Haviland IDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh IDr. Abercrombie |Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E (until 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. B. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S... 
James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart, 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr.J. Brown, Prof. Couper,Prof. Reid. 



1841. 


Plymouth...' 


1842. 


Manchester 


1843. 


Cork 


1844. 


York 


1845. 


Cambridge 


1846, 


Southamp- 




ton. 


1847. 


Oxford' .., 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. | J. Butter, J.Fuge, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S.jDr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent, 



Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr, Sar- 
gent. 
Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S T, K. Chambers, W, P. Ormerod. 



Sir James Pitcairn, M.D 
J. C. Pritchard, M.D. .,. 
Prof, J. Haviland, M.D. 
Prof, Owen, M.D., F.R.S 



1850, 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham.^ 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rolleston,M.D.,F.L.S. 

Dr. John Davy, F.R.S 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S, 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Strutbers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smitli. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. Ixxi.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D, 



1846. Southampton I Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

1.847. Oxford ! Prof . H. H. Wilson, M.A. ... 

1848. Swansea ... I 

1849. Birmingham 

1 850. Edinburgh ! Vice- Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King, 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



' Sections D and E were incorporated under the title of ' Section D — Zoology 
and Botany, including Physiology ' (see p. Ixxiv). Section B, being then vacant, 
was assis:ned in 1851 to Geography, 

" Vide note on page Ixxiv. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851, 
1852. 
1853. 
1864. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865, 
1866, 

1867. 
1868, 



Ipswich .,. 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool.,. 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 
Bath 



Birming- 
ham. 
Nottingham 



Dundee . . . 
Norwich ... 



Sir E, L Murchison, F.R,S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M,D., F,R.S. 

Sir R. I, Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres.R.LA. 
Sir R.L Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S, 
Rear - Admiral Sir James 

Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 
John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Major-General Sir H, Raw- 
linson, M,P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 
LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S, 

Capt. G. H, Richards, R,N., 
F.R.S, 



R. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev, H, W, Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw, 
Richard Cull, Rev, H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R, Cull, F. D, Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson. Dr. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw, 
R, Cull, F. Galton, P, O'Callaghan, 

Dr, Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, 
Capt, Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C, 

Lemprifere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W, Spottiswoode. 
J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr, Hunt 

Dr, Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson, 
H, W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev, E, T. Cusins, R. 

H, Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright, 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. P. 
Markham, S, J. Mackie, R. Sturrock, 
T, Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — GEOGRAPHY. 



1869. Exeter 

1370. Liverpool... 

1871, Edinburgh 

1872, Brighton ,., 

1873, Bradford .,, 

1874, Belfast 

1875, Bristol 



1876. Glasgow .,, 

1877. Plymouth,,, 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.CB., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
SirR.I.Murchison,Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.8.,F.G,S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.CB. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

R.B.,C.S.L,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C,B. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham, 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H, Thomas. 
H. W, Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham, 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J, H, 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tackett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. O. Wood. 
H, W, Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 



Ixxx 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OP THE SECTIONS* 



Date and Place 



1878. 

1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1.884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 

1904. 
190.5. 



Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport... 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester 

Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds .. 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford . . . 
Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport... 

Cambridge 
SoUthAfrica 



1906. York. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thorn- John Coles, E. C. Eye. 

son,LL.D.,P.R.S.,F.R.S.E. 
Clements K. Markham, C.B., H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

F.R.S., Sec. K.G.S. j Rye. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy,!H. W. Bates, E. C. Eye. 

C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A.,F.R.S. 
Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.L, J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir E. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. Eye. 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- John Coles, E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. 

Austen, F.E.S. i Eye. 

Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., Eev.Abb^Laflamme, J.S. O'Halloran, 

K.C.M.G.,F.E.S.,V.P.E.G.S. E. G. Eavenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., E.E., J. S. Keltic, J. S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

LL.D., F.R.S. , Eavenstein, Eev. G. A. Smith. 

Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J.Goldsmid,|F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltic, 

K.C.S.L, C.B., F.E.G.S. | E. G. Eavenstein. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, E.E., Eev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltic, 

G.C.M.G., F.E.S., F.R.G.S. i H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Eavenstein. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

K.C.B., F.E.S., F.E.G.S. i Eavenstein. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, J. S. Keltic, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. Sulivan, A. Silva White. 

Lieut.-Col. Sir E. Lambert A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

Playfair,K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. A. Silva White. 
B. G. Eavenstein, F.E.G.S., John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 

F.S.S. I kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 

Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.E.S., J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

V.P.E.Scot.G.S. j Keltie, A. Silva White. 

H. Seebohm,Sec. R.S., F.L.S., Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 

F.Z.S. Forbes, Dr. H. E. Mill. 

Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, E.N., John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

F.E.S. Dickson, Dr. H. E. Mill. 

H. J. Mackinder, M.A., John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

F.E.G.S. E. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 

Major L. Darwin, Sec. E.G.S. Col. F. Bailey. H. N. Dickson, Dr. 
i H. E. Mill, E. C. DuB. Phillips. 

J. Scott Keltie, LL.D. ,Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

i H. E. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
Col. G. Earl Church, F.E.G.S. H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. E. MUl, H. C. 
Trapnell. 

Sir John MuiTay, F.E.S H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. O. Forbes, 

Dr. H. E. Mill. 
Sir George 8. Eobertson, H. N. Dickson, E. Heawocd, E. E. 



K.C.S.L 
Dr. H. E. Mill, F.E.G.S. 



Wethey. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 

Sandeman. A. C. Turner. 
G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 

A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. Lindsay. 
Capt. E. W. Creak, R.N.,C.B.,B. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 



Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. 



F.E.S. 
Douglas W, Freshfleld. 



Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton, 
E.N., K.C.B., F.E.a. 

Et. Hon. Sir George Goldie, 
K.C.M.G., F.E.s! 



E. A. Eeeves, Capt. J. C. Under- 
wood. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
H. Y. Oldham, E. A. Reeves. 

A. H. Cornish-Bo wden, F. Flowers, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, H. Y. Old- 
ham. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
E. A. Reeves, G. Yeld. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxxi 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1907. Leicester... George O. Chisholm, M.A. ... 



Secretaries 



1908. Dublin Major E. H. Hills, CM.G., 

R.E. 

1909. Winnipeg... Col. SirD.John8ton,K.C.M.G.,G. G. Chisholm, J. McFarlane, A. 

I C.B., R.E. I Mclntjre. 



E. Heawoodj 0. J. R. Howarth, 

E. A. Reeves, T. Walker. 
W. F. Bailey, W. J. Barton, O. J. R. 

Howarth, E. A. Reeves. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge i Prof. Babbage, F.R.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart | Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 

SECTION F. — STATISTICS, 



1835 


Dublin 


1836 


Bristol 


1837. 


Liverpool... 


1838 


Newcastle 


1839, 


Birming- 
ham. 


1840. 


Glasgow ... 


1841. 


Plymouth... 


1842. 


Manchester 


1843. 


Cork 


1844. 


York 


1845. 
1846. 


Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 


1847. 


Oxford 


1848, 


Swansea ... 


1849. 


Birming- 
ham. 


18.50. 


Edinburgh 


1851. 
1852. 


Ipswich ... 
Belfast 


1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool... 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 



I Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

I Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Lord Sandon, M.P., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M. P. ... 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M,P. ... | 



W. Greg, Prof, Longfield. 

Rev. J. E Bromby, C. B. Fripp. 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg,'w. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. E. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. Cooke Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shcrtrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. P. G. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. E. H. Walsh, 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and statistics 
1856. Cheltenham Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



1857. Dublin. 

1858. Leeds .. 



1909. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
e 



Ixxxii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 



Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 



Bath 

Birming- 
ham. 
Nottingham 



Presidents 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S... . 

Edwin Chadvvick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E.T.Rogers 



1866. 

1867. Dundee M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P. . 



Secretaries 



1868. 
1869. 



Norwich .... 
Exeter 



1870. Liverpool. 



Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 



1871. 
1872 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 
1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

188.5. 

1886 

1887 



Samuel Brown 

Rt.Hon.SirStaffordH. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. B. Forster, M.P. 
Lord O'Hagan 



Bristol 

Glasgow .. 

Plymouth.. 

Dublin 

Sheffield .. 

Swansea .. 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester 



James He3avood, M. A., F.R.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. ... 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I., CLE., F'.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. ... 

Robert Giffen, LL.D.,V.P.S.S. 



1888. Bath Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

1889. Newcastle- Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 
upon-Tyne F.S.S. 

1890. Leeds Prof. A. Marshall, M.A. , F.S.S. 



1891. Cardiff, 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D. 
D.Sc, F S.S. 



Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A, M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chad wick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers, 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne. F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Filch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W.Jack. 
W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 
W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pim. 
Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden- Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Mo.<!s. 
F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. E<ige- 

worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brige, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 



PKESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxxiii 



Date and Place 



1892. 

1893. 

1894, 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 
1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1903. 

1906. 



Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford... 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 
Bristol .. 



Presidents 



Dover .., 

Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 



Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle, 
K.C.B. 

Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 

F.S.S. 

Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
L. L. Price, M.A 

Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P.... 

Prof. E. C. K. Conner, M.A. 
J. Bonar, M.A., LL.D 



Secretaries 



1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 



H. Higgs, LL.B 

Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. 

Sir R. Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

E. Cannan, M.A., LL.D 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prjf. Wm. Smart, LL.D 

Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D., 

D.Sc. 
A. L. Bowley, M.A 



Prof. W. J. Ashley, M.A. 
W. M. Ac worth, M.A. ... 



Siib-sention of Aqricultnre — 

Rt. Hon. Sir H. Plunkett. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. ... 



Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Conner, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, I'rof. E. C. K. Conner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Caunan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 
E. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Flux, H. 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 
A. L. Bowley, B. Cannan, Prof. A. 

VV. Flux, Rev. G. Sarson. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, S. J. 

Chapman, F. Hooper. 
W. \V. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan, S. J. Chapman. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. A. DutBn 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. Lloyd. 
J. E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg. 
R. i1 Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

H. li.S. Fremantle, H. O. Meredith. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Mac- 

gregor, H. O. Meredith, B. S. 

Rowntree. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Macgregor, 

H. O. Meredith, T. S. Taylor. 
\V. G. S. Adams, Prof. S. J. Chap- 
man, Prof. D. H. "Macgregor, H. O. 

Meredith. 
A. D. Hall, Prof. J. Percival, J. H. 

Priestley, Prof. J. Wilson. 
Prof. A. B. Clark, Dr. W. A. Mana- 

han, Dr. W. R. Scott. 



SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. 
1837. 
18.38. 
1839. 

1810. 

184L 
1842. 

184.3. 
1844. 
184.5. 
1846. 



Bristol , Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Liverpool... | Rev. Dr. Robinson 



Newcastle 
Birming- 
ham. 
Glasgow .... 

Plymouth . . . 
Manchester 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. 

Stephenson. 
Sir .lohn Robinson '. 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.LA.... 

.John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. ProL Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



1847. Oxford I Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A.,F.R.S, 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles. T.Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
.James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 



Ixxxiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1855. 
1856. 
1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 
1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 
1884. 



Swan.sea ... 
Birraingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 



Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 



Presidents 



Bath 

Birming- 
ham. 
Nottingham 



Dundee.. 

Norwich 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport... 
Montreal . . . 



Rev. Prof.Walker, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P.,F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt,F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

Wiliiam Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 

W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macqi\orn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Pjrof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Flceming Jenkin, F.R.S. 
F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 

J.Abernethy, F.R.S.E 

Sir AV. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

J. Brunlees, Pres.Inst.C.E. ... 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 
V.P.Inst.C.E. 



Secretaries 



R. A. Le Mesuricr, W. P. Struve. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 
son. 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. Jeffer}-. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harri.son, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, 

M. O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, 

C. Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, 

T. King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith, 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C.Barlow,H.Bauerman.E.H.Carbutt, 

J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg,H. T.Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OP THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxxv 



Date and Place 



1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
189^. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 



Aberdeen... 

Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool... 

Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford ' 



Presidents 



B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

O.E. 
Prof. Osborne Rejmolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedj', 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 

G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Sir J. Wolfe-Barr}% K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir W. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Alex. R. Binnie, M.Inst. 
C.E. 



Secretaries 



B. 



A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. VV. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popplewell, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke. 

W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Callen- 

dar, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 

E. Stilgoe. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, C. F. Charnock, 

Prof. S. Dunkerley, W. A. Price. 



SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 



1901. 
1902. 
1903. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 
1907. 

1908. 

1909, 



Glasgow ... 
Belfast ... 
Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester... 



Dublin 

Winnipeg... 



R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 

C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Hon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir C. Scott-Moncrieff, 
G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E. 

J. A. Ewing, F.R.S 

Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, 
F.R.S. 

Dugald Clerk, F.R.S 

Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., 
I F.R.S. 



H. Bamf ord, W.E. Dalby, W. A. Price. 
M. Barr, W. A. Price, J. Wylio. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 

W. A. Price. 
J. B. Peace, W. T. Maccall, W. A 

Price. 
W. T. Maccall, W. B. Marshall, Prof. 

H. Payne, E. Williams. 
W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price, J. Triffit. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, A. C. Harris, 

W. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, Dr. W. E. Lilly, 

W. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 
E. E. Brydone- Jack, Prof. E. G.Coker, 
I Prof.E. W. Marchant, W. A. Price. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1884. Montreal... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birming- 

ham. 

1887. Manchester 



E. B.Tylor.D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.L, 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst. Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R, Saundby. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr 

A. M. Paterson. 



' The title of Section G was changed to Engineering. 



Ixxxvi PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 

]88S. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Iijswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford ... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Soulhport... 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. South Africa 
190G. York 

1907. Leicester ... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 



Presidents 



Lieut.-General Pitt-Kivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. F. Max Muller, M.A. ... 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro, M.A. F.K.S.E. 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B . 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, 

D.C.L. 
Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A 

Sir W.Turner, F.R.S 

E. W. Brabrook, O.B 

C. H. Read, F.S.A 



Secretaries 



Prof. John Khvs, M.A. 



Prof. D. J. Cunningham, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. ... 

H. Balfour, M.A 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 

E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A.... 

D. G. Hogarth, M.A 

Prof. W. Ridgeway, M.A. ... 

Prof. J. L. M>res, M.A 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Gar.son. 

J. Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 
G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

Roth. 
J. L. Myres, Rev. J. J. Raven, H. 

Ling Roth. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 
A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. Haddon. J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, .J. L. Myres, G. Parker. 
H. Balfour, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

Haddon, J. L. Myres. 
Rev. E. Armitage, H. Balfour, W. 

Crooke, J. L. Myres. 
VV. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 

Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 
R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 

J. L. Myres. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 

E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres. ' 

\V. L. H. Duckworth, E.'N.Fallaize, 

H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres. 
A. R. Brown, A. von De.ssauer, E. S. 

Hartland. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize, H. S. 

Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
C. J. Billson, E. N. Fallaize, H. S. 

Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, Dr. 

F. C. Shrubsall. L. E. Steele. 

H. S. Kingsford, Prof. C. J. Patten, 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 

1894. Oxford Prof. E. A. Schjifer, F.R.S.,iProf. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haldane, 

M.R.C.S. I M. S. Pembrey. 

1896. Liverpool.. Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. ...! Prof. R.Boyce, Prof. C.S.Sherrington. 

1897. Toronto ... Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. I Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 

! ton. Dr. L. E. Shore. 

1S99. Dover J. N. Langley, F.R.S j Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 

H. Starling. 

1901. Glasgow ... Prof.J.G.McKendrick, F.KS.'W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

i W. H. Thompson. 

1902. Belfast ...Prof. W. D. Halliburton,' J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne, Dr. 
F.R.S. I C. Shaw. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Ixxxvii 



Date and Place 



1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 

York 



Secretaries 



1906. 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 



Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. .. 

Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

Dr. J. Scott Haldane, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. H. Starling, F.R.S... 



1895. 
1896. 

1897. 

1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 



1902. Belfast 

1903. 

1904. 



Southport 
Cambridge 



1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg.. 



Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. J. Barcroft, Prof. T. G. Brodie, Dr. 

L. E. Shore. 
J. Barcroft, Dr. Baumann, Dr. Mac- 
kenzie, Dr. G. W. Robertson, Dr. 

Stanwell. 
J. Barcroft, Dr. J. M. Hamill, Prof. 

J. S. Macdonald, Dr. D. S. Long. 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, J. Barcroft, Prof. 

J. S. Macdonald, Dr. A. Warner. 
Prof. D J. Coffey, Dr. P. T. Herring, 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr.H.E.Roaf, 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, Prof. P. T. Herrin-, 

Dr. W. Webster. 
SECTION K.— BOTANY. 
W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S. A. C. Seward, Prof. P. E. Weiss. 

Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 

Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, J. W, White. 
G. Dowker, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, W. West. 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 
A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 

H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 
H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, H. Wager, 

R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 

H. Wager, T. B. Wood, R. H. Yapp. 



Ipswich 

Liverpool... I Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 

Toronto ... |Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S 

Bristol iprof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. . 

Dover Sir George King, F.R.S 

Bradford ... I Prof. H. H. Vines, F.R.S 

Glasgow ... Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. . 



Prof. J. R. Green, F.R.S. 
A. C. Seward, F.R.S. ... 



Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Snh-section of Agricvltitre — 

Dr. W. Somerville. 
Harold Wager, F.R.S 



Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.E.S. ... 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. ... 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S.... 

Lieut.-Col. D. Prain, CLE., 

F.R.S. 
Sub-section of Agriculture — 

Major P. G. Craigie, C.B. 



R. P. Gregory, Dr. Marloth, Prof. 

Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R.^H. Yapp. 
W. Bell, R. P. Gregory, Prof. A. G. 

Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. H. H. Dixon, R. P. Gregory, 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. A. H. R. Buller, Prof. D. T. 

Gwynne-Vaughan,Prof .R.H. ifapp. 
W. J. Black, Dr. E. J. Russell, Prof. 

J. WiLson. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

1901. Glasgow ... Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. ... R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y- 

I Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 

I H. L. Withers. 

1902. Belfast ...'Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

' j R. M. Jones, Dr. G. W. Kimmins, 

Prof. H. L. Withers. 

1903. Southport ..ISir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., ' Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

F.R.S. Dr. C.W. Kimmins, Dr. H.L.Snape. 

904. Cambridge Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Uregory, 

' W. M. Heller, Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 

1905. SouthAfrica Prof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., A. D.Hall, Prof. Hele-Shaw, Dr. C.W. 

M.P. Kimmins, J. R. Whitton. 

1906. York Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

I i Hugh Richardson. 



Ixxxviii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 


1907. Leicester... 


Sir Philip Magnus, M.P 


W. D. Eggar, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 
J. S. Laver, Hugh Richardson. 


1908. Dublin 


Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 


Prof. E. P. Culverwell, W. D. Eggar, 
George Fletcher, Prof. R. A. 
Gregory, Hugh Richardson. 


1909. Winnipeg... 


Rev. H. B. Gray, D.D 


W. D. Eggar, R. Fletcher, J. L. 






Holland, Hugh Richardson. 



CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES of the CONFERENCES OF 
DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Date and Place 



Chairmen 



1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 

1890. 
1891. 
181)2. 
189.3, 
1894. 
1895, 
1896 
1897 
1898, 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 



Aberdeen . . . 
Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 

Liverpool... 

Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford ... 
, Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

. Southport .. 
. Cambridge 
. London ... 



Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson,F.R.S. 
Prof.W.Boyd Dawkins.F.R.S. 

John Evans, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R S 



1906. York 

1907. Leicester ... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. London ... 



G. J. Symons, F.R.S 

G. J. Symons, F.R.S 

Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. J. G. Garson 

Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 

G. J. Symons, F.R.S 

Dr. J. G. Garson 

Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 

W. Wlutaker, F.R.S 

Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

F. W. Rudler, F.G.S 

Prof. W. VV. Watts, F.G.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, F.R.S 

Prof. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 

F.R.S. 
Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B..,. 

H. J. Mackinder, M.A 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 



Secretaries 



Prof. Meldola. 
Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 
Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 
Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour. 

Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 

Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 

T. V. Holmes. 

T. V. Holmes. 

T. V. Hobnes. 

T. V. Holmes. 

T. V. Holmes. 

J. Hopkinson. 

T. V. Holmes. 

T. V. Holmes. 

T. v. Holmes. 

Dr. J. G. Garson, A. Somerville. 

E. J. Bles. 

F. W. Rudler. 
F. W. Rudler. 
F. W. Rudler. 

F. W. Rudler. 
F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 







EVENING DISCOURSES. 


Dat 


e and Place 


Lecturers 


Subject of Discourse 


1842. 
1813. 


Manchester 
Cork 


Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. B. Forbes, F.R.S 


The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 
The Geology of Russia. 




York 


Tlie Distribution of Animal Life in 

the JSgean Sea. 
The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 
Geology of North America. 
The Gigantic Tortoise of the Slwalik 

Hills iu India. 


1844 


Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 







EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Ixxxix 



Date and Place 



1845. Cambridge 

1816. Southamp- 
ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 



Swansea .. 

Birming- 
ham. 

Edinburgh 
Ipswich . . . 



1852. Belfast. 



1853. Hull, 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 



Lecturers 



G. B. Airy.F. R. S. ,Astron .Royal 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof, M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astronomer 

Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. "W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson ... 



Subject of Discourse 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. PhilIips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.... 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn. R.N. 
Prof. W. A. Miller,M.A.,F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S,,Astron. Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 



Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

PropertiesoftheExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Didus ineptus). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through tlie 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their Changes of Form, 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 
1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 



xc 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



186H. Newcastle 



1864. Bath. 



1865. Birming- 
liara. 



Lecturers 



Prof. Williamson, F.R.S., 



James Glaisher, F.R.S., 

Prof. Koscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
■J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S... 



Subject of Discourse 



1866. Nottingham William Huggins.F.R.S 

'or. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

1867. Dundee Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

1868. Norwich ... J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

1869. Exeter Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 

j J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. .. 

1870. Liverpool... Prof. J. Tyndall,LL.D., F.R.S. 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



Prof .W. J. JTacquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tj'lor, F.R.S. ..., 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 
I F.R.S. 
IProf.W.K. Clifford... 



1873. Bradford ... 1 Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 

I Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 

1874. Belfast 'sir John Lubbock,Bart..M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

1875. Bristol ' W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. BramwcU, F.R.S 

1876. Glasgow ... Prof. Tait, F.R.S. E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 

1877. Plymouth... W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

I F.R.S. 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

1878. Dublin 'G.J. Romanes, F.L.S 

I Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 



1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 

1881. York 



W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Hu.xley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S.... , 



The Chemistry of the Galvanic 
Battery considered in relation 
to Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The Results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulae. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagi- 
nation. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis, 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The 'Challenger' Expedition. 

Physical Phenomena connected with 
tlie Mines of Cornwall and Devon. 

The New Element, Gallium. 

Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
Cliemical Action. 

Radiant Matter. 

Degeneration. 

Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palaeon- 
tology. 

Tlie Electric Discharge : its Forms 
and it« Functions. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport... 



1884. Montreal... 



Lecturers 



Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.K.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 



Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



1885. Aberdeen... Prof. W. G. Adams. F.R.S. ... 



1886. Birming- 

ham. 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 



John Murray, F.R.S. E 

A. W. Rucker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Prof.W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 



1890. Leeds E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 

Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

1891. Cardiff 'Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof.A.W.Riicker,M.A.,F.R.S, 

1892. Edinburgh ; Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 

Prof. J.A.Ewing,M.A., F.R.S. 

1893. Nottingham Prof. A. Smithells, B.Sc. 

Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



1894. Oxford.... 

1895. Ipswich . 

1896. Liverpool. 

1897. Toronto . 



1898. Bristol.... 

1899. Dover .... 

1900. Bradford. 

1901. Glasgow . 

1902. Belfast . 

1903. Southport. 



.J. W.Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 
Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

.'Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 

iProf. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 
. |Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

; Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 
. I Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 
F R S 

I J. Milne, F.R.S 

.Prof. W.J. Sollas, F.R.S 

Herbert Jackson 

. iProf. Charles Richet 

IProf. J. Fleming. F.R.S 

. I Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

i Prof. W. Stroud 

. I Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

[Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

' Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. F. R, Weldon, F.R.S. 

. Dr. R. Munro 

Dr. A. Rowe 



Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of Power. 

The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 
Crust. 

The Hardening and Tempering of 
Steel. 

How Plants maintain themselves in 
the Struggle for Existence. 

Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 

Some Difficulties in the Life of 
Aquatic Insects. 

Electrical Stress. 

Pedigrees. 

I Magnetic Induction. 
1 Flame. 

The Discovery of the Physiology of 
the Nervous System. 

Experiences and Prospects of 
African Exploration. 

Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 

Magnetism in Rotation. 

The Work of Pasteur and its various 
Developments. 

Safety in Ships. 

Man before Writing. 

Canada's Metals. 

Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 

Funafuti : the St udy of a Coral Island. 

Phosphorescence . 

La vibration nerveuse. 

TbeCentenaryof theElectricCurrent. 

Animal Electricity. 

Range Finders. 

The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plants. 
Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Inheritance. 
Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 

Palaeolithic Period. 
The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 

Teachings. 



XCll 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturers 


Subject of Discourse 


1904. Cambridge 


Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.... 
Prof. H. F. Osborn 


Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 
Palseontological Discoveries in the 
Rocky Mountains. 

W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South 
Africa. 

Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 

The Mountains of the Old World. 

Marine Biology. 

Sleeping Sickness. 

The Cruise of the ' Discovery.' 

The Distribution of Power. 

Steel as an Igneous Rock. 

Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 
ing Sickness, &c. 

The Milky Way and the Clouds of 
Magellan. 

Diamonds. 

The Bearino" of Engineering on 


1905. South 

Africa : 
Cape Town ... 

Durban 

Pietermaritz- 

burg. 
Johannesburg 


Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S 

Douglas W. Freshfield 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... 
H. T. Ferrar 


Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. J. 0. Arnold 


Pretoria 
Bloemfontein... 


A. E. Shipley, F.R.S 

A, R. Hinks 


Kimberley 


Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. J. B. Porter 


Bulawayo 


D. Randall-Maclver 


Mining. 


1906. York 


Dr. Tempest Anderson 




1907. Leicester,.. 


Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

W. Duddell, F.R.S 

Dr. f^. A. Dixey 


The Electrical Signs of Life, and 
their Abolition by Chloroform. 

The Ark and the Spark in Radio-tele- 
graphy. 

Recent Developments in the Theory 
of Mimicry. 

Halley's Comet. 

The Lessons of the Colorado Canyon. 

The Seven Styles of Crystal Archi- 
tecture. 

Our Food from the Waters. 

The Chemistry of Flame. 

The Pressure of Light. 


1908. Dublin 


Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. M. Davis 


1909. Winnipeg... 


Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
'Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S.... 
' Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 



LECTUEES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874, 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1879. 
1880. 



Liverpool . 
Brighton . 
Bradford . 
Belfast .... 
Bristol .... 
Glasgow . 
Plymouth . 
Sheffield . 
Swansea . 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S, ... 



Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
C.W.Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B.... 

W. H. Preece 

W, E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 



Subject of Lecture 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 



Sunshine, Sea, and Sky 
Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 
A Piece of Limestone. 
A Journey through Africa. 
Telegraphy and the Telephone. 
Electricity as a Motive Power 
The North- East Passage. 



' Popular Lectures,' delivered to the citizens of Winnipeg. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



XCUl 



Date and Place 



1881. York . 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southpo t... 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh.. 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 



1900. Bradford. 

1901. Glasgow , 



1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport... 



1904. Cambridge.. 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 



Lecturers 



Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
John Evans, D.C.L.,Treas.R.S. 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. E. S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F R S 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. SoUas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. 0. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A 



Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. S. Flett 



Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 

Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S. 



Subject of Lecture 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity ^Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their Enemies and Signal to their 

Friends. 
Electricity in the Industries. 
The Movements of Men by Land 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent : the 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 
The Manufacture of Light. 
The Growth of a Crystal. 
The Crystallisation of "Water. 



I 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 

Table showing the Attendances and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 


Old Life 
Members 


New Life 
1 Members 




1831, Sept. 27 

1832, June 19 

1833, June 25 

1834, Sept. 8 

1835, Aug. 10 

1836, Aug. 22 

1837, Sept. 11 

1838, Aug. 10 

1839, Aug. 26 

1840, Sept. 17 

1841, July 20 

1842, June 23 

1843, Aug. 17 

1844, Sept. 26 

1845, June 19 

1846, Sept. 10 . ... 

1847, June 23 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 

1850, July 21 

1851, July 2 


York 


Viscount Milton, D.C.L.. F.R.S 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S. ... 
Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd,LL.D., F.R.S 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S. 
The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. . 
The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S 
Tlie Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S 

The Re V. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

; The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. . 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ., 
TheMarquisofNorthampton,Pres.R.S 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D.. F.R.S 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. ... 
William Hopkins, F.R.S 


_ 

i 169 

303 

109 

226 

313 

241 

314 

149 

227 

235 

172 
1 164 

141 

238 

194 

182 

236 

222 

184 

286 

321 

239 

203 

287 

292 

207 

167 

196 

204 

314 

246 

245 

212 

162 

239 
221 

173 

201 

184 

144 

272 

178 

203 

235 

225 

314 

428 

266 

277 

259 

189 

280 

201 

327 

214 

330 

120 

281 

296 

267 

310 

243 

250 

419 

115 

322 

276 1 

294 1 

117 1 


65 
169 
28 
150 
36 
10 
18 
3 
12 
9 
8 
10 
13 
23 
33 
14 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 
28 
36 
27 
13 
36 
35 
19 
18 
16 
11 
28 
17 
60 
20 
18 
25 
86 
36 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 
31 
8 
19 
20 
13 
37 
21 
21 
32 
40 
10 
19 




Oxford 












Dublin 




Bristol 








Newcastle-on-Tyne. . 
















Cork 




York 

Cambridge 




Oxford 




















1852, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 

1854, Sept. 20 

1855, Sept. 12 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 

1858, Sept. 22 

1859, Sept. 14 

1860, June 27 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 

1863, Aug. 26 

1864, Sept. 13 

1865, Sept. 6 

1866, Aug. 22 

1867, Sept. 4 

1868, Aug. 19 

1869, Aug. 18 

1870, Sept. 14 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 

1873, Sept. 17 

1874, Aug. 19 

1875, Aug. 25 

1876, Sept. 6 

1877, Aug. 15 

1878, Aug. 14 

1879, Aug. 20 

1880, Aug. 25 

1881, Aug. 31 

1882, Aug. 23 

1883, Sept. 19 

1884, Aug. 27 

1885, Sept. 9 

1886, Sept. 1 

1887, Aug. 31 

1888, Sept. 5 .. 

1889, Sept. 11.... 

1890, Sept. 3 .... 

1891, Aug. 19 

1892, Aug. 3 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 

1895, Sept. 11 . 

1896, Sept. 16... 1 

1897, Aug. 18 

1898, Sept. 7 

1899, Sept. 1.3 

1900, Sept. 5 

1901, Sept. U 

1902, Sept. 10... . ' 

1903, Sept. 9 i 

1904, Aug. 17 

1905, Aug. 15 

1906, Aug. 1 

1907, July 31 

1908, Sept. 2 

19U9, Aug. 25 1 


Belfast 




Hull 






The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. ... 
The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S. . . . 
Prof. C. G. B.Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S. 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R S 

Rich.ard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S. 
H.R.H. The Prince Consort 












Dublin 




Leeds 




Aberdeen 




Oxford 


The Lord Wrotteslev, M.A., F.R.S. .. 
William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. . 
The Rev. Profes.sor Willis,M.A.,F.R.S 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.O., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker. F.R.S 

Prof. G. (f. Stokes, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Hu.xley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. WUli,amson, F.R.S 

Prof. .T. Tvndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S ''.'. 

Prof. G. J. AUm.an, M.D.. F.R.S 

A. C. Rams.ay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Ban., F.R.S 

Dr. C. W. Siemens F.R.S. .. 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigli, F.R.S. 

Sir Lyon Playfair. K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sander.son, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury,K.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister. Bart., Pres. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S.... 
SirWilliam Turner, D.C.L.. F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. RUcker, D.Sc, SecJl.S. .. 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F. R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. H. Diirwin. LL.D., F.R.S. .. 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David (Hll, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Dnrwin, F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 








Cambridge 

Newcastle-ou-Ty lie. . . 
Bath 




Birmingham 




Nottingham 




Dundee 




Norwich 




Exeter 




Liverpool 




Edinburgh 




Brighton 




Bradford 




Belfast 




Bristol 




Glasgow 




Plymouth 




Dublin 




Sheffield 




Swansea 




York 




Southampton 




Southport 




Montreal 




Aberdeen 




Birmingham 




Bath 

Newoastle-on-Tyne. . . 
Leeds 




Cardiff ... 




Edinburgh 

Nottingham 




Oxford 




Ipswich 




Liverpool 




Toronto 




Bristol ... 




Dover 




Bradford ... 




Glasgow 




Belfast ... 




Southport 

Cambridge 




Soutli Africa 




York 




Leicester 




Dubhu 


24 


Winnipeg 


13 1 











« Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 
f Including 848 Members of the South African AssooiatiOD. 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 
at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Old 
Animal 
Members 


New 
Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigner. 


Total 


! Amount 
received 
durinE^ the 
Meeting 


1 Grants 
for Scientific 
Purposes 


Year 

[ 


— 


— 


_ 





353 





__ 


1831 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 








1832 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


%00 


— 


— 


1833 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1298 


— 


£20 


1834 


1 — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


167 


1836 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1350 


— 


436 


1836 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1840 


— 


922 12 6 


1837 


— 


— 


— 


1100* 


— 


2400 


— 


932 2 2 


1838 


— 


— 


— 


— 


34 


1438 


— 


1695 11 


1839 


— 


— 


— 


— 


40 


1353 





1546 16 4 


1840 


46 


317 


— 


60* 


— 


891 





1235 10 11 


1841 


75 


376 


33t 


331* 


28 


1315 





1449 17 8 


1842 


71 


185 


. — 


160 











1565 10 2 


1813 


45 


190 


9t 


260 


— 


— 





981 12 8 


1844 


94 


22 


407 


172 


36 


1U79 





831 9 9 


1845 


65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


867 





685 16 


1846 


197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 





208 5 4 


1847 


64 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 


93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


9u3 


159 19 6 


1849 


128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 


fil 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 


63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


11(18 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 


56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1863 


121 


121 


765 


624 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1864 


142 


101 


1094 


643 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 


104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 


15B 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2016 


507 15 4 


1857 


lU 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 13 2 


1858 


125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 


177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 


184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


1111 5 10 


1861 


150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 


154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 


, 182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 


215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1868 


218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 


193 


118 


116:l 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 


226 


117 


720 


682 


45+ 


2il04 


2042 


1940 


1868 


229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 


303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 


280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 


237 


99 


796 


601 


n 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 


232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 


307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 


331 


185 


12G5 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 


238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 


290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 


239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 


171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


188) 


313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 


253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 


330 


323 


952 


841 


6 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 


317 


219 


826 


74 


26 & 60 H.J 


1777 


1855 


1173 4 


18S1 


332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 


428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2163 


2532 


995 6 


1SS6 


510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


118G 18 


1887 


399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 


15U 5 


1888 


412 


113 


Ui24 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1(17 U 


1889 


368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 


789 IB 8 


1S9U 


341 


152 


6/2 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


18J1 


413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


20J7 


86i 10 


1892 


328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 


907 15 6 


1893 


435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 


583 15 6 


189t 


290 


31 


■i93 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 


977 15 5 


1895 


383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 


IlOl 6 1 


1896 


286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 


1050 10 8 


1897 


327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 


1212 


1898 


324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 


1430 14 2 


1899 


297 


45 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


1801 


1072 10 


1900 


374 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


2046 


945 


1901 


314 


86 


647 


305 


G 


1620 


1644 


947 


19J2 


319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1764 , 


1762 


845 13 2 


1903 


449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 


887 18 11 


1904 


937ir 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 


928 2 2 


1906 


356 


93 


817 


352 


22 


1972 


1811 


882 9 


1906 


339 


61 


659 


251 


42 


1647 


1561 


757 12 10 


1907 


465 


112 


1166 


222 


14 


2297 


2317 


1157 18 8 


1908 


290»» 


162 


789 


90 


7 


1468 


1623 


1014 9 9 


1909 



i Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as lion. Members for this Meetiu™ 
•' lueludiug 137 Members of the American Association. 



XCVl 



ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCES AT THE ANNUAL 
MEETINGS, 1831-1906. 

[The total attendances for the years 1832, 1835, 1843, and 1814 
are tmknown.^ 

Average attendance at 12 Meetings : 1855. 

Average 
Attendance 
Average attendance at 5 Meetings beginning during June, hetweoi 

1833 and 18G0 1260 

Average attendance at 3 Meetings beginning during July, httween 

1841 a«(^ 1851 947 

Average attendance at 28 Meetings beginning during August, hetiveen 

1836 and UtOG 1978 ' 

Average attendance at 34 Meetings beginning during September, 

between 1831 and 1903 1933 

Attendance at 1 Meeting held in October, Cambridge, 1862 . . 1161 



Meetings beginning during August and September. 

Average attendance at — 

4 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in Avgust ( 1st- 7th) . 1905 

5 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ „ ( 8th-14th) . 2130 
8 „ „ „ „ 3rd (15tli-21sr.) . 1761 

11 „ „ „ „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-31st) . 2094 

Average attendance at — • 

11 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in September { 1st- 7th). 2082 

16 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ „ ( 8tli-14th). 1860 

r. „ „ „ „ 3rd „ „ „ (15th-21st). 2206 

2 „ „ „ „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-30th). 1025 

Meetings beginning during June, July, and October. 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1845, June 19) beginning during the 3rd 

week in ./wwe (15th-21st) 1079 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during the 4th week in 

June (22nd-30th) 1306 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1851, July 2) beginning during the 1st 

week in Juiy (lst-7th) 710 

Average attendance at 2 Meetings beginning during the 3rd week in 

Julij (15th-21st) 10G6 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1862, October 1) beginning during the 1st 

week in October {\^t-'l\)a) 1161 

' Average attendance at 29 Meetings, including South Africa, 1905 (August 15- 
September 1) : 1983. 

= Average attendance at 9 Meetings, including South Africa, 1905 (August 15- 
September]): 1802. 



GRANTS OP MONEV. 



XCVll 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account oj 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 



Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 1 

Rain-gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£435 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer Construc- 
tion 100 

Strength of Cast Iron 60 

Preservation of Animal and 

Vegetable Substances 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mudin Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 9 5 

£932 2 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth, &c 

Mechanism of Waves 

Bristol Tides 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 

Vitrification Experiments ... 

Cast-iron Experiments 

Railway Constants 

Land and Sea Level 

Steam- vessels' Engines 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 

Stars (Lacaille) 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 

Animal Secretions 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 

Atmospheric Air 

Cast and Wrought Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 
Kingussie 

Fossil Reptiles 

Mining Statistics 



£ 


s. 


d. 


110 








63 


10 





144 


2 





35 


18 


6 


21 


11 





9 


4 





103 





7 


28 


7 





274 


1 


2 


100 





4 


171 


18 





11 





6 


166 


16 





10 


10 


6 


60 








16 


1 





40 








3 








22 








49 


7 


8 


118 


2 


9 


50 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 

Subterranean Temperature ... 

Heart Experiments 

Lungs Experiments 

Tide Discussions 

Land and Sea Level 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 

Stars (Lacaille) 

Stars (Catalogue) 

Atmospheric Air 

Water on Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Meteorological Observations . 
Foreign Scientific Memoirs . . . 

Working Population 

School Statistics 

Forms of Vessels 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 



Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 

Magnetical Observations 



100 

13 13 6 

18 19 

8 13 

50 

6 11 ] 
242 10 

4 15 

264 

15 15 

10 

7 
52 17 6 

112 1 6 

100 

50 

184 7 

40 

80 

185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1909 



XCVlll 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves iiO 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 0-0 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals . 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gaseson Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



£ 


s. 


d. 


.. 10 








.. 8 








.. 60 



1 





.. 8 


11 


.. 7 


9 





£1449 


17 


8 



Force of Wind 

Light on Grovjrth of Seeds 

Vital Statistics 60 

Vegetative Power of Seeds . 
Questions on Human Race . 



1843. 
Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Whewell'sMeteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of ) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Prep.iration of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



XCIX 



£ s. d. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials ^0 

£1565 10" 2 

1844. 

Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 

of the Lower Tertiary Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of J'ossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geograpliical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corf u 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds .". 9 3 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 3 6 

£981 12 8 



1845. 

£ s. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces ... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

MarineZoology of Cornwall... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars l'814 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 14G 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16~0 
f 2 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1847. 

£ s. d. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medi- 

• ''0 

cines -" " " 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 
Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Ancuio- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 
Azores 25 

£3^318 

1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researche.s on Annelida 10 

£391 ^7 



1852. 

£ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland .. . 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304^?" 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory ] 65 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£203"0 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 
Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Ajinelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory ; — 

1854 £ 75 01 .,. 

1855 £500 OJ •"'' 







GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CI 



£ s. d. 
Stricklalid's Ornilhological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734T3~9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Tliermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 6 

£507 15 4 



1858. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 6 

Vitality of Seed 6 6 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 
Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

i°618 18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



£ s. (I. 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidffi 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels'Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

£684 11 1 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den .. 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 13 

£766~i9~ 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ , 

1861 £22 0/ '-' 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£iTrr 
























































































5 


10 








5 


10 



Cll 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1862. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining; the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

MolluscaofN.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer atKew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 60 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Wat«r 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£129.S 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments ]3 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham ]7 

Dredging Committee Superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards lOO 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 
Photoheliograph 100 





































































3 


10 

























































£ s. d. 

Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Anal)'sis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 6 

Rain-gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Metiers 20 

£1289 15 8 







1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Comj)oiinds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 60 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Mt)on's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 7 10 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



cm 



1866. 

£ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 6'1 

Balloon Committee .50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-hed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Elect rical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna. &:c., Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

DredgingAberdeenshireCoast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Merse}' 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

"£1750 



s. 


d. 








13 


4 









































































1 



18 G7. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf -bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c., Leaf- beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds. 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 


















1 
























































13 


4 











































































































4 






























£1739 4 



1868. 

£ .•<. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 

stoneRocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall .. 30 

British Fossil Carols 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 



1869. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c. ... 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 1 50 

Steamship Performance s 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 






























































































































0" 









GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 b 



1871. 
Maintaining the Establish • 

ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observation 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

■ Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



£ s. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 



1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration .. . 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 0. 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

"Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 25 

Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 



fr 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CV 



1874, 



& 

Zoological Kecord 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Kocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 

Physiological Action of Light , 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durlaam and York- 
shire Coasts 28 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 



». 


d. 








































































































10 





























5 











6 






15 



£1151 16 



1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations ... 100 
Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 1 00 

£960 jO 



1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids.., 25 



£ 



Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 







































10 



































5 












£1093 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpeas, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters ia New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 
rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 
Phosphoric Acid 1 18 















11 


7 











































































Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c....; 15 

£1128" 



CVl 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves... 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids ... 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station. Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 
Illustrations for a Monograiah 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 
Record of the Progress of 

Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explorati on 5 
Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 

Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 
Natural History of Socotra ... 100 
Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 
Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat 12 









































































































15 


6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 

Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

;£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at*Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 50 

Patent Laws 5 

:e731 7 7 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



cvii 



1881. ( 

£ 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 60 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 3 1 



i. d. 











3 1 























1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Expl oration of Raygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra .. . 100 
Natural History of Timor-laut 100 
Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 
£1126 





1 11 









































1 11 



1883. 

£ s. d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 
Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 
of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polj'zoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 1 00 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthro^^ometric Committee... 10 
£lT73" 















CVlll 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1885. 

£ s. d. 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 
of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

onBenNevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c., of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 23 

Raygi 11 Fissure 13 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palseozoic 

Rocks 23 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 
Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoological Literature Record . 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 1.50 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 60 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 6 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Palseozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record .100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrewa 75 



£ It. d. 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North-Westein Tribes of Ca- 
nada 50 

£995 « 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis ,30 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887grant) 50 

Cae Gwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Bedsof the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 60 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 76 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CIX 



1888. 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of Teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Biidlington... 20 

Geological Kecord 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palaeontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratorv, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Pace in Greek 

Islands 20 

£J511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Obsei-vatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 



£ s. a. 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Phj'siology of Lymphatic 

S3'stem 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis .5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard forthe 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palasozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. 
Experiments with a Tow- 
net 4 3 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 
Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£799 16 



1891. 

Ben Nevis Obsei-vatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Eays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel ... 10 
Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius , 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 
Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 
Botanical Station at Pera- 

denij'a 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net iO 
Marine Biological Association 12 10 
Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 
New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 
Nortli - Western Tribes of 

Canada 

Corresponding Societies 



1892. 

£ 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

PeUian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

, North - Western Tribes of 

^ i Canada 100 

^ Corresponding Societies 25 



s. 


d. 




























































































10 





















































£864 10 



... 200 









... 25 





£1029 


10 






1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Obsei-vatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Undergroiind Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXI 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen i n Aspliy xia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 6 



1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Kadiation 5 5 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 20 

Eur^'pterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth Tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 

Cave .*... 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands .-... 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Phy.sical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

^583 15 6 



1895. 

£ g. d. 

Electrical Standards 5 

i'hol ographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Phj'sical Papers 100 

Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 G 1 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives .30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &:c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Flint- drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 50 

Climatologyof Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

^£977 15 6 



CXll 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1896. 

£ 

Photographs of Meteorologi- 
cal Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 2 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 
Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

PaliEozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 
by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

Palaeolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 
near Moreseat; Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 
of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 
Abnormal Environment ... 40 

CUmatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Western Tribes of 
Caaada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 
the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee BO 

£1104 



s. d. 































6 


1 
































































































































6 


1 



1897. 

£ s. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 60 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 
the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 
Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 
Africa 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors 20 

Fertilisation in Phsophycete 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1059 10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations.. 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal CO 



GRANTS OF MONEV. 



CXIH 



& s. d. 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light upon Djed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Qenerum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters 30 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North - Western Tribes of 
Canada 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of" Torres Straits ... 1 2 5 

Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 

Fertilisation in Phsophyceas 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee '. 25 

£1212 



1899. 

Electrical Standards 225 

Seismological Observations... 65 14 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 19 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 

in Canada 30 

1909. 



£ s. d. 

Records of Disappearing Drift 
Section at Moel Try faen ... 5 

Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
tic Organisms under Definite 
Physical Conditions 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1899 100 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 60 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 35 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Re- 
spiratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

Vascular Nervous System... 10 

Histological Changes in Nerve 

Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Histology of Suprarenal Cap- 
sules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Phseophyceae 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1430 14 2 



1900. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 60 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 25 

Meteorological Observatory at 
Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution 
of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis 6 

g 



CXIV 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Isomorplious Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 20 

The Nature of Alloys 30 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Bemains of Elk in the Isle of 

Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 

Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 
Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Coral Keefs of the Indian 

Region 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea- Water 100 

Future Dealings in Raw 
Produce 2 10 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 

Ethnography of the Malay 

Peninsula 25 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 

Glands 10 

Fertilisation in Phaaophyceae 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£1072 10 



1901. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
ri vativas of Benzene 35 



£ $. d. 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 

Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegraean Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 15 11 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 

Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in Phaeophycese 15 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
maceffi 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 9 11 











1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 

Table at the Zoological 
Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 
Indian Ocean 50 








































GRANTS OF MONEY. 



£ s. 

Compound Ascidians of the 
Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 
of Native Egyptian Soldiers 15 

Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Haemoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 
under Influence of Drugs... 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 
phyceae 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 
Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£947 0~ 



1903. 

Electrical Standards 85 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 

Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 
Underground Watersof North- 

■we.st Yorkshire 40 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 6 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles .S 13 

Anthropometric Investigation 5 



£ s. d. 

Anthropometry of the Todas 
and other Tribes of Southern 
India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 
phyceiB 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£845 1.3^ 



1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50*0 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 60 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the 
Trias lO 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 
Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 
Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 

Anthropometric Investigation 
of Egyptian Troops 8 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 40 

Botanical Ph otographs 4 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 

Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£887 ISTT 





























































































10 























8 


11 









g 



CXVl 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1905. 1 

£ s. d. \ 

Electrical Standards 40 OJ 

Seismological Observations ... 40 01 
Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 

Kites 40 I 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 2.5 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitramines 25 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog ... 10 
Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 4 8 

Kesearches in Crete 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions of Egyptian Troops... 10 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 17 6 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee , 20 

£928 2 2 

1906. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 99 12 6 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Aromatic Nitramines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 7 8 11 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea 15 



£ s. d. 

Freshwater Fishes of South 

Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lake and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 30 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 

in the British Isles 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 20 

Research on South African 

Cycads 14 19 4 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 2 5 

£882_ q 9 

1907. 

Electrical Standards 60 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 40 

Magnetic Survey of South 
Africa 25 7 G 

Wave - length Tables of 

Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro - aromatic 

Substances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of 
South- West England 15 

Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, &;c 10 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Sexual 

Cells 1 11 8 

Oscillations of the Land Level 
in the Mediterranean Basin 50 

Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom ... 8 19 7 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles... 10 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 55 



GRANTS OF MoNEf . 



exvu 



£ s, d. 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Kesearch on South African 

Cycads 35 

Botanical Photographs 5 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 16 14 1 

£757 12 10 



£ s. d. 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Succession of Plant Remains 18 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 



£1157 18 8 



1908. 
Seismological Observations ... 40 
Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Investigation of Upper Atmo- 
sphere by means of Kites... 25 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 25 

Geodetic Arc in Africa 200 

Wave-lengthTables of Spectra 10 
Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 30 

Dynamiclsomerism 40 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitramines 30 

Erratic Blocks 17 16 6 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 0" 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 10 

Pre-Devonian Eocks 10 

Exact Significance of Local 

Terms 5 

Composition of Charnwood 

Rocks 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

atNaples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Hereditary Experiments 10 

Fauna of Lakes of Central 

Tasmania 40 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 50 

Exploration in Spitsbergen ... 30 
Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom 3 7 G 

Electrical Standards 50 

Glastonbury Lake Village ... 30 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 15 

Age of Stone Circles 60 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 40 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 40 

The Ductless Glands 13 14 8 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 35 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 30 
Electrical Phenomena and 

Metabolism of Arum Spa- 

dices 10 



1909. 

Seismological Observations... CO 

Investigation of the Upper At- 
mosphere by means of Kites 10 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 50 

Establishing a Solar Ob- 
servatory in Australia 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 9 16 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitramines 10 

Electroanalysis 30 

Fauna and Flora of British 
Trias 8 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 8 

Pala-ozoic Rocks of Wales and 

the West of England ...... 9 

Igneous and Associated Sedi- 
mentary Rocks of Glensaul 11 13 9 

Investigations at Biskra 50 

Table at the Zoological Station 

atNaples 100 

Heredity Experiments 10 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Index Animalium 75 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 35 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 5 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Researches in Crete 70 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Electrical Phenomena and Me- 
tabolism of Arum Spadices 10 

Reflex Muscular Rhythm 10 

Anjesthetics 25 

Ment;il and Muscular Fatigue 27 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Botanical Photographs 10 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 

Symbiosis between Tur- 

bellarian Worms and Algfe 10 

Survey of Clare Island 65 

Curricula of Secondary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 21 

£1014 9 



Cxviii REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1908-1909. 

I. Dr. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., has been unanimously nominated by 
the Council to fill the office of President of the Association for 1910 
(Sheffield Meeting). 

Mr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S., President, represented the Association 
at the Commemoration- by the University of Cambridge of the 
Centenary of the Birth of Charles Darwin. 

Dr. Augustus D. Waller, M.D., F.R.S., represented the Association 
at the Celebration of the 350th Anniversary of the foundation of the 
University of Geneva. 

Sir J. Crichton Browne, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., represented the 
Association at the Public Health Congress at Leeds. 

II. The Council adopted a Resolution expressing the sympathy 
of the Association, through the General Secretaries, with the widow of 
the late Mr. J. Lomas, who was Recorder of Section C at the time of 
his death. 

III. The following Nominations are made by the Council: — 
Conference of Delegates. — Professor A. C. Haddon (Chairman), 

Mr F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. {Vice-Chairman), Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing 
(Secretary). 

Corresponding Societies Committee.- — Mr. W. Whltaker (Chairman), 
Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing (Secretary), Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, 
Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. Lewis, Professor R. Meldola, Dr. H. R. 
Mill, Mr. P. W. Rudler, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 

IV. A preliminary Report has been received from the Corre- 
sponding Societies Committee. 

The Report contained the following paragraph : — 

' Tlie Committee desire to bring before the Council the unofficial posi- 
tion of the Chairman of the Conference of Delegates. They 
suggest that he should be ex officio a member of the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and therefore in a similar posi- 
tion to the Presidents of Sections. ' 

The Council resolved to promulgate an amendment of the Rules, giving 
effect to the above suggestion, and in the meantime to invite the Chairman 
to be present at the meeting of the Committee of Recommendations. 

V. A Resolution, referred to the Council by the General Committee 
at Dublin, has been received 

From Sections A and E jointly: — 
' That the Council should approach the Board of Agriculture with 
a view of ascertaining whether it is not possible for the 
Director-General of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain 
and Ireland to undertake the remeasurement of the two 
^ principal arcs (meridional and longitudinal) as part of the 

current work of his department. ' 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. CXllt 

Major C. F. Close submitted for the approval of the Council a draft 
letter addressed to the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture, to bo 
signed by the President. This letter, with emendations, was approved, 
and ordered to be transmitted. It read as follows : — 

British Association for the Advancement of Science, 

Burlington House, London, W. 

November Uth, 1908. 
SiK Thomas Henry Elliott, K.C.B., 

Secretary of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, 
4, Whitehall Place, S.W. 

Sib, — I desire, on behalf of the Council of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, to represent to you, for the information of 
the President of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, that the Council 
have been requested by the Association to approach Lord Carrington, 
with a view to ascertaining whether it may not be possible for the 
Director-General of the Ordnance Survey to undertake the remeasure- 
ment of the two principal British arcs, meridional and longitudinal, as 
part of the current work of the Ordnance Survey. 

The reasons which induce the Council to suggest the remeasurement 
are these: — 

The principal triangulation of the United Kingdom, which is an 
excellent piece of work, considering that its mean date is about 1835, is, 
as compared with modern triangulations, below the standard now re- 
quii'ed for use in determining the Figure of the Earth. Making allow- 
ance for the fact that the triangulation is in the form of a net-work and 
not of a chain, it is thought that the errors in length and position are 
about twice as large as those of modern chains. It is not, however, easy 
to predict the magnitude of the errors of the British triangulation as 
compared with those of modern work; and the Council would suggest, 
for Lord Carrington 's consideration, that it would be well, before 
definitely assuming that a remeasurement is desirable, to cause a 
section of the older portion of the triangulation, forming part of the 
meridional arc between the Shetland Islands and the Straits of Dover, 
to be remeasured with modern instruments. 

The Council would further suggest that the experimental measure- 
ment should be undertaken by the existing staff of the Ordnance Survey, 
as opportunity offers; and, if Lord Carrington approves of the sug- 
gestion, the Council may be in a position to offer his Lordship the loan 
of a modern theodolfte suitable for use in refined geodetic operations. 

The Council desire to point out that their motive in venturing to put 
forward these suggestions is solely tae scientific value of the remeasure- 
ment. They are aware that, for all practical map-making purposes, the 
existing triangulation is of quite sufficient accuracy ; whilst they realise 
the high character of the work of the old observers and the importance 
of Colonel Clarke's discussion of that work. 

I am, Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) Francis Darwin, 
President of the Brilish. Association. 



CXX HEPOKT OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Board of Agriculture having approved of Colonel S. C. Grant, of 
the Ordnance Survey Office, conferring with representatives of the 
Association and of the Eoyal Society on this matter. Sir David Gill and 
Major E. H. Hills were nominated to represent the Association. 

VI. A Eesolution, referred to the Council by the General Com- 
mittee at Dublin, has been received 

From Section A : — 

' That the Committee of Section A has received with interest 
information respecting the Meteorological and Astronomical 
Observatory at Bulawayo, and desires the Council to inform 
the Chartered Company of the importance, from the scien- 
tific point of view, attached to the continuance of the 
observations, and to express the hope that the Chartered 
Company will see their way to continue the financial 
support to the Observatory.' 

The Assistant Secretary was instructed to forward the Eesolution, 
with the approval of the Council, to the Board of Directors of the 
British South Africa Company. 

VII. A Eesolution, referred to the Council by the General Com- 
mittee at Dublin, has been received 

From Section D : — 

' That the Council be requested to communicate a Eesolution of 
Section D relating to Zoological Nomenclature to the Inter- 
national Commission on Nomenclature and to certain 
British scientific societies.' 

On the motion of Professor Herdman, a Committee, consisting of 
Dr. S. F. Harmer, Mr. G. A. Boulenger, Professor E. B. Poulton, 
Dr. W. E. Hoyle, Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing, Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
Mr. E. T. Newton, and the General Officers, was appointed to consider 
this Eesolution and to report to the Council. The Committee reported 
as follows : — 

' The Committee appointed to report on the Eesolutions submitted 
by Section D to the Council wish to endorse the action of 
Section D. 

' They recommend that Eesolutions (i), (ii), and (iii) be sent to the 
International Commission on Scientific Nomenclature and 
to the chief British zoological societies, accompanied by a 
reprint of the manifesto published in "Nature," and re- 
ferred to in Eesolution (i). 

' The Committee wish to inform the Council that this recommenda- 
tion was supported by Dr. S. P. Harmer, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, 
Mr. E. T. Newton, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward; and that 
Mr. T. E. E. Stebbing dissented from it.' 
It was resolved : 
* That the Council of the British Association desire to draw the 
attention of the International Commission on Zoological 
Nprnerjclature and the chief Britigh zoological societies to 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. CXxi 

the Eesolutions adopted by the Committee of Section D 
(Zoology) at the Dubhn Meeting of the British Association 
in September 190S.' 

VIII. A Resolution, referred to the Council by the General Com- 
mittee at Dublin, has been received 

From Section H, supported by Section E : — 
' That the Council of the British Association be requested to lend 
their support to the project for an Imperial Bureau of 
Anthropology set on foot by the Eoyal Anthropological 
Institute. A memorial in favour of the scheme has already 
been numerously signed by distinguished Indian and 
Colonial administrators, heads and parliamentary repre- 
sentatives of universities, principals of university colleges, 
anthropologists, directors of steamship companies, leading 
manufacturers, and heads of other mercantile enterprises; 
and it will be presented to the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
in the coming session of Parliament by a deputation com- 
posed of some of the chief signatories.' 

The Eesolution was adopted by the Council ; and it was agreed that 
the signature of the President should be affixed to the Memorial. 

IX. A Resolution, referred to the Council by the General Committee 
at Dublin, has been received 

From Section L : — 

(i) ' That, in the opinion of this Committee, it is desirable that 
the Committee of Recommendations should meet on Tuesday 
afternoon with a view to the consideration of the Papers 
recommended by Sectional Committees to be printed in 
extenso in the Annual Report. 

(ii) ' That 1,000 reprints of the Report presented this year upon 
Practical Studies in Elementary Schools, with the intro- 
duction prepared by Sir Philip Magnus, be supplied to the 
Secretary of the Committee for distribution. 

(iii) ' That 500 reprints of the Report presented this year upon 
the Sequence of Science Studies in Secondary Schools be 
supplied to the Secretary of the Sub-Committee for dis- 
tribution.' 

The Council rejected the proposal made in the first paragraph, and 
were informed that the General Committee at Dublin had already given 
its assent to the requests made under paragraphs (ii) and (iii). 

X. A Resolution, referred to the Council by the General Com- 
mittee at Dublin, has been received 

From the Conference of Delegates : — 
' That Conference desires to represent to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations that whenever a Committee of the British 
Association enters upon a local investigation, notice should 
be given to any local scientific or archaeological society, so 



CXXU REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

as to enable that Society to offer any co-operation that may 
be desirable.' 

The Council approved this proposal and of Sir Edward Brabrook's 
suggestion that, if necessary, a copy of the Eesolution should be sent to 
the Chairman of each Research Committee. 

XI. The following Eesolution adopted by the Corresponding 
Societies Committee at a Special Meeting has been submitted by Sir 
Edward Brabrook: — 

' That the Corresponding Societies Committee should, as a matter 
of urgency, ask for power from the Council of the British 
Association to extend its work for this purpose — i.e., to 
endeavour to obtain financial assistance in the work of 
printing and publishing the results of original investigations 
— to all the purely scientific societies in the Kingdom pub- 
lishing original investigations. ' 

Sir Edward explained that the object of the proposed inquiry was to 
ascertain whether the publishing activity of the societies is being crippled 
(and, if so, to what extent) for want of sufficient means to enable them 
to print and publish all the original work carried out by their members 
or fellows. 

The Council authorised the Corresponding Societies Committee to 
undertake the inquiry and to extend its scope to all societies in the 
United Kingdom. 

XII. Eecommendations, received by the General Committee at 
Dublin and referred to the Council, were dealt with as under :^ 

(i) It was agreed that the following Committees be authorised to 
receive contributions from sources other than the Association 
— namely, the Committee ' To conduct Explorations with 
the object of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles ' (Section 
H), and the Committee on ' The Effect of Climate upon 
Health and Disease ' [Section I). 

(ii) It was agreed that Section G be authorised to publish the Eeport 
of their Committee on ' Gaseous Explosions ' in such public 
journals as may seem desirable. 

(iii) It was agreed that, in accordance with the recommendation of 
the Committee of Section H, the Eeport of the Anthropo- 
metric Committee be printed in full in the Dublin Eeport, 
with the addition of the illustrations from the blocks in the 
possession of the Association. 

(iv) Following a request from the Committee of Section A , recom- 
mending that the Eeports of the Electrical Standards 
Committee from 1862 onwards be reprinted and published 
as a Memorial to the late Lord Kelvin, it was resolved that : 
' The Council will recommend, at the Winnipeg Meeting, 
that the Eeports of the Electrical Standards Committee l)e re- 
published in book form, by the Cambridge University Press 
as a Memorial of the late Lord Kelvin.' 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. CXXIU 

XIII. On the proposal made at the meeting of the General Com- 
mittee, September 9, 1908, ' That for future Annual Meetings the 
abstracts of Sectional Transactions should be printed and bound in 
pamphlet form, Section by Section, and published collectively within 
two months after the British Association Meeting, at a moderate price,' 
the Tbeasurer reported that on investigation it appeared improbable that 
the cost of carrying out the proposal would be covered by the receipts, 
that there would be difficulty in making up complete sets of the abstracts 
within two months of the Meeting, and that it was not desirable to make 
any such experiment at a Colonial Meeting. He proposed that the matter 
should stand over until next year, and that in 1910 unbound sets of the 
abstracts printed before the Meeting should be made up for each Section 
and put on sale on and after the last day of the Annual Meeting. 

The Eeport and proposals were adopted. 

XIV. The Council have authorised 'Section K (Botany) to form a 
Sub-Section for Agriculture for the Winnipeg Meeting, with a Chair- 
man, Vice-Chairmen, and Secretariat to deal with its transactions. 

XV. The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. His Accounts from July 1, 1908, to June 30, 
1909, have been audited and are presented to the General Committee. 

XVI. In accordance with the Eegulations, the retiring Members of 
the Council are: — 

(i) Retiring by seniority: Professor G. C. Bourne, Charles 
Hawksley, Professor W. W. Watts. 

(ii) Retiring by least attendance: Professor A. E. Forsyth (re- 
signed during the year), Professor J. G. McKendrick. 

The Council nominated the following new members: — Dr. H. E. 
Armstrong, Dr. J. J. H. Teall, and Sir John Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., 
leaving two vacancies to be filled up by the General Committee without 
nomination by the Council. 

XVII. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council for 
reappointment. 

XVIII. A Committee of the Council, consisting of the President, the 
President-Elect, the General Officers, Sir Archibald Geikie, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Mr. Vernon Harcourt, and Dr. Carey Foster, was appointed 
to consider a letter of resignation from Mr. A. Silva White, Assistant 
Secretary, and, if necessary, to select and recommend a successor to 
this office, with the result that Mr. White's resignation was accepted, 
and that Mr. O. J. E. Howarth was appointed to the Assistant 
Secretaryship from February 8, 1909. 

XIX. The following have been admitted as Members of the 
General Committee : — 



Arnold-Bemrose, H. H., Sc.D. 
Beadnell, H. J. Llewellyn. 
Bigg-Wither, Col. A. C, F.R.A.S. 
Clarke, Mis6 Lilian J., F.L.S. 
Dixon, Ernest. 
Hastings, Geoffrey. 



Heller, W. M., B.Sc. 

Holt, Alfred, jun., B.A., M.Sc. 

Marchant, Prof. E. W., D.Sc. 

Thomas, Miss E. N. 

Thorpe, Jocelyn F., Ph.D., F.R.S 

Woolafiott, David, D.Sc. 



CXxiV GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOtJNT. 

Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT, 

1908-1909. RECEIPTS. 

£ J. d. 

Balance brought forward 518 17 5 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 439 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 266 

Annual Subscriptions 701 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 1.155 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 221 

Sale of Publications 221 19 11 

Dividend on Consols 154 8 4 

Dividend on India .^ per Cents 102 12 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity 49 11 

Interest on Deposit 15 10 11 

Unexpended Balances returned : — & s. a. 

Bessel Functions 13 7 8 

Fauna and Flora of British Trias 8 7 6 

Structure of Fossil Plants 19 

Age of Stone Circles 16 1 

Corresponding Societies Committee 1 10 5 

Anthropometric Investigations in the British 

Isles 2 

Pre-Devonian Rocks 13 

Marsh Vegetation 12 2 

Electrical Standards 10 4 

28 8 2 



i 3,873 7 9 



Investme7itit. 

£ s. d. 

2i per Cent. Consolidated Stock 6,50110 5 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 3,600 

£73 Great Indian Peninsula Railway 'B' 

Annuity (cost) 1,493 6 6 

~TT,594 16 11 
Sir Frederick Bramwell's Gift : — 

2| per Cent. Self-cumulating Consolidated 

Stock 67 4 1 

£11,662 1 
John Perby, Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. 



from July 1, 1908, to June 30, 1909. Cr. 

1908-1909. PAYMENTS. 

£ t. d. 

Rent and Office Expenses 138 .S 5 

Salaries, &;c 754 5 8 

Printing, Binding, cfec 1,152 2 6 

Expenses of Dublin Meeting 272 5 8 

Payment of Grants made at Dublin : & s. d 

Seismological Observations GO U 

luvestigatiou of the Upper Atmosphere by means of 

Kites 10 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth 60 

Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia 60 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 9 16 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic Nitramiues 10 

Electroanaly sis 30 

Fauna and Flora of British Trias 8 

Faunal Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone in 

the British Isles 8 

Palieozoic Rocks of Wales and the West of England 9 

Igneous and Associated Sedimentary Rocks of Glensaul U 13 9 

Investigations at Biskra 60 

Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 100 

Heredity Experiments 10 

Feeding Habits of British Birds 6 

Index Auimalium 75 U 

Investigations in the Indian Ocean Ik.... 35 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain 5 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Researches in Crete 70 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Electrical Phenomena and Metabolism of Arum Spadices 10 

Reflex Muscular Rhythm 10 

Anaesthetics 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 27 

Structure of Fossil Plants 5 

Botanical Photographs 10 

Experimental Study of Heredity 30 

Symbiosis between Turbellariau Worms and Algje 10 

Survey of Clare Island 65 

Curricula of Secondary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Committee 21 

1,014 9 9 



£3,331 7 
Balance at Bank of England (Western £ «. d. 

Branch) 635 14 « 

Ze«« Cheques not presented 93 13 9 

542 9 



£3,873 7 9 



I have examined the above Account with the Books and Vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the Balance at the 
Bankers', and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. In addition to the sums accounted for above, there had been 
received £290 at June 30, 1909, on account of the Winnipeg Meeting, which will be 
brought into next year's account. 

Approved— W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant. 

Edward Beabeook, \ . Jvhj 16,1909. 

Hebbeet McLeod, J ^'*«*'^<"'*- -^ 



CXXvi GENERAL MEETINGS. 

GENERAL MEETINGS AT WINNIPEG. 

On Wednesday, August 25, at 8.30 p.m., in the Walker Theatre, a 
letter from the retiring President, Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S., having 
been read. Professor Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., took the Chair and 
delivered an Address, for which see p. 3. 

On Thursday, August 26, at 8.30 p.m., in the Walker Theatre, 
Dr. A. E. H. Tutton delivered a Discourse on ' The Seven Styles of 
Crystal Architecture.' 

' On Friday, August 27, at 9 p.m., his Honour the Lieutenant-Governor 
held a Reception at Government House. 

On Monday, August 30, at 9 p.m., a Conversazione was held at the 
Royal Alexandra Hotel. 

On Tuesday, August 31, at 8.30 p.m., in the Walker Theatre, Pro- 
fessor W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' Our Food from 
the Waters.' 

On Wednesday, September 1, at 3 p.m., the concluding General 
Meeting was held in the Legislative Chamber, when the following 
Resolutions were adopted : — 

1. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Governments of the 
Dominion of Canada and the Province of Manitoba and to the City of 
Winnipeg for the generous support which has enabled the Association to 
hold its meeting in Winnipeg. 

2. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Mayor, the Con- 
trollers, and the City Council of Winnipeg for the reception which they 
have accorded to the British Association and for the facilities placed at 
the disposal of the officers of the Association. 

3. That a cordial vote of thanks be given (1) to the Local Executive 
Officers and Committees for the admirable arrangements made for the 
meetings ; (2) to the public institutions which have granted the use of 
their buildings for sectional proceedings ; and (3) to the proprietors and 
managers of works thrown open to the inspection of the members. 

4. That the grateful thanks of the Association be given to the citizens 
of Winnipeg for the generous hospitality shown to its members on the 
occasion of this meeting. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE WINNIPEG MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Vrol E. Rutherford, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Vrol E. W. 
Brown, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. W. Hobson, F.R.S. ; Prof. Sir Joseph Larmor, Sec.R.S. ; 
Prof. J. C. McLennan; Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Prof. A. W. 
Porter, B.Sc. (Recorder); Prof. F. Allen, Ph.D.; Prof. J. C. Fields; E. Gold, 
M.A. ; F. Horton ; Dr. A. A. Rambaut, F.R.S. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Prof. F. S- 
Kipping, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. A. Noyes ; Prof. M. A. Parker, B.Sc. ; Prof. W. P. 
Wynne, F.R.S. Secretaries. — Dr. E. F. Armstrong [Recorder) ; Dr. T. M. Lowry ; 
Dr. F. M. Perkin ; J. W. Shipley, B.A. ^ 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. CXXVli 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President. — Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. F. D. 
Adams, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. P. Colemau, Ph.D.; Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. ; 
Prof. W. C. Miller; A. Strahan, F.R.S. Secretaries. — W. Lower Carter, M. A.! 
{Recorder) ; A. R. Dwerryhouse, D.Sc. ; R. T. Hodgson, M.A. ; Prof. S. H. 
Reynolds, M.A. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President.— Ht. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— 3 . Stanley Gardiner, 
F.R.S.; E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S.; Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S.; Prof. E. E. 
Prince. Secretaries.— H. W. Marett Tims, M..\., M.D. (Recorder) ; C. A. Baragar ; 
C. L. Boulenger ; Dr. J. Pearson. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Colonel Sir Duncan Johnston, K.C.M.G., C.B., R.E. Vice- 

Presidents. — Dr. Tempest Anderson : Colonel A. C. Bigg-Wither. Secretaries. 

G. G. Chisholm, B.Sc. {Recorder) ; J. McFarlane, M.A. ; A. Mclntyre, B.A. 



SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— Vrof. S. J. Chapman, M.A., M.Com. Vice-Presidents.— Dr. James 
Bonar; Prof. A. L. Bowley, M.A. ; Major P. G. Craigie, C.B. Secretaries — 
Dr. W. R. Scott, M.A. {Recorder) ; Prof. A. B. Clark, M.A. ; W. A. Manahan 
Ph.D. ' 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President.— Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Ueat.-CoL 
W.P.Anderson; Colonel H. N. Ruttan ; J. E. Schwitzer; Colonel Sir C. M.. 
Watson, K.C.M.G., C.B., R.E. Secretaries. — W. A. Price {Recorder)- E E 
Brydone-Jack, B.A. ; Prof. E. G. Coker, D.Sc. ; Prof. E. W. Marchant, D Sc 



SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Vrof. J. L. Myres, M.A., F.S.A. Vice-Presidents.— Dr. F Boas • 
Rev. Dr. G. Bryce, P.R.S.C. ; E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A. ; Prof. G. G. MacCurdy.' 
Secretaries. — H. S. Kingsford, M.A. {Recorder) ; Prof. C. J. Patten M D • 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. ' ' ' ' 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. E. H. Starling, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. A. R Cushnv 
F.R.S. ; W. B. Hardy, F.R.S.; Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S.; Dr. A. D. Waller^ 
F.R.S. Secretaries.— 'N. H. Alcock, M.D. {Recorder) ; Prof. P. T. Herring M D • 
W. Webster, M.D. ' ' ' 

SECTION K, — BOTANY. 

Presidtmt.—lAevLi.-Co\. D. Prain, CLE., F.R S. Vice-Presidents.— PmL 
D. H. Campbell; Harold W. T. Wager, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Frot. R. H. 
Yapp, M.A. {Recorder) ; Prof. A. H. Reginald Duller, D.Sc. ; Prof. D. t! 
Gwynne-Vaughan, M.A. 



CXXviii OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 



SUB-SECTIOIT. — AGBICULTtTEE. 

Chairman. — Major P. G. Craigie, C.B. Vice- Chairman. — Prof. W. Somer- 
ville, D.Sc. Secretanes.— Dr. Y^.i.nMSseW {Recorder); W. J. Black, B.S.A.. ; 
Prof. James Wilson, M.A. 



SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President. —Hew. II. B. Gray, D.D. Vice-Presidents.— W . M. Heller, B.Sc. ; 
Dr. C. W. Kimmins; Dr. Hugo Munsterberg ; Dr. J. W. Robertson, O.M.G. 
Secretaries.— J. L. Holland, B.A. (Recorder); VV. D. Eggar, M.A. ; R. Fletcher, 
M.A. ; Hugh Richardson, M.A. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of the Association ; the General Secretaries ; 
the General Treasurer ; the Trustees ; the Presidents of the Association in 
former years ; Prof. E. Rutherford ; Prof J. H. Poynting ; Prof H. E. 
Armstrong; Dr, E. F. Armstrong; Dr. A. Smith Woodward; W. Lower 
Carter; Dr. A. E. Shipley; Dr. H. W. Marett Tims; Colonel A. C. Bigg- 
Wither; G. G. Chisholm; Prof S. J. Chapman; Prof. A. B. Clark; Sir 
W. H. White; W. A. Price; Prof. J. L. Mvres ; E. Sidney Hartland; 
Prof. E. H. Starling; Prof A. R. Cushny ; Colonel D. Prain ; Major P. G. 
Craigie ; Rev. Dr. H. B. Gray ; and J. L. Holland. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



l^ESEAKCn OoMMlTTEESj ETC.; APPOINTED BY THE GeNERAL COMMITTEE 

AT THE Winnipeg Meeting : August 1909. 



1. Receivinj Grants of Money, 



Recommended by Council. 



To carry out a further portion of 
the Geodetic Arc of Meridian 
North of Lake Tanganj'ika. 

To republish Ileports of the Elec- 
trical Standards Committee in 
book form, as a memorial of the 
late Lord Kelvin. 



Chairvian. — Sir George Darwin. 
Secretari/. — Sir David Gill. 
Colonel Close and Sir Geo. Goldie. 

Dr. K. T. Glazebrook. 

(3'o Committee ajJ2)ointid.) 



Seismological Observations. 



To co-operate with the Committee 
of the Falmouth Observatorj'^ 
in their Magnetic Observations. 



To aid the work of Establishing 
a Solar ObservatorjMn Australia. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmo- 
sphere. 



1909, 



Chairman. — ProfessorH H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. Milne. 

Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. Boys, 

Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. 

Darwin, Professor J. A. Ewing, 

Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. 

H. Gray, Professors J. W. 

Judd, C. G. Knott, and R. 

Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, 

Professor J. Periy, Mr. W. 

E. Plummer, Professor J. H. 

Poynting, Mr. Clement lleid, 

and Mr. Nelson Richardson. 

Chairman.— f^n W. H. Preece. 

Secretary. —Dt. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professor W. G. Adams, Captain 
Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Professor 
A. Schuster, Sir A. W. Riicker, 
and Dr. Charles Chree. 

Chairman. — Sir David Gill. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. G. Duffield. 
Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, Mr. V. 

McClean, and Professors A. 

Schuster and H. H. Turner. 

Chairman.— Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary.— lAr. E. Gold. 

Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon 
Boj'S, Mr. C. J. P. Cave, Mr. 
W. H. Dines, Dr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook, Professor J. E. Pctave), 
Dr. A. Schuster, Dr. W. Wat- 
son, and Sir J. Larmor. 



£ 
100 



». J. 




Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



100 



60 







50 



25 



cxxx 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 




Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Dynamic Isomerism. 



The Transformation of Aromatic 
Nilroamines and allied sub- 
stances, and its relation to Sub- 
stitution in Benzene Deriva- 
tives. 



-Dr. E. Divers. 
Professor A. W. Cross- 



Electroanalysis. 



Chairman 
Secretary. 

ley. 
Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. O. 

Forster, and Dr. Le Sueur. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

Professor Sydney Young, Dr.Desch, 
Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. A. Lap- 
worth, and Dr. M. O. Forster. 

Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kip- 
ping. 

Secretary. — Professor K.J. P. Orton. 

Dr. S. Ruhemaun, Dr. A. Lapworth, 
and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 

Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kip- 
ping. 

Secretary. — Dr. F. M. Perkin. 

Dr. G. T. Beilby, Dr. T. M. Lowry, 
Professor W. J. Pope, and Mr. 
H. J. S. Sand. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



To enable Mr. B. Greenly to com- 
plete his Researches on the 
Composition and Origin of the 
Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. 

To enable Dr. A. Vaughan to 
continue his Researches on the 
FaunB.l Suscession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles. 

To excavate Critical Sections in 
the Palaeoaoic Rocks of Wales 
and the West of England. 



Chairman. — Mr. R. H. Tiddeman. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse. 
Dr. T. G.Bonney, Mr. F. M. Burton, 

Mr. F. W. Harmer, Rev. S. N. 

Harrison, Dr. J. Home, Mr. W. 

Lower Carter, Professor W. J. 

Sollas, and Messrs. J. W. Stather 

and W. T. Tucker. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. Harker. 
Secretary. — Mr. B. Greenly. 
Dr. J. Home, Dr. C. A. Matley, 
and Professor K. J. P. Orton. 

Chairman. — Professt^r J. W. Gre- 
gory. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. Vaughan. 

Dr. Wheelton Hind and Professor 
W. W. Watts. 

Chairman. — Professor C. Lap- 
worth. 

Secretary — Mr. W. G. Fearnsides. 

Dr. .L E. Marr, Professor W. W. 
Watts, and Mr. G. J. Williams. 



s. d. 




35 



15 



10 



10 



10 



10 



10 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Orants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 


Members of Committee 


Grants 

£ a. d. 
2 


To investigate the Microscopical 


Chairnia.n. — Professor W. W. 


and Chemical Composition of 


Watts. 




Chain wood Rocks. 


Secretary.— Dt. T. T. Groom. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett, Mr. C. Fox- 
Strangways, and Dr. Stracey. 




The Investigation of Igneous and 


Chairman. — Professor AV. W. 


15 


Associated Rocks of Glensaul 


Watts 




and Lough Nafooey Areas, Co. 


Secretary. — Professor S. H. Rey- 




Galwajr. 


nolds. 
Messrs. H. B. Maufe and C. I. 
Gardiner. 




To investigate and report on the 


Chairman Professor J. W. Gre- 


5 


Correlation and Age of South 


gory. 




African Strata and on the ques- 


Secretary. — Professor A. Young. 




tion of a Uniform Stratigraphi- 


Mr. W. Anderson, Professor R. 




cal Nomenclature. 


Broom, Dr. G. S. Corstorphine, 
Mr. Walcot Gibson, Dr. F. H. 
Hatch, Sir T. H. Holland, Mr. 
H. Kynaston, Mr. F. P. Mennell, 
Dr. Molengraaff, Mr. A. J. C. 
Molyneux, Mr. A. W. Rogers, 
Mr. E. H. L.* Schwarz, and Pro- 
fessor R. B. Young. 




The Collection, Preservation, and 


Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 


10 


Systematic Registration of 


Secretary. — Professor W. W. 




Photographs of Geological In- 


Watts. 




terest. 


Dr. T. Anderson, Mr. G. Bingley, 
Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. H. Coates, 
Mr. C. V. Crook, Professor E. J. 
Garwood, Messrs. W. Gray, W. J. 
Harrison, R. Kidston, and A. S. 
Reid, Professor S. H. Reynolds, 
and Messrs. J. J. H. TeaU, R. 
Welch, and H. B. Woodward. 




To investigate the Fossil Flora 


Cliairman. — Dr. A. Strahan. 


25 


and ■ Fauna of the Midland 


Secretary. — Dr. F. W. Bennett. 




Coalfields. 


Dr. Wheelton Hind, Mr. B. Hob- 
son, Mr. H. Bolton, and Dr. A. R. 
Dwerryhouse. 




Section 


D.— ZOOLOGY. 




To aid competent Investigators 


Chairman.— VyoiQssot S. J. Hick- 


75 


selected by the Committee to 


son. 




carry on definite pieces of work 


Secretary.— B.ev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 




at the Zoological Station at 


Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor 




Naples. 


A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, Mr. 
G. P. Bidder, and Dr.W.B. Hardy. 




Compilation of an Index Generum 


Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 


73 


et Specienim Animalium. 


Secretary.— Bi. F. A. Bather. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, the 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, and 
Lord Walsingham. 


h2 



cxxxu 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To enable Mr. Laurie to conduct 
Experiments in Inheritance. 



To investigate the Feeding Habits 
of British Birds by a study of 
the contents of tlie crops and 
gizzards of botli adults and 
nestlings, and by the collation 
of observational evidence, with 
the object of obtaining precise 
knowledge as to the economic 
status of m.any of our commoner 
birds affecting rural science. 

To investigate the F.iuna of the 
Prairie Provinces of Canada. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. 

Herdman. 
Secretary. — Mr. Douglas Laurie. 
Mr. R. C. Punnett and Dr. 

H. W. Marett Tims. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 
Secretary. — Mr. H, S. Leigh. 
Messrs. J. N. Halbert, Robert 

Newstead, Clement Reid, A. G. 

L. Rogers, F. V. Theobald. Prof. 

F. E. Weiss, and Mr. C. Gordon 

Hewitt. 



Chairman. — Prof. Swale Vincent. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. E. Atkinson. 

Prof. McBride, Mr. J. C. Simp- 
son, Rev. Dr. G. Bryce, and Dr. 
H. W. Marett Tims. 



£ .1. d. 
15 



5 



1.5 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



'•The Amount of Gold Coinage in 
Circulation in the United King- 
dom. 



The Amount and Distribution of 
Income (other tlian Wages) bo- 
low the Income-tax exemption 
limit in the United Kingdom. 



Chairman. — Sir R. H. Inglis Pal- 
grave. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Stanley Jevons. 

Professor Edgeworth and Messrs 
A.L. Bowley and D.H.Macgregor 

Chairman. — Professor E. Cannan 
Secretary. — Professor A. L. Bow 

ley. 
Mr. W. G. S. Adams, Dr. W. R 
Scott, and Professors F.Y. Edge 
worth and H. B. Lees Smith. 



6 



l.T 



Skctiox C— engineering. 



The Investigation of Gaseous Ex- 
plosions, with spcci.al reference 
to Temperature. 



Section H, 
To investigate the Lake Villages 
in the neighbourliood of Glas- 
tonbury in connection with a 
Committee of the Somerset 
Archaeological and Natural 
History Society. 



Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretaries. — Mr. Dugald Clerk 
and Professor B. Hopkinson. 

Professors W. A. Bone, F. \V. Bur- 
stall, H. L. Callendar, E. G. 
Coker, W. E. Dalby, and H. B. 
Dixon, Drs. R. T. Glazebrook, 
J. A. Harker, and H. S. Hele- 
Shaw, Colonel H. C. L. Holden, 
Mr. J. E. Petavel, Captain U. 
Riall Sankej', .and Professors', .4. 
Smithells and W. Watson. 

-ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 

Secretary. — Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins. 

Professor VV. Ridgeway and Messrs. 
Arthur J. Evans, C. H. Read, 
H. Balfour, and A. Bulleid. 



7.') 



5 



RfeEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



cxxxiii 



Subjebt for Investigatibn, or Purpose 


Blembers of Coinmittee 


Grants 



To cD-operate with Local Com- 
mittees in Excavations on 
Koman Sites in Britain. 



To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 



To prepare a New Edition of Notes 
and Queries in Anthropology. 



To conduct Archreological and 
Ethnological Kcsearches in 
Crete. 



To excavate Neolithic Sites in 
Northern Greece. 



Chair iHail. — Professor J. L. Jlyres. 
Secretary. — Professor R. C. Bosan- 

quet. 
Dr. 1\ Ashby and trofessor W. 

Ridgeway. 

ChairmaiL — Mr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Lord Avebury, Professor W. Ridge- 
way, Dr. J. O. Garson, Dr. A. J. 
Evans, Dr. R. Munro, Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. 
Lewis. 

Chairman. — Mr. C. II. Read, 
Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Had- 

don, Mr. T. A. Joyce, and Drs. 

C. S. Myers, W. U. E. Rivers, 

C. G. Keligmann, and F. C. 

Shrubsall. 

Chairman. — Mr, D. G. Hogarth. 
Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. 

W. L. H. Duckworth, Dr. A. J. 

Evans, Professor A. Macalister, 

Professor W. Rddgeway, and 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Ckairmnin. — Professor W. Ridge- 
way. 

Secreto.ry. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Mr. J. P. Droop and Mr. D. G. 
Hogarth.. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Ductless Glands. 



Body Metabolism in Cancer. 



To aid competent Investigators 
selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 

Secretary. —Hev.T. R. R. Stebbing. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, 
Mr. G. P. Bidder, and Dr. W. B. 
Hardy. 



£ s. d. 
5 



30 



40 



70 



5 



Chairman. — Professor Schaftr. i 40 

Secretary. — Professor Swale Vin- 
cent. 

Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. 
Shore, and Mrs. W. H. Thompson. 

C/(am»rt».— Professor C. S. Slier- 20 

rington. 
Secretary.^Dv. S. M. Copeman. 



25 



CXXXlV 



RfiSEARCBt COMMITTEES. 
1. Meceivinff Grants of Money— coniinued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To acquire further knowledge, 
Clinical and Experimental, con- 
cerning Anaesthetics — especially 
Chloroform, Ether, and Alco- 
hol — with Special Reference to 
Deaths by or during Ansestbesia, 
and their possible Diminution. 



Tissue Metabolism, for the Inves- 
tigation of the Metabolism of 
Special Organs. 



Mental and Muscular Fatigue. 



Electromotive Phenouaena in 
Plants. 



The Dissociation of Oxy-Hajmo- 
globin at High Altitudes. 



Members of Committee 



Cltairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. W. Hewitt. 
Dr. Blumfeld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, 
and Dr. G. A. Buckmaster. 



Cltavrman. — Professor E. H. Star- 
ling. 
Secretary. — Professor T. G. Brodie 
Dr. J. S. Haldane. 



Chairman. — Professor C. S. Sher^ 

rington. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. MacDougall. 
Professor J. S. MacDonald and 

Mr. H. Sackville Lawson. 



Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Mrs. Waller. 
Professors F. Gotch, J. B. Farmer 

and Veley, and Dr. F. O'B. 

Ellison. 



Chairman. — Professor E. H. Star- 
ling. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. Barcroft. 
Dr. W. B. Hardy. 




Section K.— BOTANY. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



The Experimental Study of 
Heredity. 



The Investigation of Symbiosis 
between Turbellarian Worms 
and AlgfB. 



A Botanical, Zoological, and Geo- 
logical Survey of Clare Island. 



Chairman. — Dr. D. H. Scott. 
Secretary. — Professor F.W. Oliver. 
Mr. E. Newell Arber and Professors 
A. C. Seward and F. E. Weiss. 



Chairman.- — Mr. Francis Darwin 
Secretary. — Mr. A. G. Tansley. 
Professors Bateson and Keeble. 



Chairman. — Dr. F. F. Blackman. 
Secretary. —Professor F. E. Weiss. 
Professors Keeble and Nuttall. 



Chairman. — Professor T. Johnson. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, 

Professor Grenville Cole, Dr. 

Scharff, and Mr. A. G. Tansley. 



25 0' 



20 



10 



15 



10 



30 



5 



30 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Reoeir^ing Grants of Mbney — cdritiinied. 



Subject for Investigation, 6r f'urpbse 



Members of Committee 



Grants 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To report upon the Course of Ex- 
perimental, Observational, and 
Practical Studies most suitable 
for Elementary Schools. 



Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. M. Heller. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. 
Adie, Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong, Miss L. J. Clarke, Miss 
A. J. Cooper, Mr. George Flet- 
cher, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Principal Griffiths, Mr. A. D. 
Hall, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Professor L. C. 
Miall, Professor J. Perry, Mrs. 
W. N. Shaw, Professor A. Smith- 
ells, Dr. Lloyd Snape, Sir H. K. 
Keichel, Mr. H. Richardson, and 
Professor W. W. Watts. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr. W.P. D. Stebbing. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. 
V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Mr. A. L. Lewis, Professor R. 
Meldola, Mr. F. \V. Rudler, 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and 
the President and General 
Officers of the Association. 



.?. d. 




20 



CXXXVl 



KESEARCS COMMITTEES. 



2, Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Making Experiments for improving 
the Construction of Practical Stan- 
dards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments. 



To continue the Magnetic Surrey of 
South Africa commenced by Pro- 
fessors Beattie and Morrison. 



The further Tabulation of Dessol Func- 
tions. 



To report upon the j^rovision for the 
Study of Astronomy, Meteorology 
(including Atmospheric Electricity), 
and Geophysics in the Universities 
of the Britith Empire. 



Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professors J. Perry and W. G. Adains, Dr. 
G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver Lodge, Dr. 
A. Muirliead, Sir W. H. Prcecc, I'ro- 
fe.'sor A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. \V. N. 
Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. 
Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, 
Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. 
Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Sir 
Arthur Rilckor, Professor H. L. Cal- 
lendar, and Messrs. G. Matthey, A. P. 
Trotter, T. Mather, and F. E. Smith. 



Chairman. —Sir David Gill. 
Seoretary. — Professor J. C. Beattie. 
Mr. S. S. Hough, Professor Morrison, and 
Professor A. Schuster. 



Chairman. — Professor 1\I. J. M. Dill. 
Secretary.— Dr. L. N. G. Filon. 
Professor Alfred Lodge and Mr. J. 
Nicholson. 



Chairman. — Sir Artliur Riicker. 
Secretary. — Professor A. E. H. Ijove. 
Sir Oliver Lodge, Professors C. G. Knott, 

E. Rutherford, A. Schuster, Sir J. J. 

Thomson, and E. T. Whittakor, Drs. 

W, G. Duffield and G. T. Walker, and 

Mr. R. T. A. Jnjies. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 

The Study of Isomorpl ous Sulphonic ! 6'7(«trwfl«.— Professor H. A. Miers. 
Derivatives of Bennoiie. j Secretary.— '^<yie&&ov H. E. Armstrong. 

1 Professors W. P. Wypne and W. J. Pope. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To determine the precise Significance 
of Topographical and Geological 
Terms uised locally in South Africa. 



Chairman. — Mr. G. W. Lamplugh. 

Secretary.— Br. F. H. Hatch. 

Dr. G. Corstorphine and Messrs. A. Dn 

Toit, A. P. Hall, G. Kynastcp. F.. P. 

Menncll, and A, W.. Rogers, 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



dJXXXVXl 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To continue the Investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Royal Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
pose of specimens where advisable. 

To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by corre- 
spondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To nominate competent naturalists 
to perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 



To enable Dr. J. W. Jenkinson to con- 
tinue his Researches on the Influence 
of Salt and other Solutions on the 
Development of tlie Frog. 

To investigate the biological problems 
incidental to the Inniskea Whahng 
Station. 



Cliairman. — Dr. F. Du Cane Godman. 
Secretari/.—'Dr. David Sharp. 
Professor S. J. Ilickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
and Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 



Chairman. — Sir E. Ray Lankester. 

Secretary. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Professors G. C. Bourne, J, Cossar Ewart, 
M. Hartog, W. A. Herdman, and J. 
Graham Kerr, Mr. O. H. Latter, Pro- 
fessor Minchin, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, 
Professors C. Lloj'd Morgan, E. B. 
PoultoD, and A. Sedgwick, Mr. A. E. 
Shipley, and Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Professor A. 
Deudy. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor A. Sedg- 
wick, Professor Sydney H. Vines, and 
Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Chairman.— ^VvQiessov G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. W. Jenkinson. 
Professor S. J. Hickson and Mr. E. S. 
Goodrich. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner. 

Professor W. A. Herdman, Rev. W. Spots- 
wood Green, Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Dr. 
H. W. Marett Tims, and Mr. K. M. 
Barrington. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematip Registration of Photo- 
graphs of Anthropological Interest. 

To organise Anthropometric Investiga- 
tion in the British Isles. 

To conduct Archfeological and Ethno- 
logical Investigations in Sardinia. 



Chairman. — Mr. C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. S. Kingsford. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, and 
Professor J. L. Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Thomson. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Gray. 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 
Secretary. — -Professor R. C. Bosanquet. 
Dr. T. Ashby, Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, 

Professor J. L. Myres„ and Dr. F. C. 

Shrubsall. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To report upon Archasological Im'esti- 
gations in British East Africa. 



To establish a system of measuring 
Mental Characters. 



Ethnographic Survey of Canada. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. C. T. Currelly, Dr. 
H. O. Forbes, and Prpfessor J. L.Myres. 

Chairman. — Dr. W. McDougall. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Gray. 

Miss Cooper, Dr. Spearman, Dr. C. S. 

Myers, Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, Dr. \V. G. 

Smith, and Dr. C. W. Kimniins. 

Cliairman.—'Rerv. Dr. G. Bryce. 
Secretary — Mr. E. S. Hartland. 
Dr. P. H. Bryce, Mr. C. Hill-Tout, Mr. 

B. Suiter, Professor J. L. Myres, Dr. 

A. C. Haddon, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, 

Professor H. Montgomery, Mr. A. F. 

Hunter, Dr. J. Maclean, and the Hon. 

David Laird. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY 

The Effect of Climate upon Health Chalrma>i. — Sir T, 



and Disease. 



Lauder Brunton. 

Secretaries. — Mr. J. Barcroft and Lieut.- 
Col. Simpson. 

Colonel Sir D. Bruce, Dr. S. G. Camp- 
bell, Sir Kendal Franks, Piofessor 
J. G. McKendrick, Sir A. Mitchell. Dr. 
C. F. K. Murray, Dr. Porter. Dr. J. L. 
Todd, Professor Sims Woodliead, and 
the Heads of the Tropical Schools of 
Liverpool, London, and Edinburgh. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



To carry out the scheme for the Regis- 
tration of Negatives of Botanical 
Photographs. 



Chairman.— FtoiessoT F. W. Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Dr. W. Ct. Smith, Mr. A. G. Tansley, Dr. 

T. W. Woodhead, and Professor R. H. 

Yapp. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To take notice of, and report upon 
changes in, Regulations — whether 
Legislative, Administrative, or made 
by Local Authorities — affecting 
Secondary Education. 

To inquire into and report upon the 
methods and results of research into 
the Mental and Physical Factors 
involved in Education. 



To inquire into the Curricula and Edu- 
cational Organisation of Industrial 
and Poor Law Schools vpith special 
reference to Day Industrial Schools. 



Chairman. — Sir Pliilip Magnus. 

Secretary. — Professor H. K. Armstrong. 

Sir William Bousfleld, Mr. S. II. Butcher, 
Sir Henry Craik, Principal Griffiths, 
Sir Horace Plunkett, and Professor 
M. B. Sadler. 

Chairman. — Professor J. J. Findlay. 

Secretary. — Professor J. A. Green. 

Professors J. Adams and E. P. Culver- 
well, Mr. G. F. Daniell, Miss B. Foxley, 
Professor R. A. Gregory, Dr. 0. W. 
Kimmins, Dr. T. P. Nunn, Dr. Spear- 
man, Miss L. Edna Walter, and Dr. F. 
Warner. 

Chairman. — Mr. W. D. Eggar. 

Secretary. — Mrs. W. N. Shaw. 

Mr. J. L. Holland and Dr. C. W. Kim- 
mips. 



TifeSEARCH COMNllTl'EES. fcxxxlx 

Communications ordered to he prinled in exterisdi 

Anode Rays and their Spectra, by Dr. 0. Reichenheim. 

On Threefold-emission Spectra of Solid Aromatic Compounds, by Dr. E. 
Gbldstein. 

Some Properties of Light of very short Wave-lengths, by Professor T. Lyman. 

Report on Combustion, by Professor W. A. Bone. 

Discussion on Wheat (Joint Meeting, Sections B and K and Sub-Section K). 

The Development of Wheat Culture in North America, by Professor A. P. 
Brighani. 

Agricultural Development in North- West Canada, by Professor J. Mavor. 

The Engineering Works of the Panama Canal, by Colonel Goethals. 

Eesoliitions referred to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, 

for action. 

From the General Committee. 

(i) I'hat the Council be asked to consider the relationship of the Sections 
generally, and the possible desirability of a new subdivision and the incorporation 
of new subjects. 

(ii) That, in any revision of the organisation of the Association, full recog- 
nition be given to the importance of Agricultural Science. 

From Section II. 
I. 

That the Council be recommended to represent to the Dominion Govern- 
ment : — 

1. That it is essential to scientific knowledge of the early history of Canada 
that full and accurate records should be obtained of the physical character, 
geographical distribution and migrations, languages, social and political institu- 
tions, native arts, industries, and economic systems of the aboriginal peoples of 
the country ; 

2. That scientific knowledge of the principles of native design and handicraft 
is an essential preliminary to any development of native industries such as has 
already been found practicable, especially in the United States, in Mexico, and 
in India, and that such knowledge has also proved to be of material assistance 
in the creation of national schools of design among the white population ; 

3. That, in the rapid development of the country, the native population is 
inevitably losing its separate existence and characteristics; 

4. That it is therefore ot urgent importance to initiate, without delay, 
systematic observations and records of native physical types, languages, beliefs, 
and customs, and to provide for the preservation of a complete collection of 
examples of native arts and industries in some central institution, and for public 
guardianship of prehistoric monuments such as village sites, burial grounds, 
mounds, and rock-carvings ; 

5. That the organisation necessary to secure these objects, and to render 
the results of these inquiries accessible to students and to the public, is such 
as might easily be provided in connection with the National Museum at Ottawa, 
which already includes many fine examples of aboriginal arts and manufactures, 
and might easily be made a centre for the scientific study of the physical types' 
languages, beliefs, and customs of the aboriginal peoples. ' 

II. 

To recommend the Council to urge the Dominion Government to include, in 
the schedules of the next Canadian Census, full inquiries as to precise place of 
ongm, native language, previous status and occupation, year of immigration, 
*"° such other information as may be deemed of scientific value for the study 
of the effects of Ihe Canadian environment upon immigrants of European origin. 



Cxl RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

HecuiiniicnJalions referred io Uie Council jur consideratiuii, and, If 
desirable, fur action. 

1. That the following C!ommittee be authorised to receive cojitnbutions from 
sources other than the Association : — 

'To conduct Explorations with a view to ascertaining the Age of Stone 
Circles.' (Section H.) 

2. That the collection of the Anthropological Photographs printed by the 
Anthroi>ological Photograph Committee, and all further Photographs received by 
them, be handed over to the custody of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 
(Section H.) 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. CxH 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated for Scientific Purposes ly the 
General Committee at the Winnipeg Meeting, 1909. The Names 
of Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer for the Grants 
are prefixed to the respective B,esearcli Committees. 

Recommended hy Council. 

£ s. d. 
Gill, Sir D, — Measurement of Geodetic Arc in South Africa 100 
Glazebrook, Dr. R. T. — Republication of Electrical Standards 

Reports 100 

Mathematical and Physical Science. 

*Turner, Professor H. H. — Seismological Observations 60 

*Preece, Sir W. H. — Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ... 25 
*Gill, Sir David — Estal)lishing a Solar Observatory in 

Australia 50 

Shaw, Dr. W. N. — Upper Atmosphere 25 

Chemistry. 

* Divers, Dr. E. — Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 25 

* Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism .35 

*Kipping, Professor F. S. — Transformation of Aromatic Nitro- 

amines 15 

*Kipping, Professor F. S. — Electroanalysis 10 

Geology, 

*Tiddeman, R. H.— Erratic Blocks 10 

*Harker, Dr. A. — Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 10 

^Gregory, Professor J. W. — Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the British Isles 10 

*Lapworth, Professor C. — Palseozoic Rocks of Wales and the 

West of England 10 

* Watts, Professor W. W. — Composition of Charnwood Rocks 2 

* Watts, Professor W. W. — Igneous and Associated Rocks of 

Glensaul, (fcc 15 o 

•Gregory, Professor J. W. — South African Strata 5 

*Geikie, Professor J. — Geological Photographs 10 

Strahan, Dr. A. — Fossils of Midland Coalfields 25 

Zoology. 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 75 

'Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Animalium 75 

Carried forward £683 

♦ Reappointed, 



cxlii SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 683 

Zoology (continued). 

*Herdman, Professor W. A. — Heredity Experiments 15 

♦Shipley, Dr. A. E.— Feeding Habits of British Birds 5 

Vincent, Professor Swale — Prairie Fauna of Canada 15 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

*Palgrave, R. H. Inglis — Gold Coinage in Circulation in the 

United.Kingdom 6 

*Cannan, Professor E. — Amount and Distribution of Income 

below the Income-tax Exemption Limit 15 

Enyineerhig. 
*Preece, Sir W. H. — Gaseous Explosions 75 

Anthropology, 

*Munro, Dr. R. — Lake Villages in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury 5 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Excavations on Roman Sites in 

Britain 5 

♦Read, C. H.— Age of Stone Circles 30 

*Read, C. H. — Anthropological Notes and Queries 40 

♦Hogarth, D. G.^ — Researches in Crete 70 

Ridgeway, Prof essor W. — Neolithic Sites in Northern Greece 5 

Physiology. 

♦Schafer, Professor E. A.— The Ductless Glands 40 

♦Sherrington, Professor C. S. — Body Metabolism in Cancer... 20 
♦Hickson, Professor S. J.- — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 25 

Waller, Professor A. D. — Anajsthetics 25 

♦Starling, Professor E. H.— Tissue Metabolism 25 

♦Sherrington, Professor C. S. — Mental and Muscular Fatigue 20 

Waller, Dr. A. D. — Electromotive Phenomena in Plants ... 10 

Starling, Professor E. H. — Dissociation of Oxy-Hajmoglobin 15 

Botany. 

♦Scott, Dr. D. H.— Structure of Fos.sil Plants 10 

♦Darwin, Dr. F. — Experimental Study of Heredity 30 

♦Blackman, Dr. F. F.— Symbiosis between Turbellarian Worms 

and Algffi 5 

♦Johnson, Professor T, — Survey of Clare Island 30 

Carried forward £1224 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. cxliiii 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward 1224 0' 

Education. 

*Magnus, Sir P. — Studies suitable for Elementary Schools ... 5 

Correspoiiding Societies Committee. 

* Whitaker, W.— For Preparation of Report 20 

Total J1249 

* Reappointed. 



Annual Meetings, 1910 and 1911. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1910 will be held at 
Sheffield, commencing August 31 ; in 1911 at Portsmouth. 



PEESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1909. 



ADDRESS 

BT 

Professor Sir J. J. THOMSON, M.A., LL.D., D.So., F.R.S., 
PRESIDENT. 



Twenty-five years ago a great change was made in the practice of the 
British Association. From the foundation of our Society until 1884 its 
meetings had always been held in the British Isles ; in that year, how- 
ever, the Association met in Montreal, and a step was taken which 
changed us from an Insular into an Imperial Association. For this 
change, which now I think meets with nothing but approval, Canada 
is mainly responsible. Men of science welcome it for the increased 
opportunities it gives them of studying under the most pleasant and 
favourable conditions different parts of our Empire, of making new 
friends; such meetings as these not only promote the progress of 
science but also help to strengthen the bonds which bind together the 
different portions of the King's Dominions. 

This year, for the third time in a quarter of a century, we are meet- 
ing in Canada. As if to give us an object-lesson in the growth of 
Empire, you in Winnipeg took the opportunity at our first meeting in 
Canada in 1884: to invite our members to visit Manitoba and see for 
themselves the development of the Province at that time. Those who 
were fortunate enough to be your guests then as well as now are con- 
fronted with a change which must seem to them unexampled and 
almost incredible. Great cities have sprung up, immense areas have 
been converted from prairies to prosperous farms, flourishing industries 
have been started, and the population has quadrupled. As the 
President of a scientific Association I hope I may be pardoned if 
I point out that even the enterprise and energy of your people and 
the richness of your country would have been powerless to effect this 
change without the resources placed at their disposal by the labours of 
men of science. 

b2 



4 PRESIDENT 8 ADDRESS. 

The eminence of my predecessors in the chair at the meetings of the 
British Association in Canada makes my task this evening a difficult 
one. The meeting at Montreal was presided over by Lord Eayleigh, 
who, like Lord Kelvin, his colleague in the chair of Section A at that 
meeting, has left the lion's mark on every department of physics, 
and who has shown that, vast as is the empire of physics, there are 
still men who can extend its frontiers in all of the many regions under 
its sway. It has been my lot to succeed Lord Eayleigh in other offices 
as well as this, and I know how difficult a man he is to foUow. 

The President of the second meeting in Canada — that held in 1897 
at Toronto — was Sir John Evans, one of those men who, like Boyle, 
Cavendish, Darwin, Joule, Spottiswoode, and Huggins, have, from 
their own resoui'ces and without the aid derived from official positions 
or from the universities, made memorable contributions to science : 
such men form one of the characteristic features of British science. 
May we not hope that, as the knowledge of science and the interest 
taken in it increase, more of the large number of men of independent 
means in our country may be found working for the advancement of 
science, and thereby rendering services to the community no less 
valuable than the political, philanthropic, and social work at which 
many of them labour with so much zeal and fuccess ? 

I can, however, claim to have some experience of at any rate one 
branch of Canadian science, for it has been my privilege to receive at 
the Cavendish Laboratory many students from your universities. 
Some of these have been holders of what are known as the 1851 scholar- 
ships. These scholarships are provided from the surplus of the Great 
Exhibition of 1851, and are placed at the disposal of most of the 
younger universities in the British Empire, to enable students to devote 
themselves for two or three years to original research in various branches 
of science. I have had many opportunities of seeing the work of these 
scholars, and I should like to put on record my opinion that there is no 
educational endowment in the country which has done or is doing 
better work. 

I have had, as I said, the privilege of having as pupils students 
from your universities as well as from those of New Zealand, Australia, 
and the United States, and have thus had opportunities of comparing 
the effect on the best men of the educational system in force at your 
universities with that which prevails in the older English universities. 
Well, as the result, I have come to the conclusion that there is a good 
deal in the latter system which you have been wise not to imitate. The 
chief evil from which we at Cambridge suffer and which you have 
avoided is, I am convinced, the excessive competition for scholarships 
which confronts our students at almost every stage of their education. 
You may form some estimate of the prevalence of these scholarships 
if I tell you that the colleges in the University of Cambridge alone give 



I 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 5 

more than 35,000L a year in scholarships to undergraduates, and I 
suppose the case is much the same at Oxford. The result of this is 
that preparation for these scholarships dominates the education of the 
great majority of the cleverer boys who come to these universities, and 
indeed in some quarters it seems to be held that the chief duty of a 
schoolmaster, and the best test of his efficiency, is to make his boys 
get scholarships. The preparation for the scholarship too often means 
that about two years before the examination the boy begins to specialise, 
and from the age of sixteen does little else than the subject, be it 
mathematics, classics, or natural science, for which he wishes to get a 
scholarship ; then, on entering the university, he spends three or fom- 
years studying the same subject before he takes his degree, when his 
real life-work ought to begin. How has this training fitted him for this 
work? 1 will take the case in which the system might perhaps be 
expected to show to greatest advantage, when his woi~k is to be original 
research in the subject he has been studying. He has certainly 
acquired a very minute acquaintance with his subject — indeed, the know- 
ledge possessed by some of the students trained, under this system is 
quite remarkable, much greater than that of any other students I have 
ever met. But though he has acquired knowledge, the effect of study- 
ing one subject, and one subject only, for so long a time is too often to 
dull his enthusiasm for it, and he begins research with much of his 
early interest and keenness evaporated. Now there is hardly any 
quality more essential to success in research than enthusiasm. Ee- 
search is difficult, . laborious, often disheartening. The carefully 
designed apparatus refuses to work, it develops defects which may take 
months of patient work to rectify, the results obtained may appear in- 
consistent with each other and with every known law of Nature, sleep- 
less nights and laborious days may seem only to make the confusion 
more confounded, and there is nothing for the student to do but 
to take for his motto ' It's dogged as does it,' and plod on, comforting 
himself with the assurance that when success does come, the difficulties 
he has overcome will increase the pleasure — one of the most exquisite 
men can enjoy — of getting some conception which will make all that 
was tangled, confused, and contradictory clear and consistent. Unless 
he has enthusiasm to carry him on when the prospect seems almost 
hopeless and the labour and strain incessant, the student may give up his 
task and take to easier, though less important, pursuits. 

I am convinced that no greater evil can be done to a young man than 
to dull his enthusiasm. In a very considerable experience of students 
of physics beginning research, I have met with more — many more — 
failures from lack of enthusiasm and determination than from any lack 
of knowledge or of what is usually known as cleverness. 

This continual harping from an early age on one subject, which is 
so efficient in quenching enthusiasm, is much encouraged by the 



b PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

practice of the colleges to give scholarships for proficiency in one sub- 
ject alone. I went through a list of the scholarships awarded in the 
University of Cambridge last winter, and, though there were 202 of 
them, I could only find three cases in which it was specified that the 
award was made for proficiency in more than one subject. 

The premature specialisation fostered by the preparation for these 
scholarships injures the student by depriving him of adequate literary 
culture, while when it extends, as it often does, to specialisation in one 
or two branches of science, it retards the progress of science by tending 
to isolate one science from another. The boundaries between the 
sciences are arbitrary, and tend to disappear as science progresses. The 
principles of one science often find most striking and suggestive 
illustrations in the phenomena of another. Thus, for example, the 
physicist finds in astronomy that effects he has observed in the labora- 
tory are illustrated on the grand scale in the sun and stars. No better 
illustration of this could be given than Professor Hale's recent dis- 
covery of the Zeeman effect in the light from sunspots; in chemistry, 
too, the physicist finds in the behaviour of whole series of reactions 
illustrations of the great laws of thermodynamics, while if he turns to the 
biological sciences he is confronted by problems, mostly unsolved, of 
unsurpassed interest. Consider for a moment the problem presented 
by almost any plant — the characteristic and often exquisite detail of 
flower, leaf, and habit — and remember that the mechanism which con- 
trols this almost infinite complexity was once contained in a seed per- 
haps hardly large enough to be visible. We have here one of the most 
entrancing problems in chemistiy and physics it is possible to conceive. 

Again, the specialisation prevalent in schools often prevents students 
of science from acquiring sufficient knowledge of mathematics ; it is 
true that most of those who study physics do some mathematics, but 
I hold that, in general, they do not do enough, and that they are not 
as efficient physicists as they would be if they had a wider knowledge 
of that subject. There seems at present a tendency in some quarters 
to discourage the use of mathematics in physics; indeed, one might 
infer, from the statements of some writers in quasi-scientific journals, 
that ignorance of mathematics is almost a virtue. . If this is so, then 
surely of all the virtues this is the easiest and most prevalent. 

I do not for a moment urge that the physicist should confine him- 
self to looking at his problems from the mathematical point of view; 
on the contrary, I think a famous French mathematician and physicist 
was guilty of only slight exaggeration when he said that no discovery 
was really important or properly understood by its author unless and 
until he could explain it to the first man he met in the street. 

But two points of view are better than one, and the physicist who 
is also a mathematician possesses a most powerful instrument for 
scientific research with which many of the greatest discoveries have been 



PBESIDENT S ADDEESS. / 

made ; for example, electric waves were discovered by mathematics long 
before they were detected in the laboratory. He has also at his 
command a language clear, concise, and universal, and there is no 
better way of detecting ambiguities and discrepancies in his ideas than 
by trying to express them in this language. Again, it often happens 
that we are not able to appreciate the full significance of some physical 
discovery until we have subjected it to mathematical treatment, when 
we find that the effect we have discovered involves other effects which 
have not been detected, and we are able by this means to duplicate 
the discovery. Thus James Thomson, starting from the fact that 
ice floats on water, showed that it follows by mathematics that ice 
can be melted and. water prevented from freezing by pressure. This 
effect, which was at that time unknown, was afterwards verified by 
his brother. Lord Kelvin. Multitudes of similar duplication of physical 
discoveries by mathematics could be quoted. 

I have been pleading in the interests of physics for a greater study 
of mathematics by physicists. I would also plead for a greater study 
of physics by mathematicians in the interest of pure matliematics. 

The history of pure mathematics shows that many of the most 
important branches of the subject have arisen from the attempts made 
to get a mathematical solution of a problem suggested by physics. 
Thus the differentia] calculus arose from attempts to deal with the 
problem of moving bodies. Fourier's theorem resulted from attempts 
to deal with the vibrations of strings and the conduction of heat; 
indeed, it would seem that the most fruitful crop of scientific ideas 
is produced by cross-fertilisation between the mind and some definite 
fact, and that the mind by itself is comparatively unproductive. 

I think, if we could trace the origin of some of our most comprehen- 
sive and important scientific ideas, it would be found that they arose 
in the attempt to find an explanation of some apparently trivial and 
very special phenomenon; when once started the ideas grew to such 
generality and importance that their modest origin could hardly be 
suspected. Water vapour we know will refuse to condense into rain 
unless there are particles of dust to form nuclei; so an idea before 
taking shape seems to require a nucleus of solid fact round which it 
can condense. 

I have ventured to urge the closer union between mathematics and 
physics, because I think of late years there has been some tendency 
for these sciences to drift apart, and that the workers in applied 
mathematics are relatively fewer than they were some years ago. This 
is no doubt due to some extent to the remarkable developments made in 
the last few years in experimental physics on the one hand and in the 
most abstract and metaphysical parts of pure mathematics on the other. 
The fascination of these has drawn workers to the frontiers of these 
regions who would otherwise have worked nearer the junction of the 



8 pbesident's addeess. 

two. In part, too, it may be due to the fact that the problems with 
which the apphed mathematician has to deal are exceedingly difficult, 
and many may have felt tliat the problems presented by the older 
physics have been woi'ked over so often by men of the highest genius 
that there was but little chance of any problem which they could have 
any hope of solving being left. 

But the newer developments of physics have opened virgin ground 
which has not yet been worked over and which offers problems to the 
mathematician of great interest and novelty — problems which will sug- 
gest and require new methods of attack, the development of which 
will advance pure mathematics as well as physics. 

I have alluded to the fact that pure mathematicians have been 
indebted to the study of concrete problems for the origination of some 
of their most valuable conceptions ; but though no doubt pure 
mathematicians are in many ways very exceptional folk, yet in this 
respect they are very human. Most of us need to tackle some definite 
difficulty before our minds develop whatever powers they may possess. 
This is true for even the youngest of us, for our schoolboys and 
schoolgirls, and I think the moral to be drawn from it is that we should 
aim at making the education in our schools as little bookish and as 
practical and concrete as possible. 

I once had an illustration of the power of the concrete in stimulating 
the mind which made a very lasting impression upon me. One of my 
first pupils came to me with the assurance from his previous teacher 
that he knew little and cared less about mathematics, and that he had 
no chance of obtaining a degree in that subject. For some time I 
thought this estimate was correct, but he happened to be enthusiastic 
about billiards, and when we were reading that part of mechanics which 
deals with the collision of elastic bodies I pointed out that many of 
the effects he was constantly observing were illustrations of the subject 
we were studying. From that time he was a changed man. He had 
never before regarded mathematics as anything but a means of annoying 
innocent undergraduates; now, when he saw what important I'esults it 
could obtain, he became enthusiastic about it, developed very con- 
siderable mathematical ability, and, though he had already wasted two 
out of his three years at college, took a good place in the Mathematical 
Tripos. 

It is possible to read books, to pass examinations, without the 
higher qualities of the mind being called into play. Indeed, I doubt 
if there is any process in which the mind is more quiescent than in 
reading without interest. I might appeal to the widespread habit of 
reading in bed as a prevention of insomnia as a proof of this. But 
it is not possible for a boy to make a boat or for a girl to cook a dinner 
without using their brains. With practical things the difficulties have 
to be surmounted, the boat must be made watertight, the dinner must 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 9 

be cooked, while in reading there is always the hope that the difficulties 
which have been slurred over will not be set in the examination. 

I think it was Helmholtz who said that often in the course of a 
research more thought and energy were spent in reducing a refractory 
piece of brass to order than in devising the method or planning the 
scheme of campaign. This constant need for thought and action gives 
to original research in any branch of experimental science great educa- 
tional value even for those who will not become professional men of 
science. I have had considerable experience with students beginning 
research in experimental physics, and I have always been struck by 
the quite remarkable improvement in judgment, independence of 
thought and maturity produced by a year's research. Research develops 
qualities which are apt to atrophy when the student is preparing for 
examinations, and, quite apart from the addition of new knowledge to 
our store, is of the greatest importance as a means of education. 

' It is the practice in many universities to make special provision 
for the reception of students from other universities who wish 
to do original research or to study the more advanced parts of their 
subject, and considerable numbers of such students migrate from one 
university to another. I think it would be a good thing if this practice 
were to extend to students at an earlier stage in their career; especially 
should I like to see a considerable interchange of students between the 
universities in the Mother Country and those in the Colonies. 

I am quite sure that many of our English students, especially those 
destined for public life, could have no more valuable experience than to 
spend a year in one or other of your universities, and I hope some of 
your students might profit by a visit to ours. 

I can think of nothing more likely to lead to a better under- 
standing of the feelings, the sympathies, and, what is not less 
important, the prejudices, of one country by another than by the youths 
of those countries spending a part of their student life together. 
Undergraduates as a rule do not wear a mask either of politeness or any 
other material, and have probably a better knowledge of each other's 
opinions and points of view — in fact, know each other better than do 
people of riper age. To bring this communion of students about there 
must be co-operation between the universities throughout the Empire ; 
there must be recognition of each other's examinations, residence, and 
degrees. Before this can be accomplished there must, as my friend 
Mr. E. B. Sargant pointed out in a lecture given at the McGill 
University, be co-operation and recognition between the universities 
in each part of the Empire. I do not mean for a moment that 'all 
universities in a country should be under one government. I am a 
strong believer in the individuality of universities, but I do not think this 
is in any way inconsistent with the policy of an open door from one 
university to every other in the Empire. 



10 president's address. 

It has usually been the' practice of the President of this Association 
to give some account of the progress made in the last few years in the 
branch of science which he has the honour to represent. 

I propose this evening to follow that precedent and to attempt to 
give a very short account of some of the more recent developments of 
physics, and the new conceptions of physical processes to which they 
have led. 

The period which has elapsed since the Association last met in Canada 
has been one of almost unparalleled activity in many branches of physics, 
and many new and unsuspected properties of matter and electricity have 
been discovered. The history of this period affords a remarkable illustra- 
tion of the effect which may be produced by a single discovery ; for it is, I 
think, to the discovery of the Eontgen rays that we owe the rapidity of the 
progress which has recently been made in physics. A striking discovery 
like that of the Eontgen rays acts much like the discovery of gold in a 
sparsely populated country ; it attracts workers who come in the first place 
for the gold, but who may find that the country has other products, other 
charms, perhaps even more valuable than the gold itself. The country 
in which the gold was discovered in the case of the Eontgen rays was the 
department of physics dealing with the discharge of electricity through 
gases, a subject which, almost from the beginning of electrical science, 
had attracted a few enthusiastic workers, who felt convinced that the key 
to unlock the secret of electricity was to be found in a vacuum tube. 
Eontgen, in 1895, showed that when electricity passed through such a 
tube, the tube emitted rays which could pass through bodies opaque 
to ordinary light; which could, for example, pass through the flesh of 
the body and throw a shadow of the bones on a suitable screen. The 
fascination of this discovery attracted many workers to the subject of 
the discharge of electricity through gases, and led to great improvements 
in the instruments used in this type of researcli. It is not, however, to 
the power of probing dark places, important though this is, that the 
influence of Eontgen rays on the progress of science has mainly been due ; 
it is rather because these rays make gases, and, indeed, solids and liquids, 
through which they pass conductors of electricity. It is true that before 
the discovery of these rays other methods of making gases conductors 
were known, but none of these was so convenient for the purposes of 
accurate measurement. 

The study of gases exposed to Eontgen rays has revealed in such gases 
the presence of particles charged with electricity ; some of these particles 
are charged with positive, others with negative electricity. 

'The properties of these particles have been investigated; we know 
the charge they carry, the speed with which they move under an electric 
force, the rate at which the oppositely charged ones recombine, and these 
investigations have thrown a new light not only on electricity, but also 
on the structure of matter. 



peesidbnt's address, 11 

We know from these investigations that electricity, hke matter, is 
molecular in structure, that just as a quantity of hydrogen is a collection 
of an immense number of small particles called molecules, so a charge of 
electricity is made up of a great number of small charges, each of a 
perfectly definite and known amount. 

Helmholtz said in 1880 that in his opinion the evidence in favour of 
the molecular constitution of electricity was even stronger than that in 
favour of the molecular constitution of matter. How much stronger is 
that evidence now, when we have measured the charge on the unit and 
found it to be the same from whatever source the electricity is obtained. 
Nay, further, the molecular theory of matter is indebted to the molecular 
theory of electricity for the most accurate determination of its funda- 
mental quantity, the number of molecules in any given quantity of an 
elementary substance. 

The great advantage of the electrical methods for the study of the 
properties of matter is due to the fact that whenever a particle is electrified 
it is very easily identified, whereas an uncharged molecule is most elusive ; 
and it is only when these are present in immense numbers that we are 
able to detect them. A very simple calculation will illustrate the dif- 
ference in our power of detecting electrified and unelectrified molecules. 
The smallest quantity of unelectrified matter ever detected is probably 
that of neon, one of the inert gases of the atmosphere. Professor Strutt 
has shown that the amount of neon in ^ of a cubic centimetre of the air 
at ordinary pressures can be detected by the spectroscope ; Sir William 
Ramsay estimates that the neon in the air only amounts to one part of 
neon in 100,000 parts of air, so that the neon in^j^g of a cubic centimetre 
of air would only occupy at atmospheric pressure a volume of half a 
millionth of a cubic centimetre. When stated in this form the quan- 
tity seems exceedingly small, but in this small volume there are about 
ten million million molecules. Now the population of the earth is esti- 
mated at about fifteen hundred millions, so that the smallest number of 
molecules of neon we can identify is about 7,000 times the population of 
the earth. In other words, if we had no better test for the existence of a 
man than we have for that of an unelectrified molecule we should come 
to the conclusion that the earth is uninhabited. Contrast this with 
our power of detecting electrified molecules. We can by the electrical 
method, even better by the cloud method of C. T. E. Wilson, detect the 
presence of three or four charged particles in a cubic centimetre. 
Rutherford has shown that we can detect the presence of a single 
a particle. Now the a particle is a charged atom of helium ; if this atom 
had been uncharged we .should have required more than a million milliofi 
of them, instead of one, before we should have been able to detect them. 

We may I think conclude, since electrified particles can be studied 
with so much greater ease than unelectrified ones, that we shall obtain 
a knowledge of the ultimate structure of electricity before we arrive at 



12 president's address. 

a corresponding degree of certainty with regard to the structure of 
matter. 

We have already made considerable progress in the task of discover- 
ing what the structure of electricity is. We have known for some 
time that of one kind of electricity — the negative — and a very interesting 
one it is. We know that negative electricity is made up of units all 
of which are of the same kind; that these units are exceedingly small 
compared with even the smallest atom, for the mass of the unit is only 
^-_i_^ part of the mass of an atom of hydrogen; that its radius is only 
10"^' centimetre, and that these units, ' corpuscles ' as they have 
been called, can be obtained from all substances. The size of these 
corpuscles is on an altogether different scale from that of atoms ; the 
volume of a corpuscle bears to that of the atom about the same relation 
as that of a speck of dust to the volume of this room. Under suitable 
conditions they move at enormous speeds which approach in some 
instances the velocity of light. 

The discovery of these corpuscles is an interesting example of the 
way Nature responds to the demands made upon her by mathematicians. 
Some years before the discovery of corpuscles it had been shown by 
a mathematical investigation that the mass of a body must be increased 
by a charge of electricity. This increase, however, is greater for small 
bodies than for large ones, and even bodies as small as atoms are hope- 
lessly too large to show any appreciable effect ; thus the result seemed 
entirely academic. After a time corpuscles were discovered, and these 
are so much smaller than the atom that the increase in mass due to the 
charge becomes not merely appreciable, but so great that, as the 
experiments of Kaufmann and Bucherer have shown, the whole of the 
mass of the corpuscle arises from its charge. 

We know a great deal about negative electricity ; what do we know 
about positive electricity ? Is positive electricity molecular in structure ? 
Is it made up into units, each unit carrying a charge equal in magnitude 
though opposite in sign to that carried by a corpuscle ? Does, or does not, 
this unit differ, in size and physical properties, very widely fi'om the 
corpuscle? We know that by suitable processes we can get corpuscles 
out of any kind of matter, and that the corpuscles will be the same from 
whatever source they may be derived. Is a similar thing true for positive 
electricity? Can we get, for example, a positive unit from oxygen of 
+.he same kind as that we get from hydrogen ? 

For my own part, I think the evidence is in favour of the view that 
we can, although the nature of the unit of positive electricity makes the 
proof much more difficult than for the negative unit. 

In the first place we find that the positive particles — ' canalstrahlen ' 
is their technical name — discovered by our distinguished guest, Dr. Gold- 
stein, which are found when an electric discharge passes through a highly 
rarefied gas, are, when the pressure is very low, the same, whatever may 



pbbsident's address, 13 

have been the gas in the vessel to begin with. If we pump out the gas 
until the pressure is too low to allow the discharge to pass, and then 
introduce a small quantity of gas and restart the discharge, the positive 
particles are the same whatever kind of gas may have been introduced. 

I have, for example, put into the exhausted vessel oxygen, 
argon, helium, the vapour of carbon tetrachloride, none of which contain 
hydrogen, and found the positive particles to be the same as when 
hydrogen was introduced. 

Some experiments made lately by Wellisch, iu the Cavendish Labora- 
tory, sitrongly support the view that there is a definite unit of positive 
electricity independent of the gas from which it is derived ; these experi- 
ments were on the velocity with which positive particles move through 
mixed gases. If we have a mixture of methyl-iodide and hydrogen 
exposed to Rontgen rays, the effect of the rays on the methyl-iodide 
is so much greater than on the hydrogen that, even when the mixture 
contains only a small percentage of methyl-iodide, practically all the 
electricity comes from this gas, and not from the hydrogen. 

Now if the positive particles were merely the residue left when a 
corpuscle had been abstracted from the methyl-iodide, these particles 
would have the dimensions of a molecule of methyl-iodide ; this is very 
large and heavy, and would therefore move more slowly through the 
hydrogen molecules than the positive particles derived from hydrogen 
itself, which would, on this view, be of the size and weight of the hght 
hydrogen molecules. Wellisch found that the velocities of both the 
positive and negative particles through the mixture were the same as 
the velocities through pure hydrogen, although in the one case the ions 
had originated from methyl-iodide and in the other from hydrogen; a 
similar result was obtained when carbon tetrachloride, or mercury 
methyl, was used instead of methyl-iodide. These and similar results 
lead to the conclusion that the atom of the different chemical elements 
contain definite units of positive as well as of negative electricity, and 
that the positive electricity, like the negative, is molecular in structure. 

The investigations made on the unit of positive electricity show 
that it is of quite a different kind from the imit of negative; the 
mass of the negative unit is exceedingly small compared with any atom ; 
the only positive units that up to the present have been detected are 
quite comparable in mass with the mass of an atom of hydrogen, in fact 
they seem equal to it. This makes it more difficult to be certain that 
the unit of positive electricity has been isolated, for we have to be on our 
guard against its being a much smaller body attached to the hydrogen 
atoms which happen to be present in the vessel. If the positive units 
have a much greater mass than the negative ones, they ought not to 
be so easily deflected by magnetic forces when moving at equal speeds ; 
and in general the insensibility of the positive particles to the influence 
of a magnet is very marked ; though there are cases when the positive 



14 president's address. 

particles are much more readily deflected, and these have been interpreted 
as proving the existence of positive units comparable in mass with the 
negative ones. I have found, however, that in these cases the positive 
particles are moving very slowly, and that the ease with which they 
are deflected is due to the smallness of the velocity and not to that of 
the mass. It should, however, be noted that M. Jean Becquerel has 
observed in the absorption spectra of some minerals, and Professor 
Wood in the rotation of the plane of polarisation by sodium vapour, 
effects which could be explained by the presence in the substances 
of positive units comparable in mass with corpuscles. This, how- 
ever, is not the only explanation which can be given of these effects, 
and at present the smallest positive electrified particles of which we 
have direct experimental evidence have masses comparable with that 
of an atom of hydrogen. 

A knowledge of the mass and size of the two units of electricity, 
the positive and the negative, would give us the material for constructing 
what may be called a molecular theory of electricity, and would be a 
starting-point for a theory of the structure of matter; for the most 
natural view to take, as a provisional hypothesis, is that matter is just a 
collection of positive and negative units of electricity, and that the 
forces which hold atoms and molecules together, the properties which 
differentiate one kind of matter from another, all have their origin in 
the electrical forces exerted by positive and negative units of electricity, 
grouped together in different ways in the atoms of the different elements. 
As it would seem that the units of positive and negative electricity 
are of very different sizes, we must regard matter as a mixture containing 
systems of very different types, one type corresponding to the small cor- 
puscle, the other to the large positive unit. 

Since the energy associated with a given charge is greater the smaller 
ihe body on which the charge is concentrated, the energy stored up 
in the negative corpuscles will be far greater than that stored up by 
the positive. The amount of energy which is stored up in ordinary 
matter in the form of the electrostatic potential energy of its corpuscles 
is, I think, not generally realised. All substances give out corpuscles, 
fio that we may assume that each atom of a substance contains at least 
one corpuscle. From the size and the charge on the corpuscle, both of 
which are known, we find that each corpuscle has 8 x 10"' ergs of 
energy; this is on the supposition that the usual expressions for the 
energy of a charged body hold when, as in the case of a corpuscle, 
the charge is reduced to one unit. Now in one gramme of hydrogen 
there are about 6 x 10^^ atoms, so if there is only one corpuscle in each 
atom the energy due to the corpuscles in a gramme of hydrogen would 
be 48 X 10*^ ergs, or 11 x 10' calories. This is more than seven times 
the heat developed by one gramme of radium, or than that developed by 
the burning of five tons of coal. Thus we see that even ordinary matter 



pebsident's address. 15 

contains enormous stores of energy ; this energy is fortunately kept fast 
bound by the corpuscles; if at any time an appreciable fraction were 
to get free, the earth would explode and become a gaseous nebula. 

The matter of which I have been speaking so far is the material 
which builds up the earth, the sun, and the stars, the matter studied 
by the chemist, and which he can represent by a formula ; this matter 
occupies, however, but an insignificant fraction of the universe, it forms 
but minute islands in the great ocean of the ether, the substance with 
which the whole universe is filled. 

The ether is not a fantastic creation of the speculative philosopher; 
it is as essential to us as the air we breathe. For we must remember 
that we on this earth are not living on our own resources; we are 
dependent from minute to minute upon what we are getting from the sun, 
and the gifts of the sun are conveyed to us by the ether. It is to the 
sun that we owe not merely night and day, springtime and harvest, but 
it is the energy of the sun, stored up in coal, in waterfalls, in food, that 
practically does all the work of the world. 

How great is the supply the sun lavishes upon us becomes clear 
when we consider that the heat received by the earth under a high 
sun and a clear sky is equivalent, according to the measurements of 
Langley, to about 7,000 horse-power per acre. Though our engineers 
have not yet discovered how to utilise this enormous supply of power, 
they will, I have not the slightest doubt, ultimately succeed in doing so; 
and when coal is exhausted and our water-power inadequate, it may be 
that this is the source from which we shall derive the energy necessary 
for the world's work. When that comes about, our centres of industrial 
activity may perhaps be transferred to the burning deserts of the 
Sahara, and the value of land determined by its suitability for the recep- 
tion of traps to catch sunbeams. 

This energy, in the interval between its departure from the sun and 
its arrival at the earth, must be in the space between them. Thus this 
space must contain something which, like ordinary matter, can store up 
energy, which can carry at an enormous pace the energy associated 
with light and heat, and which can, in addition, exert the enormous 
stresses necessary to keep the earth circling round the sun and the 
moon round the earth. 

The study of this all-pervading substance is perhaps the most fas- 
cinating and important duty of the physicist. 

On the electromagnetic theory of light, now universally accepted, 
the energy streaming to the earth travels through the ether in electric 
waves ; thus practically the whole of the energy at our disposal has at 
one time or another been electrical energy. The ether must, then, be 
the seat of electrical and magnetic forces. We know, thanks to the 
genius of Clerk Maxwell, the founder and inspher of modern electrical 
theoiy, the equations which express the relation between these forces, 



16 president's address. 

and although for some purposes these are all we require, yet they do 
not tell us very much about the nature of the ether. 

The interest inspired by equations, too, in some minds is apt to be 
somewhat Platonic; and something more grossly mechanical — a model, 
for example, is felt by many to be more suggestive and manageable, 
and for them a more powerful instrument of research, than a purely 
analytical theory. 

Is the ether dense or rare? Has it a structure? Is it at rest or 
in motion? are some of the questions which force themselves upon us. 

Let us consider some of the facts known about the ether. When 
light falls on a body and is absorbed by it, the body is pushed forward 
in the direction in which the light is travelling, and if the body is free 
to move it is set in motion by the light. Now it is a fundamental prin- 
ciple of dynamics that when a body is set moving in a certain direction, 
or, to use the language of dynamics, acquires momentum in that direc- 
tion, some other mass must lose the same amount of momentum; in 
other words, the amount of momentum in the universe is constant. Thus 
when the body is pushed forward by the light some other system must 
have lost the momentum the body acquires, and the only other system 
available is the wave of light falling on the body ; hence we conclude that 
there must have been momentum in the wave in the direction in which it 
is travelling. Momentum, however, implies mass in motion. We con- 
clude, then, that in the ether through which the wave is moving there is 
mass moving with the velocity of light. The experiments made on the 
pressure due to light enable us to calculate this mass, and we find that in 
a cubic kilometre of ether carrying light as intense as sunlight is at the 
surface of the earth, the mass moving is only about one-fifty-millionth of 
a milligramme. We must be careful not to confuse this with the mass of 
a cubic kilometre of ether ; it is only the mass moved when the light passes 
through it ; the vast majority of the ether is left undisturbed by the light. 
Now, on the electromagnetic theory of light, a wave of light may 
be regarded as made up of gi'oups of lines of electric force moving with the 
velocity of light ; and if we take this point of view we can pi'ove that the 
mass of ether per cubic centimetre carried along is proportional to the 
energy possessed by these lines of electric force per cubic centimetre, 
divided by the square of the velocity of light. But though lines of electric 
force carry some of the ether along with them as they move, the amount 
so carried, even in the strongest electric fields we can produce, is but 
a minute fraction of the ether in their neighbourhood. 

This is proved by an experiment made by Sir Oliver Lodge in which 
light was made to travel through an electric field in rapid motion. If 
the electric field had carried the whole of the ether with it, the velocity 
of the light would have been increased by the velocity of the electric 
field. As a matter of fact no increase whatever could be detected, though 
it would have been registered if it had amounted to one-thousandth part 
of that of the field. 



president's address, 17 

The ether carried along by a wave of light must be an exceedingly 
small part of the volume through which the wave is spread. Parts of 
this volume are in motion, but by far the greater part is at rest; thus 
in the wave front there cannot be unifoimity, at some parts the ether 
is moving, at others it is at rest — in other words, the wave front must 
be more analogous to bright specks on a dark ground than to a uniformly 
illuminated surface. 

The place where the density of the ether carried along by an 
electric field rises to its highest value is close to a corpuscle, for 
round the corpuscles are by far the strongest electric fields of which we 
have any knowledge. We know the mass of the corpuscle, we know 
from Kaufmann's experiments that this arises entirely from the electric 
charge, and is therefore due to the ether carried along with the corpuscle 
by the lines of force attached to it. 

A simple calculation shows that one-half of this mass is contained in 
a volume seven times that of a corpuscle. Since we know the volume 
of the corpuscle as well as the mass, we can calculate the density of the 
ether attached to the corpuscle; doing so, we find it amounts to the 
prodigious value of about 5 x 10'", or about 2,000 million times that 
of lead. Sir Oliver Lodge, by somewhat different considerations, has 
arrived at a value of the same order of magnitude. 

Thus around the corpuscle ether must have an extravagant density : 
whether the density is as great as this in other places depends upon 
whether the ether is compressible or not. If it is compressible, then it 
may be condensed round the corpuscles, and there have an abnormally 
great density; if it is not compressible, then the density in free space 
cannot be less than the number I have just mentioned, 

"With respect to this point we must remember that the forces acting 
on the ether close to the corpuscle are prodigious. If the ether were, for 
example, an ideal gas whose density increased in proportion to the 
pressure, however great the pressure might be, then if, when exposed to 
the pressures which exist in some directions close to the corpuscle, it had 
the density stated above, its density under atmospheric pressure would 
only be about 8 X 10""^, or a cubic kilometre would have a mass less than 
a gramme; so that instead of being almost incomparably denser than 
lead, it would be almost incomparably rarer than the lightest gas. 

I do not know at present of any effect which would enable us to 
determine whether ether is compressible or not. And although at first 
sight the idea that we are immersed in a medium almost infinitely 
denser than lead might seem inconceivable, it is not so if we remember 
that in all probability matter is composed mainly of holes. "We may, 
in fact, regard matter as possessing a bird-cage kind of structure 
in which the volume of the ether disturbed by the wires when 
the structure is moved is infinitesimal in comparison with the volume 
enclosed by them. If we do this, no difficulty arises from the great 
1909. c 



18 president's addbess. 

density of the ether ; all we have to do is to increase the distance between 
the wires in proportion as we increase the density of the ether. 

Let us now consider how much ether is carried along by ordinary 
matter, and what effects this might be expected to produce. 

The simplest electrical system we know, an electrified sphere, has 
attached to it a mass of ether proportional to its potential energy, and 
such that if the mass were to move with the velocity of light its kinetic 
energy would equal the electrostatic potential energy of the particle. 
This result can be extended to any electrified system, and it can be 
shown that such a system binds a mass of the ether proportional to its 
jDotential energy. Thus a part of the mass of any system is propor- 
tional to the potential energy of the system. 

The question now arises, Does this part of the mass add anything to 
the weight of the body ? If the ether were not subject to gravitational 
attraction it certainly would not ; and even if the ether were ponderable, we 
might expect that as the mass is swimming in a sea of ether it would 
not increase the weight of the body to which it is attached. But if it does 
not, then a body with a large amount of potential energy may have an 
appreciable amount of its mass in a foi'm which does not increase its 
weight, and thus the weight of a given mass of it may be less than that 
of an equal mass of some substance with a smaller amount of potential 
energy. Thus the weights of equal masses of these substances would be 
different. Now, experiments with pendulums, as Newton pointed out, 
enable us to determine with great accuracy the weights of equal masses 
of different substances. Newton himself made experiments of this kind, 
and found that the weights of equal masses were the same for all the 
materials he tried. Bessel, in 1830, made some experiments on this 
subject which are still the most accurate we possess, and he showed 
that the weights of equal masses of lead, silver, iron, brass did not 
differ by as much as one part in 60,000. 

The substances tried by Newton and Bessel did not, however, include 
any of those substances which possess the marvellous power of radio- 
activity; the discovery of these came much later, and is one of the most 
striking achievements of modern physics. 

These radio-active substances are constantly giving out large 
quantities of heat, presumably at the expense of then' potential energy ; 
thus when these substances reach their final non-radio-active state their 
potential energy must be less than when they were radio-active. 
Professor Eutherford's measurements show that the energy emitted by 
one gramme of radium in the course of its degradation to non-radio- 
active forms is equal to the kinetic energy of a mass of x^^th of a milli- 
gramme moving with the velocity of light. 

This energy, according to the rule I have stated, corresponds 
to a mass of -i^th. of a milligramme of the ether, and thus a gramme 
of x'adium in its radio-active state must have at least A-th of a 



president's address. 19 

milligramme more of ether attached to it than when it has been degraded 
into the non-radio-active forms. Thus if this ether does not increase the 
weight of the radium, the ratio of mass to weight for radium would be 
greater by about one part in 13,000 than for its non-radio-active products. 

I attempted several years ago to find the ratio of mass to weight for 
radium by swinging a little pendulum, the bob of which was made of 
radium. I had only a small quantity of radium, and was not therefore 
able to attain any great accuracy. I found that the difference, if any, 
in the ratio of the mass to weight between radium and other substances 
was not more than one part in 2,000. Lately we have been using at the 
Cavendish Laboratory a pendulum whose bob was filled with uranium 
oxide. We have got good reasons for supposing that uranium is a parent 
of radium, so that the great potential energy and large ethereal mass 
possessed by the radium will be also in the uranium ; the experiments are 
not yet completed. It is, perhaps, expecting almost too much to hope 
that the radio-active substances may add to the great services they have 
already done to science by furnishing the first case in which there is some 
differentiation in the action of gravity. 

The mass of ether bound by any system is such that if it were to move 
with the velocity of light its kinetic energy would be equal to the potential 
energy of the system. This result suggests a new view of the nature 
of potential energy. Potential energy is usually regarded as essentially 
different from kinetic energy. Potential energy depends on the configura- 
tion of the system, and can be calculated from it when we have the requisite 
data; kinetic energy, on the other hand, depends upon the velocity of the 
system. According to the principle of the conservation of energy the one 
form can be converted into the other at a fixed rate of exchange, so that 
when one unit of one kind disappears a unit of the other simultaneously 
appears. 

Now in many cases this rule is all that we require to calculate the 
behaviour of the system, and the conception of potential energy is of the 
utmost value in making the knowledge derived from experiment and 
observation available for mathematical calculation. It must, however, 
I think, be admitted that from the purely philosophical point of view 
it is open to serious objection. It violates, for example, the principle 
of continuity. When a thing changes from a state A to a different state 
B, the principle of continuity requires that it must pass through a number 
of states intermediate between A and B, so that the transition is made 
gradually and not abruptly. Now when kinetic energy changes 
into potential, although there is no discontinuity in the quantity of the 
energy, there is in its quality, for we do not recognise any kind of energy 
intermediate between that due to the motion and that due to the position 
of the system, and some portions of energy are supposed to change 
per saltum from the kinetic to the potential form. In the case of the 
transition of kinetic energy into heat energy in a gas, the discontinuity 

02 



20 president's address. 

has disappeared with a fuller knowledge of what the heat energy in a 
gas is due to. "When we were ignorant of the nature of this energy, 
the transition from kinetic into thermal energy seemed discontinuous; 
but now we know that this energy is the kinetic energy of the molecules 
of which the gas is composed, so that there is no change in the type of 
energy when the kinetic energy of visible motion is transformed into 
the thermal energy of a gas — it is just the transference of kinetic energy 
from one body to another. 

If we regard potential energy as the kinetic energy of portions of the 
ether attached to the system, then all energy is kinetic energy, due to 
the motion of matter or of portions of ether attached to the matter. I 
showed, many years ago, in my 'Applications of Dynamics to Physics 
and Chemistry,' that we could imitate the effects of the potential 
energy of a system by means of the kinetic energy of invisible systems 
connected in an appropriate manner with the main system, and that 
the potential energy of the visible universe may in reality be the kinetic 
energy of an invisible one connected up with it. We naturally suppose 
that this invisible universe is the luminiferous ether, that portions of the 
ether in rapid motion are connected with the visible systems, and that 
their kinetic energy is the potential energy of the systems. 

We may thus regard the ether as a bank in which we may deposit 
energy and withdraw it at our convenience. The mass of the ether 
attached to the system will change as the potential energy changes, and 
thus the mass of a system whose potential energy is changing cannot 
be constant; the fluctuations in mass under ordinary conditions are, 
however, so small that they cannot be detected by any means at present 
at our disposal. Inasmuch as the various forms of potential energy are 
continually being changed into heat energy, which is the kinetic energy 
of the molecules of matter, there is a constant tendency for the mass of 
a system such as the earth or the sun to diminish, and thus as time 
goes on for the mass of ether gripped by the material universe to become 
smaller and smaller; the rate at which it would diminish would, how- 
ever, get slower as time went on, and there is no reason to think that it 
would ever get below a very large value. 

Eadiation of light and heat from an incandescent body like the sun 
involves a constant loss of mass by the body. Each unit of energy 
radiated carries off its quota of mass, but as the mass ejected from the 
sun per year is only one part in 20 biUionths (1 in 2 x 10") of the mass 
of the sun, and as this diminution in mass is not necessarily accompanied 
by any decrease in its gravitational attraction, we cannot expect to be 
able to get any evidence of this effect. 

As our knowledge of the properties of light has progi-essed, we have 
been driven to recognise that the ether, when transmitting light, 
possesses properties which, before the introduction of the electro- 
magnetic theory, would have been thought to be peculiar to an emission 



president's address. 2] 

theory of light and to be fatal to the theoiy that light consists of 
undulations. 

Take, for example, the pressure exerted by light. This would follow 
as a matter of course if we supposed light to be small particles moving 
with great velocities, for these, if they struck against a body, would 
manifestly tend to push it forward, while on the undulatory theory 
there seemed no reason why any effect of this kind should take place. 

Indeed, in 1792 this very point was regarded as a test between the 
theories, and Bennet made experiments to see whether or not he could 
find any traces of this pressure. We now know that the pressure is 
there, and if Bennet 's instrument had been more sensitive he must have 
observed it. It is perhaps fortunate that Bennet had not at his com- 
mand more delicate apparatus. Had he discovered the pressure of 
light, it would have shaken confidence in the undulatory theory and 
checked that magnificent work at the beginning of the last century 
which so greatly increased our knowledge of optics. 

As another example, take the question of the distribution of energy 
in a wave of light. On the emission theory the energy in the light is the 
kinetic energy of the light particles. Thus the energy of light is made 
up of distinct units, the unit being the energy of one of the particles. 

The idea that the energy has a structure of this kind has lately 
received a good deal of support. Planck, in a very remarkable series of 
investigations on the Thermodynamics of Eadiation, pointed out that the 
expressions for the energy and entropy of radiant energy were of such 
a form as to suggest that the energy of radiation, like that of a gas on 
the molecular theory, was made up of distinct units, the magnitude of 
the unit depending on the colour of the light ; and on this assumption 
he was able to calculate the value of the unit, and from this deduce 
incidentally the value of Avogadro's constant — the number of molecules 
in a cubic centimetre of gas at standard temperature and pressure. 

This result is most interesting and important because if it were a 
legitimate deduction from the Second Law of Thermodynamics, it would 
appear that only a particular type of mechanism for the vibrators which 
give out light and the absorbers which absorb it could be in accordance 
with that law. 

If this were so, then, regarding the universe as a collection of 
machines all obeying the laws of dynamics, the Second Law of Thermo- 
dynamics would only be true for a particular kind of machine. 

There seems, however, grave objection to this view, which I may illus- 
trate by the case of the First Law of Thermodynamics, the principle of the 
Conservation of Energy. This must be true whatever be the nature of 
the machines which make up the universe ; provided they obey the laws of 
dynamics, any application of the principle of the Conservation of Energy 
could not discriminate between one type of machine and another. 

Now, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, though not a dynamical 



22 pbesident's addbess. 

principle in as strict a sense as the law of the Consei-vation of Energy, is 
one that we should expect to hold for a collection of a large number of 
machines of any type, provided that we could not directly affect the indi- 
vidual machines, but could only observe the average effects produced by 
an enonuous number of tlieni. On this view the Second Law, as well as 
the First, should be incapable of saying that the machines were of any 
particular type: so that investigations founded on thermodynamics, 
though the expressions they lead to may suggest — cannot, I think, be 
regarded as proving — the unit structure of light energy. 

It would seem as if in the application of thermodynamics to radia- 
tion some additional assumption has been implicitly introduced, for these 
applications lead to definite relations between the energy of the light of 
any particular wave length and the temperature of the luminous body. 

Now a possible way of accounting for the light emitted by hot bodies 
is to suppose that it arises from the collisions of corpuscles with the 
molecules of the hot body, but it is only for one particular law of force 
between the corpuscles and the molecules that the distribution of energy 
would be the same as that deduced by the Second Law of Thermo- 
dynamics, so that in this case, as in the other, the results obtained by the 
application of thermodynamics to radiation would require us to suppose 
that the Second Law of Thei-modynamics is only true for radiation 
when the radiation is produced by mechanism of a special type. 

Quite apart, however, from considerations of thermodynamics, we 
should expect that the light from a luminous source should in many 
cases consist of parcels possessing, at any rate to begin with, a definite 
amount of energy. Consider, for example, the case of a gas like sodium 
vapour, emitting light of a definite wave length; we may imagine that 
this light, consisting of electrical waves, is emitted by systems resembling 
Leyden jars. The energy originally possessed by such a system will be 
the electrostatic energy of the charged jar. When the vibrations are 
started, this energy will be radiated away into space, the radiation 
forming a complex system, containing, if the jar has no electrical 
resistance, the energy stored up in the ]ar. 

The amount of this energy will depend on the size of the jar and the 
quantity of electricity with which it is charged. With regard to the 
charge, we must remember that we are dealing with systems formed 
out of single molecules, so that the charge will only consist of one or two 
natural units of electricity, or, at all events, some small multiple of that 
unit, while for geometrically similar Leyden jars the energy for a given 
charge will be proportional to the frequency of the vibration; thus, the 
energy in the bundle of radiation will be proportional to the frequency 
of the vibration. 

We may picture to ourselves the radiation as consisting of the lines 
of electric force which, before the vibrations were started, were held 
bound by the charges on the jar, and which, when the vibrations begin, 



president's address. 23 

are thrown into rhythmic undulations, liberated from the jar, and travel 
through space with the velocity of light. 

Now let us suppose that this system strikes against an uncharged 
condenser and gives it a charge of electricity, the charge on the plates 
of the condenser must be at least one unit of electricity, because fractions 
of this charge do not exist, and each unit charge will anchor a unit 
tube of force, which must come from the parcel of radiation falling 
upon it. Thus a tube in the incident light will be anchored by the 
condenser, and the parcel formed by this tube will be anchored and 
withdrawn as a whole from the pencil of light incident on the con- 
denser. If the energy required to charge up the condenser with a 
unit of electricity is greater than the energy in the incident parcel, the 
tube will not be anchored and the light will pass over the condenser and 
escape from it. These principles, that radiation is made up of units, and 
that it requires a unit possessing a definite amount of energy to excite 
radiation in a body on which it falls, perhaps receive their best illustra- 
tion in the remarkable laws governing Secondary Eontgen radiation, 
recently discovered by Professor Barkla. Professor Barkla has found 
that each of the different chemical elements, when exposed to Eontgen 
rays, emit a definite type of secondary radiation whatever may have 
been the type of primary : thus lead emits one type, copper another, 
and so on ; but these radiations are not excited at all if the primary 
radiation is of a softer type than the specific radiation emitted by the 
substance ; thus the secondary radiation from lead being harder than 
that from copper, if copper is exposed to the secondary radiation from 
lead the copper will radiate, but lead will not radiate when exposed to 
copper. Thus, if we suppose that the energy in a unit of hard Eontgen 
rays is greater than that in one of soft, Barkla 's results are strikingly 
analogous to those which would follow on the unit theory of light. 

Though we have, I think, strong reasons for thinking that the energy 
in the light waves of definite wave length is done up into bundles, and 
that these bundles, when emitted, all possess the same amount of energy, 
I do not think there is any reason for supposing that in any casual 
specimen of light of this wave length, which may subsequent to its 
emission have been many times refracted or reflected, the bundles possess 
any definite amount of energy. For consider what must happen when 
a bundle is incident on a surface such as glass, when part of it is 
reflected and part transmitted. The bundle is divided into two portions, 
in each of which the energy is less than the incident bundle, and since 
these portions diverge and may ultimately be many thousands of miles 
apart, it would seem meaningless still to regard them as forming one 
unit. Thus the energy in the bundles of light, after they have suffered 
partial reflection, will not be the same as in the bundles when they 
were emitted. The study of the dimensions of these bundles, for 
example, the angle they subtend at the luminous source, is an interesting 



24 peesident's addeess. 

subject for investigation ; experiments on interference between rays of 
light emerging in different directions from the luminous source would 
probably throw light on this point. 

I now pass to a very brief consideration of one of the most important 
and interesting advances ever made in physics, and in which Canada, 
as the place of the labours of Professors Eutherford and Soddy, has 
taken a conspicuous part. I mean the discovery and investigation of 
radio-activity. Eadio-activity was brought to light by the Eontgen 
rays. One of the many remarkable properties of these rays is to excite 
phosphorescence in certain substances, including the salts of uranium, 
when they fall upon them. Since Eontgen rays produce phosphor- 
escence, it occurred to Becquerel to try whether phosphorescence would 
produce Eontgen rays. He took some uranium salts which had been 
made to phosplioresce by exposure, not to Eontgen rays but to sunlight, 
tested them, and found that they gave out rays possessing properties 
similar to Eontgen rays. Further investigation showed, however, 
that to get these rays it was not necessary to make the uranium phos- 
phoresce, that the salts were just as active if they had been kept in the 
dark. It thus appeared that the property was due to the metal and not 
to the phosphorescence, and that uranium and its compounds possessed 
the power of giving out rays which, like Eontgen rays, affect a photo- 
graphic plate, make certain minerals phosphoresce, and make gases 
through which they pass conductors of electricity. 

Niepce de Saint-Victor had observed some years before this discoveiy 
that paper soaked in a solution of uranium nitrate affected a photo- 
graphic plate, but the observation excited but little interest,. The 
ground had not then been prepared, by the discoveiy of the Eontgen 
rays, for its reception, and it withered and was soon forgotten. 

Shortly after Becquerel's discovery of uranium, Schmidt found 
that thorium possessed similar properties. Then Monsieur and Madame 
Curie, after a most difficult and laborious investigation, discovered two 
new substances, radium and polonium, possessing this property to an 
enormously greater extent than either thorium or uranium, and this 
was followed by the discovery of actinium by Debierne. Now the 
researches of Eutherford and others have led to the discovery of so many 
new radio-active substances that any attempts at christening seems to 
have been abandoned, and they are denoted, like policemen, by the 
letters of the alphabet. 

Mr. Campbell has recently found that potassium, though far inferior 
in this respect to any of the substances I have named, emits an appre- 
ciable amount of radiation, the amount depending only on the quantity 
of potassium, and being the same whatever the source from which the 
potassium is obtained or whatever the elements with which it may be 
in combination. 

The radiation emitted by these substances is of three types, known 



president's address. 25 

as a, /3, and y rays. The a rays have been shov/n by Eutherford to 
be positively electrified atoms of helium, moving with speeds which 
reach up to about one-tenth of the velocity of light. The /3 rays are 
negatively electrified corpuscles, moving in some cases with very nearly 
the velocity of light itself, while the y rays are unelectrified, and are 
analogous to the Rontgen rays. 

The radio-activity of uranium was shown by Crookes to arise from 
something mixed with the uranium, and which differed sufficiently in 
properties from the uranium itself to enable it to be separated by 
chemical analysis. He took some uranium, and by chemical treat- 
ment separated it into two portions, one of which was radio-active and 
the other not. 

Next Becquei'el found that if these two portions were kept for 
several months, the part which was not radio-active to begin with 
gained radio-activity, while the part which was radio-active to begin 
with had lost its radio-activity. These effects and many others receive 
a complete explanation by the theoiy of radio-active change which we 
owe to Rutherford and Soddy. 

According to this theory, the radio-active elements are not permanent, 
but are gi'adually breaking up into elements of lower atomic weight; 
uranium, for example, is slowly breaking up, one of the products being 
radium, while radium breaks up into a radio-active gas called radium 
emanation, the emanation into another radio-active substance, and so on, 
and that the radiations are a kind of swan's song emitted by the atoms 
when they pass from one form to another; that, for example, it is when 
a radium atom breaks up and an atom of the emanation appears that the 
rays which constitute the radio-activity are produced. 

Thus, on this view the atoms of the I'adio-active elements are not 
immortal : they perish after a life whose average value ranges from 
thousands of millions of years in the case of uranium to a second or so in 
the case of the gaseous emanation from actinium. 

When the atoms pass from one state to another they give out large 
stores of energy, thus their descendants do not inherit the whole of their 
wealth of stored-up energy, the estate becomes less and less wealthy with 
each generation; we find, in fact, that the politician when he imposes 
death duties is but imitating a process which has been going on for ages 
in the case of these radio-active substances. 

Many points of interest arise when we consider the rate at which the 
atoms of radio-active substance disappear. Rutherford has shown that 
whatever be the age of these atoms, the percentage of atoms which 
disappear in one second is always the same ; another way of putting it 
is that the expectation of life of an atom is independent of its age — 
that an atom of radium a thousand years old is just as likely to live 
for another thousand years as one just sprung into existence. 

Now this would be the case if the death of the atom were due to 



26 president's address. 

something from outside which struck old and young indiscriminately ; 
in a battle, for example, the chance of being shot is the same for old and 
young ; so that we are inclined at first to look to something coming from 
outside as the cause why an atom of radium, for example, suddenly 
changes into an atom of the emanation. But here we are met with the 
difficulty that no changes in the external conditions that we have as yet 
been able to produce have had any effect on the life of the atom ; as far 
as we know at present the life of a radium atom is the same at the tem- 
perature of a furnace as at that of liquid air — ^it is not altered by sur- 
rounding the radium by thick screens of lead or other dense materials 
to ward off radiation from outside, and, what to my mind is especially 
significant, it is the same when the radium is in the most concentrated 
form, when its atoms are exposed to the vigorous bombardment from 
the rays given off by the neighbouring atoms, as when it is in the most 
dilute solution, when the rays are absorbed by the water which separates 
one atom from another. This last result seems to me to make it some- 
what improbable that we shall be able to split up the atoms of the non- 
radio-active elements by exposing them to the radiation from radium ; 
if this radiation is unable to affect the unstable radio-active atoms, it is 
somewhat unlikely that it will be able to affect the much more stable non- 
radio-active elements. 

The evidence we have at present is against a disturbance coming 
from outside breaking up of the radio-active atoms, and we must 
therefore look to some process of decay in the atom itself; but if 
this is the case, how are we to reconcile it with the fact that the expecta- 
tion of life of an atom does not diminish as the atom gets older ? "We 
can do this if we suppose that the atoms when they are first produced 
have not all the same strength of constitution, that some are more 
robust than others, perhaps because they contain more intrinsic energy 
to begin with, and will therefore have a longer life. Now if when 
the atoms are first produced there are some which will live for one year, 
some for ten, some for a thousand, and so on; and if lives of all 
durations, from nothing to infinity, are present in such proportion that 
the number of atoms which will live longer than a certain number of 
years decrease in a constant proportion for each additional year of life, 
we can easily prove that the expectation of life of an atom will be the 
same whatever its age may be. On this view the different atoms 
of a radio-active substance are not, in all respects, identical. 

The energy developed by radio-active substances is exceedingly large, 
one gramme of radium developing nearly as much energy as would be 
produced by burning a ton of coal. This energy is mainly in the a 
particles, the positively charged hehum atoms which are emitted when tbe 
change in the atom takes place ; if this energy were produced by electrical 
forces it would indicate that the helium atom had moved through a poten- 
tial difference of about two million volts on its way out of the atom of 



president's address, 27 

radium. The source of this energy is a problem of the deepest interest ; 
if it arises from the repulsion of similarly electrified systems exerting 
forces varying inversely as the square of the distance, then to get the 
requisite amount of energy the systems, if their charges were com- 
parable with the charge on the a particle, could not when they start be 
further apart than the radius of a corpuscle, 10~'^ cm. If we suppose 
that the particles do not acquire this energy at the explosion, but that 
before they are shot out of the radium atom they move in circles 
inside this atom with the speed with which they emerge, the forces 
required to prevent particles moving with this velocity from flying off 
at a tangent are so great that finite charges of electricity could only 
produce them at distances comparable with the radius of a corpuscle. 

One method by which the requisite amount of energy could be obtained 
is suggested by the view to wliich I have already alluded — that in the atom 
we have electrified systems of very different types, one small, the other 
large; the radius of one type is comparable with 10~"cm., that of the 
other is about 100,000 times greater. The electrostatic potential energy in 
the smaller bodies is enormously greater than that in the larger ones ; if 
one of these small bodies were to explode and expand to the size of the 
larger ones, we should have a liberation of energy large enough to endow 
an a particle with the energy it possesses. Is it possible that the 
positive units of electricity were, to begin with, quite as small as the 
negative, but while in the course of ages most of these have passed from 
the smaller stage to the larger, there are some small ones still lingering 
in radio-active substances, and it is the explosion of these which liberates 
the energy set free during radio-active transformation ? 

The properties of radium have consequences of enoiTnous import- 
ance to the geologist as well as to the physicist or chemist. In fact, the 
discovery of these properties has entirely altered the aspect of one of the 
most interesting geological problems, that of the age of the earth. Before 
the discovery of radium it was supposed that the supplies of heat 
furnished by chemical changes going on in the earth were quite insig- 
nificant, and that there was nothing to replace the heat which flows from 
the hot interior of the earth to the colder crust. Now when the earth 
first solidified it only possessed a certain amount of capital in the form 
of heat, and if it is continually spending this capital and not gaining 
any fresh heat it is evident that the process cannot have been going 
on for more than a certain number of years, otherwise the earth would 
be colder than it is. Lord Kelvin in this way estimated the age of 
the earth to be less than 100 million years. Though the quantity of 
radium in the earth is an exceedingly small fraction of the mass of 
the earth, only amounting according to the detenuinations of Professors 
Strutt and Joly to about five grammes in a cube whose side is 100 miles, 
yet tlie amount of heat given out by this small quantity of radium is so 
great that it is more than enough to replace the heat which flows from the 



28 president's address. 

inside to the outside of the earth. This, as Rutherford has pointed out, 
entirely vitiates the previous method of determining the age of the earth. 
The fact is that the radium gives out so much heat that we do not quite 
know what to do with it, for if there was as much radium throughout tlie 
interior of the earth as there is in its crust, the temperature of the eartli 
would increase much more rapidly than it does as we descend below the 
earth's surface. Professor Strutt has shown that if radium behaves 
in the interior of the earth as it does at the surface, rocks similar to those 
in the earth's crust cannot extend to a depth of more than forty-five 
miles below the surface. 

It is remarkable that Professor Milne from the study of earthquake 
phenomena had previously come to the conclusion that rocks similar 
to those at the earth's surface only descend a short distance below 
the surface; he estimates this distance at about thirty miles, and con- 
cludes that at a deptli gi'eater than this the earth is fairly homogeneous. 

Though the discovery of radio-activity has taken away one method 
of calculating the age of the earth, it has supplied another. 

The gas helium is given out by radio-active bodies, and since, 
except in beryls, it is not found in minerals which do not con- 
tain radio-active elements, it is probable that all the helium in these 
minerals has come from these elements. In the case of a mineral con- 
taining uranium, the pai'ent of radium in radio-active equilibrium, with 
radium and its products, helium will be produced at a definite rate. 
Helium, however, unlike the radio-active elements, is peniianent and 
accumulates in the mineral ; hence if we measure the amount of helium in 
a sample of rock and the amount produced by the sample in one year we 
can find the length of time the helium has been accumulating, and hence 
the age of the rock. This method, which is due to Professor Strutt, may 
lead to determinations not merely of the average age of the crust of the 
earth but of the ages of particular rocks and the date at which the various 
strata were deposited ; he has, for example, shown in this way that a speci- 
men of the mineral thorianite must be more than 240 million years old. 

The physiological and medical properties of the rays emitted by 
radium is a field of research in which enough has already been done to 
justify the hope that it may lead to considerable alleviation of human 
suffering. It seems quite definitely established that for some diseases, 
notably rodent ulcer, treatment with these rays has produced remarkable 
cures ; it is imperative, lest we should be passing over a means of saving 
life and health, that the subject should be investigated in a much more 
systematic and extensive manner than there has yet been either time 
or material for. Radium is, however, so costly that few hospitals could 
afford to undertake pioneering work of this kind ; fortunately, however, 
through the generosity of Sir Ernest Cassel and Lord Iveagh a Radium 
Institute, under the patronage of his Majesty the King, has been founded 
in London for the study of the medical properties of radium, and for the 



president's address. 29 

treatment of patients suffering from diseases for which radium is bene- 
ficial. 

The new discoveries made in physics in the last few years, and the 
ideas and potentialities suggested by them, have had an effect upon the 
workers in that subject akin to that produced in literature by the Renais- 
sance. Enthusiasm has been quickened, and there is a hopeful, youth- 
ful, perhaps exuberant, spirit abroad which leads men to make with con- 
fidence experiments which would have been thought fantastic twenty 
years ago. It has quite dispelled the pessimistic feeling, not uncommon 
at that time, that all the interesting things had been discovered, and all 
that was left was to alter a decimal or two in some physical constant. 
There never was any justification for this feeling, there never were any 
signs of an approach to finality in science. The sum of knowledge is 
at present, at any rate, a diverging not a converging series. As we 
conquer peak after peak we see in front of us regions full of interest and 
beauty, but we do not see our goal, we do not see the horizon ; in the 
distance tower still higher peaks, which will yield to those who ascend 
them still wider prospects, and deepen the feeling, whose truth is 
emphasised by every advance in science, that ' Great are the Works ot 
the Lord.' 



EEPORTS 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



EBPOKTS 

ON THE 

STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The Further TabulaMon of Bessel Functions. — Report of the Committee, 

' consisting of Professor M. J. M. HiLL (Chairman), Dr. L. N. Q-. 

FiLON (Secretary), Professor Alfred Lodge, and Dr. J. W. 

NiCHOLSOX. 

The Committee have made further progress with the calculations. Using 
the notation of previous Reports, values of Q„('^) have been calculated for 
integral values of n, from 71= 1 to ?i=G. These are shown in Table IV. 
below, together with the values for n=0, which are reprinted from 
Table III. of the Eeport of the Committee for 1907. 

From these the values of a (= sin~'(Q/R)) have been computed from 
71=0 to 74:=6. To these are added the values for n=^, l^, . . , 6h, for 
which the semi-convergent expansions for the Bessel function terminate, 
which renders the computation easier. 

Instead of a itself, however, log{8.x'a/'(4H2- l)j has been tabulated in 
Table V. below. The reason is that this quantity is fairly adapted for 
interpolation both for intermediate values of x and for intermediate 
values of 7t, as it varies comparatively slowly, especially for large values 
of ,<•. For values of x greater than 1,000 (which is the largest argument 
in the table) log{8a;a/(47t''^— 1)} is very sensibly zero : in no such case does 
it differ from zero by more than about 1 in the sixth place of decimals. 

From log{8a;a/(47i2- 1)], log a and hence a are readily calculated. 
J „(.<;) is then found from the formula 

log J„(a;)=log I R/\/- \ -ii log .«; + log cos (x + a-^-n^), 

the values of log | Ra/- 1 being taken from Table II. of the 1907 

Report. 

From the tables of the present Report and those of the 1907 Report 
the values of J„(a;) for values of 7i, ranging from n=0 to ?i=6i at intervals' 

1909. ' D 



34 



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36 REPOBTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

jf \, and for values of x greater than 10, can be computed to six places 
without sensible error. 

It is to be noted that the Neumann function Y„(a;) can be calculated 
from the same data, for 

log [Y„(^)-(log, 2-y) J„(a;)} 

=log I R\/^ I -h log a: + log sin (x + a-'^-n'^), 

y being Euler's constant, [log^ 2— y=0'1159315 . . .] 

The Committee are at present engaged on the tabulation of K„(a;), and 
hope to make some additions to the British Association Tables of 
I„(x) which are to be found in the Reports for 1889, 1893, and 189G. 
They are also considering the advisability of collecting all existing tables 
of Bessel functions and publishing them as a single set of tables in a form 
easily accessible to all students. 

The Committee desire reappointment without a grant. 



Magnetic Ohscrvations at Falmouth Oh.iervatory. — Report of the 
Committee, consistinrj of Sir W. H. Preece {Chairman), Dr. 
K. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, Dr. 
Chree, Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Sir Arthur Rucker, 
and Professor Schuster. 

The results of the magnetic observations at Falnnouth Observatory 
for 1908 have been published in the Annual Report of the National 
Physical Laboratory as well as in that of the Royal Cornwall Poly- 
technic Society. The mean values of the magnetic elements for 1908 
were : — 

Declination 17° 54'-7 W. 

Inclination 66° 31'-4 N. 

Horizontal Force .... 018798 C.G.S. 

Vertical Force 043279 C.G.S. 

The accuracy of the work seems to be satisfactorily maintained. 

Throughout the year Mr. Kitto has been regularly contributing par- 
ticulars of the daily magnetic condition as regards disturbance to the 
international tables which are at present prepared at de Bilt, Holland. 

Dr. Chree has recently been engaged on a comparison of the mag- 
netic disturbances recorded at the winter quarters of the National Ant- 
arctic Expedition of 1902-4 with those recorded simultaneously else- 
where, and has found the Falmouth curves very useful for this purpose. 
It is found that for purposes of intercomparison, disturbances of com- 
paratively small size when of short duration are in many respects 
simpler to deal with than the larger disturbances during which rapid 
oscillatory movements take place. But in handling the smaller dis- 
turbances, and in settling the exact times of their occurrence, it is of 
special importance to have curves whose edges are sharp and which 
are not blurred and indistinct through the disturbing effect of electric 
trams. Thus the undisturbed position of Falmouth proved of very 
material assistance. 

The comparison of magnetic disturbances is a subject to which in- 
creased attention is being given, as evidenced, for instance, by Prof. 
Birkeland's recent important work on the subject. 



MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS AT FALMOUTH OBSERVATORY. 37 

The Committee learn that the progress of the magnetic work at 
Eskdalemuir has been further delayed owing to troubles with the under- 
ground chamber and the magnetographs, so that no opportunity has 
yet arisen for comparing the regular diurnal inequalities of the magnetic 
elements obtained at that station with those obtained in the South of 
England. For such a comparison x-ecords from Falmouth are likely 
to be of especial importance. Believing that the continued mainten- 
ance of magnetic work at Falmouth in full efficiency is highly desirable, 
the Committee ask for reappointment with a grant of 501. 



Geodetic Arc in Africa. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir George Darwin {Chairman), Sir David Gill {Secretary), 
Colonel C. F. Close, ayid Sir George Goldie, appointed to 
carry out a further portion of the Geodetic Arc of Meridian 
North of Lake Tanganyika. 

1. The measurement was commenced in March 1908 and completed in 

February 1909. The arc extends from 1° 10' N. to 1° 10' S., i.e., the 

length is 2^ degrees, or about 165 miles. 

2. One base, length eleven miles, was measui'ed in the northern por- 
tion, in the Semliki Valley. The chain consists of one complex figure, 
three quadrilaterals, and one tetragon. 

3. All the stations have been marked in a permanent manner, and the 
Government of Uganda has been notified of their positions. 

4. The probable error of an observed angle is about 0.4". 

5. Three azimuths and fourteen latitudes were observed. 

6. Magnetic observations for declination and dip were made at twenty 
stations. 

7. The work was organised by Major Bright, C.M.G., and carried 
out by a British party consisting of Captain Jack, E.E., Mr. McCaw, 
Mr. 0. Chevallier, Lance-Corporal Jones, E.E., Lance-Corporal Page, 
R.E., and for a portion of the time Captain S. Iredell, 4tli Battalion 
King's African Rifles, who also commanded the escort. 

The Belgian party consisted of Captain Wangermee and Dr. Dehalu. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere by means of Kites in co- 
operation ivith a Committee of the Royal Meteorological 
Society. — Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. W. N. Shaw {Chairman), Mr. W. H. Dines {Secretary), 
Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. E. T. Glaze- 
brook, Dr. H. R. Mill, Professor J. E. Petavel, Professor 
A. Schuster, and Dr. W. Watson. {Drawn up hy the 
Secretary). 

A MEETING was held in the rooms of the Eoyal Meteorological Society 
in November, at which it was decided that observations with pilot 
balloons should be made in Barbados, and Mr. Cave, who stated that 
he was going to Barbados, was asked to make the necessary arrange- 
mentp, which he agreed to do. 

Mr. Cave was prevented from going as he had intended, and in con- 
sequence the observations were not inaugurated, but the necessary 



38 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

instruments have been obtained, and it is hoped that the observations will 
be made at some future date. 

The grant of 101. made at Dublin has been allotted to Professor 
Petavel to aid in meeting the expenses of a special inquiry as to the 
daily variation of temperature at great heights. Professor Petavel 
arranged for sending up twenty-five registering balloons at Man- 
chester on June 2-3, 1909, at hourly intervals; and a very fair number 
of the balloons, well distributed over the twenty-four hours, have been 
found. It is hoped that when the traces have been worked up some 
interesting information will be available. 



Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical 
Standards for Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Lord Eaylbigh (Chairman), Dr. K. T. 
Glazbbrook (Secretary), Professors J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Professors A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming, 
and Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. 
Bottomley, Eev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Eennie, Principal 
E. H. Griffiths, Sir Arthur Rucker, Professor H. L. 
Callendar, and Messrs. G. JNTatthby, A. P. Trotter, 
T. Mather, and F. E. Smith. 

PAGE 

Appendix. — Report of the Tnter national Conference on Electrical Units and 

Standards, London, 1908 41 

The Committee desire in the first place to record their sense of the 
great loss electrical science has sustained since then- last meeting by 
the death of Professor Ayrton, F.E.S. The revival of the Electrical 
Standards Committee was proposed by him at the Swansea Meeting in 
3880. He had been a member since that date, and much of the work 
of the Committee owes its initiation to his inspiration. He contributed 
greatly to the success of the Ayrton- Jones ampere balance, and was 
deeply interested in the preparations for the Lorenz apparatus now 
being erected at the National Physical Laboratory as the gift of the 
Drapers' Company in memory of Professor Viriamu Jones. The 
Committee will miss in no small degree his keen criticism and his 
active help. 

The International Conference on Electrical Units and Standards, 
referred to in previous Reports, met, on the invitation of H.M. Govern- 
ment, in the rooms of the Eoyal Society, from October 12 to October 22, 
1908. It was attended by forty-six delegates, representing twenty-two 
countries and four British dependencies. The Eeport of the Confer- 
ence is printed as an Appendix to this Eeport. In accordance with one 
of the resolutions passed by the Conference, Lord Eayleigh, as Chairman, 
appointed a committee of fifteen to advise as to the organisation of a 
permanent Commission, to formulate a plan for and to direct such work 
as may be necessary in connection with the maintenance of standards, 
fixing of values and intercomparisons of standards, and to complete the 
work of the Conference. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 39 



The work of this Committee is now in progress, and it is proposed 
that representatives of the National Physical Laboratory and of the 
Eeichsanstalt should visit Washington this autumn. 

In their last Report the Committee suggested the republication of 
the Eeports of the original Committee from 1862 to 1871, and of the 
present Committee from 1881, as a memorial to the connection of Lord 
Kelvin with their work. They are glad to learn that the recommenda- 
tion from the Committee of Section A in favour of this course has been 
accepted by the Council, and that a proposal to undertake the projected 
republication will be made to the General Committee at Winnipeg. 

The Committee are greatly indebted to Mr. R. K. Gray for a 
generous donation of lOOZ. towards the expenses of this work. 

In the Appendix to the Report of the Committee for 1905 it is stated 
that slight variations in the electromotive force of the Weston normal 
cell can be produced by 12| per cent, cadmium amalgam. A pre- 
liminary investigation showed that the variations were generally very 
small and not easily reproduced. In general the electromotive force 
was normal at 0° 0. A more exhaustive investigation has now been 
completed at the National Physical Laboratory, and the results show 
that in general the 12} per cent, amalgam may be used from 0° C. to 
above 60° without any appreciable error, but the e.m.f. of a standard 
cell containing such an amalgam may be very normal at all tempera- 
tures below 12° C. The limits of temperature for the general use of a 
12J per cent, amalgam are very nearly 12° C. to 62° C. A 10 per cent, 
amalgam may be used between 0° C. and 51° C. 

Progress with the Lorenz apparatus has been slow but satisfactory. 
The difficulties attending the driving have been overcome to a consider- 
able extent : an electric motor will be installed. The iron of the motor 
has been demonstrated to have no appreciable effect on the mutual 
induction of the Lorenz system 'when a small addition to the electrical 
system is introduced. 

A comparison between the standards of resistance used at the 
National Physical Laboratory, the National Bureau of Standards, and 
the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt has been made by the use 
of some hermetically sealed standards belonging to the Bureau of 
Standards. The following tables give the results obtained: — 

Table I. — Giving the Results of Comparisons made February -March 
1908. Values at 20° C. 





Resistance as determined at 


Difference 
Parts in 100,000 


No. of Coil 














N.B.S. 


N.P.L. 


P.T.R. 


N.P.L.- 


N.P.L.- 




(Jan.) 


(Feb.) 


(Mar.) 


N.B.S. 


P.T.R. 


1. (B.S.I 102A) 


. i 0-99980, 


0-99982, 


0-9998 1„ 


2-8 


1-3 


2. (B.S. 1102b) 


. 1 0-99975„ 


0-99977„ 


0-99975,, 


2-6 


1-7 


3. (B.S. 1102c) 


. ! i-ooooo„ 


1-00002, 


1-00001, 


2-2 


1-2 


12. (B.S. 2415D) 


. i 0-99998, 


0-99999, 


0-999975 


1-5 


2-2 


1. (B.S. 3946E) 


99-990, 


99991, 


99-991, 


1-2 


-0-1 


2. (B.S. 3946F) 


. ; 999858 


99-987, 


99-987, 


1-3 


-0-1 


1. (B.S. 39461) 


. i 999 90^ 


999-92„ 


— 


1-8 




2. (B.S. 3946J) 


. 1000-01, 


lOOOOSs 


— 


16 


— 


Mean . 


1-9 


1-0 



40 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Table II. — Giving the Restilts of Comparisons made November 1908 to 
March 1909. Vahies at 20° 0. 







Resistance as determined at 


Difference 
Parts in 100,000 


No. of Coil 

1 


N.B.S. 
(Sep. 1908} 


N.P.L. 
(Nov. 1908) 


P.T.R. 
(Nov. 1908 
Jan. 1909) 


N.P.L. 

(Feb.-Mar. 

1909) 


N.P.L.- ' N.P.L.- 
N.B.S. ^ P.T.R. 


1. (.<.s. iin2A) 

2. (B.S. 1102B) 

3. (B.S. 1102c) 

4. (B.S. 1102D) 

11. (B.-. 531.5c) 

12. (B.S 5315D) 

1. (B.S. 3946E) 

2. (B.S. 3946F) 




0-99999. 
0-99999J 
l-00000„ 
0-9H999, 
0-99999, 
0-99998, 

99-991, 

99 987^ 


1-00002, 
1-00002^ 
1-00001, 
1-OOuOl, 
1-00001, 
1-00000, 

99-994^ 

99-990, 


0-99999, 
1-OOOOU, 
1-99998, 


l-OOOOlg 
1-00002, 
1-00001, 




2-6 
2-5 
1-6 
2-1 
2-9 
2-6 
2-9 
3-2 


1-6 1 

1-2 

1-8 








Mean . 2-5 


1-5 1 



The unit coils Nos. 1 and 2 were adjusted at "Washington on 
September 23, 1908, so as to give values more nearly equal to the 
nominal. The changes made were + 0"000196 ohm and + 0'00024 ohm 
respectively. 

Analysis of all the data relating to the comparisons indicates that the 
coil No. 11 (Table II.) changed by about 0-00001 ohm during trans- 
portation from Teddington to Charlottenburg. 

No. 12 is a comparatively new coil, having been sealed in January 
1908. 

At the Bureau of Standards (Washington) wire coils were employed 
as standards in all the comparisons. 

The values given by the N.P.L. in Table I. are in terms of tlic 
N.P.L. mercury standards of resistance, which were set up in Novem- 
ber to December 1907. The N.P.L. values in Table II. are in terms of 
the mercury standards of resistance which were erected in Febniary 
1909. 

With respect to the values given by the Eeichsanstalt, in Table I. , 
Dr. Lindeck states, ' The last complete series of measurements on 
the standards of the Eeichsanstalt was carried out at the end of January 
and the beginning of February. The values given in the Table (I.) are 
based upon this series.' 

In Table II. the P.T.E. values depend upon the values assigned 
to a wire standard of the Eeichsanstalt which had been kept for about a 
year in an atmosphere of constant humidity, and frequently compared 
with other standards of resistance. 

In conclusion the Committee recommend that they be reappointed 
for the purpose of continuing their researches on the standards and 
carrying out the republications of the Eeports if sanctioned by the 
General Committee, and that Lord Eayleigh be Chaii^man and Dr. E. T. 
Glazebrook Secretary. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR RLRCTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 41 



APPENDIX. 

International Conference on Electrical Units and Standards, 1908. 

Report. 

The Conference on Electrical Units and Standards, for which invi- 
tations were issued by the British Government, was opened by the 
President of the Board of Trade, the Eight Hon. Winston S. Churchill, 
M.P., on Monday, October 12, 1908, at Burlington House, London, W. 

Delegates were present from twenty -two countries, and also from 
the following British Dependencies — namely, Australia, Canada, India, 
and the Crown Colonies. 

It was decided by the Conference that a vote each should be allowed 
to Australia, Canada, and India, but a vote was not claimed or allowed 
for the Crown Colonies. 

The total number of Delegates to the Conference was forty-six, and 
their names are set out in Schedule A to this Report. 

The officers of the Conference were : — 

President. 

The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, O.M., President of tlie Royal 
Society. 

Vice-Presidents. 

Professor S. A. Arrhenius. M. Lippmann. 

Dr. N. Egoroff. Dr. S. W. Stratton. 

Dr. Viktor Edler von Lang. Dr. E. Warburg. 

Secretaries. 
Mr. M. J. Collins. Mr. C. W. R. Crawley. 

Mr. W. Duddell, F.R.S. Mr. F. E. Smith. 

The Conference elected a Technical Committee to draft specifica- 
tions and to consider any matter which might be referred to the Com- 
mittee and to report to the Conference. 

The Conference and its Technical Committee each held five sittings. 

As a result of its deliberation the Conference adopted (lie resolu- 
tions and specifications attached to this Report and set out in 
Schedule B, and requested the Delegates to lay them before their respec- 
tive Governments with a view to obtaining uniformity in the legislation 
with regard to Electrical Units and Standards. 

The Conference recommends the use of the Weston normal cell as a 
convenient means of measuring both electromotive force and current 
when set up under the conditions specified in Schedule 0. 
_ In cases in which it is not desired to set up the standards provided 
m the resolutions Schedule B, the Conference recommends the follow- 
ing as working methods for the realisation of the international ohm, 
the ampere, and the volt: — 



42 REPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

1. For the International Ohm. 

The use of copies, constructed of suitable material and of suit- 
able form verified from time to time, of the international 
ohm, its multiples and submultiples. 

2. For the International Ampere. 

(a) The measurement of current by the aid of a current balance 

standardised by comparison with a silver voltameter; or 

(b) The use of a Weston normal cell whose electromotive force 

has been determined in terms of the international ohm and 
international ampere, and of a resistance of known value in 
international ohms. 

3. For the International Volt. 

(a) A comparison with the difference of electrical potential 

between the ends of a coil of resistance of known value in 
international ohms, when carrying a current of known value 
in international amperes ; or 

(b) The use of a Weston normal cell whose electromotive force 
has been determined in terms of the international ohm and 
the international ampere. 

The duties of specifying more particularly the conditions under 
which these methods are to be applied has been assigned to the Perma- 
nent Commission, and, pending its appointment, to the Scientific Com- 
mittee to be nominated by the President (see Schedule D), who will 
issue a series of Notes as Appendix to this Report. 

The Conference has considered the methods that should be recom- 
mended to the Governments for securing uniform administration in 
relation to electrical units and standards, and expresses the opinion that 
the best method of securing uniformity for the future would be by the 
establishment of an international electrical laboratoiy with the duties 
of keeping and maintaining international electrical standards. This 
laboratory to be equipped entirely independently of any national labora- 
tory. 

The Conference further recommends that action be taken in accord- 
ance with the scheme set out in Schedule D. 

Signed at London on October 21, 1908, 

by the Delegates of the Countries above written. 

For the United States of America. — S. W. Stratton, Henry S. Car- 
hart, and Edward B. Eosa. 

For Aiistria. — Victor Von Lang and Ludwig Kusminsky. 

For Belgium. — P. Clement. 

For Brazil. — Leopold J. Weiss. 

For Chile. — Victor Eastman. 

For Colombia. — Jorge Eoa. 

For Denmark and Sweden. — Svante Arrhenius. 

For Ecuador. — C. Nevares. 

For France. — G. Lippmann, J. Eend Benolt, and T. De Nerville. 

For Germany. — E. Warburg, W. Jaeger, and St. Lindeck. 

For Great Britain.— Rajleigh, J. Gavey, E. T. Glazebrook, W. A. J. 
O'Meara, A. P. Trotter, and J. J. Thomson. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 43 

For Guatemala. — Fi-ancisco de Arce. 

For Htmgary. — Harsanyi Desire and Vater Joisef. 

For Italy. — Antonio R6iti. 

For Japan. — Osuke Asano and Sliigeru Kondo. 

For Mexico. — Alfonso Castelld. 

For Netherlands. — Dr. H. Haga. 

For Paraguay. — Max. F. Croskey. 

For Russia. — N. Egoroff and L. Swentorzetzky. 

For Spain. — Jose Ma. de Madariaga and A. Montenegro. 

For Switzerland.— Dr. H. F. Weber, P. Ohappuis, and Jean 
Landry. 

For Australia. — C. W. Darley and — Threlfall. 

For Canada. — Ormond Higman. 

For Crown Colonies. — P. Cardew. 

For India. — ^M. G. Simpson. 

In the presence o/— M. J. Collins, W. Duddell, C. W. S. Crawley, 
and F. E. Smith, Secretaries. 



SCHEDULE A. 

List of Countries and Delegates. 

Ainerica (United States). — Dr. S. W. Stratton, Director Bureau 
of Standards, Washington; Dr. Henry S. Carhart, Professor of 
Physics at the University of Michigan; and Dr. B. B. Rosa, Physicist, 
Bureau of Standards, Washington. 

Austria. — Dr. Viktor Edler von Lang, President of the Commission 
of Weights and Measures, Vienna; and Dr. Ludwig Kusminsky, In- 
spector of above Commission. 

Belgium. — Professor Eric Gerard, Director of the Montefiore 
Electro-Technical Institution and President of the Consultative Com- 
mission on Electricity; and Monsieur Clement, Secretary of the Con- 
sultative Commission on Electricity. 

Brazil. — Mr. L. Weiss, Chef de la Section Technique des Tele- 
graphes, Br^sil. 

Chile. — Don Victor Eastman, First Secretary to the Legation of 
Chile, London. 

Colombia. — Don Jorge Eoa. 

Denmark and Sweden. — Professor S. A. Arrhenius, Nobel Insti- 
tute, Stockholm. 

Ecuador. — Senor Don Celso Nevares, Consul-General. 

France. — Professor Lippmann, Member of the Institute and Pro- 
fessor at the Sorbonne; M. R. Benoit, Directeur du Bureau Interna- 
tional des Poids et Mesures ; and M. de Nerville, Ing^nieur en Chef des 
T6l6graphes. 

Germany. — Professor Warburg, President of the Imperial Physico- 
Technical Institute ; Professor Jaeger, Member of the Imperial Physico- 
Technical Institute; and Professor Lindeck, Member of the Imperial 
Physico-Technical Institute. 

Great Britain. — The Eight Hon. Lord Rayleigh, President of the 
Eoyal Society; Professor J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., Cambridge; Sir 



44 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

John Gavey, O.B. ; Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S., Director of the 
National Physical Laboratory; Major W. A. J. O'Meara, O.M.G., 
Engineer-in-Chief General Post Office; and Mr. A. P. Trotter, Elec- 
trical Adviser to the Board of Trade. 

Guatemala. — Dr. Francisco de Arce, Diplomatic Representative, 
London and Paris. 

Hungary. — Joseph Vdter, Director Technique des Postes and des 
Telegraphes, Budapest; and Dr. Desir6 Harsanyi, Director of the Hun- 
garian Royal Commission for Weights and Measures. 
Italy. — Professor Antonio Roiti, of Florence. 

Japan. — Dr. Osuke Asano, Doctor of Engineering, Official Expert 
of the Department of Communications, Tokyo; and Mr. Shigeru Kondo, 
Official Expert of the Department of Communications, Tokyo, 
Mexico. — Don Alfonso Oastello and Don Jose Maria Perez. 
Netherlands. — Dr. H. Haga, Professor at the University of 
Groningen. 

Paraguay. — M. Maximo Croskey. 

Russia. — Dr. N. Egoroff, D.Sc, Director of the General Chamber 
of Weights and Measures; and Col. L. Swentorzetzky, Ing^nieur Mili- 
taire. Prof, de I'Academie Militaire Nicolas des Ing^nieurs, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Spain. — Don Jos6 Maria Madariaga, Professor of Electricity and 
Physics at the School of Mines, Madrid; and Don. A. Montenegro, 
Ingenieur Professor du Laboratoire de I'Ecole de Mines, Madrid. 

Switzerland. — Dr. Fr. Weber, Professor at the Swiss Polytechnic 
School at Zurich; Dr. Pierre Chappuis, Membre Honoraire du Bureau 
International des Poids et Mesures; and Dr. J. Landry, Professor of 
Industrial Electricity in the University, Lausanne. 

British Colonies. — Australia: Mr. Cecil W. Darley, I.S.O., late 
Inspecting and Consulting Engineer New South Wales Government ; 
and Professor Threlfall, M.A., F.R.S. Canada : Mr. Ormond Higman, 
Chief Electrical Engineer Electric Standards Laboratory, Ottawa. 
Crown Colonies : Major P. Cardew, Electrical Adviser. India : Mr. 
M. G. Simpson, Electrician of the Indian Telegraph Department. 

Secretaries: Mr. M. J. Collins, Mr. W. Duddell, F.R.S. , Mr. 
C. W. S. Crawley, and Mr. F. E. Smith. 



SCHEDULE B. 
Resolutions. 

I. The Conference agrees that, as heretofore, the magnitudes of the 
fundamental electric units shall be determined on the electro-magnetic 
system of measurement with reference to the centimetre as the unit 
of length, the gramme as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit 
of time. 

These fundamental units are (1) the ohm, the unit of electric resist- 
ance which has the value of 1,000,000,000 in terms of the centimetre 
and second; (2) the ampere, the unit of electric cui'rent which has the 
value of one-tenth (O'l) in terms of the centimetre, gramme, and the 
second; (3) the volt, the unit of electromotive force which has the 
value 100,000,000 in terms of the centimetre, the gramme, and the 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 45 

second; (4) the watt, the unit of power which has the value 10,000,000 
in terms of the centimetre, the gramme, and the second. 

II. As a system of units representing the above, and sufficiently 
near to them to be adopted for the purpose of electrical measurements 
and as a basis for legislation, the Conference recommends the adoption 
of the international ohm, the international ampere, and the inter- 
national volt defined according to the following definitions: — 

in. The ohm is the first primary unit. 

IV. The international ohm is defined as the resistance of a specified 
column of mercury. 

V. The international ohm is the resistance offered to an unvaiying 
electric current by a column of mercury at the temperature of melting 
ice, 14'4521 grammes in mass, of a constant cross-sectional area and 
of a length of 106'300 centimetres. 

To determine the resistance of a column of mercury in terms of 
the international ohm, the procedure to be followed shall be that set 
out in Specification I. attached to these Resolutions. 

VI. The ampere is the second primary unit. 

VII. The international ampere is the unvarying electric current 
which, when passed through a solution of nitrate of silver in water, in 
accordance with Specification II. attached to these Resolutions, deposits 
silver at the rate of O'OOlllSOO of a gramme per second. 

VIII. The international volt is the electrical pressure which, when 
steadily applied to a conductor whose resistance is one international 
ohm, will produce a current of one international ampere. 

IX. The international watt is the energy expended per second by 
an unvarying electric current of one international ampere under an 
electric pressure of one international volt. 

Specification I. 
Specification relating to Mercury Standards of Eesislance. 

The glass tubes used for mercury standards of resistance must be 
made of a glass such that the dimensions may remain as constant as 
possible. The tubes must be well annealed and straight. The bore 
must be as nearly as possible uniform and circular, and the area of 
cross-section of the bore must be approximately one square millimetre. 
The mercury must have a resistance of approximately one ohm. 

Each of the tubes must be accurately calibrated. The correction 
to be applied to allow for the area of the cross-section of the bore not 
being exactly the same at all parts of the tube must not exceed 5 parts 
in 10,000. 

The mercury filling the tube must be considered as bounded by 
plane surfaces placed in contact with the ends of the tube. 

The length of the axis of the tube, the mass of mercury the tube 
contains, and the electrical resistance of the mercury are to be deter- 
mined at a temperature as near to 0° C. as possible. The measure- 
ments are to be corrected to 0° C. 

For the purpose of the electrical measurements, end vessels carry- 
ing connections for the current and potential terminals are to be fitted 
on to the tube. These end vessels are to be spherical in shape (of a 
diameter of approximately fov!- centimetres) and should have cylindrical 



46 REPOBTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

pieces attached to make connections with the tubes. The outside edge 
of each end of the tube is to be coincident with the inner surface of the 
corresponding spherical end vessel. The leads which make contact 
with the mercury are to be of thin platinum wire fused into glass. 
The point of entry of the current lead and the end of the tube are to 
be at opposite ends of a diameter of the bulb ; the potential lead is to be 
midway between these two points. All the leads must be so thin that 
no error in the resistance is introduced through conduction of heat to 
the mercury. The filling of the tube with mercury for the purpose of 
the resistance measurements must be carried out under the same con- 
ditions as the filling for the determination of the mass. 

The resistance which has to be added to the resistance of the tube 
to allow for the effect of the end vessels is to be calculated by the 
formula — 






where r, and rj are the radii in millimetres of the end sections of the 
bore of the tube. 

The mean of the calculated resistances of at least five tubes shall 
be taken to determine the value of the unit of resistance. 

For the purpose of the comparison of resistances with a mercury 
tube the measurements shall be made with at least three separate fillings 
of the tube. 

Specification II. 
Specification relating to the Deposition of Silver. 

The electrolyte shall consist of a solution of from 15 to 20 parts by 
weight of silver nitrate in 100 parts of distilled water. The solution 
must only be used once, and only for so long that not more than 30 per 
cent, of the silver in the solution is deposited. 

The anode shall be of silver, and the kathode of platinum. The 
current density at the anode shall not exceed 1/5 ampere per square 
centimetre and at the kathode 1/50 ampere per square centimetre. 

Not less than 100 cubic centimetres of electrolyte shall be used in 
a voltameter. 

Care must be taken that no particles which may become mechani- 
cally detached from the anode shall reach the kathode. 

Before weighing, any traces of solution adhering to the kathode 
must be removed, and the kathode dried. 



SCHEDULE C. 
Weston Normal Cell. 

The "Weston normal cell may be conveniently employed as a standard 
of electric pressure for the measurement both of e.m.f. and of current, 
and, when set up in accordance with the following specification, may 
be taken, provisionally,* as having, at a temperature of 20° C., an 
E.M.F. of 1-0184 volt. 

' See duties of the Scientific Committee, Schedule D. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 47 

The Weston normal cell is a voltaic cell which has a saturated 
aqueous solution of cadmium sulphate (CdSOi.S/S H2O) as its electro- 
lyte. 

The electrolyte must be neutral to congo red. 

The positive electrode of the cell is mercury. 

The negative electrode of the cell is cadmium amalgam consisting 
of 12'5 parts by weight of cadmium in 100 parts of amalgam. 

The depolariser, which is placed in contact with the positive elec- 
trode, is a paste made by mixing mercurous sulphate with powdered 
crystals of cadmium sulphate and a saturated aqueous solution of 
cadmium sulphate. 

The different methods of preparing the mercurous sulphate paste 
are described in the notes. ^ One of the methods there specified must 
be carried out. 

For setting up the cell, the H form is the most suitable. The leads 
passing through the glass to the electrodes must be of platinum wire, 
which must not be allowed to come into contact with the electrolyte. 
The amalgam is placed in one limb, the mercury in the other. 

The depolariser is placed above the mercury and a layer of cadmium 
sulphate crystals is introduced into each limb. The entire cell is filled 
with a saturated solution of cadmium sulphate and then hermetically 
sealed. 

The following formula is recommended for the e.m.f. of the cell 
in terms of the temperature between the limits 0° C. and 40° C. : — 

E,=E2o-0-0000406(<-20°)-0-00000095(«-20°)2 + 0-00000001(<-20°)'. 



SCHEDULE D. 

1. The Conference recommends that the various Governments 
interested establish a pei-manent International Commission for Elec- 
trical Standards. 

2. Pending the appointment of the Permanent International Commis- 
sion, the Conference recommends ^ that the President, Lord Eayleigh, 
nominate for appointment by the Conference a Scientific Committee 
of fifteen to advise as to the organisation of the Permanent Commis- 
sion, to formulate a plan for and to direct such work as may be neces- 
sary in connection with the maintenance of standards, fixing of 
values *, inter-comparison of standards, and to complete the work 

Notes on methods pursued at various standardising laboratories will be issued 
by the Scientific Committee or the Permanent Commission, as an Appendix to this 
Report. 

' In accordance with the above, Lord Rayleigh has nominated the following 
Committee, which has been approved by the Conference, viz. : — 

Dr. Osuke Asano. Dr. H. Haga. Dr. E. B. Rosa. 

M. R. Benoit. D. L. Kusminsky. Dr. S. W. Stratton. 

Dr. N. Egoroff. Prof. St. Lindeck. Mr. A. P. Trotter. 

Prof. Eric Gerard. Prof. G. Lippmann. Prof. E. Warburg. 

Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. Prof. A. Roiti. Prof. Fr. Weber. 

This will include the reconsideration from time to time of the e.m.f. of the 
Weston normal cell. 



48 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

of the Conference.^ Vacancies on the Committee to be filled by co- 
optation. 

3. That laboratories equipped with facilities for precise electrical 
measurements and investigations should be asked to co-operate with 
this Committee and to carry out, if possible, such work as it may desire. 

4. The Committee should take the proper steps foiihwith for 
establishing the Permanent Commission, and are empowered to arrange 
for the meeting of the next Conference on Electrical Units and Stan- 
dards, and the time and place of such meeting should this action appear 
to them to be desirable. 

5. The Committee or the Permanent International Commission shall 
consider the question of enlarging the functions of the International 
Commission on Weights and Measures, with a view to determining if 
it is possible or desirable to combine futui'e Conferences on Electrical 
Units and Standards with the International Commission on Weights 
and Measures, in place of holding in the future Conferences on Elec- 
trical Units and Standards. At the same time it is the opinion of the 
Conference that the Permanent Commission should be retained as a 
distinct body, which should meet at different places in succession. 



SeismoJogical Investigations. — Fourteenth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. H. Turner {Chairman), 
Dr. J. Milne {Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Sir George 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Dr. E. T. 
Glazbbrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, Professor J. W. Judd, 
Professor C. G. Knott, Professor E. Meldola, Mr. E. D. 
Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor 
J. H. PoYNTiNG, Mr. Clement Eeid, and Mr. Nelson 
EiCHARDSON. {Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

[Plate I.] 

COXTENTS. TAGK. 

I. General Notcj 48 

II. Sites of Stotloiig: Eilnlalemuir, Agincourt, Porto Itiro, Stoiii/hurst 49 

III. The Large Earthquakes of 1908 51 

IV. The liecords of Small Earthquakes from Janwira . . . . .51 
V. Quick Vibrators as applied to Scismomttry 55 

VI. On a possible Synchronism between Seismic A'firity in Different 

Districts ........... 56 

VII. The Time of Maximum Motion as indicated by three diff>'.rcntly 

installed Horizontal Pendulums 58 

VIII. The Number of Earthquake Records obtained at British Stations . 59 

IX. Luminous Effects obtained from liock Surfaces 60 

X. A Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes 61 

XI. Developing, Fixing, and Copying a Film ...... 61 

XII. Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes, 1638-1891. By Professor E. H. 

Parkkr 62 

I. General Notes. 

Last year, early in November, my assistant, Mr. H. C. O'Neill, left 
me for an appointment in London. The last work on which he was 

' With this object the Committee are authorised to issue as an Appendix to 
the Report of the Conference, Notes detailing the methods which have been adopted 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 49 

engaged when in the Isle of "Wight was a catalogue of the Shide collec- 
tion of papers bearing upon seismology written in foreign languages. 
Although he continued this compilation wliile in London, I regret to 
say that the completion of the same has for the time being been inter- 
fered with by ordinary routine work. As illustrative of this latter I may 
take the map which accompanies each report and shows the distribution 
of earthquake centres for the previous twelve months. Inasmuch as the 
production of this sheet involves the consideration and usually a cal- 
culation based upon each of the entries of all co-operating stations, it 
will be understood that much time is spent in the production of what 
is shown as a single plate. Correspondence with stations and those 
interested in our work occasionally occupies a morning. Each day films 
and other record-receiving surfaces have to be renewed. Films have to 
be developed, measured, and records reduced to a form suitable for publi- 
cation. The registers from all co-operating stations have to be recopied 
and classified. Accurate time has to be kept, and attention has to be 
given to the ordinary meteorological instruments found in most observa- 
tories. Between the hours of 8 a.m. and 10 p.m. we are usually able to 
give information bearing upon our work. My assistants work in the 
morning and again in the evening, and, when occasion requires, also in the 
afternoon. The amount of original work done in the laboratory is out- 
lined in the Eeporto. 

Registers. — During the past year the registers issued are contained 
m Circulars Nos. 18 and 19. These refer to Shide, Kew, Bidston, Edin- 
burgh, Paisley, Haslemere, San Fernando (Spain), Valetta (Malta), 
Cairo, Beirtlt^ Ponta Delgada, Cape of Good Hope, Calcutta, Bombay, 
Kodikanal, Irkutsk, Batavia, Trinidad, Lima, Baltimore, Toronto, 
Victoria, B.C., Honolulu, Perth, Sydney, Christchurch, and Mauritius. 

High-speed (24 cm. per hour) record-receiving apparatus has been 
sent to Edinburgh and to Lima. Similar apparatus will be sent to San 
Fernando (Spain). It is expected that the NaturaHsts' Society of Cardiff 
will shortly put up a seismograph. 

For a continuation of financial support I again thank the 
Royal Society, the British Association, the administrators of the Gray 
Fund, and Mr. Richard Cooke. I regret to say the support I received 
from the ' Daily Mail ' has ceased. The chief expenditure relates to 
salaries and material. With the latter there is included the cost of 
photographic films required at Bidston. 

The Committee ask for reappointment and a grant of 60^ 

II. Sites of Stations. 

Eslcdalemuir Magnetic Observatory, Bum fries shire, Scotland. 

Main Building, latitude . . . . 55° 18' 42-2" N. 
Longitude . . . S" 12' 197" W. 

„ Height .... 775-29 feet. 

Level of Davington Burn about 700 feet. 

Geological formation consists of rocks of the Tarannon Llandovery 
series transversed by igneous dykes. 

in the Standardising Laboratories of the various countries to realise the Inter- 
national Ohm and Che International Ampere, and to set up the Weston normal cell. 



1909. 



E 



50 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

The seismograpla room is situated on the ground floor of the main 
office building. The principal pier is built of solid cubes of sandstone, 
and passes directly to the rock at a depth of 21 feet. The pier 
is enclosed in a brick well to isolate it from local surface movements. 
The Milne twin-boom instrument is mounted on this pier, so as to 
give N.S. and E.W. components. The period of the booms is about 
18 seconds, and at this period the scale is 1 mm. ^^O'^SQl. 

A spare pier is also situated in the room, and will be used for 
research work on the behaviour of other forms of seismographs. 

Toronto, Canada. — When the magnetometers, on account of inter- 
ference with electric trains, were moved from Toronto to Agincourt 
the seismograph was moved also. The underlying rocks at Agincom't 
are the same as those at Toronto, about nine miles distant. These are 
Hudson Eiver shales, covered with a thick deposit of alluvium. These 
latter drift deposits no doubt differ to a certain degree, but there are 
no sections at Agincourt which can be compared with those at Toronto. 
It may be mentioned that when the magnetometers were in Toronto 
they did not appear to have been disturbed at the time of large earth- 
quakes.' Now that these instruments are removed to Agincourt from 
time to time they show ii'regularities which may be due to teleseismic 
movement (see ' B. A. Eeports,' 1898, p. 237; 1899, p. 170). 

Porto Rico, W. Indies. — The instrument at this station is of the 
Bosch-Omori type and forms part of the equipment of the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. It is established at the Magnetic Observa- 
tory situated on Vieques Island, east of the island of Porto Rico. It 
is mounted in the north-east corner room on the ground floor of the 
old Spanish fort ' Isabel.' The floor of the room consists of 3 inches 
of cement underlaid with 3 inches of hard clay, which in turn is under- 
laid by stone. Tlie piers, four in number, on which the seismograph 
parts are mounted are each 20 inches square by 32^ inches deep. Each 
consists of three pieces of dressed stone. These are laid in cement and 
extend 30 inches below floor-level ; the space round each pier is filleil 
with cement within 4 inches of the floor. The instrument consists of 
two pendulums recording north-south and east-west motion. It is 
possible to obtain the time of any effect within one or two seconds. 
The paper moves 15 mm. to the niinut*. The period of north-south 
pendulum is 26"36 seconds; east-west pendulum 24"7 seconds. The 
multiplication of the tracing points is 10. 

Stonyhurst, near Blackburn, North Lancashire, Engl-and. — The lati- 
tude of the observatory is 53° 50' 40" N; longitude, 0° 52' 68" W of 
Greenwich. The seismogi'aph is the one which was used for two years 
in the Antarctic regions by the officers of the s.s. Discovery. The 
standard and other parts of the instrument are made of gunmetal and 
non-magnetic materials. At Stonyhurst it is installed in the under- 
ground magnetic chamber, which is dry and does not suffer from varia- 
tions of temperature. It is placed on a pillar composed of two cut 
stones firmly cemented together. On the top of these there is a slate 
slab also cemented to the uppermost stone. The pillar is embedded in 
and rests upon 12 inches of concrete below the stone floor of the 
chamber. The concrete rests on hard clayey soil. The height of the 
top of the slab from the floor is 3i feet, and its height above sea-level 
is 364 feet. 



. „..^ -^ 




I 

ii 



lUporl on Sriimologtral Inoutigatu 



ON SRISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 51 

ITT. The Large Earthquakes of 1908. 

The distribution of origins for the large earthquakes of 1908 is very 
similar to that of 1907. The greatest activity has been at the overlap of 
districts E and P. In the totals for districts the earthquakes for tlie 
E F overlap have been regarded as belonging to E and not to F. Earth- 
quake No. 160.3 is included in the total for H, and Nos. 1568 and 1602 
in tliose for K. The correct number of District for 1906 is 27 
and not 29 (see map and Eeport for 1907). 

In studying these districts it must be remembered that they merge 
one into the other, and cannot be regarded as so many strictly defined 
isolated elliptical areas. C, H, K, and F may, for example, be looked 
upon as districts of marked activity along a band which extends nearly 
round the world, while D, B, A, E represent areas of marked intensity 
on a band which fringes a great part of the Pacific Ocean. 

The total number of earthquakes which have occurred in 1908 on 
the east side of the Pacific is slightly greater than those which occurred 
in 1907. A similar increase is noted for the west side of the same ocean. 

A table published in the ' B. A. Eeports,' 1908, p. 63, shows that 
for the years 1899 to 1907 inclusive the greatest megaseismic activity 
has prevailed in the East Indian Archipelago, and the least on the "West 
Coast of South America. If, instead of comparing the activity in the 
large districts which are indicated on the accompanying map (Plate I.) 
by the letters A, B, 0, &c. , we compare the number of large earth- 
quakes which have originated during the last ten years within areas 
each about five degrees radius, the results arrived at are as follow : — 

Centre 120° E. 5° N. gave 75 large earthquakes. 
„ 140° E. 40° N. „ 68 „ 

70° E. 25° N. „ 40 „ „ 

„ 145°W.45°N. „ 33 „ 

These figures indicate that at the present time the most pronounced 
centres of seismic activity are to be found in the centre of the East Indian 
Archipelago and from the East Coast of Central Japan south-westwards 
towards Formosa. The first of these is near to the junction of two 
pronounced lines of folding in the earth's crust. 

IV. After-shochs of the Earthquake at Jamaica, January 14, 1907. 

In the Eeport for 1908, p. 64, reference is made to 148 after-shocks 
which in 1907 were recorded between January 14 and July 5, in Jamaica ; 
ninety-two of these appear to have been recorded in the Isle of Wight. 
The time taken for earth waves to travel from Jamaica to the Isle of 
Wight, a distance of 67 degrees, would be about forty-three minutes, and 
it is at this interval of time subsequent to shocks in Jamaica that we find 
thickenings and sinuosities in seismograms obtained in Britain. A 
large number of these records are also to be found on seismo- 
graphic traces obtained at Bidston, Kew, Paisley, and Edinburgh. This 
concurrence of records from different stations and the particular 
times at which they occur in reference to the times of origin 
of shocks in Jamaica lead us to the conclusion that com- 
paratively small shocks may with suitable instruments be recorded 
at localities several thousands of miles distant from their origin, Tho 

e2 



52 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



particular group of records to which we refer are given in the accom- 
panying table. The entry of July 5 may have been recorded at Gottingen, 
but with this exception the remaining disturbances do not appear in 
registers from Gottingen, Strassburg, or Laibach. The difference in 
the number of records obtained at different stations where the instruments 
are of one type, viz., that adopted by the British Association, partly 
finds an explanation in differences in foundation, see p. 60. The 
reasons that stations provided with apparatus of the Eeuber-Ehlert type 
do not appear to pick up very small movements is possibly due to a 
want of definition in the photographic trace ; but here again the question 
of foundation cannot be overlooked. Directly we come to apparatus 
where the record is obtained upon a smoked surface, which is the case 
at many European and American stations, a new factor has to be con- 
sidered. The slight freedom in the connections between the joints of 
multiplying indices, and the elasticity of the same, suggests a loss of 
motion, the result being that the writing pointers do not move until a 
certain amplitude of earth movement has been reached. Whether this 
explanation be correct or not, my own experience is that instruments 
writing on a smoked surface, although they may yield excellent seismo- 
grams of a large earthquake, are very unsatisfactory as recorders of very 
shght disturbances. Eecords of large earthquakes may be obtained by 
many types of instruments, but directly we wish to record feeble move- 
ments at considerable distances from their origin, the best results appear 
to come from the instrument adopted by the British Association with the 
photographic surface moving at the rate of about 240 mm. per hour. As 
illustrative of this we find that the number of records obtained at Shide, 
Hamburg, Gottingen, and Laibach between January 1 and April .30 of 
this year were respectively 98, 65, 61, and 33. At the first of these 
stations the instrument employed is of the B.A. type, whilst at the three 
latter stations records are obtained on smoked paper or by photographic 
arrangements with a high multiplication. All the records referred to 
were noted at more than one station, and therefore their reality as repre- 
senting widespread earth disturbances cannot be doubted. The number 
of records obtained at Bidston, Kew, and Edinburgh, where the photo- 
receiving surface only moves at the rate of 60 mm. per minute, were not 
so numerous as those obtained at Shide. 



After-shocks of the Jamaica Earthqiiake apparently recorded in Great Britain. 



\ Date 


Due in 
England 


Shide 


Kew 


Bidston 


Paisley 


Edinburgh 


1907 














Jan. 15 


0.55 


— 


— 


— 


— 


0.48? 


„ 


1.53 


1.52 


— 


1.52 


— 


— 


■1 


2.62 


2.53 


— 


2.52 


2.52 


2.48 




3.50 


3.51 


— 


3.51 


— 


351 


It 


5.6 


5.4 


— 


4.58? 


— 


— 


„ 


7.30 


7.40 


— 


7.27 


7.25 


7.25 


» 


8.50 


8.60 


8.44 


8.52 


8.50 


— 


» 


9.20 


9.19 


9.29 


9.19 


_ 


9.21 


„ 


11.50 


11.45 


— 


11.43 


11.45 


— 


„ 


15.50 


15.45 





— 


13.45 


— 


,, 


17.15 


17.14 


— 


17.14 


17.15 


— 


1) 


17.48 


18.12 


17.48 


18.16 


18.12 


— 


.. 


21.52 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 
After-shockt of the Jamaica Earthquake— contrnMed.. 



53 



Date 


Due in 
'. England 


Shide 


Kew 


Bidston 


Paisley 


Edinburgh 


1907 


! 




1 








Jan. 15 . 


22.31 


22.35 




— 


— 


— 


Jan. It) 


t 5.19 


— 




— 


— 


— 


»» 


8.45 


8.45 


— 


— 


— 


8.46 


»» 


i 17.24 


17.19 


17.18 


17.20 


17.17 


— 


»» 


! 22.24 


22.48 


— 


22.23 


— 


— 


Jan. 17 


1 2.60 


2.45 


— 


— 


— 


— 


It 


6.5 


6.6 


— 


— 


— 


— 


n 


: 13.40 


13.37 


— 


13.44 


— 


— 


»t 


17.20 


17.19 


17.18 


17.20 


17.18 


— 


»» 


i 22.47 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Jan. 18 


3.25 


Ats. 


— 


? 


— 


— 


.. 


7.20 


„ 


— 


7.25? 


— 


— 


»t 


11.50 


,^ 


— . 


11.44 


— 


— 


11 


12.24 


,, 


— 


12.30? 


— 


— 


» 


: 14.20 


j^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


■1 


17.20 


17.20 


— 


17.20 


17.20 


17.21 


11 


18.20 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


»• 


19.50 


19.55 


— 


19.59 


— 


— 


.1 


21.50 


— 


— 


22 21? 


— 


— 


Jan.' 19 . 


8.50 


8.50 


— 


8.50 


8.49 


8.48 


t» 


10.59 


? 


— 


11.0 


— 


— 


»i 


11.20 


1122 


— 


11.22 


— 


— 


i> 


15.20 


15.22 


— 


— 


— 


— 


» 


16.40 


16.35 


16.36 


16.34 


16.40 


— 


Jan. 20 


1.20 


1.24 


— 


1.26? 


— 


— 


.) 


3.10 


3.7 


— 


3.3? 


— 


— 


»f 


3.50 


3.53 


— 


— 


— 


— 


« 


4.20 


4.12 


— 


4.16 


— 


— 


.) 


1 9.5 


9.6 


— 


— 


— 


— 


)) 


12.12 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


i> 


17.60 


17.45 


— 


— 


— 


— 


» 


20.22 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


II 


21.20 


— 




— 


— 


— 


II 


22.35 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Jan. 21 . 


460 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


M 


18.45 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


l» • 


23.60 


23.45 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Jan. 22 . 


3.20 


3.21 


— 


3.24? 


— 


— 


11 


: 13.50 


13.52 


— 


— 


— 


— 


II 


20.5 


Ats. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


II 


20.25 


,^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


22.0 


22.3 


— 


21.56 


— 


— 


Jan. 23 


3.10 


3.9 


— 


— 1 


— 


— 


>i 


6.50 


6.52 


— 


6.49 


— 


— 




10.45 


10.36 


— 


— 


— 


— 


II 


151.S 


15.12 


— 


— 


'- 


— 


Jan. 24 


9.50 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


11 


15.35 


— 


— 


15.60? 


— 


— 


II 


1 16.10 


16.18 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


11 


1 20.25 


— 


— 





— 


— 


1 Jan. 26 


i 16.55 


16.50 


— 


— 


— 


— 


i 


1 19.35 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


Jan" 27 \ 


14.50 


14.50 


! — 


— 


— 


— 


Jan. 28 


' 9.30 


— 


1 — 


— 


— 


— 


»» 


10.23 


10.18 


10.23 


10.18 


10.18 


10.25 


11 


13.50 


13.53 


— 


13.53 


13.52 


— 


Jan. 29 '. 


4.1 





— 


4.2? 


— 


— 


11 


i 18.55 


— 


— 


18.63 


— 


— 


Jan. 30 


1 3.10 


1 — 


— 


\ — 


— 


— 



54 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
After-shocks of the Jamaica Earthquake — continued. 



Date 


Due in 
England 


Sliide 


\ Kew 


Bidston 


Paisley 


! Edinburgh 


1907 














Jan. 30 


3.30 


3.38 


— 











„ 


4.10 


— 


— 


? 








„ 


13.11 


13.11 


— 


— 


13.10 


1 _ 


„ 


14.10 


14.11 





14.9 


14.10 


14.13 


Feb. 1 


1.50 

















Feb. 2 


5.50 








1 







Feb. .S 


5.45 


5.44 











. 


» 


5.55 


6.7 











] 


» 


8.2 


8.0 


— 








i . 


Feb. 4 


9.50 


9.45 








9.45 


1 


„ 


11.50 


— 





? 





I 


„ 


12.50 


12.55 


12.44 





12.53 


' 12.52 


Feb. 5 


7.20 


7.11 


7.25 


. - 


7.10 


; _ 


» 


11.5 


11.15 


— 


— 


11.14 


\ 11.5 


Feb. 6 


4.49 


4.48 


— 


4.48 


4.48 


j 


I) 


8.45 


8 to 9 


8.0 





8 to 9 





11 


21.15 


21.17 


— 


? 





. 


Feb. 7 


4.50 


4.52 





4.64 





: 


Feb. 10 . 


6.10 


6.10 





6.15 


6.10 


i 6.10 


11 


19.50 


19.48 


19.45 


19.56 


19.47 


1 19.49 


Feb. 11 


6.20 








1 







n 


23.20 


23.22 


23.24 


23.20? 


23.21 


2323 i 


Feb. 18 . 


3.40 


3.41 











_ 


Feb. 19 . 


5.45 


5.44 











; 


Feb. 22 . 


14.33 


— 





14.22 





. 


Feb. 2.S . 


0.5 


0.5 


. 


0.8 


0.5 


0.5 


Feb. 26 . 


■ 23.30 















Feb. 27 . 


2.35 








2.30 








Feb. 28 . 


5.30 








5.25 








„ 


13.30 


13.35 








13.31 





Mar. 1 


10.5 


10.7 





10.7 


10.6 





11 


11.45 








11.40 


__ 





Mar. 2 


6.35 















11 


5.35 














^ _ 


Mar. 6 


3.45 


3.42 





3.43 







Mar. 7 


12.2 


12.3 





? 








11 


13.50 


13.58 














Mar. 8 


10.5 


10.4 


10.9 











Mar. 9 


11. .35 


11.30 


11.23 





11.29 


i 


Mar. 11 , 


7.40 


7.42 








7.43 





Mar. 15 . 


4.50 


4.53 








453 





Mar. 17 . 


12.20 


12.15 


12.16 





12.17 





Mar. 18 . 


1.35 


1.20 





1.35 


1.19 


1.30 


Mar. 19 . 


12.0 


12.7 


12.4 





_ 




Mar. 21 . 


5.49 















Mar. 23 . 


0.32 

















„ 


19.27 


19.20 1 














Mar. 24 


4.25 














, 


Mar. 25 


6.0 











_ ; 





Mar. 27 . 


14.45 


14.40 ! 


14.41 





14.40 1 


-- 


Mar. 28 . 


14.20 


14.25 


14.25 


_. 


1425 1 




Mar. 31 


13.0 







13.4 







April 2 


10.50 








? 


i 




April 9 


8.35 


— 





8.30 





i 


April 10 . 


3.20 














I 


April 11 . 


12.4 


12.4 


. 


12.1 








April 13 . 


4.50 


— 














11 


12.58 


12.58 


— 


12.50 








April 16 . 


12.50 


12.52 i 


12.49 


— 


12.55 


— 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVRSTIG.\TIONS. 
After-shoehs of the Jamaica JSar^Aj?**!**— continued. 



55 



Date 


Due in 
England 

1.15 
9.60 
2.53 

23.0 
1.30 

21.35 
2.20 

17.0 
1 2.42 
1 1.30 
7.8 
7.20 

16.15 

13.20 

20.4 

11.0 

20.0 


Shide 


Kew 


Bidston 


Paisley 


Edinburgh 


1907 
April 25 . 

April 28 \ 

April 29 '. 
May 1 
May 2 
May 3 
May 4 
May 11 . 
June 13 
June 14 
June 16 . 
June 18 
June 29 . 
July 1 
July 5 


21.25 
2.20 

17.2 
2.43 

7.1 

7.24 

16.56 

13.30 

11.1 
20.3 


16.54 

7.8 
16.57 


0.35 

? 

1 
? 

2.22 

1.25 

16.55 

20.0? 


21.31 
2.21 
17.3 


21.30 


Total. 


148 


92 


22 58 


39 


18 



The movements recorded at Kew are referred to as being very small and ill- 
defined, and in the ordinary way would have been passed over as being due either 
to air tremors or some other non-seismic cause. 

The records from Bidston are spoken of as ' doubtful,' ' possible,' ' very evident,' 
' very pronounced,' and ' clearly marked.' 

Paisley records were much interfered with by air tremors ; it is therefore possible 
that some of the entries are non-seismic in character. 

The Edinburgh records are spoken of as ' slight thickenings,' 'small notches,' 
' roughness of line,' ' slight tremors.' 

In the Report for this year the Shide list has been increased by 41 entries. 
These have been added because they have been confirmed by records from other 
stations. 

Y. Quiclc Vibrators as a'p'plied to Selsmometrxj. 

In a paper on ' A Neglected Principle that may be employed in 
Earthquake Measurements,' by Professors J. Perry and W. E. Ayrton 
(see ' Trans. Asiatic Soc. of Japan,' May 23, 1877), it is suggested that 
the essential feature in a seismograph should be a heavy mass so sus- 
pended by stiff springs that its own free period would be about five times 
as fast as that of an earthquake. This was to take the place of the 
steady point in modern seismographs. Inasmuch as this instrument 
was never constructed, we can only surmise about the character of the 
record it would furnish. 

In a paper on ' Experiments in Observational Seismology ' (see 
' Trans. Seis. Soc.,' vol. iii. 1881) I make reference to pendulums the 
periods of which were a small fraction of a second. They were only 
used as tremor-indicators. 

Notes on these and on other quick vibrators are referred to in the 
chapter on ' Seismometry ' in a small volume on ' Earthquakes ' pub- 
lished in the ' International Science Series, ' 1883. All these instruments 
were intended to record earthquakes which could be felt, the periods of 
which varied between one and three or four seconds. As they merely 



56 



RBPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



acted as seismoscopes, they quickly fell into disuse. To record unfelt 
teleseismic motion where the periods varied from about five to thirty 
seconds, I last year made the following experiment: — • 

A cylinder of lead 10 inches in length and f inch in diameter, 
weighing 451b., Was suspended as shown in the accompanying sketch. 
From one end of the cylinder a light deal rod projected upwards. At its 




upper end this engaged a light aluminium lever carrying a glass style 
resting on a drum covered with smoked paper. This multiplied the 
motion of the rod, which was 3 feet 2 inches in length, 8^ times. By 
this arrangement the equivalent of a rod 27 feet in length was obtained. 
The period of this pendulum with the style resting on the smoked paper 
was 0'6 second, or from eight to thirty times the period of the ground. 
During twenty-two days commencing November 26, although there 
were several earthquakes, two of which were distinctly large, no record 
was obtained. Possibly the multiplication was too small. 



"VI. On a possible Synchronism hehveen Seismic Activity in 
Different Districts. 

In the Eeport for 1908, p. 64, I pointed out that since 1902 
seismic activity on the two sides of the North Pacific had fluctuated 
similai'ly. For example, registers show that when large earthquakes had 
been numerous on the East side of the Pacific they had also been 
numerous on the West side. To extend this inquiry, I have drawn up 
the following table giving the number of destructive earthquakes which 
have occuiTed between a.d. 1000 and a.d. 1650. They are grouped in 
periods of fifty years. Columns A, B, 0, and D respectively refer to 
Japanese, Chinese, European, and Italian records. The letter ' a ' indi- 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



57 



cates that in two given districts seismic activity has been constant or 
has varied similarly, i.e., there has been an agreement. The letter ' d ' 
indicates that there has been disagreement. For example, seismic 
activity may have increased in one district while it has decreased in 
another. As to whether an entry should be * a ' or ' d, ' no account has 
been taken of the greatness of increase or decrease in the number of 
earthquakes in the given period, but only whether it was a marked 
increase, decrease, or a period of quiescence. The columns in which 
the letters ' a ' and ' d ' occur are headed A to B, A to 0, &c. If written 
more fully these would become A compared with B, A compared with 
0, &c. 

Inasmuch as the Italian records are included in and form a large por- 
tion of those which refer to Europe generally, the comparison of C to D is 
of slight value. The general result indicates that in a period of 650 years 
we have had forty-four instances of agreements against twenty-eight 
instances of disagreements in the fluctuations in seismic activity m 
widely separated districts. This suggests that for the most part periods 













A 


A 


A 


B 


B 


c 




Date 


A 


B 


C 


D 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


Totals. 




1 









B 


C 


D 


^ 


D 


D 




1000) 




















a d 


to I 


8 


28 


7 


1 
















1050 J 
























1100 8 


27 


9 


2 


a 


a 


n 


a 


a 


a 


6 


1150 3 


11 


8 


5 


a 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


1 5 


1200 1 12 


22 


13 


7 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


6 


1250 i 7 


13 


7 


6 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


6 


1300 \ 4 


8 


7 


10 


a 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


1 5 


1350 , 8 


64 


12 


3 


a 


a 


d 


a 


d 


d 


3 3 


1400 ' 9 


37 


11 


6 


d 


a 


a 


d 


d 


d 


2 4 


1450 13 


16 


18 


5 


(I 


a 


d 


d 


a 


d 


2 4 


1500 1 16 


50 


14 


9 


a 


d 


a 


d 


a 


d 


3 3 


1550 ! 6 


49 


16 


9 


d 


d 


d 


a 


a 


a 


3 3 


1600 5 


52 


16 


10 


a 


a 


d 


a 


a 


a 


5 1 


1650 10 


60 


25 


13 


a 


a 

_ 


a 


a 


a 


a 


6 










9a 


8a 


6a 


la. 


9a 


6a 


44a 










3<? 


U 


6<2 


5d 


U 


Gd 


2M 



of seismic quiescence or of activity in various parts of the globe occur 
about the same time. Tliis result does not, however, appear to be shown 
if we take eleven or thirty-three year periods. Of fifty-three periods of 
eleven years, a.d. 1000 to a.d. 1583, a comparison of the earthquakes 
of Europe with those of China and Japan respectively indicate that agree- 
ments and disagreements are about equally divided. A similar result is 
obtained when thirty-tliree year periods were taken for comparison of 
European and Japanese and Chinese and Japanese earthquakes. 

Another method of determining whether there has been a time 
agreement in seismic activity in distant districts has been to plot year 
by year the large earthquakes of Japan and Italy on squared paper. Tlie 
interval considered for each of these countries has been the last three 
hundred years. England and many other countries have been excluded 
because their records are few in number and only refer to comparatively 
feeble shocks. The two Americas have been omitted because their 



58 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



registers are incomplete; Australia and New Zealand, because prior to 
1850 we were without knowledge; and China, because its accessible 
registers end about 1644. 

All materials prior to a.d. 1600 have been discarded on account of 
their fragmentary character, and it is often impossible to say whether 
certain entries refer to destructive earthquakes or only to comparatively 
small tremors. The only earthquakes considered are those which have 
been destructive, and these are divided into the following three classes : 
(I.) shocks which have cracked walls or damaged chimneys; (II.) shocks 
which have destroyed a few buildings; (III.) shocks which have caused 
widespread disaster. For Italy and for Japan these three classes have 
been taken separately, in pairs, and en bloc. Which ever way we have 
plotted them one result is clear, viz., in each of these two widely 
separated districts during the last three hundred years there have been 
periods of activity and periods of comparative rest. "When the zigzag lines 
which show frequency from year to year are smoothed to curves you 
obtain a series of undulations the crests of which are separated from 
each other by periods varying between five and twenty years. There is 
no indication of a recurrence of activity after regular or equal intervals of 
time. The following table gives dates for the crests of these waves. In 
comparing any two of these dates it must be remembered that either of 
them might be increased or decreased by a year. The reason for this is 
twofold. First, an earthquake or earthquakes which occurred at the 
end of a year might, for the purposes of this investigation, have been 
assigned to the year following. Similarly, those which occurred in 
January of a given year might have been referred to the previous year. 
Also, it is difficult to determine the exact position for the crest of a wave. 
An inspection of the table shows for Italy eighteen dates for wave-crests, 
and fourteen of these agree very closely with dates indicating periods of 
seismic activity in Japan. These coincidences suggest that a relief of 
seismic strain in one part of the world either brings about a relief in some 
other part, or that relief is governed by some general internal or external 
agency. 

Periods of Seismic Activity. 



Japan 


Italy 


Differences 


Japan 


Italy 


Differences 






Year 






Year 


1613 


1612 


1 


1751 


1755 


4 


— 


1626 


— 


176.5 


1767 


2 


1644 


1642 


2 


1782 


1784 


2 


1663 


1660 


3 


— 


1798 


— 


1697 


1693 


4 


1803 


1806 


3 


1704 


1703 


1 


1834 


1833 


1 


1717 


1717 





1856 


1856 





1728 


1728 





— 


1873 


— 


— 


1744 


— 


1898 


1896 


2 



VII. The Time of Maximum Motion as indicated by Three difjerenthj 
installed Horizontal Pendiilums. 

The three pendulums are the Milne type (see ' B.A. Eeport,' 1902, 
p. 60). Pendulum A records east-west motion; it stands on a brick 
column, the cross-section of which is 18 inches by 18 inches. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 69 

Pendulum B also records east-west motion; it stands near to A 
on another brick column. The cross-section of this is 18 inches by 
37 inches. 

Pendulum C records north-south motion ; it is installed on the same 
column as B. The stiffness of these two piers, as might be inferred 
from their dimensions, are very different. In an east and west direction 
the B-C column is approximately four times as stiff as A column (see 
' B.A. Report,' 1902, p. 60). 

For certain intervals of time, each of several months' duration, these 
pendulums have been adjusted to have the same or different periods. 
When A and B had the same period, had they been loaded equally and 
installed on the same support we should expect that they would have 
attained a maximum swing at the same time. The following analyses 
show how far this was the case, notwithstanding the absence of this 
equality of conditions. "With the object of comparing similar phases of 
motion, in all instances where time measures are concerned, reference 
has been made to the original seismograms. The earthquakes considered 
are indicated in the Shide Registers by the following numbers: — 

666, 671, 672, 674, 676. 679, 686, 690, 694, 704, 705, 794, 806, 
876, 832, 839, 859, 860, 861, 863, 872, 877, 884, 886, 900, 903, 904, 
924, 952, 975, 977, 982, 990, 994, 1001, 1020, 1021, 1031, 1038, 1045, 
1046, 1048, 1057, 1064, 1065, 1070, 1074, 1087, 1111, 1118, 1135. 
1145, 1164, 1182, 1190, 1208, 1225, 1242, 1257, 1266, 1281, 1284, 
1293, 1303, 1319, 1320, 1322, 1323, 1362, 1363, 1375, 1387, 1390, 
1393, 1408, 1412, 1419, 1422, 1425, 1428, 1431, 1433, 1439, 1450, 
1460, 1463, 1468, 1471, 1475, 1495, 1496, 1515, 1522, 1526, 1532, 
1540, 1544, 1549, 1563, 1564, 1568, 1575, 1577, 1585, 1591. 

No. 1. — For thirty-seven earthquakes A and B have had the same 
periods. For twenty-five of these a maximum motion was recorded 
at the same time; for the remaining twelve earthquakes the difference 
in time for the maximum swing was two minutes or over. 

No. 2. — For twenty earthquakes A or B had the same period as 0. 
For eleven of these maximum for north and south motion occurred at the 
same time as the maximum for east and west motion ; for the remaining 
nine earthquakes there was a difference in time for the maximum motion 
of two or more minutes. 

No. 3. — Out of 103 earthquakes A and B have had the same period 
for thirty-seven earthquakes; for the remainder they had different 
periods. Taking these en bloc, A and B have recorded maximum swing 
at the same time in fifty-one cases ; in the remaining fifty -two cases the 
times for this movement have differed by two or more minutes. 

No. 4. — Pendulum (north-south motion) indicates a maximum 
motion very frequently before a maximum motion is recorded by A 
and B. 

I do not see that the district from which an earthquake originates 
has any relationship to the pendulum which first records its apparent 
maximum motion. 

VIII. The Number of Earthquake Records obtained at British 

Stations. 
In the ' British Association Eeport,' 1901, pp. 44-50; 1902, p. 73; 
and 1903, p. 82, references are made to the number of records obtained at 



60 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Bidston, Shide, Kew, and Edinburgh. These stations are respectively 
situated on sandstone, chalk, alluvium, and volcanic rock. In the follow- 
ing table we reproduce records of frequency as given in the Report for 
1902 and 1903, together with records for 1908: — 



Year 


Bidston 


Shide 


Kew Edinburgh 


1901 (11 months). 

1901, 1902 . 

1908 .... 


133 

228 
105 


107 
168 
114 


7.3 94 

127 155 

49 44 



We may add that in 1908 Paisley recorded forty-eight shocks — i.e., its 
number of records closely accorded with those obtained at Kew and 
Edinburgh. The subsoil at Paisley is clay (' B.A. Report,' 1905, p. 89). 

At all these stations similar horizontal Milne pendulums are in use, 
but the adjustment of these have from time to time only been approxi- 
mately similar. In 1908 at Shide 1 mm. displacement of the outer end of 
the boom corresponded to a tilt of 0""44. Tiie corresponding values 
at Kew, Bidston, and Edinburgh were 0"-56, 0"-53, and 0"'53,> or 
0"'54. The table shows that the Shide instrument, with the greatest 
sensitiveness in 1908, gave the greatest number of records. The differ- 
ence between it and Bidston, however, is only nine. If we consider 
the latter half of 1908 only, we find that Bidston had sixty-one records 
and Shide had fifty-seven — i.e., the result is reversed. In 1901 and 
1902, when the Bidston instrument had for twelve months gi-eater sensi- 
tiveness than the one at Shide, the number of records at the former place 
greatly exceeded that at the latter. 

The very marked difference in the number of records obtained at 
Bidston and Kew, Edinburgh and Paisley, does not seem to depend upon 
differences in sensitiveness of the instrument, inasmuch as these differ- 
ences are very slight. If we except Edinburgh and Bidston, which are 
founded on hard rock, there is a great difference between this and the 
softer materials which act as foundations for other stations. 

IX. Luminous Effects obtained from Bock Surfaces. 

In the ' British Association Report ' for 1907, pp. 87-91, a long series 
of experiments are described which apparently show that from time to 
time surfaces of chalk and killas affect a photographic surface in the 
same way it is affected when exposed to light. Several control experi- 
ments are described, and the conclusion arrived at was that the markings 
on the photographic films were not due to radio-activity, but they might 
be due to a very feeble brush or glowlike electrical discharge. Since 
the publication of the above an attempt has been made to determine 
whether micro-organisms play any part in the phenomena observed. 
With the assistance of my friend. Dr. R. C. Brown, M.D., of Parkhurst, 
cultures were made from scrapings from the surface of the chalk, in 
front of which the cylinder, covered with bromide, had been placed. 
This was underground. Cultures were also made from scrapings taken 
from the chalk outside. Micro-organisms were found in both. These 
have been exposed to a moving photographic surface similar to that 
used in the pit, but they gave no evidence of luminosity. Dr. M. H. 
Gordon, M.D., suggests that before excluding a biological factor special 
media should be tried. This we hope to do. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 61 

X. A Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes. 
(Still in preparation; see ' B.A. Eeport,' 1908, p. 78.) 

During the last twelve months, as opportunity presented itself, 
additions have been made to a catalogue of destructive earthquakes com- 
menced in 1907. Very many entries have been made from ' I Terremoti 
d'ltaUa,' by Mario Barata. The catalogues of C. W. C. Fuchs pub- 
lished in the ' Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen ' have 
been an assistance in extending those of Alex. Perrey ; while transla- 
tions from Tung-Hwa-Lu, by Professor E. H. Parker (see p. 62), have 
extended the catalogue of Chinese earthquakes contained in the 
'British Association Eeport,' 1908, p. 82. With these additions the 
compilation is at present represented by about 250 typed folios. 

One result towards which its analysis points relates to the syn- 
chronism of seismic activity (see p. 56). 

With the expectation of finding much material which might be used 
in this catalogue, I wrote to Comte P. de Montessus de Ballore, at the 
pi'esent time in Chile, asking whether it would be permissible to use his 
compilation of earthquake registers now stored at the Soci^t^ de 
Geographic, 184 Boulevard Saint-Germain, Paris. He most willingly 
put this at my disposition. The catalogue is composed of about six 
hundred parts, which are in MBS. and in the language of the country to 
which they refer. They occupy a length of 26 metres of bookshelves, 
and for the convenience of those who wish to make researches a cata- 
logue is provided. I understand from Comte Montessus that a number of 
destructive earthquakes which are recorded are but little known and 
difficult of access. E)r. F. Du Bois, who takes a practical interest in 
seismology, suggests that when using the Montessus catalogue it may 
often be necessary for the particular purpose in view to seek for details 
in the original works on which it is founded. The following are a few 
examples of the entries: — 

1597, July 23, Perth and other parts of Scotland, Thompson's 
' Annals of Philosophy,' vol. viii. p. 365 ; Mallet, 1852, p. 66. 

1845, August 7, 14h. 15m., A. Comrie (Ecosse), 1 secousse violente; 
MacFarlane ; Pen-ey Cat. 1845-46, p. 407, 13h. 15m. , &c. 

1880, November 28, 17h. 30m., Scotland Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edinb. 
XL, pp. 176-187, followed by observations ... at different places. 
Eemarks extend over twelve pages of MS. 

XT. Developing, Fixing, and Copying a Film. 

The developer is made up as follows: — 

Metol-hydroquinone Developer, 
Metol .... .SO grains or 70 grammes. 
Hydroquinone . . 60 ,, „ 140 ,, 

Sodium Sulphite (cryst.) 1 oz. „ 1000 „ 

Sodium Carbonate (cryst.) 1 ,, „ 1000 „ 

Water . . . . 20 „ „ 2000 c.c. 

For use, dilute with an equal volume of water. 

The bromide paper after removal from the drum is rolled up film 
side inwards. A small quantity of dilute developer is put into a half- 
plate dish, then commence to unroll the film in the dish and at the same 



62 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

time roll up the portion that has passed througii the developer. Repeat 
this rolling and unrolling until development is complete. It is then trans- 
ferred to a solution of hyposulphite of soda (1 hypo to 4 water) for 
about ten to fifteen minutes. The record is then washed, &c. 

Any particular portion of a film may be reproduced by photographic 
printing. For the latter process place the film with its back on a piece of 
glass or the glass face of a printing frame. A piece of bromide paper is 
placed with its sensitive surface in contact with the film, and over this a 
strip of wood or the back of the printing frame, when the whole four are 
clamped together with spring clips. 

This is held up to the light of an oil lamp or an ordinary gas-burner 
at a distance of 18 inches for about 10 seconds. Next it is developed in 
a little fresh but dilute developer. If the developer appears too strong, 
add water and a few di'ops of a lO-per-cent. solution of bromide of potas- 
sium. Too long exposure causes the parts which should be white to 
become grey. A weak acid bath (citric acid 1 part in 40 of water) tends 
to remove stains. In warm climates a saturated alum bath may be used. 
If blisters appear, weaken the hypo-bath. 



XII. Catalogue of Chinese Earthqiiakes, a.d. 1638-1891. 
By Professor E. H. Parker 

The facts contained in the following Register are extracted, and in 
most cases are word for word translations, from the ' Tung-Hwa- 
Lu,' a well-known work which gives textuaUy an account of most of 
the important disasters, prodigies, decrees, and memorials, &c., as news 
arrives day by day at the Peking Court of the reigning Manchu Dynasty. 
The list may be regarded as a continuation of the catalogue published 
in the Reports of the British Association for 1908. Neither of these lists 
is to be looked upon as complete, but if it were possible to refer to the 
local records of the various provincial cities each list might be consider- 
ably extended. The rendering of Chinese names follows pretty closely the 
system of Sir Thomas Wade, but without such extreme localisms (c.(j.,hsi, 
hii, chi, chil, instead of si, hi, tsi, isii, lei, kii) as would render these 
groups of initials, whether used alone or followed by a nasal final, un- 
intelligible to persons only conversant with more southerly dialects. 

Mr. Parker supplies only Chinese dates, but these have been replaced 
by English dates, and, it is hoped, correctly. 

Catalogue. 

1639 Jan. 4. ' Earthquake ' (evidently in the Mukden region). 
1643 Mar. 24. ' Earthquake from N.W. corner to S.E. with sound ' (evidently 
S. Manchuria-N. Corea region). 

1643 Nov. 12. ' Earthquake between 9 and 11 A.M. from N.W. to 8. with sound' 

(evidently in S. Manchuria region). 

1644 April 14. ' Earthquake at Mukden.' 

1644 April 16. ' Again quaked ' (i.e., two days later ; evidently Mukden). 

1649 Nov. 10. ' Earthquake at the Metropolis ' (evidently Peking, probably end 

of December). 
1652-3 Ditto (probably end of January or beginning of February, 

1653, the ninth year of the reign covering the greater part of 

1652). 
1653-4 'Relief,' 'When his Majesty returned to the Palace: this night there was 

an earthquake with sound ' (probably January 1654. I cannot 

think why ' relief ' or ' alms ' should precede statement). 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



63 



1654 
lfi54 



1654 



1055 



1655 
1656 
1657 
1657 

1665 
1668 
1669 
1673 
1679 



1682 
1687 
16S8 



1696 
1696 
1696 
1697 



June 6. 
July 21. 



between 
Sept. 10 
and 15. 
June 9, 



June 22. 
Aug. 1. 
Mar. 2. 
June 11. 

April 16. 
June 11. 
Sept. 27. 
Oct. 18. 
Aug. 11 
or 22. 



1679 Oct. 11. 



Oct. 10. 
Oct. 1 7. 
Oct. 3, 



1692 June 12. 



1696 Jan. 21. 



Feb. 3. 
Oct. 23. 
Dec. 10. 
Dec. 29. 



' Earthquake at the Metropolis ' (i.e., Peking). 

' There were earthquakes at the Fu (cities) of Si-an, Yen-an, 
P'ing-liang, K'ing-j ang, and Han-chung in Shen Si ' (province ; 
possibly this means 'we fieard this day at Peking about it '). 

' Earthquake with sound, at the Men (cities) of Kwan-ch'eng, 
Fan, Ch'ao-ch'eng, Yang-kuh, and at the chou (city of) P'uh in 
Shan Tung (province of).' 

' Exemption of the fixed taxes granted to the five Shen Si, fu of 
Yen-an, &c. (see above) on account of damage done by the earth- 
quake.' 

'Earthquake with sound at Ling-k'iu Jden in Shan Si' (province). 

' Earthquake with sound at Kii-chou in Shan Tung (province).' 

' Earthquake at Yiin-chen in Shan Si (province), with sound.' 

' Big earthquake at the two chou of Wei and Mao belonging to the 
fu of Pao-ning in Sz-ch'wan (province).' 

'Noon (i.e., 11-1), earthquake with noise at the Metropolis.' 

' Earthquake at the Metropolis.' 

' Earthquake at the Metropolis with noise.' 
Ditto. 

' Earthquake at the Metropolis ; commands to the Ministers, &c., 
to examine their consciences, as also the provincial high 
authorities, kc, stating what they may consider to be defects, 
or the reverse, in Government.' 

' His Majesty, on account of the earthquake, goes at the head of 
his princes and ministers to pray at the Altar of Heaven ' (out- 
side gates, where British troops encamped, 1 900). 

' Earthquake at the Metropolis.' 
Ditto. 

' Earthquakes at places in Hoh-k'ing and Kien-ch'uan in Yun Nan. 
His Majesty orders quick relief in rice and money to be sent." 

' Kalends. The President, Ma Ta'i, charged with the duty of 
conveying relief to P'ing-yang, &c., in Shan Si, asks instructions. 
His Majesty orders : " You may command Governor Galdu in 
view of the fact that houses have been destroyed by an earth- 
quake, and people crushed to death, that he ought personally to 
have repaired to the places concerned and established a compound 
for residences in succour of the people who are victims to the 
disaster, awaiting my further orders. Instead of that he takes 
upon himself to go back to his capital- an exceedingly improper 
proceeding. Apart from what Galdu says in his own report, 
you must make careful inquiry and compare notes yourself, 
distributing our gracious relief. The land tax for this year 
will not be collected there at present. When you get there, 
at once issue a proclamation explaining to the people how 
deeply his Majesty the Emperor feels for them, and stating 
that he has specially sent a high officer to relieve them ; also 
that they must not foolishly think of migrating and thus 
losing their homes. Further, as evil-disposed persons and the 
Brigadier's troops may take advantage of the earthquake to 
rob and harass the people under this or that pretext, you must 
order the Brigadier-General, Chou Fu-hing, to proceed in 
person with the Government troops under his command to take 
good precautionary measures in the whole region concerned. 
As to the victims of the disaster in Hung-tung Jiien under 
P'lng-yang fu, you must go thither in person in company with 
the Governor Galdu, and administer relief, seeing that all 
share in hond-fide kindness." ' 

' In view of the (last mentioned) Shan Si P'ing-yang fu earth- 
quake, the following manifesto to the Empire is given out :— 
(A long philosophical discussion on 'destiny,' &c., ajid relief 

from land tax, &c.) 
' Slight earthquake at the Metropolis.' 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 



1700 


Mar. 12. 


1702 


Dec. 7. 


1705 


Oct. 10. 


1706 


March 24. 


1713 


Aug. 13. 



64 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

' Earthquake at the capital of Kwei Chow (province). 
' Slight earthquake at the Metropolis.' 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
' Earthquakes at Mao chou and at the P'ing-fan Camp in 
Sz-Ch'wan. Relief distributed.' 
1718 July 31. ' Earthquakes at places belonging to the /« (cities) of P'ing-liang 
and Kung-ch'ang in Shen Si. Two high officers (named) sent 
to distribute relief.' 
1718 Sept. 22. 'Emperor alludes to (.'same) earthquake in Chwang-liang and 
other places, and lets off the land taxes, &c , for next year in 
Shen Si and Kan Suh provinces.' 

1720 July 25. 'Emperor .says that having heard of the earthquakes at Pao-an 

(fu in Chih Li) Hwai-lai (N.W. of Peking), &c., he now sends 
high officer (named) to these parts to examine with a view to 
relief.' 

1721 Jan. 14. ' Alludes in decree to last year's earthquake in Shen Si province, 

and damage to people ; also to this year's earthquake at 

Sha-ch'eng (N. of Peking, where commissioners sent as above), 

and even slight earthquakes at Peking.' 
1730 Oct. 12. 'On account of the earthquake, the soldiers of the eight banner 

corps were given 30,000 ounces of silver each banner for house 

repairs, and each banner detachment in the Yiian-ming-yiian 

(park N.W. of Peking) 1,000 ounces.' 
1730 Oct. 23. ' Half a year's extra official salary given to various other officials ' 

(on th3 same ground as the above). 
1730 Nov. 15. (' Long heart-searching decree. Theory of Heaven's warning, &c. 

Emperor did not feel it because he happened to be in a boat. 

Evidently protected by Heaven. The earth is still ill at ease. 

" My late Father " used to say small shocks alwaj s followed a 

big shock. In 1679 (18th K H.) the shocks lasted over a month, 

and history says that in 1465-1487 the shocks lasted 23 days. 

We must all try to be good, I showing example.') 

1738 Dec. 13. (Possibly .Jan. 1739.) The Tartar General of Ning-hia (in Kan 

Suh) reports an earthquake, and that water rushes in the New 
Cut (a well-known ancient irrigation canal) ; the Men city of 
Pao-feng has sunk away. Twoliundred thousand taels given in 
relief from the Lan-chou (provincial capital) treasury, and a 
high officer despatched from Peking to superintend relief 
operations. 

1739 April 13. ' The above-mentioned high officer reports that the New Cut and 

Pao-feng belonging to Ning-hia (fn) have become a vast icy 
marsh, and that it is not possible to build thereon in the old 
style. He suggests that the two Men (cities) be abolished 
(,', at that time there was also a " New Cut Men"), and that liberal 
relief be administered. Approved.' (Pao-fcng also no longer 
exists there.) 

1744 (Seems to have been an earthquake, but my notes are defec- 

tive.— E. H. P.). 

1746 July 30. 'Slight earthquake at the Metropolis. Orders issued for cor- 
rective advice.' 

1755 April 17. 'Orders given that extra liberal relief be administered to the 
families crushed during the earthquake last year in the two 
districts of Yih-men (¥1011) and another citoii (not mentioned 
by name) in Yun Nan (province).' 

1 764 Jan. 1 ? ' Earthquake in the five chou and Men districts of Kiang- 

ch'wan, &c.' (presumably Yiin Nan). 

1765 April 4 1 ' Earthquake at Tih-tao chou in Kan Suh.' 
1765 June 7. ' Slight earthquake at the Metropolis.' 

1765 Aug. 6. 'Earthquakes (? when) at the twelve chou and hien districts of 
Lung-si, &c., in Kan Suh.' 

1785 May 30. 'Earthquake at the Hwei-hwei township and the Peh-yang Ho 

(River [? or township]) belonging to buh chou and Yiih-men l^e7^.' 

1786 Aug. 7 ; ' Earthquake at Hi ' (near Kuldja). 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 65 

1815 Nov. 11. ' Earthquakes at places belonging to Shen chmt, and other places 

in Ho Nan (province). Fang Shou-ch'ou ('/ the Governor) 

ordered to show his sympathy.' 
1820 Sept. ' During this month relief was administered re the earthquake 

damage done in Hu cho^o of Ho Nan (province).' 
1823 ' Feb. ' During this month relief to (&c., &c., and) re the earthquake in 

seventeen chou and Men districts, Tsing-ning, &c., of Kan Suh 

(province).' 
1831 ' May. ' During this month grace granted to the land-tax payments due 

from three chou and Men districts of Ts'z chou, &c., in Chih Li, 

and the Men of Ngan-yang and Lin-chang in Ho Nan re damage 

done by earthquakes.' 
1839 ' June. ' During this month relief on account of earthquake damage to 

the two cliou and Men districts of Lang-k'iung and Teng-ch'wan 

in Yiin Nan, besides grace re payment of this year's taxes.' 
1842 Aug. ' During this month relief to (&c., &c., and) Barkul on the High 

(probably). Road West, on account of earthquake damage.' 

1849 Mar. 28. ' Liu Yiin-k'o (? Governor of Fuh Kien or ? taotai of Formosa) 

ordered to institute inquiry and administer relief re the damage 
done by flooding (? tidal wave) and earthquake in the various 
t'ing and Men (sub-prefectures and districts) in the Northern 
parts of Formosa.' 

1850 ' Oct, 16. Long decree re great earthquake on the 17th day of the 8th month 

within the walls of Si-ch'ang Men city in Sz-Ch'wan province. 
Public buildings, prisons, &c., all down. Many people crushed 
to death, including two Mandarins. Viceroy ordered to 
despatch a virtuous man to make inquiry and give relief. 
(Fund indicated.) 

1850 Nov. 28. Decree. Su Tseh-ch'gn (the Viceroy) reports all public buildings 
down, and over 20,600 persons of both sexes crushed to death. 
' It is all my fault as Lord of the World. Let the Viceroy make 
strict inquiry, &c., &c.' 

1852 ' Aug. 17. Long decree re great earthquake on the 8th day of the 4th moon 
in the city of Chung-wei hien of Kan Suh. There were con- 
tinuous successive shocks up to the 23rd day. The Viceroy 
reports over 20,000 dwellings destroyed, and over 300 killed of 
both sexes, besides over 400 injured. Most of the public 
buildings down, and much of the people's food, clothing, 
domestic animals, &c., crushed out of sight, so that there is 
great destitution. Orders for inquiry, relief, &c., &c. 

1852 Nov. 13. Decree re Chung-wei earthquake. Emperor feels it. Viceroy's 
report received. ' Let him act in accordance with my 
sympathetic feelings, &c.' 

1859 Dec. 2. Relief (? sent) to the injured and distressed people who have 
suflEered from the earthquake at Kai-chou and New-chwang in 
Feng-t'ien (S. Manchuria). 

1870* June 8. Decree. ' Then, again, Wu T'ang (Viceroy of Sz Ch'wan) repre- 
sents that there has been an earthquake at Bathang, and that 
he is taking relief measures, &c. During the earthquake 
which took place this year during the 3rd moon, at and around 
Bathang, the flames shot forth, and numbers of the people's 
dwellings were crushed and destroyed. That the place in 
question should have suffered this disaster, indeed gives him 
pain,' &c., &c. (Relief steps.) 

1872 ' Earthquake in Shanghai (? summer). 

1891 * Long description of the great earthquake in Japan. 

' These are the probable months. 

^ ' 17th day of 8th month' = September 22. 

* The earthquake was probably on May 28. 

* The earthquake was probably in April. 

' These last two taken from Mr. Parker's private notes. 



1909. 



66 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir David Gill (Chairman), Dr. 
W. G. DuFFiELD (Secretary), Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, Mr. 
F. McClean, and Professors A. Schuster and H. H. Turner, 
appointed to aid the work of Establishing a Solar Observatory 
in Australia. 

The Secretary is at present in Australia endeavouring to obtain the 
necessary funds to enable a Solar Observatory to be erected. 

At the Brisbane Meeting of the Australasian Association for the 
Advancement of Science the following resolution was passed by the 
Council appreciative of the support of the British Association : — 

' That in view of the generous attitude of the British Association in 
granting 501. towards the establishment of the Observatory a similar 
sum be granted by the Australasian Association. ' 

It was quickly discovered that solar observations could not be well 
made at any of the existing State Observatories, and so an attempt is 
being made to establish a special observatory for the work, which shall 
be affiliated with all the Universities in the Commonwealth. For this 
purpose the Australian Solar Physics Committee of the Australasian 
Association has been formed, consisting of the Professors of Physics of 
each University and the Government Astronomer of each State, Mr. 
G. H. Knibbs, Commonwealth Statistician, being President, and Dr. 
Duffield, Hon. Secretary. 

This Committee formed a deputation which waited upon the Com- 
monwealth Government (Fisher Ministry) and asked for funds. The 
Minister replied that ' he thought Parliament would not be less public- 
spirited than private citizens, and would probably give pound for pound 
to the erection and equipment fund, and might maintain the observatory 
after its establishment. ' The Fisher Government went out of office 
before the official reply was received. But the Deakin Ministry is now 
considering the matter and a reply is expected in the course of a few 
weeks. 

The Australian Solar Physics Committee has written to the British 
Association Committee offering to undertake the responsibility of spend- 
ing the grant-in-aid of 50L, which it is proposed to devote towards 
finding a suitable site for the proposed observatory. 

The enclosed memorandum has been prepared for the benefit of 
the Federal Government by the Australian Solar Physics Committee, 
setting forth the aims of the proposed Observatory, the history of the 
movement, and the support that has been accorded. Up to the present 
time 950L has been promised towards the equipment of the Observatory, 
in addition to the ' Farnham ' Telescope 6-inch Grubb Eefractor, and 
the ' Oddie ' Bequest of a 26-inch Reflector and a 9-inch Grubb Ee- 
fractor. 

The Government have been asked to give 10,0002. towards the equip- 
ment and erection, and 1,500Z. per annum for maintenance. 

Solar Research. — The proposed Australian Solar Observatory. 

That this work is of national importance is shown by the attendance 
at the last Congress of the International Solar Research Union of 



ESTABLISHING A SOLAR OBSERVATORY IN AUSTRALIA. 67 

representatives from the observatories and scientific bodies of Austria, 
Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, Hungary, India, 
Italy, Eussia, Servia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. 

Australia is not represented upon the International Committee, 
though her co-operation is earnestly desired for the following 
reasons : — 

The Establishment of a Solar Observatory in Australia is essential for 
the completion of the International Scheme. 

(a) Because it would fill a gap at present existing in the chain of 
Observatories round the Earth. — The existence of the International 
Union for Solar Research is due to the fact that several problems 
connected with the sun depend for tEeir solution upon a continuous 
series of observations made through the twenty-four hours, during 
which period the earth rotates once about her axis, and presents 
different parts of her surface in succession to the sun. It has thus passed 
out of the scope of two or even three stations to deal with such ques- 
tions ; what are required are Observatories 
spaced regularly round the earth so 
that the sun may be observed at one of 
them when observations are unfavourable or 
impossible at the others. At present the 
stations are concentrated in three well- 
defined areas, which are marked A, B, C 
in the sketch, and which are separated by 
approximately 90° of longitude. The 
great gap between India and America, 
at D, could be filled by an Australian 
Observatory, whose erection would enable j^^ circle represents the 
the changes m the form of sun-spots. Equator, 
their numbers and areas, and the variations A— India, 
in the prominences and in the distribution B— England, _ France, Ger- 

( , ,,. ,, , ,. , many, Russia, &c. 

of metalhc vapours over the solar disc to C— America (Mt. Wilson 
be kept under continual observation Washington, &c.) 
throughout the whole twenty-four hours. D— Australia. 

(b) Because a Solar Observatory is required South of the Equator. — 
If we neglect Mauritius, where solar work is confined to direct photo- 
graphs of the sun's disc, no station south of the Equator contributes 
towards the International Scheme, though work with the spectro- 
heliograph is required in south latitudes, and that most important 
branch of study — solar radiation — must eventually be undertaken in 
the same part of the world. For this work a fully-equipped observatory 
exists at Washington, and though the Smithsonian Institution has 
repeatedly urged the necessity of an additional station in south latitudes, 
and has pointed out the benefits that may reasonably be expected from 
a full study of this subject, the problem is not attacked elsewhere. 

(c) Because Australia's Climatic Conditions are uniquely Favour- 
able. — ^^''ith her almost perpetual sunshine Australia is particularly 
suitable for this work, and besides the promise that her clear skies give 
of excellent photographic results, the feature that makes Australian 
co-operation especially desirable is that observations would be possible 

r2 




68 EEPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

in Australia at the time of year when they can be least successfully 
made at other great observatories — Kodaikanal (India), Mt. "Wilson 
(U.S.A.), South Kensington, Ac. At the first of these the rainy season 
lasts from November till February, at the second from December till 
May, and at South Kensington work is out of the question during the 
English winter; consequently an observatory in Australia, where the 
sunshine is practically unfailing from November till March, is essential 
for supplying the solar observations for this season of the year, and is 
necessary for the fulfilment of the scheme of international co-operation. 
The comment of Sir John Ehot, K.O.I.B., F.E.S. (late Astro- 
nomer and Meteorologist to the Indian Government), when this was 
pointed out to him, was : * Sir, this observatory is not only advisable, 
it is essential.' 

Besides the above reasons, which are of International Significance, there 
are others which may be classified as 

(d) Purely Scientific Reasons. — Apart from the educational value 
of astronomical research, the doctrine that all work should be relegated 
to the country most suitable for it requires that advantage should be 
taken of the unique climatic conditions of Australia, which is un- 
rivalled in the abundance of her sunshine and the clearness of her 
atmosphere. Such problems as the nature and cause of sun-spots, to 
which the recent discovery in America of vast vortices and intense 
magnetic fields has added so much importance — the nature of the 
corona and other solar appendages, the distribution of the elements 
over the solar disc, the pressure of the sun's atmosphere, solar rota- 
tion, the cause of the remarkable differences between the spectra from 
the centre of the disc and from the limb, the connection betwen solar 
disturbances and terrestrial phenomena are all questions of world-wide 
interest, and it may be hoped that Australia will share in the task of 
elucidating them. 

(e) Practical Reasons. — It would be to Australia's advantage to 
undertake the work. Much has been written about the connection 
between solar and terrestrial phenomena, and it is the earnest hope of 
solar investigators that this subject may be fully dealt with at observa- 
tories well equipped for the purpose. The Council of the Royal Society 
of London urges the establishment of an observatory in Australia, 
' especially as the subject includes the connection between solar changes 
and meteorological and magnetic phenomena.' Moreover, the great 
work on solar radiation carried out in Washington by the Astrophysical 
Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution ' was deliberately under- 
taken in the hope of improving weather forecasts,' and it is well known 
that the Indian Solar Observatory was erected in the belief that it would 
ultimately furnish results of direct value in famine prediction, the action 
taken by the India Office being based upon the Famine Commission 
Report of 1850. 

The arguments for the establishment in Australia of an observatory 
devoted to solar physics are summarised below: — 

National Reasons. — (a) 'The advancement of science.' (b) 'The 
educational advantages accruing from the study of an intellectual sub- 
ject. ' (c) ' The practical advantages which meteorology may fairly 



ESTABLISHING A SOLAR OBSERVATORY IN AUSTRALIA. 69 

expect to gain from a proper understanding of the connection between 
solar and terrestrial phenomena. 

International Reasons. — The necessity for Australian co-operation 
with other nations in solar work is exemplified under the following 
heads : — 

(a) ' Australia's position in longitude would enable her to fill a 
gap at present existing in the chain of observatories round the earth. 

(b) ' Australia's position in latitude. No station devoted to solar 
research exists south of the equator, where one is required to extend and 
verify the work of the Smithsonian Institution's Observatory at 
Washington. 

(c) ' Australia's clinical conditions would allow investigations to 
be made under excellent conditions at a time of year when, on account 
of the rainy season, work is generally impossible at oCher observatories.' 

History of the Movement. 

In April 1907 a letter to the Adelaide papers aroused some interest 
in the matter, and the Premier of South Austraha was asked for funds 
to enable the Adelaide Observatory to undertake the work. This was 
refused on the ground that the Observatory was about to be absorbed 
by the Commonwealth Government. 

At the last Congress of the International Solar Research Union in 
Paris in May 1907, Sir Norman Lockyer proposed a resolution support- 
ing the movement, and this was carried unanimously. 

A copy of this resolution was forwarded by the Chairman of the 
International Union to the Colonial Office, whence it was referred to the 
Governor-General of Australia. 

The Commonwealth Government, in the absence of an Astronomical 
Department, referred the matter to the Meteorological Department, 
which reported that ' it is very desirable that such an observatory should 
be established, &c.,' and inquiries were made as to the personnel and 
equipment of existing State observatories for carrying out the work. 
These, however, replied that they were not equipped for the purpose, 
and could only undertake the work if the necessary funds should be 
forthcoming from the Commonwealth Government. 

The British Association offered its influential support, and formed a 
committee to co-operate with Australian astronomers in furthering the 
movement. Sir David Gill, K.C.B., P.R.S., being Chairman. 

The Eoyal Society expressed its approval of the project and suggested 
that the proposed observatory should be afiiliated with the Adelaide 
University. But the Council of the University, though willing to 
undertake the work, could only do so if the funds were forthcoming 
from an external source. 

A broader basis for this observatory, however, lay in its being 
affiliated not with one university but with all the universities within 
the Commonwealth, the matter being one which affects the prestige of 
Australian science not the science of any one particular State. 

Upon these lines therefore the Australian Solar Physics Committee 
was formed at the meeting of the Australasian Association for the 
Advancement of Science in Brisbane, January 1909, the members 
being: — 

G. H. Knibbs, Esq., Commonwealth Statistician, President; W. 



70 REPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Geoffrey Duffield, D.Sc, Hon. Secretary; Professor Bragg, F.R.S., 
President of the Australasian Association; Senator Keating; the Pro- 
fessors of Physics of the Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, and Hobart 
Universities, which they officially represent, and the Government 
Astronomers of the Australian States. 

This Committee formed a deputation which waited upon the 
Minister for Homo Affairs of the Commonwealth Government (Fisher 
Ministry), and presented the resolution which had been passed by the 
Council of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of 
Science. The Minister replied that ' he thought Parliament would be 
not less public spirited than private citizens, and would probably give 
pound for pound to the erection and equipment fund, and might main- 
tain the observatory after its establishment. ' 

Scientific Institutions supporting the Proposal. 

The International Solar Research Union. — At the meeting in Paris, 
May 1907, the following resolution was proposed by Sir Norman 
Lockyer and carried unanimously : ' That this International Congress 
hears with great satisfaction of the proposal to establish a Solar Physics 
Observatory in Australia, and expresses its decided opinion that an 
observing station in that part of the world would fill a gap which now 
exists in the system of observatories distributed over the earth, and 
yield contributions of great value to the study of solar phenomena. ' 

The Royal Society, February 10, 1908. — ' The Royal Society are 
strongly of opinion that the foundation and equipment of a Solar 
Observatory in Australia are desirable, or else, as an alternative, that 
provision for systematic solar observations, including an adequate staff, 
should be made at one of the existing observatories. They are of 
opinion that a very valuable contribution could thus be made by 
Australia to the international scheme for solar research now in opera- 
tion, especially as the subject includes the connection between solar 
changes and meteorological and magnetic phenomena, in the systematic 
international observation of which Australia already takes a share.' 

The British Association for the Advancement of Science, September 
1908, formed a committee to co-operate with Australian astronomers 
' to aid in the establishment of a Solar Observatory in Australia, ' con- 
sisting of Sir David Gill, F.R.S. (Chairman), Dr. W. G. Duffield 
(Secretary), Professors Schuster and Turner, Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, 
and Mr. F. K. McClean, and a grant-in-aid of 501. was voted. 

Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, Brisbane, 
January 1909. — The Council passed the following resolution : ' That the 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science records its 
unanimous support to the movement for the establishment in Australia 
of an Observatory devoted to the study of solar physics, which has been 
so strongly advocated by the International Union for Co-operation in 
Solar Research, by the Royal Society, and by the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and which is essential to the scheme of 
solar study instituted by the International Union. The practical 
possibilities, combined with the scientific value of solar research, makes 
the project a matter of national and of international importance.' 
' That a copy of the foregoing resolution be forwarded to the Prime 
Minister of Australia, with an urgent appeal that steps be taken to 



ESTABLISHING A SOLAR OBSERVATORY IN AUSTRALIA. 71 

secure the establishment of a Solar Physics Observatory in Australia.' 
' That a committse be formed to aid in tlie work of establishing such 
an observatory. ' * That in view of the generous attitude of the British 
Association in granting 50L towards the establishment of the observa- 
tory a similar sum be granted by the Australasian Association.' 

Smithsonian Institution, October 31, 1907. — The Secretary writes: 
' Mr. Abbot, the Director of the Astrophysical Observatory here, with 
whom I have conferred in the matter, is of the opinion that Australia 
furnishes excellent sites for a Solar Observatory because of cloudless- 
ness. It is now known that there are rapid changes occurring on the 
Sim, which for their proper understanding require nearly continuous 
observations to be made. Few existing observations are situated in 
regions where good solar observing conditions are common, and there is 
abundant opportunity for valuable work on the part of the proposed 
Australian Observatory. Its situation is exceptionally favourable both 
in latitude and longitude, and therefore the more desirable, so that it 
may be unhesitatingly said that an Australian Solar Observatory is likely 
to promote knowledge in many branches of science. While, of course, 
the advantage to science is a sufficient argument among scientific men 
for the usefulness of such an establishment, it may be fairly claimed 
that such an observatory would have a direct value for the people of 
Australia. Indeed there is no branch of astronomy which more fully 
deserves the support of the Government because of its probable utility, 
than the study of solar radiation in its relations to lile and climate and 
power upon the earth. ' 

In addition to the above institutions and to British and Colonial 
observatories the project has the support of the following : ' The 
Mount "Wilson Solar Observatory, California, U.S.A.; 'The Eoyal 
Observatory of Cetania and Etna ' ; and ' The Society of Italian 
Spectroscopists.' 



The Present State of our Knowledge of the Tipper Atmosphere as 
obtained by the use of Kites, Balloons, and Pilot Balloons. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Messrs. E. Gold arid W. A. 
Harwood. 

[Plate II.] 

CONTKNTS. PAGE 

I. Introductory 71 

II. Hutorical . . ' 72 

III. (a) Apparattts and Iiistruments . 79 

(b) Testing of Instruments 84 

IV. Temperature (a.) Mean Temperatures and Gradients of Temperature . . 92 

(b) Temperatures under Cyclonic and Anti-cyclonic Con- 

ditioiu 96 

(c) The Advective and Convective Regions .... 102 

(d) Ammal Variation of Temperature ..... 109 

(e) Diurnal Variation of Temperature 115 

V. Wind. Changes in Velocity and Direction with Height . . . ,116 

I. Introductory. 

The past decade has been most fruitful in the application of self-recording 
instruments to the investigation of the free atmosphere. But the work 
has been mainly confined to obtaining, collecting, and publishing the 



72 RBPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

results of the observations. The results obtained from manned balloons 
were arranged and discussed very fully and systematically ten years ago 
by the German meteorologists, Von Bezold, Assmann, Berson,and Siiring ; ' 
but the discussion of the much more numerous results obtained with 
kites and registering balloons has been devoted to isolated ascents or to 
special points, frequently imperfectly treated owing to the gaps and to 
the difficulty of dealing single-handed with a mass of undigested material. 
At the same time very much valuable knowledge has been acquired, and 
the meteorologist of to-day is in consequence much better equipped in 
many respects for attacking the problems to which his predecessors could 
bring only the ingenuity of speculation and of theory, although his work 
may be more difficult and less entertaining than theirs. 

By the use of kites a fairly complete knowledge has been obtained of 
the variation in the meteorological elements up to a height of 2 km. 
Registering balloons have furnished information regarding the distribution 
of temperature up to a height of 15-20 km. But the comparative absence 
of arrangement of the observations in a form suitable for discussion has 
necessitated a considerable amount of labour in extracting from the 
observations the information they contained. It has therefore been im- 
possible to deal with all the branches of investigation, and the discussion 
of the observations of humidity, of the constitution and formation of 
clouds and fogs, and of the electrical state of the free atmosphere has not 
been included. The Report deals with the instruments and the methods 
of investigation and with the results for temperature and for wind. 

II. Historical Summary. 

Free Manned Balloons.'^ — The scientific investigation of the conditions 
of the upper atmosphere was begun about the middle of the eighteenth 
century by Bouguer, a French Academician, during a geodetic expedition 
to Peru. He fixed the height of the freezing-point in various latitudes 
by means of observations on the slopes of mountains. The first scientific 
manned balloon ascent was made by Jeffries, November 30, 1784, from 
London. The balloon-car contained a thermometer, barometer, hygro- 
meter, electrometer, mariner's compass, and bottles filled with water for 
obtaining samples of air. The rate of fall of temperature was found to 
be 1° F. per 360 feet. No change of electrical conditions was indicated. 
Samples of air were sent to the Royal Society, but were apparently not 
analysed ; a paper on the results was read before the Society, January 
1786. The observations of Jeffries compare favourably with those 
made until the adoption of aspirated instruments. Some time then 
elapsed before the next ascent for purely scientific purposes was made. 
In 1803-04 Robertson, a Belgian physicist, made three ascents from Ham- 
burg and St. Petersburg. The third was made under the auspices of the 
Russian Academy, which proposed to examine the change in the rate of 
evaporation of fluids, change of magnetic force and magnetic inclination, 
and the increase of solar heat with increase of height. The Paris Academy 
of Sciences took up the investigation in the same year, and Biot and Gay- 
Lussac together (August 24, 1804), and later Gay-Lussac alone (Septem- 
ber 16, 1804), made ascents from Paris to verify Robertson's St. Peters- 
burg results, which indicated that the magnetic force diminished with 

' WisgenschaftUcTie Luftfahrten, 1899. 

" A good general account of the ascents made before 1870 is given in Travels in 
the Air, by Glaisher, Flammarion, de Fonvielle, and Tissandier. 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 73 

increase of height. Gay-Lussac found the rate of fall of temperature 
to be 1° F. per 300 feet and that the magnetic force increased with height. 
No further investigation was made until 1850, when Messrs. Barral and 
Bixio made two remarkable ascents from Paris. They demonstrated the 
great thickness (about 15,000 feet) of some cloud masses and noted that 
while the light from the sky was polarised, that reflected from the clouds 
was not. At 23,000 feet they encountered a cloud consisting of ice 
particles.' The British Association first took part in the work in 1852, 
when Mr. John Welsh made four ascents from the Kew Observatory. The 
object of the ascents was to find the rate of diminution of temperature and 
change of humidity, to collect samples of air, and to examine the light from 
the clouds for polarisation.'-^ Recognising the probable effect of the sun 
on exposed thermometers, Welsh enclosed his thermometers in a polished 
metal tube through which air was forced by bellows, thus instituting the 
aspirated apparatus perfected later by Dr. R. Assmann of Berlin. The 
thermometers were very sensitive, falling through 20° F. in 11 seconds 
on being taken from a warm to a cold room. He attained heights ranging 
from 4 to 7 km., and found that the temperature fell uniformly, untU at 
a certain height, which varied on different days, the fall was arrested and 
the temperature remained practically constant through 600 to 900 metres. 
The uniform diminution was then resumed, but at a less rapid rate. The 
seasonal variation of the rate of fall of temperature was demonstrated. 
It was found that the light reflected from clouds was unpolarised.^ 

The experiments in connection with the British Association were 
continued by a Committee appointed at the Manchester meeting in 1861. 
The experimental work was undertaken by Mr. Glaisher, who with Mr. 
Coxwell|made twenty-eight ascents during the period July 17, 1862, to 
May 1866.^ The chief objects of the investigation were to find the laws 
of variation of temperature and humidity with height, and to examine 
the variation of magnetic force and electric potential. 

Glaisher at first employed Welsh's aspirated thermometers, but 
noticing that these recorded the same values as the exposed instruments 
he discontinued the aspiration. Subsequent observations have shown that 
the agreement between the indications of aspirated and unaspirated 
instruments was due to faulty exposure in the balloon-car. He took 
also maximum and minimum thermometers, ozone papers, and an electro- 
meter lent by Professor W. Thomson of Glasgow (Lord Kelvin). 

As the number of observations increased the conclusions drawn 
became more uncertain. To quote Glaisher's words : — 

' It was found that those taken in the morning hours did not accord 
with those taken in the afternoon hours, nor did those taken at one time 
of the year agree with those taken at other times of the year.' " 

In cloudy weather the rate of fall was 1° F. per 300 feet, but in clear 
weather 1° F. per 160 feet at first, and only 1° F. per 1,000 feet at 6 miles. 
Observations at night were made with the help of miners' lamps, when it 
was found that the temperature rose as the height increased. The results 
for humidity were similar to those of Welsh. At a height of five miles 
(8 km.) there was almost complete absence of water vapour. The time of 
vibration of a suspended magnet was found to diminish with increase 

' Natwre, xviii. p. 639. * Brit. Atsoc. Reports, 1852, p. xxix. 

• Phil. Trans., 1853. * Brit. Assoc. Beports, 1861-66. 

" Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1862, pp. 31, 376 ; 1863, p. 426; 1864, p. 195; 1865, p. 145 ; 
1866, p. 367. 



74 BEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

of height : a result contrary to that of Gay-Lussac, but in agreement 
with that of Robertson. 

In 1869 Glaisher made further observations to examine more closely 
the variation of temperature and humidity up to 1,000 feet. These later 
observations were the first obtained by means of a captive balloon. They 
indicated a decided diurnal range of temperature.' The work was not 
pursued further in England, but interest was stimulated in France, and 
many ascents were made by MM. Flammarion, de Fonvielle, and Tissan- 
dier. In 1876 two ascents were made by Tissandier, Croce-Spinelli, 
and Sivel, one of long duration (24 hours) and the other to a great height 
(9,000 metres). The apparatus carried included a pump to draw air through 
tubes filled with potash for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide, a 
spectroscope for examining the water- vapour line in the solar spectrum, 
two aneroid barometers, one giving the pressure from to 4,000 m. and 
the other from 4,000 m. to 10,000 m., two barometric tubes for registering 
the lowest pressure, and thermometers.^ This ascent resulted in the 
death by suffocation of Croce-Spinelli and Sivel, and in consequence only 
one ascent was made in France between 1875 and 1878. The successful 
construction of the large GifEard captive balloon in Paris in 1878 gave a 
great impetus to aeronautical work in France.'* In 1879 the Paris Academy 
inaugurated its first series of ascents, and Tissandier made observations 
to verify the barometer height formulae by means of photographs from 
the car, a method originally proposed by Le Verrier in 1874.'' In the 
same year (1879) the International Congress of Meteorologists at Rome 
passed several resolutions relating to the importance of balloon observa- 
tions in meteorological investigation.'' In July 1881 MM. W. de Fonvielle 
and Lippmann made an ascent after midnight, carrying only barometer 
and thermometer,'' and about the same time the investigation was 
resumed in England by the Meteorological Office." 

The number of balloon ascents accomplished and the observations 
made had now become very numerous and widely distributed, but it was 
seen that the results were strangely discordant. No organised balloon 
ascents had taken place in Germany, though isolated ascents had been 
made since about 1880 ; but German meteorologists attributed the 
discrepancies to faulty instruments and methods of observation. Com- 
parisons by A. L. Rotch in ascents from Paris and Berlin showed that 
Richard's self-recording thermometer registered 8° C. higher than a sling 
thermometer, and the latter 2° higher than a new aspirated thermometer 
designed by Assmann in 1887.* These tests showed the necessity for the 
use of accurately specified methods of observation and thoroughly tested 
instruments in all countries. The doubt thrown on all previous obser- 
vations caused the Prussian Meteorological Institute to inaugurate a 
series of experiments to repeat the work of Glaisher. Forty-seven ascents 
were made between June 1888 and February 1895. In these ascents 
the instruments were placed in a well-ventilated enclosure and their indica- 
tions were compared with those of instruments exposed as in earlier 
ascents. In four cases self-recording instruments were used. On December 4, 
1894, Dr. A. Berson rose to a height of 9,600 m., the highest level at 

' ' On tlie Changes of Temperature and Humidity of the Air up to 1,000 feet,' 
J. Glaisher, Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1869. 

- Compt. rend., 1875, pp. 803, 866, 976, 1060. 

" Nature, vol. xviii. p. 291. * Ihid., vol. xlviii. p. 160. 

* lUd., vol. XX. p. 58. • Ihid., vol. xxiv. 225. 

• Ihid., vol. XXV. p. 158. " Ihid., vol. xlv. p. 168 ; vol. xliv. p. 512. 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 7;J 

which observations had been made,' and later (in 1901) Berson and Siiring 
rose to 10,800 m.- On the latter occasion both aeronauts were uncon- 
scious at the maximum height, and revived only after the balloon had 
descended about 4,000 m. In Glaisher's famous ascent from Wolver- 
hampton, September 5, 1862, the last observation was made at 8,900 m., 
although the balloon was supposed subsequently to have risen 2,000 m. 
higher.^ Special precautions were taken to make the two series of ascenta 
comparable, Berson going so far as to make an ascent from the Crystal 
Palace in September 1898, a simultaneous ascent being made from Berlin. 
The final results showed that Glaisher's results for temperature were 
faulty, the error probably arising through insufiicient ventilation. In 
the ascent of December 1894 the temperature at the maximum height 
was —54° C. by the aspirated thermometer and —11° C. by the exposed 
thermometer. The results, together with those of Berson and Siiring, 
and of a simultaneous ballon-sonde ascent, are shown for comparison in 
the table '' : — 



Height, metres 


Fall of Temperature " C. per 1,000 metres 




Glaisher Beraon 


July 31, 1901 
Berson Ballon- 






& Siiring 


sonde 


0-1,000 


7-5 


50 


7-2 


8-3 


1,000-2,000 


6-5 


50 


6-8 


6-i 


2,000-3,000 


50 


5-4 


3-7 


4-2 


3,000-4,000 


42 


5-3 


5-2 


5-1 


4,000-5,000 


3-8 


6-4 


7-4 


5-7 


5.000-6,000 


3-2 


6-9 


5-5 


6'3 


6,000-7,000 


30 


6-6 


7-2 


4-7 


7,000-8,000 


20 


70 


7-2 


7-6 


8,000-9,000 


1-8 


9-0 


3-6 


7-1 



It will be noted that in Berson's observations there was no indication 
of the isothermal zone discovered by Teisserenc de Bort and Assmann.'' 

Later experiments with free manned balloons have been in most 
cases confined to lower altitudes and have been made principally for 
comparison with, and verification of, observations made by other means. 

Captive Balloons. — After Glaisher's work in 1869, captive balloona 
were little used for scientific purposes until 1890. In 1876 Mendeleef 
proposed to construct a large captive balloon and to fit it with apparatus 
of his own design,"" and in September 1889 tests of barometer-height 
formulae were made by means of a captive balloon in Russia ; but in 
general the shocks and jars sustained by these balloons owing to gusts 
of wind, together with their violent oscillations and frequent rapid rotation, 
rendered them extremely unsuitable for mercury barometers, while in 
winds of only moderate strength they refused to rise to any considerable 
height and drifted along close to the ground. B. D. Archibald in 1885 
proposed to employ a captive kite-balloon to get rid of the captive balloon's 
defects, and in 1887 claimed to have obtained satisfactory results.^ The 

' Nature, vol. liii. p. 136. 

'' Ergehnisse der Arheiten avi Aermi. Obs. Berlin, 1900-1901, pp. 221-233. 

' B7'it. Assoc. Reports, 1863 ; Travels in the Air, Glaisher. 

* Nature, vol. Ixv. p. 224. 

* The ballon-sonde record indicated that it was reached at 12 km. 

* Nature, vol. xiv. p. 517. ' Ihid., vol. xxxvi. p. 278. 



76 REPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

introduction of sufficiently rigid self-recording barometers and reliable 
recording tliermometers and hygrometers, however, rendered captive 
balloon observations far more practicable. ^ 

The kite-balloon of Siegsfeld and Parseval, a more elaborate apparatus 
than that of Archibald, was first used to raise meteorological instruments 
in 1898 at Strassburg, and has since been used regularly at the Prussian 
Meteorological Institute, Lindenberg, to obtain observations in calm or 
nearly calm weather. At most other stations ordinary captive balloons 
have been used, and in weather when both kites and captive balloons 
are useless, small pilot balloons have been employed to determine the 
direction and velocity of the wind. 

Pilot Balloons. — The use of small free balloons was first suggested by 
Le Verrier in 1874.^ In 1877 M. Secretan of Paris, under the direction of 
M. W. de Fonvielle, sent up a series of small indiarubber balloons in order 
to investigate the changes of wind direction with altitude and to determine 
the heights of clouds.^ 

The method was quickly adopted in America, and before the end of 
1877 it was decided to use these small pilot balloons regularly in Arctic 
work.'* They were also employed in 1879 by the French Academy in 
preliminary ascents to determine the paths which manned balloons would 
take.^ 

In continuation of the investigation of the variation of wind with 
height, M. Bonvallet in 1891 despatched ninety-seven paper balloons from 
Amiens, and sixty of the cards attached to the balloons were returned. 
The experiments were continued by Hermite during the period 1893-1898, 
and about half of the balloons sent up from Paris were returned from 
within a radius of 100 miles. 

Subsequently these pilot balloons have been employed regularly with 
theodolites in determining the direction and velocity of the wind at 
various heights, and to continue the observations when kites could not 
be flown owing to calm weather, or when an opposing current prevented the 
further rise of the kite.'' They have, too, the advantage of reaching greater 
heights than kites. 

Kites. — The first use of kites for scientific purposes was made by 
Alexander Wilson and his pupil Thomas Melville at Glasgow in 1749.'' 
In these experiments thermometers were raised to considerable heights. 
Three years later Franklin performed his famous experiment of collecting 
electricity with kites.** In 1822-23 the Kev. George Fisher and Captain 
Sir Edward Parry, using self-registering thermometers, obtained tem- 
peratures by means of kites at different heights in Arctic regions.^ Some 
time later, in 1840, Espy, an American meteorologist, employed kites 
to verify his calculations of the heights of clouds from measurements of 
humidity.^" The experiments also extended to England, for W. R. Birt 
of the Kew Observatory flew kites in 1847 with the hope of obtaining 
the changes of temperature, humidity, and wind with height. In 1883-85 
E. D. Archibald used kites with steel piano-wire to obtain the wind 

' Nature, vol. xlv. p. 1G8. 

^ Ibid., vol. xlviii. p. 160. » lUd., vol. xv. p. 458. 

* Ihid., vol. xvii. p. 171. = jua., vol. xx. p. 401. 

« P. 244; Compt. rend., 141, pp. 605-608, October 9, 1905; 142, pp. 918-921, 
April 9, 1906. 

' Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. x., part ii. pp. 284-286. 
' Sparks' Works of FranMhi, vol. v. p. 295. 
' Sj'mon's Meteorolog. Mag., April 1897. 
" Espy, Philosophy of Storms, 1841, p. 75. 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 77 

velocity, employing a Biram's anemometer, which registered the total 
amount of wind from beginning to end of the flight. ' 

In 1885 Alexander McAdie repeated Franklin's experiments on Blue 
Hill, U.S.A., using an electrometer,- and in 1891 and 1892 he measured 
the electric potential simultaneously at the base, on the slopes, and with 
kites above the summit of Blue Hill. About the same time L. Weber 
was making more extensive use of kites at Breslau, Germany, to collect 
electricity.-* About 1890 Wm. A. Eddy, after making experiments with 
various forms of kites, devised a modified form of the Malay tailless kite, 
and in 1891 used several of these to raise a minimum thermometer, pro- 
posing thus to obtain additional data for weather-forecasting. The ex- 
periments were continued at the Blue Hill Observatory, and in 1894 the 
first continuously recording instrument was sent up.^ Later, the weight 
of the instruments was reduced and more efficient kites were devised. 
A report on the work being carried out at Blue Hill was presented to the 
International Meteorological Conference at Paris, September 1896,'^ and in 
1898 the International Aeronautical Committee recommended the inclu- 
sion of the kite and kite-balloon among the apparatus of all the principal 
observatories.'' In the same year M. L. Teisserenc de Bort equipped a 
kite station at the Observatory of Trappes near Paris, and kites were 
used by M. RykatchefE at St. Petersburg. In 1901 Rotch made experi- 
ments with kites flown over the sea from steamships.'^ In 1902 kite experi- 
ments were made by W. H. Dines on land and also over the sea from a 
small steam-vessel, on the west coast of Scotland.^ The experiments were 
continued at Oxshott and subsequently at Pyrton Hill for the Meteorological 
Ofiice. In the same year successful kite experiments were made by 
Berson and Elias in a cruise to Spitsbergen, by Koppen in the Baltic,^ 
and by Fassig, for the American Weather Bureau, in the Bahamas. '° 
Teisserenc de Bort extended his experiments to Scandinavia in 1902-03, 
and under his direction kites were flown day and night when possible at 
Hald in Jutland during nine months. The apparatus was then transferred 
to a Danish gunboat and ascents were made over the Baltic. During this 
cruise the highest kite ascent up to that date was made, the height recorded 
being 5,900 m.'^ During the autumn of 1904 Professor Hergesell made 
a series of ascents from the yacht of the Prince of Monaco over the Atlantic, 
in the neighbourhood of the Canary Islands, and the Azores.'^ These 
experiments were followed in 1905 by a similar expedition, organised 
by Teisserenc de Bort and Rotch, to the neighbourhood of Madeira, 
TenerifEe, and Cape Verde, ^^ and the expedition was repeated in 
1905 and 1906." The experiments were extended at the desire of the 
International Committee to India in 1905, observations being made at 
Karachi in 1905 and subsequently at Belgaum.'"^ In 1907 a similar station 

' Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1884, p. 639, and 1885. 

' Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sciences, vol. xxi. pp. 129-134. 

' Electrotechnische Zeitsehrift., November 1886 and August 1889. 

' Quarterly Journ. Roy. Met. Soc, 1897. The observatory was established and 
maintained by Rotch. Much of the experimental work was carried out by H. H. 
Clayton. 

' Nature, vol. Ivi. p. 602. ° Ibid., vol. Iviii. p. 380. 

' Ibid., vol. Ixvii. p. 137. ' Ihid., vol. Jxvii. p. 311. 

• Ergeh. der Arbeit, am Aer. Obs. Lindenberg, pp. 1-20, 1901-1902. 

'" Nature, vol. Ixx. p. 228. 

" Travaux de la Station Franco Scandinave a Hald, 1902-03, p. 40. 

'= Compt. rend. 140, pp. 331-333, January 30, 1905 ; ibid.,^'p. 1569-1572, June 5, 1905. 

" Ibid., 141, pp. 605-608, October 9, 1905; 142, pp. 918-921,. April 9, 1906. 

'* Nature, vol. Ixxiv. p. 40; Ixxv. p. 211. '^ Ibid., vol. Ixxviii. p. 280. 



78 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

was established in Egypt,' and about the same time a station, at which 
daily ascents were to be made, was equipped at Glossop in England. - 
The upper air observations obtained at the English stations, viz., Pyxton 
Hill, Glossop, Ditcham Park, and Brighton, are published in the Weekly 
Weather Report of the Meteorological Office. 

Ballons-Sondes. — ^The use of small free balloons to raise self-recording 
meteorological instruments was proposed in Copenhagen as far back as 
1809.'^ At that time, however, no satisfactory self-recording instruments 
were available and the idea Avas not taken up. It was revived in 1873 
and 1874 by Jobert and Le Verrier, who proposed in this way to test 
barometer-height formula;,^ and again by Mendeleef at the International 
Meteorological Congress at Eome, 1879.'' It was not until self-recording 
instruments had been considerably improved, however, that satisfactory 
observations became possible, and Hermite in 1893 was the first to put 
the idea into practical form. Satisfactory ascents were made by means 
of a varnished paper balloon, ' L'Aerophile,' filled with coal-gas, but on 
the bursting of this it was resolved to construct a balloon of goldbeater's 
skin. With this second ' aerophile,' whose capacity was 113 cubic metres 
and weight 14 kgm., ten ascents were made by MM. Hermite and 
Besan9on between 1893 and 1898.'' In 1893 also Prof. Hazen attempted 
similar experiments in America.^ The objection was raised that the 
results obtained in this way were subject to the same errors due to insola- 
tion as those of Glaisher in 1861-69.*' Consequently a silk balloon, the 
' Cirrus,' capacity 250 cubic metres and weight 42 kgm., was constructed 
and made eight ascents from Berlin between July 1894 and June 1897. 
All the instruments were enclosed in an aspirated tube (a 'Urania Pillar'), 
designed by Assmann. The highest ascent of the ' Cirrus ' was made 
in September 1894, when the pressure fell to 50 mm. at 18,500 m. and 
the minimum temperature was — 67° C.** 

During the progress of the German experiments negotiations were 
carried on to obtain the general acceptance of uniform methods of ob- 
servation and the interchange of instruments with a view to evolving 
the best possible type. In consequence the International Meteorological 
Conference at Paris, September 1896, appointed a committee, consisting 
of de Fonvielle, Hermite, Assmann, Erk, Hergesell, PomortzefE, and 
Rotch, to organise a series of simultaneous international ascents.'" 

These ascents extended rapidly, and already in 1896 four manned and 
four registering balloons were sent up on the same dates from France, 
Germany, and Russia.'' In 1898 the ascents were extended to Austria 
and Italy, in 1899 to Belgium, and in 1901 to England. 

Besides the work done in connection with the International Com- 
mittee, extended series of ballons-sondes ascents were undertaken inde- 
pendently. Between April 1898 and 1902 Teisserenc de Bort sent up 
258 ballons-sondes, which attained heights of 11 km.,'- and similar 

' Quart. Journ. R. Met. Soc, 1908, p. 259. '- Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1907. 

' Ann. Harvard Obs., Ixviii. part I, p. 1 ; History and Practice of Aeronautics, 
John Wise, 1850. 

* Nature, xlviii. p. 160 ; Ann. Harvard Obs., Ixviii. part I, p. 1. 
' Quart. Journ. R. Met. Soc., 1897. 

« Comj}t. rend., 1S96, p. 961; 1897, pp. 424, 1180; Acad, des Sciences, April 15, 
1896; L' Aerophile, vol. i., No. 1 et seq. 1893. 
' Ann. Harvard Obs., Ixviii. part I, p. 2. 

* Nature, vol. li. « Ibid., vol. Ivi. p. 602. 
'° Ibid. II Ibid. 

'= ComjH. rend., 129, pp. 417-420; 141, pp. 153-155 ; Sue. Franc. Phys. Seances, S, 
1899, pp. 126-135. 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 79 

apparatus was employed in the Atlantic expeditions of Rotch and 
Teisserenc de Bort, and of Hergesell in 1902-05.' Rotch nijide the 
first series of registering balloon ascents in America at St. Louis in 1904.'^ 
In 1907 the International Committee at Milan, adopting the suggestion 
of Teisserenc de Bort, determined to carry out the observations on a 
much more extended scale in the northern hemisphere. The work was 
extended to Africa and India, and several stations in Great Britain 
began to take part regularly in the ascents. Almost all the countries 
of Europe had previously taken part in the monthly international 
ascents, made since 1901 on the first Thursday in each month, and 
these countries continued to participate in the extended series, which 
included ascents of several balloons on successive days at stated 
periods. The results are collected and published by the International 
Committee. In addition, special ascents have occasionally been made, 
such as those at Milan during the month of September 1906 and at 
Manchester, June 2 and 3, 1909. On the last occasion twenty-five 
balloons were liberated in twenty-fom- hours, and during the same 
period four balloons were sent up at intervals of six hours from most 
of the Continental stations. 



III. (a) Apparatus and Instruments employed in ascents of Balloons 
and Kites. 

The increasing use of captive balloons, which were subject to sudden 
shocks and jars, of ballons-sondes, and of kites, gave a strong impetus 
to the work of designing really satisfactory self-recording instruments. 
The light self-recording aneroid barometers. Bourdon tube thermometers 
and hair hygrometers of Richards Freres, came to be considerably used 
with kites and ballons-sondes. They recorded through levers and metal 
styles on smoked paper, wrapped round a revolving clockwork drum. 
They were used with kites at the Blue Hill Observatory, U.S.A., alongside 
a meteorograph designed by Fergusson, which included also an anemo- 
meter, and by Hermite and Besancon with ballons-sondes in 1893-98. 
In 189P Assmann described a new form of aspirated psychrometer, 
which was so far independent of shocks and jars as to be suitable for use 
with captive balloons.^ In the following year, in a review of the results 
of tests and observations made in Germany by balloons and captive 
balloons, he stated that the aneroid barometers and aspirated thermo- 
meters which had been employed were satisfactory, the aspiration being 
absolutely necessary in order to obtain consistent and comparable 
results. The self-recording instruments used registered temperature by 
means of a bent Bourdon tube filled with alcohol, humidity by means 
of a bundle of hairs, and pressure by an aneroid barometer, the whole 
being enclosed in an aspirated space.^ At the second meeting of the 
International Committee in 1898*^ Teisserenc de Bort exhibited a self- 
recording thermometer consisting of a blade of German silver fixed in a 
frame of Guillaume steel, which had small thermal inertia (requiring only 
15 seconds to indicate a sudden change of temperature of 9° C.),and which 
was not affected by shocks. Cailletet showed an instrument for photo- 
graphing simultaneously the face of the aneroid and the ground in order 

' See above, p. 77. ^ Ann. Harvard Ohs. vol. Ixviii. part 1. 

' Nature, vol. xliv. p. .502. * Ibid. 

» Ihid., vol. xlv. p. 168. « Ihid. vol. Iviii. p. 380. 



80 BEPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

to verify barometer-heiglit formulse.^ The ' dromograph ' of Hermite 
and Besangon, a theodolite registering automatically the azimuths and 
angular altitudes of a balloon viewed from the ground, was also ex- 
hibited, as well as a heliometer employed by Kremser of Berlin for 
measuring the apparent diameter of balloons, and used since with pilot 
balloons. 

At this meeting it was resolved that — 

(1) Thermometers of less thermal inertia than those previously 

employed were necessary. 

(2) Efficient ventilation was indispensable. 

(3) Instruments should be tested before the ascents under circum- 

stances similar to those encountered during the ascents. 

(4) An aspiration psychrometer suspended at least five feet below 

the car was the only instrument suitable for manned ascents. 

At the third meeting of the Committee at Berlin, May 1902,^ Assmann 
showed a compact apparatus for use with ballons-sondes, weighing only 
500 gm. The instrument registered through a pen filled with saltpetre 
on a sheet coated with lampblack which had been treated with a solution 
of ' Tonsol,' and the resulting red trace could not be obliterated either by 
handling or by immersion in water. Hergesell and Teisserenc de Bort 
also exhibited self-recording thermometers. 

The type of instrument finally evolved for use with ballons-sondes 
had (1) a completely exhausted Bourdon tube barometer, which was 
found to show less fatigue effect than the aneroid barometer ; (2) Teisserenc 
de Bort's bimetallic thermometer and HergeseU's German-silver tube ther- 
mometer ; (3) a hair hygrometer. The working parts of the instrument 
were enclosed in an aspiration tube. Similar instruments were designed 
for use with kites. 

The principal self-recording instruments which have at various times 
been used have been designed by Richards Freres, C. F. Marvin, 
Fergusson, L. Teisserenc de Bort, R. Assmann, H. Hergesell, and W. H. 
Dines. * Richards, Marvin, Hergesell, and Dines designed instruments for 
use with kites ; and Richards, Teisserenc de Bort, Assmann, Hergesell, 
and Dines ballons-sondes instruments. 

Kite Meteorographs. — The Richard kite meteorograph is a baro- 
thermo-hygro-anemograph. The barometer is a double aneroid, and the 
thermometer a Bourdon tube filled with alcohol. The hygrometer con- 
sists of a bundle of hairs, and the anemometer is of the Robinson cup 
type, operating through cogwheels and pulleys. The cups are mounted 
on a vertical spindle, projecting below the instrument, and thus 
work in an inverted position. The records are traced side by side 
on a smoked sheet fixed round a clockwork rotating drum, by styles 
connected through systems of levers to the various parts of the instru- 
ment. 

The whole instrument, with the exception of the anemometer cups, 
is enclosed in a protecting case. Ventilation is obtained by an opemng 
in the front of the case and perforations in the back. The instrument 
is kept head to wind by means of a vane. Its total weight is 1,820 gm. 

The Marvin kite instrument is similar to the Richard instrument. 
The barometer is a large double aneroid with steel boxes. The ther- 

> Compt. rend., 126, 1897, pp. 687-589. ^ Nature, vol. Ixvii. p. 137. 

* A detailed account of Dines' instruments and methods is contained in The 
Free Atmoiphere in the Region of the British Isles, M.O., No. 202. 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 81 

mometer consists of two annular Bourdon tubes of very thin steel 
filled with alcohol, and the hygrometer consists of two bundles of 
hairs. The anemometer originally used was a small instrument of the 
Robinson cup pattern operating through an electro-magnet on a small 
hammer and recording on the drum in steps, each step corresponding to 
2-8 km. of wind. The anemometer cups were originally fixed to the upper 
end of the kite, but later were placed on a vertical spindle above the hinder 
end of the vane, so as to be away from the disturbing influence of the 
remainder of the apparatus. The thermometer tubes and hygrometer 
hairs are enclosed in a polished tube open at both ends, which is kept 
always end on to the wind by means of the vane. The rest of the instru- 
ment is enclosed in a light protecting case. In later patterns of the instru- 
ment used at the Lindenberg Observatory, Germany, the anemometer 
was replaced by an Assmann anemometer. As the Robinson cups were 
very liable to damage in falling, Assmann's instrument was designed on 
the Woltmann flywheel anemometer principle. It took the form of an 
eight-bladed fan fitting into the end of the aspiration tube and operating 
through a train of cogwheels on the marking pen. The instrument, when 
used with the anemometer, is suspended from the wire some distance 
below the kite, to avoid any disturbing effect due to the latter. The 
weight of the instrument is about 1 -06 kgm. 

The Bosch-Hergesell kite meteorograph differs in having a Bourdon 
tube barometer and an annular Bourdon tube filled with alcohol for ther- 
mometer. The anemometer is of the Robinson type, operating through a 
train of cogwheels and pressing the style on the record sheet once per 
minute in a wind of 6 m.p.s. — i.e., one contact per 360 metres of wind. 
The thermometer and hygrometer are enclosed in an aspiration tube, 
and the anemometer cups are mounted on a vertical spindle'projecting 
through the instrument case. The protecting case is of aluminium and 
the frame of the instrument of magnalium. The total weight is 750 gm. 

The Dines instrument is of quite different design, i The frame consists 
of a wooden tray with raised sides for protecting the instrument from 
injury. In the middle of the frame a flat circular disc of white cardboard 
is caused to rotate by a small clock. The separate parts are mounted 
on the wooden frame and register through pen levers by means of special 
ink on the cardboard disc. The pressure and humidity are recorded side 
by side on one half of the disc and the temperature and wind velocity 
diametrically opposite on the other half of the disc. The barometer con- 
sists of a single aneroid, to the centre of which is soldered a projecting 
piece, which operates directly on the short arm of the pen lever. The 
thermometer consists of a long spiral copper tube filled with alcohol, and 
carrymg at one end a small thin-walled box similar in shape to an aneroid 
box. The tube is fixed to the under side of the frame, but the box projects 
through to the upper side. A projecting piece soldered to the middle of 
the free side of the box operates directly on the short arm of the pen lever. 
The hygrometer consists of a bundle of hairs enclosed in a ventilation tube 
situated m the under side of the frame, and the movement is transmitted 
to the pen by levers fixed to a spindle passing through the frame. The 
anemometer is actuated by the pressure of the wind on one or several light 
spherical balls suspended by about 40 feet of thread attached to the end 
of a lever pivoted on the instrument frame. The pull is balanced by 
a spiral spring, so arranged that the deflection of the recording pen is 
proportional to the wind velocity. 

' Symons, Met. Mag., vol. xxxix. 1904, p. 109. 

1909. 



82 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

The Marvin and Hergesell instruments are in general suspended from 
the wire some distance below the kite, so that the indications of the 
anemometer shall not be influenced by disturbances due to the kite. The 
Dines instrument is suspended in the centre of the kite, the anemometer 
thread being so long that the ball is out of range of the disturbances due 
to the kite. The method of attachment within the kite possesses consider- 
able advantages in protecting the instrument from injury. 

Ballons-sondes Meteorografhs. — Oi the different types of ballons- 
sondes meteorographs the first put into actual use was constructed by 
Kichard. It was a baro-thermograph, having a multiple-cell aneroid 
barometer and a Bourdon tube thermometer filled with alcohol. The 
record was traced on a smoked sheet fixed to a clockwork drum. It was 
employed by Hermite and Besanvon and by Hazen in 1893, and later, with 
various modifications, by Rotch at St. Louis, and in Russia. 

The first instrument employed by Teisserenc de Bort was a baro- 
thermograph consisting of an aneroid barometer and a small, slightly 
bent Bourdon tube alcohol thermometer. He found, however, that the 
aneroids showed considerable elastic after-effect,' and replaced them by a 
Bourdon tube barometer, which proved more consistent. The lag of the 
reservoir thermometer also led him to construct a metal thermorneter 
whose thermal inertia was much smaller. This consisted of a strip of 
German silver O'l mm. thick, 250 mm. long, and 9 mm. broad, mounted 
in a nickel-steel frame, the expansion of the strip being multiplied two hun- 
dred times by a lever. In its final form his instrument consists of a 
Bourdon tube barometer, a bimetallic thermometer, and a hair 
hygrometer. The th rmometer is a compound strip of brass and steel 
soldered together. Tli s strip has the form of a nearly closed ring, one 
end of which is fixed to the f lame of the instrument, but insulated from it 
by a block of rubber, and the other is connected through levers to the 
recording pen. The block of rubber serves to prevent conduction of heat 
from the frame of the instrument, a source of error in previous instruments 
amounting to several degrees C. The scale of the instrument is : — 

1 mm. of mercury = about 0-08 mm. deflection. 
1° C. = „ O'i mm. deflection. 

During an ascent the thermometer tube and the hygrometer hairs are 
exposed, but the rest of the instrument is enclosed in a cork case. The 
whole is slung by springs, inside a basket open at top and bottom, but 
lined round the sides with nickel paper. 

Hergesell designed a similar compound strip metal thermometer, but 
abandoned it owing to changes of zero produced by the straining of 
the soldered joint when the strip was distorted at low temperatures 
during the ascent. 

His final design included a Bourdon tube barometer, a hair hygrometer, 
and two thermometers. One of these latter is a bimetallic thermometer 
of the type used by Teisserenc de Bort. The other consists of a long, thin 
German-silver tube supported from its upper end by three nickel-steel 
uprights screwed into the base plate. The lever which operates the 
recording pen is fixed to the lower end of the tube, and is moved by the 
expansion or contraction of the tube. The tube projects through the base 
plate of the instrument, so that during the ascent a continuous current 
of air passes through it. The pressure, humidity, two temperature traces, 

' Vide Comjjt. rend., July 11, 1898. 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 83 

and the zero trace are marked side by side on the usual smoked aluminium 
sheet fixed to a revolving drum. The scale of the instrument is : — 
1 mm. mercury = O'l mm. deflection. 
1° C. = 0-7 mm. deflection. 

The clock is of invar and is guaranteed not to stop even at —80° C. 
The instrument is provided with a protecting case and weighs 750 gm. 
There is no forced ventilation, the rate of rise and fall of the balloon being 
deemed sufficient protection against solar radiation. In an ascent the 
instrument is suspended by springs in a basket lined at the sides with 
nickel paper. 

In order to reduce the weight of the instrument for use with small 
rubber balloons Assmann abandoned the heavy clockwork, and, after 
various modifications, devised the following instrument. Two cylinders 
free to rotate and with their axes parallel are mounted one above the other 
in the frame, and the record sheet forms an endless belt round them. One 
of the cylinders is turned on its axis by the expansion or contraction of the 
multicellular aneroid barometer, and the other cylinder and the record 
sheet move with it. The thermometer pen is carried across the sheet, 
parallel to the axes of the cylinders, by an endless thread passing round 
two pulleys, which are caused to turn by levers connected with a bimetallic 
thermometer consisting of copper and invar strips soldered together. 
The pressure is thus indicated by the movement of the record sheet, 
and the temperature by the movement of the pen across the sheet, the two 
motions being exactly at right angles to each other. The humidity is 
indicated in the same way as the temperature, a double-span hair hygro- 
meter being used. A small clock draws a pen across the record sheet to 
indicate the duration of the ascent, and to show if the balloon burst 
instantaneously on reaching the maximum height. Stoppage of the clock 
does not materially afiect the results. The thermometer strip and the 
hygrometer hairs are enclosed in a ventilation tube, and in some of the 
instruments are aspirated by means of an electrically driven ' Scirocco ' 
fan fixed into the ends of the ventilation tube. The total weight of instru- 
ment and case is 620 gm. 

The Dines meteorograph is of quite different design. ' It is a baro- 
thermograph, no measurements of humidity being attempted. The 
barometer is in general a partially exhausted German-silver aneroid, and the 
thermometer is bimetallic, consisting of a strip of aluminium or German 
silver and a rod of invar. The partially exhausted aneroid is used because 
it gives a larger scale than the totally exhausted box.^ In the Assmann 
instrument the record sheet moves bodily, while the barometer and 
thermometer elements are fixed ; in the Dines instrument the same 
effect is obtained by making the barometer and the record sheet fixed, 
while the thermometer moves bodily. The aneroid is fixed on one side to 
the frame of the instrument, and on its other side carries the thermometer. 
When the aneroid expands or contracts the thermometer is moved laterally 
as a whole, and the two pens, being attached to the thermometer, are carried 
across the record sheet and mark two similar and parallel pressure traces. 

The German-silver strip and the invar rod of the thermometer are 
approximately of equal length, straight and parallel to each other, and 
are separated slightly. They are fixed together at one end, and the 

' Symons, Met. Mag., July 1906, p. 101. 

■ The original and perhaps more important reason was to utilise, as far as 
possible, the more perfect elasticity of a gas instead of that of a metal. The boxes 
containing air have veiy little lag. 

G 2 



84 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



thermometer pen lever is pivoted to the two free ends. The expansion 
or contraction of the German-silver strip causes the thermometer pen to 
move at right angles to the pressure traces. The traces are marked by 
two sharp steel styles on a roughly silvered metal plate. The scale of 
the instrument is : — 

1 mm. mercury = about 0*04 mm. deflection. 

1° C. = „ 0-02 mm. deflection. 

The instrument with its case of polished aluminium, open at both ends, 
weighs only 55 gms. 

III. (6) — Testing of Instruments. 

Kite Instruments. — The barometer of the Eichard, Marvin, and 
Hergesell-Bosch kite instruments is tested under the receiver of an air- 
pump, by exhausting in steps. The pressure at each step is indicated 
by a mercury manometer. The barometer error due to temperature 
change is inappreciable at the heights reached by kites for the majority 
of the instruments. In those for which this is not the case, either a 
correction is applied as subsequently described for ballons-sondes instru- 
ments, or the aneroid or tube is replaced. In the case of the Dines instru- 
ment, however, the effect of temperature changes on the partially 
exhausted aneroids is considerable, owing to the contraction of the enclosed 
air and the comparatively thin German-silver walls of the box. The 
temperature correction is determined by placing the instrument in an 
alcohol bath, which may be cooled by carbonic-acid snow, and exhausting 
in steps at various temperatures. 

The method is rendered clear by the following table : — 



Temperature 


Height Indicated 


Corrected Height 


Correction 


°C. 


Metres 


Metres 


Metres 


51 













610 


610 







1220 


1235 


15 




1830 


1845 


15 




2440 


2470 


30 




3050 


3080 


30 





- 490 





490 







490 


490 




610 


1110 


500 




1220 


1720 


500 




1830 


2350 


520 




2440 


2960 


620 




3050 


3580 


530 


-10 


- 820 





820 







820 


820 




610 


1450 


840 




1220 


2060 


840 




1830 


2680 


850 




2440 


3290 


850 




3050 


3900 


850 


-20 


-1170 





1170 







1170 


1170 




610 


1780 


1170 




1220 


2410 


1190 




1830 


3020 


1190 




2440 


3640 


1200 




3050 


4250 


1200 

- 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 85 



The correction is thus : — 

A/t = 00i;t + 32-4(T„-T,). 
A/t = correction in metres. 
/( — height indicated. 
T(| = temperature at ground level in ° C. 
T, = temperature at height h + O'Ol A. 

The thermometers are tested by immersing them in a bath of alcohol 
cooled by carbonic-acid snow, the temperature being indicated by a 
standard pentane thermometer. 

The hair hygrometers are compared on the Continent with the 
aspiration psychrometer, and in England with the ordinary wet and dry 
bulb, the humidity being varied by means of sulphuric acid of different 
degrees of concentration or by other like means. 100 per cent, is obtained 
by wetting the walls of the enclosure. 

The Robinson and Assmann anemometers are compared with the 
indications of a standard instrument, the two being exposed together, 
or are placed in an artificial air-current of known velocity produced by a 
Scirocco fan. The Dines' anemometer is calibrated by hanging various 
weights on the thread of the instrument, each weight corresponding 
to the pressure of a definite wind-velocity on the spherical balls, prede- 
termined by Mr. Dines. For example : — 

Test of Dines' Anemometer. 



Weight 


Deflection 


Corresponding 
Wind Velocity m.p.s. 


gm. grs. 






8 123 


14 


4-5 


10 154 


1-7 


70 


20 308 


2-2 


11-2 


30 463 


2-7 


13-9 


BO 772 


3-7 


18-2 


70 1080 


4-7 


21-5 


80 1235 


5-2 


231 


90 1389 


5-7 


247 



Ballons-sondes Instruments. — ^The second meeting of the International 
Committee at Strassburg (April 1898) recommended that the ballons- 
sondes instruments should be tested as nearly as possible under the same 
conditions as those encountered during the ascent, and, if possible, to 
temperatures and pressures lower than those actually experienced. 

In the method of testing adopted by Teissereuc de Bort, the whole 
instrument was placed under the receiver of an air-pump and the pressure 
was lowered in stages down to about 50 mm. of mercury. The indications 
of the instrument at various pressures and atmospheric temperatures were 
thus obtained. 

To test the thermometer the Bourdon tube, or compound strip, was 
immersed in a bath of alcohol, the rest of the instrument being above the 
level of the liquid. The alcohol was then cooled by means of carbonic- 
acid snow to various temperatures down to —75° C. Teisserenc de Bort 
found that the Bourdon tube alcohol thermometers were satisfactory. 

The aneroid barometers were less accurate, the elasticity of the boxes 
berag imperfect and giving rise to a considerable lag and to changes of 
zero after being subjected to low pressures.' The effect of temperature 

' Compt. rend., July 11, 1898. 



86 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

on the indications of the aneroids was not examined, and it was assumed 
that errors due to this cause would be negligible in comparison with the 
general accuracy of the observations. With this method of testing, 
Teisserenc de Bort found that his maximum barometric heights in ascents 
from 1899-1903 agreed on the average with trigonometrical observations 
to nearly ± 1 per cent, up to heights of 10 kms., and at 4 kms. the difierence 
was negligible.' The error was not wholly due to the temperature 
coefficient of the barometer, but partly also to the lag of the instrument. 
Later observations indicated an average error of ± 2 per cent, at the 
maximum height and a very considerable lag at the lower altitudes.'^ 

After the work of Hergesell and Kleinschmidt on the temperature 
coefficients of the barometers'* Teisserenc de Bort began to test this effect, 
but instead of applying corrections for the temperature he replaced all 
tubes having too large a coefficient by new ones whose temperature 
coefficient was negligible. 

During the past two years, in accordance with the suggestions of 
Hergesell, certain of the barometers have been tested at various tem- 
peratures down to — 50°C., and it has been found that the majority of the 
barometric heights above 13 to 14 km. are too low by at least 0'5 km. 
At 20 km. the correction is often 2 km. and even more. Many attempts 
have been made to eliminate this effect of temperature, but they have 
not been altogether successful. When the temperature correction is 
applied it is specially noted in publication. It may be pointed out that 
the application of the temperature correction to the Teisserenc de Bort 
barometer is not easy, as the Bourdon tube is enclosed in a cork case and 
its temperature in an ascent is not accurately known. The thermometers 
are compared every two or three months with a standard thermometer 
in an alcohol or petrol bath cooled to —70° C. with carbonic-acid snow, 
the alcohol being continually agitated. 

The methods of testing the instruments employed in the ascents from 
St. Louis, U.S.A., in 1904-07 were similar to those of Teisserenc de Bort. 
The barometer was tested under the receiver of an air-pump, and the 
thermometer by means of a mixture of alcohol and carbonic-acid snow 
down to a temperature of —83° C. No correction was applied for the 
temperature coefficient of the barometer. 

A similar method of testing is adopted at the Observatoire Constantin, 
Russia. 

In Germany the usual method of testing is different, and correction 
is made for the temperature coefficient of the barometer. 

At the Lindenberg Observatory the barometer is tested by placing 
it under the receiver of an air-pump and exhausting to various pressures. 
The air-pump receiver, which is of metal, has triple cavity walls through 
which carbonic-acid gas is allowed to circulate. The temperature is thus 
reduced to various values and the temperature correction of the barometer 
determined for different pressures. The air inside the receiver is kept 
in vigorous circulation by an electrically driven fan, and the temperature 
is indicated by a standard thennometer viewed through a double-glass 
window designed to be free from condensation of moisture on its faces. 
The thermometer of the instrument is calibrated at the same time. The 
exhaustion is carried down to about 50 mm. and the temperature to 

' Jirlt. Assoc. Reports, 1903, p. 551. 

" Campt. rend., 141, pp. 153-155, July 10, 1905. 

' Beitrdge z. Physik der Freien Atmosphdre, 1, 1905, pp. 108, 208. 



I'RESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDCIB OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 87 



— 60° C. The hygrometer is compared with an aspiration psychrometer 
in an enclosed space. 

This method of testing necessitates somewhat elaborate apparatus, 
and in the German ascents, other than those made at the Lindenberg 
Observatory, the method employed is similar to that of Teisserenc de Bort. ■ 
The temperature coefficient of the barometer is determined by immersing 
the instrument (the clock having been removed) in the alcohol bath, and 
reducing the temperature. In some cases, instead of alcohol, acetone or 
petrol is employed. Any Bourdon tube or aneroid which has too large 
a temperature coefficient is replaced by a new one. The temperature 
correction of the barometer is applied in the form proposed by Hergesell 
and Kleinschmidt,^ viz. : — 

A ^^ = - A T (A - ayy), 

where A jw is the pressure correction to be found, 
A T the fall of temperature, 
A, a constant varying with different instruments, 
a, a constant for a given type of instrument, 
p, the pressure uncorrected. 

The constant a, according to Hergesell and Kleinschmidt, is 0'00046 
for the Bosch-Bourdon tube and 0*00064 for that of Richard. 

For a typical Bosch-Hergesell instrument the correction was given 
by the equation : — 

S^j = - A T (0 48 - 00046^0- 

In Germany, Kleinschmidt also tests the hygrometers at different tem- 
peratures. He found '^ that the length of the hairs was independent of 
the pressure and almost independent of the velocity of the ventilating 
air-current. The hygrometer was affected little by variations of tem- 
perature between -|-20°C. and -t-5°C., but became very sluggish below 

— 10° C. It recorded slow variations fairly well at —30° C, but was not 
even qualitatively suitable at — 40° C. 

Test of Dinei' Ballon-sonde Barograph. 



Temperature 


Deflection 


Pressure 


Deflection 


°C. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm 


15 


+ 0-30 


760 


0-60 






600 


3-35 






300 


10 78 






50 


15-85 





000 


760 


00 






600 


2-76 






300 


1000 






50 


15-28 


-30 


-0-60 


760 


-120 






600 


-(-1-58 






300 


8-72 






50 


14 75 


-60 


-1-20 


760 


-2-30 






600 


+ 0-38 






SCO 


7-58 






50 


1424 



' At Munich, Schmauss places the instrument in an air chamber surrounded by 
an alcohol bath. The air is thoroughly mixed by means of two fans. 

' Beitrage z. Physik der Freien Atmosphdre, 1, 1905, pp. 108-1 19, 208-210. 
' Ibid. 2, 1906-07, p. 99. 



88 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

He standardises the instruments (1) at normal pressure in moist and 
dry atmosphere ; (2) at reduced pressure and temperature in moist and 
dry atmosphere. 

In testing the Dines instrument the whole instrument is placed in 
an alcohol bath under the glass receiver of an air-pump. In this way 
the temperature correction of the barometer is found, at the same time 
as the thermometer is tested, by cooling the bath to various tempera- 
tures with carbonic-acid snow and exhausting the receiver in steps down 
to about 50 mm. at each temperature. 

Allowance is made for the pressure due to the depth of submersion 
of the aneroid in the alcohol. The alcohol is kept in circulation by the 
vigorous boiling ofi of the carbonic acid. (This is sufficient at times to 
make the liquid boU over the sides of the reservoir.) 

The temperature correction is more complicated than that of other 
instruments owing to the aneroid being only partially exhausted. It 
cannot be represented by a simple mathematical formula. A separate 
calibration curve is therefore drawn for each temperature, and the 
corrected pressures are read off from the curves. 

The temperature scales of all the different types of instruments are 
found to be linear, and the temperatures are calculated by means of a 
coefficient. 

The hygrometer scale is not quite uniform, and a correction is applied 
to the humidity indicated. 

Accuracy of Results. — The possible errors which may arise in observa- 
tions by means of kites have been practically eliminated by the con- 
struction of instruments almost completely unaffected by the shocks 
which occur during an ordinary ascent. 

No appreciable error can arise from solar radiation, because the 
wind which is necessary to raise the kite provides sufficient ventila- 
tion. The lag of the Marvin instrument is 1° F. when the temperature 
changes at the rate of 1°'5 F. per minute, corresponding to the ordinary 
rise or fall of the kite at the rate of 500 feet per minute.' The lag of other 
instruments is less. 

The effects of solar radiation in manned and captive balloon observa- 
tions on the Continent have been minimised by the use of aspirated 
instruments, while in England such ascents are made either near sunset 
or before sunrise, except when the sky is completely overcast. 

The chief errors in the observations arise in the ballons-sondes results. 

At the extreme heights reached by free balloons solar radiation is 
very intense, and may raise the temperature of an unventUated thermo- 
meter as much as 50° C. above that of the air.'^ 

This effect has been largely eliminated by the use of rubber balloons 
and instruments enclosed in highly polished ventilation tubes, and in 
many of the Assmann instruments by the additional precaution of as- 
piration by means of an electrically driven fan giving a current of 4 to 
5 m.p.s. The lag of the instrument has been diminished by the use of 
Bourdon tube barometers, the bhnetallic thermometers of Teisserenc 
de Bort and Dines, the tube thermometer of Hergesell, and ventilation 
tubes. 

The ventilation produced by the ascent of the balloon is now generally 

' Frank. Instit. Jouvn., 148, pp. 241-259, October 1899. 

' Assmann, Preuss. Aliad. Wigs. Berlin, Sitt. Ber., 24, pp. 495-504, and Inter- 
national Ascents Pavlovsk, November 8, 1906. 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 89 

accepted by observers as sufficient. Experiments have been made in 
which the barometer, by completing an electric circuit at a given low 
pressure, set into motion a ventilating fan, producing a current of 
3-4 m.p.s. No discontinuity in the temperature trace was produced, 
showing that the efiect of radiation in the isothermal zone was negligible 
under the conditions of the ascent.' It is also found that instruments 
of difierent types sent up together give results which are in good agree- 
ment. Thus in comparisons of the bimetallic thermometer of Teisserenc 
de Bort with the tube thermometer of Hergesell, the maximum difference 
between the temperatures indicated was 7"'3C., and the average difference 
was about 2" C. 

Comparisons of the Hergesell-Bosch with the Assmann instrument 
gave a maximum difference of temperature of 4°"1 C. and a mean 
difference of 1°*7 C. 

The maximum difference between the temperatures indicated by two 
Dines' instruments sent up from Manchester was only 4° C. and the average 
only 1° C. 

Tables typical of the comparisons of various instruments are given. 



Comparison of Hergesell and Teisserenc de Bort Thermographs."^ 



Height 


Temperature 


Height 


Temperature 


Hergesell 


L. T. de Bort 


HergeseU 

-33 

-39-8 
-47-5 
-54-5 
-59-4 
-60-9 


L. T. de Bort 


Km. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


+ 1-2 

- 2-5 

- 4-9 
-11-5 
-18-5 
-26-3 


+ 1-2 

- 2-7 

- 4-9 
-11-8 
-19 
-271 


Km. 

7 

8 

9 

10 
11 
12 


-33-4 
-40-2 
-480 
-55-5 
-612 
-62-9 





Comparison of Hergesell and Assmann Thermographs 


3 




Temperature 




Temperature 


Height 
Km. 




Height 






Hergesell j Assmann 


Hergesell 


Assmann 




Km. 






1 


9-9 70 


10 


-53-3 


-52-8 


2 


3-8 1 - 


11 


-51-3 


-52-1 


3 


- 2-4 


- 6-6 


12 


-50-8 


-52-0 


4 


- 9-2 


-12-8 


13 


-50-6 


-52-5 


5 


-16-8 


-19-9 


14 


-51-4 


-51-9 


6 


-25-7 


-29-8 


15 


-54-7 


-51-7 


7 


-35 


-38 6 


16 


-.53-3 


-51-7 


8 


-44-5 


-48-2 


17 


-52-4 


-51 8 


9 


-54-.'5 


-53-9 









' Ergeh. der Arbeit, am Aer. Ohs. Lindenberg, 1907, p. xiii. 

2 Ibid., 1906, p. 103. ' Ibid., 1905, p. 99. 



90 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Comparison of two Dines' Thermogra-phs.^ 





Temperature 




Temperature 


Height 
Km. 




Height 




No. 90 


No. 94 


No. 90 


No. 94 






Km. 






1 


- 1 


- 3 


12 


-56 


-54 


2 


— 7 


- 


13 


-55 


-54 


3 


-13 -15 


14 


-55 


-54 


4 


-10 -22 


15 


-55 


-54 


5 


-24 1 -2G 


16 


-55 


-56 


6 


-.30 -32 


17 


-55 


-56 


7 


-34 -37 


18 


-56 


-57 


8 


-40 -43 


19 


-57 


-57 


9 


-46 -60 


20 


-58 


-59 


10 


-52 -54 


21 


-59 


-60 


11 


-56 ' -54 

i 


22 


-60 


-60 



A. de Quervain in 1906 estimated from the results of his own and 
Hergesell's experiments the probable maximum and mean errors of the 
various thermometers due to lag.^ His results may be tabulated as 
follows : — 



Instrument 


Maximum error for fall 
of 4° C. per min. with 
ordinary ventilation 


Probable mean error 
under ordinary work- 
ing conditions 


Hergesell-Bosch Tnbe 
Teissereuc De Bort New Bimetallic'. 
Old 

Bourdon Tube 

Assmann Copper-Invar . 

Bosch New Bimetallic 

Kusnetzow (ring-shape bimetallic) . 


0-95° G. 

10 

2-5 

2-5 
3-8 
2-4 
2-2 


. o°c. 

05 

0-7 

1-4 



In continuation of the work of Hergesell and Maurer he examined 
(1) the small Bourdon tube thermograph of Teisserenc de Bort : German- 
silver tube slightly curved and filled with alcohol ; (2) the bimetallic 
lamellar thermograph of Teisserenc de Bort: strips of brass and steel 
soldered together and bent into a circle ; (3) the tube thermograph of 
Hergesell : German-silver tubes on supports of nickel-steel ; (4) the bi- 
metallic thermograph of Assmann : copper and nickel-steel ; (5) the 
Kusnetzow bimetallic thermograph : brass and nickel-steel bent into an 
S curve. The first three had often been used simultaneously. 

He concluded that (1) and (2) were in good agreement, (3) generally 
marked 0°-6 C. less than (2), and indicated lower amplitudes at sudden 
changes, though on the whole more sensitive than (2). 

He concluded that the mean error for the pressure records was + 2 mm. 
and for the temperatures ±2° C, so that the temperature gradients for 
1000 m. intervals are reliable to a few tenths of a degree C. 

A slight error is introduced into the bimetallic thermometer calibrations 
through change of zero by straining of the soldered joint. The Hergesell- 

' Weekhj Weather Report, February 28-March 6, 1909, p. 76. 
' Beitr. z. Physik der Fr. Atmos. i. p. 163, 1906 ; Zeitschr.f. Instrumentenk., 27. 
pp. 127, 128; April, 1907. 



TRESBNT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 91 



Bosch tube thermometer is free from this defect, but has other faults, 
pointed out by Schmidt and Gold, which prevent the possibility of its 
giving quite accurate results.' The possible calibration errors of the 
Dines instrument are somewhat larger, as the scale is microscopic, the 
calibration curves of the barograph are not linear, and the temperature 
correction is not a simple function. 

The average error found from independent calibrations is 0°'l C. for 
Continental instruments and 0°'8 C. for the Dines instrument at the lowest 
temperatures. For higher temperatures the possible error is of the same 
order of magnitude. The principal error in the temperature traces probably 
arises purely from faults of construction in the instrument, such as in- 
sufficient rigidity and sticking of the pens. The best way of eUminating 
these defects is probably to increase the rigidity by simplifying the con- 
struction and diminishing as far as possible the number of levers, joints, 
and bearings, so that the working parts operate as directly as possible on 
the recording pens. 

The heights indicated by the barometers have many times been com- 
pared with the heights calculated from trigonometrical observations, and 
the maximum heights have been found correct to ±2 per cent, up to 
10 km.^ The intermediate heights show greater errors with some 
instruments, owing to lag. An example given by Teisserenc de Bort 
showed large differences •*, e.g. : — 



Height 


Ascent. 

Difierence kms. between Barometric 

and Trigonometric Heights 


Descent. 
Difference 


Km. 
4 

8 
Max. height 


Km. 

1 

0-4 

0.1 


Km. 

-0-6 

-0'4 

0-1 



This instrument was specially chosen to show the effect. 

The average error in pressure of the Continental instruments amounts 
to 5 mm. of mercury and that of the Dines instrument to 8 mm. The 
errors to which these give rise in the final results are as follows : — 



Heights, km. 


5 


10 


15 


20 


Difference corresponding to : 
5 mms. 
8 mms. 


Km. 
01 
0-2 


Km. 

0-2 

0-3 


Km. 
0-4 
0-5 


Km. 1 

0-6 

10 



The errors introduced in working up the traces are very small in 
Continental instruments owing to their large scale, and for the Dines 
instrument are of the same order as those occurring in the calibration. 
The principal error in the final results arises from the uncertainty of the 
temperature correction of the barometer. Teisserenc de Bort estimates 
the correction due to this cause to be 0"5 km. at 14 km., and 2 km. or 
even more at 20 km. Hergesell, however, claims to have shown that 



' Quart. Journ. Roy. Met. Soc, 1909, Met. Zeit., 1909. 

- L. T. de Bort, and ttude de V Atmosphere, Observatoire Constantin, Fascicule ii. 



p. (0. 



» Com^t. rend., July 10, 1905, p. 153. 



92 BEPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

tie correction is considerably larger, amounting for some instruments 
to as much as 5 or 6 km. at 25 km.^ 

The indications of the thermometers are open to no such objections, and 
from the inter-comparison of different types of instruments it may be 
stated that the temperature is known to within ± 1° C. 

The indications of the hair hygrometer are considerably less accurate, 
as was shown by Kleinschmidt.- The instrument is quite unsatisfactory 
for work at high altitudes, and is unreliable at heights where the tem- 
perature is below —5° C, i.e., at heights greater than about 5 kms. 

IV, — (a) Mean Temperatures and Gradients of Temperature. 

The most important meteorological element of which observations 
can be made in the free atmosphere is temperature. Observations of 
pressure furnish practically the only means of estimating heights, and they 
cannot therefore be used to determine directly the distribution of pressure. 
The latter can only be determined indirectly by calculation from the 
observations of temperature and the pressure at the surface. Thus, 
while dynamical meteorology must necessarily be based on a knowledge 
of the pressure and density distributions, it rests ultmiately on the distri- 
bution of temperature, and in a lesser degree on that of humidity, in the 
free atmosphere. The calculations are obviously laborious even when 
sufl&cient observations are obtained ; the difficulty and expense of obtain- 
ing the observations make the task appear almost hopeless. Thus no really 
serious attempt has been made to calculate from observational data the 
actual synchronous distribution of pressure in the upper atmosphere at 
5-10 km. altitude at times when the surface distribution is meteorologically 
most interesting. Our knowledge is confined practically to mean values. 

In order to avoid as far as possible negative quantities and to 
facilitate calculation and comparison, temperatures have been usually 
expressed in degrees C. above the absolute zero— 273° C. on the ordinary 
scale. Atmospheric temperatures in temperate latitudes lie almost 
invariably between 200° and 300° on this scale, and the initial 2 may be 
generally omitted without risk of confusion. The letter A is used in 
connection with this scale ; thus (2)73° A is 0^ C. Further, the vertical 
gradient of temperature is expressed in degrees C. per kilometre and is 
reckoned positive when temperature diminishes with increasing height. 

The most complete contribution hitherto made to the discussion of 
upper air observations is that of Vou Bezold, Assmann, Berson, and Siiring ^ 
who dealt with the observations obtained from manned balloons. The 
following table gives the values they found for the gradient of temperature 
for each kilometre up to 9 km. : — 



Height .... 


O-l 


1-2 


2-3 


3-4 


4-5 


5-6 


6-7 


7-8 


8-9 km. 


Gradient 


50 


50 


5-4 


5-3 


G-4 


6-9 


6-6 


7-2 


90 


Number of Cases . 


59 


57 


42 


38 


23 


13 


5 


5 


2 


Probable Error in Gradient 


— 


— 


— 


— ■ 


0-1 


0-3 


0-5 


0-6 


— 



In the surface layer the gradient is afiected by inversions, i.e. , exceptional 
cases where the temperature increases with the height. Such cases occur 
most frequently in winter, and as the number of winter ascents in the 

' Ergeh, der Arb. am Aer. Obs. Lindenherg, 1906, p. iii. 

■' Beitr. z. Physili der Fr. Atmos., Bd. ii., Heft i. p. 99, 1906-1907. 

' Wissensehaftlicfie Liifffahrien, Braunschweig 1899, 3 vols. 



3-4 


4-5 


5-6 


6-7 


7-8 8-9 9-10 km. 


5-8 


6-2 


6-9 


7-5 


6-2 3-7 8-3 


40 


34 


22 


10 


3 11 


0-2 


0-2 


0-2 


0-4 


0-6 — — 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 93 

series was considerably less than that for other seasons, the actual mean 
annual gradient in the lower layer is less than that deduced from these 
results. The values of the gradient for the first two layers when cases 
of inversion are excluded are 6*4, 5*4, respectively. 

The following values have been deduced from the later manned balloon 
observations. 1901-07 : — 

Height . . . .0-1 1-2 2-3 

Gradient . . . .4-3 5-1 5-1 

Number of Cases . . 50 50 44 

Probable Error in Gradient — — 0'2 

The feature to which Berson drew particular attention was the com- 
parative constancy of the gradient up to a height of 4 km. and the very 
considerable increase in its value in the next layer. The more recent 
observations do not show the peculiarity so markedly and indicate a 
lower level for the discontinuity. Berson attributed the change to the 
fact that the upper limit of the lower clouds is nearly at 4 km. altitude, and 
near this height inversions are more frequent than in the layer above and 
below it. From actual observations in the clouds themselves he deduced 
that the gradient there agreed remarkably weU with the theoretical gradient 
for saturated air rising adiabatically, which we may call gg. Just beneath 
the upper limit of the cloud an increase in the'gradient was usually observed, 
and just above the upper limit the gradient vanished and the air imme- 
diately above the cloud was generally found to be warmer than that 
beneath its upper surface. It may be noted that the value of gg between 
5 and 7 km. is approximately 7° C. per km., agreeing closely with the value 
found for this region. The mean values for the gradient for each 500 m. 
up to 3,000 m., deduced from the monthly mean temperatures found from 
the kite and kite-balloon ascents made at Berlin and Lindenberg, 1903-07, ' 
are as follows : — 

Height . . . 0-0-5 0-5-1-0 10-1-5 1-5-2-0 2-0-2-5 2-5-3-0 
Gradient , . .5-5 4-6 44 4-8 40 5-0 

These values differ considerably from the corresponding values for the 
manned balloon ascents. This may be due to the fact that the kite ascents 
are distributed throughout the year, and are made under a greater variety 
of weather conditions. The large surface value is to be attributed partly 
to the fact that most of the ascents are made between 8 and 10 a.m., and 
the temperature gradient to 500 m. at that time is above the mean 
temperature gradient for the day. 

Gold ^ showed that the gradient up to 2 km. depended very considerably 
on the wind direction as well as on the time of the year. He found that 
inversions were most frequent in winter and with easterly winds ; that 
they occur very rarely indeed with N.W. winds, and then in summer, 
a season when they are not found with winds from other directions. 

Field ^ made kite ascents in India and over the Arabian Sea during the 
S.W. monsoon, and found a very rapid decrease of temperature up to 
300-400 m. At greater heights up to 3,000 m. the gradient was very close 
to that for saturated air rising adiabatically, i.e., about 5° C. per km. 

Hann ^ deduced from mountain observations that the mean tempera- 
ture gradient up to 3 km. is 5°' 7 to 5°' 8 per km. The earlier balloon 

' Ergehtmse Aeronautischen Observatoriums, Berlin and Lindenberg. 

2 Barometric Gradient and Wind Force, M.O., No. 190. 

' Indian Met. Memoirs, vol. xx. part 7. * Lehrbuch der Meteorologie, p. 104. 



94 KEPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

ascents give for the mean value 5"1, the later 4*8, while the kite ascents 
give 4" 7. It is therefore to be expected that the mean temperature of the 
air in contact with a mountain 3,000 m. high will be 2° to 3° C. below that 
at the same height in the free atmosphere. The elevated parts of the 
earth's surface exercise a cooling influence on the upper air, i.e., the moun- 
tains are not cool because the upper air is cooled by adiabatic convection, 
but they are cool because of radiation to space. It follows from this 
that convection does actually raise the temperature of the atmosphere 
up to 3 km. altitude above what it otherwise would be, a fact pointed 
out from theoretical considerations by Gold.' 

The results of direct comparison of simultaneous observations are in 
agreement. Berson ^ found from a comparison of the temperature observed 
in balloons with that observed on the Brocken (1,140 m.) that the mountain 
was 0°'9 C. colder than the free atmosphere. 

Shaw and Dines * found from twenty-eight kite ascents made in 
July, August, 1902, that the temperature on Ben Nevis (1,343 m.) was in 
all cases lower than that in the free atmosphere at the same height over 
the sea to the west of the mountain, the mean difference being 2°*6 C. 
Additional evidence in support of their result was furnished by the fact 
that the height at which the kite reached the clouds was invariably 
greater than the height at which the clouds were observed over the 
neighbouring hills. They suggested that the difference might be due to 
the westerly stream of air rising to cross the mountains and producing an 
approximately adiabatic gradient of temperature. 

Schmauss ^ has recently considered the simultaneous values observed 
on Zugspitze (2,965 m.) and recorded at the same height in balloon ascents 
from Munich, 90 km. distant. He found a mean difference of 1°"6 C. 
between the synchronous temperatures, and l°'l C. between the tem- 
perature recorded in the free atmosphere and the mean temperature of the 
day at Zugspitze. In both cases the free atmosphere had the higher 
temperature. Schmauss deduced also from a comparison of the tem- 
peratures on Zugspitze and Sonnblick that the latter was 0°"6 C. colder 
than the former at the same height, and consequently a mountain in the 
middle of a mountainous district is colder than one on the edge of such 
a district. This may be taken as further evidence that the atmosphere 
is cooled by the mountain. 

In dealing with the registering-balloon results, the mean temperatures 
at each kilometre for each month of the year have been formed for ten 
stations : Berlin, England (Pyrton Hill, Ditcham Park, and Manchester), 
Koutchino by Moscow, Munich, Paris, Pavlovsk (near St. Petersburg), 
Strassburg, Uccle, Vienna, Zurich. From these means the mean yearly 
temperature at each height has been calculated for individual stations, and 
the mean monthlj' temperature at each height for the stations taken 
collectively. 

The following table gives the mean gradient of temperature determined 
from the general mean values : — 

Height . . 0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 

Gradient . . 36 4-3 5-2 58 6-3 68 72 74 

Height . . 8-9 9-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 

Gradient . . 6-8 5-0 33 07 -08 00 -01 

' Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. Ixxxii., 1909, pp. 47, 67. 

^ Wissenschaftlicke Luftfahrten. ' PMl. Trans. A., vol. ccii. 

* Registrieriallonfahrten, Miinchen, 1908. 



PRESENT STATE OP OFR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 9i5 



The values agree on the whole with those obtained from kites and 
manned balloons, but they do not show the constancy of the gradient in 
the region 1-4 km. 

The maximum value occurs in the layer 7-8 km. and indicates that in 
that region the effect of radiation is to leave practically unchanged the 
natural gradient in air in adiabatic vertical motion. This result is in- 
teresting in connection with Gold's ' deduction that in the upper layers 
the absorption, being in excess of the radiation, tended to diminish the 
gradient by raising the temperature, while in the lower layers radiation, 
being in excess of absorption, tended to diminish the gradient by cooling. 
There must therefore be an intermediate height at which radiation and 
absorption exactly balance, and the results indicate that this is between 
7 and 8 km. in temperate latitudes. 

The values of the temperature at different heights deduced from the 
two series of manned-balloon ascents and by C. Abbe - from Teisserenc de 
Bort's registering-balloon ascents are given in the table : — 




The results agree sufficiently to prove that they represent with fair 
accuracy the temperature of the air. 

The following table gives the results for the ten stations, already 
enumerated, deduced from the registering-baUoon ascents for 1904-08, 
or shorter periods where results for the full five years were not available. 
Stations from which the observations were obtained to the end of 1908 
are marked with an asterisk.^ Observations for England '' from November 
1907 up to May 1909 are included :— 



station 


Munich' 


Strags- 
burg* 


Pari3 


Ucole* 


Vienna* 


Pav- 
lovsk 


Kout- 
chino 


Zurich 


England Berlin 


Mean 


Approxi- 




( 


100 I™ 
170 '"• 












(40 






mate 


516 m. 


140 m. \ 


100 m. 


190 m. 


30 m. 


140 m. 


480 m. 


.1 170 


120 m. 




Height 




\ 












(150 




1 


Surface 


79-2 


81-0 


81-3 


80-2 


80-4 


75-3 


78-0 


82-7 


83-4 


79-4 


80-0 


1 


78-6 


77-8 


78-4 


77-2 


76-8 


71-9 


75-3 


79-0 


78-3 


77-1 


77-0 


2 


74-1 


73-9 


73-7 


73-2 


72-7 


66-9 


71*8 


75-3 


74-4 


72-2 


72-8 


3 


68-6 


68-5 


690 


67-8 


67-5 


61-5 


67-4 


69-2 


69-0 


67-6 


67-6 1 


4 


62-4 


62-6 


63-6 


61'8 


61-5 


56-3 


61-3 


63-2 


62-8 


62-0 


61 -8 I 


S 


56-3 


56-2 


57-4 


551 


55-2 


50-5 


54-9 


56-5 


56-6 


55-8 


55-5 ' 


6 


49-5 


49-6 


50-8 


48-5 


47-9 


43-9 


48-3 


49-2 


50-2 


49-0 


48-7 1 


7 


42-7 


42-4 


437 


41-3 


40-4 


365 


40-6 


41-6 


43-3 


42-1 


41-5 ' 


8 


35-4 


35-0 


36-2 


33-9 


32-4 


29-4 


32-6 


33-8 


37-2 


34-7 


34-1 


9 


29-0 


28-1 


29-2 


26-8 


25-7 


23-3 


25-1 


26-9 


30-3 


28-0 


27-3 


10 


23-9 


22-8 


23-8 


209 


21-4 


20-9 


190 


22-4 


254 


22-7 


22-3 


11 


19-8 


18-2 


19-9 


■ 17-5 


18-0 


21-0 


17-3 


16-9 


21-2 


19-7 


190 


12 


17-4 


17-1 


20-2 


16-3 


191 


20-5 


18-1 


16-0 


21-2 


17-5 


18-3 ! 


13 


17-5 


17-4 


19-4 


14-9 


21-1 


23-4 


20-7 


17-6 


20-1 


18-5 


19-1 1 


14 


17-8 


17-7 


20-4 


16-3 


20-5 


22-2 


20-5 


18-0 


18-5 


18-9 


19-1 ! 


15 


19-3 


17-8 


19-8 


16-2 


20-8 


22-5 


20-4 


18-5 


19-3 


17-1 


19-2 ! 



The temperatures at all the stations except Pavlovsk agree very 
closely. Paris and England have values slightly but uniformly higher 

' Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. Ixxxii. pp. 67, 68. 
■■' Monthly Weather Review, September 1899. 

' The observations for Berlin and Zurich up to December 1907 are used. Those 
for Paris, Pavlovsk, and Koutchino up to September 1907. 

* Pyrtoa Hill 150 m. Ditcham 170 m. Manchester 40 m. Glossop 340 m. 



96 



EEPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



than tlie otlier stations. At Pavlovsk the temperature is continually 
lower than at the other places up to 10 km., after which it is higher than 
for the others. If the values for Pavlovsk are taken to be representative 
of the conditions for lat. 60° and those for Strassburg for lat. 50°, the mean 
difference of pressure between the two parallels at a height of 10 km. will 
be nearly 7 mm. if any difference in humidity is neglected. If allowance 
is made for the diminished density of the air at this height, it follows that 
such a difference of pressure would correspond to a steady W. wind of 
about 24 m.p.s. (metres per second).' Above 10 km. the temperature over 
Pavlovsk is higher than in lower latitudes, so that the difference of pre- 
sure would diminish with further increase in height. It would indeed 
diminish more rapidly than the density, so that the wind also would 
diminish in intensity above a height of 10 km. and the mean wind velocity 
would have a maximum value at about this height. It may be noted 
that the effect of the diminished proportion of water vapour present in 
higher latitudes would be to accentuate the difference of pressure in the 
upper air. The increase must however be small, and could not exceed 
2 mm. even if the air over Pavlovsk were perfectly dry ; the actual value 
is probably only a fraction of a millimetre. 

The higher values found for Paris and in England indicate that there 
is a slight horizontal gradient of temperature from W. to E., and this will 
produce in the upper air a corresponding gradient of pressure also from 
W. to E. or from ocean to continent. 



IV. (6) Temperatures imder Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Conditions. 

One of the most important questions which arise refers to the possible 
difference in the vertical gradient of temperature over cyclones and anti- 
cyclones. Hann ^ deduced from mountain observations that the gradient 
was less for anticyclones than for cyclones, and the difference was so con- 
siderable that the mean temperatiire of the atmosphere up to 3 "5 km. was 
5° C. higher over anticyclonic regions than it was over cyclonic. Gre- 
nander ' used the observations made in the free atmosphere at Hald and 
Berlin and found similar results both for winter and summer. The fol- 
lowing table gives the mean fall of temperature between the surface and 
5 km. for the different quadrants in winter and the mean values for summer 
taken from Grenander's results : — 



Quadrant 


Winter 


Summer 


N. 


E, 


S. 


W. 


Mean 


Mean 


Anticyclonic 
Cyclonic 


o 

24-3 
26-5 


250 
26-9 


o 

19-4 
28-7 


18-9 
30-6 


o 

210 
27-7 


27-4 C. 
29-9 C. 



The mean temperatures at different heights, calculated from Gre- 
nander's results, are as follows : — 



' The corresponding wind between lat. 40° 
observations is 15 m.p.s. 

2 Sitz. Wiener Akad., 1891. 

' Arkivfdr Matematik, &c., 1905. 



-50° deduced by using St. Louis 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 97 



Anticyclones. 





Winter 


Summer 


N. 


E. 


S. 
°C. 


W. 


Mean 


Mean 




°C. 


°C. 


°c. 


°C. 


°C 


Surface about 60 m. . 


78-7 


74-7 


74-4 


76-3 


76-2 


89-5 


1km 


74-4 


700 


71-1 


75-2 


73-2 


82-4 


2 „ . 


71 -3 


64-9 


68-4 


72-7 


70-2 


77-3 


3 „ . . . . 


66-3 


60-4 


65-3 


68-8 


66-2 


73-3 


4 


611 


55-7 


60-5 


63-6 


61-3 


68-4 


5 , 


54-4 


49-7 


55-0 


57-4 


55-2 


621 



Cyclones. 



Surface 


79-9 


77-5 


79-8 


78-8 


77-0 


88-7 


1 km 


75-0 


74-2 


74-2 


72-4 


72-2 


81-7 


2 


70-7 


68-4 


68-8 


66-4 


671 


75-2 


3 , 


66-2 


63-2 


631 


58-9 


61-6 


69-7 


4 » . 


59-4 


571 


57-5 


52-5 


55-4 


64-7 


5 „ . . . . 


53-4 


50-6 


511 


48-2 


493 


58-8 

1 



These results indicate that on the average the cyclones are colder 
than the anticyclones both in winter and in summer, the principal 
difference of temperature being found in the W. quadrant, while in the 
E. quadrant in winter cyclones are actually warmer than anticyclones. 
This is due partly to the fact that the cyclones have their lowest mean 
temperature in this quadrant and partly to the fact that on the whole 
anticyclones have their highest mean temperature in the same quadrant. 

The N. quadrant of the cyclone is throughout very considerably 
warmer than the E. quadrant of the anticyclone, indicating that the 
direction of the gradient between these two regions would be reversed at 
moderate heights. For example, if the surface pressures were 750, 760 
mm., the pressures over the two regions at 5 km. would be the same, 
396 mm. nearly. 

Berson deduced from the manned-balloon ascents the following 
values for the height of the 0° C. isotherm for different pressure distribu- 
tions : — 



Height 



Front of 


Anticyclone 


Back of 


Front of 


Back of 


Anticyclone 


Anticyclone 


Cyclone 


Cyclone 


2850 


2800 


1580 


2390 


1120 m 



If ' front ' and ' back ' be taken to be the same as E. and W. the 
results agree with those of Grenander for cyclones, although the difference 
is considerably greater. But for anticyclones the difference between 
' front ' and ' back ' is exactly the reverse of Grenander's results, and 
is much more accentuated. Grenander's results, however, refer to the 
winter, and the majority of the manned-balloon ascents were made in 
summer. 

Hanzlik,' using chiefly mountain observations, has arrived at the 
interesting conclusion that in the layers up to 3 km. at least, anticyclones 
in Europe are of two kinds. Some are warmer and others colder than 
the normal. 

A warm anticyclone is either the later development of an anticyclone, 



1909. 



' Denkschrift, Wien, 1908. 



98 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



previously cold, which has become stationary with rising pressure in the 
centre, or it arrives in the European area as a warm anticyclone with 
slow indefinite translatory motion of the centre. 

The cold anticyclone, on the other hand, remains cold if it moves 
quickly, but if it remains stationary for some time it gradually changes 
into a warm anticyclone. 

Von Bezold deduced from the Berlin manned-balloon ascents that 
even up to 8 km. anticyclones were warmer than cyclones. The following 
table gives the values of the gradient for the different layers : — 



- 






Height in kilometres 






0-1 


1-2 


2-3 3-4 


4-5 


5-6 


6-7 


7-8 

7-7 
6-2 


Anticyclonic . 
Cyclonic 
Intermediate . 


. 3-8 

61 

. I 5 6 


40 
55 

7-2 


5-3 
5-7 
5-7 


5-4 
53 
3-9 


6-4 
6-5 
6-9 


72 
67 


71 
6-4 

— . 



Thus the temperature falls by 4° '2 C. less in anticyclones than in 
cyclones in the first 5 km., after which the difference diminishes, but is 
stUl 2° -5 C. at 8 km. 

The results from registering balloons have been taken for those cases 
in which the pressure, reduced to sea-level, exceeded 770 mm. and for 
those in which it was less than 750 mm. in order to obtain quite distinct 
distributions. 

The following table gives the mean gradients for different layers up 
to 14 km. and the mean temperatures at the various heights : — 







Gradients 




Temperatures 


Height 


Pressure 


No. of Pressure 


No. of 


Pressure 


Pressure 


<750 


Cases >770 


Cases 


<750 


>770 





_ 


1 





77-2 


760 


1 


39 


15 


-045 


51 


73-3 


76-5 


2 


5'5 


15 


26 


51 


67-8 


73-9 


3 


5d 


15 j 445 


51 


62 2 


69 4 


4 


6-4 


15 ' 5-65 


51 


55-8 


63-8 


6 


6-45 


15 6 4 


51 


493 


57-3 


6 


645 


15 6-8 


51 


42-9 


60 6 


7 - 


7-25 


15 7-2 


51 


35-6 


43-5 


8 


6-35 


15 ! 7-8 


51 


29-3 


35-7 


9 


4-3 


15 7-4 


50 


250 


28-3 


10 


27 


15 6-5 


48 


22-3 


21-7 


11 


1-4 


14 5-6 


46 


209 


161 


12 


-00 


11 3-4 


43 


21-0 


12-7 


13 


-00 


9 1-0 


35 


210 


11-7 


14 


-0-2 


8 -0-7 


29 


21 2 


12-4 



If a correction is applied to the temperature owing to the irregular 
distribution of the ascents throughout the year and to the fact that four 
of the low-pressure cases are for Pavlovsk, which has a mean surface tem- 
perature about 5° C. below that of the other places, the surface tempera- 
tures for the low and high pressures become 81 "8 and 784 respectively. 

If we apply corrections to the gradient also, to allow for the unequal 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 99 

distribution and for the undue influence of Pavlovsk, we obtain, as cor- 
rected values for the gradients in the two cases, the following values : — 



10 
11 
12 
13 

14 



Pressure Pressure 



<:750 

51 
6-5 
5-6 
6-4 
6-3 
6-4 
70 
6-6 
4-5 
3-4 
1-7 
01 
-1-2 
0-3 



>770 




3 
4 
5 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
6 

48 

2-8 

10 

-0-5 



Tt 


To 


81-8 


78-4 


76-7 


77-8 


70-2 


74-1 


64-6 


69-3 


58-2 


63-5 


51-9 


57-1 


45-5 


50-4 


38-5 


43-2 


31-9 


35-6 


27-4 


28-2 


240 


22-3 


22-3 


17-5 


22-2 


14-7 


23-4 


13-7 


231 


14-2 



80-1 
77-0 
72' 7 
67-5 
61-7 
55-4 
48-6 
41-4 
34-0 
27-2 
22-2 
190 
18'7 
19-7 
19-6 



800 
771 
72-8 
676 
61'8 
55-5 
48-7 
41-5 
34-1 
27-3 
22-3 
190 
18-3 
191 
191 



The column T, gives the corrected mean temperature for pressure 
<750, T.2 that for pressure > 770, T3 is the approximate mean tempera- 
ture of the intermediate regions deduced from T,, Tj, and the general mean 
T,„ on the assumption that the influence of T,, T2 in forming the general 
mean is approximately proportional to the number of observations. The 
result is mteresting as showing that anticyclonic regions are not only 
warmer than regions of low pressure, but also warmer, up to 10 km., than 
the intermediate regions, which appear to be colder at 9-10 km. than 
regions of high or low pressure. 

If, in the centre of an anticyclone, b is the excess of pressure at any 
height above the normal pressure B for that height, and p is the density 
there, the value of the ratio b/pd may be taken as a measure of the intensity 
of the anticyclone, where d is the mean distance of the isobar B from the 
centre of the anticyclone. Now as long as the temperature near the centre 
of an anticyclone remains higher than that in surrounding regions, 
the value of b/pd increases with increasing height, and consequently the 
anticyclone increases in intensity. If b^, d^, are corresponding quantities 
for a cyclone, bjpd^ increases with increasing height so long as the cyclone 
is colder than its surroundings. The values found above indicate that 
this is the case up to 8-10 km. Even at 14 km. the pressure over the 
anticyclonic region exceeds that over the cyclonic by more than 1 mm., 
which is as efficient in producing motion as a difference of 7 mm. at the 



100 EErORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

surface. The difficulty that arises is to discover a means by which air 
can be brought into the anticyclone and out of the cyclone in the upper 
air, and to make these results accord with the results of cirrus observations, 
which imply a definite outward motion over cyclonic regions and an inward 
motion over anticyclonic. At the same time it must be remembered that 
the cirrus observations do not imply that the anticyclone becomes a 
cyclone at the cirrus level or conversely ; the direction of rotation is the 
same for the cirrus as at the surface according to Hildebrandsson's 
results, and this can be the case only if the direction of the gradient of 
pressure remains the same. 

The results imply that the motion has a component across the isobars 
from the lower to the higher pressure. The difficulty of explaining this 
result was felt by earlier writers. Hann^ expressed the opinion that the 
outward motion in cyclones was due to the centrifugal force of the motion 
exceeding the gradient. Although it is difficult to see how the necessary 
wind would be produced to bring about this state of affairs, it is at least 
a possible condition. If cyclones decreased in intensity with increasing 
height, and the air rising from the lower levels retained its angular 
momentum, it would indeed furnish a reasonable explanation. 

The case of anticyclones is more difficult because the effect of centri- 
fugal force is to assist the gradient of pressure in producing flow outwards. 
Gold '^ showed that in anticyclones there is a limit to the gradient and 
velocity for the motion to be steady and along the isobars. The approxi- 
mate radii of isobars at the earth's surface differing from the pressure at 
the centre by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mm., are 260, 370, 450, 520, 580 km. for this 
limiting case. If the gradients are less than these, there will be a steady 
motion with correspondingly small velocities. If the gradients are greater 
than these, the motion cannot under any circumstances be steady, and 
there will always be an outward component in the wind, because the 
centrifugal force due to the increased velocity will more than counter- 
balance the increase in the force arising from the earth's rotation. The 
only possible case where there can be flow from low to high pressure for 
anticyclonic motion is when air enters a region where the gradients are 
less than the limiting gradients, with a velocity also less than that corre- 
sponding to the limiting gradient, but greater than that corresponding to 
steady motion for the actual gradient in the region. In that case the 
effect of the earth's rotation would be to make the air flow inward towards 
the centre. It seems improbable, however, that such a state could persist 
for any time, because the results of observation show that the wind usually 
adjusts itself to the gradient, provided it is at a sufficient height above the 
earth's surface to be practically free from the effects of surface friction and 
irregularities. 

It seems more probable either (1) that anticyclones and cyclones 
arriving in the European area are in general dissipating systems, which 
are replaced continually by other systems arriving from what may be 
called productive regions, or (2) that there is interchange with regions in 
which the surface temperature or the temperature gradient is sufficiently 
different to produce mean temperatures greater in low-pressure areas and 
less in high-pressure areas than are found over Europe. 

The results of observations of pilot balloons at Ditcham,^ July 27-30, 
1908, and at Munich,^ during the same period, and September 30 to October 2, 

' LeUrhuch, p. 406. 

- Barometric Gradient and Wind Force, M.O. No. 190. 

" Quart. Jourii. Boy. Met. Sac, 1908. ■* Begistrierballonfahrten. 



\ 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 101 

1908, indicated that even to heights greater than 10 km. the wind had a 
component directed outwards from the region of high pressure, or was 
parallel to the general direction of the surface isobars and in the sense of 
the gradient wind at the surface. On January 3, 1908, on the other hand, 
the direction of the wind over Munich changed after 3-4 km., and the flow 
above tliis height up to 8 km. was directed inward towards the region of 
the surface high pressure. The English ascents indicate that the relative 
coldness of cyclones ceases at a lower altitude there than over the continent, 
and this tends to support the idea that the energy of the cyclonic motion 
is used up in extending the cyclone to greater heights and is gradually 
converted into the potential ' energy of the anticyclone. Finality can be 
reached only by an examination of individual cases in which the observa- 
tions are extensive enough to furnish a good representation of the distribu- 
tion of pressure and wind at great heights. 

The results so far obtained show the need that exists for a series of 
ascents in the middle of the great Atlantic low-pressure system simul- 
taneously with ascents in Europe and America. The general drift of 
registering balloons is from high to low pressures, although there are excep- 
tions which are possibly due to the balloon entering at high altitudes a 
westerly current, which is caused by the general temperature and pressure 
distribution over the earth and may at times remain unaffected by shallow 
disturbances near the surface. The greater relative humidity over cyclones 
would tend to diminish the intensity in the upper air, but it is quite in- 
suflB.cient to bring about a reversal of the gradiei}J3 between high and low 
pressure areas. 

For the surface layers Gold ' showed (1) that near the centre of cyclones 
the gradient of temperature up to 2 km. coincided very nearly with the 
adiabatic gradient for saturated air ; (2) that in winter the gradient in 
the central region of anticyclones up to 3 km. was quite irregular, tem- 
perature increasing and decreasing in different layers in different ascents, 
but, on the whole, varying little from the surface value ; (3) that in summer 
the gradient in the central regions of anticyclones was regular in the first 
kilometre and nearly equal to the adiabatic gradient for dry air, but that 
above this level the fall of temperature was frequently arrested, showing 
that the vertical circulation was purely a surface phenomenon and was not 
connected in any way with a general descending current of air. This 
shows that the air up to a height of 3 km. in anticyclones is practically 
an inert mass taking little part in the general circulation. The result 
may be compared with the deduction arrived at by Shaw and Lempfert ^ 
from a consideration of the air currents at the surface. They say, ' We 
have failed to identify the central areas of ivell marked anticyclones as 
regions of origin of surface air currents. . . . These latter are for the most 
part inert and comparatively isolated masses of air, taking little part in 
the circulation which goes on around them.' . . . ' The areas of descending 
air seem to be (a) the shoulders or protuberances of anticyclones, in par- 
ticular the regions of comparatively high pressure between two consecutive 
cyclonic depressions, and therefore also between two anticyclones or (6) the 
extension of an anticyclone between a depression and its secondary.' If 
there is descending air in the upper atmosphere over an anticyclone (aa 
indeed there must be if it maintains or increases its intensity) this air will 
not be considerably affected by radiation between 5 and 10 km., and the 

' Barometric Gradient and Wind Force, M.O. No. 190. 
' Life History of Surface Air Currents, M.O. 174, p. 24. 



10^ REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCfi. 

temperature gradient will remain nearly adiabatic, and wiU therefore 
allow a constant flow downwards. But when the air enters the region 
between the surface and 5 km. it will begin to be cooled by radiation, and 
the cooling will increase with approach to the surface, although in the 
surface layers themselves convection may reverse the process. Such 
cooling would be an effective bar to further direct downward convection 
and would allow only a gradual oblique convection by which the descending 
air would be transferred to the earth's surface, being cooled sufficiently by 
radiation in its progress to enable the convection to take place. 

IV. (c) The Advedive and Convective Regions. 

Perhaps the most remarkable phenomenon revealed by the investiga- 
tion of the upper air with balloons carrying self-recording instruments 
is the comparatively sudden cessation of the fall of temperature at a 
height varying with the time and the latitude. Above this height, which 
may be regarded as the height of an irregular but roughly horizontal surface 
dividing the atmosphere into two regions, the temperature at any time 
varies very little in a vertical direction, showing on the average a slight 
tendency to increase. This comparative absence of regular vertical 
variation of temperature in the upper region led to the name ' isothermal 
layer or region ' to distinguish it from the lower atmosphere, in which the 
vertical variation of temperature is about 6° C. per 1,000 m. The fiirst 
indication of a considerable falling off in the gradient appears to be con- 
tained in a paper by M. Pomortzeff ' referred to by Berson in the dis- 
cussion of the Berlin results. Pomortzeff tried to explain on theoretical 
grounds the diminution he found. 

The actual cessation of the fall of temperature was first noticed by 
M. L. Teisserenc de Bort - in June 1899, and again m March 1902. It was 
also discussed shortly afterwards by Assmann.^ 

Teisserenc de Bort found the average height at which the change 
occurred to be about 11 km. He discovered also that the height was 
greater near centres of high pressure than near centres of low pressure, the 
average heights for the two cases being 12"5 and 10 km. respectively. 
Later observations agree on the whole with these results. 

It may be asked if this is due to the slope of the isobaric surface, which 
would be lower over a cyclone than over an anticyclone. This is not the 
case. The difference of pressure over the two regions at a height of 10 km. 
does not amount to more than 10 mm., while the difference of pressure 
between 10 and 12 km. is 50 mm. 

This excludes the hypothesis that the air in the upper region is an 
inert isothermal mass consisting always of the same air, lifted up and down 
by the disturbances in the lower part of the atmosphere.^ There must be 
interchange of air in the upper region itself or between the two regions. 

The absence of vertical temperature fall implies that general direct 
convection in the upper region is also absent, but the occurrence of irregu- 

' WozduoTioplanawiji i Izsledorvaniji Atmosfery, vol. iii. 1897. 

The results obtained by Hermite and Besan^on in March 1893 showed a tem- 
perature of 21° C. just below 16 km., but the balloon floated for some hours at that 
height, and in no sense can they be said to have anticipated Teisserenc de Borl's 
discovery. C.R. cxvi. p. 767. 

2 Seances, 1899, &c., Annuaire de la Soaiete Meteorologique, 1902. 

' Ergehnisse A'eronautisclien Obs., Berlin, May 1902 ; Berl. Ber., 1902. 

* But see Shaw's deduction, infra, p. 108. 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 103 

larities in occasional ascents indicates that there is in places limited con- 
vection, and the considerable inversion of temperature frequently found at 
the dividing surface suggests that there may be oblique convection similar 
to that for anticyclones in the lower atmosphere. Any fall of temperature 
arising from such convection would tend to disappear owing to the effect 
of radiation. In general, however, interchange of air in the upper region 
would be mainly by advection and the two regions might be appropriately 
named advective and convective regions,^ expressing the characteristic 
difference between them. 

The height of the dividing surface will be denoted by H^, and the 
temperature at this height by Tc. 

Although He varies with the latitude, the observations available are 
insufficient to enable an accurate expression for the relation to be obtained. 
Teisserenc de Bort ^ found from simultaneous ascents at Trappes and at 
Kiruna on the Arctic circle that the value of H^ was practically the same 
for the two places, but the value of Tc was slightly lower for Kiruna. 

Towards the equator, on the other hand, the value of He is considerably 
greater than for temperate latitudes. Rotch and Teisserenc de Bort failed 
to reach it over the Atlantic with balloons reaching 15 km. It has been 
reached, according to Assmann,^ by a German expedition which sent up 
balloons from a steamer on Lake Victoria Nyanza in 1908. Two of these 
reached heights of 17 and 19" 8 km., and both entered an isothermal region, 
the temperature in which was lower than that found in temperate latitudes. 
The lowest temperature was —84° C. or 189° A. 

The following table gives the mean values of Ho and Te for certain 
places determined from the monthly mean values. The thirteen stations 
are those enumerated above and Guadaljara, Milan and Pavia, and 
Hamburg : — 



- 


Mean of 
13 Stations 


Munich 


England 


Strass- 
burg 


Paris 


Pav- 

lOTSk 


Kout- 
chino 


Milan 


Vienna 


Berlin 


He . . 
Tc . . . 

fio.oi Cases 
Latitude . 


10-6 
16° 
336 


10-9 
16° 
S3 
48° 


10-8 
18° 
32 
52° 


10-8 
15° 
67 
49° 


10-4 
18° 
57 
49° 


9-6 
18° 
28 
60° 


10-6 
14° 
18 
56° 


10-7 
17° 
25 
45° 


10-2 
15° 
24 
48° 


10-7 
16° 
32 
52° 



There is very little variation for places in Europe between lat. 45-55° : 
the more Continental stations give a slightly lower value for Te than the 
others. For Pavlovsk the value of He is 1 km. below the average for the 
other stations and the value of Te is 2° above the average value. 

The results indicate that there must be a comparatively rapid increase 
in He in crossing the limit of the trade-wind region, and it appears probable 
that the equatorial currents and the trade winds form a closed system 
without very much interchange of air with higher latitudes. 

Schmauss ^ has pointed out that the value of He is greater in summer 
than in winter.-^ The following table shows the annual variation in He, Te 



' The upper region has been usually described as ' the isothermal layer.' Recently 
T. de Bort has introduced the terms 'stratosphere,' 'troposphere,' to denote the 
tipper and lower regions. 

■ Conipt. rend., 145, 1907; Met. Zeit., 1907. 

' Quart. Journ. Royal Met. Soc, 1909. 

* Registrierballnnfahrten, Miinchen, 1908. 

* Rotch states that in America the conditions are reversed, and the minimum 
value of He occurs in the summer. This is probably due to the inclusion of the 
large values he found in October in the winter series. Met. Zeit., January 1909. 



104 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



deduced from the results for tlie thirteen stations and for Strassburg and 
Munich separately : — 

Annual Variation in He. 



— 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 
10-7 


July 
10-9 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 
11-9 


Nov. 


Deo. 


Mean of 13 Stations 


10-3 


10-4 


9-1 


10-1 


10-5 


11-4 


10-4 


10-8 


101 


Number of Cases . 


26 


22 


32 


39 


31 


27 


24 


61 


46 


38 


25 


25 


Munich . 


lO'O 


10-4 


9-2 


9-2 


11-2 


11-0 


11-7 


120 


10-3 


12-3 


11-8 


11-4 


Number of Cases . 


4 


3 


6 


4 


2 


4 


3 


11 


5 


5 


2 


6 


Strassburg 


10-5 


10-6 


9-4 


9-4 


10-6 


10-9 


10-8 


12-3 


10'9 


11-9 


11-0 


11-1 


Number of Cases . 


6 


5 


5 


5 


4 


5 


4 


9 


8 


6 


6 


5 



Mean of 13 Stations 
Munich . 
Strassburg 



Annual Variation in Tc. 



' Jan, 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dec. 


' 13 


11 


16 


16 


17 


20 


20 


18 


22 


14 


15 


14 


14 


10 


16 


19 


25 


20 


16 


16 


26 


9 


10 


13 


1 " 


10 


16 


20 


17 


17 


21 


16 


23 


13 


12 


10 



The values of He are plotted in Fig. 1. 

The observations are made at the beginning of each month, and the 
results may be taken to correspond nearly to the 4th of each month. The 
observations made at the end of July are counted in August, so that the 
values for August correspond nearly to the last day in July. The most 
remarkable feature is the depression in the value of Ho in March and 
September. 

The fact that H^ is greatest in October and Tc is greatest in September 
effectually refutes the hypothesis that the cessation in the fall of tem- 
perature is due to any effect either of solar or of terrestrial radiation on 
the instruments. 

The value of Tc is certainly slightly greater during the summer months, 
but the difference between the mean value for summer and winter is only 
6° C. This difference is less than the difference in the mean temperature 
of the atmosphere up to 10 km. for the corresponding period, and it may 
well be a real increase in the temperature of the advective region owing to 
increased radiation from below. 

It has been suggested that the cause of the sudden change in the 
temperature gradient, which would naturally be expected to diminish 
gradually, is the formation of a veil of Ci. or Ci. S. If this were the case 
the annual variation in the height of these clouds ought to show the same 
peculiarities as the annual variation in He- The annual variation in the 
height of Ci., Ci. S., Ci. Cu. is given in Fig. 1. The observations used 
are those for the international year 1896-97. The curves do not show 
the very marked minima in March and September which occur in the 
Ho diagram, but there are indications of a peculiarity of this kind, more 
pronounced in the Ci. S. and Ci. Cu. curves than in that for Ci. proper. The 
annual range is about the same as for He 2"5 km. nearly. The actual 
values of the heights are, however, much less than those of Ho. Thus, 
while the results point to some common cause for the variation in Ho 
and in the height of the clouds, they indicate that the formation of clouds 
is not a usual cause of the sudden fall and change of sign in the temperature 
gradient. 

One of the most remarkable features is the large variation sometimes 
found in Tc and Ho from one day to the next. This has been most marked 
in England, and the general agreement in results from different stations 



J 



PBESENT STATE OF OUE KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 105 



ANNUAL VARIATION IN VALUE OF Hr 

AND IN HEIGHT OF CLOUDS 

JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY. JUN JUL. AUG. SEP. OCT NOV DEC 
12 km 



MEAN OF 
3 STATIONS 


10 ■ 




9 •' 

12km 




II '■ 


MUNICH. 






10 ■■ 




9 •' 

12 km 




II " 


STRASSBURG. 



10 



9 

9 km 



lERLIN. PARIS. 
JNOUPSALA. 
7 



:i-s 

5ERLIN. PARIS. 



8 KM 



6 KM 



A-Ca 

lERLIN AND 5 
PARIS 



A " 

7 KM 



C-SandCi-Cu. 
UPSALA 




Fig. 1. 



106 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

proves tliat it cannot be attributed to instrumental errors. For example, 
on April 1, 2, 3, 1908, the values of H,,, Te v ere 



H 


Tc 




10-5 


15° 


Manchester 


12 


17° 


Pyrton Hill 


7 


24° 


Manchester 



April 1 . . . . 
„ 2 . 
„ 3 . . . . 

The result is not surprising, since the English stations are subject to 
more frequent and rapid changes in the pressure distribution than the 
Continental stations. But it is nevertheless difficult to see how changes 
in the convective region can affect Tc and the mean temperature found in 
the advective region.^ 

The fact that the lowest temperatures occur over the equatorial region 
suggests that the general nature of the process may be as follows : The 
cool air in the upper equatorial regions moves Polewards, and in the 
natural course descends again to feed the trade winds. Owing to the 
irregularities of the earth's surface, the change of seasons and the very- 
considerable difference between the North and South Hemispheres, the 
regular process wUl be disturbed and even in general will not be sym- 
metrical. This will result in encroachments of the equatorial cold air on 
the advective region of temperate latitudes, and such encroachments will 
produce anticyclonic regions. The advective atmosphere would be reached 
there at a higher level and initially at a lower temperature than in the 
normal or average state ; but the temperature would be gradually raised 
by absorption of thermal radiation to the normal value for that latitude. 

The fact that He has minimum values in March and September when 
equatorial temperatures are highest appears at first to be contrary to the 
idea. But the first efiect of the increased equatorial temperature will be 
to increase the strength of the trade winds,'^ and as at the same time 
there is in progress a transference of air across the equator to the Southern 
hemisphere, a transference which can be made only through the upper 
return current, there wUl be a deficiency of descending air and the equa- 
torial cold air will encroach less than usual on the Northern advective 
region. Naturally, if the earth were symmetrical, it would be expected 
that the process in September would be the reverse of this. But the 
autumnal transference of air to the Northern Hemisphere will be initially 
much more intense towards the great Asiatic continental region and, in a 
less degree, to North America, than to the Atlantic and European area, 
and the result may well be that the equatorial current again encroaches 
less than usual on that region. If such is the case it may be expected that 
the value of H^ over the Asiatic area will not show the September 
minimum, and that if it occurs over America it will at least be less marked 
than over Europe. The high value of He in October indicates that in 
that month the encroachment has become more general. 

The results of observations made with pilot balloons to heights greater 
than He point to a decrease in wind velocity on entering the advective 
region. 

' See, however, Shaw, Perturhations of the Stratosplxere ; The Free Atmosphere in 
the Region of the British Isles, M.O., 202. 

^ Over the Atlantic the N.E. trade wind is strongest in April, but has a secondary 
maximum in February. It is weakest in September. The S.E. trade wind is 
strongest in February, and has a secondary maximum in April. It is lightest in 
May, and has a secondary minimum in September. See Hepworth, Brit. Assoc. 
Reports, Dublin, 1908, p. 625. 



fRESBNT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 107 
The following table illustrates this : — 









Layer in 


Decrease 


Velocity in 


Date 


Place 


He 


which Wind 


in 


Advective 








Decreased 


Velocity 


Region 






km. 


km. 


m.p.s. 


m.p.s. 


July 28, 1908 


Ditcham 


12 


11 -13 


18 


3 


July 29, „ 


^j 


13(?) 


12 - 13 


9 


13 


July 31, „ 


„ 


12-5(?) 


11 - 13 


6 


27 


Feb. 6, „ 


Munich 


12 


11 -13 


15 


18 


July 2, „ 


jj 


11-6 


12 - 16 


10 


7 


Ocr. 2, „ 


" 


13-2 


11-6-U-7 


8 


8 



On July 31 and September 30, 1908, the velocity was observed up to 
12'9 and 13"6 km. respectively, and showed no fallmg off, but a steady 
increase. The values of He were 13"2 and 13'6 km. There is little doubt 
therefore that the falling off in velocity is associated closely with the 
advective region. 

On July 28 the maximum wind at Ditcham was 24 m.p.s. from N.N.W., 
and at Munich on the same day the wind at 12 km. was 21 m.p.s. from 
N. by W., indicating that the current extended right across the intervening 
region, just beneath the advective region. 

The attempts to furnish a reasonable explanation of the phenomenon 
on theoretical grounds led to various suggestions. Trabert ' showed that 
if there were a decrease of temperature in a horizontal direction in passing 
eastwards over Europe, and if the air moving eastwards also had a small 
ascending motion, then the adiabatic fall of temperature would not exist 
in a vertical direction. It appears probable, however, that the causes 
which produced a horizontal decrease of temperature in one layer would 
also produce a similar decrease in the layer above it, and in that case 
Trabert's effect would vanish. 

Fenyi ^ considered the question of the absorption of solar radiation 
in the upper atmosphere. He concluded that, if the phenomenon were 
due to this, there must be absorption of dark radiation, since the ultra- 
violet radiation would be insufficient even if it were all absorbed. 

Humphreys ^ pointed out that if the efiective radiating power of the 
earth and atmosphere were the same as that of a black body at tempera- 
ture T|, the effect on any radiating and absorbing matter near enough to 
the earth for the radiating surface to be regarded as an infinite plane 
would be to keep the matter at a constant temperature such that the 
radiation from it would be half the radiation from it at temperature T , . 
If the radiating matter were such as to admit of the application of Stefan's 
law, its temperature would be T, where T' = |Ti^ 

The observed value of T agrees with the value deduced from this 
equation by giving Ti the value estimated by Abbott and Fowle * from 
the value of the solar constant, regard being paid to the proportion of the 
incident solar radiation which is reflected and does not affect the tempera- 
ture of the earth. 

Gold ■' developed a theory based on the experimental results for 
atmospheric absorption obtained by Paschen and others. His argument 

' JUet. Zeit., 1907. ^ Ihid., 1907. 

' Astrophynical Journ., 1909. 

* Annals of Observatory of Smithsonian Institution, vol. ii. 

* Proc. Roy. Soc. A., vol. Ixxxii. 



108 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

rests on the principle tliat a necessary condition for convection is that 
in the upper part of the convective system* the radiation from any hori- 
zontal layer must exceed the absorption by it. He takes the temperature 
in the convective region to be given with sufficient approximation by the 
equation T'=; hf where n—^ and f is pressure : and represents the 
radiating power of the atmosphere by a/ (q — p), where a and q are constants, 
in order to allow for the diminution with height arising from the decrease 
in the amount of water vapour present. ' He finds that for an atmosphere 
of uniform constitution the adiabatic state cannot exist to a height greater 
than that for which p=hpo where po is the surface pressure, because if it 
extends at any time to a greater height the absorption in the upper part 
will exceed the radiation. He shows that for the actual atmosphere the 
adiabatic state can exist to a limited height only, and that if the atmosphere 
consist of an adiabatic and an isothermal region the adiabatic state must 
extend to a height greater than 5'5 km., and cannot in general extend to 
a height greater than 10" 5 km. He shows also that the radiation from 
the lower half of the convective region exceeds the absorption by it, and 
deduces that its temperature must be maintained by convection from 
the earth's surface and by condensation of water vapour. It follows also 
from the theory that if in the upper region the temperature increases with 
the height the conditions for thermal equilibrium are satisfied if the 
convective atmosphere extends to a height greater than that for the 
case of an isothermal upper region — i.e., the limits for He are greater than 
5'5 and 10'5 km. 

Shaw ^ has recently considered the connection between a depression 
of the lower surface of the advective region and the temperature distribu- 
tion in that region. He finds that if such a depression is produced artifici- 
ally or through a distxxrbance in the convective region, the first effect will 
be to produce a horizontal difference of temperature in the advective 
region. If the advective region is initially isothermal it will still be 

' It has been suggested that the upper limit of the convective region may be 
also the upper limit of the water vapour atmosphere. But it appears certain that 
at this upper limit the atmosphere must always be saturated with water (ice) 
vapour, and that in the advective region the water vapour atmosphere will be such 
that the difference of vapour pressure between two points will be equal to the 
weight of the vapour in the intervening column. For the processes of diffusion and 
of convection of water vapour alone would tend to produce a water vapour 
atmosphere, in which the amount of vapour present at any height in the convective 
region would be more than sufficient to produce saturation at that height for the 
temperature in the actual atmosphere. The only process which prevents the 
atmosphere being saturated at all heights is the descent of air carrying with it the 
water vapour it contained at the beginning of the descent, an amount insufficient to 
saturate it at lower levels. But at the upper limit of the convective region there 
can be no considerable descent of air from above, and the air arriving there from 
below will necessarily be saturated, since it must contain sufficient water vapour to 
saturate it at the lowest temperature to which it has been exposed, i.e. Tc. Of 
course the actual amount of water vapour present is small compared with the 
amount present near the earth's surface ; but a small amount of water vapour is 
sufficient, at ordinary temperatures at least, to produce considerable absorption of 
terrestrial radiation, and the absorption extends through a large part of the 
spectrum of radiation at terrestrial temperatures. In fact, it is probably chiefly due 
to the presence of this water vapour that it is possible to obtain theoretical results 
agreeing with the observed facts by using the assumption that the absorption, and 
therefore also the radiation, is sufficiently extensive to warrant the application of 
Stefan's law. It follows, also, from this reasoning, that the mean amount of vapour 
present at any height above the lower cloud level will be at least half the sum of 
the amount for saturation at that height, and the amount necessary for saturation 
at the height Ho. 

* Perturbations of the Stratosphere, M.O., 202. 






^LH^9^ 




/lU.lnUiv.j 0.. lUj^t on ,h, rr..r.U Sl^U «/m.r AW^^Wj,, ./(A, U,^„ Alm<»,,h. 



lanncd bnlloon a 

ninutionuptoBI 

tendenc}' to decrease 



The follo' 
lontUy Ti 
i Column M 



itbly Tucun tonip 
inMBLvMtho. 






PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 109 



vertically isothermal, but the temperature of the vertical columns will not 
be the same for all. Over the depression the temperature will be raised. 
He finds that the value of H,, is diminished by 3' 5 times the difference of 
height of the ' homogeneous ' stratosphere at the normal and increased 
temperatures. If the increase of temperature is 20° C, the decrease in 
He is about 2 km. 

IV. [d) Annual Variation of Temperature. 

A question of some interest is the magnitude of the yearly variation of 
temperature at different heights. Berson' concluded from the results of 
the manned balloon ascents that the absolute range showed practically 
no diminution up to 5 km., and that above that height, although there was 
a tendency to decrease, the ascents were not numerous enough to warrant 
definite conclusions. He gives the following values for the range, taken 
as the difference between the extreme temperatures observed : — 



Height 


Surface 


1 2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 km. 


Range . 
No. of Cases . 


(31 -6) 


29-7 304 
56 50 


sVs 

40 


3°2 2 
32 


3°l-0 
20 




27-3 
11 


2°50 
5 


17°8 C. 
4 



Teisserenc de Bort ^ deduced from his observations with ballons-sondes 
in 1898-1900 that the range decreased considerably with the height. 
Taking as the range the difference between the extreme values of the 
monthly mean temperatures he found the following results : — 

Height Surface 5 km. 10 km. 

Range .... 16°-9 14°-6 ll°-;» C. 

The following table gives the range in degrees C, taken from the 
monthly mean temperatures, for ten stations, up to a height of 15 km. 
Column M gives the number of months in the year in which observations 
were obtained. The values for the ten stations together are the ranges 
of the mean temperatures and not the mean of the ranges for different 
stations : — 

Anniial Range from Monthly Means. 



Heig 


it i Berlin 


Manned 


Paris 


England 


Pavlovsk 


Ucole 


Zurich 




R. 


M. 


Balloons 


R. 

16 


M. 


R. 


M. 


R. 


M. 


R. 


M. 


R. 


M. 


Surf 


ace 26 


12 


21 


12 


19 


10 


26 


12 


21 


12 


19 




Ik 


m. 15 


12 


16 


17 


12 


22 


10 


25 


12 


18 


12 


20 




2 , 


13 


12 


14 


17 


12 


21 


10 


22 


12 


19 


12 


16 




3 , 


17 


12 


15 


16 


12 


21 


10 


24 


12 


20 


12 


14 




4 , 


16 


12 


17 


17 


12 


20 


10 


25 


12 


22 


12 


16 




5 , 


17 


12 


— 


19 


12 


19 


10 


21 


12 


25 


12 


21 




6 , 


20 


12 


— 


21 


12 


18 


10 


21 


12 


26 


12 


23 




7 , 


18 


12 


— 


22 


12 


22 


10 


16 


12 


29 


12 


25 




8 , 


18 


J2 


— 


23 


12 


21 


10 


16 


12 


26 


12 


26 




9 , 


15 


12 


— 


19 


12 


18 


10 


14 


12 


24 


12 


21 


10 


10 , 


11 


12 


— 


16 


12 


16 


10 


16 


12 


17 


12 


12 


8 


11 , 


14 


12 


— 


18 


12 


14 


10 


22 


12 


12 


12 


14 


8 


12 , 


19 


12 


— 


20 


12 


15 


10 


21 


12 


13 


12 


15 


6 


13 , 


21 


8 


— 


19 


12 


25 


9 


17 


9 


18 


12 


23 " 


5 


14 , 


25 


7 


— 


18 


12 


25 


9 


10 


6 


15 


11 


("6) 


9, 


15 , 


28 


6 


— 


22 


11 


25 


7 


11 


5 


15 


11 


(9) 


2 



' Wissemchaftliche Zvftfakrten, III. 



C. JR., 1900, and Met. Zeit., 1901. 



110 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Height 


Strassburg 


Mur 


icli 


Vienna 


Koutchino 


Ten Stations 


Surface 


R. 


M. 


R. 


M. 


R. 


M. 


R. 


M. 


R. 


M. 


22 


12 


25 


12 


32 


12 


41 


21-9 


12 


1 km. 


20 


12 


22 


12 


25 


12 


27 




16 7 


12 


2 ,, 


IR 


12 


17 


12 


17 


12 


24 




140 


12 


3 „ 


18 


12 


18 


12 


15 


12 


18 




150 


12 


4 „ 


18 


12 


21 


12 


16 


12 


18 




160 


12 


5 „ 


20 


12 


23 


12 


17 


12 


19 




17-2 


12 


6 „ 


21 


12 


23 


12 


17 


12 


20 




18-3 


12 


7 „ 


21 


12 


23 


12 


21 


12 


22 




191 


12 


8 ,. 


21 


12 


24 


12 


18 


12 


23 




18'5 


12 


9 „ 


17 


12 


23 


12 


18 


12 


24 




161 


12 


10 „ 


14 


12 


16 


12 


19 


12 


25 




12-3 


12 


11 » 


16 


12 


14 


12 


18 


11 


18 




11-2 


12 


12 „ 


18 


12 


19 


12 


19 


10 


19 




114 


12 


13 „ 


16 


12 


16 


11 


19 


8 


17 


10 


133 


12 


14 „ 


16 


12 


14 


8 


17 


7 


15 


9 


122 


12 


15 „ 


19 


12 


10 


6 


13 


6 


15 


« 


13-9 


12 



The range diminislies in the first 2 or 3 km., and afterwards increases 
to a maximum value at a height of 7-8 km. which is also the height at 
which the vertical gradient is a maximum. The range then diminishes 
until the advective region is reached, after which it shows a further 
slight increase. This last small increase may be due to the effect of solar 
radiation on the instruments in some ascents, but the values show that 
there is still a considerable annual variation of temperature even at a 
height of 15 km. 

The following values for the first four components of the annual 
variation of temperature over Berlin have been deduced from the results 
of kite and balloon observations made in the five years 1903-07.' Time 
is measured from January 1. 



Height. 

122 m 81°-4 + 9-77 sin 

+ 0-38 sin 
500 m. *. . . . . 79°-3 + 8-22 sin 

+ 0-46 sin 
1000 m 77°0 + 7-28 sin 

+ 47 sin 
1500 m 74°-8 + 6 53 sin 

+ 0-35 sin 
2000 m 72°-4 + 610 sin 

+ 0-46 sin 
2500 m 70°-4 + 5-88 sin 

+ 0-28 sin 
3000 m 67°-9 + 5-94 sin 

+ 0-53 sin 



Temperature. 

nt. + 254) +0-19 s 
3nt. + 10)4- 0-46 s 

nt. + 249) + 005 s 
3 nt. + 352) + 0-33 s 

nt. + 244) + 015 s: 
3 nt. + 349) + 0-21 s 

nt. + 243) + 0-24 s: 
3 nt.+ 24) + 0-46 s 

nt. + 239) + 018 s: 
3 nt. + 3) + 0-24 s 

nt. + 236) + 003 s 
3 nt. + 338) + 014 s 

nt. + 237) + 017 s: 
3 nt. + 285) + 012 s 



n (2ut. + 40) 
n(4nt. + J61) 
n (2nt. + 42) 
n (4 nt. + 260) 
n (2 nt. + ll7) 
n(4ut. + 282) 
n(2nt. + 195) 
n (4 nt. + 18) 
n (2 nt. + 90) 
n(4 nt. + 312) 
n (2 nt. + 115) 
n(4nt. + 29) 
n (2 nt. + 204) 
n(4nt. + 131) 



The actual mean monthly temperatures are given in the table :— 


- 


Height 


Jan.! Feb. jviar. 

1 


Apr. 
801 


May 
87-2 


June 
89-6 


July 
910 


Aug. Sep. 
90'2 86-4 


Oct. Nov. 
81 4' 76-4 


Dec. 


Year 


Surface 122 m. 


71-8' 734 76-2 


72-7 


81-38 


„ 500 m. 


71-6' 72-1 73-5 


77 4 


82-6 


85-8 


87-3 


86-8 84-3 


80 5 75-9 


722 


79 32 


1,000 m. 


70-4' 701 721 


74-6 


80- J 


82-5 


84-2 


83-6 81-6 


78 8 74-5 


710 


7697 


1,500 m, 


69-ll682 69-9 


73-7 


77-3 


79-4 


81-2 


80 5 79-2 


76-9 72-6 


69-5 


74-80 


2,000 m. 


67-3 66-6 67-8 


70-0 


74-6 


76-7 


78-4 


780 77-0 


74-4 70-7 


680 


72-44 


2,500 m. 


65-2| 64-6 660 


68-0 


71-9 


740 


76-4 


75-5 750 


72-6 69-2 


66 2 


70-38 


3,000 m. 


61-6 62-4 63-9 


65 6 


69-2 


722 


73 9 


72-9 72-2 


70 4 66 7 

1 


63-8 


67-90 



' Ergebnisse, Berlin and Lindenberg. 



PRESENT STATE OP OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. HI 

The following table gives the total number of days in each month on 
which the observations, used for the calculation, were made : — 



- 


Jan. 
1.55 


Feb. 
141 


Mar. 
155 


Apr. 
150 


May 
155 


June 
150 


July 
155 


Aug. 
155 


Sept. 
150 


Oct. 
155 


Nov. 
150 


Dec. 
155 


Surface 


500 


155 


139 


154 


150 


155 


150 


155 


155 


150 


155 


150 


154 


1,000 


146 


133 


150 


146 


154 


150 


151 


152 


148 


152 


147 


150 


1,500 


115 


98 


110 


122 


132 


128 


134 


132 


129 


134 


124 


120 


2,000 


79 


73 


76 


89 


97 


100 


91 


111 


109 


112 


94 


83 


2,500 


49 


48 


48 


57 


67 


71 


66 


85 


85 


84 


77 


60 


3,000 


24 


29 


29 


30 


39 


66 


50 


55 


65 


60 


55 


36 



The surface observations for 1903, 1904, January-March 1905, were 
made at 40 m. They have been reduced to 122 m. by taking for each 
of the 27 months the mean gradient observed in that month between 
40 m. and 500 m. 

The outstanding features of the results are a steady decrease in the 
amplitude and in the phase of the whole year term. The minimum tem- 
perature occurs near January 15 at the surface, while at 2,000 m. it does 
not occur until February 1. 

The results for 3,000 m. are unduly influenced by the fact that the 
observations at that height in January 1907 were made duriag a very cold 
period, and probably diminished the mean value for that month below its 
true value. The effect would be to increase the phase for that height. 

The amplitude at 2" 5 km. is only ^ of its surface value, but it does 
not appear to decrease above this height. 

Hann ' gives the following values for the amplitude of the yearly 
variation on mountain peaks and well-exposed places : — 



Place 


Altstatten Trogen 1 Gabris ' Bigikulm Siintis 


Sonnblick 


Height 
Range 


460 m. 
19°-4 


880 m. 1,250 m. 1,790 m. 1 2,500 m. 
17°-1 15°-5 I 14°-4 14°-1 


3,100 m. 
14°-5 C. 



These values show the same general decrease up to 2'5 km. as those 
found for the free atmosphere, but they are in all cases 2°-3° C. greater 
than for the free atmosphere. 

The four components have been given to show the comparative regu- 
larity of the third both in amplitude and phase, compared with the second 
and fourth, the latter of which appears to be merely the result of accidental 
irregularities. 

The result appears interesting and worth investigation, because there 
is a similar period in the velocity of the centres of anticyclones. 

The following expression for the annual variation of this velocity in 
m.p.s. in America has been deduced from results given by Herrmann : - 

V = 11-4 + 1-30 sin (nt + G8°) -i- 0-12 sin (2nt+l38°) 
+ 0-31 sin (3nt + 18°) + 009 sin (4nt + 78°). 

Here the third component has an amplitude more than double that of 
the second, and treble that of the fourth, and its phase agrees very nearly 
with the corresponding term in the variation of temperature. This 
implies that when anticyclones are moving rapidly in America, the mean 
temperature over Berlin is above the normal value. 



Lehrhuch, p. 105. 



Monthly Weather Review, April 1907. 



112 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The velocity of anticyclones in Europe has not been dealt with since 
1887 when Brounow ' gave results based on ten years' observation. These 
results give 

V = 7-7 + 0-32 sin (nt + 85°) + 0-31 sin (2nt+146<=) 

+ 0-76 sin (3nt + 216") + 0-56 sin (4nt + 178°). 

The number of observations was considerably less than that used by 
Herrmann, but the third component is still greater than the second and 
fourth. The phase is nearly opposite to that for America. 

This implies that in rapidly moving anticyclones the mean temperature 
up to 3 km. is below the normal. The result may be compared with 
Hanzlik's deduction that a rapidly moving anticyclone remains cold. 

The annual variation for heights up to 15 km. has been calculated 
from the ascents of registering balloons. 

The following table gives the results when the temperature is expressed 
in the form : — 

T = T„ + P, sin (nt. + A,) + P., sin (2 nt. + A.) + — 
the time being measured from January 1. 



Height. 


To 


Pi 


Ai 


P2 


A2 


Ps 


As 






°C 


o 


°G 


o 


°C 


o 


1 km. 


770 


8-3 


245 


0-55 


39 


0-49 


307 


2 „ 


72-8 


65 


235 


0-75 


50 


1-35 


321 


3 „ 


67-6 


61 


232 


0-87 


77 


1-25 


347 


4 „ 


61-8 


6-4 


231 


1-28 


73 


1-55 


344 


5 „ 


55-6 


6-7 


232 


1-20 


66 


1-43 


354 


6 „ 


48-7 


7-3 


231 


1-51 


72 


166 


355 


7 „ 


41-5 


7-5 


231 


1-52 


68 


1-85 


358 


8 ,, 


34-1 


7-6 


232 


1-32 


77 


1-77 


359 


9 „ 


27-3 


7-0 


231 


1-06 


35 


1-46 


361 


10 „ 


22-3 


56 


234 


1-26 


333 


0-98 


356 


11 ,, 


190 


4-7 


246 


1-6 


314 


0-85 


362 


12 „ 


18-3 


4-6 


259 


1-4 


319 


0-2 


218 


13 „ 


191 


41 


275 • 


2-1 


354 


10 


326 


14 „ 


191 


4-0 


272 


1-8 


22 


1-0 


328 


15 „ 


19-2 


4-4 


272 


20 


356 


11 


317 



The results agree with those deduced above from kite observations in 
showing a decrease in amplitude and phase of the whole year term in the 
first 3 km. But at greater heights the amplitude increases, and the phase 
remains constant up to 8-9 km., after which the amplitude again diminishes 
while the phase increases. Thus, at 13 km., the maximum and minimum 
temperatures, arising from the whole year term, occur at the end of June 
and December respectively, while in the layers 4-9 km. the corresponding 
times are the second weeks in August and February. The third com- 
ponent shows great regularity in phase, and its amplitude increases and 
decreases with the whole year variation until a height of about 12 km. is 
reached, when the amplitude vanishes and the phase changes by nearly 
180°, returning gradually towards the value it has near the surface. 

The second component increases with the height up to 7 km., and after- 
wards diminishes for 2 km. It then increases again, and in the upper 
layers is half as big as the whole year variation. 

The following tables give the mean temperatures for each month at 
difierent heights and the number of observations from which they are 
calculated. The results are plotted in the diagram Plate II., and Fig. 2. 

' Mepertorium fiir Meteorologie, 1887. 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 113 



ANNUAL VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE IN DEGREES CENTIGRADE 
AT VARIOUS HEIGHTS OVER STRASSBURG. 
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR 




1909. 



Fig. 2. 



114 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCTENCE. 



shows similar results up to 11 km. for Strassburg. The moathly tem- 
peratures correspond to about the 5tli of each month, but those for 
August to July 30. 



Mean Temj/eratures for each Month (200 + ). {Ten Stations.) 



Height 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Surface "j 
(about I 
200 m.) J 


















690 


71-4 


71-7 


78-1 


83'7 


86-6 


90-9 


89-9 


85-9 


84-5 


75-9 


72 


























1 km. 


700 


69-7 


70-6 


73-6 


78-2 


81'8 


85'7 


86-4 


81'3 


81 '3 


75-0 


70-5 


2 „ 


67-6 


69-2 


66-2 


68-3 


72-3 


76-4 


79-6 


80-2 


76-2 


77-2 


73-6 


66 9 


3 „ 


636 


64-6 


597 


63 2 


67-4 


71-1 


73-4 


74-7 


705 


72-2 


68-2 


62-5 


4 ,, 


580 


59-5 


53-1 


57-2 


60-1 


661 


67-8 


69-1 


649 


66-5 


62-5 


56-5 


5 „ 


51'6 


53 


461 


50-6 


53-8 


60 2 


61-7 


63-3 


59-5 


60-3 


55'8 


500 


6 „ 


44-5 


45-9 


38-5 


43-6 


471 


53-8 


55-6 


568 


53-3 


53-3 


491 


430 


7 ,. 


370 


391 


30-8 


36-2 


39-9 


46-8 


48-3 


49-9 


46-3 


46-4 


418 


35-4 


8 „ 


29 


31-0 


23-7 


28-8 


32-8 


40-0 


40-7 


42-2 


39-2 


39-2 


34'0 


28-8 


9 .. 


221 


24-5 


191 


22-7 


25-9 


31-7 


330 


35-2 


32-9 


32-8 


26-3 


22-6 


10 „ 


16-5 


19-4 


17-8 


190 


21-4 


25-2 


25-7 


28-8 


28-0 


26-8 


213 


17-8 


11 .. 


13-4 


15-6 


17-3 


16-9 


19-3 


21-9 


21-3 


23-6 


24-6 


21-7 


17-2 


13-8 


12 „ 


13-5 


12-8 


19-2 


17-3 


19-4 


20-6 


22-6 


21-5 


24-2 


180 


15-9 


13-4 


13 ., 


15-3 


180 


200 


17-3 


20-2 


21-0 


23-7 


220 


231 


16-4 


169 


10-4 


14 „ 


16'1 


17-4 


200 


151 


20-6 


21-7 


24-2 


220 


22-5 


16-0 


168 


120 


15 „ 


14-8 


17-0 


20-7 


170 


20-4 


21-2 


23 9 


2M 


221 


15-7 


15-8 


10-0 




A 


'umber 


of Ob 


servati 


ons in 


eaeh Month at each Height, 






Surface 


33 


28 


25 


43 


33 


27 


30 


67 


38 


38 


33 


33 


1 km. 


34 


31 


26 


45 


34 


29 


33 


66 


42 


42 


32 


32 


2 


32 


26 


25 


41 


32 


25 


26 


65 


36 


41 


32 


30 


3 ',', 


32 


26 


25 


41 


32 


25 


26 


65 


36 


41 


32 


30 


4 » 


32 


26 


25 


41 


30 


25 


26 


65 


36 


41 


32 


30 


5 „ 


32 


26 


25 


41 


30 


25 


26 


65 


36 


41 


32 


29 


6 „ 


32 


26 


25 


41 


30 


25 


26 


65 


36 


41 


32 


29 


7 „ 


32 


26 


25 


39 


31 


25 


25 


65 


36 


41 


32 


29 


8 „ 


32 


26 


25 


38 


31 


23 


24 


63 


35 


40 


32 


27 


9 „ 


31 


25 


24 


38 


31 


25 


24 


61 


35 


36 


31 


27 


10 „ 


30 


21 


23 


34 


28 


25 


24 


60 


34 


36 


30 


26 


11 ,, 


27 


19 


19 


31 


26 


21 


24 


59 


32 


34 


30 


24 


12 „ 


21 


15 


14 


23 


24 


17 


21 


48 


26 


33 


27 


20 


13 „ 


17 


12 


10 


18 


21 


16 


16 


43 


21 


30 


23 


13 


14 „ 


13 


10 


8 


13 


17 


13 


7 


34 


19 


26 


20 


9 


15 „ 


5 


6 


7 


6 


13 


9 


7 


18 


13 


17 


18 


7 



The principal feature in .the diagrams is the very marked minimum in 
March and the similar though less marked effect in September. Above 
10 km. the conditions are reversed and the miuima are replaced by 
maxima. A similar peculiarity, with which this is indeed connected, was 
found in the height and temperature at which the advective region was 
encountered, and an attempt was made to connect it with the general 
circulation of the atmosphere. The efEect cannot be explained as due to a 
mere retardation in the time of occurrence of the minimum temperature, 
because the phase of the annual term shows that this retardation reaches 
its full value at a height of about 3 km., while the depression in March 
increases in intensity up to 8 km., and the minimum in September flatly 
contradicts such an hypothesis. 

It may be suggested that the pressure distribution at the time at 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 115 

which the ascents in these months were made, was accidentally peculiar 
for the five years of observation. 

The following table gives the mean pressure at Strassburg for each 
month on the days of ascents during the five years, and for comparison the 
mean pressure at Aachen ' from the records for 1896-1903 : — 





Mean 


Pressn're (700 + mm.). 










Jan. Feb. Mar. 

t 


Apr. 


May June July Aug. Sep. 


Oct. Nov. 


Deo. 


Strassburgr (140 m.) . 
Aachen (169 m.) . . 


54 55 

49 47 


49 
44 


49 
46 


53 
46 


51 51 
47 47 


51 
47 


49 
47 


50 50 
46 48 


48 
45 



The differences in pressure are practically no greater than are to be 
accounted for by the ordinary yearly variation. Of course the same 
causes which afEected the value of He and the mean temperature of the 
upper air would also affect the pressure. The possibility of such accidental 
peculiarities, however, emphasises the need for weekly ascents at one or 
two selected stations to fill up the large gaps between successive inter- 
national ascents. 

IV. (e) Diurnal Variation of Temperature. 

Clayton concluded from a discussion of kite ascents made at Blue 
Hill that the most marked feature in the diurnal temperature variation 
in the free atmosphere was the increase in the semi-diurnal term, and 
the vanishing and reappearance with changed phase of the diurnal term 
in the first 1000 m. Wundt,'- using observations made at Hald, in Jutland, 
obtained results for 1,200 m. from which the following expression for the 
variation has been calculated — 

T = To + 0-55 sin (nt + 248°) + 005 sin (2nt + 349°), 

time being measured from midnight and the amplitudes being expressed 
in degrees C. 

For the autumn of 1902, his results, which he regards as more trust- 
worthy than the general means, give 

T = To + 0-35 sin (nt + 229°) + 013 sin (2nt + 217°). 

Gold ^ found the following values for 1,000 m. from an analysis of 
the kite and balloon observations made over Berlin and Lindenberg in 
1903-07 :— 

T = T6- (4-40 ±0-08) + (0-87 ±0-13) sin (nt + 197°) 

+ (014 ± 0-10) sin (2nt + 1 23°). 

where T^ is the mean surface temperature at Potsdam (40 m.). This 
agrees with Wundt's results in making the amplitude of the semi-diurnal 
term small, but differs from them considerably in the amplitude of the 
diurnal term and in the phases of both terms. 

A similar result was found when only those observations were used 
in which the observed wind at 1,000 m. was not less than 8 m.p.s. 

' Met Zeit., 1906, p. 91. ^ Tbid., 1908. 

^ Natv/re, July 1, 1909. 



116 REPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

The value was — 

T = Tb-(3-97 ± 0-15) + (0-84 ± 0-23) sin (nt + 173°) 
+ (0-35 ± 0-15) sin (2nt + 102°), 

and the agreement between the diuinal terms in the two cases proves 
that the results are not influenced to any considerable extent by solar 
radiation. The variation at 2 km. was found to be considerably less. 
It is approximately given by 

T = Tg - (9-84 ± 0-23) + (064 ± 031) sin (nt + 270°) 
+ (0-25 ± 0-23) sin (2nt + 72°). 

The variation of the temperature in the free atmosphere is theoreti- 
cally connected with the variation of pressure. Mountain observations ' 
lead to the conclusion that the amplitude of the diurnal variation of 
pressure diminishes with height, vanishes and reappears with a change 
of phase of 180°. The semi-diurnal term, on the other hand, has its ampli- 
tude roughly proportional to the pressure, and its phase diminishes 
gradually with increasing height. 

If these conditions hold also in the free atmosphere, the phases of the 
diurnal variations of pressure and temperature ought to differ by 180° 
in the lower layers and ought to agree after the change in the pressure 
variation, i.e., the phase of the variation of temperature ought not to 
change materially from its surface value. The observations are in fair 
agreement with this conclusion. 

The phases of the semi-diurnal variations of temperature and pressure 
ought to differ at the surface by 90° nearly, the latter (pressure) being 
the larger. In the upper layers this difference ought to diminish. 

The phase of the semi-diurnal variation of temperature found above 
is subject to a considerable probable error, but the results indicate a 
tendency in it to approach the value found for the phase of the pressure 
variation from mountain observations. Thus at Kew the phases actually 
differ by about 100°, while the phase at 1,000 m. differs by only 20°-30° 
from the phase of the variation of pressure observed at 1,000 m. in the 
Alps.^ The results for the temperature are, however, not sufficiently 
accurate to warrant conclusions as to the variation of pressure in the free 
atmosphere being drawn from them. 

V. Wind. 

The first attempt to discover the way in which the velocity of the 
wind changed with the altitude in the bee atmosphere by the use of 
recording instruments appears to have been made by Archibald, whose 
results were communicated to the British Association at Montreal twenty- 
five years ago. He concluded that the velocities V, v, at heights H and 
h above the surface were connected by the equation 

where x diminished with height, but tended to a value nearly equal to J. 

' On the Pic du Midi, 2,860 m., the daily variation of pressure is given in mm. by 
Ap = 0-19 sin (nt + 180°) + 0-25 sin (2nt + 124°) 
and that of temperature by 

AT = 1-8 sin (nt + 251°) -i- O-O sin (2nt + 80°). 
Met. Zeit,, 1908. See also Hann. Lehrlruoh, p. 605. 
•^ Hann. Lehrhuch, p. 605. 



PRESENT STATE OF OT'R KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 117 

Berson ' found the following values for the ratio of the mean velocity 
in layers 500 m. thick to the mean wind for the day at Potsdam. The 
latter was 5 '5 m.p.s : — 



Layer 


0-0-5 


0-5-10 


10-1-5 1-5-2-0 


20-2-5 


2-5-3-0 


3-4 

2-45 

1-35 

36 


4-5 


above 5 km. 


Ratio . 
Ratio (2) . 

No. of Cases 


1-77 
54 


1-82 

100 

54 


1-85 

1-02 

55 


1-95 

107 

49 


2-08 

1-14 

41 


2-16 

1-19 

38 


3-05 

1-68 

19 


4-46 

2-45 

10 



The ratio (2) is formed with the velocity in the layer 0-5-1-0 as stan- 
dard. The results show a very slow increase up to 2-3 km., after which 
the change takes place more rapidly. It appears probable that the values 
up to 3 km. are those appropriate to the pressure distribution at the 
surface, and indicate that the ratio of the gradient of pressure to the 
density remains nearly constant up to that height. The larger values 
in the upper layers show that the intensity increases with height, which 
is in accordance with the observations of temperature, since these show 
that the places with higher pressure have also higher temperature in the 
upper air. 

Gold ^ showed from a consideration of kite observations that the 
major part of the increase in the first 2,000 m. took place in the layers 
immediately above the surface. For Berlin 75 per cent, of the total 
increase occurred in the first 160 m. 

He found, too, that the velocity increased up to 500 m. almost without 
exception, but that at greater heights numerous cases occurred where 
the velocity decreased as the height increased. Thus at Oxshott, between 
500 and 1,000 m. the velocity decreased in eight cases, remained constant 
in seventeen cases, and increased in twenty-three cases out of a total 
of forty-eight, while at Blue Hill the corresponding numbers were seven, 
four, and ten out of a total of twenty-one. The change depends on the 
direction of the wind. Both at Oxshott and Berlin the velocity almost 
invariably decreased between 1'5 and 2 km. in the case of S.E. winds, 
while S.W. winds showed the greatest increase near the surface. It was 
also found that the kite observations over Berlin furnished conclusive 
evidence that the wind at 1,000 m. altitude agreed both in magnitude 
and direction with the theoretical ve^iocity deduced from the condition 
for steady horizontal motion along the isobars, viz. — 

(» r sin A ± vf _ 1 "dp , (w r sin A )- 

where f is pressure, p density, v velocity of the air, X is latitude, <o the 
angular velocity of the earth about its axis, and r the radius of curvature 
of the path of the moving air. 

Egnell •' deduced from the observations of clouds that the velocity 
increases with the height, so that it remains nearly inversely propor- 
tional to the density, i.e., the velocity V is given by V = VoPo/p» where 
p is density and Vq, po are the values of V and p near the surface. 

The law appears to agree moderately with the observations from pilot 
balloons. The following table gives the values of Vp in arbitrary units 



' Wissenschaftlichfi Luftfalirten, III. 

* Barometric Gradient and Wind Force, M.O., 190. 

" Pomjifes rend.,\^0?,; International Cloud Ohserrations. 



Trappes. 



118 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

(metres per sec. x pressure in metres x To/T) deduced from ten sets of 
observations at Munich ' of which seven reached 12 km : — 

Height ... 1 35-5 8 10'5 ]2km. 

Vp ... 50 48 45 53 45 37 

Observations made by Cave - in July 1908 furnish in the same units 
at the same heights the following values : — 

Vp ... 34 55 59 65 50 43 

Vp (May 1909)3 §5 54 36 36 33 19 

The second row gives values from seven ascents in May 1909. 

The law implies that the mean gradients of pressure have the same 
value in the upper air as near the surface, and this can be the case only 
if the mean temperature over high pressure is greater than it is over the 
low pressure, i.e., if the horizontal gradients of pressure and temperature 
are in the same sense. It was seen from the results for temperature that 
this was the case. It remains to be seen if the observed difference of 
temperature is sufficient to make the gradient of pressure constant. 

If p and p + 8 p are the pressures at two places at the sm-face, then 
the corresponding pressures at a height z are pe ~", {p + c p) e "'" ^ " "' 

where m = r ~ = " '" , T being temperature, and H the height of 
} k 1 J H T 

the homogeneous atmosphere, 8 km. nearly. 

If the difference of pressure is the same as at the surface 

e~" 8 p — J} e~" 8 u ^ 8 p, i.e., 8 p := — p e~" (l — e ")~ ^ 8 w. 
But 

J H T^ "J H T^ 

where <„ is approximately the mean value of 8 T. 

Put T = T„ (I — a z) and a H = ^ corresponding to a constant 
vertical fall of temperature at a rate of 5° 7 C. per km. 
Then u=-{aU)-' log (1 - az) 
8u= -t„{a H) -1 (1 — a z) -' 
e~" = (1 — az)'' 

The condition cannot be satisfied exactly at all heights with such 
a distribution, but if <„ be determined so that it is satisfied at a height 
H, say, it will be approximately true for intermediate heights, and the 
value of t„ will indicate if the condition is likely to be satisfied, regard 
being paid to the results of observations. 

If z = H, a H = ^, T„ = 273 
the condition o p = p e~" (1 — e"")"^ 8 u becomes 

t ='^J'1p 

V 

Thus if 8 ^ = 20 mm., t„ = 2° C nearly. 

Now the actual mean difference in temperature up to 8 km. between 
regions where pressure > 770 mm. and regions where it < 750, is ap- 
proximately 4° C. or practically double the amount necessary to make 
V p constant. The value of V p ought, therefore, to be greater at 8 km. 
than near the surface. The results indicate that this is the case, and they 
show, further, that V p diminishes at greater heights. But this is entirely 
in accordance with the results for temperature, which showed that 8 T, 

' RcyhtHcrhalloiifahrten, 1907-08. ' Quar. Jour. JR. Met. Soc, 1908. 
' Weekly Weather Seport, 1909. 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 119 



and therefore also «„ and 8 p diminished above a height of 8 km. Of course, 
as long as 8 T remains positive 8 p/p will increase, and therefore V will 
increase. But the results for temperature show that 8 T is positive up 
to 10 km., after which it becomes negative. The observations of tem- 
perature and wind are therefore in general^ agreement, indicating an 
increase in V p up to 8 km. and an increase in V up to 10 km., with a 
rapid decrease of both at greater heights. 

The direction of the upper wind usually veers from that at the surface, 
i.e., if the wind is W. at the surface, the upper wind comes from some 
point N. of W. This is partly due to the fact that surface friction opposing 
the motion makes the steady state one in which the direction of the wind 
is between that of the gradient and the isobars. The smaller the friction, 
the closer does the direction for the steady state approach that of the 
isobars. 

The following values for the rotation of the upper wind from that at the 
surface are deduced from Berson's results : — 



Heiffht . 


, Oo 


1 


lo 


2 


2-5 


3 


4 


5 km 


Rotation 


8° 


15° 


21^ 


28° 


35° 


39° 


40" 


43° 


No. of Cases 


. 58 


58 


58 


51 


43 


39 


35 


22 



In comparing these results with those obtained from kites it is to bb 
remembered that a balloon does not rise vertically, but is carried along by 
the moving air and partakes of any natural curvature of path this may 
have in its horizontal progress. 

Similar results found by White, Pring and PetaveP show a smaller 
increase between 1 and 1-5 km., after which the increase is rapid. 
Heiglit . . . 0-5 1 1-5 2 25 km. 

Rotation . . 11° 18° 20° 80° 40° 

The authors do not state if these results are the mean values of the 
rotation irrespective of sign or not. 

The following values have been found for the deviation up to 3 km. 
from the observations made in England in 1906-07-08.2 The values are the 
means of the individual cases, rotation in a clockwise direction (veering) 
being counted + . The values are arranged according to the direction of 
the surface wind, S.W. winds being counted W. and so on. Only those 
observations are used in which the wind at 1,000 m. was not less than 
5 m.p.s. The values of E, are the angles made by the upper wind with the 
surface wind. 



Deviation of the Upper Wind in England. 
(R rotation, N number of cases.) 



Heights 



0-5 km. 



1-0 km. 1-.5 km. 20 km. 2-5 km. 3-0 km. 



\V. 



R. 

N. 
R. 

N. 



'-[l: 







Winter 


( October-March). 








15° 


22° 


22° 


19° 


18° 






76 


76 


41 


14 


5 






6°-5 


13°-5 


12° 


10° 


-5° 






37 


37 


22 


10 


4 






18° 


25° 


17° 


19° 


22° 






37 


37 


18 


10 


7 






16° 


26° 


32° 


36° 


37° 






61 


61 


41 


23 


13 



17° 
4 

0° 
2 

27° 

5 
45° 
11 



' Quarterly Journal R. Met. S., 1908. 

- Weekly Weather Beport. See also Koppen's Three Years' Simultaneous Rite 
Ascents at Berlin, Eamhurg, Pavlorsh. This publication was not available until after 
the present Report was printed. 



120 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Deviation of the Upper Wind in England — continued. 

(R rotation, N number of cases.) 



Heights 



0-5 km. 



I'O km. 1-5 km. 



2'0 km. 



2-5 km. 



8 km. 



W. 



{I: 
{I: 

fR. . 

In. . 

/R. . 

! N. . 





Summer 


{April-September'). 






5°-5 


9°-5 


11° 


13° 


6°-5 




133 


133 


93 


5.5 


26 




2° 


3° 


-4° 


-6° 


-2° 




48 


48 


29 


20 


12 




12° 


19° 


21° 


83° 


41° 




39 


39 


31 


20 


14 




12° 


26° 


32° 


41° 


45° 




67 


67 


41 


19 


11 



Year (Niimbers = sums of Winter and Summer). 



W. 

N. . 

E. . 

S. . . 
Mean of all cases 
Mean of yearly means 
Total N. 



9° 

4° 
15° 
14° 
10° 
10°-5 
300 



14° 

8° 

22° 

26° 

17° 
17°-5 
298 



14°-5 


14° 


8° 


3° 


-1° 


-3° 


20° 


28° 


35° 


32° 


38° 


41° 


18° 


20° 


21° 


170.4 


19°-8 


20°-3 


269 


202 


142 



7° 

19 

-19° 

9 

18° 
11 
55° 
10 



-15° 
21° 
50° 
20° 
16° 
102 



Similar results from Berlin (Lindenberg) for 1906 are as follows ^ : — 


Heights { 0'5 km. 


1-0 km. 


1-5 km. 


2-0 km. 


2-5 km. 


80 km. 


1 1 1 
Winter. 








w |R 


25° 


31° 


31° 


31° 


33° 


31° 


"^- 1 N. . 




76 


75 


59 


39 


26 


18 


N P-- 

^- IN. . 




17° 


20° 


23° 


22° 


13° 


29° 




18 


18 


15 


12 


8 


5 


„ f R. . 

^- 1 N. . 




36° 


39° 


45° 


48° 


53° 


53° 




i 27 


27 


26 


20 


15 


12 


'^^ In.. 




43° 


50° 


53° 


55° 


57° 


50° 




55 


55 


53 


42 


33 


23 


Summer. 








w J ^ 


10° 


13° 


15° 


10° 


15° 


14° 


"'•IN.. 




64 


63 


62 


44 


41 


25 


^■{l: 




10° 


15° 


18° 


18° 


17° 


23° 




24 


24 


22 


18 


14 


9 


■»■ {S: : 




17° 


18° 


28° 


41° 


34° 


7° 




22 


22 


19 


15 


7 


3 


MS:: 




18° 


28° 


27° 


27° 


37° 


34° 




14 


14 


13 


12 


8 


7 


Year (Members = sums of Winter and 


Summer] 






W 


18° 


23° 


23° 


20° 


23° 


22° 


N 


13° 


17° 


20° 


20° 


15° 


25° 


E 


27° 


30° 


38° 


45° 


46° 


44° 


S 


.38° 


46° 


48° 


49° 


53° 


46° 


Mean of all cases . 


23° 


29° 


31° 


32° 


34° 


33° 


Mean of yearly means . 


24° 


29° 


32° 


34° 


34° 


34° 


Total N. . . . 


498 


498 


316 


171 


92 


71 



These results show how much the rotation depends on the wind direction 
and on the situation. At both places S. winds show a greater rotation 

' Ergebnisse der Arbeiteii des Aeron. Ohs. The observations after April 1905 
vvere made at Lindenberg, which is some distance froni Berlin itself. 



PBESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 121 

and a more regular increase than winds from other directions. This is 
probably due, in part at least, to the fact that the general drift of the 
upper air is from W. to E. The rotations for Berlin are in nearly all cases 
greater than in England, but S. winds in summer form an exception. 
The difference in the upper layers is greatest in the case of N. winds which 
back slightly in the upper air in England, both in winter and in summer. 

The rotation is larger in winter than in summer, indicating that in the 
latter season convection is more vigorous in equalising the wind in the 
lower layers. The departures of the wind at higher levels from the direction 
at 500 m. show that this must be the case since these departures tend to be 
slightly larger in summer than in winter. S. winds again form an exception 
and have total rotations slightly larger in summer than in winter in 
England. 

The same observations were used to obtain the increase of the velocity 
with height. 

The following table gives in metres per second the mean observed 
surface wind and the mean excess of the observed wind at each height 
above the surface wind at the time of observation. The number of obser- 
vations in England is slightly less than before because in some cases the 
direction only was observed at ground level. ^ 



Increase in Wind Velocity. 
B = Berlin, E = England. N = number of observations for England. 



Heights 


Sur- 
face 


0-5 km 


I'Okm. 


1-5 km. 


2 km. 


2-5 km. 


30 km. 


1 1 

Winter. 












fB 


7-5 


7-8 


8-0 


80 


8-7 


9-6 


10-5 


W.-,E. 

In. 










5-9 


7-2 


9-6 


10-5 


10-8 


— 


— 










59 


59 


59 


32 


7 


— 


— 


fB. 










5'8 


3-8 


4-1 


5-2 


5-7 


6-8 


7-2 


N. ^ B. 










5-5 


5-3 


5-8 


7-5 


7-2 


11-8 


14-4 


u. 










30 


30 


30 


16 


6 


2 


2 


B. 










5-6 


5-4 


5-7 


5-4 


5-8 


5-3 


5-5 


E. \ E. 










6-3 


6-3 


7-2 


6-6 


6-9 


4-2 


2-8 


N. 










37 


37 


37 


18 


10 


7 


5 


f B. 










5-9 


7-5 


7-2 


7-7 


7-7 


9-4 


100 


S. B. 










4-9 


6-4 


7-8 


8-2 


71 


5-8 


7-0 


N. 










50 


60 


50 


29 


15 


9 


7 


Summer. 














[B 


6-2 


4-5 


61 


6-3 


6-6 


7-6 


8-2 


W. 


E. 










5'9 


5-3 


69 


8-3 


8-5 


91 


8-7 




N. 










107 


107 


107 


67 


38 


26 


11 




B. 










49 


2-9 


3-9 


4-3 


3-8 


3-9 


5-9 


N. ■ 


E. 










5-8 


4-1 


5-3 


5-1 


4-5 


4-8 


8-4 




N. 










39 


39 


39 


21 


14 


7 


4 


I'B. 










5-2 


2-5 


34 


3-6 


3-9 


4-4 


9-3 


B. \ E. 










5-4 


.3-5 


4-4 


4-3 


51 


5-6 


62 


In. 










33 


33 


33 


25 


18 


14 


11 


rB. 










5-6 


3-3 


3-5 


6-6 


4-2 


5-6 


50 


s. ]e. 










41 


50 


8-3 


9-8 


7-9 


7-8 


7-3 




N. 










61 


61 


61 


37 


16 


8 


7 



' The absolute values of the yelocities are not inter-comparable because ascents 
are not made in strong winds in England and the anemometers are of different types 
and have not been compared. 



122 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Increase in Wind FeZoci^y— continued. 
B = Berlin, E = England. N = number of observations for England. 



Heights 



Sur- 



face ^'^^^- 1"0 km.! 1-5 km. 2-0 km. 2-5 km. 30km 



Tear. 






E. 



Mean of Means 



Mean for all windsirrespecti ve of 
magnitude for Berlin, 1905-6-7 



6-9 
5-9 
5-3 
5-7 
54 
5-9 
5-9 
4-4 
5-9 
5-5 

4-9 



6-3 


7-1 


71 


7-5 


8 5 


60 


7-8 


9 1 


8-8 


91 


3-3 


40 


4-6 


45 


50 


4 6 


5-6 


61 


5-3 


6-4 


41 


4-7 


4-6 


5-0 


5-0 


60 


5-9 


53 


5-7 


52 


67 


6-4 


7-3 


7-0 


8-7 


56 


8-1 


9-1 


7-5 


6-7 


51 


5-6 


5-9 


60 


6-8 


5-3 


6-9 


7'4 


6-8 


6-9 


4-3 


4-6 


4-3 


4'8 


56 



9-2 

8-7 

6-4 

104 

63 

51 
90 
7-1 

7-7 
7-8 

6-4 



The velocity therefore increases with the height, but there is little 
change between 1 and 2 km. The smallest increase is in N. and E. winds, 
but in summer the increase in E. winds is progressive throughout. The 
increase in the first 500 m. is always less in summer than in winter, corro- 
borating the results found from the rotation with regard to the effect of 
convection. The following table gives the results for Berlin deduced from 
those cases only in which a height of 3 km. was reached, and the wind 
at 1 km. was 5 m.p.s. and upwards : — 

Deviation and Increase in Wind Velocity, Berlin. 



Heights 



IR. 
ifV. 



W. 

44 cases 

N. 1 R. 
1 4 cases j V. 

E. JR. 
16 cases J V. 

S. \ R. 

30 cases | V. 

Mean of all 1 

104 cases J 



Sur- 
face 



5-9 
5-6 
5-3 
5-7 



16° 
53 
18° 
4-3 
26° 
VrA: 
35° 
6-4 
24° 
5-5 



20° 
6-9 
23" 
4-8 
27° 
5-3 
4.5° 
5-3 
29° 
5-9 



21° 
6-7 
25° 
53 
34° 
5-6 
44° 
60 
30° 
61 



'2-0 km. 
19° 


2-5 km. 


3-0 km. 


20° 


22° 


70 


8-2 


8-9 


24° 


25° 


25° 


55 


59 


6-8 


37° 


39° 


44° 


61 


6-3 


6-3 


45° 


46° 


46° 


69 


82 


9-0 


30° 


31° 


33° 


66 


7-6 


8-3 



Thus except for E. winds there is no change in the rotation between 
1 and 2 km., and for W. winds there is no change in the velocity in the 
same layer. 

The following table gives the frequency of different rotations for a 
height of 500 m. at Berlin (Lindenberg) : — 



Deviation in 


o 
-45 


o 
-34 


o 
-9,3 


-1°1 





1°1 


o 
23 


3°4 45 56 


o 
68 


o 
79 


90 101 


Total 


degrees 






5 


4 


35 


24 


37 


10 16* 5 


2 




1 


— 




W. 


J 39 


N. 








2 


3 


15 


7 


8 


— 1 5' — 


2 


— 


— 


— 


42 


E. 


1 





_ 


1 


11 


3 


13 


4 9 1 


2 


2 


2 


— 


49 


S. 


1 


— 


5 


1 


4 


— 13 

1 


8 21 3 


6 


2 


5 


1 


70 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 123 



The irregularities probably arise through the tendency of the observers 
to estimate in even ' points ' when the direction is nearly half-way between 
two points. The most frequent deviation for E. and W. winds is then 
1 point (11°), for N. winds nothing and for S. winds 3 points (34°). In 
addition to showing the smallest deviation, N. winds show greater regu- 
larity than the others, while E. and S. winds show the least. 

Berson's results lead to the following values for the total rotation io 
cyclones and anticyclones : — 



Heights 

Cj'clones . . 
Anticyclones . 


[ 0-5 km. 

' 4 
10 


10 km. 


27 


1-5 km. 


20 km. 


2-5 km. 


30 km. 


4-0 km. 


50 km. 


— 2 
33 


o 
-2 
43 


o 

2 

50 


o 

3 

57 


o 

-4 
58 


-7 
63 



The horizontal motion of the balloon would tend to increase the 
rotation in anticyclones and to diminish it in cyclones, and this probably 
accounts for the large difference found. Berson concluded that only part 
of the difference could be accounted for in this way, and that there was a 
considerable difference after correcting for this effect. The results of kite 
observations do not agree with this conclusion. The mean rotations, 
deduced from the Berlin observations in 1905, are as follows : — 



Heights 


1 km. 


2 km. 


Number of Cases 


1 km. 


2 km. 


Anticyclonic 
Cyclonic . 


25° 

. 27° 


33° 
37° 


64 
110 


26 
52 



or including only those cases which reached 2 km. : — 



Anticyclonic 
Cyclonic 



30° 
30° 



33° 
37=' 



These values agree very nearly with the general mean values found 
above, i.e., 29°, 32°. Two cases, in which the wind was very weak and 
completely changed its direction, have been excluded. It may be said 
therefore that the mean rotation of the wind in the first 2 km. is prac- 
tically independent of the direction of curvature of the isobars. 

The increase in velocity, expressed in terms of the ratio of the observed 
wind to the mean surface wind, under different pressure conditions, 
is, according to Berson, as follows in different layers (A anticyclonic, 
C cyclonic) : — 



Heights 




0-9-5 


-1-0 


-1-5 


-20 


-2-5 


-30 


-40 


-50 


>5-0 




km. 


km. 


km. 


km. 


km. 


km. 


km. 


km. 


km. 


Ratio A . 


f 


1-61 


1-67 


1-66 


1-86 


1-96 


2 03 


2-40 


315 


4-07 


1 








100 


111 


117 


1-22 


1-44 


1 89 


2-44 


Ratio C . 


{ 


1-96 


200 


209 


217 


2-45 


2-49 


2-66 


3-57 


503 






1-05 


109 


1-23 


1-25 


1-33 


1-79 


2-52 



124 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Thus at all heights the ratio is greater in C than in A. The second rows 
have been introduced to show that the ratio to the wind in the layer 
0"5-l-0 km. is practically the same for the two cases, so that the difference 
arises in the surface layer. 

The kite observations for 1905 lead to the following results for the 
velocity in m.p.s. in the two cases : — 





Velocity 




Ratio 




Surface 


1 km. 


2 km. 


1 km. 


2 km. 


a((^) • 

1 (2) . 
^ 1 (2) . 


S-6 
4-1 
5-6 

5-9 


7-1 

8-2 

10-7 

10-5 


8-4 

8-4 

10-7 

10-7 


1-97 

200 
1-91 

1-78 


205 
1-82 



The rows (1) include all observations ; (2) those only in which the 
ascent reached 2 km. The surface wind is the mean of the values at the 
time of observation. The ratio is less in C than in A, but the method 
of obtaining the surface value is different from that used by Berson, so that 
it is not quite certain that the results are contradictory. The results seem 
to imply that the difference is largely accidental and that the real difference 
is small. It would of course be natiural to suppose that the surface 
friction and irregularities would produce a diminution in velocity which 
increased at a greater rate than the velocity itself, and this would accord 
with Berson's results. 



Anode Rays and their Spectra. By Dr. Otto Eeichenheim. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso]. 

In 1886 Dr. Goldstein found two sorts of positive rays in vacuum 
tubes, containing a perforated cathode, one passing behind through 
the cathode — the canal rays — the other going from the cathode in the 
same direction as the cathode rays, which he called Ki-rays, and which 
are now known in English literature as ' retrograde rays.' 

These rays owe their origin to the high fall of potential near the 
cathode; and so we may expect that positive rays can arise at any 
part of the space of discharge if it is possible to produce a sufficiently 
high fall of potential. 

The fall near the anode in a vacuum-tube filled with any indifferent 
gas, as H2, N2, or helium, is usually 20 to 40 volts. As Gehrcke 
and I found two years ago, this fall can grow suddenly to many thou- 
sands of volts if one introduces small quantities of halogen vapour into 
the tube. From such anodes with high fall we found that positive 
rays were emitted. These we called anode rays. 



ANODE RAYS AND THEIR SPECTRA. 



125 



Fig. 1 shows an anode-ray tube. k is an ordinary cathode of 
aluminium; the anode is formed by a stick a of a mixture of a halo- 
gen salt and graphite which is surrounded by a glass tube ; through 
this tube passes a copper wire, which conducts the current to the salt. 
so that the surface of the salt mixture serves as the anode. 

If the current passes through the tube the surface of the salt, for 
instance Lil, gets melted and develops vapour of iodine, which pro- 
motes a high fall of potential ; the positive lithium ions on the surface 
of the melted salt get their velocity in this field and appear in the tube 
as anode rays. These rays show the spectrum of lithium ; they pro- 
duce on the glass the yellow fluorescence characteristic of positive rays ; 
they are emitted at right angles to the surface from which they come; 
they are deflectable by electric and magnetic fields in the sense of positive 
charged particles. 

Sodium rays are yellow, Ca rays violet, barium and strontium rays 
blue; about the spectra I will speak later on. If one had a sufficient 




Fia. 1. 



quantity of Bal2 or EaBrz, I think, there would be no difficulty in 
making Ra rays — that is, rays of positively charged Ra-atoms. 

We measured the velocity and the relation between charge and 
mass of these rays. The following table shows that the velocity 
of these rays, which depends on the electric field at the anode, is about 
the same as that of canal rays, and that it appears correct to assume 
that these rays consist of positively charged atoms: — 



- 


„cms / 
" /sec 


e 
m 


ml 
1 mn 


Atomio 
Weight 


Sodium 
Lithium 
Strontium . 


1-76 X 10' 
2-40 X 10' 
1-08 X 10' 


0-40 X 10» 
115 X 10» 
0-21 X 10' 


23 
8-3 
90 


23 

7 
88 



126 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The vapours of halogens can also produce high electric fields at any 
other point of the discharge, where there is a constriction of the path, 
and produce positive rays there. 

If one fill a tube such as is illustrated in fig. 2 with H2, evacuate it 
and pass a current from Ai, the anode, to the cathode k, then cathode 
rays go out from the cathode, and striction-cathode rays out of the tube 
1, 2, at 2, but no positive rays are to be found in the tube. If we 
now introduce any halogen vapour into the tube, not only does the fall 
at the anode rise, but a high fall is also created near 1, and hydrogen- 
anode rays are emitted from a, and striction-anode from A2. 

If we have helium instead of H, in the tube together with a halogen, 
helium rays are produced. 

Last winter I endeavoured to ascertain the cause of the remarkable 
power of the halogen vapours to increase the fall at a constriction of 
the path of discharge ; and I found that the following hypothesis is 
supported by experiments of which time does not allow me to give 
an account : the halogens are, in accordance with their electro-negative 
character, much more inclined than other gases to form negative ions, 





Fig. 2. 



or, what is the same, to absorb negative electrons ; and where there is 
a decrease of electrons one always finds an increase in the fall. 

If, now, the tendency of the halogens to form negative ions is the 
explanation of the high fall at the anode, then when a perforated anode 
is used those negative ions should become accelerated and appear behind 
the anode as negatively charged atomic rays, in the same manner as 
positively charged rays (the canal rays) pass through a perforated 
cathode. 

In a tube like the one shown in fig. 3, I tried to find these rays. 
K is an aluminium cathode; into the big tube leads another glass tube, 
B. In the end of this tube there is fused the anode a, a platinum 
plate which has a central slit, c is a cylinder of wire gauze, d a 
metallic diaphragm, c and d are in metallic connection with each 
other and form a closed conductor inside which there can be no electric 
field. They can be connected by a wire with the pole of an electric 
machine. F is a fluorescent screen. 

If there is a mixture of H2 and I2 vapour in the tube, there is, 
in a suitable vacuum, an anode fall of about 4,000 volts ; from a the 
Hi anode rays (already mentioned) enter into the big vessel. In the 
opposite direction, towards f, there pass not only negative electron- 



ANODE RAYS AND THEIR SPECTRA. 



127 



rays (cathode rays), but also atomic rays. If one examines these 
atomic rays in a magnetic field one finds that they do not carry as 
expected a negative charge, but a positive charge. As these rays come 
from the anode and have, against all expectation, just as the K, rays, 
a positive charge, I called them Ai rays. 

Thus we see that positive rays pass through the electrode a whether 
it is acting as cathode or as anode. In the first case these rays are 
canal rays; in the second case Ai rays. 

Without supposing that here there is some radio-active process going 
on, we must conclude that these Ai rays obtain their velocities as nega- 
tive ions. 

If afterwards they show a positive charge they must have dissociated 
negative electrons on their way. So the hypothesis seems permissible 
that in gases at low pressures material particles, having a certain 
velocity, dissociate negative electrons. This hypothesis of the origin 




Fig. 3. 



of Ki and Ai rays is in accordance with the results of "Willy Wien, 
for it will be remembered that he found that a bundle of uncharged 
canal rays becomes positively charged during their passage. 

The following diagram shows all the rays carrying electric charges 
in a vacuum-tube (fig. 4) : — - 



M o-<- 



1 Mo 

'-- oM 



Mo- 

->«E 



• E 

oM 



K 



Fig. 4. 



A represents a pefforated anode. 

K „ ,, cathode. 

Black points E represent electrons. 

Circles M represent positively charged particles. 



The rays leaving the anode seem to be identical with those leaving 
the cathode, if one supposes that the rays at the anode have their origin 
at a gas-cathode situated just in front of the surface of the anode. 

In regard to the spectra of the anode rays it may be mentioned that 
the alkali rays show about the same spectrum as in the electric arc, 
a spectrum which consists of series. The specti'um which the anode 
rays from the metals of the alkaline earths emit is much simpler than 



128 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 




Fig. 5. 



the one they show in the electric arc. The difference will be seen from 
the following diagram (fig. 6) : — 

This shows the spectrum of barium when it is used as metallic 
anode in a Wehnelt tube, and when the currents sent through the gas 
are so great that the metal begins to evaporate. Then 
the light near the anode throws a spectrum which is 
about the same as the one the metal stiows in the 
electric arc. Below this spectrum is shown that of 
barium anode rays. It is easily seen that the first 
spectrum has many more lines than the second one, 
which is the spectrum of the anode rays. 

The barium rays show a spectrum of the same type 
as that of the rays due to other alkaline earths, as 
they all have one line, which has no relation to any 
other, an isolated line, and then a few pairs of the same 
difference of vibration- frequency which are connected 
with the atomic weight in the well-known way detected 
by Eunge and Paschen. So we may suppose that the 
lines owe their origin to charged atoms. 

By studying the spectra of anode-rays it will be 
possible to decide also for other elements which lines 
are emitted by isolated atoms and which are due to more 
complex systems. And as these spectra are very simple 
we may hope that relations in those spectra will be found 
for which no such relations have yet been discovered till now : for 
instance, in the spectrum of iron ; but my experiments in this direction 
are not yet sufficiently advanced to say anything definite about it. 

All lines of anode rays which were studied are found to give the 
Doppler effect ; by means of this effect we measured, for instance, the 
velocity and ratio of e by m of sodium rays, and found a mass equal 
to that of the sodium atom. 

I may mention that, when canal rays are moving towards the 
observer, one finds two spectrum lines instead of one. One of these has 
the ordinary wave-length and one is shifted towards the violet ; in Ger- 
man called by Stark ' die ruhende Intensitat ' and ' die bewegte In- 
tensitat.' 

The explanation of the shifted line is given by the theory of the 
Doppler effect ; but the origin of the ' ruhende Intensitat ' is prob- 
lematic, and many and not very satisfactory theories are made about it. 
For the solution of the problem of the unshifted line a result may be 
important which I found in the Doppler effect of the rays from the 
alkaline earths. The spectrum of Sr-rays shows one isolated line and 
two pairs. The surface of the anode emits only the isolated line; the 
other lines only appear in the ray itself. And in observing the Doppler 
effect one finds that only the isolated line shows both the shifted and 
unshifted lines; the first being emitted by the ray, the second by the 
surface of the anode. The pairs only show the shifted lines, and not 
the unshifted. 

In the case of canal rays there are always the same lines emitted by 
the ray and the surrounding gas, so it seems to be quite natural to find 
both the shifted and unshifted lines. 

Here, in the case of anode-rays, the ray emits lines different from 
those of the gas, and so one finds, as to be expected, only the shifted lines. 



ON THREEFOLD EMISSION-SPECTEA OF SOLID COMPOUNDS. 129 

On Threefold Emission-Spectra of Solid Aromatic Compounds. 
By Professor E. Goldstein. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be priuted in cxteuso.] 

Some years ago I observed '■ that bright, fluorescent, and phosphorescent 
light is emitted by a number of aromatic sohd compounds — for example, 
naphthalene, xanthone, anthracene, &c. — if cathode-rays strike on 
these substances, cooled by hquid air for preventing their evaporation 
and decomposition. In this way I was also able to obtain bright-light 
emission from a great many substances, which at an ordinary tempera- 
ture are liquid bodies — for example, benzene, the three xylenes, benzo- 
nitrile, the chinolines, acetophenone, &c. The light emitted by these 
substances gave bright discontinuous spectra of a great variety, all 
consisting of bands of various width and intensity. 

Since that time I have extended this research on nearly all aromatic 
substances which I could obtain in any way, and have thus obtained 
about two thousand emission-spectra of aromatic substances and of 
mixtures of such substances with other bodies. 

Of course, time does not allow me to give a complete report of this 
work. Here I just want to speak about one result of my experiments. 

In the beginning I was satisfied to observe just a single spectrum 
for each substance, because it was thought that every substance could 
emit only one single spectrum. But soon I found that the complexity 
of phenomena is much greater than it seemed at first sight. For each 
substance does not show only one spectrum, but, according to the 
conditions of the experiment, there appear three spectra, which are 
quite different from each other and have no coincident maximum. I 
call these three kinds of spectra respectively the initial-spectrum, the 
chief-spectrum, and the solution-spectrum of the substance. 

At the first moment, when cathode-rays fall upon the substances, 
there appears quite alone and bright the spectrum which I call the 
initial-spectrum. Then the brightness of the initial-spectrum diminishes 
and gets fainter and fainter till its intensity becomes very small, but it 
never entirely disappears. When the initial-spectrum gets fainter, the 
chief-spectrum at the same time appears and grows brighter and 
brighter. The chief-spectrum is for a great number of substances so 
characteristic that it is possible to recognise the substance in this way 
at a glance and without measuring the wave-lengths, just as you can 
recognise nitrogen by its well-known bands, or hydrogen, mercury, and 
helium by their line- spectra. This is even the case with isomeric sub- 
stances, for one is able to distinguish at a glance, for instance, the 
three isometiic xylenes or other isometric aromatic hydro-carbons. The 
third kind of spectra, which is quite different from the two others, 
appears if an aromatic substance is dissolved in any other liquid or 
melted compound and the solidified solution is exposed to cathode-rays. 

Now let me just say a few words on the properties of each of the 
three kinds of spectra. 

The chief-spectra always begin from the infra-red, never I'each the 
violet end of the visible spectniin, but end about the middle part of 

' Vcrluindl. d. Dculsch. I'liysi/;. Ges., vi. 150 iuul vi. 18-5 (I'JOl). 

i9oy. K 



130 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

it in the green or in the blue, sometimes even in the yellow. I never 
observed that a chief-spectrum passes the wave-length of X 460. The 
chief-spectra consist of narrow-channelled bands, which nearly always 
have their sharper boundary toward the violet end of the spectrum. 
The number of the bands varies within a wide range for the different 
substances between a few strips and several dozen. The distances 
between them appear generally irregular. The substances, when they 
send out their chief-spectrum, look red or yeUow or green, or of any 
other tint which occurs with fluorescent minerals or inorganic salts. 
On the other hand, the light which is emitted during the first 
moments of radiation and belongs to the initial-spectrum is — at least, 
for colourless substances — always blue. The discontinuous initial- 
spectra of two substances are, like their chief -spectra, never quite 
the same, but as in their general appearance they are rather similar to 
each other, at least in the visible part of the spectrum, so one cannot 
recognise a substance at a glance by its initial-spectnmi as one can 
by the chief-spectrum, but measures of its wave-lengths are neces- 
sary. The initial-spectra begin always like the chief -spectra in the 
red, but not only reach into the green or blue, but go on into the 
ultra-violet. One type of initial spectra occurring especially frequently 
invariably consists of six groups of bands. Bach of the six groups is 
formed by the same number of strips at the same relative distance and 
intensity ; and as the relative distance of the groups themselves is also 
not very different — at least in the prismatic spectrum— the whole spec- 
trum gives the impression of having a very high regularity. Such 
spectra, consisting of six groups, with different wave-lengths for each 
individual substance, are, for example, the initial-spectra of mesitylenic 
acid, of metatoluic acid, of the anhydride of benzoic acid, of toluene and 
of it's halogen substituted derivates — and of many other substances, 
especially of those aromatic bodies whose molecules contain a single- 
ring group. 

In the groups which contain two or even more benzene rings, and 
especially in condensed substances, one finds also other types of initial- 
spectra, all extending from red into the ultra-violet, which I will not 
speak of in this short report. 

The third spectrum of aromatic compounds is shown in very charac- 
teristic forms especially by dissolved compounds of the condensed type ; 
for instance, by naphthalene and most of its derivates. The chief 
spectrum of naphthalene shows the wave-lengths 

539 (very bright) 589 (very bright) 
555 015 (probably a doublet) 

560 630 

573 648 

X 639 and 589 mark sharp boundaries on the violet side, the other wave- 
lengths belong to the middle of narrow strips. 

The spectrum of the same naphthalene, if dissolved in monochloro- 
benzene (which itself gives only a faint and almost continuous spectrum) 
shows the following wave-lengths (all for the middle of the narrov/ 
strips) : — 
4gU,ight 505 |,ather bright '^g ) rather faint g^ } ^g } ,ather famt 

582 faint. 



ON THREEFOLD EMISSION-SPECTRA OF SOLID COMPOUNDS. 131 

Beyond this last strip the iUumhiated ground cannot be separated 
distinctly into strips. 

One cannot, however, speak of a single solution-spectrum of a body, 
as the solution-spectrum of the same substance varies greatly with the 
solvent. 

The solution-spectrum of naphthalene, for example, shows 
differences, if the naphthalene has been dissolved in metaxylene or in 
orthoxylene or in paraxylene. Therefore, if one substance shows 
remarkable differences in isomeric solvents, one cannot wonder that the 
solution-spectra of the same substance show even much greater 
differences if more different solvents are used; for instance, if we 
compare the solution-spectra of the same substance when dissolved 
either in a xylene or in aniline, pyridine, ethyl- alcohol, and ethyl-ether. 
On the other hand, each condensed compound and its derivates, 
even in the case of isomers, show an individual solution-spectrum. 
The chief spectrum of the /3-bromonaphthalene presents a similar aspect 
to the chief spectrum of the a-bromonaphthalene. But the solution- 
spectra of the two substances, for example, in monochlorobenzene, are 
very different. The solution-spectrum of the a-substance is of a similar 
type to the solution-spectrum of naphthalene itself, presenting only an 
appearance of a certain regularity by the occurrence of some doublets, 
while the solution-spectrum of the /3-form is of a quite different type, 
and shows a most regular structure. It consists of four bands, of quite 
equal aspect, extending from the red into the blue. Each of the four 
bands is formed by five narrow strips, the relative distance and intensity 
of which is quite corresponding in all bands. 

The light of the chief-spectra is fluorescent, and disappears at the 
moment when the cathode-rays stop. 

The light of the solution-spectra is phosphorescent, and very often 
one can see it for some minutes after the discharge which produces the 
cathode-rays is interrupted. 

Only very small quantities of a substance are necessary to produce 
a solution-spectrum bright enough to be remarked and to be measured. 
For example, one can detect in this way less than the hundred thou- 
sandth part of naphthalene dissolved in monochlorobenzene or in 
methylbenzoic ester. 

Of course these phosphorescent solution-spectra are, on the other 
hand, a very sensitive test for the purity of aromatic substances, or, 
what is the same, a very sensitive means of detecting very small 
quantities of admixed foreign aromatic substances. And I am sorry to 
say that, among many hundreds of preparations of the best obtainable 
' purity,' the specimens which did not show very marked signs of im- 
purities could be counted on the fingers of one hand, if there were any 
at all. 

I spent much time and money in getting even very small quan- 
tities of certain substances really pure; for example, diphenyle, 
indene, carbazole, fluorene, and other condensed compounds, and some 
of the most famous chemists helped me kindly by the best known 
methods ; but at last I had to give up the hope of getting any of these 
substances in pure condition. Until now they have never been pro- 
duced in a really pure state, and I fear that the same holds true for all 
other aromatic bodies. 

K 2 



132 EEPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Some Properties of Light of very Short Wave Lengths. ' 
By Professor Theodore Lyman. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.] 

The most refrangible region of the spectrum discovered by Schumann^ 
is interesting from two points of view. On the one hand, it affords a 
new field for the investigation of pure spectroscopy, and, on the other, it 
offers opportunities for the extension of the study of photo-chemical and 
photo-electric phenomena. 

In the realm of spectrum analysis something has already been accom- 
plished. Absorption and emission of light by hydrogen, oxygen, 
nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, argon, and hehum have been 
investigated and the absorption of a considerable number of solids has 
been studied. 

The absorption of gases is perhaps the most striking phenomenon to 
be found in this region. One millimetre of air at atmospheric pressure 
is quite suificient to absorb most of the light of shorter wave length than 
1700 Angstrom units. The oxygen of the air is the chief agent in pro- 
ducing the effect, for this gas possesses a strong absorption band extend- 
ing from near \ 1800 to the neighbourhood of \ 1300. The discovery 
of the more refrangible limit of this band is one of the recent results in 
this subject.^ 

Hydrogen, argon, and helium when examined in short columns all 
prove perfectly transparent, while the absorption produced by nitrogen 
is extremely slight. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, however, 
each possess absorption spectra characterised by naiTow bands. 

The behaviour of oxygen is obviously different from that of other 
simple gases. This difference may be attributed to a photo-chemical 
reaction typical of this gas. 

From the point of view of the emission of light, hydrogen is the most 
important of the gases examined.^ It possesses a strong spectrum, very 
rich in lines extending from \ 1650 to \ 1030. This spectrum is much 
weakened when capacity is introduced in the discharge circuit ; it seems 
to correspond to the ' secondary ' or ' many line ' spectiTim of 
hydrogen in the less refrangible region, but it is not continuous with 
it. Lines of the ' primary ' or Balmer type do not appear to exist 
in the region between \ 2000 and \ 1250. This is to be expected from 
theoretical considerations, for the chief series as given by Eydberg* 
lies on the less refrangible side of \ 2000, and the chief series as given 
by Eitz * lies on the more refrangible side of X 1250. It seems prob- 
alale that the first line of the series predicted by Eitz does exist, but 
so far experimental difficulties have prevented its identification. 

Next in importance is the spectrum produced by carbon monoxide; 
exactly the same spectrum is given by carbon dioxide. It consists of 
a large number of bands, whose heads point toward the violet and whose 

' Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, 'No. 1413. 

2 Astrophysical Journal, vol. xxvii. No. 2. 

s Ihid., vol. xsiii. No. .3. ■• IMd., vol, vi. p. 233. 

» Ann. d. Physili, v. 25, 1908, p. €67. 



SOME PKOPERTIES OF LIGHT OF VERY SHORT WAVE LENGTHS. 133 

tails stretch toward the red. This spectrum resembles the fourth group 
of Deslandres/ and appears to form a continuation of it. The bands 
extend from the region \ 2600 to X 1300; they afford a wide field for 
a test of Deslandres' law. 

The spectrum of argon consists of a considerable number of 
characteristic lines extending from \ 2000 to the limit of the spectrum. 

Up to the present time it has been impossible to attribute any lines 
to helium, to oxygen, or to nitrogen, in that part of the spectrum more 
refrangible than \ 1850. 

A great number of solids have been examined, with the hope of 
finding some substance more transparent than white fluorite.'* The 
results have been negative. Eock salt in thicknesses of one or two mil- 
limetres begins to absorb strongly in the neighbourhood of X 1750. 
B2O3 is even less transparent.' Quartz in thickness of 2 mm. absorbs 
strongly at X 1500, and the absorption increases rapidly with thickness; 
even white fluorite becomes opaque near X 1250. It was the opacity of 
fluorite which set the limit to Schumann's progress in the extreme 
ultra-violet. It was by the removal of all fluorite from the light path 
and by the use of a grating, that the writer has been able to extend the 
spectrum to its present limit — X 1080. 

It is interesting to note that the positions of the absorption bands 
demanded by Maclaurin's * dispersion formula for rock salt and fluorite 
lie in the neighbourhood of X 1265 and X 846 respectively ; while on the 
experimental side strong absorption appears to begin near X 1750 for 
rock salt and near X 1250 for fluorite. 

The investigation of the spark or arc spectra of solids has met with 
very little success. Apart from a few lines in aluminium extending into 
the neighbourhood of X 1650 almost nothing has been accompHshsd.^ 
The difficulties are obvious. It is necessary to produce a spark or arc 
in such a manner that the light characteristic of the substance in question 
may enter the vacuum spectroscope without suffering absorption. The 
high potential arc * has been ti'ied in this connection, but without result. 

On the photo-chemical side of the subject the well-known action of 
light in producing ozone is perhaps the most conspicuous phenomenon. 
The fact of importance to be deduced from a study of the Schumann 
region relates to the rapid increase of this effect with decrease in wave 
length. The very wave lengths which are most strongly absorbed by 
the air are those which are most active in the production of ozone.' It 
seems probable, therefore, that the strong absorption of oxygen is con- 
nected intimately with this phot-o-chemical action. 

The formation of ozone may play a considerable part in determining 
the relative velocity of the ions produced by ultra-violet light. 

In photo-electric phenomena it is well known that for many sub- 
stances the discharge of negative electricity becomes more pronounced as 
the wave length of the exciting light is decreased. In the Schumann 
region this effect becomes very striking, as the following experiment will 
serve to indicate. 



' Compt. rend., V. cvi., 1888, p. 845. - Astrophyslcal Journal, vol. xxv., No. 1. 
3 Ihid., vol. sxviil. No. 1. * Proc. Roy. Soc, A, vol. 81, p. 367. 

' Kayser, Handbucli, vol. ill. p. 33y. » Physical Rcvieiv, vol. v. p. 1. 
' Astropkysical Journal, vol. xxvii. No. 2, p. 98. | 



134 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

A discharge tube of the type usually employed by the writer is 
closed by a fluorite window, and upon this window is mounted an air- 
tight ' screen chamber ' 1 cm. thick, also closed by a fluorite window, 
which communicates with an air-pump. Above the ' screen chamber ' 
is the air-tight condenser chamber, which may also be exhausted. 
This last chamber contains a clean zinc plate, 9 mm. in diameter, and 
below it a brass guard ring. The apparatus is so constructed that the 
light from the discharge tube, after passing through the screen chamber, 
falls directly on the zinc plate; the brass ring is protected from illu- 
mination and is earthed. The zinc plate is connected to a gold-leaf 
electrometer of the simplest type, and is given a negative charge. The 
discharge tube is filled with a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, 
at about 2 mm. pressure, and the condenser chamber is exhausted. 
Now, if the screen chamber is filled with air at 1 atmosphere pressure, 
on starting the discharge tube the leaves of the electroscope collapse 
slowly. On the other hand, if the sci'een chamber is exhausted to about 
1 mm. pressure, on starting the discharge tube the leaves of the electro- 
scope collapse almost instantly. The phenomenon is so striking that the 
simplest electric arrangements serve to show it. 

It is known from spectroscopic measurements that the spectrum of 
a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide consists of a great number 
of lines and bands extending from the region of the visible to the limit of 
the spectrum as set by fluorite — X 1250. It is also known that a layer 
of air, at atmospheric pressure, 1 cm. thick, absorbs all wave lengths 
shorter than X 1760 very strongly, and that a layer of air at 1 mm. 
pressure, 1 cm. thick, shows little absorption until the region of X 1300 
is reached. Thus when the " screen cell "is filled with air, light from 
the red end of the spectrum — near X 6800 to X 1750 — falls upon the 
zinc plate; when the cell is exhausted light from the visible to X 1300 
falls on the plate. The addition of the region between X 1750 and 
X. 13U0 increases the leak by at least tenfold. Thus it seems probable 
that the photo-electric effect for zinc increases rapidly with decrease in 
wave length as the limit of the Schumann region is passed. It is the 
rapidity of this increase which is the striking point. 

In the volume ionisation of gases the same state of things holds true. 
Lenard investigated the phenomenon, and lately Professor Sir J. J. 
Thomson has proved its reality. The amounts of ionisation obtained 
were, relatively speaking, small. It appears, however, that if care is 
taken to employ light of the shortest wave length, the ionisation obtained 
is quite considerable.' Here again the rapidity of the increase of the 
effect as the Schumann region is entered is the important point. 

This phenomenon of volume ionisation in its relation to short wave 
lengths has some bearing on the behaviour of vacuum tubes, and 
accounts for a part of the effects usually attributed to ' Entladung 
strahlen.' - 

Such, in brief, are the results which have been obtained in this small 
but interesting spectral region. A complete description of the apparatus 
which has been used and the methods which have been employed is to 
be found in the articles to which references have been made. 



' Astroplii/sical Journal, vol. sxviii. No. 1, p. 5G ; yuiure, Aj)ril 2:5, 1908, p. 582. 
* Astroph If sical Journal, vol. xxviii. No. 1. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 135 



Dynamic Isomerisni. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor H. E. Aemstrong (Gliairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry 
(Secretary), Professor Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, 
Dr. J. J. DoBBiB, Dr. M. O. Forster, and Dr. A. Lap- 
worth. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Dynamic Isomcriwi in relation to Luminons Phenomena} 

A. Ahsoipfion Siiciira. 

During the past, year two series of investigations on ' The Eelationship 
between Absorption Spectra and Isomeric Change ' have been completed 
and pubhshed.- Attention may now he directed to the decisive evidence 
adduced in these communications that the presence or absence of a 
band in the absorption spectrum of a camphor-derivative is in no way 
dependent on the occurrence or non-occurrence of isomeric change. 

(1) Nitrocamfhor, which changes rapidly in neutral alcoholic solu- 
tions, does not give rise to an absorption band ^ even when the isomeric 
change is stimulated by the addition of an acid. Very strong bands are 
observed in the spectra of solutions of salts of nitrocamphor ; yet these 
salts are not known to exist in more than one form. 

(2) a- ChlorocavipJior , on the other hand, which changes only in the 
presence of an alkali, exhibits a strong band in neutral and in alkaline 
solutions indifferently, the band being only slightly intensified by the 
addition of an alkali. 

(3) The ^- siilplwnates derived from a-chlorocamphor also undergo 
isomeric change only when an excess of alkali is added ; but this has the 
effect of weakening instead of intensifying, the absorption bands which 
are produced by neutral solutions of these salts. 

(4) In the case of the isomeric a- and /?-bromo-derivatives of a 
methyl-camphor, it is found that the methyl-camphor band is not apparent 

y'CH.GIl3 

in the /3-compound C^tHigBr / | , but is in the a-compound 

yCBr.CH;, 
G^Hn/ I , in spite of the fact that tlie former contains a dis- 

placeable « -hydrogen atom, and that no such atom is pi'esent in the 
latter, which therefore is unable under any condition to undergo keto- 
enolic isomeric change. 

The decisive experiments that have been made with these optically- 
active substances have an important bearing on the general theory of tlie 

' The general discussion which follows is an amplification in the light of more 
recent evidence of considerations wliich were advanced by Armstrong in 1902 and by 
Armstrong and Lowry in 190.3 {Proc. U.S., 72, 2,58-264) in a paper bearing these 
words as its sub-title. 

- Trans. Chem. Soc, 1909, 95, 807-823; 1.S40-1346. 

^ The ' shallow band ' referred to in the previous report was found to be merely a 
' step-out,' the effect of which had been exaggerated by under-exposure. 



13G REPORTS ON TTTE STATK OF RCTF.NCE. 

origin of colour in carbon-compounds. Broadly speaking, two alternative 
conceptions have been advocated. On the one hand, it has been suggested 
that the selective absorption of light by coloured compounds is due to a 
peculiar structure of the molecule and that certain types of structure 
in which ethenoid linkages and other unsaturated centres are present 
are specially susceptible to the ' optical resonance ' which is universally 
recognised as the cause of the absorption of light by vapours and is 
probably also the cause of the less abrupt absorption of light by liquids 
and solids. On the other hand, it has been suggested that colour is due 
not so much to molecular structure as to change of structure, and that 
only those molecules which ai-e capable of existing in isomeric forms, 
and may, therefore, be supposed to be in a state of continued oscillatory 
isomeric change, are capable of resonating to light of definite periodicity. 
This theory was introduced by Hewitt ' to account for fluorescence ; it 
was applied by Armstrong and Lowry - in explanation of the storage of 
energy in phosphorescent and in triboluminescent substances, and has 
been put forward by Baly and Desch ^ and by Baly and Stewart * as 
an explanation of colour in organic compounds ; it has also been used 
by Baeyer ' and by Green * to account for the specially intense colour 
of some of the derivatives of triphenylmethane. 

Two different types of isomeric change have been specially considered , 
namely — 

(1) Isomeric changes involving the oscillatory transference of an 
atom of hydrogen from carbon to oxygen as in ethylic acetoacetate, from 
nitrogen to oxygen as in isatin, and from oxygen to oxygen as in p- 
nitrosophenol. 

(2) Changes involving only a rearrangement of the bonds in the 
molecule without any substantial alteration in the relative positions of 
the atoms, as, for instance, in Kekul^'s well-known hypothesis, in which 
an oscillation of the linkages in benzene was assumed to take place in 
order to account for the identity of the T :2 and 1 :G diderivatives. 

Changes of the former kind have been carefully investigated in 
several typical compounds and have been found (in direct contradiction 
to Laar's hypothesis of tautomerism) to be subject to the ordinary laws 
governing chemical change. The occurrence of change of the latter 
type is at present purely speculative, as no case is known in which the 
occurrence of such a change has been demonstrated ; but, in view of the 
extreme stability of the linkages in compounds such as the sugars, it 
is exceedingly probable that if ever an example of the second type of 
change be discovered, it will be found to obey the same laws, and to 
be governed by the same conditions as those which obtain in isomeric 
changes of the first type. 

The most important consequences of the application to luminous 
phenomena of considerations based upon the ordinary laws of chemical 
change are perhaps those concerning the effects produced by the pre- 
sence of foreign substances, and by the change from the fluid to the 
solid state. 



' Proc. Chem. Son.. 1000, 16, ^ ; Z/it. jjJnjii. Chew., 1900, S4, ]. 

- Prne. lioy. Soc. 1903, 72, 2.58-264. 

' Trarnt. C'hevi. Soe , 1904, 85, 1029; 1905. 87, 7fi6. 

' Jhid., 1906, 89, 502. s An7ialen,^\907 , 354, 152. 

« Proc. Chem. Soc, 1908, 84, 206. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 137 



B. CataTytic Action of Impurities. 

It cannot be insisted too strongly that no actual case of ' intramole- 
cular change ' is known to chemistry. The part which a chain or 
circuit of molecules plays in bringing about chemical action is now very 
generally recognised; it is unnecessary to do more than mention, as 
instances, the part played by moisture in determining the combusti- 
bility of gases, the importance of impurities in conditioning the dis- 
solution of metals by acids and the need of a catalyst to bring about 
the isomeric change of phenylchlorimide ; it is, however, permissible to 
emphasise the fact that neither the dissociation of a molecule of am- 
monium chloride nor the transference of a hydrogen atom from carbon 
to oxygen in a molecule of nitrocamphor — changes which, if such a 
thing were possible, might be expected to provide excellent examples of 
single-molecule transformations — can be effected without the aid of a 
foreign substance, and the establishment of a complex heterogeneous 
molecular circuit. It is therefore legitimate, in considering the con- 
nection between luminous phenomena and chemical change, to apply 
as a critical test to any particular relationship that may be proposed 
the question as to whether the action can or cannot be ari'ested by the 
elimination of impurities. If the phenomenon can be proved to be 
manifest only in presence of a catalyst, not when pure materials are 
used, there is good evidence that it may be dependent on chemical 
change; if the effect can be proved to be independent of impurities, it 
must be regarded as inherent in the physical nature of the material. 
Positive evidence that the presence of a catalyst is essential has been 
forthcoming in the case of the phenomena of mutarotation and in the 
case of phosphorescence, as both manifestations may be arrested by 
suitable methods of purification ; these may, therefore, be correctly attri- 
buted to chemical rather than to purely physical changes. Refraction, 
dispersion, and optical rotatory power, on the other hand, are properties 
which do not appear to be dependent in any way on the presence of 
foreign substances and must therefore be referred to physical and not 
to chemical characteristics of the molecule. In an intermediate group 
may be placed (1) colour, (2) fluorescence, and (3) triboluminescence ; 
it is in reference to these three phenomena that controversy and discus- 
sion have for the most part been carried on. 

Of the three phenomena quoted, that of triboluminescence is the one 
in which the clearest evidence is available, crystals of saccharin, for 
instance, showing the phenomenon very irregularly, highly purified 
crystals giving no ' flash ' whatever ^ ; there is, therefore, good reason 
to adhere to the view put forward in 1903 that the flash of light which 
appears when the crystal is crushed is due to the sudden liberation of 
chemical energy stored in the crystal, for instance by the separation 
of a certain quantity of a labile form during rapid crystallisation. The 
case of fluorescence is less clear, as no investigation of a critical 
character on the influence of impurities in determining fluorescence 
appears to have been carried out. It is therefore impossible at pre- 
sent to do more than to point out that fluorescence is often manifest 
only under special chemical conditions, e.g., in presence of an alkali, or 

' See Armstrong and Lowry, he. rit., p. 261, 



IfiR EKPORTR ON THE BTATF, OF RCIFNOE. 

alter dissolution in concentrated sulphuric acid ' ; these conditions are 
often precisely those which determine the occurrence of oscillatory 
isomeric change : it is therefore permissible to adhere provisionally to 
the theory that fluorescence is dependent on change of structure until 
definite evidence to the contrary is forthcoming. 

The phenomenon of colour is on an altogether different footing, since 
exhaustive experiments have frequently been made in the hope of 
removing colour by careful purification of the material. These experi- 
ments have led to results of two types : in the case of some compounds, 
such as picric acid and p-nitrophenol, the colour of the crude material 
lias actually been removed by purification or by crystallising out under 
special cpnditions; in the case of other compounds, such as quinone and 
n-nitroplienol, no indication whatever has been obtained which would 
even suggest the possibility of bleaching the compound. It is therefore 
impossible to resist the conclusion that colour, in the case of the latter 
group of substances, is an essentially physical phenomenon of the same 
general type as the closely related phenomenon of refraction and that 
it does not depend on any fluctuation of structure to which the ordinary 
laws of chemical change can be applied. The case of substances which 
can be rendered colourless by suitable methods of purification requires 
further consideration : it might be suggested that an impurity is able to 
develop colour throughout the material in much the same way as that 
in which the phosphorescence of calcium sulphide is developed by the 
combined action of a trace of bismuth and a trace of a sodium salt,* 
but the view that has been universally adopted is that the mass of the 
material is merely stained by a trace of some highly coloured dye-stuff 
and is itself essentially colourless ; it is indeed frequently an easy matter 
for an experienced eye to detect the staining-process by the feeble and 
variable development of colour which it produces, as contrasted with the 
intense and uniform colour of materials which are in themselves absorp- 
tive. If this view be adopted, it is clear that in these cases also the 
colour is due, not to change of structure in the original material, but to 
some characteristic absorptive-power inherent in the (fixed) structure of 
the staining material. 

Note in reference to 'stained materials.' — In considering the pro- 
perties of stained materials it is important to distinguish three cases. 
Sometimes the stain is produced exclusively during the preparation of 
the substance, and may be permanently removed by distillation, by 
contact with animal charcoal or by similar straightforward methods. 
There are, however, many substances which cannot be purified in this 
easy way, since they undergo change continually in contact with the 
air and give rise persistently to coloured oxidation-products {e.g., indigo- 
blue from indigo-white) ; in such instances purification can only be 
effected under special conditions, and a material partly bleached by 
purification may easily revert to its original colour if the essential pre- 
cautions are in any way relaxed. The third case, in which the 
substance undergoes reversible chemical change, is more puzzling than 
either of the others, and may easily give rise to erroneous conclusions. 
Fortunately, the conditions governing such cases are now well under- 

' Hewitt and Tervet, < Oxonium Salts of Fluorane,' Trans. CJiem. Soc, 1902, 
81, 664. 

= Pe Viss^r, Itec. Trav. CJdm., 1901, 20,!43,5; 1903, 22, 133. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 13^ 

stood, as may be shown by referring to some of the examples that have 
been most fully investigated. It is, for instance, generally recognised 
that reversible isomeric change may occur in such a way as to involve 
the interconversion of a coloured and a colourless isomeride.' Usually 
both will be present in solution but, on crystallising out, one form only 
will separate in an approximately pure condition; in some instances, 
however, the two forms are capable of crystalhsing with such equal 
readiness that it is possible to separate out the coloured or the colourless 
form at will by varying the solvent ^ or the temperature of crystallisa- 
tion ^ ; even when this cannot be done it is often found that rapid crystal- 
lisation causes the separation of a mixture of the two isomerides. 
It is then only necessary to assume that the two forms of the substance 
are endowed with the property of forming isomorphous mixtures or 
solid solutions, in order to realise the conditions for the production of 
stained crystals of absolutely constant colour-intensity, since it will 
follow (in accordance with a general law) that the constancy of the 
equilibrium-proportions in the liquid state will be reproduced in the 
crystals, although the actual ratio of the two components need not be 
the same in the two phases. Reversible polymeric changes involving 
tlie inter-conversion of coloured and colourless compounds are familiar 
in the cases of nitrogen peroxide and the colourless (bimolecular) and 
blue (unimolecular) forms of ier-nitrosobutane * ; here again it would 
probably only be necessary for the two forms to be isomorphous, in 
order to give rise to stained crystals of uniform composition and constant 
intensity of colour. ° 

The importance of these examples consists in the fact that they pro- 
vide for the production of stained crystals from which the colour could 
only be removed by the discovery of methods even more refined than 
tliose which are required on the one hand to arrest isomeric change in 
solution and on the other to effect the separation of isomorphous mixture. 



C. Crystallisation in Ilelation to Luminous Phenomena. 

Since chemical change is usually-checked, if not actually arrested, 
on passing from the gaseous or liquid to the solid state, it is clear that 
this should exert a most important influence on any luminous properties 
which depend for their development on the chemical rather than on the 
physical activity of the molecule. This is clearly seen in the case of 
triboluminescence, phosphorescence, and fluorescence, whilst colour may 
be quoted as an illustration of an optical phenomenon which is not 
affected in any marked degree by change of state. 

' This point is in itself sufficient to dispose of ttie idea that the development of 
colour is due to oscillatory isomeric change, since if this were the case the separate 
isDmer.i must necessarily- be colourless and only the mixture coloured. 

- Kff., isonitrosomalonanilide, Whiteley, Trans., 1903, 83, 34. 

■' 7!;.^.,7;-methosyphenylphthalimide, Piutti and Abati, Ber., 1903, 36, 1000. 

' Bamberger and Seligman, Ber., 1903, 36, 6S9. 

^ Equilibrium between colourless and coloured forms has also been postulated as 
attending certain cases of wnisation {e.g., violuric acid has been supposed to acquire 
its characteristic colour only on passing into the ionised state), but the development 
of colour is usually due to a change of structure of the kind that has already been 
considered and in any case the extension of the theory of ionisation to the staining 
of a colourless crystalline compound by its own ions would be too bold a conception 
to merit serious consideration. 



140 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

Phosphorescence. — The storage of energy by phosphorescent bodies 
is apparently confined to the soHd state, though in this category it is 
necessary to include both vitreous and crystalline solids. Its gradual 
liberation finds a close analogy in the slow discharge of the residual 
current from a Leyden jar, and both processes may be regarded as 
depending on the retarded electrolysis of a viscous medium. It is note- 
worthy that a great number of compounds which are not phosphorescent 
at ordinary temperatures become so at the temperature of liquid air,^ and 
that conversely the after-glow of many substances which are phos- 
phorescent when cold, disappears when they are heated.^ In other 
cases the energy stored up in the crystal is liberated in the form of light 
only on warming (thermophosphorescence) or on crushing the crystal 
(triboluminescence or tribophosphorescence). In all these cases the limi- 
tation of the phenomenon to the solid state and the profound influence 
exerted by temperature changes are fully in accord with the view that 
the energy is stored by means of reversible chemical change, being 
released only when the rigidity of the material is sufficiently relaxed to 
permit of electrolysis and chemical change.* 

Fluorescence, like phosphorescence, is profoundly influenced by the 
state of aggregation of the material. It is of frequent occurrence in 
liquids, including solutions in concentrated sulphuric acid, dilute alkalis, 
water and organic solvents; it is veiy rare indeed amongst solids. 
Indeed, in spite of the existence of a few well-known exceptions (anthra- 
cene, uranium salts, etc.), it is probable that out of a total of some two thou- 
sand fluorescent substances, less than one per cent, are fluorescent in the 
solid state. There is therefore ample support to be found for the view that 
fluorescence is due to oscillatory chemical changes of the same general 
character as those which take place in solutions of nitrosobutane or 
•nitrocamphor, since these are usually (but perhaps not invariably) 
arrested on passing from the liquid to the solid state. This view is also 
strongly supported by the close relationship which has been proved to 
exist between fluorescence and phosphorescence. Thus Wiedemann has 
shown* that eosin, fluorescein, aesculin, quinine sulphate, etc., show a 
weak after-glow when the solutions are rendered plastic by gelatine 
and a little glycerine, that they become definitely phosphorescent when 
the solution is ' set ' with gelatine, and that a still stronger phos- 
phorescence is developed when glue is used. Observations of this kind 
indicate clearly that phosphorescence is essentially identical with 
fluorescence and differs from it only in the fact that the energy absorbed 
during insolation is liberated gradually instead of instantaneously : it is 
therefore legitimate to argue that the strong evidence, obtained in- 
dependently, that these two phenomena are due to reversible chemical 
change, becomes doubly strong when they are proved to be merely two 
varieties of the same type of activity. It may also be pointed out that 
recent attempts to correlate fluorescence with colour, by introducing the 
ideas of * fluorophor ' and ' fluorogen ' groups (compare ' chromophor ' 
and ' chromogen ') do not rest on any direct experimental basis (a sub- 

' Dewar, Cfiem. Neive, 1894, 70, 252-25.3. 

' Wiedemann and Schmidt, Wied. Ann., 1895, 56, 201-254. , 

' Ttie relaxation of molecular forces during crushing is well illustrated by Beilby's 
work on the flow of metals during polishing and under the influence of mechanical 
forces generally. 

* Wicd. Ann., 1888, 34, 440-46'? 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 141 

stance may retain its coloui' and lose its fluorescence by crystallising out 
from solution), but on a mere analogy, the value of which is highly 
problematical. 

Colour. — In contrast to these cases it is noteworthy that colour is not 
as a rule affected in any marked way by crystallisation. Certainly the 
passage from the liquid to the solid state is accompanied by nothing at 
all analogous to the abrupt bleaching which would almost inevitably take 
place if colour were really due to any concrete form of oscillatory chemi- 
cal change, and which forms the most commonplace of observations 
when dealing with fluorescent colour. It is indeed true that colour is 
often intensified at high temperatures and reduced by cooling, but these 
alterations proceed continuously ; in this respect they are in direct con- 
trast to the abrupt arrest of chemical change which takes place when 
nitrogen peroxide is frozen or when nitrocamphor is crystallised out from 
solution; there is therefore nothing here to justify the contention that 
colour is due to chemical change rather than to oscillations or vibrations 
of a ' physical ' character not involving any real alteration of structure. 
On the contrary, the effects of crystallisation are such as to confirm the 
conclusions arrived at from general considerations and from the effects 
produced by impurities that colour, unhke phosphorescence and fluor- 
escence, is a physical phenomenon in which chemical change plays no 
essential part. 



The Study of Isomorplious Sulphonic Derivatives of Benzene. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Principal Mibrs 
(Chairman) and Professors H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), 
W. J. Pope, and W. P. Wynne. 

In continuance of previous work a number of members of several series 
of sulphonic derivatives of para-dihalogen derivatives of benzene have 
been prepared and crystallographically examined. The substances for 
which data are given below crystallise in the monosymmetric system : — 

a '. b : Melting point 

2-4760 : I : 1-1439, /3 = 95° 26' . . . . 71°. 



2-4792 : 1 : 1-1448, (8 = 96° 49' . . . . 114° 




2-4689 : 1 : 11537, /3 = 95° 50' . . . . 102° 



14-2 RRPORTf; ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

I 

■ ^S0..C1 



I 
I 



0S552 : 1 rO-CWTft. = '.ir>°22' . . . .132°. 



0-7288 : 1 : 00544, /3 = ill)° 42' . .. . (10". 



6. 



|SO,,NHPh ^ r,j.^j. . ^ . 0.8364^ ^3 ^ 990 oq. 
(labile form) 



143° 



The following compound crystallises in the orthorhombic system : — 
13i- Melting point. 

NSO.,()Et 
7. I ■ 0-8'.i04 : 1 : 0'83.-.7 . . . . " • 106° 



The substances numbered 1,2, and 3 form a well-defined isomorphous 
series as is immediately indicated by the close approximation of the 
axial ratios quoted. The compounds 4 and 5 differ entirely in crystalline 
character from the foregoing but the similarity of the ratio c/b in the 
two cases suggests an intimate morphotropic relation as existing between 
their crystalline structures. 

In a series of papers Barlow and Pope have pointed out that the 
whole space occupied by a crystalline substance can be conveniently 
regarded as parcelled out amongst the various atoms composing the 
material and have shown that this mode of treatment leads to the con- 
clusion that the volumes thus allocated to atoms of different elements 
are, in any one substance, approximately proportional to their valencies. 
A crystalline substance is thus to be regarded as a close-packed assem- 
blage of spheres of atomic influence in which each of the latter has a 
volume directly proportional to the fundamental valency of the atom 
wliich it contains. The close-packed assemblages referred to are geo- 
metrically partitionable into units representing individual molecular 
aggregates ; these should represent in composition, constitution and con- 
figuration, the chemical molecules of the substances concerned. 

From the study of the crystaUine forms of benzene and its derivatives 
Barlow and Pope have deduced a form of assemblage for the hydrocarbon 
which is partitionable into units of the composition CoHr, and have 
described the configuration of the molecule as thus derived. In the 
crystaUine assemblage the carbon spheres of influence are arranged in 
columns, of which each link consists of three spheres in triangular con- 
tact ; it has been concluded that these columns remain intact in the 
crystalline derivatives of benzene : the passage from the hydrocarbon 
to any derivative thus involves the moving apart of the columns of carbon 



On the study of ISOMOKi'HOUS DERIVATIVES OF BENZENE. 143 

spheres and the insertion of the substituting groups in the spaces thus 
provided. 

It is possible to test the correctness of the conclusions briefly referred 
to above by aid of crystallographic data for benzene derivatives. Com- 
pounds may be compared by means of their ' equivalence parameters,' 
v.hich are the hnear dimensions of parallelepipeds having volumes repre- 
sented by the sums (W) of the valencies of the atoms composing 'the 
respective molecules, those hnear dimensions being proportional to the 
crystallographic axial ratios. In the case of benzene, which crystalhses in 
the orthorhombic system a : 6 : c : = 0-891 : 1 : 0-799, the value of W 
IS 30 ; the equivalence parameters calculated from these data are 
x:y:z = 3-101 : 3-480 : 2-780. 

The last of these values, z = 2-780, represents the height of two 
links in the columns of carbon spheres in the crystaUiue hydrocarbon ; 
if, as has been suggested, these columns remain intact in the crystalUne 
derivatives of benzene, the value 2-780 should recur amongst the 
equivalence parameters of the derivatives. This has been already shown 
to be the case in a long series of crystalline derivatives of picrio and 
styphnic acids ; the data now contributed enable the conclusion to be 
extended to the sulphonic derivatives of benzene described above. 

The following table gives the equivalence parameters, x, y and z 
and the valency volumes, W, for the substances numbered in the above 
table of axial ratios : — 

a; : y : c = 5 787 : 2-337 : 2-674, /8 = 95° 26'. 
5-796 : 2-338 : 2676, )3 = 96° 49'. 
5-761 : 2-333 : 2-692, |3=:y5° 50'. 
3-409 : 3-986 : 2-661, /3 = 95° 22'. 
3095 : 4-247 : 2779, /8 = 99° 42'. 

The thii'd equivalence parameter, z, calculated from the axial ratios 
and the valency volumes, in each case approximates to the corresponding 
value, z = 2-780, of benzene. The corresponding value in the case of the 
series of picric and styphnic acid derivatives examined by Jerusalem ' 
varies between 2-660 and 2-788. 

The axial ratios of the more complex benzene derivatives represented 
by the labile form of 1 : 4-dibromobenzene-2-sidphanihde and the ethyhc 
1 : 4-dibromobenzene-2-sulphonate do not, in the form stated above, 
immediately yield values approximating to 2-780 amongst their equiva- 
lence parameters. On dividing unit length along the axis h by two in 
the former case and multiplying it by two in the latter, the following 
equivalence parameters are, however, obtained in which the value 2-780 
recurs : — 

G. W = 68. ,K : ij -.z^ 5-327 : ^J-JS^ : 4-653, ;8 = 99° 30'. 
7. =49. =2859 : 6-410 : 2-6;i/, /3 = 90° 0'. 

The confirmation of Barlow and Pope's conclusion as to the existence 
of the columns of carbon spheres in crystalUne benzene derivatives which 
Jerusalem obtained by the study of the picrates and styphnates may 
consequently be extended to the quite different class of derivatives dealt 
with in this report. 

The Committee are indebted to Messrs. Colgate, Rodd and Runeckles, 
students in the Chemical Department of the Central Technical College, 
South Kensington, for assistance they have rendered in preparing and 
measuring compounds described in this report. 

' Trans. CJiem. Soc, July 1909, i'. 1275. 



1. 


W = 36. 


2. 


36. 


3. 


36. 


4. 


36. 


5. 


36. 



1 14 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Electroanalysin. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor F. S. Kipping (Chairman), Dr. F. M. Perkin {Secre- 
tary), Dr. G. T. Beilby, Dr. T. M. Dowry, Professor W. J. 
Pope, and Dr. H. J. S. Sand. 

DuBiNG the year experiments have been carried out upon a new 
design of potentiometer, on the general simphfication of apparatus and 
method for the electro-deposition of metals particularly by means of 
graded potential ; and in connection with the electro-deposition of mer- 
cury upon gold, silver, platinum, and mercury cathodes. 

In connection^ with the latter part of the subject it has been found, 
when mercury is deposited on a gold electrode, that the results are 
invariably from 0.5 to 2.0 per cent, too high; the same applies also to 
electrodes of silver. The gold electrode employed was in the form of a 
flag, and had a total active surface of 0.5 square decimeter. As pure 
gold was found too soft for working purposes, an alloy containing 5 per 
cent, of platinum was used. Specially purified mercuric chloride- 
bromide, and sulphate were employed, but the results obtained were 
always too high. When a platinum gauze electrode was placed in series 
with the gold electrode and an identical solution employed, as a rule the 
metal deposited on the platinum was almost theoretically correct, although 
at times it was fractionally low. 

In order to get more rapid deposition the gold electrode was placed 
in the field of a very powerful electro-magnet, but even though the time 
of deposition was reduced by one-tenth the results were still too high. 

The silver cathodes consisted of coils of pure silver within which a 
platinum anode was rotated, but although the whols of the metal was fre- 
quently deposited in forty-five minutes, the results were almost always 
too high. The exact cause of the high results obtained was not ascer- 
tained, although it was at fii'st supposed to be due to occluded hydrogen ; 
this was practically proved not to be the case. It was finally shown that 
the only really satisfactory method for depositing mercury was to use a 
cathode of mercury. A new electrolysing vessel of quartz was designed 
for this purpose. This apparatus is a small quartz beaker capable of 
holding about 80 c.c. of solution, and has a siphon fused into it about 
0.5 cm. from the bottom. Mercury is placed in the vessel so as to just 
reach to the bottom of the siphon, and electrical contact is made with it 
by fusing a piece of iridium wire into the bottom of the beaker. The 
solution to be electrolysed is placed above the mercury and the spiral anode 
rapidly rotated (500-750 turns per minute). The mercury can be com- 
pletely deposited out in from twenty minutes to half an hour. The 
solution is then siphoned off by pouring in water which causes the 
siphon to act. The pouring in of water is continued until the ammeter 
shows zero. The whole of the waste water is then allowed to flow away 
and is replaced by 90 per cent, alcohol, then by absolute alcohol, and 
finally by two washings of dry ether. The surface is then dried by 
blowing dry air over it for about ten minutes. 

A very considerable amount of work has been done to make the 

' F. M. Perkin, Trans. Faraday Society. 



ON BLECTR0ANALYSI8. 145 

apparatus described by Dr. Sand (Trans. Chem. Soc. 91, 373 (1907) 
and 93, 1572 (1908) more portable and readily set up without sacrificing 
any of its essential features. The stand has been made completely 
portable by providing it with a special cap which hinders the mercury 
forming the connection between the stationary and moving parts from 
being spUt during transport. A special clutch has also been designed 
which allows the moving parts to be readily thrown in and out of gear 
with the motor without stopping the latter. Such an arrangement 
becomes necessary when it is desired to actuate several sets of apparatus 
from a single shaft driven by one motor, or when a small motor-generator 
is employed for the double purpose of supplying the current and rotating 
the electrode, or lastly, when a water or hot-air motor is employed which 
cannot be stopped instantly while the electrodes are in a wet state. All 
the apparatus for measuring the potential of the cathode has been 
assembled in a single portable potentiometer-box, which is also arranged 
to show the potential difference between the anode and the cathode. 
For this purpose it became necessary to design a special new form of 
portable capillary electrometer. A full description of all the apparatus 
referred to will be published shortly. It was exhibited to Section 1 of 
the International Congress of Applied Chemistry. 

Experiments are also in progress with anodes made partly of glass and 
partly of platinum, and with cathodes of metals other than platinum. 

A very careful study has also been made of the composition of the 
deposit of lead peroxide obtained during the analysis of lead solutions. 
Eesults differing by more than 1 per cent, have been found in the labora- 
tories of HoUard. (Analyse des B^taux (190) and Classen (' Quantitative 
Analyse durch Elektrolyse, ' 5th edition, 1908, p. 125.) It has now been 
found that in a moist atmosphere lead peroxide will take up water at a 
temperature of about 200°, but will lose it exceedingly slowly at this 
temperature in a perfectly dry atmosphere. These facts are quite suffi- 
cient to explain the discrepancies observed. On the other hand, it has 
been found that lead peroxide deposited with a suitable current density 
at about 90-95° contains only about J per cent, of water after drying 
with alcohol and ether. It is here desiccated as a result of electric 
endosmose, and this method of depositing is recommended as by far the 
most trustworthy and simple. These results will also be published 
shortly. 



I 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. E. Divers {Chairman), Professor 
A. W. Crosslby (Secretary), Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. 
M. O. FoRSTER, and Dr. H. E. Le Sueur. 

1. Nitro Derivatives of 0-Xylene. 

In the last Eeport^ mention was made of the fact that when the mixture 
of two isomeric dimethylcyclohexadienes, obtained by elimination of two 
niolecules of hydrogen bromide from 3 : 5-dibromo-l : 1-dimethylcyclo- 
hexane, was treated with a nitrating mixture, two substances melting at 

' B.A. Reuort, 1908, p, 221. 
1909, f. 



146 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



115° and 71° were obtained. The methyl groups in the hydrocarbons 
are both attached to the same carbon atom, and in such cases it has been 
frequently observed' that the transformation into an aromatic substance 

C(CH3), CCCH,), CCCH,), 



HC 



CH 



H.C 



BAIC'- 



CH, 



CHB, 



H„C 



CH 



CH, 



HC'^^^s^CH 
CH 



results in one of tlie methyl groups wandering into an ortho position, 
but never into a meta or para position. It was therefore presumed that 
the above-mentioned substances melting at 115° and 71° were trinitro- 
o-xylenes. 

No trinitro-o-xylenes had, up to that time, been described, and 
experiments were therefore undertaken with the object of preparing 
these substances. The work has now been completed," and has shown 
that the above-mentioned derivatives, melting at 115° and 71°, are the 
two possible trinitro-o-xylenes. In the course of the work all the 
mono-, di-, and trinitro-o-xylenes were isolated and described. 



2. Hydro-aromatic Kelones. Part 1. — Synthesis of trimethylcyclo- 
hexenone (Isophorone) and some Jwmologues.' 

Chlorodimethylcyclohexenone contains a reactive chlorine atom, 
easily replaceable by an ethoxy group under the influence of sodium 
cthoxide, giving rise to the etliyl ester of dimethyldihydroresorcin. 

Condensation takes place readily between chlorodimethylcyclo- 
hexenone and ethyl sodiomalonatc. Tlie product is not, as might have 
been expected, the substance having formula I., but consists of ethyl 

(CH3),C<gg^Zc^>CH 

(I.) CH(CO.AH,)j + C,H,OH = (0H3),C<^JJcg^>CH 

I 
(II.) CH„ . CO-AHi + CO(OC.,H,)., 

dimetliylcyclohexenoneacetate II, whose formation necessitates the 
elimination of a carbethoxy group, and this has been proved to take 
place with formation of ethyl carbonate.* The product of hydrolysis 
of this ethyl ester is trimethylcyclohexenone III, identical with 
isophorone. 

(CH3)./J<^jJCc^>CH + H,0 = (CH3),C<g|Cc"^'^ + ^^'^ + C,H,OH 

' I ' I 

CH.,.C02C„H3 (III.) CHj 

As, however, it gives only one oxime melting at 78°, whereas the 
isophorone prepared from acetone gives two oximes, melting at 75° and 

' J.C.S,, 1901, 85, 264 ; 1906, 89, 875. 

- JMd, 1909, 95, 202. ' Crossley and Gilling, J.C.S., 1909, 95, 19. 

* Froc. C. S., 1909, 26, 96 



THE STUDY OF HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 147 

100° respectively, the latter is probably a mixture of isomeric trimethyl- 
cyclohexenones. Dimethylethyl- and dimethylpropylcyclohexenones 
have also been prepared by the condensation of chlorodimethylcyclo- 
hexenone with substituted malonic esters; but as the yields of con- 
densation products diminish rapidly with increase in molecular weight 
of the substituted malonic ester employed, the reactions are of no great 
value for the production of the higher homologues of isophorone. 

3. The so-called l-.l-diynethyl- A2:5-cijclohexadie7ie of Harries and 

A7itoni.^ 

A further inquiry into the properties and behaviour of the 
1 : 1-dimethylcyclohexadiene of Harries and Antoni has shown that 
this hydrocarbon is a mixture of the 1:2- and 1 rS-dimethylcyclo- 
hexadienes, and very probably contains none of the isomeric hydro- 
carbon with the two methyl groups in the 1 : 1-position. 

Incidentally it has also been noted that the 1 : 3-dimethyIcyclo- 
hexadiene, prepared by the dehydration of methylheptenone, is a 
mixture of m-xylene, 1 : 3-dimethylcyclohexene and 1 : 3-dimethylcyclo- 
hexadiene. 



The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Substances, 
aiid its Relation to Suhstif-ution in Benzene Derivatives.— Bsport of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. Kippmo {Chairman) 
Professor K. J. P. Orton [Secretary), Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr! 
A. Lapworth, and Dr. J. T. He^vitt. 

I. Transformation of Nitroaminobenzenes into Nitroanilines. 
In last year's Report ^ a summary was given of the study of the conditions 
under which nitroaminobenzenes change into nitroanilines. It was shown 
for solutions of nitroamines, (i) that all acids accelerate (or initiate) the 
change ; (u) that the efficacy of different acids bears a relation to their 
activities in other reactions ; (iii) that the rate of change is proportional 
to the square of the concentration of the acid ; (iv) that the transforma- 
tion wa_s always accompanied by the appearance of nitrous acid, and the 
conversion of nitroamine into diazonium salt. 

II. Transformatimi of Chloroaminobenzenes info Chloroanilides. 
(With W. C. Evans, B.Sc, and W. J. Jonbs, B.Sc.) 

The results obtained in the case of the nitroamines have led us to make 
a study of the similar transformation of acylchloroaminobenzenes into 
chloroacetanilides : CgHsNCl.Ac-^Cl.CgH^.NH.Ac. 

This change offers a very marked contrast to that of the nitroamino^ 
benzenes, as hydrochloric acid appears to occupy a peculiarly privileged 
position, which was originally recognised by Armstrong, in brinaino- 
about this change. " " 

' Crossley and Renouf, J.C.S., 1909, 95. ■ B.A. Report, 1908, p. 115. 



148 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

The mechanism of this transformation was investigated by Blanksraa, ' 
who ascertained (i) that it was apparently a reaction of the first order ; 
(ii) that the speed was proportional to the square of the concentration of 
the hydrochloric acid ; (iii) that in aqueous acetic acid solution the speed 
increased with the concentration of the acetic acid. 

Recently Acree,^ since we started work on this subject, has elaborated 

Blanksma's work, and has brought forward an hypothesis to account for 

the proportionality of the velocity of the change to the square of the 

concentration of the catalyst. He believes that the formation of a salt, 

Ac 

/CI 
Ar.N\p,, from the chloroamine and the hydrochloric acid is the necessary 

intermediate step in the change. This suggestion was first made by Orton."' 
The complete ionisation of the hydrochloric acid requires that the concen- 
tration of the salt .should be proportional to the squai-e of that of the acid. 
It is however difficult to see why on this view hydrochloric acid should 
be the only catalyst. In fact, Acree believes his experiments show that 
other acids (sulphuric acid, &c.) or chlorine or bromine can act as catalysts, 
although in an inferior degree. 

In our experiments we used instead of the unsubstituted chloroamino- 
benzene, acetylchloroaminojj-chlorobenzene, the speed of the transforma- 
tion of which is far less than of the unsubstituted compound. The results 
are summarised in the follojving : — 

1. Hydrochloric acid is the only catalyst. 

(a) Hydrofluoric, sulphuric acids, &c., have no effect ; hydrochloric 

acid can always be detected when a change begins in the 

presence of these acids. 
(5) Chlorine and bromine are without effect until hydrochloric acid 

is formed. 
[c) Hydrobromic acid reacts with the chloroamines in glacial acetic 

acid quantitatively, thus : — 

Ar.NCl. Ac + HBr= Ar.NH. Ac -fBrCl. 

This primary change is followed by rapid bromination (dimolecular 
reaction). 

The interaction between hydrochloric acid and abromoamine is similar : 

Ar.NBr. Ac + HC1= Ar.NH. Ac + BrCl , 

and is followed by an equally rapid bromination. 

In dilute acetic acid, 90 per cent, and less, the reaction is : • 

Ar.NCl. Ac + 2HBr= Ar.NH. Ac + HCl + Br.,, 

which is followed by a slow bromination. 

2. Hydrochloric acid reacts with the chloroamine establishing the 
equilibrium : 

Ar.NCl. Ac + HCl^Ar.NH. Ac + CI.,. 

In glacial acetic acid the reaction is complete from left to right. As the 
acetic acid is diluted the left-hand side of the equation appears ; in 90 per 
cent, acetic acid an equilibrium constant can be calculated. 

' Receuil des Trav. Chim., 1903, 22, 290. 

2 Amer. Chew. Jour., 1907, 88, 258. = Froc. Roy. Soo., 1902, 71, 166. 



TRANSFORMATION OF NITROAMINES AND ALLIED SUBSTANCES. 149 

In 65 per cent, acetic acid an equilibrium constant is olitained only when 
the reaction is represented as : — 

Ar.NCl.Ac + H- + CT;tAr.NH.Ac + Cl.: ; 

that is, the equilibrium constant is proportional to the second power of 
the concentration of the acid. 

In 50 per cent, acetic acid, at a concentration of 0'025 gram molecules 
per litre, the system is represented by the left-hand side of the equation, 
chlorine and anilide only appearing at higher concentrations. 

.3. Measurements of the velocity of the formation of the chlorinated 
anilide show : — 

(rt) In glacial acetic acid the reaction is apparently dimolecular. If 
the concentration of the hydrochloric acid is small relative to 
the chloroamine the reaction becomes apparently monomolecu- 
lar, and its speed is proportional to the square of the concen- 
tration of the hydrochloric acid. 

(6) As the acetic acid is diluted to 95 per cent., the speed of the 
chlorination increases proportionately to the quantity of 
water added, 
As the proportion of water is further increased the velocity of 
the reaction falls, becoming scarcely perceptible in -30 per cent, 
acetic acid. 

(c) In aqueous acetic acid containing 70 to 90 per cent, acetic acid, 
there is no simple relation between the velocity of the change 
and the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. Below 65 
per cent, acetic acid the velocity is proportional to the square 
of the concenti'ation of the catalyst. 



Topographical and Geological Terms used locally in South 
Africa. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. 
Lamplugh (Chairman), Dr. F. H. Hatch (Secretary), Dr. G. 
CoRSTORPHiNE, and Messrs. A. DU Toit, A. P. Hall, G. 
IvYNASTON, F. p. Mennell, and A. W. Eogers, appointed 
to determine the precise Significance of Topographical and 
Geological Terms used locally in South Africa. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary.) 

Owing to the absence of the Secretary (Dr. P. H. Hatch) in South 
Africa, no further compilation could be got ready for publication this 
year. After consultation with other members of the Committee, how- 
ever, the Secretary proposes the following emendations in definitions or 
spelling of terms in the list published last year. The Committee ask 
for reappointment. 

Duin, plural duine 
A sand dune. 

Gouph (pronounced ' cope ') 

A Bushman word, moaning ' as dry a.s can be,' applied to a portion of the 
Western Karroo. 



150 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Kasteel (literally Castle) — 

A high peak or ridge, e.g., Riebeck's Kasteel. 

Kloof- - 

The head of a valley, with steep sides. 

Kolk— 

A hole in a river course. 

Poorije — 

A little poort. 

Puni — 

(i) A point on the coast, or (ii) a spur of a mountain. 

Rug, plural Ruggen — 

A ridge or series of ridges. The ' Ruggens,' in Cape Colony, is a plain cut up 
by rivers. 



Investigation of the Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the British 
Isles. — Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor W. A. Herdman (Chairman), Mr. H. C. Beasley 
(Acting Secretary), Mr. E. T. Newton, Professor A. C. 
Seward, Mr. W. A. E. Ussher, Professor W. W. Watts, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. (Draxcn up by the Acting 
Secretary.) 

[Plates III. and IV.] 

In presenting this Report your Committee have first to express their 
deep sense of the loss sustained in the lamentable death of their Secre- 
tary, Mr. Joseph Lomas, F.G.S., to whom their successful working has 
been mainly due. To the enthusiasm of youth he added the judgment 
and experience of middle age, and to his friendly and genial disposition 
and unfailing readiness to help others we are indebted for the assistance 
of workers outside the Committee. His powers of observation and 
description, devoted as they were in recent years to the study of the 
Trias, more especially of the probable conditions under which it was 
formed, enabled him to contribute two Reports embodying results of 
his own work, and it was in the prosecution of such research as that 
your Committee was formed to promote that Mr. Lomas met his un- 
timely end. 

During the past year your Committee have watched for further op- 
portunities of research, but the new material has been confined to a few 
remains of Rhynchosaurus which, as far as examination has at present 
gone, present no exceptional features, and a few other remains which 
have been too recently obtained to be reported on at this meeting. 

Mr. A. R. Horwood gives a further instalment of his ' Bibliography 
of the Keupci-,' bringing it to 1008, and Mr. Beasley a desiiiption of 
a new form of footprint. Mr. Watson adds a description of the 



ON THE FAUNA AND FT.ORA OF THE TRTAR OF TRF RRTTISn TRLRR. 151 

Khynchosaurian skull in the Manchester Museum mentioned in the 
last Report. 

Since their appointment in 1902 your Committee have endeavoured 
to promote and record original research in connection with the Triassic 
Fauna and Flora, and to report on the description of new material or 
material hitherto undescribed. Also they have had in view the desir- 
ability of rendering the reference to existing material more easy for 
workers; and consequently lists of the Triassic Fossils in most of our 
principal museums (Eeports 1904, 1905, and 1908) and of Fossils found 
in certain localities (Reports 1907 and 1908) and a Bibliography (Reports 
1908 and 1909) have been included in the Reports. It is hoped these 
lists will be found of use. The names of the authors are a guarantee of 
the care with which the lists have ]:)een drawn up. There are still many 
other collections of which it is desirable to obtain a record. 

As regards research itself your Committee are glad to have been able 
to record the completion of the reconstruction of the skeleton of Rhyn- 
chosaurus articeps, with the aid of material in the Shrewsbury Museum 
submitted to the experts of the British Museum (Natural History) for 
development {see Report 1906). Reports have also been made on 
several other recently discovered less nearly complete vertebrate 
remains. {See Reports 1906, 1907, and 1909. j 

The paper by the late Secretary in the Report for 1905 dealing with 
Estheria, both recent and fossil, will aid in foiTuing a correct idea not 
only of the surroundings of this Common Triassic invertebrate, but of 
the general conditions prevailing in Britain in Triassic times. 

The reports {see all years 1903 to 1909) on the footprints of verte- 
brates and supposed tracks of invertebrates, and the attempt to classify 
them, may prove useful when more of their remains have come to light. . 

The Trias of South Devon has so far been but slightly dealt with, 
but the description and figure of the Section E. and W. of Sidmouth by 
the late Mr. Hutchinson have been reproduced in the Report for 1905. 

The Committee desire to record their thanks to the following gentle- 
men, who, though not on the Committee, have kindly aided the work 
bv the contribution of most valuable lists and reports, viz., Messrs. 
H. A. Allen, A. R. Horwood, Ij. J. Wills, and D. M. S. Watson, and 
the Rev. H. H. Winwood. 

In existing circumstances your Committee do not ask to be 
reappointed, but, in view of the large amount of work still to be done, 
may be allowed to express a hope that this research may be still further 
prosecuted in the future under the auspices of the British Association. 



Beport on Footprints from the Trias. Part VI. By H. C. Beasley. 

A number of very imperfect examples of a large broad footprint of 
unusual form have been seen during the last few years at Storeton, but 
have been too imperfect for description. Within the last six months a 
few more perfect laave been seen. The print shows four short stout toes, 
their length being only about three-quarters their breadth. The print itself 
is about 15 cm. in width, and length 12 cm. , but the posterior margin is not 
defined. At about that distance from the termination of the toes it 
narrows to about 6 cm., and the print is often continued for a few inches 
the same width till it merges into the surface of the slab. 




15'2 HRPOrSTR ON THF, RTATK OF RCTRNf'R. 

The print as a whole is very symmetrical, the two middle toes are 
about the same size, and the two outer rather smaller, but similar to 
each other; the narrow hinder part of the print probably represents a 
portion of the leg. 

The sole is covered with ridges or folds following the outline of 
the toes, but on the palmar surface they are more or less parallel to 
the axis of the foot. Some doubt must exist as to their origin and whether 
they really represent the loose integument of the foot. 

One or two fairly perfect casts of deep impressions are from tlie 
Lower Keuper at Storeton, and an exactly similar print is in the Salfo'd 
Museum from Ijymra, and they might be compared with some less well- 
defined prints in the Warwick Museum ' from tlie Upper Keuper.' 

So far great uncertainty exists regarding it, both as to whether it 

I'epresents tlie pes or manus. Further material may show us this, also if 

there is a trace of a fifth digit. The possibility of its having been formed 

by any movement of such a foot as A 2 or K has been considered, but 

it is highly improbable. It is advisable that this 

p 1^^ print should be recorded (bearing in mind that 

it is the print only, and not the foot, that is being 

described) under a special letter. 

P, a four-toed print, breadth rather greater 

than length, toes short and stout, breadth at base 

exceeding length. Breadth of foot greatest at 

root of toes, narrowing rapidly posteriorly till it 

joins the leg. No defined posterior margin. 

Two inner toes alike, two outer toes also alike, 

but rather smaller. (Plate III.) 

It is perhaps now advisable to summarise shortly the Eepoiis on 

Triassic footprints. A good deal of new material has been examined since 

the earlier Reports were issued, and some qualifications or corrections 

may be necessary. 

The reasons for not giving generic and specific names to the various 
forms which were expressed in the earlier Reports still hold good. The 
identification of the animals who left the prints with any whose remains 
have been preserved is unfortunately not yet possible, and how far the 
different forms represent different species of animals is not absolutely 
certain. Under these circumstances the specific naming of the prints 
would tend to error and confusion, which would be a worse result than the 
slight inconvenience incidental to the system of identification by letters 
and numbers. It is still necessary to deal with them as prints only. 
The greater number fall into three groups, which have been called 
respectively Cheir other old, Rhynchosauroid, and Chelonoid, mostly 
represented by what appears to be the print of a hind foot. 

Cheirotheroid prints have five toes, of which the middle one is the 
longest and the fifth the shortest, and this is usually curved outwards. 
The palmar surface is about equal in area to that covered by the toes, 
though usually only a portion is shown in the print. To this group 
belong forms A 1 to 4, B 1 and 2, K and L. 

The four forms A 1 to 3 and K form a complete series where the 
toes I. to IV., which in A 1 are somewhat longer proportionately than 
the fingers of the human hand, gradually become shorter and broader, and 
the V. toe decreases in size till in K there are four short broad toes, and 
there is no trace. of the impression of V. 



ON TM\A V\VN\ ANT) Fr^miA OF TTIR TRTAS OV TH P, r.niTIRTr ISMW. l^)'^ 

Since the four forms just referred to were first described another 
form, A 4, has been found varying in a different way from A 1, which 
otherwise it strongly resembles ; the IV. toe in A 4 is relatively shorter, 
and generally carries a longer and more powerful nail than do the other 
toes. Accompanying this feature is a very different print of the manus; 
in A 1 and 2 the manus is about half the size of the pes and has five 
widely spread digits and forms a short broad print. In A 4 the print 
of the manus is very much smaller, has four very short broad digits, 
with occasionally a very uncertain trace of a fifth. A 4, however, 
resembles A 1 in having the skin of both pes and manus covered with 
small tubercles. A 4 has been found in series on the same slab with 
prints of A 1. It has so far only been foimd at Storeton, but on slabs 
raised there at intervals of several years. 

Nothing has been found to indicate that these variations in form 
have been caused by difference in the material in which the first im- 
pressions were made ; in fact, this is disproved by the different forms 
having been found in close proximity to each other on a perfectly uniform 
surface. Neither is there any indication of their occurring on different 
horizons. 

It may be worth noting that the forms A 1 to 4 are seldom, if ever, 
found at Runcorn, whilst they are common a few miles east and west, and 
that whilst A 2 is common on Lymm and Warrington slabs, it is rather 
rare at Storeton. The beds at each place are about the same age, although 
it seems difficult to coiTelate them with each other. There would seem 
to be little probability of a continuation of the same bed for any great 
distance if, as is now generally held to be the case, the beds represent the 
bottoms of isolated, somewhat temporary, pools or lagoons. 

It should also be borne in mind that no large extent of the surface of 
the footprint beds is exposed in quarries in the course of several years, 
and the prints of one or two species that happened to go to the water 
together have been seen, whilst the prints of other species may be hidden 
from us a few yards off on exactly the same horizon. 

The two small prints B 1 and 2 have not been recognised in any new 
material, neither has the small print ' L,' which, though much smaller, 
resembles the pes of A except that there is no trace of the first or inner 
toe. The manus resembles that of A 4, but in the very few examples we 
have, only three digits are seen. The only example of this print in series 
is in the British Museum (Natural History) from Storeton, whence it 
must have been obtained some sixty years ago. A single print of the pes 
was found at Storeton a few years since, and another came from Guy's 
Cliff, Warwick, so they cannot be the tracks of one abnormal individual. 

The Rhynchosauroid prints have five toes, little or no palmar surface, 
and the fourth toe the longest. To this group belong D 1 to 7 and E. 

D 1 seems to be the most common form, and to approach nearest to 
what might be expected from Rhynchosaurus articeps. D 2 is much like 
it, but the toes are narrower and not so generally curved. It is very 
seldom that in either form there is any trace of the impression of a web. 

A webbed foot would leave some trace of the web in all but very 
exceptional instances. However, on a slab in the British Museum 
(B 295) there is what appears to be a distinct web, and, as pointed out by 
Mr. D. G. S. Watson, there is another in the MancTiester Museum.^ In 

' Mr. Wat.=on's paper, ' Some Reptilian Tracks from the Trias of Runcorn,' pre- 
seiitecl at the June meeting of the Geological Society, not yet printed. 



154 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENOR. 

both cases the foot is very like D 1. The digits are not spread and are 
ver}- iinhke D 4, from Upper Keuper of Shrewley, which is distinctly 
webbed. As regards the other forms there is nothing to add to the Report. 
As a whole this group would come very near Saurichnites lacertoides, as 
described by H. B. Geinitz in his ' Dyas or Permian Formation,' 
Leipzig, 1861, page 5; but no attempt has been made in this report to 
trace the relation of British footprints to those of the Continent. 

The Chelonoid prints, in some respects resembling the prints de- 
scribed by the pioneers of ichnology as those of tortoises, form the third 
group. They may be described as short, broad prints, with short toes 
and strong claws, and with the palmar surface forming the larger part of 
the area of the print. They have been distinguished by the letter F. 

F 1 is the simplest form, being merely an oval rounded surface wiili 
four or five dots representing nailmarks a short distance beyond the margin 
on one side. In F 2 the place of the oval marking is taken by a moulded 
surface giving some indication of the position of the bones of the foot, and 
there are five short clawed digits. F 1 may probably be the impression 
of such a foot as F 2 on rather hard mud. F 3 has rather longer digits 
than F 2, and it is uncertain if the manus has more than four that have 
left traces. 

All these prints when seen in series are found to have a very broad 
track. The print of the pes is frequently imposed on that of the manus 
of the same side ; at other times the pes and manus are near to each other. 

The prints of this group differ widely from most of the other two 
groups. A distant resemblance led to a careful comparison with some 
of the prints from Corncockle Quarry, Dumfries, in beds at one time 
thought to be in the Trias, but now generally considered Permian. The 
comparison showed that none of our Triassic prints were at all identical 
with those figured in Jardine's ' Ichnology of Annandale.' 

Within the last few months Mr. Geo. Hickling has published a paper 
on British Permian footprints,^ in which he goes thoroughly into this 
question, and comes to the conclusion that the footprints from the Trias 
are quite unrepresented in the Permian of Dumfries, Penrith, Notting- 
hamshire, or South Devon, as far as at present explored. As pre- 
viously noted, there are several forms which do not readily fall into either 
of the three groups. These have been described as C and in Report 
1906, I in Report 1904, and P in the present Report, but no further 
knowledge concerning them has been yielded by new material. The 
print is very interesting, as in some respects like the New England 
prints, and it is hoped that a further examination of the Hollington 
quarries may result in obtaining further examples. 

It is noteworthy that no prints have been recorded that might seem 
to be intermediate between the three groups, but it is still possible that such 
may yet be found when the innumerable small prints covering slabs in 
various collections have been more thoroughly examined. 

The question of the possibility of various forms resulting from the 
same foot being impressed on mud of differing consistency has been fre- 
quently referred to, and it is hoped that observations and expei'iments 
now in progress may lead to good results. 

' 'British Permian Footprints,' Memoirs Manciiei'ter Lit. P/dl.' Soc, vol. liii. 
part 3 (June 18, 1909). 



British Association,' IS) th FiPport, ]Vin7iipeg, 1909.] 



[Plate HI. 




Illustrating the Seventh Report on the Investigation of the Fauna and 
Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. 



ON THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF THE TRIAS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 155 

Note. 

Contents of Reports on Footprints. 

Report, 1903. Introduction and description of forms A 1 to 3, K, B 1 and 2, and L. 
,, 1904. . Description of D 1 to 5, E, F 1 and 2, 1 and M. 
„ 1905. Description of footprints in Warwick Museum. 
„ 1906. Description of A 4 (manus only), D G, C and 0. 
„ 1907. Description of A 4, D 7, and F 3, and of Liverpool University slab 

of footprints by Mr. J. Lomas. 
,, 1908. Description of tracks of invertebrates, &c. Part I. 
„ 1909. Description of P and summary to date. 

Explanation of Plate III. 

Two natural casts of footprints described as ' P ' in present report from the Lower 
Keuper of Storetou in H. C. Beasley'a collection. 

No. 1 is in high relief, about 3 inches ; No. 2 not more than l.J inch. There 
are other markings of uncertain origin on both slabs. The scale shown is one of 
(5 inches. 

On a Skull of Rhynchosaurus in the Manchester Museum. 
By D. M. S. WatsOxN, B.Sc. 

Ehynchosaurus is probably the best known of all the Triassic Eliyncho- 
cephalia, and an excellent account of its osteology, by Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward, was published in the Eeport of this Committee presented 
at the York meeting of the Association. This report shows that our 
knowledge of the base and back of the skull is defective, and as a specimen 
in the Manchester Museum shows some new features in this region, it 
seems worthy of some description. 

This skull was collected by Mr. G. C. Spence in 1895 from the quarry 
at Grinshill, which is the type locality. Mr. Spence roughly developed 
the anterior portion of the palate, and in 1907 presented the specimen 
to the Museum. When I first saw it, it was contained in two small 
blocks of coarse sandstone, which fitted together. One of these blocks 
retains the nasals and premaxillas, and is separated from the other by 
a split, which cuts the palate about 1.5 cm. in front of the transpalatines. 
The other block contains the main mass of the skull, and now shows the 
whole of both upper and under surfaces, together with the posterior 
surfaces of the quadrates. 

The matrix is a coarse and very hard sandstone, the bone is extremely 
soft, so much so that it falls away as dust, after being exposed for a few 
days, when subjected to the jarring inevitable to the process of develop- 
ment; the skidl is thus very largely represented by an internal cast, to 
which a certain amount of bone remains attached, forming a thin white 
layer; nevertheless, certain points are exceedingly well displayed. 

I am unable to add anything to the account given by Dr. Woodward 
of the anterior part of the skull. 

The brain-case widens out posteriorly, and lateral processes are 
given off which underlie the corresponding inwardly directed processes 
of the squamosal. There is, however, certainly a bone overlying the 
squamosal, and apparently running straight across from side to side 
without any connection with the parietals : this bone is probably a 
separate ossification, the epiotic of the Stegocephalian skull. 

The squamosal is a Iriradiale bone ; it differs from that figured by 



156 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

other writers in the skull of Rhynchosaurus articeps in having a larger 
area. The internal ramus extends in, under the epiotic on both sides, 
and is hence not well exposed. The anterior ramus is about 1.7 cm. 
long and at least 1 cm. wide at its base; it is well shown on the left side 
to underlie the posterior ramus of the postorbital. The inferior ramus 
also expands into a plate of bone proximally ; this is confluent with that 
formed by the anterior ramus; there is hence a very considerable area of 
bone over the postero-lateral corners of the upper surface of the skull. 
Tlie figures of Owen and Smith Woodward's restored drawing represent 
the skull of Rhynchosaurus articeps as very slender in this region, and 
it is hence possible tliat the Manchester skull really represents a distinct 
species ; I am, however, very unwilling to found a new species on this one 
specimen. 

The relation of the squamosal to the quadrate and the quadratojugal 
is not now well seen in the specimen, mainly on account of the crumbling 
of the bone in this region. 1 was able to see during development that 
there was no foramen between the quadrate and the quadratojugal as 
there is in Sphenodon; a specimen in the Elgin Museum shows that 
Hyperodapedon resembles Ehynchosaurus in this respect. Both quad- 
rates are now exposed from the back in the Manchester Ehynchosaurus 
skull, but are badly preserved, the bone being very soft and friable. 

The lower temporal arcade is represented by a misplaced posterior 
ramus of the jugal, which forms a thin strip of bone about 3 cm. high 
and •? cm. thick. The quadratojugal can be seen as a forward pro- 
jection from the distal end of the quadrate, but it is not well exposed. 

The anterior portion of the palate is badly preserved; the teeth, for 
example, have been destroyed. There are certain differences in this 
region between this specimen and that figured by Huxley and Smith 
Woodward; for example, a length of 30 mm. in the new specimen 
corresponds to 50 mm. in Huxley's specimen, which measures about 
42 mm. across the transpalatine region, as against 37 mm. in the new 
skull ; thus the snout of the new specimen is blunter than that of Huxley's 
skull. This difference may be specific or may merely depend on differences 
of sex or age. 

The important new features presented by this specimen concern the 
pterygoids and basis cranii. 

The right pterygoid is almost completely preserved and exposed. 
The anterior ramus cannot be distinguished from the palatine; the 
external ramus forms a nearly vertical plate directed forward and out- 
ward at an angle of about 45° to the basicranial axis. This unites with 
the transpalatine, the two forming the usual downwardly directed 
process. 

The transpalatine forms the posterior edge of the palate and joins the 
maxilla probably near its junction with the jugal. 

The anterior and exterior rami of the pterygoid pass back, forming a 
vertical plate of bone over a centimetre deep, which joins on to the 
pterygoid process of the basisphenoid. How much of this plate is 
pterygoid and how much basisphenoid I cannot say. The plate is 3 mm. 
in antero-posterior length, and very thin. From its posterior and 
ventral margin is given off the posterior ramus, which is a narrow bar 
only 2 mm. by 1 mm. in section, passing back to the quadrate, a distance 
of some 20 mm. Its junction with the quadrate is not exposed, and it 
is possible that it is slightly dislocated at this point. 



British Association, 79th Report, Winnipeff, 1909. 

Fig. 1. 



post. pt. 



[Plate IV. 



post. pt. ' 



Fig. 2 




n/ 



B. s . 

Fig. 3. 



i^ 


la-.V-;'^"- ■' • / 1^^ 


L..- ^'- ^-;- f 
■A ■■;■•■•*•■ y 






fB^. . ^^^^H^H 



Ep. 



Illnstrating the Seve^nth Eeport on the Investiyation of the Fauna and 
Flora of the Trias of the British Isles. 



ON THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF THE TRIAS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 157 

The basisphenoid is exposed as a bone nearly 1 cm. wide between 
the down-turned pterygoid processes. This bone contracts behind to a 
width of about 5 mm. ; behind this it has two lateral wings, which are, 
however, badly preserved and exposed. These wings probably corre- 
spond with the two knobs which occur in Sphenodon just before the 
junction of the basisphenoid and basioccipital. The small piece of 
bone immediately behind is the basioccipital. This is 1.5 mm. long, 
and is succeeded by the atlas, which is not easily distinguished from it, 
being represented mainly by a hole. The palate, as a whole, much 
resembles that of Sphenodon, the chief differences being as follows : 

(1) There appears to be no suborbital foramen in front of the trans- 
palatine, whereas in Sphenodon there is a small one; this difference is 
not a very important one as is shown by the similar variation in 
Sam'opterygians. 

(2) In the great height of the pterygoid process and attached ptery- 
goids Ehynchosaurus differs considerably from the condition in 
Sphenodon. 

(3) The great distance between the two pterygoids in this region in 
Ehynchosaurus is also a conspicuous difference from the other genus. 

(4) The fact that the posterior ramus of the pterygoid is only a 
slender bar in the Triassic genus renders its appearance different from 
that of Sphenodon. 

The palate of Ehynchosaurus resembles strongly that of Hypero- 
dapedon in certain respects, whilst differing from it more widely than 
does that of Sphenodon in others. 

Apart from the dentition, the chief differences between the two 
Triassic genera are as follows ; — 

(1) In Hyperodapedon the pterygoids meet in the middle line and 
appear completely to conceal the basisphenoid from a ventral view ; this 
is a pronounced difference from Ehynchosaurus, in which the whole of 
the basis cranii can be seen from below. 

(2) In Hyperodapedon the pterygoids appear to be only just below 
the main ventral surface of the basisphenoid, and are possibly in actual 
contact with it, whilst in Ehynchosaurus they are carried down on two 
long processes to about 1 cm. below that level. 

In these two respects Sphenodon seems to be exactly between the 
fossil genera. On the other hand, these latter agree in the absence of 
any infraorbital foramen and of the foramen between the quadrate and 
the quadratojugal. They also agree in the very pronounced downward 
curve of the premaxillae, which in the recent Sphenodon bears two teeth 
and is not itself appreciably decurved. 

On the whole of the evidence, I think that Ehynchosaurus and 
Hyperodapedon should not be placed in the same family, but that they 
should be included in a super-family, which would most probably also 
include Stenometopon, but not Sphenodon. 

Explanation of Plate IV. 

Fig. 1.— Under surface of the skull of Rhynchosaurus in the Manchester 
Museum. Nat. size. 

jv. Anterior end of the misplaced jugal. 

q.j. The quadratojugal. 

post. pt. The posterior ramus of the pterygoid 

£. i. The basisphenoid. 



158 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

Fig. 2. — The right side of the same skull as it would appear if bisected by a 
sagittal section and viewed from the middle line. 

To show that the basis cranii lies far below the level of the palate. Reference 
letters as in fig. 1. 

Fig. 3. — Photograph of the upper surface of the back of the skull, x 1| approx. 
To show the epiotic (Ep.) overlying the squamosals (sq.), which in turn overlie 
the parietals (par.), 

Bibliograpliical Notes upon the Flora and Fauna of the British Keuper. 
By A. E. HoBwooD. 

Lists dealing with the palaeontology of the Leicestershire Upper 
Keuper and some neighbouring localities, and a bibhography relating to 
the same, were published in the Trias Report for 1907. In the last 
year's Report (1908) a list of the fossils from certain counties, which 
had not so far found a place in these Reports, was published, together 
with a bibliography of works relating to the flora and fauna from 1826 
to 1876. The present communication is complementary to the two 
former lists, bringing the literature up to date from 1877 onward, and 
bringing together in one accessible bibliography all the works included 
in the Reports not so far arranged chronologically ; and to these are added 
a number of papers not hitherto noted therein. Furthermore, the 
analysis of the palaeontology of each work given at the end will serve, it 
is hoped, as a useful summary of the subject-matter in this connection. 

In view of the fact that certain beds previously classed as Permian 
exhibit a typical Triassic vertebrate fauna, as remarked by Mr. H. A. 
Allen (Trias Report, 1908), some of the records which were regarded 
as referring to the Permian are included here. At the same time, the 
fact must not be ignored, in questions of this kind, that footprints 
resembling Triassic footprints have been discovered in the Permian beds 
of Mansfield,* Nottinghamshire, and in the Lower Sandstones of the 
Exeter district.^ Indeed, there is, according to Mr. G. Hickling, some 
doubt as to whether the Elgin sandstones are not also Permian,^ though 
Dr. F. von Huene ^ correlates these latter with the Dolomitic Con- 
glomerate and German Lettenkohle (Lower Keuper). 

1. Agassiz, L. — 1833-1844 ' Recherches siir les Poissons Fossiles,' ii. pt. i 
p. 303. Palaoniscus catopterus (Ag.), Keuper, Roan Hill, Tyrone. 

2. Riley, H., and S. Stutchbury. — 1856 'A Description of Fossil remains of 
three distinct Saurian animals recently discovered in the Magnesian Conglomerate 
near Bristol ' (' Geol. Trans.,' v. 2nd series, 1836, p. 349). Palaosmirus platyoclon 
(R. and S.), P. cylindrodon (R. and S.), and Thccodontosaurus sp., Magnesian 
Conglomerate, Durdham Down. 

3. Buckland, Rev. W. — 1837 ' Geology and Mineralogy considered with 
reference to Natural Theology,' 2nd edition (vol i. pp. 259-266; vol. ii. pi. 26). 
Cheirotherium, Trias, Dumfries. 

4. Egerton, Sir P. de Grey. — 1838 ' On two casts of Impressions of the Hind 
Foot of a gigantic Cheirotherium from the New Red Sandstone of Cheshire ' 
(' Proc. Geol. Soc.,' iii., p. 14). Cheirotherium, Tri^a, Tarporley. 

5. Ward, Dr. 0. D. — 1839 ' On Footprints and Ripplemarks of the New Red 
Sandstone at Grinshill, Shropshire' ('Brit. Assoc. Rep.'). (?) Rhynchosaurus , 
Lower Keuper, Grinshill. 

' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. Ixii. 1906, pp. 125-131. 
» Ibid., vol. Ixiv. 1908, pp. 496-500 and pi. Ii. 
' Mem. Manch. Geol. Soc. 1909, paper in press. 
* Geol. Mag. 1908, pp. 98-99. 



ON THE FAUNA AND PLOBA OF THE TRIAS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 159 

6. Owen, Sir E. — 1842 ' Description of an Extinct Lacertilian Reptile, Bhyncho- 
saurus articeps ' (' Trans. Camb. Pliil. Soc.,' xii. pp. 355-369, pi. Iv., vi.). Ehyncho- 
sauTus articeps (Owen), Lower Keuper, Grinshill. 

7. Agassiz, L. — 1844 ' Recherches sur les Poissons Fossiles du Vieux Ores 
Rouge' (p. 139). Sfaf/onolepls liobertsoni (Ag.), Trias, Lossiemouth. 

8. Black, Dr. J. — 1846 ' Observations on a Slab of New Red Sandstone from 
the Quarries of Weston, near Runcorn, Cheshire. Certain Impressions of Foot- 
prints in other marking' ('Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' ii. p. 479). Chelone sub- 
Tofundus (Morton), Lower Keuper Sandstone, Weston. 

9. Cunningham, J. — 1848 ' Proc. Liverp. Lit. and Phil. Soc.,' i. Cheiro- 
therium minus (Sickler), Lower Keuper, Flaybrick Hill, Birkenhead. 

10. Lloyd, Dr. T.— 1849 'Rep. Brit, xissoc. Trans. Sects., p. 56. Dasrjccps 
Bucklandi (Lloyd), Permian ( ?), Kenilworth. 

11. Quenstedt, F. A. — 1850 ' Die Mastodonsaurier,' p. 16, pi. ii. fig. 2. On 
(Jupitosuurus. 

12. Mantell, G. A. — 1852 ' Description of the Tehrpeton EUjinense, a Fossil 
Reptile recently discovered in the Old Red Sandstone of Moray, with Observa- 
tions on supposed Fossil Ova ; of Ova of Batrachians in the Lower Devonian Strata 
of Forfarshire' ('Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' viii. pp. 100-5, pi. iv.). Telcrpeton 
ehjinense (Mant.j, Keuper, Elgin. 

13. Egerton, Sir P. de G. — 1854 ' On a Fossil Fish from the Upper Beds of the 
New Red Sandstone at Bromsgrove ' (' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' x. pp. 357-371, 
pi. xi.). Dipteronotus cyphus (Eg.), ' Bunter,' Bromsgrove. 

14. Brodie, Rev. P. B. — 1856 ' On the Upper Keuper Sandstone (included in 
the New Red Marl) of Warwickshire' ('Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' xii. p. 374). 
Description of section of Upper Keuper Sandstone at Shrewley, Plants, Estheria 
minutu ^Alberti), Mollusca, Footprints, Tracks, &c. 

15. Brodie, Rev. P. B. — 1858 ' Notes on the Occurrence of a New Species of 
Fish in the Upper Keuper Sandstone in Warwick ' (' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' 
xiv. p. 165). Dictyopyge {Palaoniscus) superstes (Eg.). Upper Keuper, Row- 
ington. 

16. Egerton, Sir P. de G. — 1858 ' On Paltconiscus superstes ' (' Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc.,' xiv. p. 164, pi. xi. figs. 1-4). Palcconiscus catopterus (Ag.), Keuper, 
Roan Hill, Tyrone. 

17. Hancock, A. — 1858 ' Remarks on certain vermiform Fossils found in the 
Mountain Limestone districts of the North of England ' (' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' 
ii. 3rd series, p. 443) 

18. Meyer, H. von. — 1858 ' Palseontographica, ' vi. p. 228, pi. xxviii. fig. 1. 

19. Howell, H. H.— 1859 'The Geology of the Warwickshire Coalfield' 
(' Mem. Geol. Surv.,' p. 32). Breea eulassoides, Caulerpites oblonrjus, C. triangu- 
laris, Permian (?), Meriden. (Vide also Phillips' 'Geol. of Oxford.' 1871.) 

20. Huxley, T. H. — 1859 ' On the Stagonolepis Eobertsoni (Agassiz) of the 
Elgin Sandstones, and on the recently discovered Footmarks in the Sandstones of 
Cummingstone ' ('Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' xv. pp. 440-460, pi. xiv. fig. 4). 
Uyperodapedon Oordoni (Huxley), Trias, Lossiemouth ; Footprints, Trias, Cum- 
mingstone. 

21. Huxley, T. H.— 1859 in H. H. Howell's 'The Geology of the Warwick- 
shire Coalfield, and the Permian Rocks and Trias of the surrounding district' 
(' Mem. Geol. Surv.'). Labyrinthodon sp.. Lower Keuper, Cubbington. ( fLaby- 
rinthodon Luvisi.) 

22. Owen, Sir R. — 1859 'Notes on the Affinities of Rhynchosaurus' ('Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist.' [3], iv. pp. 237-238). FhyncJwsaurus articeps (Owen), Lower 
Keuper, Grinshill. 

23. Jones, T. R. — 1862 'A Monograph of the Fossil Estherite' {' Pal. Soc.,' 
p. 57, pi. ii.). Records of Estheria. 

24. Owen, Sir R. — 1862 ' Notice of a Skull and parts of the Skeleton of 
Bhynchosaurus articeps' ('Phil. Trans.,' pp. 466-467, pi. xxv.). Rhynchosaurus 
articeps (Owen), Lower Keuper, Grinshill. 

25. Morton, G. H. — 1863 (' Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc.,' i.). Cheirotherium stor- 
tonense, suggested. 

26. Huxley, T. H.-- 1867 ' On a specimen of Telcrpeton elginense ' (' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc.,' xxiii., Proc. pp. 77-84, text figures, A — E). Telcrpeton elginense 
(Mant.), Trias, Lossiemouth. 

27. Williamson, W. C. — 1867 ' Cheirotherium Footprint from the Base of the 
Keuper Sandstone, Daresbur'y ' (' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' xxiii. pp. 56-7, 



160 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

1>1. iii. lig. i., and ibid., xxii. pp. 534-5). Footprint of Chcirutherium, Lower 
Keuper, Daresbury. 

28. Huxley, T. H. — 1869 'On Hyperoda'pedon' ('Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' 
XXV., Proc. pp. 138-152). Hyptrodapedon Gordoni (Huxley), Trias, Elgin ; Lower 
Keuper, Coton End ; Keviper, Left Bank of Eiver Otter, Budleigh, Devon. 

29. Etheridge, E. — 1870 ' On the Geological Position and Geographical Dis- 
tribution of the Reptilian or Dolomitic Conglomerate of the Bristol area ' (' Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc.,' xxvi. pp. 174-192). Thecodontosaurus, Palccosaurus, Dolo- 
mitic Conglomerate, Bristol; Hyperodapedon, Devon. 

30. Huxley, T. H. — 1870 ' On the Classification of the Dinosauria, with obser- 
vations on the Dinosauria of the Trias' ('Quart. Journ. G«ol. 8oc.,' xxvi. 
pp. 32-51, pi. iii. fig. 4). Thecodovtosaurus cylindrodon (R. and S.), Lower 
Keuper, Coton End; Teratosaurus (Zandodon), Coton End. 

31. Irving, Rev. A. — 1874 ' On the Geology of the Nottingham District ' (' Geol. 
jNIag.,' pp. 314-9). Footprints of Chcirothcrium, Castle Donington, doubtless 
meant for Weston, and Colwick, near Nottingham. 

32. Traquair, R. H. — 1877 ' On the Agassizian genera Amhlypterus, Pulao- 
nisciis, Gyrolepis, and Pyaopterus ' (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xxxiii. p. 557). 
Dictyopyge catoptera (Ag.), Keuper, Roan Hill, Tyrone. 

33. Miall, L. C. — 1878 ' A Monograph of the Sirenoid and Crdssopterygian 
Ganoids,' pt. i. ('Pal. Soc.,' p. 32, pi. v. fig. 2). Ceratodus Icevisslmns (L. C. 
Miall), Upper Keuper, Ripple, Worcestershire; Lower Keuper, Coton End, War- 
wickshire. 

34. SoUas, W. J.— 1879 ' On some Three-toed Footprints from the Triassic 
Conglomerate of South Wales' ('Quart Journ. Geol. Soc.,' xxxv. pp. 511-516). 
Brontozoum Thomasl (Sollas), Trias Conglomerate, Newton Nottage, Glamorgan. 

35. Nathurst. A. G.--1880 ' On some Tracks of Invertebrates, &c., and their 
Palaeontological Bearing' ('Kon. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handlingur. ,' band 18, 
No. 7). 

36. Hughes, T. McKenny. — 1884 ' Some Tracks of Terrestrial and Freshwater 
Animals ' (' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' xl. p. 178, pi. 7-11). 

37. Huxley, T. H. — 1887 ' Further Observations upon Hyperodapedon Gor- 
doni' (' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' xliii. pp. 675-694, pi. xxvii.). Hyperodapedon 
Gordoni (Huxley), Trias, Lossiemouth; and on Rhyiiclio.-'nurus articeps (Owen). 

38. Newton, E. T. — 1887 ' On the Remains of Fishes from the Keuper of 
Warwick and Nottingham, with notes on their mode of occurrence by the Rev. 
P. B. Brodie and E. Wilson' ('Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' xliii. pp. 537-543, 
pi. xxii.). Semionotns Brodiei (Newt.), Upper Keuper, .Shrewley ; Lower Keuper, 
Colwick, Notts. 

59. Zittel, K. A. von. — 1887-8 ' Handbuch der Paheontologie,' iii. p. 203 and 
p. 404, f. 396). Palaoniscus supersfes (Ag.), Trias, Tyrone ; and on Capitosaiirus. 

40. Woodward, A. S. — 1889 ' On the so-called Hyhodus keupcrinits (Murch. and 
Strickl.), Palwichthyological Notes, No. 1 ('Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.' (6), iii. 
p. 297, pi. xiv. figs. 1-5) On Acrodus keuperinus (M. and S.), Worcestershire, 
Warwickshire. 

41. Woodward, A. S. — 1889 ' On Diplodus 3Ioorci sp. nov., from the Keuper 
of Somersetshire ' (' Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.' (6), iii. p. 299, pi. xiv. figs. 4, 5). 
Diplodus Moorei (A. S. Woodw.), Keuper, Ruishton, Somersetshire. 

42. Woodward, A. S. — 1889 ' Catalogue of Fossil Fishes in the British 
Museum' pt. i. p. 281. Acrodus keuperinus (M. and S.), Upper Keuper, 
Worcestershire ; Pendock, Ripple, Burge Hill ; and Shrewley and Rowington, 
Warwickshire. 

43. Lydekker, R. — 1890 ' Catalogue of Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the 
British Museum,' iv. p. 217. Chirosaurus stantoncnsis (Morton), Lower Keuper, 
Store ton, Lymm. 

44. Morton, G. H. — 1891 ' Geology of the Country around Liverpool,' 2nd 
edition, pp. 106, 299, 300, &c. Cheirotherium stortonense, C. minus, Bhyncho- 
saurus articeps (Owen), Bh. minimus, Bh. ( ?) tumidus, Chelone ( ?) subrotundus, 
Equisetum heuperinum. Lower Keuper, Storeton, &c. 

45. Gordon, Rev. G. — 1892 ' Reptiliferous Sandstones of Elgin' ('Trans. 
Geol. Soc. Edin.'). 

46. Newton, E. T. — 1893 ' On some New Reptiles from the Elgin Sandstone ' 
(' Phil. Trans.,' clxxxiv. p. 431, &c.). Elginia mirabilis, Gordonia Traquairi, G, 
fJuxleyana, G. Duffiana, G. Juddiana, Geilna elginensis, Hyperodapedon Gor- 
doni (Huxley), Trias, Cuttle's Hillock. 



ON THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF THE TRIAS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 161 

47. Woodward, A. S. — 1895 ' Some Extinct flunks and Ganoid Fishes' ('Ann. 
.Mag. Nat. Hist./ .xii. pp. 282-3, pi. x. figs. 1-5). C'erulodus Icevissimus (JMiall), 
Upper Keuper, Ripple; Acrodus keuperintis (M. and S.), Lower Keuper, Coton 
End; Phabadus Brodiei (A. S. W.), Worcestershire, Warwickshire; Upper 
Keuper, Shrewley. 

48. Jeffs, 0. W. — 1894 ' Notes on a series of Fossil Footprints from Storeton, iu 
Cheshire ' (' Jour. Liv. Gaol. Assoc.,' xiv.). Rhynchomvrus ( ?) tumidus (Morton), 
Lower Keuper, Storeton ; hirosaurus stortonensis, Lower Keuper, Storeton ; 
lihynchosaurus stortonensis, Lower Keuper, Storeton. 

49. Newton, E. T. — 1894 ' Reptiles from the Elgin Sandstone — Description of 
two New Genera' (Phil. Trans., clxxxv. p. 574). Ornithosuchus Woodwardi 
(N.), Trias, Spynie ; Erpetosuchus Granti (N.), Trias, Loissiemouth. 

50. Newt-on, R. 15. — 1894 ' Note on some Molluscan Remains lately discovered 
in the English Keuper' ('Journ. of Conch.,' vii. p. 408). Thracia Brodiei 
(R. B. N.), Pholadomya Bichardsi (R. B. N.), Nucvla hctiperina (R. B. N.), Upper 
Keuper Sandstone, Shrewley. 

51. Beasley, H. C. — 1896 ' An Attempt to Classify the Footprints in the New 
Red Sandstone of this district ' (' Proc. Liv. Geol. Soc.,' ii. pp. 391-409, pi. i.-iii.). 
Ithynchosaurus minimus (Morton), &c. 

52. Beasley, H. C. — 1896 ' Observations regarding a Footprint from the Upper 
Keuper Sandstone at Storeton, with a Note on the Probable Structure of the 
Foot by Professor H. G. Seeley, F.G.S., &c.' (' Trans. Liv. Biol. Soc.,' xi. 
p. 179, pi. vii). Chelone ( ?) subrotundus (Morton), Lower Keuper Sandstone, 
Storeton. 

53. Beasley, H. C. — 1898 ' Notes on Examples of Footprints, &c., from the 
Trias in some Provincial Museums' ('Proc. Liv. Geol. r^oc.,' viii. pp. 233-4. 
Footprints, Lower Keuper Sandstone, Storeton, &c. 

54. Jones, Professor T. R.— 1898 ' On some Triassic ( ?) Esiheriae from the 
Red Beds or Cimorron Series of Kansas ' (' Geol. Mag.,' pp. 291-3, fig. 3). Estheria 
minuta (Alberti). 

55. Burckhardt, R. — 1900 ' On Uyperodapedon Gordoni ' (' Geol. Mag.,' 4, vii. 
pp. 486-492 and 529-534, text-fig. 3). Hyperodapedon Gordoiii (Huxley), Trias, 
Lossiemouth. 

56. Ward, J. — 1900 ' On the Occurrence of Labyrinthodont Remains in the 
Keujjcr Sandstone of Stanton' ('Trans. N. Staffs Field Club,' xxxiv. pi. iv. 
and V. p. 108). Capitosaurus stantonensig (A, S. W.), Lower Keuper, Stanton, 
near Norbury. 

57. Beasley, H. C. — 1901 ' Notes on the Type Specimen of Cheirotherium 
hercnlis' (Egerton) ('Proc. Liv. Geol. Soc.,' ix., p. 81, pi. v. and p. 203). 
CheirclJicrium stortonense (Morton), Lower Keuper, Storeton. 

58. Beasley, H. C. — 1901 'On two Footprints from the Lower Keuper and 
their relation to Cheirotherium stortonense' ('Proc. Liv. Geol. Soc.,' ix. p. 238, 
pi. 15). Cheirotherium, Lower Keuper, Storeton. 

59. Beasley, H. C— 1901 ('Proc. Liv. Geol. Soc.,' ix. p. 289, pi. 15). Cheiro- 
therium minus. Lower Keuper, Storeton. 

60. Lomas, J. — 1901 ' On the Occurrence of Estheria and Plant Remains in 
the Keuper Marls at Oxton, Birkenhead' (' Proc. Liv. Geol. Soc.,' p. 77, pi. iv.). 
Estheria minuta (Alberti) var. Brodieanci, Keuper Marl, Oxton, near Birkenhead. 

61. Thompson, Beeby. — 1902 ' Some Trias Sections in South Staffordshire ' 
('Geol. Mag.,' Dec, iv. ix.). [Vide also 'Journ. Northants Nat. Hist. Soc.,' 
1902, pp. 21-2). Rhynchosaurus and Cheirotherium, Upper Keuper, Chillington. 

62. Woodward, A. S. — 1902 'Footprints from the Keuper of South Stafford- 
.«hire ' ('Geol. Mag.,' pp. 215-7). (Also 'Journ. Northants Nat. Hist. Soc.,' 1902, 
pp. 22-4). Fhynihosaurus sp., Cheirotherium sip., Upper Keuper, Chillington. 

63. Boideng'er, G. A.— 1903 ('Phil. Trans.,' cxcvi. B, p. 175). Ornithosuchus 
Woodwardi (N.), Trias, Spynie; Stenometopon Taylori (Boul.), Trias, Lossie- 
mouth. 

64. Boulenger, G. A. — 1904 (' Proc. Zool. Soc.'). Telerpeton elginense (Boul.), 
Trias, Lossiemouth. 

65. Woodward, A. S.— 1904 ('Proc. Zool. Soc.,' ii. p. 170, pi. xi.). Capita- 
sriurus stanfonensis (A. S. W.), Lower Keuper, Stanton, N. Staffs. 

66. Branson. E. B. — 1905 ' Structure and Relationships of American Laby- 
1 iiithndontidns ' (' Amer Geol.,' xii. pp. 568-610, figs. 4, 10, and 13). 

67. Arber, E. A. N. — 1907 ' On Triassic Species of the Genera Zamitex and 
Pternphyllum : types of fronds belonging to the Cycadophyta ' (' Trans. Linn. 

1909. u 



162 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Soc.,' viii. pt. 7, pp. 109-127, pi. xvii.-xix.). Zamites grandis (Arber), Lower 
Keuper, Bromsgrove. 

68. Beasley, H. C— 1907 ' The Storeton Find of 1906 ' (' Proc. Li v. Geol. Soc.,' 
1907, pp. 157-171). 

69. Wills, L. J. — 1907 ' On some Fossiliferous Keuper Eocks at Bromsgrove, 
Worcestershire' ('Geol. Mag.,' December 5, iv. p. 28). Numerous plant, crus- 

'tacea, fish, and other vertebrate remains. ( Vide Trias Report, 1907.) 

70. Huene, Dr. F. von. — 1908 ' Eine zrsammenstellung iiber die englische Trias 
und das alter ihrer Fossilien' (' Centr. t'iir miner. Geol. und Palaont.,' No. 1, 
pp. 9-17). A summary of the British Keuper Flora and Fauna. 

71. Huene, Dr. F. von.- — 1908 ' On Phyfosaurian Remains from the Magnesian 
Conglomerate of Bristol' (Rileya flatyodon) ('Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' 8th 
series, i. pp. 228-230, pi. vi.). Rileya platyodon (R. and S.), Dolomitic Con- 
glomerate, Bristol. 

72. 'Huene, Dr. F. von. — 1908 ' On the Age of the Reptile Faunas contained in 
the Magnesian Conglomerate at Bristol and in the Elgin Sandstone ' (' Geol. Mag.,' 
Dec. 5, v. pp. 99-100). 

73. Arber, E. A. N.— 1909 ' On the Affinities of the Triassic Plant Yuccites 
vogesiacus, Schimper and Mougeot ' (' Geol. Mag.,' December 5, vi. pp. 11-14). The 
name Zamites grandis (Arber), first proposed, is rejected in favour of the older 
Yuccites vogesiacus, Schimper et Mougeot, from the Bunter, with which it is 
regarded as identical, though the Monocotyledonous affinity suggested in the latter 
generic name is not intended to be perpetuated by the retention of the earlier 
combination. 



Preliminary Notice o/ the Occurrence of Footprints in the Lower Keuper 
Sandstone of Leicestershire. Bij A. E. Hoewood. 

Since no authentic specimens of footprints from Leicestersliire ' 
have, until recently, been forthcoming, it is of some interest to briefly 
note here the existence of a fairly well-marked example, with all but one 
digit intact, of CJieirotherium, very similar to forms found at Storeton, 
described by Mr. H. C. Beasley as A 3, and resembling Cheirotherium 
herculis (Eg.). This specimen was found thirty years ago by Mr. J. 
Large, in excavations for a house at a depth of about 8 feet below the 
surface, on the Derby Eoad at Kegworth, in North Leicestershire. It 
is interesting, moreover, to note by the way that the nearest locality at 
which these footprints had been obtained hitherto, Weston-on-Trent, 
Derbyshii'e, on the north bank of the river Trent, is distant from Keg- 
worth only about six miles. The rareness of their occurrence in this 
part of the country is, however, sufficient reason for their record here. 

The sandstone in which the present example was found (which it 
is hoped to describe more fully later) is a greenish sandstone passing 
into ' skerry ' of the Lower Keuper intercalated in the red marls, with 
way-boards or partings of a reddish, flaggy sandstone. 

Its existence was made known during excavations for the Derwent 
Valley Water Board, a scheme by which the boroughs of Leicester, 
Derby, Nottingham, and Sheffield receive water from the waters of the 
rivers Derwent and Ashop and higher ground in Yorkshire. These 
excavations >show that nearly opposite the site of the house mentioned 
a small excavation had been made in the sandstone below the made 
ground covering the sandstone, giving the appearance in the 6 to 7-feet 
sewer trench of a deep V-shaped gully, but whether this extended laterally 
up to the house itself is not known. The sandstone thins out towards 

1 Those recorded in the Report for 1907 are not forthcoming, so that some 
doubt must be entertained as to their nature, and they are also from the Upper 
Keuper sandstone. 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF THE TRIAS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 163 

the river Trent about twenty yards (or rather less) from the spot where 
the footprint was found, and in the excavations entirely disappeared. 

The surface of the greenish (and red) sandstone is here frequently 
covered with ripple-marks of various sizes, "and with considerable 
variation in the distance between the crest and furrows of each. There 
are also sun-cracks both along the furrows and preserved separately, 
having a honeycomb arrangement formed of quadrilateral areas divided 
by raised ridges, rain-pittings, silt-mai'ks, &c., and pseudo-morphs of 
salt-crystals (only one specimen of these was found). The footprint 
referred to was the only organic object found, unless some tracks, 
probably of invertebrates, are sufficiently definite to include here. The 
specimen came to light through the finding of two slabs of supposed foot- 
prints at the top of the sandstone by the gully mentioned, which were 
reported to the writer, but turned out to be inorganic casts of some 
concretionary structure. Within the sandstone similar cavities were 
filled like a geode with thin films of pink and orange-coloured fibrous 
gypsum. 



Investigation of the Igneous and Associated Rocks of the Glen- 
saul and Longh Nafooey Areas, Co. Galway. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. Watts {Chair- 
man), Professor S. H. Keynolds {Secretary), Mr. H. B. 
M.^UFE, and Mr. C. I. Gardiner. {Drawn up hy Mr. C. I. 
Gardiner and the Secretary.) 

Me. C. I. Gardiner and the Secretary visited Connemara in April and 
completed their field work on the Glensaul district, commencing, in 
addition, to map the Lough Nafooey district. 

The Glensaul district is a small one, measuring only about 2x1 
miles. It is about three miles S.W. of the Southern extremity of the 
Tourmakeady district, recently described,^ of which it is clearly a con- 
tinuation, the type of sedimentary rock met with in the two being prac- 
tically identical. The general succession is : 

III. Wala Beds — conglomerate and sandstone. 
These have not been studied. 

IT. Lhtndeilo Beds. 

(5) Calcareous gritty tuff, passing in places into fairl.y 

pure limestone.and enclosing bands and patclios 

of limestone breccia and bands of highly fossili- 

ferous limestone, which in soaie cases has been 

shattered by earth movement .... Thickness doubtful. 
(4) Very coarse tuff or breccia mainly composed of 

felsite fragments , 7.50 feet. 

(3) Tuff coarse and fine with occasional patches of 

calcareous beds 150 feet. 

(2) Great felsite sill of Tonaglanna and Greenaun . 1,200 feet. 
(1) Tuff with some grit 600 feet. 

' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. Ixv. 1909, pp. 104-153. 

M 2 



164 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

I. Arenig Beds. 

(4) Coarse grit 150 feet. 

(3) Fine grit and tufl associated with black chert, 

graptolitic shale, and a prominent band of 

breccia 30 feet thick Thickness doubtful. 

(2) Coarse grit 110 feet. 

(1) Coarse conglomerate About 600 feet seen. 

The black shales have yielded the following considerable series 
of graptolites, which have been kindly delermined by Miss G. L. 
Elles, D.Sc, and indicate the zone of Didymograptus extensus. The 
associated cherts contain radiolaria : — 

Graptolites from the Arexig Beds of Glensaul. 

Bictyonema, sp. T/iamiioff7-aptvs; sp. 

'I Dendrograptid. Bidyinoffraptus extensus, Ball {common). 

Tetragraptus pendens, Elles. D. Jilifflrmis, Tullberg. 

T. Aviii, Lapvvorth M.S. D.fa»ciculatus, Nich. 

T. quadrihrachiatus. Hall. D. bifidvs, Hall. 

Clmiograptus LnpwortM, Kued. B. gracilis, Tornquist. 

In the Llandeilo rocks, both limestone and tuff, a large number of 
generally rather fragmentary fossils was found, which are being deter- 
mined by Mr. F. R. Cowper Reed. 

The crystalline igneous rocks, all of which we believe to be intrusive, 
are by no means so varied as in the Tounnakeady district, and are 
practically limited to one broad band of felsite, which is noteworthy 
from the fact that it almost everywhere contains pyroxene. 

The district is much faulted, large faults bound it on the E. and 
W., a somewhat complicated system of faults approximately parallel 
to these bounding faults intersects it, and there are other dislocations 
of importance. 



Composition and Origin of the Crystalline Rochs of Anglesey. — 
Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. 
Harker (Chairman) , Mr. E. Greenly (Secretar^j), Dr. C. A. 
Matley, and Professor K. J. P. Orton. 

The Committee record with great regret the loss they have sustained, 
in the death of Mr. J. Lomas, which occurred in the prosecution of 
geological research in Algeria. 

The work of the year has included the completion of the series of 
analyses of rocks of the hornfels type in Central Anglesey ; and now the 
pillowy diabase lavas with jaspers and other associated rocks (perhaps 
the most important in the island; of far-reaching importance, indeed, 
among ancient rocks beyond its limits) are being proceeded with. A 
series, also, of limestones and mudstones from the Carboniferous lime- 
stone and Old Red rocks have been analysed, which were collected 
during the survey of the Carboniferous limestone area in 1907 and upon 
which chemical information was greatly needed. Lastly, a gneissose 
marble, containing pseudomorphs after Forsterite, has been analysed. 

All the analyses are by Mr. John Owen Hughes, B.Sc, who con- 
tinues to devote to this work whatever time is allowed by his duties as 
Demonstrator in Chemistry in the University College of North Wales. 



ON T^E CRYSTALLINE ROCKS OF ANGLESEY. 



165 



No. 557a. Homfels. 
S.E. Cromlech. Bodafon Mountain. 



SiO.. . 

Al^Oj 

Fe;03 

FeO . 

MnO 

CaO . 

MgO . 

K,0 . 

Na.O . 

H.O (at 110° C.) 

Hi^O (above 110'') 



I. 




11. 


58-52 




58-27 


23-40 




23-45 


302 




3-18 


2-30 




2-22 




Oil 

1-52 




G-58 




6-61 


0-22 




. o-;;5 


15 




0-46 


355 




3-51 



^•967 



99-68 



This rock completes the series from the hornfels associated with the 
granite. The high alkah percentage in some of these suggested doubts 
as to whether they could be of sedimentary origin. The alkalies are, how- 
ever, quite as high in this rock, and of its sedimentary origin there can 
be no doubt, the evidence in the field and under the microscope being 
decisive. It is from the beds which pass under the great quartzite of 
Bodafon Mountain, and was obtained in a small quarry which was made, 
with most fortunate results, right through the junction, in the spring 
of 1908. 

No. 107a. Dolerite. 

•2-2 S. W. Soss S. W. of Brijn Llwijd. 





1. 


II. 


SiO., . 


47'43 


47-47 


Ti(J., . 


trace 




AL.O, . 


17-58 


17-49 


Fe„0, . 


208 


2-01 


FeO . 


7-45 


7-42 


MnO . 


trace 




CaO 


1092 


11-01 


MgO . 


6-71 


G-7o 


K..0 


trace 




Na.,0 . 


3-89 


3 97 


H..0 (at 11U°) 


25 


0-22 


H.,0(abovelHJ°) 


2-65 


2-68 


CO.. 


0-53 


0-56 



3-50 



4-23 



99-49 



99-56 



No. 107a. This is the pillow diabase lava of the Newborough 
district, from the best sections, where it is quite unde formed and 
unaltered. 

No. 518a. Jasj)C'r. 
12, S.W. Ctriij Maivr. In Ellipsoidal Diabase. 

I. U. 

SiO„ 8801 88-13 

AI263 1-36 1-25 

FejOa 10-68 10 82 

Alkalies ...... None — 



100-05 



100-20 



1(j6 REPORT'S oisi the; state of science. 

This is the jasper which occurs in tiie interstices of the pillowy 
diabase. It will be seen that the analysis is quite unlike that of any 
felsite or rhyolite, unless such a rock had been altered by introduc- 
tion of silica and iron, and of such a phenomenon there is no evidence 
whatever on tiie ground. The relations, moreover, of the jasper to the 
diabase are quite inconsistent with such a view. 

Llanddivyn, near 312a. 

Dolomitic lAmestonc, 

rercentage MnO - 01 
MnCOs^Oie 

This is to supplement an analysis made in a former year of 
a limestone a-ssociated with the pillowy lavas and jaspers. Jaspers 
occur in these limestones, as well as in the lavas. They frequently 
have a delicate rose colour, and this, it will be seen, is due to sub- 
stitution in tlie carbonate of a small percentage of rhodochrosite. 

Nos. 548 and 549 have been selected as extreme types of the lime- 
stones of the Carboniferous series, some of which are thick-bedded, light 
coloured, clean, and crystaline; the others thin-bedded, dark coloured, 
earthy, and compact. 

No. 548a. White Liine.ttoiw. Carhjniferoiis. 
Bciillech (.'ore. 

1. II 

Residues insoluble in HCl . . 0-32 Oil 

ALPa + Fe.,0., 17 O'lit 

CaO .")5-43 5537 

MgO — 

CO., 11 16 41iy 



10008 10016 

Percentage CaCOj 98 98 9887 

Very white and crystalline. Its purity is remarkable. Corals ar( 
often abundant in the limestone of this type. 

No. 619a. Black Limeatone. Car/wtd/'orons. 
Benllech Sand. 

I. II. 

Residues insoluble in HCl . . 2202 21(;6 

ALOj + Fe..Oa 0-24 0-49 

CaO 4157 41-61 

MkO 1 07 116 

C0„ 33-83 33-91 

98-73 98-83 

Undetermined = 127 1-17 

Percentage CaCO^, = 7423 74-30 

The insoluble portion has the following composition : — 

SiOj 91-00 90-23 

A],.0a-(-Fe...03 8-95 9 28 

119-95 99-51 



ON THE CUVSrALLlN'r; ROCKS OF ANOF.RSF.V. 



107 



The midefcermined part consists o[ free carbon and some volatile sul- 
phides. During the grinding process the smell of H2S or some organic 
sulphide was detected, and lead acetate paper was blackened when held 
near the freshly-ground i^ock. An attempt was made to dry distil the 
rock and condense the vapours evolved, and this was partly successful. 
When the powdered rock was strongly heated fumes were evolved 
having an offensive odour resembling that of petroleum as well as H^S, 
and which were condensed to a pale yellow oil ; as, however, only about 
three drops were collected it could not be further examined. 

Further examination of this rock would be of great interest. 

This rock is thin-bedded, compact, and very dark. Corals are i-are, 
and indeed fossils generally less abundant than in the other type, except 
in certain seams in which are large numbers of Produchis giganteus. 

Nor. r)4C).\, 547.^, have been examined on account of the dolomitic 
a[)pearance that certain beds assume in the neighbourhood of masses of 
(•(iral. 

No. oIOa. Grey Limestone. Carhomfrroiia. 

Penrhyn y Qell. Traeth Bychan. 

I. II. 



Residue.s insoluble in IICl 


7-9.S 


7-99 


A)„0,+ Fe.,0, 


0-62 


0-58 


CaO 


50-49 


.50-53 


MeO 


069 


0-51 


CO., 


40-42 


40-35 




100-1.5 


99-96 


Percentage raCO.,= 


90-l(! 


9023 



This is a massive, lightish grey limestone, of a type that makes up a 
great part of the Cai'boniferous series. The percentage of insoluble 
residues is higher than might have been expected from the appearance 
of the rock. 

No. 547a. 
Frovt game hed as ulliA, but elose to a eoral. 



Residues insoluble in-HCl 

Al.,03 

Fe;,0., 

Feb . 

CaO . 

MgO . 

CO.. . 



I. 

0-24 

0-63 

1-45 

5-58 

30-25 

16-22 

45-75 



100- li 



Percentage FcCOa = 899 

„ " raCO', = 54 01 

MgCO, = 3406 



II. 

0-18 

0-C9 

1-34 

563 

30-36 

1619 

45-69 

10008 

9-07 
54-19 
33-99 



It will be seen that in the neighbourhood of the coral, iron as well 
as magnesium replaces calcium in the carbonate, and that the insoluble 
residues sink from nearly 8 to less than -5 per cent. 



3fi8 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



No. 544A. 
M/iss (if Doloiiiite in Oirhonifcroiin Conf/loiiici-<itc. Llnin-i/ Hiiy. 

I. II. 



Residues 


ilLSOlul 


Ic in IICI 




1-02 


1-21 


A1..0j + F 


\ky, . 






I7-I(i 


17-07 


CaO . 








2;)-(;7 


29-88 


MgO. 








1003 


9-95 


CO., . 








42-28 
lOO-lo 


42-22 




100-33 






Percpntao'C CaCO 


= r)2'9S 


5:i-.^5 






„ ' Ms 


,C0 


, = 21-04 


20-S'.i 



This is from some curious, irregular masses that occur in very coarse 
conglomerates at tlie base of the rarboniferous series. 



No. 511a. Red Muddy Sdiidntone. 
7 N.E. Tracih yr Oi-a. 



Residues in.solulile in HCl 

AU03 + l^e..O, . 

Cab .'.... 

MgO 

CO 



I. 
84-79 
8-31 
1-17 
2-10 
3-5S 



99-95 

Percentage CaCO^ = 2-08 
MgC03 = 4-41 



II. 
85-03 
8-18 
1-28 
2-OG 
3-52 

100-07 
2-28 
4-33 



This is perhaps the most prevalent type of rock in the Old Red 
series. In it occur many beds of cornstone. 



No. 478a. Fonterite Limestone. 



3 S.E. 


500 to mo feet N.E. of 


BhoHmynacli . 
I. 


At 


Contour. 
11. 


Residues 


in.soluble in HCl 


. 37-77 




37-44 


Al.,03 . 




. 2-53 




2-35 


Fe',03. 




. 3-03 




3-10 


Cab . 




. 29-05 




29-37 


MgO. 




. 2-18 




2-27 


CO., . 




. 2564 




25-5G 




100-20 


100-09 




Percentage CaCO, = 51-87 




52-44 



This rock is one of a group of limestones that occur in a highly 
crystalline gneissose complex in the N.E. of Anglesey. They are 
all rich in crystalline silicates (to which is due the high percentage of 
insoluble residues), and among these are pseudomorphs that are almost 
certainly after Forsterite. An analysis of the insoluble residues will 
probably reveal much more magnesium than that which still remains as 
a carbonate. 

Note. — The analyses completed up to date may be summarised as 
follows: — A series from the Homfels group, to which it will not be 



ON TIIR OBYSTAfJJNK ROOKS OF ANOLKSKV. 1 HO 

necessary to add any more, though the granite itself and the basic 
gneiss should be analysed if possible. "Partial analyses of a number 
of the dykes, to which a few more should be added in order to compare 
dykes of different groups. A series from the Carboniferous limestone, 
which may be regarded as sufficient. The principal rocks of the Ser- 
pentine-Gabbro complex have now been done, but tremolitic and other 
exceptional rocks of that complex should be added. The important 
groups of the jaspers and pillowy diabases are now nearly finished. 
But of the schists into which they are believed to pass only one or two 
have been analysed, and as difference of opinion still exists concerning 
the origin of some of these, and as they are widespread types, the 
question is an important one. This, indeed, is the most important 
research yet remaining from the chemical point of view, and Mr. 
Hughes is preparing to go on with it. Even when that and some 
miscellaneous rocks of exceptional interest have been dealt with, large 
groups, particularly in the Holyhead and northern region of the island, 
will still remain, and it may not be possible to deal with these. 

The Secretary hopes to complete the map in about a year, and 
detailed written descriptions in perhaps eighteen months after that, 
and while this work is proceeding Mr. Hughes intends to go on with 
the analyses as indicated. 

There is scarcely any wear and tear of apparatus, the average annual 
expenditure is under 11. A small grant to cover this for, say, the 
three years remaining is asked for. 

The Committee therefore ask to be reappointed, and to replace the 
late Mr. Lomas it is proposed to appoint Dr. John Home, F.E.S., the 
Assistant Director of the Geological Survey of Scotland. Dr. Home 
paid an (official) visit of a week to the Secretary last autumn, has taken 
unremitting interest in the work since then, and is willing to serve 
on this Committee. 



Errchiic Blochs of fhe British Isles. — lleport of the Committee, con- 
sisting of M.v. R. H.TinoEMAN {Chairman), Dr. A. \l. Dwerryiiouse 
(Secret or ii), Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. M. Burtox, Mr. F. AV. 
Harmer, Rev. S. N. Harrisox, Dr. J. Horne, Professor W. -T. 
SoLLAS, and Messrs. J. W. Stather and W. '1\ TrCKER. 



Reported by Mr. A. C. Daltox. 

From the neighbourhood of Scimthorpo, in Lincolnshire ; 

1 specimen of Ehcolite Syenite, Norvvaj'. 

1 specimens Andesite from Lake District. 

1 specimen Andcsitic Ash, Lake District. 

1 ,, Andcsitic Breccia, Lake District. 

1 ,, Fine-grained grit (Silurian), Soutii of Scotland. 

I „ Porphyrite, Cheviot District. 

1 ,, Hard Chalk, Yorkshire. 



170 RF.POTITS ON TnP, STATE OF RCTRNCF,. 

Also the following rocks of nnkiiown derivation : — 

1 Carboniferous limestone. 
1 ,, pandstnno. 

1 Millstone grit. 
1 Dioritc. 

1 Finc-graiiR'fl t,'rani(e. 
4 Dolerite. 

8 Quartzito (|i)Kbal)ly fioiu Trias). 
.T Sandstone (from secondary rocks). 

2 Limestone (from secondary rocks). 
1 Micaceous grit. 

1 Coarse grit. ' , 

1 Porph3'rite. 

4 Mica schist. 

I Mica-chlorite-schist. 

1 Hornblende pchist. 

1 Hornblende granite. 

1 Quartzose brrccia (probably faull-rock). 

2 Chert. 

1 Cliert with Oolitic structure. ' 

1 Vein quartz. 

1 Felspathic grit with blue quartz. 

Reported hy Rev. E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

A specimen of a coarse grit found in the neighbourhood of Brigg, in 
Lincolnshire, which, in the opinion of several members of the Geological 
Survey, stronglj^ resembles the grits of the Highland Border. 

Reported by Mrs. Ernest Jones, Harwood Dale, Kendal. 

A large boulder of Shap granite exposed during the excavations for the 
foundation of a house on the outslrirts of Kendal. 

The following boulders found in Northumbci-land and Durham arc 
reported through the Boulders Committee of the Universit}' of Durham 
Philosophical Society. 

(i.) Reported by Dr. J. A. Smythe. 

{a) From Eachwick Kaims, Eachwick, three miles west of Pontelaud, 
Northumberland : — 

Tlirelkeld granite. Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Greywacke. Cheviot 
porphyrite. Granite. Whin Sill. Carboniferous limestone. Basalt. 

(b) From Kirkley Kaims, Kirkley Hall, three miles north of Ponteland, 
Northumberland : — 

Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Greywacke. Various granites. Several 
porj^hyrites. Cliert. Saccaminn limestone. Amygdaloidal lava. Car- 
boniferous limestone. Basalt. 

(c) From Dewley Hill Kaim, near Walbottle, Northumberland : — 

Armboth Dyke. Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Greywacke. Cheviot per- 
phyrites. Quartz pebbles. Several granites. Carboniferous limestone. 
Basalt. 

{d) From pebble bed, Duddo Burn, near Stannington, Northumber- 
land : — 

Cheviot porphyrite, Greywacke. Chert. Coarse granite. 



ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 171 

(e) From pebble bed, Shilvington Slack, near Wbalton, Northumber- 
land : — 

Cheviot granite. Basalt. Greywacke. 

{/) From boulder clay, Braid Hill, Callerton, Northumberland : — 
Threlkeld granite. Decomposed CrifEel granite. 

(g) From boulder clay. How Burn, near Foulmartlaw, near Bolam, 
Northumberland : — 

Coarse granite with porphyritic felspar. 

{h) From boulder clay, River Blyth, near Thorneyford, three miles 
north of Ponteland, Northumberland : — 
Criffel granite. 

(i) From boulder clay, Gurry's Point, Monkseaton, Northumber- 
land : — 

Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Granite. Cheviot porphyrite. 

(j) From boulder clay, Coast near Brier Dene Burn, Monkseaton, 
Northumberland :-~ 

Cheviot porphyrite. Basalt. Diorite. Several granites. 

(/c) From boulder clay, Kenton Quarry, near Newcastle : — 

Threlkeld granit ■. Armboth Dyke. Volcanic scries of Borrowdale. Coarse 
I grey and red granite. Eurite (Cheviots ?). Purple Cheviot porphyrite. 

(/) From boulder clay, Brunton Quarry, near Newcastle : — 
Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Greywacke. Cheviot granite. 

(ii.) Reported bij Dr. Woolacott. 

(a) From Grindou Kaim, near Sunderland : — 

Cheviot granite. Red granite. Borrowdale volcanic series. Quartz pebbles. 
Greywacke. Felsite. Carboniferous limestone. Felspathic grit. Iron- 
stone. Coal. Quartz porphj-ry. Cheviot porphyrite. Whin 8ill. Basalt. 
Numerous pieces of Magnesian limestone —some of the cannon-ball and 
other concretionary types. 

{h) From boulder clay, Whitley Bay, Northumberland : — 
Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Cheviot porphyrite. 

(c) From boulder clay, quarry near Horden, Durham : — 
Volcanic series of Borrowdale. 

(d) From raised beach, Cleadon, near Sunderland : — 
Piece of chalk. Black flint with chalk attached. Several flints. 

(e) From boulder clay. The Flats, North Shields : — 
Cheviot porphj^ite. 

(/) From boulder clay, Heudun Banks, Sunderland : — 
Cheviot porphyrite. 



172 EEPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

(g) Boulders of Volcanic series of Borrowdale reported from east of 
Hetton-le-Hole, Consett and Wingate Old Quarry, Durham. 

{h) From boulder clay, Kenton Quarry, near Newcastle :— 

Besides those reported by Dr. Smythe : dark fresh porphyrite (Cheviots ? 
5 cubic feet in volume). Grey granite (Criiiel ?). Basalt. Shale with 
cone-in-cone structure. Red conglomerate. 

(i) From boulder clay, Claxheugh, Sunderland : — 

Cheviot porphyrite. Cheviot felsite. Basalt. Carboniferous limestone. 



(iii.) Reported by Mr. B. Merrick and Dr. Woolacott. 

(a) From boulder clay, Nightingale's Brick Works, Forest Hall, near 
Newcastle : — 

Rhyolyte. Cheviot porphyrite. Greywacke. Diabase. Garnetiferous mica 
schist. Carboniferous limestone. 

(6) From Tyne Quarry, Walker, near Newcastle : — 

Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Threlkold granite. Quartz felsite. Cheviot 
porphyrite. Volcanic ash. Schist. Red and grey granites. Carboni- 
ferous limestone (5 cubic feet m volume). 

(c) From black stony clay. Standard Brick Works, Heaton, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne : — 

Piece of chalk. Amygdaloidal tuff. 

(d) From boulder clay, Walker Clay Pit, near Newcastle : — 
Cheviot porphyrite. Tuff. 

(e) From black clay. Walker Clay Pit, near Newcastle :^ 
Striated boulder of chalk. 

(/ ) From Bird's Nest Quarry, Walker, near Newcastle : — 
Dark fresh porphyrite (Cheviots). 

((/) From boulder clay, Butcher Hill, near Matfen, Northumberland : — 
Cheviot porphyrite. Grinite. 

(Ji) From boulder clay, Brickj^ard, near Marden Tower, Whitley, 
Northumberland : — 

Cheviot amygdaloidal andosite. Carboniferous limestone coral. Maguesian 
limestone. 

(i) From boulder clay, Whitley Links, Whitley, Northumberland : — 
Cheviot porphyrite. 

(j) From yellow clay, Robson's Sand Pit, Heaton, Newcastle : — 
Quartz felsite. Cheviot porphyrite. Basalt. 

(h) From boulder clay. Brick's Limited, Forest Hall, near Newcastle : — 

Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Basalt. Carboniferous limestone. Gabbro 
(Carrook Fell ? 1 cubic foot Li volume). 



ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 173 

(l) From boulder clay, Benton Loop, North-Eastern Eailway, near 
Nevrcastle : — 

Volcanic series of Borrowdale. 

(m) From clay. Learn Head, Springwell, near Gateshead : — 

Threlkeld granite (two boulders, one of them I cubic foot in volume). Whin 
8ill. Volcanic series of Borrowdale. 

(n) From clay, Moss Heaps, Wrekenton, near Gateshead : — 
Granite. Greywacke. 

(iv.) Reported by Eev. W. J. Wingate. 

Volcanic ash of volcanic series of Borrowdale found near Crook, and Threlkeld 
granite found at Bishop Auckland. 

(v.) Reported by Mr. A. Bell. 

Volcanic series of Borrowdale at St. Helens, near Bishop Auckland. 

Boulders Committee. 

RepoH No. 3. March 1909. 

The following boulders and pebbles have been collected and determined 
by members of this Committee since the last report was issued : — 

(I.) From boulder clay, Keaton, near Newcastle. Collected by 
E. C. Burton, G. Weyman, and the members of Armstrong College 
Geological Surveying Class : — 

Dark fresh porphyrite (Cheviots ? 5 cubic feet). Threlkeld granite (^ cubic 
foot). Several pieces of volcanic series of Borrowdale. Cheviot granite. 
' Grey granite (Criffel ?). Basalt (several). Shale with cone-in-cone 

structure (several). Carboniferous limestone (numerous). Red con- 
glomerate. Clay ironstone. Septarian nodule. Sandstone. 

(IL) From Grindon Kaim, near Sunderland. Collected by Dr. Woola- 

COTT. 

Pebbles, mostly small, with one or two exceptions all less than ^ cubic foot. 

Cheviot granite. Red granite. Borrowdale volcanic series (numerous). 
Magnesian limestone (very numerous) — some specimens of the cannon- 
ball and other concretionary types. Quartz pebbles. Greywacke 
(several). Felsite. Carboniferous limestone. Felspathic grit. Coal. 
Shale. Sandstone. Quartz porphyry. Purple porphyrite (Cheviots). 
Ironstone. Whin Sill. Basalt. 

Some of the stones were scratched. An incipient cementation occurs in places 

(III.) From boulder clay, smaU quarry behind Claxheugh, near 
Sunderland. Collected by Dr. Smythe and Dr. Woolacott. 

Cheviot porphyrite. Cheviot felsite. Basalt. Carboniferous limestone. 

(IV.) Tyne Quarry, Walker, near Newcastle : — 

(a) From ' rag ' or ' mixture clay.' Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Basalt. 

Decomposed red granite. Sandstone. Carboniferous limestone (5 cubic 

feet). 
(6) Lying loose. Volcanic ash. Schist. Volcanic series of Borrowdale (5,' 

one 1 cubic foot). Greywacke (2). Granite (red and grey). Threlkeld 

granite (3). Quartz felsite (2). Cheviot porphyrite. Granite (Criffel ') 

(2). Red grit. 

' The numbers placed after some of the specimens refer to number of that rock 
noted. The size of the specimen is given wheiever it is noteworthy. 



174 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

(V.) Bird's Nest Quarry, Walker, near Newcastle : — 
Dark fresh porphyrite. (Cheviot, i cubic foot.) 

(VI.) Brick's Limited, Forest Hall, uear Newcastle : — 

Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Basalt. Carboniferous limestone (numerous). 
Gabbro (Carrock Fell ?, 1 cubic foot). 

(VII.) Benton Loop, North-Eastern Railway, near Newcastle : — 
Volcanic series of Borrowdale. 

(VIII.) Learn Head, Springwell, near Gateshead : — 

Threlkeld granite (2, one 1 cubic foot). Whin RUl. Volcanic scriea of Borrow- 
dale (2). 

(IX.) Moss Heaps, Wrekenton, near Gateshead : — 
Granite. Greywacke. 

(IV. to IX.) collected by E. Merrick and Dr. Woolacott. 

(X.) Boulder clay. Nightingale's Brick Works, Forest Hall, near 
Newcastle : — 

Gametiferous mica schist. 

(XL) ' Black clay.' Walker Clay Pit, near Newcastle. 
Striated boulder of chalk. 
(X. and XI.) collected by E. Merrick. 

Striations on the rock surface have been observed at Brick's Limited, 
Forest Hall, near Newcastle. Direction, N.W.-S.E. 

The following notes are contributed by Mr. A. R. Horwood, of the 
Leicester Museum : — 

Distribution of Erratic Blocks in the Drift of Leicestershire. 

These notes are supplementary to those previously published by 
Messrs. Plant and others, recorded in earlier reports upon the Erratic 
Blocks, and to the summary compiled by Mr. C. Fox-Strangways, F.G.S., 
in ' Geology of the Country around Leicester,' 1903, pp. 59-60 (' Mem. 
Geol. Surv. Explanation of Sheet 156 '). 

The notes are best arranged according to localities, and these have 
been grouped together in the drainage areas to which they respectively 
belong. For it is clear that the present valleys are simply preglacial 
valleys which have been traversed by glaciers, ]ea\dng their accumulations 
of boulder clays, sands and gravels in these same valleys, and also in 
plateau form upon the hUls. The source of the boulders, either from the 
north-west or north-east, is sufficiently clear to those conversant with the 
different boulder clays and the characteristic erratics of each. 

A. — Valley of the River Soar. 
1. North of Leicester, 

Leicester (Essex Road). — A block of weathered Mount Sorrel granite, 
4 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 6 in., somewhat angular and roughly penta- 
gonal, lying parallel with the road, occurs here. It has no doubt been 



EEBATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 176 

brought to its present position by human agency from adjacent beds of 
drift. 

Leicester {V ass's Brickyard).— k. small block of Mount Sorrel granite, 
15 in. by 8 in. by 6 in., has a rounded surface, and there are other smaller 
blocks, chiefly of granite, but also of slate, probably from Swithland, 
in proximit}'', with quartzite pebbles. 

Leicester {County Brick Works). — A large roughly trigonal or three- 
sided boulder of Mount Sorrel granite, has a facetted contour. It is much 
pitted and fretted. It contains patches of darker colour, which may be 
' segregation masses.' It measures 38 in. by 38 in. by 34 in. The edges 
are more or less rounded. 

Leicester (between Leicester and Thurmaston), Star Brick Works. — ^Here 
there are many boulders, varying in size from cubes of 2 ft. to 3 ft., and 
various types of sandstones and quartzites. Several slabs of sandstone, 
measurmg circ. 1 ft. by 8 in. by 6 in., are quite flat upon one side, rounded 
or roughly quadrangular on the other. Small angular granite boulders 
occur in the river-gravels at this point. Many of the small pebbles and 
boulders in the latter are normally horizontally bedded, but others occur 
in situ, like Bunter pebbles — which many of them undoubtedly actually 
are— with the longer axis vertical. It is difiicult to account for this 
phenomenon except by assuming the existence of somewhat turbulent 
currents at certain points, or eddies, accompanied by pounding and rapid 
deposition of sand and gravel, which would tend to arrange the larger 
blocks in a manner not consistent with the normal relation between the 
specific gravity of the boulders and the surrounding matrix. 

Leicister (Belgrave Brick Co.). — In drift overlying red marl a small 
boulder of Mount Sorrel granite and many small quartzites, much resem- 
bling the Hartshill quartzites, and milky white flints, occur. 

Leicester (Barrow's Brick Pit, West of the Midland Railway). — Countless 
rounded quartzite pebbles, some like the liver-coloured variety, but 
varying greatly in colour and texture, occur, and rocks of northern origin 
are intermixed with others, such as granite, millstone grit, Coal-measure 
sandstone, &c., of local or Derbyshire origin. Flints are not so plentiful 
as at the last locality, immediately south. One mass of granite (15 in. by 
8 in. by 6 in.) has a curiously rectangular shape, with a regularly pitted 
and polished surface, soapy to the touch. Millstone grit is pretty abundant, 
and some dark rocks and a banded slate, probably from Charnwood 
Forest. The size of the rounded quartzite pebbles, many of which are 
derived from the Bunter, is remarkably uniform, varying from 3 in. or i in. 
to 6 in., some few more, some less. The shape, too, is characteristic, and in 
their outline one can see an originally quadrangular shajoe, or occasionally 
a much more irregular original contour. All degrees of smoothness and 
angularity are represented, and the origin of these pebbles must be 
extremely heterogeneous, for when spUt open they betraj^ very diverse 
sources, the colour, texture, hardness, composition of the quartzites 
being very variable, every gradation between a true quartzite and a 
coarse or fine sandstone or grit existing. 

Thurmaston Brick Co.'s Pit. — Several large blocks of Mount Sorrel 
granite, one very large block of Coal-measure sandstone, Rhaetic and Lias 
limestone, and bolite, varying from cubes of 2 ft. to 3 ft., are found here, 
indicating a mixed origin of the drift beds above the Quartzose sand. 



176 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

2. South of Leicester. 

Knicjhton Junction Brick Co. — Several large blocks of granite, probably 
from Mount Sorrel, occur here, one with dark patches similar to those seen 
at the County Brickworks, and varying from 2 ft. by 2 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in. to 
cubes of larger size. Small quartzite pebbles are again abundant. One 
large block of granite is roughly hexagonal, and in the direction of the 
longer axis is 35 in., the greatest breadth 28 in., and the height 1 ft. 3 in. 
The sides are in parts flat and worn, smooth and polished. In others a 
kind of ' skin ' covers the surface. Some thirteen of small size lying near 
arc smooth and polished, with the same skin-like covering, and one is 
square. In some cases the original angular corners have been worn smooth. 

Leicester, Saffron Lane {Underwood's Pit). — Mount Sorrel granite 
boulders from 3 ft. cubes to smaller sizes occur here, many being 1 cubic 
foot. Slabs of Svvithland slate are also to be found. Some very large 
quartzites are to be seen uniformly distributed. The following examples 
of granite measured were 35 in., 38 in. by 28 in. by 16 in., 37 in. by 29 in. by 
18 in., with rounded edges, a smoothed and polished surface, in parts with 
felsitic veins. 

Aylestone (south of Middleton Street). — A large roughly rectangular 
boulder, with angular corners and smooth sides, of Mount Sorrel granite ; 
is 39 in. by 35 in. by 26 in. 

Biggs' Sand Pit. — A large boulder, whose longer diagonal lay N. by S., 
measured 52 in. by 44 in. by 36 in. About 1 ft. of the boulder was 
embedded in the underlying, rather soft, quartzose sand, and around the 
base the matrix was puddled, due to drainage from its area collecting at 
the base, and causing the boulder to gradually settle lower down into the 
sand. The upper portion lay in reddish boulder clay. 

Blabij (HafEord's Brickyard). — A large boulder of Mount Sorrel granite, 
39 in. by 31 in. by 12 in., occurs here, with many smaller ones of different 
age ; many of them are very rounded and smooth and polished. Several 
rounded blocks of millstone grit, some Coal-measure, sandstone, skerry, 
and Keuper sandstone also occur. The quartzite pebbles are very large. 

B.— Tributaries draining ground east of the River Soar, running 
into the Soar. 

Thurnby (Sand-pit, north of Houghton Koad). — Here a few granite 
boulders and quartzites may be seen in hollows in the glacial sands and 
gravels. 

A large boulder of granite, 50 in. by 31 in. by 1 ft., lies at the side of 
the well in the village. It is flat-topped, and though placed where it now 
stands by human agency it doubtless comes from glacial beds close by. 

Ingarsby (near Butt's Farm). — -Several blocks of Mount Sorrel granite 
lie about— e.y., one angular block 18 in. by 18 in., one rounded block 
18 in. by 18 in. circ., one rounded block 3 ft. by 2 ft. Between this 
point and Houghton there is a large slab of angular, roughly quadrangular 
inarlstone, near a pit in glacial sands and gravels, 39 in. by 19 in. by 14 in. 

Between Withcote and Lawnde. — By the stream-side near Launde a 
large boulder of tufa, 54 in. by 49 in. by 22 in., lies on rising ground, with 
slightly rounded edges. 



THE FOSSILIFEROL'S DEIb'T DEPOSITS AT KlUMINtlTuN , E'l'C. J77 



Investigation of the Fossiliferous Drift Deposits at Kirmington, 
Lincolnshire , and at various localities in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. 
Lamplugh {Chairman), Mr. J. W. Stather (Secretary), Dr. 
Tempest Anderson, Professor J. W. Carr, Mr. W. Lower 
Carter, Dr. A. K. Dwerryhouse, Mr. F. W. Haemer, Mr. 
J. H. HowARTH, Kev. W. Johnson, Professor P. F. Kendall, 
and Messrs. G. W. B. Macturk, E. T. Newton, Clements 
Eeid, and Thomas Sheppard. (Drawn up bij the Secretary.) 

In our report for 1907, presented at the Leicester meeting of the Associa- 
tion, it was mentioned that difficulty had been found in obtaining per- 
mission to excavate on a site in East Yorkshire, on which it had been 
intended to carry on the work. This difficulty proving insuperable, the 
committee decided to carry further the investigation already begun upon 
the Bielsbeck site, as described in the report above mentioned. 

The extent of the fossihferous deposit at this site had already been 
partly determined by boring tools, and it was hoped that by sinking 
small pits in places not previously explored in this manner, further 
results of interest might be obtained. This has now been done so far 
as the funds still remaining in our hands would allow, and a further 
collection of bones and other fossils has been secured, without, however, 
materially adding to the previous lists. It is not therefore proposed to 
apply for a fuiiher grant, and it remains only to describe the work of 
the last season. 

The position and previous history of the Bielsbeck deposit was 
described in our report for 1907 and need not be repeated. The work 
done last autumn (1908) was tlie sinking of a series of trenches or pits, 
each having a diameter of from 8 to 10 feet, as shown on the plan and 
sections, pp. 178 and 179: — 

It will be seen from the diagrams that in pits Nos. 1 and 5 the 
unfossiliferous gravel rested directly on the Keuper Marl, but that in the 
other pits a wedge-shaped mass of the fossiliferous black marl intervened 
between them. From this material, in pits Nos. 2, 3, and 4, were 
obtained numerous bones, mostly more or less imperfect. These bones, 
which in the aggregate weighed about 1 cwt., have been preserved, and 
the determinable specimens have been submitted to Mr. E. T. Newton, 
F.E.S., who reports that two species of animals alone appear to be 
re[)resented, viz., Elcphas primigenius and Bison pmcMs. Of the 
former animal the remains included: — 

BoNcs FKOM Bielsbeck, 190!'. 

1 Ekphas primigenius ? 5 pieces of a tusk. 

2 ,, ,, distal end of humerus. 



n 



(j „ .. ditto. 



ihaft of hinncvus (4 pieces). 



piece of pelvis, 
distal end of fibula. 



1909. 



178 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE- 



BiehbccJc, East Yorks. Excavations, 1908. 



PL^n SHEW IMC TfeencHES 



eiELSBECK F/VKM 




■i% "••,•"•=8 *- ^ ■* * •\, * « 



■? ? '^ * .; 



20<:>0 FEET 



( 1 1 1 1 1 >— I 1 ^— t 1 '—I 1- 



THE FOSSILIFfiROUS DRIFT DEPOSITS AT KIUMINGTOX, ETC. 170 




&.• 



•a a 

SB 
la 



K] 53 



K5 •?. 



!■ 






< 


Oi'ol Q, 


'■1, u. ' 1 X 

'■'■'•'■I ', 1 


1 


+ 










TiS 








•Sti 




^ m 






m o 


1 ■° 


6-P. 




«-^ 









180 



REPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



9 


Elephas primigenius 


? 


left cuboid (hind foot). 


10 


jj 


jj 




left cuneiform of hind foot. 


11 


» 


» 




rib. 


12 


)) 




^ 


rib. 


son 


friscus 


were found 


:- 


- 


13 


Bison prisons 




horn core. 


14 


^^ 


,^ 




base of skull. 


15 




J? 




piece of skull. 


10 








last lower molar. 


17 




ff 




lower molar. 


18^ 










19 
20 


> „ 


)» 




portions of lower jaws. 


21 










22 


^ 


99 




condyle of skull. 


28 > 










24 










25 










26 


„ 


,1 




vertebrae. 


27 










28 










29 J 










301 
31 J 


>■ » 


» 




very large tibia (distal end) 


321 
33 J 


f- .. 


)> 




scapula (pieces). 


341 
35 J 
36 


^ f. 


1) 




pieces of femur. 


„ 


,, 




piece of distal end of tibia. 


371 
38 J 
39 


> „ 


„ 




distal condyles of femur. 


„ 






fragments of tibia. 


40\ 










41 










42 










43 
44 


\ " 


ft 




fragments of limb bones. 


45 










46 










47 J 










48 


„ 


" 




piece of pelvis :■' 


49 


„ 


)> 




piece of skull r 


50 


,j 


)} 


? 


rib. 


51 


tt 


jj 


y 


rib. 


52 


ft 


I) 


? 


fragments. 


53 


)) 


)> 


? 


patella. 


54 




^9 


? 


rib. 


56 


I) 


>l 


y 


neural arch. 



The results obtained were thus in full agreement with those of the 
earlier investigators and of our own work of 1906, and the general con- 
clusions as to the origin and character of the deposit stated in our 
report of 1907 are confirmed. 

The Committee desire again to record their thanks to W. H. Fox, 
Esq., for permission to excavate; to the tenant, Mr. Howes; to Mr. 
W. H. Crofts ; and to Mr. T. Stainforth for his services in superintend- 
ing the work and dealing with the material collected. 

The Committee do not ask for reappointment. 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE i'AhAiO'ZOlC ROCKS OF WALES, ETC. 181 



The Excavation of Critical Sections in the Palcezoic Rocks of 
Wales and the West of England.— Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor C. Lapworth (Chairman), Mr. G. W. 
Fearnsides (Secretary), Dr. J. E. Marr, Professor W. W. 
Watts, and Mr. G. W. Williams. 

On some further Excavations among the Cambrian RocTcs of Comley, 
Shropshire, 1908, by E. S. Cobbold, F.G.S. 

The excavations made during 1907 in the Cambrian rocks of Comley, 
Shropshire, were reported upon to the DubUn meeting of the British 
Association. These excavations were unavoidably interrupted early in 
the autumn of that year, and resumed in the spring and summer of 1908. 

The additional excavations form the subject of this second com- 
munication. 

The positions of the excavations of 1907 were shown on a sketch- 
map (reprinted below), and numbered 1 to 19 ; those of 1908, which were 
confined to Dairy Hill, the Shoot Eough Eoad, and one spot near the 
Comley Quarry, can be locahsed thereon from the notes appended. 

Dairy Hill Excavations. 

It had been ascertained by Excavation No. 3, 1907, that the lane 
round the north end of Dairy Hill was cut through a domical covering of 
the conglomerate of the Quarry Eidge Grits to the Olenellus Limestone 
and Lower Comley Sandstone below; also by Excavation No. 10 that 
rock similar to the Quarry Eidge Grits occurs at the top of Dairy Hill ; 
and by Excavation No. 12, in the disused quarry near the south fence 
of the Dairy Hill field, that rocks very similar to the Lower Comley 
Sandstone occur there. 

It was a natural inference that the place of the Olenellus Limestone lay 
between these two last-mentioned excavations ; but it seemed advisable 
first to ascertain more exactly the nature of the junction between the two 
sets of beds in the Dairy Hill Lane, and to seek an explanation of the 
absence of the Black, Grey, and French Grey Limestones which occur 
between them in the Quarry Eidge (see Sections Nos. 1 and 2 of the 
previous report). 

With this view Excavation No. 3 in the south bank of the lane was 
enlarged. The observations of 1907 were confirmed; no trace of the 
missing limestones was discovered ; and the conglomeratic portion of the 
Quarry Eidge Grits was proved to rest directly upon the Olenellus Lime- 
stone, and yielded fragments referable to Paradoxides ; while the Olenellus 
Limestone ' yielded many of the fossils found in the same bed in the 
Quarry Eidge. 

' This limestone and associated sandy rock has a somewhat different aspect from 
that of the quarry. The characteristic reddish-purple nodules are there, but the 
remainder of the bed might be described as a green, calcareous and micaceous sand- 
stone. 



182 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Fossils : — 

Oleiielhis, many fragments, some of which are referable to 0. {Holmia) 

Callavei, Lapw. 
Microdigcns Heleiia, Walcott. 

Ptychoparia (/") Atteborouglienns, Schaler and Foerte. 
Kutorgina. 
Linnarssonia. 
Stenotheca rugosa var, 
Michmitzia (J). 

It seems probable that, prior to the deposition of the Pa raJoxftZes -bear- 
ing Quarry Eidge Grits, the Black and Grey Limestones had been denuded 
at this point, but in such faulted ground the evidence is not conclusive. 

Close to Excavation No. 12, of 1907, in the disused quarry, at the 
south end of Dairy Hill, I found some fragments of grit in the soil, in- 
dicating the possibility that the grits might be found there in contact 
with the supposed Lower Comley Sandstone. 

Further excavation was therefore made at this point, and a north 
and south section, some 14 yards in length, was exposed, the beds 
dipping about 10" to the west. 

The upper part of the section shows 3 feet of bedded grit, similar 
to that of the upper portion of the Quarry Eidge Grits, resting conform- 
ably upon and graduating into some 10 feet of soft micaceous green 
sandstone, many of the beds of which are characterised by rusty 
circular spots. 

No fossils were found in this section, and it is impossible at present 
to assign these rocks to any previously described portions of the Comley 
Sandstone Series. The transition from grit to sandstone appeared to be 
complete, with no sign of either miconformity or faulting. 

In the hope of throwing further liglit on these Dairy Hill beds, a 
number of trial holes were made on the surface of the field and the results 
mapped in detail ; but no definite opinion as to the succession could 
be formed. 

It is at present very doubtful whetlier the micaceous green sandstone.-? 
belong to the Lower Condey Sandstone, and it is also uncertain whether 
the grits are part of the Quarry Ridge Grits. 

Further excavations, either liere or at other spots in tlie Comley area, 
ai'e required before the positions of tliese beds in the Condey Sandstone 
Series can be satisfactorily determined. 

Shool Piiniijli Pioad Excavations. 

Previous excavations had been directed to the elucidation of the rela- 
tions between the lower part of the Paradoxidcs beds and the OJenellus 
zone below. The excavations now to be described are in strata of a con- 
siderably higher zone, probably near the top of the Paradoxides-hearmg 
division of the Cambrian. 

On reference to the north-east corner of the sketch-map a road may be 
seen leading eastwards to Cardington. This is the Shoot Eough Eoad.* 
It ascends eastwards on ground which slopes southwards to a small stream., 

' So called because it pas.ses (bejond the limits of the map) between the Shoot 
Kough VVood and Shoot Rough Farm. 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PAL.TJOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, ETC. 183 

and its north side, being cut into the soil, touches rock at two portions of 
its length. 

Both tliese exposures were much overgrown ; the upper one, whicli 
is on the field side of the hedge, showed shale in association with gritty 







Excavation No. 20. Shoot Rough Road, Upper Section. 

flags, in which Professor Lapworth had previously found fragments of 
trilobites; the lower exposure consisted of sandstones, grits, and shales 
seen only in the road gutter, and from somewhere in this lower length 
Professor Lapworth, in company with Mr. Rhodes, had collected Orthis 
Chrisiianice , Kjerulf (or a closely allied form). The exposures were opened 
up by excavation, and the following sections displayed. 



]B4 RKPORTS ON TTTR STATF, OF RCIRNri';. 

The length in an east and west direction is about 24 yards. 

The beds dip about 50° to the north-east, except at the western end, 
where a shght anticlinal fold sets in, bringing the dip round to nearly 
north. 

E.S.E. End of the Section. 

(I. ' Shoot RounU Road Shales.' * ^,, . 

•' it. In. 

Bluish-grey micaceous shale, weathering brown, a good deal crushed 
but clearly conformable with the underlying beds, and contain- 
ing some very thin Q or i inch) coal-black seams, and a few 
hard siliceo-micaceous bands (I to -k inch thick) near its base 
(top not seen) . . . . ' . . . , .12 

/'. ' Shoot Bough Road Flags ' : — 

A series of coarse, glauconitic, gritty flags, in places calcareous and 

•varying in thickness from ^ inch to 12 inches. 
h^ Dark brown or black sandy rottenstone, flaggy in places . . 10 

h„ Thin sandy shales or shaley flags 10 

&3 Shaley flags, thicker, with a few fossils 2 G 

' Acrotreta (?) sp., cf. Sabrwer, var. malvernensis, Jlatley.' 
/', Coarse gritty calcareous rock with pebbles of quartz and other 

rocks, crowded with Acrotreta or, 

'Acrotreta soclalis, von Seebach.' 

' Acrotreta (?) sp., cf . Sabrintr, var. malimiensis, Matlej*.' 
' Acrothele (?) sp., cf. g7-amtlata, Linnrs.' 
' Kutorgviia cingulnta, var. pvsilla, Linnrs.' 
' Oholella (?) sp., cf. Salteri, Roll.' 
' Oholella (?) sp. 
' OHMs Lindstr'omi, Linnrs.' 
Agraulog (?) (freecheek only). 
Paradvxide.i sp., cf. P. Baridis, Salter. 
A coral. 
J., Coarse gritty flags with round or elongate black nodules, (?) plios- 

phatic 10 

h, A well marked ocbreous sandy bed containing residual nodules of 

gritty limestone (i 

' Acrotreta soclalis, von Seebach.' 

' Obolella (?) or Acrotreta (?) sp. (with low concentric ridges).' 
' Lingvlella fe7-uginea, Salter.' 
' Orthis Lindstr'omi, Linnrs.' 
Agnostvs fallax, Linnrs. 
Agravlos sp., cf. Jioloce_phalus, Matthew. 
Agraulos sp. 

Miei'odiscus, fragment only. 
Paradoxides Daridis, Salter. 

Soleyioplenra (?) sp., cf. brachymetopa, Angelin (small). 
?', Gritty flags (base not seen) . . . . " . . . . .-,0 
' Orthis sp., approaching O. JTicJtsi, Salter. This species 
dift'ers from the St. David's form in the fewer interpola- 
tions of ribs between the principal radii and in the small 
size of the umbonal cavity.' 

Total thickness seen . . 24 

W.N.W. End of the Section. 
No rock was found for about 80 yards along the road between the 
upper and lower sections. 

Excavation No. 21. Shoot Rough Road, Lower Section. 
A narrow horizontal plan of the strata was exposed by clearing out 
the road gutter and stripping the soil from the foot of the adjoining bank, 
' These must not be confounded with the shales of Shoot Rough Wood, from 
which an undetermined Bictyonema was^collected some years ago Isy Mr. Gibson. 



ON FAT'AVATrONR IN TTTP, rAr,.T:OZOT0 ROfiRS OF WALl'lS, KTC. IS;") 

a deeper excavation being made here and there. Only the surface aspect 
of the rocks could be seen, and it is quite possible that the dips and strikes 
observed, and the thicknesses of the beds deduced therefrom, may be 
somewhat inaccurate. The easterly dip of the shales at the western end 
of the section is taken to be a reversed westeily dip, due either to surface 
creep down the natural slope of the ground, or to actual invasion of the 
strata. 

The beds are described from west to east as probably representing 
the descending order of succession. 

In order to identify in the future the exact positions of the beds of this 
section, which is certain to be overgrown in a year or two, measurements 
were taken along the gutter from the stile in the fence where the footpatli 
(Comley to Lnwley Hill) crosses the road ; these distances are given in the 
left-hand column of the following description: — 



W.N.W. End of ilie Section. Estimated 

Distance from thicknesses 

stile ia of beds 

feet. in feet. 

156 At this point there is a grating for rain water in the gutter. 

15G to 200 Signs of shale in the soil but no solid rock. 

200 to 2.50 (t. Shale, cf. Shoot Jiout/Ji'Moad Shales of the upper Section. — 
Pale bluish -grey shale, weathering brown, containing 
much mica and several hard bands (§ to J inch thick) of 
siliceo-micaceous material, one of which (at 224 feet) 
yielded brachiopods. The strike is at first N.N.W. an<l 
H.S.E.with an easterly dip of about 75°, but, in the last 
6 or 8 feet of the shale, the strike works round to nearly 
N. and S. with a vertical dip .... about 30 
' The dominant form is a minute ribbed Orthis with lobe on 
pedicel valve and a sinus on brachial valve. It ap- 
proaches the Upper Lingula Flag form Orthis lentiodaris, 
\Vah\, but is smaller and probably a distinct variety. The 
fossils are preserved as casts in the shaley sandstone, 
which does not lend itself to the preservation of the 
delicate characters of the minute fossils. There are other 
species present, including probably Kutorgina sp. ;ind a 
small Acrothi'h' 

250 to 272 h. Gritty flags. Cf. Shoot Rough Road Flags of tlie upper 
section. — Thin grits or gritty flags with dark rottenstone 
bands. The strike is at flrst N. and S. with a high dip, 
conformable with the shales, but it works round gradually 
to about N.E. and S.W. with a north-westerly dip of 
about 45° .... : 12 

272 to 27.S c. Yellowish clayey material, possibly indicating a fault, but, 

equally possibly, some decomposed calcareous band , 1 

273 to 20 1 (I. Soft green micaceous sandstone (in many respects resembling 

the Lower Comley Sandstone), rather flaggy and with 
some rottenstone bands. The strike is parallel with that 
of the gritty flags, h, and the dip north-westerly at ;U>° to 
40° . 10 

Total estimated thickness . . 53 



294 to 354 The roadside was stripped of soil for a further distance of about 
20 yards, but no more rock was laid bare. 



186 RRPORTR OX THE STATE OF SCTENCR. 

E.S.K. End of Seclion. 

From a measurement given me by Professor Lapworth, it appears that his 
specimens of Orthis Chridianife, Kjerulf (?), were found at about 310 feet 
on the above section. 

Excavation No. 22. — 50 yards Nortli-West of the Comleij Quarry. 

There is a prominent boss in the field lying north-west of the quarry, 
which proved on excavation to contain a quartzite agreeing very closely 
witli beds hi and ii^ of Excavation No. 4, 1907, in the northern spur of 
Little Caradoc (see previous report). The rock is much fractured, but 
exhibits a north-easterly dip of 60" to 70°. 

Further trials were made in the field between this excavation and the 
quarry, but failed to reach solid rock. 

Eemarks. 

From a consideration of the fossils found in the Shoot Rough Eoad 
excavations it seems probable that a local shaley representative of the 
Lingula Flags has been touched, and that the upper limit of the Para- 
doxides division has been reached. Shale with Dictyonema,^ which 
may be of Tremadoc age, is known to occur within a horizontal distance 
of 200 yards north of the sections, and may be nearer, and in 1901 the 
Upper Lingula Flags species, Orthis lenticidaris , Wahl, was collected by 
the Eev. W. M. D. La Toache and myself from a calcareous nodule in 
shale within 70 yards in the same direction.^ 

It therefore seems very desirable to extend the excavations across the 
intervening ground, so as to establish, if possible, the local sequence of 
the middle 'and upper divisions of the Cambrian rocks. 

The lower limit of the middle division and the upper surface (piobably 
eroded) of the lower division have already been fixed within a few inches 
(see previous report ''). It is anticipated that further excavations at other 
spots in the Comley area may throw additional light upon the details of 
the zones of the middle and lower divisions and upon the nature of the 
base of the latter, which was only approximately indicated in Excavation 
No. 4 of 1907. 

I have to acknowledge the very kind response made by Dr. C. A. 
Matley to my request for help with the brachiopods, who tells me that 
his determinations must be regarded as provisional. In the lists of 
fossils I have placed his identifications and remarks within quotation 
marks. 

I am also again indebted to Mr. Philip Lake for assistance in the 
determinations of the trilobitts. 

' See footnote, p. 184. 

2 Caradoc Secord of Bare Facts for 1901, Caradoc and Severn Valley Field Club, 
Shrewsbury, 1902. 

=• Brit. Astoc. BepoHs, 1908 {BiMiii), pp. 342, 343, 1909. 



faLtnal succession in the lower carboniferous limestone. 187 



Faunal Succession in the Lower Carhoniferous Limestone 
(Avonian) of the British Isles — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor J. W. Gregory (Chairman), Dr. A. 
Vaughan (Secretary), Dr. Wheelton Hind, and Professor 
W. W. Watts, appointed to enable Dr. A. Vaughan to con- 
tinue his Researches thereon. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Repoet by Dr. A. Vaughan on his work during the year 1908-09 : — 

South-Western Province — Gower. 

The paper by Mr. E. E. L. Dixon, B.Sc, P.G.S., and myself on the 
' Carboniferous Limestone of the Gower Peninsula ' is finished, and 
awaits publication. 

Sovih-Wester?i Province — Burrington Comb (Mendip). 

A detailed account of this important section — already sketched out, in 
its broad faunal features, by Dr. T. P. Sibly, F.G.S. — is in preparation 
by Prof. S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S. , and myself. The paper will 
include a full account of the various rock-species, zoned views of the 
section, and a minute exposition of the coral sequence in the Tournaisian. 

The Bernician Sequence of NortlLuniherland. By Stanley Smith, 
M.Sc, F.G.S. 
1 have devoted a small portion of the grant to preparing and photo- 
graphing a few important coral groups which characterise the uppermost 
division (' Yoredales ") of the Ijimestone in the Northern Areas (the level 
indexed Dy in the accompanying tables). Mr. Smith has kindly pro- 
mised to insert these figures in his forthcoming paper in order to 
demonstrate the progression of the coral fauna upon that of D^ in the 
S.-W. Province. 

County Dublin — Mahhide. 

The description and illustration of the Tournaisian Beds of this fine 
coast section will be the subject of a paper by Dr. C. A. Matley, F.G.S., 
and myself in the coming year. 

Under the guidance of, and with the assistance of, Prof. G. Delepine, 
of the Catholic University of Lille, I hope to devote the summer vacation 
of this year to an examination of the Belgian sequence, and to an exact 
correlation of the divisions recognised by Belgian geologists with the 
Avonian zones. For this purpose I hope that this Committee and grant 
will be continued for yet another (and final) year. 



188 , BBPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Tables drawn up by Dr. Vaughan to exhibit the Present State of 
Knowledge of the Avonian in the British Isles. 

Table I. exhibits the zones and sub-zones of the Avonian, and the 
corals which characterise and diagnose them. 

In Table II. I have attempted to assign to the several phasal develop- 
ments their correct position on the Avonian scale. 

Table III. gives the zonal sequence at several points in the British 
Isles. In almost all cases I have seen the material on which these correla- 
tions are founded, and my thanks are tendered most heartily to those 
workers who have allowed me to present the information contained in this 
table before its actual publication elsewhere. 



TABLE I. 
The Avonian Zones and Subzones aud the Corals lliat characterise them. 

THE ZONES. 

' Dibunophyllum Zone (D). 

Dibmiophyllum enters anil attains a maximum. 
LitJiosfrotiun junceum enters and is common througlioiit. 



in \ 



Seminula Zone (S), 

Litliostrotiun enters and is continuously abundant. 
Carcitiophyllum enters and is not uncommon. 
[Maximum of Seminula ficoidety.'] 



Syringothyris and Caninia Zone (C). 

V Giganteid Caninia enter and attain a maximum. 

IMiclielinia grandis enters and attains a maximum. 
[The maximum of very large Syringothyris.'] 

Zaphrentis Zone (Z). 
, Simple Zaphrentes (of non-Caninoid and of uon-Densipliylloid types) cuter and 
fe; \ attain a maximum. 
f^ Michelinid fa vosa attains a maximum at extinction. 



Cleistopora Zone (K). 

Cleistopora occurs throughout, but is common at only a few levels. 



FAUNAL SUCCHSSION IN THE LOWER CARBONIFfmOUS LIMESTONE. 180 

THE SUBZONES 

Of the 3ihun<)phylh( III Zone (D). 

Dy : — Dj C' Ciiathaxonia ' Beds) : — 

Lnnsdalia duplicata enters and attains a Ci/atJta.vonia runhiana. 

maximum. ' Cyatliaxoiiia' contoHci. 

CijclophyUiim nXtaXna a. raa,xim\xm. • Zaphrentis oystermnufJi- 

KoniiickopJiyUa of the typical group attain I eiisis. 

a maximum, and include compound forms. Mirhelinia favo^itoidi-s. 

Diphiiphylluni gracile enters. 
D,, :— ' 
LomsdaJia floriformiseuiexi and attains a maximum. 
Ciiathoplujlhim regium (a compound Clisiophylloid species) enters and attains 

a maximum. 
Dip)hijpliijJhim latesepfatum enters. 
D, :— 
Dihunophijlla and Koninckophylla of simple structure enter and attain 

maxima. 
Carcinophylhim 6 attains a maximum at extinction. 
Cyathophyllummurchisoni (a Clisiophylloid species) attains a maximum. 
[Productus giganteus enters — 1st maximum.] 

Of the Seminiila Zone (S). ~ 

S2 [a mutation of Productus ' Gura ' indexes the subzone] : 

Carcinophyllum enters and becomes common. 
[The entrance of Cyrtina carhonaria marks the base in the S "W Provincel 
S, :- 
Carcinophylluin mendipense enters. 

Caniiiia hristolcnsis (a Cyathophylloid species) attains a maximum. 
ClisiophyUum ingletonense attains a maximum. 

Of the Sijringothyris Zone (C). 
Co:— 

Cyatliopihyllum <p (a Caninoid species) enters and attains a maximum. 



Caninia n.sp. is characteristic of the base (y). 

Caniiiia cornucopice attains a maximum. 

Cyathoiiliyllum patula (a Zaphrentoid species) enters and attains a maximum. 



Of the Zaplirentis Zone (Z). 

^^'■~ 
Zaphrentis koninckt enters and attains a maximum. 

Zaphrentis oinaliusi abundant. 

Caninia cornucopia enters. 

z. :- . 

Zaphrentis delanoiti attains a maximum. 
[Maximum of Spirifer clathrafus and S. tornacensis.'] 



Of the Cleistopora Zone (K). 

Kj (maximum of Sjnriferina cf . octopUcata) : — 

Cleistopora attains a maximum. 
K,.:- 

[Prnducfiis hassus enters and attains a maximum.' 



N.B.— The information enclosed in square brackets regards the Brachiopod sequence ; 
only those facts which are diagnostic of zones or subzones are introduced. 
Note on Dy and D5 : — 

D constitutes the continuation and apotheosis of the earlier D^ fauna ; it is typically 
expressed in the fauna of the ' Main Limestone ' of the ' Yoredales.' 

Dj connotes a phasal fauna later than the beginning of D.j, and contemporaneous, in part 
with Dy. An extension of this fauna is, locally, intercalated in the ' becheri Beds'' of the' 
Lower Pendleside (P). 



190 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







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SiELY : ' Q. J.,' vol. Ixiv. 
)8)— Miflland Area. 
:ltox Hixi) : References 
Collection. 

Remarks. 

\ 'hecheri Beds' lie, at 
In the main, above D,. 
! ' Brachiopod Beds ' 
)11 Phase ') appear, in 
to represent D3, and Dy 
; typically developed in 
jcalities exhibiting this 
|ar phase. 



Lane L. and Conglomerate 
(Rush; 



megasloma-'Reiii of 

Rush Conglomerate 



1 ' Waulsortian ' fauna 

of St. Doulagh's Quarry 



Z„ 1- Malahide Section 



Seen near Swords 



- Conformity ■ 
O.R.S. 



C. A. Mati.ey and A. Vaughan : ' Q. J.,' 

vol. lxii.( 1906)— Rush. 
' Q. J.,' vol. Ixiv. (1908)— Lougbshinny. 
Forthcoming paptr — Malahide. 

Remarks. 

The Zap/irentis ambiyua beds of Lane 
are certainly below D3, but may extend 
zonally a little lower than D,. (The 
massif of Colne, Laues,f is probably of 
the same age.) 

The megastoma-HeHiS of Rush may be 
of the same or earlier age than the Lane 
conglomerate. 

The suggested horizon of the famous 
St. Doulagh's Quarries is deduced from 
the practical identity of their fauna with 
that of ' the Waulsortian ' of Co. Clare 
described by J. A. Douglas. 



C, «; 



probable conformity 
O.R.S. 



J. A. Douglas ; 
' Q.J.,' vol Ixv. 
(1909)-Co. Clare. 



t A. Wir.MORE : forthcoming paper- 
Colue Area, Lanes. 



le ample material which they have kindly allowed me to examine. 



[To face ]p. IfO 



« 






jss^- ! a 









|! wsjiun^/ 



M 















»,— J?ep!>r( «i tht Faunaf Siwwtic-n m (ft? Loietr Carboni/eroiu Limttbme. 



FAUNAL SLCCESSION IN THE LOWER CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE. 191 

ADDENDUM. 

Examples of Use of Zonal Scale. 

Evolutionary Phenomena illiistrated by the Coral Sequerice. 

Phylogrnetjc old age is indicated b)' a vesicular and indistinctly septate 
peripheral zone — as in Caninia (jiganteci and in Lonsdalia. 

Compound forms succeed simple ones and, probably, to all compound species 
there is a simple ancestor : Cyathophyllum reyium is the culmination of the 
Cyathophylla; simple Lonsdalia precedes (in l)j), and accompanies (in D„), the 
entrance of ' Lonsdalia fioriformis ' ; Lonsdalia duplicata is a compound and 
specialised Dibuywphyllum. 

Parallel development is illustrated in the closely allied genera Lithostrotion 
and Diphyphyllum : the very narrow Diphyphyllum, D. gracile of Dy, succeeds the 
broad D. lateseptatum of D,,, just as the very narrow Lithostrotion, L. junceirm of 
D, succeeds the broad L. martini of S. 

Uobval assimilation is exhibited by the Cyathophylla which are Zaphrentoid 
{C. 2>atula), Caninoid {Cyath. (/>), or Clisiophylloid {Cyath. murchisoni), according 
to the dominant ' tone ' of the age. 

Direct and continuous variation is exhibited in the Koninckophylla from 
D, to Dy, in the Cyathophylla from y to D., and in the Dibunojjhylla. 

Persistence of species is illustrated by the great Clisiophyllid trunk-line. 
Already highly developed in C omaluisi of the Uppermost Devonian, this gens of 
Clisiophyllum reappears in y, becomes common in C, and attains a maximum (in a 
well-marked variant, C. inyletonense) at S, ; it still persists into Dy, where the 
ditterence from the Devonian ancestor is remarkably small. Caninia cornncopice is 
another example ; the gens starts at the top of Z, reaches a maximum in early 
C, and reappears, in D., and Dy, iu a mutation which differs but slightly from the 
early form. 

AacELEKATiON 01" VARIATION on approaching extinction is beautifully illus- 
trated by the large number of closely linked sub-genera into which the main 
(/lisiophyllid section divides iu Dy, e.y., Aspidophyllum, Rhodophyllnm, Histio' 
phyllttm, Cymaf.iophylbim, SfC. 



Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. -RC' 

port of the Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson 

{Chairman) , Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing (Secretary), Sir E. Eay 

Lankester, Professor A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 

McIntosh, Dr. S. P. Harmer, and Mr. G. P. Bidder. 

The table at the Zoological Station at Naples has been fully occupied 
during the past session. Thanks to the kindness of Dr. Dolirn two or 
more nominees of tlie British Association Committee have, on occasions, 
been allowed to work in the station at the same time. 

The following naturalists have occupied the table since the date of 
our last report : — 

Mr. W. J. Dakin, B.Sc, University of Liverpool. 
Mr. H. O. S. Gibson, B.A., University of Oxford. 
Colonel Shepherd, Indian Army. 
Mr. F. F. Dreyer, B.A.. University of Cape Colony. 
Mr. Charles Martin, B.A., University of Oxford. 



192 REPOBTS ON THE STATE Oi'' SCIENCE. 

Mr. H. O. S. Gibson occupied a table from llie beginning ol 
November, 1908, until April 23, 1909. His investigations consisted in 
an attempt to habituate Mysis t'o live in increasingly fresh water with a 
view to tracing possible changes in structure due to tlie change in 
environment. He also spent some time in investigating the digestion 
and secretion of Squilla mantis, and will pursue the subject further on 
the material prepared at the station and brought home witli him. 

Mr. W. J. Dakin sends in the report which is appended. 

Colonel Shepherd occupied tlie table from the end of October 
until March 10, and collected a large number of the otoliths of fishes 
with the view to the publication of a memoir on these structures. He 
also collected a number of specimens of the pharyngeal teeth of fishes, 
upon which he proposes to publish a series of papers at a later date. He 
writes to the Committee to say that it would have been impossible for 
him to have made so much progress with the investigation he has in 
hand but for the oiiportunities and assistance he received at the Zoological 
Station at Naples. 

Mr. F. F. Dreyer arrived at the station at the beginning of April and 
was still there at the time of the receipt of his report. He carried on 
some investigations on the nervous system of the iEolididse. He has 
obtained the best results by using Apathy's method of preserving and 
mounting, and has already obtained some interesting results. His work 
is not yet sufficiently advanced to enable him to send us a detailed report, 
but he hopes to be able to publish a paper on the nervous and blood- 
vascular systems of the .^Solididse at the end of the year. 

Mr. C. Martin visited tlie station during the Easter vacation in 
order to continue his investigations on the structure of the Acinetaria. 

With reference to the report of last year, the Conmiittee would refer 
to the important paper published by Mr. 0. Clifford Dobell in the 
' Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science,' Vol. 53, 1909, on the 
Infusoria Parasitic on Cephalopoda. This paper represents a part only 
of the work done by Mr. Dobell during the time he occupied the Associa- 
tion's table at Naples last year. 

Mr. Whitehouse has prepared a large and important memoir on the 
structure of the caudal fin of fishes, which has been submitted as a 
thesis for the degree of M.Sc. of the University of Birmingham. It 
will be published shortly. 

In conclusion, the Committee wish to call attention to the increasing 
volume and importance of the original work that is done by the occupants 
of the Association's table at Naples, and ask to be reappointed with a 
grant of lOOL 

Bpporl of Mr. W. J. Dakin, B.Sc. 

The following is a brief resume of the research I was engaged in 
whilst occupying the British Association table at the Zoological Station 
of Naples during the past winter. I arrived in Naples on November 1 
and left at the end of February, so ihat I occupied the table for four 
months. The latter part of the time was devoted mainly to the collec- 
tion and preservation of material for continuation of the histological 
work at home, the earlier part of my stay to an elaboration of methods. 

I have, unfortunately, not been able to work at my slides or other 
material since I arrived back in England owing to pressure of work in 



OCCUPATION OF A TABLE AT THE ZOOLOCilCAL STATION AT NAPLES. 193 

conjunction with Plankton and Hydrographic Eesearch, and for that 
reason the report is rather incomplete as regards final results. I hope 
to have complete papers published by the end of this year, in which 
due acknowledgment to the British Association will be made, and copies 
will be handed to the Committee. I feel it my duty to thank the British 
Association for the opportunity of working at Naples, and must also 
mention th.e kind way in which the various members of the staff of the 
Zoological Station gave every possible help. The researches dealt in 
general with the histology and physiology of the ngrvous system and 
sense organs of lamellibranchs, continuing my jirevious work on Pecten. 
Though forty-four years have elapsed since the first detailed work on 
the eye of Pecten, it still I'emains incompletely known, owing to the 
extreme technical difficulties. I intended, therefore, to make a fresh 
and coinjilete comparative study of the structure of the Pecten eye, using 
the new methods which have elucidated so many points in the structure 
of invertebrate sense organs in the last few years. 

Another branch was the study of the visceral ganglion and the inner- 
vation of the osphradium. The former is particularly interesting in 
Pecten, and unique as regards complexity in the Lamellibranchiata. I 
hoped to trace the distribution of the nerves in the ganglion in order 
to make out whether definite regions were concerned with the innerva- 
tion of separate organs, and finally to consider in detail the histology. 
With regard to the eye, it would be impossible here to discuss at all 
fully the histological structure without figures, but the following points 
may be noted. Hesse was able to see a layer of fibres lying between the 
cornea and lens, and bases a theory of accommodation on their presence 
(they stain, according to him, as muscle fibres), together with a peculiar 
structure in the lens cells. I find no trace of accommodation in the 
Pecten eye, and histological evidence points to these fibres being of 
connective tissue. I have been able to find between the cornea and lens 
numerous connective tissue cells which are produced into the extremely 
long fibres sgen by Hesse. 

Certain points remain to be added to the known structure and shape 
of the lens cells. The axial fibril of the rod is with certainty a con- 
tinuation of a fibril in the rod cell. It is thicker in the former, and 
often remains in macerated specimens when the rest of the rod has been 
disintegrated. 

There is a growing region for rod cells and rods round the periphery 
of the retina, and the axial fibril is always far more distinct in the young 
cells than in those from the middle of the retina. There are large and 
small eyes often in close proximity on the same valve ; the difference 
between these is simply the number of the elements — small eyes have 
fewer rod cells and rods. In most ways the axial fibril does not display 
the characters of a neurofibril, and may possess simply a supporting 
function. Numerous delicate supporting fibrillaj run longitudinally 
down the rod cells arranged at the periphery. The eyes are innervated 
directly from the visceral ganglion. 

The visceral ganglion consists of two central prominent lobes, with 
one or two smaller ones at their sides, a lobe partially covering the two 
first mentioned, and two large lateral crescentic lobes. I have made 
out the roots of the various nerves in detail. The branchial nerve arises 
by two roots. A separate nerve arising from the upper side (the sur- 
face against the adductor being considered the lower) innervates tlie 

1909. o 



J.94 RPiPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

osphradium. Some of its branches pass directly to the osphradium, 
another one joins the branchial nerve, from which nerves pass to the 
osphradial epithelium. 

The two large lateral lobes are extremely interesting. They are not 
found in other lamellibranchs. The nerves arising from them innervate 
the mantle folds. In P. jacobceus the eyes are more numerous and 
larger on the left valve, those on the right valve being small. The same 
difference exists between the two lateral lobes of the visceral ganglion in 
size. In P. maximus and P. opercularis the same difference in size of 
the two lobes corresponding to the number of eyes on the mantle folds 
exists, and in the three species examined the relative difference between 
the two sides is parallel with that of the numbpr and size of the eyes on 
the mantle folds. Prom this alone it might be safely assumed that the 
lateral lobes of the visceral ganglion are due to the development of eyes 
on the mantle and are concerned with the innervation of these. This 
view was strengthened by the discovery that in several cases the nerve 
fibres passed direct from the visceral ganglion to the eyes. The eyes 
were formerly supposed innervated solely by the circumpallial nerve. 

The osphradium in Pecten, Area, and Mactra, the species so far 
examined, is innervated by the visceral ganglion. It was in the latter 
species that Pelseneer obtained evidence of its innervation from the 
cerebral ganglia, and believed this to prevail throughout the Lamelli- 
branchiata. I believe the innervation is always from the visceral 
ganglion, though some fibres may pass from the cerebral ganglion, 
through the visceral, and into tue osphradial nerve. These, however, 
would be few in number, and in Pecten can only be seen passing into the 
branchial nerve. It is impossible to say at present whether th.e fibres 
passing from the branchial nerve to the osphradium contain any of 
these. 

Whilst examining the mantle edges of Pecten jacohaus I was able 
to discover the presence of a transversely striated muscle similar to that 
present in the adductor muscle of Pecten. A short paper on these has 
been published this year in the " Anatomische Anzeiger. ' They occur 
between the eyes, and cause the rapid movements of the velum which 
take place and enable the animal to swim. 

It is often difficult to start a Pecten swimming, for ordinary stimuli 
simply cause a closure of the valves. A starfish brought before the 
valves, however, inmiediately causes the animal to swun. The same 
effect can be produced by the injection of starfish pulp just between the 
mantle lobes. Similar injection of sea-water or water with small par- 
ticles does not produce this effect. It is evidently not due to visual or 
tactile stimuli, and I am endeavouring at present to determine the action 
of the osphradium and abdominal sense organs in the perception of this 
stimulus. 



INDEX GENKRUM ET SPECIERUM ANIMALIUM. 195 



Index Generuni et Specierum Animalium. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman) , Dr. 
F. A. Bather (Secretary), Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stbbbing, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, Hon. Walter Rothschild, and 
Lord Walsingham. 

Steady progress has been made with the hterature for the second 
portion of this Index (1801-1850). Among numerous works dealt with, 
the compiler, Mr. C. Davies Sherborn, specially mentions the fol- 
lowing : — 

Publications of the British Museum. 

British Association Eeports. 

H. G. Bronn's works. 

Publications of the Academy of Brussels. 

Many editions of Buff on. 

' Isis ' (von Oken). 

Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte. 

As a matter of interest, it may be mentioned that 42,500 index- 
slips, in duplicate, have been made and arranged within the last two 
years. The Committee regards this as a surprising and satisfactory 
rate of progress, when it is remembered that it is entirely the work of 
a single individual. 

All the index-slips, as arranged up to date, are accessible for refer- 
ence in the library of the Geological Department at the Natural His- 
tory Museum, Cromwell Eoad, London, where they are frequently con- 
sulted by zoologists, both in person and by letter. Thus, as the value 
of the Index increases with its daily growth, the time of the compiler 
becomes more encroached on by inquirers. On the other hand, the 
diminution of the grant during the past few years has been seriously 
felt by the compiler, and the Committee, while recommending its own 
reappointment, asks the Association to consider carefully the value of 
such a work of reference, and to give it the much needed help with a 
renewal of the grant of lOOL 



Experiments in Inheritance. — Second Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman), Mr. 
Douglas L.\urie (Secretary), Mr. R. C. Punnett, and Dr. 
H. W. Marett Tims, on the Inheritance of Yellow-coat 
Colour in Mice. (Drawn up hy the Secretary.) 

The experiments discussed in my last year's report are in progress. A 
detailed report would at present be premature. The Committee ask to 
be reappointed, with a grant of BOl. 



o 2 



]9G REFORTS UN THK STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Feeding Habits of British Birch. — First Report of the Gommittec, 
consisting of Dr. A. E. Shipley {Chairman), Dr. G. Gordon 
Hewitt (Secretary), and Messrs. J. N. Halbert, Egbert 
Nbwstead, Clement Keid, A. G. L. Kogers, and F. V. 
Theobald, appointed to investigate the Feeding Habits of 
British birds by a study of the contents of the crops and 
gizzards of both adults and nestlings, and by collation of 
observational evidence, with the object of obtaining precise 
knowledge of the economic status of many of our co)nnioncr 
birds affecting rural science. 

The Committee decided to investigate first the feeding habits of the 
I'ook, starling, and chaffinch. It has organised the following body of 
correspondents, who have very kindly promised to assist the inquiry 
by sending specini.ens of these birds to the Secretary each month, and 
the Committee desires to express its great obligation to the correspon- 
dents for the assistance they are rendering: — ■ 

Mr. T. A. Acton, Wrexham Mr. P. Horn, London,- E. 

Mr. A. Arnold, Hante Mr. C. Ibotson, Bucke 

Mies E. V. Baxter, Fife, N.B. ' Mr. T. W. W. Jones, IMoretoninMareh 

Ml-. R. M. Barrington, Co. Wicklow Col. R. 0. Lloyd, Pembroke 

Mr. M. D. Barkley. Huntingdon j Mr. E. N. Millington, Shropshire 

Mr. P. A. Buxton, Essex I Mr. W. A. Nicholson, Portobello, N.B. 

Mr. C. L. Burrows, Cumberland I Prof. C. J. Patten, Sheffield 

Mr. A. H. Cocks, Henley-on-Thamee i Mr. R. Patterson, Co. Down 

Mr. L. C. Cox. Somerset Mr. J. M. Pope, N. Devon 

Mr. E. Lloyd Edwards, Llangollen j Mr. D. B. Robinson, Cumberland 

Col. Wynne Edwards, Denbigh Mr. F. Shillitoe, Hitchin 



Mr. C. Gamble, Edinburgh 

Miss Garner, Warwick 

Mr. A. G. Gavin, Fraserburgh, N.B. 

Mr. R. Gurney, Norwich I Mr. F. Wilde, Cheshire 

Rev. J. St. Herbert, Llandrindod Wells i Mr. J. S. Wroth, S. Devon 



Mr. F. Smalley, Carnforth 
Mr. B. Thornber, Cheshire 
Mr. C. W. L. Tottenham, N. Wales 



As the correspondents live in different parts of England and Wales, 
Scotland, and Ireland, and in different types of localities, birds feeding 
under a wide range of conditions are obtained. 

The first birds were supplied in December 1908, and during the first 
six months (December 1 to May 31) 590 birds have been received, 
the number being made up as follows: rooks, 124; starlings, 278; 
chaffinches, 188. Each bird or batch of birds is accompanied by a form 
filled in by the correspondent giving the following details: — 

Name of bird. 

Date on which specimen wa« killed. 

Hour of the day when specimen was killed. 

Exact locality where specimen was obtained. 

Character of land upon or near which it was shot. 

General character of neighbouring land. 

Is the land weU cultivated ? 

What crops are grown in the locality ? 

Is the district wooded ? 

Are the fields bounded by hedges, dykes, or wall.s? 

What was the bird doing when shot? (feeding, flying, etc.j, 

Weather. Type of weather prevailing. 



FEEDING HABITS OF BRITISH BIRDS. 197 

Wiis the specimen a member of a flock? If so, state the approximate size of 
the flock. 

Is the species abundant in the locality? 

Has there been any increase or decrease during the past few years ? 

Date and hour of dispatch. General remarks. 

From such data some idea as to tlie environmental conditions under 
wliich the bird was feeding and the avaihible food-supply can be 
obtained. 

The contents of the gizzards of these birds are being examined, 
analysed, and tabulated by the Committee, and the intestines are being 
examined for parasites. The data obtained by analysis are arranged on 
the tabulation forms under the following heads : — 

Grain Seeds other than grain 



Fruits 

Miscellaneous vegetable matter 



Roote 



Insects. 

(Injurious and useful insects are separated and indicated, and larvae are 
particularly mentioned.) 

Coleoptera Lepidoptera 

Hemiptera Other Insecta 

Diptera 

Molluscs I Miscellaneoue food 

Other Invertebratee Remarks 

Other animal matter I 

In addition to the above data, the weight of the bird and the condition 
and weight of the gizzard contents are recorded. 

When in the opinion of the Committee a sufficient number of speci- 
mens of any one species have been examined, the results of the tabula- 
tions and the particulars supplied by the correspondents will be digested, 
arranged, and published. 

In addition to the grant {51.) made to the Committee by the Associa- 
tion, a grant of 50Z. has been received from the Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries to enable it to carry on the work, and Mr. Rogers has been 
appointed by the Board as its representative. 

The Committee asks for reappointment, with a further grant, and 
with the addition of Professor F. E. "Weiss, and of Mr. H. S. Leigh as 
Secretary in the place of Dr. Gordon Hewitt, who is compelled to retire. 



The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Nineteenth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. F. Du Cane Godman (Chair- 
man), Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary), Professor S. J. Hickson, 
Dr. P. L. ScLATER, and Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 

This Committee was appointed in 1890, and has been annually re- 
appointed. The publication of the results of the work of the Committee 
is now nearly completed. One part of the ' Fauna Hawaiiensis ' has 
been published since the last report, and it is expected that the work will 
be finished within the ensuing year. 

The Conmiittee ask for reappointment. 



198 rEpoM's oisi the s^tAtB of Science. 



Zoology Onjanisation. ^Interim Report of the Gofnmittee, 
consisting of Sir E. Eay Lankebter (Chairman), Professor 
S. J. HiCKSON (Secretanj), Professors G. C. Bourne, T. W. 
Bridge, J. Cossar Ewart, M. Hartoq, W. A. Herdman, and 
J. Graham Kerr, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Professor Minchin, Dr. 
P.O. Mitchell, Professors C. Lloyd Morgan, E. B. Poulton, 
and A. Sedgwick, Dr. A. E. Shipley, and Eev. T. B. B. 
Steering. 

Cubing the past session the Committee have had several matters of im- 
portance under consideration, but it was not considered necessary to 
summon a general meeting of zoologists. 

A meeting of the Conunittee was held in Cambridge on June 22, when 
it was decided to ask for reappointment without a grant. 



Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory , Plymouth.^ 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. Dendy 
{chairman and Secretary), Sir E. Bay Lankester, Professor 
A. Sedgwick, and Professor Sydney H. Vines. 

Since the date of our last report the British Association's table at the 
Plymouth Marine Laboratory has been occupied for a fortnight by Miss 
May E. Bainbridge, who was engaged in investigating the Copepod 
parasites of fishes. An application from Mr. J. S. Dunkerly for the 
use of the table during the month of August, for the purpose of in- 
vestigating the life-history of the Flagellate Protozoa, has lately been 
granted. 



Investigations in the Indian Ocean. — Fourth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir John Murray (Chairman), Mr. J. 
Stanley Gardiner (Secretary), Captain E. W. Creak, 
Professors W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, and J. W. Judd, 
Mr. J. J. Lister, Dr. H. B. Mill, and Dr. D. Sharp, 
appointed to carry on an Expedition to investigate the Indian 
Ocean between India and South Africa in view of a possible 
land connection, to examine the deep submerged banks, the 
Nayareth and Say a de Malha, and also the distribution of 
marine animals. 

The Committee have received the following communication from Mr. 
J. Stanley Gardiner, who has had charge of the work: — 

The further expedition to the Indian Ocean, determined upon in 
1907, has now been brought to a satisfactory conclusion. Accom- 
panied by Mr. H. Scott and Mr. J. C. P. Fryer, I arrived at Seychelles 



ON INVESTIGATIONS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. 199 

on July 10, 1908, leaving on October 8. I devoted my attention to the 
geography and biology of the islands of Silhouette (2,467 feet) and 
Mah6 (2,993 feet). The former is twelve square miles in extent and the 
latter over fifty square miles. Both are formed of coarsely crystalline 
granite rock, cut up by dykes of fine-grained black rock, down which 
the rain has for the most part cut its watercourses. The amount of 
erosion is enormous, and the general topography of the islands is 
almost entirely to be ascribed to the action of weathering. In all 
there are twenty-seven granite islands of upwards of 150 square miles 
on the centre of a shallow (less than fifty fathoms) bank of over 
20,000 square miles. My impression from a further study of the 
group is that the greater part of the bank must have been at one time 
granite land, and that the present marine ar\.d aerial erosive actions 
in progress are sufficient to account for its gradual conversion into a 
series of small islands standing on a relatively enormous bank. 

The fauna and flora of Silhouette and Mah6 were carefully studied, 
very large collections being secured. They have a continental facies, 
i.e., the general appearance and variety of form which is usually asso- 
ciated with large land masses. Both are severely restricted as to 
number of genera and species, but not more perhaps than would 
naturally be expected from the cutting down of a large mass of 
land to a few scattered islands, and the consequent change, almost 
to complete uniformity, of climate that would result. Only about four 
square miles of the indigenous jungle now remain. It is of the 
tropical rain-forest type, and a century and a half ago undoubtedly 
covered the islands uniformly from the sea to their highest peaks. 
The conditions of a rain-forest are not altogether favourable for a 
great variety either of plants or of animals. The jungle that remains 
lies on mountain peaks, covered with almost perpetual mist, and 
possesses these conditions in their extremest aspects. Few of the 
plants have been killed out, many persisting by the streams, but 
scarce half of the insect fauna is likely still to survive. Introduced 
insects and spiders are everywhere, and have been peculiarly destruc- 
tive to the indigenous forms, directly by killing them and indirectly 
by consuming their food. 

In a former report I referred to evidence of a change of level of the 
islands of Mah6 and Silhouette in respect to the sea. My investigations 
show an elevation of these islands, or a lowering of the sea, of at least, 
twenty-five to thirty feet, or four to five fathoms. This could scarcely 
have been sufficient to affect the topography of the Seychelles group as; 
a whole, but is an interesting phenomenon when taken in conjunction 
with the general slight elevation found in most of the island groups 
from Madagascar to India. No indication was found of any subsequent 
or previous subsidence, the possibility of which is contradicted by tlie 
whole topography of the Seychelles. 

Mr. H. Scott devoted himself to the entomology of the Seychelles,, 
spending two months in Silhouette, five months in Mah^,, and a month' 
in other islands. He camped for the most part of the time in the 
niountains, and devoted himself to the insects of the indigenous jungles, 
collecting them and working at their habits and life histories. His 
collections comprise about 50,000 specimens, which are now being 
sorted and mounted for examination l)y specialists. It is too soon 
yet to say anything about these collections, but it may confidently be 



200 Rlil'ORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

anticipated that half of the species will be new. The collections are 
at least large enough to be used for basing deductions as to the relation- 
ships of the Seychelles considered entomologically. 

Mr. Fryer proceeded on our arrival to investigate Bird and Dennis, 
two coral islands on the north of the Seychelles bank. He remained 
a month in them, and then proceeded to visit the islands to the N.W. 
of Madagascar, left uninvestigated by the Percy Sladen Expedition in 
H.M.S. Sealark in 1905. It will be some years before his results can 
obtain final form, but I append his preliminary report on his investiga- 
tions. Meantime I cannot refrain from expressing my high appre- 
ciation of Mr. Fryer's pluck and resource in carrying on his researches 
in these islands for six months, during which he never saw a white man. 

During the past year the first volume of the results of the investiga- 
tions (Trans. Linn. Soc, Vol. XII.) has been completed by the publica- 
tion of the following reports: — The Madreporarian Corals: I. — The 
Family Fungiidae (J. Stanley Gardiner); A List of the Freshwater 
Fishes, Bati'achians, and Eeptiles (G. A. Boulenger); Antipatharia 
(C. Forster Cooper); Amphipoda Gammaridea (A. 0. Walker); The 
Stylasterina (S. J. Hickson and Helen M. England); Polychaeta. — 
Part I. — The Amphinomidas (F. A. Potts); Marine Algae (Chorophyceae 
and Phaeophyceae) and Marine Phanerogams (A. Gepp and Mrs. C. S. 
Gepp). 

The following reports have also been i-ead at the Linnean Society 
and are in course of publication: — Marine Nemerteans (R. C. Punnelt 
and C. Forster Cooper); Echinoderms (Professor Jeffrey Bell); 
Rhynchota (W. L. Distant) ; Cirripedia (Professor Gruvel) ; Further 
Amphipoda (A. 0. Walker); Marine Mollusca (J. Cosmo Melvill); 
Land Mollusca of Seychelles (E. R. Sykes); Lepidoptera (T. Barn- 
bridge Fletcher); Alcyonaria (Professor J. Arthur Thomson); Amphi- 
oxides (H. O. Gibson); Further Chaetopoda (F. A. Potts); Penaeidea, 
Stenopidea. and Eeptantia (L. A. Borradaile); and Marine Deposits 
(Sir John Murray). J. Stanley Gardiner. 

Mr. Fryer's Preliminary Report. 
I arrived in Mahe about the middle of July, and after some delay, 
wliich enabled me to visit Bii'd and Dennis Islands, I left Mah^ on 
August 22 for Aldabra, visiting en route the islands of Astove, Cosmo- 
ledo, and Assumption. These four islands, which all lie some 200 to 
250 miles north (N.N.W.) of Madagascar, must be considered as very 
closely allied in regard to their structure and formation. It seems 
necessary to include in this group the islands of Farquhar, Providence, 
and St. Pierre, which I had no opportunity of visiting, but which were 
investigated by the previous expedition on H.M.S. Sealark. 

ASTOVE. 

I reached Astove on August 27, and left on September 1, hoping 
to revisit the island in January, in which, however, I was disappointed. 
The island is a perfect atoll, which has been elevated for at least 25 feet. 
It is some two miles long by one mile broad, with a single pass on the 
south-west, opening into a shallow lagoon. The basis of the land rim 
is entirely formed of coral rock, which almost everywhere shows clearly 
on the surface, though blown sand has in places formed small dunes. 



ON INVESTIGATIONS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. 201 

Tlie structure of the rock varies considerably, but as a whole is remark- 
able for the small amount of metamorphosis which has taken place. 
Even on the surface large fields of coral in natural position were fre- 
quently noticed, while on the face of the cliffs it was always obvious 
tliat the corals were still essentially in the same position as when under 
the sea. Rock consisting of a conglomerate of reef debris was not 
common, but was always more prevalent near the lagoon shores, point- 
ing to the probability that the central portions of the atoll were dead 
before elevation. Metamorphosed rock was found in various parts of 
the western half of the atoll, and always contained a considerable pro- 
portion of phosphatic matter, derived presumably from guano. Of the 
latter substance, considerable deposits exist near the lagoon shore on 
the west, and in large natural pits in the rock scattered over the atoll. 

The lagoon is very shallow, being only a few inches deep at low 
spring tides ; the bottom is covered with a very fine white mud, which, 
on account of the small depth, is churned up by strong winds, making 
the water quite white and piling the shores with foam. The amount of 
material carried to sea by each tide must be very large. This fact, taken 
in conjunction with the obvious erosion of the cliffs which form the 
shores of the lagoon, points to a rapid increase in size of the latter. 
Islands in the lagoon only occur near the pass, and it seems certain that 
much of the atoll depression must have existed at the time of elevation. 
These features of the lagoon can only be explained by supposing that 
the pass is of very recent date, an hypothesis borne out by the character 
of the latter itself. It is narrow, with no marked channel, being almost 
dry at low tide. The bottom is rocky, and there is no live coral either 
in it or in the lagoon. The reef outside is narrow, and but slightly 
channelled by the escape of water from the pass. It is not composed 
of modern reef substance, but apparently of elevated coral rock. Live 
coral is absent, though a certain amount of Lithothamnia exists. A 
cursory examination of the reef in other places pointed to its structure 
being the same, though a greater amount of sand and Lithothamnia- 
covered debris were present, often bound together by beds of Cijmodocca. 
Variations in level across the atoll were difficult to estimate, but the 
highest rock level (12 feet above high-tide level) seemed near the sea, 
with a varying gradient to the lagoon. The seashore is sandy on the 
west, with cliffs appearing here and there. The east coast I could not 
visit owing to lack of time. 

The land vegetation consists of dense scrub, composed of large 
bushes and small trees near the lagoon, though to seaward it is formed 
rather by spiall shrubs and matted herbaceous plants. A small collec- 
tion of plants, as also of animals, was made, but the short duration of 
the visit coupled with the season prevented any thorough collecting being 
attempted. The settlement is situated on the west coast; it is small, 
and the inTiabitants are employed in catching turtle and cultivating a 
small coconut plantation, which is being tried, while a certain amount of 
maize and tobacco is gi'own on the share system. 

COSMOLEDO. 

This group was reached on September 1. It is an atoll also, but 
differs from Agtove in having only a small proportion of its rim capped 



202 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

with land and in being considerably larger. It has an extreme length 
of 9 miles and breadth of 7 miles. The circumference of the atoll is 
about 24 miles, and of this only 10 miles at most consist of land. The 
latter is divided up into eight main islands and numei-ous small islets, 
but of all these only two are inhabited. During my stay, which was 
only one of four days, I visited four of the larger islands, and on my 
return journey I again had two days on the atoll, which enabled me to 
cursorily examine two more islands and take a representative series of 
photographs. 

The results of the two visits may be outlined as follows: — The 
islands in all cases are fundamentally of coral rock, though sand has 
been piled on to them by the wind, and in places has completely hidden the 
rocky base beneath sand dunes and ridges. The rock is typical elevated 
coral rock, and, with the difference that metamorphosis has been more 
extensive, much resembles that of Astove. 

The island shores are either rocky or sandy, but in either case show 
unmistakable signs of rapid erosion. On one island (Wizard) the 
remains of a house, now in the lagoon, enabled me to calculate the extent 
of the erosion as being 16 yards since 1893, an average of a yard a year. 
Evidence of the former extent of the land was obtained from the islets 
and table-shaped rocks on the reef, and I have little doubt that at one 
time the atoll was almost entirely capped with a ring of land. 

The lagoon has the greatest average depth of any atoll visited, though 
the channels in the Aldabra lagoon are deeper. There are no islands 
situated anywhere in it, and no suggestions can be made as to its former 
extent. The bottom is largely sandy, and there are signs of a tendency 
to replace the original rocky islands by sand shoals and cays. There 
are two passes through the reef ; these are both situated on the southern 
side of the atoll. The reef was examined at a point on the south-west; 
the seaward edge was conspicuous for the vigorous growth of Litho- 
thamnia ; no live coral was observed in this zone. Inside the edge 
Lithothamnia were still abundant, but were chiefly encrusting forms 
found on broken pieces of dead coral flung on the reef. Passing to the 
lagoon was a sort of buttress zone, with channels and pools containing 
a little live coral. The lagoon at this point was very sandy, and almost 
dry at low tide. 

The land vegetation somewhat resembles that of Astove on the rocky 
places, but is not so dense, and owing to the presence of large quantities 
of sand perhaps would be more like that of Farquhar. A large man- 
grove swamp exists on the lagoon side of the chief island (Menai). In 
the dry season the islands are much more parched and dried up than 
Astove, but during the wet season crops of maize seemed to flourish 
remarkably well. Guano has been found on several of the islands, and 
a considerable quantity exported, as well as phosphate rock, which was 
found underneath the guano. It was interesting to discover in the latter 
rock the eggs of the giant land tortoise, though unfortunately no remains 
were found to determine the species. A collection of land animals was 
made, and the fauna appears to be identical with that of other islands 
in this region. The settlement is small (twenty people) and the inhabi- 
tants employed as at Astove, 



ON INVESTIGATIONS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. 208 



ASSUMPTION. 

Assumption was reached on September 6. It, unlike the two pre* 
vious islands, is not an atoll ; it is crescent-shaped, about 3f miles long 
and from 1 to J mile broad. In composition it is undoubtedly an 
elevated reef, corals in position of growth being easily observed, especi- 
ally on the face of the cliffs and on the sides of pits in the rock, which 
form a marked feature of the island. Much metamorphosis has occurred 
in places in the interior of the island, producing a rock which usually 
includes a considerable proportion of phosphate, derived, as in the other 
islands, from a superficial deposit of guano. The conglomerate men- 
tioned in relation to Astove is common, and confirms the impression 
that it is of the nature of the rock forming on recent reef-flats. Varia- 
tions in level over the island were, owing to the thick bush, difficult to 
estimate, but judging from three tracks cut from east to west across 
the land, there is a slight ridge running north and south near the west 
shore with a maximum height of 20 feet, decreasing on each side to 
the common level (about 12 feet) of the island. In the south-east are 
large dunes (90 feet high) formed entirely of blown sand. The natural 
pits in the rock, before referred to, are most common in the interior of 
the island, but also occur within a few yards of the sea. They seem to 
owe their origin to imperfect consolidation of the reef at the time of 
gi'owth. They vary considerably in size, the largest being 18 yards 
long by 14 yards wide by 3 yards deep, and the deepest 45 feet. Some 
contain salt water, and others are largely filled with guano, though in 
these salt water can be easily reached by digging; in all the water 
seems to fluctuate tidally, though in no case was any connection with 
the sea discovered, except that of free percolation. The sides of the 
pits are always being eroded and weathered, and consequently the 
latter are increasing in size. It was natural to consider whether a 
lagoon could be formed by this means, but the conclusion was in the 
negative, as there seemed no reason why the pits should connect more 
rapidly with each other than with the sea. 

Guano is present in some quantity, especially on a large plain near 
the east coast, while many of the pits contain a large quantity. It 
undoubtedly has had a considerable influence on the rock below. 

The land vegetation is a scrub, dense and thick in places, especially 
in the south-west, and thinning out to an open plain in the east. A 
curious occurrence is that of a growth of mangrove trees in three of the 
pits; as there seems to be no free subterranean connection with the 
sea it is difficult to explain their presence in an island so unsuited to 
them as Assumption. Two of the pits contain Brugiera and the other 
Ceriops. A further discovery in these pits was that of the remains 
of giant land tortoises, considerable portions of several specimens being 
obtained. One species appears identical with that of the present 
Aldabra tortoise, but it appears likely that a second species also existed. 
Of the present fauna little need be said except that it resembles that of 
the other two islands. 

The settlement is quite recent and was made to work the guano. 
Green turtles are extremely plentiful, and until killed off will be a source 
of profit to the island. 



204 RRPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

On September 12 I sailed for Aldabra, but again visited the island 
on my return, spending two days in photography and checking previous 
observations. 



ALDABRA. 

I arrived in Aldabra on September 13, and, owing to the excessive 
drought, had perforce to confine myself mainly to geological investiga- 
tion until thfe end of the period of south-east trade winds. The wet 
season commenced in November, after which month most of the plants 
were found in flower, while land animals, previously invisible, became 
fairly numerous. I had four camps — i.e., on Michel Island, at Taka- 
maka on Main Island, on Esprit Island, and on Picard Island — from 
which I examined every portion of the atoll. Owing to the dense and 
impenetrable scrub, exploration was always attended by considerable 
difficulty, as paths could only be cut at the cost of great labour; in 
addition I cleared several broad sections from the sea to the lagoon, in 
order to get a clear idea of the sequence of the rocks and vegetation and 
of the relative elevations. 

The nature of the ground and of its vegetation is such that the land 
may be divided into four somewhat irregular zones, from the lagoon 
outwards, as follows: — 

(1) Mangrove swamp — varying in size up to nearly a mile in 
maximum breadth. 

(2) Champignon — the surface much metamorphosed, coral rock, 
usually with sharply defined dark portions, which appear to consist of 
guano included during metamorpfiosis. It has evidently been subjected 
to heavy rain denudation, its surface being a mass of points and pits. 
The vegetation is a scrub of Pemphis acidula. 

(3) Platin — fairly smooth, composed mainly of coral fragments and 
reef debris, with a few shells, weathering into large flat slabs with soil 
accumulating in the crevices. In places are larger depressions, in which 
there are usually clumps of trees. The soil is guano, with a mixture 
of disintegrated rock. The vegetation is varied, containing numerous 
small bushes and trees, Pandatnis, Ficus, E^iphorbia, &c. ; the fauna 
also is varied and comparatively rich. 

(4) Shore zone — -largely of blown sand, with a stunted and wind- 
swept vegetation; large clumps of Pandanus, Tournefortia, and Scaevola 
everywhere very numerous. 

In a broad sectional clearing which I made at Takamaka, the sea- 
ward reef commences with a fissured edge, succeeded by a sand flat, 
the sand being bound together by beds of grass-like Cymodocea, its 
rhizomes greatly overgrown by Lithothamnia ; the buttresses between 
the fissures are themselves largely covered with sand ; live coral is 
almost absent ; not far from the edge ai'e a few small boulders of dead 
coral, all much encrusted with Lithothamnia; a few species of seaweed 
are found in the pools left at low tide. The landward edge of the reef 
is formed of cliffs, 12 feet to 15 feet high, just outside which is usually 
a small depression in the reef with 2 feet or 3 feet of water. The cliffs 
are sloping, not overhanging, and are divided into buttresses ; they con- 
sist of a mass of corals cemented together with lime. The corals are all 
in the position in which they grew, and so perfect as to give the 



ON INVESTIUATIUNS IN TilK INDIAN OCEAN. 



205 



impression that they are only just dead. On the landward side of liis 
cliffs is a ridge, 2 feet or 3 feet higher, of grass-covered sand ; this marks 
the seaward edge of the shore zone, which is about 250 yards wide, the 
sand being shallow and lying on a basis of coral rock. Then comes a 
rocky ridge, 4 feet to 6 feet higher than the shore zone, the rock more 
solid and less denuded; this, the highest part of the section, is some 
25 feet above sea-level. From the landward side of this ridge the level 
gradually decreases to about 10 feet above sea-level. It passes into a 
zone of Champignon, which here lies outside the Platin zone, which 
latter extends to the mangrove swamp. The Platin is all very similar in 
appearance, except that it is more wooded near the lagoon ; it terminates 
with a sharp drop through the last 4 feet or 5 feet to the lagoon surface. 
At Takamaka there is a spring of fresh water, and a grove of large 
CalophyUum and Ficus trees. This spring, with three others, all lying 
between Takamaka and the lagoon, is the only constant source of fresh 
water on the islands. The section finishes at Abbot's Creek, which is 
a narrow passage from the lagoon with a thick undergrowth of man- 




AWabra Atoll, Scale about 6 miles to I inch. 



groves on each side ; its bed is rocky and covered with very fine white 
mud; at its termination in the land it passes between small cliffs, all 
much overhung and obviously breaking down. 

In another section, which passes from Vert Island in the lagoon 
northward to the sea, the country is all, with the exception of the shore 
zone, of the Champignon type, Platin being entirely absent. There is 
a gradual slope from the lagoon, becoming steeper at the beginning of 
the shore zone. Right up to the latter salt water is often found in pits 
in the rock, fluctuating, apparently, with the lagoon tides. The cliffs 
on this north coast are 4 feet or 5 feet higher than those before described, 
and are always much overhanging. Caves penetrate far into their faces, 
large portions of which have at intervals fallen on to the reef; this 
fallen I'ock appears to become disintegrated quickly, as small pieces are 
uncommon, the action of the sea being assisted by boring animals 
(small Gephyreans, boring molluscs, &c.). As elsewhere round the 
coast, the rock shows its component corals in a way which leaves no 
doubt as to their being in the same position as previous to their elevation. 
On the reef here there are three or foijr distinct regions; close to the 



206 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

cliff there is a small belt of bare rock, often worn into hollows contain- 
ing 3 feet or 4 feet of water; then a large area, mainly of broken coral 
fragments covered with Lithothamnia, and edged outside with a small 
boulder zone; and outside this, again, buttresses with a few colonies 
of living corals in the channels. Such are the usual features of the 
fringing reef at Aldabra, the appearance in the Takamaka section being 
quite exceptional. 

After the previous descriptions, it is possible to speak more generally 
of Aldabra. The cliffs, as stated, show their structure wonderfully 
clearly, except in the southern bight, where they are sloping and 
buttressed; they are much overhung, and are crumbling fast. The 
general variations in level across the land are similar ; the highest point 
is near the sea, and there is a steady decrease in level to the lagoon. 

As regards the nature of the land, all the northern portion of the 
atoll — Polymnie Island, Malabar Island, and the north-east part of 
Main Island — consists of Champignon. The south-east portion of 
Main Island is chiefly Platin. In the centre of the south of Main 
Island there is a wide shore zone, and then a belt of Champignon. To 
the east and west of this portion are large mounds (65 feet in height) 
near the shore. They are obviously wind dunes, the seaward slope 
being gradual with little vegetation, the landward very steep and covered 
with bush. Opposite each dune the cliffs have almost entirely 
vanished, a direct slope of sand leading up to the dune. It is noticeable 
that in Aldabra, as in most of the other islands of this part of the ocean, 
dunes are only formed on the coast facing the strong south-east trades. 
The west portion of Main Island is chiefly Champignon. At Couroupa 
there is a dip in the rock which appears to extend from the shore right 
across to the mangrove swamp ; it is filled with sand, and attains a 
maximum depth of 8 feet. 

A portion of Picard Island and Esprit Island (in the lagoon) demand 
a fuller description. 

Esprit is largely swamp, but round the south and west there is a 
ridge of rock about 30 feet higrh, which is obviously not typical coral 
rock. The majority of the ridge is composed of a dark brown hard 
rock; at the lower levels it is very solid and homogeneous, but higher 
up it takes the form of a coarse conglomerate or pudding stone. The 
top of the ridge is capped with a rock which appears extraordinorily like 
flint. On each side are pinnacles of a rock which is evidently com- 
posed very largely of a deposit of mollusc shells, and which has 
suffered excessive denudation. On the outer (lagoon) side of the ridge 
these pinnacles are only a few feet high, but on the inner side, towards 
the centre of the island, they form a series of grotesque up-standing 
pillars and walls , varying up to 15 feet in height ; they appear to be 
standing on the brown rock. 

Picard Island, which is mainly of typical coral rock, has in the 
centre (S.W.) a large plain of Platin country, on the east side of which 
is a large basin in the rock, in subterranean connection with the lagoon. 
On the floor of the basin I found several small pieces of the dark homo- 
geneous i'ock, and, at one side, much of the brown conglomerate. The 
majority of the rock round the basin appeared purely calcareous, but 
there were some short veins (six inches to a foot wide) and masses 
of highly crystalline rock, some apparently calcite and some also 



ON INVESTIGATIONS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN. 207 

containing mucli phosphoric acid and apparently apatite. Bonea, the 
teetl^ of elasmobranchs, and remains of other organisms, at present 
unidentified, were found both in the calcareous rock and in the brown 
'conglomerate.' A small area near the basin was covered with 
pinnacles of the ' shell rock ' as at Espx'it. 

Specimens of these rocks were sent home in advance, and some 
were sectioned and reported on as 'volcanic glasses ' in the issue of 
' Nature ' of May 13, 1909. 

There is little doubt but that this identification is entii-ely erroneous, 
for since my arrival I have myself examined them briefly, and find that 
almost all of these strange rocks, with the exception of the ' shell 
rock,' are largely composed of calcium phosphate, the colouring being 
apparently due to a considerable percentage of iron. 

Arrangements are being made for the proper examination of these 
rocks, the formation of which is at present sln-ouded in mystery, but 
which, it is hoped, will eventually throw considerable light on the early 
history of Aldabra. 

The four passes into the lagoon are interesting, and perhaps give a 
ciue to its formation. They have usually deep central channels, with 
I'eefs on either side. Small rock islets are present on these reefs, and 
it appears certain from their existence that the passes are steadily 
increasing in size, and that their reefs are really the remains of the 
land kept up to low-tide level by growing coral. Live coral extends for 
some distance into the lagoon, there beiag in all cases a luxuriant bed 
just inside the pass. At the mouth of the pass all corals are largely 
encrusted with Lithothamma, and further seawards many are com- 
pletely killed by these algiB. 

Besides the existing passes, it should be noted that there seems a 
likelihood of at least three more being formed — at Camp Frigate the 
mangrove swamp extends right through the island to the sea, and no 
doubt a certain amount of water already traverses the land at that 
point. In Polymnie Island, at one place the swamp is within 100 yards 
of the shore, and a pass will probably be formed in time ; at Dune Jean 
Louis there is only a quarter of a mile between the sea and the swamp, 
and if the lagoon erosion continues, no doubt Main Island will be 
divided at this point. It is worthy of note that fresh passes seem always 
to be formed by lagoon erosion, and not from the seaward side. 

The lagoon itself is very shallow, and the bottom sandy in the 
middle, changing into fine mud as it approaches the mangrove swamp. 
Everywhere one is forcibly struck by the extent of the erosion in the 
lagoon. Judging by its maze of small islands and mushroom-shaped 
rocks, at least one-third, or even more, of the lagoon can be shown to 
have been land at one time. At spring tides the amount of fine mud 
carried out to sea in suspension is very large, and it is obvious that the 
lagoon is still growing in size. There is some difficulty in accounting 
for the rapid transformation of the rock into mud, as boring animals are 
not common. 

As regards the vegetation, it is impossible to say much until the 
specimens collected have been worked out. The mangrove swamps 
extend right round the lagoon sides of the islands, Rhizophora and 
Brugiera being the predominating genera, though there is also a large 
quantity of Ceriops. Rhizophora seems to require a deep mud, but 



208 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Brugiera thrives better in the more rooky places and on the small 
islands. In the extreme east of the atoll there is a large forest of 
the pseudo-mangrove Avicennia. The only other fact that need be 
mentioned is that Esprit Island has several plants not found elsewhere, 
or which are common to it and Picard Island alone. 

The fauna also must be left until the collections arrive and have been 
examined. So far as can be seen at present, it appears to be of the 
regular coral-island type, with such additions in the land animals as 
would be natural considering the large amount of land and the larger 
flora. It should, however, be remarked that the mangrove swamps 
were very disappointing in their fauna, a condition very different from 
that described in mangrove swamps in other localities. 

Large numbers of giant land tortoises still exist, but the problem of 
their distribution does not relate to Aldabra alone, as I have found their 
remains on Assumption and Cosmoledo, and they are also known to 
have occurred in nearly all the Seychelles Islands, two of which — Bii'd 
and Dennis— are coralline in structure. 

In conclusion, I would suggest that the reefs and islands of the 
Aldabra-Farquhar line present a most interesting series representing 
the possible life of an atoll. 

(a) Astove. — Land rim of atoll almost perfect and mostly rocky. 
Only one small pass of recent date. Lagoon exceedingly shallow, but 
getting rapidly deeper. Formation of another pass proceeding. 

(b) Aldabra. — Land rim still very perfect, and mostly rocky. 
Several passes already in existence. Strong evidence of increase of 
lagoon at expense of land. Lagoon deeper, and at least three passes in 
course of formation. 

(c) Cosmoledo. — Land rim broken up into a series of small islands 
only. Most of encircling reef bare, but evidence of a former rock-cap 
in mushroom-shaped rocks and minute islands. A noticeable increase 
of sand on the island, and decrease of rock. Lagoon deeper than that 
of Aldabra, and more open. 

(d) Farquhar. — Judging from Mr. Stanley Gardiner's description, 
land rim very small. Island nearly all sand, and typical coral rock very 
scarce. Lagoon still more open. 

(e) A final or hypothetical stage may be imagined as an atoll with 
a considerable lagoon, without, perhaps, any land ; or, if land is present, 
only as sand cays piled up on the reef. 



The Amount of Gold Coinage in Circulation in the United 
Kingdom. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir R. H. iNGLis Palqrave (Chairman), Mr. H. Stanley 
Jevons (Secretary), and Messrs. A. L. Bowley and D. H. 
Macgregor. 

At a meeting of the Committee held in November 1908 the estimate of 
the total gold coinage in circulation obtained from the available data 
was considered, and it was decided that the only assignable limits of 



COLH CniXAOE IN CincULATlON' IN TRF. UNITRI) KINr.D(JM. 209 

error were so great as to make the estimate of little value and unfit for 
publication. It was decided to attempt an estimate on the basis of 
the gold of dates 1904-6 in circulation, and for the purpose of calcu- 
lating this to obtain a fuller knowledge of the composition by date of 
British gold coin exported. By the kindness of the Governor of the 
Bank of England five bags of gold coin destined for export were opened 
in February, 1909, and the coins of different dates counted. The result 
shows an unexpected variety in different bags, and they can hardly be 
taken as a true sample of the whole coinage exported. An estimate of 
the exports based on the composition of these bags gives a figure for the 
total coinage differing very widely from the previous estimate. 



Agricultural Development in the North-West of Canada, 
1905 imtil 1909. By Professor James Mayor. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in exteato.] 

In the end of the year 1903 the then President of the Board of Trade, 
the Right Hon. Gerald Balfour, did me the honour of asking me to 
make a confidential report upon Agricultural Production in the North- 
West of Canada, with special reference to the production of wheat for 
export. This report, which was the result of study of the subject since 
1896, was prepared in 1904, the narrative and statistical portions being 
brought down to December 31 of that year. The report was published 
in 1905. ^ The Chairman of the Sub-section of Agriculture of the 
British Association has invited me to contribute a paper bringing down 
the data to the present time. 

The region which was the subject of inquiry consisted of the pro- 
vince of Manitoba and the territories of Alberta, Assiniboia, and Sas- 
katchewan. It comprised in effect the great plains from the Red Eiver 
valley to the Rocky Mountains and from the international boundary 
to the valley of the North Saskatchewan. In September 1905 the 
j)olitical structure of the region was altered. The area of the terri- 
tories above mentioned, together with additional areas towards the 
north, was divided into two provinces — Saskatchewan and Alberta. 
The Legislatures of these new provinces were endowed with the 
same powers as those of the other provinces of the Dominion, 
excepting that the control of the unalienated public lands and the 
control of the North-West Mounted Police were retained in the 
hands of the Dominion authorities. Regina was selected as the 
capital of Saskatchewan, and Edmonton of Alberta. Some time 
elapsed before the various departments of the new Governments were 
fully organised. New statistical districts had to be determined in 
the two new provinces, and thus comparison of their data with 
those of the former districts came to be somewhat difficult. The 

' Be/porl to the Donrd of Trade on the North-West of Canndn, with special 
reference to Wheat Production for Export, by James Mavor, Professor of 
Political E.onomy in the TTniverFitv of Toronto, Canada, 1904 (Parliamentary 
Paper) (Cd. 2628), London (1905). 

1909. V 



210 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

erection of the new provinces was coincident with a considerable 
increase in immigration, largely from Great Britain and the United 
States, although the population was also considerably increased by a 
less readily estimated immigration from the province of Ontario. 

In the preparation of the report of 1904 1 found myself confronted 
by the fact that the region in question had only been partially sur- 
veyed, and that no agricultural survey properly so called had been made 
of any portion of it. Estimates of the agricultural possibilities of the 
region were thus matters not of knowledge but of opinion ; and opinions 
of different persons, many of them equally well qualified to lorm 
judgments on such questions, varied very widely, in these circum- 
stances it was necessary to be guarded in the formation of any con- 
clusions about the conditions of the time and still more about the 
possibilities of the future. 1 felt bound, however, to consider and 
present such estimates of these possibilities as had bean brought 
to my notice. At the same time 1 explicitly refrained from offermg 
endorsement of any of these estimates. On the grounds of what 
official data were at the time available concerning the agricultural 
histoiy and apparent tendencies of the agricultural exploitation of 
the region, I ventured to suggest some piovisional conclusions of a 
very general character. Among these conclusions was the follow- 
ing:— 

' Very great improvements in the productive power of the country 
and a very considerable increase in the effective population, as well as 
a more exclusive regard to wheat cultivation, would have to take place 
before the North-West could be regarded as being in a position to be 
relied upon to produce for export to Great Britain a quantity of wheat 
even nearly sufficient for the growing requirements of that country. 
That an exclusive regard to wheat cultivation is unlikely to arise seems 
certain from much of the foregoing detail. Even if the soil were 
uniformly suitable, and even if the seasons could be absolutely relied 
upon, the disposition of the people and their settlement upon small 
farms of which the owner is also the cultivator seem against the 
exclusive cultivation of one ci'op. The tendency of knowledge derived 
from experience and of mstruction and advice derived from the experi- 
mental farms, as well as other Governmental encouragement of mixed 
farming, are all opposed to exclusive cultivation of wheat or of any 
other one crop, as is also the experience of the States immediately to 
the south of the international boundary. ' ^ 

The experience of the past five years very strongly confirms this 
conclusion. A considerable improvement in the productive powers of 
the country has taken place, a considerable increase in the effective 
population has occurred, y^t the quantity of wheat produced is still 
far short of the quantity annually imported by Great Britain. More- 
over there has been during these years less rather than more propor- 
tional cultivation of wheat. Mixed farming has become more common. 
These facts appear in the statistics which follow. 

' Beport to the Board of Trade on the North-West of Canada, with special 
reference to Wheat Production for Export, by James Mavor, Professor of 
Political Economy in the University of Toronto, Canada, 1904 (Parliamentary 
Paper) (Cd. 2628), London (1905), p. 114. 



AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH-WEST CANADA. 



211 



The Area of the Prairie Provinces. — The area of the three prairie 
provinces — Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta— is much larger than 
the area of the region formerly occupied by Manitoba and the North- 
West Territories. This appears in the following table: — 



— 


1904 1905 
In Millions of Acres 


Land 


Water 


Total 


Land 


Water 


Tetal 


Province of Manitoba 

The Territories, afterwards tlie 
Provinces of Saskatchewan and 
Alberta (including the added 
areas) 


41-2 
187'9 


60 
30 


47-2 

i 
1910 


41-2 

1551 
160-8 


6-0 

5-3 
1-5 


47-2 

160-4 
162-3 


2291 


90 


238-2 


357-1 


12-8 369-9 



The added areas thus amounted to more than fifty per cent, of the 
original area of the region. The addition consisted of almost the whole 
of the former territory of Athabasca. The greater part of this addition 
is beyond the region of practicable settlement for commercial produc- 
tion at the present time. 

Meteorological Data of the Years 1905-09. — Attention was drawn 
on the previous occasion to the fact that the observation stations of the 
Meteorological service do not furnish records for a sufficient length of 
time to enable decisive conclusions to be formulated regarding the 
important questions of temperature and precipitation. It is hardly 
necessary to lay emphasis upon the well-established scientific fact that 
the occupation of a country does not influence the climate. The 
erection of buildings and the planting of trees may affect, within certain 
naiTow limits, the currents of air on the immediate surface, and culti- 
vation may render the soil less impervious to moisture, and may thus 
alter the quantity of moisture held by the soil ; but none of these 
changes has any influence upon the rainfall or upon other phenomena 
of a cosmic character. This, at all events, is the general conclusion 
of meteorologists, who alone are entitled to be heard upon such a 
question. 

Average Daily Maximum Temperature. 





April 


July 


Sept. 


Nov. 


January 


25 years' observa- 1 ^'^'^^^y^,^ ; 

*'°"« (Winnipeg . 
20 years' observa- 1 
tions / 


53-2 
52-9 
60-1 

44-6 


74-7 
73-7 
77-6 

68-1 


63-7 
621 
65-8 

56- 1 


35-3 
39-5 
305 

28-4 


231 

16-2 

8-0 

11-8 



e 2 



21-2 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Normal Precipitatio7i. 
The following table shows the average annual precipitation observed 
at the stations named : ^ 

1888-1907. 



CalgHTy (20 years' observation) 
Medicine Hat „ 

Edmonton ,, 

Battle ford „ 

Prince Albert „ 

Swift Current „ 



Inches 
16-30 
1311 
18 20 
13-79 
lfi-60 
1590 



Inches 
Qu'Appelle (20 years' observations) 18-84: 
Mimiedosa „ . 1736 

Winnipeg „ . 20 81 

Macleod (14 years' observations) 131.5 
Brandon „ . 17-38 



Table showing Bain of First Occurrence of Sowing, Hay-GutUnf/, and Grain-cutting 
in the North- West in. Successive Years nnce 1905. 



- 


Sowing 


Hay-cutting 


Grain-cutting 


1905 






Alberta . 


— 


July 20 


First week in August 
at Edmonton 


Saskatchewan 


— 


— 


July 25 


Manitoba 


— 


— 


First week in August 


1906 








Alberta , 


90 per cent, of wheat 


July 12 


Wheat-cutting general 




in by the end of 




by middle of August. 




April. Oats sown 




Barley 4th. Oats 




*in first week of 




13th 




May 






Manitoba 


Wheat-sowing on 
April 30. Oat- 
sowing finished 
April 30. Barley 
later 




August 4 


1907 




, 


Harvest began gene- 


Alberta . 
Saskatchewan 


I Seeding finished 
f about May 31 


_ 


rally on Septembei 5, 
except in far nor- 


Manitoba 




thern Alberta, where { 






i 


no crops ripened 


1908 








Alberta . 


\ Wheat and oats 


Haying com- 


Wheat-cutting middle 


Saskatchewan. 


I 2 in. to .3 in. 
) high by May 31 


pleted July 24 


of August 


Manitoba 







General Calendar of the Seasons. 



— 


Manitoba 


Saskatchewan 


Alberta 
Dry spring in west and j 


1905 


Good year. Large 


Good year. 




yield 


Large yield. 


north centre of pro- i 






'Stinking 


vince. Rains in 






smut preva- 


June.with two frosts. 






lent' 


Harvest weather 
good 


1906 


Large crop, but de- 


Early season. 


Winter mild. Light ! 




ficient average 


Hot winds in 


snowfall. Heavy \ 




yield reported 


July. Grain 


rains in May. Dry 






prematurely 


and warm in June { 






ripened. 


and July. Hot and 






Yield per acre 


dry in August 






reported less 








than 1905 





' I am indebted to Mr. R. F. Stupart, Director of the Dominion Meteoro- 
logical Department, for compiling these statistics, 



AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH-WEST CANADA. 213 



General Calendar of the Seasons — cuntinued. 



Manitoba 



1907 



Saskatchewan 



Alberta 



Unfavourable year. 
Deficient harvest 



1908 



1909 



Unfavourable year. Unfavourable 
Deficient harvest year. Defi- 

cient harvest. : 
Reported yield 
13-52 bushels 
per acre ; 

Government Loan of Seed. 

Favourable spring Favourable Favourable spring 

spring [ 

Hot and dry in July in three provinces 

Good yield and heavy crop 

Low temperature and cold rains early in June, followed by dry 
weather. Seeding in all provinces was late. In the end of 
June some heavy local rains. Conditions of crops irregular 
and difficult lo estimate in the aggregate. Hot and dry 
weather in July and August led to early harvesting. Result 
of crop cannot as yet be stated with confidence 



Population. — The last Dominion Decennial Census having been 
taken in 1901, it was thought that an intermediate census ought to 
be taken of the three prairie provinces in 1906, partly because of the 
considerable immigration and partly because of the readjustment of the 
political status of the population. 

The following table shows the general result of this census, wliich 
was taken as at June 24, 1906 : — 





1901 i 1906 } Increase 


Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

Total 


255,211 ; 365,688 
91,279 166,484 
73,022 112,390 


o/ 
/o 

4328 
182-39 
153-91 


419,512 j 808,863 


92-81 



The following table shows the origin of this population in a very 
general way : — 





Per cent. Per cent. 
1901 1900 

1 


Born within the British Empire . 
Born within the United States 

Total British and American born . 

Born in other countries 


78-40 
4-95 


70-21 
11-22 


83-35 
16-65 


81-43 

18-57 


100-00 


10000 



The available statistics show that although the immigration from the 
United States had been considerable, there were, in 1906, in the thi-ee 
provinces but 90,738 persons who had been born in the United States. 
The population of British origin was thus still largely preponderant. 



214 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



In the report of 1904 attention was drawn to the greater increase 
of the urban than of the rural population, as shown by the census 
returns up till 1901. This increase has gone on to an even greater 
extent than formerly, as is shown by the following table : — 





1901 


1906 


Rural 
Population 


Urban 
Population 


Rural 
Population 


Urban 
Population 


Manitoba. 

Saskatchewan . 

Alberta .... 


72-41 
84-38 
74-00 


27-59 
15-62 
26 00 


62-24 
81-20 
68-71 


37-76 
18-80 
31-29 


75-28 


24-72 


69-77 


30-23 



The relation between the increase of cultivation and the growth of 
the population is shown by the following table. The figures are for the 
three prairie provinces combined. 





1901 


1906 


Rural persons 

Urban „ 

Total . - . 


315,821 
103,691 


564,278 
244,585 


419,512 


808,863 


Number of acres cultivated in field crops 
Number of acres cultivated in field crops per 

1,000 rural inhabitants .... 
Number of acres cultivated in field crops per 

1,000 of all inhabitants . . . . 
Number of acres cultivated in wheat per 

1,000 of all inhabitants .... 


3,597,691 

11,391 

8,576 

5,950 


8,010,980 

14,850 

9,941 

6,258 



It will thus be seen that, together with the increase of population, 
there has occuiTed an increase of cultivated area per head of the 
population. While in 1901 the cultivated area amounted to less than 
8"6 acres per head, of which 5"9 were in wheat, or 68 per cent., in 
1906 the cultivated area was 9"9 acres per head, of which 6"3 acres 
were in wheat, or 62 per cent. 

Immigration. — The difficulty of collecting and of presenting accu- 
rate statistics of immigration and emigration for Canada was noticed 
in the report of 1904. The chief reason for this difficulty is that 
the large traffic between the United States and Canada by rail and 
steamer and the considerable traffic by road or by prairie cannot readily 
be divided into migratory traffic pi'operly so called and tourist or 
commercial traffic. Moreover even if such a distinction could be 
made the actual numbers passing, excepting those travelling by ordinary 
means of conveyance, could not be accurately ascertained. Large num- 
bers of settlers, for example, have in past years crossed from the 
United States into Canada in their own covered wagons at unobserved 
points on the frontier. Methods other than those involving actual 
count on the frontier lead inevitably to omissions and duplications. 
Insufficient attention has also been paid to the deductions from the 



AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH-WEST CANADA. 



215 



totals of immigrants in respect to emigration. This has, however, 
been undoubtedly a smaller element than it was ten years ago. 

According to the statistics of the Department of the Interior, which, 
for the reasons explained above, must be accepted with qualifications, 
the following is a comparative statement of the immigration into 
Canada during the years since 1900. 



Comparative Statement of Arrivals at Inland and Ocean Ports dvring the 
Four Years ending March 31, 1908. 





Great Britain 
and Ireland 

65,359 

86,796 

55,791 

120.182 


United 
States 

43,632 
S7,919 
34,659 
58,312 


Other 
Countries 


Total 

146,266 
189,064 
124,667 
262,469 


1904-05 .... 

1905-06 .... 
I 1906-07 (9 months only). 
■: 1907-08 .... 


37,255 
44,349 
37,217 
83,975 



The total number of arrivals during the period of six years from 1901 
till 1906, embracing the two census years 1901 and 1906, was as 
follows : — 

Total 
710,552 





United 


United 


Other 




Kingdom 


States 


Countries 


-06 


273,.B90 


240,590 


196,572 



It will be observed that during recent years there has been a con- 
siderable increase in the immigration from all the sources indicated, 
but especially from the United Kingdom and from other European 
countries. Large as the immigration from the United States has been 
it has not been so great proportionally as that from other countries. 

The reasons for the increased emigration from the United Kingdom 
have been chiefly the following : the increase of population ; the decline 
of trade, due largely to American fluctuations ; the disturbance of the 
labour and money markets, due to the South African war ; the activity 
of emigration societies, emigration agents, and steamship companies; 
and the offer of free homestead land in the Canadian North-West. 
Excepting the first — viz., the increase of population — these conditions 
are all temporary. The agricultural population of Great Britain com- 
prises now so small a proportion of the total that agricultural wages 
have risen sharply, and it must thus become more difficult to induce 
the agricultural labourer to change his habitat. It must be realised 
that although during the past two or three seasons many former tenant 
farmers and other persons with capital have emigrated and have esta- 
blished themselves in Canada, this class of men is not accustomed to 
hard physical labour personally. They have been employers and 
directors of labour- In that country laboiu' is difficult to obtain, and 
very expensive when it is obtained. So long as the free homesteads 
are offered, and so long as mining and prospecting offer high remunera- 
tion, the farmer who attempts to cultivate his land by the labour 
of others must be seriously handicapped, in spite of its fertility. 

Grndval Depletiov of the TJnaUevated Public TMnds. — An excellent 
map recently issued by the Department of the Interior shows that the 
nrea of land .nvailnble for homestead entrv south of the North Sas- 
katchewan River is now comparatively small. The only district in 



216 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

which there is any considerable area still available is the large 
irregular triangle of which the main line of the Canadian Pacific Eail- 
way between Swift Current and Medicine Hat may be taken as the 
base, the apex being on the line of the new Grand Trunk Pacific Eail- 
way near the Buffalo Park Eeserve. This region has always been 
looked upon with some disfavour as a field for settlement; but some 
part of it will doubtless turn out to be of value. 

Otherwise the intending homesteader will have to find his way 
northwards. This, of course, does not mean that the whole of the 
area of the ^outhern part of the three provinces is settled. Very large 
areas are in the hands of the railway companies ; other areas are in 
the hands of land and colonisation companies, and a considei-able 
amount is lield by farmers and others for speculative purposes. 

If immigration were increasing greatly in the immediately succeed- 
ing years there would undoubtedly arise a land question, owing to the 
difficulty of procuring land at a moderate price. 

The condition of trade in Canada in 1907 and the deficient wheat 
crop of that year rendered it difficult for the country to absorb 
so great a number of fresh arrivals, most of tliem bringing very 
slender resources to enable them to establish themselves. Many 
crowded into tlie towns during the winter of 1907-8, and some 
were the recipients of charitable relief. Such conditions led to legis- 
lation increasing the severity of the immigration law and compelling 
the steamship companies to take back to the port of shipment persons 
who, being found to be unable to support themselves, or being other- 
wise ' undesirable immigrants,' were ordered to be deported. This 
legislation had the effect of diminishing the efforts of the steam- 
ship agents and the other agencies engaged in the immigration busi- 
ness to increase the immigration by mere numbers. The question of 
quality of immigrants is very intricate and cannot be said to be settled 
by the methods prescribed by the recent legislation on the subject. 

In 1907-8 there was a considerable increase in immigration, the 
number of immigrants in that year being the largest in the history of 
the country. 

The Policy of Wide Distribution of Immigrants. — The question 
of distribution of immigrants is one which is not wholly within the 
control of the Government in a free country. Many settlers resent 
the interference of the Government in determining where they should 
settle. Accusations of political instead of purely administrative 
motives determining action in particular cases would be quite certain to 
arise. When individual settlers come into a new country they must 
thus be left a large range of choice in the available field. Nevertheless 
the Department of the Interior does in practice reserve certain areas 
from homestead entiy, and does from time to time throw these areas 
open to the settler. The policy of land settlement is thus to a certain 
extent under the control of the Department. The problem may be put 
in this way : Is it wiser to concentrate the incoming tide of immigra- 
tion in particular areas, or ought it to be permitted to go where it will? 
If it is concentrated, the favoured areas increase rapidly and regularly 
in value, as the incoming immigration produces additional demand for 
land within the areas. If immigration is dispersed, the exercise of 
administration and provision of the means of communication must 
accompany or follow the dispersal, and the eccentricity of a few settlers 



AGIilCl H'lJIlAL DEVELOl'MBM' IN XOKTll-WEST CAiNAOA. 217 

who might wish to be very remote from others may lead the country 
into extremely heavy expenses for railways, roads, education, police, &c. 

For example, some Scottish settlers who had placed themselves by 
sihgular choice over one hundred miles from a railway station had to 
be visited during the winters of 1907 and 1908 by a troop of Mounted 
Police, to whom tlie severe journey was an arduous and costly affair. 
I'he provision of Governmental administration for isolated groups is 
thus very expensive, and for that reason sometimes very inadequate. 
The disadvantages of isolated and sparse settlement are felt most 
acutely in respect to education. Although the farmers appear to desire 
that their children should be educated there are great tracts in which 
there is no provision at all, and other great tracts in which the provision 
is very slender. 

For these reasons the recent settlements to the north of Prince 
Albert and those in the Peace River District seem to be quite premature. 
They are produced by a mere furore for change. Most of the farmers 
who have gone to the regions remote from markets and remote from 
civilisation have sold their farms In Manitoba, and even in Ontario, 
and have gone to the remote regions because they believed the 
optimistic tales of the persons who had visited the district in a casual 
way. The authoritative opinion of agricultural experts is altogether 
against the settlement of the Peace River District under present con- 
ditions, yet remoteness has a great charm for some people. 

The administrative expenses of a widely scattered population must 
be disproportionately heavy, no matter how the real incidence of the 
cost may be concealed by indirect taxation and by the system of pro- 
vincial subsidies. The cost of roads has only been prevented from 
becoming an intolerable burden by mere neglect of them. As the 
road allowances come to be defined, and as the traffic upon them 
increases, either the roads must continue to be neglected, to the great 
loss of the inhabitants, or they must ba kept in repair at an enormous 
cost. 



Collecliou. of AgricitUural Slalisdcs. 

It is not necessary to urge the importance of the collection of 
reliable agi'icultural statistics, but it seems to be advisable to remark 
that their collection in Canada is not in a very satisfactory condition 
at present. 

In 1908 the duties of the recently established permanent Census 
and Statistical Office at Ottawa wei-e enlarged, and this office was 
entrusted with the collection of agricultural statistics throughout the 
Dominion. This measure did not, however, result in the abrogation 
of the functions of the provincial statistical officers. Ws are thus 
periodically presented with two sets of statistics for the same areas, 
one set collected and compiled by the Dominion Statistical Depart- 
ment and another set collected and compiled by the provincial 
authorities. The methods adopted in the collection and compilation 
are not the same, and the statistics present very grave discrepancies. 
For example, the estimate of the Dominion Statistical Office for the 
wheat crop of 1908 is 91,853,000 bushels, whils the combined esti- 
mates of the tlii-es prairie provinces is 107,002,093 bushels, a difference 



218 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

of about 16 per cent. Since the latter figure is that adopted by 
the Dominion Department of Trade and Commerce, the result is 
very confusing. A similar disparity is observable in respect to the 
oat crop; the Dominion Statistical Office estimates it for 1908 at 
96,718,000 bushels, while the provincial authorities place it at 
109,013,812 bushels. The statements of the acreage under crop ex- 
hibit similar discrepancies. It is quite impossible for an independent 
inquirer to decide between these rival authorities. The region is so 
vast and, so far as the greater part of it is concerned, so sparsely 
populated that the collection of information from every individual 
farmer is a difficult and expensive process. An attempt is, however, 
being made by the Dominion Statistical Department to collect the 
data in this way. On the other hand the Saskatchewan Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has adopted the method of obtaining from the 
' threshers ' a statement of the quantities of grain threshed by them. Of 
these ' threshers ' about 2,400 made returns. The acreage under crop is 
estimated from returns made by 15,000 individual farmers. In 1906 
there wers, however, about 56,000 individual farmers, so that unless 
the fanns from which returns were obtained were of carefully selected 
types, and unless the total number of each type was known with fair 
precision, it is obvious that there is room for errors of magnitude. 

It appears in the first place that a greater number of expert 
statistical officers might be employed, and in the second place that an 
adequate agricultural survey of the whole region might be undertaken 
at an early date and carried forward gradually to completion. The 
collection and continuation of agi'icultural statistics is a special business 
which has been highly developed elsewhere, and the time has un- 
doubtedly arrived when the results of the best experience should be 
applied to Canada. The surveys which have been and are being made 
by the Dominion land sui-veyors, under the direction of the Topo- 
graphical Surveys Branch of the Department of the Interior, are of 
value so far as they go, although many of them are now out of date ; 
and moreover the reports of the land surveyors describe the land as it 
was before settlement. What is wanted is a survey of settled as well as 
of unsettled lands, with a record of their agricultural history and present 
condition. Such a survey seems to be an indispensable preliminary to 
the annual collection of sound agricultural statistics. Until such a 
sui"vey is made it is really quite impossible to arrive at any but more or 
less fanciful conclusions about the future productivity of so vast and 
varied a country. 

None of the statistics give any statement of the number of acres 
sown to wheat of which no crop has been reaped, nor of the quantity 
of wheat which has not ripened, nor of the quantity which has been 
frozen, or damaged by smut or otherwise. Without these particulars 
an accurate knowledge of ths yield in relation to the quantity sown 
cannot be obtained; and the fertility of the soil is obscured, as well as, 
in some cases, the extent to which it is being injuriously exploited. 

Agrienlivral Production, 1906-07. — In stating the agricultural 
production of the past four years it is necessary, for the reason 
explained above, to give the results both of tlie Dominion and of the 
provincial authorities. This has therefore been done in the following 
table, which has been compiled from the reports of the respective 
departments. 



AGRTCnLTURAL DEVKLOPMRNT IN KORfH-WRST CANADA . 210 






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REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







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AGIllCULTUHAL DEVELOl'MKiN 1' IN NoRTlt- Wi;S T CANADA. 



'2-21 



M'lical. — The yield of wlieat in l)ushels per acre for tiic area 
occupied by the three prairie provinces can be sliovvn collectively only 
since 1898. Since then it has fluctuated widely — from 9"ll bushels 
in 1900 to 25"1G in 1901. During the past six years it has been twice 
above 20 bushels and four times below 16 bushels. The period is 
much too short for decisive conclusions, but there is no justification 
in the history of crops in the Noi'th-West for the custom of multiplying 
the estimated acreages by the arbiti'ary figure of 20 bushels and arriving 
in this way at a haphazard estimate of the crop. 

The following diagram exhibits the yield of wheat in the area 
occupied by the three prairie provinces from 1898 to 1908. Tha 
statistics upon which the diagram is based are those of the provincial 
and of the Dominion authorities, shown separately since the series of 
the latter authority began. 

Diagram showing the Yield of Wheat in Manitoba and the North-West Terri- 
tories from 1898 till 1904, and in Manitoba and the Provinces of Saskat- 
chewan and Alberta, 1905 till 1908. 

[Aggregate Statistics of Bulletins of respective Provinces — Solid Line 
Statistics of the Census and Statistical Department, Ottawa— Broken Line.] 

/a3a 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 f904 /90S 1906 1907 1908 



no 



100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
SO 
40 
30 
%0 

w 





------------- I :::i::::::::::::::::::: 


IIMMMlMIl 


S -_-- : - - : 



I-I14tillllllil 1 I1.UII IJ IJIJJJIJJIIIInI''I^ 



2-22 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Cost of Producing Wheat. — In my report of 1904 I gave some 
details of the cost of wheat-production. The first of the following 
schedules applies to the region, lately settled by farmers from the United 
States, which lies round Ponoka, on the Calgary and Edmonton line. 
The district is more suitable for the production of oats than of wheat ; 
but labour, as a rule, is not so difficult to obtain as in many other 
districts. The date of the costs is March 12,1907. Two other schedules 
of cost, dated 1909, one in the Weyburn District and the other in the 
Eouban District, are given for purpose of comparison. The costs were 
exact at the time they were compiled; but I do not suggest that they 
should be regarded as applicable generally, or even over a wide area. 



At Ponoka 1907 



New Land 



Breaking 

Cultivation 

Seed (1^ bushel) . 

Harvesting, threshing 

Hail insurance 



&c. 



Cost at farm .... 
Hauling to elevator or station 

Cost at elevator or station 
Price, March 11, 1907 . 



Loss on new land 



Per Acre 



fS.OO 
4.05 
1.50 
2.68 
0.15 



$11.38 
0-90 



12,28 



Per Bushel 

(at 20 per 

Acre) 

$ 0-1500 
0-2025 
0-0750 
01340 
0-0075 



Old Land 



Per Acre 



$ -5690 
-0450 



$0-6135 
0-5300 



$2.80 
1.50 
2.68 
0.15 



Per Bushel 

(at 20 per 

Acre) 



$0-1400 
0-0750 
0-1340 
0-0076 



$7.13 
0.90 



$8.03 



$ -3565 
00450 

$ -4015 
5300 



Gain on 
$0-0835 old land $0-1285 



Three items not included here : (1) taxation ; (2) value of farmer's superintend- 
ence ; (3) rent or interest on. capital. 







In Weyburn 


District 1909 


New Land 


1 Old Land 


Per Acre 


' Per Bushel 

(at ao per 

Acre) 


i Per Acre 

1 


Per Bushel 

j (at 20 per 
Acre) 

$0-1200 
0-0750 
01375 


Breaking 

Cultivation ..... 

Seed '. 

Harvesting, threshing, &c. 

Cost at farm 

Hauling to elevator 

Cost at elevator .... 
Freight to Port Arthur . 

Cost at Port Arthur 


$ 3.25 
1.90 
1.50 
2.75 


$01625 
00950 
0-07fO 
0-1875 


$2.40 
1.50 
2.75 


$9.40 
1.00 


0-4700 
00500 


$8.65 
1.00 


0-3325 
00500 


10.40 


0-5200 
0-1200 

$ 0-6400 


$9.65 


$ 0-3825 
0-1200 


- 


$0-5025 



AGRICDLTUR.'\L DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH-WEST CANAD.A. 223 





In Rouban District 1909 


New Land 


Old Land 


Per Acre 


Per Bushel 
(at 30 per 

Acre) 


Per Acre 


Per Bushel 

(at 30 per 

Acre) 


Breaking 

Cultivation 

Seed 

Harvesting, &c 

Cost at farm 

Hauling grain .... 

Cost at elevator .... 
Freight to Port Arthur . 


$4.50 
3.50 
1.40 
3.75 

13.15 
1.50 


$01500 
01167 
0-0433 
0I2S0 


_ 

»2.60 
1.40 
3.75 


$0-0867 
00433 
01250 


0-4360 
0-0500 


$7.75 
1.5'J 


2550 
0-0500 


14.C5 


4850 
0-1200 


9.25 


0-3050 
0-1200 

$0-1250 




« 0-C050 j — 



It is to be observed that, with the exception of seed and binder 
twine the whole of the above costs are costs for labour, which on a 
small acreage the farmer may, with his family, render himself. His 
actual outgoings are thus small; but if he is a new comer, working 
on new land, he has to compete with others whose land has already 
been in cultivation for years, and whose net earnings are therefore much 
greater, whether they employ labour or not. 

The costs above enumerated vary with the district and with the 
season, so also does the net price obtained, and therefore the profit. 
Any attempt to strike an average must therefore result in an arbitrary 
figure which would be almost destitute of value. The above schedules 
are given chiefly with a view of suggesting how such costs might be made 
up. In addition to the enumerated items there are to be considered 
also three others, one of them variable in different districts, although 
easily ascertainable, viz., taxation; the others are very difficult to 
estimate. These are the value of the farmer's labour of superin- 
tendence — his physical labour has been provided for — and the 
amount of his rent or the interest upon the purchase price of his land, 
with depreciation or improvement taken into account. In the case of 
production upon new land the balance of the cost of cultivation over 
that of old land may fairly be spread over, say, five years. In this 
way the net mean annual cost of his wheat to the fanner in the cases 
quoted would be reduced. His net profit in any one year would, how- 
ever, depend upon the proportion of new land which he brought into 
cidtivation. 

At a Winnipeg price of 75c. per bushel the fai'mer would probably 
make a gross profit, out of which the three last-mentioned items would 
have to be defrayed, of approximately 20c. per bushel, upon such of 
his wheat as might reach the standard for which this price was obtain- 
able. Out of this gross profit the farmer has to provide his wages of 
superintsndence, interest upon the amount paid for his land, interest 
upon his agricultural capital, and, besides, an insurance fund against 
the fluctuations of the seasons and the markets. 



22i 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SOIEN'C'E. 



It should be observed that if the cost of the seed is deducted from 
the total costs, whei-e the farmer saves his own seed, the quantity of 
the seed should be deducted from the yield. 



Increased Miscellaneity of Agricullurul ProdiicHon. 

The process -which was noticed in the conclusion quoted above 
as having manifested itself during the years preceding 1904 — viz., the 
increase in the miscellaneity of agricultural production — has been very 
conspicuous in the more recent period, as is shown by the following 
table. 

Percentage of Acreage sow7i in Wheat to Total Acreage under Grain Crops. ' 



Wheat 
Other crops 


1905 


190C ; 1907 j 1908 


1909 


62-56 
37 44 


63-96 
36 04 


60 68 
39 32 


59-20 
40-80 


65-44 
44-56 


100-00 


100-00 


100 00 


10000 


100-00 



Reference to similar calculations in the report of 1904 will show 
tliat this decline in the proportion of wheat crop area to the total 
cultivated area has continued since 1900, with two slight retardations, 
one in 1903 and the other in 1906.- 

It is to be observed that the crop which has shown the greatest 
juoportional increase is oats. This is exhibited in the following table. 

Percenta-ge of each crop in relation to the Total Area under the following crop.^. 



- 




1905 




1 1909 


Man. 


Sask. 


Alta. 


Total 


Man. 


Sask. 


Alta. 


Total 
.55 44 : 


Wheat . 


63-73 


68 90 


25-85 


6256 


57-31 


59 11 


27-.54 


Oats 


24 86 


27-43 


58-38 


27-79 


28-37 


33 12 


58-66 


33 57 , 


Barley 


10-43 


201 


15 59 


8-55 


14-20 


356 


13-31 


8-72 i 


Flax 


0-GO 


1-54 


0-14 


0-82 


— 


4-21 


— 


217 1 


liye . 


0-17 


— 


— 


0-11 


.010 


— 


0-49 


0-09 i 


Teas 


OOo 


— 


— 


008 


0-02 


— 


— 


0-01 


Speltz 


— 


12 


001 


03 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Corn 


0-17 


— 


— 


0-11 


— 





— 


— 


100 00 


100-00 


10000 


100-00 


100-00 


100 00 


100-00 


100-00 



The increase in the absolute and in the proportional production of 
oats is due chiefly to the great amount of railway construction which 
has been going on in the three provinces during the past five years, 
and to a less degree to the immigration of new settlers. Both of these 
circumstances have involved grsatly increased use of horses, and the 
relatively high prices obtainable for oats has constituted a strong in- 
ducement for the farmer to cultivate that crop. It will ba observed 

' The percentages are based upon the statistics of the Departments of Agri- 
culture of the three nrairie provinces respectively. 
' Cf. Report, 1904, p. 57. 



AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH-WEST CANADA. 225 

that ill Albertu there is a shght increase in the proportional production 
of wheat. This has taken place almost entirely in the southern part 
of the province. Oats remain the preponderating crop in the north. 

Agricultural Progress. — The condition of agricultural progress may 
1)6 estimated from the statistics which have been given. There can bs 
no doubt that, although summer fallowing is becoming more common, 
continuous cropping is still the rule. When wheat yields a high price 
it is very difficult for the farmer to realise that although he may be 
able to secure enough from two or three crops to pay for his fami ha 
may in a few seasons exhaust its value. This method of continuous 
cropping has come to be known in the West as ' mining the farm. ' 
Rotation of crops is, however, coming into practice, and mixed farming 
is becoming more conimon. 

Summer Falloiving. — Although summer fallowing has been univer- 
sally recommended by the directors of the Experimental Farms and 
other agricultural authorities it is as yet applied to a comparatively 
small proportion of the area under wheat cultivation. The last year 
for which statistics on this point are available is 1906. In this- year 
the proportion of the total acreage in the three provinces under spring 
wheat which had been fallow the previous summer was only 25 per 
cent. Manitoba exhibited the highest proportion, or about 30 per cent. ; 
Alberta the lowest — about 16 per cent. 

Irrigation. — Thsre are being carried out at present three large 
schemes — 

1. The Alberta Land and Irrigation Company's, commonly known 
as the Gait Scheme. 

2. The Southern Alberta Iirigation Scheme. It will probably be 
two years from the present time before this company is in a position 
to supply water. They expect to have about half a million acres under 
ditch. The land with which they are dealing is reported to be fine 
land, but useless without irrigation. 

3. The Canadian Pacific Eailway Scheme. This is by far the 
largest of all the schemes. The ultimate intention is to apply it to 
about 3,500,000 acres of land which formed the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way grant in the semi-arid area. This land is in a solid block; the 
arrangement as to alternate sections which applied to the remaining 
22,000,000 acres of their grants does not apply to this area. At 
present the scheme involves about 1,000,000 acres. The block em- 
braced in this portion is divided into three sections — Eastern, Central, 
and Western. In the Western section there remain undisposed of 
about 250,000 acres. The following works are in progress and will 
be completed in 1909 : — 

Main canal, 17 miles. 
Secondary canals, 289 miles. 
Distributing ditches, 1,331 miles. 

About $3,500,000 have already been expended. The total estimated 
expenditure for the three sections is $8,000,000. The plans for the 
irrigation of the eastern and central sections are now being made. 

During the two past years the Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
has undertaken to prepare the land, fence it, and erect buildings, Ac, 
for purchasers of land within the irrigation block in advauce of actual 

1909. . Q 



22G 



RRPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



settlement, charging 5 per cent, over cost. The following represents 
the work done in this way : — 





1908 1 1909 


Breaking 

Sown to wheat 

Fence erected 

Wells sank ...... 


4,000 acres 
2,000 „ 
36 miles 
None 


15,000 acres 
8,000 „ 
. 150 miles 
50 



Some portion of the area, in addition to the quantity mentioned as being 
sown to wheat, is no doubt destined to be so employed next year. 

The proportion of the work done by the Irrigation Department of 
the Canadian Pacific Eailway in relation to the whole of the work done 
in the irrigation block is about 33 per cent. 

The following gives the increase in the acreage under cultivation in 
the irrigation block since 1905: — 



1905 . 


. 1,600 acres 


1908 . 


. 26,000 acres 


1906 . 


. 5,500 „ 


1909 . 


. 71,000 „ 


1907 . 


. 5,800 „ 







This land would probably not have been under cultivation at all but for 
the irrigation scheme. 

Dry Land Farming. — Much attention is now being devoted to what 
is called dry land farming. This practice, which has been introduced 
from the United States, consists of thorough and repeated cultivation. 
The principal advocate of the system, Prof. Campbell, says that, in 
order to render cultivation of grain profitable under his system, an 
annual rainfall of from 14 to 18 inches is required. The regions 
round Swift Current and Calgary fall within these limits, the 
average annual precipitation at these places being 15'74 and 1641 
respectively. The regions round Medicine Hat and Macleod fall below 
the inferior limit, the average annual precipitation being only 13"72 and 
1217 respectively. Unfortunately the experiment of dry land farming 
is being tried in some regions where the natural conditions are quite 
unfavourable. 

Live Stock. — The following shows the increase in live stock between 
1901 and 1906: — 

(OOO's omitted.) 





Year 

1901 
1906 


Horses 


Milch 
Cows 


Other 

Cattle 


Sheep 


Swine 


N.W. Provinces . 
Do. 


340 
682 


244 
384 


698 
1,560 


182 
304 


200 
439 



The increase in animals is thus, on the whole, rather greater than 
the increase in total population, and is much greater than that in 
rural population. 

The Value of Land. — According to the census returns of 1901 
the mean value of land in farms of five acres and upwards was, in 
Manitoba, $10-53 (£2 3s. 4d.) per acre, and in the North-West Terri- 
tories $5-48 (£1 2s. Id.) per acre. The report of the census of the 
Prairie Provinces in 1906 does not give any estimate of the value of 



AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPJIKNT IN iNORTH-WEST CANADA. 227 

land. No general average price can, therefore, be given applicable to 
any year subsequent to lOUl. The following statement is, however, 
useful from a comparative point of view: — 



Sales of 


Lands hehnging to 


Canadian Pacijio Railway, 1901 to 1908.' 


Year 


Acres Sold 


Average Price per Acre 


1901 




399,808 


^3.15 


1902 








1.362,852 


3.26 


1903 








2,639,617 ■' 


3.67 


1904 








928,854 


4.10 


1905 








509,386 


4.80 


1906 








1.115,743 


5.84 


1907 








994,840 » 


5.92 


1908 








164,450 


9.54 



The total of agricultural lands in the Prairie Provinces still in the 
hands of the Company is 8,777,825 acres. These statistics show an 
advance in price of about 300 per cent, as between 1901 and 1908 ; they 
show also a sharp advance beginning in 1906, the price of 1908 being 
doubh that of 1905. As desirable homesteads are now obtainable from 
the Government gratuitously only at an increasing distance from the 
centres of population, further advance in the price of land from these 
relatively low prices must take place, provided the stream of immigration 
is maintained. 

For land outside of the railway land grants, or in favourable positions 
inside of them, prices considerably higher than the averages quoted 
are now being paid. Land which in 1904 was being transferred at 
$10 to $15 per acre is now probably being transferred at from 
$15 to $20. 

The price of agricultural land in the North-West of Canada is still 
considerably lower than that of similar land in the Western States of 
the Union. 

In Manitoba and in Central Saskatchewan and Northern Alberta the 
loan companies may lend upon the security of land up to about one- 
half of the value placed upon the land by their inspectors, but in 
Southern Alberta it is not customary to lend more than $1,000 upon 
any quarter-section of 160 acres — tliat is, about $6 per acre; showing 
that the maximum value placed upon land in this region by the loan 
companies is $12 per acre. 

At the present time the amount due to the Canadian Pacific Railway 
in deferred payments upon agricultural land and town-site sales is 
$14,000,000. The amount due to other railways on this account in 
the North-West is about $11,000,000. The total due on deferred pay- 
ments is thus $25,000j000. 

The average price of land sold from all Government land grants- 
Hudson Bay and railway lands— was in 189.S $2.93, in 1895 $1.94, 



' From tlie animal rejiovts of the Canadian Paoifio Railway Company. 
- Including large blocks of land sold to colonisation companies. 
^ Including land sold under contracts made previously. The average price 
lor lands actually sold within the year was $8.09 per acre. 

q2 



228 RErORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

in 1897 $3.39, in 3899 $3.28, in 1904 $4.39, in 1906 $6.01, and in 
1908 $8.78 per acre.^ 

Railway Development. — A general account of the earlier history of 
railway development in the North-West was given in my report of 
1904. Since that date a very large amount of construction has been 
effected and projects of new lines are constantly being brought forward. 
It should, however, be recognised that in Canada, owing to the advisa- 
bility of affording every encouragement to railway enterprise, the process 
of obtaining a railway charter is usually a very simple one. 

The promoters of a new railway are not required to specify in other 
than a very general way the direction of the proposed line. They are 
not required to lay before Parliament or a Parliamentary Committee 
accurate surveys of the I'oute. This elasticity has many advantages ; 
but it has the disa-dvantage of rendering the railway companies some- 
what casual in their applications to Parliament for charters. The result 
is that many hundreds of railway charters have been granted which 
have not resulted in any construction. 

The following table exhibits the mileage of constructed lines in the 
Prairie Provinces in each year from 1905 till 3908: 





1905 


1906 


1907 


1908 


Canadian Pacific Railway : lines in 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 


Miles 1 


the Prairie Provincus .... 


3,854 


4,097 


4,276 


4,37« 


Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, under 








■ 


construction, Winnipeg to Wolf Creek 


— 





— 


91« 


Canadian Northern Railway : 










In operation ..... 


— 




— 


^.««l..ee 


Under construction .... 


— 








Great Northern Railway 


— 


" 


— 


173 



A very significant although as yet minor figure in the above 
table is the- mileage of the Great Northern Eailway. This railway 
system, whose main line crosses the great central plain parallel 
to and about seventy miles south of the international boundary, 
has been during the past few years sending up feeding lines at 
short intervals from its main line nortliwards to the boundary. 
There are at presr-rit thirteen of these feeding lines on the southern 
boundaries of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Three of these lines 
enter Canadian territory, two of them extending into it for between 
seventy and eighty miles. Two other lines connect with Canadian 
lines. The renuiining eight lines have their termini at, or almost at, 
the frontier. It cannot be supposed that their progress will be per- 
manently arrested there. The President of the Great Northern, Mr. 
James J. Hill, is a Canadian. He was one of the first to recognise the 
agricultural value of the North-West, and tliere can be no doubt about 
the nature of his designs in pusliing feeding lines to his system up into 
the prairies. It is very clear that in the first place he intends to haul 
out wheat to the mills of Minneapolis and St. Paul. It is very clear 
also that he anticipates at no distant date the adoption of a policy of 
reciprocity by the United States and Canada, and the freer movement 
of manufactured goods across the line northwards. It would be idle te 

1 Report of Department of Interior, 1908, Ottawa, 1909. . . . . 



AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH-WEST CANADA. 229 

ignore that this ' iiivjision ' of C'iUiiHliau teiritory by Mr. Hill may not 
only result in conipetitiun with the Canadian railway lines, but must 
necessarily bring the manufacturers of the Middle West into com- 
petition with the manufacturers of Eastern Canada. The conditions 
ill the United States are resulting in the westward development 
of manufactures, so that the western manufacturers in the United 
States would compete with the eastern manufacturers in Canada at 
great advantage, in respect to distance, in a market in the development 
of which Eastern Canada has incurred considerable sacrifices. 

Estimates. — In my report of 1904 I quoted, among other estimates, 
an estimate of the maximum productivity of the North-West of Canada, 
which had been made for the purposes of the report by two highly 
responsible and well-informed experts in North-West settlement and 
agriculture. This estimate (referred to in the report as Estimate No. 1) 
ascribed to the region a possible total area annually available for wheat 
cultivation of 33,750,000 acres, and a possible total yield from this area 
of 254,375,000 bushels. The authors, however, desire me to say 
that although the data available in 1904, and the conditions, so far as 
they could be foreseen at that time, did not justify a higlier estimate, 
they now consider that, provided ' intense cultivation, coupled with 
summer fallowing,' be applied consistently to the western portion of 
Soutliern Saskatchewan and to the whole of Southern Alberta, it would 
be possible to add to their original estimate of 13,750,000 acres annually 
available for wheat production an area of 3,500,000 acres. They tlunk 
that this area might be calculated upon ultimately to produce, at 
18 bushels per acre, a quantity of 63,000,000 bushels. If this quantity 
be added to the quantity formerly estimated, the result will be 
317,375,000 bushels. This total quantity would be sufficient, in tlie 
opinion of the authors, to provide ultimately 232,250,000 bushels 
available for export. But they do not say at what period this is at all 
likely to be realised. I did not assume any responsibility for the 
original estimate, nor do I do so for this amendment. 

The reasons why the anticipations of the more sanguine of the 
prophets of the North-West with regard to wheat production have not 
been realised may be generally ascribed to the fact that due attention 
was not paid to the number of factors which were necessary to produce 
the desired result. 

Apart from the variability of the seasons and the liability of the 
crop in any and every year to damage from deficiency or from excess 
of precipitation, from hailstorms and from insect pests, there is the 
inevitable influence of the prices of the various crops upon their pro- 
portional cultivation, and there is also to be taken into account the 
circumstance that an increase of the acreage under cultivation is not 
always accompanied by maintenance of the yield per acre. 

The principal factors to be taken into account in forming an 
estimate of the productivity of any country in the future may be 
classified as follows: — 

1. The increase of the rural population. 

2. The suitability of different portions of the area for cultivation 
of a particular character, and the appropriateness and purity of the 
seed, together with the degree of its acclimatisation when in a new 
habitat. 



230 RRPORTR ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

3. Personal aptitude on the part of the cultivators and their 
experience of methods of fanning suitable for the soil in question. 

4. Prices of grain and fluctuations of demand. 

5. Facilities for transportation. 

6. Variations of meteorological conditions. 

7. Risk of damage from insect pests. 

Conclusion. — No one who examines the statistics of agricultural 
production in the North-West since 1883 can fail to be astonished at 
the truly marvellous progress which the country has made during the 
short period of twenty-six years which has elapsed since then. In 
1883 the population was insignificant. One railway line had just been 
constructed — indeed, at that date it was not completed to the coast. 
Now in the three provinces there are three great lines of railway, with 
another forcing its way in from the United States. The population 
is upwards of a million, and agricultural productivity has been 
advancing by leaps and bounds. The country needs no fantastic 
exaggeration to draw attention either to its achievements or to its possi- 
bilities. What it needs at present is cool estimate of these and consoli- 
dation rather than excessive expansion. A vast amount of energy and 
much capital have been wasted in attempts to exploit regions which 
are and must for long remain distant from markets, while fertile soils 
easy of access have remained under cultivation of a highly primitive 
character. The immense natural resources of the rich soil of Manitoba 
and of portions of Saskatchewan and Alberta are not even yet being 
fully exploited. Very considerable improvements in agricultural 
methods must yet take place if these resources are to be fully utilised. 



The Development of Wheat Culture in North America. 
By Professor Albert Perry Brigham. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.] 

In the year 1602, on one of the Elizabeth Islands, off the present coast 
of Massachusetts, Bartholomew Gosnold made trial plantings of wheat 
and other grains. The Spaniards had earlier brought wheat to Mexico, 
but this was probably the first wheat sown within the boundaries of the 
United States. Nearly twenty years later wheat was sown at Plymouth, 
without success the first season, but with returns afterward. The grain 
extended itself among the New England colonies, and about 1700 there 
are records of shipments, as from Norwalk to Boston and Boston to 
Virginia. As the eighteenth century progressed, however, wheat 
declined, except as sown on fresh clearings, and was brought in from 
New York and the Southern colonies. That wheat was already moving 
westward is shown by the fact that New England traders bought New 
York wheat, ground it in their own mills, and sold it in the West Indies. 
To revive wheat culture Massachusetts laid a duty on the product to be 
paid as a bounty to farmers, but Weeden tersely says that ' the duty 
could not counteract climate and soil nor feed the fishermen.' 

There is early record of wheat in Virginia, for in 1607 the Council 
informed the Council in England that they had fortified themselves 
against Indians, and had ' sown good store of wheat. ' The first sowings 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF WHEAT CULTURE IN NORTH AMERICA. 231 

of English seed at Jamestown seem not to have been very successful. 
By 1800 wheat was raised along the entire Atlantic border except the 
southern parts of the coastal plain, but the Middle States from New York 
to Virginia assumed pre-eminence and held the centre of wheat for more 
than a generation. Meantime in 1769 missionaries carried the grain to 
California. There was important export to the West Indies in the early 
years of the Federal Government, until Great Britain shut out the ships 
of the United States from this trade. In 1787 wheat was among 
American exports to Mauritius. But it was long before the United 
States assumed a commanding position as a purveyor of bread, for in 
the decade 1830-40 she imported several million bushels of wheat to 
feed her own population. 

In the later years of the eighteenth and the first decades of the nine- 
teenth century western New York, or the Genesee country, proved its 
suitability in soil and climate for the growing of winter wheat. On the 
completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 the industry was favoured by 
suitable prices, the region was the famous wheat centre of the country, 
and Eochester was relatively as important for primary market facilities 
and milling as Minneapolis is to-day. The primacy of western New 
Yoi'k was held imtil wheat began strongly to occupy the States north of 
the Ohio Eiver. 

Before tracing the westward march of the wheat centre it will be 
useful to survey the expansion of acreage and production during recent 
decades, or since 1866. It is this period of progress which has more 
than historical interest, since it has to do with any forecast of the future. 
From 1866 to 1875 the acreage in the United States varied between 
15 to 26 millions, and there was a consistent rise from the beginning 
to the end of the decade. In the following ten years, to 1885, the range 
was from 26 to 39 million acres, giving on the whole a steady increase, 
but showing only 34 million acres in 1885. Tlie period 1886-1895 ranged 
from 34 to 39 million, with smaller acreage in the later years. From 
1896 to 1905 the minimum was 34 and the maximum 49 million, but 
from 1898 to the present time the limits have been 42 and 49 million 
acres. The highest figure — 49 million acres — has been reached twice, 
in 1901 and 1903, and the significant element in the figures is the high 
average of the last dozen years. 

Turning to production, the total for 1866 in the United States was 
151 million bushels. In the next year, 1867, production passed the 
200 million mark permanently. Another milestone was passed in 1874 
with 308 millions. In 1878 the crop was 420 millions, and in 1882 
504 millions. There were fluctuations in the following years, for produc- 
tion from 1883 to 1890 only once reached the 500 million mark, but 
1891 made a showing of 611 millions, and 1898 brought 675 million 
bushels. The average from 1898 to 1908 has been 643 million bushels, 
and tlie maximum was, in 1901, 748 million bushels. 

If single States be considei'ed, some curious fluctuations are 
observable. Thus Kansas has never attained even fourth place in a 
census year, yet holds the State record with her crop of 99 million 
bushels in 1901. She has at least four times passed Minnesota's record 
of 80 million bushels. Minnesota dropped from 68 millions in 1899 
to 51 millions in 1900, and leaped to 80 millions in 1901 . North Dakota 
in the same years went from 51 to 13 and back to 59 millions. Kansas 



232 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCTBNCE. 

in those years made a steady gain from 36 to 82 and 99 millions. 
Production is so widely distributed, however, that the general total for 
the country is much more stable. 

For an orderly review of the movement of wheat from east to west 
in the United States four regions may be distinguished as follows: 
(1) the middle Atlantic States from New York to Virginia, inchiding 
especially Pennsylvania and Maryland; (2) the five States of the ' Old 
North- West,' lying between the Ohio Eiver and the Great Lakes; 
(3) seven States west of the Mississippi River, including Missouri and 
Kansas on the south and Minnesota and North Dakota on the north, 
the wheat belt reaching to the arid parts of the Great Plains ; (4) the 
Cordilleran region, extending to the Pacific Coast. 

The first of these regions was the North American centre of wheat 
from the first full establishment of the crop in the colonies imtil the 
Erie Canal and other means of communication opened to the east the 
possibilities of tlie Old North-West. The crops of New York for seven 
census years are as follows (the crop of 1908 is also included): 

18:^9 12,286.418 bushels 

1841) 13,121,498 

1850 8,681,10.5 

1869 9.750,000 

1879 10.746,000 

1889 8,929.000 

1899 7.005*765 

1908 7,752,000 

The crop of 1905 rose above 10,000,000 bushels. Pennsylvania has 
had a fairly steady rise from 13,000,000 bushels in 1839 to 24,000,000 
in 1899, and her crop for 1908 was 29,000,000, ranking this State among 
great producers, a fact not often recognised. Maryland has almost 
trebled since 1869, and has been above the ten-million mark since 1897, 
producing nearly 15,000,000 bushels in ]907. Virginia fluctuates, 
usually producing from six to ten million bushels. Even West 
Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia show fairly steady records of 
several million bushels each. Taking those States which border the 
Atlantic, not including the Gulf, the total production of wheat in 1906 
was 76 million bushels. In production per square mile Maryland held 
third place in the census of 1900 and in that of 1890, and her crop 
per capita in 1907 was more than 11 bushels. New York's production 
averages about one bushel per capita, and Pennsylvania's rate in her 
best years is about four bushels. 

These figures concerning the sustained yield of many States on the 
eastern l)order have been given to show that the decline in wheat culture 
in this region is largely relative rather than absolute, a fact with which 
common impressions are at variance. It is true that as a whole the needs 
of the local population are not met, and that here is a large market for 
western wheat, but it is not true that the soils are exhausted, or that 
the Atlantic belt of States fails, or will ever fail, to make a substantial 
contribution to the bread supply of the nation. New England's contri- 
bution was never of great significance, but it is of interest to note 
that in recent years Maine and Vermont are the only States in that 
group which make a report of this cereal. 

Before passing to the remaining major regions, it will be of interest 



THE UI'iVELUl'MENT OV WHEAT CM'Ll'URE IN N'OHTH AMEFUC'A. 



W3 



to show in the following table the rank of leading States in census years 
since 1839 : 



Rank of Leading States from the Sixth to the Twelfth Census. 


Year 


First 


Second 


Third 


Fourth 


Production of 
first State 












Bushels 


1839 


Ohio 


Pennsj'lvania 


New York 


Wyoming 


16,000,000 


1849 


Pennsylvania 


Ohio 


New York 


Virginia 


15,000,000 


1859 


Illinois 


Indiana 


Wisconsin 


Ohio 


23,000.000 


1869 


Illinois 


Iowa 


Ohio 


Indiana 


30.000,000 


1879 


Illinois 


Indiana 


Ohio 


California 


44,000,000 


1889 


Minnesota 


California 


Dakota 


Indiana 


45.000,000 


1899 


Minnesota 


N. Dakota 


S. Dakota 


Ohio 


68,000,000 



The swift progress of wheat westward is well shown in the fact 
that Illinois, which is not named in 1849, takes first place in 1859. 
In the same sudden manner Iowa springs to second place in 1869, and 
Minnesota to first rank in 1889. It will be remarked that Ohio 
persistently keeps its place within the group of four for every census 
except one, and that is not the last one. In the same connection it 
should be observed that a State lying farther west, Illinois, after holding 
the primacy three times, passes at once out of the leading group. It 
has already been stated that banner State yields seem to avoid census 
years, for Illinois has a record of 60,000,000 bushels in 1880; 
Minnesota has risen to 78, 79, and 80 millions; North Dakota to 75 
and 77 millions; and Kansas leads all, pi-oducing, in 1901, 99,079,304 
bushels. 

In 1839, while New York and Pennsylvania stood at 12 and 13 
millions, Ohio had come to the front with 16 million bushels, and the 
great record of the second region was well begun. In forty-one years, 
from 1866 to 1906, Ohio produced 1,247,082,674 bushels— an average 
of 30,416,650 bushels. In the twenty-year period 1867-1886 the total 
falls more than 100 millions short of the total for the following equal 
period, 1887-1906. This is a most significant showing; and it should 
be added that, among all States, Ohio in the twelfth census, crop 
of 1899, stood first in product per square mile. Thus still further 
emphasis appears as to the importance of wheat grown east of the 
Mississippi River. Ohio has eight times exceeded 40,000,000 bushels. 

The facts for Indiana are of similar magnitude. In l660 she was 
second in production per square mile; she was first in 1870, 1880, and 
1890, and fourth in 1900. Her total for forty-one years, 1866 to 
1906, fell little short of that of Ohio, and she raised nearly 100,000,000 
more in the second twenty-year period than the first. Like Ohio, 
Indiana exceeded 40,000,000 eight times in the period named, and 
raised more than 45,000,000 in 1908. Illinois has a total for forty-one 
years just under that of Indiana, being 1,160,352,208 — an average of 
28,301,273 bushels. In this State a balance of about 100,000,000 
bushels is in favour of the first twenty-year period. While Ohio and 
Indiana contain only minor areas of prairie, Illinois is a typical prairie 
State, and goes heavily into the production of maize, in which it more 
than equals the combined crops of Indiana and Ohio, 



234 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Michigan and Wisconsin, the Lake States of this group, mak« a 
lesser showing in wheat, Michigan having produced in forty-one years 
two-thirds as much as any one of the three Ohio River States. The 
second twenty -year period shows a moderate dechne over the first. In 
1908, however, Michigan raised nearly 16,000,000 bushels — a product 
of no mean order. Her maximum of 34,000,000 in 1898 suggests 
what her possibilities are. Wisconsin has a different record, having 
often produced over 20,000,000 until 18S4, and since 1892 has bub 
three times reached 10,000,000. In 1908 she dropped to 3,328,000 
bushels. This does not mean that this great State is unsuited to wheat. 
The crop suffered decadence through soil exhaustion, insect enemies, 
and the vast growth of dairying; but, with intelligent methods, there 
seems to be no reason why Wisconsin may not again stand well up in 
the wheat column. Mr. R. A. Moore, Agronomist of the College of 
Agriculture at the University of Wisconsin, expresses the opinion * 
that ' the pendulum will swing back to quite an extent.' He thinks 
the land of Wisconsin too rich for oat-raising, and that with rota- 
tion and other modern methods wheat can again be I'aised without 
impoverishing the soil. Before leaving the second group of States it 
will be of interest to note that of the entire crop of 1906, in the United 
States, of 735,000,000 bushels, 250,000,000 were grown east of the 
Mississippi Eiver. This amounts to about 34 per cent., or slightly 
above one-third of the total. The third group of States forms the well- 
known present centre of wheat in the United States, and the figures 
need not be given in detail for individual States. Minnesota produced 
10,000,000 bushels in 1867, and has steadily risen until, since 1895, 
her crop has never been less than 46,000,000 bushels, and has ranged 
up to 80,000,000. Iowa, as a prairie State, most resembles Illinois, 
but her wheat has seen larger decline. Thirty years ago the crop 
often passed 30,000,000 bushels, but in recent years runs from 8 to 
14 millions. The reason is doubtless to be found in the expansion 
of maize and live-stock industries. Her average for forty-one years, 
1666-1906, was 21,432,000 bushels. Missouri holds a strong average 
production in recent years of 20 to 30 million bushels, the maximum 
being 56,000,000 in 1902. 

Kansas, Nebraska, and the two Dakotas may be called the Missouri 
Eiver wheat States, and represent the newest and greatest development 
of wheat within the territory of the Eepublic. In 1862 Dakota Terri- 
tory (before division) reported 11,000,000 bushels. This was but 
twenty-seven years before the present writing. Since 1897 the crop 
of North Dakota alone has but once fallen below 51,000,000 bushels, 
and rose in 1905 and 1906 to 75 and 77 millions. Nebraska's product 
is usually above 40,000,000 bushels. The total of the three leading 
wheat States of the present time is as follows for the ten years 189'7 
to 1906 : 

Minnesota ... ... ... 685,129,558 bushels 

North Dakota 533,777,567 

Kansas 687,901,805 



Total 1,906,808,930 



Letter of March 16, 1909. 



THE DI'lVKLOl'ArRNT OF WHP-AT CULTITRR IN NORTH AMERICA. 235 



Kansas has a slight lead over Minnesota. She has had several greater 
crojjs than her rival, but is subject to greater fluctuation. The average 
annual total for these three States, 1897-1906, was 190,000,000 bushels. 
The States of Oklahoma and Texas represent an extension of this belt 
along the more southern parts of the prairies and Great Plains. 
Oklahoma has a record in 1894 of two million bushels, with a fluctuating 
rise to 18 and 15 millions in 1906 and 1908. The crop is, of course, 
of longer standing in Texas, with report of nearly two million bushels 
in 1866 to a recent avei'age of about 12 millions. It is an important fact 
that this belt, with its wide range of latitude, divides itself into a spring 
wheat region embracing the five States of Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, 
and the Dakotas, and a winter wlieat section to the southward. In like 
manner Wisconsin and Washington, in the second and fourth of our 
major regions, raise spring wheat. 

The Cordilleran region offers an older development of wheat in the 
three Pacific States, and a more recent pi'Ogress in the intervening 
regions of the Eocky Mountain plateaux and Great Basin. This is in 
harmony with the extraordinary leap of the frontier a half-centui'y ago, 
followed by the gradual occupation of intervening territory. 

California reported 21,000,000 bushels so long ago as 1868. Her 
maximum crop of 45,000,000 bushels belongs to the year 1896. A com- 
parison of two twenty-year periods, 1868-1887 and 1888-1907, shows 
but slight decline; but if two ten-year periods, 1888-1897 and 1898-1907. 
be taken, there is an important falling-off, due perhaps to the immense 
advance of horticulture and the progress of irrigation. California in 
39 years produced 1,149,000,000 bushels of wheat. Oregon has had 
a somewhat uniform range of 10 to 16 million bushels since 1880, 
rising to 24,000,000 in 1898. Not quite 11 million bushels were pro- 
duced in 1908. Washington, on the other hand, has seen conspicuous 
progress, and since 1897 has ranged between 20 and 34 million bushels. 
The greatest thousand-acre yield ever reported is ascribed to Eastern 
Washington in 1881— viz., 51,000 bushels. ^ 

Outside of the coast States there are no large producers in the 
Cordilleran region. Idaho, Colorado, Utah, and Montana each grow 
several million bushels per annum, but in a general survey their chief 
interest has to do with their future possibilities under irrigation. The 
Cordilleran total for 1906 was 94,111,584 bushels. This is 18,000,000 
bushels more than was grown in the Atlantic coast States in the same 
year, but the western area is several times greater. 

The following table, from the twelfth census, gives the successive 
positions of the wheat centre of the United States for the half-century 
1S50-1000: 

Wheat Centre, U.S., 1850-1900. {Seconds omitted.) 



Census Year 


N. Latitude 


W. Longitude 


Appro.ximate Location by important Towns 
70 miles W. of Des Moines, Iowa. 


1900 


41° 39' 


94° 69' 


1890 


39° 33' 


93° 9' 


138 „ S. by E. of Des Moiaes (in Mo.). 


1880 


40° 36' 


90° 30' 


69 „ N.W. of Springfield, Illinois. 


1870 


40° 39' 


88° 48' 


82 „ N.E. of 


1860 


39° 59' 


86° 1' 


18 „ N.E. of Indianapolis, Ind. 


1850 


40° 14' 


81° 58' 


57 „ E.N.E. of Columbus, Ohio. 



' Rep. Bvrean of Statistics, Washinffton, 1903, p. 69. 



236 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

An examination of this movement brings out some interesting facts. 
The amount of westward migration in fifty years was 680 miles. The 
northward movement was about 99 miles. The latitude variation was 
marked by sUght fluctuations for 40 years, and then in a single decade 
wheat moved more than 2° northward, owing to rapid increase in the 
North-West. The greatest westward movement was in the first decade, 
1850-1860, amounting to more than 200 miles. The westward move- 
ment in the ten years 1890-1900 was a little less than 100 miles. 

At the last census the centre of population was in south central 
Indiana; the centre of manufacture was in central Ohio; of corn in 
western Illinois between Springfield and St. Louis ; of all cereals, on 
the Mississippi River near Keokuk, Iowa; and the centre of wheat was 
in western Iowa. In 1850 the corn and wheat centres were near each 
other in Ohio. Wheat has outrun all the other great interests in its 
westward march. 

The present position of the centre of wheat raises a most interesting 
inquiry. The latest data are for 1908, and retui'ns from a few minor 
States are not before the writer. For exact determination detailed figures 
for counties are used by the Census Bureau. But taking the State 
totals, it appears that 320,000,000 bushels, approximately, were raised 
in the States east of the Mississippi, plus the tier of States bordering 
the west bank of that river. This is a little less than half the crop, and 
would seem to carry the centre for 1908 out of Iowa and across the 
Missouri River. Considering latitude movement, it must be noted that 
(lalifornia has fallen off, but tliis is partly offset by a decreased crop also 
in Oregon. The crops, however, of Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, and 
Indiana, which are mostly south of the centre of 1899, were much 
greater in relation to the total in 1908 than in 1899. It would seem 
clear, therefore, that for 1908 the centre has returned southward, and 
might probably be found in south-eastern Nebraska. 

Passing to the inquiry as to the centre of wheat in North America, 
it is to be observed that the Canadian crop of 1908 ^ was 112,434,000 
bushels. 

To take this into account would move the centre as determined for 
the United States northward across a belt sufficient to raise half the 
Canadian product, or 66,000,000 bushels. Assuming the centre for 
the States as in south-eastern Nebraska in 1908, this belt would cross 
southern Iowa and the northern part of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and 
Pennsylvania. As these States are heavy growers, the belt would be 
narrow, and the centre for North America would not go higher in 
latitude than that for the States in 1899. 

Tlie greater part of Canadian wheat, about 92 out of 112 million 
bushels in 1908, is raised in the western provinces, and therefore 
westward of the centre for the States. Making allowance in a similar 
manner, the longitude centre for North America would be found by 
passin