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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

/ . * ni 



8 JUL 1311 

REPORT 



OF THE 



EIGHTIETH MEETING OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 




SHEFFIELD: 1910 

AUGUST 31— SEPTEMBER 7 




LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1911 

Office of the Association: Burlington House, London, W. 



CONTENTS. 



Officers and Council, 1910-1911 xxxi 

Rules of the British Association xxxiii 

Tables : Past Annual Meetings : 

Places and Dates, Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local Secretaries xlix 

Trustees and General Officers lxv 

Sectional Presidents and Secretaries lxvi 

Chairmen and Secretaries of Conferences of Delegates lxxxviii 

Evening Discourses Lxxxix 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xciii 

Attendances and Receipts xciv 

Analysis of Attendances xcvi 

Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes xcvii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee, 1909-1910 ... cxix 
General Treasurer's Account, 1909-1910 cxxvi 

SHEFFIELD MEETING, 1910: 

General Meetings cxxviii 

Sectional Officers cxxviii 

Committee of Recommendations cxxx 

Research Committees cxxxi 

Communications ordered to he printed in e.vtenso cxli 

Resolutions referred to the Council cxli 

Recommendations referred to the Council cxli 

Synopsis of Grants of Money cxlii 

Address by the President, the Rev. Professor T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., 

LL.D.,F.R.S 3 

Reports on the State of Science 37 

Transactions of the Sections 509 

Evening Discourses 818 

Appendix. — Report of the Committee on the Fossil Flora and 

Fauna of the Midland Coalfields 827 

Index 839 

List of Members, &c 96 pages 

A3 



CONTENTS. 



REPOPTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



Page 
The Further Tabulation of Bessel Functions. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill (Chairman), Dr. J. W. 
Nicholson (Secretary), Professor Alfred Lodge, and Dr. L. N. G. 
Filon 37 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards far 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Lord Rayletgh (Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), 
Professors J. Perry, W. G. Adams, and G. Carey Foster, Sir 
Oliver Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors A. 
Schuster, J. A. Fleming, and Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. 
Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. 
Johnstone Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rexnie, 
Principal E. H. Griffiths, Sir Arthur Rucker, Professor H. L. 
Callendar, and Messrs G. Matthey, T. Mather, and F. F. Smith ... 38 

Appendix.— Order in Council relating to Electrical Standards, 

dated January 10, 1910 40 

Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia.— Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir David Gill (Chairman), Dr. W. G. 
Duffield (Secretary), Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, Mr. F. McClean, 
and Professors A. Schuster and H. H. Turner 42 

Seismological Investigations. — Fifteenth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor H. H. Turner (Chairman), Mr. J. Milne 
(Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Sir George Darwin, Mr. Horace 
Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. 
Gray, Professor J. W. Judd, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor 
R. Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. 
Plummer, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, and 
Mr. Nelson Richardson. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 44 

I. General Notes 44 

TI. New Stations 45 

III. Distribution of Earthquakes in 1909 47 

TV. A New Departure in Seismology 48 

V. Changes in Level accompanying certain Earthquakes ... 49 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. Ill 

* 

Page 
VI. Changes in Level due to Tidal Influence 49 

VII. Megaseismic Activity and Rest 54 

VIII. On a Catalogue of Large Earthq uakes 55 

IX. Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes in the Russian 
Empire, Iceland, and the Western part of South 
America 57 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere in co-operation with a Com- 
mittee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Ninth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. E. Gold 
(Secretary), Messrs. D. Archibald, C. Vernon Boys, C. J. P. 
Cave, and W. H. Dines, Dr. R, T. Glazebrook, Sir J. Larmor, 
Professor J. E. Petavel, Dr. A. Schuster, and Dr. W. Watson ... 72 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory.— Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, Dr. Chree, 
Captain Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Sir Arthur Rucker, and Professor 
Schuster 74 

Geodetic Arc in Africa.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
George Darwin (Chairman), Sir David Gill (Secretary), Colonel 
C. F. Close, and Sir George Goldie, appointed to carry out a 
further portion of the Geodetic Arc of Meridian North of Lake 
Tanganyika 75 

The Study of Astronomy, Meteorology, and Geophysics.— Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Sir Arthur ROcker (Chairman), 
Professor A. E. H. Love (Secretary), Sir Oliver Lodge, Sir J. J. 
Thomson, Professors C. G. Knott, E. Rutherford, A. Schuster, 
and E. T. Whittaker, Drs. W. G. Duffield and G. T. Walker, 
and Mr. R. T. A. Innes, appointed to report upon the provision for 
the Study of Astronomy, Meteorology (including Atmospheric Elec- 
tricity), and Geophysics in the Universities of the British Empire ... 77 

Electroanalysis. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
F. S. Kipping (Chairman), Dr. F. M. Perkin (Secretary), Dr. G. T. 
Beilby, Dr. T. M. Lowry, Professor W. J. Pope, and Dr. H. J. S. 

Sand 79 

Dynamic Isomerism. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
H. E. Armstrong (Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. 
M. O. Forster, and Dr. A. Lapworth. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary) 80 

The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances. -Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. E. Divers (Chairman), Professor A. W. Crossley 

a 3 



IV CONTENTS. 

i 

Page 
(Secretary), Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. 0. Forster, and Dr. 

H. R. Le Sueur 82 

The Transformation of Aromatic Nitre-amines and Allied Substances, 
and its Relation to Substitution in Benzine Derivatives. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping (Chairman), 
Professor K. J. P. Orton (Secretary), Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. 
Lapworth, and Dr. J. T. Hewitt 85 

The Study of Isomorphous Derivatives of Benzene Sulphonic Acid. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Principal Miers (Chairman) 
and Professors H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), W. J. Pope, and 
W. P. Wynne 100 

Erratic Blocks of the British Tsh-s. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. R. H. Tiddeman (Chairman), Dr. A. R. Dwekry- 
house (Secretary), Dr. T. G. Bonnev, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr. F. W. 
Harmer, Rev. S. N. Harbison, Dr. J. Horne, Mr. W. Lower 
Carter, Professor W. J. Sollas, and Messrs. Wm. Hill, J. W. 
Stather, and J. H. Milton 100 

Faunal Succession in the Lower Carboniferous Limestone (Avonian) 
of the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor J. W. Gregory (Chairman), Dr. A. Vaughan (Secretary), Dr. 
Wheelton Hind, and Professor W. W. Watts, appointed to enable 
Dr. A. Vaughan to continue his Researches thereon. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary) 106 

Investigation of the Igneous and Associated Rocks of the Glensaul and 
Lough Nafooey Areas, Cos. Mayo and Galway. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. Watts (Chairman), 
Professor S. H. Reynolds (Secretary), Mr. H. B. Maute, and 
Mr. C. I. Gardiner 110 

Composition and Origin of the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. — Fifth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. Harker (Chairman), 
Mr. E. 'Greenly (Secretary), Dr. J. Horne, Dr. C. A. Matley, 
and Professor K. J. P. Orton 110 

The Excavation of Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales 
and the West of England. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor C. Lapworth (Chairman), Mr. G. W. Fernsides (Secre- 
tary), Dr. J. E. Marr, Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. G. J. 
Williams 113 

Third Report on Excavat'ions among the Cambrian Rocks of 
Comley, Shropshire, 1909, by E. S. Cobbold, F.G.S 113 

South African Strata.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor J, W. Gregory (Chairman). Professor A. Young (Secretary), 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCJENCE. V 

Page 
Mr. W. Anderson, Professor R. Broom, Dr. G. S. Corstorphine, 
Dr. Walcot Gibson, Dr. F. H. Hatch, Sir T. II. Holland, Mr. 
H. Kynastox, Mr. F. P. Mennell, Dr. Molengraafe, Mr. A. J. C. 
Molyneux, Dr. A. W. Rogers, Professor E. H. L. Schwakz, and 
Professor R. B. Young, appointed to investigate and report on the 
Correlation and Age of South African Strata and on the Question 
of a Uniform Stratigraphical Nomenclature. (Drawn up by the 
Chairman) •••• 123 

Photographs of Geological Interest. Seventeenth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor J. Geikie (Chairman), Professors 
W. W. Watts and S. H. Reynolds (Secretaries), Dr. Tempes. 
Anderson, Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. G. Bonnet, Mr. C. V. Crook, 
Professor E. J. Garwood, Messrs. W. Gray, 11. Kidston, and 
A. S. Rf.id, Dr. J. J. H. Teall, and Messrs. R. Welch, W- 
Whitakek, and H. B. Woodward. (Drawn up by the Secretaries) 142 

Topographical and Geological Terms used locally in South Africa. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh 
(Chairman), Dr. F. II. Hatch (Secretary), Dr. G. Corstorphine, 
and Messrs. A. du Toit, A. P. Hall, G. Kynaston, F. P. Men- 
nell, and A. R. Rogers, appointed to determine the precise 
Significance of Topographical and Geological Terms used locally in 
South Africa. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 160 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. -Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing (Secretary), Sir E. Ray Lankester, Pro- 
fessor A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. McIntosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, 
Mr. G. P. Bidder, and Dr. W. B. Hardy 165 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bather 
(Secretary), Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Dr. W. E. 
Hoyle, Hon. Walteh Rothschild, and Lord Walsingham 167 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. -Twentieth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. F. Du Cane Godman (Chairman), Mr. 
D. Sharp (Secretary), Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
and Mr. Edgar A. Smith 167 

Zoology Organisation. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Sir E. Ray Lankester (Chairman), Professor S. J. Hickson 
(Secretary), Professors G. C. Bourne, J. Cossar Ewart, M. Hartog, 
W. A. Herdmax, and J. Graham Kerr, Mr. O. H. Latter, 
Professor Minchin, Dr. P. 0. Mitchell, Professors C. Llosd 
Morgan, E. B. Poulton, and A. Sedgwick, Dr. A. E. Shipley, 
and Rev. T. R. 11. Stebbing 168 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor A. Denpy (Chairman and Secretary), Sir E. Rat 
Lankester, Professor A. Sedgwick, Professor Sydney H. Vines, and 
Mr. E. S. Goodrich, appointed to nominate competent Naturalists 
to perform definite pieces of work at the Marine Laboratory, 
Plymouth 168 

Inniskea Whaling Station. — Report of the Committee, consisting of J)r. 
A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Professor J. Stanley Gardiner 
(Secretary), Professor W. A. Herdman, Rev. W. Spots wood 
Green, Mr. E. S. Goodeich, Dr. H. W. Marett Tims, and Mr. 
R M. Barrington, appointed to investigate the Biological Problems 
incidental to the Inniskea Whaling Station 168 

Experiments in Inheritance.— Third Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman), Mr. Douglas 
Laurie (Secretary), Professor R. C. Punnett, and Dr. W. H. 
Marett Tims. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 169 

Feeding Habits of British Birds.— Second Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Mr. H. S. Leigh (Secre- 
tary), Messrs. J. N. Halbert, C. Gordon Hewitt, Robert New- 
stead, Clement Reid, A. G. L. Rogers, F. V. Theobald, and 
Professor F. E. Weiss, appointed to investigate the Feeding Habits 
of British Birds by a study of the contents of the crops and gizzards 
of both adults and nestlings, and by collation of observational evidence, 
with the object of obtaining precise knowledge of the economic stains 
of many of our commoner birds affecting rural science 169 

The Amount and Distribution of Income (other than Wages) below the 
Income-tax Exemption Limit in the United Kingdom. - Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professors E. Cannan (Chairman), 
A. L. Bowley (Secretary), F. Y. Fdgeworth, and H. B. Lees 

Smith and Dr. W. 11. Scott 170 

(iaseous Explosions.- -Third Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir W. H. PREECE (Chairman), Mr Dugald Clerk and Professor 
Bertram Hopkinson (Joint Secretaries), Professors Bone, Burstall, 
Callendar, Coker, Dalby, and Dixon, Dr. Glazebrook, Professors 
Petavel, Smithells, and Watson, Dr. Harker, Lieut. -Colonel 
Holden, Captain Sankey, Mr. D. L. Chapman, and Mr. H. E. 
Wimperis, appointed for the Investigation of Gaseous Explosions, 
with special reference to Temperature , 199 

Appendix A.— Radiation from Flames 214 

,, B. — On Radiation in a Gaseous Explosion 221 

,, C. — Abstracts of Papers relating to Siemens' Furnace 225 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OK SCIENCE. Vll 

Page 
Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor J. L. Myres (Chairman), Professor R. C. 
Bosaxquet (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, and Professor W. Ridgeway, 
appointed to co-operate with Local Committees in Excavations on 
Roman Sites in Britain 227 

Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Interim Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. D. G. Hogarth (Chairman), 
Professor J. L. Myres (Secretary), Professor R. C. Bosaxquet, Dr. 
\V. L. H. Duckworth, Dr. A. J. Evans, Professor A. Macalister, 
Professor VV. Ridgeway, and Dr. F. C. Shkubsall 228 

ArPExnix I. — A Report on Cretan Anthropometry. By Charles 

H. Hawes 228 

,, II. — Observations on 104 School-children at Vori and at 
Palaikastro in Crete. By W. L. H. Duck- 
worth, M.D., Sc.D 237 

,, III. — Some remarks on Dr. Duckworth's Report (Ap- 
pendix II.). By Charles H. Hawes 251 

Archaeological Investigations in British East Africa. — Interim Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. D. G. Hogarth (Chairman), 
Dr. A. C. Haddon (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, Mr. C. T. Currelly, 
Dr. H. O. Forbes, and Professor J. L. Myres 256 

Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles. — Report of the Com- 
mittee (consisting of Professor Arthur Thomson (Chairman), Mr. J. 
Gray (Secretary), and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall 256 

Anthropological Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. S. Kixgsford (Secretary), 
Dr. G. A. Audex, Mr. E. Heawood, and Professor J. L. Myres, 
appointed for the Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registra- 
tion of Photographs of Anthropological Interest 257 

The Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. 1\. Munro (Chairman), Professor W. 
Boyd Dawkixs (Secretary), Professor W. Ridgeway, and Messrs. 
Arthur J. Kvaxs, C. II. Head, H. Balfour, and A. Bulleid, 
appointed to investigate the Lake Villages in the neighbourhood of 
Glastonbury in connection with a Committee of the Somersetshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society. (Drawn up by Messrs. 
Arthur Bult.eid and H. St. George Cray, the Directors of the 
E xca va tions) 258 

The Age of Stone Circles.— Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. C. H. Reau (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour (Secretary), Lord 



viii CONTENTS. 

Page 
Avebuey, Professor W. Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. A. J. 
Evans, Dr. R. Munro, Professor Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. 
Lewis, appointed to conduct Explorations with the object of 
ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles. (Drawn up by the Secretary)... 264 

Archaeological and Ethnological Investigations in Sardinia. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Mr. D. G. Hogarth (Chairman), 
Professor R. C. Bosanquet (Secretary), Drs. T. Ashby, W. L. H. 
Duckworth, and F. C. Shrubsall, and Professor J. L. Myres 264 

Ethnographic Survey of Canada. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Rev. Dr. G. Bryce (Chairman), Mr. E. S. Hartland (Secretary), 
Dr. P. H. Bryce, Mi-. C. Hill-Tout, Dr. B. Sulter, Professor J. L. 
Myres, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, Professor H. Mont- 
gomery, Mr. A. F. Hunter, Dr. J. Maclean, and the Hon. 
David Laird 265 

Notes and Queries in Anthropology. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Professor J. L. Myres (Secre- 
tary), Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. T. A. Joyce, and 
Drs. C. S. Myers, W. H. R. Rivers, C. G. Seligmann, and F. C. 
Shrubsall, appointed to prepare a New Edition of Notes and Queries 
in Anthr op ology 266 

The Establishment of a System of Measuring Mental Characters.— 
Report of the Committee consisting of Dr. W. McDougall (Chair- 
man), Mr. J. Gray (Secretary), Mr. W. Brown, Miss Cooper, 
Dj-. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. C. S. Myers, Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, 
Dr. W. G. Smith, Dr. C. Spearman, and Mir. W. H. Winch 267 

The Ductless Glands. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Schafer (Chairman), Professor Swale Vincent (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. Shore, and Mrs. W. H. Thompson. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 267 

Anaesthetics. -Second Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. A. D. Waller (Chairman), Dr. F. W. Hewitt (Secretary), 
Dr. Blumfeld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, and Dr. J. A. Buckmaster, 
appointed to acquire further knowledge, Clinical and Experimental, 
concerning Anaesthetics — especially Chloroform, Ether, and Alcohol 
— with Special Reference to Deaths by or during Anaesthesia, and 
their possible Diminution 268 

Appendix I. — On the Principles of Anaethesia by Ether Vapour. 

By Dr. A. D. Waller 270 

,, II. — On the Rate of Assumption of Chloroform by the 
Blood ; and the Percentages of Chloroform found 
in the Blood of Cats at the Asphyxial Point, using 
different Strengths of Chloroform-Air Mixture 
By Dr. G. A. Buckmaster and Mr. J. A. Gardner 275 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. >X 

Page 

Appendix III.— The Influence of Oxygen upon the Anaesthetic Effect 
of Chloroform. By F. W. Hewitt, M.A., M.D., 
and A. D. Waller, M.D., F.R.S 278 

The Dissociation of Oxy-Hremoglobin at High Altitudes.- Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor E. H. Starling (Chairman), 
Mr. J. Barcroft (Secretary), and Dr. W. B. Hardy 280 

Electromotive Phenomena in Plants.— Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. A. D. Waller (Chairman), Mrs. Waller (Secretary), 
Professors F. Gotch, J. B. Farmer, and Veley, and Dr. F. O'B. 
Ellison. (Drawn up by Dr. A. D. Waller) 281 

Appendix.— On the Blaze Currents of Laurel Leaves in relation to 
their Evolution of Prussic Acid. By Mrs. A. M. 
Waller 288 

The Effect of Climate upon Health and Diseass. - Fourth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir Lauder Brunton (Chairman), Mr. J. 
Barcroft and Lieut. -Colonel R. J. S. Simpson (Secretaries), Colonel 
Sir D. Bruce, Dr. S. G. Campbell, Sir Kendal Franks, Professor 
J. G. McKendrtck, Sir A. Mitchell, Dr. C F. K. Murray, Dr. C. 
Porter, Dr. J. L. Todd, Professor G. Sims Woodhead, and the Heads 
of the Schools of Tropical Medicine of Liverpool, London, and 
Edinburgh 290 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue. — Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor C. S. Sherrington (Chairman), Mr. W. 
MacDougall (Secretary), Professor J. S. MacDonald, and Mr. H. 
Sackville Lawson 292 

Interim Report on Muscular Fatigue. June 1909. By Professor 
J. S. MacDonald 292 

Interim Report (No. 2). — Mental Fatigue in Schools. June 1910. 
By Mr. H. Sackville Lawson 295 

Body Metabolism in Cancer. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor C. S. Sherrington (Chairman) and Dr. S. M. Copeman 
(Secretary) 297 

The Experimental Study of Heredity. — Report of the < lommittee, con- 
sisting of Mr. Francis Darwin (Chairman), Mr. A. G. Tansley 
(Secretary), and Professors Bateson and Keeble 300 

Clare Island. — Report of thte Committee, consisting of Professor T. 
Johnson (Chairman), Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger (Secretary), Professor 
Grenville Cole, Dr. Schakit, and Mr. A. G. Tansley, appointed to 
arrange a Botanical, Zoological, and Geological Survey of Clare 
Island 301 



CONTENTS. 

Page 
The Structure of Fossil Plants. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. D. H. Scott (Chairman), Professor F. W. Oliver (Secretary), 
Mr. E. A. Newell Arber, and Professors A. C. Seward and F. E. 
Weiss 301 

Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor J. J. Findlay (Chairman), 
Professor J. A. Green (Secretary), Professor J. Adams, Sir E. 
Brabrook, Professor E. P. Culverwell, Dr. W. Brown, Mr. G. F. 
Daniell, Miss B. Foxley, Professor R. A. Gregory, Dr. C. W. 
Kimmins, Mr. T. Loveday, Dr. T. P. Nunn, Dr. Slaughter, Mr. 
Bompas Smith, Dr. Spearman, Mr. Twentyman, Miss L. Edna 
Walter, and Dr. F. Wabner, appointed to inquire into and report 
upon the methods and results of research into the Mental and Physical 
Factors involved in Education 302 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Mr. W. Whitaker (Chairman), Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing 
(Secretary), Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. 
Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. Lewis, Professor R. Meldola, Mr. F. W. 
Rudler, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and the 1'resident and General 
Officers. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 311 

Report of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 
held at Sheffield on September 1 and 6, 1910 312 

Address by the Chairman, Dr. Tempest Anderson (Some Methods 
of Optical Projection) 312 

Systematic Recording of Captures. By F. Balfour Browne 314 

The Adaptation of Roads to Fast and Heavy Motor Traffic. By 
T. R. Wilton, M.A., Assoc.M.Inst.C.E 316 

Discussion on the Ordnance and Geological Survey Maps and the 
enhanced Prices 320 

List of Corresponding Societies, 1910-1911 322 

Catalogue of the more important Papers published by the Corre- 
sponding Societies during the year ending May 31, 1910 327 

Report on the History and Present State of the Theory of Integral 
Equations. By H. Batf.mam 345 

A Report on Solubility. Part I. By J. Vargas Eyre, Ph.D 425 

Report on Gaseous Combustion. Bv William Arthur Bone, D.Sc, 
Ph.D., F.R.S 469 

PisTcnssion 501 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. X' 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 

[ \n asterisk * indicates that the title only is given. The mark f indicates the same, 
but with a reference to the Journal or Newspaper in which it is published in extenso.J 

Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Page 

Address by Professor E. W. Hobson, D.Sc., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 509 

1. Positive Rays. By Professor Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 522 

2. A New Spectrophotometer of the Hiifner Type. By E. A. 

Houstoun, M.A., Ph.D., D.Sc 524 

3. A New and Simple Means of producing Interference Bands. By 

R. A. Houston, M.A., Ph.D., D.Sc 524 

4. *A New Gvroscopic Apparatus. Bv Professor A. E. H. Love, 

F.R.S. : 524 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 
Joint Meeting with Section B : Discussion on Combustion (p. 501) 524 

1. *The Molecular Weight of Radium Emanation. By Sir William 

Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S., and Dr. R. W. Gray 524 

2. On the Number of Electrons in the Atom. By Dr. J. A. CaoWTHEB 524 

3. On the Attraction Constant of a Molecule of a Compound and its 

Chemical Properties. By R. D. Kleeman, D.Sc, B.A , 525 

4. Report on Solubility. By Dr. J. V. Eyre (p. 425) 526 

5. *Tlie Deduction of Hydration Values of Acids from the Rate at 

which they induce Hydrolysis. By F. P. Worley 526 

Mathematical Department. 

1. *On Functions derived from Complete and Incomplete Lattices in 

Two Dimensions and the Derivation therefrom of Functions 
which enumerate the Two Dimensional Partition of Numbers. 
By Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S 526 

2. On a certain Permutation Croup. By Dr. H. F. Baker, F.R.S.... 526 

3. On the Trist'ction of the Elliptic Functions. By Dr. H. F. Baku:, 

F.R.S. 528 



Xll CONTENTS. 

Page 

4. On (lie Convergence of certain Series used in Electron Theory. By 

Professor A. W. Conway 529 

5. Two Notes on Theory of Numbers. By Lieut. -Colonel Allan 

Cunningham, R.E 529 

6. The Initial Motions of Electrified Spheres. By J. W. Nichol- 

son, M.A., D.Sc 530 

7. On the Need of a Non-Euclidean Bibliography. By Duncan M. Y. 

Sommerville, M.A., D.Sc 531 

8. Report on the History and Present State of the Theory of Integral 

Equations. By H. Bateman (p. 345) 532 

9. The Foci of a Circle in Space and some Geometrical Theorems 

connected therewith. By H. Bateman 532 

10. On the Theory of the Ideals. By Professor J. C. Field 533 

11. Report on Bessel Functions (p. 37) 533 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Demonstration of Vacuum-tight Seals between Iron and Glass. 

By Henry J. S. Sand, Ph.D., D.Sc 533 

2. *The Relation between Density and Refractive Index. By Dr. T. 

H. Havelock 534 

3. A Complete Apparatus for the Measurement of Sound. By Pro- 

fessor Arthur Gordon Webster 534 

4. On the Relation of Spectra to the Periodic Series of the Elements. 

By Professor W. M. Hicks, D.Sc, F.R.S 534 

5. The Series Spectrum of the Mercury Arc. By S. R. Milner, D.Sc. 534 

6. On Apparatus for the production of Circularly Polarised Light and 

a New Form of White Light Half-shade. By A. F. Oxley 535 

^Joint Discussion with Section G on the Principles of Mechanical 
Flight. Opened by Professor G. H. Bryan, F.R.S 536 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Discussion on Atmospheric Electricity. Opened by Dr. ('hakles 

Chree, F.R.S 536 

Department of Mathematics and Physics. 

1. An Auto-collimating and Focussing Prism, and a Simple Form of 

Spectrograph. By Professor C. Fery, D.Sc 537 

2. The Magnetic Field produced by the Motion of a Charged Con- 

denser through Space. By W. F. G. Swann, B.Sc 538 

3. On the Secondary Radiation from Carbon at Low Temperatures. 

By V. E. Pound 538 

4. Photoelectric Fatigue. By H. Stanley Allen, M.A., D.Sc 538 

5 On the Recoil of Radium B from Radium A. By Dr. W. Makoweh, 

Dr. S. Russ, and E. J. Evans 541 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. Xlll 

Page 
6- On the Resolution of the Spectral Lines of Mercury. By Professor 

J. C. McLennan and N. Macallum 542 

7. On the Active Deposit from Actinium. By W. T. Kennedy 542 

8. Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards (p. 38) 543 



Department of Cosmical Physics and Astronomy. 

1. On Barometric Waves of Short Period. By Dr. Wilhelm Schmidt 543 

2. Observations on the Upper Atmosphere during the Passage of the 

Earth through the Tail of Halley's Comet. By W. H. Dines, 
F.RS 544 

3. Radiation Pressure in Cosmical Problems. By J. W. Nicholson, 

M.A., D.Sc 544 

4. Note on the Results of the Hourly Balloon Ascents made from the 

Meteorological Department of the Manchester University, March 
18 to 19, 1910. By Miss Margaret White, M.Sc 545 

5. ^Temperature Inversions in the Rocky Mountains. By R. F. 

Stupart 546 

6. The Effect of Radiation on the Height and Temperature of the 

Advective Region. By E. Gold, M.A 546 

7. *A Sensitive Bifilar Seismograph with some Records. By Professor 

F. G. Baily, M.A 547 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. *Stars as Furnaces. By Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S.... 547 

2. *On the Evolutions of a Vortex. By Professor W. M. Hicks, 

F.R.S 547 

3. Report of the Seismological Committee (p. 44) 547 

4. On the Rate of Propagation of Magnetic Disturbances. By C. 

Chree, D.Sc, F.R.S 547 

5. Ninth Report on the Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere (p. 72) 548 

6. Report on Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory (p. 74) 548 

7. Report of the Committee to aid in Establishing a Solar Observatory 

in Australia (p. 42) 548 

8. Report on the Geodetic Arc in Africa (p. 75) 548 

9. Report on the Provision for the Study of Astronomy, Meteorology, 

and Geo2Jhysics in the Universities of the British Empire (p. 77) 548 

Section B.- CHEMISTRY. 
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by J. E. Stead, F.R.S., F.I.C., F.C.S., President of the 
-Section . 549 



XIV CONTENTS. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 



Page 



&*■ 



Joint Discussion with Section A on Combustion (p. 501) 561 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Joint Discussion with Sections K and I on the Biochemistry of Respira- 
tion (p. 762) 561 

On the Influence of the Pressure, Humidity, and Temperature of the 
Atmosphere on the rate of Metabolism in Animals. By Win, 
Thom son 561 

t Joint Discussion with Section L on the Neglect of Science by Industry 
and Commerce. Opened by R. Blair 562 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 
First Division. 

1. *On a Fourth Recalescence in Steel. By Professor J. O. Arnold... 562 

2. Allotropy or Transmutation ? By Professor Henry M. Howe, 

LL.D. 562 

3. The Closing and Welding of Blowholes in Steel Ingots. By Pro- 

fessor Henry M. Howe, LL.D 563 

4. *The Provident Use of Coal. Bv Professor H. E. Armstrong, 

F.R.S ' 564 

5. The Influence of Chemical Comjaosition and Thermal Treatment on 

Properties of Steel. By Professor A. McWilltam, A.R.S.M., 
M.Met 564 

6. Ferro-Silicon ; with special reference to Possible Danger arising 

from its Transport and Storage. By Dr. S. M. Copeman, F.R.S. 565 

7. The Corrosion of Iron and Steel. By J. Newton Friend 566 

8. The Influence of Heat Treatment on the Corrosion, Solubility, and 

Solution Pressures of Steel. By Cyril Chappell and Frank 
Hodson 566 

9. The Crystalline Structure of Iron at High Temperatures. By 

Walter Rosenhain, B.A., D.Sc 567 

10. Report on Electroanalysis (p. 79) 569 

Second Division. 

1. *An Instance illustrating the Relative Instabilities of the 

Trimethylene Ring as compared with the Tetramethylene Ring. 
By Dr. J. F. Thorpe, F.R.S 569 

2. *The Elimination of a Carboxethyl Group during the Closing of the 

Five-Membered Ring. By A. D. Mitchell and Dr. J. F. 
Thorpe, F.R.S 569 

3. The Molecular Complexity of Nitrosoamines. By W. E. S. Turner 

and E. W. Mekry 569 



TRANSACTIONS OK THE SECTIONS. XV 

... . Pa S e 

4. Molecular Association in Water, illustrated by Substances contain- 

ing the Hydroxyl Group. By W. E. S. Turner and C. J. Peddle 569 

5. The Problem of Molecular Association : I. The Affinities of 'the 

Halogen Elements. By W. E. S. Turner 570 

6. *Formation of Tolane Derivatives from Benzotrichloridos. By Dr. 

J. Kenner and E. Witham 570 

7. *The Nitro Chloro and the Dichlorololuene Sulphonic Acids. By 

Dr. J. Kenner and Professor W. P. Wynne, F.R.S .'. 570 

8. *The Action of Metals upon Alcohols. By Dr. F. M. Perkin 570 

9. Report on Dynamic Isomerism (p. 80) 570 

10. Report on Aromatic Nitroamines (p. 82) 570 

11. Report on the Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives of 

Benzene (p. 100) 570 

12. Report on the Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances (p. 82) 570 

SUB-SECTION OF AGRICULTURE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 
Address by A. D. Hall, M.A., F.R.S., Chairman 571 

1. Impurities in the Atmosphere of Towns and their Effects upon 

Vegetation. By Arthur G. Ruston, B.A., B.Sc, and Charles 
Crowther, M.A., Ph.D 577 

2. Some Troublesome Diseases of the Potato Tuber. Bv A. S. Horne, 

B.Sc, F.G.S " 578 

3. A Preliminary Note on the Fatty Substances in Oat Kernel. By 

Professor R. A. Berry, Ph.D." '. 579 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Sugar-beet Growing and Beet-sugar Manufacture in England. By 

Sigmund Stein ,. 579 

2. The Financial Aspect of the proposed Sugar-beet Industry. By 

G. L. Courthope, M.P 580 

3. The Fixation of Nitrogen by Free Living Soil Bacteria. By Pro- 

fessor W. B. Bottomley, M.A 581 

4. Notes on the Nature of Nitrogen Fixation in the Root Nodules of 

Leguminous Plants. By John Golding, F.I.C 582 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Joint Meeting with Section D : — 

The Part played by Micro-organisms other than Bacteria in 
determining Soil Fertility. By E. J. Russell, D.Sc, and 
H. B. Hutchinson, Ph.D 583 



xv [ CONTENTS. 

Page 
' Points ' in Farm Livestock and their Value to the Scientific Breeder. 

By K. J. J. Mackenzie, M.A., A.S.I 584 

Joint Meeting with Section C: — 

1 Soil Surveys for Agricultural Purposes. By A. D. Hall, 

F.R.S., and E. J. Russell, D.Sc 585 

2. The Drift Soils of Norfolk. By L. F. Newman 586 

3 The Scouring or ' Teart ' Lands of Somerset. By C. T. 

Gimingham, F.T.C 586 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1 *The Cost of a Day's Horse Labour. By A. D. Hall, M.A., 

F.R.S 587 

2. *Oosts in the Danish System of Farming. By Christopher 

TURNOR 587 

Joint Discussion with Section F on the Magnitude of Error in Agri- 
culture Experiments: — 

(i) ^Scientific Method in Experiment. By Professor H. E. 

Armstrong, F.R.S 587 

(ii) *The Interpretation of Experimental Results. By Pro- 
fessor T. B. Wood, M.A., and F. J. M. Stratton, M.A. 587 

(iii) The Accuracy of Feeding Experiments. By Professor 

T. B. Wood, M.A., and A. B. Bruce 588 

(iv) The Sampling of Agricultural Products for Analysis. By 

Professor T. B. Wood, M.A., and A. B. Bruce 588 

(v) The Error of Experiment in Agricultural Field Trials. By 

A. D. Hall, F.R.S., and E. J. Russell, D.Sc 588 

(vi) The Application of the Theory of Errors to Investigations 

on Milk. By S. H. Collins 589 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Professor A. P. Coleman, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., President 

of the Section 591 

1. *The Yoredale Series and its Equivalents elsewhere. By Cosmo 

Johns 603 

2. Notes on the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of the Cautley District, 

Sedbergh, Yorks. By J. E. Marr, Sc.D., F.R.S., and W. G. 
Fearnsides, M.A., F.G.S 603 

3. The Graptolitic Zones of the Salopian Rocks of the Cautley Area 

near Sedbergh, Yorkshire. By Miss G. R. Watney and Miss 
E. G. Welch 603 



TRANSACTIONS OF TIIE SECTIONS. XV11 

Page 

4. Pleochroic Halos. By Professor J. Joly, F.R. S 604 

5. Outlines of the Geology of Northern Nigeria. By Dr. J. D. 

Falconer, M.A., F.G.S 604 

6. Notes on Natal Geology. By Dr. F. H. Hatch, F.G.S 604 



FBI DAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 
Joint Meeting with Section E (p. 652) 605 

M ON DAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Report of the Seismological Committee (p. 44) 605 

2. *The Geology of Cyrenaica. By Professor J. W. Gregory, D.Sc., 

F.R.S .' 605 

3. *An Undescribed Fossil from the Chipping Norton Limestone. By 

Marmaduke Odling 605 

4. The Glaciated Rocks of Ambleside. By Professor Edward Hull, 

LL.D., F.R.S 606 

5. The Shelly Moraine of the Sefstrom Glacier, Spitsbergen, and its 

Teachings. By G. W. Lampltjgh, F.R.S 606 

Joint Meeting with Sub-section B (Agriculture) (p. 585) 607 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBEB 6. 

1. The Cause of Gravity Variations in Northern India. By Professor 

Sir Thomas H. Holland, K.C.I.E., D.Sc, F.R.S 607 

2. Discussion on the Concealed Coalfield of Nottinghamshire, Derby- 

shire, and Yorkshire : — 

(i) On the Concealed Portion of the York, Derby, and Not- 
tingham Coalfield. By Professor Percy Fry Kendall, 
M.Sc. F.G.S 608 

(ii) The Coal Measures of the Concealed Yorkshire, Nottingham- 
shire, and Derbyshire Coalfield. By Walcot Gibson, D.Sc. 609 

3. Marine Bands in the Yorkshire Coal Measures. By H. Culpin ... 610 

4. The Occurrence of Marine Bands at Maltby. By Wm. H. Dyson . . . 610 

5. The Geology of the Titterstone Clee Hills. By E. E. L. Dixon, 

B.Sc, A.R.C.S., F.G.S 611 

6. Structural Petrifactions from the Mesozoic, and their bearing on 

Fossil Plant Impressions. By Miss M. C. Stopes, D.Sc, Ph.D., 
F.L.S 613 

7. On some Rare Fossils from the Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire 

Coalfield. By L. Moysey, B.A., M.B., F.G.S 613 

a 



XVlii CONTEXTS. 

Page 

8. The Origin of the British Trias. By A. R. Horwood 614 

9. On a Buried Tertiary Valley through the Mercian Chalk Range 

and its later 'Rubble Drift.' By Rev. A. Irving, D.Sc., B.A. 616 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. The Pre-Oceanic Stage of Planetary DBveloponent, and its Bearing 

on Earliest History of the Lithosphere and the Hydrosphere. 
By Rev. A. Irving, D.Sc., B.A 617 

2. Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles (p. 100) 617 

3. Fifth Report on the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey (p. 110) 617 

4. Report on the Faunal Succession in the Lower Carboniferous Lime- 

stone (Avoniau) of 'the British Isles (p. 106) 617 

5. Report on the Excavation of Critical Sections in the Paleozoic 

Rocks of Wales and the West of England (p. 113) 617 

6. *Interim Report on the Microscopical and Chemical Composition of 

Charnwood Rocks 618 

7. Report on the Igneous and Associated Rocks of the Glensaul and 

Lough Nafooey Areas, Cos. Mayo and Galway (p. 110) 618 

8. Report on the Correlation and Age of South African Strata, &C. 

(p. 123) 618 

9. Report of the Geological Photographs Committee (p. 142) 618 

10. Report on the Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Midland Coalfields 

(p. 827) 618 

11. Report on Topographical and Oeolo<,'ical Terms used locallv in 

South Africa (p. 160) .* 618 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Professor G. C. BourtNE, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President of 

the' Section 61 9 



FBI DAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Joint Meeting with Section K: — 

1. The New Force, Mitokinetism. By Professor Marcus Hartog, 

D.Sc 628 

2. A Cytological Study of Artificial Parthenogenesis in Strongy- 

loemtrotus purpuratus. Bv Edward Hindle, Ph.D., 
A.R.C.S .* 630 

1. Note on the Biology of Teleost and Elasmobranch Eggs. Bv W. J. 

Darin. D.Sc .' 631 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XIX 

Page 

2. Coccidia and Coccidiosis in Birds. By H. B. Fantham, D.Sc, 

B.A., A.R.C.S 632 

3. First Results from the Oxford Anthropometric Laboratory. By 

Edgar Schuster, D.Sc 633 

4. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station, 

Naples (p. 165) 633 

5. Report on the Index Animalium (p. 167) 633 

6. Twentieth Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands (p. 167) 633 

7. Interim Report on Zoology Organisation (p. 168) 633 

8. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, 

Plymouth (p. 168) 634 

9. Report on the Biological Problems incidental to the Inniskea 

Whaling Station (p. 168) 634 

10. Third Report on Experiments in Inheritance (p. 169) 634 

11. Second Report on the Feeding Habits of British Birds (p. 169) ... 634 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Joint Meeting with Sub-Section B (Agriculture) (p. 583) 634 

1. *Some Experiments and Observations on the Colours of Insect 

Larvse. By Professor W. Garstang, D.Sc 634 

2. ^Comparison of the Early Stages of Vertebrates. By Professor 

C. S. Mixot 634 

"3. *Insect Coloration and Environment. By Mark L. Sykes 634 

4. A Preliminary Note on the Formation and Arrangement of the 

Opercular Cluetse of Sobellaria. By Arnold T. Watson, F.L.S., 634 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Sex and Immunity. By Geoffrey Smith, M.A 635 

2. *Coral Snakes ami Peacocks. By l)v. U. F. Gadow, F.R.S 636 

3. Relation of Regeneration and Developmental Processes. By Dr. 

.). \V. Jemkinsox 636 

4. Semination in Calidris arenaria : a Key to some Problems regard- 

ing Migratory Movements in the Breeding-Season. By C. J. 
Patten, M.A., M.D., Sc.D 637 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. *The Anatomy and Physiology of Calma glaucoides. By T. J. 

Evans 638 

2. Some Anatomical Adaptations to the Aquatic Life in Seals. By 

H. W. Marett Tims. M.A., M.D 638 

3. The Temporal Bone in Primates. By Professor R. J. Anderson, 
M.D 639 



a S 



XX CONTENTS. 

Section E. —GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Page 
Address by Professor A. J. Hehbertson, M.A., Ph.D., President of the 

Section 640 

1. The Origin of some of the more Characteristic Features of the 

Topography of Northern Nigeria. By Dr. J. D. Falconer, M.A., 
F.R.G.S 649 

2. The Exploration of Prince Charles Foreland, Spitsbergen, during 

1906, 1907, and 1909. By William S. Bruce, LL.D., F.R.S.E. 650 

3. Plans for a Second Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1911. 

By WilliamS. Bruce, LL.D., F.R.S.E 651 

4. The Voyage of the Nimrod from Sydney io Monte Video, May 8- 

July 7, 1909. By J. K. Davis '. 652 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Joint Meeting with Section C: — 

1. *The Geology of Sheffield. By Cosmo Johns 652 

2. The Metallurgical Industries in relation to the Rocks of the 

District. By A. McWilliam, A.R.S.M., M.Met 652 

3. The Humber during the Human Period. By T. Sheppard, 

F.G.S 654 

4. Matavanu, a New Volcano in Savaii (German Samoa). By 

Tempest Anberson, M.D., D.Sc, F.G.S 654 

5. Present Trias Conditions in Australia. By Rev. E. C. Spicer, 

M.A., F.G.S 655 

Notes on a Journey tbrough South America from Bogota to ManaoB rid 

(be River Uaupes, By Hamilton Rice, B.A., M.D 655 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 



1. Cotton Growing within the British Empire. By J. Howard Reed, 

F.R.G.S 656 

2. The Region of Lakes Albert and Edward and the Mountains of 

Ruwenzori. By Major R. G. T. Bright, C.M.G 657 

3. Report on the Geodetic Arc in Africa (p. 75) 658 

4. Through the Heart of Asia from India to Siberia. By Lieutenant 

P. T. Etiierton, F.R.G.S 658 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. A New Globe Map of the World and a New Equal-scale Atlas. By 

W. Wilson 660 



TRANSACTIONS OK THE SECTIONS. XXI 

Page 

2. The Andover Region: the Geographical Aspect of its Present Con- 

ditions. By O. G. S. Crawford 661 

3. A Regional Survey of Edinburgh— Sheet 32. By Jambs Cossab ... 651 

4. The Underground Waters of the Castleton District of Derbyshire. 

By Harold Buodrick, M.A 662 

5. Further Exploration of the Mitchelstown Caves, 1908-10. By 

Dr. Charles A. Hill, M.A., M.B., D.Ph 663 

Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, K.C-B., M.A., B.Sc, F.S.S., 

President of the Section 664 

1. The Price of Electricity. By Edward W. Cowan, M.Inst.C.E., 

M.Inst.E.E 680 

2. India and Tariff Reform. By Professor H. B. Lees Smith, M.A. 681 

3. Economic Transition in India. By Henry Dodwell, B.A 681 

FBI DAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. The Measurement of Profit. By Professor VV. J. Ashley, M.Com. 682 

2. The Meaning of Income. By Professor Edwin Cannan, M.A., 

LL.D. .. 682 

3- Report on the Amount and Distribution of Income below the Income- 

Tax Exemption Limit (p. 170) 683 

4. The Trade Cycle and Solar Activity. By H. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 683 

5. Co-operative Credit Banks. By Henry W. Wolff 684 

6. A Note on the Social Interest in Banking. By F. Layixgton 685 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBEB 5. 

1. The Fundamental Implications of Conflicting Systems of Public 

Aid. By Professor S. J. Chapman, M.A., M.Com 685 

2. The Poverty Figures. By Professor D. H. Macgregor, M.A 686 

3. Production and Unemployment. By Miss Grier 687 

4. Under-employment and the Mobility of Labour. By J. St. G. 

Heath 687 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Notes on the History of Sheffield Wages. By George Hy. Wood, 

F.S.S 690 



XXII CONTENTS. 

Page 

2. The Teaching of Economics in University Tutorial Classes. By A. 

Mansbridge and R. H. Tawney 691 

3. Statistics of Cotton Mill Accidents. By H. Verney 692 

Joint Discussion with Sub-section B (Agriculture) on the Magnitude of 

Error in Agricultural Experiments (p. 587) 692 

Section G.— ENGINEERING. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Professor W. E. Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.C.E., President of 

the Section 693 

The Testing of Lathe Tool Steels. By Professor W. Ripper, D.Eng., 

M.Inst.C.E 708 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Third Report on Caseous ExploMons (p. 199) 708 

2. The Testing of Files. By Professor W. Ripper, D.Eng., M.Inst. C.E. 708 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. *The Electrification of the London, Brighton, and South Coast 

Railway between Victoria and London Bridge. By Philip 
Dawson 709 

2. On the Use of an Accelerometer in the Measurement of Road 

Resistance and Horse Power. By H. E. Wimperis, M.A., 
Assoc. M.J list. C.E 709 

3. The Cyclical Changes of Temperature in a Gas-engine Cylinder near 

the Walls. By Professor E. G. Coker, M.A., D.Sc 710 

4. tThe Value of Anchored Tests of Aerial Propellers. By W. A. 

Scoble : 710 

*Joint Discussion witli Section A on the Principles of Mechanical 

Flight. Opened by Professor C. H. Bryan, F.R.S 710 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. The Optical Determination of Stress. By Professor E. 0. <<>kek, 

M.A., D.Sc 711 

2. On the Direct Measurement of the Rate of Air or Gas S u j • | > 1 \ 

to a Gas Engine by means of an Orifice and U-Tube. Bv Pro- 
fessor W. E. Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.C.E '. 711 

3. tThe Laws of Electro-Mechanics. By Professor S. P. Thompson, 

F.R.S 712 



TRANSACTION* 01' TUB SECTIONS. XX1U 

Page 

4. tTlie Testing of Heat-insulating Materials. By Frederick Bacon 712 

5. A New Method of producing High-tension Electrical Discharges. 

By Professor E. Wilson and W. H. Wilson 712 

WEDNESDAY, SEPT EM BE 11 7. 

1. tGravity Self-raising Rollers. By 11. W. Weekes 712 

2. The Mechanical Hysteresis of Rubber. By Professor Alfred 

Schwartz 712 

3. *The Utilisation of Solar Radiation, Wind Power, and other 

Natural Sources of Energy. By Professor Fessenden 713 

4. *Experimental Investigation of the Strength of Thick Cylinders. 

By G. Cook * 713 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address b\ \V. Crooke, B.A., President of the Section 714 

1. The People of Cardiganshire. Bv Professor H. J. Elkure, M.A., 

D.Sc, and T. C. James, M.A. 726 

2. The People of Egypt. By Professor G. Elliot Smith, M.A., 

M.D., F.R.S 727 

3.'*The Excavations at Memphis. Bv Professor W. M. Flinders 

Petrie, D.C.L., F.R.S 728 

4. A Neolithic Site in the Southern Sudan. By C. G. Seligmann, 

M.D 728 

5. Native Pottery Methods in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. By G. W. 

Grabham, M.A 729 

6. Note on some Anatomical Specimens of Anthropological Interest, 

prepared by means of the New Microtome of the Cambridge 
Scientific Instrument Company. By W. L. H. Duckworth, 
M.A., M.D., Sc.D 729 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 
* Joint Discussion with Section L on Research in Education 729 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Archaeological Activities in the United States of America. By Miss 

Alice C. Fletcher 730 

2. A Group of Prehistoric Sites in S.W. Asia Minor. By A. M. 

Woodward, M.A., and H. A. Ormerod, B.A 730 



Xxiv CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. Excavations in Thessaly, 1910. By A. J. B. Wace, M.A., and 

M. S. Thompson, B.i. 731 

4. Report on Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain (p. 227) 732 

5. Report on Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete 

(p. 228) 732 

6. tThe Work of the Liverpool Committee for Excavation and Re- 

search in Wales and the Marches. By Professor R. C. Bosanquet 732 

7. The Excavations at Caerwent, Monmouthshire, on the Site of the 

Romano-British City of Venta Silurum, in 1909-10. By T. 
Ashby, M.A., D.Litt 732 

8. Excavations at Hagiar Kim and Mnaidra, Malta. By T. Ashby, 

M.A., D.Litt 732 

9. Cup- and Ring-Markings and Spirals : some Notes on the Hypo- 

geum at Halsaflieni, Malta. By Rev. H. J. Dukinfield Astley, 
M.A., Litt.D 733 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Kava-drinking in Melanesia. By W. H. R. Rivebs, M.A.. M.D. 734 

2. A Sidelight on Exogamy. By Miss Alice C. Fletcher 734 

3. The Suk of East Africa. By MeRvyn W. H. Beech, M.A 734 

4. Interim Report on Archteological Investigations in British East 

Africa (p. 256) 735 

5. *A Search for the Fatherland of the Polynesians. By A. K. 

Newman 735 

6. The BuShongo of the Congo Free State. By E. Torday 735 

7. A Rare Form of Divided Parietal in the Cranium of a Chin^anzee. 

By Professor C. J. Patten, M.A., M.D., Sc.D 736 

8. Report of the Committee to Organise Anthropometric Investigation 

in the British Isles (p. 256) 736 

9. The Bishops Stortford Prehistoric Horse. By Rev. A. Irving, 

D.Sc.B.A 736 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. On Mourning Dress. By E. Sidney Hartland 737 

2. Some Prehistoric Monuments in the Scilly Isles. By H. D. Aclaxd 737 

3. Excavation of Broch of Cogle, Watten, Caithness. By Alex. 

S utherland 737 

4. Some Unexplored Fields in British Archaeology. By George 

Clinch 738 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXV 

P Lge 

5. Report on the Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glaston- 

bury (p. 258) 739 

6. Report on the Age of Stone Circles (p. 264) 739 

7. Report of the Anthropological Photographs Committee (p. 257) ... 739 

8. Report on the Preparation of a New Edition of Notes and Queries 

in Anthropology (p. 266) 739 

9. Report on Archaeological and Ethnological Investigations in 

Sardinia (p. 264) 739 

10. Report on an Ethnographic Survey of Canada (p. 265) 739 

Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Professor A. B. Macallum, M.A., Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S., President of the Section 740 

1. Report on Anaesthetics (p. 268) 755 

2. Report on the Ductless Glands (p. 267) 755 

3. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station, 

Naples (p. 165) 755 

4. Report on Electromotive Phenomena in Plants (p. 281) 755 

5. Report on the Dissociation of Oxv-Haemoglobin at High Altitudes 

(p. 280) 755 

6. Report on the Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease (p. 290) ... 755 

F BID AY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

1. Discussion on Compressed Air Illness. Opening Remarks by 

Leonard Hill, M.B., F.R.S 755 

2. The Cause of the Treppe. By Professor Frederic S. Lee 758 

5. The Summation of Stimuli. By Professor Frederic S. Lee and 

Dr. M. Morse "758 

4. *Influence of Intensity of Stimulus on Reflex Response. By Pro- 

fessor C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S., and Miss S. C. M. Sowton ... 759 

5. *Constant Current as an Excitant of Reflex Action. By Professor 

C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. , and Miss S. C. M. Sowton 759 

6. Some Experiments on the Effects of X-rays in Therapeutic Doses 

on the growing Brains of Rabbits. Bv Dr. Dawson Turner 
and Dr. T. G. George 759 

7. The Combination of certain Poisons with Cardiac Muscle. By 

H. M. Vernon, M.A., M.D 759 



xxvi CONTENTS. 

Page 

8. *The Morphology and Nomenclature of the Blood Corpuscles. By 

Professor G. S. Minot 760 

9. The Nutritive Effects of Beef Extract. By Professor W. H. 

Thompson, M.D 760 

10. *The Conditions necessary for Tetanus of the Heart. By John 

Tait, M.D 762 

11. Neurogenic Origin of Normal Heart Stimulus. By John Tait, 

M.D 762 

12. Report on Body Metabolism in Cancer (p. 297) 762 

13. Report on Mental and Muscular Fatigue (p. 292) 762 

14. *DeiiK mstration of Calorimeter. Bv Professor J. 8. Macdonalu, 

B.A 762 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Joint Discussion with Sections B and K, on the Biochemistry «>f 
Respiration : — 

(i) Problems of tie Biochemistry of Respiration in Plants. By 

Dr. F. F. Blackmax, F.R.S 762 

(ii) The Biochemistry of Respiration. By Dr. H. M. Ykrnux... 763 

(iii) Oxydases. By E. Fraxklamj Armstrong, Ph.D., D.Sc. ... 764 

(iv) The Stimulation of Oxydases and Degenerative Enzymes 
in the Plant. Bv E. Pbankland Armstrong, Ph.D., 
D.Sc 764 

(v) Paper by D. THODAY 765 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. The Origin of the Inorganic Composition of the Blood Plasma. By 

Professor A. B. Macallum, F.R.S 765 

2. The Inorganic Composition of the Blood Plasma in the Frog after 

a long period of Inanition. By Professor A. B. Mai/allum, 
F.R.S 766 

3. The Microcheniistry of the Spermatic Elements in Vertebrates. 

By Professor A. B. Macallum, F.R.S 767 

4. *The Afferent Nerves of the Eye Muscles. By Dr. E. E. Lasi.ett, 

Professor 0. S. Sherrington, F.R.S., and' Miss F. Tozeii 767 

5. Quantitative Estimation of Hydrocyanic Acid in Vegetable and 

Animal Tissues. By Professor A. D. Waller, F.R.S. (p. 281) ... 767 

6. *Microphotographs of Muscle. By Dr. Murkay Dobie 767 

Joint Discussion with Section L on Speech (p. 816) 767 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE .SECTIONS. X.wil 

Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Pago 
Address by Professor James W. H. Trail, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., 

President of the Section 768 

1. On the Function and aFte of the Cystidia of Coprinus atranmen- 

tarius. By Professor A. H. Reginald Buller, D.Sc, Fh.D., 
F.R.S.C 774 

2. Asexual Reproduction in a Species of Saprolegnia. By A. E. 

Lechmere, M.Sc 775 

3. On Pseudomitosis in Coleosporium. By Professor V. H. Black- 

man, M.A 775 

4. Chromosome Reduction in the Hymenomycetes. By Harold Wager, 

F.R.S 775 

5. Some Observations on the Silver-Leaf Disease of Fruit Trees. By 

F. T. Brooks, M.A 776 

6. *Au Arrangement for using the Wafer Blades of Safety Razors 

in the Microtome. By B. H. Bentley, M.A 777 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Joint Meeting with Section D (p. 628) 777 

1. Vegetative Mitosis in the Bean. By Miss H. C. I. Fraser, D.Sc, 

and John Snell 777 

2. On the Somatic and Heterotype Mitoses in Galtonia miuiiains. 

By Professor J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. , and Miss L. Digby 778 

3. On the Vermiform Male Nuclei of Lilium. By Professor V. H. 

Blackman, M.A 779 

4. Colour Inheritance in Anagallis arvensis, L. By Professes F. E. 

Weiss, D.Sc 779 

5. tFurthcr Observations on Inheritance in Primula sinensis. By 

R. P. Gregory, M.A 781 

6. *Sand-dunes and Golf-links. By Professor F. O. Bower, F.R.S. ... 781 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Joint Discussion with Sections B and T on the Biochemistry of Respira- 
tion (p. 762) 781 

1 Note on Ophioglossnm pahnatum. By Professor F. O. Bower, 

F.R.S I -. 781 

2 On Two Synthetic Genera of Filicales. By Professor F. O. Bower, 

F.R.S 781 



xxvin CONTENTS. 

Page 

3. On the Fossil genus Tempskya. By R, Kidston, LL.D., F.R.S., 

and D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, M.A 783 

4. Further Observations on the Fossil Flower. By I\liss M. C. Stopes, 

D.Sc., Ph.D 783 

5. The Morphology of the Ovule of Gnetum africanum. By Mrs. 

M. G. Thoday 783 

6. On the Diversity of Structures termed Pollen-Chambers. By Pro- 

fessor F. W. Oliver, F.R.S 784 

7. On the Stock of Isoetes. By Professor William H. Lang, D.Sc. ... 784 

TUESDAY, .SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. The Paths of Translocation of Sugars from Green Leaves. By 

S. Mangham, B.A 785 

2. Assimilation and Translocation under Natural Conditions. By 

D. Thoday, M.A 785 

3. *On a New Method of Observing Stomata. By Francis Darwin - , 

D.Sc, F.R.S 786 

4. *Germination Conditions and the Vitality of Seeds. By Miss N. 

Darwin and Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S 786 

5. The Absorption of Water by certain Leguminous Seeds. Bv A. S. 

Horne, B.Sc, F.G.S. 786 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7. 

1. The Association of certain Endophytic Cyanophycese and Nitrogen- 

fixing Bacteria. By Professor W. B. Bottomley, M.A 786 

2. Notes on the Distribution of Halophytes on the Severn Shore. By 

J. H. Priestley, B.Sc, F.L.S 787 

3. Plant Distribution in the Woods of North-East Kent, By Malcolm 

Wilson, B.Sc 787 

. 4. Report on the Survey of Clare Island (p. 301) 788 

5. Report on the Experimental Study of Heredity (p. 300) 788 

6. Report on the Structure of Fossil Plants (p. 301) 788 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Address by Principal H. A. Miers, M.A., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 789 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 
* Joint Discussion with Section H on Research in Education 802 



TRANSACTIONS OF TIIF. SECTIONS. XXIX 

Page 

1. Report on Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education 

(p. 302) 802 

2. *A Research in the Teaching of Algebra. By Dr. T. P. Nunn ... 802 

3. Individual Variations of Memory. By C. Spearman 802 

4. On Testing Intelligence in Children. By Otto Lipmann, D.Phil. 802 

5. Experimental Tests of General Intelligence. By Cyril Burt, M.A. 804 

6. The Measurement of Intelligence in School Children. By William 

Brown, M.A 805 

7. Perseveration as a Test of the Quality of Intelligence, and Ap- 

paratus for its Measurement. By John Gray, B.Sc 805 

8. Experimental Work on Intelligence. By H. S. Lawson 806 

9. M. Binet's Method for the Measurement of Intelligence. By Miss 

Katharine L. Johnston 806 

10. On Testing Intelligence in Children. By Professor Dr. Ernst 

Meumann 808 

11. The Pitfalls of ' Mental Test's.' By Charles S. Myers, M.A., 

M.D 808 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. The Teaching of Handicraft and Elementary Science in Elementary 

Schools as a Preparation for Technical Training. By J. G. 
Legge 809 

2. Educational Handwork : an Experiment in the Training of 

Teachers. By James Tipping 810 

3. Handwork in relation to Science Teaching : the Manipulative Skill 

of the Teacher. By G. H. Woollatt, Ph.D., F.I.C 811 

+ Joint Discussion with Section B on the Neglect of Science by Industry 

and Commerce. Opened by R. Blair, M.A 813 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. Outdoor Work for Schools of Normal Type. By J. Eaton Feasey 813 

2. The School Journey : its Practice and Educational Value. By 

G. G. Lewis 814 

3. School Gardening. By Alexander Sutherland 815 

4. tA Training College under Canvas. By Professor Mark R. 

Wright 816 

5. The Agency of Notations in the Development of the Brain. By 

Miss A. D. Butcher 816 

6. On some Effects of the Extension of the Elementary School System 

on the English Character. By S. F. Wilson 816 



XXX CONTENTS. 

Page 
Joint Discussion with Section I on Speech : — 

(i) The Evolution of Speech and Speech Centres. By Dr. 

Albert A. Gray 816 

(ii) The Essentials of Voice Production. By Professor Wesley 

Mills 817 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 

FBI DAY, SEPTEMBER 2. 

Types of Animal Movement. Bv Professor William Stirling, M.D., 

D.Sc, LL.D 818 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 
Recent Hittite Discovery. By D. G. Hogarth, M.A 824 



APPENDIX. 

The Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Midland Coalfields.— Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. A. Strahan (Chairman), Dr. F. W. 
Bennett (Secretary), Mr. H. Bolton, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, - 
Dr. Wheelton Hind, and Mr. B. Hobson, appointed to investigate 
the Fossil Flora and Fauna of \\\q Midland Coalfields 827 

Index 839 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plates T. and IF. 
Illustrating the Report on Seismologicn,] Investigations. 

Plate III. 

Illustrating the Report on the Excavation of Critical Sections in the 
Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales and the West of England. 

Plates IV. to VI. 
Illustrating the Second Interim Report on Anaesthetics. 

Plate VII. 
Illustrating the Report on Caseous Combustion. 

Plates VIII. to XL 
Illustrating Mr. J. E. Stead's Address to Section B, 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1910-1911. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 



PRESIDENT. 
Rev. PROFESSOR T. G. BOXNEY, BCD., LL.D., P.B.S. 
■;... VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. tlie Lord Mayor of Sheffield, The 

E.UiL FjTZWII.LIAM, D.S.O. 
The Master Cutler of Sheffield, Herbert Barber. 
His Grace the LOUD A.11CHBISHOP OF York, D.D. 
His Grace the Duke or Norfolk, E.M., K.G., 

G.C.V.O., Litt.D., Chancellor of Sheffield 

University. 
The Right Hon. the EARL or Harewoop, K.C.V.O., 

Lord-Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire. 
Alderman Georoe Franklin, LittJ}., J.r., Pro- 

Chancellor of Sheffield University. 
Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B., Vice-Chancellor 

of Sheffield Universitv. 



Alderman H. K. Stephenson, J. P., Deputy Lord 

Mayor of Sheffield. 
The Right Rev. J. N. Quirk, D.D., Lord Bishop of 

Sheffield. 
A. J. Hobsox, President of the Sheffield Chamber 

of Commerce. 
Alderman Sir William Clegg, J.P., Chairman of 

the Sheffield Education Committee. 
Colonel Herbert Hughes, C.M.G.. J. P. 
Professor W. M. Hicks, Sc.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. E. H. Tn-cnMABSH, M.A., President of the 

Sheffield Free Church Council. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Professor Sir \V. Ramsay, K.C.B.. Th.D., LL.D., D.Sc, MD, F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



If.R.H. The Princess Henry of Ba ttexp.erg. 

Alderman T. Scott Foster, J.P., Mayor of Forts- 
mouth. 

His Grace the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, 
G.C.V.O., D.D. 

His Grace the Lord Archbishop of York, D.D. 

The Most Hon. the Marquess of Winchester, 
Lord Lieutenant of the County of Hampshire. 

Field Marshal the Right Hon. the Fare Roberts. 
K.r;., k.p., c.c.b.. o.m., x.c. 



The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Winchester, 

D.D. 
The Right Hon. LORD Macxaghtex, G.C.M.G. 
Admiral the Hon.. Sir A. G. CURZOX-HOWE, 

G.C.V.O., K.C.B., C.M.G. 
Major-General J. K. Tr.o iter. C.B., C.M.C. 
Rear-Admiral A. G. Tate, R.X. 
Colonel Sir W. T. Ditrke, D.L., V.D., J.P. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor John Terry, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Major P. A. MacMaiion, R.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. | Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
O. .T. R. Howarth, M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 

CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 

H. 0. Stewardson, Burlington House, Loudon, W. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT PORTSVOUTH. 
Alderman T. Scott Foster, J. P., Mayor of Portsmouth. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT PORTSMOUTH. 
C. Hammond Ethertos. | Dr. A. Mearns Fraser. 



[P.T.O. 



XXX11 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Alxky, SirW, K.O.B.. F.R.S. 
Anderson, Tempest, M.D., D.Se. 
Armstrong, Professor II. E., F.R.S. 
Bow let, A. L., M.A. 
Browx, Dr. Horace T., F.R S. 
Brunton, Sir Lacjder, Ba-t.. F.R.S. 
Close, Colonel 0. F., B.K., O.M.G. 
(Jraigie, Major P. G., C.B. 
Choose, W., B.A 
Dyson, F. W., F.R.S. 
Glazebrook, Dr. R. T., F.R.S. 
H addon, Dr. A. C, F.R.S. 

WnrrE,Sir W. 



Hall, A. D., F.R.S. 
Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A. 
Mark, Dr. J. E., F.R.S. 
Mitchell, Dr. P. Chalmers, F.R.S. 
Myres, Professor J. L., M.A. 
Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Prain, Lieut.-Colonel D., O.I.E., F.R.S. 
Sherrington, Professor 0. S., F.R.S. 
Shipley, Dr. A. E., F.R.S. 
Teall, J. J. H., F.R.S. 
Thompson, Dr. Silyanus P., F.R.S. 
Tuttox, Dr. A. E. H., F.R.S. 
n., K.O.B., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, past President? of the Association, the President and Vice-Presidents for the year, the 
President aDd Vice-Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past- 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 

Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

The Right Hon. Lord Averdry, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

The Right Hon. Lord Rayleioh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Sir Arthur W. Rucker, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 



PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Sir Joseph D. Elooker, G.C.S.I. ' 
Lord Avebury, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Rosooe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Sir William Orookes, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. Riicker, D.Sc., F.R.S. 
Sir James Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 



Sir George Darwin, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir E.Ray Lankester,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 
Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 



Sir A. Geikie, K.O.B., Pres. R.S. Sir Norman Lockyer, K.O.B..F.R.S. Sir J, J. Thomson, F.R.S. 



Lord Lister, D.O.L., F.R.S. 



Arthur J. Balfour, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Sir F. Galton, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
P. L. Sclater, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., F.R.S. 



A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. Riicker, D.Sc., F.R.S. 
Trof. E. A. Sohafer, F.R.S. 



Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Garson. 



AUDITORS. 
Sir Edward Brahrook, C.B. | 



Professor H. McLeod, F.R.S. 



RULES OF 
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

[Adopted by the General Committee at Leicester, 1907, 

with subsequent amendments.'] 






Chapter I. 
Objects and Constitution. 

1. The objects of the British Association for the Advance- Objects, 
ment of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in different parts 
of the British Empire with one another and iyith foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for- the objects 

of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

2. The Association shall consist of Members, Associates, Constitution, 
and Honorary Corresponding Members. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall be directed by a Council and conducted by 
Genera] Officers appointed by that Committee. 

3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or Annual 
longer, and at such other times as the General Committee * eeimgs. 
may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 

in advance : and the arrangements for these meetings shall 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 



Chapter II. 

The General Committee. 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the Constitution, 
following persons : — 

(i) Permanent Members — 

(a) Past and present Members of the Council, and past 
and present Presidents of the Sections. 
1910. b 



XXXIV 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Admission. 



Meetings 



Functions. 



(b) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furthered the advancement of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association. 

(ii) Temporary Members — 

(a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(b) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 

sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies. 

(d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 

number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 

2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and 
claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
General Committee shall be final. 

(i) Claims for admission as a Permanent Member must 
be lodged with the Assistant Secretary at least one 
month before the xVnnual Meeting, 
(ii) Claims for admission as a Temporary Member may be 
sent to the Assistant Secretary at any time before or 
during the Annual Meeting. 

3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least durine 
every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annual 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 
to summon a meeting of the General Committee. 

4. The General Committee shall 

(i) Receive and consider the report of the Council, 
(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations, 
(iii) Receive and consider the report of the Committee of 

Recommendations, 
(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 

than two years in advance, 
(v) Determine the date of the next Annua] Meeting, 
(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer, and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting, 
(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council, 
(viii) Appoint General Officers, 
(ix) Appoint Auditors. 

(x) Elect the officers of the Conference of Delegates, 
(xi) Receive any notice of motion for the next Annua] 
Meeting. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. XXXV 

Chapter III. 
Committee of Recommendations. 

1. * The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution. 
mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 
Association, the President of each Section at the Annual 
Meeting, the Chairman of the Conference of Delegates, the 

General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and 
the Presidents of the Association in former years. 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. Every recommendation made under Chapter IV. and Functions. 
every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 

the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Recommendations 
approve such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidered by the General Committee that is not so transmitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section or Sub- 
Section, for altering the title of a Section, or for any other 
change in the constitutional forms or fundamental rules of 
the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration and report. 

3. The Committee of Recommendations shall assemble, Procedure, 
for the despatch of business, on the Monday of the Annual 
Meeting, and, if necessary, on the following day. Their 

Pteport must be submitted to the General Committee on the 
last day of the Annual Meeting. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Winnipeg, 1909. 

b2 



XXXVI 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Procedure. 



Constitution. 



Proposals by 

Sectional 

Committees. 



Tenure. 



Reports. 



Chapter IV. 
Research Committees. 

1. Every proposal for special research, or for a grant of 
money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

In consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee, composed of Members of the Association, to 
conduct research or administer a grant in aid of research, 
and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; and the 
Committee of Recommendations may include such recom- 
mendation in their report to the General Committee. 

2. Every appointment of a Research Committee shall be 
proposed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 
at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary. 
Sucli Research Committee, if appointed, shall have power to 
add to their numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes 
of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall 
be forwarded by the Recorder to the Assistant Secretary not 
later than noon on the Monday of the Annual Meeting for 
presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 

4. Research Committees are appointed for one year only. 
If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 
in that year, application may be made through a Sectional 
Committee at the next Annual Meeting for reappointment, 
with or without a grant — or a further grant — of money. 

5. Every Research Committee shall present a Report, 
whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 
that at which it was appointed or reappointed. Interim 
Reports, whether intended for publication or not, must be sub- 
mitted in writing. Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain 
whether a Report has been made by each Research Committee 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. XXXVU 

appointed on their recommendation, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations on or before the Monday of 
the Annual Meeting. 

6. In each Research Committee to which a grant of money Grants. 
has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call (jliairm^i 
on the General Treasurer for sucli portion of the sum granted 

as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting (*) Expire on 
expire on June 30 following. The General Treasurer is not 
authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants. 

The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before 0) Accounts, 
the Annual Meeting next following the appointment of f^and^ 06 
the Research Committee, forward to the General Treasurer 
a statement of the sums that have been received and ex- 
pended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
either return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains 
unexpended, or, if further expenditure be contemplated, apply 
for leave to retain the balance. 

When application is made for a Committee to be re- (?0 Acldi- 
appointed, and to retain the balance of a former grant, and 
also to receive a further grant, the amount of such further 
grant is to be estimated as being sufficient, together with 
the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 

In making grants of money to Research Committees, the (e) Caveat. 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal 
expenses to the Members. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
Committee. 

7. Members and Committees entrusted with sums of money Disposal of 

for collecting specimens of any description shall include in their s P ecim ens, 
-r> ■ i ciin i • apparatus, 

Keports particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens & c 

thus obtained for disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any ap- 
paratus which may have been purchased out of a grant made 
by the Association, and to state whether the apparatus is 
likely to be useful for continuing the research in question or 
for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of 
the Association, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall 
be deposited at the Office of the Association. 



XXXV111 RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter V. 

The Council. 



Constitution. 



Functions. 



1. The Council shall consist of ex officio Members and of 
Ordinary Members elected annually by the General Com- 
mittee. 

(i) The ex officio Members are — the Trustees, past Presi- 
dents of the Association, the President and Vice- 
Presidents for the year, the President and Vice- 
Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty-five in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty shall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
previous year. 

2. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 
on behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the affairs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the nest 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual E,eport, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for election by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the 
Council at the Meeting in February, and the names selected 
shall be issued with the summonses to the Council Meeting in 
March, when the nomination shall be made from the names 
on the list. 

The Council shall have power to appoint and dismiss 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 



THE COUNCIL. XXXIX 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same Elections. 
time as that of the Officers of the Association. 

(i) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for re- 
election in the ensuing year : 

(a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

longest consecutive period, and 

(b) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 

London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 
Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
.order of retirement above set forth. 

(u) The Council shall submit to the General Committee, 
in their Annual Report, the names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council. 

(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 

Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
members of Council, and, if only two are so proposed, 
- they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two 
are so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
iimless five members at least require it to be by ballot. 



Chapter VI. 
The President, General Officers, and Staff. 

1. The President assumes office on the first day of the The Presi- 
Annual Meeting, when he delivers a Presidential Address. dent. 

He resigns office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. In his absence, he shall be represented 
by a Vice-President or past President of the Association. 

2. The General Officers of the Association are the General General 
Treasurer and the General Secretaries. cers- 



xl 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The General 
Treasurer. 



The General 
Secretaries. 



The Assistant 
Secretary. 



Assistant 
Treasurer. 



It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Association, in any matter of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

3. The General Treasurer shall be responsible to the 
General Committee and the Council for the financial affairs 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretaries shall control the general 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to 
the General Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general routine of the work of 
the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Assistant Secretary shall hold office during the 
pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 
of the General Secretaries, and in their absence shall repre- 
sent them. He shall also act on the directions which may 
be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Assistant Secretary shall be charged, subject as afore- 
said : (i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persons 
therein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 

6. The General Treasurer may depute one of the Staff, as 
Assistant Treasurer, to carry on, under his direction, the 
routine work of the duties of his office. 

The Assistant Treasurer shall be charged with the issue of 
Membership Tickets, the payment of Grants, and such other 
work as may be delegated to him. 



Financial 
Stataments. 



Chapter VII. 

Finance. 

1. The General Treasurer, or Assistant Treasurer, shall 
receive and acknowledge all sums of money paid to the 
Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 
Council, an interim statement of his Account ; and, after 



FINANCE. 



xli 



June 30 in each year, he shall prepare and submit to the 
General Committee a balance-sheet of the Funds of the 
Association. 

2. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, Audit, 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinary pay- Expenditure, 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 

Council. 

4. The General Treasurer is empowered to draw on the Investments, 
account of the Association, and to invest on its behalf, 

part or all of the balance standing at any time to the credit 
of the Association in the books of the Bank of England, 
either in Exchequer Bills or in any other temporary invest- 
ment, and to change, sell, or otherwise deal with such tem- 
porary investment as may seem to him desirable. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable, Cheques, 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 

his office, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 



Chapter VIII. 
The Annual Meetings. 

1. Local Committees shall be formed to assist the General Local Offi- 
Officers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and Committees, 
shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General Officers 
and the Assistant Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Treasurers 
shall be empowered to enrol Members and Associates, and to 
receive subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Committees shall under- Functions, 
take the local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 

name of the Association in all matters pertaining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than the work of 
the Sections. 



xlii 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The 
Sections. 



Sectional 
Officers. 



Rooms 



Sectional 
Committees. 

Constitution. 



Privilege of 
Old Members. 



Daily 
Co-optation. 



Chapter IX. 

The Work of the Sections. 

1. The scientific work of the Association shall be trans- 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time 
to time by the General Committee. 

It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of communica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for each Annual Meet- 
ing in advance, and shall act as the Officers of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting. 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The Section Rooms and the approaches thereto shall 
not be used for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes 
than those of the Association. 

4. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following : — 

(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office. 

(ii) All past Presidents of that Section. 

(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 

any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Committee, 

thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 

meeting : 

Provided always that — 

(a) Any Member of the Association who has served on 
. the Committee of any Section in any previous year, 

and who has intimated his intention of being present 
at the Annual Meeting, is eligible as . a member of 
that Committee at their first meeting. 

(b) A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 

set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members. 



THE WORK OF THE SECTIONS. 



xliii 



(c) A Sectional Committee may, at any time during the Additional 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons denta 
present at the meeting to be Vice-Presidents of the 
Section, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 

5. The chief executive officers of a Section shall be the Executive 
President and the Recorder. They shall have power to act on Functions 
behalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 
be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
mittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- Of President 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be absolute on all points 
of order that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- And of 
mission to the Assistant Secretary of the daily programme of Recorder, 
his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, of the printed returns, abstracts, reports, or papers 
appertaining to the proceedings of his Section at the Annual 
Meeting, and for the correspondence and minutes of the 
Sectional Committee. 

6. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the Organising 
close of the Annual Meeting, not more than six of its own Committee, 
members to be members of an Organising Committee, with 
the officers to be subsequently appointed by the Council, and 
past Presidents of the Section, from the close of the Annual 
Meeting until the conclusion of its meeting on the first clay of 
the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

Each Organising Committee shall hold such Meetings as 
are deemed necessary by its President for the organisation 
of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and shall hold a meeting 
on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting : to nominate 
members of the Sectional Committee, to confirm the Pro- . 
visional Programme of the Section, and to report to the 
Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- Sectional 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt Committee, 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be offered by a member, or may 
arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 

No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been Papers and 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted Reports. 
on its Minutes. 



xliv 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Recommen- 
dations. 



Publication. 



Gopyrigh t. 



Any report or paper read in any one Section may be read 
also in any other Section. 

No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the 
Annual Report of the Association unless the manuscript has 
been received by the Recorder of the Section before the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

It shall be within the competence of the Sectional Com- 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, further, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the task 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa- 
tion, whether by reference to local authorities, public institu- 
tions, or Departments of His Majesty's Government. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Com- 
mittee. 

7. Papers ordered to be printed in extenso shall not be 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 
to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports 
of Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere 
than in the Annual Report without the express sanction of 
the Council. 

8. The copyright of papers ordered by the General Com- 
mittee to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report shall 
be vested in the authors ; and the copyright of the reports 
of Reseai'ch Committees appointed by the General Committee 
shall be vested in the Association. 



ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. xlv 



Chapter X. 
Admission of Members and Associates. 

1. No technical qualification shall be required on the Applications, 
part of an applicant for admission as a Member or as an 
Associate of the British Association ; but the Council is 
empowered, in the event of special circumstances arising, to 

impose suitable conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

* Every person admitted as a Member or an Associate Obligations. 
shall conform to the Rules and Regulations of the Association, 
any infringement of which on his part may render him liable 
to exclusion by the Council, who have also authority, if they 
think it necessary, to withhold from any person the privilege 
of attending any Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of 
admission already issued. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Council, on any occasion of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
Meeting. 

2. All Members are eligible to any office in the Association. Conditions 
(i) Every Life Member shall pay, on admission, the sum an( \P rivlle g es 

of Ten Pounds. 

Life Members shall receive gratis the Annual 
Reports of the Association, 
(ii) Every Annual Member shall pay, on admission, the 
sum of Two Pounds, and in any subsequent year 
the sum of One Pound. 

Annual Members shall receive gratis the Report 
of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay, 
without intermission, their annual subscription. An 
Annual Member who omits to subscribe for any 
particular year shall lose for that and all future 
years the privilege of receiving the Annual Reports 
of the Association gratis. He, however, may resume 
his other privileges as a Member at any subsequent 
Annual Meeting by paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound. 
(iii) Every Associate for a year shall pay, on admission, 
the sum of One Pound. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Dublin, 1908. 



ship. 



xlvi 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Associates shall not receive the Annual Report 
gratuitously. They shall not be eligible to serve on 
any Committee, nor be qualified to hold any office in 
the Association, 
(iv) Ladies may become Members or Associates on the 
same terms as gentlemen, or can obtain a Lady's 
Ticket (transferable to ladies only) on the payment 
of One Pound. 
Correspond- 3. Corresponding Members may be appointed by the 

ing Members. General Committee, on the nomination of the Council. They 
shall be entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending the meeting may 
make payment at any time before the close of the financial 
year on June 30 of the following year. 

5. The Annual Report of the Association shall be forwarded 
gratis to individuals and institutions entitled to receive it. 

Annual Members whose subscriptions have been inter- 
mitted shall be entitled to purchase the Annual Report 
at two-thirds of the publication price ; and Associates for a 
year shall be entitled to purchase, at the same price, the 
volume for that year. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of 
publication can only be issued by direction of the Council. 



Annual Sub 
scriptions. 



The Annual 
Report. 



Affiliated 
Societies. 



Associated 
Societies 



Chapter XL 

Corresponding Societies : Conference of Delegates. 

Corresponding Societies are constituted as follows 

1. (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the British Association. 

Each Affiliated Society may appoint a Delegate, 
who must be or become a Member of the Associa- 
tion and must attend the meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates. He shall be ex officio a Member of 
the General Committee, 
(ii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 
the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and numbers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the British 
Association. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES : CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES, xlvii 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con- 
ference. Such Delegates must be or become either 
Members or Associates of the British Association, 
and shall have all the rights of Delegates appointed 
by the Affiliated Societies, except that of member- 
ship of the General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed Application*. 
on the list of Corresponding Societies. Such application must 

be addressed to the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of 
June preceding the Annual Meeting at which it is intended 
it should be considered, and must, in the case of Societies 
desiring to be affiliated, be accompanied by specimens of the 
publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- Cobre- 
nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the ^™™ 
General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves committee. 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties and of superintending the preparation of a list of the 

papers published by the Affiliated Societies. This Com- 
mittee shall make an Annual Report to the Council, and 
shall suggest such additions or changes in the list of Corre- 
sponding Societies as they may consider desirable. 

(i) Each Corresponding Society shall forward every year Procedure, 
to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, on or 
before June 1, such particulars in regard to the 
Society as may be required for the information of 
the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

(ii) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the 
Association a list of the papers published by 
the Corresponding Societies during the preceding 
twelve months which contain the results of local 
scientific work conducted by them — those papers 
only being included which refer to subjects coming 
under the cognisance of one or other of the several 
Sections of the Association. 

4. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies shall consti- Conference 
tute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, 
and Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated annually by 
the Council and appointed by the General Committee. The 

members of the Corresponding Societies Committee shall be 
ex officio members of the Conference. 

(i) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by Procedure and 
the Secretaries to hold one or more meetings during Functlons - 



of Dele- 
gates. 



xlviil RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

each Annual Meeting of the Association, and 
shall be empowered to invite any Member or 
Associate to take part in the discussions. 

(ii) The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to 
submit Resolutions to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration, and for report 
to the General Committee, 
(iii) The Sectional Committees of the Association shall 
be requested to transmit to the Secretaries of the 
Confex-ence of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions to be made to the General Committee bearing 
on matters in which the co-operation of Corre- 
sponding Societies is desirable. It shall be com- 
petent for the Secretaries of the Conference of 
Delegates to invite the authors of such recom- 
mendations to attend the meetings of the Conference 
in order to give verbal explanations of their objects 
and of the precise way in which they desire these 
to be carried into effect, 
(iv) It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make 
themselves familiar with the purport of the several 
recommendations brought before the Conference, in 
order that they may be able to bring such recom- 
mendations adequately before their respective 
Societies. 

(v) The Conference may also discuss propositions 
regarding the promotion of more systematic ob- 
servation and plans of operation, and of greater 
uniformity in the method of publishing results. 



Chapter XII. 

Amendments and New Bides. 

Alterations. Any alterations in the Rules, and any amendments 

or new Rules that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee on the first day of the Annual Meeting, and referred 
forthwith to the Committee of Recommendations ; and, on the 
report of that Committee, shall be submitted for approval at 
the last meeting of the General Committee. 



PLACES AND DATES OF PAST MEETINGS, ETC. 



xlix 



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PAST PRESIDENTS, VICE-PRESIDENTS, AND LOCAL SECRETARIES. lxiii 



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PLACES AND DATES OF TAST MEETINGS, ETC. 




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lxv 



TRUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831-1910. 



1832-70 (Sir) K. I. MURCHISON (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1830-44 F. Baily, Esq, F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 



TRUSTEES. 
1872 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 

Avebury), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883 Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord) 

Playfair, F.R.S. 
1898 Prof. (Sir) A. W. Rucker, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Gray, Esq. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



1891-98 Prof. (Sir) A. W. Rucker, 

■pi tj a 

1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904 Prof. John Perry, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832- 
1835- 



35 
36 



1836-37 



Rev. W. 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 
F.R.S, 
F.R.S. 

Rev. W. 



Vernon Harcourt, 

Vernon Harcoukt, 
and F. Baily, Esq, 

Vernon Harcourt, 
Murchison, 



1837 

1839 

1845- 
1850- 

1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 



-45 

50 
52 

53 
59 
61 
62 

03 



1863-65 



1865- 
1866- 



F.R.S, and R. I 

Esq, F.R.S. 
R. I. Murchison, Esq, F.R.S, 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S, 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Colonel E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S, and 

J. F. Royle, Esq, F.R.S. 
J. F. Royle, Esq, F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq, F.R.S, and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq, F.R.S, and 

F. Galton, Esq, F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq, F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq, F.R.S, and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



1868-71 

J 871-72 

1872-76 

1876-81 

1881-S2 

1882-83 
18S3-95 

1895-97 



1897- / 

1900 \ 

1900-02 



1902-03 
1903- 



Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S, and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Dr.T. THOMSON,F.R.S,and Capt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S, and 

Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S, and 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S, and 

Prof. F. M. Balfour, F.R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S, 

and A. G. Vernon Harcouht, 

Esq, F.R.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, Esq, 

F.R.S, and Prof. E. A. 

Schafer, F.R.S. 
Prof. Schafer, F.R.S, and Sir 

W.C.Roberts- Austen.F.R.S. 
Sir W. c. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S, and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S, and 

Major P. A. MacM ahon, F.R S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S, 

and Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES, &c. : 1831-1904. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq, Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Forbes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq, M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq, B.A, 

Assistant Secretary. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq, M.A, Acting 

Secretary. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARIES 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S, 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A, 

Secret an/. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq, M.A, Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-1902 G. Griffith, Esq, M.A 
1902-04 J. G. GARSON, Esq, M.D. 



1904-09 A. Silva White, Esq. 
1910. 



1909- O. J. R. Howarth, Esq., M.A. 

d 



lxvi 



PKESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 

Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. I Rev. H. Coddington. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S Prof. Forbes. 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. |Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1832. 
1833. 
1834 


Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 


1835. 


Dublin , , , 


1836. 


Bristol 


1837. 


Liverpool... 


1838. 


Newcastle 


1839. Birmingham 


1840. 


Glasgow ... 


1811. 
1842. 


Plymouth 
Manchester 


1843. 


Cork 


1844. 


York 


1845. 


Cambridge 


1846. 
1847. 


Southamp- 
ton. 


1848. 
1849. 


Swansea ... 
Birmingham 


1850. 


Edinburgh 


1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast 


1853. 


Hull 


1854. 


Liverpool... 


1855. 


Glasgow ... 


1856. 


Cheltenham 


1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 




1859. 


Aberdeen... 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof . Whewell, F.R.S.... 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.I.A. ... 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, 

Bart., F.R.S. 
Rev. -Prof. Powell, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., 

Sec. R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of 

Ely, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Culloch, Prof . Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof." Stevelly. 
Rev. AVm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

G. G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J.Macquorn Rankine,Prof.Smyth , 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W, J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 
B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt. 

Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 
J. Hartnup, H. G. Pxickle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 



Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof. 



F.R.S., F.R.S.E 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 



Rev. W. 
V.P.R.S. 



Whewell, 



The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 
F.R.S. 



Tyndall. 
C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 
Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 
Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
Prof. Stevelly. 
D.D.. Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 
Prof . Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 
Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 
J. S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxvn 



Date and Place 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 



Presidents 



Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ... 



Secretaries 



1872. Brighton ... . W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

1873. Bradford ... Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. rmingham 



Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G . C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. 0. Henrici, Ph.D., F. R. S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A , 
FR.S.E. 

Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev.N.Ferrers,Prof.Fuller,F.Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof.H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof . W. K. Clifford, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rod well. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. 

Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 0. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O.J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 
D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 

C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 

R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 

R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 
J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 
d 2 



lxviii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS, 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1S94. 
1895. 
1896. 

1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905 
1906. 

1907. 

1908. 

1905. 
1910. 



Manchester Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Bath Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Newcastle- Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 
upon-Tyne R.B., F.R.S. 

Leeds J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 

Cardiff Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
R. T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Edinburgh 
Nottingham 
Oxford ... 
Ipswich 
Liverpool 

Toronto 
Bristol ... 
Dover ... 
Bradford 



Prof . A.W.Riicker, M.A..F.R.S. 

Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S.— Dtp. 
of Astronomy, Dr. A. A. 
Common, F.R.S. 

Glasgow ... Major P.A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Belfast Prof. J.Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 

— Dip. of Astronomy, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 

Southport I C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. — Dtp. 
of Astronomy and Meteor- 
ology, T)r. W.N. Shaw, F.R.S 

Cambridge i Prof . H. Lamb, F.R.S.— Sub- 
Section of Astronomy and 
Comical Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 

SouthAfrica Prof. A. R. Forsyth. M.A., 
F.R.S. 

York Principal E. H.Griffiths.F.R.S. 



Leicester... Prof. A. E. H. Love, M.A., 
F.RS. 

Dublin Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S 



Winnipeg Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S. 
Sheffield ... Prof. E. W. Hobson, F.R.S.... 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Erntage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J. Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, W. 

Watson. 
Prof.W.H. Heaton, J. C.Glashan, J.L. 

Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 
A. P. Chattock, J. L Howard, C. II. 

Lees.W. Watson, E. T. Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, W. Wat- 
son, E. T. Whittaker. 
P. H. Cowell, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wagstaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 
H.S.Carslaw.C.H.Lees, W. Stewart, 

Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. B. 
Morton, A. W. Porter. 

D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 
H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees, J. 
Loton, A. W. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. H. T. Hudson, 
Dr. C. H. Lees, Dr. W. J. S. Lock- 
yer, A. W. Porter, W. C. D. 
Whetham. 

A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough. R. T. A. 
Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. G. H. Lees. 

Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 
A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. W. Porter, 
H. Dennis Taylor. 

E. E. Brooks, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, 
Dr. J. A. Harker, A. R. Hinks, 
Prof. A. W. Porter. 

Dr. W. G. Duffield, Dr. L. N. G. 

Filon, E. Gold, Prof. J. A, 

McClelland, Prof. A. W. Porter, 

Prof. E. T. Whittaker. 
Prof. F. Allen, Prof. J. C. Fields, 

E. Gold, F. Horton, Prof. A. W. 

Porter, Dr. A. A. Rambaut. 
H. Bateman, A. S. Eddington, E. 

Gold, Dr. F. Horton, Dr. S. R. 

Milner, Prof. A. W. Porter. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY, &C. 



1832. 
1833. 

1834. 



1835. 
1S3C. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 

1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 
1862. 

1863. 

1864. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



Dublin |Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S 

Bristol Rev. Prof. Cumming 

Liverpool... Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Newcastle Rev. William Whe\vell,F.R.S. 



Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R S. 



Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S. 
Manchester ; John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Cork Prof. Apjolin, M.R.I.A 

York Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S. 

Cambridge 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Dr. Goldinsr Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. "Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, R. Hunt, W. M. Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. 
Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 



Swansea ... 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 

Belfast Thomas Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow ... Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. 
Cheltenham Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. ... 

Dublin Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Leeds Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Aberdeen. . . Dr. Lyon Playfair, C. B., F.R.S. 



Manchester Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S 
Cambridge Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 



B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 
• F.R.S. 

Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

Birmingham John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Edinburgh I Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. .. 

Ipswich ... | Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. i T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 
Prof. J.F. W. Johnston, M.A., H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt,T. J. 

F.R.S. Pearsall. 

Prof. W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

Price. 
Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 
J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing. Dr. Odling. 

Oxford Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Northcote. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elphinstone, VV. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Newcastle Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
F.R.S. Stevenson. 

Bath W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 

Biggs. 



lxx 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1865.P>irmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 



Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D.. 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 



M.D. 



Prof. T. Anderson 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Russell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. H. E. Roscoe. B.A., Prof. A. Crum Brown, A. E. Fletcher, 

F.R.S. Dr. W. J. Russell. 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D.,F.R.S. J. Y. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 

E. Thorpe. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.... |Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 

W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 
Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S. ... Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 

F.U.S.E. ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 

Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 
W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 
Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 

J. M. Thomson. 
W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thorn- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 
H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 
Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., P. P. Bedson,H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 

F.R.S. Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 

Prof.A.W.Williamson.F.R.S. P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., P. Phillips Bedson, H. 15. Dixon, 

F.R.S. J. L. Notter. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 

Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 



F.R.S. 
W. H. Perkiu, F.R.S 

F. A.Abel, F.R.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Dewar, M.A., F.R.S. ... 



Prof. Sir H. E Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. E.Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 



W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Dr. E. Schunck, F.R.S 



Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 

T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 
Prof. P.Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
H. Forster Morley, Dr. W. J. 
Simpson. 
P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, II. F. Mor- 
ley, W.W. J.Nicol, C. J.Woodward. 
Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 
Morley, W. Thomson. 
Prof. W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, Prof. H.B. Dixon, II. Forster Morley, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 

Sir I. Lowthian Bell, Bart.jH. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, W. 
D.C.L., F.R.S. W. J. Nicol, H. L. Pattinson, jun. 

Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc.'C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 

Ph.D., F.R.S , Treas. C.S. D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Auslen, C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 
C.B., F.R.S. W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 

Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S J. Gibson, H. Forster Morlev, D. H. 

Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 
Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 

Prof. H.B. Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

i Harden, H. Forster M orley. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxi 



Date and Place 



1895. Ipswich . 

1896. Liverpool. 

1897. Toronto . 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow .., 

1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport 
1901. Cambridge 

1905. South Africa 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 



1908. Dublin 



1909. Winnipeg.. 

1910. Sheffield .. 



section b (continued). — chemistry. 

Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A 

Kohn, J. W. Rodger, 
i Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn. 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. P. Ruttan. 
jC. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddart, T. K. 

Rose. 
! A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Rose, 

Prof. W. P. Wynne. 
1 W. M. Gardner, P. S. Kipping, W. 
J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 
Prof. Percy P. Frankland, W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 
F R.S. W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 

Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S R. F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof. 

G. G. Henderson, Prof. W.J. Pope. 
Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope. 
Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. O. Jones, Prof. W. 
J. Pope. 
W. A. Caldecott, Dr. M. O. Forster, 
Prof. G. G. Henderson, C. P. Juritz. 
Dr. E. F.Armstrong, Prof. A.W. Cross- 
Icy, S. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. Pope. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 
Crossley, J. H. Hawthorn, Dr. 
P. M. Perkin. 
Dr. E.F.Armstrong, Dr.A.McKenzie, 
Dr. F. M. Perkin, Dr. J. H. Pollock. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. Dr. E.F.Armstrong, Dr. T. M. Lowry, 

Dr. F. M. Perkin, J. W. Shipley. 

J. E Stead, F.R.S Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. T. M. 

Lowry, Dr. F. M. Perkin, W. E. S. 
Turner. 
Dr. C. Crowther, J. Qolding, Dr. E. 
J. Russell. 



Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 

Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S. ... 

Horace T. Brown, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sydney YouDg, F.R.S... 



George T. Beilby 



Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, 
Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S. 



Sub-section of Agriculture, A 
D. Hall, F.R.S 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 
1831. Edinburgh 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S John Taylor. 

G B. Greenough, F.R.S ! W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

Prof. Jameson | J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie, Rev. J. Yates. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle.. 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1811. Plymouth... 

1812. Manchester 



R. J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

6 , e<*7.,R.I.Murchison,F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

6 r «)(7.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

Geography, Lord Prudhoe. 

1 Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

; fftt>,?.,G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— Geoff., 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S , 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 
T. J. Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter.— Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M.Denham.R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt, Portlock.- 
Geooraphy, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, H. Murray, 
H. E. Strickland, J. Scoular. 

W. J. Hamilton,Ed ward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 



ixxn 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849, 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Presidents 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh 1 



Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S. ... 
Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A. 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner, F.R.S 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland,F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
S. Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. Ramsay 
J. B. Jukes, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



section c (continued). — geology. 



1851. 

1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1855. 
1856. 



Ipswich 
Belfast,. 



Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 
Clie.lt enham 



1857. Dublin 



1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 
1868. 

1869. 

870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 



Leeds .... 
Aberdeen . 



Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 



Exeter 

Liverpool.. 
Edinburgh 
Brighton.., 
Bradford ... 



WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Lieut. -Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

WilliamHopkins,M.A., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S... 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., K.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philipde M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin- Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nidi. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright, 
Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, R. H. 

Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, E. Hull, J. W. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L.C. Miall.R.H.Tiddeman, W. Topley 



1 Geography was constituted a separate Section, see page lxxix. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxiii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. 
1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 
1897. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 
1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 



Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 



Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 

Southport 

Montreal ... 
Aberdeen . . . 
Birmingham 
Manchester 
Bath 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford ... 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 
Toronto 

Bristol . . . 

Dover ... 

Bradford 

Glasgow 
Belfast... 



Southport 

Cambridge 

SoutliAfrica 



Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Dr.T.Wright,F.R.S.E.,F.G.S. 



Prof. John Young, M.D. 



W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

F.S.A., F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R.S , Sec. 

Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof.W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J.Geikie,LL.D.,D.C.L., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Green, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A., F.R.S 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G., 

VV. H.Hudleston, F.R.S 

Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

John Home, F.R.S 

Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., 

M.Sc. 
Aubrey Strahan, F.R.S 

Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B.Tawney,W.Topley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
VV. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W. 

Topley, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof G. A. Lebour, W. Topley, W 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
VV. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. W. Lam pi ugh, H. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, C. Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H. Pentecost. 

J. W. Gregory, G. W. Lamplugh, 

Capt. McDa'kiu, Prof. H. A. Miers. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

G. W. Lamplugh, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton, 

J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. Seymour. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, PI. Woods. 
H. L. Bowman, J. Lomas, Dr. Molen- 

graaff, Piof. A. Young, Prof. R. B. 

Young. 



lxxiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OK THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 



Presidents 



G. W. Lamplugb, F.R.S 

Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S... . 

Prof. John Joly, FR.S 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, F.R.S... 



Secretaries 



H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Rev. W. Johnson, J. Lomas. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Prof. T. Groom, J. Lomas. 
Rev. W. L. Carter, J. Lomas, Prof. 

S. H. Reynolds, H. J. Seymour. 
W. L. Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 

R T.Hodgson, Prof. S.H. Reynolds. 
W. L. Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 

B. Hobson, Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ...|Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cambridge 1 Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh Prof. Graham W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman I J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow I J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 

W. S. MacLeay jC. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D ' Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 
John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 

Turner. 
G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 
Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, T. Y. Wollaston. 
M.D., Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 
Wooldridge. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 
Wollaston. 



1835. 
1836. 


Bristol .... . 


1837. 


Liverpool... 


1838. 


Newcastle 


1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 


1841. 
1842. 


Plymouth... 
Manchester 


1843 


Cork 


1844 


York 


1845. 
1846. 

1847. 


Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



bert, LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. .. 

Very Rev. the Dean of Man 
, Chester. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S. . 
Sir J. Richardson 

EPS 
H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 



SECTION D {continued). — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. lxxviii. J 

1848. Swansea ...|L. W. Dill wyn, F.R.S Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey, Dr. Lankester. 

1849. Birmingham William Spence, B\R.S Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

1850. Edinburgh Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S., F.R.S.E.; Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M. 

F.R.S. 
W. Ogilby 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast. 

1853. Hull.... 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 



Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E, Lankester. 



1 At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. lxxviii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birming- 

ham. 1 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter, 



Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 
llev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart.,F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S, ... 



Secretaries 



Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. E. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankest er, 

Robert Patterson , Dr. W. E . Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater,Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. II. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



1870. Liverpool. 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton .. 



1873. Bradford ... 



SECTION D (continued). 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S.— Dep. 

cf Physiol., Prof. Humphry, 

F.R.S. — Dep. of Anthropol., 

A. R. Wallace. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

— Dep. of Zool. and Hot., 

George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.8. 

— Dep. of Physiology, W. 

H. Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
— Dep. of Dot. and Zool., 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. 

Prof.G. Rolleston,M.A.,M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S.— Dep. of 
Anat. and Physiol., Prof. M . 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S. —Dep. 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— Dep. of Bat. and 
ZoyZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Dep. of A nthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 

Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S — 
Dep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Dep. of A nthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— Dep. of 
Anat. and Physiol. A'vol. Ru- 
therford, M A).— Dep. of A n - 
thropol., Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 



—BIOLOGY. 

Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
P.. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright, 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 
H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 
M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 
Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 
Dr. E. P. Wright. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Trof. M. Foster, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 
T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 
C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer.H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. 11. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye- Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson. 
R. M'Laehlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 



1 The title of Section D was changed to Biology. 



lxxvi 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow ... 



1877. Plymouth. 



1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea .. 



1881. York. 



1882. 



Southamp- 
ton. 



1883. Southport 



1884. 
1885. 

1886. 

1887. 



Montreal 1 ... 
Aberdeen ... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. Redfern, M.D.— Bep. of 
Zool. and Hot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— Bep. of A n- 
throp., Sir W. R. Wilde, 
M.D. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S.— Dep. of E 
Anat. and Physiol., Prof. 
Cleland, F.E.S.— Bep. of> 
4«//(..,Prof.Rolleston, F.R.S. 

A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— E 
Dip. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Dip. of Anat. and Physiol.,\ 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 

J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
Dep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Prof. Macalister. — Bep. of 
4w*AwpoZ.,F.Galton,F.R.S. 

Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Dip. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Dtp. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anthropol, 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Dip. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 

A.C. L. Giinther, V.R.S.— Bep. 
of Anat. $ Physiol., F. M. 
Balfour, F.It.S. — Bep. of 
Anthropol., F. W. Rudler. 

R. Owen, F.R.S.— Bep. of An- 
thropol., Prof. W.H. Flower, 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Zool. and Bot.,\ 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M.A., 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 



. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 



E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 
Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Purser, J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 
Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. 1!. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



Prof. H. N. Moseley, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. M'lntosh, M.D 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 



W. Carruthers, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Pres. L.S., 



I 



Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Ilaslam, 

W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 

Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 

G. A. Woods. 
M.A., Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, 

A. Sedgwick, Prof. R. R. Wright. 
W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 

J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 

W. Hillhouse.W. L. Sclater, Prof. 

H. Marshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 

mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 

Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 



Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. lxxxv. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxvii 



Date and Place 



1888. Bath, 



1889. Newcastle 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 



upon Tyne \ M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 



1800. Leeds , 
1891. Cardiff. 



Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, 
M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

1892. Edinburgh Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

1893. Nottingham 1 Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 



1894. Oxford 5 



Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



F. E. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner. 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 
shall Ward. 

S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Oliver H. 
Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 

F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Dr. S. J. Hickson, G. Murray, Prof. 
W. N. Parker, H. Wager. 

G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 
Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 

G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. L. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 



1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto . . . 


1898. 


Bristol 


1899. 
1900 


Dover 

Bradford ... 


1901. 
1902. 


Glasgow ... 
Belfast 



1903. South port 



1904. Cambridge 



section d (continued) 
Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 

Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. ... 
William Bateson, F.R.S 



1905. 
1906 
1907. 
1908 
1909. 
1910. 



SouthAfrica G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. .. 
York J. J. Lister, F.R.S 



Leicester ... 

Dublin 

Winnipeg.., 



Dr. W. E. Hoyle, M.A 

Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S... 
Dr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. 



Sheffield ... Prof. G. C. Bourne, F.R.S. ... 



— ZOOLOGY. 

G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

Hoyle, W. L. Sclater. 
H O. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 
Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 
W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 
W. Garstang, J. G. Kerr, T. H. 

Taylor, Swale Vincent. 
J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson. 
Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, A. 

Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Oxley Grabham, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

E. E. Lowe, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. A. Fraser, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 
C. A. Baragar, C. L. Boulenger, Dr. 

J. Pearson, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

T. J. Evans, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 



1 Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. lxxxvi. 

2 The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



lxxviii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 




Secretaries 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge !Dr. J. Haviland IDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh Dr. Abercrombie | Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E (UNTIL 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 

Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. 0. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J.Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. Reid. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 
1830. Birmingham 
1810. Glasgow ... 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Telloly, M.D., F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

1841. Plymouth... ' P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. I J. Butter, J.Fuge, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

1842. Manchester Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S.lDr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

1843. Cork Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... I Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

1844. York J. C. Pritchard, M.D I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

1845. Cambridge Prof. J. Haviland, M.D Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 

1846. Southamp- Prof. Owen, M.D. , F.R.S. ... C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 

ton. gent. 

1847. Oxford 1 ... Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham. 2 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof.G.Rolleston,M.D.,F.L.S. 

Dr. John Davy, F.R.S 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
iDr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 
p. lxxi.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



184 6. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



1 Sections D and E were incorporated under the title of ' Section D — Zoology 
and Botany, including Physiology ' (see p. lxxiv). Section E, being then vacantj 
was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

2 Vide note on page lxxiv. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 

1867. 
1868. 



Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen . . . 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham. 
Nottingham 

Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres.R.I.A. 
Sir R.I. Murchison, G.C. St. S., 

F.R.S. 
Rear - Admiral Sir James 

Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 
John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Major-General Sir H. Raw- 
linson, M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 
LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F. R.G.S. 

Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson. Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghan, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor 

ton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Raines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 



section E (continued). — geography. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.. 

1873. Bradford.., 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R.I.Murchison.Bt., K.C.B. , 

LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K. C. B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

C.S.I.,R.E.,F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. Sir E. Ommanney, C.B. 



H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 

Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. 0. Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Ry«. 



lxxx 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield . 

1880. Swansea . 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport. 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birming- 

ham. 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. CardiS 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 
1890. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport... 



1904 
1905 



Cambridge 
South Africa 



1906. York. 



Presidents 



Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thom- 
son, LL.D.,F.R.S.,F.R.S.E. 
Clements R. Markham, C.B., 

F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 
Lieut. -Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, 

C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A.,F.R.S. 
Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 
Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S./V.P.R.G.S. 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E , 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
E. G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

V.P.R.Seot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
Capt. W.J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M..\., 

F.R.G.S. 
Major L. Darwin, Sec. R.G.S. 

J. Scott Keltie, LL.D. 

Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. 

Sir John Murray, F.R.S 

Sir George S. Robertson, 

K.O.S.I. 
Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.G.S 

Sir T. H Holdich, K.C.B. ... 

Capt, E. W. Creak, E.N., C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Douglas W. Fresh field 



Secretaries 



Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton, 
R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Rt, Hon. Sir George Goldie, 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 



John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black, E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev. Abbe Laflamme, J.S.O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
J. S. Keltie, J. S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

A. Silva White. 
John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 
kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 
J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

Keltie, A. Silva White. 
Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 

Forbes, Dr.*H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, W. S. Dalgluish, H. N. 

Dickson, Dr. H. It. Mill. 
John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 
Col. F. Bailey, H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill, H. C. 

Trapnell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. O. Forbes, 

Dr. H. R. Mill. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, E. R. 

Wethey. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 

Sandeman. A. C. Turner. 

G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 
A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. Lindsay. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. Under- 
wood. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
H. Y Oldham, E. A. Reeves. 

A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, H. Y. Old- 
ham. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
E. A. Reeves, G. Yeld, 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxxi 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1907. Leicester.. George G. Cbisholra, M.A. ... 

1908. Dublin Major E. H. Hills. C.M.G., 

R.E. 

1909. Winnipeg... Col. SirD. Johnston.K.C.M.G., 

C.B., R.E. 

1910. Sheffield ... Prof. A. J. Herbertson, M A., 

I Ph.D. 



Secretaries 



E. Heawood, O. J. R. Howarth, 

E. A. Reeves, T. Walker. 
W. F. Bailey, W. J. Barton, O. J. R. 

Howarth, E. A. Reeves. 
G. G. Cbisholm, J. McFarlane, A. 

Mclntyre. 
Rev. W. J. Barton, Dr. R. Brown, 

J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge] Prof. Babbage, F.R.S |J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart | Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. Dublin , 
183(5. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birming- 

ham. 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork. 
»844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea .. 

1849. Birming- 

ham. 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich .., 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart,, F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 



Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Lord Sandon, M.P., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W.Wood, BLR, F.L.S. ... 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. ... 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 

J. II. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Rt, Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart, ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood. M. P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. ... 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. liromby, C. B. Fripp. 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg.'w. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
\V. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. Cooke Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. P. G. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

Mac Adam, jun. 
Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W.H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F (continued). — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1910, 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt, 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 

e 



lxxxii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETAIRES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1859. 

1860. 

18G1. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865, 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 
1869. 

1870. 

1871. 
1872 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 
1879. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1884. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

1888. 
1889. 
1890. 



Aberdeen . . . 
Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham. 
Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich .... 
Exeter 



Presidents 



Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 

Soulhport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birming- 
ham. 

Manchester 

Bath 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.K.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S.... 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



Secretaries 



M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P. 



Samuel Brown 

Rt.Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P 

Rt, Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 
Lord 0'Ha°ran 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



1891 Cardiff. 



James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. ... 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S.S. 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt, Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I., CLE, F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 

J. B. Martin, M.A, F.S.S. ... 

Robert Giffen, LL.D,V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D, F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A, 

F.S.S. 
Prof. A. Marshall, M.A, F.S.S. 



Prof. AV. Cunningham, D.D, 
D.Sc, FS.S. 



Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof . R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Blacrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 

R. Birkin, jun. Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macros, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. Jack. 
W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 
W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. I'im. 
Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden- Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan. 
Prof. J. Watson. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 
Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 

F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 
J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 

Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 
H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 

Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigsr, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 
L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brougb, E. Cannan, Prof. 
E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 
Prof. W. R. Sorley. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxxiii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1892. 
1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 
1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

1907. 
1908. 



1909. 
1910. 



W. Fremantle, Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 
E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 
L. L. F. R. Price. 
Nottingham Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc., i Prof. E C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 



Edinburgh Hon. Sir C. 
K.C.B. 



Secretaries 



F.S.S. 



Oxford ... 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 
Bristol .. 



Bast able, M.A. 



Dover .., 
Bradford 
Glasgow- 
Belfast 
Southport 
Cambridge 
SouthAfrica 
York 



Leicester . 
Dublin.... 



Winnipeg... 
Sheffield ... 



Prof. C. F 

F.S.S. 
L. L. Price, M.A 

Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P. 

Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A 
J. Bonar, M.A., LL.D 



Gibbius, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Caiman, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 
E. Carman, Prof. A. W. Flux, H. 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 

\V. Flux, Rev. G. Sarson. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, S. J. 

Chapman, F. Hooper. 
W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan, S. J. Chapman. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. A. Dutfin. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. B. W. Ginsburo-, G. Lloyd. 
J. E. Bid well, A. L." Bowley, Prof. 

S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg. 
R. a Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

H.E.S. Fremantle, H. O. Meredith. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Mac- 

gregor, H. O. Meredith, B. S. 

Rowntree. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Macgregor, 

H. O. Meredith, T. S. Taylor. 
W. G. S. Adams, Prof. S. J. Chap- 
man, Prof. D. H. Macgregor, H. O. 

Meredith. 
Sub-section of Agriculture— A. D. Hall, Prof. J. Percival, J. H. 



H. Higgs, LL.B 

Major P. G. Craigie, V.P-S.S, 

Sir R. Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

E. Cannan, M.A. , LL.D 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prof. Win. Smart, LL.D 

Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D.. 

D.Sc. 
A. L. Bowley, M.A 



Prof. W. J. Ashley, M.A 
W. M. Acworth, M.A. .. 



Rt. Hon. Sir H. Plunkett. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. ... 

r H. Llewellyn Smith, 
Si K.C.B., M.A. 



Priestley, Prof. J. Wilson. 
Prof. A. B. Clark, Dr. W. A. Mana- 

han, Dr. W. R. Scott. 
C. R. Fay, H. O. Meredith, Dr. W. R. 

Scott, R. Wilson. 



1836. 

1837. 
1838. 
1839. 

1810. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 



SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Bristol Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West 

Liverpool... I Rev. Dr. Robinson Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

Newcastle 'Charles Babbage, F.R.S R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T.Webster. 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 



Babbage, 
Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt. W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 
Stephenson. Webster. 

Sir John Robinson J. Scott Russell, J.Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 



Birming- 
ham. 
Glasgow 



Plymouth... John Taylor, F.R.S 

Manchester Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I. A. 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S . 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

I 

e 2 



Ixxxiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1847. 
1848. 
1840. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1855. 
1856. 
1857. 

1858. 
1850. 

1860. 

1861. 

1S62. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1860. 
1870. 

1871 
1872 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1870. 

1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

!883. 

1 884. 



Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A..F.R.S. J. Glynn. R. A. Le Mesurier. 
Rev.Prof.Walker,M.A..F.R.S.'R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P.,F.R.S.| Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Rev. R. Robinson Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 



Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 



William Cubitt 
John Walker, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn 
John Scott Russell 



Leeds .... 
Aberdeen . 



Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 



Bath 

Birming- 
ham. 
Nottingham 



Dundee 

Norwich .. 



F.R.S 

C.E., LL.D., 



F.R.S. 
F.R.S. 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 

Swansea ... 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport,. 
Montreal .. 



W. J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Prof.W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.F. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. W.J. Macquorn Rankino, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. S : emens, F.R.S 

Chas.B Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 
F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

\Y. H. Barlow, F.R.S 

Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S. E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward East on, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 

J.Abernethy, F.R.S. E 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

I J. Brunlees, Pres.Inst.C.E. ... 
I Sir P. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 
V.P.Inst.C.E. 



John Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock. 
Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 
son. 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. 'Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt, 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, 

M. O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart, 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, 

C. Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, 

T. King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
II. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C.Barlow,H. Bauerman. E.H.Carbutt, 
J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
' W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
! A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbride;e, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg.H. T.Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 
Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxxv 



Date and Place 


1885. 


•Aberdeen... 


1886. 


Birming- 




ham. 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 


Newcastle- 


1890. 


upon-Tyne. 


1891. 


Cardiff 


1S92. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford , , 


1895. 


Ipswich . . . 


1896. 


Liverpool . . . 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


1898. 




1899. 




1900. 


Bradford ' 


1901. 
1902. 


Glasgow ... 
Belfast ... 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg... 


1910. 


Sheffield .. 


1884. 


Montreal ... 


1885. 


Aberdeen... 


1886. 


Birming- 
ham. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S. , 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B., F.R.S, 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. VV. C. Unwin, F.R.S, 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Jeremiah Head, M.Inst C.E. , 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.S, M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, I Prof . T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke. 



A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Parsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. VV. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, VV. B. Marshall, W. U. 

Popplewell, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. VV. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 



M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 



G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. ... 
Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B, 

"P D Q 

Sir W. White, K.C.B, F.R.S. 

Sir Alex. R. Binnie, M.Inst. 
C.E. 



Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S. 
C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. 

Hon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. 



W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney, 

Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 
S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 

Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof. Calen- 
dar, W. A. Price. 

Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Muuro, 
H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 

Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 
E. Stilgoe. 

Prof. T. II. Beare, C. F. Charnock, 
Prof. S. Dunkerley, W. A. Price. 

SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 

R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. H.Bamford.W.E. Dalby, W. A. Price. 

M. Barr. W. A. Price, J. Wylie. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 

W. A Price. 
J. B. Peace, VV. T. Maccall, W. A. 
Price. 
Col. Sir C. Scott- Moncrieff, W. T. Maccall, W. B. Marshall, Prof. 



G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E. 
J. A. Ewing, F.R.S. 



H. Tayne, E. Williams. 
W. T. Maccall, VV. A. Price, J. Triffit. 
Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, , Prof . E. G. Coker, A. C. Harris, 
F.R.S. W. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 

Dugald Clerk, F.R.S Prof. E. G. Coker, Dr. W. E. Lilly, 

W. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 
Sir W. H. White, K.C.B, 'E.E.Brydone-Jack, Prof.E. G.Coker, 
F.R S. Prof. E. W. Marchant, W. A. Price 

Prof. VV. E. Dalby, M.A, F. Boulden, Prof. E. G. Coker, 
M.Inst.C.E. A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 



E. B. Tylor, D.C.L, F.R.S. ... 
Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir G. Campbell, K. C.S.I, 
M.P., D.C.L, F.R.G.S. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. VV. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R, Saundby. 



The title of Section G was changed to Engineering. 



lxxxvi PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford ... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport... 
1901. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester ... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 



Presidents 



Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut.-General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. F. Max Miiller, M.A. ... 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.R.S.E. 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B , 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, 

D.C.L. 
Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A 

Sir W. Turner, F.R.S 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

C. II. Read, F.S.A 



Secretaries 



Prof. John Rhys, M.A. 



Prof. D. J. Cunningham, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. ... 

H. Balfour, M.A 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 

B. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A.... 

D. G. Hogarth, M.A 

Prof. W. Ridgeway, M.A. ... 

Prof. J. L. Myres, M.A 

W. Crooke, B.A 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, 

J. Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Cbadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 
G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. VV. Davies, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, Dr. J. G.Garson, H. Ling 

Roth. 
J. L. Myres, Rev. J. J. Raven, II. 

Ling Roth. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 
A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. Haddon. J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, J. L. Myres, G. Parker. 
H. Balfour, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

Haddon, J. L. Myres. 
Rev. E. Armitage, H. Balfour, W. 

Crooke, J. L. Myres. 
W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 

Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 
R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 

J. L. Myres. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 

E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres. 

W. L. H. Duckworth, E.'N. Fallaize, 

II. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres. 
A. R. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. 8. 

Hartland. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize, H. S. 

Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
C. J. Billson, E. N. Fallaize, II. S. 

Kingsford, Dr. F. C. bhrubsall. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, Dr. 

F. C. Shrubsall. L. E. Steele. 

H. S. Kingsford, Prof. C. J. Patten, 

Dr. F. C Shrubsall. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, Prof. 

C. J. Patten, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 

1891. Oxford.. 



1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1899. Dover , 



Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Ilaldane, 

M. S. Pembrey. 
Prof. R.Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 
Prof" Michael Foster, F.R.S. Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 
ton. Dr. L. E. Shore. 



Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., 

M.R.C.S. 
Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S 



J. N. Langley, F.R.S. 



Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 
H. Starling. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF TIIE SECTIONS. 



lxxxvii 



Date and Place 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 
19C4. Cambridge 
1905. SouthAfrica 



1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield .., 



Presidents 



Prof. J. G. McKendrick, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. 

Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

Dr. J. Scott Haldane, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. H. Starling, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

W. H. Thompson. 
J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne, Dr. 

C. Shaw. 
J. Barcroft, Prof. T. G. Brodie, Dr. 

L. E. Shore. 
J. Barcroft, Dr. Baumann, Dr. Mac- 
kenzie, Dr. G. W. Robertson," Dr. 

Stan well. 
J. Barcroft, Dr. J. M. Hamill, Prof. 

J. S. Macdonald, Dr. D. S. Long. 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, J. Barcroft, Prof. 

J. S. Macdonald, Dr. A. Warner. 
Prof. D J. Coffey, Dr. P. T. Herring, 

Prof.J.S. Macdonald, Dr. H.E.Roaf. 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, Prof. P. T. Herring, 

Dr. W. Webster. 
Dr. H. G. M. Henry, Kehh Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf, Dr. J. 'fait. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



1895. 
1896, 



Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 



1897. Toronto 



1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 



Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford . . . 
Glasgow ... 

Belfast ... 

Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester ... 

Dublin 

Winnipeg... 



1910. Sheffield 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S 

Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 

Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. ... 

Sir George King, F.R.S 

Prof. S. H. Vines, F.R.S 

Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. R. Green, F.R.S 

A. C. Seward, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Sub-section of Agriculture — 

Dr. W. Somerville. 
Harold Wager, F.R.S 

Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.E.S. ... 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S.... 

Lieut. -Col. D. Prain, CLE., 

F.R.S. 
Sub-section of Agriculture — 

Major P. G. Craigie, OB. 
Prof. J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S. 



A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 
Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 
A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

A. C. Seward, H. Wager, J.W. White. 

G. Dowker, A. O. Seward, H. Wager. 

A. C. Seward, II. Wager, W. West. 

D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 

A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 
H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 

H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, H. Wager, 

R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 

H. Wager, T. B. Wood, R. H. Yapp. 

R. P. Gregory, Dr. Marloth, Prof. 

Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
W. Bell, R. P. Gregory, Prof. A. G. 

Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. H. H. Dixon, R. P. Gregory, 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. A. H. R Buller, Prof. D. T. 

Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. R.H. Yapp. 
W. J. Black, Dr. E. J. Russell, Prof. 

J. Wilson. 

B. H. Benlley, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

1901. Glasgow ... Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. ... I R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 

Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof 
H. L. Withers. 



lxxxviii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1902. Belfast 



Presidents 



1903. 


Southport .. 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester . . . 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg... 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 



Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... 

Prof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., 

M.P. 
Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... 

Sir Philip Magnus, M.P 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Rev. H. B. Gray, D.D 

Principal H. A. Miers, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 

Prof. H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. L. Snape. 
J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

W. M. Heller, Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 
A. D.Hall, Prof. Hele-Shaw, Dr. C.W. 

Kimmins, J. R. Whitton. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

J. S. Laver, Hugh Richardson. 
Prof. E. P. Culverwell, W. D. Eggar, 

George Fletcher, Prof. R. A. 

Gregory, Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, R. Fletcher, J. L. 

Holland, Hugh Richardson. 
A. J. Arnold, W. D. Eggar, J. L. 

Holland, Hugh Richardson. 



CHAIRMEN and SECRETARIES of the CONFERENCES OF 
DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Date and Place 


Chairmen 


Secretaries 


1885 


Aberdeen . . . 
Birmingham 




Prof Meldola 


1886. 


Prof. A. W. Williamson.F.R.S. 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1887. 


Manchester 


Prof. W.Boyd Dawkins.F.R.S. 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1888. 


Bath 


John Evans, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1889. 


Newcastle- 


Prof. G. A. Lebour. 




upon-Tyne 






1890. 


Leeds 


G. J. Symons, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1891. 


Cardiff 


G. J. Symons, F.R.S 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1893. 


Nottingham 
Oxford 


Dr. J. G. Garson 


T. V. Holmes. 


1894. 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1895. 


Ipswich ... 


G. J. Symons, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1896. 


Liverpool . . . 


Dr. J. G. Garson 


T. V. Holmes. 


1897. 


Toronto ... 


Prof. Meldola, F.R.S 


J. Hopkinson. 


1898. 




W. Whitaker, F.R.S 


T. V. Holmes. 


1899. 




Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S. 


T. V. Holmes. 


1900. 


Bradford ... 


Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 


T. V. Holmes. 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


F. W. Rudler, F.G.S 


Dr. J. G. Garson, A. Somerville. 


1902 


Belfast 


Prof. W. W Watts, F.G.S. ... 


E. J. Bles. 


1903. 


Southport .. 


W. Whitaker, F.R.S 


F. W. Rudler. 


1904. 


Cambridge 


Prof. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1905. 


London . . . 


Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1906. 


York 


Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B.... 


F. W. Rudler. 


1907 


Leicester ... 
Dublin 


H. J. Mackinder, M.A 


F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 


1908. 


Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1909. 


London ... 


Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 




W. P. D. Stebbing. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



lxxxix 



EVENING- DISCOUKSES. 



Date and Place 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 



1844. York 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. Swansea . 

1849 

1850, 



Birming- 
ham. 



1851. 



Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 



1852. Belfast. 



1853. Hull. 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 



Liverpool... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 



Lecturers 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

VV. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof . Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astronomer 

Royal 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof.J.Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 



Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson .. 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life ini 
the .<Egean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Propertiesof theExplosiveSubstance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Didus ineptus). 

Metallurgical Operationsof Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their Changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 
1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 

practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 

Geology and Physical Geography 

of Yorkshire. 
The present state of Photography. 
Anthropomorphous Apes. 
Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 

Magnetism. 
Characters of Species. 
Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities- 

and Ethnology. 
Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 

Babylonia, with the results of 

Cuneiform Research up to the 

present time. 
Correlation of Physical Forces. 



xc 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen.. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath. 



1865. Birming- 
ham. 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 



Lecturers 



Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.... 

Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof .W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G.B.Airv,F.R.S.,Astron. Royal 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S 

J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel,F.R.A.S. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D..F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. K.Clifford 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock,Bart..M.I\. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 



The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Lonstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

The Geology of the Northern 
JTighlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic 
Battery considered in relation 
to Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The Results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Arclueology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebula?. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagi- 
nation. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought, 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The ' Challenger Expedition. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



xci 



Date and Place 



1877. 

1878. 

1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 
1883. 



Plymouth . 
Dublin ... 



Sheffield .. 
Swansea .. 
York 



Lecturers 



Southamp- 
ton. 
South port . 



W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S. .• 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

VV. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.P.oyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

VV. Spoltisvvoode, Pies. R.S... . 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 



1884. Montreal, 



1885. Aberdeen. 



188G. 
1887. 
1883. 

1889. 

1890. 
1891. 

1892. 
1893. 



Prof. J. G. McKendrick 

Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 



Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S. ... 



John Murray, F.R.S. E 

Binning- A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 

ham. Prof. \V. Rutherford, M.D. ... 

Manchester Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Bath Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 
Newcastle- Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 
upon-Tyne F.R.S. 

Walter Gardiner, M.A 



Leeds E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 

Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 
Cardiff Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof.A.W.RUcker,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Edinburgh j Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 

Prof. J.A.Ewing.M.A., F.R.S. 
Nottingham Prof. A. Smithells, B.Sc 

Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 



1891. Oxford 



1895. Ipswich 



1896. 
1897. 



Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 



J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J. Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.ll.S. 
J. Milne, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 

Physical Phenomena connected with 
the Mines of Cornwall and Devon. 

The New Element, Gallium. 

Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
Chemical Action. 

Radiant Matter. 

Degeneration. 

Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palaeon- 
tology. 

The Electric Discharge : its Forms 
and its Functions. 

Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 

Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of Power 

The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 
Crust. 

The Hardening and Tempering of 
Steel. 

How Plants maintain themselves in 
the Struggle for Existence. 

Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and their Applications. 

Some Difficulties in the Life of 
Aquatic Insects. 

Electrical Stress. 

Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 

Flame. 

The Discovery of the Physiology of 
the Nervous System. 

Experiences and Prospects of 
African Exploration. 

Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 

Magnetism in Rotation. 

The Work of Pasteur and its various 
Developments. 

Safety in Ships. 

Man before Writing. 

Canada's Metals. 

Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 



XC11 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturers 


Subject of Discourse 


1898. Bristol 


Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S 


Funafuti: the Study of a Coral Island. 






Phosphorescence. 


1899. Dover 




La vibration nerveuse. 




Prof. J. Fleming. F.R.S.' 


TheCentenaryof theElectricCurrent. 


1900. Bradford... 


Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 


Animal Electricity. 




Prof. W. Stroud 


Range Finders. 


1901. Glasgow ... 


Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 


The Inert Constituents of the 
Atmosphere. 




Francis Darwin, F.R.S 


The Movements of Plants. 


1902. Belfast ... 


Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 


Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 




Prof. W. F. R Weldon, F.R.S. 


Inheritance. 


1903. Southport... 


Dr. R. Munro 


Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 
Paleolithic Period. 






The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 
Teachings. 


1904. Cambridge 


Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.... 


Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 




Prof. H. F. Osborn 


Palseontological Discoveries in the 


1905. South 




Rocky Mountains. 


Africa : 






Cape Town ... 


Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. .... 


W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South 
Africa. 




C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S 


Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 


Durban 




The Mountains of the Old World. 




Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 


Marine Biology. 


Pietermaritz- 


Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... 


Sleeping Sickness. 


burg. 


H. T. Ferrar 


The Cruise of the 'Discovery.' 


Johannesburg 


Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 


The Distribution of Power. 




Prof. J. O. Arnold 


Steel as an Igneous Rock. 


Pretoria 


A. E. Shipley, F.R.S 


Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 
ing Sickness, &c. 


Bloemf ontein. . . 


A. R. Hinks 


The Milky Way and the Clouds of 
Magellan. 






Kimberley 


Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S 


Diamonds. 




Prof. J. B. Porter 


The Bearing of Engineering on 
Mining. 


Bulawavo ... 


D. Randall-Maclver 


The Ruins of Rhodesia. 


190G. York 


Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 


Volcanoes. 




The Electrical Signs of Life, and 






their Abolition by Chloroform. 


1907. Leicester... 


W. Duddell, F.R.S 


The Ark and the Spark in Radio- 
telegraphy. 




Dr. F. A. Pixey 


Recent Developments in the Theory 
of Mimicry. 






1908. Dublin 


Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 


Halley's Comet. 




Prof. W. M Davis 


The Lessons of the Colorado Canyon. 


1909. Winnipeg... 


Dr. A. E. II. Tutton, F.R.S.... 


The Seven Styles of Crystal Archi- 
tecture. 




Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 


Our Food from the Waters. 




1 Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. .. 


The Chemistry of Flame. 




1 Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 


The Pressure of Light. 


1910. Sheffield ... 


Prof. W. Stirling, M.D 


Types of Animal Movement. 2 




D. G. Hogarth 


New Discoveries about the Hittites. 



1 ' Popular Lectures,' delivered to the citizens of Winnipeg. 

2 Repeated, to the public, on Wednesday, September 7. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



XC111 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 


1867. 




1868. 


Norwich ... 


1869. 




1870. 


Liverpool ... 


1872. 


Brishton ... 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


1874. 




1875. 


Bristol 


1876. 


Glasgow ... 


1877. 


Plymouth ... 


1879. 


Sheffield ... 


1880. 


Swansea ... 


1881. 


York 


1882. 


Southamp- 




ton. 


1883. 


Southport ... 


1884. 


Montreal ... 


1885. 


Aberdeen ... 


1886. 


Birmingham 


1887. 


Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 


Newcastle- 




upon-Tyne 


1890. 




1891. 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh.. 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 




1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toront o ... 


1898. 


Bristol 


1900 


Bradford ... 


1901 


Glasgow ... 


1902 


Belfast 


1903 


Southport.. 


1904 


Cambridge. 


1906 


York 


1907 


Leicester ... 


1908 


Dublin 


1910 


Sheffield .. 




Prof . J. Tyndall, LL.D., P.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart .,F. R. S . 
W.Spottiswoode.LL.D., F.R.S. 
C.W.Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Commander Cameron, C.B.... 

VV. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohra, F.Z.8 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. John Evans, Treas. R.S. 



Subject of Lecture 



Sir F. J. Rramwell, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R.S. Ball, F.R.S. 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

SirJohn Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. Soilas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. O. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
H J. Mackinder, M.A 



Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. ... 
Dr. J. S. Flett 



Dr. J. E. Msirr, F.R.S 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 

Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S. 
C. T. Heycock, F.R.S 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power 

The North- East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
Hakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity— Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their Enemies and Signal to their 

Friends. 
Electricity in the Industries. 
The Movements of Men by Land 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent : the 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 
The Manufacture of Light. 
The Growth of a Crystal. 
The Crystallisation of Water. 
Metallic Alloys. 



xciv ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 

Table shoiving the Attendances and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



1831, 
1832, 
1833, 
1834, 
1835, 
1836, 
1837. 
1838, 
1839, 
1810, 
1841, 
1842, 
1843, 
1844, 
1845, 
1846. 
1847, 
1848, 
1840, 
18511, 
1851, 
1852, 
1853, 
1854, 
1855, 
1856, 
1857, 
1858, 
1859, 
I860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 
1866, 
1st; 7, 
1868, 
1869, 
1870, 
1871, 
1872, 
1873, 
1874, 
1875, 
1876, 
1877, 
1878, 
1879, 
1880, 
1881, 
1882, 
1883, 
1884, 
1885. 
1886, 
1887, 
1888, 
1889, 
1890, 
1891, 
1892, 
1893, 
1894, 
1895, 
1896, 
1897, 
1S98, 
1899, 
1900, 
1901, 
1902, 
1903, 
1904, 
1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 



Sept. 27.. 
June 19 .. 
June 25 . . 
Sept. 8 .. 
Aug. 10.. 
Aug. 22.. 
Sept. 11.. 
Aug. 10 .. 
Aug. 26 .. 
Sept. 17.. 
July 20 .. 
June 23 . 
Aug. 17 .. 
Sept. 26 .. 
June 19 .. 
Sept. 10 
June 23 .. 
Aug. 9 .. 
Sept. 12.. 
July 21 .. 

July 2 

Sept. 1 .. 
Sept. 3 .. 
Sept. 211,. 
Sept. 12 .. 
Aug. 6 .. 
Aug. 26 .. 
Sept. 22.. 
Sept. 14.. 
June 27 .. 
Sept. I . 
Oct. 1 .. 
Aug. 26 .. 
Sept. 13.. 
Sept. 6 .. 
Aug. 22 .. 
Sept. 4 .. 
Aug. 19.. 
Aug. 18.. 
Sept. 14.. 
Aug. 2 ... 
Aug. 14 .. 
Sept. 17.. 
Aug. 19 .. 
Aug. 25 .. 
Sept. 6 .. 
Aug. 15 .. 
Aug. 14 ... 
Aug. 20.. 
Aug. 25 .. 
Aug. 31 .. 
Aug. 23 .. 
Sept. 19.. 
Aug. 27.. 
Sept. 9 .. 
Sept. 1 ... 
Aug. 31 
Sept. 5 ... 
Sept. 11 ... 
Sept. 3 ... 
Aug. 19 ... 
Aug. 3 ... 
Sept. 13... 
Aug. 8 ... 
Sept. 11 ... 
Sept. 16... 
Aug. 18 ... 
Sept. 7 
Sept. 13... 
Sept. 5 ... 
Sept. 11... 
Sept. 10... 
Sept. 9 ... 
Aug. 17... 
Aug. 15... 
Aug. 1 ... 
July 31 ... 
Sept. 2 ... 
Aug. 25... 
Aug. 31 ... 



Where held 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

■ Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyue. 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Ty ne. . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyue. . 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport . 

Cambridge 

South Africa 

York 

Leicester 

Dublin 

Winnipeg 

Sheffield 



Presidents 



Viscount Milton, D.C.L.. F.R.S 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick. F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd.LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Hareourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egertou, F.G.S, 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. .. 
Sir John F. W.Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquisofNorthampton.Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson. D.D. F.R.S. 
Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S. 
G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lient.-General Sabine. F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll. F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B.Danbenv, M.O., F.R.S. 
The Rev. H. Lloyd, 0.1).. l-.K s. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S... . 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor WMis,M.A.,F.R.S. 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S.I 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A.. F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 1 

William R. Grove, Q.O., F.R.S I 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker. F.R.S | 

Trof. G.G. Stokes, D.C.L., F R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S • 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall. LL.D., F.R.S. . . 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Andrews. M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Thomson. M.D., F.R.S J 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D.. F.R.S 

A. O. Ramsav, LL.D.. F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bait., F.R.S 

Dr. O. W. Siemens F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Tlayfair K.O.B., F.R.S. 

Sir J."W. Dawson, O.M.G., F.R.S. 

Sir 11. E. Roseoe, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Sir F.J. Bram well, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, OB., F.R.S. 

Sir F. A. Abel, O.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikic. LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Bur.lon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury,K.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michae-1 Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S.... 
SirWilliam Turner, D.C.L., F.R.S. .. 
Prof. A. W. RUcker. D.Sc. Sec JLS. . . 

rrof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Loekvcr, K.C B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin. LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. RayLankester. LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S | 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir J. J.Thomson, F.R.S ! 

Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonnev, F.R.S. . . I 



Old Life 
Members 



New Life 
Members 



169 


65 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


1S4 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


Id 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


21 


280 


14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 


267 


13 


310 


S7 


243 


21 


25IJ 


21 


419 


32 


115 


40 


322 


10 


276 


19 


291 


21 


117 


13 


293 


26 



♦ Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 
If Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



XCV 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Old New 

Annual Annual 
Members Members 



46 

75 

71 

45 

94 

65 
197 

54 

93 
128 

61 

63 

56 
121 
142 
104 
156 
111 
125 
177 
184 
150 
154 
1S2 
216 
218 
193 
226 
229 
303 

nil 

280 

237 

232 

3(17 

331 

238 

290 

239 

171 

313 

253 

330 

317 

332 

428 

510 

399 

412 

368 

341 

413 

328 

435 

290 

383 

286 

327 

324 

297 

374 

314 

319 

449 

937f 

356 

339 

4C5 

290«« 

379 



317 

376 

185 

190 

22 

39 

40 

25 

33 

42 

47 

60 

57 

121 

101 

48 

120 

91 

179 

59 

125 

57 

209 

103 

149 

105 

118 

117 

107 

195 

127 

80 

99 

85 

93 

185 

59 

93 

74 

41 

176 

79 

323 

219 

122 

179 

244 

100 

113 

92 

152 

141 

57 

69 

31 

139 

125 

96 

68 

45 

131 

86 

90 

113 

411 

93 

61 

112 

162 

57 



Asso- 
ciates 



Ladies 



33f 

9t 

407 

270 

495 

376 

447 

510 

244 

510 

367 

765 

1094 

412 

900 

710 

1206 

636 

1589 

433 

1704 

1119 

766 

960 

1103 

720 

678 

1103 

976 

937 

796 

817 

884 

1265 

446 

1285 

529 

389 

1280 

516 

952 

■828 

1(103 

1067 

1985 

639 

KC4 

680 

672 

733 

773 

911 

.-93 

3384 

682 

1051 

548 

801 

794 

047 

6S8 

1338 

430 

817 

659 

1166 

789 

563 



1100* 



00* 
331* 
160 
260 
172 
196 
203 
197 
237 
273 
141 
292 
236 
524 
543 
346 
569 
509 
821 
463 
791 
242 
1004 
1058 
' 508 
771 
771 
682 
6(10 
910 
754 
912 
601 
630 
672 
712 
283 
674 
349 
147 
514 
189 
841 
74 
447 
429 
493 
509 
579 
334 
107 
439 
268 
451 
261 
873 
100 
639 
120 
482 
246 
305 
365 
317 
181 
352 
251 
222 
90 
123 



Foreigner* 


Total 


| Amount 
received 
during the 

Meeting 


Sum- paid 

on account 

of Grants 

for Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 

j 





353 








1831 


— 


— 








— 


1832 


— 


900 








— 


1833 


— 


1298 








£20 


1834 


— 


— 








167 


1835 


— 


1350 








435 


1836 


— 


IS HI 








922 12 6 


1837 


— 


2400 








932 2 2 


1838 


34 


1 i:;s 








1595 11 


1839 


40 


1353 








1546 16 4 


1840 


— 


891 








1235 10 11 


1841 


28 


1315 








1449 17 8 


1842 


— 










1505 10 2 


1843 


— 


— 








981 12 8 


1844 


35 


1079 








831 9 9 


1845 


36 


857 








685 16 


1816 


53 


1320 








208 5 4 


1847 


15 


819 


£707 








275 1 8 


1S48 


22 


1071 


963 








159 19 6 


1849 


44 


1241 


1085 








345 18 


1850 


37 


710 


620 








391 9 7 


1851 


9 


1108 


1085 








304 6 7 


1852 


6 


876 


903 








205 


1853 


10 


1802 


1882 








380 19 7 


1854 


26 


2133 


2311 








480 16 4 


1855 


9 


1115 


1098 








734 13 9 


1856 


26 


2022 


2015 








507 15 4 


1857 


13 


1698 


1931 








618 18 2 


1858 


22 


2561 


2782 








684 11 1 


1859 


47 


1689 


1604 








766 19 6 


1860 


15 


3138 


3944 








1111 5 10 


1861 


25 


1161 


1089 








1293 16 6 


1862 


25 


3335 


3640 








1608 3 10 


1863 


13 


2802 


2965 








1289 15 S 


1S64 


23 


1997 


2227 








1591 7 10 


1865 


11 


2303 


2469 








1750 13 4 


1866 


7 


2444 


2613 








1739 4 


1867 


45 j: 


2004 


2042 








1940 


1868 


17 


1856 


1931 








1622 


1869 


14 


2878 


3096 








1572 


1870 


21 


2463 


2575 








1472 2 6 


1871 


43 


2533 


2649 








1285 


1872 


11 


1983 


2120 








1685 


1873 


12 


1951 


1979 








1151 16 


1874 


17 


2248 


2397 








960 


1875 


25 


2774 


3023 








1092 4 2 


1876 


11 


1229 


1268 








1128 9 7 


1877 


17 


2578 


2615 








725 16 6 


1878 


13 


1404 


1425 








1080 11 11 


1879 


12 


915 


899 








731 7 7 


1880 


24 


2557 


2689 








476 8 1 


1881 


21 


1253 


1286 








1126 1 11 


1882 


5 


2714 


3369 








1083 3 3 


1883 


26&60H.J 


1777 


1855 








1173 4 


1884 


6 


2203 


2256 








1385 


1885 


11 


2153 


2532 





o 


995 6 


1886 


92 


3838 


4336 





(I 


1186 18 


1887 


12 


1984 


2107 








1511 5 


1888 


21 


2437 


2441 








1417 11 


1889 


12 


1775 


1776 








789 16 8 i 


1890 


35 


1497 


1664 








1029 10 : 


1891 


50 


2070 


20' 17 








804 10 


1892 


17 


1661 


1653 








907 15 6 


1893 


77 


2321 


2175 





II 


583 15 6 


1894 


22 


1324 


1236 








977 15 5 


1895 


41 


3181 


3228 


9 





1104 6 1 


1896 


41 


1362 


1398 








1059 10 8 


1897 


33 


2446 


2399 








1212 


1898 


27 


1403 


1328 








1430 14 2 


1899 


9 


1915 


1801 








1072 10 


1900 


20 


1912 


204B 








945 


1901 


6 


1620 


1644 








947 


1902 


21 


1754 


1762 








845 13 2 ' 


1903 


121 


2789 


2650 








887 18 11 I 


1904 


16 


2130 


2422 





o 


928 2 2 


1905 


22 


1972 


1811 








882 9 


1906 


42 


1647 


1561 








757 12 10 


1907 


14 


2297 


2317 








1157 18 8 j 


1908 


7 


1468 


1623 





o 


1014 9 9 


1909 


8 ' 


1449 


1439 





1 


963 17 ' 


1910 



J Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 
** Including 137 Members of the Americau Association. 



XCV1 



ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCES AT THE ANNUAL 
MEETINGS, 1831-1910. 

[The total attendances for the years 1832, 1835, 1843, and 1844 

are unknown.] 

Average attendance at 76 Meetings : 1848. 

Average 
Attendance 
Average attendance at 5 Meetings beginning during June, between 

1833 and I860 " 1260 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during July, between 

1841 and 1907 1122 

Average attendance at.^30 Meetings beginning during August, between 

1836 and 1910 1943 ' 

Average attendance at 35 Meetings ^beginning during September, 

between 1831 and 1908 . 1944 

Attendance at 1 Meeting held in October, Cambridge, 1862 . . 1161 



Meetings beginning during August and September. 

Average attendance at — 

4 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in August ( 1st- 7th) . 1905 

5 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ „ ( 8th-14th) . 2130 

8 ,. „ „ „ 3rd „ ,. „ (15th-21sr,) . 1761 - 

13 „ „ „ „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-31st) . 1996 

Average attendance at — 

12 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in September ( 1st- 7th). 2100 

16 ,, „ „ 2nd „ „ „ ( 8th_14th). 1860 

5 ., „ „ „ 3rd „ „ ,, (15th-21st). 2206 

2 „ ., ., „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-30th). 1025 

Meetings beginning during June, July, and October. 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1845, June 19) beginning during the 3rd 

week in June (15th- 2 1st) 1079 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during the 4th week in 

June (22nd-30th) 1306 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1851, July 2) beginning during the 1st 

week in July (lst-7th) 710 

Average attendance'at 2 Meetings beginning during the 3rd week in 

July (15th-21st) " 1066 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1907, July 31) beginning during the 5th 

week in July (29th-31st) 1647 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1862, October 1) beginning during the 1st 

week in October (lst-7th) 1161 

' Average'attendance'at 31 Meetings, including South Africa, 1905 (August 15- 
September 1)": 1949. 

2 Average attendance at 9 Meetings, including South Africa. 1905 (August 15- 
September )) : 1802. 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



XCV11 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1831. 



Tide Discussions 



£ s. d. 
20 



1835. 



Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thenuomelric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 

Rain-gauges 9 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 

Chemical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 03 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 20 

British Fossil Fishes 1 00 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer Construc- 
tion 100 

Strength of Cast Iron 60 

Preservation of Animal and 

Vegetable Substances 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 60 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

St earn- vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 





















1 


0. 


13 

















6 






£435 



1 





13 


li 








12 











3 











4 


6 








18 


6 



£922 12 6 



























1 


1(1 


2 


10 














6 


6 








3 





8 


7 








9 


5 



£032 2 2 



1830. 

Fossil Ichthyology 

Meteorological Observations 
at. Plymouth, &o 

Mechanism of Waves 

Bristol Tides 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 

Vitrification Experiments ... 

Cast-iron Experiments 

Railway Constants 

Land and Sea Level 

Steam- vessels' Engines 

Stars in llistoire Celeste 

Stars ( Lacaille) 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 

Animal Secretions 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 

Atmospheric Air 

Cast and Wrought Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 
Kingussie 

Fossil Reptiles 

Mining Statistics 



£ 8. 


d. 


110 





63 10 





144 2 





35 18 


6 


21 11 





9 4 





103 


7 


28 7 





^74 1 


2 


100 


4 


171 18 





11 


6 


166 16 





10 10 


6 


50 





16 1 





40 





3 





22 





49 7 


8 


118 2 


9 


50 






£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) ...... 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs .. . 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1910. 



XCV1U 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 0' 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 I 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£12 3 5" 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments ..11311 2 

Anoplura Britannire 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

GasesonLight 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 69 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... S 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 



}. 


d. 




















1 


11 


9 






£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 
Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 
Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 

Oxidation of the Rails of 
Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 
Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 
Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 





















12 


s 


























6 





12 

8 


2 
10 



16 




1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 

8 



11 









5 




8 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



XC1X 



£ s. d. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms ofVessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 11 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 

of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 66 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 
of the Lower Tertiary Stral a 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 
Mgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 
Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 9 3 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 1842 S 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships ..100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 
Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 3 6 

£98i - lJT~8 



1845. 

£ *. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Tron Furnaces ... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 21115 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory. . . 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16 
f 2 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1817. 

£ s. d. 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves G 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 'J 

Vitality of Seeds 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Eegistration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 
Azores 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Kesearches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

£ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida, 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304" 6 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory J 65 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 

1856. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 01 „ t „ „ 

1855 £500 0/ 575 ° ° 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CI 



£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 
of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 4 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15~ 4 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seed 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 

Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 



1869. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



£ 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidae 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 

£684~ 



s. 


<h 





1) 















































1 


11 






11 1 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance 

of Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den .. 20 
Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

of Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility 

of Salts 30 

ResearchesontheConstituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon 

Accounts 1 

£766" 









6 


(t 

































13 
19" 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 \ 

1861 £22 J 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

St earn- vessel Performance ... 150 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 15 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Trans- 
actions 1 00 

Dredging in the Mersey and 

Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observa- 
tions 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 

£1111 










72 











































































5 


10 








5 


10 



Cll 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1862. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Batozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments ]3 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee Superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 



£ g. d. 

Thermo-electricity 15 

Analj-sis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 




































































3 10 















o- 
















































1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askliam's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 19 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£12X9 

















































































5 


8 



























15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at- Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida... 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 



























8 























9 

























































































10 


1(1 








7 


10 



GRANTS OV MONEY. 



cm 



1866. 

£ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c, Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

DredgingAberdeenshireCoast 25 
Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals , 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 
Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750 

1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment, at Kew Observatory 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c, Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

North Greenland Plant Beds. 100 
Iron and Steel Manufacture... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1730 









13 


4 


















































































































































13 


4 







































































































4 





























4 






1868. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 1 00 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall .. 30 

British Fossil Carols 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 



1869. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcnn Fossils 20 

































































































































o 






CIV 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. (1. 
Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 0. 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory GOO 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory COO 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observation 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 























































2 


6 

































£ s. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf- beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 




























1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 10O 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration .. . 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 O 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, kc 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record" 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 O 

Carboniferous Corals ... 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 O 

Wave-lengths , 150 

British Rainfall ]00 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CV 



1874. 

£ g. d. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North- West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal- 
measures ._. 7_L5 

£115 1 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£9 GO 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 150 4 2 

British "Rainfall 100 

Ohms Law 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

Specific Volume qi Liquids. ., 25 



£ s. d. 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 C 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpere, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &C 15 

£1128 















11 


7 






































































n 




















8 






















9 7 



CV7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves... 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 

for Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 

less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of the North of Ireland ... 20 
Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Record of the Progress of 

Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explorat ion 5 
Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 

Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 
Natural History of Socotra ... 100 
Calculation of Factor Tables 
for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 
Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 

Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat 12 









































































































15 


6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 
Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 !) 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 

heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Parafnnes 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 
Polyzoa ]0 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland 15 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 60 

Patent Laws ............................. 5 

£731 7 7 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CV11 



1881. 

£ 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Kefractions 7 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 50 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 



1882. 
Exploration of Central Africa 100 
Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 50 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 

Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 
Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Raygill Fissure 20 
Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bouily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 
Natural History of Timor-laut 100 
Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 



t. 


d. 
































3 


1 





























































3 1 









1 


11 












































































































1883. 

£ *. d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives , 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 



1 11 



1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

£fT73 























4 































































































4 






CV111 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1885. 

£ 
Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c, of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopodaof Palaeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Granton Biological Station ... 100 
Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 
Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 



s. d. 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 9 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Palfeozoic Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Literature Record .100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Researches in Food- Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Apdrews 75 



£ s. d. 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea... 150 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada , 50 

£995 6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887grant) 50 

Cae Gwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the- Eocene 

Beds of the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



C1X 



1888. 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 6 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracid ; 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Record 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palseontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes — St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Flora of China 75 

Naples Zoological Station . . . 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 60 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 5 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 



£ s. d. 

Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

Flora of China 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 16 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands.. 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417 11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro-optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 10 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 



ex 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Experiments with a Tow- 


£ 

4 
100 

100 
30 

150 

11 

5 

25 

20 

799 


s. 

3 













16' 


d. 

9 












~8 


Naples Zoological Station ... 
Zoology and Botany of the 

Marine Biological Association 
Action of Waves and Currents 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 


Anthropometric Calculations 
Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 











1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Rays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire ... 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Tera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1029 10 



1892. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 16 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£864 10 



1893. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXI 



£ s. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes * of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 



1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 5 5 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonestield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth Tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 
Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich 
Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£583 15 ~6 



1895. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 5 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 6 1 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Flint-drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 50 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£977 15 5 



CXll 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1896. 

£ 

Photographs of Meteorological 
Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... 80 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 2 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis ■■ 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barley 
Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Pal feozoic Phy llopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 
Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 
by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 25 

Palaeolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 40 

Age and Relation of Rocks 
near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 
of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 
Abnormal Environment ... 40 

C I i mat ology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 
Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North-Western Tribes of 
Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 
the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 30 

£1104 



«. 


d. 






























G 


1 
































































































































1 



1897. 

£ s. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration cl 
Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 

Africa." 20 

E thnographical S urvey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors '20 

Fertilisation in Phsedpbyceae 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 250 

£1059 10~~8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations.. 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal..., 50 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CX111 



£ s. d. 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 (k 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 Or >0 

Photographs of Geological 
Interest 10 

Life- zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 
in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters 30 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North - Western Tribes of 
Canada 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits... 125 

Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 

Fertilisation in Phieophycese 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1212 



1899. 

Electrical Standards 225 

Seismological Observations.,. 65 14 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 19 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 

in Canada 30 

1910. 



£ s. d. 

Records of Disappearing Drift 

Section at Moel Tryfaen ... 5 

Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
tic Organisms under Definite 
Physical Conditions 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1899.. 100 Q 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 0.0 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 35 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Re- 
spiratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

Vascular Nervous System... 10 

Histological Changes in Nerve 

Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Histology of Suprarenal Cap- 
sules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Pha3ophyceae 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1430 14 2 



1900. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 60 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 25 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution 
of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis 5 

g 



CX1V 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

lsornorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 20 

The Nature of Alloys 30 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Elk in the Isle of 

Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 

in Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 

Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 
Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Coral Reefs of the Indian 

Region 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea- Water 100 

Future Dealings in Raw 
Produce 2 10 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 

Ethnography of the Malay 

Peninsula 25 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex. 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 

Glands 10 

Fertilisation in Phreophyceas 20 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£1072 10 



1901. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

lsomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 35 



£ s. d. 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 

Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegraean Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 115 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 15 11 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 
Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in Phseophycere 15 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
maceas 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 
Indian Ocean 50 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXV 



£ s. 

Compound Ascidians of the 
Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada IS 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 15 

Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Hcemoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 
under Influence of Drugs... 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycese 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 
Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£947 



a. i 

o 
o 






1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Waters of Nor t h - 

west Yorkshire 40 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 

Anthropometric Investigation 5 



£ s. 

Anthropometry of the Todas 
and other Tribes of Southern 
India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 
phycere 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£845 13 



1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 00 

Wave length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the 

Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 

Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 

Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 

of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Egyptian Troops 8 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 40 

Botanical Photographs 4 8 11 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 

Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee ...,„ 20 

£887 8 11 
g2 



CSV1 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1905. 

£ s. (I. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations ... 40 
Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 

Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitramines 25 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog ... 10 
Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 4 8 

Researches in Crete 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions of Egyptian Troops... 10 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthroponiet reinvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 17 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£928 2 2 

1906. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at r?al- 

mouth 50 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 99 12 6 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Aromatic Nitramines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 7 8 11 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples ,„., 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea ,. 15 



£ 
Freshwater Fishes of South 

Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lake and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 30 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 

in the British Isles 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 
Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 20 

Research on South African 

Cy cads 14 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tal} 7 Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£882 

1907. 

Electrical Standards 50 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 40 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 25 

Wave - length Tables of 

Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro -aromatic 

Substances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of 

South- West England 15 

Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, &c 10 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Sexual 

Cells 1 

Oscillations of the Land Level 

in the Mediterranean Basin 50 
Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom ... 8 
Anthropometric Investiga- 
ting in the British Isles... 10 
Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 55 



s. 


d. 














(1 









































9 


4 





















9 





















7 


6 





























































11 


8 








19 


7 

























GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXV11 



& s. d. 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Research on South African 

Cycads 35 

Botanical Photographs 5 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Marsh Vegetation., 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 10 14 1 

£757 12 10 



1908. 
Seismological Observations ... 40 
Further Tabulation of liessel ■ 

Functions 15 

Investigation of Upper Atmo- 
sphere by means of Kites... 25 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 25 

Geodetic Arc in Africa 200 

Wave- length Tables of Spectra 10 
Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 40 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitramines 30 

Erratic Blocks 17 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 10 

Pre-Devonian Rocks 10 

Exact Significance of Local 

Terms 5 

Composition of Charnwood 

Hocks 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples , 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Hereditary Experiments 10 

Fauna of Lakes of Central 

Tasmania 40 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 50 

Exploration in Spitsbergen ... 30 
Gold Coinage in Circulation 

iu the United Kingdom 3 

Electrical Standards 50 

Glastonbury Lake Village ... 30 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 15 

Age of Stone Circles 50 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 40 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 40 

The Ductless Glands 13 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 35 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 30 
Electrical Phenomena and 
Metabolism of Arum Spa- 
dices , 10 



















































16 


6 































































7 


G 






































14 


8 















£ s. d. 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Succession of Plant Remains 18 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1157 18 8 











1 909. 

Seismological Observations .. 60 

Investigation of the Upper At- 
mosphere by means of Kites 10 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 50 

Establishing a Solar Ob- 
servatory in Australia 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 9 16 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitramines 10 

Electroanalysis 30 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 8 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 8 

Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales and 

the West of England 9 

Igneous and Associated Sedi- 
mentary Rocks of Glensaul 11 13 9 

Investigations at Biskra 50 

Tableat the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Heredity Experiments 10 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Index Animalium 75 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 35 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 5 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Researches in Crete 70 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Electrical Phenomena and Me- 
tabolism of Arum Spadices 10 

Reflex Muscular Rhythm 10 

Ansesthetics 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 27 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Botanical Photographs 10 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 

Symbiosis between Tur- 

bellarian Worms and Alga; 10 

Survey of Clare Island 65 

Curricula of Secondary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 21 

£1014 9 y 



cxvm 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1910. £ s. d. 

Measurement of Geodetic Arc 

in South Africa 100 

Republication of Electrical 

Standards Report s 100 

Seismological Observations... GO 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitro-amines 15 

Electroanalysis 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 10 

South African S trata 5 

Fossils of Midland Coalfields 25 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Heredity Experiments 15 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 




















































£ s, d. 

Amount and Distribution of 

Income 15 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Excavations on Roman Kites 

in Britain 5 

Neolithic Sites in Northern 

Greece 5 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Body MetaLolism in Cancer... 20 

Anaesthetics 25 

Tissue Metabolism 25 

Mentaland Muscular Fatigue 18 

Electromotive Phenomena in 

Plants K) 

Structure of Fossil Tlants ... 10 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 

Survey of Clare Island 30 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£963 17 

































17 






























REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. cxix 



REPORT OP THE COUNCIL, 1909-1910. 

I. The Council resolved to present the following Address to His 
Majesty the King on his accession to the Throne: — 

To the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

May it please Your Majesty, — We, the President and Council of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, most respectfully 
desire to be permitted to express to Your Majesty our deepest sympathy 
in the great loss which Your Majesty and the Empire have sustained 
in the death of your august Father, King Edward VII. 

The British Association bears in grateful remembrance the fact that 
your illustrious Grandfather, His Royal Highness the Prince Consort, 
to whose scientific knowledge and wise guidance the nation owes much, 
accepted the office of President of the Association for the Meeting held 
at Aberdeen in 1859. We would also gratefully record that more 
recently your Father, the late King, was pleased, in 1904, to accede 
to the request that he should honour the Association by becoming its 
Patron. 

We beg to be permitted to offer to Your Majesty the humble expres- 
sion of our sincere congratulation and loyal homage and devotion on 
your succession to the Throne of your Ancestors, and we confidently 
hope that the progress of Science during the reign of Your Majesty will 
continue to promote the prosperity of your people throughout the 
Empire. 

Signed on behalf of the Council, 

J. J. Thomson, 

President. 

To this Address the following reply was received : — 

Home Office, Whitehall : June 30th, 1910 
Sib, — I am commanded by the King to convey to you hereby His 
Majesty's thanks for the loyal and dutiful Address of the President and 
Council of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 
expressing their sympathy with His Majesty on the occasion of the 
lamented death of his late Majesty King Edward the Seventh, and con- 
gratulation on His Majesty's Accession to the Throne. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) Winston S. Churchill. 
Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. 

The Council further desired the President to forward the following 
letter : — 

Lieut. -Col. Sir Arthur J. Bigge, K.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., &c, &c. 

Sir,— I have the honour to inform you that the Council of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science have voted a humble 
Address of sympathy and congratulation to His Majesty the King. 

The Address refers gratefully to the honour which King Edward VII. 
conferred upon the Association by becoming its Patron in 1904. The 



CXX REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Council, in voting the Address, directed me to express the respectful 
hope that His Majesty may be graciously pleased to follow his august 
Father in the Patronage of the. Association. 
I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) J. J. Thomson, 
President of the British Association 

The following gracious reply was received: — 

Marlborough House, Pall Mall, S.YV . 
Dear Sir, — I am commanded by the King to inform you that His 
Majesty is graciously pleased to become Patron of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science. 

Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) W. Carington, 

Keeper of His Majesty's Privy Purse. 

II. Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S., has been unanimously 
nominated by the Council to fill the office of President of the Associai ion 
for 1911 (Portsmouth Meeting). 

III. The following Nominations are made by the Council: — 
Conference of Delegates. — Dr. Tempest Anderson (Chairman), 

Professor P. F. Kendall (Vice-Ghairman), Mr. YV. P. D. Stebbing 
(Secretary). 

Corresponding Societies Com miller. — Mr. W. Whitaker (Chair- 
man), Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing (Secretary), Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir 
Edward Brabrook, Dr. J. C. Corson, Dr. E. H. Griffiths, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. Lewis, 
Mr. F. W. Rudler, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 

IV. A Report has been received from the Corresponding Societies 
Committee, together with the list of the Corresponding Societies, and 
the titles of the more important papers published by the Societies during 
the year ending May 31, 1910. 

V. The following Resolutions were formulated by the General 
Committee at Winnipeg and referred to the Council : — 

(i) ' That the Council be asked to consider the relationship of the 
Sections generally, and the possible desirability of a new- 
subdivision and the incorporation of new subjects. 

(ii) ' That in any revision of the organisation of the Association 
full recognition be given to the importance of Agricultural 
Science. ' 

The Council resolved that a Committee be appointed, with the 
following terms of reference: — 

To consider and report to the Council on the relationship of the 
Sections generally, and the possible desirability of a new 
subdivision and the incorporation of new subjects, and to 
make recommendations on other matters arising therefrom, 
the Committee being empowered to confer with Members 
of the Association outside its own body, if necessary. 



KEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. CXX1 

The following were appointed to serve on the Committee : — 

The President, General Officers, and President-Elect, with 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong. 
Sir Edward Brabrook. 
Sir Lauder Brunton. 
Major P. G. Craigie. 
Dr. J. A. Ewing. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster. 
Sir A. Geikie. 
Sir D. Gill. 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 



Prof. F. Gotch. 

E. Sidney Hartland. 

Dr. J. Scott Keltie. 

Sir Oliver Lodge. 

Prof. E. B. Poulton. 

W. A. Price. 

Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

Dr. J. J. H. Teall. 

Sir T. E. Thorpe. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 



The Council received the following Report from the Committee, and 
ordered it to be transmit ted to the General Committee [note, p. cxxv.] : — 

(i) The Committee recommends: — 

Section A. — That the title of this Section be changed to 
' Mathematics, Physics, and Astronomy (including Cosmical 
Physics). ' 

That the Council be recommended, when appointing the 
President of the Section, to observe, so far as possible, a rotation 
in the three subjects, so that Mathematics, Experimental Science, 
and Observational Science may be represented successively in 
the President. 

That the official recognition of the two subjects not repre- 
sented in the President in any one year should be ensured by the 
specific appointment of two of the Vice-Presidents of the Section 
to act as Chairman in any deliberations carried on department- 
ally in those subjects respectively. Departmental deliberations in 
each of the three subjects should, as a rule, occupy two days at 
most, the Sections sitting as a whole at other times. 

That the Secretariat remain as at present, with one Recorder 
for the whole Section, and that one Secretary at least be a repre- 
sentative of each subject specified in the title of the Section. 

(ii) The Committee has given careful consideration to the suggestion 
of its Executive Sub-Committee that the subjects of Geology (now 
Section C) and Geography (now Section E) might be combined in one 
Section to which the Sub-Section is attached be specifically appinted 
above for Section A. 

The Committee, while not prepared definitely to recommend the 
combination of Geology and Geography — or of any other two Sections 
now distinct — is of opinion that this question should receive further 
consideration from the Council and from the General Committee. 

(iii) The Committee recommends the formation of a permanent 
Sub-Section of Agriculture, attached to a Section to be determined by 
the Council annually in a certain rotation (unless the Council shall see 
reason to the contrary), e.g., as between the Sections of Chemistry, 
Economic Science, and Botany. 

The Committee recommends that one of the Vice-Presidents of the 
Section to which the Sub-section is attached be specifically appointed 



CXXli REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

as the Chairman of the Sub-Section, unless the sectional President 
himself represents Agriculture; that the Sub-Section have its own 
Recorder, and that one of the Secretaries of the Section be a repre- 
sentative of the Sub-Section. 

As a matter arising out of the above reference, the Council caused 
a letter to be addressed to each Sectional Committee, urging that joint 
meetings and discussions on set subjects should be arranged in greater 
number than heretofore, and also putting forward a distribution of 
presidential addresses in time, in order that kindred subjects might 
not clash. 

VI. A Resolution, referred to the Council by the General Com- 
mittee at Winnipeg, has been received 

From Section H: — 
I. 
To recommend the Council to represent to the Dominion Govern- 
ment : — 

(i) ' That it is essential to scientific knowledge of the early history 
of Canada that full and accurate records should be obtained 
of the physical character, geographical distribution and 
migrations, languages, social and political institutions, 
native arts, industries, and economic systems of the 
aboriginal peoples of the country. 

(ii) ' That scientific knowledge of the principles of native design 
and handicraft is an essential preliminary to any develop- 
ment of native industries such as has already been found 
practicable, especially in the United States, in Mexico, and 
in India, and that such knowledge has also proved to be of 
material assistance in the creation of national schools of 
design among the white population. 

(iii) ' That, in the rapid development of the country, the native 
population is inevitably losing its separate existence and 
characteristics. 

(iv) " That it is therefore of urgent importance to initiate, without 
delay, systematic observations and records of native physical 
types, languages, beliefs, and customs ; and to provide for the 
preservation of a complete collection of examples of native 
arts and industries in some central institution, and for public 
guardianship of prehistoric monuments such as village sites, 
burial grounds, mounds, and rock carvings. 

(v) ' That the organisation necessary to secure these objects, and 
to render the results of these inquiries accessible to students 
and to the public, is such as might easily be provided in 
connection with the National Museum at Ottawa, which 
already includes many fine examples of aboriginal arts and 
manufactures, and might be made a centre for the scientific 
study of the physical types, languages, beliefs, and customs 
of the aboiiginal peoples." 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. CXXU1 

II. 

To recommend the Council to urge the Dominion Government to 
include in the schedules of the next Canadian Census full inquiries as to 
precise place of origin, native language, previous status and occupation, 
year of immigration, and such other information as may be deemed of 
scientific value for the study of the effects of the Canadian environment 
upon immigrants of European origin. 

It was resolved that the above Eesolution be adopted and forwarded 
to the Dominion Government, with the following covering letter: — 

The Eight Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier. 

Sir, — By direction of the Council of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, we have the honour to submit the accompany- 
ing Eesolution for the consideration of the Dominion Government. This 
Eesolution was formulated by the Anthropological Section of the 
Association during its meeting at Winnipeg, Manitoba, in August 1909, 
was supported by the General Committee, and adopted by the Council. 

We have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient Servants, 
(Signed) J. J. Thomson, President. 

w A a M ^ cMaH0N > } General Secretaries. 
W. A. Herdman, j 

Eeplies were received as under : — 

Ottawa, November 23rd, 1909. 

Sir, — I have the honour, by direction of the Eight Honourable Sir 
Wilfrid Laurier, to acknowledge receipt of Eesolution of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science formulated by the Anthro- 
pological Section of the Association during its meeting at Winnipeg in 
August 1909, respecting the early history, &c, of Canada, and to state 
that the same will receive due consideration. 
I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) Eodolphe Boudreau, 

Clerk of the Privy Council. 

The Secretaries, 

British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Burlington House, 

Piccadilly, London, W. 



Ottawa, November 2ilh, 1909. 
Geological Survey. 
E. W. Brock, Director. 

Gentlemen, — I beg to acknowledge the receipt of a copy of the 
Eesolution of the British Association with regard to ethnological work in 
Canada, which has been referred to the Geological Survey by the Privy 
Council. 



CXX1V REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

I have to thank you for your kind interest in this matter, and trust 
that it may assist us in securing the necessary facilities for undertaking 
the work on a scale commensurate with its urgency and importance. 
The new National Museum will afford some of the requisite facilities. 

I may say that the Government has shown appreciation of the value 
of the work by enabling us two years ago to make a beginning in this 
direction. "We have an ethnologist at present living with the Esquimaux 
in the Arctic. A preliminary report on his observations appears in the 
Geological Survey Summary Report for 1908. With the assistance of 
the Canadian Archaeological Societies and the very kind support which 
the British Association has given in its Resolution, I have strong hopes 
that something worth while may be accomplished along these lines. 

I should like to take this opportunity of expressing to the British 
Association my profound regrets that, owing to illness, I was unable to 
attend the Winnipeg Meeting to meet the individual members or to 
personally do anything for them. 

I have the honour to be, Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) R. W. Brock. 
The Secretaries, 

British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Burlington House, 

Piccadilly, London, W., 
England. 

It was subsequently reported to the Council by the General Officers 
that information had reached them that the Dominion Government of 
Canada had authorised the payment of the salary of an ethnologist for 
the Dominion, and also a grant for the collection of ethnological 
material. This may be regarded as a direct outcome of the representa- 
tions made by the British Association. 

VII. A Recommendation received by the General Committee at 
Winnipeg and referred to the Council was agreed to : — 

That the following Committee be authorised to receive contributions 
from sources other than the Association : 

' To conduct Explorations with a view to ascertaining the Age of 
Stone Circles. ' (Section H.) 

A Recommendation received by the General Committee at Winnipeg, 
and referred to the Council, was agreed to, amended as under: — 

' That the collection of the Anthropological Photographs printed 
by the Anthropological Photographs Committee be, and 
that all further Photographs received by Jjhem may be, 
handed over to the custody of the Roya&SRnthropological 
Institute." (Section H.) m ' 

VIII. Following a suggestion made at the Winnipeg Meeting, a list 
of desiderata for the Library of the University of Manitoba was obtained 
from the Librarian, and has been widely distributed by order of the 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. CXXV 

Council tu Members of the Association and various learned Societies, 
with a covering letter inviting them to present to the Library any books 
which they might be in a position to offer. By this means a large 
collection of books, journals, and reprints has been presented to the 
Library. 

IX. The Council have authorised Section B (Chemistry) to form a 
Sub-Section for Agriculture for the Sheffield Meeting, with a 
Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and Secretariat to deal with its transactions. 

X. The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. His Accounts from July 1, 1909, to June 30 
1910, have been audited and are presented to the General Committee. 

XL In accordance with the Kegulations, the retiring Members of 
the Council are: — 

(i) Retiring by seniority: Sir E. Brabrook; Dr. A. Smith Wood- 
ward. 

(ii) Retiring by least attendance: Mr. D. G. Hogarth; the Earl of 
Berkeley ; Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, . 

the Council having by a unanimous vote reversed the usual order of 
three members retiring by seniority and two by least attendance. 

The Council nominated the following new members : — 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
Dr. J. E. Marr, 
Sir W. H. White, 

leaving two vacancies to be filled up by the General Committee without 
nomination by the Council. 

XII. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council for 
reappointment. 

XIII. Dr. 0. T. Olsen has been admitted a member of the General 
Committee. 

%* With reference to Sectidl V. of the above Report, the General Committee 
rejected the proposals to change the title of Section A and to combine the subjects 
of Geology and Geography in one Section of two departments, and referred Mie 
question of a permanent Sub-Section of Agriculture back to the Council. 



CXXV1 GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. 



Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER IN ACCOUNT 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 

1909-1910. RECEIPTS. 

£ 
To Balance brought forward 512 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 294 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 364 

Annual Subscriptions (including Members of American 

Association) 600 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 770 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 89 

Sale of Publications 179 

Dividend on Consols 153 

Dividend on India 3 per Cents 101 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B' Annuity 49 

Interest on Deposit Account ,,,, 6 

• Interest on Current Account at Winnipeg Bank 12 

Income Tax recovered 44 

Unexpended Balances of Grants returned : — ■• £ s . ,/. 

Botanical Photographs 8 10 

Curricula of Secondary Schools 2 15 6 

3 4 4 



J. 



d. 
9 
































1 


10 


1 


4 


14 





3 


6 


6 


11 


10 





6 


3 



i3,2I4 8 11 



Investments. 

£ s. d. 

2i per Cent. Consolidated Stock 6,50110 5 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 3,600 

£73 Great Indian Peninsula Railway 'B' 

Annuity (cost) 1,493 6 6 

11,594 16 11 
Sir Frederick Bram well's Gift : — 

2£ per Cent. Self-cumulating Consolidated 

Stock 69 4 5 

£11,664 1~ 4 
John Pekey, General Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. cxxvii 



WITH THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE Cr. 

July 1, 1909, to June 30, 1910. 

1909-1910. PAYMENTS. 

£ i. d. 

By Rent and Offices Expenses 93 17 8 

Salaries, &c 666 8 

Printing, Binding, &c 1,054 9 10 

Special Grant for Committee on Wave-length Tables 10 

Expenses of Winnipeg Meeting 275 1 2 

Payment of Grants made at Winnipeg : & s. d. 

Measurement of Geodetic Arc in South Africa 100 

Eepublication of Electrical Standards Reports 100 

Seismological Observations 60 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere 25 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic Nitro-amines 15 

Electroanalysis 10 

Faunal Succession in the Carboniferous Limestone in 

the British Isles 10 

South African Strata 5 

Fossils of Midland Coalfields 25 

Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 100 

Index Auimalium 75 

Heredity Experiments 15 

Feeding Habits of British Birds 5 

Amount and Distribution of Income 15 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Lake Villages in the neighbourhood of Glastonbury 5 

Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain ,5 

Neolithic Sites in Northern Greece 5 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Body Metabolism in Cancer 20 

Anaesthetics 25 

Tissue Metabolism 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 18 17 

Electromotive Phenomena in Plants 10 

Structure of Fossil Plants 10 

Experimental Study of Heredity 30 

Survey of Clare Island 30 

Corresponding Societies Committee 20 

963 17 



£3,063 13 8 
Balance at Bank of England (Western £ s . d. 

Branch) 1,149 2 1 

Add not paid in 3 15 9 

£1,152 17 10 

Less Cheques not presented 1,006 15 3 

146 2 7 

Cash in hand 4 12 8 

£3,214 8 11 



I have examined the above Account with the Books and Vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the Balance at the 
Bankers', and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. 

Approved— W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant, 
Edward Brabrook, 1 , ,. . 23 Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 

Herbert McLeod, J AUltU01s - j uty 2 7, 1910. 

July 29, 1910. 



CXXV111 GENERAL MEETINGS. 



GENERAL MEETINGS AT SHEFFIELD. 

On Wednesday, August 31, at 8.30 p.m., in the Victoria Hall 
Professor Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., resigned the office of President to 
the Rev. Professor T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., who took the Chair and delivered 
an Address, for which see p. 3. 

On Thursday, September 1, at 3.30 p.m., the Executive Committee gave 
a Garden Party in the Botanical Gai'dens ; and at 8.30 p.m. the Right 
Hon. the Lord Mayor held a Reception at the Town Hall. 

On Friday, September 2, at 8.30 p.m., in the Victoria Hall, Professor 
W. Stirling, M.D., delivered a Discourse on 'Types of Animal Movement' 
(p. 818). 

On Monday, September 5, at 8.30 p.m., in the Victoria Hall, Mr. 
D. G. Hogarth, M.A., delivered a Discourse on 'New Discoveries about 
the Hittites ' (p. 824). 

On Tuesday, September 6, at 8.30 p.m., Receptions were held (a) at 
the University by the Chancellor of the University, and (b) at the Museum, 
Mappin Art Gallery, and Weston Park by the Reception Committee. 

On Wednesday, September 7, at 3 p.m., the concluding General 
Meeting was held in the Old Firth College, when the following 
Resolutions were adopted : — 

1. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Lord Mayor and Cor 
poration for the reception which they had accorded to the Association. 

2. That a vote of thanks be given to the Chancellor and Council 
of the L niversity, the governing bodies which had granted the use of their 
buildings for the sectional meetings, and the authorities of the institutions 
and works thrown open to the inspection of the members. 

3. That a vote of thanks be given to the Local Ollicers and Executive 
Committees for the admirable arrangements made for the meeting. 

4. That a vote of thanks be given to the citizens of Sheffield for the 
generous hospitality shown to the members of the Association during the 
meeting. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE SHEFFIELD MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Prof. E. W. Hobson, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— T)v. C. Ohree, 
F.R.S. ; Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, C.B., F.R.S. ; Prof. W. M. Hicks, F.R.S. ; Prof. 
H. Lamb, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. H. Leahy, M.A. ; Prof. J. C. McLennan. Secretaries. — 
Prof. A. W. Porter, B.Sc. (Recorder); H. Bateman, M.A..; A. S. Eddington, 
M.A.; E. Gold, M.A. ; Dr. F. Horton; Dr. S. R. Milner. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President. — J. E. Stead, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. H. E. Armstrong, 
F.R.S.; Prof. J. O. Arnold, D.Met. ; Prof. H. M. Howe, LL.D. ; Prof. Orine 
Masson, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. P. Wynne, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Dr. E. F. Armstrong 
(Recorder) ; Dr. T. M. Lowry ; Dr. F. M. Perk'ra ; W. E. S. Turner, M.Sc. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. CXxix 



SUB-SECTION. — AGRICULTURE. 

Chairman.— A. D. Hall, M. A., F.R.S. Vice- Chairman.— Major P. G. Craigie, 
C.B. ; Prof. T. B. Wood. Secretaries.— Dr. E. J. Russell {Recorder) ; Dr. C.' 
Crowther ; J. Golding. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— Prof. A. P. Coleman, Ph.D., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Prof W 
H. Hobbs; Prof. P. F. Kendall, M.Sc. ; Prof. W. W. Watts, F.R.S.; Dr. A. 
Smith Woodward, F.R.S. Secretaries. — W. Lower Carter, M.A. {Recorder) ■ 
Dr. A. R. Dwerry house ; B. Hobson, M.Sc. ; Prof. S. H. Reynolds, M.A. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President.— Prof. G. C. Bourne, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Prof. A. Denny, 
M.Sc. ; Dr. H. F. Gadow, F.R.S. ; Dr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. Secretaries.— 
Dr. H. W. Marett Tims {Recorder) ; Dr. J. H. Ashworth : L. Doncaster, M.A. ; 
T. J. Evans, B.A. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Prof. A. J. Herbertson, Ph.D. Vice-Presidents. — J.Bolton; G. 
G. Chisholm, M.A.,B.Sc. ; Colonel H. W. Feilden, C.B. ; Colonel SirD. A. John' 
ston, K.C.M.G., R.E. ; J. Howard Reed. Secretaries.— Rev. W. J. Barton, B.A. 
{Recorder) ; Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown ; J. McFarlane, M.A. ; E. A. Reeves. 

SECTION P. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, K.C.B., F.S.S. Vice-Presidents.— Prof. 
E. Cannan, LL.D. ; Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. ; Prof. H. B. Lees Smith, M.A.j 
M.P. Secretaries. — H. O.Meredith, M.A. {Recorder) : C. R. Fay, M.A • Dr W 
R. Scott ; R. Wilson, B.A. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President.— Prof. W. E. Dalby, M.A. Vice-Presidents.— Dugald Clerk, F.R.S. ; 
Sir R. A. lladheld, F.R.S.; Charles Hawksley ; Prof. W. Ripper, D Erig' • 
Douglas Vickers; Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. Secretaries.— Prof. E. G.' 
Coker {Recorder) ; F. Boulden, B.Sc. ; A. A. Rowse, B.Sc. ; H. E. Wimperis 
M.A. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President. — W. Crooke, B.A. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. A. F. Dixon, Sc D • 
Miss A. C. Fletcher ; Prof. J. L. Myres, M.A. ; Dr. W. II. R. Rivers,' F.R.S.' 
Secretaries.— E. N. Fallaize, B.A. {Recorder) ; H. S. Kingsford, M.A. ; Prof C J 
Patten ; Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 



SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. J. S. Mac- 
donald; Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S. ; Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. ; Prof! Wm 
Stirling ; Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Dr. H. E. Roaf {Recorder) '■ 
Dr. H. G. M. Henry ; Keith Lucas, M.A. ; Dr. J. Tait. 

1910. h 



CXSX OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 



SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— Prof. J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Prof. F. 0. 
Bower, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. ; Lieut.-Col. D. Praia, CLE., F.R.S. ; 
Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Prof. R. H. Yapp, M.A. {Recorder); 
B. H. Bentley, M.A. ; R. P. Gregory, M.A. ; Prof. D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, M.A. 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President.- — Principal H. A. Miers, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — R. Blair, M.A. ; 
Prof. J. A. Green, M.A; Prof. R. A. Gregory. Secretaries — J. L. Holland. 
B.A. (Recorder); A. J. Arnold, B.A. ; W. D. Eggar, M.A. ; Hugh Richardson, 
M.A. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES. 

Chairman. — Dr. Tempest Anderson. Vice- Chairman — Prof. P. F. Kendall. 
Secretary.— W. P. D. Stebbing. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of the Association ; the General Secretaries ; 
the General Treasurer; the Trustees; the Presidents of the Association in 
former years ; the Chairman of the Conference of Delegates ; Prof. E. W. 
Hobson ; Dr. C. Chree ; J. E. Stead ; Dr. E. F. Armstrong ; Prof. A. P. Cole- 
man ; W. Lower Carter ; Prof. G. C. Bourne ; Dr. Marett Tims ; Prof. A. J. 
Herbertson ; Rev. W. J. Barton ; Prof. S. J. Chapman ; H. O. Meredith ; 
Prof. W. E. Dalby ; Prof. E. G. Coker; W. Crooke; E. N. Fallaize ; Prof. 
A. B. Macallum ; Dr. II. E. Roaf ; Prof. J. W. H. Trail ; Prof. R. H. Yapp ; 
Principal IT. A. Miers ; J. L. Holland; and A. D. Hall. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



CXXX1 



Research Committees, etc., appointed by the General Committee 
at the Sheffield Meeting : September 1910. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 




Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Seismological Observations. ' 



To co-operate with the Committee 
of the Falmouth Observatory 
in their Magnetic Observations. 



To aid the work of Establishing 
a Solar Observatory in Australia. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmo- 
sphere. 



Grant to the International Com- 
mission on Physical and 
Chemical Constants. 



Chairman. — Professor H H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. Milne. 

Mr. C. V. Boys, Mr. Horace Dar- 
win, Major L Darwin, Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, 
Professors J. W. Judd, C. G. 
Knott, and R. Meldola, Mr. 
R. D. Oldham, Professor J. 
Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, 
Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. 
Clement Reid, and Mr. Nelson 
Richardson. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretary Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

Professor W. G. Adams, Captain 
Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, Professor A. Schus- 
ter, Sir A. W. Riicker, and Dr. 
Charles Chree. 

Chairman. — Sir David Gill. 
Secretary.— Dr. W. G. Duffield. 
Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, Mr. F. 

McCiean, and Professors A. 

Schuster and H. H. Turner. 



Chairman. — Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. Gold. 

Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon 
Boys, Mr. C. J. P. Cave, Mr. 
W. H. Dines, Dr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook, Professor J. E. Petavel, 
Dr. A. Schuster, Dr. W. Wat- 
son, and Sir J. Larmor. 



£ 

60 



s.d. 




25 



50 



25 



30 



h2 



CXXX11 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Grants 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Dynamic Isomerism. 



The Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitroamines and allied sub- 
stances, and its relation to 
Substitution in Benzene De- 
rivatives. 

Electroanalysis. 



The Influence of Carbon and 
other Elements on the Corro- 
sion of Steel. 



£ s. d. 
20 



Chairman. — Professor E. Divers. 

Secretary. — Professor A. W. Cross- 
ley. 

Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. O. 
Forster, and Dr. Le Sueur. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E Arm- [ 25 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

Professor S3 r duey Young, Dr. Desch, 
Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. A. Lap- 
worth, and Dr. M. O. Forster. 

Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kip- 15 

ping. 
Secretary. — ProfessorK.J.P.Orton. 
Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. Lapworth, 

and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 



Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kip- 
ping. 

Secretary. — Dr. F. M. Perkin. 

Dr. G. T. Beilby, Dr. T. M. Lowry, 
Professor W. J. Pope, and Dr. 
H. J. S. Sand. 

Chairman. — Professor J.O.Arnold. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. E. S. Turner. 

Professor W. P. Wynne, Pro- 
fessor A. McWilliam, Mr. C. 
Chappell, and Mr. F. Hodson. 



15 



15 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



To enable Mr. E. Greenly to com- 
plete his Researches on the 
Composition and Origin of the 
Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. 

To excavate Critical Sections in 
the Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales 
and the West of England. 



To investigate the Microscopical 
and Chemical Composition of 
Charnwood Rocks. 



Chairman. — Mr. R. H. Tiddeman. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse. 
Dr.T.G.Bonney,Mr. F. M. Burton, 

Mr. F. W. Harmer, Rev. S. N. 

Harrison, Dr. J. Home, Mr. W. 

Lower Carter, Professor W. J. 

Sollas, and Messrs. Wm. Hill, 

J. W. Stather, and J. H. Milton. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. Harker. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. Greenly. 
Dr. J. Home, Dr. C. A. Matley, 
and Professor K. J. P. Orton. 

Chairman. — Professor C. Lap- 
worth. 

Secretary Mr. W. G. Fearnsides. 

Dr. Herbert Lapworth, Dr. J. E. 
Marr, Professor W. W. Watts, 
and Mr. G. J. Williams. 

Chairman. — Professor W. W. 

Watts. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. T. Groom. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett and Dr. Stracey. 



10 



2 



10 



2 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



CXXXU1 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



The Investigation of the Igneous 
and Associated Rocks of Glen- 
saul and Lough Nafooey Areas, 
Co. Gal way. 



To enable Mr. C. Forster Cooper 
to examine the Mammalian 
Fauna in the Miocene deposits 
of the Bugti Hills, Baluchistan. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Professor W. W. 
Watts. 

Secretary. — Professor S. H. Rey- 
nolds. 

Messrs. H. B. Maufe and C. I. 
Gardiner. 

Chairman. — Professor G. C. Bourne. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. Forster Cooper. 

Drs. A. Smith Woodward, A. E. 
Shipley, C. W. Andrews, and 
H. F. Gadow and Professor J. 
Stanley Gardiner. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To aid competent Investigators 
selected bjr the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 



Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalium. 



To investigate the Feeding Habits 
of British Birds by a study of 
the contents of the crops and 
gizzards of both adults and 
nestlings, and by collation of 
observational evidence, with 
the object of obtaining precise 
knowledge as to the economic 
status of many of our commoner 
birds affecting rural science. 

To investigate the Biological 
Problems incidental to the Bel- 
mullet Whaling Station. 



To enable Mr. C. Forster Cooper 
to examine the Mammalian 
Fauna in the Miocene deposits 
of the Bugti Hills, Baluchistan. 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, Mr. 
G.P. Bidder, Dr.W.B. Hardy, and 
Professor A. D. Waller. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary. — Dr. F. A. Bather. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, the 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, and 
Lord Walsingham. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 
Secretary.— Mr. H. S. Leigh. 
Messrs. J. N. Halbert, Robert 

Newstead, Clement Reid, A. G. 

L. Rogers, and F. V. Theobald. 

Professor F. E. Weiss, Dr. C. 

Gordon Hewitt, and Professors 

S. J. Hickson, F. W. Gamble, 

G. H. Carpenter, and J. Arthur 

Thomson. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 
Secretary. — Professor J. Stanley 

Gardiner. 
Professor W. A. Herd man, Rev. 

W. Spotswood Green, Mr. E. S. 

Goodrich, Dr. H. W. Marett 

Tims, and Mr. R. M. Barrington. 

Chairman. — Professor G.C. Bourne. 

Secretary. — Mr. C. Forster Cooper. 

Drs. A. Smith Woodward, A. E. 
Shipley, C. W. Andrews, and 
H. F. Gadow and Professor J. 
Stanley Gardiner. 



Grants 

£ s. d. 
15 



45 



75 



75 



5 



30 



30 



CXXX1V 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Monet/ — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 




Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



To complete the map of Prince 
Charles Foreland, Spitzbergen, 
based on the surveys of 191)6, 
1907, and 1909, made by Dr. 
VV. S. Bruce. 

Upon a new series of equal area 
maps, to measure areas of 
vertical relief, vegetation, and 
rainfall ; to calculate the mean 
levels of the sphere, the con- 
tinents and the oceans, and the 
total mean annual rainfall over 
the lands. 



£ 

Chairman Mr. G. G. Chuholm. 30 

Secretary. — Dr. R. N. Rudmose | 

Brown. 
Sir Duncan Johnston and Mr. 

E. A. Reeves. 



Chairman. — Professor A. J. Her- 

bertson. 
Sscretartj. - Mr. E. A. Reeves. 
Dr. II. R. Mill, Mr. G. G. Chisholm, 

and Colonel C. F. Close. 



s. d. 




20 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The Amount and Distribution of 
Income (other than Wages) be- 
low the Income-tax exemption 
limit in the United Kingdom. 



Chairman. — Professor E. Can nan. 

Secretary. — Professor A. L. Bow- 
ley. 

Dr. W. R. Scott, and Professors 
F. Y. Edgeworth and H. B. Lees 
Smith. 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



The Investigation of Gaseous Ex- 
plosions, with special reference 
to Temperature. 



Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretaries. — Mr. Dugald Clerk 
and Professor B. Hopkinson. 

Professors W. A. Bone, F. VV. Bur- 
stall, H. L. Callendar, E. G. 
Coker, W. E. Dalby, and H. B. 
Dixon, Drs. R. T. Glazebrook 
and J. A. Harker, Colonel H. C. L. 
Holden, Professor J. E. Petavel, 
Captain H. Riall Sankey, Pro- 
fessor A. Smithells, Professor 
W. Watson, Mr. D. L. Chapman, 
and Mr. H. E. Wimperis. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To 



investigate the Lake Villages 
in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury in connection with a 
Committee of the Somerset 
Archaeological and Natural 
History Society. 



To co-operate with Local Com- 
mittees in Excavations on 
Roman Sites in Britain. 



Boyd 



Chairman. — Dr. R, Munro. 
Secretary. — Professor W. 

Dawkins. 
Professor W. Ridgeway, Dr. Arthur 

J. Evans, Dr. C. H. Read, Mr. 

H. Balfour, and Mr. A. Bulleid. 

Chairman. — Professor J. L.Myres. 
Secretary. — ProfessorR. C. Bosan- 

quet. 
Dr. T. Ashby and Professor W. 

Ridgeway. 







90 



5 



10 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



cxxxv 



J . Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 


Members of Committee 


Grants 


To conduct Explorations with the 


Chairman. — Dr. C. H. Read. 


£ 
30 


s. d. 



object of ascertaining the Age 


Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 






of Stone Circles. 


Lord Avebury, Professor W. Ridge- 
way, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. A. J. 
Evans, Dr. R. Munro, Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. 
Lewis. 






To prepare a New Edition of Notes 


Chairman. — Dr. C. H. Read. 


40 





and Queries in Anthropology. 


Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Had- 

don, Mr. T. A. Joyce, and Drs. 

C. S. Myers, W. H. R. Rivers, 

C. G. Seligmann, and F. C. 

Shrubsall. 






To investigate and ascertain the 


Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 


10 





Distribution of Artificial Is- 


Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 






lands in the lochs of the High- 


Professors T. H. Bryce and W. 






lands of Scotland. 


Boyd Dawkins. 







Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Ductless Glands. 



Body Metabolism in Cancer. 



To aid competent Investigators 
selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 



To acquire further knowledge, 
Clinical and Experimental, con- 
cerning Anaesthetics — especially 
Chloroform, Ether, and Alco- 
hol — with special reference to 
Deathsbyor duriDg Anaesthesia, 
and their possible diminution. 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue. 



-Professor Schafer. 
Professor Swale Vin- 



Chairman 
Secretary. 

cent. 
Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. 

Shore, and Mrs.W. H.Thompson. 

Chairman. — Professor C. S. Sher- 
rington. 
Secretary. — Dr. S. M. Copeman. 

Chairman.— -Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, 
Mr. G. P. Bidder, Dr. W. B. 
Hardy, and Professor A. D. 
Waller. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. W. Hewitt. 
Dr. Blumfeld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, 
and Dr. G. A. Buckniaster. 



Chairman. — Professor C. S. Sher- 
rington. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. MacDougall. 

Professor J. S. MacDonald, Mr. 
H. Sackville Lawson, and Mr. 
G. Chapman. 



40 



6 13 



25 



20 







CXXXV1 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money— continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Electromotive Phenomena iD 
Plants. 



The Dissociation of Oxy-Hfemo- 
globin at High Altitudes. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Mrs. Waller. 
Professors F. Gotch, J. B. Farmer, 

and Veley, and Dr. F. O'B. 

Ellison. 

Chairman. — Professor E. H. Star- 
ling. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. Barcroft. 
Dr. W. B. Hardy. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 

The Structure of Fossil Plants. i Chairman. — Dr. D. H. Scott. 

Secretary. — Professor F.W. Oliver. 

Mr. E. Newell Arber and Professors 

A. C. Seward and F. E Weiss. 



The Experimental Study of 
Heredity. 



Chairman. — Mr. Francis Darwin. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. G. Tansley. 
Professors Bateson and Keeble. 



A Botanical, Zoological, and Geo- Chairman. — Professor T. Johnson, 
logical Survey of Clare Island. Secretary. — Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger. 

Professor Grenville Cole, Dr. 
Scharff, and Mr. A. G. Tansley. 



To carry out the scheme for the 
Registration of Negatives of 
Botanical Photographs. 



Chairman. — Professor F.W. Oliver. 

Secretary. —Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Dr. W. G. Smith, Mr. A. G. 
Tansley, Dr. T. W. Woodhead, 
and Professor R. H. Yapp. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

To inquire into and report upon Chairman. — ProfessorJ. J.Findlay. 
the methods and results of ' Secretary. — Professor J. A. Green. 

Professors J. Adams and E. P. 
C'ulverwell, Mr. G. F. Daniell, 
Miss B. Foxley, Mr. J. Gray, 
Professor R. A. Gregory, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Professor W. 
MacDougall, Dr. T. P. Nunn, 
Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, Dr. C. 
Spearman, Miss L. Edna Walter, 
and Dr. F. Warner. 



research into the Mental and 
Physical Factors involved in 
Education. 



Grants 

£ s. J. 
10 



25 



15 



45 



20 



10 



10 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Principal E. H. Griffiths, Dr. 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. T. V. Holmes, 
Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. 
Lewis, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Rev. 
T. R. R. Stebbing, and the 
President and General Officers 
of the Association. 



20 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



CXXXV11 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Making Experiments for improving 
the Construction of Practical Stan- 
dards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments. 



The further Tabulation of Bessel and 
other Functions. 



To consider the advisability of drawing 
up a Report on Non-Euclidean Geo- 
metry, and to draw up the Report if 
it should seem advisable. 



Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professors J. Perry and W. G. Adams, Dr. 
G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver Lodge, Dr. 
A. Muirhead, Sir W. H Preece, Pro- 
fessor A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. 
Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. 
Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, 
Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. 
Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Sir 
Arthur Riicker, Professor H. L. Cal- 
endar, and Messrs. G. Matthey, T. 
Mather, and F. E. Smith. 

Chairman. — Professor M. J. M. Hill. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. W. Nicholson. 
Professor Alfred Lodge, Dr. L. N. G. 
Filon, and Sir G. Greenhill. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. F. Baker 
Secretary. — Mr. D. M. Y. Sommerville. 
Professor Chrystal and Mr, A.N. White- 
head. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic 
Derivatives of Benzene. 



Chairman. — Professor H. A. Miers. 
Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 
Professors W. P. Wynne and W. J. Pope. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To determine the precise Significance 
of Topographical and Geological 
Terms used locally in South Africa. 



To investigate the Fossil Flora and 
Fauna of the Midland Coalfields. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



Chairman. — Mr. G. W. Lamplugh. 

Secretary.— Dr. F. H. Hatch. 

Dr. G. Corstorphine and Messrs. A. Du 

Toit, A. P. Hall, G. Kynaston, F. P. 

Mennell, and A. W. Rogers. 

Chairman. — Dr. L. Moysey. 
Secretary. — Mr. B. Hobson 
Dr. Wheelton Hind, Mr. H. Bolton, and 
Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

Cliairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretaries. — Professors W. W. Watts and 
S. H. Reynolds. 

Dr. T. Anderson, Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. 
G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. Crook, Professor 
E. J. Garwood, and Messrs. W. Gray, 
R. Kidston, A. S. Reid, J. J. H. Teail, 
R. Welch, W. Whitaker, and H. B. 
Woodward. 



cxxxviii 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES 
2. Not receiving Grants of Honey — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To consider the preparation of a List of 
Characteristic Fossils. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Professor P. F, Kendall. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Lower Carter. 

Professor W. S. Boulton, Professor G. 
Cole, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Profes- 
sors J. W. Gregory, Sir T. H. Holland, 
and S. H. Reynolds, Miss M. C. 
Stopes, Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. 
Marr, Dr. A. Vaughan, Professor 
W. W. Watts, and Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward. 



To continue the Investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Royal Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
pose of specimens where advisable. 

To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologist*, and to obtain by corre- 
spondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To nominate competent naturalists 
to perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 



To enable Mr. Laurie to conduct Ex- 
periments in Inheritance. 



To formulate a Definite System on 
which Collectors should record their 
captures. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 

Chairman. — Dr. F. Du Cane Godman. 
Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 



Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
and Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 



Chairman. — Sir E. Ray Lankester. 

Secretary. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Professors G. C. Bourne, J. Cossar Ewart, 
M. Hartog, W. A. Herdman, and J. 
Graham Kerr, Mr. O. H. Latter, Pro- 
fessor Minchin, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, 
Professors E. B. Poultonand A. Sedg- 
wick, and Dr. A. E. Shipley. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Professor A. 
Dendy. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor A. Sedg- 
wick, Professor Sydney H. Vines, and 
Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Chairman. — -Professor W. A. Herdman. 
Secretary. — Mr. Douglas Laurie. 
Professor R. C. Punnett and Dr. H. W. 
Marett Tims. 

Chairman. — Professor J. W.' H. Trail. 
Secretary. — Mr. F. Balfour Browne. 
Dr. Schartf, Professor G. H. Carpenter, 

Professor E. B. Poulton, and Mr. A. G. 

Tansley. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation and 
Systematic Registration of Photo- 
graphs of Anthropological Interest. 



Chairman. — Dr. C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. S. Kingsford. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, and 
Professor J. L. Myres. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money— continued. 



CXXX1X 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To organise Anthropometric Investiga- 
tion in the British Isles. 



To excavate Neolithic Sites in Northern 
Greece. 



To conduct Archaeological and Ethno- 
logical Researches in Crete. 



Members of Committee 



To advise on the best method of pub- 
lishing a collection of Hausa Folk- 
lore with translations and gramma- 
tical notes. 

To report on the present state of know- 
ledge of the Prehistoric Civilisation 
of the Western Mediterranean with 
a view to future research. 



To co-operate with a local Committee 
in the excavation of a piehistoric 
site at Bishop's Stortford. 



Chairman. — Professor A. Thomson. 
Secretary, — Mr. J. Gray. 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Mr. J. P. Droop and Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 

Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 

Secretari/. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. W. L. H. 
Duckworth, Dr. A. J. Evans, Professor 
A. Macalister, Professor W. Ridgeway, 
and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Chairman. — Mr. E. S. Hartland. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Professor J. L. Myres. 



Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretari/. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Dr. T. Ashby, Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, 
Mr. D. G. Hogarth, and Dr. A. J. Evans. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary.— Rev. Dr. A. Irving. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon and Dr. H. W. Marett 
Tims. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease. 



Tissue Metabolism, for the Investiga- 
tion of the Metabolism of Special 
Organs. 



Chairman. — Sir T. Lauder Brunton. 

Secretaries. — Mr. J. Barcrof t and Lieut. - 
Col. Simpson. 

Colonel Sir D. Bruce, Dr. S. G. Camp- 
bell, Sir Kendal Franks, Professor 
J. G. McKendrick, Sir A. Mitchell, 
Dr. Porter, Dr. J. L. Todd, Professor 
Sims Woodhead, and the Heads of the 
Tropical Schools of Liverpool, London, 
and Edinburgh. 

Chairman. — Professor E. H. Starling. 
Secretary. — Professor T. G. Brodie. 
Dr. J. S. Haldane. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



To consider the promotion of the Study 
of the Plant Life of the British 
Islands, and the preparation of the 
materials for a National Flora. 



Chairman.— Profesfor J. W. H. Trail. 
Secretary. — Professor R. H. Yapp. 
Colonel D. Prain, Professor I. Bayley 

Balfour, Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, Mr. A. 

B. Rendle, Dr. W. G. Smith, and Mr. 

A. G. Tansley. 



cxl 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To take notice of, and report upon 
changes in, Regulations — whether 
Legislative, Administrative, or made 
by Local Authorities — affecting 
Secondary Education. 

To inquire into the Curricula and Edu- 
cational Organisation of Industrial 
and Poor Law Schools with special 
reference to Day Industrial Schools. 

To report upon the Course of Experi- 
mental, Observational, and Practical 
Studies most suitable for Elementary 
Schools. 



To inquire into and report upon the 
overlapping between Secondary Edu- 
cation and that of Universities and 
other places of Higher Education. 



Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Mr. S. H. Butcher, Sir Henry Craik. 
Principal Griffiths, Sir Horace Plun- 
kett, and Professor M. E. Sadler. 

Chairman. — Mr. W. D. Eggar. 
Secretary. — Mrs. W. N. Shaw. 
Mr. J. L. Holland, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 
and Mr. J. G. Legge. 

Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. M. Heller. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. Adie, 
Professor H. E. Armstrong, Miss L. J. 
Clarke, Miss A. J. Cooper, Mr. George 
Fletcher, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Principal Griffiths, Mr. A. D. Hall, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. C. W. 
Kimmins, Professor L. C. Miall, Pro- 
fessor J. Perry, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, 
Professor A. Smithells, Dr. Lloyd 
Snape, Sir H. R. Reichel, Mr. 11. 
Richardson, and Professor W. W. 
Watts. 

Chairman. — Principal Miers. 
Secretary. —Professor R. A. Gregory. 
Messrs. D. Berridge and C. H. Botham- 

ley, Miss L. J. Clarke, Miss A. J. 

Cooper, Miss B. Foxley, Principal 

E. H. Griffiths, Mr. H. Bompas Smith, 

and Professor Smithells. 



RESOLUTIONS, ETC. cxli 



Communications ordered to be printed in extenso. 

Report on Solubility, by Dr. J. V. Eyre. 

Discussion on Dr. Bone's Report on Combustion (to follow the Report). 
The Present State of the Theory of Integral Equations, by Mr. H. Bateman. 
Bibliography of Papers on Photo-electric Fatigue, by Dr. H. S. Allen. 



Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable^ 

for action. 

From the General Committee. 

That the Recommendation to form a permanent Sub-section of Agriculture, 
contained in paragraph V. of the Report of the Council, be referred back to 
the Council. 

From Section D. 

That Section D reaffirms its resolution of September 3, 1908, and urges the 
Nomenclature Commission of the International Congress of Zoology to draw up 
an official list of generic names, with as little delay as possible, which shall 
not on nomenclatorial grounds be changed unless with the sanction of the 
Commission. 

From Section E. 

That the Council be requested to bring under the notice of His Majesty's 
Government the high prices that recently have been fixed for many Geological 
Survey Maps, which tend to keep the valuable information given by these maps 
from being circulated as freely as it ought to be, the sale now being practically 
limited to persons of some means. 

From Section H. 

To recommend the Council to bring to the notice of His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for the Colonies the defects of the present administration of antiquities 
in Cyprus and to urge the necessity of prompt and efficient measures under 
a trained official directly responsible to the Island Government to prevent the 
destruction and spoliation of ancient remains in the island. 

From Section I. 

The Committee of Section I begs to«call attention to the fact that during 
the past year resolutions have been adopted by the General Medical Council 
in support of early legislation to secure better regulation of the administration 
of general anaesthetics, and that the recent report of a Departmental Committee 
of the Home Office has laid special stress upon the need of careful clinical 
observation controlled by physiological experiments. 

The Committee asks the Association to support such legislation and inquiry. 



Recommendations referred to the Council for consideration, and, if 

desirable, for action. 

That the following Committees be authorised to receive contributions from 
sources other than the Association : — 

' To conduct Explorations with a view to ascertaining the Age of Stone 

Circles.' (Section H.) 
' To aid investigators ... to carry on . . . work at the Zoological Station 

at Naples.' (Section D.) 



cxlii SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated for Scientific Purposes by the 
General Committee at the Sheffield Meeting, September 1910. 
The Names of Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer for 
the Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematical and Physical Science. a j 

*Turner, Professor H. H.— Seismological Observations 60 

*Preece, Sir W. H. — Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ... 25 
*Gill, Sir David — Establishing a Solar Observatory in 

Australia 50 

*Shaw, Dr. W. N. — Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere 25 

Grant to the International Commission on Physical and 

Chemical Constants 30 

Chemistry. 

*Divers, Professor E. — Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 20 

*Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism 25 

*Kipping, Professor F. 8. — Transformation of Aromatic Nitro- 

amines 15 

*Kipping, Professor F. S. — Electroanalysis 15 

Arnold, Professor J. O. — Influence of Carbon, &c, on Corro- 
sion of Steel 15 

Geology. 

*Tiddeman, R. H.— Erratic Blocks 10 

*Harker, A. — Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 2 

*Lapworth, Professor C. — Paleozoic Rocks of Wales and the 

West of England 10 

* Watts, Professor W. W. — Composition of Charnwood Rocks 2 
*Watts, Professor W. W. — Igneous and Associated Rocks of 

Glensaul, &c 15 

Bourne, Professor G. C. — Mammalian Fauna in Miocene 

Deposits, Bugti Hills, Baluchistan 45 

Zoology. 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 75 

* Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Animalium 75 

*Shipley, A. E. — Feeding Habits of British Birds 5 

Shipley, Dr. A. E.—Belmullet Whaling Station 30 

Bourne, Professor G. C. — Mammalian Fauna in Miocene 

Deposits, Bugti Hills, Baluchistan 30 

Carried forward £579 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Cxliii 

£ a. d. 
Brought forward 579 

Geography. 

Chisholm, G. G.— Map of Prince Charles Foreland 30 

Herbertson, Professor A. J.— Equal Area Maps 20 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

*Cannan, Professor E. — Amount and Distribution of Income 

below the Income-tax Exemption Limit '. 5 

Engineering. 
*Preece, Sir W. H. — Gaseous Explosions 90 



Anthropology. 

*Munro, Dr. R. — Lake Villages in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury 5 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Excavations on Roman Sites in 

Britain 10 

*Read, Dr. C. H.— Age of Stone Circles 30 

*Read, Dr. C. H. — Anthropological Notes and Queries 40 

Monro, Dr. R. — Artificial Islands in Highland Lochs 10 



Physiology. 

*Schafer, Professor E. A.— The Ductless Glands 40 

*Sherrington, Professor C. S. — Body Metabolism in Cancer... 
*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 

* Waller, Dr. A. D. — Anaesthetics 

*Sherrington, Professor C. S. — Mental and Muscular Fatigue 
*Waller, Dr. A. D. — Electromotive Phenomena in Plants ... 
*Starling, Professor E. H. — Dissociation of Oxy- Haemoglobin 



Botany. 

*Scott, Dr. D. H.— Structure of Fossil Plants 15 

*Darwin, Dr. F. — Experimental Study of Heredity 45 

* Johnson, Professor T. — Survey of Clare Island 20 

*01iver, Professor F. W. — Registration of Botanical Photo- 
graphs 10 

Carried forward £1060 13 

* Reappointed. 



40 








6 


13 





25 








20 








25 








10 








25 









cxliv SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 1060 13 



*B 



Education. 

*Findlay, Professor J. J. — Mental and Physical Factors in- 
volved in Education 10 

Corresponding Societies Committee. 
Whitaker, W.— For Preparation of Report 20 

Total ^1090 13 

* Reappointed. 



* 



Annual Meetings, 1911 and 1912. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1911 will be held at 
Portsmouth, commencing August 30 ; in 1912, at Dundee. 



PEESIDBNT'S ADDRESS. 



1910. B 



ADDEESS 

BY 

The Ebv. Professor T. G. BONNEY, Sc.D., LL.D., F.E.S., 

PRESIDENT. 



Thirty-one years have passed since the British Association met in 
Sheffield, and the interval has been marked by exceptional progress. A 
town has become a city, the head of its municipality a Lord Mayor; its 
area has been enlarged by more than one-fifth ; its population has 
increased from about 280,000 to 479,000. Communication has been 
facilitated by the construction of nearly thirty-eight miles of electric 
tramways for home service and of new railways, including alternative 
routes to Manchester and London. The supplies of electricity, gas, 
and water have more than kept pace with the wants of the city. The 
first was just being attempted in 1879; the second has now twenty- 
three times as many consumers as in those days ; the story ' of the 
third has been told by one who knows it well, so that it is enough for me 
to say your water-supply cannot be surpassed for quantity and quality 
by any in the kingdom. Nor has Sheffield fallen behind other cities 
in its public buildings. In 1897 your handsome Town Hall was opened 
by the late Queen Victoria ; the new Post Office, appropriately built and 
adorned with material from almost local sources, was inaugurated less 
than two months ago. The Mappin Art Gallery commemorates the 
munificence of those whose name it bears, and fosters that love of the 
beautiful which Euskin sought to awaken by his liberal gifts. Last, 
but not least, Sheffield has shown that it could not rest satisfied till its 
citizens could ascend from their own doors to the highest rung of the 
educational ladder. Firth College, named after its bountiful founder, 
was born in the year of our last visit; in 1897 it received a charter as 
the University College of Sheffield, and in the spring of 1905 was 
created a University, shortly after which its fine new buildings were 

1 History and Description of Sheffield Water Works. W. Terrey, 1908. 

b2 



4 president's address. 

opened by the late King ; and last year its Library, the generous gift of 
Dr. Edgar Allen, was inaugurated by his successor, when Prince of 
Wales. I must not now dwell on the great work which awaits this and 
other new universities. It) is for them to prove that, so far from abstract 
thought being antagonistic to practical work, or scientific research to the 
labour of the factory or foundry, the one and the other can harmoniously 
co-operate in the advance of knowledge and the progress of civilisation. 

You often permit your President on these occasions to speak of a 
subject in which he takes a special interest, and I prefer thus trespassing 
on your kindness to attempting a general review of recent progress in 
science. I do not however propose, as you might naturally expect, 
to discuss some branch of petrology ; though for this no place could be 
more appropriate than Sheffield, since it was the birthplace and the 
lifelong home of Henry Clifton Sorby, who may truly be called the father 
of that science. This title he won when, a little more than sixty years 
ago, he began to study the structure and mineral composition of rocks 
by examining thin sections of them under the microscope. 1 A rare com- 
bination of a singularly versatile and active intellect with accurate 
thought and sound judgment, shrewd in nature, as became a Yorkshire- 
man, yet gentle, kindly, and unselfish, he was one whom his friends 
loved and of whom this city may well be proud. Sorby 's name will be 
kept alive among you by the Professorship of Geology which he has 
endowed in your University; but, as the funds will not be available for 
some time, and as that science is so intimately connected with metal- 
lurgy, coal-mining, and engineering, I venture to express a hope that 
some of your wealthier citizens will provide for the temporary deficiency, 
and thus worthily commemorate one so distinguished. 

But to return. I have not selected petrology as my subject, partly 
because I think that the great attention which its more minute details 
have of late received has tended to limit rather than to broaden our 
views, while for a survey of our present position it is enough to refer to 
the suggestive and comprehensive volume published last year by Mr. A. 
Harker; 2 partly, also, because the discussion of any branch of petrology 
would involve so many technicalities that I fear it would be found 
tedious by a large majority of my audience. So I have preferred to 
discuss some questions relating to the effects of ice which had engaged 
my attention a dozen years before I attempted the study of rock slices. 
As much of my petrological work has been connected with mountain 

1 His subsequent investigations into the microscopic structure of steel and other 
alloys of iron, in tho manufacture of which your city holds a foremost place, have 
been extended by Mr. J. E. Stead and others, and they, besides being of great value 
to industrial progress, have thrown important sidelights on more than one dark 
place in petrology. 

2 The Natural History of Igneous Rocks (1909)/ 



. . . president's address. 5 

districts, it has been possible for me to carry on the latter without 
neglecting the former, and my study of ice-work gradually led me from 
the highlands into the lowlands. 1 I purpose, then, to ask your attention 
this evening to some aspects of the glacial history of Western Europe. 

At no very distant geological epoch the climate in the northern 
part of the earth was much colder than it is at present. So it was 
also in the southern ; but whether the two were contemporaneous is less 
certain. Still more doubtful are the extent and the work of the ice which 
was a consequence, and the origin of certain deposits on some northern 
lowlands, including those of our own islands : namely, whether they are 
the direct leavings of glaciers or were laid down beneath the sea by 
floating shore-ice and bergs. Much light will be thrown on this complex 
problem by endeavouring to ascertain what snow and ice have done in 
some region which, during the Glacial Epoch, was never submerged, 
and none better can be found for this purpose than the European Alps. 
At the present day one school of geologists, which of late years has 
rapidly increased in number, claims for glaciers a very large share in the 
sculpture of that chain, asserting that they have not only scooped out 
the marginal lakes, as Sir A. Eamsay maintained full half a century 
ago, but have also quarried lofty cliffs, excavated great cirques, and 
deepened parts of the larger Alpine valleys by something like two 
thousand feet. The other school, while admitting that a glacier, in 
special circumstances, may hollow out a tarn or small lake and modify 
the features of rock scenery, declares that its action is abrasive rather 
than erosive, and that the sculpture of ridges, crags, and valleys was 
mainly accomplished in pre-glacial times by running water and the 
ordinary atmospheric agencies. 

In all controversies, as time goes on, hypotheses are apt to mas- 
querade as facts, so that I shall endeavour this evening to disentangle 
the two, and call attention to those which may be safely used in drawing 
a conclusion. 

In certain mountain regions, especially those where strong lime- 
stones, granites, and other massive rocks are dominant, the valleys are 
often trench-like, with precipitous sides, having cirques or corries at 
their heads, and with rather wide and gently sloping floors, which 
occasionally descend in steps, the distance between these increasing with 
that from the watershed. Glaciers have unquestionably occupied many 
of these valleys, but of late years they have been supposed to have taken 
a large share in excavating them. In order to appreciate their action 
we must imagine the glens to be filled up and the district restored to its 
former condition of a more' or less undulating upland. As the mean 

1 May I add that hereafter a statement of facts without mention of an authority 
means that I am speaking from personal knowledge ? 



6 president's address. 

temperature ' declined snow would begin to accumulate in inequalities 
on the upper slopes. This, by melting and freezing, would soften and 
corrode the underlying material, which would then be removed by rain 
and wind, gravitation and avalanche. In course of time the hollow 
thus formed would assume more and more the outlines of a corrie or a 
cirque by eating into the hillside. With an increasing diameter it would 
be occupied, as the temperature fell, first by a permanent snowfield, 
then by the nevi of a glacier. Another process now becomes important, 
that called ' sapping.' While ordinary glacier-scour tends, as we are - 
told, to produce ' sweeping curves and eventually a graded slope,' 
' sapping ' produces ' benches and cliffs, its action being horizontal and 
backwards,' and often dominant over scour. The author of this hypo- 
thesis 2 convinced himself of its truth in the Sierra Nevada by descending 
a bergschrund 150 feet in depth, which opened out, as is so common, 
beneath the walls of a cirque. Beginning in the n&v&, it ultimately reached 
the cliff, so that for the last thirty feet the bold investigator found rock on 
the one hand and ice on the other. The former was traversed by fracture 
planes, and was in all stages of displacement and dislodgment; some 
blocks having fallen to the bottom, others bridging the narrow chasm, 
and others frozen into the n&v6. Clear ice had formed in the fissures of 
the cliff ; it hung down in great stalactites ; it had accumulated in stalag- 
mitic masses on the floor. Beneath the n&v& the temperature would be 
uniform, so its action would be protective, except where it set up 
another kind of erosion, presently to be noticed ; but in the chasm, we 
are informed, there would be, at any rate for a considerable part of the 
year, a daily alternation of freezing and thawing. Thus the cliff would 
be rapidly undermined and be carried back into the mountain slope, so 
that before long the glacier would nestle in a shelter of its own making. 
Further down the valley the moving ice would become more effective 
than sub-glacial streams in deepening its bed ; but since the n^-fiow is 
almost imperceptible near the head, another agency must be invoked, 
that of ' plucking.' The ice grips, like a forceps, any loose or projecting 
fragment in its rocky bed, wrenches that from its place, and carries it 
away. The extraction of one tooth weakens the hold of its neighbours, 
and thus the glen is deepened by ' plucking, ' while it is carried back 
by ' sapping. ' Streams from melting snows on the slopes above 'the 
amphitheatre might have been expected to co-operate vigorously in 
making it, but of them little account seems to be taken, and we are even 
told that in some cases the winds probably prevented snow from resting 
on the rounded surface between two cirque-heads. 3 As these receded, 

1 In the remainder of this Address • temperature ' is to be understood as mean 
temperature. The Fahrenheit scale is used. 

2 W. D. Johnson, Science, N.S., ix. (1899), pp. 106, 112. 
* This does not appear to have occurred in the Alps. 



president's address. 



only a narrow neck would be left between them, which would be ulti- 
mately cut down into a gap or ' col. ' Thus a region of deep valleys with 
precipitous sides and heads, of sharp ridges, and of more or less isolated 
peaks is substituted for a rather monotonous, if lofty, highland. 

The hypothesis is ingenious, but some students of Alpine scenery 
think more proof desirable before they can accept it as an axiom. For 
instance, continuous observations are necessary to justify the assump 
tion of diurnal variations of temperature sufficient to produce any 
sensible effect on rock at the bottom of a narrow chasm nearly fifty 
yards deep and almost enclosed by ice. Here the conditions would 
more probably resemble those in a glacidre, or natural ice cave. In 
one of these, during the summer, curtains and festoons of ice depend 
from the walls ; from them and from the roof water drips slowly, to be 
frozen into stalagmitic mounds on the floor, which is itself sometimes 
a thick bed of ice. On this the quantity of fallen rock debris is not 
greater than is usual in a cave, nor are the walls notably shattered, 
even though a gap some four yards deep may separate them from the ice. 
The floors of cirques, from which the n6v& has vanished, cannot as a 
rule be examined, because they are masked by debris which is brought 
down by the numerous cascades, little and big, which seam their walls; 
but glimpses of them may sometimes be obtained in the smaller corries 
(which would be cirques if they could), and these show no signs of 
either ' sapping ' or ' plucking,' but some little of abrasion by moving 
ice. Cirques and corries also not infrequently occur on the sides as 
well as at the heads of valleys; such, for instance, as the two in the 
massif of the Uri Eothstock on the way to the Surenen Pass and the 
Fer a Cheval above Sixt. The Lago di Eitom lies between the mouth 
of a hanging valley and a well-defined step, and just above that is the 
Lago di Cadagno in a large steep-walled corrie, which opens laterally 
into the Val Piora, as that of the Lago di Tremorgio does into the 
southern side of the Val Bedretto. Cirques may also be found where 
glaciers have had a comparatively brief existence, as the Creux des 
Vents on the Jura; or have never been formed, as on the slopes 
of Salina, one of the Lipari Islands, or in the limestone desert of 
Lower Egypt. 1 I have seen a miniature stepped valley carved by a 
rainstorm on a slope of Hampstead Heath; a cirque, about a yard 
in height and breadth, similarly excavated in the vertical wall of 
a gravel pit; and a corrie, measured by feet instead of furlongs, 
at the foot of one of the Binns near Burntisland, or, on a much 
reduced scale, in a bank of earth. On all these the same agent, 
plunging water, has left its marks — runlets of rain for the smaller, 
streams for the larger; convergent at first, perhaps, by accident, 

1 A. J. Jukes-Browne, Geol. Mag., 1877, p. 477. 



8 president's address. 

afterwards inevitably combined as the hollow widened and deepened.' 
Each of the great cirques is still a 'land of streams,' and they are 
kept permanent for the greater part of the year by beds of snow on the 
ledges above its walls. 

The ' sapping and plucking ' process presents another difficulty — 
the steps already mentioned in the floors of valleys. These are sup- 
posed to indicate stages at which the excavating glacier transferred its 
operations to a higher level. But, if so, the outermost one must be 
the oldest, or the glacier must have been first formed in the lowest part 
of the incipient valley. Yet, with a falling temperature, the reverse 
would happen, for otherwise the snow must act as a protective mantle 
to the mature pre-glacial surface almost down to its base. However 
much age might have smoothed away youthful angularities, it would 
be strange if no receptacles had been left higher up to initiate the 
process; and even if sapping had only modified the form of an older 
valley, it could not have cut the steps unless it had begun its work 
on the lowest one. Thus, in the case of the Creux de Champ, if we 
hesitate to assume that the sapping process began at the mouth of 
the valley of the Grande Eau above Aigle, we must suppose it to have 
started somewhere near Ormont Dessus and to have excavated that 
gigantic hollow, the floor of which lies full 6,000 feet below the 
culminating crags of the Diablerets. 

But even if ' sapping and plucking ' were assigned a comparatively 
unimportant position in the cutting out of cirques and corries, it might 
still be maintained that the glaciers of the Ice Age had greatly deepened 
the valleys of mountain regions. That view is adopted by Professors 
Penck and Bruckner in their work on the glaciation of the Alps, 1 the 
value of which even those who cannot accept some of their conclusions 
will thankfully admit. On one point all parties agree — that a 
valley cut by a fairly rapid stream in a durable rock is V-like in section. 
With an increase of speed the walls become more vertical; with a 
diminution the valley widens and has a flatter bed, over which the river, 
as the base-line is approached, may at last meander. Lateral streams will 
plough into the slopes, and may be numerous enough to convert them into 
alternating ridges and furrows. If a valley has been excavated in thick 
horizontal beds of rock varying in hardness, such as limestones and 
shales, its sides exhibit a succession of terrace walls and shelving banks, 
while a marked dip and other dominant structures produce their own 
modifications. It is also agreed that a valley excavated or greatly 
enlarged by a glacier should be U-like in section. But an Alpine 
valley, especially as we approach its head, very commonly takes the 
following form : For some hundreds of feet up from the torrent it is 

1 Die Alpen in EiszeUnUcr (1909). 



president's address. 



a distinct V; above this the slopes become less rapid, changing, say, 
from 45° to not more than 30°, and that rather suddenly. Still higher 
comes a region of stone-strewn upland valleys and rugged crags, termi- 
nating in ridges and peaks of splintered rock, projecting from a mantle 
of ice and snow. The V-like part is often from 800 to 1,000 feet in 
depth, and the above-named authors maintain that this, with perhaps 
as much of the more open trough above, was excavated during the 
Glacial Epoch. Thus the floor of any one of these valleys prior to 
the Ice Age must often have been at least 1,800 feet above its present 
level. 1 As a rough estimate we may fix the deepening of one of 
the larger Pennine valleys, tributary to the Ehone, to have been, 
during the Ice Age, at least 1,600 feet in their lower parts. Most of 
them are now hanging valleys ; the stream issuing, on the level of 
the main river, from a deep gorge. Their tributaries are rather variable 
in form; the larger as a rule being more or less V-shaped; the 
shorter, and especially the smaller, corresponding more with the 
upper part of the larger valleys ; but their lips generally are less deeply 
notched. Whatever may have been the cause, this rapid change in 
slope must indicate a corresponding change of action in the erosive 
agent. Here and there the apex of the V may be slightly flattened, but 
any approach to a real U is extremely rare. The retention of the more 
open form in many small elevated recesses, from which at the present 
day but little water descends, suggests that where one of them soon 
became buried under snow, 3 but was insignificant as a feeder of a 
glacier, erosion has been for ages almost at a standstill. 

The V-like lower portion in the section of one of the principal 
valleys, which is all that some other observers have claimed for the work 
of a glacier, cannot be ascribed to subsequent modification by water, 
because ice- worn rock can be seen in many places, not only high up 
its sides, but also down to within a yard or two of the present torrent. 

Thus valley after valley in the Alps seems to leave no escape from 
the following dilemma : Either a valley cut by a glacier does not differ in 
shape from one made by running water, or one which has been excavated 
by the latter, if subsequently occupied, is but superficially modified 
by ice. This, as we can repeatedly see in the higher Alpine valleys, 
has not succeeded in obliterating the physical features due to the ordi- 
nary processes of erosion. Even where its effects are most striking, as 

1 The amount varies in different valleys ; for instance, it was fully 2,880 feet at 
Amsteg on the Reuss, just over 2,000 feet at Brieg in the Rhone Valley, about 
1,000 feet at Guttanen in the Aare Valley, about 1,550 feet above Zermatt, and 
1,100 feet above Saas Grand 

2 My own studies of mountain districts have led me to infer that on slopes of 
low grade the action of snow is preservative rather than destructive. That con- 
clusion was confirmed by Professor Garwood in a communication to the Royal 
Geographical Society on June 20 of the present year. 



10 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

in the Spitallamm below the Grimsel Hospice, it has not wholly effaced 
those features; and wherever a glacier in a recent retreat has exposed 
a rock surface, that demonstrates its inefficiency as a plough. The 
evidence of such cases has been pronounced inadmissible, on the ground 
that the glaciers of the Alps have now degenerated into senile impo- 
tence ; but in valley beds over which they passed when in the full tide 
of their strength the flanks show remnants of rocky ridges only partly 
smoothed away, and rough rock exists on the ' lee-sides ' of ice-worn 
mounds which no imaginary plucking can explain. The ice seems to 
have flowed over rather than to have plunged into the obstacles in its 
path, and even the huge steps of limestone exposed by the last retreat 
of the Unter Grindelwald Glacier have suffered little more than a 
rounding off of their angles, though that glacier must have passed over 
them when in fullest development, for it seems impossible to explain 
these by any process of sapping. 

The comparatively level trough, which so often forms the uppermost 
part of one of the great passes across the watershed of the Alps, can 
hardly be explained without admitting that in each case the original 
watershed has been destroyed by the more rapid recession of the head 
of the southern valley, and this work bears every sign of having been 
accomplished in pre-glacial times. Sapping and plucking must have 
operated on a gigantic scale to separate the Viso from the Cottian water- 
shed, to isolate the huge pyramid of the Matterhorn, with its western 
spur, or to make, by the recession of the Val Macugnaga, that great gap 
between the Strahlhorn and Monte Rosa. Some sceptics even go so far 
as to doubt whether the dominant forms of a non-glaciated region differ 
very materially from those of one which has been half-buried in snow- 
fields and glaciers. To my eyes, the general outlines of the mountains 
about the Lake of Gennesaret and the northern part of the Dead Sea 
recalled those around the Lake of Annecy and on the south-eastern shore 
of Leman. The sandstone crags, which rise here and there like ruined 
castles from the lower plateau of the Saxon Switzerland, resembled 
in outlines, though on a smaller scale, some of the Dolomites in the 
Southern Tyrol. The Lofoten Islands illustrate a half-drowned moun- 
tain range from which the glaciers have disappeared. Those were born 
among splintered peaks and ridges, which, though less lofty, rival in form 
the Aiguilles of Chamonix, and the valleys become more and more ice- 
worn as they descend, till the coast is fringed with skerries every one of 
which is a roche vioutonnie. The nivi in each of these valleys has been 
comparatively ineffective ; the ice has gathered strength with the growth 
of the glacier. As can be seen from photographs, the scenery of the heart 
of the Caucasus or of the Himalayas differs in scale rather than in kind 
from that of the Alps. Thus the amount of abrasion varies, other things 



president's address. 11 

being equal, with the latitude. The grinding away of ridges and spurs, 
the smoothing of the walls of troughs, 1 is greater in Norway than in the 
Alps; it is still greater in Greenland than in Norway, and it is greatest 
of all in the Antarctic, according to the reports of the expeditions led by 
Scott and Shackleton. But even in Polar regions, under the most 
favourable conditions, the dominant outlines of the mountains, as shown 
in the numerous photographs taken by both parties, and in Dr. Wilson's 
admirable drawings, differ in degree rather than in kind from those of 
mid-European ranges. It has been asserted that the parallel sides of 
the larger Alpine valleys— such as the Ehone above Martigny, the 
Lutschine near Lauterbrunnen, and the Val Bedretto below Airolo — 
prove that they have been made by the ice-plough rather than by running 
water; but in the first I am unable to discern more than the normal 
effects of a rather rapid river which has followed a trough of compara- 
tively soft rocks; in the second, only the cliffs marking the channel cut 
by a similar stream through massive limestones — cliffs like those which 
elsewhere rise up the mountain flanks far above the levels reached by 
glaciers; while in the third I have failed to discover, after repeated 
examination, anything abnormal. 

Many lake basins have been ascribed to the erosive action of glaciers. 
Since the late Sir A. Eamsay advanced this hypothesis numbers of lakes 
in various countries have been carefully investigated and the results pub- 
lished, the most recent of which is the splendid work on the Scottish 
lochs by Sir J. Murray and Mr. L. Pullar. 2 A contribution to science 
of the highest value, it has also a deeply pathetic interest, for it is a 
father's memorial to a much-loved son, P. P. Pullar, who, after taking a 
most active part in beginning the investigation, lost his life while saving 
others from drowning. As the time at my command is limited, and 
many are acquainted with the literature of the subject, I may be excused 
from saying more than that even these latest researches have not driven 
me from the position which I have maintained from the first — namely, 
that while many tarns in corries and lakelets in other favourable situa- 
tions are probably due to excavation by ice, as in the mountainous dis- 
tricts of Britain, in Scandinavia, or in the higher parts of the Alps, the 
difficulty of invoking this agency increases with the size of the basin — 
as, for example, in the case of Loch Maree or the Lake of Annecy — till 
it becomes insuperable. Even if Glas Llyn and Llyn Llydaw were the 
work of a glacier, the rock basins of Gennesaret and the Dead Sea, still 
more those of the great lakes in North America and in Central Africa, 
must be assigned to other causes. 

1 If one may judge from photographs, the smoothing of the flanks of a valley is 
unusually conspicuous in Milton Sound, New Zealand. 

2 Bathymetrical Survey of the Scottish Freshwater Lochs. Sir J. Murray and 
Mr. L. Pullar, 1910. 



12 ffeESIDENT's ADDRESS. , - 

I paSs oh, therefore, to mention another difficulty in this hypothesis 
— that the Alpine valleys were greatly deepened during the Glacial Epoch 
— which has not yet, I think, received sufficient attention. From three 
to four hundred thousand years have elapsed, according to Penck and 
Bruckner, since the first great advance of the Alpine ice. One of the 
latest estimates of the thickness of the several geological formations 
assigns 4,000 feet ' to the Pleistocene and Eecent, 13,000 to the Pliocene, 
and 14,000 to the Miocene. If we assume the times of deposit to be pro- 
portional to the thicknesses, and adopt the larger figure for the first-named 
period, the duration of the Pliocene would be 1,300,000 years, and of 
the Miocene 1,400,000 years. To estimate the total vertical thickness 
of rock which has been removed from the Alps by denudation is far from 
easy, but I think 14,000 feet would be a liberal allowance, of which about 
one-seventh is assigned to the Ice Age. But during that age, according 
to a curve given by Penck and Bruckner, the temperature was below its 
present amount for rather less than half (0*47) the time. Hence it 
follows that, since the sculpture of the Alps must have begun at least as 
far back as the Miocene period, one-seventh of the work has been done 
by ice in not quite one-fifteenth of the time, or its action must be very 
potent. Such data as are at our command make it probable that a 
Norway glacier at the present day lowers its basin by only about 
80 millimetres in 1,000 years; a Greenland glacier may remove some 
421 millimetres in the same time, while the Vatnajokul in Iceland 
attains to 647 millimetres. If Alpine glaciers had been as effective as the 
last-named, they would not have removed, during their 188,000 years 
of occupation of the Alpine valleys, more than 121.6 metres, or just 
over 397 feet; and as this is not half the amount demanded by the more 
moderate advocates of erosion, we must either ascribe an abnormal 
activity to the vanished Alpine glaciers, or admit that water was much 
more effective as an excavator. 

We must not forget that glaciers cannot have been important 
agents in the sculpture of the Alps during more than part 
of Pleistocene times. That sculpture probably began in the 
Oligocene period; for rather early in the next one the great 
masses of conglomerate, called Nagelfluh, show that powerful rivers 
had already carved for themselves valleys corresponding generally 
with and nearly as deep as those still in existence. Temperature 
during much of the Miocene period was not less than 12° P. above its 
present average. This would place the snow-line at about 12,000 feet. 3 

1 I have doubts whether this is not too great. 

2 I take the fall of temperature for a rise in altitude as 1° F. for 300 feet or, when 
the differences in the latter are large, 3° per 1,000 feet. These estimates will, I think, 
be sufficiently accurate. The figures given by Hann (see for a discussion of the 
question, Brit. Assoc. Report, 1909, p. 93) work out to 1° F. for each 318 feet of 
ascent (up to about 10,000 feet). 



president's address. 13 

In that case, if we assume the altitudes unchanged, not a snowfield 
would be left between the Simplon and the Maloja, the glaciers of the 
Pennines would shrivel into insignificance, Monte Eosa would exchange 
its drapery of ice for little more than a tippet of frozen snow. As the 
temperature fell the white robes would steal down the mountain-sides, 
the glaciers grow, the torrents be swollen during all the warmer months, 
and the work of sculpture increase in activity. Yet with a tempera- 
ture even 6° higher than it now is, as it might well be at the beginning 
of the Pliocene period, the snow-line would be at 10,000 feet; numbers 
of glaciers would have disappeared, and those around the Jungfrau and 
the Finster Aarhorn would be hardly more important than they now are 
in the Western Oberland. 

But denudation would begin so soon as the ground rose above the sea. 
Water, which cannot run off the sand exposed by the retreating tide 
without engraving a miniature system of valleys, would never leave the 
nascent range intact. The Miocene Alps, even before a patch of snow 
could remain through the summer months, would be carved into glens 
and valleys. Towards the end of that period the Alps were affected by 
a new set of movements, which produced their most marked effects in 
the northern zone from the Inn to the Durance. The Oberland rose to 
greater importance; Mont Blanc attained its primacy; the massif of 
Dauphin^ was probably developed. That, and still more the falling 
temperature, would increase the snowfields, glaciers, and torrents. The 
first would be, in the main, protective; the second, locally abrasive; the 
third, for the greater part of their course, erosive. No sooner had the 
drainage system been developed on both sides of the Alps than the valleys 
on the Italian side (unless we assume a very different distribution of 
rainfall) would work backwards more rapidly than those on the northern. 
Cases of trespass, such as that recorded by the long level trough on 
the north side of the Maloja Kulm and the precipitous descent on the 
southern, would become frequent. In the interglacial episodes — three 
in number, according to Penck and Bruckner, and occupying rather more 
than half the epoch — the snow and ice would dwindle to something like 
its present amount, so that the water would resume its work. Thus 
I think it far more probable that the V-like portions of the Alpine 
valleys were in the main excavated during Pliocene ages, their upper 
and more open parts being largely the results of Miocene and yet earlier 
sculpture. 

During the great advances of the ice, four in number, according 
to Penck and Bruckner, * when the Ehone glacier covered the lowlands of 
Vaud and Geneva, welling on one occasion over the gaps in the Jura, 
And leaving its erratics in the neighbourhood of Lyons, it ought to have 

f On the exact number I have not had the opportunity of forming an opinion. 



14 PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 

given signs of its erosive no less than of its transporting power. But 
what are the facts? In these lowlands we can see where the ice has 
passed over the Molasse (a Miocene sandstone); but here, instead of 
having crushed, torn, and uprooted the comparatively soft rock, it has 
produced hardly any effect. The huge glacier from the Linth Valley 
crept for not a few miles over a floor of stratified gravels, on which, some 
eight miles below Zurich, one of its moraines, formed during the last 
retreat, can be seen resting, without having produced more than a 
slight superficial disturbance. We are asked to credit glaciers with 
the erosion of deep valleys and the excavation of great lakes, and yet, 
wherever we pass from hypotheses to facts, we find them to have been 
singularly inefficient workmen ! 

I have dwelt at considerable, some may think undue, length on the 
Alps because we are sure that this region from before the close of the 
Miocene period has been above the sea-level. It accordingly demon- 
strates what effects ice can produce when working on land. 

In America also, to which I must now make only a passing refer- 
ence, great ice-sheets formerly existed : one occupying the district west 
of the Eocky Mountains, another spreading from that on the north-west 
of Hudson's Bay, and a third from the Laurentian hill-country. These 
two became confluent, and their united ice-flow covered the region 
of the Great Lakes, halting near the eastern coast a little south of 
New York, but in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois occasionally leaving 
moraines only a little north of the 39th parallel of latitude. 1 Of these 
relics my first-hand knowledge is very small, but the admirably illus- 
trated reports and other writings of American geologists 2 indicate that, 
if we make due allowance for the differences in environment, the tills 
and associated deposits on their continent are similar in character to 
those of the Alps.* 

In our own country and in corresponding parts of Northern Europe 
we must take into account the possible co-operation of the sea. In 
these, however, geologists agree that, for at least a portion of the Ice 
Age, glaciers occupied the mountain districts. Here ice-worn rocks, 
moraines and perched blocks, tarns in corries, and perhaps lakelets in 
valleys, demonstrate the former presence of a mantle of snow and ice. 
Glaciers radiated outwards from more than one focus in Ireland, Scot- 
land, the English Lake District, and Wales, and trespassed, at the time 

1 Some of the glacial drifts on the eastern side of the continent, as we shall find, 
may have heen deposited in the sea. 

2 See the Reports of the United States Geological Survey (from vol. iii. onwards), 
Journal of Geology, American Journal of Science, and local publications too numerous 
to mention. Among these the studies in Greenland by Professor Chamberlin are 
especially valuable for the light they throw on the movement of large glaciers and 
the transport of dibris in the lower part of the ice. 

3 Here, however, we cannot always be so sure of the absence of the sea. 



president's address. 15 

of their greatest development, upon the adjacent lowlands. They are 
generally believed to have advanced and retreated more than once, and 
their movements have been correlated by Professor J. Geikie with 
those already mentioned in the Alps. Into that very difficult question 
I must not enter; for my present purpose it is enough to say that in 
early Pleistocene times glaciers undoubtedly existed in the mountain 
districts of Britain and even formed piedmont ice-sheets on the low- 
lands. On the west side of England smoothed and striated rocks have 
been observed near Liverpool, which can hardly be due to the move- 
ments of shore-ice, and at Little Crosby a considerable surface has been 
cleared from the overlying boulder clay by the exertions of the late 
Mr. T. M. Eeade and his son,' Mr. A. Lyell Reade. But, so far as 
I am aware, rocks thus affected have not yet been discovered in the 
Wirral peninsula. On the eastern side of England similar markings 
have been found down to the coast of Durham, but a more southern 
extension of land ice cannot be taken for granted. In this direction, 
however, so far as the tidal valley of the Thames, and in corresponding 
parts of the central and western lowlands, certain deposits occur which, 
though to a great extent of glacial origin, are in many respects different 
from those left by land ice in the Alpine regions and in Northern 
America. 

They present us with problems the nature of which may be inferred 
from a brief statement of the facts. On the Norfolk coast we 
find the glacial drifts resting, sometimes on the chalk, sometimes on 
strata of very late Pliocene or early Pleistocene age. The latter 
show that in their time the strand-line must have oscillated slightly 
on either side of its present level. The earliest of the glacial 
deposits, called the Cromer Till and Contorted Drift, presents its most 
remarkable development in the cliffs on either side of that town. Here 
it consists of boulder clays and alternating beds of sand and clay; 
the first-named, two or three in number, somewhat limited in extent, 
and rather lenticular in form, are slightly sandy clays, full of pieces 
of chalk, flint, and other kinds of rock, some of the last having 
travelled from long distances. Yet more remarkable are the huge 
erratics of chalk, in the neighbourhood of which the sands and clays 
exhibit extraordinary contortions. Like the beds of till, they have not 
been found very far inland, for there the group appears as a whole to 
be represented by a stony loam, resembling a mixture of the sandy and 
clayey material, and this is restricted to a zone some twenty miles 
wide bordering the coast of Norfolk and Suffolk; not extending 
south of the latter county, but being probably represented to the north 
of the Humber. Above these is a group of false-bedded sands and 
gravels, variable in thickness and character — the Mid-glacial Sands of 
Searles V. Wood and F. W. Harmer. They extend over a wider area, 



1G President's address. 

and may be traced, according to some geologists, nearly to the western 
side of England, rising in that direction to a greater height above sea- 
level. But as it is impossible to prove that all isolated patches of 
these materials are identical in age, we can only be certain that some 
of them are older than the next deposit, a boulder clay, which extends 
over a large part of the lowlands in the Eastern Counties. This has 
a general resemblance to the Cromer Till, but its matrix is rather 
more clayey and is variable in colour. In and north of Yorkshire, 
as well as on the seaward side of the Lincolnshire wolds, it is 
generally brownish or purplish, but on their western side and as far as 
the clay goes to the south it is some shade of grey. Near to these 
wolds, in mid-Norfolk and on the northern margin of Suffolk, ib has 
a whitish tint, owing to the abundance of comminuted chalk. To the 
south and west of this area it is dark, from the similar presence of 
Kimmeridge clay. Yet further west it assumes an intermediate colour 
by having drawn upon the Oxford clay. This boulder clay, whether 
the chalky or the purple, in which partings of sand sometimes occur, 
must once have covered, according to Mr. F. W. Harmer, an area 
about ten thousand square miles in extent. It spreads like a coverlet 
over the pre-glacial irregularities of the surface. It caps the hills, 
attaining sometimes an elevation of fully 500 feet above sea-level; 1 
it fills up valleys, 3 sometimes partly, sometimes wholly, the original 
floors of which occasionally lie more than 100 feet below the 
same level. This boulder clay, often with an underlying sand or 
gravel, extends to the south as far as the neighbourhood of Muswell Hill 
and Finchley; hence its margin runs westward through Buckingham- 
shire, and Mien, bending northwards, passes to the west of Coventry. 
On this side of the Pennine Chain the matrix of the boulder clay 
is again reddish, being mainly derived from the sands and marls of 
the Trias; pieces of chalk and flint are rare (no doubt coming from 
Antrim), though other rocks are often plentiful enough. Some autho- 
rities are of opinion that the drift in most parts of Lancashire and 
Cheshire is separable, as on the eastern coasts, into a lower and an 
upper boulder clay, with intervening gravelly sands, but others think 
that the association of the first and third is lenticular rather than 

1 Not far from Royston it is found at a height of 525 feet above O.D. See F. W. 
Harmer, Pleistocene Period in the Eastern Counties, p. 115. 

2 At Old North Road Station, on a tributary of the Cam, the boulder clay was 
pierced to a depth of 180 feet, and at Impington it goes to 60 feet below sea-level. 
Near Hitchin, a hidden valley, traced for seven or eight miles, was proved to a depth of 
68 feet below O.D., and one near Newport in Essex to 104 feet. Depths were also 
found of 120 feet at West Horseheath in Suffolk, of 120 feet on low ground two miles 
S.W. of Sandy in Bedfordshire, of from 100 to 160 feet below the sea at Fossdyke, 
Long Sutton, and Boston, and at Glemsford in the valley of the Stour 477 feet of drift 
was passed through before reaching the chalk. See F. W. Harmer, Quart. Journ. Oeol. 
Soc, Ixiii. (1907), p. 494. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 17 

successive. Here also the lower clay cannot be traced very far inland, 
eastward or southward; the others have a wider extension, but they 
reach a greater elevation above sea-level than on the eastern side of 
England. The sand is inconstant in thickness, being sometimes hardly 
represented, sometimes as much as 200 feet. The upper clay runs 
on its more eastern side up to the chalky boulder clay, and extends 
on the south at least into Worcestershire. On the western side it 
merges with the upper member of the drifts radiating from the moun- 
tains of North Wales, which often exhibit a similar tripartite division, 
while (as we learn from the officers of the Geological Survey) boulder 
clays and gravelly sands, which it must suffice to mention, extend from 
the highlands of South Wales for a considerable distance to the south- 
east and south. Boulder clay has not been recognised in Devon or Corn- 
wall, though occasional erratics are found which seem to demand some 
form of ice-transport. A limited deposit, however, of that clay, con- 
taining boulders now and then over a yard in diameter, occurs near 
Selsey Bill on the Sussex coast, which most geologists consider to have 
been formed by floating rather than by land ice. 

Marine shells are not very infrequent in the lower clays of East 
Anglia and Yorkshire, but are commonly broken. The well-known 
Bridlington Crag is the most conspicuous instance, ' but this is ex- 
plained by many geologists as an erratic — a piece of an ancient North 
Sea bed caught up and transported, like the other molluscs, by an 
advancing ice-sheet. They also claim a derivative origin for the organic 
contents of the overlying sands and gravels, but some authorities 
consider the majority to be contemporaneous. Near the western coast 
of England, shells in much the same state of preservation as those on 
the present shore are far from rare in the lower clay, where they are 
associated with numerous striated stones, often closely resembling those 
which have travelled beneath a glacier, both from the Lake District 
and the less distant Trias. Shells are also found in the overlying sands 
up the valleys of the Dee and Severn, at occasional localities, even as 
far inland as Bridgnorth, the heights of the deposits varying from 
about 120 feet to over 500 feet above the sea-level. If we also take 
account of the upper boulder clay, where it can be distinguished, the 
list of marine molluscs, ostracods, and foraminifers from these western 
drifts is a rather long one. 1 

Marine shells, however, on the western side of England, are not 
restricted to the lowlands. Three instances, all occurring over 
1,000 feet above sea-level, claim more than a passing mention. At 
Macclesfield, almost thirty miles in a straight line from the head of the 
estuary of the Mersey, boulder clays associated with stratified gravels 

1 W. Shone, Qtuxrl. Journ. Geol Sec, xxxiv. (1878), p. 383. 

l'JU. Q 



18 president's address. 

and sands have been described by several observers. 1 The clay stops at 
about 1,000 feet, but the sands and gravels go on to nearly 1,300 feet, 
while isolated erratics are found up to about 100 feet higher. Sea shells, 
some of which are in good condition, have been obtained at various eleva- 
tions, the highest being about 1,200 feet above sea-level. About forty- 
eight species of molluscs have been recognised, and the fauna, with a few 
exceptions, more arctic in character and now found at a greater depth, is 
one which at the present day lives in a temperate climate at a depth of a 
few fathoms. 

The shell-bearing gravels at Gloppa, near Oswestry, which are about 
thirty miles from the head of the Dee estuary, were carefully described 
in 1892 by Mr. A. C. Nicholson. He has enumerated fully sixty 
species, of which, however, many are rare. As his collection 2 shows, 
the bivalves are generally broken, but a fair number of the univalves 
are tolerably perfect. The deposit itself consists of alternating seams 
of sand and gravel, the one generally about an inch in thickness, the 
other varying from a few inches to a foot. The difference in the 
amount of rounding shown by the stones is a noteworthy feature. 
They are not seldom striated; some have come from Scotland, others 
from the Lake District, but the majority from Wales, the last being 
the more angular. Here and there a block, sometimes exceeding a 
foot in diameter and usually from the last-named country, has been 
dropped among the smaller material, most of which ranges in diameter 
from half an inch to an inch and a half. The beds in one or two places 
show contortions ; but as a rule, though slightly wavy and with a gentle 
dip rather to the west of south, they are uniformly deposited. In this 
respect, and in the unequal wearing of the materials, the Gloppa 
deposit differs from most gravels that I have seen. Its situation also 
is peculiar, It is on the flattened top of a rocky spur from higher hills, 
which falls rather steeply to the Shropshire lowland on the eastern 
side, and on the more western is defined by a small valley which 
enlarges gradually as- it descends towards the Severn. If the country 
were gradually depressed for nearly 1,200 feet, this upland would 
become, first a promontory, then an island, and finally a shoal. 

The third instance, on Moel Tryfaen in Carnarvonshire, was care- 
fully investigated and described by a Committee of this Association 3 
about ten years ago. The shells occur in an irregularly stratified sand 
and gravel, resting on slate and overlain by a boulder clay, no great 

1 Memoirs of the Geological Survey : ' Country around Macclesfield,' T. I. Pocock 
(1906), p. 85. JFor some notes on Moel Tryfaen and the altitudes of other localities 
at which marine organisms have been found see J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Quart. Joum. Oeol. 
Soc, xxxvi. (1880), p. 351. For the occurrence of such remains in the Vale of Clwyd 
see a paper by T. McK. Hughes in Proc. Cliester Soc. of Nat. Hist., 1884. 

* Now deposited in the Oswestry Museum. 

8 Brit. Assoc. Report, 1899 (1900), pp. 414-423. 



president's address. 19 

distance from and a few dozen feet below the rocky summit of the 
hill, being about 1,300 feet above the level of the sea and at least five 
miles from its margin. About fifty-five species of molluscs and twenty- 
three of foraminifers have been identified. According to the late Dr. J. 
Gwyn Jeffreys, 1 the majority of the molluscs are littoral in habit, the 
rest such as live in from ten to twenty fathoms of water. Most of the 
erratics have been derived from the Welsh mountains, but some rocks 
from Anglesey have also been obtained, and a few pebbles of Lake 
District and Scottish rocks. If the sea were about 1,300 feet above its 
present level, Moel Tryfaen would become a small rocky island, open 
to the storms from the west and north, and nearly a mile and a half 
away from the nearest land. 

I must pass more rapidly over Ireland. The signs of vanished 
glaciers — ice-worn rocks and characteristic boulder-clays — are 
numerous, and may be traced in places down to the sea-level, but the 
principal outflow of the ice, according to some competent observers, 
was from a comparatively low district, extending diagonally across the 
island from the south of Lough Neagh to north of Galway Bay. 
Glaciers, however, must have first begun to form in the mountains on 
the northern and southern side of this zone, and we should have ex- 
pected that, whatever might happen on the lowlands, they would con- 
tinue to assert themselves. In no other part of the British Islands are 
eskers, which some geologists think were formed when a glacier reached 
the sea, so strikingly developed. Here also an upper and a lower 
boulder clay, the former being the more sparsely distributed, are often 
divided by a widespread group of sands and gravels, which locally, as 
in Great Britain, contains, sometimes abundantly, shells and other 
marine organisms; more than twenty species of molluscs, with fora- 
minifers, a barnacle, and perforations of annelids, having been 
described. These are found in counties Dublin and Wicklow, at various 
altitudes, 3 from a little above sea-level to a height of 1,300 feet. 

Not the least perplexing of the glacial phenomena in the British 
Isles is the distribution of erratics, which has been already mentioned 
in passing. On the Norfolk coast masses of chalk, often thousands 
of cubic feet in volume, occur in the lowest member of the glacial 
series, with occasional great blocks of sand and gravel, which must 
have once been frozen. But these, or at any rate the larger of them, 
have no dcubt. been derived from the immediate neighbourhood. Huge 
erratics also occasionally occur in the upper boulder clay — sometimes 
of chalk, as at Roslyn Hill near Ely and at Eidlington in Eutland, 
of Jurassic limestone, near Great Ponton, to the south of Grantham, 

1 Quart. Journ. Oeol. Soc, xxxvi. (1880), p. 355. 

' See T. M. Reade, Proc. Liverpool Oeol. Soc, 1893-94, p. 183, for some weighty 
arguments in favour of a marine origin for these deposits. 

c2 



20 president's address. 

and of Lower Kimmeridge clay near Biggleswade. 1 These also probably 
have not travelled more than a few miles. But others of smaller size 
have often made much longer journeys. The boulder clays of Eastern 
England are fall of pieces of rock, commonly ranging from about half an 
inch to a foot in diameter. Among these are samples of the carboniferous, 
Jurassic, and cretaceous rocks of Yorkshire and the adjacent counties; 
the red chalk from either Hunstanton, Speeton, or some part of the 
Lincolnshire wolds, being found as far south as the northern heights of 
London. Even the chalk and flint, the former of which, especially in 
the upper boulder clay, commonly occurs in well-worn pebbles, are 
frequently not the local but the northern varieties. And with these 
are mingled specimens from yet more distant sources — Cheviot 
porphyrites, South Scottish basalts, even some of the crystalline rocks 
of the Highlands. Whatever was the transporting agent, its general 
direction was southerly, with a slight deflection towards the east in 
the last-named cases. 

But the path of these erratics has been crossed by two streams, 
one coming from the west, the other from the east. On the western 
side of the Pennine watershed the Shap granite rises at "Wasdale Crag 
to a height of about 1,600 feet above sea-level. Boulders from it have 
descended the Eden valley to beyond Penrith; they have travelled in 
the opposite direction almost to Lancaster, 2 and a large number of them 
have actually made their way near the line of the Lake District water- 
shed, across the upper valley of the Eden, and over the high pass 
of Stainmoor Forest, 3 whence they descended into Upper Teesdale. 
Subsequently the stream seems to have bifurcated, one part passing 
straight out to the present sea-bed, by way of the lower course of the 
Tees, to be afterwards driven back on to the Yorkshire coast. The 
other part crossed the low watershed between the Tees and the Ouse, 
descended the Yale of York, and spread widely over the plain. 4 Shap 
boulders by some means penetrated into the valleys tributary to the Ouse 
on its west bank, and they have been observed as far to the south-east 
as Eoyston, near Barnsley. It is noteworthy that Lake District rocks 
have been occasionally recorded from Airedale and even the neighbour- 
hood of Colne, though the granite from Shap has not been found there. 
The other stream started from Scandinavia. Erratics, some of which 
must have come from the north-western side of the Christiania Fjord, 
occur on or near the coast from Essex to Yorkshire, and occasionally 

1 H. Home, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, lix. (1903), p. 375. 

2 A pebble of it is said to have been identified at Moel Tryfaen. 

8 The lowest part of the gap is about 1,400 feet. A little to the south is another 
gap about 200 feet lower, but none of the boulders seem to have taken that route. 

4 A boulder was even found above Grosmont in the Eske valley, 345 feet above 
sea-level. 



president's address. 21 

even as far north as Aberdeen, while they have been traced from the 
East Anglian coast to near Ware, Hitchin, and Bedford. 1 It may be 
important to notice that these Scandinavian erratics are often waterworn, 
like those dispersed over Denmark and parts of Northern Germany. 

On the western side of England the course of erratics is not less 
remarkable. Boulders from South-Western Scotland, especially from the 
Kirkcudbright district, both waterworn and angular, are scattered over 
the lowlands as far south as Wolverhampton, Bridgnorth, and Church 
Stretton. They may be traced along the border of North Wales, 
occurring, as has been said, though generally small, up to about 1,300 
feet on Moel Tryfaen, 1,100 feet at Gloppa, and more than that height 
on the hills east of Macclesfield. Boulders from the Lake District are 
scattered over much the same area and attain the same elevation, but 
extend, as might be expected, rather further to the east in Lancashire. 
They also have been found on the eastern side of the Pennine watershed, 
perhaps the most remarkable instances being in the dales of the Derby- 
shire Derwent and on the adjacent hills as much as 1,400 feet above 
the sea-level. 2 A third remarkable stream of erratics from the neigh- 
bourhood of the Arenig mountains extends from near the estuary of 
the Dee right across the paths of the two streams from the north, its 
eastern border passing near Kugeley, Birmingham, and Bromsgrove. 
They also range high, occurring almost 900 feet above sea-level on 
llomsley Hill, north of the Clents, and being common at Gloppa. 
Boulders also from the basalt mass of Eowley Regis have travelled in 
some cases between four and five miles, and in directions ranging from 
rather west of south to north-east ; and, though that mass hardly rises 
above the 700-feet contour line, one lies with an Arenig boulder on 
Romsley Hill. From Charnwood Forest, the crags of which range up 
to about 850 feet above sea-level, boulders have started which have been 
traced over an area to the south and west to a distance of more than 
twenty miles. 

Such, then, are the facts, which call for an interpretation. More 
than one have been proposed ; but it will be well, before discussing them, 
to arrive at some idea of the climate of these islands during the colder 
part of the Glacial Epoch. Unless that were associated with very great 
changes in the distribution of sea and land in Northern and North- 
western Europe, we may assume that neither the relative position of 
the isotherms nor the distribution of precipitation would be very 
materially altered. A general fall of temperature in the northern 
hemisphere might so weaken the warmer ocean current from the south- 
west that our coasts might be approached by a cold one from the 

1 R. H. Rastall and J. Romanes, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, lxv. (1909), p. 246. 
a Communication from Br. H. Arnold-Bemrose. 



22 president's address. 

opposite direction. 1 But though these changes might diminish the 
difference between the temperatures of London and Leipzig, they would 
not make the former colder than the latter. At the present day the 
snow-line in the Alps on either side of the Upper Ehone Valley is not 
far irom 8,000 feet above sea-level, and this corresponds with -a tem- 
perature of about 30°. Glaciers, however, are not generally formed 
till about 1,000 feet higher, where the temperature is approximately 
27°. Penck and Bruckner place this line during the coldest part of the 
Ice Age at about 4,000 feet. 2 In that case the temperature of the Swiss 
lowland would be some 15° lower than now, or near the freezing-point. 3 
If this fall were general, it would bring back the small glaciers on the 
Gran Sasso d 'Italia and Monte Rotondo in Corsica; perhaps also among 
the higher parts of the Vosges and Schwarzwald. 4 In our own country it 
would give a temperature of about 35° at Carnarvon and 23° on the top 
of Snowdon, of 32° at Fort William and 17°. 5 on the top of Ben Nevis. 
If : in addition to this, the land were 600 feet higher than now (as it 
probably was, at any rate in the beginning of the Glacial Epoch), there 
would be a further drop of 2°, so that glaciers would form in the corries 
of Snowdon, and the region round Ben Nevis might resemble the 
Oetzthal Alps at the present day. This change of itself would be in- 
sufficient, and any larger drop in the ocean-level would have to be con- 
tinental in its effects, since we cannot assume a local upheaval of much 
more than the above amount without seriously interfering with the 
river system of North Central Europe. But these changes, especially 
the former, might indirectly diminish the abnormal warmth of winter 
on our north-western coasts. 8 It is difficult to estimate the effect of 
this. If it did no more than place Carnarvon on the isotherm 
of Berlin (now lower by 2°), that would hardly bring a glacier 
from the Snowdonian region down to the sea. At the present time 
London is about 18° warmer than a place in the same latitude near the 
Labrador coast or the mouth of the Amur Eiver, but the removal of that 
difference would involve greater changes in the distribution of sea and 
land than seems possible at an epoch comparatively speaking so recent. 

1 Facts relating to this subject will be found in Climate and Time, by J. Croll, 
ch. ii. and iii. (1875). Of course the air currents would also be affected, and perhaps 
diminish precipitation as the latitude increased. 

2 Loc. cit., p. 586, et seq. They say the snow-line, which would mean that the 
temperature was only 12° lower than now ; but as possibly this line might then more 
nearly correspond with that of glacier formation, I will provisionally accept the higher 
figures, especially since Corsica, the Apennines, and some other localities in Europe, 
seem to require a reduction of rather more than 12°. 

3 It would be 32°.5 at Zurich, 31°.6 at Bern, 34°.l at Geneva, about 39°.0 on the 
plain of Piedmont, and 36°. at Lyons. 

4 See for particulars the author's Ice Work (' International Scientific Series '), p. 237. 

5 For much valuable information on these questions see a paper on the Climate of 
the Pleistocene Epoch (F. W. Harmer, Quart. Journ. Geo!. Soc, lvii. (1901), p. 405). 



president's address. 23 

T am doubtful whether we can attribute to changed currents a reduction 
in British temperatures of so much as 11°; but, if we did, this would 
amount to 28° from all causes, and give a temperature of 20° to 22° 
at sea-level in England during the coldest part of the Glacial Epoch. 1 
That is now found, roughly speaking, in Spitsbergen, which, since its 
mountains rise to much the same height, should give us a general idea 
of the condition of Britain in the olden time. 

What would then be the state of Scandinavia? Tts present tempera- 
ture ranges on the west coast from about 45° in the south to 35° in 
the north. 2 But this region must now be very much, possibly 
1,800 feet, lower than it was in pre-glacial, perhaps also in part of 
glacial, times. 3 If we added 5° for this to the original 15°, and 
allowed so much as 18° for the diversion of the warm current, the 
temperature of Scandinavia would range from 7° to —3°, approximately 
that of Greenland northwards from Upernivik. But since the differ- 
ence at the present day between Cape Farewell and Christiania (the 
one in an abnormally cold region, the other in one correspondingly 
warm) is only 7°, that allowance seems much too large, while without 
it Scandinavia would correspond in temperature with some part of that 
country from south of Upernivik to north of Frederikshaab. 4 But if 
Christiania were not colder than Jakobshavn is now, or Britain than 
Spitsbergen, we are precluded from comparisons with the coasts of 
Baffin Bay or Victoria Land. 

Thus the ice-sheet from Scandinavia would probably be much greater 
than those generated in Britain. It would, however, find an obstacle to 
progress westwards, which cannot be ignored. If the bed of the North 
Sea became dry land, owing to a general rise of 600 feet, that would 
still be separated from Norway by a deep channel, extending from the 
Christiania Fjord round the coast northward. Even then this would 
be everywhere more than another 600 feet deep, and almost as wide 
as the Strait of Dover. 5 The ice must cross this and afterwards be 
forced for more than 300 miles up a slope, which, though gentle, would 
be in vertical height at least 600 feet. The task, if accomplished by 

1 The present temperature in Ireland over the zone (from S. of Belfast to N. 
of Galway Bay) which is supposed to have formed the divide of the central snowfield 
may be given as from 49° to 50°, nearly the same as at the sea-level in Carnarvon- 
shire. Thus, though the district is less mountainous than Wales, it would not need 
a greater reduction, for the snowfall would probably be rather larger. But this 
reduction could hardly be less than 20°, for the glaciers would have to form nearly at the 
present sea-level. 

9 _ It is 44°.42 at Bergen, 38°.48 at Bodo, 35°.42 at Hammerfest, 41°.36 at Chris- 
tiania and Stockholm. 

8 For particulars see Geol. Mag., 1899, p. 97 (W. H. Hudleston) and p. 282 (T. G. 
Bonney). 

* Christiania and Cape Farewell (Greenland) are nearly on the same latitude. 

5 For details see Geol. Mag., 1899, pp. 97 and 282. 



24 president's address. 

thrust from behind, would be a heavy one, and, so far as I know, 
without a parallel at the present day ; if the viscosity of the ice enabled 
it to flow, as has lately been urged, 1 we must be cautious in appealing 
to the great Antarctic barrier, because we now learn that more than 
half of it is only consolidated snow. 2 Moreover, if the ice floated 
across that channel, the thickness of the boulder-bearing layers would 
be diminished by melting (as in Boss's Barrier), and the more viscous 
the material the greater the tendency for these to be left behind by 
the overflow of the cleaner upper layers. If, however, the whole region 
became dry land, the Scandinavian glaciers would descend into a 
broad valley, considerably more than 1,200 feet deep, which would 
afford them an easy path to the Arctic Ocean, so that only a lateral 
overflow, inconsiderable in volume, could spread itself over the western 
plateau. 3 An attempt to escape this difficulty has been made by 
assuming the existence of an independent centre of distribution for ice 
and boulders near the middle of the North Sea bed 4 (which would 
demand rather exceptional conditions of temperature and precipitation) ; 
but in such case either the Scandinavian ice would be fended off from 
England, or the boulders, prior to its advance, must have been dropped 
by floating ice on the neighbouring sea-floor. 

If, then, our own country were but little better than Spitsbergen as 
a producer of ice, and Scandinavia only surpassed Southern Greenland 
in having a rather heavier snowfall, what interpretation may we give 
to the glacial phenomena of Britain ? Three have been proposed. One 
asserts that throughout the Glacial Epoch the British Isles generally 
stood at a higher level, so that the ice which almost buried them 
flowed out on to the beds of the North and Irish Seas. The boulder 
clays represent its moraines. The stratified sands and gravels were 
deposited in lakes formed by the rivers which were dammed up by ice- 
sheets. 5 A second interpretation recognises the presence of glaciers in 
the mountain regions, but maintains that the land, at the outset rather 
above its present level, gradually sank beneath the sea, till the depth 
of water over the eastern coast of England was fully 500 feet, and 

1 H. M. Deeley, Geol. Mag., 1909, p. 239. 

2 E. Shackleton, The Heart of the Antarctic, ii. 277. 

8 It has indeed been affirmed (Brogger, Om de senglaciale og postglaciale nivaforand- 
ringer i Kristianiafelted, p. 682) that at the time of the great ice-sheet of Europe the 
sea-bottom must have been uplifted at least 8,500 feet higher than at present. This 
may be a ready explanation of the occurrence of certain dead shells in deep water, 
but, unless extremely local, it would revolutionise the drainage system of Central 
Europe. 

< Geol. Mag., 1901, pp. 142, 187, 284, 332. 

5 See Warren Upham, Monogr. U.S. Geol. Survey, xxv. (1896). This explana- 
tion commends itself to the majority of British geologists as an explanation of the 
noted parallel roads of Glenroy, but it is premature to speak of it as ' conclusively 
shown ' (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Iviii. (1902), 473) until a fundamental difficulty 
which it presents has been discussed and removed, 



president's address. 25 

over the western nearly 1,400 feet, from which depression it slowly 
recovered. By any such submergence Great Britain and Ireland would 
be broken up into a cluster of hilly islands, between which the tide 
from an extended Atlantic would sweep eastwards twice a day, its 
currents running strong through the narrower sounds, while move- 
ments in the reverse direction at the ebb would be much less vigorous. 
The third interpretation, in some respects intermediate, was first ad- 
vanced by the late Professor Carvill Lewis, who held that the peculiar 
boulder clays and associated sands (such as those of East Anglia), which, 
as was then thought, were not found more than about 450 feet above 
the present sea-level, had been deposited in a great fresh-water lake, 
held up by the ice-sheets already mentioned and by an isthmus, which 
at that time occupied the place of the Strait of Dover. Thus, these 
deposits, though indirectly due to land-ice, were actually fluviatile or 
lacustrine. But this interpretation need not detain us, though the 
former existence of such lakes is still maintained, on a small scale in 
Britain, on a much larger one in North America, because, as was 
pointed out when it was first advanced, it fails to explain the numerous 
erratic blocks and shell-bearing sands which occur far above the margin 
of the hypothetical lake. 

Each of the other two hypotheses involves grave difficulties. That 
of great confluent ice-sheets creeping over the British lowlands 
demands, as has been intimated, climatal conditions which are scarcely 
possible, and makes it hard to explain the sands and gravels, sometimes 
with regular alternate bedding, but more generally indicative of strong 
current action, which occur at various elevations to over 1,300 feet 
above sea-level, and seem too widespread to have been formed either 
beneath an ice-sheet or in lakes held up by one; for the latter, if 
of any size, would speedily check the velocity of influent streams. 
Also the mixture and crossing of boulders, which I have described, 
are inexplicable without the most extraordinary oscillations in the size 
of the contributing glaciers. To suppose that the Scandinavian ice 
reached to Bedfordshire and Herts and then retired in favour of North 
British glaciers, or vice versd, assumes an amount of variation which, 
so far as I am aware, is without a parallel elsewhere. So also the mix- 
ture of boulders from South Scotland, the Lake District, and North 
Wales which lie, especially in parts of Staffordshire and Shropshire, 
as if dropped upon the surface, far exceeds what may reasonably be 
attributed to variations amplified by lateral spreading of mountain 
glaciers on reaching a lowland, while the frequent presence of shells in 
the drifts, dozens of miles away from the present coast, implies a rather 
improbable scooping up of the sea-bed without much injury to such 
fragile objects, The ice also must have been curiously inconstant in 



26 president's address. 

its operations. It is supposed in one place to have glided gently 
over its bed, in another to have gripped and torn out huge masses of 
rock. 1 Both actions may be possible in a mountain region, but it is 
very difficult to understand how they could occur in a lowland or plain. 
Besides this we can only account for some singular aberrations of 
boulders, such as Shap granite well above Grosmont in Eskdale, or the 
Scandinavian rhomb-porphyry above Lockwood, 2 near Huddersfield, by 
assuming a flexibility in the lobes of an ice-sheet which it is hard to 
match at the present time. Again, the boulder clay of the Eastern 
Counties is crowded, as we have described, with pebbles of chalk, which 
generally are not of local origin, but have come from north of the Wash. 
Whether from the bed of a river or from a sea-beach, they are certainly 
water-worn. But if preglacial. the supply would be quickly exhausted, 
so that they would usually be confined to the lower part of the clay. 
As it is, though perhaps they run larger here, they abound throughout. 
The so-called moraines near York (supposed to have been left by a 
glacier retreating up that vale), those in the neighbourhood of Flam- 
borough Head and of Sheringham (regarded as relics of the North Sea 
ice-sheet) do not, in my opinion, show any important difference in out- 
line from ordinary hills of sands and gravels, and their materials are 
wholly unlike those of any indubitable moraines that I have either seen 
or studied in photographs. It may be said that the British glaciers 
passed over very different rocks from the Alpine ; but the Swiss molasse 
ought to have supplied abundant sand, and the older interglacial gravels 
quantities of pebbles ; yet the differences between the morainic materials 
on the flank of the Jura or near the town of Geneva and those close to 
the foot of the Alps are varietal rather than specific. 

Some authorities, however, attribute such magnitude to the ice- 
sheets radiating from Scandinavia that they depict them, at the time 
of maximum extension, as not only traversing the North Sea bed and 
trespassing upon the coast of England, but also radiating southward to 
overwhelm Denmark and Holland, to invade Northern Germany and 
Poland, to obliterate Hanover, Berlin, and Warsaw, and to stop but 
little short of Dresden and Cracow, while burying Bussia on the east to 
within no great distance of the Volga and on the south to the neighbour- 
hood of Kief. Their presence, however, so far as I can ascertain, is in- 
ferred from evidence * very similar to that which we have discussed in the 

1 That this has occurred at Cromer is a very dubious hypothesis (see Oeol. Mag., 
1905, pp. 397, 524). The curious relations of the drift and chalk in the islands of 
Moen and Riigen are sometimes supposed to prove the same action. Knowing both 
well, I have no hesitation in saying that the chalk there is, 'as a rule, as much in situ 
as it is in the Isle of Wight. 

2 About half-way across England and 810 feet above sea-level. P. F. Kendall, 
Quart. Journ. Oeol. Soc, Iviii. (1902), p. 498. 

3 A valuable summary of it is given in The Great Ice Age, J. Geikie. ch. xxix., xxx. 
(1894). 



president's address. 27 

British lowlands. That Scandinavia was at one time almost wholly buried 
beneath snow and ice is indubitable ; it is equally so that at the outset 
the land stood above its present level, and that during the later stages of 
the Glacial Epoch parts, at any rate of Southern Norway, had sunk 
down to a maximum depth of 800 feet. In Germany, however, erratics 
are scattered over its plain and stranded on the slopes of the Harz and 
Riesengebirge up to about 1,400 feet above sea-level. The glacial drifts 
of the lowlands sometimes contain dislodged masses of neighbouring 
rocks like those at Cromer, and we read of other indications of ice 
action. I must, however, observe that since the glacial deposits of Moen, 
Warnemunde, and Rugen often present not only close resemblances to 
those of our Eastern Counties but also very similar difficulties, it is not 
permissible to quote the one in support of the other, seeing that the origin 
of each is equally dubious. Given a sufficient ' head ' of ice in northern 
regions, It might be possible to transfer the remains of organisms from 
the bed of the Irish Sea to Moel Tryfaen, Macclesfield, and Gloppa; 
but at the last-named, if not at the others, we must assume the existence 
of steadily alternating currents in the lakes in order to explain the 
corresponding bedding of the deposit. This, however, is not the only 
difficulty. The ' Irish Sea glacier ' is supposed to have been com- 
posed of streams from Ireland, South- West Scotland, and the Lake. 
District, of which the second furnished the dominant contingent; the 
first-named not producing any direct effect on the western coast of 
Great Britain, and the third being made to feel its inferiority and 
' shouldered in upon the mainland.' But even if this ever happened, 
ought not the Welsh ice to have joined issue with the invaders 
a good many miles to the north of its own coast ? x Welsh boulders 
at any rate are common near the summit of Moel Tryfaen, and I 
have no hesitation in saying that the pebbles of riebeckite-rock, far 
from rare in its drifts, come from Mynydd Mawr, hardly half a league 
to the E.S.E., and not from Ailsa Craig. 2 

As such frequent appeal is made to the superior volume of the ice- 
sheet which poured from the Northern Hills over the bed of the Irish 
Sea, I will compare in more detail the ice-producing capacities of the 

1 From Moel Tryfaen to the nearest point of Scotland is well over a hundred 
miles, and it is a few less than this distance from Gloppa to the Lake District. In 
order to allow the Irish Sea ice-sheet to reach the top of Moel Tryfaen the glacier 
productive power of Snowdonia has been minimised (Wright, Man and the Glacial 
Epoch, pp. 171, 172). But the difference between that and the Arenig region is not 
great enough to make the one incompetent to protect its own borderland while the 
other could send an ice-sheet which could almost cover the Clent Hills and reach the 
neighbourhood of Birmingham. Anglesey also, if we suppose a slight elevation and a 
temperature of 29° at the sea-level, would become a centre of ice-distribution and an 
advance guard to North Wales. 

2 The boulders of picrite near Porth Nobla, from Llanerchymedd, though they 
have travelled southward, have moved away much to the west. 



28 , president's address. 

several districts. The present temperature of West-Central Scotland 
may be taken as 47°; its surface as averaging about 2,500 feet, rising 
occasionally to nearly 4,000 feet above sea-level. In the western part 
of the Southern Uplands the temperature is a degree higher, and the 
average for altitude at most not above 1,500 feet. In the Lake Dis- 
trict and the Northern Pennines the temperature is increased by another 
degree, and the heights are, for the one 1,800 feet with a maximum of 
3,162 feet, for the other 1,200 feet and 2,892 feet. In North Wales 
the temperature is 50°, the average height perhaps 2,000 feet, and the 
culminating point 3,571 feet. For the purpose of comparing the ice- 
producing powers of these districts we may bring them to one tempera- 
ture by adding 300 feet to the height for each degree below that of the 
Welsh region. This would raise the average elevation of Central and 
Southern Scotland to 3,400 feet and 2,100 feet respectively ; for the Lake 
District and Northern Pennines to 2,100 feet and 1,500 feet. We may 
picture to ourselves what this would mean, if the snow-line were at the 
sea-level in North Wales, by imagining 8,000 feet added to its height 
and comparing it with the Alps. North Wales would then resemble a 
part of that chain which had an average height of about 10,000 feet 
above sea-level, and culminated in a peak of 11,571 feet; the Lake Dis- 
trict would hardly differ from it ; the Northern Pennines would be like a 
range of about 9,000 feet, its highest peak being 11,192 feet. Southern 
Scotland would be much the same in average height as the first and 
second, and would rise, though rarely, to above 11,000 feet; the average 
in Central Scotland would be about 11,400 feet, and the maximum about 
13,000 feet. Thus, North Wales, the Lake District, and the Southern 
Uplands would differ little in ice-productive power; while Central 
Scotland would distinctly exceed them, but not more than the group 
around the Finsteraarhorn does that giving birth to the Ehone glacier. 
In one respect, however, all these districts would differ from the Alps — 
that, at 8,000 feet, the surface, instead of being furrowed with valleys, 
small and great, would be a gently shelving plateau, which would favour 
the formation of piedmont glaciers. Still, unless we assume the present 
distribution of rainfall to be completely altered (for which I do not know 
any reason), the relative magnitudes of the ice coming from these centres 
(whether separate glaciers or confluent sheets) could differ but little. 
Scottish ice would not appreciably ' shoulder inland ' that from the Lake 
District, nor would the Welsh ice be imprisoned within its own valleys. 
During the last few years, however, the lake-hypothesis of Carvill 
Lewis has been revived under a rather different form by some English 
advocates of land-ice. For instance, the former presence of ice- 
dammed lakes is supposed to be indicated in the upper parts of the 
Cleveland Hills by certain overflow channels. I may be allowed to 



president's address. 29 

observe that, though this view is the outcome of much acute observa- 
tion and reasoning, 1 it is wholly dependent upon the ice-barriers 
already mentioned, and that if they dissolve before the dry light of 
sceptical criticism, the lakes will 'leave not a rack behind.' I must 
also confess that to my eyes the so-called ' overflow channels ' much 
more closely resemble the remnants of ancient valley-systems, formed 
by only moderately rapid rivers, which have been isolated by the tres- 
pass of younger and more energetic streams, and they suggest that the 
main features of this picturesque upland were developed before rather 
than after the beginning of the Glacial Epoch. I think that even ' Lake 
Pickering,'- though it has become an accepted fact with several 
geologists of high repute, can be more simply explained as a two- 
branched 'valley of strike,' formed on the Kimmerid'ge clay, the 
eastern arm of which was beheaded, even in preglacial times, by the 
sea. 2 As to Lake Oxford, 3 I must confess myself still more sceptical. 
Some changes no doubt have occurred in later glacial and postglacial 
times; valleys have been here raised by deposit, there deepened some- 
times by as much as 100 feet ; the courses of lowland rivers may 
occasionally have been altered; but I doubt whether, since those times 
began, either ice-sheet or lake has ever concealed the site of that 
University city. 

The submergence hypothesis assumes that, at the beginning of the 
Glacial Epoch, our islands stood rather above their present level, and 
during that period gradually subsided, on the west to a greater extent 
than on the east, till at last the movement was reversed, and they re- 
turned nearly to their former position. During most of this time glaciers 
came down to the sea from the more mountainous islands, and in winter 
an ice-foot formed upon the shore. This, on becoming detached, carried 
away boulders, beach pebbles, and finer detritus. Great quantities of 
the last also were swept by swollen streams , into the estuaries and 
spread over the sea-bed by coast currents, settling down especially in 
the. quiet depths of submerged valleys. Shore-ice in Arctic regions, as 
Colonel H. W. Feilden 4 has described, can striate stones and even the 
rock beneath it, and is able, on a subsiding area, gradually to push 
boulders up to a higher level. In fact the state of the British region 
in those ages would not have been unlike that still existing near the 
coasts of the Barents and Kara Seas. Over the submerged region 
southward, and in some cases more or less eastward, currents would 

1 P. F. Kendall, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, lviii. (1902), 471. 

2 See for instance the courses of the Medway and the Beult over the Weald clay 
(C. Le Neve Foster and W. Topley, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xxi. (1865), p. 443). 

3 F. W. Harmer, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, lxiii. (1907), p. 470. 

4 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xxxiv. (1878), p. 556. 



30 president's address. 

be prevalent ; though changes of wind l would often affect the drift 
of the floating ice-rafts. But though the submergence hypothesis is 
obviously free from the serious difficulties which have been indicated 
in discussing the other one, gives a simple explanation of the presence 
of marine organisms, and accords with what can be proved to have 
occurred in Norway, Waigatz Island, Novaia Zemlya, on the Lower 
St. Lawrence, in Grinnell Land, and elsewhere, 2 it undoubtedly in- 
volves others. One of them — the absence of shore terraces, caves, or 
other sea marks — is perhaps hardly so grave as it is often thought 
to be. It may be met by the remark that unless the Glacial Age 
lasted for a very long time and the movements were interrupted by 
well-marked pauses, we could not expect to find any such record. In 
regard also to another objection, the rather rare and sporadic occur- 
rence of marine shells, the answer would be that, on the Norway coast, 
where the ice-worn rock has certainly been submerged, sea-shells are 
far from common and occur sporadically in the raised deltaic deposits 
of the fjords. 5 An advocate of this view might also complain, not 
without justice, that, if he cited an inland terrace, it was promptly dis- 
missed as the product of an ice-dammed lake, and his frequent instances 
of marine shells in stratified drifts were declared to have been trans- 
ported from the sea by the lobe of an ice-sheet; even if they have 
been carried across the path of the Arenig ice, more than forty miles, 
as the crow flies, from the Irish Sea up the Valley of the Severn, or 
forced some 1,300 feet up Moel Tryfaen.* The difficulty in the latter 
case, he would observe, is not met by saying the ice-sheet would be 
able to climb that hill ' given there were a sufficient head behind 
it. ' 5 That ice can be driven uphill has long been known, but the 
existence of the ' sufficient head ' must be demonstrated, not assumed. 
There may be ' no logical halting-place between an uplift of ten or 
twenty feet to surmount a roche moutonnie and an equally gradual 

1 See p. 25, and for the currents now dominant consult Dr. H. Bassott in Professor 
Herdman's Report on the Lancashire Sea Fisheries, Trans. Biol. Soc. Liverpool, xxiv. 
(1910), p. 123. 

2 See Ice Work, p. 221, and Geol. Mag., 1900, p. 289. 

3 If, as seems probable, the temperature was changing rather rapidly the old 
fauna would be pauperised and the new one make its way but slowly into the British 
fjords. 

4 Critics of the submergence hypothesis seem to find a difficulty in admitting 
downward and upward movements, amounting sometimes to nearly 1,400 feet 
during Pleistocene Ages ; but in the northern part of America the upheaval, at any 
rate, has amounted to about 1,000 feet, while on the western coast, beneath the 
lofty summit of Mount St. Elias, marine shells of existing species have been obtained 
some 5,000 feet above sea-level. It is also admitted that in several places the pre- 
glacial surface of the land was much above its present level. On the Red River, 
whatever be theexplanation, foraminifers, radiolarians, and sponge spicules have been 
found at 700 feet above sea-level, and near Victoria, on the Saskatchewan, even up 
to about 1,900 feet. 

6 P. F. Kendall in Wright's Man and the Glacial Period, p. 171. 



president's address. 31 

elevation to the height of Moel Tryfaen,' yet there is a common-sense 
limitation, even to a destructive sorites. The argument, in fact, is 
more specious than valid, till we are told approximately how thick 
the northern ice must be to produce the requisite pressure, and whether 
such an accumulation would be possible. The advocates of land-ice 
admit that, before it had covered more than a few leagues on its south- 
ward journey its thickness was less than 2,000 feet, and we are not 
entitled, as I have endeavoured to show, to pile up ice indefinitely 
on either our British highlands or the adjacent sea-bed. The same 
reason also forbids us largely to augment the thickness of the latter 
by the snowfall on its surface, as happens to the Antarctic barrier-ice. 
Even if the thickness of the ice-cap over the Dumfries and Kirkcudbright 
hills had been about 2,500 feet, that, with every allowance for viscosity, 
would hardly give us a head sufficient to force a layer of ice from the 
level of the sea-bed to a height of nearly 1,400 feet above it and at 
a distance of more than 100 miles. 

Neither can we obtain much support from the instance in Spits- 
bergen, described by Professors Garwood and Gregory, where the Ivory 
Glacier, after crossing the bed of a valley, had transported marine 
shells and drift from the floor (little above sea-level) to a height of about 
400 feet on the opposite slope. Here the valley was narrow, and the 
glacier had descended from an inland ice-reservoir, much of which was 
at least 2,800 feet above the sea, and rose occasionally more than a 
thousand feet higher. 1 

But other difficulties are far more grave. The thickness of the 
chalky boulder clay alone, as has been stated, not infrequently exceeds 
100 feet, and, though often much less, may have been reduced by denuda- 
tion. This is an enormous amount to have been transported and distributed 
by floating ice. The materials also are not much more easily accounted 
for by this than by the other hypothesis. A continuous supply of well- 
worn chalk pebbles might indeed be kept up from a gradually rising 
or sinking beach, but it is difficult to see how, until the land had sub- 
sided for at least 200 feet, the chalky boulder clay could be deposited 
in some of the East Anglian valleys or on the Leicestershire hills. That 
depression, however, would seriously diminish the area of exposed 
chalk in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, and the double of it would almost 
drown that rock. Again, the East Anglian boulder clay, as we have 
said, frequently abounds in fragments and finer detritus from the 
Kimmeridge and Oxford clays. But a large part of their outfcrop would 
disappear before the former submergence was completed. Yet the 
materials of the boulder clay, though changing as it is traced across 
the country, more especially from east to west, seem to vary little in a 

1 Quart. Journ. Oeol. Soc., liv. (1898), p. 205. Earlier observations of some 
upthrust of materials by a glacier are noted on p. 219. 



32 president's ADDRESS. 

vertical direction. The instances, also, of the transportation of boulderg 
and smaller stones to higher levels, sometimes large in amount, as in 
the transference of ' brockram ' from outcrops near the bed of the Eden 
Valley to the level of Stainmoor Gap, seem to be too numerous to be 
readily explained by the uplifting action of shore-ice in a subsiding 
area. Such a process is possible, but I should anticipate it would 
be rather exceptional. 

Submergence also readily accounts for the above-named sands and 
gravels, but not quite so easily for their occurrence at such very different 
levels. On the eastern side of England gravelly sands may be 
found beneath the chalky boulder clay from well below sea-level to three 
or four hundred feet above it. Again, since, on the submergence hypo- 
thesis, the lower boulder clay about the estuaries of the Dee and the 
Mersey must represent a deposit from piedmont ice in a shallow sea, 
the mid-glacial sand (sometimes not very clearly marked in this part) 
ought not to be more than forty or fifty feet above the present Ordnance 
datum. But at Manchester it reaches over 200 feet, while near Hey- 
wood it is at least 425 feet. In other words the sands and gravels, 
presumably (often certainly) mid-glacial, mantle, like the upper boulder 
clay, over great irregularities of the surface, and are sometimes found, 
as already stated, up to more than 1,200 feet. Either of these deposits 
may have followed the sea-line upwards or downwards, but that expla- 
nation would almost compel us to suppose that the sand was deposited 
during the submergence and the upper clay during the emergence; so 
that, with the former material, the higher in position is the newer in 
time, and with the latter the reverse. We must not, however, forget 
that in the island of Kiigen we find more than one example of a strati- 
fied gravelly sand between two beds of boulder clay (containing Scandi- 
navian erratics) which present some resemblance to the boulder clays of 
eastern England, while certain glacial deposits at Warnemunde, on the 
Baltic coast, sometimes remind us of the Contorted Drift of Norfolk. 

Towards the close of the Glacial Epoch the deposition of the boulder 
clay ceased ' and its denudation began. On the low plateaux of the 
Eastern Counties it is often succeeded by coarse gravels, largely com- 
posed of flint, more or less water-worn. These occasionally include small 
intercalations of boulder clay, have evidently been derived from it, and 
indicate movement by fairly strong currents. Similar gravels are found 
overlying the boulder clay in other parts of England, sometimes at 
greater heights above sea-level. Occasionally the two are intimately 
related. For instance, a pit on the broad, almost level, top of the 
Gogmagog Hills, about 200 feet above sea-level and four miles south 
of Cambridge, shows a current-bedded sand and gravel, overlain by a 

1 Probably deposits of a distinctly glacial origin (such as those near Hessle in 
Yorkshire) continued in the northern districts, but on these we need not linger. 



president's address* 33 

boulddr clay, obviously rearranged ; while other pits in the iinmediate 
neighbourhood expose varieties and mixtures of one or the other 
material. But, as true boulder clay occurs in the valley below, these 
gravels must have been deposited, and that by rather strong currents, 
on a hill-top — a thing which seems impossible under anything like the 
existing conditions ; and, even if the lowland were buried beneath ice full 
200 feet in thickness, which made the hill-top into the bed of a lake, it is 
difficult to understand how the waters of that could be in rapid motion. 
Eearranged boulder clays also occur on the slopes of valleys * which may 
be explained, with perhaps some of the curious sections near Sudbury, 
by the slipping of materials from a higher position. But at Old 
Oswestry gravels with indications of ice action are found at the foot of 
the hills almost 700 feet below those of Gloppa. 

Often the plateau gravels are followed at a lower level by terrace 
gravels, 3 which descend towards the existing rivers, and suggest that 
valleys have been sometimes deepened, sometimes only re-excavated. 
The latter gravels are obviously deposited by rivers larger and stronger 
than those which now wind their way seawards, but it is difficult to ex- 
plain the former gravels by any fluviatile action, whether the water from 
a melting ice-sheet ran over the land or into a lake, held up by some tem- 
porary barrier. But the sorting action of currents in a slowly shallow- 
ing sea would be quite competent to account for them, so they afford an 
indirect support to the hypothesis of submergence. It is, however, 
generally admitted that there have been oscillations both of level and of 
climate since any boulder clay was deposited in the districts south of the 
Humber and the Eibble. The passing of the Great Ice Age was not 
sudden, and glaciers may have lingered in our mountain regions when 
palaeolithic man hunted the mammoth in the valley of the Thames, or 
frequented the caves of Devon and Mendip. But of these times of tran- 
sition before written history became possible, and of sundry interesting 
topics connected with the Ice Age itself — of its cause, date, and duration, 
whether it was persistent or interrupted by warmer episodes, and, if so, 
by what number, of how often it had already recurred in the history of 
the earth — I must, for obvious reasons, refrain from speaking, and 

I content myself with having endeavoured to place before you the facts 
of which, in my opinion, we must take account in reconstructing the 
physical geography of Western Europe, and especially of our own 
country, during the Age of Ice. 
Not unnaturally you will expect a decision in favour of one or the 
other litigant after this long summing-up. But I can only say that, in 
regard to the British Isles, the difficulties in either hypothesis appear so 






1 For instance, at Stanningfield in the valley of the Lark. 
_ 2 These contain the instruments worked by palaeolithic (Achoulean) man who, in 
this country at any rate, is later than the chalkv boulder clay. 

1910. * D 



34 president's address. 

great that, while I consider those in the ' ]and-ice ' hypothesis to be the 
more serious, I cannot as yet declare the other one to be satisfactorily 
established, and think we shall be wiser in working on in the hope of 
clearing up some of the perplexities. I may add that, for these purposes, 
regions like the northern coasts of Eussia and Siberia appear to me more 
promising than those in closer proximity to the North or South Mag- 
netic Poles. This may seem a ' lame and impotent conclusion ' to so long 
a disquisition, but there are stages in the development of a scientific idea 
when the best service we can do it is by attempting to separate facts from 
fancies, by demanding that difficulties should be frankly faced instead 
of being severely ignored, by insisting that the giving of a name cannot 
convert the imaginary into the real, and by remembering that if hypo- 
theses yet on their trial are treated as axioms, the result will often bring 
disaster, like building a tower on a foundation of sand. To scrutinise, 
rather than to advocate any hypothesis, has been my aim throughout 
this address, and, if my efforts have been to some extent successful, I 
trust to be forgiven, though I may have trespassed on your patience 
and disappointed a legitimate expectation. 



REPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



D 2 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 



The Further Tabulation of Bessel Functions. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill (Chairman), Dr. J. "W. 
Nicholson (Secretary), Professor Alfred Lodge, and Dr. L. N. Gr. 
Filon. 

The Committee, having now practically completed their proposed calcula- 
tions of the Bessel Functions of type J„ (x), are proceeding to a calculation 
on similar lines of the functions I„ (x) and K K (x) for various values of 
n and x. The former is the function of which, for the cases n=0 and 
n=l, extensive tables were published by the British Association in 1889, 
1893, and 1896, and is denned by 

The function K„ (x) satisfies the same differential equation as I„ (x) 
and vanishes for an infinite argument. It may be conveniently defined 
by the integral 

K » (a ° = for+ |)Q J d * sinh 2 " * e "' c ° 8h *• 

Writing 



*« -(=£>> 



where T„, t n are new functions, then it may be shown that T„ is the 
function R hitherto used by the Committee, with its alternate signs 
changed to negative. As the material for the calculation of B is still at 
hand, that of T„ will thus present no difficulty. It is proposed to 
tabulate T„ for all the available values and thence to deduce t n from the 
tables for I„ (x), checking the results by a recurrence formula for t n valid 
when n is half an odd. integer. The tabulation of K„ (x) will then 
follow. 



38 REPORTS Oh THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

The results so far obtained are not sufficiently advanced to appear 
in the present Report. 

During the course of the year Dr. Filon has found it necessary 
to resign the secretaryship of the Committee, and, at the request of 
the Chairman, Dr. Nicholson has taken up the duties. 

'The Committee have given further consideration to the suggestion 
that they should undertake the publication of a volume containing all 
the tables of Bessel functions and other allied functions now existent, 
and that their work should be directed towards the filling up of serious 
gaps which such a volume would contain. They view this suggestion 
with favour, and seek the necessary permission from the Association. 
A list of the existing tables has been compiled, and is now believed 
to be complete. The Committee are desirous of reappointment, again 
without a grant. 



Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Lord Eayleigh (Chairman), Dr. E. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), 
Professors J. Perry, W. G. Adams, and G. Carey Foster, Sir 
Oliver Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors A. 
Schuster, J. A. Fleming, and Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, 
Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Dr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, Sir Arthur Rucker, Professor H. L. Callendar, 
and Messrs. G. Matthey, T. Mather, and F. E. Smith. 

PAOE 

Appendix. — Order in Council relating to Electrical Standards, dated Januarii 10, 

1910 40 

The Report of the International Conference on Electrical Units and 
Standards held in London in October 1908 was printed as an Appendix 
to last year's Report. 

In January 1910 the Board of Trade took action in accordance with 
the recommendations of the Report, and an Order in Council relating 
to electrical units, dated January 10, which contains definitions of the 
English standards of resistance, current, and electromotive force in 
conformity with the definitions adopted by the Congress, has been 
issued. This is printed as an Appendix. 

In accordance with a scheme approved by the International 
Scientific Committee appointed by Lord Rayleigh at the London Con- 
ference, international co-operative work on electric standards has this, 
year been carried out at the Bureau of Standards, Washington. It 
was arranged that representatives of the Bureau of Standards, the 
Laboratoire CeDtral d'Electricite, Paris, the Physikalisch-Technische 
Reichsanstalt, Berlin, and of the National Physical Laboratory should 
take part in the work. The representatives of the Bureau of Standards 
were Professor E. B. Rosa and Dr. F. A. Wolff, and the European 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 39 

delegates were Professor W. Jaeger, Professor F. Laporte, and Mr. 
F. E. Smith. 

Professor S. W. Stratton kindly offered the facilities of the Bureau 
of Standards for the investigation, and, in his capacity as Treasurer of 
the International Committee, was able to secure the funds to defray 
expenses. Towards this object the governing bodies of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, the National Electric Light Asso- 
ciation, the Association of Edison Illuminating Companies, and the 
Illuminating Engineering Society most generously subscribed 100L 
each. Some smaller contributions were also received. 

The primary object of the meeting was to determine the electro- 
motive force of the Weston normal cell in terms of the international 
units of resistance and current. At the same time it was necessary 
to clear up certain outstanding problems on the standard cell and the 
silver voltameter. Previous to the meeting a great deal of experimental 
work had been done at each of the four institutions, and the results 
obtained were compared before deciding on a programme of experi- 
mental work. 

The European delegates took with them from their own laboratories 
a considerable quantity of apparatus and chemicals, together with stan- 
dards of electromotive force, resistance, and mass. The results of the 
meeting are very valuable, and a full report is in process of preparation. 

Another careful research on the silver voltameter has been made 
during the year by Professor F. Laporte at the Laboratoire Central 
d'Electricite. Professor Laporte shows that the result obtained in 
1908 by Professors Janet, de la Gorce, and himself, is subject to an 
appreciable error, owing to the use of silver nitrate, now known to be 
impure. With carefully prepared nitrate, and using the Eayleigh form 
of voltameter, he obtains 1/11829 milligram per coulomb for the 
electro-chemical equivalent of silver, the current being measured in 
terms of the Weston cell as 1'01830 volt at 17° C. and the inter- 
national ohm as realised at the National Physical Laboratory. The unit 
of current was, therefore, the same as that used by Smith, Mather, 
and Lowry in 1908, and the value for the electro-chemical equivalent 
found by Professor Laporte is in very close agreement with the value 
1"11827 obtained by the British investigators. 

The General Committee at Winnipeg accepted the recommendation 
of the Council and the Committee of Section A in favour of the republi- 
cation of all the Eeports of the Electrical Standards Committee. Suit- 
able arrangements for the work have, therefore, been made, and the 
material is now with the printer, but in consequence of the absence 
of Mr. F. E. Smith in America, and the work of preparation required, 
progress has necessarily been slow. 

With regard to progress in electrical standardising work at the 
National Physical Laboratory, the Lorenz apparatus is practically com- 
plete, and some preliminary electrical measurements will, it is hoped, 
be made in October of the present year. 

The Ayrton-Jones current balance continues to work most satis- 
factorily, and small and gradual changes in e.m.f. of Weston cells, 



40 



BEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



amounting to less than three parts in 100,000 have been detected by 
its aid. 

The results of the investigation on cadmium amalgams at the 
National Physical Laboratory were incorporated in a paper read before 
the Physical Society last February. It may be useful to give here the 
limits of temperature between which various amalgams may be most 
usefully employed in the Weston normal cell : — 



Percentage of 








cadmium in the Lower limit 


Upper limit 


amalgam 




6 .... Below 0C. 


about 27°-7 C 


7 




• »> 


„ 34-fi 


8 




s> 


„ 410 


9 




. >> 


„ 460 


10 




. »> 


„ 510 


11 




about C. 


„ 560 


12 




„ 8-7 C. 


„ 60-0 


12J 




„ 121 


above OO'O 


13 




„ 161 


„ 60-0 


14 




„ 240 


„ 60-0 


15 


• • 


„ 325 


„ 600 



The degree of reproducibility which is now obtainable with the 
Weston cell far surpasses what it was five years ago. At the National 
Physical Laboratory sixty-seven cells were tested in 1909, and of these 
sixty agreed with the Laboratory standards within one part in ten 
thousand. What is not' understood at present is the occurrence of 
strange hysteresis effects in a few cells. The e.m.f. of such cells may 
be normal at first, but changes comparatively rapidly with time. 
Indeed, a large hysteresis effect in a cell appears to be an indication 
that the e.m.f. will not remain constant with time, whereas its absence 
is in general an indication of constancy. 

In view of the fact that the republication of the Eeports is not yet 
completed, the Committee recommend that they be reappointed, that 
Lord Bayleigh be Chairman, and Dr. E. T. Glazebrook Secretary. 



APPENDIX. 

Order in Council relating to Electrical Standards. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, January 10, 1910. Present: 
the King's Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

Whereas by the ' Weights and Measures Act, 1889,' it is, among 
other things, enacted that the Board of Trade shall from time to time 
cause such new denominations of standards for the measurement of 
electricity as appear to them to be required for use in trade to be made 
and duly verified. 

And whereas by Order in Council dated the 23rd day of August, 
1894, Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, by virtue of the power vested 
in Her by the said Act, by and with the advice of Her Privy Council, 
was pleased to approve the several denominations of standards set forth 
in the Schedule thereto as new denominations of standards for electrical 
measurement. 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 41 

And whereas in the said Schedule the limits of accuracy attainable 
in the use of the said denominations of standards are stated as 
follows : — 

For the Ohm within one hundredth part of one per cent. 

For the Ampere within one tenth part of one per cent. 

For the Volt within one tenth part of one per cent. 

And whereas, at an International Conference on Electrical Units 
and Standards held in London in the month of October, 1908, the 
International Electrical Units corresponding with the said denomina- 
tions of standards were defined as follows : — 

The International Ohm is the resistance offered to an unvarying 
electric current by a column of mercury at the temperature of melting 
ice 14'4521 grammes in mass of a constant cross sectional area and of 
a length of 106'300 centimetres. 

The International Ampere is the unvarying electric current which, 
when passed through a solution of nitrate of silver in water, deposits 
silver at the rate of O'OOl 11800 of a gramme per second. 

The International Volt is the electrical pressure which when steadily 
applied to a conductor whose resistance is one International Ohm will 
produce a current of one International Ampere. 

And whereas it has been made to appear to the Board of Trade to 
be desirable that the denominations of standards for the measurement 
of electricity should agree in value with the said International Electrical 
Units within the said limits of accuracy attainable ; 

And whereas the denominations of standards made and duly verified 
in 1894 and set forth in the Schedule to the said Order in Council have 
been again verified ; 

And whereas the Board of Trade are advised that the said denomina- 
tions of standards agree in value with the said International electrical 
units within the said limits of accuracy attainable, except that in the 
case of the Ohm the temperature should be 16°"4 C. in place of 15°'4 C. 
as specified in the Schedule to the said Order in Council ; 

And whereas it has been made to appear to the Board of Trade that 
the said denominations of standards should be amended so that the 
aforesaid exception may be remedied; 

Now, therefore, His Majesty, by virtue of the power vested in Him 
by the said Act, by and with the advice of His Privy Council, is pleased 
to revoke the said Order in Council dated the 23rd day of August, 1894, 
and is further pleased to approve the several denominations of standards 
set out in the Schedule hereto as denominations of standards for the 
measurement of electricity. Almeric Fitzeoy. 

' Schedule above referred to. 

' I. Standard of Electrical Resistance. 

' A standard of electrical resistance denominated one Ohm agreeing 
in value within the limits of accuracy aforesaid with that of the Inter- 
national Ohm and being the resistance between the copper terminals of 
the instrument marked " Board of Trade Ohm Standard Verified, 1894 
and 1909," to the passage of an unvarying electrical current when the 



42 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

coil of insulated wire forming part of the aforesaid instrument and 
connected to the aforesaid terminals is in all parts at a temperature 
of 16°-4 C. 

' II. Standard of Electrical Current. 

' A standard of electrical current denominated one v\.mpere agreeing 
in value within the limits of accuracy aforesaid with that of the Inter- 
national Ampere and being the current which is passing in and through 
the coils of wire forming part of the instrument marked " Board of 
Trade Ampere Standard Verified, 1894 and 1909," when on reversing 
the current in the fixed coils the change in the forces acting upon 
the suspended coil in its sighted position is exactly balanced by the 
force exerted by gravity in Westminster upon the iridioplatinum weight 
marked A and forming part of the said instrument. 

' III. Standard of Electrical Pressure. 

' A standard of electrical pressure denominated one Volt agreeing 
in value within the limits of accuracy aforesaid with that of the Inter- 
national Volt and being one hundredth part of the pressure which when 
applied between the terminals forming part of the instrument marked 
" Board of Trade Volt Standard Verified, 1894 and 1909," causes that 
rotation of the suspended portion of the instrument which is exactly 
measured by the coincidence of the sighting wire with the image of the 
fiducial mark A before and after application of the pressure and with 
that of the fiducial mark B during the application of the pressure, these 
images being produced by the suspended mirror and observed by means 
of the eyepiece. 

' In the use of the above standards the limits of accuracy attainable 
are as follows : — 

' For the Ohm, within one hundredth part of one per cent. 

' For the Ampere, within one tenth part of one per cent. 

' For the Volt, within one tenth part of one per cent. 

' The coils and instruments referred to in this Schedule are deposited 
at the Board of Trade Standardising Laboratory, 8 Richmond Terrace, 
Whitehall, London.' 



Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir David Gill (Chairman), Dr. W. G. Duffield 
(Secretary), Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, Mr. F. McClean, and 
Professors A. Schuster and H. H. Turner. 

During the past year the movement for the establishment in Australia 
of a solar observatory has made considerable progress, the annual 
upkeep having been promised by the Commonwealth Government pro- 
vided that a sum of 10.000L be forthcoming from private sources for its 
erection and equipment. 

The Secretary was in Australia during the early part of the year 
1909-10, and he has already reported 1 the formation of the Solar 

1 Winnipeg Report, 1909. 



ESTABLISHING A SOLAR OBSERVATORY IN AUSTRALIA 43 

Physics Committee of the Australasian Association for the Advancement 
of Science, as well as the favourable reply from the Minister of Home 
Affairs of the Fisher Ministry in response to their deputation upon the 
subject, shortly before the Deakin Ministry came into power. 

In order to demonstrate the strong feeling throughout Australia that 
this work should be undertaken, a public meeting was convened by the 
Solar Physics Committee in the Melbourne Town Hall on October 26, 
1909. Delegates were appointed by the Councils of the Universities 
of Sydney, Melbourne^ Adelaide, and Hobart, the observatories of Mel- 
bourne and Adelaide, the Koyal Societies of New South "Wales, Victoria, 
and South Australia, and the Astronomical Societies of Sydney and 
Adelaide. The meeting was presided over by the Earl of Dudley, 
Governor-General of Australia, who concluded his opening address with 
the words : — 

' It will be little short of a national misfortune if, for the sake of a 
few thousand pounds, Australia fails to take the place amongst the 
nations of the world in scientific research for which her geographical 
position marks her out. The country appears destined by Nature for 
the work, and it is doubtful whether it can be done anywhere else so 
well as here. The location of the new station in Australia would mean 
that three out of the four necessary links in the chain of observatories 
would be within the Empire, and that all four — the American, the 
British, the Indian, and the Australian — would be run by English- 
speaking peoples. It would also show that Australia recognised her 
responsibilities and her opportunities, and had taken her place amongst 
the nations of the world, at any rate in the realms of science. ' 

The following resolution was put to the meeting and carried unani- 
mously : ' That the establishment of a Solar Observatory in Australia is 
desirable, and that the Federal Government be strongly urged to assume 
the responsibility of carrying it into effect.' Sir Thomas Gibson- 
Carmichael, Governor of Victoria, Sir George Reid, High Commissioner 
for Australia, Sir John Madden, Chancellor of the Melbourne Uni- 
versity, Professors David and Henderson, Mr. Baracchi, Government 
Astronomer of Victoria, Mr. Hunt, Commonwealth Meteorologist, and 
others spoke in favour of the establishment of the observatory. 

In response to a question asked in the Commonwealth Parliament 
concerning the Government's intention of undertaking this work, the 
Prime Minister, Mr. Deakin, replied : ' ... It appears to me that 
the Commonwealth ought to do its share in this matter. I propose, 
therefore, to ask my honourable colleagues to place on the Estimates a 
sum sufficient for the maintenance of such an observatory. If neces- 
sary, we may go further, but it is desirable that in the first instance the 
wealthy men of Australia should ha^ve their attention called to the 
opportunity now presented them for the erection and equipment of an 
observatory whose results would be valuable to the world at large, and 
incidentally to Australia. The Commonwealth Government would be 
prepared to maintain it for the sake of science and Australian meteoro- 
logy.' November 4, 1909. 

Mr. Deakin subsequently stated that the Cabinet had approved of 
a proposal upon the above lines for submission to Parliament. The 



44 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

cost of maintenance of a solar observatory at a suitable spot in the 
interior of the continent was estimated at about 1,500L per annum 
for the earliest years, ' with probably an expanding outlay as the work 
developed. ' 

The Labour Ministry under Mr. Fisher has now returned to power, 
and it is thought that it will be no less sympathetic than Mr. Deakin's 
Ministry. Towards the sum of 10,000L that is required for the con- 
struction and equipment, about 4,000L has been subscribed in money 
and apparatus, so that as matters stand at present the sum of 6,000L 
is alone required to enable the whole world to be linked up by a chain 
of observatories, and the scheme of International Co-operation in Solar 
Research to be carried completely into effect. 



Seismological Investigations. — Fifteenth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor H. H. Turnek (Chairman), Mr. J. Milne 
(Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Sir George Darwin, Mr. Horace 
Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. 
Gray, Professor J. W. Judd, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor 
R. Meldola, Mr. P. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. 
Plummer, Professor J. H. Poynting, Mr. Clement Reid, and 
Mr. Nelson Richardson. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

[Plates I and II.] 

Contents. 

TAGE 

I. General Notes 44 

II. New Stations 45 

III. Distribution of Earthquakes in 1909 47 

IV. A New Departure in Seismology 48 

V. Changes in Level accompanying certain Earthquakes 49 

VI. Changes in Level due to Tidal Influence 49 

VII. Megaseismic Activity and Rest 54 

VIII. A Catalogue of Large Earthquakes 55 

IX. Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes in the Russian Empire, Iceland, and 

the Western part of South America 57 

I. General Notes. 

The following notes, which have been brought together to form the 
fifteenth 'Annual Report of this Committee, refer for the most part to 
work which is in progress rather than to work which has attained a stage 
approximating completion. 

Your Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of 60L 
Registers. — Since the meeting of last year Circulars Nos. 20 and 21 
have been, issued. They refer to observations made at Shide, Kew, 
Bidston, Edinburgh, Paisley, Eskdalemuir, Haslemere, West Brom- 
wich, Stonyhurst, San Fernando (Spain), Valetta, Beirut, Ponta 
Delgada, Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius, Cairo, Bombay, Kodaikanal, 
Alipore, Colombo, Irkutsk, Tokio, Batavia, Toronto, Victoria, Balti- 
more, Trinidad, Chacarita and Pilar (Argentine), Honolulu, Perth, 
Sydney, and Cliristchurch. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 45 

Visitors. — Although many visitors have called at Shide Observatory 
merely to satisfy curiosity, there have been a number who have visited 
this station with the express object of obtaining information which they 
could turn to practical account. The following gentlemen spent two 
days at Shide to study the routine of a seismological observatory : N. K. 
Fennimore (St. Helena), C. E. Pain (Seychelles), F. Marx (Ascension), 
J. G. Meats (St. Vincent, Cape Verde), H. G. Thomas (Cocos), 
0. E. Holmes (Fernando Norhona), R. Eankine (Fiji), J. J. Shaw (West 
Bromwich), F. Eyan (Electra House, London), the Eev. A. L. Cortie, 
S.J. (Stonyhurst). Other visitors practically interested in seismology 
were F. E. Norris (Guildford), G. W. Walker (Eskdalemuir), W. E. 
Cooke (Perth), Major A. E. Galbraith, E.E. (Osborne), Lieut. W. A. 
Moore, E.A. (Freshwater), Professor F. G. Baily (Edinburgh), Pro- 
fessor H. H. Turner (Oxford), and M. H. Gray (Abbey Wood). 
W. E. Hearn (Consul-General, San Francisco) and Professor E. F. 
Pinto Basto (Coimbi'a) both gave assistance towards obtaining material 
for a catalogue of destructive earthquakes. In addition to these indi- 
vidual visitors, Shide was visited by several parties, the Lymington 
Natural Science Society, some twenty visitors from Eouen, Professor 
Velain with his assistants and a number of students from the Sor- 
bonne. These latter took a keen interest in everything they saw, and 
were particularly struck with the method followed by the British 
Association in making seismological observations as contrasted with 
the method which is now in process of extension in their own country. 
From Japan we were visited by Count Otani Kodzui and two of his 
assistants, who had just returned from Central Asia, where incidentally 
they had observed large earthquakes. Their records were compared with 
those obtained at European and other stations. Professor H. Nakano 
very kindly offered to give us such assistance as he was able in obtaining 
more complete records from Japan. I may add that for a considerable 
time past we have been indebted to Mr. J. Eippon, of the West India Cable 
Company, for registers of earthquakes which have occurred in Jamaica. 

II. New Stations. 

Installations are now in working order at West Bromwich and 
Guildford, and shortly we expect to receive a large series of records 
which have been made from Melbourne. Through the kind co-opera- 
tion of the Eastern, Eastern Extension and Pacific Telegraph Company, 
instruments will very shortly be established at St. Vincent (Cape Verde 
Islands), Ascension, St. Helena, Seychelles, Cocos and Fanning Islands. 
Other cable companies are considering the advisability of establishing 
instruments at certain of their stations, whilst, largely in consequence of 
the interest taken in seismological observations by Sir Everard im Thurn, 
an instrument will very shortly be shipped to Fiji. Inquiries have 
also been received respecting the installation cf seismographs in several 
other colonies. New recording instruments in which the paper moves 
at the rate of 240 mm. per hour have been adopted at the Royal Obser- 
vatory, Edinburgh; by the Geographical Society, Lima, Peru; and at 



46 



REPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Stonyhurst College, near Blackburn. New instruments with quickly- 
moving record-receiving surfaces have been sent to the Institute y 
Observatorio de Marina, San Fernando, Spain; the Rio Tinto Company, 
Limited; Huelva, Spain; Cardiff; and Adelaide. 

West Bromwich, Hill Top. — The instrument established by Mr. 
Shaw at this station has two pendulums : A, with the boom-point to the 
east and weight to the west; B, with boom-point to the south and 
weight to the north. These are suspended from the walls of a cellar 
excavated in hard gravel. In descending order the strata beneath are 
105 feet of clay and red sand, 108 feet of clay, clunch, and coal, 60 feet 
of white rock, 63 feet of rock binds, and 31 feet of coal. The weights 
are 100 kilos, each. Period 16 seconds. The weight on A is 36 inches 
from the boom-point, whereas the weight of B is 54 inches from the 
boom-point. 



Flan, showing 




Fig. 1. 



Both booms are fitted with multiplying levers (ratio, 20: 1) giving 
a total sensibility for A 0"*1 tilt = 1 mm. amplitude; and for B 0""15 
tilt = 1 mm. amplitude. 

The records are taken on smoked paper travelling five inches per 
hour. 

The time is recorded by electric signal each minute, and the govern- 
ing clock compared with Greenwich daily. Average variation about one 
second per diem. 

Guildford, Woodbridge Hill. — This instrument was designed and 
put up by Mr. F. E. Norris. The mast rises 4 J feet above the top of 
a concrete column, which is sunk 5 feet in London clay. There is a 
north boom (A) and a west boom (B) recording without multiplying 
levers. Length of boom, 3 feet; weight at outer end, 100 lb. 1 mm. 
displacement = 1""88 arc. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 47 

Instruments in Jamaica {for local shocks). 

1. Chapelton (M. Maxwell Hall). — A duplex-pendulum seismometer. 
Heavy weight, about 30 lb. Multiplication about 10 for horizontal 
movements only. Records on top upon a smoked-glass plate. 

2. Kingston (Brennan). — Made after the pattern of Gray, of Glas- 
gow. A heavy weight ring about 9 inches diameter, 25 lb. weight, 
acts as a pendulum, with ' dampers ' to prevent continued oscillation 
termed ' friction pointers.' Multiplication about 12. Eecords upon 
a smoked-glass plate below, same as described in Milne's book on 
earthquakes. All enclosed in a case free from wind currents. Length 
of suspension about 5 feet. 

Verbeck's Ball and Vlate Seismometer. — Described in Milne's book. 
Consists of two plates of glass 2 feet by 18 inches by £ inch, about 25 lb. 
each, separated by three f-inch steel bars horizontally fixed. Eegisters 
on the top surface of top plate. This will give the actual horizontal 
movement of the ground, and is intended for large earthquakes. Can 
register a movement of about 2 or 3 inches. Fixed firmly to the ground 
and protected from air currents. 

III. Distribution of Earthquakes in 1909. 

The dash-dot lines on the accompanying chart (Plate I.) are parallel 
to the axes of districts from which large earthquakes have originated. It 
will be observed that they follow the principal ridges and troughs on the 
earth's surface, but not necessarily to their extremities. 

In the Pacific the lines P, E 1( A lt A 2 , B, D L , and D 2 follow the 
lines of troughs, while the remaining lines in the same ocean follow 
ridges. In the Atlantic the eastern portion of C x and H are ridge lines, 
whdst the western portion of C x is the portion of a trough. 

In Africa K 8 is a ridge, whilst O and its northerly continuation to 
the Jordan depression is partly a trough. 

In the Indian Ocean part of G x and G 2 are parallel ridge lines, 
whilst F 3 , F 2 , M 1( and E are troughs. 

The lines in Europe and Asia follow ridges ; K x is the Tian Shan- 
Altai system, which is continued to the north-east by the Stanovoi- 
Yabolonoi ranges. From this north-eastern extension, however, but 
few earthquakes originate. K 2 is the Kwen Lun system, which ends 
abruptly at the great plain of China or turns at right angles near the 
great bend of the Hoango Ho and follows the fold of the Khingan 
Mountains to the northern bend of the Amur. K 7 , K 4 , K 3 is the 
Alpine, Balkan, Caucasian, Himalayan system, which turns sharply 
round the eastern bend of the Brahmaputra, and as the Arakan Yoma 
range runs down to Cape Negrais, to be continued by stepping stones, 
the Andamans and Nicobars, to join the Sumatra-Java volcanic ridge. 

The number of earthquakes which have originated from each of 
these districts in 1909 was A, 4; B, 3 ; C, 0; D, 6; E, 18; P, 24; 
G, 3; H, 2; J, 0; K, 25; L, 0; M, 13; N, 0; O, 0; P, 0. The total 



48 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

number of earthquakes since 1899 from these same districts, there- 
lore, becomes A 40; B, 55; 0, 30; D, 28; E, 133; F, 175; G, 26; 
H, 35; I, 5; J, 5; K, 141; L, 2; M, 86 (this includes small dis- 
turbances); 0, 1; P, 0. 

The most pronounced megaseismic activity is at the present time 
along a band running from the south extremity of the Philippines and 
Java in an east-south-east direction towards the middle of the Pacific. 
In the islands which stud this band with their intervening troughs 
we see the outcrops of mountain ranges with Himalayan proportions. 
It suggests a continent in the making. 



IV. A New Departure in Seismology. 

In the British Association Report, 1908, p. 64, I showed that 
after the earthquake of January 14, 1907, which devastated Kingston, 
Jamaica, 51 of the after-shocks were recorded by the British Association 
type of instrument at several stations in Great Britain. The time taken 
for these to travel from Jamaica to Great Britain, a distance of 67°, 
was in all cases practically 43 minutes. I am not aware that any one 
of these 51 shocks was recorded by other types of instruments either in 
Britain or Europe. Previously to this, however, very large shocks had 
been recorded as thickenings of traces near to the antipodes of their 
origin, but this was the first time that small after-shocks had been noted 
at places far removed from their epicentral areas. We have here not 
only an indication of the high degree of sensibility possessed by a 
certain type of instrument, but a suggestion that a new field for ex- 
ploitation had been discovered. Observations corresponding to those 
made on the shocks from Jamaica have been frequently repeated, with 
the result that the registers from stations possessing different types of 
instruments show considerable variation in the number of records which 
they yield. For example, between July 1 and December 31, 1909, we 
find that in the Isle of Wight 279 earthquakes were noted. These are 
assumed to be of true seismic origin, either because each finds a cor- 
responding record at several other stations, or that they were noted at 
times when we should expect the surviving efforts of large earth- 
quakes to arrive in Great Britain. During this period, at Hamburg. 
Strassburg, and Laibach, where other types of instruments are in use, 
the number of records were respectively 123, 64, and 42. At these 
latter stations, like many others in the world, we find either instruments 
recording on smoked paper or instruments which recorded photo- 
graphically. In the former the writing pointers are connected with the 
bob of a pendulum by a system of levers which gives a high multipli- 
cation, whilst with the instruments which record photographically the 
source of light is at a considerable distance from the record-receiving 
surface. With the first type of instrument a slackness in joints, 
together with elasticity and inertia of the levers, results in a loss of 
motion. Where the multiplication is high the makers of these instru- 
ments tell us that this amounts to five per cent. This means that no 
record whatever can be obtained until a certain amplitude of motion 



B, 



[Plate I. 



e indicated A, £, C, &c. 



100 



120 



140 



160 



80 



80 




100 



120 



140 160 



Bntuh Association, 80th Reports Sheffield, 1910.1 

The Large Earthquakes of 1909. 
Origini foi I9U9 are indiotlod bj tilth C A. Shids Bsgittai Number. Tho iui at Earthquake DliUioU km indicated A. B. C, do. 




fliiMfraltntf tfo Report on Seismologkal Inveitigation*. 



/ 



ON SElSMOLOGlCAL INVESTIGATIONS, 49 

lias beeli reached. This accounts for the fact which has so frequently 
been confirmed by my own experiences that this type of instrument 
fails to record very small movements. Why the second type of instru- 
ment carries the same objection is not so clear. We frequently notice 
that the traces from these instruments are not only broad, but they are 
wanting in definition. Small movements may possibly be lost in the 
ill-defined edges of the trace. 

On December 28, 1908, Messina and Eegio were ruined. Eight of 
the after-shocks reached the Isle of Wight, but only two of these seem 
to have been recorded at Laibach, Gottingen, and Hamburg, which are 
nearer to the origin than the Isle of Wight. 

A similar story is told in all the registers published since 1907. 
Earth messages appear to be passing beneath observatories all over 
the world, but their existence is not recdgnised, because the instruments 
generally used are not capable of recording the same. To exploit this 
new department in seismology old types of instruments will have to be 
improved or new ones adopted. 

V. Changes in Level accompanying certain Earthquakes. 

All geologists are familiar with the enormous mass displacements 
which have accompanied very large earthquakes, particularly in the 
vicinity of their origin. It does not, however, appear to have been re- 
cognised that Small changes in level may sometimes be detected at great 
distances from the same. Evidences of such changes are occasionally 
to be seen in the records obtained from horizontal pendulums. As an 
illustration of this I will refer to the earthquake of January 22, 1910, 
which had its origin to the north of Iceland. With the maximum motion 
of this disturbance at Shide, in the Isle of Wight, the booms of five 
horizontal pendulums were suddenly displaced from their normal posi- 
tion. Those oriented east and west were swung to the north, whilst 
those at right angles to the west. Pendulums in rooms 80 yards apart 
were displaced similarly. In their new positions they were all free 
to swing. The displacement took place at 8 a.m., but at 12.45 they 
crept back somewhat intermittently towards their original zero. This 
they reached at 4 p.m. The behaviour of pendulums at Bidston and 
West Bromwich suggested a displacement similar to that at Shide. In 
the seismograms which I have accumulated during the last fifteen years 
I find many repetitions of a similar phenomenon. 

VI. Changes in Level due to Tidal Influence. 

Towards the end of last year it occurred to Professor Milne that 
the conditions under which the earthquake records were made at 
Bidston might be utilised to determine the amount of deformation of 
the earth's surface due to the accumulation and removal of a heavy 
load of tidal water. 

A few years ago, in the basement of the Victoria Club at Eyde, 
Professor Milne made some observations with this in view. Contrary to 
expectations, it was found that when the tide rose the strand rose 

1910. b 



50 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

also. This was attributed to the banking up of drainage from the 
land and the consequent bulging up of the same. It was, however, 
pointed out by Sir George Darwin that the greater quantity of water 
in the English Channel might more than counterbalance the effect of 
the smaller volume in the Solent. 

In the Mersey, as shown by the tide gauges on the Liverpool 
Landing Stage, the variation in the height of the tide can considerably 
exceed 10 feet, and in the Dee, at Hilbre Island, the oscillation is 
practically the same. The difference in the time of high water at 
these two stations is about half an hour. Consequently, as a glance 
at the rough map of the coast-line will show, there is a tendency for 
the load to balance on the east and west sides, while on the north and 
south, apparently, the difference would be most marked. In these 
circumstances it is a little difficult to determine what would be the 
most appropriate azimuth to mount the pendulum, but as the boom in 
the original seismometer was placed north and south, in the new 
instrument the direction was made east and west. The seismometer 
can, however, be turned through any angle if it be felt desirable to 
continue the investigations. 

The instrument used was designed by Professor Milne and his 
assistant, Mr. S. Hirota. All the observations were made and discussed 
by Mr. W. E. Plummer, Director of the Bidston Observatory. 

The boom differs in some essential particulars from the type 
ordinarily used in the Milne seismometer. It is divided into two 
parts : one, nearer to the stand, consists of a stout brass rod, carry- 
ing a weight of about seven pounds. At the extremity of this rod, which 
is only about 30 inches in length, is placed a light magnifying 
style, independently earned, and attached to the boom proper by 
means of a magnetised needle, capable of moving between a slender 
iron fork. The sensitiveness of the instrument can be increased at 
will by reducing the distance between the pivot on which the magni- 
fying style works and the end of the boom. In the original construction 
the multiplying arm was 10 inches long, rotating about a centre 
1 inch from the end of the boom, consequently the displacement was 
magnified ten times. The arrangements for photographing the move- 
ment were of the ordinary character. The sensitised paper was paid out 
at the rate of 5 millimetres an hour, so as to make the small amplitude of 
the oscillation apparent. The tidal displacements were sufficiently notice- 
able, and the accordance with the time of high water was satisfactory. 
To increase the sensitiveness of the instrument so as to make the motion 
more distinct and easily measured, and to remove any danger of the 
needle failing to engage the steel forks, it was felt desirable to adopt 
a different method of connection. With this view, Professor Milne sug- 
gested that the magnetised needle should be removed and the multiplying 
piece mounted as a bifilar pendulum, an arrangement which allowed the 
centre of motion to be brought much nearer to the end of the boom and 
gave a multiplication of about forty times. The method of photographing 
the point of light was changed, and a thin strip of black paper substituted. 
This apparatus has been in use since March 1910, and generally works 



'V 



^SHA^ 






^L h&£ 



British Association, 80th Beport, 1910. 



[Plate II. 









H 
o 

5 



o 

—i 

S 




Illustrating the Beport on Seismological Investigations. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 51 

satisfactorily. The diagram (Plate II.) shows the character of the photo- 
graphs that are now being taken. The instrument is not well adapted for 
the record of earthquake waves, but two small tremors are shown ; the 
second one is not to be found on the ordinary earthquake film. 

Some difficulties have been introduced by the greater sensitiveness, 
and some were made more apparent, but these will probably disappear 
with greater experience. One difficulty was to determine the linear dis- 
placement of the boom due to an angular tilt of the instrument, for the 
smallest angular motion which it was possible to make with accuracy 
moved the multiplying style off the scale. It seemed necessary to reduce 
the sensitiveness by a known factor — that is, by increasing the distance 
between the supports of the bifilar portion. There are objections to this 
plan, and up to the present the results have been left in the form of the 
actual measured displacement. Another difficulty arose from a long 
slow movement of a very minute order in one direction, probably masked 
in the less sensitive instrument, but now distinctly noticeable in a con- 
tinued series of observations. To explain this creeping it may be men- 
tioned that the whole seismometer is mounted on a slate slab on the top 
of a drain-pipe, two feet in diameter. This form of stand was preferred 
by Professor Milne, because it avoided the drying of mortar or cement, 
which, in a brick-built pier, would take a very considerable time. The 
observed creeping may be due to some motion of the stand or of the hill 
on which the Observatory is built, akin to the annual variation in the 
azimuthal error of the transit instrument. While the instrument has 
been in use the temperature has been increasing. Observations in the 
second half of the year may clear up this point. 

It must not, however, be overlooked that one possible cause for 
this creeping may be found in the seasonal shift in the direction of 
the north-south barometrical gradient, accompanied by a seasonal 
change in the mean sea-level. In summer time the region of high 
barometrical pressure lies to the north of Great Britain, whilst in 
winter it lies considerably to the south. 

The amplitudes on the diagrams seem sufficiently large to warrant 
an attempt to determine the tidal constants by means of harmonic 
analysis in the same way that the records of a tidal gauge are used. 
It may be said here that it was hoped originally to determine from the 
residuals between the computed and observed curves the direct effect 
of the moon's tide-generating force. At the present moment such an 
inquiry is no doubt rendered difficult owing to the slow creeping of 
the pendulum towards the north. The problem resembles that of trying 
to find the height of the tides from readings on a scale that is continually 
sinking into the ground, and at a rate which cannot be determined and 
which may not be uniform. There are also other practical difficulties 
connected with the winding of the clock, attending to the illumina- 
tion, &c. It is by no means certain that after a disturbance the boom 
returns to the position originally occupied with no greater error than 
the small quantity sought. The discussion of the results, so far as they 
have gone, is useful as emphasising these difficulties, and with that view 
they are printed here. The observations from April 14 to April 28 
seemed as free from objection as any that have been made, and. as a 

e2 



52 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

first attempt it was arranged to derive the several tides in the manner 
described by Professor Sir G. H. Darwin. Clearly, if the main tides 
could not be recognised, it was hopeless to look for more recondite 
effects. There is a slight want of definiteness in the edge of the photo- 
graph ; but this defect has been to some extent removed, it is hoped, 
by measuring both sides and using the mean. The curve was read off 
to a tenth of a millimetre, and that unit has been used throughout. 

The results of the harmonic analysis are given in the following table. 
About these Sir George Darwin writes as follows : ' Since the oscilla- 
tions of the pendulum are due to the weight of sea-water, it seems best" 
to compare them with the tidal constants, as derived from ten years of 
observation at Hilbre Island. 1 This place being near the mouth of 
the Dee, seems to afford a better means of comparison than does Liver- 
pool. The constants for Liverpool, however, differ but slightly from 
those at Hilbre Island. It is further desirable to compare the results 
with those derived from the equilibrium theory of tides for a place 
in lat. 53° 24', approximately that of Bidston. I gave in Table E 
of the Eeport on Tides to the British Association for 1883 (' Scientific 
Papers,' vol. i., p. 25) a theoretical scale of importance of the several 
tides expressed in terms of the principal lunar semidiurnal tide M 2 as 
unity. But this table takes no account of the latitude of the place of 
observation, merely giving the relative importance of the several " co- 
efficients. ' What we require is to know what would be the deflections 
of the pendulum at Bidston if it were erected on an absolutely unyield- 
ing soil, and were only affected by the tide-generating forces due to 
moon and sun. The values given in that table for the semidiurnal tides 
may be quoted directly therefrom, and give the results in terms of M 3 
as unity. But to reduce the diurnal tides to the same measure for this 
latitude, we must multiply the tabular values by sin 2Xsec 2 A, where A 
is latitude. In this way we obtain a scale of relative importance for the 
lunisolar tide-generating force at Bidston. 



Lunar semidiurnal M 2 
Solar semidiurnal S 2 
Lunisolar semidiurnal K 2 
Lunisolar diurnal Kj 
Solar diurnal P 
Lunar diurnal 



to mm. 
1752 
318° 

745 

327° 

203 

327° 

3= 564 

\k = 346° 

1-88 
346° 

1-86 

237° 



{?: 

{?= 






Hilbre 
Island 

9-758 ft. 

319° 


Tide-generating 
force at Bidston 
1-000 
0° 


3-128 ft. 
3° 


0-465 
0° 


0-890 ft. 
358° 


0-127 

0° 


0-391 

188° 


1-572 

0° 


0146 

174° 


0520 

0° 


0370 
41° 


1T18 
0° 



Since the series cf observations only extended over a fortnight, it was 
necessary to assume that the phase of Iv 2 was the same as that of S,, 
and the amplitude about T s T ths. Similarly the phase of P is assumed 
to be identical with that of K x , and the amplitude one-third. Hence in 

1 See Baird and Darwin, Proc. Boy. Soc- vol. xxxix. (1885), p. 196, col. 33. 



ON SElSMOLOGlCAt INVESTIGATION^ 53 

ttle case of the pendulum there are really only four independent evalu- 
ations, and the values of K 2 and of P might have been omitted as far as 
concerns the provision of a means of comparison between the pendulum 
and the tide. 

' A fortnight is much too short a period of observation to afford 
trustworthy values for the deflections of the pendulum, and therefore we 
should not place implicit reliance on the exact numerical values obtained. 

' The phase of M 2 for the pendulum is virtually identical with that of 
the tide, but this exactness of coincidenie is probably to some extent 
accidental. The high tide, so to say, for the solar tide S 2 , differs in phase 
from that of the water by 36° or Ih. 12m., and the amplitude is 
considerably greater relatively to M 2 than is the corresponding ratio for 
the sea. 

' The phases of the diurnal sea-tides at Hilbre Island are very 
abnormal, for whereas it might have been expected that they should all 
come out nearly the same, the phases of K x and O differ by 147°. The 
result is, however, derived from so many years of observation that it is 
certainly correct and is, moreover, confirmed by the tidal constants for 
Liverpool. In the case of the pendulum we observe a similar abnor- 
mality, for the phases of K x and O differ by 109°. It is, however, 
remarkable that these tides are almost inverted with reference to the 
sea-tides. One may conjecture that there are perhaps nodal lines for 
these tides at some short distance out to sea, and that the bulk of the 
sea which produces the flexure is in the opposite phase from that which 
gives the visible tide at Hilbre Island and Liverpool. The amplitudes 
of K x and O are also very discordant, both in absolute amount and 
between themselves. In the sea Kj and have nearly the same ampli- 
tude, but with the pendulum that of K x is three times as great as that 
of O. This would result if the supposed node of K\ were nearer the 
shore than that for O, because if this were so there would be a larger 
weight of water, oscillating in a phase opposite to that of the sea in 
shore, to produce flexure in the case of K x than in that of 0. How- 
ever, the series is much too short to justify any confidence in such 
conjectures. 

' The last column gives the relative importance of the tide-generating 
forces for the several tides, and it will be seen that the force for K x is 
much larger and that for somewhat larger than that for M 2 . We 
see that both in the sea and in the case of the pendulum there is an 
enormous reduction of amplitude for diurnal tides as compared with the 
semidiurnal ones, but the reduction is markedly less for the pendulum. 
If these values should be confirmed, we may perhaps suspect that the 
direct lunisolar tide-generating force is rendering itself evident in the 
K x tide, and such a conjecture would accord with the phase of K x 
approaching 360° without the intervention of the nodal line at sea 
suggested above. However, as already pointed out, it is too soon to 
draw any conclusions with confidence. ' 

"Whatever may have yet to come from this new departure in obaerva» 
tions bearing upon Earth Physics, the work already accomplished is 
suggestive of certain conclusions. 

We see that an observatory near to a shore line, in consequence of 



54 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

the diurnal tilting to which it may be subjected, is unsuitable for certain 
investigations. This, however, was pointed out by Sir George Darwin 
in his Eeport to the British Association in 1882. The discussion suggests 
precautions in the determination of the nadir at an observatory on the 
sea-coast, and probably the deepest mine in central Britain is still 
unsuitable as a place in which to measure the effects of lunar gravitation. 

The deflections accompanying tidal loads observed at Bidston indi- 
cate a relationship between the yielding of areas represented by rocks and 
other materials and loads which are fairly well measureable. 

These deflections which accompany a 10-foot tide amount at Bidston 
to approximately 0""2. This yielding may be truly elastic, or it may 
possibly be partly due to the sagging of a surface like that of a raft under 
the influence of load. This latter idea falls in line with seismological 
observations, which show day after day that the large waves of earth- 
quakes, whether passing beneath the alluvial plains of Siberia or beneath 
the crystalline rocks of North America, do so at a uniform speed. 
Seismology suggests that we live on a congealed surface, which, whether 
it is thick or thin, light or dense, apparently responds in a uniform 
manner to undulations which pass beneath it. 

VII. Megaseismic Activity and Rest. 

From historical records it has been shown that there are reasons for 
supposing that when there has been marked seismic activity in one 
portion of the world there has been a corresponding activity in some 
other part (see this.Beport, Section VIII., and also British Association 
Eeport, 1909, pp. 56-58). Although the records on which this con- 
clusion is based only refer to disturbances which have affected land areas 
and seaboards, it suggests that periods of marked seismic activity are 
governed by general conditions. We now possess a second register, 
collected by stations which have co-operated with British Association 
stations during the last eleven years, which refer to reliefs in seismic 
strain in all portions of the globe. These I have divided into two classes. 
First, those which have only been recorded in a single hemisphere ; and, 
second, those which have been recorded in the whole world. To the 
latter, which crossed an equator, I have given an intensity twice that of 
those which only disturbed instruments in a hemisphere. Earthquakes 
which have only been recorded throughout a single continent, no matter 
how much damage they may have caused, have been omitted. When 
these two classes are taken en bloc and arranged chronologically, it is 
at once seen that they have occurred in groups, and to each of these 
groups a value can be given dependent upon the number of shocks it 
contains and their relative intensities. From centre to centre of each 
group there are intervals, which usually vary between 10 and 30 days. 
An interval of 20 days is common, but it rarely reaches 40 days. On 
the accompanying diagram (see fig. 2) I have plotted the average inten- 
nities or values of groups which have been followed by 8, 9, 10, to 34 
days of rest. For example, groups with an average intensity of 4'5 were 
followed by 10 days of rest, whilst groups with intensities of 5"4 have 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



55 



a rest period of 20 days. The mean line through these various deter- 
minations indicates that activity and rest are directly proportional. 
After marked efforts to bring about adjustments in the crust of our earth 
there are long periods of quiescence and vice versa. A definite time- 
interval is required to bring about a condition for hypogenic activity. 

VIII. A Catalogue of Large Earthquakes. 

In the British Association Eeport for 1908 I drew attention to the 
fact that existing catalogues of earthquakes consisted of materials ex- 
tremely heterogeneous in their character. Earthquakes which had only 
shaken a few square miles were included with those which might have 
shaken the whole world. Further than this the heterogeneity varied 













// 








• • > 


10 
9 














• 


1 / 


8- 






• / 


• 


7- 
6- 

c 




• 


• / • 

> 


• 


4 


• 


• / 


• 




3 


• 


f + 






2 










1 

n 











10 20 30 40 

Average No. of Days of Rest. 
Fig. 2. 



in different historical periods. Ancient records only referred to large 
earthquakes, while, as we approach modern times, this type of dis- 
turbance was eclipsed by numerous entries relating to tremors which 
had only a local significance. If we take this as a fact we see in it an 
explanation why the numerous analyses of earthquake statistics have 
failed to reveal any striking results respecting the distribution of earth- 
quakes either in regard to space or time. 

To obtain materials which might throw light upon seismic frequency 
and periodicity, it would be necessary to draw up lists for districts and 
one for the world from which seismic trivialities were so far as possible 
excluded. With this object in view, I have made certain progress with 
a catalogue which only refers to earthquakes which have been accom- 
panied by destruction, or by changes of the earth's surface, or which 
have extended over large areas. In many instances these disturbances 



56 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

have resulted in adjustments in the earth's crust of geological import- 
ance. Taken in groups they indicate marked periods in the relief of 
seismic strain. 

As an incentive to continue this new type of register, although in 
1908 but a small portion of it had been completed, I called attention to 
the fact that it showed : — 

First, that about 1650 there had been a period of marked seismic and 
volcanic activity in the world. 

Second, that although the periods of seismic activity in Italy and 
Japan were each separated by irregular intervals of time, the years in 
which there had been marked activity in one of these countries closely 
corresponded with the years when there had been marked activity in the 
other. Should further analyses confirm this conclusion, the suggestion 
is that the relief of seismic strain in one part of the world brings about 
relief in some other part, or that relief is governed by some general 
internal or external agency. 

The first entry in the catalogue is a.d. 1, and they are continued to 
a.d. 1900. This portion of the catalogue, which I propose to issue as 
Part I., will contain about four thousand entries. 

I recognise its incompleteness, and trust that the lacuna will 
shortly be filled up and brought together as a supplement. 

When examining this catalogue it must be remembered that it only 
refers to disturbances which have originated on land surfaces and along 
seaboards. Further, it must be borne in mind that the historical records 
of different countries extend over very different periods of time. 

The sources from which materials have been drawn are briefly as 
follow: — 

"Well-known catalogues like those of Mallet, Perry, and Fuchs have 
formed a foundation. Next came Japanese catalogues of earthquakes, 
together with abstracts from records published in China ; in these much 
information is given not obtainable elsewhere. The translations of the 
latter made by Mr. S. Hirota and Professor E. H. Parker were particu- 
larly difficult. In the former of these (see Report 1908) certain slight 
errors have been found in the materials from which the translations 
were made. For dates between a.d. 46 and a.d. 194 one or two days 
should be added, while for dates between a.d. 200 and a.d. 1590 three 
to ten days should be subtracted. The resulting dates are for the most 
part those on which earthquakes were notified, and not necessarily those 
on which they occurred. Numerous lists and monographs on the 
earthquakes of particular countries have been translated. Three of 
these accompany this Report. Many documents were obtained from 
various parts of the world where Great Britain is represented, by the 
kind co-operation of the Foreign, Colonial, and India Offices. Much 
time was spent, but, I regret to say, not very profitably, in examining 
the files of our more important newspapers and periodicals. Better 
results came from foreign journals and the publications of learned 
societies. These and other references to sources of information will be 
detailed in the catalogue, 



ON SBISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 57 

IX. Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes in the Russian Empire. 
By Mushketoff and Orloff. 1 

Abstracted by Mr. W. A. Taylor. 

In the original catalogue we find 2,574 entries. From these the 
following have been abstracted as representing earthquakes of sufficient 
intensity to have caused destruction. 

In many instances the dates for earthquakes which occurred in 
Chinese territory do not agree with those given by Omori, Hirota, and 
Parker. An alternative date is marked O. For registers prepared by 
these three writers see vol. xxix. of the Eeports of the Imperial Earth- 
quake Investigation Committee of Japan in Chinese idiographs. Eeports 
of the British Association, 1908, p. 82, and 1909, p. 62. For Chinese 
lists we have also the ' Catalogue General des Tremblements de Terre,' 
&c, presented to the Academie des Sciences by Ed. Biot in 1839, and 
the recent work by the late Le B. P. Pierre Hoang (see ' Varietes 
Sinologiques,' No. 28, published by the Mission Catholique, Shanghai, 
1909). Dates from the latter are marked H. In many instances the 
Chinese dates may not refer to the time of an earthquake, but to tEo 
time at which it was notified in Pekin or some other city. 

I = Earthquakes which have produced slight damage. 
II = Earthquakes which have destroyed a few buildings. 
111 = Earthquakes accompanied by widespread destruction. 

W.B. refers to dates according to the tables of W. Bramsen, ' Trans. 
Asiatic Society of Japan,' vol. xxxvii. Names of Provinces are in 
parentheses. Places of greatest destruction are in italics. 

r A.D. 

341 Armenia. I 

715 Isnik-Membeji in Armenia, Constantinople. Ill 

775 Mozan and Daralagoz, Siyunik Prov. Ill 

803 Khogot Mountains. II 

869 Town of Dvin (Tovin) ? Ill 

893 Town of Dvin. Ill 

894 Environs of Erivan. Ill 

989 Greece, Thrace, Byzantine Province, Constantinople. II 

995 Armenia, Towns of Ghapajar, Alhakh and Amit. Ill 

1000 Mar. 29. Throughout the known world. Ill 

1045 Erzingan, Ami and Ekeghiaz Prov. Ill 

1091 Edessa and Anticch. Ill 

1111 Van in Armenia. II 

1114 Mar. 12. Samosata, Ghizn-Mansur, Khesun, Marash, Kaben and Sis. Ill 

1124 Khorassan. Ill 

1131 Ani in Armenia. II 

1139 Ganja (Elisavetpol), Kapassi-dagh. Ill 

1143 April Tangut country in Tibet. II 

1156 Oct. 26. Syria, between Aleppo and Malatieh. Ill 
for 14 months. 

1168 Erzingan. Ill 

1170 Kief. Ill 

1 Memoirs of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, vol. xsvi., St. Petersburg, 
1893. 



58 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



(1198 according to Likosten and Frigius). Poland, the Erzgebirge 

and the greater part of Germany. II 
Mshkavank in Armenia. I 
Vladimir, Kief, Pereyaslavl, Novgorod and environs of Rostof, 

Suzdal and Vladimir. I 
Erzingan. Ill 
Mtsket in Caucasus, II 
Erzingan. II 
Karabagh in Caucasus. II 
Ararat Prov. and Ani in Armenia. Ill 
Hungary, Tyrol, S. Italy, Borne, Venice, Bale, Carinthia, Poland 

and Germany. I 
Mush in Armenia. II 
Erzingan. II 

Ninghsia, Shanhan (Kansu), China. II (Hoang, April 30) 
Fortress Chuanglang in Lan-chou-fu, Shanhan (Kansu). II 
(Omori has Liang. There is a Lanchou-fu and a Lianchou in 

Kansu). (Chuanglang T. of Liangchoufu). 
Bohemia, Silesia, Poland, Hungary. I 
Erzingan. Ill 
Hsuanhua-fu (Chi-li), Tatung-fu (Shansi), especially Peiyuan and 

Shochou. (W.B. June 27.) 
Hoching (Yunnan). II 
Lingchou (Shansi). II 
(Omori has an earthquake on November 24 and December 11 at 

Lingchou in Ninghsia-fu) (Kansu). 
Ling-tao in Kungchang-fu, Shanhan (Kansu). II 
Liang-chou-fu, Yulin-fu, Kan-chou-fu and Ninghsia-fu in Shanhan 

(Kansu), Yichou-fu (Shantung). II 
Fort. Yangching (Sze-chuan). II (0. Chentu). 
Nanking, Fengyang-fu, Huaian-fu, Yangchou-fu, Hochiu in Chang- 
nan (sic Kiangsu and Anhui ?), Yangehou-fu in Shantung and in 

Honan. I 
Erzingan. Ill 

Tsunhuachou Shintian-fu (Chi-li). II 
Hanchou and Mouchou in Huangtai (Sze-chuan). II 
Chuching-fu (Yunnan). (Hoang, September 16.) Ill 
Ninghsia-fu in Shanhan (Kansu). Ill 
Chenting-fu (Chi-li), Ninghsia-fu, Yulin-fu, Chenfan-hsien, Linchou 

in Shanhan (Kansu), Taiyuan-fu, Tungmo (Shansi). I 
Repeated shocks in various parts of Shanhan (Kansu and Shensi), 

(Honan) and (Shansi). Chaoyi-hsien (Shensi). II 

Puchou-fu (Shansi). I 

Nanking, Hsuchou-fu in Chang-nan (Kiang-su), Taming-fu, Shuntc- 
fu (Chi-li), Chinan-fu, Tunchang-fu, Yenchou-fu, Puchou 
(Shantung). Ill 

Ninghsia-fu in Shanhan (Kansu). II 

Nanking, Puchou-fu, Anyi and Wanchuan (Shansi). II (0. Octo- 
ber 9, 10 and 16.) 

Yunnan-fu and Mumihuan (Yunnan). II 
Fortress Aoshanwei, Laichou-fu (Shantung). II 

Yunnan-fu, Anehou, Hsinhsingchou (Yunnan). II 
Tali-fu (Yunnan), Hoching and Chienchuan. II 

and 8. Fortress Tengchungwei (Yunnan). II 
1515 June 17 

to July 17. Fortress Yungningwei (Yunnan). Ill 

1517 July 12. Hsinhsing-chou, Tunghai, Hosi, Hsio (Yunnan). Ill 



A.D. 




1196 


May 3 




or 4. 


1219 


Jan. 11. 


1230 


May 3. 


1268 




1283 




1287 
1308 


May. 


1319 




1348 


Jan. 25. 


1363 




1374 


Dec. 8. 


1378 
1440 


April 10. 
Oct. 26. 


1443 


June 5. 


1458 




1467 


June 9. 


1474 


Oct. 27. 


1474 


Dec. 11. 


1477 


Mar. 19. 


1477 


May 13. 


1478 


Aug. 


1481 


Mar. 10. 


1482 




1485 
1488 
1494 


May 26. 
Sept. 28. 
Mar. 24. 


1495 
1497 


April 10. 


1501 


Jan. 19 




to Feb. 4. 


1501 


Mar. 5 to 


1502 


April 2. 
Oct. 17. 


1505 
1505 


July 10. 
Oct. 16. 


1506 


April 26 

and 27. 


1506 


Aug. 28. 


1507 


Nov. 4 




to 6. 


1511 


Nov. 17. 


1512 


Oct, 7 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 59 

A.D. 

1520 Aug. 18. Fortress Chingtuwei (Yunnan). II 

1523 Jan. Fenyang-fu in Changnan (Kiangsu), (Shantung), (Honan) and 

Shanhan (Kansu). I 
1523 Aug. 14. Fortress Tinghaiwei (Chekiang). II 
1526 May 21. Tengckung (Yunnan), Annan wei (Kweichou). I 

1555 Jan. 23. (Shansi), Shanhan (Kansu) and (Honan), Huachou, Weinan-hsien, 

Chao-i-hsien, Sanyuan-hsien and Puchou-fu (Shansi). (Hoang, 
1556, January 23.) Ill 

1556 April 1. (Shansi). Ill 

1558 Nov. 24. Huachou (Shansi). II 

1561 Feb. 21. Fortress Shantanwei (Kansu). II 

1561 June 5. Taiyuan-fu, Tatung-fu (Shansi), Yulin-fu, Ninghsia-fu, Kuyuan 

in Shanhan (Shensi and Kansu). (Hoang. August 4.) Ill 

1562 Ninghsia-fu in Shanhan (Kansu). II 

1568 April 1. Chingyang-fu, Huan-fu, Hangchung-fu, Ninghsia-fu in Shanhan 
(Kansu and Shensi), Anyi and Puchou-fu (Shansi), Yunyang in 
Huhuan (Hupeh) and (Honan). I 

1568 May 2. Fenghsiang-fu, Hsian-fu, Pingling-fu and Chingyang-fu in Shanhan 
(Shensi and Kansu). II 

1574 Mar. 10. Changting (Fou-kien). II 

1577 Mar 12 

and 17. Tengyuehting (Yunnan). Ill 

1580 Sept. 5. Chingfing-lu (Chi-li). II 

1584 June 17. Erzingan. Ill 

1590 June 27. Lingtao (Kansu). (0. July 7.) II 

1591 Nov. 11. Shantanwei (Chi-li). II 
1596 Nizhni-Novgorod. Ill 
1598 Amasia and Chorum. Ill 

1603 May 20. Chunghsien-hsien in Chentiang-fu (present Anlu-fu in Hupeh). 

(O. and H. May 30.) II 

1604 Oct. 15. Kungchang-fu and Litsuan-hsien in Shanhan (Kansu). (0. and H. 

October 25.) II 

1605 July 3. Luckuan (Kwangsi). (0. July 14.) II 

1609 July 2. (Kansu), especially Kunei and Tsingshui. (0. July 13.) Ill 
1612 May 24. Tali-fu and Chuching-fu and Wuting (Yunnan). (O. July 2, 

H. June 3.) Ill 
1615 Feb. 19. Yanchou-fu in Changnan (Kiangsu). (0. March 1.) II 
1620 Feb. 24. In Yunnan, Chaoching-fu, Huichou-fu (Kwantung), Cningchou-fu, 

Chengtan-fu (Hupei). (0. March 5.) I 
1622 Mar. 8. Chinan-fu and Tungchang-fu (Shantung). (0. March 18.) Ill 
1622 Oct. 15. Pingliang-hsien and Lungte-hsien (Kansu). (O. October 25). Ill 
1624 July 7. Paoting-fu (Chi-li). (0. July 20.) II 

1626 June 18. Pekin, Chinan-fu, Tungchang-fu (Shantung), Honan-fu (Honan), 

Tiantsin-fu, Hsuanhua-fu (Chi-li), Tatung-fu (Shansi). (O. 
June 28.) Ill 

1627 Jan. 6. Ninghsia-fu in Shanhan (Kansu). II 
1627 Feb. 6 

to Mar. 8. Ninghsia-fu. Ill 
1631 July 11. Lingtao-fu and Kungchang in Shanhan (Kansu). (O.July 22.) Ill 
1641 Feb. 5. Tabriz in Persia, and environs. Ill 
1648 AprU 2. Town of Van, Armenia. Ill 
1667 Shemakha in Caucasus. Ill 

1669 Jan. Shemakha and Lacha, Caucasus. Ill 

(Perhaps the same as 1607.) 

1670 Shemakha. II 
1670 Dec. 22 

and 23. Shemakha. Ill 

1670 Jan. 22. Shemakha. II 

1671 Aug. 8. Shemakha. II 
1679 June 4 

to 12. Erivan and neighbourhood as far as Ararat, (v. Hoff, 1680.) Ill 



60 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

A.D. 

lt>80 Various parts of Europe and Asia, especially Italy and Poland. I 
1700 June or 

July Nerchinsk in Siberia. I 

1716 Dzungaria,Baikal and Zaisan,.<4£sMonsouthern flank of Tian-shan. Ill 

1718 June 8. Singansan or Sinsusu (cap. of Shansi?) and in Tongvvei and Tin- 

miuchin (Si-ngan, cap. of Shensi?) (June 10, Chinan, in Chanchou, 
Tungwei, Kungchang-fu (Kansu) H.) II 

1719 July. Northern China. Ill 

1720 June 11. Pekin. (0. West of Pekin.) II 

1724 May 31. Pekin and many parts of (Shansi). Ill 

1725 Jan. 21. Chita in Transbaikalia and west to R. Selunga. I 
1731 Nov. 19. Pekin and neighbourhood. Ill 

1737 Oct. 6. Around Avacha in Kamchatka and Kuriles. Ill N.E. 4° x 1°.5. 
1737 Sept, 23 

and 

Oct. 23. (Perhaps identical with preceding). Nizhne-Kamchatka fort. II 

1737 Dec. 6. Kamchatka and the Kuriles. II 

1742 Feb. 7. Bering Island. II 

1742 June 16. Irkutsk. I 

1742 June 16. Bering Island. Ill 

1755 Nov. 1. The Lisbon Earthquake. Ill 

1756 Kamchatka. Ill 

1758 Dec. 7. Russian Lapland, Kola town. II 

1761 Dec. 9. Kolyvan factory and Ubinskaya fort and Chagirskaya fort, W. 

Siberia. I 

1766 Province Pasin (Bassen) Armenia. II .^ 

1769 Oct. 24. Irkutsk and Selenginsk. I J| j 

1772 Feb. 18. Town of Kola, Russian Lapland. I 

1772 Dec. 5. Irkutsk, Selenginsk and Kiakhta. I 

1776 Dec. 9. Barguzin fort, Transbaikalia. I 

1779 Aug. 1. Irkutsk, Balagansk, Selenginsk. I 

1783 The Calabrian Earthquake, shocks felt this year also in parts of 

Asia, especially the Altai. 

1784 early in 

August Erivan, Armenia extending to Erzerum, Mush and Gyeghi. Ill 
1786 Feb. 27. Upper Silesia, Bohemia, Hungary and Poland. I 
1788 July 22. Aleutian Islands in Unga. Ill 
1788 in Spring. Prov. of Balu (Palu?). Ill 

1790 April 6. S. Russia, Galicia, Transylvania, the Bannat and Rumania, and felt 

as far as Constantinople. Ill 

1791 April 15. Nizhne-Kamchatsk. II 

1792 Aug. 23. Petropavlovsk, Nizhne-Kamchatsk, Paratunka and all east coast 

of Kamchatka. II. N.N.E. 4° x 1°. 
1798 May 23. Perm, Kungur and villages of Perm, Kungur, Oca and Verlchoturyo 

districts. I 
1802 Oct. 26. From Ithaca and Constantinople to St. Petersburg and Moscow, 

especially in Wallachia, Moldavia and the south of Transylvania. 

Ill 
Aloutian Islands. II 
Belostok, Grodno Government. I 
Tiflis. I 
Tiflis. I 
Irkutsk. I 
Krasnoyarsk. Ill 
Viatka and district. I 

Irkutsk, Tunkinsk fort and surrounding villages. Ill 
Irkutsk and felt as far as Troitskosavsk, 345 miles distant. I 
Chang-li (Sze-chuan). Ill 
Tiflis. I 

Irkutsk and around the Turansk frontier post. I 
Almost all the south of Russia, especially in Jassy in Rumania, 

Dubossari, Nikolaief, Olviopol, Ochakof. I 



1802- 




1803 


Jan. 8. 


1803 


Oct. 29. 


1804 


Oct. 11. 


1806 


April 22. 


1806 


Aug. 8. 


1809 


Mar. 10. 


1814 


Sept. 3. 


1814 


Dec. 17. 


1817 


April. 


1819 


Jan. 29. 


1820 


Mar. 7. 


1821 


Nov. 17. 



A.I>. 




1827 


May. 


1827 


Oct. 21 




to 23. 


1827 


Nov. 16. 


1827 


June. 


1828 


Aug. 7 




to 14. 


1828 


Mar. 7 




to 19. 


1829 


Nov. 26. 


1829 


Nov. 31. 


1830 


Mar. 9. 


1830 


June 25. 


1830 


June 26 




and 27. 


1830 


Dec. 4. 


1830 


Dec. 26. 


1831 


May 19. 


1832 


Jan. 22. 


1834 


Peb. 


1831 


July 10 




to 22. 


1835 


April 21. 


1835 


July 20. 


1835 


April 14. 


1838 


Jan. 23. 


1839 


June 28 




and 29. 


1839 


Aug. 18. 


1840 


July 2. 


1840 


July 6-8. 


1840 


July 27. 


1840 


Dec. 7. 


1841 


May 18. 


1841 


May 18. 


1841 


Sept. 22. 


1841 


Dec. 25. 


1842 


Jan. 2. 


1843 


Oct. 2. 


1845 


May 24. 


1846 


Jan. 11. 


1846 


April 23. 


1846 


Aug. 18. 


1847 


May 15 




or 16. 


1848 


Sept, 22 




to 25. 


1849 


Jan. 29. 


1851 


April 13. 


1851 


Nov. 28. 


1852 


June. 


1852 


July 24. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 61 



Kirensk In Irkutsk Government and in Petropavlovsk village, 
53 miles from Kirensk. I 

Tiflis and Stavropol, Caucasus. I 

Santa F6 de Bogota followed by earthquake in Okhotsk on the 

17th. I 
Commander Islands. Ill 

Old Shemakha, Shusha and many villages in the Caucasus. Ill 

Irkutsk, Troitskosavsk, Kiakhta, Turansk frontier post. Ill 

Bukharest in Wallachia (Centre), Wallachia, Moldavia and Bes- 
sarabia, and felt over all S.W. Russia, Galizia, Bukovina and 
Transylvania. Ill 

Barnaul and Suzun smelting-works. I 

Tiflis, Georgief district, Kizlar, Mozduk, Ekaterinodar, Andreiej 
village, Tarka. Ill 

Vnezapnaya, Caucasus. II 

Huaiching-fu (Honan) and parts of (Chi-li), south of Pekin. (H. 
June 12-13.) Ill 

Anapa and Taman Peninsula. I 

230 miles from Pekin, perhaps identical with June 26. Ill 

Turkinsk mineral springs, near Lake Baikal. I 

Bokhara, Kokand, Badakshan and Upper Oxus. Ill 

Anapa, Bugaz and shore of Abkhasia. I 

Changte-fu (Honan), especially in the districWf Wungang, west- 
wards to (Shansi), northwards to (Chi-li) and east to (Shantung). 
(O. June 28-July 19.) Ill 

Bessarabia and Bukharest. I 

Lemberg. I 

Pribylof Islands. Ill 

S.W. Russia, Wallachia, Moldavia, Transylvania, Hungary and 
Balkan Peninsula. Ill 

Village Fedorovka, Saratof Government. II 

Irkutsk and along the Selenga R. Ill 

In the departments of Surmala, Sharur and Nakhichevan in the 

Talyshef Khanate and the Ordubat district. Ill 
Ararat, Sharur and Nakhichevan districts. Ill 
Ararat and Sharur. Ill 
Sharur and Nakhichevan. II 
Village Kevragh, also in Nakhichevan. II 
Petropavlovsk and Ostrovnoe. II 
Nakhichevan and neighbourhood. I 
Anapa, Nikolaievak and Vitaz. I 
Baku and neighbouring villages. Ill 

Bessarabia, Baltain Podolia, Soroki in Bessarabia and Odessa. I 
Akhaltsyk and district. II 
Nakhichevan. I 

Javarisi, Kutais Government. II 
Irkutsk and Kirensk. I 
Kushva, Verkhnaturye, Nizhneturye and Bisert mines and works 

in the Urals. I 

Shemakha. I ..- • 

Ishim in Tobolsk Government. I 

Nakhichevan district in Erivan Government. I 

Okhotsk Dept. along coast of the sea of Okhotsk from the Taui to 

the Tuman post, 470 miles. II N.E. 3° x l°.o. 
(Kansu), China. Ill 
Erzerum. Ill 



62 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

A.D. 

1853 Jan. 18. Demijan monastery and village of Chubukhly, Tiflis district and 

Sevanga Island. II 
1853 April 14. Shanghai ; village 30 miles from Shanghai completely ruined. II 
1856 July 11. Shemakha. Ill 

1856 Aug. 14 Southern part of (Chi-li), China ; Yuching, 20 miles from Pekin 

to 17. destroyed. Ill 

1857 Dec. 24. Semipalatinsk Province and Tomsk Government, especially Kok- 

pektinsk and Ust-Kamennogorsk. I 
1859 June 2. Erzerum and neighbourhood, especially in the mountains Palenjukan 

and Yarlydagh III 
1859 June 12 

and 13. Shemakha. Ill 
1859 June 26. Shemakha and Erzerum. I 

1859 July 13. Tiflis and Erzerum. I 

1860 Nov. 4. Belii Kliuch, Caucasus. I 

1861 Feb. 16. Sunday Islands. II 

1861 Feb. 22. Copper Island, Bering Sea. I 

1861 Mar. 5. Shemakha. I 

1861 Dec. 17. Alkan-zhurt? and Samasha stations in the Caucasus. I 

1862 Jan. 12 Irkutsk, Selenginsk, Verkneudinsk, Chita, Petrovsk, Nikolaievsk, 

to 31. Upper and Lower Angora Districts. E.S.E. 9°.5 X 7°. II 

1862 April 28. Selenginsk. I 

1862 Dec. 19. Lenkoran, Shemakha and Shusha. I 

1862 Nov. 29. Shemakha. I 

1864 Jan. 3. Environs of Ardebela, Persia. Also felt at Lenkoran, Karabagh 
and Shirvan. Ill 

1864 Jan. Hankow, China. Ill 

1865 Mar. 22. Merke in Turkestan Province. I 

1865 May 22. Selenginsk, Irkutsk, Verkhneudinsk. I 

1865 May 27. Poretskoe, Simbir Government. II 

1865 Sept. Around the Taishan Mountain (in Shan-Tung), China. Ill 

1866 Mar. 8. Verkneudinsk and Irkutsk. I 
1866 Aug. 25 

or Sept. 6. Petropavlovsk and Lyersny. I. II 

1866 Nov. 4. Soroki, Bessarabia. I 

1867 May 5. Pekin. I 
1867 May 7 

and 8. Selenginsk. I 

1867 July 23. Telaf, Shemakha, Mukhravan, Zurnabad and Eliza vetpol. I 

1868 Feb. 4. Tashkent. II 

1868 Feb. 18. Akhalkalaki, Kvirila, Toporovan, I., and Ardahan in Kars Pro- 
vince. I 

1868 Feb. 25. Erzerum, Alexandropol, Akhalkalaki. II 

1868 Mar. 18. Telaf, Delizhan, Shusha, Jebrail, Zakatali, Shemakha, Belasuvar 
Chatakh. I 

1868 Mar. 21. Grozny and Gorachevodsh station. I 

1868 April 4. Tashkent. II 

1868 April 11. Kars and Nizhni-Pasin, Erzerum, Tiflis. II 

1868 June 30. Tsogonoi village, Tersk Province. II 

1869 Dec. 10. Khojent. I 

1869 Sept. 2. Shemakha and the Kuban district over 2,200 square miles. Most 

violent in Sundi, 12 miles from Shemakha. Ill 
1869 Nov. 1. Valley of the Barguzin river, Lake Baikal. I 

1869 Dec. 26. Tiflis, Alexandropol, especially villages Malye, Jamzhili and Jan- 

shtan. Ill 

1870 April 11 

to 21. Batang (Sze-chuan), China. Ill 

1870 July 7 

and 8. Eastern shore of Black Sea. I 

1871 Mar. 4. Irkutsk Government and Transbaikal Province and North Mon- 

golia. I 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 63 

A.V. 

1871 Deo. 11. Guhja, 56 miles west of Erivan, and in the Echmiadzin district. II 

1872 Jan. 28 

to Feb. 19. Shemakha and neighbourhood. Ill 

1873 Oct. 15. Monastery Kopenkovat, Uman District, Kief Government. II 

1874 Aug. 24. Nazran fortress, 1(5 mdes from Vladikavkaz. I 

1875 July 25. Sebastopol and neighbourhood. I 
1875 Aug. 7. Shemakha and its district. Ill 

1875 Aug. 17. Grubesheva, Lemberg Government. I 

1877 Aug. 8. Oni and Utseri on River Rion. I 

1878 Mar. 28. Bakhti fort in Sergiopol district. I 

1878 Mar. 31. Gorachevodsk convict settlement in the Caucasus. II 

1878 May 4. Village Ullu-gatam in S. Daghestan. II 

1878 July 16 Fort Kishan-aukh, Tersk Province and neighbourhood. I 

1879 Jan. 8 Alaghir, Tersk Province. I 

1879 Mar. 22. Ardebela, villages on S. and S.W. foot of Savalan mountain, Armu- 
dagh and other places on road from Teheran to Tabriz. Ill 

1879 June 29. Dep. (Kuangsu), China. Ill 

1879 Oct. 9. Varenska, Gostagaievska, Troitzkaya and Kurgan stations in Trans- 
kuban Province. I 

1879 Oct. 28. S. Hungary and felt in Transylvania, Servia, Rumania and 
t Bessarabia. Ill 

1880 Oct. 22. Shemakha. I 

1880 Dec. 2. Verny, extending to Kurumdof and Karakul. I 

1880 Dec. 25. Odessa and felt in Bessarabia and Rumania. I 

1881 Jan. 31. Petrovsk, Transbaikalia. I 

1881 May 30. Van, village of Tegut and environs. Ill 

1882 July 19. Temir-khan-Shura, Caucasus. I 

1883 May 3. Tabriz and most of Azerbaijan. I 
1883 Nov. 3. Karakoyunli, 30 mdes from Erivan. II 
1883 Nov. 14. Tashkent and Osh in Fergana. I 

1883 Nov. 18 

to 24. Sultanabad, 20 miles from Osh, and Osh. II 

1884 Jan. 26. Tali-fu ( Yunnan). II 

1884 Dec. 19. Shusha. I 

1885 Jan. 12. Villages Kabansk and Barguzinsk, east of Lake Baikal. I 
1885 Middle 

of May. Village of Sikukh, N.W. of Derbent. II 
1885 Middle of 

June. Village Shishkiua, 33 miles from Orenburg. II 

1885 Aug. 3. Sukuluk, Belovodsk and Karabalti and extending to Tashkent, to 
Verny and to Hi. Ill 

1885 Oct. 9 

to 25. Tokniak district, Semreachie. I 

1886 Jan. 4. Chembar, Penza Government. I 
1886 June 27. Shemakha. I 

1886 Nov. 8. Tokmak and Verny. I 

1886 Nov. 29. Tashkent. II 

1887 Jan. 14. Semipalatinsk, Usk-Kamennogorsk, Altai district and Biisk dis- 

trict. I 

1887 June 9 Verny, Sophiisk, Kopal, Gabrilovka, Aksu, Karakul (Przhevalski), 

to 28. valley of the Hi. Ill 

1887 July 16. Batum, Ozurgeti and Kutai. I 

1887 Sept. 9. Russian Turkistan, Verny. II 

1888 ApriL In (Yunnan), especially the towns Shipin, Chenshui and Peiyuang- 
; ling. Ill 

1888 May 15. Russia, Erivan. I 

1888 Sept. 16. Russian Turkistan, Verny and Pishek. I 

1888 Sept. 22. Ardahan, Okan, &c. II 

1888 Sept. 23. Transcaucasia, Batum. I 

1888 Sept. 23 

to 26. Kara and other places in the Kars Province. II 



G4 Reports on the state of science* 

A. A: 

1888 1 Kov. 28. Tashkent, Khojent and places east of Tashkent. 
1888 Nov. 29. Verny and Kopal. I 
1888 Dec. 3. Vefny. I 

A List of Destructive Earthquakes in Iceland. 1 

Abstracted by 0. A. Gosch, Esq., from ' Landskjalftar i Island!, ' 
by Thorvald Thoroddsen, Copenhagen, 1899-1905. 

The work from which the following abstract has been made was 
issued by the Icelandic Literary Society in two parts, of which the first, 
pp. 1-200, was published in 1899; the second, pp. 201-266, in 1905. 

The relative ' destructivity ' is indicated by the numerals I, II, and 
III, see p. 57. 

Earthquakes in Iceland appear to be closely connected with local 
volcanic activity, and it is therefore convenient to group them accord- 
ing to the volcanic areas in which they originate, as Mr. Thoroddsen 
has done. Occasionally, however, an earthquake extends from one area 
to another, so that by this arrangement the same seismic disturb- 
ance may have to be mentioned in more than one list. The prin- 
cipal earthquake area in Iceland is that of the Sudurland, the southern 
part of the island, and particularly the Sudurland underland, 2 which 
means the lowlands in that part of Iceland. This district lies between 
the central plateau and the south coast, and is bounded to the east by the 
mountains about the Myrdals jokull, near the southernmost point of 
the island ; and to the west by a ridge, which on the western side slopes 
down to the Faxa Bay (Paxa fioi or Faxa fjordr). It is an alluvial 
plain, wbich fills up a prehistoric bay of the sea, in which isolated 
rocks and mountains represent ancient islands. The extent is given 
by Mr. Thoroddsen as ' 70 sq. milur,' or about 1,300 English square 
miles. The principal seat of volcanic activity here is Hekla, at the 
north-east corner of the district. The localities mentioned in Mr. 
Thoroddsen's list of earthquakes in the Sudurland are situated partly 
in Arnessysla, partly in Eangarsysla; ' sysla ' being the appellation lor 
certain administrative divisions. Arnessysla is the westernmost, the 
furthest from Hekla, and comprises the following subdivisions frequently 
mentioned — viz., Olfus, the westernmost, west of the river Olfusd, 
next Floi between the sea and the lower courses of Olfusd and Thjorsd; 
to the north of these, inland, are Grimsnes Thingvallasveit, Bishops- 
tungur, Skeid, and, finally, reaching up to the edge of the highland 
ice, the so-called Hreppar — viz., Eystrihreppur or Gnupverjahreppur 
and Hrunamannahreppur or Ytrihreppur. The river Thjorsd divides 

1 A second abstract of this work has been received from the Hon. S Allan John- 
stone, British Minister in Denmark. Although in both cases these registers represent 
the selection by independent workers of earthquakes which were destructive, the one 
confirms the other. 

2 In Mr. Thoroddsen's paper the names are mostly given in the Dative case, 
governed by a ; but in this abstract they are treated as would be English names 
and not declined. , 



ON SE1SMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 05 

Arnessysla from Eangarsysla, which comprises the districts of Holt, 
Land or Landsveit, Rangarvellir — the northern extremities of the two 
latter embracmg the foot of Hekla — further to the east Hvolhreppur 
and Fliotshlid; finally, on the sea coast, Landeyjar and Eyafjallasveit. 

The eai'thquake area of the Faxafloi lies on the west coast of 
Iceland, and comprises the districts bordering on that bay with the 
peninsula which forms the south-west corner of the island, terminat- 
ing in Reykjanes, near which, in the sea, is the principal seat of volcanic 
action here. In this area are B6rgarfjordr, Reykjavik and Krisuvik in 
Guldbringasysla, which borders on Olfus in Arnessysla. 

The earthquake area of the Nordurland or North Country, com- 
prises the whole northern coast of Iceland from Hunafldi eastwards, 
and the centre of volcanic action here is the Myvatnsveit, the district 
round the lake of Myvatn, where a number of craters exist. 

The north-west part of Iceland, which forms a peninsula con- 
nected with the main island by a narrow neck, is rarely visited by 
earthquakes, at least noteworthy ones, and the same is the case with, 
the east coast. Nor are many earthquakes recorded from the central 
part of the island or from the vast icebound, volcanic complex of 
mountains called the Vatna Jokull, which fills up the south-east corner 
of Iceland. The absence of more numerous fejords may, however, 
be due to the desolate almost inaccessible character of the region. 

AD _ A List of Destructive Earthquakes in the Sudurland. 

1013 ' Great earthquakes.' No date or particular locality is indicated. II 

1151 No direct mention of an earthquake, but only that houses were destroyed 
and people killed in connection with an eruption of a volcano in the interior, 
theTrolladyngjur, literally the habitations of the gnomes, a name applied to 
several mountains in Iceland. No particular locality or date is given. II 

1157 Earthquake in connection with eruption of Hekla, January 19. II 

1164 Earthquake in Grimsnes ; no date given. II 

1182 Earthquake; no date or locality indicated. II 

1211 Great earthquake, July 7 ; the locality is not particularly indicated, but it is 
stated that on the day before there had been an eruption in the sea south of 
Reykjanes, resulting in the formation of some new ' Eldeyjar ' or Fire 
Islands. A group of islands of that name is still in existence. II 

1240 Great earthquake throughout the south country ; eruption off Reykjanes. 
No date. I 

1294 Great and widespread earthquake in Fliotshlid and Rangarvellir ; connected 
with an eruption of Hekla. No date is given. Ill 

1300 Several earthquakes about Christmas time through the south country, con- 
temporaneously with an eruption of Hekla, which commenced July 10 and 
lasted nearly 12 months. II 

1308 Great earthquake throughout the South Country. No date. II 

1311 Earthquake in the night between January 10 and 11. No particular locality 
indicated, but it is stated that on January 25 there was an eruption in 
the Austurjokulls. I 

1339 Severe earthquake throughout the South Country, May 22. It was felt 
mostly in Skeid, Floi and Holt. Ill 

] 370 Earthquake in the South Country about Olfus. No date. II 

1389-90 Earthquake in the South Country; no particular place or date mentioned. 
There were eruptions from Hekla, Trolladyugjar and Sidu Jokull. II 

1391 A great earthquake throughout the South Country, particularly in Grimsnes, 
Olfus, and Floi. Ill 

1510 Earthquake at Skalholt, about 20 miles west of Hekla, in connection with 
an eruption of the volcano on July 20. I 

1910. 



66 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

A.D. 

1546 Earthquake at the end of May, mostly in Olfus. II 

1652 Earthquake shocks at Candlemas eve (March 2) ; no localitjtfJiientioned. I 

1554 Severe earthquakes which lasted through half a month, so that people had to 
live in tents. No particular locality mentioned, but it is stated that at the 
same time an eruption of Hekla was going on, which lasted six weeks. The 
date is given as between Orossmass (the Festival of the Invention of the 
Cross, May 3) and ' fardag,' which means the last four days of May. I 

1578 Earthquake in Olfus in the evening of All Saints' Day (November 1), supposed 
to be caused by an eruption of Hekla, which was going on during that 
autumn. II 

1581 Great earthquake in the month of May (between Crossmass and fardag), 
particularly in Rangarvellir and Hvolhreppr. Ill 

1584 ' Great earthquake in Iceland, but it is not known in what part it happened ; 
most probably, however, in the South Country.' II 

1597 Several severe shocks of earthquake at Skalholt on January 3, in connection 
with an eruption of Hekla. In the same spring, after the eruption of 
Hekla, there was a destructive earthquake in Olfus. II 

1613 An earthquake in the South Country, particularly severe in Skeid. II 

1619 Earthquakes after midsummer, also eruption of Hekla ; no particular date or 
locality mentioned. I 

1624 Continual earthquakes all through November, particularly in Floi. II 

1630 Three earthquakes during the winter, one on February 21, throughout the 
South Country. Damage done at Skalholt, &c. II 

1638 An earthquake in the South, did damage at Olfus ; no date given. II 

1657 Great earthquakes in the South and in the West, mostly in Floi and in 
Fliotshlid, where damage was done, March 16. Ill 

1 671 Great earthquake in the summer in Grimsnes and Olfus. Ill 

1693 Strong earthquakes all over the Sudurlandunderland, which were also felt at 
sea, connected with an eruption of Hekla which commenced February 13. I 

1706 In the course of the winter there were several earthquakes — viz., two in the 
evening of January 28, one in March, one on April 1, and the most severe 
on April 20 in the morning which wrought great destruction in Olfus. It 
was also felt in Floi and even, though weaker, in the Faxafloi area. Ill 

1724 Earthquakes in the month of August, mostly in Arnessysla. This disturbance 

reached Krisuvik in the Faxafloi area and was felt strongly at Reykjanea 
Skaga. II 

1725 Between April 1 and 2 there were terrible earthquakes in Ames- and Rangar- 

sysla. In the same morning fire burst out of the ground round Hekla. Ill 

1726 Earthquakes late in the summer hi Rangarvellir. In the winter there had 

been an eruption in the Eastern Jokulls. II 

1 732 Severe earthquake on Sept. 7 in Rangarvellir and Eystrihreppr ; the people 
took to living in tents, as the shocks continued for nearly half a month. II 

1734 On March 21 a severe earthquake occurred in Arnessysl a, particularly in Floi. 

1749 A severe earthquake in the Sudurland, particularly in Olfus; it was felt also 
in Borgarjordr and elsewhere in the Faxafloi area. II 

1752 Earthquakes occurred during the winter in Olfus. II 

1766 Many earthquakes in the country round Hekla during an eruption which 
commenced April 5. The shocks were felt particularly to the south-west 
of the volcano and were destructive in Arnessysla, particularly in Olfus, on 
September 9 and 10. They spread west to the Faxafloi area (Reykjanes) 
and south to the Vestmanna Islands off the coast. Two to four shocks 
were generally experienced every twenty -four hours. Ill 

1784 On August 14 and 16 there were severe earthquakes all over the Sudurland, 
' the worst that had happened in Iceland since the land became inhabited.' 
They were strongest in Arnessysla and Rangarsysla, particularly the 
former, but were felt all over the south, and spread not oidy to the Faxa- 
fl6i area (Snaefell), but even to Isafjordr in the extreme north-west of 
Iceland. 
The Vestmanna islands also were severely shaken, and shocks were felt 
even in Skaptafellsysla, east of Rangarsysla towards the Vatna Jokvill. 
The seismic disturbance lasted till Christmas. Ill 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



G7 



1789 Severe earthquakes all over the south-west country, principally in Arnessysla. 

They commenced on June 10, and for a week after there was hardly any 

quiet time night or day ; there were scarcely ten minutes between the 

shocks, and some were felt afterwards during the summer. HI 

1797 Earthquake shocks occurred on September 19 in Hvolhreppr. I 

1799 Earthquake shocks were noticed in the morning of March 31 and the following 

day in Fliotshlid and Landeyjar. I 
1808 An earthquake worth mentioning occurred. No date or locality given. I 
1810 A strong earthquake was noticed east of Hekla, and also southwards, 
October 21. I 

1828 Severe earthquake in Fliotshlid and Landeyjar. No date given. II 

1829 On February 21 and in the night following there were earthquakes all over 

Sudurland. I 

1838 June 12 in the morning early a notable earthquake occurred at Eyrirbakki, 
in Floi, which was also felt in the Nordurland between Hunafloi and 
Skjalf andi ; at least there was an earthquake there on the same day. II 
In the south the shocks continued to June 17. II 

1845-7 Weak earthquake shocks occurred in the country round Hekla during an 
eruption which lasted from September 2, 1845, to April 6, 1846. They 
reached almost 28 English miles south-west of the volcano, but only 
9-14 miles north-east of the mountain. Shocks were noticed in various 
places in the district, especially from October 4 to 13, 1845, January 11 
to 18, March 5 and April 4, 1846, After the eruption had ceased, shocks 
were observed in this district on April 18, May 3 and 8, June 5, Novem- 
ber 26, 1846, and January 7, March 2 and 3, 1847. The shocks on May 3, 
1845, were felt also in the Faxafloi area, at Krisuvik and Reykjavik, 
where shocks were felt also on May 4, August 31, 1846, and February 15, 
1847. During the eruption some shocks were felt in the Nordurlandar, 
and sharp shocks were felt during April and May 1847 at Grimsey, an 
island north of Iceland, just under the Arctic circle. I 

1868 Earthquakes in the Sudurland, November 1 and during the week following. 
This disturbance originated in the Faxafloi and is mentioned on the list 
for that area. 

1878 Earthquakes, February 27, in the whole of the south-west of Iceland, 
particularly in Land, Rangarvellir, the Hreppar, Fliotshlid, and the 
Vestmanna islands, but were not felt in all places at the same hour. At 
the same time there was an eruption of flames, in the lava fields north of 
the Krakutind, to the north of Hekla. I 

1887 October 28. Earthquake at Eyrarbakki in Floi, where the disturbance 
lasted 10 seconds, and the direction was from north-north-west to south- 
south-east ; at Kirkjubae in Rangarvellir, where the direction was from 
north-west to south-east ; also in Fliotshlid, Landeyjar, and Holt. This 
earthquake extended to the Faxafloi area. II 

1889 Earthquake shocks at Rangarvellir on April 19, the direction being from 
east-south-east, and at Eyrarbakki in Floi, April 30, where the first 
shock lasted three seconds, but the principal one, a full second, the direc- 
tion being from east-south-east to west-north-west. I 

1896 August 26 and 27, and again September 5 and 6, more or less severe earth- 
quakes occurred in all parts of the Sudurland and on the Vestmanna islands. 
Several districts were shaken again on September 10. Ill 
These earthquakes were felt at several distant localities such as Hornafjord 
on the south-east coast, though not, as it appears, in the Skaptafellsysla, 
between the Sudurland underland and Hornafjord. They were felt at 
Reykjavik (August 26 and 27 and September 5), Borgarfjordr and else- 
where in the Faxafloi area, and on the north-west coast of Iceland even 
at Isafjordr in the extreme north-west. Ill 

1899 The extensive earthquake in the Nordurland after New Year was felt in the 
Sudurland, particularly at Eyrarbakki (Floi) on February 27. I 
The disturbances on the Sudurland in 1887, 1889, and 1899 are not mentioned 
by Mr. Thoroddscn on his list of earthquakes there ; but in the list of earth- 
quakes in the Faxafloi. 

F 2 



68 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



A List of destructive earthquakes about the Faxafloi. 
There are no old records of earthquakes in this area available. 

AD. 

1663 Earthquake at Reykjanes Skaga. No date. I 

1706 The great earthquake which devastated Arnessysla in the month of April 
would seem to have been felt, though faintly, near the Faxafloi, as it is 
mentioned in Mr. Thoroddsen's list of earthquakes in that district, but 
all the details mentioned by him there refer to localities in Arnessysla. I 

1724 The earthquake in Arnessysla in August was felt at Reykjavik. 

1754 Earthquake at Krisuvik. No date indicated. I 
1825 January 18 and 21, shocks at Reykjavik. II 

1860 September 20, earthquake shocks occurred at Reykjavik ; the direction was 
south-west to north-east. 
In the middle of June and between December 30 and 31 weaker shocks were 
noticed, having the same direction. I 

1864 Earthquake in Reykjavik on February 16. I 

1868 Frequent and strong shocks occurred in the beginning of November at Reyk- 
javik and Borgarf jordr. They were also noticed in the Sudurland, Novem- 
ber 1 to 7. II 

1878 The earthquake in the Sudurland, February 27, was felt at Reykjavik ; there 
were three shocks. 

1870 Strong earthquakes at the end of May at Reykjanes Skaga and Krisuvik. 
At the same time there was an eruption in the sea off Reykjanes, near the 
Geirfuglaskeri, the last breeding -place of the Great Auk. 

1887 The earthquake in the Sudurland, October 28, was felt at Reykjavik ; there 
were two not very strong shocks. I 

1889 October 13, strong shocks were felt at Reykjavik and other places round the 
Faxafloi. These were scarcely felt in the Sudurland, which had suffered 
from an earthquake earlier in the spring. 

1S96 The great earthquakes in the Sudurland in August and September were felt 
at Reykjavik, Borgarjordr and elsewhere round the Faxafloi. I 

1899 The extensive seismic disturbance in the Nordurland after New Year was 
also felt round the Faxafloi, particularly at Reykjavik, February 27. I 
Several earthquakes in the Sudurland at various times were felt about tho 
Faxafloi, but were not destructive. 

A List of destructive earthquakes in the Nordurland. 
As regards this area, too, early records of earthquakes are almost absent. 

12(0 A great earthquake in the North, at Flatey, an island in the bay called Skjal- 
fandi. No date. II 

1618 Constant earthquakes continued night and day from harvest time to Christ- 
mas. Damage was done at Thingeyjarthing. 

1724 Earthquake, May 17, in Myvatnsveit in connection with a series of volcanic 

eruptions in that district which lasted to 1730, during which time earth- 
quakes were frequent. 

1725 Earthquake in Myvatnsveit in connection with the first eruption of the 

volcano Leirhnukur, on January 11, and again April 19, in connection 
with the eruption of Bjarnaflaga. 
1 728 Several earthquakes occurred in the Myvatnsveit in connection with eruptions 
from four different craters in the district. The strongest was on April 18, 
but many minor shocks were noticed all through that year. I 

1755 September 11 to 24, a series of earthquakes affected the north coast of Iceland 

along the shores of Skagafjordr, Eyjafjordr and Skjalfandi. Damage was 
done at Husavik and several minor places. The disturbance reached 
Grimsey Island to the north of Iceland, but there was no earthquake in 
Myoatvisveit nor in other parts of Iceland. Mr. Thoroddsen mentions that 
on October 17 commenced a violent eruption of the Katla in the Myrdals 
Jokull, south of Hekla, near the coast, and he reminds his readers that 
the famous earthquake at Lisbon occurred a fortnight later. Ill 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. CO 

A.D. 

1838 In the night between June 11 .and 12 an earthquake shook the north coast 
of Iceland, between Hunafioi and Skjalfandi, which was not felt strongly 
inland, but, like that of 1755, was very strong in the islands off the coast, 
Grimscy and Drangey. The movement came from the sea and travelled 
from the north-east to the west to the interior. This earthquake was felt 
in the Sudurland at Eyrarbakki, June 12. Ill 

18G7 December 31, in the early morning there was an earthquake along the north 
coast, particularly at Akureyri and Husavik, it reached to Vopnaf jordr, 
on the east coast ; minor shocks followed in places to January 15, 1868. 
There was not at that time any eruption in the north country, but from 
August 27 to September 5 there had been an eruption in the Vatna Jokull 
in the south-east of the island. II 

1872 A great earthquake was felt at Husavik and Akureyri in the night of April 18 ; 
it was felt also at several other places along the north coast. II 

1874-5 From the week before Christmas to January 3, 1875, frequent but moderate 
shocks occurred in Myvatnsveit and throughout the Nordurland, mostly 
inland. Shocks continued near Myvatn to the spring, while eruptions 
took place in Dyngjufjoll, January 3, and again March 29, and also in the 
Myvatnsoraefa on February 18, but they were not of importance. I 

1882 October 29, there was an earthquake in several places on the north coast, 
principally round Thistillf jordr, a bay near the north-east corner of the 
island. 
December 21. The same district was affected, particularly Akureyri. I 

1884 November 2. Sharp earthquakes occurred at Husavik, Kelduhverf, and 

Thistillf jodr. I 

1885 January 25, a severe earthquake at Kelduhverf and elsewhere along the north 

coast. Ill 
1897 May 3. Earthquakes occurred along the western part of the north coast. I 
1899 In the early part of this year there were frequent but not severe earthquakes 
in Iceland generally. The strongest occurred on January 30 and 31, and 
February 26-28, along the north coast from Bordeyri on the Hunafioi to 
Akureyri. On the west coast it was felt at Holt, on the Onundarf jordr, 
February 26, and on the same day at Reykjavik. On the 27th shocks were 
felt at Eyrarbakki in the Sudurland. At Bordeyri the direction is stated 
to have been south-east to north-west, at Grimsey the shocks were 
thought to come from south and south-west. I 

Besides the three lists above abstracted, Mr. Thoroddsen's book contains 
a general list of recorded volcanic eruptions and earthquakes in all parts of 
Iceland, among which the following may be noted, which are not included 
in the lists given above, as they occurred in Skaftafellsysla, which is not 
comprised in the Sudurland, but lies to the cast of it. 

1721 On May 14 strong earthquakes were connected with the eruption of the 

Katla in the Myrdals Jokull ; they extended to Eyjaf joll and Fliotshlid 

in the Sudurland. 
1727 August 2. There was a severe earthquake at Sandfell near the Orsefa 

Jokull in connection with an eruption of that volcano. 
1783 June 1, a severe earthquake shook Skaftafellsysla ; the disturbance lasted 

till June 8, when the great Skaftargos, an enormous eruption from Skafta 

fell, commenced. 

A Provisional List of Destructive Earthquakes of the Southern Andes, 
south of Lett. 16° (S. Peru, Chile, Bolivia, W. Argentina). 

By Count Montessus de Ballore. 

The relative ' destructivity ' of different shocks are indicated by the 
numerals I, II, and III, see p. 57. 

A.D. 

1520 (?) S. Provinces of Chile. (?) 

1543 Tarapaca. (?) 



70 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



La Imperial, Coast of Arauco. Sea waves. Ill 

Concepcion. Sea waves. Ill 

Santiago. II (?) 

La Imperial as far as Castro. Sea waves. Ill 

Arequipa. Ill 

W. Coast of S. America. (?) 

Arica and Arequipa. Sea waves. Ill 

La Serena. (?) 

Arica. Ill 

Esteco (province of Salta). (?) 

Carelmapu. Earthquake (?). Hurricans 

Santiago. I 

Santiago. Ill 

La Paz. II 

Concepcion. Sea waves. Ill 

Arica. (?) 

Santiago. (?) 

Santiago. (?) 

Esteco (Tucuman). (?) 

Moquegua. (?) 

Santiago. (?) 

Lima and Arequipa. Ill 

Concepcion. Sea waves. Ill 

Mision of Tarija in el Chaco. (?) 

Ruin of Valdivia. Ill (?) 

North of the peninsula of Patagonia, south of the Archipelago of 

Clionos (Territory de Magellan). I (?) 
Concepcion. Sea waves. Ill 
Copiapo. Ill (?) 
Valparaiso. I (?) 
Mendoza. (?) 
Arequipa, Arica. (?) 

Arica and Valley of Tambo. II 

Castro. I (?) 

Arequipa. I 

La Serena. (?) 

Arica. (?) 

Copiapo and Vallenar. Ill 

La Serena. Ill 

Yea and Arequipa. (?) 

Copiapo. Ill 

S. Peru, Camana and Arequipa. Ill 

Copiapo and Coquimbo. II 

Valparaiso. Sea waves. Ill 

Valparaiso and Santiago. I 

Santiago. I 

Arica. I 

Huasco. I 

Arequipa, Arica and Tacna. II 

Yea. (?) 

La Concepcion and Talcahuano. Sea waves. Ill 

Cobija. Sea waves. 

Valdivia. Ill 

La Serena. I 

Salto, Tucuman, Santiago del Estoro. Ill 

Arica. I 

Copiapo. I 

Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia). II 

Destruction of San Luis (Argentina). Ill 



A.l). 




1562 


Oct. 28. 


1570 


Feb. 9. 


1575 


Mar. 17. 


1575 


Dec. 16. 


1582 


Jan. 16. 


1588 




1604 


Nov. 24. 


1604 


Dec. 


1615 
1632 


Sept. 16. 


1633 
1643 


May 14. 
Sept. 6. 


1647 
1650 


May 13. 
Nov. 10. 


1657 


Mar. 15. 


1681 


Mar. 10. 


1688 
1690 
1Q92 
1715 


July 12. 
July 9. 
Sept. 13. 
Aug. 22. 


1724 
1725 


May 24. 
Jan. 8. 


1730 
1734 


July 8. 


1737 


Dec. 24. 


1742 


Mar. 23. 


1751 


Mar. 25. 


1773 
1775 


July 29. 
Mar. 17. 


1782 
1784 
1784 


May 22. 
May 13. 
Good 


1787 


Friday. 
Feb. 1. 


1787 


Mar. 23. 


1792 


Nov. 30. 


1793 


Aug. 7. 


1796 


Mar. 30. 


1801 


Jan. 1. 


1813 
1819 


May 30. 
April 4, 
3, 11. 


1821 
1822 


July 10. 
Nov. 5. 


1822 


Nov. 19. 


1829 


Sept. 26. 


1829 


Oct. 1. 


1831 


Oct. 8. 


1833 
1833 


April 25. 
Oct. 18. 


1834 
1835 


July. 
Feb. 20. 


1836 
1837 


July 3. 

Nov. 7. 


1843 


Dec. 17. 


1844 


Oct. 18. 


1845 


June 3. 


1847 


Jan. 19. 


1848-50 (?) 


1849 


April 9. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 71 

A.D. 

1849 Dec. 17. Coquimbo. With sea waves. I 

1850 Dec. 6. Santiago. II 

1851 April 2. Santiago. II 

1851 May 26. Province of Atacama. II 

1854 Jan. 14. Minas de Cruz de Canas (Coquimbo). I 

1859 Oct. 5. Copiapo. I 

1861 Mar. 20. Mendoza. Ill 

1861 Aug. 29. San Carlos (Argentina). I 

1862 Feb. 5. Mendoza. I 

1863 June 29. Arequipa. I 

1864 Jan. 12. Copiapo. I 
1866 July 23. Copiapo. I 

1868 Aug. 13. S. Peru, Bolivia and North of Chile. Sea waves. Ill 

1868 Oct. 12. Copiapo. I 

1869 Aug. 19. Arica to Yea. Sea waves. I 

1869 Aug. 24. N. Chile and South of Peru. I 

1870 Mar. 23. Calama. (? ) 

1870 Mar. 25. Mendoza. I 

1871 Feb. 23. Province of Cochabamba (Bolivia). II 
1871 Mar. 24. Santiago, Valparaiso. I 

1871 Oct. 5. Tarapaca, I 

1871 Oct. 22. Jujuy and Oran. Ill 

1873 July 7. Central Chile. Ill 

1874 Oct. 26. Santiago. I 

1876 Feb. 11. Illapel, Salamanca and Chalinga. II 

1877 May 9. N. of Chile, Iquique. Sea waves. Ill 

1877 May 17. La Paz. I 

1878 Jan. 23. Iquique, Arica, Province of Tarapaca. I 

1879 Feb. 2. Magellan Territory and Tierra de Fuego. I (?) 

1880 Aug. 15. Valparaiso, Illapel and Quillota. I 

1882 Mar. 6. Department of Paclin (Catamarca Argentina). II 

1883 Oct. 1. Arequipa. I 

1884 Nov. 26. Bolivia. I 

1887 Sept. 23. Yacuiba (Bolivia). I 

1890 April 24. San Felipe. I 

1891 Aug. 15. Central Bolivia. I 

1894 Oct. 27. La Rioja and San Juan. II 

1898 July 23. Concepcion. I 

1899 April 12. La Rioja, Catamarca, Tucuman, Rio Cuarto, Santiago del Estero. I 

1900 Oct. 23. San Luis. I 
1903 Aug. 12. Mendoza. I 

1903 Dec. 7. Vallenar. II 

1904 Mar. 19. Vallenar. II 

1906 June 18. Valparaiso and Valley of Aconcagua. II 

1906 Aug. 16. Valparaiso and Central Chile. Ill 

1907 June 13. Valdivia. II 

1907 Aug. 14. Mendoza. I 

1908 Feb. 23. Sierra Gorda (Antofagasta). I 

1908 July 16. N. Chile, S. Peru, W. Bolivia. I 

1909 Feb. 11. Candarave (S. Peru). I 
1909 May 17. Tupiza (Bolivia). II 
1909 June 8. Chafiaral and Copiapo. II 

1909 July 22. Sipcsipe (Cochabamba, Bolivia). Ill 

1909 Sept. 20. Tinogasta, W. Argentina. I 



72 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere in co-operation with a Com- 
mittee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Ninth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. E. Gold 
(Secretary), Messrs. D. Archibald, C. Vernon Boys, C. J. P. 
Cave, and W. H. Dines, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Sir J. Larmor, 
Professor J. E. Petavel, Dr. A. Schuster, and Dr. W. Watson. 

Meetings of the Joint Committee were held in the rooms of the Eoyal 
Meteorological Society on October 20, November 2, 1909, March 8, 1910. 
The Committee arranged to take part in the wide scheme of international 
ascent for the week December 6 to 11, 1909. During that period 
registering balloons were sent up at twelve or more stations distributed 
over the continent of Europe besides those in this country, where 
arrangements were made for ascents at Crinan, N.B., and Pyrton Hill 
by Mr. Dines for the Meteorological Office, at Manchester by the Uni- 
versity, and at Ditcham Park, Petersfield, by Mr. C. J. P. Cave. 

In addition to observations at land stations, registering balloons were 
to be sent up from the German cruiser ' Victoria Louise ' near the West 
Indies, and Professor Palazzo arranged to make observations off the 
coast of Somaliland in an Italian vessel at the same time as a German 
boat, the ' Planet, ' was co-operating in the Indian Ocean. Observations 
of pilot-balloons were to be made from three vessels of the German 
Lloyd line, crossing the regions of the trade winds, and special observa- 
tions were to be made simultaneously on the Peak of Teneriffe. Regis- 
tering balloons were to be sent up in the United States and India also, 
and cloud observations were made at observatories all over the world. It 
will be seen, therefore, how extensive a field of operations was included 
in the scheme. 

The plan of the Joint Committee was to fill up a gap in the observa- 
tions in the British Isles by sending up registering balloons from a place 
in the West of Ireland and to secure pilot-balloon observations from Bar- 
bados, which had already been the scene of very successful kite ascents 
by Mr. Cave. The British Association grant was specially allocated for 
the former purpose. 

The Committee secured the services of Captain C. H. Ley, who had 
in 1908 been successful both with pilot and registering balloons in 
Ireland, and he decided, with the approval of the Committee, to make 
Dhulough, a place in the extreme west of Galway, his base. 

Special arrangements were made in this country on account of the 
risk of losing the balloons in the sea if they were sent up in decidedly 
unfavourable conditions. The Meteorological Office sent telegraphic 
forecasts to the observers from Tuesday to Friday of the week of the 
ascents in order that they might send up two balloons on a single day 
near the middle of the week if favourable conditions prevailed rather 
than risk losing the balloons owing to unfavourable conditions later on 
by rigid adherence to the general plan of one ascent at 7 a.m. each day. 



INVESTIGATION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE 73 

Thus at Pyrton Hill and Manchester the second balloons sent up on 
December 7 on the strength of a favourable forecast were both recovered 
and furnished good records, and the second ascent from Manchester on 
the 8th was equally successful. 

Altogether eighteen of the balloons sent up in this country were 
recovered, and fifteen of these gave records to heights exceeding 10 km. 
The results have not yet been discussed, but an inspection of them shows 
at once interesting features. On the earlier days of the week these 
islands were situated in a region of low atmospheric pressure in which 
the gradients were small. All the records for this period showed that 
the upper limit of the convective region of the atmosphere was reached 
at heights between 7"5 and 8'5 km., i.e., very much below the average. 
The conditions changed as a well-marked cyclone developed over Ice- 
land, and the greater part of the area of the ascents lay in the limiting 
region between this cyclone and an anticyclone whose centre was over 
the North of Spain. The height of the upper limit mentioned above rose 
simultaneously with this change to 12 km. or more at each station. It 
fell again as a fresh cyclone from the Atlantic advanced over these 
islands, and in the last ascent, made at Ditcham on the Saturday after- 
noon while the centre of the cyclone was still west of Ireland, the height 
had decreased to 10 km., which is about the average for that time of 
the year. 

It had been hoped that the ascents would furnish sufficient results 
to admit of a similar representation of the temperature conditions in 
December to that for July shown a year ago by Dr. Shaw. The critical 
ascents were those from Ireland, and unfortunately these were not a 
success. Balloons which might have proved quite satisfactory in normal 
July conditions turned out to be too weak for the weather prevailing at 
Dhulough in the international week last December, and, instead of rising 
with approximately uniform vertical velocity until they burst, they 
developed leaks and on this account floated in the air probably long 
enough to get clear of the land. Only two of the six sent up were 
recovered, and these did not reach great heights. The results obtained 
were : — 

Height Surface 05 10 1'5 2"0 25 30 km. 

T Dogree * A° \ 7,4 ° A-M- — 276 ° 27G ° 275 ° 273 ° 271 °" 5 269 °' 5 
° (_ Second balloon reached 1*5 km. only. 

The observations made with pilot-balloons in Barbados have been re- 
ceived and are being dealt with by Mr. Cave. The heights to which the 
balloons were observed range up to 5 km. 

The Committee find that a stronger balloon than that ordinarily used 
can now be obtained at a slight additional cost, and they believe that by 
using such balloons a successful series of ascents in Ireland may be 
obtained even in winter conditions. They therefore recommend re- 
appointment with a grant of 30Z. to carry out further experiments in 
conjunction with the international ascents in 1910-U. 



71 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCJE.NOR. 



Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. E. T. 
Glazebrook (Secretary), Professor W. G. Adams, Dr. Chree, 
Captain Creak, IVIr. W. L. Fox, Sir Arthur Pucker, and Pro- 
fessor Schuster. 

The results of the magnetic observations at Falmouth Observatory for 
1909 have been published in the Annual Beport of the National Physical 
Laboratory, as well as in that of the Eoyal Cornwall Polytechnic 
Society. The mean values of the magnetic elements for the year are : — 

Declination 17° 48'"4 W. 

Inclination 66° 30'-6 N. 

Horizontal Force 0-18802 C.G.S. 

Vertical Force 0-43266 C.G.S. 

The instruments were inspected by Mr. Baker, of the Kew Observatory, 
in October 1909, who reports that they were then in good order, and 
that the results of the absolute measurements made on October 15 
were in good agreement with Mr. Kitto's latest observations. The 
results of the tabulations for the year were also satisfactory. 

During the year the Magnetic Survey ship ' Carnegie ' visited Fal- 
mouth, and was furnished with data of great value. An account of 
some of the results is given in a paper by L. A. Bauer and \V. J. 
Peters, ' On the Complete Magnetic Eesults of the First Cruise of the 
" Carnegie," 1909-10,' published in ' Terrestrial Magnetism ' for June 
1910, from which the following is an extract: — 

' The desire therefore arose to make assurance doubly sure with 
regard to deviations of any kind (constant or harmonic), and to swing 
the " Carnegie " in a locality as free as possible from local disturbances. 
Captain Chetwynd, Superintendent of the Compass Department of the 
British Admiralty, being appealed to for advice with regard to a British 
port fulfilling the desired conditions, recommended Falmouth.' 

The article also contains a comparison of the values of the magnetic 
elements at Falmouth with those already obtained by the American 
observers and the British Magnetic Survey values dependent upon 
Pucker and Thorpe's observations, referred to October 18, 1909, ' with 
the aid of the valuable series of annual values of the Falmouth Magnetic 
Observatory. ' 

The figures are as follows : — 





D. 


I. 


H.F. 


' Carnegie ' Ship Observations . 


. 17° 45'-0 W. 


66° 30' 


0-1873 


,, Land ,, . 


. 17° 45'1 


66° 30-4 


0-1878 


British Magnetic Survey . . 


. 17° 44'-8 


66° 29'-l 


0-1876 



from which it will be seen that the agreement is very close. 

The magnetographs at Eskdalemuir are now working satisfactorily, 
and it is hoped it will be possible to commence this year the regular 
tabulation of results. In view of the importance of comparing the 
regular magnetic variations obtained there with those found in the South 



MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS AT FALMOUTH OBSERVATORY. 75 

of England, the Committee think it most important that the Falmouth 
observations should be maintained, and they ask therefore for reappoint- 
men, with a grant of 501. 

By an arrangement recently made between the Royal Society, the 
Meteorological Office, and the Treasury, the responsibility for the 
magnetic and meteorological work at Kew and Eskdalemuir now rests 
with the Meteorological Office. The Committee therefore recommend 
that the name of Dr. Shaw be added to the Committee, and that he be 
the Secretary of the Committee. 



Geodetic Arc in Africa. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
George Darwin {Chairman), Sir David Gill {Secretary), Colonel 
C. F. Close, and Sir George Goldie, appointed to carry out a 
further portion of the Geodetic Arc of Meridian North of Lake 
Tanganyika. 

The grant (100L) has been paid to H.M. Treasury. The field work for 
which the grant was made has been completed, and the computations 
are finished, excepting the final reduction of the observations of latitude. 

Report by Captain E. M. Jack, R.E. 

The measurement of a portion of the 30th meridian arc, to the 
cost of which the British Association made a contribution of 1002., was 
carried out in the Uganda Protectorate in 1908-09, the personnel 
employed being as follows : — 

British Section. — Observers : Captain E. M. Jack, B.E., and 
Mr. G. T. McCaw, M.A. Assistants: Lance-Corporals Jones, R.E., 
and Page, R.E. Medical Officer: Mr. C. L. Chevallier. 

Belgian Section. — Astronomer: Dr. Marcel Dehalu. Assistant: 
Captain G. Wangermee. 

The instruments used were two 10-inch Repsold theodolites, lent 
by the Intercolonial Council of the Transvaal and Orange River Colony; 
and a 3-inch zenith telescope, lent by the War Office. 

Observations of terrestrial angles were made to heliostats by day and 
to acetylene lamps by night. Angles were measured on eight settings 
of the circle, two measures C.R. and C.L. being taken on each setting. 
Vertical angles were measured in the afternoon. 

Latitudes were observed at fourteen out of the sixteen main stations. 
The Talcott method was employed, and usually 15 to 20 pairs of stars 
observed at a station. 

Azimuths were observed at three stations, at each end and in the 
middle of the chain. 

A base 16A- kilometres (10J miles) long was measured. Six invar 
wires were used, three being kept for reference purposes only, and three 
for actual measurement. No standard bar was carried. The base was 
divided into sections of about one kilometre, and each section was 
measured twice, each measurement being made with two wires. A 
third measure of a section was made in the few cases when there 
appeared to be an abnormal discrepancy between the first and second. 



76 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

In all, sixteen main stations were occupied. The chain of triangu- 
lation extended from 1° 10' N. to 1° 10' S., and consisted of five figures, 
namely: a northern complex figure, including the base net; three 
quadrilaterals; and a southern tetragon, or quadrilateral with an 
additional centre-point. The width of the chain is about 30 miles; the 
longest ray was 47 miles. 

Every station was permanently marked with an iron or brass peg, 
surmounted by a large cairn of stones, in the centre of which was fixed 
nn iron beacon. The Uganda Government was informed of the position 
of all stations. 

The work in the field took eleven months, from [March 1908 to 
February 1909, of which a month and a half was occupied in base 
measurement. The atmospheric conditions for observing were bad, 
and delayed the work considerably. 

The actual cost of the British Section was 3,750Z. A good deal of 
expense was saved by the fact that the majority of the officers and men 
had been on the Anglo-Congolese Boundary Commission, and the 
expense of their journeys, camp equipment, &c, were thus saved to 
the Arc Survey. 

Preliminary computations were carried out in the field as much as 
possible, and found useful in the subsequent precise calculations. The 
latter were undertaken on the return to England, and are now practically 
completed. 

The absolute probable error of the base, taking into account all 
possible sources of error, was found to be 

± 14.92 mm., or 1 in 1,108,000, 
a result which is considered very satisfactory. 

The average error of closure of the triangles was 

+ 0".812, 
and the probable error of an observed angle 

± 0".390. 

The final report, which includes a full description of the work of 
the survey, the methods adopted, the determination of the errors of 
the instruments, the measurement of the base, the adjustment of the 
triangulation, a discussion of the height of the datum point on Lake 
Albert, and the adjustment of the vertical observations, &c, is almost 
complete. There remains to be done the section dealing with the 
geodetic positions of the points. The computation of these positions 
from the triangulation is necessarily bound up with the results of the 
latitude observations, as an adjustment has to be made between the two. 
Unfortunately the latitude results have not yet been received from 
M. Dehalu ; but as soon as they are, the final computation of the geodetic 
positions will be made and the report published. 

It may be mentioned that, in addition to the main work of the 
survey, observations were taken with a view to determining the height 
of Buwenzori and of the Mufumbiro volcanoes; and a connection was 
made with the survey of Uganda. 

M. Dehalu also carried out a large number of magnetic observations. 



THE STUDY OF ASTRONOMY, METEOROLOGY, AND GEOPHYSICS. 77 



The Study of Astronomy, Meteorology, and Geophysics.— Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Sir Arthur Rucker (Chairman), 
Professor A. E. H. Love (Secretary), Sir Oliver Lodge, Sir J. J. 
Thomson, Professors C. G. Knott, E. Rutherford, A. Schuster, 
and E. T. Whittaker, Drs. W. G. Duffield and G. T. Walker, 
and Mr. R. T. A. Innes, appointed to report upon the provision for 
the Study of Astronomy, Meteorology (including Atmospheric Elec- 
tricity), and Geophysics in the Universities of the British Empire. 

Ix reply to a letter of inquiry, information was furnished by the acting 
heads of most of the Universities. The information in regard to Aus- 
tralasia was collected by Dr. Duffield, and in regard to South Africa by 
Mr. Innes. Dr. G. T. Walker contributed a resume of the information 
in regard to India. All the information was received in 1909, but some 
of it too late for incorporation in a report to be presented at Winnipeg. 
The report was therefore deferred to this year. 

In asking for information the Committee suggested that provision, 
such as comes within its cognisance, might take the following, among 
other, forms : — 

(1) There may be Professors, Readers, Lecturers, or Demonstrators 
appointed to teach or give instruction in one or more of the subjects. 

(2) There may be occasional courses of lectures or practical instruc- 
tion, such as would be a course in geodesy given by a professor of 
astronomy, or a course in terrestrial magnetism or atmospheric elec- 
tricity given by a professor of physics. 

(3) There may be facilities for the training of observers in meteor- 
ology, seismology, or other subjects of the group, in cases where the 
University, or the city in which it is situated, possesses observing and 
recording stations. 

(4) It may be possible to secure such facilities as those referred to 
in (3) if they are sought by intending students. 

(5) Degrees, or diplomas, may be given by the university for pro- 
ficiency in the subjects or in some of them. 

(6) There may be scholarships or studentships by which pecuniary 
assistance could be given to persons engaged upon research in these 
subjects. 

(7) There may be prizes or medals for the encouragement of such 

research. 

The information received is summarised in the following statement : 
The numbers in brackets indicate the forms of provision according to the 
circular issued by the Committee; the capital letters indicate the 
subjects, as follows: A., Astronomy; A.E., Atmospheric Electricity; 
G., Geodesy; G.P.. Geophysics; M., Meteorology; T.M., Terres- 
trial Magnetism. For instance, the entry ' (4) M.' means that 
facilities can be secured for training an observer in meteorology. 
When additional information not coming under any of these heads 



78 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. f i 

has been furnished it is entered under the number (8). The num- 
ber (1) is used when regular courses of instruction are given; the 
number (2) when occasional courses are given. The Universities which 
are omitted from the list either sent no information or make no special 
provision for the study of any subject of the group. 

United Kingdom. 

Aberdeen. — (4) M. (6) Some scholarships available. 

Birmingham. — (4) M. (8) A small astronomical observatory. 

Cambridge.— (1) A. and M. (2) M. (3) A. and M. (4) A. (5) A. 
a subject for mathematical honours; degrees for research in any of 
the subjects. (6) Various endowments available. Some scholarships 
specifically assigned to A. (7) Medal for A. 

Dublin (Trinity College).— (1) A. (3) M. 

Durham. — (1) A. (3) M. (8) It is proposed to arrange for the 
study of M., with special reference to A.E., at Armstrong College, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Edinburgh. — (1) A. (3) M. and S. (6) Scholarship available. 
(8) A prize, open to the four Scottish Universities, is offered by the 
Scottish Meteorological Society for an essay on a meteorological 
subject. 

Glasgow.— (1) A. (2) G.P. (3) M. (5) A. a subject for Final 
B.Sc. (6) Two bursaries and a fellowship for A. 

Leeds.— (1) M. (3) M. 

Liverpool.— (1) A. (2) M. (3) A. (4)A.,S.,M. (6) Scholarship 
available. 

London.— (1) A. and M. (2) T.M. 

Manchester.— (1) M. (2) M. (3) M. (5) M., or any other subject 
of G.P., can be taken for an honours degree, also M. for diploma in 
public health. (6) Two scholarshij:>s and one fellowship available. 
(8) Meteorology is recognised as part of physics. A lectureship has 
been assigned to it, but is not now filled up. Students have taken part 
in investigations of upper atmosphere and atmospheric electricity. 

Oxford.— (1) A. (3) A. and M. (4) A. and M. (5) A. a subject 
for a final honours school ; degrees for research in any of the sub- 
jects. (6) Various endowments available. (7) Medal and prize for an 
essay on a subject of A. or M. 

Wales.— (1) A. (3) M. and 3-, at Cardiff. (8) A small astro- 
nomical observatory at Bangor. 

Canada. 

Kingston. — (1) A. (5) A. a subject for mathematical honours. 
Montreal.— (1) A. (2) M. (3) A. and M. 

Toronto.— (1) A. (3) G. (4) A. at Ottawa. (8) Special courses 
are given to prepare students for posts on Geodetic Survey. 

Australasia. 

Adelaide.— (2) M. and T.M. (5) A. a subject for B.A. and 
B.Sc. 



THE STUDY Of ASTRONOMY, METEOROLOGY, AND GEOPHYSICS. 79 

Melbourne. — (1) A. (2) G. (6) Eesearch scholarships available. 

New Zealand (Ciiristciiurch). — (3) T.M. (5) A. a subject for 
mathematical honours. (7) Research medals available. 

Sydney. — (2) A. and G. (3) and (4) A., G., and M. probably in 
future. 

India. 

Mathematical astronomy is generally a degree subject. At Calcutta 
there is a professor of A., and research scholarships are available for A. 

* 

General. 

In several Universities atmospheric electricity, terrestrial mag- 
netism, geodesy, meteorology, and seismology, or some of these sub- 
jects, are treated incidentally by professors of astronomy, physics, or 
geology ; and it was intimated that additional provision could be made 
for the study of such subjects if there were any demand for it. 



Electroanalysis. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
F. S. Kipping {Chairman), Dr. F. M. Perkin {Secretary), Dr. G. T. 
Beilby, Dr. T. M. Lowry, Professor W. J. Pope, and Dr. 
H. J. S. Sand. 

The work on electroanalysis has been further elaborated during the 
year by the publication of papers on the ' Electro-deposition of Metals, ' 
by Dr. F. Mollwo Perkin and W. E. Hughes, 1 and by Dr. H. J. S. 
Sand on ' Apparatus for the Rapid Electro-analyFical Separation of 
Metals,' - and ' The Electro-determination of Lead as Peroxide.' 3 

Perkin and Hughes have devised and experimented with new 
cathodes for the rapid deposition of metals. One simple, smooth 
cathode is in the form of an elongated thimble, and with this, when 
rapidly rotated, very smooth and even deposits can be obtained ; the total 
active electrode surface is about 16'3 sq. cm. Extended work has shown, 
however, that a platinum gauze cathode surrounding a spiral anode, 
which is rapidly rotated, gives the most satisfactory results. For 
separation of metals by means of graded potentials a funnel-shaped 
vessel with a tap for running off the electrolyte is used. This vessel has 
a side tube fused into it at about the centre to take the capillary of 
the auxiliary electrode. This form of apparatus gave very good results, 
and is very simple in working. 

The experiments referred to a year ago by Dr. Sand with an anode 
made partly of glass and a cathode of metals, other than platinum, have 
been completed by him, and will be published shortly. Satisfactory 
results for copper were obtained with a cathode of silver, and for zinc 
with a cathode of nickel. In the former case the electrolyte deposit may 



i 



Trans. Faraday Society, 1910, vi. 2 Ibid, 1909, v. 159. 3 Ibid., 1910, v. 207. 



80 REPORTS ON THE 3TATE Of SCIENCE. 

be removed from the electrode by a solution of hydrogen peroxide in 
diluted sulphuric acid. 

Experiments on the separation of the four metals — copper, anti- 
mony, tin, and lead — have been continued. In connection with this 
work it has been shown that chlorides exert a retarding influence on the 
deposition of copper. This is due to the formation of derivatives of 
cuprous chloride during electrolysis from which copper is only deposited 
at a high potential. The conditions for the separation of copper from 
antimony have been fully elaborated, and mixtures of the three metals 
—copper, antimony, and tin — corresponding to industrial alloys have 
been successfully analysed. When lead is present in small quantity 
this may be deposited with the tin ; the greater part of the tin may after- 
wards be removed by making the electrode the anode in a solution con- 
taining sodium polysulphides. The lead may then be separated from 
the small quantity of remaining tin by means of nitric acid, and can 
afterwards be deposited electrolytically. 1 



Dynamic Isomerism. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
H. E. Armstrong (Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. 
M. 0. Forster, and Dr. A. Lapworth. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 

Absorption-Spectra of Camphor and its Derivatives. 

The study of a large number of derivatives of camphor 2 has shown 
that a band is normally present at a frequency 1/3500, but penetrating 
only to log. thickness 2 - 6 (about 400 mm. of N/1000 or 40 mm. of 
N/100 solution). This band appears even when the two hydrogen- 
atoms of the adjacent methylene group are displaced, provided that the 
new radicles do not possess any large residual affinity ; but in compounds 

/CBr 2 
such as aa'-dibromocamphor, C 8 H 14 / , and oa'-chloronitro- 

x co 

/CCl.NOj 
camphor, C 8 H 14 <f , the general [absorption is increased by the 

substituent groups, and the band disappears. The development of the 
band can only be attributed to the carbonyl-group, which is therefore 
capable of giving rise to a specific or local absorption : this is only of 
slight intensity, and of such a frequency as not to give rise to visible 
colour, but it may be compared not unreasonably with the blue or green 
colour produced by the analogous chromophore — N = O in compounds 
such as /?r-nitrosobutane. 

1 Preliminary note in Proc. Chem. Hoc, 1909, £5. 228 

2 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1909, C5, 807-823, 1340-1346; 1910, 97, 899-905, 905-921. 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM; 81 

The introduction of a second — C=0 group in compounds such as 

I 

/ C(CH 3 )CO.OCH 3 

methyl methylcamphocarboxylate, C 8 H U / , does not 

x co / 

intensify the band, as the two carbonyls are not copulated owing to 
the fact that they are separated by two single linkages instead of 

one. In camphorquinone C 8 H 14 / , on the other hand, the band 

X C=0 

is brought right into the visible region at 1/2050 and its persist' 
ence is increased from log. thickness 0'3 to 1*6 ; the penetration of the 
band is, however, practically the same as in camphor, log. thickness 
2*6, the decrease in the frequency of the maximum absorption being 
accompanied by no marked increase in its intensity. The decrease of 
frequency gives rise to what Schutze has called a ' deepening ' of 
colour, an effect which he has conveniently described as ' batho- 
chromic,' in contrast with the ' hypsochromic ' action of compounds 
which cause an increase of frequency and a ' lightening ' of the colour. 

yC = CH 2 

In methylene camphor, C 8 H M / , the introduction of the 

x c=o 

second unsaturated group produces an entirely different effect, the 
frequency of the band being unaltered, but its penetration increased 
to log. thickness 1"7. The copulation of the two groups is thus accom- 
panied by an actual increase of specific or local absorption, an effect 
which may be regarded as genuinely ' auxochromic. ' 

A further increase of penetration to log. thickness 0*3 is produced 
by the introduction of a third unsaturated centre as in benzylidene 

yC : CH.C 6 H 5 
camphor, C 8 Hj / , and the derivatives of oxymethylene 

X CO 

/C : CH.OR 
camphor, C 8 H H <f | . The nature of the substituent radicle E 

x CO 
in the enolic compounds, 

/C : CX.OE ,C.CO 

(a)C 8 H u < | and(6)C 8 H I4 < l| , 

X CO X C.OE 

has no marked influence on the penetration, but the frequency of the 
band decreases by about 200 unitB when sodium is substituted for 
hydrogen or methyl, whilst an increase of similar magnitude results 
from the displacement of hydrogen by acetyl ; the bridging of the ethe- 
noid linhage, which is the main difference between the enolic formulae 
(«) and (/>), is accompanied by a decrease of frequency. 



1910. 



Q 



82 Reports on the state op science. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances.— Report of the Committee, con' 
sisting of Dr. E. Divers (Chairman), Professor A. W. Crossley 
(Secretary), Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. 0. Forster, and 
Dr. H. K. Le Sueur. 

Action of ethyl cyanoacetate on 5-cldoro-l : 1-dimethyl- k^-cyclo- 
hexen-3-one.- — The action of ethyl cyanoacetate on chlorodimethyl- 
cyclohexenone 1 might be expected, by analogy with the action of 
ethyl sodiomalonate on the same ketone, 2 to give rise to ethyl 1 : 1* 
dimethyl- A 4 -cyclohexen-3-one-5-cyanoacetate (I). But although the 
reaction product possesses this empirical formula, it has properties 
which are incompatible with those of a substance of this constitution, 
for it behaves as a monobasic acid, forming compounds by elimination 
of water with aniline and monomethylaniline, and giving esters when 
heated with alcohol containing 5 per cent, sulphuric acid. In the latter 
case two isomeric methyl or ethyl derivatives are produced. When 
hydrolysed with acids, both the original condensation product and 
either of its ethyl or methyl derivatives are transformed into trimethyl- 
cyclohexenone (II). 

(CH 3 ),C< C C %- C C °>CH CI) (CH 8 ),C< C c I J| i l C c >CH <"> 

I A 

CN.CH.C0 2 C..H 5 CH 8 

An explanation of the behaviour of the condensation product is afforded 
by adopting Thorpe's formula for ethyl sodiocyanoacetate," when the 
reaction would be formulated in the following manner. The initial 
additive compound (III) would lose the elements of sodium chloride 
forming ethyl 1: l-dimethylcyclohexan-3-onylidene-5-cyanoacetate 
(IV) and by tautomeric change, ethyl 3-hydroxy-l : 1-dimethyl- A 3 - 
cyclohexenylidene-5-cyanoacetate (V). 

(CH s ) g c<°f^™>cir s (C h 3 ),c< c c h h2 - c c °>ch 2 (ch 3 ). 2 c< c c h h ^° c h >ch 

"I II 'II 

CN.C:C(0Na).0C 2 H 5 CN.C.COAHj CN.C.CO.,C 2 H 5 

(III) (IV) (V) 

The last formula accounts for all the observed properties of the sub- 
stance, including its ability to form two ethyl derivatives which can be 
represented as cis and trans modifications. When either of these ethyl 
derivatives is hydrolysed with potassium hydroxide in ethyl alcoholic 
solution, 3-ethoxy-l : 1-dimethyl- A 3 -cyclohexenylidene-5-cyanoacetic 
acid (VI) is produced, which on heating loses the elements of carbon 

1 Crossley and Gilling. J.C.S., 1910, 97, 518. 

2 Ibid., J.C.S., 1909, 95, 19, 8 J.C.S., 1900, 77, 925. 



THE STUDY OP HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 83 

dioxide with formation of 3-ethoxy-l : 1-dimethyl- A 3 -cyclohexeny- 
lidene-5-acetonitrile (VII). 

(CH 3 ),.C/^^ C ^ H ^CII (CH 3 ).,CX CH ^ I C ^ II ^CH 

~~~~ ' II "" II " 

CN.C.COOH CN.CH 

(VI) (VII) 

Although somewhat stable towards alkali this nitrile is readily hydro- 
lysed by acids with formation of 1:1: 5-trimethyl- A 4 -cyclohexen-3- 
one (II). When chlorodimethylcyclohexenone is condensed (a) with 
the sodium derivative of ethyl methylcyanoacetate, the product is 
hydroxydimethylcyclohexenylidenepropionitrile 

(CH 3 ) 2 C< C gg^° H >CH 

II 
CH 3 .C.CN 

the carbethoxy group being eliminated as ethyl carbonate ; (b) with 
ethyl sodioacetoacetate, the product is the same as with ethyl 
malonate, namely, ethyl dimethylcyclohexenoneacetate, ethyl acetate 
appearing as a by-product. The elimination in these reactions of ethyl 
carbonate and ethyl acetate respectively is probably governed by 
spatial considerations. 

3: 5-Dichloro-o-xylcnc and 3: 5-dichlorophthalic acid. 1 — The 
main product arising from the action of phosphorus pentachloride on 
dimethyldihydroresorcin (I) is 3 : 5-dichloro-l : 1-dimethylcyelohexa- 
diene (II), but a by-product is also formed which was thought to be 
3 : 5-dichloro-o-xylene (III). 

(CH 3 ) 2 < CH2 2 C(OH) >CH (CH 3 >,< CH ~ CC1 >CH 

(i) (i') 

(CH 3 ).,^ CH ^ CC) ^>CH 
(III) 

This structure was assigned to the latter substance because there did 
not appear to be any reason to presume that, in the conversion of the 
hydroaromatic into the aromatic dichloro-derivative, the chlorine atoms 
would alter their positions. During the reaction, however, a methyl 
group must have wandered, and this was shown to have migrated to 
the ortho-position, because on oxidation an acid (3 : 5-dichlorophthalic 
acid) was obtained which readily gave an anhydride, and also the 
fluorescein reaction. 

In a recent number of the ' Berichte ' - Villiger described the 
preparation of three of the four possible dichloro-o-phthalic acida 
(CI: CI, 3 : 6, 3 : 4, 4 : 5) by the direct chlorination of phthalic anhy- 
dride. Villiger points out (ibid., p. 3532) that a fourth isomeride was 

1 Crossley and Wren, J.C.S., 1910, 97, 9S. 2 Ben> 2909, 42, 3529 

g2 



84 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



described by Crossley and Le Sueur in 1902, J and regards the acid as 
3 : 5-dichloro-o-phthalic acid, although ' its constitution has never 
been controlled.' 

3 : 5-dichloro-o-xylene has now been prepared from 3 : 5-dinitro-o- 
xylene by means of the diazo reaction, and oxidised to 3 : 5-dichloro- 
phthalic acid. A detailed comparison of the properties of these 
synthetic products with those obtained as above mentioned from 
dimethyldihydroresorcin shows them to be identical, as seen from the 
following tabulated statement: — 



Dichloroxylene 



Dichlorodinitrox3'lene 
Dichlorophthalic acid . 



Dicblorophthalic anhydride 
Dichloropbthalanil 



From dimethyldihydro- 
resorcin. 

Yellow, refractive liquid ; 
slight aromatic odour. 
B.p. 226°. m.p. 3-4°. 

M.p. 175-176°. 

M.p. 164° (previous soft- 
ening) with evolution 
of gas. 

M.p. 89°. 

M.p. 150-150°5. 



From 3 : 5-dinilro- 

c-xylerje. 

Yellow, refractive liquid ; 

slight aromatic odour. 

B.p. 226°, m.p. 5-7°. 

M.p. 176°. 

M.p. 164° (previous soft- 
ening) with evolution 
of gas. 
M.p. 89°. 
M.p. 150°. 



Hydro-aromatic ketones. 2 — In continuation of the work previously 
described 3 1 : 1 : 2-trimethylcyclohexan-3-one lias been prepared from 
trimethyldihydroresorcin as a starting point, the various steps involved 
being indicated by the following formulae: — 




CH.C1I, H 2 C 



HO.C^s^ 
CH 



H.C 



CO 



C(CH,\ 



H,0 



CH.CH, 



CO 



CH, 




H 2 C \ ./COOH 



(I) 



1-1 : 2-trimethyleyclohexan-3-one is a colourless liquid, boiling at 
190°/750 mm., and when oxidised with potassium permanganate yields 
8 -acetyl- c-meihylhexoic acid (I), which fact definitely establishes its 
constitution. The investigation of this ketone is being continued, 
partly on account of the similarity in (he groupings winch it contiins 
with those of the camphor molecule. 



1 Trans., 81, 1533. a Unpublished work, 

8 Crossley and Reno'.if, J.C.S.. 1907, 91, C3. 



TRANSFORMATION OP AROMATIC N1TROAMINES, ETC. 



85 



The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Substances, 
and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping (Chairman), 
Professor K. J. P. Orton (Secretary), Dr. S. Ruhemann, Dr. A. 
Lapworth, and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 

I. — The Chlorination of Anilides and the Transformation of Acylchloro- 

aminobenzenes. 
(With W. J. Jones, B.Sc.) 

In summarising his views on substitution in aromatic compounds, 
Armstrong l expressed the belief that in the formation of derivatives 
of anilines and phenols, the reagent united directly with the nitrogen 
or oxygen,' the residual valency of these atoms coming into play. In 
the case of anilines and anilides the definite compounds, which can 
often be isolated, nitroamines, chloroamines, &c, were held by 
Armstrong to be ' a necessary stage in the formation ' of the substituted 
aniline or anilide, the process of conversion being ' regarded as one 
of isomeric change.' He suggested further that, as part of the 
mechanism of the change, ' the centric benzene nucleus assumed 
momentarily the highly unstable ethenoid form.' 

Later, Armstrong 2 discovered that the chloroaminobenzenes were 
only converted into the isomeric chloroanilides in the presence of 
hydrochloric acid. Blanksma 3 showed that under the conditions under 
which he worked the reaction was of the first order, and the speed 
proportional to the square of the concentration of the hydrogen 
chloride. It had been suggested by Orton 4 that all such isomeric 
changes of the N-substituted derivatives under the influence of an acid 
catalyst were due to the formation of a complex or salt (I) in which 
the nitrogen was quinquevalent. This compound was capable of 
undergoing an intra-molecular rearrangement, in which the benzene 



01, + ArNHAc 



CI CI 

\/ 

AcNH 

I 
/\ 
I I 

V 



CI 

I 
AcNH 

II 



ci 



HCl + Ar.NClAc 



CI 

I 
AcNH 

II 

/\ 

lull 

A 
ci 



AcNH 

I 

M C1 

AcNH 

I 

A 



Cl 



+ HC1 



HCl 



1 Reports, 1899. 

8 Becueil des Trav. Chim., 1903, 22, 290. 



2 Trans. Chem. Soc., 1900, 77, 1051. 
* Proc. Boy. Soc., 1902, 71, 15C 



86 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

nucleus shared, assuming an o- or p-quinonoid form (II). The sub- 
stituting group wandered in this rearrangement into the o- or p- 
position. Thus the rigid adherence of anilines and anilides to the 
ortho-para law was accounted for. 

Subsequently Acree l adopted the formation of the complex as the 
cause of the arrangement of chloroamines, and showed how, on this 
assumption, the speed of the change is proportional to the square of 
the concentration of hydrochloric acid, for the concentration of the 
reactive complex is proportional to the square of the concentration of 
the hydrogen chloride if it be ionised, thus : — 

Ar.NHAcCl 2 ^ Ar.NClAc + H - + CI'. 

The discovery (by Orton and Jones 2 ) that an equilibrium existed 
between chloroamine, hydrogen chloride, anilide, and chlorine, thus: 
K= [chloroamine] [HC1] / [anilide] [CI*] ; or, when the medium is 
65 per cent, acetic acid, or more dilute 

K 1 = [chloroamine] [HC1] 2 / [anilide] [Cl 2 ], 

showed that other factors had to be taken into account. This 
equilibrium may be represented thus: — 

Ar.NHAc + Cl 2 ^ complex ^> Ar.NClAc + HC1, 

a relation which has been stated by Acree as a possibility. The facts 
of the case, however, do not appear to require in any way the existence 
of such an intermediary. 

The discovery of the formation of free chlorine and anilide when 
hydrogen chloride reacts with chloroamine has led us to a new in- 
vestigation of the transformation of chloroamines, and of the process 
of halogenation of anilides. 

The Caialyst. — A great difficulty in the way of the ' complex 
hypothesis ' is the fact that hydrochloric acid alone has the power of 
bringing about the isomeric change of the chloroamine. Acree believed 
that other acids, and even chlorine and bromine, were similarly, but 
less powerfully, effective. But although we have examined this point 
very closely we have not been able to confirm his view. 

In dilute acetic acid, when no hydrochloric acid has been added, the 
change of the chloroamine occurs at first slowly, but gathering speed. 
Hydrogen chloride can always be detected. Thus in 65 per cent, 
acetic acid after half the chloroamine (initial concentration 0'025 gram- 
molecule per litre) has disappeared tV of the chlorine initially present 
in the chloroamine is found as hydrogen chloride. 

The addition of sulphuric acid (nitric, perchloric, or hydrofluoric 
acid) somewhat increases the rate of change, some 10 per cent, of 
the chlorine appearing as hydrogen chloride during the first half of the 
reaction. 

The action of halogens was tested in carbon tetrachloride solution. 
(Obviously petroleum, which was used by Acree, is unsuitable for 
such experiments.) "With acetanilide, chlorine reacts instantaneously 

1 Amer. Chem. Journ., 1907, 38, 258. 

2 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1909, 95, 14; Reports, 1909. 



TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES, ETC. 87 

in this solvent, the insoluble p-chloro-derivative separating imme- 
diately. With the chloroamine there is no immediate reaction, then 
after an interval, extending occasionally to days, a change begins, 
which finally attains considerable speed (Diagram I. fig. 2); crystals 
of p-chloroacetanilide appear as soon as saturation for this substance 
is reached. If the quantity of chlorine suffices, further chlorination 
of this compound, and still more, of the soluble o-chloro-derivative 
which is produced simultaneously, follows. 

In both reactions the halogen attacks either a minute quantity of 
anilide present with the chloroamine, or, more probably, a trace of 
some impurity, yielding hydrogen chloride or bromide, which then 
reacts with the chloroamine. In carbon tetrachloride it has been 
shown (by the aspiration-method) in the case of anilides which do 
not chlorinate, that the reaction, Ar.NClAc+HCl = Ar.NHAc + Cl 2 , is 
quantitative. 

In the case of bromine the reactions are (after the formation of a 
trace of hydrogen bromide) : - — 

Ar.NClAc + HBr = Ar.NHAc + BrCl = BrAr.NHAc + HC1 ; 
Ar.NClAc + HC1 = Ar.NHAc + Cl 2 ; Cl„ + Br., = 2BrCl. 

Bromine chloride has been shown to be stable in carbon tetrachloride 
and other anhydrous solutions, and to be a most powerful brominating 
agent of anilides. The reactions proceed until the bromide is exhausted, 
when chlorination begins. 

These experiments show further that chloroamines cannot be directly 
chlorinated or brominated. 

Comparison of the Direct Action of Chlorine on Anilides ivith the Conversion 
of Chloroamines in the Presence of Hydrochloric Acid. 

1. In glacial acetic acid the two processes, chlorine on anilide 
and hydrochloric acid on chloroamine, give an identical rate of 
chlorination. It is a reaction of the second order, for acetanilide 
k n = 40, and for p-chloroacetanilide k u = - 21. In glacial acetic acid 
the equilibrium, Ar.NHAc + Cl 2 £ Ar.NClAc+HCl, gives an inappre- 
ciable amount of chloroamine and hydrochloric acid. 

The effect of small quantities of water is to accelerate the chlorina- 
tion in a direct ratio. But after the addition of 4 to 5 per cent, the water 
begins to affect the equilibrium and favours the production of chloro- 
amine and hydrochloric acid. 

The speed of chlorination when the system is made up of chloro- 
amine and hydrochloric acid still continues to increase, but as the 
curve I. shows, only to a composition of the medium 92 per cent, 
acetic acid, when the speed begins to decrease. Curves II. and III. 
show respectively the falling-off in two systems in the amount of 
chlorine and anilide with dilution of the acetic acid. 

2. In dilute acetic acids the rate of formation of C-chloro- 
derivatives is very different in the two cases. On bringing together' 
anilide and chlorine a very rapid formation of both C-chloro- and 
N-chloro-derivative occurs, a very small proportion of the chlorine 
(measured by aspiration) remaining free in the system. The relative 
proportions of the two compounds, which vary with the anilide and' 
the composition of the medium, is shown in Table I. 



88 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENQE, 



DIAGRAM I.— Fig. !. 

I. = Change in quarter-period of conversion of acetylchloroarmno-p-chlorobenzene 
with concentration of the acetic acid medium. 
II. = Cl 2 +^-chloroacetanilide. 
III. = Cl 2 + 2 : 4-dichloroacetanilide. 



500 



100 



a 

a 

a 

a> 

a 

a 

o 



J3 
O 



a 

o 

| 

> 
o 
o 
U 



12 
o 



0) 

a, 



3 



400 



300 



200 



& 100 




50 55 60 65 70 75 80 65 90 95 100 
Medium, expressed as percentage of acetic acid by volume 



a 



a> 



a 



-a 



a 

o 



TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES, ETC. 



89 



DIAGRAM I.— Fig. 2. 

IV. = Cl 2 + cLloroamine. 

V. = Br, + cliloroamine. 



001C0 



a 
B 

§ 00 200 

u 

o 

i— * 

o 

+ 
pq 



o 

«h 0300 
o 

a 



a, 



o 

a 



o 



0-0500 






















































1 












9 














A ' 












iy 


1 






















J—Q 




„-<*'' 


.* 








>..--©-" 




V 











/00 200 

Time in n inutes 



J00 



90 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE 



Table I. 

Eatio of-—— — _ from Interaction of Chlorine and Anilide. Ts 15°. 

Cnloroanuide 



Medium. 

Percentage Acetic Acid 

(by Volume) 


Acetanilide 


^j-Cliloroacetanilide 



30 
60 
65 


007/1 
0082/1 
0-08/1 
083/1 


0-93/1 
1-25/1 
1-55/1 



The N-chloro-derivative slowly disappears and is replaced by the 
chlorinated anilide. 

The conversion of the chloroamine in the presence of hydrochloric 
acid, on the other hand, is a slow, regular, apparently monomolecular 
reaction, the speed of which is, in dilute (below 50 per cent.) acetic 
acid, proportional to the square of the concentration of the hydrochloric 
acid. Table II. shows, however, that this relation only holds within 
narrow limits. 



Table II. 



Medium 


Acetylchloroaminobenzene 
Cone. 0025 


Acetylchloroamino-jD-chlorobenzene 
Cone. 0-025 


Dilute Acetic 
Acid 


Cone. HC1 


h 


n 


Cone. HC1 


A'i 


n 


50 per cent. 
65 per cent 
75 per cent. 


f 0-025 
1 05 
/ 0025 
1 005 
/ 0025 
1 005 


000039 1 , „, 

00015 J 1Ji 

00026 1 

0078 j l w 

0126 \\ 

0-43 J! X ' U 


/ 0025 
1 0050 
/ 0025 
\ 05 

0-075 


000053 
000135 
00023 1 
00062 J 

00093 


1-36 
1-33 

143 
1-2.7 



Under ' n ' is given the values from the equation 

HC1" 






whence 



n = log 



V. 



"HC1"'' 



loj 



HC1 
HC1'' 



Further, the apparently monomolecular character of the reaction is not 
maintained througbout the change. The product, the chlorinated 
anilide, even when incapable of further chlorination, exerts a disturbing 
influence causing a decrease of the rate. This is well shown in the 
case of p-chloroacetylchloroaminobenzene, which yields 2 : 4-dichloro- 
acetanilide. 



TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NlTROAMlNES, ETC. 



91 



Experiment A. — p-chloroacetylchloroaminobenzene = - 025 gm. mol. 
per litre. HCl = 0-025 gm. mol. Medium, 65 per cent, acetic acid. 



Table III. 



Time (in Minutes) , . 


128 


213 


300 


407 


590 


758 


954 


Percentage of chloroamine 

converted 
hi . . 


26 2 

0-0027 


391 
00023 


48'5 
0-0017 


572 
0017 


G7-1 
001G 


73-2 78-2 
00012 0001 



Experiment B. — As in experiment A, but in addition 1 gm. mol. 
proportion of 2 : 4-dichloroaeetanilide. 



Table IV. 



Time (in Minutes) 


18 


100 


801 


428 


687 


826 


1096 


Percentage of chloro- 
amine converted 
h . . . . 


1-72 

0007 


7-8 
00007 


212 
0-00076 


321 

000078 


411 
0-00076 


45-4 
00072 


54 8 
000072 



In order to understand more fully the influence of the anilide which 
is produced on the conversion of the chloroamine, the effect of the 
presence of a second anilide on the equilibrium between chlorine and 
anilide must be considered. 

Equilibrium between Chlorine and Anilide in Systems containing more than 

one Anilide. 

If one gram molecular proportion of an anilide, B, is added to a 
system prepared from one molecular proportion of chloroamine of 
anilide A, and one molecular proportion of hydrochloric acid, a rapid 
readjustment occurs to a final equilibrium which is in accord with the 
two equations : — 

[Chloroamine A] [HC1] 2 / [Anilide A] [Cl 2 ] = K A . 

[Chloroamine B] [HCl] 2 /[Anilide B] [C'„] = K D . 

Since [C1J and [HC1] - are identical in the two equations, we have: — 

Chloroamine A Chloroamine B _ ^ ,' K 



Anilide A 



Anilide B 



In 65 per cent, acetic acid, the [CLJ is generally negligible, and hence 
the relative amounts of each anilide and chloroamine can be easily 
calculated. When the [C1J has an appreciable value, the calculations 
of the composition of the system involves the solution of a quintic 
equation. 

In 90 per cent, acetic acid and above the equilibrium equation 
contains the first instead of the second power of the concentration of 
the hydrochloric acid, and the calculation of the composition is by 
means of a cubic equation which has been solved. Thus in a system 
made up from molecular proportions (0-025 gm. mol. per litre) of 
s-tribromoacetanilide, hydrochloric acid and acetylchloroamino-p-nitro- 
benzene (or, from p-nitroacetanilide, hydrochloric acid and acetyl- 



92 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

chloroamino-s-tribromobenzene), 59 per cent, of the chlorine originally 
as chloroainine was found to be free, whilst 60 per cent, was the 
amount calculated. For comparison in the system prepared from 
s-tribromoacetanilide and chlorine, the free chlorine is 57 per cent., 
whilst in that prepared from p-nitroacetanilide and chlorine, the free 
chlorine is 89 per cent. 

In the case of p-chloroacetanilide and 2 : 4-dichloroacetanilide quoted 
above, where the value of K (in 65 per cent, acetic acid) for the former 
is 8'1 and for the latter 4'47, it is calculated that in the system when half 
the chloroainine has been converted into 2 : 4-dichloroacetanilide, the 
concentrates of the anilides and chloroamines are as follows: — 

OCl.C e H 4 .NClAc] = [2 : 4-Cl.,.C 6 tI 3 .NHAc] = 0C072, 
[>Cl.C 6 EI 4 .NHAc] = [2 : 4-Cl.,C H 3 .NClAc]= 0053; 

that is the concentration of the chloroainine, which is changing, is 
0-0072 instead of 0-025/2 = 0-0125. 

Chlorination of an Anilide by the Chloroamine of another Anilide. 

The chloroamine of such an anilide as 2 : 4-dichloroacetanilide is in 
the presence of hydrochloric acid a chlorinating agent for acetanilide. 
Thus in 65 per cent, acetic acid rapid chlorination follows the addition 
of a gram molecular proportion of acetanilide to gram molecular pro- 
portions of the chloroamine and hydrochloric acid (where 6 per cent, of 
the chlorine is free). The chlorination is far more speedy, ^=0*42, 
than in the transformation of acetylchloroaminobenzene, fc 1 = 0'0026. 

In 50 per cent, acetic acid, where a far smaller percentage of 
chlorine is free, k' = 0-00039 for the transformation of the chloroamine, 
and O'Ol for the action of the chloroamine on the anilide. 

Measurement of the speed of the Opposing Reactions in the Equilibrium : 
A n [Ar.NHAc] [Cl 2 ] = k m [Ar.NClAc] [HClf. 

Since the action of chlorine on acetanilide is very rapid the chlorina- 
tion of acetanilide by a chloroamine and hydrochloric acid gives a means 
of determining the value of the co-efficient fc m and since Jc u /k in is 
known also the value of Jc a . When the concentration of acetanilide 
is so large that the velocity of the chlorination is not increased by 
further rise in the concentration of the acetanilide, it is obvious that 
the speed of the total change is controlled by that of the interaction of 
the chloroamine and hydrochloric acid, the slowest step in the series. 
That is the speed of the chlorination = Z: m [chloroamine] . [HC1] 2 . The 
chloroamine alone varies in concentration, hence the velocity of the 
reaction is expressed by an equation of the first order. For two deter- 
minations of the amount of chloroamine, p and q, at times / and t , we 
have therefore: — 



*„,[HC1P= -L- .loge^ = A; 



or 



* nl = A/[HCip. 

The values of k n and h m are shown for a number of anilides in the 
following table (V.). 



TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES, ETC. 



93 



TABLE V. 





Medium. 








Anilide 


Dilute Acetic 
Acid 


km 


K 


7c n 


^>-nitroacetanilide . 


50 per cent. 


109 







jp-chloroacetanilide . 


50 per cent. 


46 


— 


— 


^-chloroacetanilide 


65 per cent. 


22 


81 


178-2 


2 : 4-dichloroacetanilide 


50 per cent. 


15 5 


[698?] 


[1,081 ?] 


2 : 4-dichloroacetanilide 


65 per cent 


91 


4 47 


406 8 



The Interaction of Acetanilide with Acetylchloroamino-pchlorobenzene and 

Hydrochloric Acid. 

The effect of the presence of an anilide on the conversion 
of the corresponding chloroamine — for example, of acetanilide on 
the conversion of acetylchloroaminobenzene, or of p-chloroace- 
tanilide on that of the acetylclvloroamino-p-chlorobenzene — is small. 
In the first instance, owing to the equilibrium, the concentration of 
the chloroamine is increased and that of free chlorine reduced. But 
in 50 per cent., or even in 65 per cent., acetic acid, the proportion of 
free chlorine and anilide is so small that relatively little alteration of 
concentration of the chloroamine is brought about, but the alteration 
in the chlorine is considerable. Thus, taking as an example the system 
made up from p-chloroacetanilide and chlorine, the proportion of free 
chlorine is 0'4 and 5'3 per cent, in 50 and 65 per cent, acetic acid 
respectively, but on adding one molecular proportion of the anilide 
this drops to about 0"2 per cent, in the latter medium. The velocity 
of chlorination increases in the ratio 1"19/1 in 50 per cent., and in the 
ratio T22/1 in 65 per cent. With acetanilide, where the proportion 
of free chlorine is somewhat less, the ratio of the velocities is 1*13/1. 

When acetanilide and the chloroamine of p-chloroacetanilide inter- 
act in the presence of hydrochloric acid the result is very remarkable 
and instructive. The acetanilide is alone chlorinated ; the amount of 
2 : 4-dichloroacetanilide is insufficient to admit of detection. On com- 
paring the velocities the remarkable character of the reaction is made 
more clear. In 50 and 65 per cent, acetic acid the reactions are of 
the first order. (Diagram II., figs. 3 and 4.) 

Table VI. 



hi in 50 A - i in f 5 
per cent. ! per cent. 



jp-C1.C 6 H,.NC1Ac- 

C 6 H 5 .NClAc + HC 
^.Cl.C 6 H v NC1Ac- 



HCl-> 2 : 4-Cl 2 .C 6 H 3 .NHAc . 
o- and ^-C].C S H 4 NHAc . 

o-and^.ClC 6 H 4 NHAc 



HC1 + C 6 H 5 .NHAc 



00053 , 0023 
0-00039 | 0-0026 
0016 i 00092 



In both media the speed of chlorination of acetanilide by the 
chloroamine of p-chloroacetanilide is far more rapid than the con- 
version of the chloroamine of acetanilide into the isomeride. In 50 per 
cent, acetic acid the conversion of acetylchloroamino-p-chlorobenzene 
is faster than that of acetylchloroaminobenzene. Although the experi- 
ments on the "changes occurring when an anilide is added to a mixture 



91 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



DIAGRAM II.— Fig. 3. 

— dxjdt curves in 50 per cent, acetic acid. 

I. = C 6 H 5 .NClAc + HC1. II. =^-C1C 6 H,.NC1Ac + IIC1. 
III. = C 6 H 5 NHAc +2>-C1C 6 H,.NC1Ac + HC1. 



005 



o 

a, 



a 
o 

o 



I 0010 

a 
2 

a 

• rH 

4> 

c 

..-I 

I 

§ 0015 

.« 
a 



§ 
1 

I 

§ 0020 

o 



0025 





• 




































% 
















































SLp 














55 




















3^ 
I 


^--®^ 










jst 


JSr 










wy^^"^ 

















6 6 

Time in hours. 



10 



12 



14 



TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES, ETC. 



% 



DIAGRAM II.— Fig. 4. 

— dxjdt curves in 65 per cent, acetic acid. 

IV. =p-ClC G H 4 .NClAc + HC1. V. = C 6 H 5 .NClAc + HC1 
VI. =p-UlC B H 4 .NClAc + C 6 H 5 .NHAc + HCI. 



0-005 



ft 



a 

o 

a 

f 

a 

fib 

a 
•i-t 

4) 

• i-l 

a 

ci 
o 



o 



c 
o 



o 

a 
o 



0010 



0-015 



0020 



.0025 




6 d 

Time in hours. 



90 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

of the chloroamine of another anilide and hydrochloric acid, show that 
in this case the chloroamine of acetanilide may be formed, yet the 
relation of the velocities of the C-chlorination in the various systems 
make it impossible for the chlorination of the acetanilide to take place 
by way of the chloroamine. If that were the route, the process could 
not be faster than when the starting-point was the chloroamine of 
acetanilide. Further, when on the other hand the chloroamine of 
acetanilide and hydrochloric acid interact with p-chloroacetanilide in 
50 per cent, acetic acid, a slow chlorination occurs, and, in spite of 
the difficulty of isolating small quantities of 2 : 4-dichloroacetanilide 
from such a mixture, its presence was undoubtedly demonstrated by 
the isolation of the pure material; that is, some chlorination of 
p-chloroacetanilide took place. 

Mechanism of Chlorination {and Brominalion) and of the Conversion of 

Chloroamines. 

The experiments recorded in the foregoing leave no doubt that the 
chloroamines cannot be regarded as even occasional intermediaries, 
much less necessary intermediaries in chlorination. They would 
rather appear to be by-products. 1 

The residual valency of the nitrogen atom was urged by Armstrong 
as the prime factor in bringing about the initial union of the substi- 
tuting agent and the anilide. Such a substance would be, in chlorina- 
tion, the compound, Ar.NHAcCL, identical with the complex formed 
from chloroamine and hydrochloric acid, already referred to. 

If the existence of this reactive complex be assumed, our experi- 
ments enable one to deduce a number of its properties. 

(i) The action of chlorine on acetanilide and p-chloroacetanilide in 
various dilutions of acetic acid, show that the rate of formation and 
of change of the complex into the substituted anilide must increase 
rapidly with dilution of the acetic acid. 

(ii) The concentration of the complex (in any case minute) must 
rapidly decrease with dilution of the acetic acid medium, in a system 
which has attained equilibrium, since the velocity of C-chlorination in 
a system prepared from chloroamine and hydrochloric acid decreases 
with the dilution. 

(iii) Inasmuch as the rate of C-chlorination in diluted acetic acid 
is so markedly faster when chlorine and anilide are allowed to interact 
than when the system is prepared from chloroamine and hydrochloric 
acid, the rate of change of the complex into a C-chloro-derivative must 
be greater than into the N-chloro-derivative : — 

J^U Ar.NClAc + HC1. 
Ar.NHAcC)., " 

" "^-* ClAr.NHAc + HC1. 

1 They Can Only be regarded as intermediaries when hypochlorous acid acts on 
an anilide, for then the chloroamine only and no C-chloro-derivative is formed. 
Introduction of hydrogen chloride is required, however, for the conversion of the 
chloroamine into the C-chloro-compound. 



TRANSFORM At ION OP AROMATIC ttlTROAMINES, ETC. D? 

On the other hand, in acetic acid of high concentration, 90 to 100 
per cent., the rate of change of the complex into chlorine and anilidc 
must be much faster than into chlorinated anilide : — 



Ar.NHAcC] 2 



^t* ClAr.NHAc + HCl 

7^-* CL+Ar.NHAcJ 
fast 



for the rate of C-chlorination is the same whether the system is made 
up from chloroamine and hydrogen chloride or from chlorine and 
anilide. 

(iv) The complex formed from acetanilide may be compared with 
that formed from p-chloroacetanilide. Since the speed of chlorination 
of acetanilide is very much greater (200 times in glacial acetic acid) 
than that of p-chloroacetanilide, the rate of formation of the complex 
from acetanilide and of its transformation are the more rapid. Never- 
theless in dilute acetic acid, 50 per cent., the rats of conversion of 
acetylchloroaminobenzene (fci=0'00039) is slower than that of acetyl- 
chloroamino-p-chlorobenzene (fc l = 0'00053); hence it must be assumed 
that the complex is produced at a slower rate from hydrogen chloride 
and acetylchloroaminobenzene, or, what would have the same effect, 
its concentration is very much smaller than in the case of p-chloro- 
acetanilide. Moreover, the contrast is emphasised by the fact that the 
speed of chlorination of acetanilide by the chloroamine of p-chloro- 
acetanilide is relatively high. Here it must be assumed that the very 
fast formation (and rearrangement) of the compound of acetanilide 
and chlorine, the latter being set free by the reactions 



J^U CL.CJI3 NHAc + HC1 



2>-Cl.C (j H 1 .NClAc + HCl -> Cl.CJ^NHAcC)., 

~^-* Cl.C,H 4 .NHAc + CI , 

keep the concentration of the compound, Cl.C 6 H 4 .NHAcCL, at vanish- 
ing point and thus prevent the formation of 2 :4-dichloroacetanilide. 

Alternative Hypothesis. Direct Action of Halogen on Anilide 
or on a Dynamic Isomeride. 

It may well be asked whether the facts of chlorination and the 
transformation of the chloroamines require for their interpretation the 
assumption of the existence of a complex with many-sided characters 
and capable of undergoing an intramolecular rearrangement in which 
the wandering group is a chlorine atom. 

The specific part played by the hydrogen chloride in the transforma- 
tion of the chloroamine, and the fact that this reagent causes the 
production of chlorine and anilide, and the results of numerous experi- 
ments, which may be summarised in the statement — whenever chlorine 
and anilide are present at maximum concentration the speed of chlorina- 
tion is highest — are more, or at least as, simply accounted for by direct 
interaction of chlorine and anilide. 

An example may be found in the relation between the rate of con- 
version of the chloroamine and the concentration of the hydrogen 

1910. h 



98 Reports on the state oe science. 

chloride. Blanksma showed for acetylchloroaminobenzene that the 
reaction was of the first order, and the velocity proportional to the 
square of the concentration of the hydrogen chloride. Assuming the 
conversion to be due to the setting free of chlorine and anilide followed 
by direct chlorination, then 

<7[chloroanilide] Jdt = /.• n [anilide][ClJ. 

But 

K[anilide][Cl 2 ] = [chloroamineftHCl] 1 ; 
hence 

^[chloroanilide] I it = Z-n[chloroamine][HClp/K 

[chloroamine] equals approximately the chloroamine originally present, 
when the amount of anilide and chlorine in the system in equilibrium 
is very small, as in the case in media below 50 per cent, acetic acid. 
[HC1] is constant. Hence 

<?[chloroanilide] / dt = A'n.Const.fchloroamine] /K = Zf'[chloroamine], 

a reaction of the first order. 

But it still remains to suggest causes for the extraordinary 
reactivity of anilides towards substituting agents and their rigid 
adherence to the ortho-para law. The hypothesis may be put forward 
that the constitution of anilines and anilides, similar to but in a less 
degree than p-nitrosophenol, permits of the passage into a dynamic 
isomeride of quinonoid structure, which is accompanied by the wander- 
ing of hydrogen of the imino group to the o- or p-position. It is this 
isomeride which is reactive. The almost exclusive occurrence of 
o- and p-quinonoid compounds accounts for the position taken up by 
the substituting group. Just as with the hypothetical intermediary 
complex, a change of structure of the benzene nucleus is assumed; 
but here the mobile hydrogen atom and not chlorine migrates. 

Further, this suggestion brings out the close analogy of the anilines 
and anilides with the phenols, where there is little evidence for the 
formation of compounds of the substituting agent with the oxygen, and 
much other evidence for the occurrence of a quinonoid structure. 

This suggestion, on the other hand, relegates to the background 
the attractive view of the part played by the latent valency of the 
tervalent nitrogen, which permits of a ready means of primary union 
between the substituting agent and the anilide. 

Fliirscheim 1 has attempted to account for the laws of substitution 
in aromatic compounds by reference to latent or rather partial valencies 
of certain of the carbon atoms in a monosubstituted derivative of 
benzene; with certain substituents the attractions on the hydrogen 
atoms in the o- and p-positions, and with others in the m -position, are 
loosened, and hence more readily resubstituted. It is obvious that this 
view is independent of intermediate compounds, and would harmonise 
generally with the facts of chlorination as recorded in the foregoing. 

Recently Lowry 2 has discussed this subject, and has suggested 

1 Journ. Prakt. Chem., 1905, [2], 71, 497; ibid., 1907, [2], 76, 165* 
8 Science Progress, 1909, 3, 616; 4, 213. 



TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES, ETC. 99 

various ways in which the facts may be accounted for. He points 
out that the migrating group is always present in the system, whenever 
isomeric change is taking place. 

II. — Bromination of Anilides and the Conversion of Bromoamincs. 
(With W. J. Jones, B.Sc.) 

The interaction between bromoamines and hydrobromic acid only 
differs in degree from that between chloroamines and. hydrochloric 
acid. Tintomeiric measurements have shown that in acetic acid of 
all dilutions the reaction is quantitatively 

Ar.NBrAc + IIBr = Ar.NHAc + Br 2 . 

The direct bromination of the anilide is therefore always identical 
with the conversion of a bromoamine under the influence of hydro- 
bromic acid. 

The bromination which results when a chloroamine is treated with 
hydrogen bromide (or a bromoamine with hydrogen chloride) is a far 
more rapid process. In both these cases bromine chloride is formed 
and is the brominating agent. 

Bromination, ^however, differs in one respect very markedly from 
chlorination in that hydrobromic acid and bromide exert a powerful 
retarding influence. Thus in the presence of four molecular pro- 
portions of hydrobromic acid, bromine does not act on acetanilide in 
glacial acetic acid at 16°. Hydrochloric acid, even when present at 
8 to 10 times the concentration of the chlorine, has a scarcely percep- 
tible effect. 

The bromide exerts its maximum effect in glacial acetic acid. 
Addition of water reduces the effect, and as Fries x has shown, dilute 
acetic acid is the best medium for bromination of anilides. Thus in 
one of our experiments, in 75 per cent, acetic acid, using the molecular 
ratio, 8HBr:Br 2 :C G H..NHAc, three-quarters of the acetanilide was 
brominated in twenty minutes. p-Chloroacetanilide in glacial acetic 
acid is brominated too slowly for easy measurement; in 50 per cent. 
acetic acid, ft u = 0"36, and in water = 12. 

The cause of this influence lies in the union of the bromine with 
bromidion forming Br' 3 . We have shown by the method of aspiration 
that in glacial acetic acid, when bromine and hydrobromic acid are 
in molecular proportions, 75 per cent, of the bromine is combined witli 
bromidion, but as the acetic acid is diluted the percentage of free 
bromine rapidly increases. In water we obtained by our method for 
the equilibrium, K= [Br,] [Br'J / [Br' 3 ] , values similar to those found 
by Jakowkm 2 (by measurement of the distribution ratio between water 
and carbon tetrachloride); our value for K 15 ° is 62, and Jakowkin's 
K"° = 0-63. 

. l Antiakn, 1900, 346, 128. . 2 Zrit. Plvjs. CJum., 1SP0, 20, 38. 



100 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives of Benzene. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Principal Miers (Chairman), 
and Professors H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), W. J. Pope, and 
W. P. Wynne. 

In the previous report it is pointed out that a clue to the interpreta- 
tion of the results put forward in earlier reports had been found in 
the theory correlating molecular structure with crystalline form recently 
advanced by Messrs. Barlow and Pope. 

During the past year the results obtained by the examination of 
twenty-nine derivatives of the 1 : 4 series have been discussed from 
the point of view of this theory and found to be in complete accordance 
with it. The investigation is published in two papers printed in the 
current August number of the ' Transactions of the Chemical Society.' 
It is hoped that the examination of the ortho- and meta- series will 
be completed during the coming year and that it will then be possible 
to summarise the results of the inquiry in a final report. 



Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. R. H. Tiddeman (Chairman), Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse 
(Secretary), Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr. F. W. 
Harmer, Rev. S. N. Harrison, Dr. J. Horne, Mr. W. Lower 
Carter, Professor W. J. Sollas, and Messrs. Wm. Hill, J. W. 
Stather, and J. H. Milton. , . 

Reports have been received during the year from three districts, in 
each case through a local Society : The University of Durham Philo- 
sophical Society, per Dr. Woolacott; the Hull Geological Society, per 
Mr. J. W. Stather, F.G.S., and the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, 
per Miss Mary K. Andrews. 

Northumberland and Durham. 

Reported by the Boulders Committee of the University of Durham 

Philosophical Society. 

(1) Reported by Dr. Woolacott. 

(a) Old sand-pit, North Moor Lane, Silksworth, near Sunderland: — 

Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Cheviot- porphyrite. Several granites. 
Coal. Magnesian limestone (numerous). 

(b) Sand-pit near Bainbridge Holme Farm, Durham Pioad, near 
Sunderland : — 

Whin Bill. Greywaeke. Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Magnesian 

limestone. 



ERRATIC BLOCKS OP THE BRITISH ISLES. 101 

(c) Lying loose, Galley Gill plantation, Silksworlh : — 
Coarse porphyrite. 

((/) Gravel and sand-pit, Haverley House, near Seaton : — 
Flint. 

(<?) Lying loose, Stotfold, near Seaton: — 
Whin Sill. Granite. 

(/) Boulder clay, Salterfen Rocks, coast south of Sunderland: — 
Volcanic series of Borrowdale. 

(g) Boulder clay, Carley Hill, near Sunderland: — 
Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Greywacke. 

(h) On the shore, Beadnell : — 
Large boulder of Trachyte. 

(/) Boulder clay, Kenton Quarries, near Newcastle: — 

Threlkeld 'granite.' Cheviot granite. Cheviot porphyrite. 

(2) Reported by Dr. Smythe and Dr. Woolacott. 

(a) Lying loose, west of Seaton Station: — 

Coarse agglomerate (1 cubic foot). Basalt. Coarse granite. 

(b) Lying loose, near Sharpley Hall, Seaton: — 

Threlkeld ' granite ' (6 cubic feet). Sandstone. Whin Sill. Vol- 
canic series of Borrowdale. Carboniferous limestone. 

(c) Lying loose, end of Green Lane, Sharpley Plantation, Seaton : — 

Whin Sill. Volcanic series of Borrowdale (3). 1 Greywacke. Granite, 
grey. Threlkeld 'granite' (2 cubic feet). Sandstone. 

(d) Lying loose, Great Eppleton Plantation, near Warden Law: — 

Rhyolite. 

(e) Old gravel-pits, south-west of Warden Law: — 

Greywacke (several). Chert. Sandstone. Granite. Porphyrite. 
Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Magnesian limestone. Car- 
boniferous limestone. 

(3) Reported by A. Bell, Bishop Auckland. 

(a) Byers Green, Boulder clay, north-east of Bishop Auckland: — 

Grey granite (Criffel). Volcanic series of Borrowdale. 

(b) Near River Gaunless, a mile south-east of Bishop Auckland: — 

Shap granite. Volcanic series of Borrowdale. 

1 The numbers placed after some of the specimens refer to number of speci- 
mens of that rock noted. The size of the specimen is given wherever it is 
noteworthy. 



102 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

(4) Reported by G. Weyman. 

(«) Boulder clay, Stob Hill, near Harlow Hill: — 
Volcanic series of Borrowdale. 

(b) Boulder clay, Kenton Quarries, near Newcastle: — 

Grey, granite (Criffel). Threlkeld 'granite.' Volcanic series of 
Borrowdale. Calcareous grit. Red granite. Quartz porphyry 
(Cheviots). Andesite. Diorite. Volcanic series of Borrowdale 
(rhyolite and agglomerate). Schist (2). 

(c) Gravel pit, Cleadon : — 

Magnesian limestone (bored by marine organisms). Volcanic series of 
Borrowdale (rhyoliie, 2). Porphyrite (Cheviots). Flint (3). 
Greywacke (2). Threlkeld ' granite.' Mica porphyrite (Cheviots). 
Buttermere syenite. Quartzite. Weathered Whin. Red Car- 
boniferous limestone. Magnesian limestone breccia and several 
igneous rocks of doubtful origin (4 syenites), &c. 

(5) Reported by E. Merrick. 

(a) Swinburne's clay-pit, Birtley : — 

Armboth Dyke. Granite (grey). 

(b) Billy Mill Quarry, near North Shields:— 

Grey Granite. 

(c) Prestwick Clay Pit, I 1 - mile south-east of Tonteland : — 

Quartz felsite. Volcanic series of Borrowdale. Greywacke. 

(6) Reported by Dr. Smyths. 

(</) Gravel deposit, Horsebridge Head, near Newbiggin: — 
Piece of Magnesian limestone with Fenestella retiformis. 

(b) Boulder clay, Kenton Quarry, near Newcastle: — 

Gabbro (Carrock Fell). 

(c) Boulder clay, Horsebridge Head, mouth of Wansbeck: — 

Mica andesite and felsite. 

(d) Boulder clay, Hebron : — 

Quartz porphyry. 

(e) Hadston Oarrs, south of Amble: — 

Dolerite. Porphyrite. Magnesian limestone. 

(/) Erratic (10 cubic feet), South Charlton: — 
Augite granite (Cheviot). 

(g) Kaims, near North Charlton: — 

Greywacke. Granite. Syenite. Porphyrite. 

(h) Kaims, Bradford, nearBelford: — 

Syenite (8). Greywacke. Quartz felsite. Andesite. 



ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



103 



(t) Kaims, Fenrother, north- west of Morpeth: — 

Greywacke (6). Syenite (4). Granite (4). Porphyrite (6). Ancle- 
site (2). Mica porphyrite (2). Quartzite. 

(;) Boulder clay, Font, above Mitford:— 

Syenite (7). Granite (6). Porphyrite (2). Andesite. 

(k) Kaims, Loansdene Hill, near Morpeth:-— 

Greywacke (4). Syenite (5). Gi'anite (4). Porphyrite (40). Diorite. 
Flint, 

(I) Kaims, Angerton, on the "Wansbeck: — 

Greywacke. Syenite (2). Granite (5). Porphyrite. 

(in) Gravels (rluvio-glacial?), Wansbeck, near Mitford: — 

Greywacke (7). Syenite (12). Granite (33). Porphyrite (5). Whin 
(5). Chert. Hornblende schist. 

(») Boulder clay, Lough Hill, Sweethope, head of Wansbeck: — 

Greywacke. Syenite (8). Granite (9). Andesite (Borrowdale?) (3). 
Diorite. Mica syenite (2). Chert (2). Quartz porphyrite. 

(o) Kaims, Liddle Hall, Hallington Beservoir: — 

Greywacke (4). Syenite (B). Granite (16). Andesite (Borrowdale?) 
(2). Jasper. Schist. Gneiss. Chert. 

(p) Boulder clay, Prestwick Burn, near Bedesmouth : — 
£!ranite. Andesite (Borrowdale?). 



Glacial Stiu^:. 
The following striations on the rock surface have been reported: — 



Locality 



Height, 

in Feet, 

above 

Sea-level 



Direction 



Rock 
Striated 



(a) Observed by Dr. Smytjie. 

1. Benton, railway cutting east of station. I 200 S.E. 

2. Tranwell, \ mile east of ... 240 E. 

3. Lesser Wannies, head of Wansbeck. . 1,000 E. by N. 

4. Horsebrklge Head, just north of mouth 10 S. 

of WenisfaGck 

5. Newton Sea Houses i S. 35° E. and S. 

6. South Charlton, £ mile W.N.W. of . I 500 E. and S. 10° E, 

7. Fontburn, waterwork just west of station j 600 N. by E. 

8. Ritton White House Quarries, east of 840 E. and S. 

Fontburn 



(b) Observed by Dr. Woolacott. 

I S. 17 c 



9. Salterfen rocks, 2 miles south of Sunder 
land 



E. 



sandstone 
sandstone 
grit 
sandstone 

whin 

sandstone 
■\vhin 
whin 



magnesian 
limestone 



104 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Reported by the Hull Geological Society. 

Mr. C. Thompson, B.Sc, reports that he has obtained from the 
boulder clays of Holderness, chiefly from the neighbourhood of Ald- 
brough, ammonites representing all the zones of the Yorkshire Lias. 
In addition recent work has yielded at least twenty species new to York- 
shire records, or only doubtfully inserted therein. 

Mr. S. S. Buckman has named nineteen of these specimens, and 
they include at least four species new to science. 

The excavations for the new dock at Marfleet, near Hull, have dis- 
closed some fine sections in the Humber warps, forest beds, and under- 
lying glacial clays. From the latter, two boulders of shap granite have 
been obtained, the larger of which measures 16 x 14 x 12 inches. 

Mr. Stather reports that, as a result of the work done by Dr. V. 
Milthers on the Scandinavian boulders found in Denmark, and the 
examination of type rocks with which Dr. Milthers supplied him, he 
has been able to recognise several types not previously recorded from 
the Yorkshire boulder clays. 

Dr. Milthers recognises many Scandinavian erratics in Denmark, 
and divides them into five classes: — 

(1) Those from Christiania district. 

(2) Those from Dalarne district. 

(3) Those from Scania. 

(4) Those from Eastern Smaland.__ 

(5) Those from the North Baltic, Aland, &c. 

It is, of course, well known that rocks from the Christiania district 
are of common occurrence in the drifts of our East Coast, and with 
Mr. Milthers' specimens for reference three new records have already 
been made, and it is hoped that it will be found possible to identify 
many of the other rocks. 

The new records are — 

(1) Bredvad porphyry from Dalarne. 

(2) Gronklitt porphyrite from Dalarne. 

(3) Red Sarna porphyry from Dalarne. 

Mr. Stather expresses the opinion that the Dalarne rocks will be 
found to be quite as common in the glacial beds of the East Coast as 
are those from the Christiania district. 

IRELAND. 

Reported by the Committee of the Geological Section of the Belfast 

Naturalists' Field Club. 

The Committee record the extension of Ailsa Craig Riebeckite-eurite 
to Coleraine (see below). 

Co. Armagh. 

Armagh (catling through boulder clay, Light Railway, near 
Armagh). — 230 boulders noted; 64 per cent, were erratics, and included 



ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 105 

60 basalt, 22 sandstone, 18 schist, 12 quartz, 10 porphyry, 6 granitic 
rock, 1 jasper, 1 syenite, 3 Permian, 1 lignite, 9 chalk and flint, 2 grit, 
1 felsite, 1 gneiss, 1 quartzite. The subjacent rock is Carboniferous 
limestone. The prevailing directions of the parent rocks are N. or 
N.E. ; two are N.W. 

Foraminifera found in the clay. 

Armagh (Esker S.W. of Carrick-a-loughran Quarry). — 100 pebbles 
noted, 35 per cent, were erratics, and included 24 basalt, 6 mica schist, 
4 quartzite, 1 flint. A fragment of Balanus was also found. The 
clayey sands yielded foraminifera. 

Ailsa Craig Eiebeckite-eurite, petrified wood from Lough Neagh, 
and foliated gneiss have also been recorded from the Armagh Drift. 

Co. Tyrone. 

Cookstown (Quarry and railway cutting). — About 240 feet above 
sea-level. Subjacent rock, Carboniferous limestone. 112 boulders 
noted, 25 per cent, erratics, comprising 8 basalt and dolerite, 1 granite, 
3 felstone, 1 aphanite, 11 quartz, 2 quartzite, 1 schist, 2 grit. Pre- 
vailing direction of parent rocks N. or N.E. ; one granite, probably from 
S.W. Foraminifera found in the clay. 

Co. Down. 

Annadale and Messrs. Martin's Brickyards (on right bank of Lagan). 
Cliffs about 40 feet high of stiff stratified reddish-brown boulder 
clay. Subjacent rock is Trias. Erratics noted — a large number of 
basalt and chalk, also 9 Ailsa Craig Eiebeckite-eurite, 2 rhyolite 
(Templepatrick), 3 eurite (Tornamoney), 3 schist, 3 gneiss, 1 gabbro, 

1 Carboniferous limestone, 2 greensand, 2 chert, 1 granite, 1 Silurian 
shale, 1 White Lias (Larne), 2 Carboniferous sandstone (Ballycastle), 
3 Lias, 1 Felsite, 4 Magnesian limestone. 

Cretaceous and Lias fossils were noted. The sand intercalated in 
the boulder clay yielded foraminifera. 

Co. Antrim. 

Lisburn. — Esker; subjacent rock Trias. Erratics comprised basalt, 
granite, porphyry, porphyrite, clay ironstone, grit, conglomerate, 
quartzite. Prevalent direction of parent rocks N. and N.E. ; one 
from N.W. 

Ballymena District. — Eskers at Drumfane and Broughshane. Sub- 
jacent rock, basalt. Boulders at both places mostly of local origin. 
Out of 100 noted at Drumfane, 70 were basalt, 21 rhyolite, 4 chalk, 

2 flint, 2 dolerite, and 1 Cushendall porphyry. Out of 100 noted at 
Broughshane, 76 were basalt, 4 flint, and 20 chalk. 

Co. Londonderry. 

Coleraine : Carthall Brickworks. — Boulder clay and sand at one 
pit in vertical bands. Subjacent rock, basalt, very few boulders, 
these included erratics of chalk, flint, slate, and porphyry. The sand 
was examined and yielded foraminifera. 



106 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

Coleraine : Spittle Hill Quarry. — Subjacent rock basalt. Reddish 
boulder clay, varying in height from a few up to 20 feet. 100 boulders 
noted, 42 per cent, were erratics, comprising 1 Ailsa Craig Eiebeckite- 
eurite, 24 flint, 6 quartzite, 3 granite, 2 eurite, 4 bole, 1 quartz, 
1 bauxite. 

Porlstewart : Sandhills. — Erratics noted — Ailsa Craig Riebeckite- 
eurite, granite (probably from Barnesmore Gap, Co. Donegal), por- 
phyry from Cushendun, eurite from Tornamoney Point, quartzite 
from Cushendun area, gneiss, chalk, flint, schist, chert, also granite, 
probably from Clyde area. 



Mr. Eobeet Bell, reports having found a Carboniferous coral, 
Lithostrotiofi Portlocki, in boulder clay, overlain with about seven feet 
of peat, at Sluggan Bog, Drumsough, Co. Antrim. 



Faunal Succession in the Lower Carboniferous Limestone (Avonian}of the 
British Isles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor J. W. 
Gregory (Chairman), Dr. A. Vaughan (Secretary), Dr. Wheelton 
Hind, and Professor W. W. Watts, appointed to enable Dr. A. 
Vaughan to continue his Researches thereon.- (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 

Lower Carboniferous Zones. — Faunal Correlation of the Dinaniian of 
Belgium with the Avonian of Britain. 

I was able, in the summer of 1909, to study the most important 
sequences in the Lower Carboniferous of Belgium ; the subjoined corre- 
lation is the result of observations then made. 

My thanks are most gratefully tendered to those who so ungrudgingly 
devoted their time to my assistance; to Mr. G. Delepine, of the 
Catholic University of Lille, who planned the itinerary and accompanied 
me throughout my visit; to Mr. A. Carpentier, of the same University, 
who conducted me over the Avesnes district of N.E. France; to Dr. 
F. Kaisin, of the University of Louvain, for his guidance in the Dinant 
district; to Mr. P. Destinez, of the University of Liege, for help at 
Vise and in the study of his collection; to Dom. P. Beda for help at 
Maredsous and in the abbey collection ; and to Prof. H. Dorlodot for the 
gift of papers and books. 

In the matter of stratigraphical terms and indices I have, neces- 
sarily, adhered to the official publication, ' Legende de la Carte 
geologique de -la Belgique (1900),' only introducing the notation of 
Dorlodot for two new terms, Tld and T2c. 

For the most recent and authoritative account of the Belgian rocks 
and of their stratigraphical relations reference has been made to two 
mutally supplementary papers by Prof. Doxiodot, entitled ' Les Faunes 
du Dinantien et leur signification stratigraphique, ' 1 and ' Description 

1 Bull. Soc. beige de Gt'ol,, t. xxiii. (1909), Mem. 



FAUNAL SUCCESSION IN THE LOWER CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE. 107 

succincte des Assizes du Calcaire carbonifere de la Belgique et de leurs 
principaux facies lithographiques n ; additional details have been 
taken from an earlier paper by the same author, ' Le Calcaire carboni- 
fere de la Belgique.' 2 

Fossils are employed in the works above cited in two ways, viz. : — 

(a) In the recognition of levels by the maxima of particular forms or 
groups (identified by approximate formulae), e.g., Spiriferina ' octopli- 
cata,' Productus ' Cora.' 

This method, employed without check, is subject to large errors of 
identification and of range: thus Spiriferina ' octoplicata ' ranges 
throughout Z and y, and may occur at any level within this range should 
conditions be favourable. 

(b) In the numerical comparison of a new fauna with the known 
faunas of Tournai and Vise. 

This method (1) takes no account of the identity of genera due to 
similarity of phase; for example, the Waulsortian facies is for this 
reason more similar to Vise than to Tournai. (2) It does not weight 
fossils according to their abundance ; and (3) it takes account of persis- 
tent gentes which happen to be unrepresented at one of the localities, 
but are present at the other, e.g., Pugnax (Rliynchonella) pugnus would 
count as Visean, although common in the Middle Devonian. 

Within the present year two attempts have been made to compare 
the faunal sequence in Belgium with that of the British Isles, namely : 
(1) ' Calcaire carbonifere de Belgique : Comparaison au Sud-Ouest de 
l'Angleterre,' by Mr. G. Delepine, 3 and (2) 'Comparison entre les 
couches du Calcaire carbonifere de Belgique et celles de l'Angleterre,' by 
Dr. Paul Grober, of Strassburg University. 3 

Mr. Delepine bases his partition of the series upon the recognition of 
fossil ' bands ' (or assemblages), each of which characterises a par- 
ticular level (under usual conditions) ; the range of a species or gens is 
intentionally neglected. 

This method, which is essentially that involved in the use of ' marine 
bands ' in the coal measures, leads to highly satisfactory results so long 
as phasal conditions do not introduce a strange fauna, and so long as no 
greater accuracy of position is sought than that involved in the large 
zones now in use. The considerable number of forms necessary for the 
identification of a band supply the necessary correction of errors of 
identification, and no greater palieontological aptitude is demanded than 
is involved in recognising a broadly formulated species. The results set 
out by Mr. Delepine are in general accord with the subjoined correlation. 

Dr. Grober deals only with the Tournaisian, but is to be applauded 
for his pioneer attempt to subdivide the C zone by means of variations in 
the gentes of Caninia and Cyathophyllum. 

It is too early as yet to judge of the value of his results. I am 
myself engaged upon the same problem in the course of a minute revision 
of the faunal sequence at Burrington (Mendip), and Mr. A. Salee, of the 

1 Bull. Soc. beige de Giol, t. xxiii. (1909), Mem. 

2 Ann. Soc. Geol. du Nord, t. xxiii. (1895), p. 201. 
8 Bull. Soc. beige de Giol, t. xxiv. (1910), Mem. 



108 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



Geological Institute of Louvain, has just completed an exhaustive 
examination of Caninia patala and Caninia cylindtica. 



LILLE 
O 



TOWNAI 

\AntOing 



Atfi 
O 



OBRUSSELS 



tc3vssincs ^ 

O O Sii, 

flluy-Aiycennes •$)[ 



N 



1 



L 

r 



Ave sues 




Comblgm du Pont 



PLACE MAP. 
Scale or Miles 



Notes on Localities (see Place Map, above). 

I. Tournai and Ecaussines : Visdan absent. 
At Tournai : — 

All the quarries are in the Upper Tournaisian and exhibit 
Z-y, capped by Caninia beds of C x age (i.e., beds containing Can. 
cylindrica, accompanied by Can. patula and Can. cornucopice). 
The change of phase above Z-y probably took place at slightly 
different times at different points, e.g., at Allain and Vaulx, but 
as yet the knowledge of ranges is not sufficient to detect 
the variation. 
Near Ath and Ecaussines : — 

The base of the Carboniferous rests upon the transition beds 
(considered to be uppermost Devonian), and contains the charac- 
teristic ft fauna. 

The Upper Tournaisian exhibits the same zonal range as at 
Tournai — namely, Z-y, capped by Goninw-beds of C x . 

II. Namur Basin (Valley of Sambre and Meuse) : the Orneau, 
Namur, Huy. 

Ascending sequence. 

Transition beds followed by /3. 

Dolomitisation obscures the sequence up to S t ; certain levels, 
however, such as y-G 1 , and C 2 with Prod, sublazvis, have been 
carefully followed by Mr. Delepine. 

Sj, both faunally and lithologically, is practically identical 
with the same level in the Bristol area. 

In S 2 , Lithosirotion enters later than in Britain. 

The ' pseudo-breccia ' with Prod, undijerus occurs at the top 
of S 2 , and is apparently a little earlier than the true ' Grande 
Breche ' of the Dinantian. 



Fauna 



D2 



At Vis,; :— 
Lonsdalia conaxis (M'Coy) 

( 'yclophylla ; Dibunophylla ; Lithostrotion junceum (Flern.), Ed. and H. 
Prod, striatus Fischer, de Kon. ; Prod, latissimus Sow. 

aud the Braehiopod fauna of Wetton, &c. 

Elsewhere : — 
f Prod, longispinus, var. selosus Phill. ; Prod, gigauteus (Mart.) 
J Sptrifer striatus (Mart.) 
( Campopliyllum nr. murchisoni Ed. and H. 



se') 

these 



S-D 



S 2 



Si 



(Prod, undiferus de Kon. ; Seminula ficoides Vaughau 
\Lithostrotion irregulare (Phill.), Ed. and H. 

/ Seminula ftcoides Yaughan 

J Prod, corrugato-bemisphericus Yaughan ( = Prod. ' Cora ') 

1 Lithoslrotion martini Ed. and H. 

\ i 'arcinophyllum 9 Vaughau 

Caninia bristolensis Vaughan 

Prod. 9 Vaughan ( = Prod. ' giganteus ') 

Prod, semireticulatus, mut. Si Vaughan 



I CyathopbyUum <f> Vaughan 
~ 1 Michelinia grandit M'Coy 

1 Syrinyopora fawsitoides Vaughan M.S. 

[prod, sublwvis de Kon. and var. Prod, christian! de Kon. 



1-Pont 



-' 



C-S 



Ci 



)(?) 



Waulsortian . — 

Spir. princeps M'Coy: Sp. suavis de Kon. ; Sp. pinguis Sow.; Prod, plicatilis Sow. 

and Prod, mesolobus Phill. ; Prod, flmbriatus Sow. ; Prod, youngianus Dav. 
Pugnax pugnus (Mart.); Pugnax plicata (Sow.) ; Melasma hastala (Sow.) 

vAmplexus coralloides Sow. is the only coral 

' Max. of Caninia cylindrica (Scouler) ; 
Uinnties cf. Comoides (Sow.) ; (Orthotetes) strophomenoides Yaughan 

f Petit Granit :— 

Caninia cylindrica (Scouler) ; C. patula Mich. ; C. cornucopia? Mich. 

Cimi/i. Vaughau and Canino-eyathophyllids 
{ Spir. konincki Dew. ; Prod, burlingtonensil Hall ; Prod . pustuloides n.sp. 

( Typical Z assemblage of Brachiopods 

and small Zapbrentes 
[a. max. of Spir. clathratus M'Coy '=Spir. tornacensis de Kon.) 



Caninia gigantea (Le Sueur), (Ed. and H.) 
Syringothyris carteri Hall, Schuchert 



(Prod. af£. bassus Yaughan 

(Zaphrentis vanghani Douglas 
Small Caniuid 
, Spiriferina peracuta de Kon. ( =Spiriferina ' octoplicata ') 



ppes 
ma- 
: up 
s as 



N.B.— Only the most important Brachiopods and Corals 
are cited in the above lists. The naming accords with that 
of my Bristol and later papers 



1 OBBi ' ■■ i "■■- ■■■' kvmiix wit Disauti is 



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' 



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■ 

•I 
.... . . ■■..,.-. 



aMODnolUrt 






, .„.„. .1. K..IL ■(■ ,■■..:■ 

. .. ■.,,...■ .■ 
■ ' ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 



■ ■ 
■ 

... 
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......,.,. .,n..uii. Em i 

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■ 



• 



FAUNAL SUCCESSION IN THE LOWER CARBONIFEROUS LIMESTONE. 109 

The highest beds, with Prod, longhpinus, can be assigned to 
Upper D. 

III. The Ourthe Valley (Comblain-au-Pont). 

Two types of Tournaisian sequence are exhibited side by side : — 

(1) Bivage to Liotte. 

The upper part of the transition series apparently contains a 
Carboniferous fauna. 

The shales that succeed certainly contain Spiriferina, but the 
accompanying fauna suggests a level in Z higher than ft. [Similar 
shales underlie ' petit granit ' at Maredsous.] These shales are 
overlain by Z-y and the Caninia beds of 1 . 

(2) N. of Comblain-au-Port. 

The 'petit granit' of the Ourthe, Z -y, is succeeded by 
'laminosa dolomites,' C 1( similar, faunally and lithologically, to 
the beds of the same phase in the Bristol area. 

These dolomites are capped by a calcareous conglomerate 
(Breche de Comblain-au-Pont), recalling tile megastoma-con- 
glomerate of County Dublin. 

IV. Dinant District (Gorge of the Meuse : Hastiere, Dinant, 
Yvoir) — the type sections of the Dinantian. 

The correlation table gives the main points in the comparison 
between the complete sequence of this district and that of the 
Avon. The following notes may be added: — ■ 

' Calcaire d'Yvoir ' and ' Petit Granit ' (when present) must 
both be included in Z-y. 

The Calcaire de Leffe of Dorlodot must be correlated with the 
top of the Tournaisian by relative position only, since it is practi- 
cally unfossiliferous. 

The highest black limestones and shales, discovered by 
Mr. Delepine between Dinant and Yvior, contain a well-marked 
Upper D fauna. 

V. The Waulsortian. (The District West of Dinant : Hastiere, 
Waulsort, Maredsous, Sosoye.) 

The levels suggested for the various Brachiopod beds are 
deduced from 

(a) the relative predominance of Spirifer and Productus. 
Spirifer predominant indicates Tournaisian, as in the ' r6cif ' of 
Maredsous. 

(b) The occurrence of ' Visean species ' of Productus, such as 
P. margaritaceus, e.g., at Sosoye. 

(c) Stages of structural development. 

N.B. — Care musi be taken to eliminate certain species that are appa- 
rently persistent throughout the Lower Carboniferous and that 
recur at every renewal of similar conditions, e.g., Pvgnax acumi- 
nata, var. plicata, and Pugnax pugnus among Brachiopods and 
Amplexus coralloides among Corals. 



110 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

VI. Vise. 

The whole of the Carboniferous limestone of Vise belongs 
to the Upper Dibunophyllam zone, for the lowest beds (said to 
rest unconformably on the Devonian) contain Dibunophylla and 
Densiphylla of Upper D habit. 

The higher limestones contain species of Dibunophylla, 
Cyclophylla, &c, which ally them to the coral beds of Derby and 
North Wales. In accord with this is the fact that the Brachio- 
pods are identical with those of the Brachiopod beds of 
Wetton, &c. 

Vise is the only locality in Belgium at which a characteristic 
D coral fauna has been discovered. In N. France, near 
Avesnes, the uppermost limestones with Prod, latissimus contain 
an identical coral fauna indicating D 2 -Dy. 



Investigation of the Igneous and Associated Rocks of the Glensaul 
and Lough Nafooey Areas, Cos. Mayo and Galway. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. Watts (Chairman), 
Professor S. H. Reynolds (Secretary), Mr. H. B. Maufe, and 
Mr. C. I. Gardiner. 

Mr. C. I. Gardiner and the Secretary completed their field-work on 
the Glensaul area in April 1909, and their paper was published in 
the ' Q. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. lxvi. (1910), pp. 253-279. At the 
same time they commenced work on the rocks of the Kilbride peninsula 
(Lough Nafooey area), and have devoted three weeks in July and August 
1910 to a continuation of the work, which is not yet completed. The 
general structure, however, of the Kilbride Peninsula may be briefly 
described as follows. The southern and eastern part consists in the 
main of Silurian grits and flags, dipping with great regularity in a 
general south-easterly direction, and including a highly fossiliferous 
Upper Llandovery horizon. The northern and western portion con- 
sists principally of igneous rocks — quartz felsite, vesicular andesitic 
rocks, labradorite porphyrite, and coarse breccia. As yet the only 
fossils found in this part of the area are a few Didymograpti and a 
crustacean, probably a species of Caryocaris. In Die south-eastern 
corner of the peninsula is an area of gneissic rocks against which the 
Silurians are faulted. 



Composition and Origin of the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. — Fifth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. Harker (Chairman), 
Mr. E. Greenly (Secretary), Dr. J. Horne, Dr. C. A. Matley, 
and Professor K. J. P. Orton. 

The end of the present geological work upon Anglesey is now within 
sight. The map will, all being well, be completed during the coming 
autumn, after which the descriptive memoir will be the only undertaking 



ON THE CRYSTALLINE ROCKS OP ANGLESEY. Ill 

of importance. While this is proceeding, Mr. J. 0. Hughes wili devote 
nearly all his available time to such analyses as are likely to throw light 
upon the origin of widespread types of rock in which metamorphism has 
produced such complete reconstruction as to efface all traces of original 
sedimentary or igneous structures. 

Of these rocks two have been attacked during the year now past, with 
the following results: — 

No. 519a. — Great Jasper, Newborough. 

I. II. 

SiO a 93'51 93-54 

Fe 2 3 6'60 6'52 

Alkalies none -— 

100-11 100-06 

This is an unusually large jasper, occurring in a limestone associated 
with the ellipsoidal diabase lavas. 

No. 231a. — Basic Schist, Capel Soar, Bodorgan. 

I. II. 

Si0 2 45-83 46-06 

Ti0. 2 trace — 

A1 2 3 17-45 17-34 

Fe 2 3 . u . 4-64 4-73 

FeO 7-52 7-46 

MnO trace — 

CaO 11-14 10-96 

MgO 8-37 8-21 

K 2 0-16 012 

Na 2 2-88 284 

H 2 (at 110°) 0-21 0-28 

H 2 (above 110°) 2-23 2-20] 

100-43 100-20 

This is a rock, now completely reconstructed, which is certainly 
derived from the same lavas in another district. 

Besides these the following miscellaneous rocks have been analysed 
on account of their special interest : — 

No. 426a. — Ophicalcite; Holyhead Island. — This is the beautiful 
' Mona marble,' associated with the Serpentines and Gabbros : — 

I. II. 

Residues insoluble in HC1 16-35 18-29 

Soluble Si0. 2 0-60 0-41 

Al 2 3 +Fe 2 s 9-17 8-31 

CaO 38-88 38-78 

MgO 2-44 1-98 

C0 2 31-08 3112 

H 2 undetermined — — - 

98-52 98-89 

As the above analyses indicate, digestion with hot HC1 is not very 
suitable in this case. The rock evidently contains silicates which are 



112 ' REPORTS ON THE STATE of science. 

decomposed by the acid, and it was found impossible to obtain C0ri j 
cordant values, especially for the insoluble portion and for the magnesia. 
It was therefore decided to try acetic acid instead, since this aci<jl dis- 
solves calcium carbonate but does not readily attack silicates. This 
method, as the following analyses indicate, was very successful, and is 
evidently suitable for the analysis of metamorpbic limestones containing 
silicates : — 

I. II. 

Residues insoluble in acetic acid .... 28-21 28-14 

Al. 2 3 +Fe. 2 3 0-08 0-17 

CaO 38-89 39-01 

MgO 0-53 0-46 

C0 2 31-08 31-12 

H 2 108 1-13 

99-87 100-03 

Percentage CaC0 3 69-44 C9-GG 

6. Red Limestone; Tyddyn Vu, Amlwch. 

I. II. 

Residues insoluble in HC1 14-97 15-13 

AljA+FejA 4-30 4-24 

CaO 27-51 27-60 

MgO 14-84 14-82 

C0 2 38-05 38-16 

99-67 99-95 

Percentage CaCO, 49-12 49-28 

MgC0 3 31-16 3112 

Several masses of peculiar limestone of this type occur in the schists 
of the northern region. 

No. 550a. — Ironstone in Llandeilo shales, Llanbabo. Only the iron 
has been estimated in this rock; the actual state of combination has not 
been determined : — • 

I. II. 

Total Iron (calculated as Fe. 2 3 ) . . . .26-94 27-04 

This is an ironstone, sometimes very oolitic, which occurs in the 
Nemagraptus gracilis shales, and may be of some importance. 

c. Massive Grey Limestone, in Old Red Series. 

I. II. 

Residues insoluble in HC1 9-11 9.04 

Al. 2 O s +Fe< 2 3 0-88 0-97 

CaO 50'15 50-22 

MgO — — 

C0 2 39-59 39-65 

99-73 99-88 

Percentage CaC0 3 89-55 89-68 



ON THE CRYSTALLINE ROCKS OP ANGLESEY. Il3 

£ Red Limestone, in the same beds as above. 

I. IT. 

Residues insoluble in HC1 15-63 15-72 

ALA+Fc.,0.1 2-35 2.39 

CaO 41-88 41-93 

MgO 3-11 303 

C0 2 . 36-69 36-74 

99-66 99-81 

Percentage CaCO, 74-78 74-87 

MgC0 3 6-53 6-36 

Both the above rocks are from the Penrhoslligwy district. 

Dolomite. — From shore east of Portli Penmon. 

I. II. 

Residues insoluble in HC1 0-85 89 

Al 2 3 +Fe 2 3 2-08 2-02 

CaO 30-17 30-03 

MgO 20-84 20-86 

C0. 2 46-48 46-44 

100-42 100-29 

Percentage CaC0 3 5387 63-71 

„ MgC0 3 43-59 43*63 

This is a thick, massive bed in the Carboniferous limestone. 
Finally, in a peat ash from Cors y Bol, Llantrisant, an extensive old 
alluvium, the percentage of phosphoric acid has been determined: — 

I. II. 

Percentage P 2 O s 1-71 179 

And one of the well-known hornblende picrites of Llandyfrydog has 
been examined for nickel, as there was an impression that this existed in 
it in some quantity, but no nickel was detected. 

Mr. Hughes desires to point out that his leisure for research work 
during the past session lias been rather small, and that the greater 
part of his analytical work will be done in the coming summer vacation 
— too late, that is, for the results to appear in this report. 



The Excavation of Critical Sections in the Palceozoic Rocks of Wales and 
the West of England. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor C. Lapworth (Chairman), Mr. G. W. Fearnsides (Secretary), 
Dr. J. E. Marr, Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. G. J. Williams. 

[Plate III.] 

'Ihird Report on Excavations among the Cambrian Rocks of Comley, 
Shropshire, 1909, by E. S. Cobbold, F.G.S. 

The excavations made during 1907 and 1908 were reported upon to the 

Dublin and Winnipeg Meetings of the British Association. As the funds 

placed at my disposal by the Committee appointed in 1907 had not been 

1910. t 



114 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

fully exhausted, I continued the excavations in the summer of 1909. 
These excavations form the subject of this third communication, which 
is final so far as this grant is concerned. 

The excavations of 1909 extend beyond the limits of the sketch map 
originally printed, and necessitate a new one (see Plate III.). On this, 
the positions of all the principal excavations are shown by bold numbers. 
Where a clear dip has been observed, the exact position is indicated by 
the point of the arrow, but where the dip is uncertain the position is 
marked by a black dot. In addition to the lines of all roads, fences, 
streams, and footpaths, contours have, been sketched in at intervals of 
20 feet vertical, and a little shading has been added to bring out the 
relief of the surface. The tracks of some of the principal faults, seen or 
inferred during the progress of the excavations, are shown by dot-and- 
dash broken lines, and the general positions of the rocks of various ages 
bounding the Comley Cambrian area are indicated in words. 

With the exception of No. 27, which comes in the central portion of 
the Comley area, the excavations now to be described were made in two 
distinct parts of the area — (A) the Shoot Rough side, to the north-east 
of the quarry; (B) the Robin's Tump portion, to the south. 

Excavation No. 27, Francis' Field. 

Near a farm south of Dairy Hill and east of Hill House Ridge, there 
is a small prominence on which the soil indicates that rock is near the 
surface. An excavation was made on the west slope, and disclosed 
some 4 or 5 feet of very broken shale, with obscure indications of a 
northerly strike and a high westerly dip. No fossils were discovered, 
and further exploration near this point was deferred until other more 
promising excavations had been disposed of. 

A. — The Excavations on the Shoot Rough Side. 

The report to the Winnipeg Meeting gave details of the beds called 
Shoot Rough Road Shales and Shoot Rough Road Flags at excavations 
No. 20 and No. 21. Leave having been obtained to make openings in 
the fields north of the road, these excavations were extended, and addi. 
tional trials were made with a view to ascertain, if possible, the nature 
of the rocks between the Shoot Rough Road beds and the supposed 
Tremadoc of Shoot Rough Wood. 

Excavation No. 20, Shoot Rough Road, Upper Section 1 (Extension oj). 

A trench was dug at right angles to Ihe strike from the highest beds 
of shale previously observed. The shale was followed for a horizontal 
distance of 13 yards, where its surface sank out of sight under the 
thickening covering of drift. Allowing for the dip of 45° to the north- 
east, the thickness of shale seen would be about 40 feet, and in this 
no fossils were discovered, nor was there any change in the general 
character of the rock. 

1 Brit. Assoc. Eeport, 1909 (Winnipeg), p. 184, 



British Association, 80th Report, Sheffield, 1!)10. 

Sketch Map of the Comlky Area. 



[Plate III. 







Illustrating the Report on the Excavation of Critical Sections in the 
Palceozoic Rocks of Wales and the West of England. 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PALEOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, ETC. 115 

Excavation No. 23. 

The surface feature made by the outcrop of the Shoot Rough Road 
Flags is traceable in a north-westerly direction for about 100 yards 
from excavation No. 20. A trench was opened across this feature and 
continued south-westerly to ascertain, if possible, the nature of the beds 
underlying the flags. At about 18 feet below the top of the flags a band 
of rotten stone was touched, yielding residual nodules of calcareous 
sandstone, and containing plentiful remains of Paradoxides rugulosus 
Corda. At about the horizon of this bed the flags graduate into a soft 
greenish micaceous sandstone, like that noticed at the east end of exca- 
vation No. 21. 1 A thickness of 3 feet of this sandstone, now called the 
' Shoot Rough Road Sandstone,' was exposed, but its further down- 
ward continuation could not be ascertained, owing to the increasing 
thickness of detrital matter from the escarpment of the flags above. 
With the help of my friends, Rev. W. M. D. La Touche and Mr. C. I). 
Walton, I secured further fossils from the flags of the original section 
(No. 20); they include a small Microdiscus very like M. punctatus, form 
eucentrus Linn., but not sufficiently well preserved to identify with 
certainty, and a form recalling Ptychoparia (Liostracus) Linnarssoni 
Brogger. 

Combining the observations of 1908 and 1909, the complete section 
across these Shoot Rough Road Flags may be summarised thus : — 

a. Shoot Rough Road Shales (top not seen) 40 feet 

b. 2 Shoot Rough Road Flags 18 feet 

Additional fossils — Microdiscvs, sp., cf. M. cnccntra or M. punctalus 
Salter — Ptychoparia Linnarssoni Brogger ? and 

c. Shoot Rough Road Sandstone 1 foot 

Ci Calcareous band Paradoxides rugvlosus Corda, ' Lingulella- 

ferruginea Salter, Acrotre ta or Acrothele, sp.' 3 .... 1 foot 
c a Green Sandstone (base not seen) 3 feet 

Excavation No. 21, Shoot Rough Road, Lower Section. 4 ' 

In order to examine the nature of the junction of the shales and 
gritty flags of this lower section a trench was opened parallel to the 
original exposure, but at a distance of 5 or 6 feet, and on the other 
side of the hedge, where it was possible to excavate to a depth of about 
5 feet without danger. The new section disclosed was as follows : — 

West End of the Section. 

a. Shales comparable with the Shoot Rough Road Shales of the upper 
section dipping at a very high angle to the east-north east (top not 

seen) 9 feet 

b. Gritty flags and rotten stone bands — 

b t . Red earthy rotten stone .5 feet 

b . Flaggy, sandy bed, dip vertical 3 feet 

b ,. Hard greenish bed of grit, dip c\ 80° north-west . ... 1 foot 
b t . Flaggy beds with shale partings (base not seen) .... 5 feet 



1 Brit. Assoc. Report, 1909 (Winnipeg), p. 185. 

2 Details of those flags are given in the previous report, op. cit., p. 184. • ■ 

s The determinations of the Brachiopods included in inverted commas are those 
supplied to mo by Dr. C. A. Matley. 

4 Brit. Assoc. Report, 1909 (Winnipeg), p. 185. 

i 2 



116 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Fossils. — 

' Orthis Lindstriimi Linnrs. very plentiful, Linnarssonia sp., cf. L. sagitlalis 
Salter. Acrotrda, sp., Lingula or Lingulella, sp. indet. but almost 
certainly not L. ferrvginea Salter.' 

East End of the Section. 

The reversal of the dip with complete conformity of the beds is 
established, and the similarity of their lithological characters with those 
of the beds of the upper section is so close that very little doubt remains 
that the two exposures are on the same horizon. The fossil evidence is 
substantially in agreement, but differs in the more plentiful remains of 
Orthis Lindstromi which is only sparingly represented in the band b 4 
o! the upper section 1 and the paucity of specimens of Acrotreta which 
is so plentiful in the same band. 

Excavations Nos. 24 and 25. 

Roughly parallel with the Shoot Rough Road, and to the north of it, 
there is a line of fence bounding a disused cart-track, which has in places 
been worn down through the superficial covering to the shaley rock 
below. Advantage was taken of this to open up the shale in two places. 
The characters of the shales agree with those of the shales in the' road : 
there are hard siliceous bands in them, half an inch or more in thickness, 
and also rotten stone bands, usually rather thicker. The strike of the 
beds is. nearly north by west and south by east, and the dip is fairly 
constant at about 45° to the eastward. A rotten stone band at the spot 
marked 25 yielded casts of ' a small Orthis of the 0. lenticularis Wahl 
type. These are not so well preserved as those recorded from beds a 
of the Shoot Rough Road, Lower Section, 2 but are distinctly larger, 
and seem, so far as their characters are shown, to be closer to the type.' 
At the southern end of this excavation some harder shale was encoun- 
tered, characterised by rusty spots, more or less polygonal in shape, and 
with a radiating crystalline structure extending out from them. At first 
sight these spots suggested crinoid stems, but they are more probably 
due to some mineral matter (? selenite). 

Excavation No. 26. 

Small trials were made at intervals on the surface of the field. to the 
north of the old cart-track in a direct line to the north-east. With one 
exception these failed to reach solid rock. At the spot marked 26, where 
there is a slightly steeper rise in the surface, shale was found imme- 
diately below the soil, and, on following it in either direction, a con- 
tinuous section of about 50 feet in aggregate thickness was exposed. 
The dip and strike remained constant throughout, and sensibly parallel 
with that of the shales in excavations Nos. 24 and 25. The shale was 
for the most part fairly hard, with clearly marked laminations, and at 
either end graduated into softer shale which disappeared below the 
superficial accumulations. In one part a few more or less polygonal 
rusty spots similar to those of excavation No. 25 were observed, but, 
with the exception of an indeterminable fragment of a trilobite and one 
1 Brit. Assoc. Report, 1909 (Winairej), p. 184. 2 Ibid., p. 185. 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PALEOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, ETC. 117 

' badly preserved brachiopod which suggests Orthis lenticularis,' no 
fossils were discovered. 

The total thickness of the Shoot Bough Road shales cannot be safely 
estimated, owing to want of artificial exposures between the excavations 
described, but the mapping of the surface indicates a very considerable 
thickness, amounting to some 300 to 500 feet, or possibly more, for the 
whole" group. 

B. — The Excavations near Bobin's Tump. 

Bobin's Tump, viewed from the north, is a small conical hill about half 
a mile to the south of the Comley Quarry. It is in the line of, and has 
the appearance of being a continuation of, the Hill House Bidge, but, 
geologically, it is very different, and the two features are severed by a 
somewhat flat area occupied by two fields. The summit rises to about 
990 feet and is oval-shaped, with a length of about £0 yards in a north- 
east and south-west direction. It is connected with the higher 
(Ordovician) ground at the foot of Caradoc Hill by a saddle some 40 or 
50 feet lower in elevation. Several natural exposures of grits and sand- 
stones are to be seen on the summit, but no details of the succession 
were visible without excavation. A little stream descending from the 
lower slopes of Caradoc Hill has cut a deep trench along the north-west 
side, and here there are isolated natural exposures of rather soft greenish 
and reddish micaceous sandstone of the type of the Lower Comley 
sandstone, and characterised by burrows and tracks of organisms. 

Excavation No. 28, on the Saddle. 

Near the place marked 2S, trials were made on the Saddle at four 
spots, all of which showed green micaceous sandstone with a fairly 
regular north and south strike and a dip to the east of about 45°. The 
sandstones vary in hardness from point to point, but are otherwise 
uniform in character, and are evidently part of the series exposed near 
the stream. 

Excavations No. 29, summit of Robin's Tump. 

A series of excavations were made in connection with the natural 
exposures of the summit. These are too close together to be shown 
separately on the map. 

No. 29a, situated on the northern shoulder where there was a 
small natural exposure of much weathered rock, shows about 4 feet of 
well-bedded coarse calcareous and conglomeratic grit, with many ferru- 
ginous casts of fragments of trilobites and grains of bright green 
glauconite, exactly recalling the conglomeratic portion of the Quarry 
Bidge grits. The dip is about 45° to a little south of east. Below 
this conglomeratic bed some 3 or 4 feet of a strong, green, micaceous 
sandstone are visible, the beds of which dip at a rather steeper angle 
decidedly north of east. From the solid rock immediately touching the 
overlying conglomeratic grit I obtained two specimens of cavities, pene- 
trating the sandstone in a curvilinear manner. They are somewhat 
quadrangular in section, 15x20 mm. in diameter, have well-defined 



118 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

boundaries, and contain cores of coarse gritty material, which come out 
cleanly, and in substance match 'with the matrix of the overlying con- 
glomeratic grit. The actual terminations of the cavities were not found. 
The appearances lead to the conclusion that the sandstone had been 
bored after the consolidation of the Lower Comley sandstone by some- 
organism capable of removing the cementing material by solution, and 
of expelling the quartz and other grains thus loosened. Except in the 
matter of length and shape, the cavities present some analogy to the 
modern Pholas borings in the consolidated Triassic sandstones of the 
south Devonshire coast. That they were formed after consolidation is 
rendered the more probable from the fact that the overlying conglome- 
rate, both here and at the Comley Quarry, contains subangular and 
angular fragments of similar compact greenish sandstone. 

No. 29b. — In order to confirm the evidence of unconformity ex- 
hibited in the last-mentioned excavation, a hole was made on the 
opposite or south-east side of the summit, where clearly bedded coarse 
grit of normal Quarry Eidge grit type, with the same dip of 45° to a little 
south of east, was disclosed. 

No. 29c. — As No. 29b did not show the underlying rock, another 
excavation was made a few yards away. Tn this similar grit having the 
same dip was exposed, but more incoherent and of an ochreous colour, 
and, underlying it, a breccia of angular fragments of greenish sandstone, 
separated more or less from one another by coarse, gritty material. 
Underneath this, again, and partly protruding into it from below, was 
a rib of solid green sandstone containing a calcareous band, the dip of 
which was clearly north of east and at a higher angle than that of the 
grit above it. The divergence between the strikes of the two kinds of 
rock, both here and in excavation No. 29a, is about 30°. The calcareous 
band contained several specimens of minute Ostracoda with a thin 
chitinous shell and a shagreened surface. 

No. 29J. — On the north-western side of the summit, and about 
25 yards to the south-west of No. 29a, some large blocks of rock pro- 
truded from the surface, which I refer to the conglomeratic grit, but 
they are not truly in situ. On removing two of these, green sandstone, 
containing a dark, calcareous band, was found, and some pinkish lime- 
stone nodules close to it yielded a profuse number of fossil fragments. 
Among these there are Olenellus, sp., apparently identical with 0. Cal- 
lavei Lapw., Ptychoparia ? unnio Cob}x>ld, , Ptychoparia ? attleborensis 
S. & F., Microdiscus helena Wale. '?., Micinacca ? possibly M. ? ellipso- 
cephaloides Cobbold, a fragment of a rather large trilobite not referable 
to Olenellus Callavei, but possibly belonging to the same genus, Kutorgina 
cingulata Bill., Linnarssonia, sp. (the same species that is so abundant 
in the Comley Quarry), Acrolhele?, and some small Ostracoda. 

This fauna, so far as the very fragmentary material has been worked 
out, is almost exactly the same as that of the Olenellus horizon of the 
Quarry Eidge, but it does not necessarily follow that it is the same band, 
and it is not certain whether the nodules are in situ, or whether they are 
pebbles collected in a hollow behind the dark calcareous band. The 
evidence .points to the conclusion that the greenish micaceous sandstone 
of Eobin's Tump belongs to the Lower Comley sandstone as previously 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PALEOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, ETC. 119 

defined, 1 and that it is overlain unconformably by the conglomeratic 
Quarry Ridge grits of Paradoxides age. Further excavations between 
those numbered 29a and 29d are urgently required. 

Excavations Nos. 30 and 35, at the foot of the North-West Slope of 

Bobin's Tump. 

No. 30. — A natural exposure of Lower Comley sandstone close to 
the stream was opened out and followed along the strike for about 
15 yards. The rock consists of some 6 or 8 feet of greenish micaceous 
sandstone, dipping at 45° to 50° to the east-south-east, and having 
numerous cross fractures at right angles to the strike. About midway 
in the sandstone was a band of clayey material, which on being worked 
yielded residual nodules of rottenstone and sandy, foraminiferal (?) 
limestone containing many specimens of a Hyolithus approaching to the 
form H. fistula Holl. From this band one external cast of a head shield 
of an Olenellus (apparently an undescribed species) and a few other 
trilobitic fragments were collected. The band could only be followed 
for 3 or 4 feet along the strike, and appeared to thin out in the direction 
of the dip. Both it and the sandstone contain numerous examples of 
two forms of burrows. Those of form A are subquadrangular in section, 
with diameters of from 8 to 12 mm. that remain sensibly the same in 
the short lengths of the specimens collected, and have clearly defined, 
brown-stained surfaces. Those of form B are much smaller sinuous 
cavities, without clearly defined boundaries, generally filled with carbo- 
nate, but near the surface, with brown earthy matter or roots of 
plants; they have diameters of about 2 mm. 

No. 31. — About 30 yards to the north-east of No. 30. — A second 
natural exposure of similar rock was opened out and elongated up the 
steep slope of the hill so as to cross the bedding at right angles. About 
23 feet of beds of greenish micaceous sandstone, varying a little in 
toughness and becoming reddish purple at the top, were thus exposed, 
and the dip was observed to remain steadily at 45° to 50° to the south- 
east. 

No. 32. — About 45 yards further towards the north-east. — A small 
natural exposure was cleared of soil and vegetation, and proved to con- 
sist of reddish purple micaceous sandstone of the same aspect as that 
at the top of No. 31. The dip, however, has in the interval worked 
round from south-east to nearly south. 

No. 33. — 10 yards further to the north-east. — Similar rock but of 
the usual greenish colour was seen here and the dip found to be about 
5° to a little west of south. 

A r o. 34. — 60 yards distant from the last to the north-east. — Similar 
greenish rock, but rather softer, was seen, and the dip has reverted to 
the more normal one of about 45° to the east-south-east. 

No. 35. — In the extreme north-east corner of the fences bounding 
the Robins Tump area. — Very fragmentary greenish sandstone was 
observed at this point; and on opening it out there were obscure indica- 
tions of a south-easterly dip. 

' Brit. Assoc. Report. 1908 (Dublin), p. 235, ct s<q. 



120 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

These excavations (Nos. 30 to 35) serve to show that the Lower 
Comley sandstone occupies the north-western slope of Robin's Tump; 
that the beds have a general easterly dip, but that this does not remain 
constant throughout ; and further that, in addition to the calcareous 
bands at the top, the group contains at least one fossiliferous band. 
From a section plotted to a natural scale along a line up the north-west 
slope, it appears that this fossiliferous band is approximately 150 feet 
below the top of the sandstone of the summit, but it is impossible to say 
whether this estimate of thickness is vitiated by faulting or repetition 
of beds. 

Excavations 36 to 40, in the comparatively flat area immediately north 

of Robin's Tump. 

Openings were made at the places marked in order to ascertain, if 
possible, the cause of the complete, change of surface characters 
exhibited in passing from the steep and dry slopes of Robin's Tump to 
the flatter and rather wet space to the north of it, but with no very 
definite result. • 

No. 36, in the northern bank of the stream, showed soft greenish 
sandstone, with a clip parallel to that of No. 30. 

No. 37, though pushed down to a depth of 5 feet, produced nothing 
but broken sandstone of the same type. 

No. 38 was sunk to a depth of 4 feet, and yielded clayey material, 
with a few pieces of the sandstone. 

No. 39 was deepened to 5 feet in a dry soil containing many frag- 
ments of the same kind of rock. 

No. 40 produced nothing but surface clay. 

These excavations, coupled with the surface features and the exist- 
ence of springs in the ground to the west and south-west, suggest the 
occurrence of a set of thin bedded sandstones and shales below the moi'e 
compact sandstones of Robin's Tump. 

General Summary of the Excavations of 1907-08-09. 

The funds originally supplied by the Committee appointed at the 
Leicester Meeting being now exhausted, it seems advisable to gather 
together the principal results of the excavations in one statement : — 

1. The line between the Paradoxides-be&ring Quarry Ridge grits and 
the Olenellus -bearing Lower Comley sandstone is proved to be marked 
by an unconformity. 

2. Below this line the Lower Comley sandstone has been opened 
up at several places, and has been proved to contain fossiliferous bands 
at various distinct horizons. The thickness of the whole group appears 
to reach to several hundreds of feet, and its lower members pass by 
gradations into the Wrekin quartzite. 

3. The Wrekin quartzite has been opened at two places, and is found 
to consist of beds of quartzite of very varying thicknesses, with shaley 
partings. 

i. Just above the (previously known) horizon of Olenellus (JJolniia) 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PALAEOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, ETC. 121 

Vertical Section of the Cambrian Strata of Comley, Shropshire, from observations 
made during the Excavations of 1907, 1908, 1909. 

Local names used iu Thickness 
the Reports in feet 



6hoot Hough Wood 
Shales, 



? 




Li'tgulella Nicltolsoni 
Dic'yonema,sp. 



Interval Unexplored. 



Trcmadoo ? 



Bhoot Rough Road 
Shales, 



' Shoot Rough Road 
Flags. 



Shoot Bough Road 
Sandstone. 



300? 
to 

500? 

18 




\ 



Or/his tenlkularis. 



Orlhis Lindstroemi, Acrotreta socialis, 
Lingnlella ferruginea Obolella ? 

Agnostus fa/lax, Paradoxides davidls, 
Agraulos, Microdiscus, &c. 



Paradoxides rugulosus. 



Interval Unexplored. 



oj Hill House Shales 
g Hill House Grits 
•g Hill House Flags 



Quarry Ridge Grits . 
Black and Grey Lime- 
stones 
Olenellus Limestones 



Lower Coniley Sand- 
j_ stone 



Wrekin Quartzite 



Uriconiau . 



? 

30 
? 



a 

o Quarry Ridge Shales 300 ? 



22 
5 



300? 
to 

400? 



100? 





;*•<"':••'; "»*vV- 




Plychopaiia.' 
Dorypyge. 



Paradoxides Grootnii, Dorypyge, *c. 
( Protolenus, Sirenuella, Anomocart, 
\ Microdiscus lobalus, &c, 

Olenellus Callavei,&c. 



Olenellus, sp., Ilyolithus. 



HyolUhus, sp., near II. tenuislriata. 



Callavei Lapw. and below the unconformity at the base of the Para- 
doxides beds there are some bands of grey limestone, the upper member 
of which has yielded species of the genus Protolenus accompanied by 
other trilobites, some of which are members of the Olenellus fauna in 
America. 

5. The Black Limestone of Comley Quarry occurs above the band 



122 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

with Protolenus and below the base of the Quarry Ridge grits. It has 
hthological affinities with the Grey Limestones below, and with the grits 
above, but its faunal affinities are not yet determined. ' 

6. The conglomeratic portion at the base of the Quarry Ridge grits 
contains angular and subangular fragments of the sandstones and lime- 
stones that occur below it, and its matrix yields species of the genera 
Paradoxides, Dorypyge, Conocoryphe, Hyolithus, and Stenotheca. 

7. The Quarry Ridge grits are succeeded above by a group of shales 
(interspersed with bands of grit), called the Quarry Ridge shales, and 
have a thickness of, probably, 300 feet. 

8. These shales are followed by the Hill House group, consisting of 
flags (with Dorypyge), grits (with Ptychoparia and other undetermined 
trilobites), and shales of unknown thickness with included bands of grit. 

9. A considerable width of unexplored ground intervenes, after 
which the Shoot Rough Road sandstones — with Paradoxides rugulosus 
Corda and the Shoot Rough Road flags, with P. davidis Salter, Agnostus 
fallax Linnrs., Acroireta socialis von Seebach, Orthis Lindstroemi 
Linnrs., and other fossils — have been opened up. 

10. Superior to these flags, and in apparent conformity with them, 
there occurs a large group of shales from which only a scanty fauna has 
been collected. The dominant species is a form closely allied to Orthis 
lenticularis Wahl. 

Owing to the faulted nature of the ground, it is impossible to give 
reliable estimates of the thicknesses of the various group recognisable in 
the Comley area. A study of their general disposition and horizontal 
extent points to an aggregate thickness for the whole of the Comley 
Cambrians exceeding 1,500 feet, and, very possibly, extending to twice 
that amount. 

The diagram above shows the general relations of the various 
groups so far as they are at present known. The Shoot Rough Wood 
shales at the top- have not been touched by the excavations. Their 
Tremadoc age is inferred from Dr. Callaway's discovery in the shales 
east of the Lawley of ' Lingulella Niclwlsoni and Shineton graptolites ' 1 
and from Mr. Gibson's subsequent detection in the shales of Shoot 
Rough Wood of an example of Dictyonema. 

The thickness (100 feet) assigned to the Wrekin quartzite is taken 
from Dr. Callaway's estimate, 2 the excavations not having been suffi- 
ciently extended to allow of any direct measurement of it being made. 

I have again to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. Philip Lake for 
his help in determining the trilobites, and to Dr. C. A. Matley for 
exhaustively examining the brachiopods of the higher horizons, and I 
am very grateful to them for their help. My best thanks are also due 
to Professor Lapworth for continued advice and encouragement during 
the whole of the excavations. 

1 Q.J.O.S., vol. xxxiv., 1878, p. 758. 2 Ibid., p. 759. 



ON SOUTH AFRICAN STRATA. 123 



South African Strata. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
J. W. Gregory (Chairman), Professor A. Young (Secretary), Mr. 
W. Anderson, Professor R. Broom, Dr. G. S. Corstorphine, 
Dr. Walcot Gibson, Dr. F. H. Hatch, Sir T. H. Holland, 
Mr. H. Kynaston, Mr. F. P. Mennell, Dr. Molengraaff, Mr. 
A. J. C. Molyneux, Dr. A. W. Rogers, Professor E. H. L. 
Schwarz, and Professor R. B. Young, appointed to investigate and 
report on the Correlation and Age of South African Strata and on the 
Question of a Uniform Stratigraphical Nomenclature. (Drawn up 
by the Chairman.) 

The unity in structure and geological history of Africa south of the 
Zambesi renders it especially desirable that the rocks of the whole 
subcontinent should be named on a uniform system. The separation 
of the country into six distinct political divisions — Cape Colony, the 
Transvaal, Orangia, Natal, Rhodesia, and German South-West Africa- — ■ 
has led to the study of its geology from various centres and to the 
growth of overlapping systems of nomenclature which are confusing to 
students in other countries and may give rise to future difficulty in 
South Africa. 

The desirability of uniform names for the chief divisions of South 
African geology was especially felt during the visit of the British 
Association to South Africa in 1905. This feeling led to the appoint- 
ment during the meeting at Johannesburg of a Committee to consider 
the possibility of securing greater uniformity in practice between the 
different States. The Committee appointed consists of the following 
members : — - 

Representing Cape Colony. — Dr. A. W. Rogers, Professor R. 
Broom, Professor E. H. L. Schwarz, Professor A. Young (Secretary). 

Representing the Transvaal. — Dr. G. S. Corstorphine, Mr. H. 
Kynaston, Dr. P. H. Hatch, Professor R. B. Young. 

Representing Natal. — Mr. William Anderson. 

Representing Rhodesia. 1 — Mr. A. <T. C. Molyneux 

Sir T. H. Holland, Dr. G. A. F. Molengraaff, Dr. W. Gibson, 
Pi'ofessor J. W. Gregory (Chairman). 

Owing to the wide distribution of the members, it has not been 
possible to arrange a full meeting of the Committee, and most of the 
work has been by correspondence. At meetings of members who 
could attend in London it was resolved (1) that the object of the 
report should be to propose a classification and nomenclature that 

1 Mr. P. P. Mennell was added at the Leicester Meeting in August 1907. 



124 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

could be recommended for adoption among the colonies of South Africa ; 
(2) that the method of procedure should be: — 

(a) Preliminary conferences between the members of the Committee 
resident in each colony, in order that they may report as to the nomen- 
clature and classification best suited to their colony ; 

(b) The circulation of these reports for consideration by all the 
members of the Committee ; 

(c) The submission of all the points at issue in such a form that each 
member of the Committee can vote upon them by post ; and 

(d) The preparation of a report stating the opinions of the Com- 
mittee as thus expressed, and, if possible, to recommend a scheme of 
correlation and a terminology for adoption by all the South African 
colonies. 

After receipt of the various preliminary reports a series of questions 
was drawn up by the Chairman and submitted to the members of the 
Committee for a postal vote. 

The results of this vote are tabulated in Appendix I. 

I. The Nomenclature of the pre-Devonian Rocks. 

The Major Subdivisions. 

The first urgent problem concerns the nomenclature and classifica- 
tion of the pre-Devonian rocks. 

Some of the South African members of the Committee, especially 
those for Cape Colony, regard the treatment of this subject as prema- 
ture. But if no attempt be made to deal with it, there will inevitably 
develop a varied nomenclature which will be confusing to geologists in 
other countries when referring to South African work, and may lead in 
South Africa to the permanent adoption of rival names. 

The oldest known fossiliferous rocks in South Africa are the 
Devonian rocks known as the Cape System. Below this system is a 
vast series of rocks which are unfossiliferous. The only evidence as to 
their age is lithological and stratigraphical. 

These rocks — excluding the unaltered igneous rocks — include: — 

(a) A great series of unfossiliferous sedimentary rocks, quartzites, 
conglomerates, ' shales,' and sericitic schists; 

(b) A series of foliated rocks, including mica schists, hornblende 
schists, and gneisses; the rocks are partly of igneous and partly of 
sedimentary origin. 

1. The rocks of the Rand are the most important members of the 
sedimentary group, and opinion is practically unanimous that the rocks 
of the Rand be called the Witwatersrand System. 

2. There is a majority of nine to six in favour of calling the second 
group — the highly crystalline schists earlier than the Witwatersrand 
System and occurring, for example, in Swaziland and at Barberton — 
the Swaziland System, and for adopting that name for the basal 
crystalline schists of all South Africa. This term is favoured by all 
the representatives of the Transvaal and Natal, by Dr. Molengraaff 



ON SOUTH AFRICAN STRATA. 125 

and Dr. Walcofc Gibson; but it is rejected by three of the four 
representatives of Cape Colony, while the fourth (Professor Schwarz) 
would prefer the adoption of the name Barberton System. The term 
Swaziland System is also rejected by Mr. Molyneux and Mr. Mennell, 
the representatives of Ehodesia. The representatives of each State are 
thus unanimous in their decision for or against the name Swaziland 
System ; and as two States are for it and two against, there does nob 
seem at present any chance of agreement. 

There is also no agreement on the Committee as to the name to be 
adopted for the group to which these two systems probably belong. It 
depends to some extent on the question of their age. 

The sedimentary series, including the quartzites and conglomerates 
of the Band, were at one time believed to be Devonian; but they have 
been gradually moved back to older and older horizons. At present 
they are regarded as possibly Lower Palaeozoic (i.e., Silurian, Ordovi- 
cian, or Cambrian), but more properly as pre-Cambrian. There is no 
absolute evidence as to the age of either of the two great pre-Devonian 
series. It will probably be generally admitted that the non-foliated 
rocks are younger than the schists and gneisses. It is accordingly 
tempting to compare the upper series of non-schistose sediments with 
the Torridonian and Kew'eenawan, and the lower series to the crystal- 
line schists which usually underlie the pre-Cambrian non-schistose 
sediments. 

This view is, however, based only on lithological evidence. Some 
members of the Committee are prepared to accept the view that there 
is such a strong probability of widespread areas of such schists as those 
of the Swaziland group being pre-Cambrian in age that, until definite 
evidence to the contrary is forthcoming, they should be accepted as 
Archean. Such a decision would be convenient, as it would enable 
the rocks to be given a definite position in the colour scheme used on 
the maps ; and, in the opinion of some members of the Committee, this 
position is not likely to be altered. 

The terms available for these rocks are variously used, so it may be 
convenient briefly to refer to their history and the present tendency as 
to their use. 

If the Witwatersrand System and older schists be admitted as pre- 
Cambrian, the first name for them to be considered is that of Archean. 
This term was first proposed by J. D. Dana in 1872 in a paper on the 
Green Mountain Quartzite. He there proposes to rule out the older 
term Azoic, as the era in question was not throughout destitute of life. 
' I propose to use for the Azoic era and its rocks the general term 
Archaean (or Archean), from the Greek apxettos pertaining to the 
beginning. ' * In a footnote he objected to the term Eozoic, owing to the 
doubtful nature of Eozoum, and explains, ' Whatever part of the 
Archean beds are proved to belong to an era in which there was life will 
be appropriately styled the Archeozoic. This term avoids the objection 
which Eozoic derives from the doubtful nature of the Eozoum.' - 

Dana unquestionably proposed the term Archean to include the 

1 ' Green Mountain Geology. On the Quartzite.' Amcr. Jour. Sci., series iii., 
vol. iii., 1872, p. 253- s Ibid. 



126 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

great mass of pre-Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks as well as the basal 
schists; and we may take it that if one name is to be given to all the 
pre -Palaeozoic, then one of Dana's two names, Archean or Archaeozoic, 
has unquestionably strong claims for acceptance. 

In recent years there has been a widely felt tendency to divide the 
pre-Cambrian rocks into two divisions — an upper division of non-foliated 
sediments and a lower division of schists and gneisses to which the term 
Archean is sometimes restricted. Sir A. Geikie, 1 for example, notes 
the proposal to reserve Archean for the igneous rocks and Algonkian 
for the pre-Cambrian sediments. 

As an example of another twofold arrangement may be quoted tbe 
classification in Chamberlin and Salisbury's Geology: — 



Protcrozoic 



fKeweenawan. 
irxuicruzuiu Aniuiikean= Upper Huronian of some authors. 

(Algonkian) | Huronian . 

. . . ["Great Granitoid series (Laurentian) (mainly intrusive). 

Arcnscozoic J Great g e hi s t series (Mona, Kitchi, Keewatin, Quinncssco, 
( Archean complex) j j^^ Huronian of somo author8) .a 

Chamberlin and Salisbury object to the names Algonkian and 
Archean for the primary divisions, on the ground that the names suggest 
that the divisions are systems, such as Cambrian, instead of being 
groups, such as Palaeozoic. 

The Witwatersrand System may be the South African equivalent 
of these non-schistose pre-Cambrian sediments ; and the Swaziland 
System, or whatever name be adopted for the schists, would 
represent the Archean. There seems a tendency to adopt the term 
Algonkian for the non-schistose pre-Cambrian sedimentary rocks, 
though it was founded to include the schists as well ; and a term of 
world-wide application is wanted for such unaltered pre-Cambrian sedi- 
ments as the British Torridonian and Longmyndian, the North American 
Keweenawan, the Scandinavian Sparagmites, the Indian Purana, &c. 
These rocks appear to represent a geological system between the under- 
lying schists and the beginning of the Palaeozoic. 

Chamberlin and Salisbury's classification inverts the use of the word 
'Archaeozoic, which was proposed by Dana in 1872 pre-eminently for 
the pre-Cambrian rocks which might be proved to contain life. He in- 
troduced the term Archean and Archaeozoic when describing one of 
the quartzites, clearly showing that he included the sedimentary as well 
ss the schistose series in the Archean. 

The term Proterozoic was first suggested by Emmons, and rejected 
by Irving in 1888. He then proposed to limit Archean to the basal 
schists, and called the overlying sediments Eparchean, as being upon 
the Archean or Agnotozoic. 3 



1 Text-Book, vol. ii., p. 904. 

2 Chamberlin and Salisbury, Geology, vol. ii., p. 100. 



3 R. D. Irving, ' On the Classification of the Early Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian 
Formations.' Seventh Ann. Rep. U.S. Geol. Surv., 1885-80, p. 454. 



Otf SOUTH AFRICAN STRATA. 127 

Van Hise, however, in 1892 J preferred Proterozoic for the Upper 
sedimentary division, and Archean for the lower crystalline division. 
His Proterozoic was, therefore, equivalent to the Archseozoic of Dana. 

If priority is to count for anything in this matter, and the name of 
the pre-Palseozoic division is to end in ozoic (to conform to the other 
three), then Archseozoic should be adopted for the pre-Cambrian sedi- 
ments; and this use agrees better with the natural meaning of the term, 
for these sediments have traces of an archaic life, whereas the older 
crystalline schists have none. The basic complex below may still be 
appropriately called Azoic, as they have not yet given any certain signs 
of life. 

An alternative explanation that might temporarily meet the case for 
South Africa would be to retain Dana's term Archseozoic for all the pre- 
Palsezoic rocks, including both the Witwatersrand System and the 
Swaziland System or basal complex. 

Two members of the Committee recommend the adoption of 
the term Archean for all the pre-Palseozoic. One (Mr. Molyneux) 
prefers the term Azoic, and Dr. Molengraaff pre-Palseozoic. Dr. 
Hatch and Dr. Corstorphine in their work on the Geology of the 
Transvaal both use the term Archean as exclusive of the Witwaters- 
rand System ; whereas Dr. Eogers, Professor R. B. Young, Mr. 
Molyneux, and Dr. Molengraaff think the term Archean should be 
abandoned from South African geology. Dr. Eogers groups all the 
pre-Devonian rocks as the pre-Cape rocks, a course which, though safe, 
is purely provisional. 

II. The Nomenclature op the Upper phe-Devonian Divisions. 
1. Vaal or Ventersdorp System. 

Above the Witwatersrand System is a series of igneous rocks of the 
Vaal Eiver, which has been called the Vaal Eiver System by Molen- 
graaff and the Ventersdorp Sygtem by Hatch and Corstorphine. The 
votes recorded on this question are five in favour of the name Vaal 
and five in favour of the name Ventersdorp. Professor Schwarz says 
the system should be omitted altogether, as it is composed solely of 
volcanic rocks ; and Dr. Eogers and Mr. Mennell agree with Professor 
Schwarz. This group of rocks can hardly be called a system in the 
sense in which that word is defined by the International Congress, 
namely, one of the primary subdivisions of the Palaeozoic, &c. , such as 
Silurian or Jurassic. 

Three of the representatives of the Transvaal favour the Ventersdorp 
System, two of the representatives of Cape Colony favour the Vaal 
System and one the Ventersdorp System. Mr. Molyneux, from 
Rhodesia, is in favour of the Ventersdorp System. The votes on this 
question are so evenly divided that it is hardly likely that any agree- 
ment will be reached immediately. 

> Bull. U.S. Geol. Surv,, No. 8G, p. 509, 



128 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. ^ . 

2. Potchefstroom or Transvaal System. 

l?or the rocks overlying the amygdaloids there is again a choice be- 
tween two terms, and this question mainly concerns the geologists of 
the Transvaal. 

The name Transvaal System is supported by eight votes, against 
three for the name Potchefstroom System, so that in this case there is 
a strong majority of the Committee in favour of the adoption of the 
older name, the Transvaal System. As the rocks are widely distributed 
in the Transvaal, and as they give rise to some of the most characteristic 
features in the State, the name is perhaps not unsuitable. The name 
Potchefstroom has the advantage of fixing a more precise type 
locality. There are certainly great disadvantages in the use of the name 
of a State as that of a geological system, for the ambiguity (some Trans- 
vaal rocks not being Transvaal rocks) must frequently be inconvenient. 
Hence the term Potchefstroom System would probably occasion less 
inconvenience, but the choice between these two terms will, no doubt, 
be settled by the practice of geologists in the Transvaal. 

3. The Waterberg System. 

The last of the proposed systems for pre-Karroo rocks is that for the 
Waterberg sandstone. There is practical unanimity that these rocks 
should be regarded as a distinct system and called the Waterberg 
System. 

The age of the amygdaloids, the Transvaal and Waterberg Systems, 
is unquestionably doubtful. The Waterberg System lies unconform- 
ably upon the Transvaal System, and that is unconformable upon the 
amygdaloids, which are in turn unconformable upon the Witwatersrand 
System. None of the rocks contains fossils. The Waterberg System 
is, however, regarded with much plausibility as the inland representa- 
tive of the Cape System, and the Cango beds of the southern part of 
Cape Colony may represent the Transvaal System. If so, then the 
Waterberg System would be Devonian, the Transvaal System and the 
Vaal River, or Ventersdorp amygdaloids be Lower Palaeozoic (Silurian, 
Ordovician, or Cambrian). 

III. The Karroo System. 

The classification of the Marine Devonian beds does not involve 
much inter-State difference of opinion, as the marine beds occur only 
in Cape Colony and Natal. The Karroo System is of wider extent, but 
there is less disagreement and overlapping in nomenclatures than with 
the unfossiliferous pre-Devonians. The classification recommended 
by the geologists of Cape Colony is as follows : — 



Karroo System 



( T>rakensbcrg beds. 

„, , c . J Cave sandstone. 

Stormberg Scries . Red bcds . 



VMoltcno beds 



s. 



Beaufort Series 
Dvvyka Series 



ON SOUTH AFRICAN STRATA. 



129 



Representatives of the Karroo Series in Rhodesia were arranged as 
follows by Mr. Molyneux in 1907 : — 



Cape 



Karroo 
System 



Stormberg 
Beaufort . 



Ecca 



Bechuanaland 
Protectorate 



Dolerites . 

Fine sandstones 

at Klaballa 
Tswapong grits . 



Rhodesia 



Sabi and Limpopo 
Valleys 



Tuli lavas and Pipe 

amygdaloids 
Samkoto series . 



Zambesi Valley 

Batoka basalts and 

Dolerite sheets 
Forest sandstones 

Escarpment grits 
Upper Matobola 
Busse beds 
Lower Matobola 
Fine fissile sandstones 



This sequence is so different from that of the southern States that 
at present it would be premature to suggest a detailed correlation, and 
no inconvenience arises from the use of the independent classification. 

The classification for Natal, adopted by Mr. Anderson in his final 
Report (1907), is as follows: — 



Upper Karroo 



Lower Karroo 



f Plateau basalts, top Drakensberg and Rhyolitio 
series of the Lebombo Range in Zululand. 
v Cave sandstones, Drakensberg. 
Red beds, Drakensberg. 
Stormberg series, Drakensberg. 

(Beaufort beds, 
p . f Upper, coal-bearing series. 

\ Lower, shales (glacial). 
Ecca glacial conglomerate (Dwyka). 1 



There has been no representative of Orangia on the Committee, arid 
the representatives of the Transvaal have not called special attention to 
the classification of the Karroo beds, which have not yet received as 
much attention in the Transvaal as in the other States. 

The Committee have received an interesting report from Professor 
Broom as to the correlation of the rocks of the Karroo, and the evidence 
quoted makes it clear that part of the system is to be correlated partly 
with the Permian and partly with the Lower Mesozoic (Trias and Jura). 

1 W. Anderson : Third and Final Report of the Geological Survey of Natal and 
Zululand. Natal Surveyor- General's Department, London. 1907, p. 36. 



1910. 



130 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 




































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ON SOUTH AFRICAN STRATA. 131 

APPENDIX II. 

Report by Professor E. Broom. 

I fear it is premature to decide on a general term for pre-Devonian 
rocks. Archean seems a natural term for the lowest rocks, but, as you 
define it, it becomes impossible. The Malmesbury beds are by no means 
always schists. Clay slate is the general thing, and much of it has very 
little mica. Here and there bands of limestone are met with, not 
apparently greatly altered. Some South African geologists are of 
opinion that the Malmesbury is not so very old, and many beds look 
so fresh that one cannot resist the temptation to look for fossils, and 
occasionally things turn up that have an organic look, but nothing deter- 
minable has been got. At any rate, it is just possible that Malmesbury 
may be Cambrian, though I think all the evidence is in favour of its 
being very much older. Still, there is a doubt, and I fear we cannot use 
Archean for it. In the meantime I am quite agreeable to drop Archean, 
and I do not think Algonkian any better. Take the Dolomite. This, 
according to the suggestion, would be Algonkian, but there seems a prob- 
ability that it is not older than Cambrian. I object to Swaziland System 
being used for all the older beds, because there is no evidence that 
Malmesbury beds, Namaqualand, are of the same age. The evidence 
is rather the other way. 

I object to ' Vaal River ' as a bad term for a formation. ' Vaal ' is 
worse. As well speak of the ' Fawn ' formation. Some English 
scientists sometimes forget that the words they use are very ordinary 
Dutch words. 

The same objection and others might be urged against ' Table Moun- 
tain Series.' The name is too long and out of harmony with other 
geological names. I should prefer ' Tafelberg Series ' or ' Tafelber- 
gian, ' which would be in harmony with ' Witteberg ' and ' Stormberg, ' 
but ' Table Mountain ' seems too firmly established. ' Transvaal 
System ' seems by far the best name. ' Potchefstroom ' is frightful. 

Report by Dr. F. H. Hatch. 

Since I am not in complete accord with some of the statements in 
Professor Gregory's report, perhaps I may be permitted to state briefly 
my own views on the subject which forms the terms of reference to the 
Committee. 

The oldest beds in South Africa known to be fossiliferous are those 
of the Cape System, and the fossil evidence shows them to be of 
Devonian age. Since, at the Cape, the Dwyka Series is in conformable 
relation with the uppermost division of the Cape System (the Witteberg 
beds) and the same series unconformably overlies the Waterberg sand- 
stone in the Transvaal, the latter must be older than the Witteberg beds : 
that is, it must be either equivalent to the lowest division of the Cape 
System (the Table Mountain sandstone), or it must be still older. It 
follows that the underlying systems in the Transvaal' — the Potchef- 
stroom (or Transvaal), the Ventersdorp, the Witwatersrand, and the 
Swaziland Systems — must be all older than the Devonian. I have 

B 3 



132 REPORTS ON THE STATE OV SCIENCE 

shown elsewhere J that, without making any allowance for the great 
intervals between the Waterberg and the Potchefstroom (or Transvaal) 
Systems, between the Potchefstroom and the Ventersdorp Systems, 
between the Ventersdorp and the Witwatersrand Systems, and between 
the Witwatersrand and the Swaziland Systems, there are, reckoning 
from the base of the Waterberg and the top of the Swaziland Systems, 
at least 45,000 feet of strata; while the thickness of the Swaziland 
beds, which is, of course, very great, is unknown. 

The Swaziland System consists largely of crystalline schists with 
intrusive granite-bathyliths, and this, taken together with the fact that 
it lies below three big pre-Devonian Systems of strata, each separated 
from the one above it by great discordances, makes it not unlikely 
that this system represents the Archaean, or a portion of the Archaean, 
of other countries. But since, after all, we only know with certainty 
that it is pre-Devonian, it would be better for present purposes to 
eliminate the use of the word Archaean from South African geology 
altogether. The same reasoning applies to the suggested introduction 
of such terms as Algonkian and Archeozoic. 

As to the Witwatersrand, the Ventersdorp, and the Potchefstroom 
(or Transvaal) Systems, any attempt at correlation with the systems of 
other countries is, in the absence of fossil evidence, out of the question. 

Coming now to nomenclature, the name Witwatersrand System 
is now generally accepted. With regard to the Ventersdorp System, 
this name was proposed by myself 2 for a formation, comprising boulder 
beds, conglomerates, 3 volcanic breccias and lavas, and totalling at least 
8,000 feet, which unconformably overlies the Witwatersrand System, 
and is itself transgressively overlain by the Black Beef Series, or lowest 
beds of the Dolomite Series. The name appears to me decidedly pre- 
ferable to Vaal Biver System, since the latter is apt to lead to a confu- 
sion between the topographical expression, 'Biver System,' and the 
stratigraphical term. Ventersdorp System has, moreover, the priority. 

With regard to ' Potchefstroom System ' versus ' Transvaal System,' 
the latter term is the older ; but since the use of the name of a country 
for a system, which, after all, plays only a minor role in its geological 
structure, seemed as objectionable as if the Devonian System of England 
had been called the 'English System,' Dr. Corstorphine and myself 
proposed that ' Transvaal System ' should be abandoned in favour of 
'Potchefstroom System,' all three members of the system being de- 
veloped in the district of that name, and the nomenclature being in 
conformity with that used in the Witwatersrand, Ventersdorp, and 
Waterberg Systems. 

The term ' Lydenburg System ' would have been eminently suitable 
but for the fact that Dunn had previously used it to include not only 

1 Presidential Address to the Geological Society of South Africa for the year 1906. 
Minutes of Proceedings, Geol. Soc. South Africa, 1906, vol. ix. 

2 F. H. Hatch : ' The Boulder Beds of Ventersdorp,' Trans. Geol. Soc. South 
Africa, vol. vi. (1904), p. 95. ' Vaal River System ' was proposed by Molengraaff in the 
English edition of The Geology of the Transvaal (1904), p. 19. 

8 Prof. Schwarz is incorrect in saying that this is a volcanic series only, for it 
includes boulder beds, conglomerates, and sandstones of sedimentary origin (Elsburg 
Series). 



6N SOtTTH AFRICAN STRATA. 133 

the beds in question, but also everything down to the Namaqualand 
schists (i.e., the Swaziland System). 

Report by Sir T. H. Holland. 

I send herewith some notes which I have hurriedly written regarding 
the questions which you ask in your circular to the Committee on South 
African stratigraphy. It is difficult for me to say exactly how much of 
my Indian experience is of value to you, and it would be much more 
satisfactory, although I see that it is impossible, for the Committee to 
meet and fight out the undetermined questions. From my point of 
view, I have no right to vote on any question except the wide one of 
retaining the term Archaean. For the rest, my remarks are no more 
than suggestions to those who have the requisite local knowledge. 

I am in favour of making two divisions for the pre-Palaeozoic rocks, 
and would suggest the retention of the term Archaean for the basement 
complex of schists and gneisses. The Swaziland series of the Transvaal 
and Natal appear to be essentially similar in lithological characters to 
those of America included in the Archaean. 1 Their stratigraphical 
position being in agreement with their lithological characters, they 
have as much right to be regarded as Archaean as have the formations so 
named in Europe, and the one point to remember is the fact that the 
term Archaean is expressive to the geologist, although no one could prove 
that the Archaeans of America, Europe, and South Africa are con- 
temporaries. The Swaziland Series bears a relation to the younger rocks 
very similar to that existing between Lawson's Ontarian group and the 
Animikies, and a similar relation exists in India between the Dharwars 
and associated gneisses and schists, on the one hand, and the unfossili- 
ferous Cuddapahs and Bijawars, on the other. 

There is no justification for the recent American mutilation of Dana's 
term Archaean ; the gneissose granites, granitoid gneisses, and schists are 
not necessarily older than the Huronians of the typical area, and some- 
times probably they are younger. The separation of the granitoid types 
on the assumption that they possibly represent parts of the primitive 
crust has no scientific foundation, for there may never have been a 
primitive crust in the sense assumed in so many text-books that accept 
the Nebular Hypothesis as an unimpeachable gospel. Possibly rocks 
of the Huronian type, including even the conglomerates, were formed 
long before the growth of the globe noticeably ceased, and it therefore 
seems best to draw a group boundary line at the great Eparchaean 
interval which appears to be so world-wide. Below this line are schists 
of all sorts, of sedimentary as well as of igneous origin, closely folded 
and foliated; above this line, on such stable Horsts as the Great Lakes 
region in America, the central and southern parts of Africa, and the 
Peninsula of India, there are old, generally unfossiliferous, probably in 
all cases pre-Cambrian, rocks that are sometimes unaltered, sometimes 
folded locally, and sometimes metamorphosed locally, but not gathered 
into close folds with gneisses and schists. 

In peninsular India I propose to retain the name Archaean for 

1 The Geology of South Africa, 1905, p. 1 



134 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

the gneisses and schists, including many of obviously sedimentary 
origin. Some of these, distinguished as the Dharwars in the south, and 
as Aravallis, Champaners, and other local series in the north, recall many 
of the features of the Lower Huronians of Canada and of the Swaziland 
series in the Transvaal; hornblende-, chlorite-, and the talc-schists 
interbedded with quartz-hematite and quartz-magnetite schists and, 
rarely, crystalline limestones, are common types in these formations. 
It is impossible to regard the closely folded Dharwars as having been 
laid down on the exposed surfaces of the gneisses near by, when the 
latter often show little more in the way of deformation than might be 
regarded as flow structures developed during consolidation. Yet gneissic 
pebbles are sometimes found in the Dharwar beds, though some of 
these, at any rate, are doubtfully true conglomerates. 

Some of the gneissose granites, indistinguishable from typical 
Archaean gneisses, are certainly younger than some Dharwars, and 
generally it is impossible to unravel the mixture by any classification 
dependent on age. It is, therefore, far more convenient to group all 
such highly foliated rocks in peninsular India as Archaean. The name 
involves no idea other than great age, and, has, therefore, none of the 
objections that might be offered to such terms as Azoic, Eozoic, and 
Archaeozoic. 

I do not see how the term Archaean can give rise to confusion in 
South Africa, and it certainly does convey to the geologist the idea that 
there exists a collection of very ancient rocks which have their nearest 
probable equivalents among the Archaean of North America, India, and 
other parts of the earth's surface where complications have not arisen by 
post-Cambrian folding. There appears to be no call for the manufacture 
of a local 1erm in South Africa or in India; our so-called Archaean rocks 
may not be of the same age as those of America, but they have the 
same relative position in the scale, the same characters, and, with the 
perspective due to this distance of time, we are justified in regarding all 
obviously Archaean rocks as equivalent. 

Algonlcian or Proterozoic. 

For the oldest rocks preserved after the great Eparchaean interval I 
propose to use the term Purana in India. 1 The name means more 
than merely old, for the Puranas, although very old in Indian literature, 
are not the oldest; they are a rdchaufje of the more ancient Hindu 
literature — the alluvial products derived from the basement complex of 
the Archaaan Vedas. Before the term Purana was suggested we had 
numerous local names for the old unfossiliferous formations resting on 
the Archaean gneisses and schists — Cuddapahs, Bijawars, Gwaliors, 
Pengangas, Chilpis, Kurnools, Kaladgis, Bhimas, and Vindhyans. We 
have no positive evidence for the age of these rocks beyond the limits 
Archaean below and about Middle Carboniferous above, the latter limit 
being that determined by the base of the Talchir stage of the Gondwana 
System. The Puranas may be wholly or in part pre-Cambrian in age, 

1 Holland : Presidential Address, Trans. Min. and Oeol. Institute of India, vol. i., 
1906, p. 19< 



ON SOUTH AFRICAN STRATA. 135 

but they appear to be divisible into two divisions which certainly recall 
many of the features of the Animikies and Keweenawans of the Great 
Lakes region in North America, and although, in default of evidence to 
the contrary, it is probable that they are mostly pre-Cambrian, it is 
possible that the Upper Vindhyans were formed since the days of 
Olenellus. One cannot help being reminded by the Upper Vindhyan 
red sandstones of the Cambrian purple sandstones of the Punjab Salt 
Eange, and, because of the way they rest on old unfossiliferous rocks 
of great thickness, of the Potsdam sandstones of America; but these 
obvious temptations have to be resisted, for we have not only no fossil 
evidence, in spite of apparently perfect conditions in the shales and 
marls, but no definite periods of folding that could give a clue of cor- 
respondence with the periods of marked folding in Europe. The term 
Purana is thus of local value and cannot be offered except tem- 
porarily to assist South African geologists. 

The term Algonkian, however, has still less claim to be used in South 
Africa, and, after the mutilation it has undergone in America, it might 
be dropped with advantage there also. The term Proterozoic implies 
conditions that have yet to be established with certainty and is thus also 
unsuitable. I would suggest, therefore, that a local term be used in 
South Africa for the post-Archaean, pre-Palseozoic rocks. A term cor- 
responding to Purana might be suggested by someone conversant with 
the local languages ; otherwise a geographical term would have to serve. 
The term Eparchaean should be confined to the great interval between 
the Archaean and the oldest of the Witwatersrand System, for we should 
not forget that the intervals of no record are as important almost in the 
history of the world as the periods of sedimentation, and the interval 
between the formation of the Swaziland schists and the Orange Grove 
quartzites may have been as great in time as that which has transpired 
since Olenellus lived. 

It would not assist the question to point out the lithological simi- 
larities between the Witwatersrand, Ventersdorp, and Potchefstroom 
(Transvaal) Systems and the Purana rocks of India; for if the Indian 
term were used in South Africa it would be liable there, as here, to 
decapitation on the discovery of fossils in the higher beds. One cannot 
help noticing, however, the similar 'calico rocks,' the jaspers, and the 
great trap-flows that are prominent in our older Puranas, and the 
dolomitic, ' Olifantsklip ' limestones in parts of the higher beds. Not- 
withstanding its obvious objections, I would rather use the term 
Purana in South Africa than the term Proterozoic ; the establish- 
ment of further correspondence with India is likely to be of greater 
value to geology than would be the study of fancied resemblances 
between South Africa and the Northern Hemisphere in Europe and 
America. 

Transvaal Questions. 

6. I vote for the retention of the term Archaean. 

7. Swaziland Series seems unnecessary, unless it can be used for the 
separation of the compact lithological series corresponding to the 
Huronians (Lower Huronians) of America and Dharwars of India. 



136 REPORfg on Tiifl s'tate of science. 

8 to 11. I have no right to vote on the relative value of alternative 
local terms. 

In a subsequent letter, June 11, Sir T. H. Holland adds the 
following : — 

' It is not exactly correct to state that the "Witwatersrand System 
would be the South African equivalent of the American Algonkian, as 
this term is employed in America to include, besides the comparatively 
unaltered Keweenawan and Animikie Series, the foliated and closely 
folded (Lower) Huronians. The use of. a system name to straddle 
across one of the greatest breaks known, namely, that between the 
(Lower) Huronians and the Animikies, is enough to condemn the term; 
but, as it has been used so commonly in this way, it would be 
impossible, now to use the term in South Africa ; for the Swazi- 
land Series, according to Hatch and Corstorphine, 1 evidently in- 
cludes rocks that would be included in the American Algonkian. 
If the term Algonkian had been made to extend from the base 
of the Cambrian to the epi-Huronian, infra-Animikie unconformity, 
it would have had an extended use in stratigraphy ; but it is too 
late now to change its meaning. If, therefore, no suitable local term 
can be devised for the pre-Palaeozoic rocks lying unconformably on the 
Swaziland schists and gneisses, the Indian name Purana might be 
borrowed; it covers all old unfossiliferous rocks (in part or wholly pre- 
Cambrian) down to the base of the oldest rocks resting unconformably 
on the gneisses, schists, and closely folded, metamorphosed Dharwar 
(Lower Huronian) Series. 

' For all rocks below this great break I use the term Archaean in 
India, and, although this use of the term is not exactly that proposed 
by Dana (who evidently intended originally to include the unmetamor- 
phosed pre-Palaeozoic sediments), it corresponds to the recognised use 
of the term in Canada, and to the meaning adopted by Van flise in his 
memoir on the " Iron-Ore Deposits of the Lake Superior Region. " (21st 
Ann. Eep. U.S. Geol. Surv., Part III.); that is, after he had published 
other views in his well-known Bulletin No. 86 on the Archaean and 
Algonkian. 2 

' It is true that local unconformities between the (Lower) Huronian 
(Dharwarian of India) and the older gneisses are shown by conglom- 
erates, and possibly in time the Archtean may be subdivided locally to 
recognise these. But, although these conglomerates, that include 
pebbles of gneiss, indicate a pre-existing gneissose series, there are many 
granitoid gneisses in the complex that are younger than the associated 
Dharwars (and- — Lower — Huronians). Hence it is possible to split up 
the Huronian-Laurentian (Archaean) complex only locally, and this fact 
should be contrasted with the great widespread unconformity above the 
group composed of the basal complex and (Lower) Huronian 
(Dharwarian) rocks. 

' Lithologically the Dharwars in India can be distinguished from the 
more crystalline gneisses and schists with which they are folded, just 
as the Huronians (Lower Huronians) can generally be separated from 

1 Geology of South Africa, 1905, p. 101. 

» See discussion by C. K. Leith, Journ. Qeol, x., 1602, p. 894. 



ON SOUTH AFRICAN STRATA. 137 

the Laurentians ; but no one can say that the Huronians are all younger 
than all the rocks that would be readily ascribed to the Laurentian. Nor 
in India would it be right to say that the Dharwars are, as a whole, 
younger than many large spreads of granitoid gneisses, which our earlier 
workers readily assumed, in conformity with the prevalent views of the 
time, to be older. Evidently, also, among the Swaziland and Namaqua- 
land Series there are many altered clastic rocks that retain enough of 
their original chemical (if not physical) characters to be distinguishable 
from the gneisses and granitoid rocks of the fundamental complex. 
These might be distinguished lithologically under local names ; but the 
whole mass of closely folded and foliated rocks ought to be placed to- 
gether in one group : for this group the name Archaean might be con- 
veniently used, in spite of the fact that in its original sense it would cover 
the Witwatersrand beds, and in spite of the fact that its meaning has 
since been restricted by many American authors to the gneissose rocks 
of the basal complex. Clearly, if our terminology is to express strati- 
graphical history, the epi-Swaziland unconformity should be recognised 
as a great dividing line; all below should be in one group, and for this 
group I would use the name Archaean ; all pre-Palseozoic rocks above 
should be given another group-name, either a local name or Purana. 

' I have already lodged objections against terms like Azoic, Eozoic, 
Archseozoic, and Proterozoic; you might at the same time have led to 
the slaughter such terms as Hypozoic, Prozoic, and Pyro-crystalline ; 
Chamberlin and Salisbury have spoilt the chances of perpetuating their 
group-names by inverting the meaning of the term Archaeozoic as pro- 
posed by Dana. They have also unfortunately drawn a group-boundary 
line between the Huronian and the Schist Series, at the same time 
including within their Proterozoic group an interval probably long 
enough to be regarded as an aeon. We cannot now use the term 
Archaeozoic for pre-Cambrian sediments and Azoic for the complex 
below. The use of the term Archaean that I have suggested corre- 
sponds with the classification adopted by Hatch and Corstorphine. I 
have offered to lend the term Purana for the pre-Palaeozoic sediments 
above the Swaziland Series, as the term has been kept from the changes 
of meaning to which Algonkian has been subjected by the Americans. 

' Before you close your report, may I suggest that you should read 
again G. M. Dawson's Address to Section C at Toronto in 1897? He 
there shows how the use of the term Huronian for the sedimentary 
rocks now known to the Canadian Survey as Animikie arose through a 
clerical error in describing the geographical distribution of Logan's 
typical Huronian. Unfortunatelv the rocks, thus indicated by mistake 
in the typical Huronian, are well exposed in a very accessible part of 
the lake shore, and thus a large number of geologists have gathered 
their ideas of the Huronian in a way that would not have been possible if 
these wrongly included exposures were in a very inaccessible region. 
You will remember that the break between the Huronian proper and the 
Animikie Series, on which Dawson laid so much stress, was also 
noticed by Van Hise in his paper on " An Attempt to Harmonise 
some apparently Conflicting Views of Lake Superior Stratigraphy 
(Amer. Journ. Sci., Series in., vol. si. 1891, pp. 117-137). Van Hise 
observed the importance of this great break too late apparently to enable 



138 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

him to rearrange his ideas for his Bulletin No. 86, and it was only after- 
wards, when writing his memoir on the Lake Superior Iron-Ores, that 
he broke loose from the American Survey traditions and grouped to- 
gether in the Archaean the sedimentary iron formations of Vermilion 
and Marquette, which he had formerly placed in the Algonkian.' 

Report by Mr. H. Kynaston. 
Older Rocks. 

While fully admitting the desirability of securing greater uniformity 
of geological nomenclature between the different colonies, I consider it 
inadvisable at present to introduce names of European or American 
groups and systems into South African geology, except for purposes of 
comparison and correlation. These can be clearly defined in the 
Northern Hemisphere, but are not so suitable for South African strati- 
graphy, even if the ages were known of all the South African forma- 
tions. For example, the Karroo System includes a practically uninter- 
rupted succession of beds, which can be correlated with strata ranging 
from the Carboniferous to the Jurassic. 

With regard to the term Archaean, there is not so much objection to 
this as there is at present to the use of such strictly defined terms as 
Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, &c, provided it is employed in its wide sense. 
If so used, it might provisionally include all rocks older than the Wit- 
watersrand System — i.e., the older granites, the Swaziland sedimentary 
beds (Moodie's series in the Eastern Transvaal and Kraaipan formation 
in the West and Bechuanaland Protectorate), and the basal gneissic and 
schistose complex. It would be unwise to include the Witwatersrand 
System also in the Archaean, as we do not yet know whether this may 
not correspond to part of the early Palaeozoic. 

Ventersdorp System. 
The rocks included in this system have not yet been properly sur- 
veyed or classified in the Transvaal, but they should certainly rank as a 
separate system, since there is a marked break both above and below 
them, and they include sedimentary as well as volcanic rocks, both in 
the Transvaal and Cape Colony (Bechuanaland and Griqualand West). 
In the north of the latter colony they have been subdivided into three 
series, which are probably also developed in the western Transvaal. 

Transvaal System. 
We consider this to be a suitable term, which should be retained, 
especially since it is now generally in use in South African geological 
literature, for the Black Eeef, Dolomite, and Pretoria series, the equiva- 
lents of which in northern Cape Colony are as follows, in descending 
order: — - 

Pretoria series . , Griqua Town series. 

[The Ongeluk volcanic series, or Middle Griqua 
Town beds of Rogers, are probably represented 
by the basie amygdaloidal lavas in the middle 
",'..■-■ of the Pretoria series.] 

Dolomite series . . Dolomitie limestones of 1 . ,, n , 
Black Reef series . , Basal quartzes pf I Campbell Rand series. 



ON SOUTH AFRICAN STRATA 



139 



The Waterberg System. 

According to the detailed work of Mr. Mellor in the Middelburg 
district this system may be subdivided as follows: — 



Upper 
Lower 



Sandstone and quartzite series 
Shale and sandstone series . 
Volcanic series, with interbedded 
shales and sandstones 



N. Cape Colony 
Upper Matsap beds. 

Probably Middle (volcanic) 
and Lower Matsap. 



The Sijarira and Umkondo series of Rhodesia may very probably be 
the equivalent of the Waterberg System. 



Karroo System. 

With regard to the classification of this system, we consider that 
that of Cape Colony should be followed as far as possible, as it is there 
that the system has its maximum development; also it is important to 
distinguish clearly between the glacial and non-glacial beds, between 
which there is apparently in the Transvaal a slight unconformity. We 
also approve of the proposal of the Cape Colony members of the Com- 
mittee to abandon ths term Ecca and extend that of Beaufort to 
include the Ecca. The term Dwyka, however, should be retained to 
include the beds of glacial origin at the base oE the system. 

The following table represents the Karroo System as developed in 
the Transvaal, with the probable Cape Colony and Ehodesian equiva- 
lents : — - 



Karroo System. 



Volcanic series 



Bush veld sand- 
stone scries 



' Lebombo rhyolites 
Bush veld ainygda- 
loids 

Fine red and yellow 

sandstones 
Sandy marls and 

shales 



Coal-measure series 



(Slight unconformity) , 

Glacial conglomerates and shales 
(Dwyka) 



(absent) 
Volcanic group ^ 

Cave sandstone 
Bed beds 

Molteno beds ? 
Beaufort serks 



Ecca (practi- 
cally absent 
in Transvaal), 

Dwyka series 



Tuli amygdaloid and 
Batoka basalts. 

' Forest sandstones, 
Samkoto series and 
Klaballa sandstones 
of Bechuanaland 
Protectorate. 

Coal-measure series 
(including escarp- 
ment grits, Matobola 
and Busse beds). 



Glacial conglomerates. 



Report by Mr. P. P. Menkell. 

lie the South African Correlation Committee, I beg to submit the 
following notes, suggestions, and criticisms on Professor Gregory's draft 
report : — 



140 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

On page 124, under b, the reference to ' mica schists,' &c. , might 
well be omitted, as the South African rocks are almost exclusively 
horn-blendic and usually massive. 

Re Swaziland System, there is no evidence whatever of its relation- 
sliips to the rocks of other parts of South Africa, and, moreover, where 
are we to find a reliable and detailed field and petrographical account of 
the typical area to provide a basis for comparison? The Malmesbury 
beds are far more likely to be equivalent to the Band group than to the 
Swaziland series, provided the latter do not prove to be metamorphosed 
representatives of the former. 

Re term Archaean, it should, of course, be used in the comprehensive 
sense in which it was originally proposed, and include therefore such 
rocks as those of the Eand. Any divisions of the older rocks should be 
considered merely as subdivisions (systems) of the ArchaBan group. 
The term Algonkian is not very euphonious — Huronian would be far 
better if such terms are needed, which I doubt. It has also to be 
remembered that, barring a few doubtful ' Basement schists,' in 
Bhodesia, at least, all the crystalline ' basal complex ' are altered igneous 
rocks intrusive in the schists of sedimentary origin. The same fact was 
accepted by the International Conference of the United States and 
Canadian geologists, I notice, lately, for the relations of the Laurentian 
and Huronian rocks. 

Re other matters, why not shorten ' Witwatersrand ' to the far 
more euphonious ' Band, ' which everybody really uses ? I agree with 
Brofessor Schwarz re the Vaal Biver or Ventersdorp series ; as igneous 
rocks they have no claim to the rank of a separate system. I must 
confess, indeed, that I do not like to use names for ' systems ' which 
are unknown to other parts of the world, though we must, of course, 
have local names for purely local purposes. 

I consider it premature to subdivide the Bhodesian coal-beds, as the 
divisions made by Mr. Molyneux at Sengwe cannot be recognised even 
at Wankies, which is a very short distance off, as things go in South 
Africa. There also appear to me the strongest objections to including 
the Forest sandstones even provisionally among the Karroo beds, though 
the latter do appear to include nearly the whole Mesozoic period. The 
Forest sandstones are apparently separated by a great unconformity 
from the underlying upper beds of the Coal series (presumably Upper 
Beaufort, or even later), and it is not very clear either that they do not 
include beds of very different ages. It may be noted that the red beds 
of the Forest sandstones occur above the basalts, or, in rare cases, 
intercolated between them. 

The following is the Bhodesian sequence as at present known : — 



Somabula gravels and sands . 

Forest sandstones with interbedded basalts 

Coal series ( = Beaufort and Ecca beds) . 

Sandstones (? Waterberg) 

Dolomite ...... 

Conglomerate series, with interbedded lavas 

Banded ironstone series . . 

? Basement schists .... 



? Tertiary. 
1 Cretaceous. 

Permian. 
? Lower Palaeozoic. 



Arehse&n (with intru* 
sive granites, &c). 



On soufH African strata. 141 

Report by Dr. A. W. Eogers. 

1 tliink the result of the discussion is chiefly of value in showing 
how we stand in these matters, though I am very sorry that all the 
trouble you have taken has not produced the unanimity you would like; 

I think you are inclined to overestimate the present value of our 
knowledge of South African geology. One great defect is the want of 
information as to the relative ages of the large granite intrusions. If 
we could say with certainty that the Cape Town, Namaqualand, Gor- 
donia, Bechuanaland, and Transvaal (old) granites were of one age, 
I would gladly agree to the term Swaziland System for all older 
sedimentaries ; but this is not the case, and the N.W. Cape area i3 
too little known to allow the matter to be fairly discussed. In ten 
years' time, perhaps, we shall be better off. 

Both du Toit and I are at the present moment much exercised — 
both in leg and mind — on this granite question. We do not agree on all 
points, but that is not from any motive but a desire to get to the 
bottom of it. I do not like to throw whatever weight my decision would 
carry into one scale at present. 

I think Schwarz's scruples about the Vaal or Ventersdorp System 
well founded. I think I made a similar sort of remark in Annual 
Report for 1906, but cannot refer you to the page, as I am in camp in 
Prieska district. It comes in the section on the Pneil series in a report 
on Vryberg and Kuruman. 

The connections between the Vaal and Transvaal ' systems ' is very 
close, and the unconformities are not limited to the break between the 
two systems. 

Supplementary Report by Dr. Hatch. 

Since I wrote the above notes I have spent the best part of a year 
in Natal, and have had an opportunity of studying the ancient floor of 
crystalline schists and intrusive granites which there emerges from 
below the horizontally bedded Karroo and Table Mountain Sandstone 
formation, and is admirably exposed in the deeply incised valleys of 
Zululand. The schistose rocks, which are largely of sedimentary 
origin, are of great variety — dark-coloured hornblende-schists much 
permeated with aplite and pegmatites, and frequently cut by intrusions 
of serpentine, occur in the Mpapala, Fort Yolland, and Lower Tugela 
River districts; mica-schists and kyanite-schists, in the Nkandhla 
Forest and on the Bobe Bidge; micaceous and chloritic schists, in the 
Mfongosi Valley ; conglomerates, quartzites, quax'tz-felspar-schists, and 
sericite-schists, in the Buffalo River and Insuzi Valleys; and magnetite- 
quartz-schists, jasper-schists, and quartzites, in the Vryheid district. 

There is no lithological succession that at all resembles the typical 
Rand section, and I do not think that representatives of the Witwaters- 
rand System exist in Natal. Nor do I agree with Voit 1 that the horn- 
blende-schists, with their permeation veins of aplite and pegmatite, 
can be directly correlated with the Lewisian or Laurentian gneiss. 

"With regard to the red sandstone and conglomerate formation, 

1 Trans. Oeol. Soc. S.A., vol. x. (1907) pp. 93 94. 
1910 L 



142 Reports on the state of science'. 

which, since the days of Sutherland, has been correlated with the Table 
Mountain Sandstone of Cape Colony, this formation bears the closest 
resemblance to the Waterberg Sandstone of the Transvaal, and thus 
lends further support to the correlation of the latter with the Cape 
formation. If this view be correct, the Matsap beds of Griqualand 
West, which have been shown by Sogers 1 to be older than the Table 
Mountain Sandstone of the Cape, cannot be correlated with the Water- 
berg Sandstone of the Transvaal. 



Photographs of Geological Interest. — Seventeenth Report of the Coni' 
mittee, consisting of Professor J. Geikie {Chairman), Professorj 
W. W. Watts and S. H. Reynolds {Secretaries), Dr. Tempest 
Anderson, Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. Crook 
Professor E. J. Garwood, Messrs. W. Gray, R. Kidston, and 
A. S. Reid, Dr. J. J. H. Teall, and Messrs. R. Welch, W. 
Whitaker, and H. B. Woodward. {Draivn up by the Secretaries.) 

The Committee have to report that since the issue of the last report 
in 1908 there have been received 410 photographs for the national 
collection. The total number in the collection is now 5,227, and the 
yearly average amounts to about 250. 

These photographs have been received, acknowledged, catalogued, 
mounted, and stored at a cost to the Association of 4"6i. per print, 
or, adding the collection of about 453 duplicates, a cost of 4"3tZ. per 
photograph. 

The Geological Survey continues to provide accommodation for the 
storage of the collection and provides facilities for inspection by the 
public and work upon the collection by the Secretaries. 

The annexed geographical scheme shows the distribution of the 
new accessions among the counties. Dumbartonshire figures in the 
scheme for the first time, and notable additions are recorded in the 
counties of Dorset, Gloucester, Somerset, Yorkshire, Pembroke, 
Inverness, Galway, Mayo, and the Isle of Man. 

The principal contributors this year are Mr. Bingley and Professor 
Reynolds. The former continues his survey of the Yorkshire coast, 
and sends also series from Richmond, Leeds, and Pickering. He con- 
tributes, moreover, photographs from the Isle of Man and the Welsh 
borderland. Professor Eeynolds gives a set of serial sections taken on 
both sides of the classical Avon Gorge, and series from Skye and the 
Dorset coast. In addition, he sends photographs from Hereford, 
Somerset, Yorkshire, a considerable Welsh series, chiefly Carboniferous 
and volcanic, and several sets from regions in Scotland and Ireland. 

An interesting and beautiful set of Carboniferous and Devonian 
volcanic photographs comes from Mr. R. Vowell Sherring, and 
examples taken during excursions of the Geologists' Association by 
1 The Geology of Cape Colony (London, 909), p. 111. 





Previous 


Additions 




Counties 


Collection 


(1910) 


Total 


England — 








Cornwall 


88 


4 


92 


Devonshire 








206 


2 


208 


Dorset 








136 


38 


174 


Gloucestershire 








84 


39 


123 


Herefordshire 








2 


3 


5 


Hertfordshire 








20 


2 


22 


Kent . 








155 


6 


161 


Shropshire . 








63 


1 


64 


Somerset 








122 


47 


169 


Staffordshire 








54 


2 


56 


Surrey 








09 


6 


75 


Sussex 








18 


8 


26 


Yorkshire . 








888 


72 


960 


Others 








1,149 


— 


1,149 


Total .... 

Wales — ■ 


3,054 


230 


3,284 








Carnarvonshire .... 


109 


9 


118 


Denbighshire 






16 


8 


24 


Merionethshire . 






52 


1 


53 


Montgomeryshire 






13 


4 


17 


Pembrokeshire . 






45 


18 


63 


Radnorshire 






21 


5 


26 


Others 






103 


— 


103 


Total .... 

Channel Islands 

Isle of Man 

Scotland — 


359 


45 


404 


38 


— 


38 


61 


41 


102 








Argyllshire 


36 


4 


40 


Ayrshire 






6 


16 


22 


Dumbartonshire 






■ — 


4 


4 


Edinburgh . 






54 


7 


61 


Inverness-shire . 






143 


34 


177 


Others 






299 


— ■ 


299 


Totr.l .... 
Ireland — 


538 


65 


603 




| 






44 


5 


49 


Gal way 


33 


13 


46 




14 


11 


25 


Others 

Total .... 
Rock Structures, &c. 
■ Summary. 


578 


■ — 


578 


669 


29 


698 


98 


— 


98 








England 


3,054 


230 


3,284 


Wales . 






359 


45 


404 


Channel Islands 






38 


— 


38 


Isle of Man. 






61 


41 


102 


Scotland 






538 


05 


603 


Ireland 






669 


29 


698 


Rock Structures, &c. 




98 


— 


98 


Total . 


• 


• 


• 


4,314 


410 


5,227 

1 



&« 



144 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

Mr. T. W. Reader and Mr. James Parker. Mr. Preston contributes 
Cornish photographs taken with his usual skill. 

Other contributors include Mr. E. S. Cobbold, Mr. A. H. Bassano, 
Mr. Baldock, Mr. Rodda, Mr. Russell F. Gwinnell, Mr. A. E. V. 
Zealley, Miss M. S. Johnston, and Miss Hendriks. To all these ladies 
and gentlemen the Committee owe and desire to tender their thanks. 

No important additions bave been made to the duplicate series. Tbe 
slides have been exhibited by Mr. Whitaker to the following, among 
other Societies: The Battersea Field Club, the Hastings and St. 
Leonards Natural History Society, the Croydon branch of the Selborne 
Society, the Holmesdale Natural History Club, the Ipswich and District 
Field Club, the Tunbridge Wells Natural History Society, and the 
South Croydon Literary Society. 

The Committee note with pleasure the issue by His Majesty's 
Geological Survey of a first list of geological photographs taken by the 
staff of that body, and that the issue of a list of photographs taken by 
the Scottish staff is promised shortly. The Geologists' Association also 
continues to encourage the taking and registration of geological photo- 
graphs. 

Applications by Local Societies for the loan of the duplicate collection 
of prints or slides should be made to one of the Secretaries. A descrip- 
tive account of them can also be lent. The carriage and the making 
good of any damage to slides are the only expenses to be borne by the 
borrowing Society. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed, that 
Professor J. Geikie be Chairman, and Professors W. W. Watts and 
S.. H. Reynolds joint Secretaries. 

SEVENTEENTH LIST OF GEOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 
From August 22, 1908, to August 23, 1910. 

This is a list of the geological photographs which have been received 
and registered by the Secretaries of the Committee since the publication 
of the last Report. 

Contributors are asked to affix the registered numbers, as given 
below, to their negatives for convenience of future reference. Their own 
numbers are added in order to enable them to do so. 

* indicates that photographs and slides may be purchased from the 
donors or obtained through the address given with the series. 

Copies of other photographs desired can, in most instances, be 
obtained from the photographer direct, or from the officers of the local 
society under whose auspices the photograph was taken. The cost at 
which copies may be obtained depends on the size of the print and on 
local circumstances, over which the Committee have no control. 

The Committee do not assume the copyright of any photographs 
included in this list. Inquiries respecting photographs, and applica- 
tions for permission to reproduce them, should be addressed to the 
photographers direct. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS Of GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 145 

Copies of photographs should be seufc unmounted to 
Professor S. H. Eeynolds, 

The University, Bristol, 

accompanied by descriptions written on a form prepared for the purpose, 
copies of which may be obtained from him. 

The size of photographs is indicated as follows : — 

L = Lantern size. 1/1 = Whole-plate. 

1/4 = Quarter-plate. 10/8 =10 inches by 8. 

1/2 = Half -plate. 12/10 = 12 inches by 10, &c. 

E. signifies Enlargements. 

ACCESSIONS, 1908-1910. 

ENGLAND. 

Cornwall. — Photographed by Harold Preston,* Alverne House, 

Penzance. 1/1. 
Regd. 
No. 

4801 (12) Perranuthnoe, Mounts Bay . Marine erosion of cliffs of ' head.' 1908. 

4802 (13) Trevene Cove, Perranuthnoe, Raised Beach. 1908. 

Mounts Bay. 

4803 (14) Pornanvon Cove, St. Just . „ „ 

4804 (15) „ „ . „ (near view). 1908. 

Devonshire. — Photographed by F. T. Blackburn,* Budleigh Salterton. 
Presented by E. S. Cobbold, F.G.S. 1/2. 

4805 ( ) Budleigh Salterton. . . Pebble Bed, faulted. 1909. 

4806 ( ) „ ... Pebble Bed and false-bedded Sand. 1909. 

Dorsetshire.— Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 

The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

4807 (06, 100) Black Nore Point, Port- Portland Stone underlain by Portland 

land Isle. Sand. 1906. 

4808 (06, 101) Black Nore Point and Cliffs of Portland Beds capped by Pur- 

neighbouring cliffs, Portland Isle beck. 1906. 

4809 (06, 102) Black Nore Point and Cliffs of Portland Beds capped by Pur- 

neighbouring cliffs, Portland Isle beck. 1906. 

4810 (06, 103) Black Nore Point and Cliffs of Portland Beds capped by Pur- 

neighbouring cliffs, Portland Isle beck. 1906. 

4811 (06, 104) Near Black Nore Point, Chert bands in Portland Stone. 1906. 
* Portland Isle. 

4812 (06, 106) W. side of Portland Isle Marine erosion of Portland Beds. 1906. 

4813 (06, 107) „ „ Talus of Portlandian. 1906. 

4814 (06, 108) Black Nore Point, W. Portland Stone on Portland Sand. 1906. 

side of Portland Isle. 

4815 (06, 109) Black Nore Point, W. Portland capped by Purbeck, big talus 

side of Portland Isle. at foot of cliff. 1906. 

4816 (06, 110) Portland Bill . . . Portland Stone. 1906. 

4817 (06, 111) „ . . . 

4818 (06, 112) S. of Black Nore Point, Stools of trees in Purbeck Beds. 1906, 

Portland. 

4819 (06, 114) S. of Black Nore Point, 

Portland. 

4820 (06, 113) Near Easton, Portland . Contorted Purbeck in railway cutting. 

1906. 



146 



reports On The state of science. 



Rcgd. 
No. 
4821 
4822 
4823 

4824 

4825 

4826 

4827 

4828 
4829 
4830 
4831 

3832 

4833 

4834 

4835 

4836 

4837 
4838 

4839 

4840 

4841 

4842 
4843 
4844 



06, 115) Near Portland Bill . 

06, 117) Bran Point'' Osmington 

06, 119) Osmington Mills . 

06, 120) Bran Point, Osmington 

06, 121) Bencliff, near Weymouth 

06, 122) Cliffs N. of Sandsfoot, 
Weymouth. 

06, 123) Osmington Mills . 

06, 124) 

06, 125) „ . . 

06, 126) Near Sandsfoot Castle, 
Weymouth. 

06, 127) Near Sandsfoot Castle, 
Weymouth. 

06, 128) Near Sandsfoot Castle, 
Weymouth. 

06, 129) Sandsfoot, near Wey- 
mouth. 

06, 130) Sandsfoot, near Wey- 
mouth. 

06, 131) Sandsfoot, near Wey- 
mouth. 

06, 132) Portland .... 

06, 133) Between White Notho 
and the Durdle Promontory. 

06, 135) Cliff E. of Hohvorth 
House, N.E. of Weymouth. 

06, 136) Cliff E. of Hohvorth 
House, N.E. of Weymouth. 

06, 138) The Durdle Promontory 
and the neighbouring cliffs. 

06, 140) Near Hohvorth House, 

W. of White Notho. 
00, 143) Near Hohvorth House, 

W. of White Nothe. 
06, 142) Near Hohvorth House, 

W. of White Nothc. 



Raised Beach on Portland. 1906. ■ 

»» >> >> 

Ledges formed of hard bands in the 

Corallian. 
Corallian section, Sandsfoot Beds above, 

Trigonia Beds below. 1906. 
Corallian section, Sandsfoot Beds with 

Trigonia Beds at foot of cliff. 1906. 
Corallian section, Sandsfoot Grit on 

Sandsfoot Clay. 1906. 
Trigonia Beds at foot of cliff. 1906. 

Large dogger in the Bencliff Grits. 1906. 



Ferruginous concretions in the Sandsfoot 
Grits (Corallian). 1906. 

Ferruginous concretions in the Sandsfoot 
Grits (Corallian). 1906. 

Ferruginous concretions in the Sandsfoot 
Grits (Corallian). 1906. 

Branching ' fucoidal bodies ' in the Sands- 
foot Beds (Corallian). 1906. 

Branching ' fucoidal bodies' in the Sands- 
foot Beds (Corallian). 1906. 

Branching ' fucoidal bodies' in the Sands- 
foot Beds (Corallian). 1906. 

End of the Chesil Beach. 1906. 

Chalk Cliffs. 1900. 

Chalk resting on Upper Grccnsand. 
1906. 

Chalk resting on Upper Grccnsand. 
1906. 

The Durdle Promontory is Portland ian ; 
the high cliffs to the left are Chalk. 
1906. 

Unconformable junction of Upper Cre- 
taceous and Upper Jurassic. 1906. 

Unconformable junction of Upper Cre- 
taceous and Upper Jurassic. 1906. 

Upper Jurassic rocks, Portlandian section 
to the left, Kimmeridge Clay in right 
lower half. 1906. 



Gloucestershire. — Photographed by Miss Eileen Hendriks, 
405 Hagley Road, Birmingham. 1/4. 

4845 ( ) Dudbridge, nr. Stroud . . Pit in Middle Lias. 1908. 

4846 ( ) Brcakheart Hill, nr. Nibley Upper Trigonia Grit and Freestone ; 

false bedding. 1908. 

4847 ( ) Cam Long Down, nr. Nibley An outlier of the Cotteswolds. 1908. 

Photographed by Miss M. S. Johnston, Hazelwood, Wimbledon. 1/4. 

4848 ( ) Leckhampton Hill. . . Upper Trigonia Grit resting on bored sur- 

face of Noigrove Freestone. 1908. 

4849 ( ) Damery Bridge, nr. Tort- Quarry in Trap. 1908. 

worth. 

4850 ( ) Damery Bridge, nr. Tort- ■,( >i 

worth, 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 147 

PhotograpJied by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 
The University, Bristol. 1/2 and 1/4. 
Rcgd. 
No. 

4851 (05, 21) Avon section, lower cut- Modiola Beds (Km.). 1905. 

ting on Avonmouth line. 

4852 (05, 22) Avon section, upper cut- Br3'ozoa Bed (hor. o) and Modiola BoJs 

tin ; on Avonmouth line. (hor. Km.). 1905. 

4853 (05, 23) Avon section, lower out- Modiola Beds (Km.). 1905. 

ting on Avonmouth line. 

4854 (05, 24) Avon section, lower cut- Bryozoa Bed (hor. a) and Modiola Bed; 

ting on Avonmouth line. (hor. Km.). 1905. 

4855 (05, 25) Avon section, mouth of Passage Beds to O.R.S. 1905. 

Durdham Down tunnel. 

4856 (05, 20) Avon section, Sea Walls, Z and K Beds. 1905. 

&c. 

4857 (05, 27) Avon section, general Succession Z, to D,. 1905. 

s iew from the N. 

4858 (05, 28) Avon section, Black Rook Z Beds with K Beds below. 1905. 

Quarry and other exposures. 

4859 (05, 29) Avon section, Blaok Rook Z Beds and part of C Beds. 1905. 

Quarry. 

4860 (05, 30) Avon section, Press, and Z Beds. 1905. 

Black Rock Quarries. 

4861 (99,31) Avon section, .he Gully. C Beds, Dolomites and Caninia Oolite. 

1899. 

4862 (OS, 31) Avon section, between the Caninia Dolomites (G.). 1905. 

Great Quarry and the Gully. 

4863 (05, 32) Avon section, Gully and Caninia Dolomites and over and under- 

did of Great Quarry. lying strata. 1905. 

4864 (05, 33) Avon section, N. ends Detail S, Beds. 1905. 

Great Quarry. 

4865 (05, 34) Avon section, Great S Beds. 1905. 

Quarry. 

4866 (05, 35) Avon seotion, Great S Beds and base of D,. 1905. 

Quarry. 

4867 (05, 36) Avon seotion, Clifton . D Beds between Point Villa and the 

Great Quarry. 1905. 

4868 (05, 38) Avon seotion, Bridge Succession S, to D. 2 and the fault. 1905. 

Valley road, &c. 

4869 (05, 39) Avon seotion, N. of Ob- D, Beds with So thrust over them. 1905. 

servatory Hill, Clifton. 

4870 (05, 40) Avon section, Observa- S a Beds thrust over D., Beds. 1905. 

tory Hill and the Suspension 
Bridge. 

4871 (05, 41) Avon section, Clifton S. repeated by the fault. 1905. 

Down. 

4872 (99, 35) Avon section. Observa- S., Beds thrust over D. Beds. 

tory Hill. 

4873 (05, 43) Avon section, between the Upper S a Beds and lower D, Beds ro- 

old zigzag path and the Bridge. peated by the fault. 1905. 

4874 (05, 44) Avon section, Great S and D Beds. 1905. 

Quarry to Point Villa. 

4875 (05, 45) Avon section, Clifton . D, (and part of DJ repeated by the 

fault, 1905. 

4876 (06, 154) Shirehampton cutting . Syncline of O.R.S. overlain by Dolomitic 

Conglomerate. 1906. 

4877 (08, 1) Brinkmarsh Quarry, Whit- Wenlock Beds with Limestone bands re- 

field, near Tortworth. placed by Celestine. 1908. 

4878 (08,5) Cullimore's Quarry, Char- Ashy Limestone of Silurian age occupy- 

field Green. ing a hollow in Amygdaloidal Basalt. 

1908. 



148 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, 



RegdL 
No. 

4879 (06, 165) Garden Cliff on the 

Severn. 

4880 (06, 166) Garden Cliff on the 

Severn. 

4881 (06, 167) Garden Cliff on the 

Severn. 

4882 (06, 168) Garden Cliff on the 

Severn. 

4883 (06, 169) Garden Cliff on the 

Severn. 



General view, Keuper, Rbsetic and base 

of Lias. 1906. 
General view, Keuper, Rhsetic and base 

of Lias. 1906. 
Top of Keuoer and base of Rhaetic. 

1906. 
Red Keuper Marls forming west end of 

section. 1906. 
Lower part of the Rhaatic Series. 1906. 



Herefordshire. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., 
F.G.S., The University, Bristol. 1/2 and 1/4. 

4884 (08, 50) Bartestree Quarry . 

4885 (08,53) 



4886 (08, 5i) 



Basic dyke in Old Red Sandstone. 1908. 

Junction between Dolerite (left) and 
altered Old Red Sandstone (right) 
northern junction. 1908. 

Junction between Dolerite (right) and 
altered O.R.S. (left) southern junc- 
tion. 1908. 



Hertfordshire. — Photographed by T. W. Reader, F.G.S., 
17 Gloucester Road, Finsbury Park, N. 1/4. 

4887 ( ) Chadwell Spring, Hertford . Head of New River Waterworks. 1909. 

4888 ( ) „ „ „ „ „ „ 



Kent. — Photographed by T. W. Reader, F.G.S., 17 Gloucester Road, 
Finsbury Park, N. 1/4. 

Chalky rain wash. 1909. 



4889 ( ) Otford Station 

4890 ( ) 

4891 ( ) Kemsing . 

4892 ( ) Green Street Green 

4893 ( ) 

4894 ( ) 



Old chalk quarry, with ' pipes.' 1909. 
Gravel pit. 1909. 



Shropshire. — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehurst, 
Headingley, Leeds. 1/2. 



4895 (8064) Selattyn 



Carboniferous Limestone with Litho- 
strotion irregulare. 1908. 



Somerset. — Photographed by James Parker, M.A., F.G.S., 
21 Turl Street, Oxford. 1/4. 

4896 (8) Doulting . 

4897 (7) Waterlip Quarry, nr. Frome 



4898 (3) Vallis Valo 

4899 (2) 

4900 (1) 



Quarry in Doulting Stone, Inferior Oolite. 

1909. 
Carboniferous Limestone, P, Z„ Z 2 . 

1909. 
Inferior Oolite resting unconformably on 

Carboniferous Limestone. 1909. 
Inferior Oolite resting unconformably on 

Carboniferous Limestone. 1909. 
Inferior Oolite resting unconformably on 

Carboniferous Limestone. 1909. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OP GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 149 

Photographed by R. Vowell Sherring, F.G.S., Hallatrow, nr. Bristol, 

10/8, 

Regd. 
No. 

4901 (1) Sunnyhill Quarry, nr. Stoko Tuff and Andesito. 1907. 

Lane. 

4902 (2) Sunnyhill Quarry, nr. Stoke „ „ ,, 

Lane, 

4903 (3) Moon Hill, nr. Stoke Lane . Vent ; ashy Conglomerate. 1907. 

4904 (3a) „ ., . > >• » 

4905 (4) Beacon Hill, from Moon Hill . 1907. 

4906 (A) Spring Cove, nr. Weston- Carboniferous Agglomerate. 1907. 

super-Mare. 

4907 (B) Spring Cove, nr. Weston- Carboniferous Limestone and volcanio 

super-Mare. rocks. 1907. 

4908 (C) Middle Hope Bay, nr. Wood- Carboniferous Limestone, ashy. 1907. 

spring Priory. 

4909 (E) Middle Hope Bay, nr. Wood- „ „ „ „ 

spring Priory. 

4910 (D) Middle Hope Bay, nr. Wood- Limestone with Zaphrcnlis and volcanio 

spring Priory, ash. 1907. 

4911 (F) Middle Hope Bay, nr. Wood- Massive Limestone with lapilli in lower 

spring Priory. part. 1907. 

Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 
The University, Bristol. 1/2 and 1/4. 

. Carboniferous ; folded S Beds. 1905. 
Leigh Quarry 1 and 2 with the succession from 

Z, to C,. 1905. 
Leigh Quarry 1, 2 and 3 with the succession 

from Z, to C 2 . 
Leigh Quarry 4 and 5 with the S 2 and lower D, 

Beds. 1905. 
Leigh Quarry 2 and 3 with the succession from 

Z 2 to C v 1905. 
Leigh Quarry 5 with S 2 Beds and base "of D,. 

1905. 
Leigh Quarry 5 with upper S 2 and lower D, 

Beds. 1905. 

4919 (05, 59) Source of Axe, Wookey 1905. 

Cave. 

4920 (06, 147) The Ebbor Gorge, Men- Gorge in Carboniferous Limestone. 1906. 

dips. 

4921 (06, 149) O.R.S. of Woodhill Bay, Shales on massive Sandstone. 1906. 

Portishead. 

4922 (06, 151) O.R.S. of Woodhill Bay, Limestone and Conglomerate. 1906, 

Portishead. 

4923 (06, 152) O.R.S. of Woodhill Bay, Conglomeratic layer overlying Calcareous 

Portishead. layer. 1906. 

4924 (06, 157) S.E. of Moon's Hill, Quarry in coarse ashy Conglomerate. 

Stoke Lane, Mendips. 1906. 

4925 (06, 159) S.E. of Moon's Hill, Quarry in coarse ashy Conglomerate. 

Stoke Lane, Mendips. 1906. 

4926 (07, 62) Woodspring or Swallow Raised Beach. 1907. 

Cliff (Middle Hope). 

4927 (07, 64) Woodspring or Swallow Spheroidal Basalt resting on Tuff veined 

Cliff (Middle Hope). with Calcite. 1907. 

4928 (07, 64*) Woodspring or Swallow Bedded Tuff on Amygdaloidal Bas ,lt. 

Cliff (Middle Hope). 1907. 

4929 (07, 65) Woodspring or Swallow Vesicular lapilli in Limestone 1907. 

Cliff (Middle Hope). ... 



4912 


(05, 17) WorleHill. 


4913 


(05, 47) Avon 
Woods. 


seotion, 


4914 


(05, 48) Avon 
Woods. 


section, 


4915 


(05, 49) Avon 
Woods. 


seotion, 


4916 


(05, 50) Avon 
Woods, 


section, 


4917 


(05, 52) Avon 
Woods. 


section, 


4918 


(05, 53) Avon 
Woods. 


section, 



150 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Regd. 

No. 

4930 (07, 06) Woodspring or Swallow Vesicular lapilli in Limest on \ 1907. 

Clifi (Middle Hope). 

4931 (07, 67) Spring Cove, Weston- Basalt enclosing Limestone masses. 1907. 

super-Mare. 

4932 (07, 68) Spring Cove, Weston- Basalt and Limestone enclosed in Tuff. 

super-Mare. 1907. 

4933 (07, 70) Spring Cove, Weston- Basalt enclosing Limestone masses. 1907. 

super-Mare. 

4934 (07, 71) Spring Cove, Weston- Calcareous bands between Basalt 

super-Mare. spheroids. 1907. 

4935 (07, 74) Spring Cove, Weston- Spheroids of Basalt in Tuff. 1907. 

super-Mare. 

4936 (07, 75) Spring Cove, Weston- 

super-Mare. 

4937 (07, 76) Spring Cove, Weston- 

super-Mare. 

4938 (07, 77) Spring Cove, Weston- Lava enclosing Limestone mass. 1907. 

super-Mare. 

4939 (08, 10) Western end of Mcndip 1908. 

range, Uphill, Brean and Steep 
Holmes. 

4940 (08, 11) Brean Down . . . Southern (scarp) faoe. 1908. 

4941 (08, 12) Western end of Mendip 1908. 

range from Brean Down. 

4942 (08, 13) Brean Down . . . Northern (dip slope) face. 1908. 

Staffordshire. — Photographed by A. H. Bassano, Hadenholme, 
Old Hill, Staffs. 1/2. 

4943 ( ) Darby's Hill Quarry, Rowley Columnar Dolerite. 1909. 

Regis. 

4944 ( ) New Turner's Hill Quarry. Weathered spheroidal Dolerite. 1909. 

Rowley Regis. 

.Surrey. — Photographed by J. H. Baldock, F.P.P.S., Overdale, 
St. Leonards Road, Croydon. 1/2. 

4945 (08, 307) Worms Heath, nr. Upper Funnel-shaped mass on Chalk in Gravel. 

Warlingham. 1908. 

4946 (08, 308) Worms Heath, nr. Upper Gravel pit, 1908. 

Warlingham. 

4947 (08, 309) Worms Heath, nr. Upper 

Warlingham. 

4948 (08, 310) Worms Heath, nr. Upper „ 

Warlingham. 

Photographed by T. W. Reader, F.G.S., 17 Gloucester Road, Finsbury 

Park, N. 1/4. 

4949 ( ) Monkshatch, nr. Guildford . Chalk ; zones of M. cor-tesludinaria, 

H. planus, and T. gracilis. 1909. 

4950 ( ) ,, ,, . Chalk ; zones of M. cor-testudinaria, 

H. planus, and T. gracilis. 1909. 

Sussex. — Photographed by T. W. Reader, F.G.S., 17 Gloucester Road, 

Finsbury Pari-, N. 1/4. 

4951 ( ) Rottingde&n Cliffs . . . Chalk ; zone of A. quadratus. 1909. 

4952 ( 

4953 ( 

4954 ( 

4955 ( 

4956 ( 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 151 

Photographed by J. T. Rodda, Eastbourne. 1/2. 
Regd. 
No. 

4957 ( ) Cuckmere Haven . . . Paramoudra on beach. 1907. 

4958 ( ) „ ... Mass of Flint. 1907. 

Yorkshire. — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehurst, 
Headingley, Leeds. 1/2. 

4959 (8332) Barton Quarry, nr. Rich- Crinoidal Limestone (underset Liine- 

mond. stone), Yoredale Series. 1908. 

4960 (S333) Barton Quarry, nr. Rich- Crinoidal Limestone (underset Lime- 

mond. stone), Yoredale Series. 1908. 

4961 (8334) Barton Quarry, nr. Rich- Boulder Clay resting on underset Lime- 

mond. stone. 1908. 

4962 (8335) Barton Quarry, nr. Rich- Boulder Clay resting on underset Lime- 

mond. stone. 1908. 

4963 (8336) Barton Quarry, nr. Rich- Glaciated surface of underset -Limestone 

mond. and overlying Boulder Clay. 1908. 

4964 (8337) Barton Quarrv, nr. Rich- Glaciated surface of underset Limestone. 

mond. 1908. 

4965 (8338) Barton Quarry, nr. Rich- Underset Limestone (Yoredale Series). 

mond. 1908. 

4966 (8339) Barton Quarry, nr. Rich- Boulder Clay. 1908. 

mond. 

4967 (8340) Barton Quarry, nr. Rich- Boulder Clay filling joints in Cherty Lime- 

mond. stone. 1908. 

4968 (8341) Barton Quarry, nr. Rich- Chert in underset Limestone. 1908. 

mond. 

4969 (8342) Barton Quarry, nr. Rich- Cherts and Crinoids in underset Limc- 

mond. stone. 1908. 

4970 (8343) Barton Quarry, nr. Rich- Wedge-beddedYoredale Limestone. 1908. 

mond. 

4971 (8344) Forcett Quarry, nr. Rich- Pre-glacial floor of Yoredale Limestone. 

mond. 1908. 

4972 (8345) Forcett Quarry, nr. Rich- Quarry in 'Main Limestone' (Yoredale 

mond. Series). 1908. 

4973 (8346) Forcett Quarry, nr. Rich- Drift-filled cavity in Limestone floor. 

mond. 1908. 

4974 (7953) The Needle's Eye, Newton- Kellaway Rock. 1907. 

dale, nr. Pickering. 

4975 (7954) Near the Needle's Eye, Kellaway Rock escarpment, 1907. 

Newtondale, nr. Pickering. 

4976 (7957) Staindale .... The ' Bridestones ' seen on tie left. 

1907. 

4977 (7958) The Bridestones, nr. Picker- Weathered Calcareous Grit. 1907. 

ing. 

4978 (7959) The Bridestones, nr. Picker- „ „ „ 

ing. 

4979 (7960) The Bridestones, nr. Picker- Undercut Calcareous Grit, 1907. 

ing. 

4980 (7962) The Bridestones, nr. Picker- „ „ ti 

ing. 

4981 (7570) Cliffs N. of Robin Hood's Lias. 1907. 

Bay. 

4982 (7573)' Cliffs N. of Robin Hood's 

Bay. 

4983 (7576) Cliffs, Robin Hood's Bay . Lower Lias. 1907. 

4984 (7580) Peak Dogger with bands of pebbles and shells 

weathered out. 1907. 

4985 (7583) Blea Wyke .... Impression of iron plate from wreck on 

boulder, caused by action of waves. 
1907. 



152 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



Regd. 
No. 

4986 (7584) Blea Wyke 

4987 (7586) 

4988 (7587) 



4989 (7588) 

4990 (7591) Hawsker Bottom 

4991 (7592) 

4992 (7593) 

4993 (7594) 

4994 (7596) 

4995 (7598) Near Castle Chamber, 

Hawsker Bottom. 

4996 (7599) Castle Chamber, Hawsker 

Bottom. 

4997 (7600) Cliffs, Hawsker Bottom . 

4998 (7602) „ 

4999 (7604) Hawsker Bottom 

5000 (7606) Robin Hood's Bay . 

5001 (7608) „ 

5002 (7610) Peak Alum Quarries . 

5003 (7613) „ . . 

5004 (7614) „ . . 

5005 (7618) „ . . 

5006 (8372) Marske Quarry, nr. Salt- 

burn. 

5007 (8379) Marske Quarry, nr. Salt- 

burn. 

5008 (8380) Marske Quarry, nr. Salt- 

burn. 

5009 (8383) Shore under Huntcliff S. of 

Saltburn. 

5010 (8384) Shore under Huntcliff S. of 

Saltburn. 

5011 (8385) Shore under Huntcliff S. of 

Saltburn. 

5012 (8386) Shore under Huntcliff S. of 

Saltburn. 

5013 (8388) Shore under Huntcliff S. of 

Saltburn. 

5014 (8390) Shore under Huntcliff S. of 

Saltburn. 

5015 (8391) Huntcliff and shore at low 

water. 

5016 (8393) Cliffs N. of Skinningrove . 

5017 (8394) Cat Nab, Saltburn . 

5018 (7426) Headingley, Leeds . 

5019 (7427) 

5020 (7428) „ . . 

5021 (7430) „ . . 

5022 (7431) „ . . 



Impression of iron plate from wreck on 

boulder, caused by action of waves. 

1907. 
Boulders on shore, worn and dovetailed 

into one another by action of waves. 

1907. 
Boulders on shore, worn and dovetailed 

into one another by action of waves. 

1907. 
Nerinea Bed in Dogger. 1907. 
Current bedding in block of Dogger. 1907. 
Upper Lias Breccia. 1907. 
Current bedding in block of Dogger. 1907. 
Block of Dogger with pebbles. 1907. 
Upper Lias Breccia. 1907. 
Spinatus zone. 1907. 



Estuarine Beds, Dogger and Upper Lias. 

1907. 
Estuarine Beds, Dogger and Upper Lias. 

1907. 
Marine pot-hole. 1907. 
Block of Middle Lias full of Pecten, &c. 

1907. 
Block of Middle Lias with Dentalium 

giganteum. 1907. 
Dogger and Upper Lias. 1907. 



Lower Estuarine Sandstones with Plant 

Beds. 1908. 
Blocks of Lower Estuarine Sandstone 

with fossil Plants. 1908. 
Blocks of Lower Estuarine Sandstone 

with fossil plants. 1908. 
' Mushroom rocks ' — undercut Middle 

Lias blocks. 1908. 
' Mushroom rock ' and pot-hole. 1908. 

' Mushroom rocks ' — undercut Middle 

Lias blocks. 1908. 
' Mushroom rocks ' — undercut Middle 

Lias blocks. 1908. 
Boulders of Middle Lias on Lower Lias 

floor. 1908. 
' Mushroom rocks ' — undercut Middle 

Lias blocks. 1908. 
* Mushroom rocks ' on Lower Lias Shales. 

1908. 
Middle Lias. 1908. 
Hill of Boulder Clay isolated by stream 

action. 1908. 
Cutting in Boulder Clay. 1907. 

>> >» »» 

Boulder Clay and Boulders. 1907. 
Cutting in Boulder Clay. 1907. 
Sections of Boulder Clay. 1907. j 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. J 53 

Regd. * 
No. 

5023 (8034) Hawkesworth Quarry, Channel in Millstone Grifc filled with Coal 

Horsforth, nr. Leeds. Measure Shales. 1908. 

5024 (8035) Hawkesworth Quarry, Hors- Coal Measure Shales on Millstone Grit. 

forth, nr. Leeds. 1908. 

5025 (8036) Hawkesworth Quarry, Hors- Sandstone band near base of Coal 

forth, nr. Leeds. Measures. 1908. 

5026 (8038) Hawkesworth Quarry, Hors- Sloping surface of Millstone Grit. 1908. 

forth, nr. Leeds. 

5027 (8039) Hawkesworth Quarry, Hors- Coal Measure Shales with thin Coal seam. 

forth, nr. Leeds. 1908. 

Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 

The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5028 (06, 171) By the Nidd below Unconformity, Magnesian Limestone on 

Knaresborough. Millstone Grit. 1906. 

5029 (06, 176) Knaresborough . . The Dropping Well. 1906. 

5030 (06, 177) „ . . Petrification in progress at the Dropping 

Well. 1906. 

WALES. 
Carnarvon. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 

The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5031 (06,88) Cam Boduan, nr. Nevin. Formed by an ' Andesitic intrusion.' 

1906. 

5032 (06, 92) Careg-y-defaid, Pwllheli. Weathered surface of nodular Rhyolite. 

1906. 



5033 (06,93) 

5034 (06, 94) 

5035 (06, 95) 

5036 (06, 96) 

5037 (06, 97) 



. Weathered surface of nodular Rhyolite. 

1906. 
. Weathered surface of nodular Rhyolite. 

1906. 
. Weathered surface of nodular Rhyolite. 

1906. 
Weathered surface of nodular Rhyolite. 

1906. 
Weathered surface of nodular Rhyolite. 

1906. 

5038 (06, 98) Pen-y-chain, Pwllheli . Weathered surface of banded Rhyolite. 

1906. 

5039 (06, 99) „ „ . Weathered surface of nodular Rhyolite. 

1906. 

Denbigh. — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thomiehurst, 
Hcadingley, Leeds. 1/2 and 1/4. 

5040 (8066) Cae Deicws, Llansaintffraid, Intrusive columnar Felsite. 1908. 

Glyn Ceiriog. 

5041 (8067) Llansaintffraid, GlynCeiriog. Quarry in Rhyolite. 1908. 

5042 (8069) Castle Mill Quarry, Glyn Carboniferous Limestone. 1908. 

Ceiriog. 

5043 (8072) Eglwyseg Rocks, Llan- Carboniferous Limestone escarpmen'. 

gollen. 1908. 

5044 (8074) Trevor Quarry, Eglwyseg, Carboniferous Limestone. 1908. 

Llangollen. 

5045 (8076) Trevor Quarry, Eglwyseg, Lode in Carboniferous Limestone. 1908. 

Llangollen. 

5046 (8094) Cader Berwyn from above 

Pistyll Rhaiadr. 

5047 (8097) Llyn Llyne Caw below 

Moel Lych. ,. \, 



154 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Merioneth. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Keynolds, M.A., F.6.S., 
The University, Bristol. 1/4. 
Regd. 
No. 

5048 (06, 90) Cwm Bychan, nr. Harlech Harlech Grits. 1906. 

Montgomery. — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thomichurst, 

Headingley, Leeds. 1/4. 

5049 (8106) Llangynog .... Upper portion of volcanic neck. 1908. 

5050 (8109) Pennant Valley, Llangynog 1908. 

5051 (8110) Llangynog .... Lower portion of volcanic neck. 1908. 

5052 (8117) „ .... Volcanic neck. 1908. 

Pembroke. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Keynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 

The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5053 (05, 71) Coast S.E. of Nun's Cambrian Sandstone and Basal Con- 

Chapel, St. Davids. glomerate, also Pebidian. 1905. 

5054 (05, 73) Nun's Chapel, St. Davids Weathered surface of Basal Conglomerate 

of Cambrian. 1905. 

5055 (09,1) Old Castle Head, Tenby . Gullies eroded along Shale bands in ver- 

tical O.R.S. 1909. 

5056 (09, 2) „ „ . Gullies eroded along Shale bands in ver- 

tical O.R.S. 1909. 

5057 (09, 3) Skrinlde Haven, Tenby . Top of O.R.S. (left) and base of Car- 

boniferous (right). 1909. 

5058 (09, 4) „ „ . Arch eroded along bedding planes of 

vertical Carboniferous Limestone. 1909. 

5059 (09, 5) Old Castle Head, Tenby . Cracks in ' race ' beds. 1909. 

5060 (09, 6) W. of Lydstep, Tenby . Gash-Breccia and sea cave. 1909. 

5061 (09, 7) Stackpole Quay, Tenby . Anticline in Carboniferous Limcstono 

(hor. C). 1909. 

5062 (09, 8) Wrcckrleld Quarry, Tenby Limestone full of Produckis gigantcus. 

1909. 

5063 (09, 10) Bullslaughtcr Bay, Stack Gash-Breccia. 1909. 

Rocks. 

5064 (09, 11) Near Bullslaughter Bay, Chert in Carboniferous Limestone. 1909. 

Stack Rocks. 

5065 (09, 12) Near Bullslaughter Bay, 

Stack Rocks. 

5066 (09,14) Stack Rocks, W. of Tenby Marine erosion of Carboniferous Lime- 

stone. 1909. 

5067 (09, 18) „ „ Marino erosion of Carboniferous Lime- 

stone. 1909. 

5068 (09, 19) Skrinlde Haven, Tenby . Sea caves. 1909. 

5069 (09, 20) Near Skrinkle Haven, Erosion along bedding planes of vertical 

Tenby. Carboniferous Limestone. 1909. 

5070 (09, 21) Cliffs, N. side of Skrinkle Vertical Carboniferous Limestone. 1909. 

Haven, Tenby. 

Radnor.— Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 

The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5071 (05, 65) Caban Coch, Rhyader . Llandovery Conglomerate. 1905. 

5072 (05, 66) „ „ . Cleaved Slate band in Llandovery Con- 

glomerate. 1905. 

5073 (05, 67) „ „ Section of Llandovery. 1905. 

5074 (05, 69) Pont Hyllf an, Elan Valley, Pot-holes. 1905. 

Rhyader. 

5075 (05, 70) Pont Hyllfan, Elan Valley, „ „ 

Rhyader, 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



155 



ISLE OP MAN. 
Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thomiehursl, Headinghy, 
Leeds. 1/2 and 1/4. 
Regd. 
No. 

5076 (771G) The Whing, Port Soderick Folds in Lonan Flags. 1907. 

5077 (7718) 

5078 (7628) Ronaldsway, Derby Haven 1907. 

5079 (7629) „ „ Basement Conglomerate of Carboniferous 

faulted against Carboniferous Lime- 
stone. 1907. 

5080 (7630) „ „ ' Knobby ' surface of Lower Carboniferous 

Limestone. 1907. 

5081 (7631) St. Michael's Island, Lang- Stratification crossed by cleavage in 

ness. Manx Slates. 1907. 

5082 (7635) The Arches, Langness . Carboniferous Basement Conglomerate 

resting unconformably on Manx Slates. 
1907. 

5083 (7636) „ „ . Joint plane cutting pebbles of Carboni- 

ferous Basement Conglomerate. 1907. 
508$ (7637) „ „ . Fault in Carboniferous Basement Con- 

glomerate. 1907. 

5085 (7638) Shore opposite Scarlet Lower Carboniferous Limestone contain- 

Quarry. ing Campophyllum. 1907. 

5086 (7639) Shore near Scarlet Quarry Lithostrotion mass in Carboniferous 

Limestone. 1907. 

5087 (7611) Scarlet Undulations in Carboniferous Limestone. 

the Stack of Scarlet in the distance 

1907. 
. Carboniferous volcanic rocks. 1907. 
. Stack of Scarlet with Agglomerate in the 

foreground. 1907. 
. Ropy Lava. 1907. 
. Undulations in Carboniferous Limestone 

1907. 
. Undulations in Carboniferous Limestone 

1907. 
. Disturbed Carboniferous Limestone con 

taining quartz pebbles. 1907. 
. Junction of Flaggy Carboniferous Lime 

stone with Volcanic Series. 1907. 

5094 (7652) Cromwell's Walk, Scarlet Jointing and flow structure in Carboni 

Point. ferous Lava. 1907. 

5095 (7653) Cromwell's Walk, Scarlet Jagged edge to jointed Carboniferous 

Point. Lava. 1907. 

5096 (7654) Near Scarlet Point . . Sea-worn gullies along joints in Carboni- 

ferous ash. 1907. 

5097 (7655) 250 yards S. of Close ny Overthrust in bedded volcanic ash. 

Chollagh Point. 1907. 

5098 (7656) 250 yards S. of Close ny Overthrust in bedded volcanic ash. 

Chollagh Point. 1907. 

5099 (7657) Close ny Chollagh Point . Crumpling of band of Carboniferous 

Limestone. 1907. 

5100 (7660) Poyll Vaaish . . . Dome of Carboniferous Limestone. 1907. 

. ' Reef knolls ' surrounded by Flaggy 

Limestone. 1907. 
. ' Reef knolls ' surrounded by Flaggy 

Limestone. 1907. 
. Dome of Flaggy and underlying ' Reef 

knoll ' Limestone. 1907. 
» ' Reef knoll ' Limestone. 1907, 



5088 (7643) Scarlet Point 

5089 (7644) 

5090 (7645) 

f (7646) Near Scarlet Point 

5091 { (7647) „ 

5092 (7650) Scarlet Point 

5093 (7051) 



5101 (7661) 

5102 (7662) 

5103 (7663) 

5104 (7664) 



156 reports OK The state op science:. 

Regd. 
No. 

5105 (7685) Gob-y-Strona, Maughold Contorted Manx Slates. 1907. 

Head. 

5106 (7690) Gob-y-Deigan . . . Cave in Crush Conglomerate in Manx 

Slates. 1907. 

5107 (7692) Between Gob-y-Deigan and Manx Slates reduced to Crush Con- 

Gob-y-Skeddan. glomerate. 1907. 

5108 (7693) Between Gob-y-Deigan and Manx Slates reduced to Crush Con- 

Gob-y-Skeddan. glomerate. 1907. 

5109 (7694) Between Gob-y-Deigan and Manx Slates reduced to Crush Con- 

Gob-y-Skeddan. ' glomerate. 1907. 

5110 (7695) Between Gob-y-Deigan and Sea cave in Crush Conglomerate. 1907. 

Gob-y-Skeddan. 

5111 (7697) Between Gob-y-Deigan and Sea caves in Crush Conglomerate. 1907. 

Gob-y-Skeddan. 

5112 (7707) Baroo Ned, Spanish Quartz vcining in Manx Slates. 1907. 

Head. 

5113 (7708) Baroo Ned, Spanish Cliff section of disturbed Manx Slates. 

Head. 

5114 (7711) Bay Stacka and Sugarloaf Flaggy Grits in Manx Slates, probably 

seen from Spanish Head. overfolded. 1907. 

5115 (7713) Bay Stacka and Sugarloaf Flaggy Grits in Manx Slates. 1907. 

from Spanish Head. 

5116 (7719) The Whing, Port Soderick Fold in Lonan Flags. 1907. 



SCOTLAND. 

Argyllshire. — Photographed by Russell F. Gwinnell, B.Sc, F.G.8., 
33 St. Peter's Square, W. 1/4. 

5117 (74) Eilean nan Gamha, Lismore Glaciated rock surface. 1907. 

5118 (75) Near Balnagawan Mill, Raised beach and inclined sill of Basalt. 

Lismore. 1907. 

5119 (78) Near Balnagawan Mill, Terrace of Travertine. 1907. 

Lismore. 

Photographed by A. E. V. Zealley, B.Sc., A.R.C.S., Rhodesia Museum, 

Bulawayo. 1/4. 

5120 (113) Glen Croe, Loch Long. . Delta. 1907. 1 

Am.— Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 
The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5121 (08, 18) Ardmillan Shore S. of Marine erosion of Whitehouse Beds. 

Girvan. 1908. 

5122 (08, 19) Ardmillan Shore 8. of Marine erosion of Whitehouse Beds. 

Girvan. 1908. 

6123 (08, 21) N. of Kennedy's Pass, Contorted Ardwell Beds. 1908. 
S. of Girvan. 

5124 (08, 22) N. of Kennedy's Pass, „ » „ 

S. of Girvan. 

5125 (08, 24) Stockinray Shore, S. of Arenig Agglomerate. 1908. 

Girvan. 

5126 (08, 25) Stockinray Shore, 8. of „ „ ,> 

Girvan. x 

5127 (08, 28) Near Bennane Cave, S. of „ ,» „ .J 

Girvan. ... . j 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OP GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 157 

Regd. 
No. 

5128 (08, 29) Bennane Head, S. of Bed Chert bands interbedded in Arenig 

Girvan. Lava. 1908. 

5129 (08, 31) S. of Downan Point, Red Chert bands interbedded in Arenig 

Ballantrae. Lava. 1908. 

5130 (08, 32) Near Bennane Cave, S. of Contorted Arenig Radiolarian Cherts. 

Girvan. 1908. 

5131 (08, 35) Downan Point, Ballantrae Pillow Lava. 1908. 

5132 (08, 37) Balcreuchan Port, S. of „ „ 

Girvan. 

5133 (08, 38) S. of Downan Point, „ „ 

Ballantrae. 

5134 (08, 42) Burnfoot, Shore S. of Raised shore platform. 1908. 

Girvan. 

5135 (08, 44) Bennane Head, S. of Raised sea cave. 1908. 

Girvan. 

5136 (08, 48) Kennedy's Pass, S. of Benan Conglomerate. 1908. 

Girvan. 

Dumbartonshire.— Photographed by A. E. V. Zealley, B.Sc, A.R.C.S., 
Rhodesia Museum, Bulawayo. 1/4. 

5137 (109) Loch Lomond . . . From shore above Ardlui. 1907. 

5138 (110) „ ... Glaciated islands. 1907. 

5139 (111) N.E. of Loch Garabal, near Glaciated surface and erratics. 1907. 

Ardlui. 

5140 (125) Dumbarton Castle Rock . Jointing. 1907. 

Edinburgh. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 

The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5141 (06, 17) Salisbury Crags, from the Shows the underlying Old Red Sand- 

S. stone. 1906. 

5142 (06, 18) Salisbury Crags . . Shows the Old Red Sandstone below 

the Dolerite. 1906. 

5143 (06, 21) „ . . Junction of intrusive Dolerite and Old 

Red Sandstone. 1906. 

5144 (06, 22) The Dasscs, Arthur's Seat 1906. 

5145 (06, 25) Queen's Drive, Arthur's Agglomerate of vent. 1906. 

Seat. 

5146 (06, 26) Arthur's Seat . . . Agglomerate of ' Gutted Haddie.' 1906. 

5147 (06, 28) Salisbury Crags, Arthur's Spheroidal Weathering of Dolerite. 1906. 

Seat. 

Inverness — Skye. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., 
F.G.S., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5148 (07, 3) Glamaig and Beinn Dearg, Two of the Red Hills. 1907. 

Skye. 

5149 (07, 6) Beinn na Caillich, Skye . One of the Red Hills, Agglomerate of ther 

Kilchrist neck in the foreground. 1907. 

5150 (07, 10) Slopes of Cuillins, N. of Gabbro veins in Peridotite. 1907. 

Ufhart Point, Skye. 

5151 (07, 11) An Sguman, S.E. of Glen Jointing in Peridotite. 1907. 

Brittle, Skye. 

5152 (07, 12) An Sguman, S.E. of Glen Pitted weathering of Peridotite. 1907. 

Brittle, Skye. 

5153 (07, 17) Slopes of Cuillins, S.E. of Glaciation. 1907. 

Glen Brittle, Skye. 

5154 (07, 19) Slopes of Cuillins, S.E. of ' „ „ 

Glen Brittle, Skye, 
1910. M 



158 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Regd. 
No. 

5155 (07, 21) N.E. shore of Loch Brittle, Basalt dyke in bedded Basalts. 1907. 

Skye. 

5156 (07, 22) Sgurr Brittle, Skye . . Cascade over bedded Basalts and intra- 

sive sheets of Dolerite. 1907. 

5157 (07, 24) N.E. shore of Loch Brittle, Agglomerate (?) of a small vent. 1907. 

Skye. 

5158 (07, 25) Head of Loch Brittle, Small Basalt dyke in bedded Basalts. 

Skye. 1907. 

5159 (07, 26) Near head of Loch Vesicular Basalt. 1907. gJ 

Brittle. 

5160 (07, 27) S. end of Beinn Suardal, Dyke in Cambrian Limestone. 1907. 

nr. Broadford, Skye. 

5161 (07, 29) Torran, S.W. of Broad- Juxtaposed dykes, 1907. 

ford, Skye. 

5162 (07, 30) Torran, S.W. of Broad- 

ford, Skye. 

5163 (07, 32) Near S. end of Beinn * Grikes ' in Cambrian Limestone. 1907. 

Suardal, nr. Broadford, Skye. 

5164 (07, 34) Shore W. of Broadford, Sill in Lias. 1907. 

Skye. 

5165 (07, 35) Shore W. of Broadford, Gully formed by weathering of dyke ia 

Skye. Lias. 1907. 

5166 (07, 36) Shore W. of Broadford, Basalt sheet resting on Felsite. 1907. 

Skye. 

5167 (07, 37) Shore W. of Broadford, Gully formed by weathering of dyke in 

Skye. Lias. 1907. 

5168 (07, 38) Shore W. of Broadford, Intersecting dykes in Lias. 1907. 

Skye. 

5169 (07, 39) Shore W. of Broadford, Small dyke in Lias. 1907. 

Skye. 

5170 (07, 43) Glenbrittle House, Skye . Fluviatile Conglomerate. 1907. 

5171 (07,44) 

5172 (07,46) 

5173 (07,46) 

5174 (07, 47) N. of Boreraig, Skye . Triassic Breccia. 1907. 

5175 (07,48) 

5176 (07,49) S. of Beinn Suardal, nr. Sink holes in Cambrian Limestone. 1907. 

Broadford, Skye. 

5177 (07, 50) S. of Beinn Suardal, nr. 

Broadford, Skye. 

5178 (07, 52) Shore at Boreraig, S. of Lower Lias Shales. 1907. 

Broadford, Skye. 

5179 (07, 53) Rudh'an Eireannaich, Composite sill. 1907. 

N.W. of Broadford, Skye. 

5180 (07, 54) S.E. of Loch Kilchrist, Large multiple dyke. 1907. 

S.W. of Broadford, Skye. 

5181 (07, 55) S.W. of Loch Kilchrist, „ „ 

S.W. of Broadford, Skye. 

Dublin. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 
The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5182 (06, 197) Killiney Shore . . Granite dykes in Mica Schist. 1906 

5183 (06, 198) „ . . Granite dyke in Mica Schist. 1906. 

5184 (06, 200) „ ... Intrusive junction, Granite and Mica 

Schist. 1906. 

5185 (06, 202) „ . . Intrusive junction, Granite and Mica 

Schist. 1906. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 159 

5186 (06, 203) Killincy Shore ". . Weathered surface of Andalusite Schist. 

1906. 

5187 (06, 190) S. of Glensaul . . Limestone Breccia. 1906. 

5188 (06, 193) Glensaul (N. of the Coarse Arenig Tuff. 1906. 
« School). 

5189 (06, 194) Glensaul (N. of the „ „ „ 

School). 

Galway. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Keynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 

The University, Bristol. 1/4. 
Regd. 
No. 

5190 (06, 195) Glensaul (N. of the Coarse Arenij Tuff. 1906. . 

School). 

5191 (00, 196) Glensaul (N. of the 

School). 

5192 (09, 23) E. of top of Letterceneen Ice-worn mass of coarse Arenig Breccia. 

Hill. 1909. 

5193 (09, 26) N. of Lettereeneen Vil- Coarse Arenig Conglomerate. 1909. 

lago, Glensaul. 

5194 (09, 28) Glensaul .... Highly disturbed Tuffs and Radiolarian 

Cherts. 1909. 

5195 (09, 29) Highly disturbed Tuffs and Radiolarian 

Cherts. 1909. 

5196 (09, 30) Highly disturbed Tuffs and Radiolarian 

Cherts. 1909. 

5197 (09,32) , Thick mass of Arenig Chert. 1909. 

5198 (09, 34) The Partry Mountains A dissected plateau, sending spurs north- 

from Lettereeneen. wards. 1909. 

5199 (09, 35) The Partry Mountains, A dissected plateau, sending spurs north- 

from Lettereeneen. wards. 1909. 



Mayo. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., F.G.S., 
The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5200 (07,78) Near Shangort, Tourma- Massive Limestone of Arenig age. 1907. 

keady. 

5201 (07, 79) Near Gortbunacullin, Limestone Breccia, 1907. 

Tourmakeady. 

5202 (07, 82) W. of Gortbunacullin „ „ 

Farm Bridge, Tourmakeady. 

5203 (07, 83) S.W. of Gortbunacullin, „ „ 

Tourmakeady. 

5204 (07, 84) S. of Gortbunacullin, Banded Felsite. 1907. 

Tourmakeady. 

5205 (07, 89) Near Ballinrobe . . Chert masses in Carboniferous Limestone. 

1907. 
6206 (07, 90) „ . ' Grikes ' in Carboniferous Limestone. 

1907. 

5207 (07, 91) „ . . Cavities of solution in Carboniferous 

Limestone. 1907. 

5208 (07, 92) „ . . Cavities of solution in Carboniferous 

Limestone. 1907. 

5209 (07, 93) „ . . Carboniferous Limestone country. 1907. 

5210 (07, 99) W. of Ballinrobe . . Syringopora Limestone. 1907. 



M 2 



160 BEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 






Geographical and Geological Terms used locally in South Africa. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. G. W. Lamplugh 
(Chairman), Dr. F. H. Hatch (Secretary), Dr. G. Corstorphine, 
and Messrs. A. du Toit, A. P. Hall, G. Kynaston, F. P. Men- 
nell, and A. R. Rogers, appointed to determine the precise 
Significance of Topographical and Geological Terms used locally in 
South Africa. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

During the year Messrs. Rogers and du Toit have sent in some correc- 
tions, and Mr. du Toit has contributed a few fresh words. These have 
been embodied in the present Report. 

Two classes of words are at present being catalogued : — 

I. Topographical terms. 
II. Names of rocks and minerals. 

Most of the words hitherto catalogued are of Dutch origin, but some 
Kaffir and Bushman words have also been included. 

Class I. — Topographical Terms. 

Aar — 

Is the name given to any feature on the surface which is very long compared 
with its breadth. Applied to the outcrop of a dyke, to a low ridge of 
tufa, to a slight depression, or most frequently to a line of country 
characterised by a particular kind of bush. 

Baai — 

A bay on the coast, e.g., Saldanha Baai. 

Bak— 

A basin or basin-shaped hollow. 

Bank — 

A low ridge rising suddenly, e.g., Vaalbank. 

Banken, plural of Bank — 

A term used to denote a step-like feature, hence lanken type of scenery, 
e.g., in the high veld portion of the Lydenburg district of the Transvaal, 
due to alternations of harder and softer beds with a low dip. 

Berg, plural Bergen — 

Mountain : the term ' de Berg ' is especially applied to the great eastern 
escarpment of the Transvaal plateau. 

Bosch — 

Bush or wood, e.g., Blaauwbosch. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL TERMS IN SOUTH AFRICA. 161 

Bull— 

A low ridge with gentle and gradual rise and even outline. 

Dam — 

Reservoir or pond. 

Dans — 

A broad shallow valley, e.g., Leeuwen Dans. 

Donga — 

A small ravine or wash-out caused by floods in soft ground. 
A gully or dry watercourse with steep sides, synonymous with the Eastern 
terms xcaddy and nullah. 

Draai — 

A bend or turn (of a river or range). 

Drijt— 

A ford or crossing of a river. 

Duin, plural Duinen — 

A sand dune. 

Dwala — 

A native term used in Rhodesia for a bare rounded knoll or ridge of reck. 

Eiland — 

Island, e.g., Paarden Eiland. 

Fontein — 

A spring. Much used in place-names, e.g., Bloem fontein, Wonderfontein, &c. 

Gal— 

A hole, e.g., Wonder-gat, a term applied to a sink-hole in limestone formation. 
Cyfergat, a spot from which water trickles ; a ' soak.' 

Gouph (pronounced ' Cope ') — 

A Bushman word, meaning ' as dry as can be,' applied to a portion of the 
Western Karroo. 

Heuvel — 

A height or elevation, generally of small magnitude, e.g., Klipheuvel. 

Hoelc — 

(i) The area enclosed by a bend in a river. 

(ii) The upper end of a valley shut in by mountains. 

Holte— 

A hollow or depression. 

Hoogte — 

A height or elevation, generally of greater magnitude than a.' heuvel.' 

Karroo — ■ 

A Bushman word Kurd, or Guru, meaning ' dry as a bone,' applied to country 
like the central portion of Cape Colony (geologically or botanically). 



162 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Kasieel (literally Castle) — 

A high peak or ridge, e.g., Riebeck's Kasteel. 

Kloof— 

The head of a valley with steep sides. 

Knoppie — 

A little hill or knob. 

Kollc — 

A depression in a laagte or river course. 

Kom — 

A basin-shaped hollow. 

Kop, diminutive Kopje — 

A peak or little hill (literally head), e.g., Zwartkopje, Witkopje; hence 
Tafelkopje, a flat-topped or table-mountain type of hill ; Spitzkop, a 
sharply pointed type of hill. 

Kopjes Veld — 

A track of country characterised by numerous little hills. 

Kraal — 

An enclosure for cattle or goats, also a native home or village ; ?.;/., Makapane's 
kraal. 

Krans or Kranz (often incorrectly written Krantz) — 

The featuro made by a hard rock in a precipice. 

The precipitous face of an escarpment, e.g., Kranskop, Kransberg. 

Kuil — 

A shallow valley or depression. 

Laagte — 

A very shallow valley in which the course of the drainage is ill-defined. 

Mond — 

Mouth (of a river). 

Muut — 

A wall or barrier. 

Naauwte — - 

A narrow portion of a valley or constriction along a gorge. 

Nek— 

A high-level gap or pass in a range of hills, e.g., Commando Nek, in the 
Magaliesberg. 

Oog— 

The 'eye' of a river, usually applied to the spring feeding a river, e.g., in 
limestone areas. 

Pan — - 

A depression below the general level of the country, and into which the 
drainage is directed. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL TERMS IN SOUTH AFRICA. 163 

Panneveld — 

Country characterised by numerous pans. 

Plaat— 

A wide surface of bare rock, e.g., of granite, e.g., Klipplaat. 

Phi Kop — 

A flat-topped hill or mountain. 

Pont— 

A ferry, e.g., Lindeque's Pont, on the Vaal River. 

Poort— 

A low gap or short narrow gorge intersecting a range of hills = ' water-gap ' of 
American geologists (lit. gate), e.g., Krokodilpoort, Komati Poort, &c. 

Poortje — 

A little poort. 

Punt— 

(i) A point on the coast, or (ii) a spur of a mountain. 

Puts— 

A pit or well. 

Rand — 

A ridge or steep escarpment, generally of no great elevation, e.g., Rooirand 
(red ridge), Boschrand, Gatsrand, Witwatersrand (hence "The Rand'), 
&c. 

Randje — 

The diminutive of Band. 

Rug, plural Rug gen — 

A ridge or series of ridges. The ' Ruggens ' in Cape Colony is a plain much 
entrenched by rivers — a dissected peneplain. 

Shut— 

A ditch or water- furrow. 

Spitz Kop — 

A pointed or conical hill. 

Spruit — 

A small river or rivulet. 

Strand — 

A beach or strand. 

Tafelberg or Tafelkop — 
A table-topped mountain. 

Toren — 

A tower (applied to a pointed hill), e.g., Babylon's Toren. 

Vallet— 

A valley, often pronounced like, but distinct in meaning from, vhi. 



164 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, 

Veld (incorrectly Veldt) — 

Open uncultivated country — 
Bush veld (D., Boschveld), bush country. Sometimes called Low veld. 
High veld (D., Hoogeveld), high plateaux, about 5,000 to 6,000 feet abovj 
sea-level. 
Middle veld (D. Middelveld). The intermediate mixed country, between 
High and Low veld. 

Vlakte — - 

' Flats,' a wide tract of flat country or plain. 

Vlei or Vley — ■ 

A flat tract of country or area of gentle slope which is periodically subjected 
to flooding ; a wide pan of inconsiderable depth. 

Vloer — 

A 'floor.' This term has much the same meaning as Vlei. 

Waterval — 
Waterfall. 

Class II. — Names of Bocks and Minerals. 
Amande Klip (Almond-rock) — 
Amygdaloidal lava. 

Bacon-rock— 

A term used by-Barber'ton miners to denote the reddish cherty or jaspery 
variety of the banded ferruginous quartzite. (See Calico-rock ) 

Banket — 

A term applied to the Witwatersrand conglomerates on account of a supposed 
resemblance to an almond ' cake ' made by the Boers. 

Bantom — 

A term used by alluvial diamond diggers to designate striped or banded 
pebbles (magnetite-quartzite or slate, or magnetite- jasper rocks). 
Bar— 

A term used by miners to denote a conspicuous band or seam of rock, dis- 
tinguished by some character such as hardness or colour, e.g., Red Bar. 

Blaauw-ground (Blue ground), Kimberlite— 

The unoxidised portion of the filling of the diamond pipes. 

Blue Ground- See Blaauw-grond. 

Bosjesman's Klip (Bushman's rock) — 

A term applied to the Dwyka of Southern Cape Colony, owing to the jagged 
character of its weathered surface. 

Calico-rock — - 

A term formerly used by the Marabastad miners for a banded magnetite 
quartzite, usually in alternating black and white bands. 

Drip Kalk (Drip-limestone) — 

Stalactitic material. 

Float— 

A term used by miners for surface fragments —drift, rock not in situ. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL TERMS IN SOUTH AFRICA. 165 

Floating Beef— 

A term used by diamond miners for the masses of the ' country ,' or foreign 
rock occurring in a diamond pipe. 

Gruis — 

Shale, mudstone, or soft variety of Dwyka. 

Haar Klip (Thread-rock) — < 
* Crocidolite ' or asbestos. 

m 

Hardibank— 

A term used by diamond miners for a hard compact variety of ' blue-ground ' 
very resistant to weathering. 

Jjzer Klip (Ironstone) — 

Applied most commonly to igneous rocks such as dolerite and diabase. 

Kallcstecn — ■ 
Limestone. 

Klip— 

A stone, or rock. 

Olijont's Klip (Elephant's hide rock)— 

Name given to the Dolomite formation owing to its mode of weathering. 

Ou-Klip or Oude-Klip (Old rock) — 

A secondary limonitic surface-deposit, a kind of laterite. 

Turf— 

A heavy black clayey soil or loam, very common in low-lying areas, overlying 
basic igneous rocks. 

Vuursteen Klip (Firestone rock) — 

Quartz, chert, flint, or very fine-grained quartzite. 

Weer Klip — 

Lit. weather-stone = meteorite. 

Yellow Ground — - 

A term used by diamond miners for weathered, decomposed, or oxidised 
' blue ground ' in the diamond pipes. 



Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), Kev. 
T. R. K. Stebbing (Secretary), Sir E. Kay Lankester, Professor 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. McIntosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, Mr. 
G. P. Bidder, and Dr. W. B. Hardy. 

The Committee report that the Association's tahle at the Zoological 
Station at Naples has been occupied by the following investigators 
during the past session: Mr. E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S., Mr. Geoffrey W. 
Smith, Mr. P. A. Methuen, and the Hon. Mary Talk. 



166 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

•The Hon. Mary Palk reports: — 

I occupied the Naples table of the British Association for six months, 
from November 1909 until the end of April 1910. During that time 
I was working on the Polyzoa of the Bay of Naples, especially on a 
variety of Fluslra papyrea (Pallas) with well-developed ovicells. I 
studied the structure of the oesophageal 'cells, which show transverse 
striations in the protoplasmic walls as mentioned by Henneguy, and 
the finer histology of the polypides, also certain bodies lying in the 
opercular tissue which seem to correspond with the glands described 
by "Waters in calcareous polyzoa. I was not successful in tracing 
oogenesis, which must take place at a time of year when I was not 
there, as I could only find fully formed eggs and embryos and no ovary 
or young ova. I hope to continue these researches so as to establish 
the reproduction of the genus. I also made a fairly representative col- 
lection of the Polyzoa of the Bay of Naples, adding several Cyclostomata 
to the lists already published by Mr. A. W. Waters. I beg to offer my 
best thanks to the British Association for the use of the table, and to 
the staff at Naples for the kind help afforded to me. 

Mr. Geoffrey W. Smith reports: — 

I occupied the table from December 15, 1909, to January 1, 1910. 
During that time I was working on the effects of Sacculina on its host 
Inachus, especially with the object of obtaining the stages which show 
exactly how the gonad is absorbed as the result of the presence of the 
parasite. Owing to the very large amount of material supplied to me I 
have been successful in doing this, and also in definitely settling another 
point of some importance, namely, that the effect of the parasite is really 
the same on female as on male hosts, making the young female pre- 
maturely assume adult female characters. The results will be published 
in the ' Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science.' 

Mr. Methuen reports that during his stay at Naples he was working 
at the internal anatomy of Decapod Crustacea. He made a number of 
dissections of the alimentary canal of various types and preserved them 
for the purpose of working out the histology of the digestive glands. 

Mr. E. S. Goodrich, F.E.S., reports: — 

While occupying the British Association table at Naples from 
March 23 to April 11, 1910, I spent a considerable time carrying out 
feeding experiments with different colouring substances on young 
Amphioxus and studying the development of their nephridia in the 
hinder region of the pharynx. I also worked at the development of 
Aricia foetida and preserved material for the embryology of this and 
other Polychasta. The results of the researches have not yet been 
published, being still incomplete. 

The Committee, in concluding their report for 1909-10, wish to 
record their sense of the great loss to biological science caused by the 
death in September last of Dr. Anton Dohrn, the founder and director 
of the Zoological Station at Naples. Without referring to the high 
value of his personal researches in zoological science, the Committee 
may express their profound appreciation of the kindly assistance and 



OCCUPATION OP A TABLE AT ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 167 

cordial welcome that he invariably gave to the occupants of the British 
Association table at the Station. Dr. Bernhardt Dohrn succeeds his 
distinguished father as Director of the Station, and to him the Com- 
mittee are already' indebted for many acts of genial consideration and 
hospitality. 

The Committee ask for reappointment, with a grant of 100L 



Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. 
Bather (Secretary), Dr. P. L. Sclater, Kev. T. K. K. Stebbing, 
Dr. W. E. Hoyle, Hon. Walter Kothschild, and Lord Wal- 

SINGHAM. 

Continuous and steady progress has been made by Mr. Davies Sherborn 
in the preparation of Volume II. of this Index. Since the report for last 
year was sent in, Mr. Sherborn has dealt with the remainder of the 
separate works by authors whose names begin with C, and of these the 
various editions of Cuvier proved exceptionally long and tedious to 
analyse. Other works have also been dealt with as opportunity offered. 

Valuable assistance has been rendered by Mr. Hartley Durrant, who 
lent from Lord ' Walsingham's library (presented to the Trustees of the 
British Museum) a fine copy of the extremely rare work by Billberg, 
' Enumeratio Insectorum,' 1820, which has been indexed and made 
available for reference. 

The slips, which are preserved in the British Museum (Natural 
History) by the kindness of the Trustees, are quite in order for those 
who wish to consult them, and are of exceptional value to anyone 
monographing a particular genus. 

Mr. Sherborn and Mr. H. 0. N. Shore have written a paper clearing 
up the difficulties surrounding Sowerby's ' Conchological Illustrations ' 
and Gray's ' Descriptive Catalogue of Shells,' * and Mr. Sherborn him- 
self has written on the dates of the parts of Burmeister ' General Insec- 
torum,' 1838-46. 2 

Systematic and regular work on this Index is greatly encouraged 
by the friendly attitude of the Association, and the Committee, in 
recommending its own reappointment, earnestly ask the Association 
to continue this valuable help by a further grant of 100L 



The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Twentieth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. F. Du Cane Godman (Chairman), Mr. 
D. Sharp (Secretary), Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
and Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 

Another part of the ' Fauna Hawaiiensis ' is about to be issued by the 
Committee. This will complete the descriptive part of the work. As 
it appears desirable to issue also a general summary of the Committee's 
work, tbe Committee ask to be reappointed without a grant. 

1 Prcc. Malac. Soc, September, 1909, pp. 331-340. 
* Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., January, 1910. 



168 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Zoology Organisation. — Interim Report of the Committee, consistin 
of Sir E. Bay Lankester (Chairman), Professor S. J. Hickson 
(Secretary), Professors G. C. Bourne, J. Cossar Ewart,M.Hartog, 
W. A. Herdman, and J. Graham Kerr, Mr. 0. H. Latter, 
Professor Minchin, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, Professors C. Lloyd 
Morgan, E. B. Poulton, and A. Sedgwick, Dr. A. E. Shipley, 
and Kev. T. E. E. Stebbing. 

The Committee have not considered it to be necessary to summon any 
meetings during the past session, as no matters of special interest and 
importance to zoologists were raised. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed without a grant. 



Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor A. Dendy (Chairman and Secretary), Sir E. Bay 
Lankester, Professor A. Sedgwick, Professor Sydney H. Vines, 
and Mr. E. S. Goodrich, appointed to nominate competent Naturalists 
to perform definite pieces of work at the Marine Laboratory, 
Plymouth. 

Since the date of our last report the British Association's table at the 
Plymouth Marine Laboratory has been occupied for one month 
(August 1909) by Mr. J. S. Dunkerly, for the purpose of investigating 
the life-history of the Flagellate Protozoa. The use of the table has 
also been granted, for the month of July 1910, to Mr. G. E. 
Nicholls, B.Sc. , for the prorjecution of his researches on Eeissner's 
Fibre, with special reference to the Elasmobranchi. 



Inniskea Whaling Station. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Professor J. Stanley Gardiner 
(Secretary), Professor W. A. Herdman, Bev. W. Spotswood 
Green, Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Dr. H. W. Marett Tims, and Mr. 
B. M. Barrington, appointed to investigate the Biological Problems 
incidental to the Inniskea Whaling Station. 

Mr. D. G. Lillie was enabled to work at the Inniskea Whaling Station 
for several months during the summer of 1909. His expenses have 
been met by private benefaction. It was hoped that he would continue 
his researches this year, but, having been appointed a member of the 
scientific staff on the ' Terra Nova,' he left for the Antarctic in June. 
As a result of his work he has published substantial contributions to 
our knowledge of the Cetacea, and it is greatly to be hoped that the 
opportunity afforded by the Inniskea Whaling Station of investigating 



INNISKEA WHALING STATION. 169 

the larger Cetacea will not be lost, as there seems every chance of these 
mammals being rapidly exterminated. 

The Committee apply for reappointment and for a grant of 50L 
to further the work. 



Experiments in Inheritance. — Third Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairtnan), Mr. Douglas Laurie 
(Secretary), Professor E. C. Punnett and Dr. H. W. Marett Tims. 
(Drawn tip by the Secretary.) 

On the Inheritance of Yellow Coat Colour in Mice. 

The experiments have been much interfered with through disease 
among the mice. It has been necessary to destroy a very large number 
of them, and to commence again practically at the beginning. The 
present report is purely formal. A fuller report is anticipated next 
year. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed without a grant. 



Feeding Habits of British Birds. — Second Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Mr. H. S. Leigh (Secre- 
tary), Messrs. J. N. Halbert, C. Gordon Hewitt, Kobert New- 
stead, Clement Reid, A. G. L. Rogers, F. V. Theobald, and 
Professor F. E. Weiss, appointed to investigate the Feeding Habits 
of British Birds by a study of the contents of the crops and gizzards of 
both adults and nestlings, and by collation of observational evidence, 
with the object of obtaining precise knowledge of the economic status 
of many of our commoner birds affecting rural science. 

The investigation of the feeding habits of the rook, starling, and 
chaffinch has been continued during the past year. 

The correspondents whose names are set forth in the Report for 
1909 have again sent specimens of birds to the Secretary each month. 
The Committee again desire to express indebtedness to them for their 
kind assistance. 

During the twelve months (June 1, 1909, to May 31, 1910) 432 
birds have been received, the number being made up as follows : 
rooks 87, starlings 193, chaffinches 152. 

Each bird or batch of birds is accompanied by a form filled in by 
the correspondent giving details as set forth in the Report of last year. 

The contents of ths gizzards of 302 birds have been examined up 
to May 31, the number consisting of 212 rooks, 50 starlings, and 
40 chaffinches. The evidence obtained from the examination of these 
specimens is not sufficient to form a correct estimate of the economic 
status of any one of the three birds under investigation; when, in the 
opinion of the Committee, a sufficient number of specimens of any 



170 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

one species have been examined, the results of the tabulations and 
the particulars supplied by the correspondents will be arranged and 
published. 

A grant of 51. was made to the Committee by the Association in 
1909, and in addition there was a balance from the grant of 50L from 
the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, carried forward from last year. 
The money has all been spent. The Committee ask for reappoint- 
ment, with a further grant, and with the addition of Professors S. J. 
Hickson, F. W. Gamble, G. H. Carpenter, and Arthur Thomson. 



The Amount and Distribution of Income (other than Wages) below the 
Income-tax Exemption Limit in the United Kingdom. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professors E. Cannan (Chairman), 
A. L. Bowley (Secretary), F. Y. Edgeworth, and H. B. Lees 
Smith, and Dr. W. K. Scott. 1 

Introduction. 

The Committee, which was appointed at the Dublin meeting, have pro- 
ceeded with their investigations and collected information during two 
years ; and though a complete account of the amount of income with 
which it deals cannot be given, it is now possible to survey the ground 
and to make an estimate which it is believed is better founded than any 
previously made, and which is nearly as accurate as is possible in the 
existing state of official statistics. 

It is customary to divide the aggregate of incomes of the inhabi- 
tants of the United Kingdom into three groups : first, those incomes 
which are subject to income-tax — i.e., which are over 1601. per annum 
according to the definitions of the Income-tax Commissioners ; secondly, 
those incomes which are received as wages and come under the cognisance 
of the Labour Department and are included in Estimates of Earnings of 
Manual Workers ; and thirdly, an Intermediate Group, which is included 
in neither of the former. It is the aggregate of the income in this third 
group that the Committee have to estimate. 

The procedure of the Committee has been to collect all the statistics 
relating to members of this group which are published officially or semi- 
officially, to apply to public bodies for data as to the salaries paid to 
their employes, and to apply to societies representing professionaf and 
other classes for any statistical information they had as to the numbers 
in such groups and their incomes. For other classes the Committee 
made direct applications for information in all quarters where it seemed 
probable that a response would be received. In this matter they were 
greatly helped by the Manchester Statistical Society, who conducted a 
careful and useful investigation in the neighbourhood of Manchester. 
The Circular of Inquiry which follows was used extensively for the 
collection of fresh data : — 

Sir, — It is of great importance for many practical and scientific purposes to 
know the total of the National Income and the relative number of persons in 

1 Mr. W. G. S. Adams has resigned his membership of the Committee 



ON THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME!, 



171 



receipt of incomes of different amounts. The total may be divided into three 
classes: (a) amount subject to income-tax; (6) amount received as wages; 
(c) remainder. Fairly adequate information is extant for classes (a) and (6), 
but no serious inquiry, official or private, has been made in recent years as to 
(c), and this unknown amount is the subject of vague and misleading guesses. 
Absence of information on this subject is one of the most serious gaps in our 
national statistics, which are otherwise becoming fairly complete. The work of 
the Committee named above is to form a reasoned estimate as to the numbers 
and income of persons, where income from all sources is less than 160?. and does 
not arise from wages. Apart from persons in receipt of pensions, annuities, and 
dividends (as to whom the Income-tax Commissioners give some information), 
the class in question consists largely of clerks, teachers, shop assistants, &c. 
The Committee, having considered the practicable means of forming an estimate, 
is of opinion that the answers to the questions on the annexed schedule, which 
is being issued to a number of Companies and Corporations, would be of material 
assistance to them in their task, when used in conjunction with the Population 
Census and other information. The Committee will, then, be greatly indebted to 
you if you will fill in the details asked as to your Firm, Company, or Corporation, 
and return the form at your early convenience. 

The returns will be used only for purposes of averages and will be regarded 
as strictly confidential ; no name, whether of an individual or of a company, will 
be used in the report. 

I am, &c. 

CONFIDENTIAL. 

Year and locality to which information applies .;...,,.*., ,,.,,, ,,., 

Nature of business or occupation 

[If shop assistants in retail business or commercial travellers are 
employed, details should be given under the same headings on 
a separate page.] 

A. Number of partners, managers, clerks, &c, who draw more than 160?. 

per annum. 

Men Women 

B. Number of partners, managers, clerks, &c, who draw 160?. or less. (L>o 

not include (i) workmen, porters, messengers, &c— i.e., those in receipt 
of wages — or (ii) clerks, &c, who do not give their full time to your 
business). 

Men and lads Women and girls 

As regards B. 

Total amount paid to these clerks, &c. . . £ 

The above will give the essential information, but it is also important to fill 
in the following table : — 

Number of clerks, &c. (under B), whose incomes fall within the following 
limits :— B 



— - '. 


Men and Lads 


Women and Girls 


£140 to £160 .... 
£120 „ £140 .... 
£100 „ £120 .... 
£80 „ £100 .... 
£60 „ £80 .... 
£40 „ £60 .... 
Under £40 .... 











in 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



CONFIDENTIAL. 

Use this page for shop asiistants only. Exclude clerks, artisans, and 
labourers. 

A. Number who draw more than 160?. per annum. 

Men Women 

B. Number who draw 160?. or less. 

Men and lads Women and girls 

As regards B. 



Total amount paid to these assistants per annum £ 

Number whose annual salaries fall within the following limits :- 







Without Board or Residence 


With Board or Residence 




Men and 
Lads 


Women and 
Girls 


Men and 
Lads 


Women and 
Girls 


£140 to £160 . 
£120 „ £140 . 
£100 „ £120 . 
£80 „ £100 . 
£60 „ £80 . 
£40 „ £60 . 
£20 „ £40 . 
Under £20 . 













It is evident that there is no clear line of division between the 
wage-earning group which is dealt with by the Labour Department 
and the intermediate group. Salaries, especially those of lads and 
of young men, are very frequently less than wages, so that it is not 
a question of amount of annual income. Again, there is no simple 
distinction between clerical and manual work, for many occupations 
involve both. Further, such important classes as shop assistants and 
small shopkeepers might equally well be included in either class. But 
it is not a definition in accordance with the nature of the occupation 
that we must aim at, but rather a question of fact as to whether certain 
classes do or do not come under the cognisance of the Labour Depart- 
ment and are or are not included in the estimates of aggregate wages 
based on their statistics. The Labour Department, however, does not 
issue an official estimate of aggregate wages, and in the end it will 
be necessary for each statistician to decide to what classes of persons 
the data published by the Labour Department relate, to estimate the 
aggregate wages of such groups, and to place the remaining groups 
either in the intermediate or in the income-tax paying classes. From 
this point of view it is not essential to elaborate the grounds of the 
delimitation actually adopted, for all occupied persons must be, in fact, 
included in one or other of the classes, and it does not matter whether 
they are included as wage earners or as salaried, since the income 
allotted would be much the same in each group. 

"When we have separated out wage-earners, so far as the Popu- 
lation Census allows, from other occupied persons, we obtain the 
numbers shown in the following table : — 



On The amount and distribution of income. 



173 



Number of Persons in the Three Groups. 

Census of United Kingdom, 1901. Occupied classes, other than manual labourers 
working for employers [over ten years old). 





Males— 000 


s 


Females— OCO's 


r3 w 
3.2 


T3 

a 


-a 
S 

3 


45 T3 


T3 - 


■a 
1 


a 

3 








S3 
O 
a 

m 


"a 






o 

u 
02 




■a sd 


1. Civil Service (Officers and 


















Clerks) 


42 


4 


6 


52 


14 


2 


2 


18 


2. Local Government Officers 


26 


3 


4 


33 


11 


— 


1 


12 


3. Army Officers .... 


13 


1 


1 


15 


— 


— 


— 


- — 


4. Navy Officers .... 


5 


— 


— 


5 


- — 


— 


— 


— 


5. Clergy of all denominations . 


40 


5 


6 


51 


— 


— 


— 


— 


6. Barristers and Solicitors. 


21 


4 


3 


28 


— 


— 


— 


— 


7. Law Clerks .... 


34 


6 


2 


42 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8. Doctors, Dentists, Veterinary 


















Surgeons, Engineers, Sur- 


















veyors, Architects. 


59 


8 


6 


73 


1 


— 


— 


1 




59 


7 


7 


73 


172 


17 


13 


202 


10. Authors, Editors, Journalists, 


















Shorthand Writers, Scien- 


















tists, Painters and Sculptors 


23 


2 


1 


26 


1 


— 


— 


1 


11. Photographers, Musicians, 




















38 


3 


1 


42 


33 


3 


1 


37 




5 


1 


2 


8 


— 


■ — 


— 


— 


13. Brokers, Auctioneers, Ac- 


















countants .... 


64 


7 


5 


76 


2 


— 


— 


2 


14. Salesmen and Commercial 


















Travellers .... 


66 


10 


4 


80 


1 


— 


1 


2 


15. Company Officers . 


2 


— 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


16. Commercial and Industrial 




















308 


38 


19 


365 


56 


16 


3 


75 


17. Bankers and Finance 


31 


5 


3 


39 


— 


— 


— 


. — 


18. Insurance Clerks 


21 


2 


1 


24 


— 


— 


— 


— 


19. Insurance Agents 


34 


3 


1 


38 


— 


— 


— 


— 




203 


46 


328 


577 


21 


8 


71 


100 


21. Other Agricultural Employers 


8 


1 


— 


9 


— 


— 


— 


— 


22. Merchant Service, Officers 


— 


— 


— 


36 


— 


— 


— 


— 


23. Railway Clerks. 


68 


8 


3 


79 


— 


— 


— 


- — 


24. Telephone Clerks 


14 


2 


— 


16 


9 


2 


— 


11 


Manufacture and Occupations not 


















otherwise included : — 


















25. Employers .... 


225 


32 


9 


246 


23 


3 


1 


27 


26. Working on own account . 


269 


13 


4 


286 


241 


29 


8 


278 


Dealers and Shopkeepers : — 


















27. Employers .... 


133 


20 


16 


169 


14 


2 


2 


18 


28. On own account . 


218 


15 


13 


246 


90 


13 


11 


114 


29. Employed . . 


469 


62 


49 


580 


161 


37 


31 


229 


30. Costermongers and Assistants 


47 


4 


2 


53 


14 


3 


1 


18 


31. Sweeps (not assistants) . 

Totals 


4 


1 


1 


6 


— 


— 


— 


— - 


313 


497 


3,375 


864 


135 


146 


1,145 



The inclusion of heading 30 and 31, and the further inclusion of gardeners 
working on their own account (26,000), and of showmen, &c. (15,000), and of 
'missionaries, preachers, monks, sisters, &c.,' are open to question. An estimate 
for some of these is included in our final table. 

1910. n 



174 REPORTS Oft TitE STATE OE SCIENCE. 

The table just given classifies the persons returned as occupied in 
the census of 1901 in thirty-one classes. The classes contain in every 
case one or more of the census sub-headings. These sub-headings are 
grouped in an apparently arbitrary manner in accordance with the kind 
of information as to incomes which is available. The classification for 
England and Wales in the census is the same as that for Scotland, but 
that for Ireland differs in some important respects, and some approxi- 
mation has been necessary to obtain correspondence. The list will only 
be completely intelligible when put alongside the census tables of occu- 
pation. Since this classification is extremely important, in order that 
our results may be understood, and be capable of improvement as 
further information accumulates or as the census classification becomes 
more useful, we give the actual sub-headings contained in our thirty- 
one classes. Those who are not so included are lumped together as 
manual workers. 

The first eleven classes are included under the census headings — 
Government, Defence, Professional. 

Class 

1 Civil Service, officers and clerks. 

2 Municipal, parish, and other local or county officers. 

3 Army officers (effective and retired). 

4 Naval officers (effective and retired). 

5 Clergy and ministers of all denominations. 
5a Missionaries, preachers, monks, &c. 

6 Barristers and solicitors. 

7 Law clerks. 

8 Those professions for which definite preparation is required — i.e., doctors, 

dentists, veterinary surgeons, engineers, surveyors, and architects. 
Nurses are not included. 

9 Teachers. 

10 A composite group of authors, editors, journalists, reporters, shorthand 

writers, persons engaged in scientific pursuits, and artists, as to whom 
we have no special information. 

11 A similar group, where there is a larger proportion of semi-manual workers 

included — photographers, musicians, and actors. 

The following eight groups are included under commercial occupa- 
tions in the census : — 

Class 

12 Merchants. 

13 Brokers, stockbrokers, agents, factors, accountants, auctioneers, house 

agents. A miscellaneous group concerning whom we have no special 
information. 

14 Commercial travellers and a few salesmen and buyers not otherwise 

described. 

15 A small group described as officers of companies, societies, &c. 

16 Clerks. Under this heading are included according to the Instructions to 

the Census Clerks employed in classifying occupations (of which We have 
a copy) the following headings : — 

Accountant (bookkeeper), accountant clerk, accountant's clerk, booker, book- 
keeper, cashier, managing clerk, secretary (not private) other than bank, 
insurance, and others specifically included in other classes. Collector of 
accounts, debts, rents, or rates, &c, water clerk, auto-type worker, 
merchant's correspondent, phonograph writer, typist, copyist, shorthand 
clerk, and some others. 

We learn that it was intended to include all clerks, whether in commerce 
or manufacturing industry, under this heading. 



ON THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME. 175 

Class 

17 Bankers and finance agents.. 

18 Insurance clerks. 

19 Insurance agents and collectors. 

The remaining classes are : — 

20 Farmers and graziers. 

This includes crofters in Scotland and peasant proprietors in Ireland. It 
does not include farmers' relatives working on the farm or bailiffs. 

21 Here are included a number of gardeners, entering themselves as employers 

and proprietors of agricultural machines, &c. 

22 Here we have included masters, mates, and an estimate for engineers 

(from table 52 of Appendix A to the General Eeport of the Census). It 
is to be noticed that seamen at sea are not always included in the total 
population. 

23 Railway officials or clerks. This is not given in the Irish census, and we 

have approximated for the relatively small number there concerned. 

24 Telegraph, telephone service, not including messengers or Government 

servants who come under class 1 or mechanics. 

The next five classes are obtained from Orders 9 to 22 in the 
census classification, which contain the whole of productive industry 
and a great part of retail distribution. The first separation is between 
manufacturers (or makers) and dealers, which includes shopkeepers and 
assistants. This division is not made in the Irish census, except that 
most important classes of shops are given separately. It is not possible 
in general to distinguish between wholesale and retail distribution, but 
it is to be remembered that clerks, who are the main employes other 
than manual workers in wholesale distribution, are already included in 
our class 16. 

The other line of division is between employers, those who are 
working for employers, and those who are working on their own 
account. In the General Eeport in the 1901 Census considerable dis- 
satisfaction is expressed as to the result of this classification, but it 
may be observed that it appears to be correct in its main lines, since 
persons working on their own account are found in greatest numbers 
in precisely those occupations where common observation would lead 
one to expect them. (See the list in the table below.) There is no 
other means of estimating these numbers. It is quite possible that 
many persons describe themselves as employers who are, in fact, 
employed during part of their time, and, indeed, very many persons 
are both employers and employed. To this point we must return 
when we estimate the incomes of this group. 

In class 25 are included all the persons returned as employers in 
the census orders, except those employers who are dealers or shop- 
keepers, who, together, form heading 27. Similarly, under 26 and 28 
are included those working on. their own account. In class 29 come 
those (other than clerks) who work for those employers who are dealers 
or shopkeepers. Finally, we include class 30 — costermongers, whether 
employers, employed, or on their own account— and class 31 — employer 
sweeps; for these two classes, presumably, are not included in the 
Labour Department's wage statistics, as they are not manual workers 
employed by others. We may here remark that we learn that shop 
assistants are not to be included in the current wage census, and we 
have therefore included them in the intermediate group. 



176 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



A study of the census will show some other classes, all small, which 
might be included in our grouping, but even in the aggregate they will 
not be large enough to affect our estimate seriously, and may be left 
as part of the margin which may be included either in the intermediate 
group or the wage-earning group, and must be included in one or the 
other. Additional classes, however, 5a (missionaries, &c.) and 11a 
(showmen, &c), are inserted in a further table (p. 195). 

It must be remembered that the whole estimate is dependent on 
the census classification, that is, ultimately, on the occupations which 
persons returned themselves as following in 1901, and we have no 
means of going behind this classification, except in those few cases 
where there are independent statements of the numbers of persons in 
an occupation, and even then the difficulties of comparison are enormous. 
In the supplementary table annexed are given some details under our 
classes 25 to 29 in order that it may be seen what occupations provide 
the greatest number under these composite headings: — 

Census — Further details. 



Classes 25 <£ 26 — Manufacturers, dkc 


, England and Wales. 


OOO's. 






Working on Own 





Employers 


Account 


Men 


Women 




10 


23 







3 


4 


— 




1 


— 


— 




7 


10 


— 




16 


11 


— 




1 


1 


— 




8 


8 


— 




8 


13 


— 




57 


49* 


— 




9 


13 


— 


Wood 


2 


3 


■ — 




3 


1 


— 




3 


1 


— 




5 


5 


1 




6 


3 


— 




3 


— 


— 


Wool 


3 


1 


— 


Other Textiles 


4 


2 


5 




25 


57 f 


183 § 


Food 


7 


7 


1 




3 










Lodging-house- and Inn-keepers 


16 


55 J 




5 


2 4 


205 269 


241 



* Carpenters, 17 ; painters, 11 ; plumbers, 5 ; builders, 5. 

t Tailors, 16 ; bootmakers, 38. 

1 Coffee-house, 6 ; lodging-house, 4 ; publicans, &c, 44. 

§ Milliners, 8 ; tailors, 5 ; dressmakers, 153 ; seamstresses, 15. 



ON THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME. 



17V 



Classes 2" 


r, 28 


29 — Dealers and Shopkeepers, England and Wales. 


000's- 





Employers 


Assistants 


On Own Account 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Dealers 


17 












Ironmongers 




5 


— 


20 


2 


4 


1 


Jewellers .... 




1 





3 


2 


2 


1 


Chemists .... 




5 


— 


16 


3 


4 


— 


Booksellers and Newsagents 




6 


— 


23 


10 


9 


4 


Clothiers and Hatters 




4 


— 


15 


4 


3 


1 


Bootmakers . 




2 





10 


6 


2 


1 


Haberdashers 








1 





5 


1 


1 


1 


Drapers 








11 


2 


47 


58 


8 


7 


Hairdressers 








4 


__ 


17 


12 


12 


— 


Dairymen 








3 


— 


22 


3 


10 


2 


Cheesemongers 








3 


— 


9 


1 


4 


3 


Butchers 








13 


1 


68 


1 


23 


1 


Poulterers 








3 





13 


1 


11 


2 


Corn Dealers 








5 


— 


7 


— 


3 





Confectioners 








12 


3 


5 


21 


13 


12 


Greengrocers 








5 


— 


15 


5 


20 


6 


Grocers 








18 


2 


100 


13 


36 


27 


General Shopkeepers 






1 


1 


9 


16 


12 


11 


Pawnbrokers 






2 


— 


8 


1 


1 


— 



The following table shows the whole population over ten years old 
as it was in 1901 : — 

1901.— Persons over 10 Years Old* 000'f 



— 


England 
and Wales 


Scotland 


Ireland 


United Kingdom t 


00 

"3 


X 

CD 

"3 

S 
u 
fa 


00 

V 

"3 

3 


00 
CD 

*3 

a 

fa 


00 

*3 


Gfl 

o 
"3 

S 
<*> 
fa 


00 

X 

"3 


CO 

s 

"3 

a 

CD 
fa 


CC 

o 

CO 
h 
CD 

fa 


Included in pre- 
vious table . 
Manual workers 


2,529 
7,628 


864 
3,308 


313 

1,078 


135 

457 


497 
906 


146 3,385t 

401! 9,934 

1 


1,145 
4,165 


4,530 t 
14,099 


Total occupied 
Unoccupied 

Total 


10,157 
1,977 


4,172 
9,018 


1,391 592 
265 1,199 


1,403 
344 


54713,319 
1,272| 2,586 


5,31018,629 
11,48814,074 


12,134 13,190 


1,656 1,790 


1,747 


1,81815,905 


16,798 32,703 



* Children (if any) under ten years in Ireland returned as occupied are also included. 

t For the United Kingdom the numbers are corrected, as far as possible, by 
including estimates for the Army, Navy, and Merchant Service afloat or abroad, 
from the General Report of the Census. 

Most of our information as to incomes refers to 1909 or 1910. To 
bring the census table up to the end of 1909 we must add 8£ per cent. 
in accordance with official estimates. This shows 4,910,000 persons 
(4,530,000 x 1*085) in either the income-tax paying or in the inter- 
mediate group, and about 15,300,000 wage-earners, male or female. 
Actually we have assumed that the numbers in class 20 (farmers) have 
remained unchanged, and have added about 10 per cent, in the case of 
all the other classes ; this gives a general increase of 8'6 per cent. 



178 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

Number of Income-tax Payers. 

We can approach this part of the problem from two points of view, 
for we can either estimate the number of tax-payers from the Reports 
of the Income-tax Commissioners, or estimate the number of tax- 
payers in each of our thirty-one classes. As regards the first, it is well 
known that the number of income-tax payers cannot be directly found 
from the Commissioners' Eeports, still less can we find the number of 
persons who pay on so-called ' earned income,' which alone concerns us 
at present. It is not proposed to make a new estimate of this number, 
but we recall the following statistics from Mr. Bowley's evidence 
to the Committee on Income-tax (H. of C, 365 of 190G, especially 
page 223). It appears that there were in 1904 about G39,200 persons 
earning over 160Z. in Schedules D and E. To this we must add 23,000 
farmers (see page 26), making 659,200, and 5 per cent, to bring 
it up to the year 1909, making 682,000. To this should be added an 
estimate for the considerable number of persons who earn less than 
1601. , but whose income from other sources brings them above the 
exemption limit. On the other hand, we find in the fifty-second Report 
of the Commissioners (page 139, note) that about 750,000 persons satisfied 
the Commissioners that they were entitled to pay only 9d. on the whole, 
or some part of their income, i.e., there are at least 750,000 persons who 
have some earned income and a total income of between 160L and 
2,0001., to this should be added the relatively small number of persons, 
part of whose incomes ai'e earned, while the whole is above 2,000L, and 
also the number who did not, owing to the shortness of notice in 1908, 
or for other causes, claim the reduced rate to which they were entitled. 
All these data are consistent with an estimate of 800,000, or rather 
more, as the number of occupied persons who pay income-tax, and 
we propose to adopt this estimate. If the Income-tax Commis- 
sioners give us more information in the future it can readily be used 
to make the necessary alterations throughout the remainder of our 
estimates. Subtracting these 800,000 taxpayers from the 4,900,000 
occupied persons other than manual workers, we have the large number 
of 4,100,000 persons in the intermediate group. This is likely to be 
correct (subject to the definitions we are adopting) within 100,000. This 
number is considerably greater than those which have been hitherto 
adopted; but previous writers have not given their data, so that it is not 
possible to discover the cause of the difference. It is probable that a 
very large number (nearly 1,000,000) classified as working on their own 
account in our table have not been included in other estimates, and that 
some classes which may be regarded as manual- labour classes are in- 
cluded in our statements, but not in others. As already stated, this 
inclusion or exclusion would become unimportant if the aggregate of 
income, salaries, and wages were computed. 

Numbers and Incomes in the Thirty-one Classes of the Intermediate 

Group. 

We now proceed to discuss the incomes of our thirty-one classes. 
For some of these we have adequate information; for others we have 



ON THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME. 179 

sufficient information to form an approximate estimate; for others we 
must proceed by results of common observation or by guesswork. It 
is intended throughout this part of our Report to show clearly the basis 
of our estimates, and to put them in such a form that it will be possible 
for each item to be amended if further information can be obtained. Our 
information is adequate as regards the Civil Service, Local Government, 
the Army, Navy, the clergy, elementary teachers, banks, and railway 
servants. It is sufficient for an estimate for clerks, farmers, and shop 
assistants. In some other cases, viz., professional, under our classes b 
and 8, and merchants, we may assume that the great majority pay income- 
tax. In the remaining cases we must do the best we can to find limits 
to the aggregate income, which will not contradict any of the general 
data we have. The weak point of previous estimates of this intermediate 
income has been that no attempt has been made to determine any limits 
within which the aggregate may be definitely expected to lie. The late 
Sir Robert Giffen and some other writers have been content to find a 
lower limit and say, for example, that there is at least 200,000,000L in 
this group. Others, following the example of Dudley Baxter, who 
initiated this inquiry in 1868, have been content to make the best guess 
they could, without attempting to assign its precision. We propose, on 
the other hand, to state (wherever any check can be obtained) the superior 
and inferior limits of the number and of the average income of the non- 
tax-payers in each group, and hence to compute a measurement of 
precision of the aggregate. 

The theory of probability, especially that part related to the Law of 
Great Numbers and the normal Curve of Error, will afford some help. 
In each case we have endeavoured to assign, in the light of all the in- 
formation available, whether published in this Report or omitted as too 
confidential or for want of space, limits within which it seems highly 
probable that the true measurement must lie. The modulus in the Curve 
of Error shows the deviation which will only be exceeded in either direc- 
tion once in six times in the long run, and we believe that we can assign 
the numbers, not differing greatly from such a modulus for the various 
classes. This does not mean that we can assign definite odds of five to 
one against the quantity measured being outside the limits we give, but 
that we can obtain numbers whose ratio to such a modulus will not differ 
greatly from unity. The numbers following the sign + in our estimates 
are all to be interpreted in this sense. 1 Having obtained these moduli for 
all the items it is a known problem to combine them by the theory of 
error into a modulus for the total. Accordingly this section of the Report 
will be devoted to assigning estimates for each of the thirty -one classes, 
and then grouping them together. 2 

It must be clearly understood that the main purpose in this Report 
is to tabulate our knowledge or our ignorance as to the Intermediate Group 

1 We use the modulus here in preference to the ' probable error ' or the ' standard 
deviation ' which express smaller improbabilities. 

a It should be understood that the estimates in this section of the Report have 
been made by the Secretary, who alone has had access to the information accumulated, 
and that the other members of the Committee have only given a general assent to 
them, 



180 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

as definitely as possible, and to assign limits to the precision of the 
estimate of the aggregate income of this group. Every estimate should 
be criticised in the light of its effect on this aggregate, and if any amend- 
ment is thought necessary, its effect on the result should be computed 
before its importance is accepted. As a by-product we have also 
obtained valuable information as to special classes, but we are bound to 
make estimates in all cases whatever our ignorance may be. It is 
believed that the use of the modulus, chosen so as to include all esti- 
mates which are reasonably probable, enables us to make bricks without 
straw which will be strong enough for the strain we shall put on them. 

Class 1. Civil Service. — There is no exact classification extant of the 
individual salaries of Civil Servants, but the numbers and the salaries 
are given in great detail in the estimates for the Civil Services and 
Eevenue Departments published annually. The only difficulty is to 
interpret such items as ' 39 second-division clerks, minimum 70L, annual 
increment 101., maximum 250L, total 5.400L,' and to estimate from 
them the number and income of those who have not more than 160L 
It is believed that this has been done in such a way that the result, 
both in number and distribution of salaries, is very near the facts, 
and that it was unnecessary to try to get complete details from the 
Treasury. The process used is to take every item by itself, and divide 
the groups according to whatever indications are given. A further 
difficulty is to divide the wage-earners from the salaried, but the Census 
Instructions to Tabulating Clerks make it possible to select with very 
fair precision those who are included under the heading Officers and 
Clerks. As a result of our examination we find 56,000 male Civil ser- 
vants (officers and clerks) in the United Kingdom, of whom about 
19,000 received more than 160Z. The Census total was 52,000, which, 
when increased by 9 per cent, to bring it up to date, corresponds closely 
with the total just found. The average salary of these clerks is, 
approximately, 951. Our conclusion is that there are 36,000 4- 2,000 
male clerks, with not more than 160L, and that their average is 951. ±51. 
As regards the women clerks, we only find 14,300, whereas the census 
gives 18,000. [The difference is not improbably due to many sub-post- 
mistresses returning themselves as Government servants, whereas, in 
fact, they would be more properly classified as shopkeepers, and only 
receive part of their income from the Government. We have trans- 
ferred these to class 27. Sub-postmasters and mistresses are not 
properly included as Government servants.] The main bulk of 
these female clerks are in the Post Office service. Only 175, 
or about 1 per cent., of these women earn more than 160Z. The 
estimate we adopt under this heading is 15,000 ± 2,000, at 57Z. ± 51. 
In this and in other classes a small number pass the exemption limit in 
virtue of other sources of income. There is no means of allowing for 
this except by the limits shown by the ' modulus.' 

Class 2. Local Government. — We have received in answer to our 
Schedule of Inquiry thirty-one detailed returns from county boroughs 
in England and Wales, with an aggregate population of over 4,000,000,, 
and a return frp,m the London County Council. There is con: 
siderable difficulty in definition in this class, and it is improbable 
that I be town clerks who made returns for us obtained exactly 



ON THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OP INCOME 181 

the same line of division as the census authorities, either as to whether 
a person was or was not employed in local government service, or as 
to whether he was an official or a workman. A further difficulty 
is that many persons give only part of their time to such service, 
being engaged in professional occupations otherwise, and that 
they may in a few cases have been included with unduly small 
incomes. For Scotland we have returns from Glasgow, Edinburgh, 
Dundee, Perth, Paisley, Hamilton, and Cupar. We have no returns 
from counties as apart from boroughs. The total number for which we 
have information is 11,400 males and 1,560 females in Great Britain. 
We have no returns from Ireland. As regards males, 38 per cent, in 
London, 76 per cent, in the boroughs, and 76 per cent, in Scotland re- 
ceived less than 160/. The average of these in London was 120/., in the 
boroughs 911., in Scotland 93/. Taking the census numbers and com- 
bining our estimates in proportion to the population of London, the rest 
of England, and of Scotland and Ireland, we find that 72 per cent. 
(i.e., 26,000) receive less than 160/., with an average of 931. Different 
methods of combination would give different results, and it seems neces- 
sary to allow a margin ± 2,000 for the number, and ± 10/. for the 
average salary. As regards women and girls, we find that the propor- 
tion to men in our returns is less than in the census, no doubt because 
the census includes nurses in infirmaries, &c, while for our purpose 
they were excluded, together with other nurses in the Census Order 3, 
Sub-order 3. We have therefore in the final table included only one 
woman to seven men, as shown in the returns. Very few of them 
receive over 160/. — their average in London is 80?., in the boroughs 467., 
in Scotland 501., and the approximation chosen is 5,000 ± 3,000 at 
501. ± 5V 

Note. — It must be remembered that we have to deal with a very large 
aggregate, and in dealing with items which do not amount to £1,000,000, 
as is the case for women and girls in the two classes now dealt with, a 
considerable relative margin will have little absolute effect on our final 
estimate. 

Class 3. Of Army officers, it appears from the Army Estimates that 
only about 800 receive salaries of less than 160/., and their aggregate is 
92,000/. 

Class 4. In the Navy, sub-lieutenants, mates, cadets, clerks, and 
some others receive less than 160/. There are in all 1,475 of these, with 
on aggregate income of 115,000/. In both these cases it is reasonable to 
assume that retired officers have incomes above 160/. 

Class 5. Clergy. — We have information in considerable detail as to 
many denominations, but it is not necessary to go into these minutely 
in view of the smallness of the aggregate non-taxpaying income. In the 
Established Church in England and Wales the net income is less than 
1607. in about 4,000 benefices, and more in the remaining 10,000. The 
average salary of 7,200 assistant clergy is estimated to be slightly less 
than 150/. There are some 4,000 clergy, also, not attached to parishes. 
Of course, many of the clergy with the smaller benefices have indepen- 
dent means. The number we adopt is 7,000 ±2,000 at 1207. ±20/. 

1 The table V'biph shows the estimates adopted in on page 19g. 



182 AEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

Ministers of other denominations number about 12,000, of whom we 
estimate that 7,500 + 2,000 are not subject to income-tax, and average 
1201. ±201. 

In Scotland there are some 6,000 ministers, of whom about 1,800 
belong to the Established Church and 2,000 to the United Free Church. 
The great majority of the former and over 80 per cent, of the latter have 
incomes over 160L, and so far as we have details of other denominations 
it appears that similar statements would apply to them. We estimate 
that there are 1,500 ± 500 clergy with incomes 110Z. ± 201. below the 
income-tax limit. We have very little information as regards the salaries 
or receipts in Ireland, where there are some 3,500 Roman Catholic 
priests (of whom 1,100 are parish priests) and 2,500 ministers of other 
denominations. The greatest possible estimate, if all these were receiv- 
ing exactly 160L, would be 960,000L, and the sum we need must be 
between this and nothing. It seems reasonable to take 3,000 ± 2,000 at 
1101. ± 301. The clergy in the United Kingdom then are estimated to 
contribute about 2,500,000'. to our total, and it is unlikely that it can 
be as much as 3,500,000Z., or as little as 1,500,000L 

Class 5a contains monks, nurses, sisters, itinerant preachers, many 
of whom have no definite income. We include an estimate in the table 
which indicates that the aggregate is quite small. 

Class 6. Lawyers. — In this and some of the following classes 
some assistance is afforded by the distribution by age given in the census. 
Though, of course, different persons going through a professional career 
arrive at an income of 1Q01. at different ages, yet there must be an average 
age at or near which a considerable proportion of such persons obtain an 
income of 160L, and so far as we can assign this average we can assign 
the number who have less than 160L In the case of barristers and 
solicitors we take this age to be twenty-eight years, with margin of two 
years, and obtain 2,000 persons ± 1,000 persons not paying tax. We 
have no knowledge as to their income, but may put it as 100Z. ± 50Z. 
The total amount is small. 

Class 7. Laiv Clerks.— We put the age at thirty years, with a 
margin of about four years. This gives us 30,000 ±4,000. Since 10,000 
of these are under twenty, and the average income is therefore small, and 
somewhat smaller than in the Government service, where there are rela- 
tively fewer lads, we may take the income as 801. dzSOl. 

Class 8. — Under this heading are included those classes of profes- 
sional men, other than lawyers, who go through a definite course of pre- 
paration. There are very few under twenty so given in the census. If we 
may assume that the average age for first paying income-tax is between 
twenty-five and thirty years, we should find 19,000 ± 5,000 not paying, 
and we may perhaps take their income as averaging 120L± 30L 

Class 9. Teachers. — As regards the teachers in public elementary 
schools in England, the returns of the Board of Education for 1908-09 
give in great detail the numbers and, except in the case of supplementary, 
provisional, and pupil teachers, the salaries. We have collected more 
detailed statistics from the secretaries of the Education Committees of 
fifteen counties and forty-two of the larger boroughs in England and 
Wales. The proportion between men and women in our collection is 



ON THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OP INCOME. 183 

very nearly the same as in the more comprehensive official statistics, 
and if we assume, as we are justified in doing, that supplementary, 
provisional, and pupil teachers receive less than 160/., the proportion 
of those earning over 160/. is nearly the same in both sets of statistics 
both for men and for women. We are therefore justified in using the 
average of the figures we have found for those earning less than 160/. 
Our conclusion is that of the teachers in the public elementary schools 
of England and Wales 7,0(J0 men and 2,000 women receive more than 
160/., while 30,000 men and 123,000 women receive less than 160/., 
the averages for these being 100/. and 76/. 

As regards Scotland, we have detailed information only for Glasgow, 
Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Inverness, Ayr, and Dundee. We have also some 
official statistics as to salaries and details as to numbers which throw 
light on the question, and can be used in conjunction with the statistics 
for these boroughs ; but we have to discount them to some extent for the 
probably lower salaries in the country districts and smaller places. The 
salaries in Scotland, especially for men, appear to be considerably higher 
than in England. It appears that there are about 1,500 men in the 
elementary schools earning over 160/., and 4,500 others, the latter 
averaging about 120/. Very few of the women receive more than 160/., 
while about 14,000 average 70/. 

For Ireland we have detailed information in the official report (Cd. 
3699) relating to 1906, from which it appears that only a negligible 
number of men and women receive over 160/. in the national schools, 
while 6,000 men and 7,000 women receive less, the average of men and 
women together being nearly 100/. For compilation we take it that the 
men average 120/. and the women 80/. 

Putting these figures together for the United Kingdom, we find that 
in the elementary schools about 9,000 men and 2,000 women receive 
over 160/., and 41,000 men and 144,000 women less, the averages being 
105/. and 75/. We enter these in our table as a separate class. 

There remain 30,000 men and 76,000 women teachers in schools other 
than elementary, whom we put in Class 9a. We have a little information 
about these, but it is not sufficient to give an exact result. We find, as 
we might expect, that the proportion both of men and of women in 
secondary and higher education earning over 160/. will be considerably 
greater than in primary education, except that allowance should be made 
for a large number of governesses receiving small stipends. In elementary 
education one man in five recsives over 160/. We are of opinion that 
in higher education one man in two or one in three passes this limit, and 
that the remaining 15,000 to 20,000 average 120/. As regards the women 
we estimate from such returns as to graduate teachers, &c, as exist, 
that four per cent, in higher education, as against one and a half per 
cent, in elementary, receive over 160Z., but that of the remaining 75,000 
very many receive quite small salaries, averaging less than in the 
elementary schools, and we will take the average at 60/. 

As to Classes 10 and 11 we have no information, and even the defi- 
nitions are doubtful. Class 10 contains those engaged in literary and 
scientific pursuits and artists, and may be estimated to include about 
30,000 persons in 1909. Class 11 contains photographers, musicians, 
and actors, and may be estimated to include 46,000 males and 41,000 



184 ftEPO&TS ON THE STATE OF SCtEtfCE. 

females In 1909. We may perhaps assume that in both cases the 
amount of 160Z. is reached by men on an average between twenty-five 
and thirty-five years of age, and that the great majority of the women 
in Class 10 receive less than 160Z. This gives 11, 000± 3,000 in 
Class 10, and we will put their average at 1001. ±101. Similarly 
we get in Class 11, for the men 20,000 ±8,000, with an average of 
90Z.±40Z., and for the women and girls 39,000±2,000, with an average 
of 702. ±30Z. 

Class 11a includes showmen and others, some of whom are not 
manual workers employed by others, and we give a rough estimate in 
the table, p. 195. 

Class^ 12. — This small class of 9,000 merchants may be taken as 
contributing nothing appreciable to our intermediate group. 

Class 13. — Brokers. — Among brokers, auctioneers, and accountants, 
when clerks are excluded, there can be little doubt that the majority 
pay income-tax. It will probably be safe to take the age correspond- 
ing to such payment as thirty years, with a wide margin, and so 
obtain 13,000 ± 5,000 men at an income of 120Z. ±30Z., there being 
relatively few under twenty years old; we have also to include 2,000 
women. 

Class 14. Commercial travellers and salesmen. — From informa- 
tion received from the United Kingdom Commercial Travellers' Associa- 
tion and from the Commercial Travellers' Benevolent Institution, it 
appears that there are from 30,000 to 50,000 men who satisfy the 
definition of ' a person engaged in representing a manufacturer, 
merchant, or wholesale house for the purpose of securing orders.' Of 
these it is supposed that about 75 per cent, make over 160Z. There 
remain from 60,000 to 40,000 other persons included in the census as 
travellers. These are probably engaged in canvassing for retail firms, 
and for other subordinate purposes, and it is probable that the great, 
majority make well under 160Z. We may expect that there are from 
30,000 to 50,000 in all who make over 160Z. , but in view of the uncertainty 
as to this denomination we had better take the margin as ± 15,000, 
while the number is taken as 52,000. As regards the average income 
it must be remembered that a very great majority of these are over 
twenty years, and are in a position superior to that of a shop assistant. 
We may therefore take their income as 100Z.± 30Z. 

In Class 15, officers of societies and companies, we will take it that 
the great majority have an income-taxpaying income. 

Class 16. Commercial and industrial clerks. — We have returns 
which are given in some detail in the tables on pages 186 and 187, from 
102 firms carrying on a great variety of businesses scattered throughout 
the kingdom, and of very different sizes. These firms employ about 
16,000 male clerks, and about 2,600 girls and women. This 
number of clerks, and still more the number of firms, seem at first 
sight ridiculously inadequate for our purposes, in view of the facts 
that there are over 300,000 employers in our Class 25, a large 
proportion of whom presumably employ one or more clerks, and 
there are 480,000 persons to be accounted for under the heading. 
But it often happens that quite a small sample is sufficient 
to give a measurement, which, though not exact, at any rate has 



ON THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME. 185 

a precision which can be assigned. In the schedules which were filled 
up, the employers — except in the case of companies — included them- 
selves as making over 160L, but it seems better to adjust the schedules 
by subtracting 1 in every case from those receiving over 160L, and 
then treat them as relating only to clerks and other subordinates. In 
the small firms this is generally accurate, and in large ones it makes 
practically no difference to the further argument. When this is done, 
the proportion of those receiving over 160L to the total number em- 
ployed is written down in each of the 102 classes. The result is given 
in the table, p. 189. It now appears that the grouping of these pro- 
portions shows the kind of regularity which is to be expected when 
samples are taken at random from a definite group. Instances, in fact, 
as shown in the table, agree fairly closely with the distribution shown 
by the normal curve of error. Looked at from this point of view it 
appears that from 1 in 5 to 1 in 3, on an average, of clerks in this 
class may be expected to receive over 160L Noticing that in the larger 
firms the proportion is on the whole smaller, and that when all the 
firms for which we have returns are massed together the proportion 
falls to 0'21, and aiming at a weighted average since the larger 
firms have greater importance, we come to the conclusion that 
the proportion is probably between 1 in 4 and 1 in 5, i.e., between 
0'20 and 0'25. We will widen this margin for safety and say, then, 
that 0'23 + 0'06 of male clerks and similar employes pay income-tax, 
and that therefore 0'77 d: O06 of 406,000 (the whole number in this 
class), i.e., 312,000 ± 24,000, are below the income-tax limit. The 
average income for those for whom we have returns is 781., and we 
assign the margin ± 10Z. 

As regards women, the proportion to men in our returns is nearly 
the same as shown by the census. The number who pay income-tax 
is very small, the average income shown is 45L We therefore adopt 
the number 81,000 at 45Z. ± 10/, 

As will be seen from the detailed table, it would be possible to make 
a carefully weighted average allowing different importance to the 
different occupations, but after careful consideration it is considered 
that no greater accuracy would be obtained. Of our 102 returns 27, 21, 
and 14 are from the neighbourhoods of Manchester, Birmingham, and 
London respectively, 10 from the rest of England and Wales, 21 are 
from Ireland, and 9 from Scotland. London is represented rather in 
Classes 17 and 18. 

17. Bank Clerks. — Thanks to the Central Association of Bankers 
we have obtained detailed information as to about 30 per cent, of the 
bank clerks of England and Wales. For Scotland we have information 
as to about 80 per cent., and for Ireland we have a less detailed state- 
ment, which is stated on good authority to be typical for the country, 
and which simply gives the proportions of clerks who receive over 160Z. , 
from 100L to 160L, and less than 100L The details, which are sum- 
marised on p. 188, are highly confidential, and we cannot go into them. 
They result in. the following numbers, which may be regarded as being 
accurate within the limits stated: 24,000 ± 1,000 at 89L ± 51. This 
corresponds to the receipt of an income of 160?. at the age of thirty-two 
years on an average. 



186 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Details as to Firms employing Clerks. 





Receiving 


Receiving 




over under 


over under 




£160 £160 


£160 £160 


Males 


Females 




2 


3 


_ 


1 




2 


4 










2 


1 


— 







2 


2 










G 


20 





6 




8 


15 


— 


2 




5 


19 


■ — 


— 




3 


7 


— 


2 




4 


2 . 


— 


— 




10 


34 


— 


3 




26 


81 


— 


17 




25 


82 


— 


2 






152 


— 


— 




36 


128 


— 


— 




17 


24 


— 


1 




12 


8 


- — 


5 






16 


. — 


— 




3 


7 


— 


2 




4 


2 


— 


__ 




48 


81 


— 


1 






61 


— 







3 


— 


— 


17 




3 


1 


— 


14 




2 


4 


— 


10 




3 


2 


— 







4 


36 


. — 


16 


Engineers 


51 


89 


— 


16 




17 


88 


— 







48 


189 


. — 


18 


Electrical Engineers . . . . . 


206 


710 


— - 


72 




9 


12 


— 


4 




6 


14 





3 




38 


85 


— 


19 




18 


137 


. — 


86 




23 


117 


— 


30 




18 


44 





1 




1 


1 










62 


533 


— 


100 




7 


5 


— 


3 




7 


4 


— 


— 




23 


36 





13 


Engineers and Shipbuilders .... 


12 


16 


— 


2 




136 


403 


— 


78 




11 


18 


— 


— 




39 


34 


— 


7 




16 


109 


— - 


7 




5 


9 


— 


10 


,, Weavers ...... 


6 


13 


— . 


— 


Wool Weavers ,,,,,. 


29 


19 


1 


— 




60 


165 


— 


10 . 




8 


14 


. — 


— : 




2 


4 


_ 







5 


7 


— 


— 




11 


4 


«■* 


— 



ON THE AMOUNT ANt) DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME. 



187 



Details as to Firms employing Clerks— 


continued. 






Receiving 


Rece 


iving 




over under 


over 


under 




£160 £160 


£160 


£160 


Males 


Females 


Textile Merchants 


100 762 




35 


,> », • 










46 


179 


. — . 


6 


Drapery (Clerks) 










6 


25 


1 


13 


j> ,» • 










131 


414 


8 


245 


?j »» • 










3S 


53 


9 


27 


j> ,» • 










10 


40 





93 


Waterproofing 










25 


96 





10 


Provision Merchants or Manufacturers 


4 


20 








>> >> >> 


8 


11 


— 


1 


>> >> »> 


8 


— 


1 


10 


>» >» >» 


6 


4 


— 


8 


>> >> >» 


87 


82 


— 





>> >> >> 


51 


222 


3 


68 


>> >> >, 


8 


77 


, . 


10 


General Manufacturers 


488 


3,510 





1,241 


„ Merchants 








7 


20 





6 


Tohacco . . . 








83 


85 


2 


1 


Beer and Spirits . 










115 


169 





5 


99 5, • 










7 


6 





1 


>> ,, • 










7 


8 








Harbours . 










26 


61 








>, ... 










26 


. 20 


, 


. 


Printers, &c. 










12 


72 





16 


Builders . 










10 


8 





4 


Furnishers 










1 


1 







Gas .... 










27 


52 





1 


>*•••• 










S 


29 







,»•••• 










1 


S 


. , 





Warehousemen and Packers . 






55 


354 


. . 


33 


»» >> 






232 


1,095 





20 


7, >> • 






3 


8 


. 


^_ _^ 


» JJ • 






162 


326 








>» J> • 






24 105 





__ 


Miscellaneous Manufacturing and other firms 


5 


7 





3 


9 






8 


5 





1 


>» 






6 


34 





1 


»> 






1 


2 








>» 






9 


1 





1 


» 






3 


10 





, 


» 






4 


8 








>> 






5 


3 





4 


>> 






7 


18 







>> 






243 


609 


. 


135 


»> 






25 


179 





, 


l» 






9 


8 





2 


n 






9 


11 





1 


M 






4 


14 







»> 






14 


15 


1 


. 


» 






2 


5 


— 


6 


1) 






5 


3 


— 


4 




3,363 ; 12,524 


25 


2,586 



188 



REPdRTS dN THE SfATE" OF SClENCiE\ 







Details as to Finns employing Clerks — 

• 


continued 










Receiving 


Receiving 






over under 


over under 






£160 £160 


£160 £160 


Males 


Females 


Insurance 


Companies ; . 


60 


121 


— 


5 




i, 


1 * i 







33 


— 


4 




M 








944 


422 


■ — 


392 


;> 


)> 










5 


4 


— 


— 




» 










31 


24 


— 


— 


99 


j» • 










4 


2 


— 


1 


99 


>» 










1 


42 • 


— 


26 


99 


51 ' 










35 


37 


— 


8 














369 


548 


— 


30 


99 


>> 










29 


26 


— 


5 


99 


)> 










1 


1 


— 


1 


99 


>> 










2 


3 


1 


2 


99 


>> 










9 


23 


— 


— 


5> 


>> 










2 


3 


— 


— 














89 


190 


— 


23 


79 

Banks 


>> 










32 


108 


— 


— 




1,619 


1,585 ■ 


1 


497 


121 


500 










218 


583 


■ — 


— 








275 


511 


— 


— ■ 








267 


649 


— — 








251 


521 


— — 








159 


490 


— — 








35 


56 


— — 








22 


22 


• — — 








1,330 


1,562 


— ■ — ■ 








311 


352 


■ — — 








179 


273 


— — 








5-J 


71 


— — 








312 


549 


— — 








118 


258 


— — 








74 


88 










160 


318 


— ■ 








55 


30 


— 


— 








1,523 


1,246 


— 


— ■ 








44 


65 


— 


— 








216 


311 


— 


— 








15 


35 


— 


— 


ltail\va3'9 


5,744 


8,490 


— 


— 


369 


4,189 


_ 


136 






914 


8,925 


— 


27 






724 


7,281 


1 


143 






43 


465 


— 


30 


>> 




228 


2,800 


— 


60 


s» 




139 


2,756 


— 


74 


99 




23 


458 


— 


11 
















2,440 


20,874 


1 481 



ON THE amount and distribution of income. 



189 



If m+ 1 is number of males receiving over 160/. and n is number of males receiving 

160?. or less, and p= , the values of p for 102 firms are as follows : — 

m-\-n 






•0 


•0 


•0 


•08 


•08 










•10 


11 


11 


12 


12 


12 


13 


•13 


•13 




■14 


14 


15 


■16 


17 


•17 


•17 


•17 


17 




17 


•18 


•18 


•18 


•19 












•20 


•20 


•20 


•20 


•20 


•20 


•20 


•22 


•22 


•22 


•22 


•23 


•23 


•23 


•23 


•24 


•24 


•25 


•25 


•25 






•26 


•26 


•26 


•27 


•28 


•28 


•28 


•29 


•30 


•31 


•31 


•32 


•33 


•33 


•33 


•33 


•33 


•36 


•36 


•36 


.37 


•38 


•39 












•40 


•40 


•40 


•41 


•41 


•42 


•42 


•43 


•46 


•49 


•50 


•50 


•50 


•50 


•51 


•53 


•53 


•55 


•56 


•56 


•56 


•56 


•58 


•58 














60 


•60 


•60 


•67 














71 




















89 





















Median -265 

Unweighted Average -305 

Weighted Average -21 

Comparison with normal curve of error. 

Modulus c = 0-25; centre 0265. 

Theory Observation 
1 ' 1 



Avirage / 



+ l-8c 








2 


2 


+ l*4c 








5 


13 


+ 10c 








12 


10 


-f 0-6c 








19 


17 


+ 0-2c 








23 


24 


- 02c 








19 


27 


- 0c 








12 


5 


- l-0c 








8 


4 



Class 18. Insurance Clerks. — We have detailed information, which 
is summarised on p. 188, as to about 10 per cent, of these. Though 
this is a considerable proportion, yet it has not led to results of great pre- 
cision, because one or two large companies which have made returns 
show results divergent from the smaller ones. We adopt for our 
number 14,000± 2,000 at 87l.±5l. 

Class 19. Insurance Agents. — We have no information as to this 
class, except common observation that they are not highly paid. Of 
course, they depend mainly on commissions. We take it that rather 
more than half pay income-tax, that, in fact, the number required equals 
the number over thirty-five years of age. It results that 19,000 ± 
5,000 come within the non-paying class, the largeness of the margin 
corresponding to the want of information. We may put the earnings 
at 100L ± 30Z. 

1910. o 



190 REPOftTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

20. Farmers.— -We do not presume to determine precisely the 
average income of farmers, a task which has always proved beyond 
the powers of statisticians, but it is necessary to make some estimate 
to fit in to our general scheme. After the Commission on Agricultural 
Depression in 1894, where evidence was given which showed that 
farmers' profits averaged about 26 per cent, of their rent, it was decided 
that profits should be assumed to be one-third of rent. We do not feel 
justified in taking this assumption as representing the average, partly 
because fewer than three hundred farmers choose the alternative of 
assessment under Schedule D, depending on their actual profits, and we 
only use it for estimating the relatively small number of farmers paying 
income-tax, and as a check on further estimates. 

In the Eeports of the Income Tax Commissioners relating to 
Schedule B we find the aggregate of farmers' incomes, which, reckoned 
at one third of rent, are over 160L, and an aggregate of the rest of 
farmers' income assessed, but exempted from tax. The first aggregate was 
5,000,000Z. for Great Britain in 1907-08, corresponding to 15,000,000Z. 
rent. Besides these figures we have in the return from the Board of 
Agriculture of 1895 (Cd. 8502) the number of holdings of various sizes 
in that year. These two things together lead to an estimate of the 
average rent per acre, for if more than 11. 12s. per acre is assumed, 
farms of less than 300 acres would pay income-tax, and then the 
acreage of the holdings included would show more than 15,000,000?. 
rent. If, on the other hand, less than 17,. 12s. is assumed the figures 
fail to be consistent in the opposite direction. Of coarse, the rental 
from farms of the same size varies enormously, but we speak only of 
an average. We therefore take it that the average rent per acre is 
11. 12s., as reckoned for income-tax purposes, in spite of the fact that 
this is more than was estimated by Mr. Thompson, in a paper to the 
Statistical Society in 1907. There were 20,000 holders in Great Britain 
of more than 300 acres, and we will take this to be the number who 
pay income-tax. In the case o'f farmers, we are assuming that there 
has been no increase in numbers since 1901. We have then 258,000, 
according to the census classification, not paying income-tax. This 
corresponds to the number of holdings between 20 and 300 acres 
in which the aggregate is 21,700,000 acres and the average is about 
80 acres. The average rental income 17. 12s. an acre is 128Z. , the aggre- 
gate 35,000,0007. The amount reviewed by the Commissioners and 
exempted from tax corresponded to a rental of 26,400,0001., which (on 
the same basis) would accrue from the aggregate of holdings between 
50 and 300 acres. Presumably the profits of small holdings are 
not returned by the tax-surveyor. No one will believe that the 
average income of farmers holding 300 acres and under is as little 
as 437., i.e., one-third of the average computed rental. It is just con- 
ceivable that the cash income may not be much greater, but in such 
a case considerable value of the produce grown is consumed at home 
by the farmer and his family, who are also provided with a house. We 
shall probably be on safe ground if we take the average income for this 
group as 601. ± 30/.., that is the average profit per acre is between 
7s. 6d. and 22s. M. The average income does not seem absurdly low 
in view of the - fact that 86,000 of the farmers have between 20 and 



ON THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME. 191 

50 acres only. Perhaps part of the profits from the 2,000,000 acres 
of agricultural land in holdings of from 1 to 20 acres in Great Britain 
should be added to our final estimate; but much belongs to persons 
already included, and forms part of their estimated incomes. 

If we work out the statistics for Ireland on the same basis as for 
Great Britain so far as possible, we find that 590,000L pays income- 
tax, and 2,530,000Z. is exempted. There are 14,700,000 acres culti- 
vated in Ireland. If the whole of this is reviewed by the tax-surveyors 
this gives 1?. 12s. rent per acre, if some of it is not reviewed it gives 
more than 11. 12s. an acre. We will, therefore, make an estimate as 
if the average rent was 1Z. 12s. an acre, as it is in Great Britain. On 
this assumption 1,200,000 acres, in holdings of 300 acres and over, 
pays tax, and belongs presumably to between 2,000 and 4,000 persons. 1 
The remainder, if we adopt the census figures, is held by nearly 
400,000 persons, and this is nearly equal to the number holding between 
5 and 300 acres, the average size of these holdings being 40 acres, which, 
on the same basis, is yielding somewhat under 21L a year. But, of 
course, in the small holding of Ireland the peasant lives to a great 
extent on his produce, and we must put aside these numbers as in the 
case of England, and make a pure assumption as to their real earnings ; 
we will take it that the Irish peasant averages 30Z. ± 151. a year, the 
value of produce sold or consumed from his land, i.e., from 7s. 6d. to 
22s. 6d. per acre. Where the peasant carries on another occupation 
the sum named will be purely additional to the amount received from the 
other occupation, or already accounted for in another class. The cases 
where the joint income is over 1607. may be neglected. 

Class 21. Agricultural Employers. — These are partly machine 
proprietors and the like, but mainly gardeners, nurserymen, seedsmen 
and florists. In the absence of information we will assume that half of 
this group of employers pays income-tax and the other half does not, 
but has an income comparable with that of skilled artisans. In any 
case the aggregate is not great. 

Class 22. Officers of the Merchant Navy. — From p. 306 of the 
General Beport of the Census of England and Wales in 1901, details 
are given of the number and ratings of seamen, who should naturally 
be counted as citizens of the United Kingdom, but are absent for the 
most part on census day. The persons that come into our class are the 
masters, mates, engineers, head stewards, and doctors. In the census 
the engineers are not separated from firemen. We assume, in accord- 
ance with the only detailed return we have, that the number of engineers 
is slightly greater than the number of mates, and allowing for the 
increase since 1901 we have 40,000 persons in this class. We have 
only three returns from shipping companies, one of which gives 312 
out of 1,101 officers as receiving over 160L, the second 111 out of 330, 
and the third 60 out of 720. In the third case there are a very large 
number of fourth officers and junior engineers receiving less than 60Z., 
and it is very unlikely that this is the proportion in the merchant service 

1 Fewer than 4,000 persons, for the average must be under 300 acres; more than 
2,000, for the official statistics show 1,544 persons as holding more than GOO acres, while 
there are nearly 8,000 persons in the group next given as holding from 200 to 500 
acres. O 3 



192 BEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

as a whole. The first and second returns give nearly the same pro- 
portion and nearly the same average under 160J. Adopting these two 
returns as typical, but allowing a wide margin because of the third 
return, we will take it that 30,000 ± 3,000 receive less than 160Z. and 
average 100Z. ± 30L In this class, of course, food and room afloat is 
provided in addition to salary, but in such cases the value received does 
not rank as income in the definition of the Income Tax Commissioners, 
and we do not propose to include in our estimate the value of board and 
lodging in this and other classes where it is given in addition to salary, 
though we have included some receipts in kind in the case of farmers 
who produce for themselves. 

Class 23. Railway Clerks. — We have been very fortunate in obtain- 
ing information as to 29,300 railway clerks and officials out of about 
83,000 in Great Britain. We have no information as to Ireland. The 
railways from which we have returns in England and Wales will, it is 
believed, give nearly the same distribution and average as all would. 
Eeturns for Scotland are more complete, including 6,000 clerks and 
officials out of about 9,000. In grouping these together we have treated 
Scotland and England separately, and assumed that the Scottish returns 
would apply to Ireland, when allowance is made for the different totals 
in the two countries, and then put them together in proportion to 
the numbers employed in the three countries. The result is that 
9,000 ± 2,000 receive over 160L, and 78,000 ±2,000 under, and these 
latter average 821. ±51. 

Class 24. — This class consists almost entirely of telephone and 
telegraph clerks, other than those employed by the Post Office. We 
may take it that the run of salaries is somewhat lower than for com- 
mercial clerks, and as the whole class is small it is not necessary to aim 
at great precision. Our estimate is given in the table on p. 195. 

In Classes 25 to 29 we deal with all the manufacturers, shop- 
keepers, and dealers in productive and distributive industry not included 
in the previous classes, and not costermongers. The great difficulty 
is the complete lack of information, and also the doubtfulness of the 
division between persons returning themselves as employers and those 
returning themselves as working on their own account. In view of the 
number of commercial clerks which we have already dealt with it seems 
quite certain either that the number of employers is inflated, or that 
many employers are on so small a scale that they do not employ a ' 
single clerk. 

Class 26. — It appears safe to assume that the great majority of 
those working on their own account, of whom some detail is given in 
the table on p. 176, are making less than 160Z. a year. Thus the manu- 
facturers include a great number of blacksmiths, carpenters, tailors, and 
bootmakers among the men, and of dressmakers among the women. It 
is safe to assume that these men are making something between the 
wages of skilled and unskilled men on an average, and we therefore put 
them at SOL ± 20L Dealing similarly with the women, and allowing a 
large margin in view of the fact that a great number of badly paid 
workers may be included, we may put the average as between 20/. and 
G0L These estimates are sufficient for Class 26. 



ON THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OP INCOME. 193 

Classes 27 and 28. Dealers and Employer-shopkeepers. — The 
17,000 dealers may be taken as paying income-tax. There are left 
194,000 shopkeepers, including here 5,000 transferred from the Civil 
Service, see p. 180. The only information we have bearing on shop- 
keepers is the assessed value of residential shops, and the income-tax 
surveyors, of whom we have inquired, maintain that the assessed value 
of a shop has no relation to the income as a shopkeeper, though, in 
fact, the two or three estimates they reluctantly made were practically 
identical. It is assumed in the Income Tax Act that in the case of a 
residential shop one-third of the assessed value should be counted as 
residence; also it is generally assumed that rent is from one-eighth to 
one-tenth of income for incomes of about 150/. If we make these 
two assumptions together we find that the assessed value of a resi- 
dential shop, 50Z. , corresponds to an income of 160Z. , and it is not 
improbable that the number of shopkeepers who reside at their shops 
subject to income-tax is equal to the number of residential shops 
assessed at 601. or more in London, and 501. or more in other parts 
of the United Kingdom. In the Fifty-third Eeport of the Commis- 
sioners of Inland Eevenue, p. 93, we have the necessary particulars, 
except for Ireland ; taking the number for Ireland as equal to that for 
Scotland (738), we find about 80,000 residential shops in the United 
Kingdom above the limits of assessment named. To these we should 
add a small number of non-residential or ' lock-up ' shops. We 
suggest 80,000 + 30,000 as the number of shopkeepers paying tax. 
There remain about 230,000 assessed at between 201. and the values 
named. Of these, about 114,000 would (from the census figures) 
be employers, and 116,000 on their own account, if all employer-shop- 
keepers had shops assessed at over 20Z. There would remain about 
2S0,000 on their own account assessed at less than 20/. Without 
depending on this assumption, we will take it that the employer-shop- 
keepers average between 70Z. and 150Z., and those on their own account 
between 40/. and 140/., for the averages are by assumption under 160/., 
and these people make a living, and if in Class 27 employ others. 

Class 25. — If reference is made to the table showing some detail of 
the employers in manufacture, &c, it will be seen that many are in 
quite a small way; in particular, blacksmiths, those producing clothes 
or food, some builders, some engaged on rivers, and some engaged on 
roads (a heading which includes small cab-proprietors), will easily 
account for about 30 per cent, of the whole of the class as not paying 
income tax. We may suggest 208,000 ± 60,000 as paying, and 
93,000+60,000 as not paying tax, and assign to these latter the same 
income as in Class 27. As regards these very uncertain estimates in 
Classes 25 to 28, it must be remembered, as already stated, that we 
know the total of those paying income-tax approximately, and it is only 
a question of distributing them among the right classes. If we have 
taken too many in Class 27 it will follow that we have taken too few 
in Class 25, and so on. The range of income assigned, for those with 
less than 160/., is, it is thought, wide enough to cover the uncertainty. 

Class 29. — Shap assistants. — We have three different returns, one 
covering 15,000 shop assistants, with an average of 61/. per annum in 
cash, one from quite a small group of special firms, covering 1,900 



194 REPORTS ON THE STATE OE SCIENCE. 

persons, with an average of 681. ; and a third — a very important com- 
pilation kindly handed to us by the Financial Secretary of the 
National Amalgamated Union of Shop Assistants, relating to 3,171 
persons, whose average cash income is 74Z. In the first and third 
cases something would have to be added for about 22 per cent, of 
the assistants in the one group and 16 per cent, in the other who 
live in, or have meals in, if we were including such payments. Further 
information is given in ' Industrial Co-operation ' by Miss C. Webb, 
1904, where the range of earnings of the branch managers and counter- 
men in the Co-operative Ketail Distributive Societies are given in some 
detail relating to over 10,000 employes; the data are not sufficient for 
a perfect calculation of the average, but it cannot be very far from 68L 
We have these four different estimates relating to a variety of districts 
and trades, and all being contained in the limits, 67L ± 11. Neverthe- 
less, we think that this wage is rather higher than the one we ought to 
adopt for the 900,000 persons in Class 29, since many of these are 
probably engaged at very low salaries in shops from which no informa- 
tion was obtained in any of the returns. We therefore prefer to take 
65l.+lbl. as the average annual wage. We have practically no informa- 
tion as to the number of shop assistants who receive over 160L, but it is 
certainly extremely small, and we take it as about one per cent. 

Class 30. Coster mongers. — This class includes all kinds of street 
sellers and hawkers. % Probably none of them pay income-tax. We 
may divide them as lads under twenty, average perhaps 201. a year; 
men of over twenty receiving somewhat more than the wage of unskilled 
labour, on an average, say, 101., with a wide margin; and women at 
perhaps 301. This gives an average of about SOL, and we- will take it 
as between 40L and 701. 

Class 31. Sweeps (employers). — None need be counted as payiug 
income-tax, and the average may again be taken as between the wages 
of totally unskilled and of highly skilled labour. We put it at 
101 ±302. 

In the table on p. 195 the estimates we have now made are tabu- 
lated in detail. In the columns 1 and 2 are given the number of persons 
estimated from the census of 1901 raised by 10 per cent, throughout, 
except in the case of farmers, whose numbers are left unaltered; 
including fanners, an increase of 8'6 per cent, is allowed, which is about 
the increase of the whole population up to the end of 1909. Columns 
3 and 4 give the number paying and not paying tax respectively, and 
column 5 the margin assigned. Column 6 gives the average income of 
those not paying, column 7 its margin. Column 8 gives the aggregate 
of the estimates assumed correct. 

The total of the numbers we have found subject to income-tax is 
900,000, while, if all the margins are added together and all taken 
as positive, they amount to 212,000. Compiled, however, by the 
theory of error, as explained below, the margin suggested is about 
75,000, and is almost entirely due to that of Classes 16, 25, and 27. If 
the estimate of 800,000 income-tax payers be correct, we have put 
rather too many in each of these classes, and they should be transferred 
to the intermediate class. 







Result 


3. 










1 




Col. ljCol. £ 


Col "3 


Col. 4 


Uol. Col. 
5 1 6 


Jol. 

7 


Col. 8 | 


Col. 9 j 


Census 


qj 












Numbers 


a 


Not Paying Tax 


Aggregate 





up to date 




a 










a 

~3 


CP 

a 


cr* 

5 s 


CO 
S3 


CD 

S 





CO 

"3 « 


a 3 
3 11 


cc 
_3 

1W 




a 


53 

0(H)' s 

21 


£ 


O 


> 



£5 


3« 


O 

a 


000's 


OOCs 


£00.000' s 


1. Civil Service 


57 





36 


2 


£95 


34 


3 







15 





15 


2 


57 


5 


9 


1 


2. Local Government . 


36 


— 


10 


26 


2 


93 


10 


24 


3 







5 





5 


3 


50 


5 


2-5 


1-5 


3. Army .... 


16* 


— 


15* 


1 





115 





1 


— 


4. Navy .... 


C* 


— 


4-5* 


1-5 





78 





1 


— 


5. Clergy 


56 


— 


35 


21 


4 


120 


20 


26 


7 


5a. Missionaries, &c. 


9 


15 





24 


2 


40 


20 


10 


5 


6. Lawyers 


31 


— 


29 


2 


1 


100 


50 


2 


1 


7. Law clerks 


46 


— 


16 


30 


4 


80 


30 


24 


10 


8. Professions 


80 


— 


61 


19 


5 


120 


30 


21 


8 


9. Elementary teachers : 




















Male .... 


50 


— 


9 


41 


2 


105 


10 


43 


5 


Female 


— 


146 


2 


144 


1 


75 


10 


108 


14 


9a. Other teachers : 




















Male .... 


30 


— 


13 


17 


3 


120 


20 


20 


5 


Female 


— 


76 


3 


73 


1 


60 


20 


45 


15 


10. Authors, &c. 


29 


1 


19 


11 


3 


100 


40 


11 


5 


11. Photographers, Musi- 


46 


— 


26 


20 


8 


90 


40 


18 


11 


cians, &c. 


— 


41 


2 


39 


2 


60 


30 


23 


11 


11a. Showmen . 


3 


— 





3 


2 


80 


40 


2 


2 


12. Merchants . 


9 


— 


9 








— 


— ■ 


— 


— 


13. Brokers, &c. 


84 


2 


71 


15 


5 


120 


30 


18 


7 


14. Travellers . 


88 


2 


38 


52 


15 


100 


30 


50 


22 


15. Officials 


2 


— 


2 








— 


■ — 


— 


— 


16. Clerks 


401 


— 


93 


308 


24 


78 


10 


240 


36 







82 


1 


81 





45 


10 


36 


8 


17. Bankers 


43 


— 


19 


24 


1 


89 


5 


21 


1 


18. Insurance clerks 


26 


— 


12 


14 


2 


87 


5 


12 


2 


19. Insurance agents 


42 


— 


23 


19 


5 


100 


30 


19 


8 


20. Farmers : 




















Great Britain . 


249 


29 


20 


258 


5 


70 


30 


202 


77 


Ireland 


328 


71 


3 


396 


1 


30 


15 


119 


59 


21. Agricultural em- 


10 


— 


5 


5 


3 


90 


40 


5 


3 


ployers 




















22. Merchant service 


40 


— 


10 


30 


3 


100 


30 


30 


10 


23. Railways . 


87 


— ■ 


9 


78 


2 


82 


5 


64 


4 


24. Telephones 


18 


— 


4 


14 


2 


70 


20 


9 


3 







12 





12 





50 


10 


6 


1 


25. Other employers 


271 


30 


208 


93 


60 


110 


40 


102 


76 


26. Ditto, own account . 


315 


— 





315 





80 


20 


252 


63 




— 


306 





306 





40 


20 


122 


61 


27. Dealers 


17 


— 


17 








— 


— 


— 


— 


Shopkeepers : 




















Employers 


169 


25 


80 


114 


30 


110 


40 


125 


46 


28. Ditto, own account . 


271 


125 





396 





90 


50 


356 


19S 


29. Ditto, Assistants 


638 


252 


10 


880 


5 


65 


15 


578 


132 


30. Costermongers, &c. . 


58 


20 





78 





65 


15 


51 


12 


31. Sweeps 

Total and ResultsJ . 


7 


— 





7 





70 


30 


5 





3,668t 


1,255 


900* 


4,023 


75 


71 


— 


2,847t 


1 294t 



* There should be added some numbers to allow for the income-tax paying officers 
afloat or abroad in 1901, perhaps 10,000 to 15,000 for the Army and Navy jointly. 

t Viz., £284,700,000 ± £29,400,000. 

X The moduli are compounded by adding squares and taking the square root of 
the sum. (lOOK^cV+n' 2 * 2 . 



196 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

It remains to compute the error in the total from the errors in 
the details. Let n stand for the number of non-taxpayers in each 
class, c for its modulus — given in thousands — s for the average income 
in £, and 1c for its modulus, c and k are to have the meaning dis- 
cussed above and to be regarded as measuring that particular distance 
from the average known as the modulus in mathematical statistics. 

Let Aj be the estimate and A the true measurement, and let A,= 
A(l + c). 

Let A 1 be the measurement if A, was in defect equal to the modulus 

in both its factors, so that A' = A,, (l + -) (l + -} = A, (l + - + -) 

approximately. Then by the theory of error e 2 = ( - ) + ( -) 

approximately, 

and A, = A + \/ [cV + & 2 « 2 ] approximately = A + K\ 
Then K' is the modulus for the product. 

K' 

In the table K is taken as — — , to correspond with the units used, 

and is worked out for each class and sub-class separately. 

To get the modulus for the aggregate we have by a known principle 
to add the squares of the moduli of the items and take the square root 
of the sum. If C is this final modulus, 

1 C 2 = 2(K 2 ) = S(c 2 s 2 + F« 2 )= S(c 2 s 2 )+ S(Z; 2 « 2 )= 6,300 + 80,000=86,300 
and C = 294, viz. 29,4O0,000Z. 
The first term is due to the margin (c) in numbers, the second to the 
margin (fc) in income. The second term of itself would give C = 283 ; in 
fact, the errors in numbers are not important, and we need not there- 
fore discuss the effect that our approximate knowledge of the total 
number in the group has on the accuracy of the result. 

We thus arrive at the conclusion that the aggregate earned income 
in the intermediate group is 285,000,000*., with modulus 30,000,0001., 
using round numbers. This is subject to the definitions and limitations 
of the income dealt with as stated throughout the Eeport, and is con- 
ditioned by the accuracy of the occupational returns in the census. 

If Classes 20, 25, 26, 27, 28, and 29 are excluded, the margin in 
the aggregate of the remaining classes is small; the result for Classes 
1 to 19, 21 to 24, 30, 31 being- 
No. of persons 1,263,000, modulus 33,000; aggregate income, 
108,700,000*., modulus 5,700,000*. 

Unearned Income. 

Estimates for this can only be satisfactorily made by the authorities 
of Somerset House, but we have endeavoured to interpret the tables 
given in the Eeports of the Income Tax Commissioners. 1 It appears 
that 45,000,000*. under Schedules A, C, and D is ' unearned ' income 
belonging to persons with less than 160*. a year from all sources. Of 
this the tax on 18,000,000*. is collected from and repaid to about 

1 We have had access to some details not published in the reports, which have 
enabled us to split up the tables ; but the estimates based on them are not authoritative. 



ON THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OP INCOME. 



197 



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198 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

340,000 persons and the tax on the remaining 27,000, 000Z. is exempted 
and not paid; this last sum not improbably belongs to about 300,000 
persons. "Whatever the numbers of persons, we have here the 
sum of 45,000,000L accruing as unearned incomes to persons, occu- 
pied or unoccupied, who have less than 160L a year. In addition, 
there is a relatively small sum of interests, pensions, &c, which does 
not come under the cognisance of the Department, which has been 
estimated as not more than 5,000,000L An unknown part of these 
sums, however, belongs to the wage-earning class. 

Putting these estimates in conjunction with our last, and increasing 
the modulus to allow for the additional uncertainty, we reach the con- 
clusion that the intermediate group contains 4,000,000 to 4,100,000 
•persons, with an aggregate income, together with a relatively small 
amount of ' unearned ' income belonging to the wage-earners, from 
all sources between 300,000, 000L and 370,000,000L a year. The most 
probable estimate is 335,000,000L, and (subject to the definitions we 
have used) it is distinctly improbable that the aggregate is outside the 
limits stated. 

Distribution of Income by Amount. 

It is not possible to distribute the four million persons in our inter- 
mediate class according to their incomes, for it is only in Classes 1, 2, 
9, 16, 17, 18, and 23 that we have any information, and these between 
them only amount to 19 per cent, of the whole. The table on page 197 
shows the distribution for these various groups and the weighted result 
when the groups receive importance according to their numbers. There 
is nothing improbable in the distribution shown, the large percentage 
under 40L shows that we have included an adequate number of boys and 
girls. 

Recommendations. 

The work would be more definite if the Labour Department, working 
results of the census of 1911. It is greatly to be desired that the Irish 
census should be harmonised with that of England and Wales in 
its sub-divisions, and that the distinction between makers and dealers 
and between employers, employed, and those working on their own 
account should be made. 

For the whole of the United Kingdom it would be a great improve- 
ment if clerks were given, in an additional tabulation, according to the 
main occupations to which they were attached, and if wholesale dealers 
were separated from shopkeepers. 

The work would be more definite if the Labour Department, working 
with the Census Office, published an estimate of the number of persons 
who might be considered as manual workers, heading by heading from 
the census. 

The Inland Revenue Commissioners have a great deal of information 
unpublished and possibly untabulated. The Fifty-third Report has 
unfortunately not repeated the important table on p. 138 of the Fifty- 
eecond showing the amount of income taxed at 9d. ; as to the numbers, 



ON THE AMOUNT AND DISTRIBUTION OP INCOME. 199 

we find still only the statement in a footnote that the 9d. rate was 
allowed to approximately three-quarters of a million persons annually. 
It is greatly to be desired that the Commissioners should publish 
detailed information showing the total number of persons who pay the 
lower rate, the numbers in relation to the amount of earned income, 
and the numbers in relation to the amount of income whether earned 
or unearned. 



Gaseous Explosions. — Third Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Mr. Dugald Clerk and Professor 
Bertram Hopkinson (Joint Secretaries), Professors Bone, 
Burstall, Callendar, Coker, Dalby, and Dixon, Dr. Glaze- 
brook, Professors Petavel, Smithells, and Watson, Dr. Harker, 
Lieut.-Colonel Holden, Captain Sankey, Mr. D. L. Chapman, and 
Mr. H. E. Wimperis, 1 appointed for the Investigation of Gaseous 
Explosions, with special reference to Temperature. • 

APPENDIX PAGR 

A. Radiation from Flames 214 

B. On Radiation in a Gaseous Explosion 221 

C. Abstracts from papers relating to Siemens' Furnaces 225 

Six meetings of the Committee have been held, one each at the Univer- 
sities of Leeds, Manchester, and Cambridge, one at the Imperial College 
of Science and Technology, and two at 57 Lincoln's Inn Fields, by 
the kindness of Mr. Dugald Clerk. In accordance with previous prac- 
tice, notes dealing with their current work have been presented for 
discussion by members of the Committee, as follows : — 

No. 14. Dissociation A. Smithells and W. A. Bone. 

No. 15. Ignition Temperatures of Gases . . H. B. Dixon. 

No. 16. Modern Theories of Gases . . . Sir W. H. Preece. 

No. 17. Radiation from Flames . . . . H. L. Callendar. 

No. 18. Radiation in a Gaseous Explosion . B. Hopkinson. 

During the Session 1909-10 the experimental work by members of 
the Committee, to which allusion was made in the Second Eeport 
(1909), has been continued. Mr. Dugald Clerk's measurements of the 
volumetric heats of air and C0 2 at ordinary temperatures by the method 
of adiabatic compression have yielded results in close accordance with 
those obtained by Swann. The method of division of heat-loss 
employed by Mr. Clerk in reducing the results was the same as that 
which he used in his original high temperature experiments. The 
correctness of the results obtained at the lower temperatures by this 
method goes far to justify its application to the compression and expan- 
sion of highly -heated gas. An account of these experiments will shortly 
be published, and will be quickly followed, it is hoped, by an account 
of further work on the compression of flame and heated gases on which 
Mr. Clerk is already engaged. Professor Hopkinson has published a 

1 Mr. Wimperis joined the Committee after the completion of the Report. 



200 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

paper on the radiation in a gaseous explosion, to which more particular 
reference is made later in this Beport. 

A series of experiments on the temperatures of ignition of hydrogen 
and oxygen produced by adiabatic compression (according to the sugges- 
tion of Professor Nernst) has been carried out by Professor H. B. 
Dixon. It was found necessary to check the descent of the piston 
mechanically when the ' ignition point ' was reached, instead of allow- 
ing the flame itself to stop the movement, as in Falk's experiments. 1 
With quickly-igniting mixtures, such as electrolytic gas, there is little 
difference between the results obtained with a freely moving and with 
a checked piston; but with slowly igniting mixtures, such as mixtures 
of hydrogen and air and mixtures with a large excess of oxygen or of 
hydrogen, there is a considerable difference between the two methods. 
Thus, while the compression necessary to fire electrolytic gas agrees 
closely with that found by Falk, the addition of oxygen was found 
to lower the ignition-point continuously so far as the experiments were 
carried. Using the value of 7 deduced from Joly's experiments, Pro- 
fessor Dixon finds that the ignition-point of electrolytic gas is 557° C, 
which is in close agreement with the ignition temperature determined 
by Dixon and Coward last year. 

Professor Dalby is communicating to the Association an account of 
his measurements by means of an orifice of the air-supply to a gas- 
engine. This work, while not bearing directly on the matters under 
discussion by the Committee, will be of considerable assistance to those 
who have to experiment on gas-engines and desire to determine the pro- 
portion of air in the charge. Professor Coker has made, and will 
shortly publish, further measurements of the temperatures in a gas- 
engine cylinder. The Committee hope to be able to discuss Professor 
Coker 's experiments at greater length next year. 

The Committee are not aware of any important publications on the 
Continent or in America (during the past year) which bear directly on 
their work, though mention should be made of a valuable paper by Hans 
Schmidt 2 dealing with the radiation from a Bunsen flame. 

On the Radiation from Gases. 

In the first and second Eeports of the Committee reference was 
made to the part played by radiation in the cooling of the products of 
an explosion, and to its bearing on the measurements of volumetric 
and specific heat with which those Eeports were principally concerned. 
The general question of radiation from heated gases has, however, from 
the point of view of the Committee, an interest and importance of its 
own which are sufficient to justify a detailed study of it in its wider 
aspects. Badiation plays a part comparable with that of conduction 
in determining the heat-flow from the gas to the cylinder walls in the 
gas-engine, and it is this flow of heat which is the most important 
peculiarity of the gas-engine, and to which are chiefly due the leading 

1 ' The Ignition Temperatures of Hydrogen- Oxygen Mixtures,' K. G. Falk 
[Journ. American Ckem. Soc, vol. xxviii., No. 2, 1906.] ' The Ignition Temperatures 
of Gaseous Mixtures,' K. G. Falk [Journ. American Chem. Soc, vol. xxix., No. 2, 1907]. 

* Ber. der Deutschen Phys. Ges., 1909, p. 87. 



)N GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 201 

characteristics of its design. Even to the Qninstructed eye the most 
obvious features about large internal-combustion engines are the 
arrangements for cooling, and the great size and weight for a given 
power which is necessitated mainly by those arrangements. The diffi- 
culties which the designer has to meet are due in the main to the stresses 
set up by the temperature gradients which are necessary to sustain the 
flow of heat. In the present state of the art it is probable that the most 
important service which science could render to the gas-engine con- 
structor would be to establish definitely the principles upon which 
depends the heat-flow from hot gases into cold metal with which they 
are in contact, and thus to enable him to predict the effect upon heat- 
flow of changes in the temperature, density, or composition of the 
charge, and in the state of the cylinder walls. 

The Committee do not propose in this report to deal with the whole 
of this large question, but will confine their attention to one important 
factor in heat-flow, namely radiation. The subject is a wide one, which 
has excited much attention among physicists and chemists, and on 
several important points agreement has not yet been reached. No 
attempt will, therefore, be made to do more than state shortly the 
experimental facts, and to define the issues which have been raised 
in regard to the explanation of these facts. 

Practical Effects of Radiation. 

It is believed that the first instance in which radiation from a flame 
was used in an industrial process, with knowledge of its importance, 
was the re-generative glass furnace of Frederick Siemens, which he 
described at the Iron and Steel Institute in 1884. Here the combustible 
gas was burnt in a separate chamber and the hot products of combustion 
were led into the furnace. The objects to be heated were placed on the 
floor of the f urnace out of contact with the stream of flame which flowed 
above them. They would therefore receive heat only by radiation, and 
it was supposed that this radiation came in a large measure from the 
flame. Siemens, however, was of opinion (in 1884) that the radiation 
was due to incandescent particles of carbon, and that there was little 
radiation from a non-luminous flame. 1 

In 1890 Robert von Helmholtz measured the radiation from a non- 
luminous coal-gas flame 6 mm. diameter, and found it to be about 5 per 
cent, of the heat of combustion. 2 The radiation from a luminous flame 
was greater, but not very much greater — rising to a maximum of 11J 
per cent, for an ethylene flame. Discussing the Siemens furnace in 
the light of these results, E. von Helmholtz calculated that radiation 
from the flame in the furnace could only account for a small fraction 
of the actual heat transmission. He pointed out, however, that a 
large flame would probably radiate energy at a greater rate than a 
small one. But while admitting that for this reason gaseous radiation 

1 Captain Sankey has prepared an abstract of papers relating to the Sierrena' 
furnaces. See Appendix C, p. 225. 

2 Die Lirht- und Wormestrahhrnrj verhrennender Gase, Robert von Helmholtz, 
Berlin, 1890. 



202 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

might play a part in the heat transmission, he suggested that a more 
important agent was radiation from the roof of the furnace which 
received heat by direct contact with the hot gas and so reached a very 
high temperature. He showed by calculation that a comparatively 
small excess of temperature in the roof over that of the floor would 
cause a sufficient flow of heat. 

But though the discussions on the Siemens furnace and the work 
of Helmholtz show that the idea that a flame, even if non-luminous, 
might radiate large amounts of heat was a familiar one to many people 
twenty years ago, its possible importance in causing loss of heat during 
and after a gaseous explosion and in determining the heat flow in a 
gas-engine does not appear to have been appreciated until quite recently. 
Professor Callendar was probably the first to draw attention to its sig- 
nificance in this connection. In the discussion on a paper about 
explosions, read before the Eoyal Society in 1906, he said that he 
had found a non-luminous Bunsen flame to radiate 15 to 20 per cent, 
of its heat of combustion, and expressed the opinion that the loss 
from this cause in a closed-vessel explosion would be of the same order. 1 
Professor Callendar 's note dealing with this matter is published in full 
in Appendix A, and it is only necessary to state here that he was 
led to study the subject by his work on the efficiency of the petrol 
motor. 

There are, in fact, several points about the behaviour of gas-engines 
which suggest the importance of radiation as a cooling agent. The 
particular matter which attracted Callendar's attention was the effect 
of speed on thermal efficiency. His experiments showed that a part of 
the loss of efficiency in an internal-combustion motor, as compared 
with the corresponding air-cycle, was independent of the speed at which 
the engine was run. The loss of heat per cycle could, to a first approxi- 

mation, be represented by an expression of the type Ah — where n 

n 

is the number of revolutions per minute and A and B are constants. 
The term A represents a constant loss of heat per explosion, and 
among the many causes contributing to this constant loss of heat, radia- 
tion from the flame is probably important. 2 

Another phenomenon which is difficult to explain, except as the 
result of radiation, is the effect of strength of mixture on heat-loss. 
The following table shows some results which were obtained by 
Hopkinson upon a 40-h.p. gas-engine 3 : — 

Percentage of gas in cylinder contents ... 8-5 11-0 per cent. 

Total heat-loss per minute 1,510 2,300 B.Th.U. 

Total heat-loss as percentage of total heat-supply . 29 34 per cent. 

Temperature of piston 300° C. 430° C. 

It will be observed that the proportion of heat-loss to the walls 
increases very materially as the strength of mixture is increased. If 
the transfer of heat were wholly due to conduction it might be expected, 

1 Hopkinson, Proc. Roy. Soc. A., vol. lxxvii., p. 400. 

2 Proc. Inst. Automobile Enq., June 1907. 

3 Proc. Inst. C.E., vol. clxxvii. (1909). 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 203 

apart from the disturbing influence of speed of ignition, which in this 
case was not very important, that the percentage of heat-loss would 
rather diminish with increase of charge, because the temperature with 
the stronger mixture should be relatively less on account of the increase 
of volumetric heat. The increased temperature of piston and valves 
would work in the same direction. The existence of radiation, however, 
which increases more rapidly in proportion to the temperature, would 
account for the increased heat-flow. The practical importance of ques- 
tions of this kind is also illustrated by these figures, from which it 
appears that the piston is 50 per cent, hotter, though the charge of gas 
is only increased 30 per cent. 

More direct evidence of the importance of radiation is furnished 
by experiments on the effect of the surface of the walls. In the second 
report of the Committee reference was made to the belief which is 
widely spread among those who are concerned with the practical design 
and operation of gas-engines that polishing the interior of the combus- 
tion chamber tends to increase efficiency. Some experiments were also 
quoted in which it was found that lining an explosion vessel with bright 
tinfoil perceptibly retarded the cooling of the products. More recently 
an explosion vessel has been plated with silver on the inner surface, 
and the results have been compared after exploding identical mix- 
tures, first when the lining was polished, and second when it was 
blackened over with lamp-black. It was found that by highly polishing 
the interior of the vessel the maximum pressure reached could be 
increased 3 per cent, and the subsequent rate of cooling during its earlier 
stages reduced by about one-third. These experiments leave no doubt 
of the reality and of the practical importance of radiation as a factor 
in determining the heat-loss in the gas-engine. 1 

Eeference may also be made to the part played by radiation in 
determining the heat-flow in a boiler. Attention was drawn to this by 
Dalby in a recent report to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 2 
The circumstances in this case are widely different from those usually 
obtaining in the gas-engine, but the instance serves to emphasize the 
importance to the engineer of the questions which will be discussed 
in this report. 

Amount of the Radiation from Flame. 

E. von Helmholtz appears to have been the first to attempt the 
accurate measurement of the radiation emitted by a flame. He found 
that a ' solid ' flame 6 mm. diameter, burning coal-gas, radiated 
about 5 per cent, of the total heat of combustion. A carbon monoxide 
flame radiated about 8 per cent., and a hydrogen flame about 3 per cent. 
On account of the smallness of the flame his experiments have not 
' much application to the problem of the gas-engine. The size of the 
flame affects the matter in two ways. In the first place, a large flame 
radiates more per unit of area than a small one, because a flame is 
to a great extent transparent even to its own radiation, so that radiation 
is received not only from molecules at the surface of the flame, but also 

1 Hopkinson, Proc. Boy. Soc. A., vol. lxxxiv. (1910), p. 155, 

2 Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., October 1909. 



204 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCtENCfi. 

from those at a depth within it. This matter will be further dealt with 
in another section of the report. The second point is that the cooling 
of the gas is slower in a large flame than in a small one. The 
radiation originates in the vibration of the C0 2 and steam molecules, 
and the life of one of these molecules as a radiating body extends 
from the moment of its formation to the time when its vibrational energy 
has been destroyed by radiation and by collision with colder molecules, 
such as those of the air surrounding the flame. The smaller the flame 
the more rapid will be the extinction of the vibrations, and the less, 
therefore, the total amount of radiation per molecule. The products 
of explosion in a closed vessel or in a gas-engine differ considerably in 
this respect from any open flame, however large, which it is possible 
to produce, for they are not subject to cooling by mixture with the 
outside air. Moreover, the density of the gas is very much greater. 

Callendar has repeated some of Helmholtz 's experiments on a larger 
scale, and has found that the radiation in a non-luminous coal-gas flame 
30 mm. in diameter may amount to 15 per cent, of the whole heat of 
combustion. Further reference will be made to Calendar's work under 
the heading of ' transparency.' 

Hopkinson has recently made measurements of the radiation emitted 
in the course of an explosion in a closed vessel and in the subsequent 
cooling. A bolometer made of blackened platinum strip was placed out- 
side a window of fluorite in the walls of the explosion vessel. The elec- 
trical resistance of this bolometer was recorded by means of a reflecting 
galvanometer throwing a spot of light on a revolving drum, and an 
optical indicator traced simultaneously a record of the pressure on the 
same drum. He found that the total heat radiated during and after 
an explosion of a 15 per cent, mixture of coal-gas and air amounted 
to over 22 per cent, of the whole heat of combustion. The radia- 
tion which had been received at the moment of maximum pressure 
amounted to 3 per cent., and it continued, though at a diminishing 
rate, for a long period. Eadiation was still perceptible half a second 
after maximum pressure, when the gas-temperature had fallen 
to 1000° C. 1 

Nature and Origin of the Radiation from Flames. 

In the gas-engine cylinder and in explosion experiments we are 
usually concerned with flames in which there is some excess of air. 
A mixture of similar composition burnt at atmospheric pressure would 
give an almost non-luminous flame; in the gas-engine there is more 
luminosity on account of the greater density. There is, however, no 
reason to suppose that the radiation in the gas-engine cylinder differs 
materially as regards its quality or origin from that emitted by an open 
flame. 

A very complete analysis of the radiation from different kinds of 
flamewas made by Julius, and his experiments leave no doubt that the 
radiation is almost wholly due to the C0 2 and steam molecules. He 

1 Proc. 7?oy. Soc. A., vol. lxxxiv. (1910), p. 155. See also Appendix B to this 

R port (p. 221). ___ .. 



Ott GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



205 



fiiamlned the spectrum of the flame by means of a i - ock salt prism, 
and he found that in all flames producing both C0 2 and steam 
most of the radiation was concentrated into two bands, the wave 
lengths of which are, respectively, 4 - 4/t and 2-8 ju . In a pure hydrogen 
flame the 4 - 4 band disappears completely, but the other remains; and 
in the pure CO flame the 2"8 band disappears, the other remaining. 
These results are independent of the nature of the combustible gas, 
the spectrum depending solely on the products of combustion. 1 

A confirmation of the statement that the radiation from these flames 
originates in the C0 2 and H 2 molecules only was furnished in the 
course of the work by R. von Helmholtz, to which reference has been 
made above. He measured the amount of radiation per litre of gas 
consumed, emitted by flames of given size burning respectively 
hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and Certain compound gases, such as 
methane, giving both C0 2 and steam. The supply of air was adjusted 
in each case so that the flame was just non-luminous. His results are 
best given in his own words, but it should be stated that he worked 
with a small flame about 6 mm. diameter and measured the radiation 
with a bolometer, taking the steady change of its resistance as a measure 
of the amount of radiation falling upon it : — 

' According to the experiments of Julius described in the first 
chapter, the quality of the radiation of flames depends only on the 
nature of the burnt and not on that of the burning gases. It is relevant 
to inquire whether the quantity of radiation is also dependent on the 
mass of the products of combustion. I have calculated in the second 
and third columns below how many litres of H,0 and C0 2 , respectively, 
arise theoretically from each litre of combustible gas. I then assume 
that for every litre of water produced as much radiation is sent out 
as corresponds to the radiating power -of a hydrogen flame — for this 
gas yields one litre of H 2 per litre of combustible — and that in a 
corresponding way the radiation from one litre of carbonic acid would 
be determined by the radiating power of the carbonic oxide flame, and 
I can then calculate the radiation from the non-luminous flames of 
methane, ethylene, and coal-gas. 



Gas 



Hydrogen . 
Carbon Monoxide 
Marsh gas 
Ethylene . 
Coal gas . 



Litr 


es 


F 


HaO 

1 


CO a 


Observed 


Calculated 





74 








1 


177 


. — . 


2 


1 


327 


325 


2 


2 


510 


502 


1-2 


0-5 


181 


179 



' The correspondence between the calculated numbers with the 
radiation from a flame which has just been rendered non-luminous 
surprised me the more since the latter is conditioned, in some measure, 



1 Die Licht- iml W/irmeslrahlung verbrannter Case. Dr. W. H. Julius, Berlin, 1890. 
1910. P 



206 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

by the volume of air mixed with the gas, and this is very different for 
the three non-luminous flames. On this account it cannot be asserted 
that this agreement is not accidental. Moreover, the number of obser- 
vations is much too small. Nevertheless, the experiment seems worthy 
of record and will be followed up further.' 

With regard to the last remarks, it is to be noted that the fact that 
the flame was just rendered non-luminous shows that the air was in 
each case in approximately the proportion required for complete com- 
bustion. The heating value of such a mixture is much the same for 
all the gases in the above table, and the temperatures of the flames 
would be still more nearly the same, the higher heating value of a 
CO mixture being partly neutralised by the high specific heat of the 
products. The agreement is certainly more than a coincidence. W. T. 
David, from a comparison of the radiation emitted in the steam and CO 
bands respectively in a coal-gas and air explosion, infers that C0 2 
radiates about 2J times as much as steam per unit of volume. This 
result, which was obtained in ignorance of Helmholtz's estimate, agrees 
with it almost exactly. 

Cold C0 2 shows a strong absorption band at the same point of 
the spectrum as the emission band given by a flame in which C0 2 is 
produced, and water-vapour powerfully absorbs the radiation from a 
hydrogen flame. 

As stated above, it is most probable that the radiation in an explosion 
also consists almost entirely of the same two bands as are emitted by 
the Bunsen flame. A complete analysis of the radiation from an ex- 
plosion has not been made, but Hopkinson and David found, using a 
recording bolometer, that the radiation is almost completely stopped 
by a water-cell, and that it is largely stopped by a glass plate. It 
follows that the luminosity of- the flame in an explosion or in a gas- 
engine accounts for but little of the energy which it radiates. 

Molecular Theory of Radiation from Gases. 

Much difference of opinion exists as to the physical interpretation 
of the facts described in the preceding sections. The issues in this 
controversy can conveniently be staled in terms of the molecular theory, 
and it is, therefore, desirable to give a short account of this theory. 
But it will be apparent that the issues are not merely of theoretical 
interest, but arc in large measure issues of fact capable of being tested 
by experiment, and that the answers to important practical questions 
may depend on the manner in which they are settled. 

According to the kinetic theory, the energy of a gas must be 
referred partly to translational motion of the molecules as a whole and 
partly to motions of some sort internal to the molecules. The transla- 
tional motion is that which causes the pressure of the gas, and in the 

case of gases for which ^ is constant (with which alone we are 

concernedin this discussion), the translational energy per unit of volume 
is equal in absolute measure to If time the pressure. This part 
of the energy may conveniently be called 'pressure energy.' It 






ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 207 

amounts to nearly 3 calories per gramme molecule, or to 12 foot-pounds 
per cubic foot per degree Centigrade. 

The other part of the energy produces no external physical effect 
except radiation, and at ordinary temperatures, when there is no radia- 
tion, its existence and amount are inferred from the fact that when 
work is done or heat put into the gas the corresponding increase in 
pressure energy amounts to only a fraction of the whole. The internal 
motions to which this suppressed energy corresponds may be pictured 
as of a mechanical nature, such as the vibrations of spring-connected 
masses or as rotation about the centre of gravity of the molecule, but 
there is not the same reason as exists in the case of the transitional 
energy for supposing that they are really of this character. They may 
be, and indeed probably are, electrical phenomena, at any rate in part. 
Any radiation from the gas must take its origin in this internal motion, 
and so much of that motion as gives rise to radiation must be of a 
periodic character and have a frequency equal to that of the radiation 
emitted. It will be convenient to call the whole energy which is internal 
to the molecule 'atomic energy,' and that part of it which gives rise 
to radiation may be called ' vibrational energy. ' The vibrational energy 
may be imagined as due to high-frequency vibrations within the mole- 
cule, and the rest of the atomic energy as due to slower movements — 
perhaps rotations of the molecule as a whole — which do not produce 
any disturbance in the aether. This remaining energy may conveniently 
be called ' rotational,' it being understood that the motion to which it 
corresponds is not necessarily a physical rotation, but is some internal 
motion which gives no external physical effects. 

"When the gas is in a steady state the various kinds of energy 
will bear definite ratios to one another, dependent on the temperature 
and pressure. It may be expected, however, that after any sudden 
change of temperature or pressure the gas will not at once reach the 
steady state of equilibrium corresponding to the new conditions. For 
instance, it may be that in the rapid compression of a gas the work done 
goes at first mainly to increasing the translational energy. If in such 
case the compression be arrested, and if there be no loss of heat, this 
form of energy will be found in excess; and a certain time, though 
possibly a very short time, will elapse before the excess is transformed 
by collisions into atomic energy and the state of equilibrium attained. 
This change would be manifestos a fall of temperature or of pressure 
without any change of energy. 

If, on the other hand, the gas be heated by combustion, the first 
effect is undoubtedly an increase in the energy of those molecules, 
and of those only which have been formed as the result of the combus- 
tion ; and it is probable that in the first instance the energy of the 
newly formed molecules is mainly in the atomic form. Before 
equilibrium can be attained there must be a process of adjustment, in 
the course of which the energy of the new molecules will be shared 
with inert molecules, e.g., the nitrogen in an air-gas explosion, 
while the translational form of energy will increase at the expense of 
the atomic energy. The final state of equilibrium reached will be the 
same at the same temperature, whether the gas was heated in the first 

p 2 



208 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

instance by combustion or by compression; the assumption that this 
is the case is involved in any statement of volumetric heat as a definite 
physical quantity. The pressure energy in the final state of equilibrium 
is certainly shared equally between the different kinds of molecules, but 
the atomic energy is not necessarily equally shared. It is known, for 
example, that the steam molecules, after an explosion of hydrogen and 
air, carry, on the average, more energy than the nitrogen molecules, 
though the pressure energy is the same. 

The process of attaining equilibrium after an explosion, which has 
just been described, would (if heat loss were arrested) result in n 
rise of temperature, and in the ordinary case of rapid cooling it would 
retard the cooling. It would, therefore, be indistinguishable as regards 
pressure or temperature effects from continued combustion or after- 
burning. 

Stated in terms of the molecular theory, the first question as to 
which there is difference of opinion is whether the radiation from a 
flame arises from gas which is in equilibrium or whether it comes from 
molecules which still possess a larger share than tiiey will ultimately 
(in the equilibrium state) be entitled to, of the atomic energy which 
resulted from their formation. If the products of combustion of a non- 
luminous Bunsen flame were heated — say, by passing through a hot 
tube — to the average temperature of the flame, would they emit 
substantially the same amount of radiation? In order to clear the 
ground for the discussion of this question it will be convenient, first, 
to state two or three points about which there will probably be general 
agreement. First, there is here no question of the origin of luminosity, 
for the luminous part of the radiation from the flame possesses practi- 
cally no energy. Secondly, the radiation, whether in the heated gas or 
in the flame, arises almost entirely from the compound constituents 
C0 2 and H o 0; in neither case does any come from the molecules of 
nitrogen or of excess oxygen. And, thirdly, the powerful absorption of 
cold C0 2 for the radiation from a CO flame, and of water vapour for 
that from a hydrogen flame, will probably lead all to admit that these 
gases when heated will emit some radiation of the same type. The 
only question is, how much? 

E. von Helmholtz was of opinion that the radiation in a flame comes 
mainly from molecules which have just been formed, and which are 
therefore still in a state of vigorous vibration. Pringsheim, Smithells, 
and others take the same view. This is practically equivalent to saying 
that this radiation, like the radiation of higher frequency which gives 
luminosity, is due to chemical action and not to purely thermal causes. 
On the other hand, Paschen and some others have maintained that 
the radiation from a flame is purely thermal, or that it arises from gas 
which has attained the normal or equilibrium state and is substantially 
the same as that which would be emitted if the products of combustion 
were heated. 

It will readily be seen that the difference between the two opinions 
really turns on the question of the time taken by a gas which is not 
initially in, or has been disturbed from, the equilibrium state to attain 
that state. All will concede that the CO, or steam molecule will 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 209 

radiate more powerfully jusfc after its formation than at any other 
time. If, as R. von Helmholtz contended, the greater part of the 
radiation which it gives out in the course of its life is to be ascribed 
to this early period of its history, we must suppose that that period 
is sufficiently extended to give time for the emission of a considerable 
amount of energy, with a rate of radiation which, though greater than 
that of the gas in its ultimate equilibrium state, is at least of the same 
order of magnitude. In other words, we must suppose that the process 
which may indifferently be called attainment of equilibrium, or con- 
tinued chemical action, must go on in the gases as they pass through 
the flame for a time of the order perhaps of ^ of a second. For if 
it be supposed that equilibrium is reached in an excessively short time, 
say in x^oo second or less, then the radiation, if ascribed to that 
short period, must be supposed to be of corresponding intensity — 
there must be a sudden and violent flow of energy by radiation just 
while combustion is going on, and very little radiation after it is com- 
plete. This is, however, negatived by the bolometer measurements 
made during an explosion, which show that radiation goes on for some- 
thing like half a second after maximum pressure (see Appendix B). 
Those who hold that the radiation emitted by CO, and steam is mainly 
due to continued combustion must be prepared to admit that such 
combustion goes on for a long period after the attainment of maximum 
pressure in an explosion. The issue involved here is, in fact, the same 
as that in the controversy about ' after-burning. ' 

The principal argument advanced by R. von Helmholtz in support 
of his view is the experimental fact discovered by him that the radiation 
of a flame is diminished by heating the gas and air before they enter 
the burner, in spite of the fact that the temperature of the flame must 
be raised. This he explains by the acceleration of the approach to the 
state of equilibrium which would be brought about by the more frequent 
collisions between the newly formed compound molecules and their 
neighbours. 

The question of the velocity with which a gas approaches its normal 
state after a disturbance has been much discussed in connection with 
the kinetic theory. Immediately after an explosion we have an extreme 
case of such a disturbance, the atomic energy being, at any point which 
the flame has just reached, in considerable excess. The transformation 
of this energy into the pressure form will proceed at a rate diminishing 
with the amount remaining to be transformed and, in the final stages 
of the process at all events, proportional thereto. The slowness of 
approach to the state of equilibrium may be measured by the time 
required for the reduction of the untransformed energy in any specified 

ratio. It is usual to take - as this ratio, and following Maxwell, the 

e 

corresponding time may be called the ' time or relaxation. ' Estimates 

of this time, based on the kinetic theory of gases, may be made in 

various ways, but they all involve hypotheses as to the nature of the 

action between the molecules, and must be regarded as little more 

than speculation. It will be well, however, to indicate the general 

character of the arguments on which they are based. By methods 



210 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

which need not be considered in detail here it is possible to calculate 
the number of collisions with its neighbours which the average molecule 
undergoes per second. This calculation can be approached in various 
ways, based on different kinds of data, but they all lead to the same 
result, at any rate as regards order of magnitude — namely, that a mole- 
cule of air at normal temperature and pressure collides on the average 
3 x 10 9 times per second with other molecules. At every collision the 
energy distribution in the colliding molecules is modified, both 
as regards the manner in which it is shared between the two and the 
relative proportions due to vibration and translation in either. It is 
argued that after every molecule has suffered a few thousand collisions, 
which will happen in a millionth of a second, the gas must have reached 
a steady average state. This argument would, however, be upset if 
the interchange of energy as between vibration and translation at each 
collision were sufficiently small. It is only necessary to suppose that 
a vibrating molecule loses less than one thousand millionth part of its 
vibratory energy at each collision, to raise the time of relaxation to 
something of the order of a second. Any objection to this supposition 
must be founded on some hypothesis, which cannot be other than 
entirely speculative, as to the mechanism of a collision. The kinetic 
theory, therefore, can give no information about the absolute value of 
the time of relaxation, though it provides valuable suggestions as to 
the way in which that time is affected by the temperature and density 
of the gas. 

There is plenty of physical evidence, however, that in ordinary 
circumstances the time of relaxation is excessively short. The 
phenomenon of the propagation of sound shows that compressions and 
rarefactions of atmospheric air may take place many thousands of times 
in a second without the gas departing appreciably at any instant from 
the state of equilibrium. The experiments of Tyndall, in which an 
intermittent beam of radiant energy directed through the gas caused 
variations of pressure sufficiently rapid to give sounds, show that the 
transformation of vibrational into pressure energy under the conditions 
of his experiments is a process far more rapid than any with which 
we are accustomed to deal in the gas-engine or in the study of gaseous 
explosions. The departure from equilibrium which follows combus- 
tion is, however, of a special kind, and it may be that the gas is slower 
in recovering from it than when the disturbance is that produced by 
the propagation of sound at ordinary temperatures. 



Transparency . 

The radiation from hot gas is complicated by the fact that the gas 
is to a considerable extent transparent to its own radiation. The 
radiation emitted, therefore, depends upon the thickness of the layer 
of gas, instead of being purely a surface phenomenon, as in the case 
of a solid body. This property, besides being of great physical interest, 
is important from the point of view of the Committee because upon it 
depends, or may depend, the relative magnitude of radiation losses in 
engines or explosion vessels of different sizes. 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



211 



The transparency of flames is well illustrated by some experiments 
which Professor Callendar has been making, and which he showed to 
the Committee. The radiation from a Meker burner (which gives a 
' solid ' flame without inner cone) was measured by means of a Fery 
pyrometer, the reading of which gives a measure of the radiation trans- 
mitted through a small cone intersecting the flame and having its vertex 
at this point of observation (see fig. 1). Callendar proposes to give the 
name ' intrinsic radiance ' to the radiation of a flame measured in this 
way, divided by the solid angle of the cone. When a second similar 
flame was placed behind the first in the line of sight, it was found that 
the reading recorded by the pyrometer was considerably increased, but 
not doubled; the first flame appeared to be partly, but not completely, 



P = 




Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3. 



transparent to the radiation emitted by the second. A third flame 
placed behind the first two contributed a further but smaller addition 
to the radiation, and as the number of flames in the row was increased 
the radiation received from each fell off according to an exponential 
law. The total radiation from the whole row (which is that recorded 
on the pyrometer) tends to a finite limit as the number of flames is 
increased. The radiation from a depth of 12 cm. is about half, and 
that from a depth of 100 cm. is within one-half per cent, of that 
emitted by an infinitely great depth. 

The general result of Callendar 's experiments is to show that flames 
of a diameter of three centimetres or less burning at atmospheric pres- 
sure emit radiation approximately in proportion to the volume. If the 
diameter be increased beyond that figure the radiation will also increase, 



212 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

but not in proportion to the volume of the flame. The radiation from 
very large flames would tend to become proportional to the surface, but 
no certain inference as to the diameter of flame for which this would be 
substantially true can be drawn from Callendar's experiments, because 
he was looking along a thin row of flames in which there was but little 
lateral extension. 

The flames met with in a gas-engine cylinder or in explosion vessels 
differ from open flames such as can readily be produced in the labora- 
tory, both in respect of the lateral extension which has just been 
mentioned, and also in respect of density. In both these particulars the 
difference is rather great, the least dimension of the mass of flame in 
a gas-engine cylinder being only in the smallest sizes comparable with 
the diameter of the Meker burner flame, while the density of the gas 
just after firing in the gas-engine is from twenty to thirty times that of 
the burner flame gases. It does not seem possible from theoretical 
considerations to determine the effect of these two factors with suffi- 
cient accuracy to enable any quantitative inference as to radiation in 
the gas-engine to be drawn from laboratory experiments on flames, but 
it is useful to discuss their probable qualitative effects. 

In fig. 1, p is the point of observation at which the pyrometer is 
placed, as in Callendar's experiments, and the portion of the flame 
from which the radiation is measured is that intercepted by the small 
cone. If a second similar flame b is placed behind a at a considerable 
distance but so that it is intersected by the cone, then the radiation 
recorded by the pyrometer will be increased, say, by 50 per cent., 
showing that of the radiation emitted by b and falling on a 50 per cent, 
is absorbed and the remainder is transmitted to the pyrometer. The 
absorbed energy is of course not lost, but must result in slightly in- 
creased radiation from a in all directions. The flame a appears to be 
a little hotter because of the proximity of B. Thus the increase of radia- 
tion absorbed at the pyrometer is due not only to the radiation trans- 
mitted from b but also to an increase in the intrinsic radiance of a. If 
the two flames ai'e a considerable distance apart, the latter part is negli- 
gibly small, since the flame a does not then receive much radiation 
from b, and what it does receive is dissipated in every direction. But 
when flame b is pushed close up to a in to the position of b' (fig. 2) this 
effect may be* considerable, and it is obvious that it will be greatly 
enhanced if the two flames are extended laterally as in fig. 3. For in 
such case flame a must get rid of the energy which it is receiving by 
radiation from b' mainly by an enhanced radiation in the direction of p. 
It may, therefore, be expected that the effect of lateral extension will 
be to make the flame apparently more transparent. 

To a first approximation it may be expected that the radiating and 
absorptive powers of a gas at a given temperature will be proportional 
to its density. That is to say, two geometrically similar masses of 
flame, in which the temperatures at corresponding points are the same, 
and the densities in inverse proportion to the volumes (so that the total 
masses are the same), will radiate in the same way and to the same 
total amount. It would seem that this must be so, so long as the 
vibrations of the radiating molecules are the same in character and 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 213 

amplitude in the two cases. For there will then be the same number 
of molecules vibrating in exactly the same way and arranged in the 
same way, in the two cases. The only difference is in the scale of the 
arrangement, and this can only affect the matter if the distance 
between molecules is comparable with the wave-lengths of the radiation 
emitted, which is not the case. It is only, however, within moderate 
limits that the molecular vibrations are independent of density. 
Angstrom found that the absorption of the radiation from a given source 
in a tube of C0 2 at ordinary temperature and atmospheric pressure was 
reduced by increasing the length and diminishing the pressure 1 in the 
same proportion so as to keep the mass of gas constant. Schafer found 
that on increasing the pressure the absorption bands of this gas were 
widened, so that the curve connecting intensity of radiation and wave- 
length did not remain of the same shape. 2 These experiments were 
made at low temperatures, and at the higher temperatures in which 
the Committee are more particularly interested there has been but little 
work. There is no reason to doubt, however, that the character and 
amount of the radiation from C0 2 and steam at high temperatures will 
change with the density. 

From the point of view of the molecular theory, such a change 
might be anticipated from either of two causes. An increase of density 
implies a proportionate increase in the frequency of molecular col- 
lisions, and this would result in greater facility of interchange between 
the translational and atomic types of energy.. It is possible that the 
equilibrium proportion of the two types might be different in conse- 
quence. The denser gas may conceivably possess, with a given amount 
of translational energy, more atomic energy, and therefore radiate more 
strongly at a given temperature. It is certain that there would be a 
more rapid attainment of equilibrium in the gas after an explosion, or 
a rapid expansion. Another possible cause is a direct inter-action 
between the molecules apart from collisions. Two molecules at a 
sufficient distance apart will vibrate practically independently, each 
behaving as though the other was not there, except that there will be a 
tendency for them to vibrate in the same phase. But if the two are 
close together they react on each other so that the natural period 
or periods of the two together will not be the same as those which 
each would have if it were isolated. 

Such direct measurements as have been made of the radiation after 
a closed vessel explosion suggest that the flame is more transparent 
than might be inferred from the experiments on open flames. According 
to information given to the Committee by Professor Hopkinson, 
W. T. David has found that the radiation received by a bolometer placed 
outside a fluorite window in the cover of a cylindrical explosion vessel 
30 cm. x 30 cm. is greatly increased by highly polishing that portion 
of the opposite cover which can be ' seen ' by the bolometer. This 
implies that a thickness of 30 cm. of flame in these circumstances 
can transmit much of the radiation which it emits. The density of 

1 Ark. for Mat. Astron. och Fysik, Stockholm, vol. iv., No, 30, to. 1. 
1 Aim, der Physik, vol. xvl. (1905), p. 93. 



214 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

the gas in this case was atmospheric, and the 30 cm. thickness in the 
explosion vessel would be equivalent to perhaps 150 cm. of open flame 
if absorption were simply proportional to density. According to Cal- 
endar's experiment, such a thickness would be almost completely 
opaque. It is possible that the later-al extension is sufficient to account 
for this result. The open flame should be a cylindrical mass of dimen- 
sions 150 cm. x 150 cm., instead of a long strip with a cross section 
of 3 cm., in order to make the two cases strictly comparable. It will 
be remembered that in the discussion above it appeared that the 
laterally extended flame would seem to be more transparent. 

In the course of the year Mr. D. L. Chapman, of Oxford, and 
Mr. H. E. Wimperis have joined the Committee. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed, and ask for a 
grant of 1001. 

APPENDIX A. 

Radiation from Flames. By H. L. Callendar. 

In the course of my experiments in 1903-04 with a small petrol 
motor of 2 - 36-inch bore on the variation of efficiency with speed, 
I became convinced that the greater part of the loss of efficiency with 
a small high-speed motor was practically independent of the speed. 
Loss by radiation from the flame appeared to be one among the many 
possible causes contributing to this result, and I accordingly made some 
experiments on radiation from flames with a view to estimate the 
pi*obable order of magnitude and the possible limits of the loss incurred. 
The experiments were necessarily of a qualitative character, and could 
not be directly applied to the calculation of the actual loss occurring 
' in an internal-combustion engine, but they appeared to indicate that the 
effect was much larger than had generally been supposed, and could 
not be neglected in a discussion of the heat loss occurring in a gaseous 
explosion. 

Some of the results of these experiments were mentioned in the 
discussion on a paper by Professor B. Hopkinson, ' Explosions of Coal 
Gas and Air, ' 1 and a general summary was given in the discussion 
on my paper, ' On the Effect of Size on the Thermal Efficiency of 
Motors,' 2 from which the following is a quotation. 

' A large part of the energy of the flame during ignition exists in 
the form of energy of vibration of the dissociated and recombining 
ions, which is proved by the fact that a flame radiates energy more 
intensely than a mass of inert gas at the same temperature. The 
energy of vibration is realised as pressure, or energy of translation, only 
in proportion as the ions combine and equilibrium is established. The 
loss of thermal efficiency from this cause is merely another aspect of 
dissociation or increase of apparent specific heat, and is not a loss of 
heat at all, though it gives rise, as already explained, to a considerable 
diminution of the thermal efficiency. But while the condition of flame 

1 Proc. R.S.A., 77. p. 400, April 1906. 
3 Proc, Inst. Aut, Eng., April 1907, 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 215 

persists, there is necessarily some loss of heat by radiation to the walls. 
In order to estimate this loss, I made a series of direct measurements 
of the actual proportion of the heat of combustion radiated from various 
flames, luminous and non-luminous, some of which were quoted by 
Hopkinson in his paper. I found that the heat radiated from an 
ordinary non-luminous Bunsen flame might amount to 15 per cent, or 
20 per cent., but that it depended on the duration of the incandescence 
and was much smaller, corresponding with a reduction in the size of 
tbe flame, in explosive mixtures. It is not possible to estimate 
separately the exact amount of this loss in the cylinder of a gas-engine, 
but I think it belongs chiefly to losses of the type A, being proportional 
to the wall surface exposed, and practically independent of the time, 
since the duration of the flame is short in the most efficient mixtures. 
It is probable, however, that part of the radiation loss taking place 
during the propagation of the flame and throughout its mass is propor- 
tional to the volume and not to the surface, in which case it would 
be represented by a constant term in the expression for the loss of 
thermal efficiency.' 

The only account which I have been able to find of previous syste- 
matic experiments on the proportion of the heat of combustion radiated 
from a flame is in a thesis for doctorate by Robert (the son of Hermann) 
von Helmholtz. For the majority of non-luminous hydrocarbon flames 
mixed with air E. Helmholtz finds approximately the same result, 
namely 5 per cent, of the heat of combustion radiated. According to 
my experiments this low value is to be explained by the fact that he 
employed in these measurements small flames, 6 mm. diameter ty 
60 mm. high, which were probably burning at a comparatively low 
temperature, and which do, as a matter of fact, give a percentage of 
this order. In one case he finds 8 - 7 per cent, of the heat of combustion 
radiated by a flame 11*8 mm. diameter. 

In my own experiments the heat radiated from flames of various 
sizes, and burning under different conditions, was measured, in calories 
per square cm. per minute, at a measured distance, by means of an 
Angstrom pyrheliometer in a special mounting. Tbe constant of the 
pyrheliometer, which had shown signs of change, was checked by 
means of a radio-calorimeter and also by an absolute measuring bolo- 
meter. An ordinary wet-meter was employed for measuring the gas 
supply to the flames, and the same meter was employed in the measure- 
ment of the calorific value of the gas with a Boys calorimeter. In 
some experiments the air supplied to the flame before ignition was 
measured with the apparatus subsequently employed by Swann 1 
in his experiments on the specific heat of air and CO,. This was 
useful for estimating the strength of mixture in relation to the 
appearance of the flame, and for varying the temperature, but could 
not give quite exact results because the flames were necessarily burn- 
ing in free air. With the air and gas adjusted as nearly as could 
be estimated in the proportions required for complete combustion, the 
proportion of heat radiated varied from 10 to 15 per cent, for burners 

; Phil. Trans. A. 210, p. 208. 



216 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

from 1 inch to 4 inches diameter. As the air supply was reduced for 
the same rate of gas consumption, the size of the flame increased and 
also the heat radiated. A maximum of 15 to 20 per cent, was reached 
for these burners when a brilliant and well-defined inner cone was 
formed. If the amount of air supplied was in excess of that required 
for complete combustion, the radiation fell off considerably in conse- 
quence of the reduction in size and fall in temperature of the flame. 
When the air supply was reduced until the inner cone disappeared, 
with burners of this type, the flame became unsteady and was reduced 
in temperature, the radiation falling to about 12 to 16 per cent. With 
steady luminous flames, of the Argand or bat's-wing type, there was a 
considerable increase of radiation on excluding air from the flame. 
With small flames of low temperature the proportion of heat radiated 
might be as low as 2 or 3 per cent. 

These results appeared to indicate that the radiation depended largely 
on the size of the flame as well as on the temperature, and on the 
presence of CO or solid C when the air was insufficient for complete 
combustion. The mixtures employed corresponded fairly with the 
range available in a petrol motor, but the temperature of the flame 
in a motor, with ignition at constant volume, would certainly be much 
higher. A considerable percentage of the loss of thermal efficiency in 
such cases might evidently be ascribed to radiation. The exact propor- 
tion could not be directly estimated, but it occurred to me in preparing 
this note that the probable effect of radiation on the variation of 
efficiency with size could be deduced by a more complete study of one 
particular type of flame, and by measuring the radiation and absorption 
for different thicknesses. With the assistance of Mr. G. Nelson, I have 
accordingly repeated and extended some of these observations. 



Experiments with a Meker Burner. 

The type of burner selected for these experiments was the Meker 
burner, with a nickel grid of 3 cm. diameter, consuming gas at the 
rate of 0185 cubic feet a minute. The heat radiated was measured 
in calories per square cm. per minute by an Angstrom pyrheliometer 
at a distance of 52 cm., and the result multiplied by 4522 to deduce 
the total radiation in calories per minute, assuming the flame to radiate 
equally in all directions. The lower calorific value of the gas was 
measured wet under the temperature and pressure of the experiment, 
and was found to vary from 470 to 500 B.T.U. per cubic foot. With 
full air-supply, the gas and air being nearly in the proportions required 
for complete combustion, the burner gives a solid homogeneous conical 
pointed flame, with no indications of an inner cone. As the air supply 
is reduced minute cones make their appearance over the grid and 
finally coalesce into a single steady brilliant inner cone, which increases 
in size. The percentage of heat radiated rises steadily with increase of 
size of the flame, from 10 - 5 with full air-supply to 16 per cent, as a 
maximum with a large and bright inner cone. Beyond this point the 
inner cone becomes ill-defined, the flame flickers, and the radiation 
falls off to 14 per cent., rising again to over 16 as the flame becomes 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 217 

luminous. These variations are compared in the accompanying table 
with the approximate composition in volumes of air to one of gas before 
ignition. The form of the curve depends to some extent on the shape, 
size, and nature of the flame. It would not be the same for a bat's-wing 
or Argand flame. The rate of gas consumption was maintained approxi- 
mately constant, and the size of the flame varied with the strength of 

mixture. 

Total radiation of Meker burner per cent, of heat of combustion : 

Total Radiation per cent. . . 105 123 140 159 141 146 17 
Ratio Air/Gas by vol. ... 5 4 3 2-5 15 1 

The gas was in all cases completely burnt. The ratio of air to gas 
before ignition merely describes the nature of the flame. Mixtures in 
these proportions, if burnt without further addition of air, would not, 
of course, radiate the same per cent, of heat. With the ratio air 
to gas = 5, the duration cf the luminous flame was estimated at about 
a fiftieth of a second. 

Intrinsic Radiance of Flame. 

The intrinsic radiance of a flame has the same meaning in respect 
of total energy of radiation that intrinsic brilliance or brightness has 
in respect of luminosity. It may be measured by the radiation emitted 
per unit area of surface, but in the case of a flame which is more or 
less transparent the radiation comes from a finite thickness, and must 
be measured per unit of solid angle subtended. This measurement 
may conveniently be effected by means of a total radiation pyrometer 
of any kind in which an image of the flame is formed on a radiometer 
or bolometer. A Fery mirror pyrometer was employed for this purpose, 
the instrument being focussed on the flame at a height of 4 to 5 cm. 
above the grid, where the flame was steady and sensibly homogeneous. 

With this restriction it was found that the intrinsic radiance of the 
Meker burner did not vary materially as the air supply was reduced 
from that necessary for complete combustion, until the inner cone 
became so large that the flame could no longer be regarded as sensibly 
homogeneous. This showed that the increase of total radiation simul- 
taneously observed was due chiefly to increase in the size of the flame, 
and that the increase of thickness of the flame was compensated either 
by fall in temperature or by increase in absorptive power. The thick- 
ness of the flame at the height focussed in the pyrometer varied from 
2*8 cm. with full air supply to 3'6 cm. when the inner cone was 3 cm. 
high and just cleared the area focussed. 

In order to determine the manner in which the intrinsic radiance E 
varied with the thickness x of the flame in the line of sight, and to 
measure the coefficient of absorption, six precisely similar burners were 
mounted in a row along the axis of the radiation pyrometer, which 
was focussed in such a way that the reading was the same for any one 
of the burners singly or for any combination of the same number of 
burners at different distances. The pressure of the gas supply was 
regulated to a constant value, and care was taken to prevent the air 
in the laboratory from becoming contaminated, which produced a notable 



4 


5 


6 


214 


250 


282 


21G 


250 


282 



218 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

effect on the radiation. Several series of measurements were taken 
with one to six burners lighted in different orders, for two distinct states 
of the flame which were easily reproducible, namely (1) with full air- 
supply and (2) with the inner cones 2"5 cm. high. In the latter case 
the flames all touched each other, and the layer of flame was 21"6 cm. 
thick and was sensibly homogeneous. 

Summary of Observations. 

1. Full Air-Supply, Mean thickness per flame, 2-8 cm. 

Number of Flames ... 1 2 3 

Radiation Observed . . . 68 124 171 
Radiation Calculated ... 66 124 173 

Formula R = 473 (l—e-ossT*) 

Limit B,/x when a- = o, = 473x0-0537 = 25-4 per cm. thickness x. 

Limit of R when x = infinity, R = 473. 

2. Cones 2-5 cm. high. Mean thickness per flame, 3-6 cm. 

Number of Flames ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 

Radiation Observed ... 72 122 165 197 232 261 
Radiation Calculated ... 66 120 166 201 232 257 

Formula R = 373 (1-e - 05 "*). 

Limit R/z when x — o, = 373x0-0541 = 20-2 per cm. thickness. 

Limit of R when x = infinity, R = 373. 

The observed and calculated values agree as closely as could be 
expected with the exponential law of absorption, which is fairly appro- 
priate in this case, since the radiation emitted is necessarily of the 
same quality as that absorbed and the flame is nearly homogeneous. 
An apparent confirmation of the formula is that the coefficient of absorp- 
tion is practically the same, namely 0'054 for the two flames. The limit 
of E/x, when ,t = 0, which gives the intrinsic radiance per cm. of 
flame corrected for absorption, is higher for the case of complete com- 
bustion because the temperature of the flame is higher. The limit of 
radiance for an infinite thickness of flame is higher in the same propor- 
tion. The radiation observed for a single flame in case (2) is rather 
larger than that calculated, because the thickness of a single flame was 
slightly greater than the mean of several flames in contact. It will 
be observed that the flame is surprisingly transparent to its own radia- 
tion. It is very commonly assumed that, because a flame absorbs 
precisely those radiations which it emits, and absorbs them in the same 
proportion as it emits them, the flame would, therefore, be practically 
opaque to its own radiation, so that the radiation proceeding from the 
interior of a mass of homogeneous flame might be neglected, and the 
total radiation assumed proportional to the surface. The above observa- 
tions show that this is very far from being the case, owing to the 
relatively wide separation of the radiating and absorbing molecules. 

Effect of Temperature and Pressure. 

The effect of temperature and pressure on the intrinsic radiance of 
a flame of this kind can be theoretically predicted with a reasonable 
degree of probability, but it would be difficult to determine either experi- 
mentally. Within moderate limits of pressure, the radiating and 
absorbing powers of a flame per unit thickness at a given temperature 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS* 219 

and composition should both vary directly as the pressure or density. 
The value of the radiation from a layer of thickness 1 cm. at a pressure 
of 10 atmos. would be the same as that from a layer of 10 cm. at 
1 atmo., assuming that the quality of the radiation or the nature of 
the combustion were not altered by the pressure. This effect is repre- 
sented by increasing the absorption coefficient in proportion to the 
pressure, leaving the limit for infinite thickness unaltered. 

The. effect of temperature is more difficult to estimate because the 
radiation from a flame is very complicated and there is no means of 
accurately measuring the temperature. Nernst, 1 from observations 
by others on the cooling of an explosive gas mixture, maximum 
pressure about 6 atmos., allowing for convection and conduc- 
tion, finds the radiation to vary as the fourth power of the 
temperature. The method is very uncertain, and his conclusion was 
most severely criticised by Lummer, Bringsheim, and Schaefer, who 
explained that the radiation was quite different from that of a black 
body, and that the quality of the radiation was little, if at all, affected 
by pressure up to 4 atmos. 

The principal maxima of emission and absorption in the Bunsen 
flame spectrum are at 2 - 8/* and 4 - 4 /x. Taking a mean wave-length 
of 3"5 /m, it is easy to estimate how the intensity should vary with 
temperature by assuming Planck's equation. The following table gives 
approximate relative values for comparison with the fourth-power law 
of the Stefan for the radiation of a black body : — 



.bsolute Temperature . 


. 1000° 


1500° 


2000° 


2500° 


3000° 


tadiation, Planck . 


. 0-016 


0-059 


0-142 


0-233 


0-331 


„ Stefan 


. 009 


0-045 


0-142 


0-347 


0-721 



The rate of variation, according to Planck's formula for a single 
wave-length, is much slower than the fourth-power law, and tends in 
the limit to be directly proportional to the absolute temperature at high 
temperatures. The actual rate of variation should lie between these 
limits, but nearer to Planck, unless carbon begins to separate in rich 
mixtures at high temperatures. 

Effect of Radiation TjOSs on the Thermal Efficiency. 

Although it is not possible to calculate the absolute magnitude of 
the radiation-loss in a motor, or to deduce from it the relative loss 
of thermal efficiency, it is not difficult to see in what manner this 
loss should vary with flame temperature and with linear dimensions of 
the cylinder. We may assume for this purpose that the cylinder at 
the moment of maximum pressure is filled with practically homogeneous 
flame and that the walls are practically non-reflecting. For similar 
motors under similar conditions the heat-loss per explosion will vary 
as the product ES of the intrinsic radiance E and the surface S. The 
percentage heat-loss should vary as ES/V, where V is the volume of 
the cylinder. This will vary as B/D, where D is the diameter, for 
similar motors. Assuming a pressure of 20 atmos. in a cylinder of 
x Proc. Inst. Aut. Eng., 1909, pp. 457-408. 



220 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

2 inches or 5 cm. diameter, the equivalent thickness of flame at 
1 atmo. is 100 cm., and the intrinsic radiance for a flame of this 
thickness has already reached within less than half per cent, of its limit 
for an infinite thickness. The percentage loss due to radiation per 
stroke will, therefore, vary inversely as the diameter in similar motors, 
since E will be practically independent of the dimensions in all cases 
which occur in practice. Since the rate of loss due to radiation 
diminishes very rapidly with the time, the effect of variation in speed 
on the radiation loss may be appropriately represented by a factor of 
the type (A + B/n), where n is the speed in revolutions per minute, 
as suggested in my paper already quoted at the beginning of the note. 
From the rapidity of the radiation-loss during ignition it is clear that 
the A term will be of considerable importance and will affect the com- 
parison of similar motors of different sizes when running at the same 
piston-speed (n inversely as D) in the manner explained in my paper. 
I was convinced on general principles that this would turn out to be 
the case, but without actually measuring the absorption coefficient it 
was not possible to assert definitely that E would be practically indepen- 
dent of the dimensions. 

The variation of the coefficients A and B with flame temperature 
will be proportional to E, and will be of the nature already indicated. 
This is corroborated by my analysis of Dr. Watson's observations in 
a contribution to the discussion on his paper. * 

Absolute Value of Intrinsic Radiance. 

The absolute value of the intrinsic radiance of these flames was 
determined by comparison with the radiation of a black body with the 
same pyrometer. The black body temperature for six flames with full 
air-supply, giving a deflection of 282 scale divisions with the galvano- 
meter, was 679° 0. or 952° absolute, for a thickness of 16"8 cm. 
This means that the intrinsic radiance of such a layer of flame is the 
same as that of a black body at 679° C. 

Assuming the radiation from a black body at a temperature 6 Abs. 
to vary as E 6 4 where E is the radiation constant, and has the value 
5 - 32 x 10~ 5 ergs per sq. cm. per sec, or 1*273 x ]0 _1 ' 2 gm. cals. per sq. 
cm. per sec, the radiation from a black body at 952° Abs. or 679° C. 
would be 63 cals. per sq. cm. per min. 

The limiting value of the intrinsic radiance for infinite thickness 
would be 105 cals. per sq. cm. per min. in case No. (1) with full air- 
supply, and 83 cals. per sq. cm. in case No. (2) cones 2"5 cm. 
high. These values would correspond approximately with the initial rates 
of loss of heat by radiation per sq. cm. of surface in a gas-engine cylinder 
filled with similar flames at corresponding temperatures. The higher 
value gives a loss of 175 cal. per sq. cm. in the first tenth of a second. 
Professor Hopkinson's experiments with a bolometer placed outside an 
explosion vessel, in which the flame temperature was certainly a good 
deal higher, give 0'315 cal. per sq. cm. lost in the first tenth 

Phjs. Zeit., 5, 1904, pp. 777-780, 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 221 

of a second after ignition commences, or 0'35 cal. in the first tenth 
after maximum pressure. These are quantities of the same order 
of magnitude, and differ in the right direction from the value deduced 
above. They may be regarded as confirming the validity of both 
methods of estimating the absolute value of the radiation loss. 

In applying these results to an internal-combustion engine, it must 
be remembered that the radiation is not in fact strictly homogeneous. 
There are considerable variations of temperature, which affect the 
quality of the radiation. It appears probable that luminous carbon, 
giving a continuous spectrum, may separate in rich mixtures, especially 
if not perfectly uniform. These variations would tend to increase the 
effective transparency of the flame, and the increase of radiation-loss 
with dimensions. Further investigation will, doubtless, elucidate these 
points. But, in so far as the flame tends to absorb its own radiation 
selectively, the theory above sketched may serve a useful purpose as a 
first approximation. 



APPENDIX B. 

On Radiation in a Gaseous Explosion. By B. Hopkinson. 

In the First Beport of the British Association Committee on 
Gaseous Explosions attention was drawn to the probable importance 
of radiation in determining the rate of cooling of the mass of hot gas 
produced by igniting an inflammable mixture in a closed vessel. In 
the Second Beport reference was made to some experiments which I 
had made on the effect of coating the walls of the explosion vessel with 
bright tin-foil. It was found that if a mixture of coal-gas and air of 
given composition were exploded in a vessel thus lined the maximum 
pressure reached was the same within one per cent, as that given by an 
identical mixture when the tin-foil lining was blackened, but the rate 
of cooling was decidedly less. An experiment was also described in 
which an attempt was made to measure the actual heat absorption of 
the walls and the radiation by means of a bolometer of copper strip, 
whose temperature was recorded photographically during the progress 
of the explosion and of cooling, the strip being in different experiments 
blackened, polished, and placed behind a gas-tight screen of rock salt. 
A considerable difference was found between the blackened and polished 
surfaces in respect of heat absorption, and this difference was of the 
same order as the heat absorbed by the bolometer behind the rock-salt 
screen. The results were strong evidence that the effect of the tin-foil 
lining on the rate of cooling was due to radiation, and gave an indication 
of its order of magnitude ; but, as tin-foil is not a very good reflector, and 
as the rock-salt plate was destroyed by the explosion so that only a 
single experiment with it was possible, I have thought it desirable to do 
some further work in the same direction. 

I have accordingly had prepared a cylindrical cast-iron explosion 
vessel 30 cm. long by 30 cm. diameter, the whole of the interior 
surface of which is plated with silver, and I have compared the 

1910. Q 



222 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



results of exploding a mixture containing 15 per cent, of Cambridge 
coal-gas— first with the vessel polished as highly as possible, and second 
with the surface blackened over. Precautions were taken to ensure 
that the mixture in the comparison experiments should be of identical 
composition. The pressures were recorded in the usual way— some- 
times with a pencil indicator, and sometimes with an optical indicator — 
the same instrument being used, however, in each set of comparison 
experiments. Fig. 4 shows superposed the pressure records obtained 
by the optical indicator in one such comparison. As in the case of the 
tin-foil lining there is a difference in the rate of cooling, but the difference 
is here very much greater — more than twice as great. Further, there 
is undoubtedly a difference in maximum pressureamounting to between 
two and three pounds per square inch, which is equivalent to about 
60° C. in temperature ; or, having regard to the higher volumetric heat 
in the neighbourhood of 2000° C, to perhaps 5 per cent, in thermal 
energy. , 

Comparing the two records it will be seen that when the walls are re- 
flecting the gas takes about li times as long to reach a temperature of 



6, 

I 



-1000 
2500 
2000 
1500 
1000 
500 



05 



0-IS 



025 


35 


0-45 
Seconds 


Fig. 4. 







55 



1500° C. as it does when the walls are blackened. The actual heat 
given to the walls in the two cases must be the same, so that the mean 
rate of cooling during this period in the one case is about 11 times as 
great as it is in the other. This proportion remains fairly constant 
until the temperature has fallen to about 1000° C, when it shows 
some tendency to diminish. It was found that the precise state of 
polish of the silver had a great effect on this result — differences in 
polish hardly appreciable to the eye causing a substantial change in the 
rate of cooling. In the diagram shown the surface was polished by 
means of a motor-driven buffing wheel with rouge, and washed with 
methylated spirit, and then again polished with a leather. 

A number of experiments have also been made with a recording 
bolometer of silver strip, which was sometimes polished and sometimes 
blackened. Simultaneous records were taken of the gas-pressure and 
of the temperature of the bolometer. Two such records in which the 
pressure curves are identical are shown superposed in fig. 5. The bolo- 
meter was mounted on a linoleum backing, and there is considerable 
loss of heat to this backing, which makes the estimate of the absolute 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



223 



amount of heat absorbed rather uncertain. Since, however, the curves of 
temperature-rise in the two cases (blackened and polished) are very 
nearly similar, differing only as regards temperature scale, the propor- 
tion of heat lost will be the same in the two cases, and the ratio of heat 
absorption by the blackened and polished surfaces will be nearly equal 
to the ratio of the temperatures. The ratio of the temperatures shown 
in fig. 5 is 0'75 at the end of 0"2-5 sees, from ignition, which agrees as 
well as might be expected with the ratio of the rates of cooling deduced 
from the pressure records with blackened and reflecting walls, having 
regard to the great effect of small differences in polish upon the rate of 
cooling. The ratio of the bolometer temperatures increases a little as 
the gas temperature falls, which again agrees with the gradual approxi- 
mation as regards rate of cooling disclosed by the pressure records. 

Some estimate of the heat lost to the backing can be made as 
follows : If the temperature of the surface of a solid be caused to vary 
in a given manner, then the quantity of heat which has passed into it 




Fig. 5. 



at any time can be calculated by means of the Fourier analysis, provided 
that the product of the thermal conductivity k and the thermal capacity 
c of the solid is known, being for a given temperature variation pro- 
portional to the square root of this product. In the present case the 
solid is the linoleum backing, and the surface temperature is that of the 
silver in contact with it, and is given by the bolometer record. The 
total heat absorbed by the bolometer per square centimetre at any instant 
can therefore be estimated from the bolometer record, subject only to a 
knowledge of s/ k c which occurs as a multiplier, and thence, assuming 
that the average heat loss over the whole surface is the same as that 
absorbed by the bolometer, the whole heat given by the gas can be calcu- 
lated. This heat loss can be obtained also from the pressure record by 
deducting from the whole heat of combustion the quantity of heat 
remaining in the gas, whose energy at a temperature of, say, 1000° C. 
may be considered as known sufficiently nearly for this purpose. The 
value of the factor >J k c is then chosen as to make the heat obtained 
from the bolometer equal to that deduced from the pressure record. 
Table I., page 224, showing the absolute heat losses has been obtained 
in this way. 

Q 2 



224 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 













Table I. 












Temperatures °C. 


Heat in 


Proportion 


Total 


-3 








Silver Cals. 
per sq. cm. 


lost to 
Backing 


Absorption 


- - - — 






Silver 


1 ime 


Gas 












<C (D.M O 

■a 
006 




B. 


P. 


B. 


p. 

142 


B. 


P. 


B. 


"• 


05 


2150 


15-9 


120 


188 


0-30 


30 


245 


185 


10 


1940 


45-8 


31-9 


530 


0376 


50 


50 


795 


565 


0-23 


15 


1750 


610 


44- 1 


720 520 


070 


69 


1-22 


88 


034 


20 


1590 


700 


51-7 


826 0-610 


90 


88 


1-57 


1-15 


042 


30 


1350 


76-8 


590 


906 0-696 


1-22 


1-18 


201 


1-52 


49 


50 


1030 


78-7 


62-5 


929 id 


1 1-70 


1-63 


2-51 


1-94 


57 



The difference between the loss to the polished and blackened surfaces 
represents the greater part of the radiation from the gas. There is reason 
to suppose, however, that it does not represent the whole, because it is 




OS$ 



Fig. 6. 

probable that at an early stage in the cooling with the polished walls 
the bright surface of the silver is dimmed by a deposit of moisture. 1 

Finally, a series of records have been taken with a bolometer placed 
outside the explosion vessel altogether, but exposed to the radiation of 
the flame through a window of fluorite (fig. 7). This bolometer was 
of platinum blackened with lamp-black, and the records were taken in 
exactly the same way as in the other cases. A facsimile of one such 
record is given in fig. 6, and the Table IT. shows the amounts of 
heat absorbed by this bolometer at different times. 

Table II. 



Time from 
Ignition 


Temperature °C. 


Heat in 
Platinum 
Cals. per 


Loss by 
Radiation, 

&c. 


Total 

Absorbed. 

Cals. sq. 


Heat 

absorbed as 

percentage 

of heat of 


Gas 


Platinum 








sq. cm. 




cm. 


combustion 


0-05 


2090 


13-6 


011 




0-11 


3 


01 


1870 


39-6 


0-315 




0-315 


8-5 


01 5 


1690 


57-4 


0-46 




0-46 


12-5 


0-20 


1510 


70-3 


0-57 




0-57 


15-5 


0-3 


1290 


84-2 


0-675 


0025 


0-70 


19 


0.4 


1110 


91-7 


0-735 


0035 


0-77 


21 


0-5 


980 


90-4 


0-770 


05 


0-82 


22 



1 The possible importance of such a deposit was suggested to me by Mr. W. T, 
David, who carried out all the experiments described in this note. 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



225 



There cannot be any question that the whole of the heat recorded by 
this platinum bolometer is radiated heat, and I do not think that there 
is much doubt that, subject to any reflection from the surface of the 
platinum (which has not been allowed for), the above figures represent 
the amount of radiation coming through the fluorite window. Fluorite 
is said to absorb about 5 per cent, of the radiation falling upon it, but 
no allowance has been made for this. It will be seen that the radiation 




Fig. 7. 

here recorded exceeds by about 50 per cent, the difference between the 
heat absorption with the blackened and polished surfaces. When a 
plate of glass is substituted for the fluorite plate the heat absorbed by 
the bolometer is reduced to about one-third of the above amounts, and 
if the platinum surface is polished instead of blackened, the heat recorded 
is only 20 per cent. The latter figure agrees fairly well with the result 
given by Hagen and Rubens for the reflecting power of polished 
platinum. 1 

APPENDIX C. 

Abstracts from various Papers relating to the Application of Heat Radiation 
from Luminous Flames to Siemens' Regenerating Furnaces. 
In September 1884 Mr. Fr. Siemens read a paper before the 
Iron and Steel Institute in which he described the application of radiant 

1 Z. filr Instr. Kunde, 22, p. 52 (1902). 



226 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

heat derived from luminous flames to such purposes as glass ovens and 
steel furnaces. The greater part of the paper was devoted to practical 
considerations, but in the discussion which followed he expressed his 
views as to the theory of the action, and stated that, in order to obtain 
the best results, from the heat efficiency point of view, the operation 
should be divided into two parts. In the first part chemical combina- 
tion took place, the flame was luminous, and the heat should be 
abstracted by radiation only. In order that the radiant heat might be 
a maximum, there should be a larger space so that perfect combustion 
could take place without the gases coming into contact with any 
solid substance ; this space was the furnace proper. In the second 
part there was no combustion, the flame was non-luminous, and the 
heat should be abstracted from it by contact, as was done in the 
regenerative part of the furnace. 

Siemens ascribed the radiant heat of the luminous flame to the 
incandescent particles of carbon, and said that, since flame is trans- 
parent to its own radiation, not only does the surface of the flame 
radiate, but also its interior; hence a flame radiates far better than a 
solid substance. ' A solid surface radiates only from its outer surface, 
and from that surface only towards one a direction, while a flame radiated 
from every point within it, and on its surface in every direction, or 
from every point of its entire volume towards every direction. ' If the 
area of a solid substance were doubled it would only radiate twice as 
much, but if the surface of a (geometrically smaller) flame be doubled 
the radiation would be four times as much. 

He specially called attention to the advantage of this method of 
heating by referring to the experience obtained with glass pot furnaces 
in Dresden and in Bohemia to which the new method of heating had 
been applied. There were great gains in every direction : 50 per cent, 
more glass for the same expenditure of heat, less breakage of pots, 
the furnace lasted six times longer, and higher temperatures were 
obtained, so that open pols could be used instead of closed ones. The 
glass was produced from cheaper materials and was of superior quality. 

The statements made in the above paper were severely criticised by 
German engineers, and therefore on October 26, 1884, Mr. Fr. Siemens 
read a paper at a meeting of the ' Sachsischen Ingenieur und Architekten 
Verein ' entitled, ' Gasflammofen mit freier Flammen-Entfaltung, ' 
which was published in the ' Civilingenieur, ' 1884, and was prac- 
tically a repetition of his previous paper. 

In October 1886 Mr. Fr. Siemens read another paper before the 
Iron and Steel Institute, entitled ' Combustion with Special Reference 
to Practical Requirements.' He confirmed what he had previously 
stated, and added some remarks on dissociation, pointing out that if 
flame came into contact with heated surfaces there was a tendency 
to condense ' one or other of the constituents,' and that, therefore, 
dissociation could take place at comparatively low temperatures ; hence 
dissociation experiments should be carried out in large open spaces. 
He also remarked that the Bunsen flame, being non-luminous, had but 
little radiating power. 

1 This is not true unless possibly when the surface is perfectly polished. 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 22? 

In 1886 Fr. Siemens read a paper — published in the ' Zeitschrift 
des Oesterreichischen Ingenieur und Architekten Vereins,' 1886 — 
entitled ' Die Entwickelung der Regenerativ-Oefen,' in which he further 
confirmed his previous statements. In this communication he stated 
that the radiating effect of luminous flames had been originally put 
into operation at his Dresden glass works in 1877 and in his Bohemian 
glass works in 1878, but the results were not published for commercial 
reasons. 

Mr. Jeremiah Head read a paper on the Siemens' glass ovens before 
the British Association (Section G) at the Birmingham meeting in 1886. 
He pointed out that with direct heating the furnace must be small, 
whereas with radiant heating the furnace can, and must be, large. 
He stated that in these large spaces dissociation did not take place, 
although the temperatures were very high. 

Mr. Fr. Siemens published another paper in the ' Civilingenieur ' in 
1886, entitled ' Die Verhiitung des Schornsteinrauches,' in which he 
stated that the highest temperatures were observed where the flame 
did not come into contact with the furnace walls. Hence the highest 
temperature must be due to radiant heat. He again remarked that 
the surfaces in contact with flame not only hindered combustion, but 
promoted dissociation. 

Gustav Westmann published a scientific inquiry into the ' Siemens ' 
method of glass heating in a paper, entitled ' Siemens' Freier Flam- 
menentf altung, ' read before the ' Verhandlungen des Vereins zur 
Beforderung des Gewerbfleiss^s.' 1886. An experiment on a large 
scale, lasting 24 hours, was made with a glass furnace, in which 25 tons 
of glass were melted by the gasification of five tons of coal and five tons 
of lignite. Full particulars of all the measurements are given, and it is 
shown that the thermal efficiency was 41 - 9 per cent, and the tempera- 
ture 1200° C. 



Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor J. L. Myres (Chairman), Professor E. C. 
Bosanquet (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, and Professor W. Kidge- 
way, appointed to co-operate with Local Committees in Excavations 
on Roman Sites in Britain. 

The Committee have placed the grant of 51., made at Winnipeg in 1909, 
at the disposal of the Liverpool Committee for Excavation and Re- 
search in Wales and the Marches, for the. study of the remains of 
animals and plants found in the recent excavations on Roman sites at 
Caersws in Montgomeryshire, and at Carnarvon. The investigation is 
not yet completed, and the report of its results must be held over until 
1911. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, with a further grant, 



228 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Interim Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Mr. D. G. Hogarth {Chairman), 
Professor J. L. Myres (Secretary), Professor R. C. Bosanquet, 
Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Dr. A. J. Evans, Professor A. 
Macalister, Professor W. Ridgeway, and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Appendix. 

page 

I. -4 Report on Cretan Anthropometry 228 

II. Observations on 104 School-children at Vori and at Palaikastro in Crete . 237 
III. Some Remarks on Dr. Duckworth's Report (Appendix II.) . . . 251 

The Committee have to express their regret that Mr. C. H. Hawes has 
been prevented by other engagements from carrying out the further 
programme of work which was foreshadowed in the Committee's report 
last year. He has, however, made some progress in analysing the 
observations which he made during his visit to Crete in 1909 (Appen- 
dix I.), and hopes to be able to submit the remainder of his conclusions 
to the Committee without much further delay. The Committee, there- 
fore, ask to be reappointed with a further grant. 

The Committee have received this year a further report from Dr. 
W. L. H. Duckworth on some of the observations made by him during 
his journeys in Crete in the year 1903, with comparisons suggested by 
subsequent journeys in the south of Aragon in Spain. This Report, 
which forms Appendix II., is an expansion of Section (ii.) of his Special 
Report (b) presented to the Cretan Committee of the British Associa- 
tion in 1903 and published in ' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1903 (Southport), 
p. 409. 

APPENDIX I. 
A Report on Cretan Anthropometry. By Charles H. Hawes. 

Since the completion of my last year's expedition to Crete the tabula- 
tion and collation of the statistics gathered in 1905 and 1909 have made 
considerable progress, though not yet complete. Here I deal with 
the chief measurements only, and those the usual ones, leaving aside 
for later report the results of a study of the 1,700 sagittal contours 
of living subjects. 

The total number of living persons measured in the two campaigns 
of 1905 and 1909, together with 199 measured by Dr. Duckworth in 
1903, amounts to 3,183. From these must be deducted foreigners, 
Russians, French, Italians, Armenians, Greeks, Epirots, Albanians, 
vEgean and Ionian Islanders, and Cretan women and children. A 
further expurgation has been made in order to simplify, even in the 
slightest degree, a complex problem, The further omissions comprise 



ARCHiEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 229 

Cretan Mussulmans (who, it is true, possess but little Turkish blood) 
and orthodox Cretans either of whose parents or grandparents hail 
from outside the island, however near. 

This reduces our total figure, which is the basis of the comparisons 
made in this paper, to 2,290. 

The interest in Cretan ethnology lies not only in the present distri- 
bution of types and their external connections, but in their contrast 
with the prehistoric inhabitants, the builders and artificers of Knossos, 
Phaestos, Gournia, Palaikastro, &c. 

Skull Measurements. 

It will be remembered that Dr. Duckworth's examination in 1903 
of skulls from Palaikastro (Eastern Crete) showed that the men of 
ancient Crete of the so-called Middle Minoan Period were dolicho- 
ccphals, with a small minority of brachycephals. The women were even 
more dolichocephalic, and the long heads among them in greater 
proportion than among the men; but, as I shall confine myself to male 
adults in this paper, I use Dr. Duckworth's figures for men only. 

Sixty-four Cretan Males. 

Cranial index (average) 734 

,, (distribution) dolichocephalic . . . 65'3 per cent. 

,, brachycephalio . . . 8'55 „ 

„ mesaticephalic . . . 2615 „ 

Stature (estimated) 1,625 mm. 

Since 1903 further ancient Cretan cranial and skeletal remains have 
passed through my hands, including twenty skulls. By the kindness 
of Miss Edith Hall the lengths and breadths of five more crania, found 
this year by Mr. Seager, have recently been communicated to me. 
These twenty-five skulls, although limited in provenance to the eastern 
half of Crete, hail from a wider area than the previous sixty-four, 
namely, from Knossos, Meskinia, Koumasa, Gournia, as well as 
Palaikastro. Thirteen of them belong to an equally early period, but 
yield a rather higher average cranial index — 75'5 as compared with 73 '4 
— and include among them two brachycephals. The remaining twelve 
show an increasing breadth, agreeing with the archaeological evidence 
for the inroad of invaders. Five skulls from Gournia, belonging to 
the beginning of the Late Minoan Period, have a mean cranial index 
of 76'5, and seven from various sites, belonging to the end of this 
period (L.M. III. after the fall of Knossos), average 79*1, and include 
no dolichocephals, but three mesocephals and four brachycephals. 

It would be more satisfactory to have had a broader foundation, 
both geographical and numerical, on which to base our knowledge of 
the physical type of the Minoans; but the evidence of 100 crania 
(64 male + 13 male + 23 female) from the eastern half of the island., 
dating back to the beginning of the second millennium B.C., is not to 
be despised. These are the grounds for assuming the Minoans to have 



230 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

been dolichocephalic, with a mean cranial index of about 74'0. Along- 
side of a majority of 60 per cent, long-heads dwelt a minority of about 
10 per cent, broad-heads. In stature they were short, scarcely 
feet 4 inches. This estimate of Dr. Duckworth was confirmed by 
further measurements made by me last year. This, it is to be re- 
membered, was the condition of things before the prehistoric invasions 
associated with the names of the ' Acheeans ' and ' Dorians.' 

How do the ancient compare with the modern inhabitants of Crete? 
Have they changed physically, and bow are we to account for the 
change? Before contrasting the above data with the measurements 
of 2,290 living male Cretans a word of warning is necessary. We 
are comparing the cephalic index of the living with the cranial index 
of the dead. Assuming a difference of two integers, we shall credit 
the Minoans with a cephalic index of 76 in place of the cranial index 
of 74. The modern Cretan has an average cephalic index of 79'0. He 
is mesaticephalic rather than dolichocephalic, though by no means so 
broad-headed as the Greek of the mainland, whose mean is about 82'0. 
The distribution to-day is as follows: — 

Dolichocephals (76 - 9 and below) 296 per cent. 

Brachycephals (82'1 and above) 24'0 „ 

Mesaticephals (77-0-82-0 inclusive) .... 40-4 „ 

The increase of the brachycephals and the mesaticephals at the expense 
of the dolichocephals since the beginning of the Late Minoan Period is 
here evident. 

"While the statistical work is as yet under way it is too early to 
offer a solution of this complex problem, the cause of the physical 
change in the Cretan people daring the last 4,000 years. When we 
remember that the island has been subject to several invasions, from pre- 
historic times down to the seventeenth century, the question is certainly 
an involved one. I will say here that, in order to do away as much as 
possible with the effects of the last invasion, that of the Turks, I have 
excluded all Mussulmans from my figures, although there seems not 
to be much trace of Turkish blood in the majority of the Cretans who 
profess Islam. Here and there 1 believe I have traced an individual 
of Venetian descent; but, having sought Venetians eagerly wherever 
name or legend suggested, with but little success, and having regard to 
the wholesale eviction, of them at the end of the sieges, I think that 
they are a negligible quantity in a general survey like the present. If 
this is true of the Turkish and Venetian invasions, it is much more true 
of the Saracenic influence, which was spasmodic and ephemeral. In 
f-ict, unless we are to call in other causes than the mixture of races 
for the broadening of the head, the prevalence of the brachycephals and 
great mixture of the brachycephalic and the dolichocephalic elements 
to-day seem to me to call for a considerable prehistoric invasion of 
broad-heads. 

The distribution of types may help us to some clear conception and 
to understand some suggestions which I put forward with some diffi- 
dence at this early hour. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 231 

It will be necessary to bear in mind the geographical outline of the 
island. About 160 miles long (due E. and W.), it varies from 35 to 8 
miles wide (N. and S.). A chain or backbone of mountains runs 
throughout its length, broken into three chief massifs — the White Moun- 
tains (8,000 feet) in the west, Mount Ida (8,000 feet) in the centre, 
and Mount Dicte (6,000 feet) in the east. In the extreme east, beyond 
the Isthmus of Hierapetra, lies the upland plain of Sitia, c. 2,000 
feet in height. At the widest part of the island, to the south, is the 
largest plain of Crete, the Messara, which, running westward to the 
' gateway ' of Phaestos, is shut off from the Libyan Sea by a wall of 
mountains ranging from 2,500 to 4,000 feet high (Mount Kophinas). 

Administratively the island is divided into twenty ' eparchies,' and 
for many reasons this division has proved the most convenient for a 
starting-point in anthropometric work. The central eparchies have 
average cephalic indices of 78 and 79 ; one only, Lasithi, has a dolicho- 
cephalic average of 76'5. Both eastern and western eparchies show an 
increased breadth — Selino 80'9 and Sphakia 80"4 in the south-west 
corner, and Sitia 80'9 in the extreme east. 

The percentages of dolichocephalic and brachycephalic individuals 
are in accord with these differences in averages : — 

Central . . 36 - per cent, dolichocephals, 17"5 per cent, brachycephals 

Lasithi . . 545 „ „ 61 „ „ 

Selino . . 13-3 „ „ 397 „ „ 

Silia . . 164 „ „ 38-1 

The mesaticephals account for the rest. Although we have an identical 
mean cephalic index of S0'9 in the extreme west and east, these peoples 
differ not only in stature but in actual head-form, for the Sitians have 
shorl heads and the Selinots broad heads. In fact, the latter are the 
broadest-headed on the island, and the Sitians barely escape being the 
narrowest-headed, although their heads are the shortest. It is possible 
that we have to deal with an invasion of Northern brachycephals (ulti- 
mately of the tall Illyric stock) into the west, and another in the east 
of Asiatic brachycephals from the uplands of Asia Minor. 

If the dolichocephal once possessed the land, and the brachycephal 
was, in the main, an invader, we might expect to find the original 
inhabitants driven up into the mountains; and this is the case. But this 
general statement requires some modification. It would be nearer the 
truth to say that the dolichocephal is not absent from the plains but 
predominates in the mountains. The homes of the long-heads are on 
the slopes of the mountain massifs — the White Mountains, Mount Ida, 
and Mount Dicte — as also in the range which shuts off the rich Messara 
Plain from the Libyan Sea. Of these, the best example is Mount Dicte, 
the ' birthplace of Zeus,' where, before the Northern god came to the 
island with his broad-headed contingent, the Cretan Rhea was wor- 
shipped. Here in the mountain-plain of Lasithi, 2,700 feet above the 
sea, shut in on all sides by towering summits, and only to be reached 
by toilsome tracks from the plains below, is a true dolichocephalic 
centre with a cephalic mean of 76'5. The long-heads outnumber the 



232 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

broad-heads by nine to one, more than even among the 64 ancient 
■skulls examined by Dr. Duckworth. This is a true centre, for we find 
this dolichocephalic element radiating in all directions into the neigh- 
bouring eparchies of Pedhiadha, Mirabello, Hierapetra, and Vidnnos. 

The other mountain massifs are not true centres ; for, although the 
dolichocephals are most numerous, the mountains, towering up 8,000 
feet, form a barrier to the south, and the long-heads cluster on the 
northern slopes only. This is true of the White Mountains, where in 
one village alone of Upper Kydhonia, Lakkous, the home of the late 
Dr. Jannaris, the 65 men I measured averaged 76'9, against 79'9 in 
the plains of the same eparchy. The other mountain missif, Mount 
Ida, plays a similar part, and on the northern side, in the upper portion 
of Mylopotamo, my records show 83 subjects averaging 765. The 
mountains to the south of the Messara Plain, though not so lofty, slope 
steeply to the sea, and being shut off from the main centres, offer a 
most undesirable region for any invader to occupy in a hostile country. 
The region is sparsely populated, and the 28 subjects measured in that 
part which falls within the eparchy of Monophatsion average 76'9, 
compared with 80"9 in the Messard Plain immediately below. 

These four mountainous regions appear to be the strongholds to 
which the earlier inhabitants have been driven by successive invaders, 
and strong confirmation of this hypothesis comes from the method by 
which I arrived at it. A map of the cephalic index eparchy by eparchy 
offered no clue. A suspicion of differences between mountain and plain 
suggested the cleavage line of 1,000 feet altitude as a criterion of classify 
cation, but this failed in some cases, though successful in others. It 
was arbitrary and did not always serve as a register of accessibility. It 
then occurred to me that in a land of such marked physiographical 
features as Crete, Achseans, Dorians, Venetians, all had probably fol- 
lowed much the same routes as the Turks in the seventeenth century. I 
therefore made a map of the Turkish occupation of the island according 
to the census of 1881, before the latter-day exodus. This showed that 
from centres on the north coast of the island — Canea, Eethymo, Candia, 
and Sitia — the lines of immigration radiated southward, stopping short 
at the foot of the mountains, with but one exception, to which I shall 
refer later. This general truth is particularly well illustrated in the 
many lines of occupation stretching south from Candia, the greatest 
Turkish centre, which all stop short abruptly at the'foot of the Messara 
Mountains. Three great blank spaces stand out on the map between 
these lines of immigration — Mount Dicte with the fringes of the neigh- 
bouring eparchies, the northern slopes of Mount Ida, and both northern 
and southern sides of the White Mountains. These blank areas are 
those which we have already found occupied by the predominant dolicho- 
cephal, with one notable exception, the southern slopes of the White 
Mountains. This region, where the Turks have never yet held sway, 
this eparchy of Sphdkia, where the Sphakiots have successfully repulsed 
Turk and Venetian alike, and, isolated in a sterile, rocky home, proudly 
claim Dorian descent, is the one outstanding exception to the rule that 
the mountains are the refuge of the dolichocephals. I believe this 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 233 

significant exception, when fully understood, will prove extremely 
instructive in the study of prehistoric migrations. 

The Dorian migration into Crete has historical authority, and it is 
probable enough, apart from the anthopological evidence, that a stream 
of these people reached this south-western part of the island, since ships 
driven by a strong wind southward would find it dangerous to land on 
the northern coast, as archaeologists know to their cost. There is no 
harbour on the south coast to compare with Loutro, the port of Sphakia, 
where St. Paul's companions advised wintering; it possesses a double 
harbour and gives shelter not only from the north-west and north-east, 
but also from the south-west winds. Modern travellers commonly 
report the absence of ports on the south coast of Crete, unaware that 
native Sphakiot ships ply to Odessa with their great cheeses, hides, and 
charcoal, and that Sphakiot vessels were reported in the Black Sea 
during the Venetian occupation of the island, and at Constanza in 1821. 
To-day there are more harbour-men employed at Sphakia City and its 
port, Loutro, than in any other Cretan towns, excepting Canea, Candia, 
and Rethymo. Immigrants landing at Loutro had no choice but to settle 
on the southern slopes of the White Mountains, sterile, and therefore 
sparsely inhabited, where to-day we find a majority of broad-heads. 

I referred above to one exception to the rule that Turkish occupation 
stopped short at the foot of the mountains. This example is found on 
the southern slopes of Mount Ida. The longest line of communications 
of the Turkish occupation was the one which, leaving Candia, passed 
along the eastern slopes of Mount Ida, swung round to the south vid 
that ancient shrine of the Minoans, Kamdres, and, doubling the southern 
slopes of the mountain, crossed by a rich valley the eparchy of Amarion, 
and ended in the northern port of Rethymo. The northern slope of 
Mount Ida is a stronghold of the old race; the southern is not, because 
it was crossed by a high-road of immigration from one base to another. 
In all this I would not be misunderstood. I do not attribute the 
brachycephalic increase to the Turks, but, taking them as guides, I 
have attempted to show how similar and earlier lines of settlement and 
communication, pursued by numerous invaders, all broad-headed, with 
the exception of the Saracens, would account for the present hedging in 
of the dolichocephalic element. 

Before I pass to comparisons of stature let me add some evidence 
from modern skulls. In the garden of the famous monastery of Arkadhi, 
besieged by the Turks in 1866, is a memorial tower, the bottom of 
which is filled with, some hundreds of skulls of fallen heroes of the 
revolutions of 1821 and 1866. Dropping through the floor into the 
gruesome depths below, I selected 26 crania, which, on examination, 
yielded an average cranial index of 742. Of these, 54 per cent, were 
dolichocephalic, and only 12 per cent, brachycephalic. These figures 
are almost identical with those of the Minoan skulls. Arkadhi is on 
the north-western slopes of Mount Ida, a few miles from the Mylo- 
p6tamo border. Although not all the fighters came from the imme- 
diate neighbourhood, yet they probably hailed in the main from the 
mountains. 



234 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Stature. 

The average stature of Cretans to-day is 1,685 mm. (5 feet 
6-j inches), a considerable increase on the estimated stature of the 
ancient Cretans, which was 1,625 mm. (5 feet 4 inches). In the west 
the averages are: For the eparchies of Kydhonia 1,723 mm. (5 feet 
7f inches) and Sphakia 1,711 mm. (5 feet 1\ inches), diminishing in 
the east to Mirabello, 1,664 mm. (5 feet 5£ inches), and Hierapetra, 
1,665 mm. The statistics of stature mapped out by eparchies, or 
according to cephalic index, or by mountain and plain, present only a 
seeming confusion, with but one obvious trend, an increase in stature 
as we journey westward. Yet I think it is possible to distinguish some 
significant facts amid this apparent confusion. 

The first is that the people in the plains are, with some exceptions, 
shorter than those in the mountains. 

The second is that the long-head is taller than the broad-head in 
15 out of 20 eparchies, and as the mountain villages yield a majority of 
dolichocephals — descendants of the original inhabitants of Crete, as I 
hope to have established — it seems that they have increased in stature 
at a higher altitude. When we remember that the Minoans were a short 
people and dwelt chiefly on the coast, this upward trend in stature 
and habitat seems to have gone on pari passii. This fact comes out 
more clearly when we turn directly to the mountain areas where we 
have already found the long-heads. In Lasithi, where the cephalic 
index and the proportion of long-heads to broad-heads of the Minoans 
is almost exactly reproduced, the average stature for 99 men is 1,676 
mm., an increase of 51 mm., or 2 inches, on the Minoan average. The 
dolichocephals of Lasithi have an average of 1,685 mm., compared with 
1,646 mm. for the brachycephals. Kydhonia Province, on the northern 
slopes of the White Mountains, has an average of 1,740 mm. for the 
dolichocephals and 1,715 mm. for the brachycephals. This increased 
stature of the moderns also holds in the Messara Mountains and Mylo- 
pctamo on the northern side of Mount Ida, although in this last case it 
is reduced by the inclusion of the poverty-struck villagers of Kameraki, 
a hamlet unknown to the map, boasting no kapphcneion (cafe), not even 
the pretence of a store, the poorest village that I have come across in 
my wanderings in Crete. Here the average stature of 10 men was 
1,600 mm. (5 feet 3 inches) only. Another example of the effect of 
poverty on stature is to be found in the island of Gavdos (anc. Clauda), 
where the average of 20 men was 1,634 mm. (5 feet 4 J inches), com- 
pared with their nearest neighbours and kinsmen, the Sphakiots, of 
whom 284 had an average height of 1,711 mm. (5 feet 7-J inches). 

The third fact, already noted, is that the people of the western half 
of the island are taller than those of the eastern half. Both dolicho- 
cephals and brachycephals are tall, over 1,700 mm. (5 feet 7 inches), 
and the former have a slight advantage. The distribution is here some- 
what peculiar. On the northern side of the mountain are tall long- 
heads; on the southern, tall broad-heads; in a neighbouring eparchy 
are short broad-heads alongside tall long-heads. The puzzle is to 
account for the tall long-heads and broad-heads in the west. If there 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 235 

was a Dorian invasion, it appears to have made its entry on the south 
coast into Selino, where the brachycephal outnumbers the dolichocephal 
by three to one, and into Spr&kia, where the ratio is three to two, and 
86 out of 284 men are over 1,700 mm. in height. The tall dolicho- 
cephal of the west exceeds the long-head of the east in stature by at 
least 40 mm. A careful comparison of numbers and percentages of 
both tall and short dolichocephals and tall and short brachycephals 
throughout the island reveals an abnormal number of tall dolichocephals 
in Kydhonia and the neighbouring region. In other words, everywhere 
else the ratio of tall long-heads to short long-heads and of tall broad- 
heads to short broad-heads is approximately the same ; here the tall 
dolichocephal is to the short dolichocephal as 50 to 1. Is this due to 
differences of soil, fertility, a better-watered country, or to special social 
conditions? After careful consideration I do not think so. The sug- 
gestion has been made that the great stature of Kentucky men is due 
to the bone-building qualities of water in a limestone region; but in 
Crete, speaking generally, it is the east that is a limestone district, while 
the west is composed of talc-schists. 

Nor do I think it necessary to call in an invasion of tall long-heads. 
May not the Kydhom'ans, whom Homer (Od. xix. 176) mentions as 
one of the peoples inhabiting Crete, have been taller than the Eteocretans 
of the eastern half, whose stature we have established as 1,625 mm.? 
We know that a branch of the Mediterranean race, called by Dr. 
Deniker the Atlanto-Mediterranean, was of greater stature than the rest. 
The western end of the island is as yet an archaeological blank, well- 
nigh until classical times. We have no ancient skulls or bones from 
the west, saving a tiny fragment from a pavilion-shaped tomb belong- 
ing to the end of the Minoan era. 

The records of stature for Kydhonia are striking. One hundred and 
sixty-seven men from the whole of the eparchy average 1,723 mm. 
(5 feet 7J inches); 67 dolichocephals average 1,740 mm. (5 feet 
8J- inches), of whom 25 exceed 5 feet 9 inches in stature. Out of the 
167 persons there is but one short dolichocephal (under 1,650 mm.), 
and in the neighbouring eparchy of Selino out of 83 there is not even 
one. This tall dolichocephal also exists to the number of 39 out of 
284 persons measured in Sphakia. It seems much more likely, con- 
sidering the isolation, pride of endogamy, and bellicose nature of the 
Sphakiots, that these tall long-heads are the remnants of an earlier 
race rather than intruders since the Sphakiots themselves. 

Turning to Sitia in the extreme east, where a moderate upland 
presents no sharp contrast of mountain and plain, where the brachy- 
cephals outnumber the dolichocephals by nearly five to two — a com- 
plete reversal of the time when the Minoan dolichocephals were to the 
brachycephals as eight to one — the increase in stature of the modern 
long-head is not great (1,625 to 1,663), and he is exceeded in stature 
by the intruding Asiatic brachycephal, whose stature is 1,678 mm. 

To sum up, among modern Cretans the dolichocephals are generally 
taller than the brachycephals. The dolichocephals in the mountains 
are taller than their ancestors, the Minoans, who lived by the sea. 



236 REPORTS ON TflE STATE OP* SCIENCE. 

The exceptional tallness in the west of the brachycephals seems to be 
due to an early inroad from the north ; that of the dolichocephals of 
the west may be due to the greater stature of the ancient Kydhonians as 
compared with the Eteocretans of the east. 

Eye-colour. 

There remains a word to say on the colour of eyes. These records 
are only in course of tabulation; I speak, therefore, from a cursory 
perusal. Classing blue, grey, and green eyes together as light, in 
contrast with the hazel, light brown, medium brown, and fonce, I find 
there is a somewhat surprisingly high percentage of light eyes Tor the 
whole of Crete — namely, 29. The percentages vary from 18 in Lasitbi 
eparchy to 40 in Sitia. The distribution offers no obvious clue. Light 
eyes are about equally divided between east and west, with the highest 
and lowest averages in the eastern half. Kydhonfa 34 per cent, and 
Sphakia 32i per cent, in the west are matched by Pedhiadha 33 per cent, 
and Hierapetra 34 per cent, in the east. Selino, next door to Sphakia, 
has the low average of 26 per cent., and compares with Mylop6tamo 
25 per cent., which two eparchies form so strong a contrast from the 
point of view of the proportion of long-heads to broad-heads. Selino 
has three brachycephals to every dolichocephal, and Mylopotamo has 
three dolichocephals to every brachycephal. 

Speaking of the island as a whole, the numbers of light eyes are 
equally divided between the short and the tall, the dolichocephals and 
the brachycephals, in proportion to the number of individuals, so that 
apparently it is impossible to distinguish by percentage of light eyes one 
type from another. However, ethnical differences may lie concealed 
under diverse combinations in different areas, and further study may 
reveal them. I fail to trace, what is generally expected, a greater 
frequency of light eyes in the mountains, but it should be remembered 
that the predominance of the older brunette race in these areas furnishes 
a more than counteracting tendency. This is well illustrated in Lasithi, 
which has the lowest percentage of light eyes (18), as well as the closest 
approximation in head measurements to our records for Minoans. 

My census of 2,000 school-children taken throughout the island, 
whether compared in tola or by eparchies with adults, shows a sur- 
prisingly diminished average, 18 per cent, instead of 29 per cent. This 
striking difference, obtained from figures carefully gathered and com- 
piled, calls for a radical explanation; but, apart from such, is there here 
a tendency to reversion to type? 

I am only too conscious of the fragmentary condition of this report, 
of the many characteristics and questions of variation which do not 
receive mention ; but the material is gathered, and in the main tabulated, 
and it should be only a matter of time before the observations made 
throw light on questions of migration and descent in the most interesting 
island of the Mediterranean. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 237 

APPENDIX II. 

Observations on 104 School-children at Vori and at Palailiast.ro in Crete. 
By W. L. H. Duckworth, M.D., Sc.D. 

Contents. 

PARR 

Introduction 237 

A. Boys : — I. Hair ; II. Eyes ; III. Head - length ; IV. Head - Breadth ; 

V. Cephalic Index ; VI. Variability 23 S 

B. Girls ;— I. Hair ; II. Eyes ; III. Head - length ; IV. Head - Breadth ; 

V. Cephalic Index (a) ; VI. Cephalic Index (b) 214 

Measurements— Names, etc. 2i7 

In the course of a journey in 1903 from Candia to Palaikastro, in 
Crete, I had the opportunity of measuring and observing a number of 
school-children (fifty-nine boys and twenty-five girls) at Vori, a small 
village distant about five miles from the southern coast of the island, 
near the traditional site of ' Fair-Havens,' and about two miles from 
the well-known prehistoric site called Phaestus. Later on, in the 
same year, I supplemented these measurements by the addition of 
twenty more records for schoolboys of corresponding age at Palaikastro, 
or, to he more strictly accurate, at Angathi, the neighbouring village. 
one of the most eastern settlements in Crete. A preliminary report 
was submitted to the Committee in 1903, and published by the British 
Association in the Southport volume of its Proceedings. In the pre- 
sent report I have worked out the data more fully than was possible 
in 1903, and in this instalment I shall deal principally with the data 
relating to Cretan boys, since they were the more numerous ; moreover, 
comparisons with adult males are more easily made; and, lastly, it is 
interesting to compare the results with those obtained by me last year, 
in the south of Aragon, in Spain, from one hundred schoolboys of 
comparable age. For the publication of the records from Spain I am 
indebted to the Council of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

Little need be said about the conditions of life in Crete and the 
character of the land, for recent writers have dealt sufficiently with 
these questions. I may, however, state that my impressions lead me 
to believe that these conditions are not very different in Crete and in 
Aragon. At the same time I must add that both the Cretan villages 
visited are within the zone of malaria, that I saw undoubted cases of 
the sequels of malaria supervening in childhood, and that this liability, 
which is probably minimal, or absent, in the part of Aragon available for 
comparison, is important in its relation to, and effects upon, physical 
development. In this connection special mention is made of the fact 
that the physique of these Cretan children is frequently, if not univer- 
sally, poor, and often a boy was found to claim an age in years greater 
by about 30 per cent, than that whicn we would have assigned to a 
British boy of similar stature and physical development. The relative 
poorness of the food, both in quantity and quality, taken together with 
their unavoidable exposure to extremes of temperature according to 
the season (for the winter is often severe in Crete), contributes to a 
combination of circumstances with which this deficiency in corporeal 
development can be justly cbarged. 

1910. a 



238 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



A.— CRETAN SCHOOLBOYS (ages from 5 to 16 years). 

Observations were made under the following heads : — 
I. Colour of the hair. — Table I. exhibits the results of the investigrn 
tions carried out : — 

Table I. — Number, Hair-colour, Eye-colour, and Age: 
Mean Age 99 years. 



Seventy-nine Cretan Schoolboys at Vori and Palaikastro 


® d 
§1 


Hair-colour 


Eye-colour 


Age 


u 


Hair-colour 


Eye-colour 


Age 


PhJ3 








£<3 








Vori 








Vori 








1 


Jet black . 


Dark brown 


6 


43 


Brown 


Dark brown 


7 


2 


Fair . 


Dark brown 


8 


43a 


Brown 


Dark brown 


7 


3 


Brown 


Dark brown 


8 


44 


Dark brown 


v. dk. brown . 


9 


4 


Dark . 


Dark brown 


7 


45 


Dark brown 


Hazel . 


8 


5 


Fair . 


Grey . 


8 


46 


Black. 


Jet black . 


5 


7 


Dark . 


Dark . 


9 


47 


Fair . 


Dark brown 


7 


' 8 


Black. 


Dark brown 


9 


48 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


7 


9 


Black. 


Dark brown 


8 


48a 


Fair . 


Dark brown 


7 


10 


Fair . 


Hazel . 


8 


486 


Very fair 


Hazel . 


8 


11 


Black. . 


Dark brown 


15 


49 


Fair . 


Dark brown 


9 


12 


Brown 


Hazel . 


11 


50 


Fair . 


Hazel . 


10 


13 


Fair . 


Grey-green 


7 


51 


Fair . 


Hazel. 


10 


14 


Black . 


Dark brown 


8 


52 


Fair . 


Blue . 


6 


15 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


11 


53 


Fair . 


Hazel . 


6 


16 


Brown 


Dark brown 


11 


54 


Brown 


Dark brown 


5 


17 


Black. 


Dark brown 


11 


55 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


5 


18 


Fair . 


Dark brown 


11 


56 


Fair . 


Green 


6 


19 

20 


Fair . 
Fair . 


Dark brgwn 
Grey-green 


10 ! 




. 






10 


•i o 

3 '" 






21 


Fair . 


Grey . 


10 


?! 






22 


Fair . 


Dark brown 


12 


**# 






23 


Brown 


Dark brown 


10 


1 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


8 


24 


Brown 


Hazel. 


16 


2 


Jet black . 


Dark brown 


10 


25 


Fair . 


Grey . 


13 


3 


Light brown 


Grey . 


7 


26 


Brown 


Hazel . 


13 


4 


Brown 


Light brown 


8 


27 


Dark brown 


Green 


13 


5 


Light brown 


Hazel . 


9 


28 


Brown 


Dark brown 


10 


6 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


12 


28a 


Fair . 


Light brown 


12 


7 


Dark brown 


Grey . 


13 


29 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


12 


8 


Dark brown 


Grey . 


13 


30 


Brown 


Dark brown 


11 


9 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


13 


31 


Jet black . 


Medium brown . 


12 


10 


Light brown 


Grey . 


11 


32 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


10 


11 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


11 


33 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


15 


12 


Jet black . 


Hazel . 


12 


34 


Black. 


Dark brown 


12 


13 


Dark brown 


Hazel . 


13 


35 


Brown 


Dark brown 


13 


14 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


13 


36 
37 


Dark brown 
Fair . 


Dark brown 
Blue . 


14 
14 


15 


Dark brown 


f Dark brown . 
1 Grey (1)* 


10 


38 


Dark brown 


Grey . 


15 


16 


Brown 


Dark brown 


13 


39 


Brown 


Dark brown 


6 


17 


Dark brown 


Green 


16 


40, 


Dark brown 


Dark brown 


10 


18 


i Brown 


Medium brown . 


13 


41 


Fair . 


Blue . 


6 


19 


j Brown 


Dark brown 


10 


42 


Brown 


Dark brown 


7 


20 


I Light brown 


Hazel. . 


7 



* Different colours in the same individual. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL EBSE ARCHES IN CRETE. 239 

The analysis of this table yields the following percentages : — 



Tabli 


l II.- 


-Hair-colour 


and Age: 


Percentages. 




Seventy-nine Cretan Schoolboys 


Colour 


No. 


Per 
Cent. 


Mean Age 


Colour 


Per Cent. 


Mean Age 


Very fair 
Fair 

Light brown. 
Brown . 
Dark brown . 
Dark . 
Black . 
Jet black 

Total . 


1 
21 

4 
18 
22 

2 
7 
4 

79 


1-26 

26-50 

5 04 

22-08 

27-76 

2-52 

8-82 

5-04 


8 years "1 
9-05 „ f 
8-5 „ 1 
9'9 „ J 

11-2 „ ) 
8-0 „ | 
9-7 „ 

io-o „ J 

9-9 „ 


Light 
Medium . 

Dark . 


f 32-80 1 

(adults 3-96)* J 
J 22-68 1 
'. (adults 13-3) ] 

4414 

(adults 83-1) [ 


8-92 years 
9-9 „ 

10-62 „ 


99-62 



* From my observations on adult Cretans. In England a similar progressive 
darkening of the hair is the rule (cf. British Assoc. Bej>ort,\&$&, Table XL, pp. 278, 279). 

This statement shows that the darker tints of hair coloration are 
preponderant; also that the influence of age in this respect is as dis- 
tinct as in other cases ; and the general rule as to the darkening of the 
hair during the period from childhood to maturity is evidently followed 
in this instance. For comparison with another instance from Southern 
Europe I give a similar table for 100 school-children at Alhama de 
Aragon in Central Spain. It should be noted that this table differs 
slightly from that published by me in the Proceedings of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society (vol. xiv.). The table there published has been 
revised, and stands as follows: — 

Table III. — Hair-colour of 100 Schoolboys at Alhama de Aragon. 



Colour 


Per Cent. 


Mean Age 


Colour 


Per Cent. 


Mean Age 


Very fan- 
Fair 

Light brown . 
Medium brown 
Dark brown . 
Jet black 
Red 






3 

6 

16 

32 

35 

7 

1 


7 ye 
8-6 , 
8-31 , 
8-L2 , 
8-77 , 
9-14 , 
12-0 , 


a,rs 1 

: } 

; 1 


Light 

Medium 

Dark 
Red 




25 

32 

42 
1 


8-24 yearr 

812 „ 

8-83 „ 
12-0 „ 


Total 






100 


8-5 „ 


(Red 




1 


12) „ 



In this instance (though the full details are not given) the general 
significance is the same for Aragon as for Crete. But the depth of pig- 
mentation is usually greater in Crete. Beddoe's ' Index of Nigrescence ' 
is +25 (cf. Table XII.). I have no record of a case of red hair among 
the Cretan children examined by me, and I recall to mind but a single 
instance in either adult or immature persons in that island. 

R 2 



240 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



With regard to the association of hair-colour and eye-colour I may 
notice that in general the usual rule applies to Crete, that is to say, fair 
hair or light-coloured hair may be accompanied by dark eyes (cf . on this 
point the paper on Aragonese school-children, mentioned above), whereas 
it is much more unusual for the reverse combination to appear. 
Here, at Palaikastro, this unusual combination did actually occur twice. 
The dark-brown hair in these boys was associated with eyes of a grey 
tint merging into the hazel colour so distinctive of many Cretans. 

In the majority of instances the hair is straight or somewhat wavy, 
but not closely curled. 

II. Colour of the Eyes. — Turning to the data (provided in Table IV.) 
for the colour of the eyes, analysis gives the following summary of the 
records : — 

Table IV. — Eye-colour and Aye. 



Seventy-nine Cretan Schoolboys 


Colour 


No. 


Per 

Cent. 


Mean Age 


Colour 


Per Cent. 


Mean Age 


Blue 


3 


3-75 


8*66 years ) 




f 17-5 


0-2 years 


( trey 


9 


11-25 


11-10 


" 


Light 


\ (Aragonf 13-1) 


(Aragonf 


Grey-green . 


2 


2-50 


8-50 


„ J 




[ (Adults 21-23) 


7'14 years) 


Green 


3 


375 


11-66 


" i 








Light brovm . 


2 


2-50 


10-00 


" 




f 25-0 


10-5 years 


Hazel 


13 


16-25 


1007 


» 


Medium 


•j (Aragonf 4