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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 

OF THE 

EIGHTIETH MEETING OF THE 

% * 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 




PORTSMOUTH: 1911 

AUGUST 31— SEPTEMBER 7 

i 

LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY. ALBEMARLE STREET 

1912 

Office of the Association : Burlington House, London, W. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Officeks and Council, 1911-1912 xxxi 

Rules of the British Association xxxui 

Tables: Past Annual Meetings: 

.Places and Dates, Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Local Secretaries xlix 

Trustees and General Officers Ixvi 

Sectional Presidents and Secretaries lxvii 

Chairmen and Secretaries of Conferences of Delegates xc 

Evening Discourses xc 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xcv 

Attendances and Receipts xcvi 

Analysis .of Attendances xcviii 

Grants of Money for Scientific Purposes xcix 

Report of the Council to the General Committee, 1910-1911 ... cxxi' 
General Treasurer's Account, 1910-1911 cxxviii 

PORTSMOUTH MEETING, 1911 : 

General Meetings cxxx 

Sectional Officers cxxx 

Officers of Conference of Delegates cxxxii 

Committee of Recommendations cXxxii 

Research Committees cxxxiii 

Communications ordered to be printed in externa cxliv 

Resolutions referred to the Council cxliv 

Recommendations referred to the Council cxlv 

Synopsis of Grants of Money - cxlvi 

Address by the President, Professor Sir William Ramsay, 

K.C.B., F.R.S 3 

Reports on the State of Science 25 

Transactions of the Sections 305 

Evening Discourses 634 

Appendix I. — Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes. By J. 

Milne, D.Sc, F.R.S 649 

Appendix II. — Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee 

and of the conference of delegates held in portsmouth... 741 

Index 777 

List of Members, &c 96 pages 

A2 



CONTENTS. 



EEPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Page 
Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir David Gill (Chairman), Dr. W. G. Duffield (Secretary). 
Dr. W. J. S. Lockybe, Mr. F. McClean, and Professors A. Schuster and 
H. H. Turner 25 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere, in co-operation with a Committee 
of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Tenth Report of the Committee. 
consisting of Dr. W. X. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. E. Gold (Secretary). Messrs. 
D. Archibald. C. Vernon Boys, C. J. P. Cave, and W. H. Dines, 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Sir Joseph Larmor, Professor J. E. Petavel, 
Dr. A. Schuster, and Dr. W. Watson 27 

Seismological Investigations. — Sixteenth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor H. H. Turner (Chairman), Mr. J. Milne (Secretary). Mr. C. 
Vernon Boys, Sir George Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major L. 
Darwin, Dr. R, T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray. Mr. R. K. Gray. Pro- 
fessor J. W. Judd, Professor C. G. Knott, Professor R. Meldola. Mr. 
R. D. Oldham, Professor J. Perry. Mr. \V. E. Plummer, Mr. Clem est 
Reid, Professor R. A. Sampson, and Professor A. .Schuster. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary) 30 

I. General Notes (Registers. Visitors, Exhibition. New Stations, 

Colonial Office) 30 

II. Double and Multiple Earthquakes ' 32 

III. Seismic Activity in Japan, Italy, and America, 1700-1900 .... 36 

IV. Synchronism of Seismic Activity in different Districts 36 

V. Megaseismic Frequency 38 

VI. Tidal-Load Observations at Ryde 39 

VII. Tidal-Load Experiments in Pennsylvanian Railway Tunnels . . 40 
VIII. Experiments in Pits in the Midlands 40 

IX. List of Strong Shocks in the United States 41 

X. Destructive Earthquakes in Peru and North Chile 45 

XI. Unpublished Notes relating to Destructive Earthquakes 47 

XII. Seismic Activity 1899-1903 inclusive 55 

XIII. Sensibility of Seismographs recording on Smoked Surfaces .... 66 



• ■ • 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. Ill 

Pago 
The farther Tabulation of Bessel and other Functions. — Report, of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill (Chairman), Dr. J. W. 
Nicholson (Secretary), Professor Alfred Lodge, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, 
and Sir George Greenhill 67 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. W. N. Shaw (Secretary), 
Professor W. G. Adams, Dr. Charles Chree, Captain Creak. Mr. W. L. 
Fox, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Sir A. W. Rucker, and Professor A. Schuster 78 

Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards for 
Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord 
K ayleigh (Chairman). Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professors J. 
Perry, W. G. Adams, and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver Lodge, Dr. A. 
Muirhead, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming. 
and Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley. Rev. 
T. C. Fitzpatrick, Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal 
E. H. Griffiths, Sir A. W. Rucker, Professor H. L. Callendar, and 
Messrs. G. Matthey, T. Mather, and F. E. Smith 80 

The Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives of Benzene. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Principal Miers (Chairman) and Professors 
H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), W. J. Pope, and W. P. Wynne 82 

The Influence of Carbon and other Elements on the Corrosion of Steel. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor J. 0. Arnold (Chairman), 
Dr. W. E. S. Turner (Secretary), Professor W. P. Wynne, Professor 
A. McWilliam, Mr. C. Chappell, and Mr. F. Hodson 83 

Dynamic Isomerism. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
H. E. Armstrong (Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry (Secretary), Professor 
Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. M. 0. Forster, 
and Dr. A. Lapworth. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 91 

The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Substances, and ils 
Relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivations. — Report of the Com- 
mittee,, consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping (Chairman), Professor 
K. J. P. Orton (Secretary), Dr. S. Ruhemann. Dr. A. Lapworth, and 
Dr. J. T. Hewitt 94 

Electroanalysis. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. 
Kipping (Chairman), Dr. F. M. Perkin (Secretary), Dr. G. T. Beilby, 
Dr. T. M. Lowry, Professor W. J. Pope, and Dr. H. J. S. Sand. (Drawn 
up by Dr. H. J. S. Sand) 98 

The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. E. Divers (Chairman), Professor A. W. Crossley 
(Secretary), Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. 0. Forster, and Dr. H. R. 
Lb Sueur 99 

Investigation of the Igneous and Associated Rocks of the Clensaul and 
Lough Nafooey Areas, Cos. Mayo and Galway. — Report of the Committee, 

a3 



[v CONTENTS. 

Page 
consisting of Professor W. W. Watts (Chairman), Professor S. H. 
Reynolds (Secretary), Mr. H. B. Maufe, and Mr. C. I. Gardiner 101 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. R. H. Tiddeman (Chairman), Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Secretary). 
Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr. F. W. Harmer, Rev. S. N. 
Harrison, Dr. J. Horne, Mr. W. Lower Carter. Professor W. J. Sollas, 
and Messrs. Wm. Hill, J. W. Stather, and J. H. Milton 101 

The Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Midland Coalfields. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. L. Moysey (Chairman), Dr. B. Hobson (Secretary). 
Mr. H. Bolton, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, and Dr. Wheelton Hind, 
appointed to investigate the Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Midland Coal- 
fields lOo 

Investigation of the Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Midland Coal- 
fields. By A. R. Horwood 105 

The Excavation of Critical Sections in the Palseozoio Rocks of Wales and 
the West of England. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Lapworth (Chairman), Mr. W. G. Fearnsides (Secretary), Dr. Herbert 
Lapworth. Dr. J. E. Marr, Professor W. W. Watts, and Mr. G. J. 
Williams « Ill 

Fourth Report on Excavations among the Cambrian Rocks of Comley, 
Shropshire, 1910. By E. S. Cobbold, F.G.S 1 1 1 

Composition and Origin of the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. — Sixth Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. Harker (Chairman), Mr. E. 
Greenly (Secretary), Dr. J. Horne, Dr. C. A. Matley, and Professor 
K. J. P. Orton 110 

Characteristic Fossils. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor P. F. 
Kendall (Chairman), Mr. W. Lower Carter (Secretary), Professor W. S. 
Boulton, Professor G. Cole, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Professors J. \\\ 
Gregory, Sir T. H. Holland, and S. H. Reynolds, Dr. M. C. Stoves. 
Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. Marr, Dr. A. Vaughan, Professor W. \V. 
Watts, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward, appointed to consider the prepara- 
tion of a List of Characteristic Fossils 118 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), Mr. E. S. 
Goodrich (Secretary), Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor A. Sedgwick, 
Professor W. C. McIntosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, Mr. G. P. Bidder, Dr. W. B. 
Hardy, and Professor A. D. Waller 110 

Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bather (Secre- 
tary), Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, the 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, and Lord Walsingham 1 20 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. V 

Page 
Belmullet Whaling Station. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 
A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Professor J. Stanley Gardiner (Secretary), 
Professor W. A. Herdman, Rev. W. Spotswood Green, Mr. E. S. Good- 
rich, Dr. H. W. Marett Tims, and Mr. R. M. Barrington, appointed to 
investigate the Biological Problems incidental to the Belmullet Whaling 
Station 121 

Experiments in Inheritance. — Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman), Mr. R. Douglas Laurie 
(Secretary), Professor R. C. Punnett, and Dr. H. W. Marett Tims. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) 125 

The Formulation of a Definite System on which Collectors should record 
their Captures. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor J. W. H. 
Trail (Chairman), Mr. F. Balfour Browne (Secretary), Dr. Sohabfp, 
Professor G. H. Carpenter, Professor E. B. Poulton, and Mr. A. G. 
Tansley 126 

Zoology Organisation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir E. Ray 
Lankester (Chairman), Professor S. J. Hickson (Secretary), Professors 
G. C. Bourne, J. Cossar Ewart, M. Hartog, W. A. Herdman, and J. 
Graham Kerr, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Professor Minchin, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, 
Professors E. B. Poulton and A. Sedgwick, and Dr. A". E. Shipley 127 

The Mammalian Fauna in the Miocene Deposits of the Bugti Hills, Balu- 
chistan. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor G. C. 
Bourne (Chairman), Mr. C. Forster Cooper (Secretary), Drs. A. Smith 
Woodward, A. E. Shipley, C. W. Andrews, and H. F. Gadow, and Pro- 
fessor J. Stanley Gardiner, appointed to enable Mr. C. Forster Cooper 
to make an examination thereof. (Drawn up by the Secretary) 127 

The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Twenty-fust Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Dr. F. Du Cane Godman (Chairman), Mr. D. Sharp 
(Secretary), Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, and Mr. Edgar 
A. Smith ll!8 

Feeding Habits of British Birds. — Third Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Mr. H. S. Leigh (Secretary), Professors 
S. J. Hickson, F. W. Gamble, F. E. Weiss, J. Arthur Thomson, and 
G. H. Carpenter, and Messrs. J. N. Halbert, C. Gordon Hewitt, 
Robert Newstead, Clement Reid, A. G. L. Rogers, and F. V. Theobald, 
appointed to investigate the Feeding Habits of British Birds by a study of 
the contents of the crops and gizzards of both adults and nestlings, and 
by collation of observational evidence, with the object of obtaining precise 
knowledge of the economic status of many of our commoner birds affecting 
rural science 128 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor A. Dendy (Chairman and Secretary), Sir E. Ray Lankester, 
Professor A. Sedgwick, Professor Sydney H. Vines, and Mr. E. S. Good- 
rich, appointed to nominate competent Naturalists to perform definite 
pieces of work at the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 12'J 



VI - CONTENTS. 

Page 
Map of Prince Charles Foreland. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. G. G. Chisholm (Chairman), Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown (Secretary), 
.Sir Duncan Johnston, and Mr. E. A. Reeves, appointed to complete the 
Map of Prince Charles Foreland, Spitsbergen, based on the Surveys of L906, 
1907, and 190'J made by Dr. W. S. Bruce ) 29 

Gaseous Explosions. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir 
AV. H. Preece (Chairman), Mr. Dugald Clerk and Professor Bertram 
Hopkinson (Joint Secretaries), Professors Bone, Burstall, Callendar, 
Coker, Dalby, and Dixon, Drs. Glazebrook and Harker, Professors 
Petavel. Smithells, and Watson, Lieut.-Col. Holden, Captain Sankey, 
Mr. D. L. Chapman, and Mr. H. E. Wimperis, appointed for the Investiga- 
tion of Gaseous Explosions, with Special Reference to Temperature 130 

The Organisation of Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Arthur Thomson 
(Chairman), Mr. J. Gray (Secretary), and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall 130 

A Prehistoric Site at Bishop's Storfcford. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor W. Ridgeway (Chairman), Rev. Dr. A. Irving (Secre- 
tary), Dr. A. C. Haddon, and Dr. H. W. Mare'tt Tims, appointed to co- 
operate with a Local Committee in the excavation thereof. (Drawn up 
jy the Secretary) J31 



u\ 



The Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. R. Munko (Chairman), Professor \Y. Boyd 
Dawkins (Secretary), Professor W. Ridgeway, Sir Arthur J. Evans. 
Dr. C. H. Read, Mr. H. Balfour, and Mr. A. Bulleid, appointed to investi- 
gate the Lake Villages in the neighbourhood of Glastonbury in connection 
with a Committee of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History 
Society. (Drawn up by Messrs. Arthur Bulleid and H. St. Geokck 
( J hay, the Directors of the Excavations) 134 

Artificial Islands in the Lochs of the Highlands of Scotland. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. R. Munro (Chairman), Professor J. L. MYRES 
(Secretary), Dr. T. H. Bryce. and Professor W. Boyd Dawkins. appointed 
to investigate and ascertain the Distribution thereof 137 

The Excavation of Neolithic Sites in Northern Greece. — Interim Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Ridgeway (Chairman). Pro- 
fessor J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. J. P. Droop, and Mr. D. G. Hogarth . . 140 

Notes and Queries in Anthropology. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Professor J. L. Myres (Secretary). Mr, E. N. 
Eallaize, Dr. A. C. Haddon. Mr. T. A. Joyce, and Drs. C. S. Myers, 
W. H. R. Rivers. C. G. Seligmann, and F. C. Shrubsall, appointed to 
prepare a New Edition of ' Notes and Queries in Anthropology ' 140 

The Age of Stone Circles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. C. H. 
Read (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour (Secretary), Lord Avebury, Professor 
YV. Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. Garson. Sir A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munko. 
Professor Boyd Dawkins. and Mr. A. L. Lewis, appointed to conduct 



REPORTS ON THE STATE UK SCIENCE. VH 

Page 
Explorations with the object of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary) If 

The Avebury Excavations, 1911. By H. St. George Gray 142 

Hausa Folklore.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. S. Habtland 
(Chairman), Dr. A. C. Haddon (Secretary), and Professor J. L. Myres, 
appointed to advise on the best method of publishing a collection of Hausa 
Folklore with translations and grammatical notes 153 

The Dissociation of Oxy-Haemoglobin at High Altitudes. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor E. H. Starling (Chairman). J. Bar- 
croft (Secretary), and W. B. Hardy 153 

Anaesthetics. — Third Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 
A. D. Waller (Chairman), Sir Frederic Hewitt (Secretary), Dr. Blum- 
feld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, and Dr. G. A. Buckmaster, appointed to acquire 
further knowledge, Clinical and Experimental, concerning Anaesthetics — 
especially Chloroform, Ether, and Alcohol — with special reference to Deaths 
by or during Anaesthesia, and their possible diminution 154 

Appendix I. — The Installation of a Chloroform-balance in Hospital 

for Ordinary Daily Use. By A. D. Waller, M.D., F.R.S 155 

Appendix II. — On the Percentage of Ether ordinarily afforded by an 
' Open ' Method of Administration. By A. D. Waller, M.D., 
F.R.S 103 

Appendix III. — Six Months' Experience of the Use of a Chloroform - 
balance in the Out-patient Department of St. George's Hospital. 
By G. R. Phillips, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P 166 

Appendix IV. — By Sir Frederic Hewitt, M.V.O., M.D 10S 

Body Metabolism in Cancer.— Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor C. S. Sherrington (Chairman) and Dr. S. M. Copeman (Secretary) 171 

Tissue Metabolism, for the Investigation of the Metabolism of Special 
Organs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E- H. Starling 
(Chairman), Professor T. G. Brodie (Secretary), and Dr. J. S. Haldane . . 172 

The Ductless Glands. — -Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor . 
Schafer (Chairman). Professor Swale "Vincent (Secretary), Professor 
A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. Shore, and Mrs. W. H. Thompson. (Drawn 
up by the Secretary) 172 

Electromotive Phenomena in Plants. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. A. D. Waller (Chairman), Mrs. Waller (Secretary), Professors 
F. Gotch and J. B. Farmer, and Drs. V. H. Veley and F. OB. Elltson . . 173 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor C. S. Sherrington (Chairman), Dr. W. McDocgall (Secretary), 
Professor J. S. MacDonald, Mr. H. Sackville Lawson, and Dr. J. E. 
Chapman 1 74 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 
Clare Island. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor T. Johnson 
(Chairman), Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger (Secretary), Professor Grenville 
Cole, Dr. Scharff, and Mr. A. G. Tansley, appointed to arrange a 
Botanical, Zoological, and Geological Survey of Clare Island 176 

The Structure of Fossil Plants — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 
D. H. Scott (Chairman), Professor F. W. Oliver (Secretary), Mr. E. A. 
Newell Arber, and Professors A. C. Seward and F. E. Weiss 176 

The Experimental Study of Heredity. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. Francis Darwin (Chairman), Mr. A. G. Tansley (Secretary), 
and Professors Bateson and Keeble 176 

Botanical Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor - 
F. W. Oliver (Chairman), Professor F. E. Weiss (Secretary), Dr. W. G. 
Smith, Mr. A. G. Tansley, Dr. T. W. Woodhead, and Professor R. H. 
Yapp, for the Registration of Negatives of Photographs of Botanical 
Interest 177 

Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor J. J. Findlay (Chairman), Professor J. A. 
Green (Secretary), Professors J. Adams and E. P. Culverwell, Mr. G. F. 
Daniell, Miss B. Foxley, Mr. J. Gray, Professor R. A. Gregory, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Dr. W. McDougall. Dr. T. P. Nunn, Dr. W. H. R. Hi vers. 
Professor C. Spearman, Miss L. Edna Walter, and Dr. F. Warner. 
appointed to inquire into and report upon the methods and results of 
research into the Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education . . 177 

Appendix I. — Summary of Returns from Medical Officers . .facing p. 180 

Appendix II. — Summary of Returns from Heads of Defective Schools 180 

Appendix III. — Detailed Report on Methods of Testing Mental 

Deficiency 195 

The Curricula and Educational Organisation of Industrial and Poor Law 
Schools, with special reference to Day Industrial Schools. — Interim Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. D. Eggar (Chairman), Mrs. W. N. 
Shaw (Secretary), Mr. J. L. Holland, Dr. C. W. Kimmins. and Mr. J. G. 
Legge, appointed to inquire thereinto 214 

The Overlapping between Secondary Education and that of Universities 
and other places of Higher Education. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Principal H. A. Miers (Chairman), Professor R. A. Gregory 
(Secretary), Mr. D. Berridge, Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Miss S. A. Burstall, 
Miss L. J. Clarke, Miss A. J. Cooper, Miss B. Foxley, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, and Professor A. Smithells, appointed to inquire into and 
report thereupon 210 

Changes in Regulations affecting Secondary Education. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir Philip Magnus (Chairman), Professor H. E. 
Armstrong (Secretary), Mr. S. H. Butcher, Sir Henry Craik, Principal 
Griffiths, Sir Horace Plunkett, and Professor M. E. Sadler, appointed 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE IX 

Page 
to take notice of, and report upon Changes in, Regulations — whether 
Legislative, Administrative, or made hy Local Authorities — affecting 
Secondary Education 234 

The Principle of Relativity. By E. Cunningham 236 

Stellar Distribution and Movements. By A. S. Eddington, M.A., M.Sc. . . 246 

The Present Position of Electric Steel Melting. Report by Professor 
Andrew McWilliam, A.R.S.M., M.Met 261 

The Sensitiveness of Indicators. By H. T. Tizard 268 

Momentum in Evolution. By Professor Arthur Dendy, D.Sc, F.R.S 277 

On Heat Coagulation of Proteins. By Harriette Chick, D.Sc, and C. J. 
Martin, M.B., D.Sc, F.R.S 281 

The Claim of Sir Charles Bell to the Discovery of Motor and Sensory Nerve 
Channels (an Examination of the Original Documents of 1811 to 1830). 
By Augustus D. Waller, M.D., F.R.S 287 



CONTENTS. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



[An asterisk * indicates that the title only is given. The mark f indicates the same, 
but with a reference to the Journal or Newspaper in which it is published in extenso.J 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY. AUGUST 31. 

PagC 

Address by Professor H. H. Turner, D.Sc, D.C.L., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 305 

1 . The Earth as a Radiator. By Professor W. J. Humphreys 319 

2. On the Atomic Structure of the Elements with Theoretical Determina- 

tions of their Atomic Weights. By J. W. Nicholson, M.A., D.Sc. . . . 320 

3. Report of the Committee to aid in Establishing a Solar Observatory in 

Australia (p. 25) 321 

■4. Report on Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory (p. 78.) . . . 321 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Discussion on the Principle of Relativity. Opened by E. Cunningham 

(p. 230) 321 

Department of Mathematics. 

1. On Mersenne's Numbers. By Lieut.-Col. Allan Cunningham, R.E. ... 321 

2. Relations connecting the Branch Points and the Double Points of an 

Algebraic Curve. By Professor J. C. Fields 322 

3. *The Infinitesimal Transformation of an Electromagnetic Field into 

Itself. By H. Bateman, M.A 322 

■i. Report on the further Tabulation of Bessel and other Functions (p. 07) . . 322 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. X] 

Department of Gknishal Physics. 

Page 

1. On the Radiation producing Aurora Borealis. By L. Veuard 322 

2. A Friction Penneametcr. By W. H. F. Murdoch, B.Sc, M.l.E.E 323 

3. On the Methods and Apparatus used in Petroleum Testing. By J. A. 

Harkee, D.Sc., F.R.S., and W. F. Higgins, B.Sc, A.R.C.S 324 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Joint Discussion with Section G on Aeronautics. Opened by A. E. Berri- 

man (p. 481) 325 



Department of Mathematics. 

1. Proofs of certain Theorems relating to Adjoint Orders oi Coincidence. 

By Professor J. C. Fields 325 

2. A Theorem connected with Six Lines in Space. By H. Bateman, M. A. . . 32(3 

3. The Canonical Form of an Orthogonal Substitution. By Harold 

Hilton 320 

Department of General Physics. 

1. The Absolute Measurement of Current at the Bureau of Standards. By 

Dr. N. E. Dorsey 327 

2. On Peculiarities in the Adsorption of Salts by Silica. By Professor F. T. 

Trouton, Sc.D., F.R.S 328 

3. The Effects of Ah Currents on Sound. By Professor F. R. Watson .... 330 

4. The Vernier Arc : A New Form of Micrometer. By J. W. Gordon 330 

Department of Cosmical Physics. 

1. The Thunderstorms of July 28 and 29, 1911. By Dr. \V. X. Shaw. F.R.S. 331 

2. Report of the Seismological Committee (p. 30) 332 

3. Note on the Periodogram of Earthquake Frequency from Seven Years to 

Twenty Years. By Professor H. H. Turner, F.R.S 332 

4. Horizontal Pendulum Movements in relation to certain Phenomena. 

By F. Napier Denison, F.R. Met. Sec. . 335 

5. The Solar Cycle, and the Jamaica Rainfall and Earthquake Cycles. By 

Maxwell Hall, M.A., F.R.A.S 339 

(3. *Great Boundary Waves : Parallactic Tides set up in the Bottom Layers 

of the Sea by the Moon. By Professor 0. Pettersson 340 



Xll CONTENTS. 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Page 

Discussion on Stellar Distribution and Movements. Opened by A. S. 

Eddington, M.A. (p. 246) 340 



Department of General Physics and Astronomy. 

1. Corpuscular Radiation. By Professor W. H. Bragg, F.R.S 340 

2. The Dependence of the Spectrum of an Element on its Atomic Weight. 

By Professor W. M. Hicks, D.Sc, F.R.S 342 

3. On the Arc Spectra of certain Metals in the Infra-red Region (X 7000 

to X 10,000). By Major E. H. Hills, F.R.S 342 

4. The Specific Heats at High Temperatures and the Latent Heats of 

Metals. By H. C. Greenwood, M.Sc 343 

5. *On the Recent Eclipse. By Rev. A. L. Cortie, S.J 343 

6. *On the Recent Eclipse. By J. H. Worthington 343 



Department of Meteorology. 

1. The Effect of the Labrador Current upon the Surface Temperature of the 

North Atlantic ; and of the latter upon Air Temperature and Baro- 
metric Pressure over the British Islands. By Commander M. W. C. 
Hepworth, C.B., R.N.R 344 

2. The Amount and Vertical Distribution of Water Vapour on Clear Days. 

By Professor W. J. Humphreys 344 

3. Report on the Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere (p. 27) 345 

4. *A Theodolite for Observing Balloons. By Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S. . . 345 

5. *Some Models representing Air-currents up to a Height of Nine Kilo- 

metres, based upon Observations with Pilot-balloons. By Dr. W. N. 
Shaw, F.R.S 345 

6. *Planetary Circulation in the Atmosphere. By Dr. H. N. Dickson .... 345 



II 'EDNESDA Y, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. On Possible Relations between Sun-spots and the Planets. By F. J. M. 

Stratton 345 

2. On the Laws of Solutions. By H. Davies, B.Sc 345 

3. Anomalous Dispersion and Solar Phenomena. By Professor 1*. V. 

Bevan, M.A., Sc.D 347 



TRANSACTIONS OF THK SECTIONS. Xlii 

Page 

4. *The Use of Diagrams in the Classification of Climates. By Dr. John 

Ball and J. I. Craig 348 

5. Note on an Unusual Type of Meteor observed at Portsmouth, August 31, 

1911. By F. J. M. Stratton 348 

6. Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards (p. 80) 348 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 31. 
Address by Professor J. Walker, D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the Section .... 349 

1 . The Diffusion of Gases through Water. By Professor Carl Barus 357 

2. The Present Position of Electric Steel Melting. By Professor Andrew 

McWilliam, A.R.S.M., M.Met, (p. 261) 357 

3. The Compressibility of Mercury. By Dr. Wm. C. Mc,C. Lewis 357 

4. *The Chemistry of the Glutaconic Acids. By Dr. J. F. Thorpe, F.R.S. 358 

5. *The Influence of Constitution on the Molecular Volumes of Organic 

Compounds at the Boiling Point. By G. Le Bas 358 

6. *The Influence of Substituents on Reaction Velocities. By Professor R. 

Wegscheider 358 

7. Report on the Influence of Carbon and other Elements on the Corrosion 

of Steel (p. 83) 358 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Discussion on Indicators and Colour 358 

(i) The Application of Methyl Orange for the Determination of the 
Affinity Constants of Weak Acids and Bases, with a Discussion of 
the Errors. By Dr. V. H. Veley, F.R.S 358 

(ii) The Sensitiveness of Indicators. By H. T. Tizard (p. 268) .... 358 

2. Report on Dynamic Isomerism (p. 91) 358 

3. The Ultra-Violet Absorption Spectra of the Vapours of various Organic 

Substances compared with the Absorption of these Substances in 
Solution and in Thin Films. By J. E. Purvis 359 

4. Absorption Spectra and Refractive Power of Metallic Vapours. By 

Professor P. V. Bevan, M.A., Sc.D 360 

5. Optically Active Substances which contain no Asymmetric Atom in 

the Molecule. By Professor William Henry Perkin, F.R.S., and 
Professor William Jackson Pope, F.R.S 361 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 
6. Report on the Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives of Benzene 

(p. 82) 364 



MOXDA Y, SEPTEMBER 4. 

1. Joint Discussion with Sub-Section K on the Part played by Enzymes 

in the Economy of Plants and Animals : (i) *Opened by Dr. E. F. 
Armstrong 365 

(ii) The Velocity of Formation of Enzyme Systems. By Prof est or 

H. Etjleb 365 

2. Some Points concerning the Treatment of Whoa ten Flour. By A. E. 

Humphries 30.V 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Discussion on Colloids 360 

(i) The Theory of Colloids. By Professor H. Freundlich 366 

(ii) *Colloids in Pharmacology. By Dr. George Barger 367 

(iii) The Adsorption ol Iodine by the Glucoside Saponarin. By Dr. 

George Barger 367 

(iv) The Colloid Theory of Cements. By Dr. C. H. Desch 368 

(v) The Rate of Coagulation of Colloidal Copper. By H. H. Paine, 

M.A., B.Sc 369 

2. Report on the Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances (p. 99) 309 

3. Report on the Transformation of Aromatic Xitroamines (p. 94) 369 

4. Report on Electroanalysis (p. 98) 369 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 31. 
Address by Alfred Harker. M.A., F.R.S., President of the Section 3.70 

1. *The Geology of Portsmouth and District. By Clement Reid, F.R.S. 381 

2. Further Work on the Silurian Rocks of the Eastern Mendips. By Pro- 

fessor S. H. Reynolds. M.A 38] 

3. The Glaciation of the North-East of Ireland. By Arthur R. Dwerry- 

hottsb, D.Sc, F.G.S 382 

4. The Glacial Period and Climatic Changes in North-East Africa. By 

W. F. Hume. D.Sc... FR.S.E.. and 3. I. Craig, M.A., F.R.S.E 382 



TRANSACTIONS OK THE SECTIONS. XV 

Page 
5. *Iaterim Report of the Geological Photographs Committee 383 

f>. Report, on the Preparation of a List of Characteristic Fossils (p. 118). . 383 

7. Report on the Erratic Blocks of the British Isles (p. 101) 383 

8. Report on the Igneous and Associated Rocks of the Glensaul and Lough 

Xafooey Areas. Cos. Mayo and Gahvay (p. 101) 383 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Joint Discussion with Section E on the former Connection of the Isle of 

Wight with the Mainland. Opened by Clement Reid, F.R.S 384 

2. Constructive Waterfalls. By Professor J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. (p. 445) 380 

3. Tidal Movements in the Deep Water of the Skagerrak, and their Influence 

upon the Herring Fishery. By Professor 0. Pettersson (p. 446). . . . 38fi 

MONDA Y, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Joint Discussion with Sections E and K on the Relation of the present Plant 

Population of the British Isles to the Glacial Period (p. 573) 387 

1. On the Lower Carboniferous Strata of the Bundoran District in South 

Donegal. By W. B. Wright 387 

2. On the Occurrence of Submerged Forests in certain Lakes in Donegal and 

the Western Isles of Scotland. By W. B. Wright 388 

3. On some new Rhsetic Fossils from Glen Parva, Leicestershire. By 

A. R. Horwood 388 

4. On the Shell-layer in Mollusca. By A. R. Horwood 388 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. On the Discovery of Remains of Iguanodon mantelli in the Wealden Beds 

of Brightstone Bay, I.W., and the Adaptation of the Pelvic Girdle 
in relation to an Erect Position and Bipedal Progression. By R. W. 
Hooley 390 

2. Siliceous Oolites and other Concretionary Structures in the Vicinity of 

State College, Pennsylvania. By Professor E. S. Moore, M.A., Ph.D. 300 

3. The Pre-Cambrian Beds of Northern Ontario. By Professor E. S. 

Moore, M.A., Ph.D 390 

4. On the Occurrence of a Freshwater Limestone in the Lower Eocenes on 

the Northern Flank of the Thames Basin. By A. Irving, D.Sc, B.A. 392 

5. A remarkable Sarsen or Greywether. By A. Irving, D.Sc, B.A :t!!2 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Page 

6. Wealden Ostracoda. By F. Ross Thomson 303 

7. The First Meteorite Record in Egypt. By W. F. Httme, D.Sc., F.R.S.E. 394 

8. Report on the Composition and Origin of the Crystalline Rocks of 

Anglesey (p. 116) 304 

0. Report on the Excavation of Critical Sections in the Palreozoic Rocks of 

Wales and the West of England (p. Ill) 304 

10. "Interim Report on the Microscopical and Chemical Composition of 

Charnwood Rocks ,• . 394 

11. Report on the Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Midland Coalfields (p. 105) 304 

Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 31. 
Addre?s by Professor D'Arcy W. Thompson, C.B., President of the Section 305 

1. The Vernal-Plumage Changes in the Adolescent Blackbird {Turdus merula) 

and their Correlation with Sexual Maturity. By C. J. Patten, M.A.. 
M.D:, Sc.D 404 

2. A Case of a remarkable Egg of Falco tinnuncuhis laid under remarkable 

Circumstances. By C. J. Patten, M.A., M.D., Sc.D 405 

3. *Fairy Flies. By F. Enoch 406 

FBI DAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. On a new Gymnoblastic Hydroid {Ichthyocodium sarcotrelis), epizoic on a 

new Parasitic Copepod (Sarcotretes scopeli) infesting Scopelus qlacialis 
(Rhos.). By Hector F. E. Jungersen 407 

2. On the Species of the Genus Balanus collected in the Malay Archipelago 

during the Cruise of the Dutch Man-of-War ' Siboga.' By Dr. P. P. C. 
Hoek ' 407 

3. Five Years' Danish Investigations on the Biology of the Eel. By 

Dr. J. Schmidt 400 

4. *Note on the Occurrence of Amphidinium. By Professor W. A. Herd- 

man, F.R.S 412 

5. The Lantern of Aristotle as an Organ of Locomotion. {Echinus esculentus 

and E. miliaris.) By James F. Gemmill, M.A., M.D., D.Sc 412 

6. The Dorsal Vibratile Fin of the Rockling (Motella). By J. Stuart 

Thomson, Ph.D., F.R.S.E 413 

7. "Variation in a Medusa. By C. L. Boulenger, M.A. 413 

8. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 

(p. 119) 413 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XVII 

Page 

0. Report on the Index Animalium (p. 120) 413 

10. Third Report on the Feeding Habits of British Birds (p. 128) 413 

11. Report on the Biological Problems incidental to the Belmullet Whaling 

Station (p. 121) 413 

12. Report on the Mammalian Fauna in the Miocene Deposits of the Bugti 

Hills, Baluchistan (p. 127) .' 414 

13. Twenty-first Report on the Zoology of the Sandwich Islands (p. 128) . . 414 

14. Report on Zoology Organisation (p. 127) 414 

15. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 

(p. 129) 414 

16. Fourth Report on Experiments in Inheritance (p. 125) 414 

17. Report on the Formulation of a Definite System on which Collectors 

should record their Captures (p. 126) 414 

1 8. Some recent Work on Sex. By Geoffrey Smith 414 

10. The Effect of Saccidina upon the Fat-metabolism of the Crab Inaclnis 

mauritanims. By G. C. Robson 415 

20. On the Experimental Control of Dominance in Echinoderm Hybrids. 

By H. M. Fttchs, B.A 415 

21. The Problem of Sex Determination in Dinophilus gyrociliatus. By 

C. Shearer, M. A 410 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

1. Noteson a Trypan some found in a Sheep Tick, and its probable connection 

with the Disease known as Louping-ill. By Major C. F. Bishop, R . A. 41 8 

2. *Recent Discoveries in Mimicry. Protective Resemblance, &c, in African 

Butterflies and Moths. By Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S 410 

3. *The Ext met Reptiles of the Oxford Clay of Peterborough. By Dr. C. W. 

Andrews, F.R.S 410 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. On the Distribution of Trachea* to the Scent Patches in Lepidoptera. 

By Dr. J. A. Dixey, F.R.S 410 

2. The Annual Cycle of Changes in the Genital Glands of Eclrinorardinm 

cordalum. By Professor Maurice Caullery 410 

3. British Symphyla (Scolopendrellidcv). By Richard S. Bagnall, F.L.S. 420 

4. Momentum in Evolution. By Professor Arthur Dendy, F.R.S. (p. 277) 421 

5. The Food-supply of Aquatic Animals. By Dr. W. J. Daktn 421 

a 



xviii CONTENTS. 

Page 
P>. On the Systematic Position of the Marsipobranqhii. By W. X. P. 

Woodland 42L' 

7. Discussion on the Origin of Mammals. Opened by Professor G. Elliot 

Smith, M.A., M.D., F.R.S 424 

8. Note on the Manus of a Young Indian Elephant. By Professor R. J. 

Anderson, M.D 428 

9. Some Points in Manus and Pes of Primates. By Professor Richard J. 

Anderson, M.D 42fl 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. On the Renal Organs and some other Features of the Internal Anatomy 

of Squilla, By W. N. F. Woodland .' 430 

2. The Hypostome and Antenna in a reconstructed Trilobite (Calymene). 

By Malcolm Laurie, B.A., D.Sc, F.L.S 431 

3. The Crop of the Leech. By Professor Marcus H.artog, M.A., D.Sc. . . 432 

4. Lantern Demonstration illustrating the Development of the Starfish 

Solaster endeca (Forbes). By James F. Gemmill, M.A., M.D., D.Sc. 432 

5. Remarks on some of the Boring Mollusca. By W. T. Elliott. F.Z.S., 

and B. Ltxdsay 433 

C>. Discussion on Wallace's Line. Opened by C. Tate Regan. M.A 433 

Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 31. 
Address by Lieut. -Colonel Close, C.M.G., R.E.. President of the Section . . 436 

1. *Thermal Maps. By Professor A. J. Herbertson, M.A., Ph.D 443 

2. *Colour in the Representation of Hill Features. By A. R. Hinks, M.A. 444 

3. Mean Sea-level. By Captain E. 0. Henrici, R.E 444 

4. The Height of Ruwenzori. By Captain E. O. Henrici, R.E 444 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Joint Discussion with Section C on the Former Connection of the Isle of Wight 

with the Mainland (p. 384) 445 

1. Csnsfcructive Waterfalls. By Professor J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. ....... 445 

2. Tidal Movements in the Deep Water of fcheSkagerrak, and their Influence 

upon the Herring Fishery. By Professor 0. Pettersson 44fi 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XIX 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Page 

Joint. Discussion with Sections C and K on the Relation of the present Plant 

Population of the British Isles to the Glacial Period (p. 573) 447 

British Exploration in Dutch New Guinea. By Captain 0. G. Rawlino. 

CLE 447 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. International Air-Map and Aeronautical Marks. By Ch. Lallemano. . 447 

2. Aeronautical Maps. By Captain H. G. Lyons, F.R.S 448 

:5. A Class of Map-projections — retro-azimuthal. By J. I. Cr\to, M.A., 

F.R.S.E 448 

4. *A Numerical Estimate of the Errors of various Projections for Atlas 

Maps. By A. R. Htnks. M.A 440 

Section P.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 31. 

Address by the Hon. W. Pember Reeves, President of the Section 4. r >0 

1 . Taxation of Land Values. By C. P. Bickerdike 458 

2. How do Wages vary ? By Professor E. Waxweu.er 458 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Wages and the Mobility of Labour. By Professor A. L. Bowley. M.A. 459 

2. The National Labour Exchanges. By Robert a-Ababrelton. F.R.G.S. 460 

3. India with respect to the World's Cotton Supply. By J. Howard 

Reed. F.R.G.S 4G0 

4. Calendar Reform : A Suggested Basis of Agreement. By Alexr. Philip 461 

5. Economic Aspects of the Introduction and Establishment of a British 

Beet-Sugar Industry. By Sigmtjnd Stein 462 

MONDA Y, SEPTEMBER 4. 
Discussion on the Public Finances of Ireland : — 

(i) By Professor C. H. Oldham, B.A.. B.L 463 

(ii) By A. L. Horner. K.C., M.P 464 

1. How Germany tries to Abolish Poverty and Crime (Extracts froin the 
Official Reports of the Armenpflege of Berlin-Munich-Nuremburg. 
1908-0). By Miss Charlotte Smitii-Rosste 465 

a -2 



XX CONTENTS. 

Page 

2. The Organisation and Development of 1he Resources of the Empire in 

the National Interests. By C. Reginald Enock, F.R..G.S 460 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Discussion on the Arrangement for Reciprocal Trade between Canada and 

the United States. Opened by C. E. Mallet 466 

♦Discussion on Methods of settling Industrial Disputes. Opened by Hon'. 

Samuel Matjger 467 

A Positive Method of Economic Inquiry. By Ewart Scott Grog an. . . . 408 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 31. 

Address by Professor J. H. Biles. LL.D . D.Sc. M.Tnst.GE.. President of 

the Section 469 

1. The Origin and Production of Corrugation of Tramway Rails. By 

W. Wobby Bk vumont, M.Tnst .C.E 47/i 

2. Anschntz Gyro-Compass. By G. K. B. Elphinstone 476 

FRIDA Y, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. On Elect lie Drives for Screw Propellers. By H. A. Mavor 477 

2. Electrical Steering. By B. P. Haigit, B.Sc. Assoc.M.Tnst.C.E 478 

3. The Single-phase Repulsion Motor. By Thomas E. WALL.M.ScM.Eng.. 

Assoc.M.Tnst.C.E 470 

4. Some Preliminary Notes on a Study as to Human Susceptibility to 

Vibration. By W. Pollard Digby and Captain Sankev 480 

5. Interim Report on Gaseous Explosions (p. 130) 480 

6. The Electrical Conductivity of Light Aluminium Alloys. By Professor 

Ernest Wilson 480 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 
Joint Discussion with Section A on Aeronautics : — 

The Principles of Flight. By Algernon E. Berriman 481 

1. Recent Developments in Radio-Telegraphy. By Professor G. W. O. 

Howe 483 

2. ^Portable Equipment for Wireless Telegraphy. By Captain H. Rrux, 

Sankey 484 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXI 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Page 

1. Economical and Reliable Power Generation by Overtype Superheated- 

Steani Engines. By W. J. Marshall 484 

2. Suction-Gas Engines and Producers. By W. A. Tookey 485 

3 The Diesel Oil-Engine. By Chas. Day 486 

4. Crude-Oil Marine Engines. By James H. Rosenthal, M.I.N.A., M.I.M.E. 488 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. *The Manufacture of Nitrogen Compounds by Electric Power. By 

E. Kilbubn Scott, Assoc.M.Inst.CE 488 

1. Smoke Abatement : the Possibility of fixing a new Standard of Smoke 

Emission from Factory Chimneys. By Dr. J. S. Owens 48'J 

3. *Continuous versus Intermittent Service in Passenger Transportation. 

By W. Y. Lewis 48'J 

Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 31. 
Address by W. H. R. Rivers, M.D., F.R.S., President of the Section 490 

1. The Reverence for the Cow in India. By W. Crooke, B.A 499 

2. On the Origin of Rest Days. By Professor Hutton Webster 500 

3. Some Notes on Hausa Folk-lore. By Major A. J. N. Tremearne, B.A. 500 

4. An Archaeological Classification of American Types of Prehistoric Artif acts. 

By Warren K. Moorehead 501 

5. The Ancient Frescoes at Chichen Itza. By Miss A. C. Breton 502 

0. Archa-ology hi Peru. By Miss A. C. Breton 503 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1 
Discussion on Totemism : — 

(i) *The Present Position of our Knowledge of Totemism. By Dr. 

A. C. Haddon, F.R.S 504 

(ii) An Interpretation of Totemism. By Dr. A. A. Goldehweiser 504 

(hi) Totemism as a Cultural Entity. By Dr. F. Graebner 505 

(iv) On the Relations between Totemic Clans and Secret Societies. 

By Professor Hutton Webster 506 

(v) Some Methodological Remarks on Totemism. By Professor 

E. Waxweiler 507 

*The Tribes of the Mimika District of Dutch New Guinea, the Tribes of the 

Sea Coast, and the Tapiro Pygmies. By Captain C. G. Rawlijsc; . . 508 



XX11 CONTENTS. 



MONDA Y, SEPTEMBER 4. 



Page 



1. Noted on the Stature, &c, of our Ancestors in East Yorkshire. By the 

late J. R. Mortimer 508 

2. The Interpretation of Division of the Parietal Bone as observed hi the 

Crania of certain Primates. By Professor C. J. Patten, Sc.D 509 

3. Suggestions for an Imperial Bureau of Anthropology : — 

(i) Anthropometry. By John Gray, B.Sc 50!) 

(ii) Ethnography. By T. C. Hodson 509 

L Suggestions for an Anthropological Survey of the British Isles. By 

H. Pea kk 510 

5. Report on the Organisation of Anthropometric Investigation hi the 

British Isles (p. 130) 51U 

0. Dolmens or Cromlechs. By A. L. Lewis 511 

7. Report on the Distribution of Artificial Islands in the Lochs of the 

Highlands of Scotland (p. 137) 511 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. Some Religious Beliefs of the Kikuyu and Kamba People. By C. YV. 

Hobley, C.M.G 511 

2. The Economic Function of the Intichiuma Ceremonies. By B. Mali- 

nowski 51:2 

3. The Divine Kings of the Shilluk. By C. G. Seligmann, M.D 513 

■4. The Foreign Relations and Influence of the Egyptians uiider the Ancient 

Empire. By G. Elliot Smith, M.A., M.D., E.R.S 514 

5. Excavations at Memphis and Hawara hi 1911. By Professor \V. M. 

Flinders Petrie, F.R.S 515 

0. Pre-dynastic Lon Beads from Egypt. By G. A. Wainwright 515 

7. Pleistocene Man in Jersey. By R. R. Marett, M.A 510 

8. Cranium of the Cro-Magnon Type found by Mr. W. M. Newton in a Gravel 

Terrace near Dartford. By A. Keith, M.D 516 

9. Remains of a Second Skeleton from 100-foot Terrace at Galley Hill. 

By A. Keith, M.D 517 

10. Fossil Bones of Man discovered by Colonel Willoughby Vernerin a Lime- 
stone Cave near Ronda, in the South of Spam. By A. Keith, M.D. 517 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XX111 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

Page 

1. Memorials of Prehistoric Man in Ham pshire. By W. Dale, F.S.A., F.G.S. 518 

2. The Bearing of the Heraldry of the Indians of the North- West Coast of 

America upon their Social Organisation. By G. M. Barbeau, B.Sc. 519 

3. The Early Bronze Age hi Britain. By 0. G. S. Crawford 520 

■4. Report on the Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury (p. 134) 52U 

5. Notes on Human Remains of Ancient Date found at Weston-super-Mare. 

By H. N. Davies, F.G.S 520 

(j. Later Finds of Horse and other Prehistoric Mammalian Remains at 
Bishop's Stortford, with further Anatomical Notes on the Fossil 
Skeleton described at the Sheffield Meeting (1910). By A. Irving, 
D.Sc, B.A 521 

7. Report on the Excavations of a Prehistoric Site at Bishop's Stortford 

(p. 131) ; 522 

8. A Roman Fortified Post on the Fosseway : A Preliminary Note on the 

Excavations of 1910 and 1911. By T. Davies Pryce 522 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 31. 
Address by Professor J. S. Macdonald, B.A., President of the Section. .. . 524 

1. Third Interim Report on Anaesthetics (p. 154) 539 

2. Additions to the Use of a Chloroform Inhaler. By Dr. A. G. Vernon 

Harcotjrt, F.R.S 539 

3. Interim Report on Body Metabolism in Cancer' (p. 171) 540 

4. Report on the Dissociation of Oxy-Hsemoglobin at High Altitudes 

(p. 153) 540 

5. Report on the Ductless Glands (p. 172) 540 

0. *Interim Report on the Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease . . 540 

7. Report on Electromotive Phenomena in Plants (p. 173) 540 

8. Report on Mental and Muscular Fatigue (p. 174) 540 

9. Report on the Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 

(p. 119) 540 

10. Report on Tissue Metabolism (p. 172) 540 



XXIV CONTENTS. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

Tagc 
""Discussion on Inhibition : — 

(i) ""Opened by Professor C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S 540 

(ii) ""Rhythmical Stimulation of Cooled Frog's Nerve. By Dr. J. 

Tait 540 

(iii) ""Conduction between Muscle and Nerve, with special reference to 

Inhibition. By Dr. Keith Lucas 540 

1. On Heat Coagulation of Proteins. By Harriette Chick, D.Sc, and 

C. J. Martin, M.B., D.Sc, F.R.S. (p. 281) 540 

2. The Frequency of Colour-blindness in Men. By F. W. Edridge-Green, 

M.D., F.R.C.S 541 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Discussion on Ventilation in Confined Quarters, especially hi relation to 
Ships :— 

(i) Introductory Remarks by Leonard Hill, M.B., F.R.S 541 

(ii) Ventilation in Confined Quarters. By Professor N. Zuntz .... 543 

1. Heat Production and Body Temperature during Rest and Work. By 

Professor J. S. Macdonald and Dr. J. E. Chapman 544 

2. Certain Physical Questions regarding Blood-vessels and Blood-cells. By 

John Tait, M.D., D.Sc 544 

3. ""Nutritive Values of Wholemeal and White Flour. By Miss May 

Yates 545 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

1. On the Influence of Iodoform, Chloroform, and other Substances, dis- 

soluble in Fats, on Phagocytosis. By H. J. Hamburger, Sc.D., 
M.D., LL.D 545 

2. On the Physiology of Gaa Production in connection with the Gas Bladders 

of Teleostean Fish. By W. N. F. Woodland, D.Sc 540 

3. *Ai Attempt to obtain Photographic Records of the Emigration of 

Leucocytes. By W. W. Waller 548 

4. The Carbon Dioxide Output during Decerebrate Rigidity. By H. E. 

Roaf, D.Sc 548 

5. The Claim of Sir Charles Bell to the Discovery of Motor and Sensory 

Nerve Channels (an Examination of the Original Documents of 1 S1 1 

to 1830). By Augustus D. Waller, M.D., F.R.S. (p. 287) 548 

G. On Paramnesia. By Professor George J. Stokes, M.A 54'J 



TRANSACTIONS OK THE SECTIONS. XXV 

Section K.— BOTANY. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 31. 

Page 
Address by Professor P. E. Weiss, D.Sc, President of the Section 550 

1. The Life-History of a Shingle Bank. By Professor F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. 562 

2. The Swiss National Park and its Flora. By Professor C. Schroter . . . 5(53 

3. Phytogeography as an Experimental Science. By Professor Jean 

Massart 564 

4. A Fifteen- Year Study of Advancing Sand Dunes. By Professor Henry 

C. Cowles 565 

5. On the Brown Seaweeds of a Salt Marsh. By Miss Sarah M. Baker. . 565 

6. The Guises of the Formation of Hairs and Palisade Cells in certain Plants. 

By Professor R. H. Yapp, M.A 565 

7. *The Forest Stages represented in the Peat underlying the Moorlands of 

Britain. By F. J. Lewis, D.Sc, F.L.S 566 

8. Types of Vegetation in the District round Macclesfield. By Miss Lilian 

Baker, M.Sc, and B. W. Baker, B.A 566 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. The Structure and Development of the Ovule of Buwenia speclabilis. 

By Miss E. M. Kershaw, M.Sc 567 

2. The Structure of a New Type of Synangium from the Calciferous Sand- 

stone Beds of Pettycut, Fife, and its Bearing on the Origin of the 
Seed. By Miss M. J. Benson, D.Sc 568 

3. A Paheozoic Fern and its Relationships (Zygopieris Graiji, Williamson). 

By Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., Pies. L.S 568 

4. Recent Researches on the Jurassic Plants of Yorkshire. By H. Hamshaw 

Thomas, M.A 569 

5. A Petrified Jurassic Plant from Scotland. By Professor A. C. Seward, 

F.R.S 570 

6. A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Formation of Calcareous Nodules 

containing Plant Remains. By Miss T. Lockhart, B.Sc 570 

7. Nuclear Osmosis as a Factor in Mitosis. By A. Anstruther Lawson, 

D.Sc, F.R.S.E 570 

8. The Longitudinal Fission of the Meiotic Chromosomes in Vicia Fuba. 

By Miss H. C. 1. Eraser, D.Sc 571 

'J. The Lite-Cycle and Affinities of the Plasmodiophomceoe. By T. G. B. 

Osborn, M.Sc 572 



XXVI CONTENTS. 



Pag.' 



10. Somatic Nuclear Division in Spongonpora Sulani (Brunch.). By A. S. 

Horne, B.Sc., F.G.S 572 

11. Preliminary Note on an Investigation of some West African Fungi. 

By A. Eckley Lechmebe, M.Sc 573 

MONDA Y, SEPTEMBER 4 

Joint Discussion with Sections C and E on the Relation of the present 
Plant Population of the British Isles to the Glacial Period. Opened 
by Clement Reid, F.R.S 573 

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 
*The Balance-sheet of a Plant. By Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 581 

Discussion on the Principles of Constructing Phyto-geographical Maps. 

Opened by Dr. C. E. Moss 581 

1. The Water-content of Acidic Peats. By W. B. Crump, M.A 581 

2. The Wilting of Moorland Plants. By W. B. Crump, M.A 582 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6. 

1. On the Presence of Sugar in the Tissues of Laminaria. By S. Mangham 583 

2. The Structure and Function of the Root-Nodules of Myrica Gale. 

By Professor W. B. Bottomley, M.A 584 

3. Some Effects of Bacteriotoxins on the Germination and Growth of 

Plants. By Professor W. B. Bottomley, M.A 584 

4. The Polyphyletic Origin of Cornacea?. By A. S. Horne, B.Sc, F.G.S. . . 585 

5. The Chromosomes of the Hybrid Primula keivensis. By Miss L. Digby 585 

0. *On the Flora of Shetland, with some reference *^to its Ecology. By 

W. West 580 

7. *The Occurrence of Oidivm Euonymi-Japonicie in Southern England. 

By Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G 580 

8. Report on the Structure of Fossil Plants (p. 170) 580 

9. Report on the Experimental Study of Heredity (p. 176) 580 

10. Report on the Survey of Clare Island (p. 176) 587 

11. Report on the Registration of Botanical Photographs (p. 177) 587 

12. *Interim Report on the Promotion of the Study of the Plant Life of the 

British Islands, and the preparation of the Materials for a National 
Flora 0S7 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. XXV11 

[ . [.SUB-SECTION OF AGRICULTURE. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 31. 

Page 

Address by W. Bateson, M.A., F.R.S., Chairman 587 

1. Cider-Sickness. By B. T. P. Barker, M.A., and V. Florian Hillier 590 

2. A Method of determining the Baking Strength of Single Ears of Wheat. 

By H. W. Harvey, B.A., and T. B. Wood, M.A 597 

3. The Effects of Ventilation on the Temperature and Carbon Dioxide of 

the Air of Byres. By James Hendrick, B.Sc 598 

■4. Self -sterility and Self -fertility in plums. By W. 0. Backhouse .... 599 

5. The Mucilage of Linseed. By H. A. D. Neville, B.Sc 600 

6. British Weights. By John Porter, B.Sc 600 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 
1. Discussion on Bacterial Diseases of Plants: — 

(i) Bacterial Diseases of Plants. By Professor M. C. Potter, M.A. 601 

(ii) Bacterial Gum Diseases. By F. T. Brooks, M.A 602 

(hi) Bacterial Diseases of the Potato plant in Ireland. By Dr. G. W. 

Pethybridge 602 

(iv) Potato Disease. By A. S. Horne, B.Sc, F.G.S 603 

(v) *A Bacterial Disease of the Potato-plant. By Miss E. Dale . . . 603 

2. The Influence of Electricity on Micro-Organisms. By J. H. Priestley 

and Miss E. M. Lee 603 

3. Influence of Electricity on the Respiration of Germinating Seeds. By 

J. H." Priestley and R. C. Knight 604 

4. *The Soils and Farming of the South Downs. By A. D. Hall, F.R.S. 605 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Discussion on how best the University Agricultural Departments may come 
in contact with the Farmer : — 

(i) *A Consideration of the Irish System as modified to suit English 

Conditions. By R. Hart-Synnot 605 

(ii) Ways in which the University may help the Farmer. By J. R. 

Atnsworth-Davis 605 

(hi) *The Place of the Agricultural Instructor. By J. H. Burton. . 605 

Joint Discussion with Section B on the Part played by Enzymes in the 

Economy of Plants and Animals (p. 365) (,05 



XXV111 CONTENTS. 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 5. 

Page 

1. The Application of Genetics to Horse-breeding. By C. C. Hurst, F.L.S. BOG 

2. *Aboriginal Races and little-known Breeds of Domestic Sheep. By 

H. J. Elwes, F.R.S 007 

3. The Inheritance of Milk-yield in Cattle. By Professor James Wilson. . 007 

•4. Commercial Ovariotomy in Pigs. By F. H. A. Marshall and K. J. J. 

Mackenzie 007 

5. Temperature Variations during the Oestrous Cycle in Cows. By 

F. H. A. Marshall and K. J. J. Mackenzie 007 

0. The Fixation of Nitrogen by Free-living Soil Bacteria. By' Professor 

W. B. Bottomley, M. A 007 

7. Some Effects of Bacterio toxins on Soil Organisms. By Professor VV. B. 

Bottomley, M.A 008 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 31. 
Address by the Right Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, D.D., President of the Section 000 

Report upon the Overlapping between Secondary Education and that ol 

Universities and other Places of Higher Education (p. 210) 022 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 

1. Discussion on the Place of Examinations in Education : — 

(i) Examinations. By P. J. Hartou, M.A., B.Sc * 023 

(ii) The Place of Examinations in Education. By Miss S. A. 

Burstall, M.A 623 

(hi) *The Place of Examinations in Education. By Dr. T. P. Nunn 624 
(iv) Examinations and Inspections. By Mis. Jessie White, D.Sc. . . 024 

2. Report on Changes affecting Secondary Education (p. 234) 024 

3. *Discussion on the Policy of giving the Board of Education authority 

over all Exchequer Grants for University Education. Opened by 
Principal E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S 625 

4. Report on the Curricula and Educational Organisation of Industrial and 

Poor Law Schools (p. 214) 625 

5. Discussion on Grammatical Terminology. Opened by Professor E. A. 

Sonnenschein, D.Litt 025 



TRANSACTIONS OF TTTR SECTIONS. XXIX 

MONDA 7, SEPTEMBER 4. 

Page 

1. Report on the Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education (p. 177) 625 

2. Discussion on the Diagnosis of Feeble-mindedness — 

(i) On the Nature and Definition of Mental Defect and its rela- 
tion to the Normal. By A. F. Tredgold, L.R.C.P. Lond., 

M.R.C.S. Eng 625 

(ii) Mental Tests for ' Backward ' Children. By A. R. Abelson, 

B.Sc, D.-es-L 626 

(hi) Eugenics and Education : The Problem of the Feeble-minded 

' Child. By C. W. Saleeby, M.D., F.R.S.E 628 

3. Discussion on the Education of Feeble-minded Children : — 

(i) Farm Colonies for the Feeble-minded. By Miss Dendy, M.A. . . 620 
(ii) The Education of the Feeble-minded. By Miss E. M. Bttrgwtn 630 

4. Backward Children. By Professor J. A. Green, M.A 630 



TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER o. 

1. Discussion on Practical Education in Dockyard and Naval Schools : — 

(i) The Royal Dockyard Schools. By T. Dawe 631 

(ii) *Schools for Boy Artificers. By W. H. T. Paw 631 

2. The Present Position of German in Secondary Schools. By G. F. 

Bridge 631 

3. School-books and Eyesight, By G. F. Daniell, B.Sc. 633 

4. *Suggested Reforms in the Teaching of Science. By P. Shaw Jeffery 633 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 
The Physiology of Submarine Work. By Leonard Hill, M.B., F.R.S. . . 634 

MONDA Y, SEPTEMBER 4. 
Links with the Past in the Plant World. By Professor A. C. Seward. F.R.S. 647 



XXX CONTENTS. 



APPENDIX T. 

Page 

Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes. By J. Milne, D.Sc.. F.R.S G49 



APPENDIX II. 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. W. Whitaker (Chairman). Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing (Secretary). Rev. 
J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Carson, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, Dr. A. C. Haddon. Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinsok, 
Mr. A. L. Lewis, Mr. F. W. Rfdler, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and Iho 
President and General Officers. (Drawn up by the Secretary) .... 741 

Report of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies; 
held at Portsmouth, August 31 and September 5. 1911 742 

Address by the Chairman, Professor J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. (The 
Scientific Misappropriation of Popular Terms) 742 

The Study of Fungi by Local Natural History Societias. By Harold 

Wager, F.R.S 747 

Discussion on Co-ordination of the Work of Local Scientific Societies 749 

The Protection of Plants. By Wilfred Mark Webb 750 

List of Corresponding Societies, 1911-1912 754 

Catalogue of the more important Papers published by the Corresponding 
Societies during the year ending May 31, 1911 759 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plates I. and II. 
Illustrating the Report on Seismological Investigations. 

Plate III. 

Illustrating the Report on the Excavation of Critical Sections in the Paloozoic 
Rocks of Wales and the West of England. 



OFFICEES AND COUNCIL, 1911-1912. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 
Professor Sm WILLTAM RAMSAY, K.C.B., Ph.D., LL.D., D.Sc, M.D., F It.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



TT.R.H. The Princess HENRY of Battenbkrg. 
Uderman Sir T. Scott Foster, J.P., Mayor of 

Portsmouth. 
His Grace the Lord ARCnnisiiop OF CANTERBURY, 

G.O.V.O., D.n. 
His Grace the Lord Archbishop op York, D.D. 

The Most Hon. the MARQUESS OP WINCHESTER, 
Lord Lieutenant of the County of Hants. 

Fiel.l Marshal the Right Hon. the EARL ROBERTS, 
K.G., K.P., G.O.B., O.M., V.C. 



Tlie Right Rev. the Lord Brsnop of Winchester, 

D.D. 
The Right Hon. Lord Macnaghtpn, O.C.F.., 

G.C.M.G. 
Admiral Sir A. W. MOORE, G.C.B., K.C.V.O., CM.fi . 
Major-General .T. K. Trotter, O.B., O.M.G. 
Rear-Admiral A. U. Tate, R.N. 
Colonel Sir W. T. Duprpe, D.L., T.D.. J.P. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., D.G.L., F.R.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Professor E. A. Schafer, LL.D., D.Sc., M.D., F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. the Eart, of STRATHMORE, Lord 

Lieutenant of the County of Forfar. 
James Ferguson, K.C., Sheriff of Forfarshire. 
The Hon. the Lord Provost of Dundee, .Tamps 

DRQUHART, LL.D. 
Tlie Right Hon. the Eart, op CAMPEKDOWH. 
The Right Hon. Lord Kinnaird. 
The Right Rev. Bishop Robberds, D.D., Bishop of 

Brechin, Primus of the Episcopal Church of 

Scotland. 
The Right Rev. Angus Macfarlane, D.D., Bishop 

of Dunkeld. 



Sir James Donaldson, LL.D., Principal of the 
University of St. Andrews. 

J. Yple Mack'AV, M.D., LL.D., Principal of Uni- 
versity College, Dundee. 

Sir William Ogii.vv Dalgletsh, Bart., of Errol 
Park. 

Sir George Baxter, LL.D. 

J. K. Caird, LL.D. 

The President of the Chamber of Commerce, 
Dundee (1912). 

The Moderator of the Church of Scotland (1912). 

The Moderator of the United Free Church of 
Scotland (1912). 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor John Perry, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, R.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. | Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
0. J. R. Howarth, M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 

CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 
H. 0. Stewardson, Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT DUNDEE. 
W. G. LEGGATT. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT DUNDEE. 

\V. H p.r.Y-m Martin. | Dr. A. H. Millar. | Prof. D'Arcy Thompson, O.B. 

[P.T.O. 



xxxn 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Abney, Sir W., K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Anderson', Tempest, M.D., D.Sc. 
ARMSTRONG, Professor H. E., F.R.S. 
Brabrook, Sir Edward, G.B. 
Brunton, Sir Lauder, Bart., F.R.S. 
Close, Colonel C. P., R.E., O.M.G. 
Oraigif, Major P. (!!., O.B. 
Groove, W., B.A. 
Griffiths, Principal E. FT., F.R.S. 
Haddon, Dr. A. C, P.R.S. 
Hall, A. I>., F.R.S. 
Halliburton, Professor W. D.. F.R.S. 

White, Sir W. 



Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A. 
Marr, Dr. J. E., F.R.S. 
MULDOLA, Professor R., F.R.S. 
Mitchell, Dr. P. CHALMRRS, F.R.S. 
Myrks, Professor J. L., M.A. 
Poulton, Professor E. B., F.R.S. 
Prain, Lieut.-Colonel D., O.I.E., F.R.S. 
Sherrington, Professor 0. S., F.R.S. 
Teall, J. J. FT., P.R.S. 
Thompson. Dr. SlLVANDS P.,tf\R.S. 
Trodton, Professor F. T„ F.R.S. 
TUTTON, Dr. A. E. H., F.R.S. 
IT., K.O.B., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President and Vice-Presidents for the year, the 
President and ^ice-Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 

Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Sir Arthur W. Rucker, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 



PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION, 



Lord Avebury, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.O.L., F.R.S. 
Sir A. Geikie, K.O.B., Pres. R.S. 
Lord Lister. T>.( !.L., F.R.S. 
Sir William Orookes, O.M., F.R.S. 



Sir W. Turner, K.O.B.. F.R.S. 
Sir A. W. Riicker, D.Sc., F.R.S. 
Sir James Dewar, LL D„ F.R.S. 
Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B..F.R.S. 
Arthur J. Balfour, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir George Darwin, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Sir E.Bay Lankester,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 
Sir Daviil Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 
Sir J.J. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, Sc.D.. F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF TfTE ASSOCIATION. 



P. L. Sclater, Th.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., F.R.S. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 



Sir A. W. Riicker, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. A. Schufer, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 



Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Garson. 



AUDITORS. 



Sir Edward Brahrook, OB. 



Professor IT. MeLeod, F.R.S. 



RULES OF 
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

[Adojtted by the General Committee at Leicester, 1907, 
with subsequent amendments.'} 



Chapter I. 
Objects and Constitution. 

1. The objects of the British Association for the Advance- b"e it 
inent of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in different parts 

of the British Empire with one another and with foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for the objects 
of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

2. The Association shall consist of Members, Associates, Constitution 
and Honorary Corresponding Members. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall be directed by a Council and conducted by 
General Officers appointed by that Committee. 

3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or Annual 
longer, and at such other- times as the General Committee Meeting?, 
may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 

in advance ; and the arrangements for these meetings shall 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

Chapter II. 

The General Committee. 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the Constitution, 
following persons : — 

(i) Permanent Members — 

(a) Past and present Members of the Council, and past 
and present Presidents of the Sections. 
1911. 



XXXIV 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Admission. 



Meetings. 



Functions. 



(b) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furthered the advancement of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association. 

(ii) Temporary Members — 

(a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(b) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 

sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies. 

(d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 

number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 

2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and 
claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
General Committee shall be final. 

(i) Claims for admission as a Permanent Member must 

be lodged with the Assistant Secretary at least one 

month before the x\.nnual Meeting, 
(ii) Claims for admission as a Temporary Member may be 

sent to the Assistant Secretary at any time before or 

during the Annual Meeting. 

3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least during 
every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annual 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 
to summon a meeting of the General Committee. 

4. The General Committee shall 

(i) Receive and consider the. report of the Council. 

(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations. 

(iii) Receive and consider the report of the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 
than two years in advance. 

(v) Determine the date of the next Annual Meeting. 

(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer, and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting. 

(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council, 
(viii) Appoint General Officers. 

(ix) Appoint Auditors, 
(x) Elect the officers of the Conference of Delegates. 

(xi) Receive any notice of motion for the next Annual' 
Meeting. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 



XXXV 



Chapter III. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

1. * The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution, 
mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 
Association, the President of each Section at the Annual 
Meeting, the Chairman of the Conference of Delegates, the 

General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and 
the Presidents of the Association in former years. 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. Every recommendation made under Chapter IV. and Functions, 
every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 

the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Recommendations 
approve such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidered by the General Committee that is not so transmitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section or Sub- 
Section, for altering the title of a Section, or for any other 
change in the constitutional forms or fundamental rules of 
the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration and report. 

3. The Committee of Recommendations shall assemble, Procedure, 
for the despatch of business, on the Monday of the Annual 
Meeting, and, if necessary, on the following day. Their 

Report must be submitted to the General Committee on the 
last day of the Annual Meeting. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Winnipeg, 1909. 

b 2 



XXXVI 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Procedure. 



Constitution. 



Proposals by 

Sectional 

Committees. 



Tenure. 



Reports. 



Chapter IV. 

Research Committees. 

1. Every proposal for special research, or for a grant of 
money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

In consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee, composed of Members of the Association, to 
conduct research or administer a grant in aid of research, 
and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; and the 
Committee of Recommendations may include such recom- 
mendation in their report to the General Committee. 

2. Every appointment of a Research Committee shall be 
proposed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 
at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary. 
Such Research Committee, if appointed, shall have power to 
add to their numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes 
of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall 
be forwarded by the Recorder to the Assistant Secretary not 
later than noon on the Monday of the Annual Meeting for 
presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 

4. Research CommiLtees are appointed for one year only. 
If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 
in that year, application may be made through a Sectional 
Committee at the next Annual Meeting for reappointment, 
with or without a grant — or a further grant — of money. 

5. Every Research Committee shall present a Report, 
whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 
that at which it was appointed or reappointed. Interim 
Reports, whether intended for publication or not, must be sub- 
mitted in writing. Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain 
whether a Report has been made by each Research Committee 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. XXXV11 

appointed on their recommendation, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations on or before the Monday of 
the Annual Meeting. 

6. In each Research Committee to which a grant of money Grants. 
has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call ^ a ?^ n by 
on the General Treasurer for such portion of the sum gi-anted 
as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting (J) Expire or 
expire on June 30 following. The General Treasurer is not June 30 - 
authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants. 

The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before ( c ) Accounts 
the Annual Meeting next following the appointment of and balance 
the Research Committee, forward to the General Treasurer 
a statement of the sums that have been received and ex- 
pended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
either return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains 
unexpended, or, if further expenditure be contemplated, apply 
for leave to retain the balance. 

When application is made for a Committee to be re- (d) Addi- 
appointed, and to retain the balance of a former grant, and tional Grant 
also to receive a further grant, the amount of such further 
grant is to be estimated as being sufficient, together with 
the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 

In making grants of money to Research Committees, the (e) Caveat 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal 
expenses to the Members. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
Committee. 

7. Members and Committees entrusted with sums of money Disposal of 
for collecting specimens of any description shall include in their specimens, 
Reports particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens a PP ara us> 
thus obtained for disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any ap- 
paratus which may have been purchased out of a grant made 
by the Association, and to state whether the apparatus is 
likely to be useful for continuing the research in question or 
for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of 
the Association, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall 
be deposited at the Office of the Association. 



XXXV 111 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter V. 

The Council. 

Constitution. 1. The Council shall consist of ex officio Members and of 

Ordinary Members elected annually by the General Com- 
mittee. 

(i) The ex officio Members are — the Trustees, past Presi- 
dents of the Association, the President and Vice- 
Presidents for the year, the President and Vice- 
Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the ensuing Annual Meeting, 
(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty- five in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty shall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
previous year. 

Functions 2. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 

on behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the affairs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the ney.t 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual Report, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for election by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the 
Council at the Meeting in February, and the names selected 
shall be issued with the summonses to the Council Meeting in 
March, when the nomination shall be made from the names 
on the list. 

The Council shall have power to appoint and dismiss 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 



THE COUNCIL. XXXIX 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same Elections, 
time as that of the Officers of the Association, 

(i) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary- 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for re- 
election in the ensuing year : 

(a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

longest consecutive period, and 

(b) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 

London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 
Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
order of retirement above set forth. 

(ii) The Council shall submit to the General Committee, 
in their Annual R.eport, the names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council, 
(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 
Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
members of Council, and, if only two are so proposed, 
they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two 
are so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
unless five members at least require it to be by ballot. 



Chapter VI. 

The President, General Officers, and Staff. 

1. The President assumes office on the first day of the The Presi- 
Annual Meeting, when he delivers a Presidential Address. 

He resigns office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. In his absence, he shall be represented 
by a Vice-President or past President of the Association. 

2. The General Officers of the Association are the General General 
Treasurer and the General Secretaries. Officers. 



xl 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The General 
Treasurer. 



The General 
Secretaries. 



The Assistant 
Secretary. 



Assistant 
Treasurer. 



It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Association, in any matter of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

3. The General Treasurer shall be responsible to the 
General Committee and the Council for the financial affairs 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretaries shall control the general 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to 
the General Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general routine of the work of 
the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Assistant Secretary shall hold office during the 
pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 
of the General Secretaries, and in their absence shall repre- 
sent them. He shall also act on the directions which may 
be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Assistant Secretary shall be charged, subject as afore- 
said : (i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persons 
therein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 

6. The General Treasurer may depute one of the Staff, as 
Assistant Treasurer, to carry on, under his direction, the 
routine work of the duties of his office. 

The Assistant Treasurer shall be charged with the issue of 
Membership Tickets, the payment of Grants, and such other 
work as may be delegated to him. 



Financial 
Statements. 



Chapter VII. 

Finance. 

1. The General Treasurer, or Assistant Treasurer, shall 
receive and acknowledge all sums of money paid to the 
Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 
Council, an interim statement of his Account ; and, after 



FINANCE. 



xli 



June 30 in each year, he shall prepare and submit to the 
General Committee a balance-sheet of the Funds of the 
Association. 

2. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, Audit, 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinary pay- Expenditure, 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 

Council. 

4. The General Treasurer is empowered to draw on the Investments, 
account of the Association, and to invest on its behalf, 

part or all of the balance standing at any time to the credit 
of the Association in the books of the Bank of England, 
either in Exchequer Bills or in any other temporary invest- 
ment, and to change, sell, or otherwise deal with such tem- 
porary investment as may seem to him desirable. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable, Cheques, 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 

his office, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 



Local Offi- 
cers and 
Committees. 



Chapter VIII. 

The Annual Meetings. 

1. Local Committees shall be formed to assist the General 
Officers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and 
shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General Officers 
and the Assistant Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Treasurers 
shall be empowered to enrol Members and Associates, and to 
receive subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Committees shall under- Functions, 
take the local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 

name of the Association in all matters pertaining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than the work of 
the Sections. 



xlii 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The 
Sections. 



Sectional 
Officers. 



Rooms. 



Sectional 
Committees. 

Constitution. 



Privilege of 
Old Members. 



Daily 
Co-optation. 



Chapter IX. 
The Work of the Sections. 

1. The scientific work of the Association shall be trans- 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time 
to time by the General Committee. 

It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of communica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for each Annual Meet- 
ing in advance, and shall act as the Officers of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting. 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The Section Rooms and the approaches thereto shall 
not be used for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes 
than those of the Association. 

4. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following : — 

(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office. 

(ii). All past Presidents of that Section. 

(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 

any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Committee, 

thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 

meeting : 

Provided always that — 

(a) Any Member of the Association who has served on 

the Committee of any Section in any previous year, 
and who has intimated his intention of being present 
at the Annual Meeting, is eligible as a member of 
that Committee at their first meeting. 

(b) A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 

set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members. 



THE WORK OF THE SECTIONS. xliii 

(c) A Sectional Committee may, at any time during the Additional 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons d ^^ 
present at the meeting. to be Vice-Presidents of the 
Section, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 

5. The chief executive officers of a Section shall be the Executive 
President and the Recorder. They shall have power to act on Functions 
behalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 

be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
mittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- Of President 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be absolute on all points 
of order that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- An d of 
mission to the Assistant Secretary of the daily programme of 
his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, of the printed returns, abstracts, reports, or papers 
appei-taining to the proceedings of his Section at the Annual 
Meeting, and for the correspondence and minutes of the 
Sectional Committee. 

6. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the Organising 
close of the Annual Meeting, not more than six of its own ommi ee - 
members to be members of an Organising Committee, with 

the officers to be subsequently appointed by the Council, and 
past Presidents of the Section, from the close of the Annual 
Meeting until the conclusion of its meeting on the first day of 
the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

Each Organising Committee shall hold such Meetings as 
are deemed necessary by its President for the organisation 
of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and shall hold a meeting 
on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting : to nominate 
members of the Sectional Committee, to confirm the Pro- 
visional Programme of the Section, and to report to the 
Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- Sectional 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt Committee, 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be offered by a member, or may 
arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 

No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been Papers and 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted epor s ' 
on its Minutes. 



xliv 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Recommen- 
dations. 



Publication. 



Copyright. 



Any report or paper read in any one Section may be read 
also in any other Section. 

No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the 
Annual Report of the Association unless the manuscript has 
been received by the Recorder of the Section before the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

It shall be within the competence of the Sectional Com- 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, further, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the task 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa- 
tion, whether by reference to local authorities, public institu- 
tions, or Departments of His Majesty's Government. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Com- 
mittee. 

7. Papers ordered to be printed in extenso shall not be 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 
to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports 
of Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere 
than in the Annual Report without the express sanction of 
the Council. 

8. The copyright of papers ordered by the General Com- 
mittee to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report shall 
be vested in the authors ; and the copyright of the reports 
of Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
shall be vested in the Association. 



ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. xlv 



Chapter X. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

1. No technical qualification shall be required on the Applications, 
part of an applicant for admission as a Member or as an 
Associate of the British Association ; but the Council is 
empowered, in the event of special circumstances arising, to 

impose suitable conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

* Every person admitted as a Member or an Associate Obligations, 
shall conform to the Rules and Regulations of the Association, 
any infringement of which on his part may render him liable 
to exclusion by the Council, who have also authority, if they 
think it necessary, to withhold from any person the privilege 
of attending any Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of 
admission already issued. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Council, on any occasion of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
Meeting. 

2. All Members are eligible to any office in the Association. Conditions 
(i) Every Life Member shall pay, on admission, the sum of jie m b er _ 

of Ten Pounds. ship. 

Life Members shall receive gratis the Annual 
Reports of the Association, 
(ii) Every Annual Member shall pay, on admission, the 
sum of Two Pounds, and in any subsequent year 
the sum of One Pound. 

Annual Members shall receive gratis the Report 
of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay, 
luithout intermission, their annual subscription. An 
Annual Member who omits to subscribe for any 
particular year shall lose for that and all future 
years the privilege of receiving the Annual Reports 
of the Association gratis. He, however, may resume 
his other privileges as a Member at any subsequent 
Annual Meeting by paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound, 
(iii) Every Associate for a year shall pay, on admission, 
the sum of One Pound. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Dublin, 1908. 



xlvi 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Correspond- 
ing Members. 



Annual Sub- 
scriptions. 



The Annual 
Report. 



Associates shall not receive the Annual Report 
gratuitously. They shall not be eligible to serve on 
any Committee, nor be qualified to hold any office in 
the Association, 
(iv) Ladies may become Members or Associates on the 
same terms as gentlemen, or can obtain a Lady's 
Ticket (transferable to ladies only) on the payment 
of One Pound. 

3. Corresponding Members may be appointed by the 
General Committee, on the nomination of the Council. They 
shall be entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending the meeting may 
make payment at any time before the close of the financial 
year on June 30 of the following year. 

5. The Annual Report of the Association shall be forwarded 
gratis to individuals and institutions entitled to receive it. 

Annual Members whose subscriptions have been inter- 
mitted shall be entitled to purchase the Annual Report 
at two-thirds of the publication price ; and Associates for a 
year shall be entitled to purchase, at the same price, the 
volume for that year. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of 
publication can only be issued by direction of the Council. 



Afftliated 
Societies. 



Associated 
Societies. 



Chapter XL 

Corresponding Societies : Conference of Delegates. 

Corresponding Societies are constituted as follows : 

1. (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the Rritish Association. 

Each Affiliated Society may appoint a Delegate, 
who must be or become a Member of the Associa- 
tion and must attend the meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates. He shall be ex officio a Member of 
the General Committee. . 
(ii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 
the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and numbers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the British 
Association. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES : CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES, xlvii 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con- 
ference. Such Delegates must be or become either 
Members or Associates of the British Association, 
and shall have all the rights of Delegates appointed 
by the Affiliated Societies, except that of member- 
ship of the General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed Applications. 
on the list of Corresponding Societies. Such application must 

be addressed to the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of 
June preceding the Annual Meeting at which it is intended 
it should be considered, and must, in the case of Societies 
desiring to be affiliated, be accompanied by specimens of the 
publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- Cobbe- 
nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the sponding 
General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves committee. 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties and of superintending the preparation of a list of the 

papers published by the Affiliated Societies. This Com- 
mittee shall make an Annual Report to the Council, and 
shall suggest such additions or changes in the list of Corre- 
sponding Societies as they may consider desirable. 

(i) Each Corresponding Society shall forward every year Procedure, 
to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, on or 
before June 1, such particulars in regard to the 
Society as may be required for the information of 
the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

(ii) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the 
Association a list of the papers published by 
the Corresponding Societies during the preceding 
twelve months which contain the results of local 
scientific work conducted by them — those papers 
only being included which refer to subjects coming 
under the cognisance of one or other of the several 
Sections of the Association. 



4. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies shall consti- Confebekce 
tute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, OF Del£ - 

P AT"FS 

and Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated annually by 
the Council and appointed by the General Committee. The 
members of the Corresponding Societies Committee shall be 
ex officio members of the Conference. 

(i) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by Procedureand 



the Secretaries to hold one or more meetings during 



Functions. 



xlviii RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

each Annual Meeting of the Association, and 
shall be empowered to invite any Member or 
Associate to take part in the discussions. 

(ii) The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to 
submit Resolutions to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration, and for report 
to the General Committee. 

(iii) The Sectional Committees of the Association shall 
be requested to transmit to the Secretaries of the 
Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions to be made to the General Committee bearing 
on matters in which the co-operation of Corre- 
sponding Societies is desirable. It shall be com- 
petent for the Secretaries of the Conference of 
Delegates to invite the authors of such recom- 
mendations to attend the meetings of the Conference 
in order to give verbal explanations of their objects 
and of the precise way in which they desire these 
to be carried into effect. 

(iv) It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make 
themselves familiar with the purport of the several 
recommendations brought before the Conference, in 
order that they may be able to bring such recom- 
mendations adequately before their respective 
Societies, 
(v) The Conference may also discuss propositions 
regarding the promotion of more systematic ob- 
servation and plans of operation, and of greater 
uniformity in the method of publishing results. 



Chapter XII. 

Amendments and New Rides. 

Alterations. Any alterations in the Rules, and any amendments 

or new Rules that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee on the first day of the Annual Meeting, and referred 
forthwith to the Committee of Recommendations ; and, on the 
report of that Committee, shall be submitted for approval at 
the last meeting of the General Committee. 



PLACES AND DATES OF PAST MEETINGS, ETC. 



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1911. 



lxvi 



TEUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831-3 911. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. Murchisox (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Tatloe, Esq.. F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1358-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1S62-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 



TRUSTEES. 
1872 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 

Avebury), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord) 

Playfaib, F.R.S. 
Trof . (Sir) A. W. Rucker, F.R.S. 



1883 
1883- 

1898- 



■98 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Gbay, Esq. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



1891-98 Prof. (Sir) A. W. RfJCKER, 

F.R.S. 
1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904- Prof. John Perry, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832- 
1835- 



35 



36 



1836-37 



1837-39 



1839-45 



Rev. W. 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 



Vernon Harcourt, 

Vernon Harcourt, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 



1845- 
1850- 

1852- 
1 8.53- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 



50 
52 

53 
59 
61 

02 
63 



1863-65 



1865- 
1866- 



Vernon Harcourt, 
and R. I. Murchison, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
R. I. Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir 11. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Coloncl E. Sabine.F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J.F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



1868-71 Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
1 871-72 Dr.T. THOMSON,F.R.S.,and Capt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1872-76 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
1876-81 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 
1881-82 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balfour, F R.S. 
1882-83 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1883-95 Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Vernon Harcourt, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1895-97 A. G.Vernon Harcourt, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

Schafer, F.R.S. 
1897- f Prof. Schafer, F.R.S., and Sir 
1900 1 W.C.Roberts-Austen,F.R.S. 
1900-02 Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
1902-03 Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., and 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
1903- Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES, &c. : 1831-1904. 

1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 
Secretary. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Forbes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A., 

Assistant Secretary. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARIES. 

O. J. R. Howarth, Esq., M.A. 



1904-09 A. Silva White, Esq. 



1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

St 'CT 'tstCLTti 

1890-1902 G. Griffith, Esq.. M.A. 
1902-04 J. G. Garson, Esq., M.D. 



1909- 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



1 * ■ 

Ixvn 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. — MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. 
1833. 
1834. 



1835. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 

1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

Plymouth 
Manchester 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Oxford 



Swansea ... 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 
Prof. Stevellv. 
Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.R.S.... j J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S ; Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, 

Arch. Smith. 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S !Prof. Stevelly. 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

F.R.S. W. Scoresby. 

Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.I.A. ... J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S. ... Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, 

Ely. G. G. Stokes. 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Bart., F.R.S. Stokes. 

Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., \ Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 
F.R.S. Stokes. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 

William Hopkins, F.R.S Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridont Wills. 
Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., W. J.MacquornRankine,Prof.Smyth, 

Sec. R.S.E. Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., S.Jackson, W.J. Macquorn Rankine, 

F.R.S. Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 

Prof. W. Thomson, M.A.J Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

The Very Rev. the Dean of B. Blavdes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 

Ely, F.R.S. Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. J. Hartnup, H. G. Pnckle, Prof. 
R.S. Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 

Glasgow ... Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D.Gray, Prof. 



F.R.S., F.R.S.E 
Cheltenham I Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 



. Dublin. 



1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen.. 



Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 

Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof . Stevelly, H.J. S.Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

The Earl of Rosse, M.A..K.P., J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. 
F.R.S. ! J.mi S. Sth, Prcf . Stevelly. 

d 2 



Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D.. 
V.P.R.S. 



lxviii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



I860. Oxford. 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



1864. Bath. 



1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1869. Exeter. 



1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton.., 

1873. Bradford.. 



Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 
G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., 

TCI T> O 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W.J. MacquornRankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode,M.A.,F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. Bristol. 



1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth.., 

1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield 

1880. Swansea 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 



Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. . 



Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A.. 
M.R.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 

Pres. Physical Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Salmon, D.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
George Johnstone Stoney, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Grylls Adams, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., 

•C\D O 

Prof.O.Henrici, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Chrystal, M.A., 
FR.S.E. 

Prof. G. H. Darwin, M.A., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Re v.N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin,Prof ,H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
M.A.,JProf. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W. K. Cliff ord, J. W. L. Glaisher , 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. E. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. 

Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. 

Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. W.L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 

J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 
Prof. J. Casey, G. F. Fitzgerald, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Dr. O. J. Lodge. 
A. H. Allen, J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. 

0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
W. E. Ayrton, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 
Prof. W. E. Ayrton, Dr. O. J. Lodge, 

D. MacAlister, Rev. W. Routh. 
W. M. Hicks, Dr. 0. J. Lodge, D. 

MacAlister, Rev. G. Richardson. 

W. M. Hicks, Prof. O. J. Lodge, 
D. MacAlister, Prof. R. C. Rowe. 

C. Carpmael, W. M. Hicks, A. John- 
son, O. J. Lodge, D. MacAlister. 

R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof, 
W. M. Hicks, Prof. W. Ingram. 

R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 
J. H. Poynting, W. N. Shaw. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS, 



lxix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1887. Manchester Prof. Sir R. S. Ball, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

1888. Bath Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

1889. Newcastle- Capt. W. de W. Abney, C.B., 

upon-Tyne R.E., F.R.S. 

1890. Leeds J. W. L. Glaisher, Sc.D., 

F.R.S., V.P.R.A.S. 

1891. Cardiff Prof. 0. J. Lodge, D.Sc., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 

1892. Edinburgh Prof. A. Schuster, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

1893. Nottingham R.T. Glazebrook, M.A., F.R.S. 

1894. Oxford Prof.A.W.Riicker,M.A.,F.R.S. 

1895. Ipswich ...Prof. W. M. Hicks, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

1896. Liverpool... Prof. J. J. Thomson, M.A., 

D.Sc, F.R.S. 



Toronto ... Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 

P D O 

Bristol ' Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 



1897 
1898. 

1899. Dover Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

1900. 



Bradford... Dr. J. Larmor, F.R.S.— Bep. 
of Astronomy, Dr. A. A. 
Common, F.R.S. 

1901. Glasgow ... Major P.A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 

— Bep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

1902. Belfast Prof. J.Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 

— Bep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 

1903. Southport C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S.— .Dp/;. 

of Astronomy and Meteor- 
ology , ( Dr .W .N '. Shaw,F.R.S 

1904. Cambridge Prof. H. Lamb, F.R.S.— Sub- 

Section of Astronomy and 
Cosmical Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.B, F.R.S. 

1905. SouthAfrica Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

1906. York Principal E. H.Griffiths.F.R.S. 



Leicester ...Prof. A. E. H. Love, M.A., 
F.R S. 



1907. 

1908. Dublin Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S. 



1909. Winnipeg Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S. 

1910. Sheffield ... Prof. E. W. Hobson, F.R.S.. 



R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. 

H. Lamb, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw. 
R. E. Baynes, R. T. Glazebrook, A. 

Lodge, W. N. Shaw, H. Stroud. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Prof. A. Lodge, 

W. N. Shaw, Prof. W. Stroud. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Prof. A. L. Selby. 
R. E. Baynes, J. Larmor, Prof. A. 

Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
W. T. A. Emtage, J. Larmor, Prof. 

A. Lodge, Dr. W. Peddie. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

J Walker. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, Prof. A. Lodge, 

G. T. Walker, W. Watson. 
Prof. W. H. Heaton, J. L. Howard, 

Prof. A. Lodge, G. T. Walker, W. 

Watson. 
Prof .W.H. Heaton, J. C.Glashan, J.L. 

Howard, Prof. J. C. McLennan. 
A. P. Chattock, J. L. Howard, C. H. 

Lees, W. Watson, E. T. Whittaker. 
J. L. Howard, C. H. Lees, W. Wat- 
son, E. T. Whittaker. 
P. H. Cowell, A. Fowler, C. H. Lees, 

C. J. L. Wagstaffe, W. Watson, 

E. T. Whittaker. 
H.S.Carslaw,C.H.Lees, W. Stewart, 

Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. B. 
Morton, A. W. Porter. 

D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 
H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees, J. 
Loton, A. W. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. H. T. Hudson, 
Dr. C. H. Lees, Dr. W. J. S. Lock- 
yer, A. W. Porter, W. C. D. 
Whet ham. 

A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough, R. T. A. 
Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. C. H. Lees. 

Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 
A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. W. Porter, 
H. Dennis Taylor. 

E. E. Brooks, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, 
Dr. J. A. Harker, A. R. Hinks, 
Prof. A. W. Porter. 

Dr. W. G. Duffield, Dr. L. N. G. 

Filon, E. Gold, Prof. J. A, 

McClelland, Prof. A. W. Porter, 

Prof. E. T. Whittaker. 
Prof. F. Allen, Prof. J. C. Fields, 

E. Gold, F. Horton, Prof. A. W 

Porter, Dr. A. A. Rambaut. 
H. Bateman, A. S. Eddington, E. 

Gold, Dr. F. Horton, Dr. S. R. 

Milner, Prof. A. W. Porter. 



lxx 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1911. Portsmouth Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 



H. Bateman, Prof. P. V. Bevan, A. S. 
Eddington, E. Gold, Prof. A. W. 
Porter, P. A. Yapp. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY, &C. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Dr. Hope , 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 

1842. 
1843. 
1844. 

1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1 855. 
1856. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

Dublin |Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Bristol [Rev. Prof. Cumming 'Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Liverpool... Michael Faraday, F.R.S Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 

Reynolds. 

Newcastle Rev. William Whewell,F.R.S. ' Prof. Miller, H. L. Pattinson, Thomas 

Richardson. 
Birmingham Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S Dr. Golding Bird, Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Glasgow ... Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R S. Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 

Plymouth... Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S J.Prideaux, R. Hunt, W. M. Tweedy. 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 



Cambridge 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I.A R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S [Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. 

Barker. 
Sev. Prof. Cumming R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, \V. Randall. 



Southamp- Michael Faraday, D.C.L 
ton. F.R.S. 

Oxford Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A.,' B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

F.R.S. 

Swansea ... I Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

Birmingham John Percy, M.D., F.R.S.... 



Edinburgh 
Ipswich 



Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E. ... 
Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. 



Belfast i Thomas Andrews,M.D.,F.R.S, 



T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 
R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 
Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 
T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 
Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

Hull Prof. J.F. W. Johnston, M.A., H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt,T. J. 

F.R.S. Pearsall. 

Liverpool Prof. W. A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S.[ Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

Price. 
Glasgow ... Dr. Lyon Playfair,C.B.,F.R.S. Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 



Cheltenham Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. 



Dublin Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Leeds Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Aberdeen... Dr. LyonPlayfair,C.B., F.R.S. 



1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. Oxford Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 



1861. Manchester Prof. W.A.Miller, M.D.,F.R.S. 

1862. Cambridge Prof. W.H.Miller, M.A.,F.R.S. 



J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxi 



Date and Place 



1863 

1864 

1865 

1866 

1867 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872, 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876. 

1877. 

LS78, 

1879, 

1880, 

1881, 
1882, 

1883, 

1884. 

1885. 

1886 
1887 
1888, 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 



Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 
Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 
Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow ... 
Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 



Presidents 



York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen... 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 



Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, 

F.R.S. 
W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D.. 

V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. T. Anderson, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews.M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S... 

Prof. A. Crura Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Perkin, F.R.S 

F. A.Abel, F.R.S 

Prof. Maxwell Simpson, M.D., 

Prof. De'war, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

Joseph Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof.A.W.Williamson.F.R.S. 
Prof. G. D. Liveing, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S... 

Prof. Sir H. E. Roscoe, Ph.D., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
, Prof. H. E.Armstrong, Ph.D., 

F.R.S., Sec. C.S. 

W. Crookes, F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Dr. E.Schunck, F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Tilden, D.Sc, 

F.R.S., V.P.C.S. 
Sir T. Lowthian Bell, Bart., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. E. Thorpe, B.Sc, 

Ph.D., F.R.S., Treas. C.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. H. McLeod, F.R.S 



J 



Secretaries 



Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Alherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Frof . G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Cram Brown, Dr. W. J. 
Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown. A. E. Fletcher, 
Dr. W. J. Russell.' 

J. Y. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. 
E. Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 
W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. TUden. 

W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

W. Chandler Roberts, J. M. Thom- 
son, Dr. C. R. Tichborne, T. Wills. 

H. S. Bell, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 

P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, W. R. E. 
Hodgkinson, J. M. Thomson. 

P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, T. Gough. 

P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
J. L. Notter. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. 
Dixon, H. Forster Morley. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
T. McFarlane, Prof. W. H. Pike. 

Prof. P.Phillips Bedson, H. B. Dixon, 
H. Forster Morley, Dr. W. J. 
Simpson. 

P. P. Bedson, H. B. Dixon, H. F. Mor- 
ley ,W.W. J. Nicol, C.J. Woodward. 

Prof. P. Phillips Bedson, H. Forster 
Morley, W. Thomson. 

Prof. H. B. Dixon, H. Forster Morlej 
R. E. Moyle, W. W. J. Nicol. 

H. Forster Morley, D. H. Nagel, A\ 
W. J. Nicol, H. L. Tattinson, jun. 

C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 
D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 

C. H. Bothamley, H. Forster Morley, 
W. W. J. Nicol, G. S. Turpin. 

J. Gibson, H. Forster Morley, D. H. 
Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 



Ixxii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1893. Nottingham Prof. J. Emerson Reynolds, 

M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

1894. Oxford Prof. H. B.Dixon, M.A., F.R.S. ' A. Colefax, W. W. Fisher, Arthur 

I Harden, H. Forster Morley. 



J. B. Coleman, M. J. R. Dunstan, 
D. H. Nagel, W. W. J. Nicol. 



1895. Ipswich ... 



1896. 
1897. 

1898. 

1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 
1906. 
1907. 

1908. 
1909. 
1910. 



Liverpool... 
Toronto . . . 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford . . . 

Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 
York 

Leicester... 



Dublin 

Winnipeg... 
Sheffield ... 



1911. Portsmouth 



section B (continued). 
Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S 

Dr. Ludwig Mond, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Prof. F. R. Japp, F.R.S 

Horace T. Brown, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 

Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Sydney YouDg.F.R.S.... 



George T. Beilby 



Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, 

F R S 
Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. 
J. E. Stead, F.R.S 



Sub-section of Agriculture, A. 

D.Hall, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Walker, F.R.S 



-CHEMISTRY. 

E. H. Fison, Arthur Harden, C. A. 

Kohn.J. W. Rodger. 
Arthur Harden, C. A. Kohn. 
Prof. W. H. Ellis, A. Harden, C. A. 

Kohn, Prof. R. F. Ruttan. 
C. A. Kohn, F. W. Stoddait, T. K. 

Rose. 
A. D. Hall, C. A. Kohn, T. K. Rose, 

Prof. W. P. Wynne. 
W. M. Gardner, F. S. Kipping, W. 

J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 
W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 

W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 
R. F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof. 

G. G. Henderson, Prof. W.J. Pope. 
Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope. 
Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. O. Jones, Prof. W. 

J. Pope. 
W. A. Caldecott, Dr. M. O. Forster, 

Prof. G. G. Henderson, C. F. Juritz. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong:, Prof. A.W. Cross- 
ley, S. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. Pope. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 

Crossley, J. H. Hawthorn, Dr. 

F. M. Perkin. 
Dr. E. F.Armstrong, Dr. A. McKenzie, 

Dr. F M. Perkin, Dr. J. H. Pollock. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr.T. M. Lowry, 

Dr. F. M. Perkin, J. W. Shipley. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. T. M. 

Lowry, Dr. F. M. Perkin, W. E. S. 

Turner. 
Dr. C. Crowther, J. Golding, Dr. E. 

J. Russell. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. C. H. 

Desch, Dr. T. M. Lowry, Dr. F. 

Beddow. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford...... 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

J. Phillips, T. J. Torrie, Rev. J. Yates. 



1837. Liverpool... 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

R. J. Griffith Captain Portlook, T. J. Torrie. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, 



<ye^.,R.LMurchison,F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S.— 

G^.,G.B.Greenough, F.R.S. 



T. J. Torrie. 
Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy, Capt. H. M. Denham, R.N. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxiii 



Date and Place 

1838. Newcastle. 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 
1811. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 
1849.Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 1 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 



Presidents 



C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 
Geography, Lord Prudhoe. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 
tfm^G.B.Greenough.F.R.S. 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— Geog., 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. ... 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S. ... 
Henry Warburton, Pres. G. S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A. 

F.R.S. 
Leonard Horner, F.R.S. 

Very Rev.Dr.Buckland.F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography, Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strick- 
land, Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, H. Murray, 
H. E. Strickland, J. Scoular. 

W. J. Hamilton,Edward Moore, M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

F. M. Jennings, H. E. Strickland. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, Dr. J. H. Norton, 

Prof. Oldham, Dr. C. T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
S.Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. Ram say 
J. B. Jukes, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, 

Prof. Nicol. 



section c (continued). — geology. 



WilliamHopkins,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Lieut. -Col. Portlock, R.E., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S.... 



The Lord Talbot de Malahide 

William Hopkins,M. A., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S... 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart., 

K.C.B.. F.R.S. 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, 

Prof. M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Darkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
J. Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. Nicol 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hep- 
worth, Edward Hull, J. Scougall, 

T. Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, G. Sanders, R. H. 

Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, 

H. C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, E. Hull, J. W. 

Woodall. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. 

Rupert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert 

Jones, H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. 

Sorby, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
E. Hull, W. Pengelly, H. Woodward. 



1 Geography was constituted a separate Section, see page lxxx. 



lxxiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 
1871. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 

1883. 

1881. 

1885. 

1886. 

1887. 

18S8. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 
1897. 

1898. 

1899. 



Norwich ... 

Exeter , 

Liverpool.., 

Edinburgh 

Brighton ... 

Bradford . . . 
Belfast 



Presidents 



Bristol 

Glasgow . . 

Plymouth... 

Dublin 

Sheffield ... 
Swansea ... 
York 

Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 

Montreal ... 

Aberdeen . . . 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford... 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 
Toronto 

Bristol ... 

Dover ... 



R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de M.Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S 

Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S.. 

F.G.S. 
Dr. T. Wright, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. John Young, M.D 

\W. Pengelly, F.R.S, F.G.S. 

John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

F.S.A, F.G.S. 
Prof. P. M. Duncan, F.R.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S.... 
A. C. Ramsay, LL.D, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

1 Prof. W. C. Williamson, 

LL.D, F.R.S. 
W. T. Blanford, F.R S , Sec. 

Prof. J. W. Judd, F.R.S., Sec. 

G.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

LL.D, F.R.S, F.G.S. 
Henry Woodward, LL.D, 

F.R.S, F.G.S. 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A, 

F.R.S, F.G.S. 
! Prof. J. Geikie, LL.D, D.C.L, 

F.R.S, F.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Greerj, M.A, 

F.R.S, F.G.S. 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S, 

F.G.S. 
Prof. C. Lapworth, LL.D, 

F.R.S, F.G.S. 
J. J. H. Teall, M.A, F.R.S, 

L. Fletcher, M.A, F.R.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, B.A., F.R.S. ... 

J. E. Marr, M.A, F.R.S 

Dr. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G, 

F.R.S. 
W. H. Hudleston, F.R.S 

Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 



Rev. 0. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pentrelly, W. Boyd Dawkin?, 

Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, T. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L.C.Miall,R.H.fiddeman,AV.Topley. 
F. Drew, L. C. Miall, E. G. Symes, 

R. H. Tiddeman. 
L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. 

Topley. 
J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 

Topley. 
Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 

E. T. Hardman, Prof. J. O'Reilly, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

W. Topley, G. Blake Walker. 

W. Topley, W. Whitaker. 

J. E. Clark, W. Keeping, W. Topley, 
W. Whitaker. 

T. W. Shore, W. Topley, E. West- 
lake, W. Whitaker. 

R. Betley, C. E. De Ranee, W. Top- 
ley, W. Whitaker. 

F. Adams, Prof. E. W. Claypole, W. 
Topley, W. Whitaker. 

C. E. De Ranee, J. Home, J. J. H. 

Teall, W. Topley. 
W. J. Harrison, J. J. H. Teall, W. 

Toplev, W. W. Watts. 
J. E. Marr, J. J. H. Teall, W. Top- 
ley, W. W. Watts. 
Prof G. A. Lebour, W. Toj ley, W 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
Prof. G. A. Lebour, J. E. Marr, W. 

W. Watts, H. B. Woodward. 
J. E. Bedford, Dr. F. H. Hatch, J. 

E. Marr, W. W. Watts. 
W. Galloway, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
H. M. Cadell, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
J. W. Carr, J. E. Marr, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 
F. A. Bather, A. Harker, Clement 

Reid, W. W. Watts. 

F. A. Bather, G. W. Lamplugh, H. 
A. Miers, Clement Reid. 

J. Lomas, Prof. H. A. Miers, C. Reid. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, G. W. Lamp- 
lugh, Prof. H. A. Miers. 

G. W. Lamplugh, Prof. H. A. Miers, 
H. Pentecost. 

J. W. Gregory, G. W. Lamplugh, 
Capt. McDakin, Prof. H. A. Miers. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS.. 



lxxv 



Date and Place 



1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 



Jobn Home, F.R.S 

Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMabon, 

y t? s 
Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., 

M.Sc. 
Aubrey Strahan, F.R.S 



Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

G. W. Lamplugh, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. VV. Monckton, 

J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. Seymour. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 
J. Lomas, H. Woods. 
Prof. H A.Miers,M.A.,D.Sc, H. L.Bowman, J. Lomas, Dr. Molen- 
F.R.S. graaff, Prof. A. Young, Prof. R. B. 

Young. 

1906 York G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S H.L.Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Rev. W. Johnson, J. Lomas. 
1907. Leicester ... Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... ! Dr. F. W. Bennett, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Prof. T. Groom, J. Lomas. 

1908 Dublin Prof. John Joly, F.R.S Rev. W.L.Carter, J. Lomas, Prof. 

S. H. Reynolds, H. J. Seymour. 

1909 Winuipeg Dr. A. Smith Woodward, W. L. Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 

r FRS. R T.Hodgson, Prof. S.H.Reynolds. 

1910. Sheffield ... i Prof. A. P. Coleman, F.R.S... W. L. Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 

B. Hobsoa, Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 

1911. Portsmouth A. Harker, F.R.S Col. C. W. Bevis, W. L. Carter, Dr. 

A. R. Dwerryhouse, Prof. b. H. 
Reynolds. 

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGT, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 

1832. Oxford Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S. ... Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

1833. Cam bridge' I Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. C. C. Babington, D. Don. 

1834. Edinburgh iProf. Graham W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

1835. Dublin | Dr. Allman jJ. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow !j. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 

W. S. MacLeay C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 

Swainson. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, 

Dr. Richardson. 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. ! J. Couch,Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 
1842. Manchester Hon. and Very Rev. W. Her- Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
bert, LL.D., F.L.S. Turner. 

William Thompson, F.L.S. ...I G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. 

Patterson. 

1844. York "Very Rev. the Dean of Man- Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 

Chester. Dr. Lankester. 

1845. Cambridge !Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 
1840. Southamp- Sir J. Richardson, M.D., Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 

ton. ■ F.R.S. Wooldridge. 

1847. Oxford H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 

Wollaston. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth. 

1842. Mane 

1843. Cork. 



1 At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate^ Committee, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. lxxix. 



lxxvi 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



section d (continued). — ZOOLOGY and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Sub- 
sections and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. lxxix.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle 



Rev. Prof. 
F.R.S. 



Henslow, M.A., 



1864. Bath. 



1865. Birming- 
ham.' 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey, Dr. Lankester. 

William Spence, F.R.S Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S., F.R.S.E. Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 

W. Ogilby Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S.! Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... ! Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. William Keddie, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. E. Lankester. 

Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W.E.Steele. 

Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 

Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 
L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke. Rev. 
H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S.... 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. ... 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S, ... 



section D (continued) 

1866. Nottingham ] Prof. Huxley, F.R.S.— Bep. 

of Physiol., Prof. Humphry, 
F. R. S'.— Bep . of A nth ropol , 
A. R. Wallace. 

1867. Dundee ... ' Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 
— Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
George Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 

... Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Physiology, W. 
H. Flower, F.R.S. 



1869. Exeter George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

— Bep. of Bot. and Zool.,' 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S. — j 
Bep. of Ethno., E. B. Tylor. i 
Prof. G. Rolleston, M. A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. — Bep. of\ 
Anat. and Physiol.,Fioi.M. 
Foster, M.D., F.L.S.— Bep.' 
of Ethno., J. Evans, F.R.S. ! 



1870. Liverpool. 



— BIOLOGY. 

Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 

H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tris- 
tram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 



1 The title of Section D was changed to Biology. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxvii 



Date and Place 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford .. 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1874. Belfast. 



1875. Bristol ... 



1876. Glasgow ... 



1877. Plymouth.. 



1878. Dublin , 



1879. Sheffield ... 



1880. Swansea .. 



1881. York. 



1882. Southamp 
ton. 



1683. Southport 



Prof. Allen Thomson, M.D., 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Bot. and 
^i?oZ.,Prof.WyvilleThomson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Prof. W. Turner, M.D. 
Sir J. Lubbock, Bart.,F.R.S — 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S. 
Prof. Allman, F.R.S.— Bep. of 
Anat.and Physiol.,¥rof. Ru- 
therford, M.D.— Bep. of A n- 
thropol., Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. 
Prof. Redfern, M.D.— Bep. of 
Zool. and Bot., Dr. Hooker, 
C.B.,Pres.R.S.— Bep.ofAn- 
throp., Sir W. R. Wilde, 
M.D. 
P. L. Sclater, F.R.S.— Bep. of 
Anat. and Physiol., Prof 
Cleland, F.R.S.— Bep. of 
^./tf/t.,Prof.Rolleston, F.R.S. 
A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S.— 
Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. A. Newton, F.R.S.— 
Bej). of Anat. and Physiol., 
Dr. J. G. McKendrick. 
J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anat. and Physiol. 
Prof. Macalister. — Bep. of 
Anthropol.,F. Ga,\ton,F.n.&. 
Prof. W. H. Flower, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
Huxley, Sec. R.S. — Bep. 
of Anat. and Physiol., R. 
McDonnell, M.D., F.R.S. 
. ;Prof. St. George Mivart, 
F.R.S.— Bep. of Anthropol., 
E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Phy- 
siol., Dr. Pye-Smith. 
A.C. L. Gunther, F.R.S.— Bep. 
of Anat. $ Physiol., F. M. 
Balfour, F.R.S.— Bep. of 
Anthropol, F. W. Rudler. 
R. Owen, F.R.S.— Bep. of An- 
thropol., Prof. W.H. Flower, 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol., Prof. J. S. Burdon 
Sanderson, F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Zool. and Bot., 
Prof. M. A. Lawson, F.L.S. 
— Bep. of Anthropol., Prof. 
W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, M.A., 
F.R.S. — Bep. of Anthropol., 
W. Pengelly, F.R.S. 



Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer,H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Rudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Ray 
Lankester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 



Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
R. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Ray Lankester, F. W. Rudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, R. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Rudler. 

E. R. Alston, Dr. McKendrick, Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Rudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 

E. R. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. 
Knox, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Dr. 
Muirhead, Prof. Morrison Wat- 
son. 

E. R. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 

Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Hingston, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, J. B. Rowe, 

F. W. Rudler. 
Dr. R. J. Harvey, Dr. T. Hayden, 

Prof. W. R. M'Nab, Prof. J. M. 

Purser, J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler. 



Arthur Jackson, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
J. B. Rowe, F. W. Rudler, Prof. 

Schafer. 



G. W. Bloxam, John Priestley, 
Howard Saunders, Adam Sedg- 
wick. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. A. Forbes, Rev. 
W. C. Hey, Prof. W. R. M'Nab, 
W. North, John Priestley, Howard 
Saunders, H. E. Spencer. 

G. W. Bloxam, W. Heape, J. B. 
Nias, Howard Saunders, A. Sedg- 
wick, T. W. Shore, jun. 



G. W. Bloxam, Dr. G. J. Haslam, 
W. Heape, W. Hurst, Prof. A. M. 
Marshall, Howard Saunders, Dr. 
G. A. Woods. 



lxxviii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1884. Montreal 1 ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



Presidents 



Prof. H. N. Moseley, M.A., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., V.P.Z.S. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 



Prof. W. Osier, Howard Saunders, 
A. Sedgwick. Prof. R. R. Wright, 
Prof. W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., W. Heape, J. McGregor-Robertson, 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. J. Duncan Matthews, Howard 

Saunders, H. Marshall Ward. 
W. Carruthers, Pres. L.S., Prof. T. W. Bridge, W. Heape, Prof. 
F.R.S., F.G.S. W. Hillhouse.W. L. Sclater, Prof, 

H. Marshall Ward. 
C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
mer, W. Heape, W. L. Sclater, 
Prof. H. Marshall Ward. 
F. B. Beddard, S. F. Harmer, Prof. 
H. Marshall Ward, W. Gardiner. 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 
1889. Newcastle - Prof. J. S. Burden Sanderson, C. Bailey, F. E. Beddard, S. F. Har- 
upon Tyne M.A., M.D., F.R.S. mer, Prof. T. Oliver, Prof. H. Mar- 

shall Ward. 

1800. Leeds Prof. A. Milnes Marshall, S. F. Harmer, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

M.A., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. S. J. Hickson, F. W. Olher H. 

Wager, H. Marshall Ward. 
Francis Darwin, M.A., M.B.,, F. E. Beddard, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
F.R.S., F.L.S. Dr. S. J. Hickson. G. Murray, Prof. 

W. N. Parker, H. Wager 

1892. Edinburgh 'Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

1893. Nottingham 2 Rev. Canon H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 



1891. Cardiff. 



1894. Oxford 3 



1895. Ipswich 

1896. Liverpool 

1897. Toronto 

1898. Bristol.,. 



Trof. I. Bayley Balfour, M.A. 
I F.R.S. 



G. Brook, Prof. W. A. Herdman, G. 

Murray, W. Stirling, H. Wager. 
G. C. Bourne, J. B. Farmer, Prof. 

W. A. Herdman, S. J. Hickson, 

W. B. Ransom, W. I,. Sclater. 
W. W. Benham, Prof. J. B. Farmer, 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, Prof. S. J. 

Hickson, G. Murray, W. L. Sclater. 



1899. Dover ... 

1900. Bradford 

1901. Glasgow 

1902. Belfast... 



1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 



section D (continued). — zoology. 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. G. C. Bourne, H. Brown, W. E. 

Huyle, W. L. Sclater. 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... H 0. Forbes, W. Garstang, W. E. 

Hoyle. 
Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S W. Garstang, W. E. Hoyle, Prof. 

E. E. Prince. 
Prof. W. F. R.Weldon, F.R.S. Prof. R. Boyce, W. Garstang, Dr. 

A. J. Harrison, W. E. Hoyle. 

Adam Sedgwick, F.R.S W. Garstang, J. Graham Kerr. 

Dr. R. H. Traquair, F.R.S W. Garstang, J. G. Kerr, T. H. 

Taylor, Swale Vincent. 
Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Sinmson. 
Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... | Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft. A. 

Quavle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson. 



Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. 
William Bateson, F.R.S. ... 
G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. ... 



1 Anthropology was made a separate Section, see p. Ixxxvii. 
' Physiology was made a separate Section, see p. lxxxviii. 
8 The title of Section D was changed to Zoology. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxix 




1906. York.... 



1907. Leicester... Dr. W. E. Hoyle, M.A 

1908. Dublin Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S.. 



Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Oxley Grabham, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L Doncaster. 

E. E. Lowe, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. A. Fraser, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
C. A. Baragar, C. L. liouleuger, Dr. 

J. Pearson, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

T. J. Evans, Dr. H. \V. M. Tims. 
1911. Portsmouth Prof. D'Arcy \V. Thompson, 1 Dr. J. H. Ashworth, C. Foran, R. D. 
i C.B. Laurie, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 



1909. Winnipeg.. 

1910. Sheffield .. 



Dr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Bourne, F.R.S. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. — ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge |Dr. J. Haviland IDr. H. J. H. Bond, Mr. G. E. Paget. 

1834. Edinburgh iDr. Abercrombie |Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 

SECTION E (UNTIL 1847). — ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin .... 

1836. Bristol .... 

1837. Liverpool. 



Dr. J. C. Pritchard 

Dr. P. M. Roget, F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Clark, M.D. ., 



1838. Newcastle T. E. Headlam, M.D 

1839. Birmingham John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. 
1810. Glasgow ...i James Watson, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, 

Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Eyland. 
Dr.J.Brown, Prof. Couper,Prof . Reid. 



SECTION E. — PHYSIOLOGY. 



1811. Plymouth... 
1842. Manchester 
1813. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 1 ... 



P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 
Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 
Sir James Pitcairn, M.D. ... 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 

Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.R.S 



J. Butter, J.Fuge, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sar- 
gent. 
T. K. Chambers, W. P. Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUB-SECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. 
1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



Edinburgh 
Glasgow ... 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham. 2 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 

Prof. R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir B. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Prof. G.Rolleston.M.D., F.L.S. 

Dr. John Davy, F.R.S 

G. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, 
Oliver Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



1 Sections D and E were incorporated under the title of ' Section D Zoology 

and Botany, including Physiology ' (see p. Ixxv). Section E, being then vacant, 
was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

1 Vide note on page lxxv. 



lxxx 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, 



p. lxxii.] 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



ETHNOLOGICAL SUB-SECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



Dr. J. C.Prit chard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. — GEOGEAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 

1867. 
1868. 



Ipswich ... 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham. 
Nottingham 

Dundee ... 
Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter 



1870, 
1871. 



Liverpool... 
Edinburgh 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

Pres. R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 

K.C.B. 
Rev. Dr. J. Henthorn Todd, 

Pres.R.I.A. 
Sir R.I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rear - Admiral Sir James 

Clerk Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 
John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Major-General Sir H. Raw- 
linson, M.P.,K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 
LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

Capt, G. H. Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 

section E (continued) .- 

Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.R.G.S. 
Sir R.I. Murchison, Bt.,K.C.B., 
LL.D.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 



I R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. 

Rumsey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson. Dr. R. R. 

Madden, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. Galton, P. O'Callaghan, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
Richard Cull, Prof.Geddes, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. ■* 
J.W.Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. Hunt, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, 

C. R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, Clements R. 
Markham, T. Wright. 

-GEOGRAPHY. 

H. W. Bates, Clements R. Markham, 
J. H. Thomas. 

H.W.Bates, David Buxton, Albert J. 
Mott, Clements R. Markham. 

A. Buchan, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments R. Markham, J. H. Thomas. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxxi 



Date and Place 



1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth.. 

1878. Dublin 



1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport... 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birming- 

ham. 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 



1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 



1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1899. Dover 

1900. Bradford... 

1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 

1911. 



Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock,K.C.B. 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut. - General Strachey, 

C.S.I.,R.E., F.R.S.,F.R.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.R.S 

Adm. SirE. Ommanney, C.B.j 
Prof. Sir C. Wyville Thorn-' 

son, LL.D.,F.R.S.,F.R.S.E. 
Clements R. Markham, C.B., 

F.R.S., Sec. R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir J H. Lefroy, 
C.B., K.C.M.G.,R.A.,F.R.S.| 
Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., 

C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir R. Temple, Bart., G.C.S.I., 

F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- 
Austen, F.R.S. 
Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, C.B., 

K.C.M.G.,F.R.S.,V.P.R.G.S. 
Gen. J. T. Walker, C.B., R.E., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Maj.-Gen. Sir. F. J. Goldsmid, 

K.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. Warren, R.E., 

G.C.M.G., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir C. W. Wilson, R.E., 

K.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Col. Sir F. de Winton, 

K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir R. Lambert 

Playfair, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
E.' G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., 

Prof. J. Geikie, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

V.P.R.Scot.G.S. 
H. Seebohm, Sec. R.G.S., 

F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, R.N., 

F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, MA., 

F.R.G.S. 
Major L. Darwin, Sec. R.G.S. 



J. Scott Keltie, LL.D. 



Col. G. Earl Church, F.R.G.S. 

Sir John Murray, F.R.S 

Sir George S. Robertson, 

K C S I 
Dr. H."r. Mill, F.R.G.S 

Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ... 



H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Rev. J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, 

Clements R. Markham. 
E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye, J. H. 

Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, F. F. 

Tuckett. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, R. O. Wood. 
H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Rye. 
John Coles, E. C. Rye. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. D. Black. E. C. 

Rye. 
H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye. 

J. W. Barry, H. W. Bates. 

E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. Rye. 

John Coles, E. G. Ravenstein, E. C. 

Rye. 
Rev. Abbe Laflamme, J.S.O'Halloran, 

E. G. Ravenstein, J. F. Torrance. 
I J. S. Keltie, J. S. O'Halloran, E. G. 

Ravenstein, Rev. G. A. Smith. 

F. T. S. Houghton, J. S. Keltie, 
E. G. Ravenstein. 

Rev. L. C. Casartelli, J. S. Keltie, 

H. J. Mackinder, E. G. Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, E. G. 

Ravenstein. 
J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mackinder, R. 

Sulivan, A. Silva White. 
A. Barker, John Coles, J. S. Keltie, 

A. Silva White. 
John Coles, J. S. Keltie, H. J. Mac- 

kinder, A. Silva White, Dr. Yeats. 
J. G. Bartholomew, John Coles, J. S. 

Keltie, A. Silva White. 
Col. F. Bailey, John Coles, H. O. 

Forbes, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, W. S. Dalgleish, H. N. 

Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill. 
John Coles, H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. 

R. Mill, W. A. Taylor. 
Col. F. Bailey, H. N. Dickson, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, E. C. DuB. Phillips. 
Col. F. Bailey, Capt. Deville, Dr. 

H. R. Mill, J. B. Tyrrell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. R. Mill, H. C. 

Trapnell. 
H. N. Dickson, Dr. H. O. Forbes, 

Dr. H. R. Mill. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, E. R. 

Wethey. 
H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 

Sandeman. A. C. Turner. 
G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 

A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. Lindsay. 

e 



lxxxii 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1903. Southport. 



1904. Cambridge 

1905. South Africa 



1907. Leicester . 

1908. Dublin.... 

1909. Winnipeg. 

1910. Sheffield . 



Presidents 



Capt. E. W. Creak, E.N., C.B., 
F.R.S. 



Douglas W. Freshfield. 



Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton, 
R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertsoc, 
E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. Under- 
wood. 
E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 

H. Y. Oldham, E. A. Reeves. 
A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, H. Y. Old- 
ham. 

1906. York j Rt. Hon. Sir George Goldie, E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S. E. A. Reeves, G. Yeld. 

George G. Chisholm, M.A. ... K. Heawood, O. J. R. Howarth, 

E. A. Reeves, T. Walker. 
Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., 1 W. F Bailey, W. J. Barton, O. J. R. 

R.E. Howarth, E. A. Reeves. 

Col. SirD.Johnston.K.C.M.G., G. G. Chisholm, J. McFarlane, A. 

C.B., R.E. Mclntyre. 

Prof. A. J. Herbertson, MA.,' Rev. W. J. Barton, Dr. R.Brown, 
Ph.D. J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves. 

1911. Portsmouth Col. C. F. Close, R.E., C.M.G.' J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves, W. P. 

I Smith. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, YI. — STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge I Prof. Babbage, F.R.S J. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh | Sir Charles Lemon, Bart | Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. — STATISTICS. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birming- 

ham. 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southai 

ton. 

1847. Oxford 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Chas. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Lord Sandon, M.P., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S. ... 



1843. Cork Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P. 

1844. York Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 

Rt.Hon. the Earl Fitzwilliam 
1846. Southamp- :G. R. Porter, F.R.S. .. 
ton 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S 



1848. Swansea .., 

1849. Birming- 

ham. 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich .., 

1852. Belfast , 



J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton... 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. ... 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, - W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
VV. Cargill, J. Heywood, W.R.Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. Cooke Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lay- 
cock. 
J. Fletcher, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, jun. 



PRESIDE.\TS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxxm 



Date and Place 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow .., 



Presidents 



Thomas Tooke, F.R.S. 



R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. 



Secretaries 



James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. Edward Cheshire, W. Newmarch. 



E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W.H. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Wash. 



section f (continued). — ECONOMIC science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

J 861. Manchester 



1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 



Cambridge 
Newcastle 



Bath 

Birming- 
ham. 
Nottingham 



1866 

1867. Dundee 



1868. 
1869. 



Norwich . 
Exeter... 



1870. Liverpool.. 



1871. 
1872 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 
1878. 
1879. 

1880. 
1881. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 

His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines 

Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S 

Nassau W. Senior, M.A 

William Newmarch, F.R.S.... 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ... 

W. Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



M. E. Grant-Duff, M.P. 



Samuel Brown 

Rt.Hon. Sir StaffordH. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P. ... 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P. 



Edinburgh 

Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast lLord O'Haaran 



Bristol . 



Glasgow . 

Plymouth. 
Dublin.... 
Sheffield . 

Swansea . 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport 



1882. 
1883. 

1884. Montreal .., 

1885. Aberdeen.. 



James Heywood, M. A., F.R.S., 

Pres. S.S. 
SirGeorge Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 
Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescue 
Prof. J. K. Ingram, LL.D. ... 
G. Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Pres. 

S S 

G. W. Hastings, M.P 

Rt. Hon. M. E. Grant-Duff, 

M.A., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. G. Sclater-Booth, 

M.P., F.R.S. 
R. H. Inglis PalgTave, F.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., 
G.C.S.I., CLE., F.R.G.S. 

Prof. H. Sidgwick, LL.D., 
Litt.D. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. 

M. Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 
G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

E. Macrory, F. Purdy, C. T. D. 
Acland. 

Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, F. P. Fellows, Hans 

MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, Dr. 

W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W.Jack. 
W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pirn. 
W. J. Hancock, C. Molloy, J. T. Pirn. 
Prof. Adamson, R. E. Leader, C. 

Molloy. 
N. A. Humphreys, C. Molloy. 
C. Molloy, W. W. Morrell, J. F. 

Moss. 

G. Baden-Powell, Prof. H. S. Fox- 
well, A. Milnes, C. Molloy. 

Rev. W. Cunningham, Prof. H. S. 

Foxwell, J. N. Keynes, C. Molloy. 
Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. S. McLennan, 

Prof. J. Watson. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, Trof. H. S. 

Foxwell, C. McCombie, J. F. Moss. 

e3 



lxxxiv 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1886. 

1887. 

1888. 
1889. 
1890. 



Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester 



Bath. 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



1891. Cardiff. 



1892. Edinburgh 



1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 




1895. 


Ipswich ... 


1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 
1898. 


Toronto ... 


1899. 




1900. 


Bradford ... 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester . . . 


1908 


Dublin 



J. B. Martin, M.A., F.S.S. ... 
Robert Giffen, LL.D..V.P.S.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Bramwell, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
Prof. A. Marshall, M. A., F.S.S. 



Prof. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc, F S.S. 

Hon. Sir C. W. Fremantle, 
K.C.B. 

Prof. J. S. Nicholson, D.Sc, 

F.S.S. 

Prof. C. F. Bastable, M.A., 

F.S.S. 
L. L. Price, M.A 

Rt. Hon. L. Courtney, M.P.... 

Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 
J. Bonar, M.A., LL.D 



Secretaries 



1909. Winnipeg.. 

1910. 

1911. 



Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 



H. Higgs, LL.B 

Major P. G. Craigie, V.P.S.S. 

Sir R. Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

E. Cannan, M.A., LL.D 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D 

Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D., 

D.Sc. 
A. L. Bowley, M.A 



Prof. W. J. Ashley, M.A. 
W. M. Acworth, M.A. ... 



Sub-section of Agriculture — 

Rt. Hon. Sir H. Plunkett. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. ... 

Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, 

K.C.B., M.A. 
Hon. W. Pember Reeves 



F. F. Barham, Rev. W. Cunningham, 

Prof. H. S. Foxwell, J. F. Moss. 
Rev. W. Cunningham, F. Y. Edge- 
worth, T. H. Elliott, C. Hughes, 

J. E. C. Munro, G. H. Sargant. 
Prof. F. Y. Edgeworth, T. H. Elliott, 

H. S. Foxwell, L. L. F. R. Price. 
Rev. Dr. Cunningham, T. H. Elliott, 

F. B. Jevons, L. L. F. R. Price. 
W. A. Brigg, Rev. Dr. Cunningham, 

T. H. Elliott, Prof. J. E. C. Munro, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. J. Brough, E. Cannan, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. LI. Smith, 

Prof. W. R. Sorley. 
Prof. J. Brough, J. R. Findlay, Prof. 

E. C. K. Gonner, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, H. de B. 

Gibbins, J. A. H. Green, H. Higgs, 

L. L. F. R. Price. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

H. Higgs. 
E. Cannan, Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, 

W. A. S. Hewins, H. Higgs. 
I E. Cannan, H. Higgs, Prof. A. Shortt. 
|B. Cannan, Prof. A. W. Flux, H. 

Higgs, W. E. Tanner. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, Prof. A. 

W. Flux, Rev. G. Sarson. 
A. L. Bowley, E. Cannan, S. J. 

Chapman, F. Hooper. 
W. W. Blajckie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan, S. J. Chapman. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. A. Duffin. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. Lloyd. 
J. E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg. 
R. a Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

H.E.S. Fremantle, H. O.Meredith. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Mac- 

gregor, H. O. Meredith, B. S. 

Rowntree. 
Prof. S.J. Chapman, D. H. Macgregor, 

H. O. Meredith, T. S. Taylor. 
W. G. S. Adams, Prof. S. J. Chap- 
man, Prof. D. H. Macgregor, H. O. 

Meredith. 
A. D. Hall, Prof. J. Percival, J. H. 

Priestley, Prof. J. Wilson. 
Prof. A. B. Clark, Dr. W. A. Mana- 

han, Dr. W. R. Scott. 
C. R. Fay, H. O. Meredith, Dr. W. R. 

Scott, R. Wilson. 
C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott, H. A, 

Stibbs. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxxv 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 

1810. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 

1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1855. 
1856. 
1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 

1872. 



Bristol j Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Liverpool.. 
Newcastle 
Binning- Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robt, 

ham. Stephenson. 

Glasgow .... Sir John Robinson 



I Rev. Dr. Robinson 

j Charles Babbage, F.R.S. . 



Plymouth... 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southamp- 
ton. 

Oxford 

Swansea ... 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich ... 
Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool... 

Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birming- 
ham. 
Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 



Exeter 

Liverpool... 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A.... 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A..F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof .Walker, M.A..F.R.S. 
Robt. Stephenson, M.P..F.R.S. 

Rev. R. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker, C.E., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S. ... 

W.J. M. Rankine, F.R.S. ... 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. the Earl of Rosse, 

F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof . W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.... 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof.W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Viguoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S. 
F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T.Webster. 
W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, T. 

Webster. 
J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T.^Kingsley. 
William Betts, jun., Charles Man by. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. StruvS. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
J. Oldham, J. Thomson, W. S. Ward. 
J. Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 
son. 
L. Hill, W. Ramsay, J. Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, H. M. Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
I R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, 

H. Wright. 
i W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, 

J. F. Spencer 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, 

W. P. Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, 

M. O. Tarbotton. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, 

C. Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, 

T. King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, A. Leslie, J. P. Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C.Barlow,H.Bauerman.E.H.Carbutt' 

J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. Shoolbred 



lsxxvi 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 

1874. Belfast 

H75. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 

1878. Dublin 

1879. Sheffield ... 

1880. Swansea ... 

1881. York 

1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Soutbport... 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birming- 

ham. 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh 

1893. Nottingham 
1S94. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 

1819. Dover 

190ft Bradford 1 



Presidents 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude,C.E.,M.A.,F.R.S. 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S 

Edward Woods, C.E 

Edward Easton, C.E 

J. Robinson, Pres. Inst. Mech. 

Eng. 

J.Abernethy, F.R.S. E 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
John Fowler, C.E., F.G.S. ... 

J. Brunlees, Pres.Inst.C.E. ... 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., 

V.P.Inst.C.E. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Sir J. N. Douglass, M.Inst. 

C.E. 
Prof. Osborne Reynolds, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. ' 
W. H. Preece, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
W. Anderson, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Capt. A. Noble, C.B, F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
T. Forster Brown, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Jeremiah Head, M.Inst.C.E., 

F.C.S. 
Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 

F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, 

M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 
Sir Douglas Fox, V.P.Inst.C.E. 

G. F. Deacon, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Sir J. Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir W. White, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir Alex. R. Binnie, M.Inst. 
C.E. 



Secretaries 



A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Millar, 

J. N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atchison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, R. G. Symes, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, Emerson Bainbridge, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, J. F. Stephenson, 

H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. Churton, H. T. 

Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, E. Rigg.H. T.Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, W. B. Dawson, J. 

Kennedy, H. T. Wood. 
A. T. Atchison, F. G. Ogilvie, E. 

Rigg, J. N. Shoolbred. 
C. W. Cooke, J. Kenward, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. F. Budenberg, W. B. Marshall, 

E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, P. K. Stothert. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, Hon. 

C. A. Tarsons, E. Rigg. 
E. K. Clark, C. W. Cooke, W. B. 

Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. \V. Cooke, Prof. A. C. Elliott, 

W. B. Marshall, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, W. C. 

Popplewell, E. Rigg. 
C. W. Cooke, W. B. Marshall, E. 

Rigg, H. Talbot. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

W. B. Marshall, Rev. F. J. Smith. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke. 

W. B. Marshall, P. G. M. Stoney, 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, C. W. Cooke, 

S. Dunkerley, W. B. Marshall. 
Prof. T. Hudson Beare, Prof . Calen- 
dar, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, Prof. J. Munro, 

H. W. Pearson, W. A. Price. 
Prof. T. H. Beare, W. A. Price, H. 

E. Stilgoe. 
Prof. T. II. Beare, C. F. Charnock, 

Prof. S. Dunkerley, W. A Price. 



1 The title of Section G was changed to Engineering. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxxvii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION G.— ENGINEERING. 



1001. 
1902. 
1903. 

1904. 
1905. 

1906. 
1907. 

1908. 

1909. 

1910. 

1911. 



Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 
SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester ... 

Dublin 

Winnipeg... 

Sheffield .. 

Portsmouth 



R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 

C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Hon. O. A. Parsons, F.R.S. ... 
Col. Sir C. Scott- Moncrieff, 

G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E. 

J. A. Ewing, F.R.S 

Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, 

F.R.S. 
Dugald Clerk, F.RS 

Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, M.A., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. J. H. Biles, LL.D., 

D.Sc. 



H. Bamford, W.E. Dalby, W. A. Price. 
M. Barr, W. A. Price, J. Wylie. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 

W. A. Price. 
J. B. Peace, W.T.Maccall.W. A.Price. 
W. T. Maccall, W. B. Marshall, Prof. 

H. Payne, E. Williams. 
W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price, J. Triffit. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, A. C. Harris, 

W. A. Price, H. E. Wim peris. 
Trof. E. G. Coker, Dr. W. E. Lilly, 

W. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 

E. E. Brydone-Jack, Prof.E. G.Coker, 
Prof. E. W. Marcliant, W. A. Price. 

F. Boulden, Prof. E. G. Coker, 
A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

H. Ashley, Prof. E. G. Coker, A. A. 
Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 



SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1884. 
1885. 



Montreal . . , 
Aberdeen... 



1886. 

1887. 

1888. Bath 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

1892. 

1893. 



Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester 



Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 
Leeds 



Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 



1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

1897. 

1898. 
1899. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 



Oxford 

Ipswich . . . 
Liverpool... 
Toronto ... 



Bristol.... 
Dover .... 



IE. B. Tylor.D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 
I Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir G. Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 
Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A 

Lieut. -General Pitt-Rivers, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Turner, M.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. J. Evans, Treas. R.S., 

F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. F. Max Midler, M.A. ... 

Prof. A. Macalister, M.A., 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro, M.A., F.E.S.E. 



Sir W. H. Flower, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, 

D.C.L. 
Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A 

SirW. Turner, F.R.S 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

C. H. Read, F.S.A 



Bradford ... Prof. John Rhvs, M.A 

Glasgow ...Prof. D. J. Cunningham, 

F.R.S. 
Belfast ... Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 



G. W. Bloxam, W. Hurst. 

G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. A. Macgregor. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, W. 

Hurst, Dr. R. Saundby. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

A. M. Paterson 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, 

J. Harris Stone. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Dr. 

R. Morison, Dr. R. Howden. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. C. M. Chadwick, 

Dr. J. G. Garson. 
G. W. Bloxam, Prof. R. Howden, H. 

Ling Roth, E. Seward. 
G. W. Bloxam, Dr. D. Hepburn, Prof. 

R. Howden, H. Ling Roth. 
G. W. Bloxam, Rev. T. W. Davies, 

Prof. R. Howden, F. B. Jevons, 

J. L. Myres. 
I H. Balfour, Dr. J. G. Garson, H. Ling 

Rrth. 
J. L. Myres, Rev. J. J. Raven, H. 

Ling Roth. 
Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres, 

Prof. A. M. Paterson. 
A. F. Chamberlain, H. O. Forbes, 

Prof. A. C. Haddon, J. L. Myres. 
H. Balfour, J. L. Myres, G. Parker. 
H. Balfour, W. H. East, Prof. A. C. 

Haddon, J. L. Myres. 
Rev. E. Armitage, H. Balfour, W. 

Crooke, J. L. Myres. 
W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 

Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 
R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 

J. L. Myres. 



Ixxxviii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 



Southport... 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester 
Dublin ... 
Winnipeg 
Sheffield 
Portsmouth 



Presidents 



Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. ... 

H. Balfour, M.A 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 

E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A.... 

D. G. Hogarth, M.A 

Prof. W. Ridge way, M.A. ... 

[Prof. J. L. Myres, M.A 

I 
W. Crooke, B.A 

W. H. R. Rivers, M.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 

E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres. 

W. L. H. Duckworth, E. N. Fallaize, 

H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres. 
A. R. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. S. 

Hartland. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize, H. S. 

Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
C. J. Billson, E. N. Fallaize, H. S. 

Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, Dr. 

F. C. Shrubsall, L. E. Steele. 

H. S. Kingsford, Prof. C. J. Patten, 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, Prof. 

C. J. Patten, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 

E. W. Martindell, H. Rundle, 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 



1394. 

1896. 
1897. 

1899. 

1901. 

1902. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 



SECTION I.— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 
Oxford.., 



Liverpool 
Toronto 

Dover . . . 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester 

Dublin... 

Winnipeg 

Sheffield 

Portsmouth 



Prof. F. Gotch, Dr. J. S. Haldane, 

M. S. Pembrey. 
Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 
Prof. R. Boyce, Prof. C. S. Sherring- 
ton. Dr. L. E. Shore. 
Dr. Howden, Dr. L. E. Shore, Dr. E. 

H. Starling. 
W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

W. H. Thompson. 
J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne, Dr. 

C. Shaw. 
J. Barcroft, Prof. T. G. Brodie, Dr. 

L. E. Shore. 
J. Barcroft, Dr. Baumann, Dr. Mac- 
kenzie, Dr. G. W. Robertson, Dr. 

Stanwell. 
J. Barcroft, Dr. J. M. Hamill, Prof. 

J. S. Macdonald, Dr. D. S. Long. 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, J. Barcroft, Prof. 

J. S. Macdonald, Dr. A. Warner. 
Prof. D J. Coffey, Dr. P. T. Herring, 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr.H.E.Roaf. 
Prof. E. H. Starling, F.RS.... Dr. N.H. Alcock, Prof. P. T. Herring, 

Dr. W. Webster. 
Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S. Dr. H. G. M. Henry, Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf, Dr. J. Tait. 
Prof. J. S. Macdonald, B.A. jDr. J. T. Leon, Dr. Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf, Dr. J. Tait. 



Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., 

M.R.C.S. 
Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 

J. N. Langley, F.R.S 

Prof.J.G. McKendrick, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. D. Halliburton, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. 

Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

Dr. J. Scott Haldane, F.R.S. 



SECTION K.— BOTANY. 



1895. 
1896. 



Ipswich . . 
Liverpool.. 



1897. Toronto 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S 

Prof. Marshall Ward, F.R.S. 



A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. Harvey Gibson, A. C. Seward, 

Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer, E. C. Jeffrey, 

A. C. Seward, Prof. F. E. Weiss. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



lxxxix 



Date and Place 


1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 


Bradford ... 
Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast . . . 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester ... 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg... 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 


1911. 


Portsmoutli 




Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. 
Sir George King, F.R.S. .. 
Prof. S. H. Vines, F.R.S... 
Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. R. Green, F.R S. .. 

A. C. Seward, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S. .. 
Sub-section of Agriculture 

Dr. W. Somerville. 
Harold Wager, F.R.S. .., 

Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S..., 

Lieut.- Col. D. Pram, CLE. 

F.R.S. 
Sub-section of Agriculture— 

Major P. G. Craigie, OB. 
Prof. J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S. 

Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc. 



Subsection of Agriculture* ■ 
W. Bateson, M.A., F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



A. C. Seward, H. Wager, J. W. White. 
G. Dowker, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 
A. C. Seward, H. Wager, W. West. 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 

A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 
H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 

H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, H. Wager, 

R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 

H. Wager, T. B. Wood, R. H. Yapp. 

. R. P. Gregory, Dr. Marloth, Prof. 

Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
W. Bell, R. P. Gregory, Prof. A. G. 

Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. H. H. Dixon, R. P. Gregory, 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. A. H. R. Buller, Prof. D. T. 

Gwynne-Vaughan. Prof. R.H. Yapp. 
W. J. Black, Dr. E. J. Russell, Prof. 

J. Wilson. 

B. H. Bentley, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp. 

. C. G. Delahunt, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan, Dr. C. E. Moss, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp. 

-J. Golding, H. R. Pink, Dr. E. J. 
Russell. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



1901. Glasgow 



1902. Belfast 



1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 



Southport .. 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 



York. 



Leicester . 



Dublin , 



1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 



Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... 

Prof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., 

M.P. 
Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... 

Sir Philip Magnus, M.P 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Rev. H. B. Gray, D.D 

Principal H. A. Miers, F.R.S. 

Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, 
D.D. 



M. Heller, R. Y. 
Kiinmius, Prof. 



R. A. Gregory, W 

Howie, C. W. 

H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 

Prof. H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. L. Snape. 
J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

W. M. Heller, Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 
A.D.Hall.Prof.Hele-Shaw, Dr. C.W. 

Kimmins, J. R. Whitton. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

J. S. Laver, Hugh Richardson. 
Prof. E. P. Culverwell, W. D. Eggar, 

George Fletcher, Prof. R. A. 

Gregory, Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, R. Fletcher, J. 

Holland, Hugh Richardson. 
A. J. Arnold, W. D. Eggar, J 

Holland, Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, O. Freeman, J 

Holland, Hugh Richardson. 



L. 



L. 



L. 



1 A Section of Agriculture, M, was constituted at the close of this Meeting. 



XC CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES OF CONFERENCES OF DELEGATES. 



CHAIRMEN" and SECRETARIES of the CONFERENCES OF 
DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Date and Place 



1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1880. 

1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 

1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 



Aberdeen . . . 
Birmingham 
Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 
Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich ... 
Liverpool . . . 
Toronto ... 

Bristol 

Dover 

Brad ford . . . 
Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport .. 
Cambridge 
London . . . 

York 

Leicester... 

Dublin > 

London ... 
Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 



Chairmen 



Secretaries 



Francis Galton, F.R.S Prof. Meldola. 

Prof. A. W. Williamson.F.R.S. Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.Boyd Dawkins.F R.S. , Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 

John Evans, F.R.S Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R S Prof. G. A. Lebour. 

G. J. Symons, F.R.S Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 

G. J. Symons, F.R S ' Prof. Meldola, F.R.S. 

Prof. Meldola, F.R. S T. V. Holmes. 

Dr. J. G. Garson T.V.Holmes. 

Prof. Meldola, F.R.S T. V. Holmes. 

G. J. Symons, F.R.S ! T. V. Holmes. 

Dr. J. G. Garson T. V. Holmes. 

Prof. Meldola, F.R.S J. Hopkinson. 

W. Whitaker, F.R.S T. V. Holmes. 

Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, F.R.S. T. V. Holmes. 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... T. V. Holmes. 

F. W. Rudler, F.G.S Dr. J. G. Garson, A. Somerville 

Prof. W. W. Watts, F.G.S. ... E. J. Bles. 

W. Whitaker, F.R S F. W. Rudler. 

Prof. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. P. W. Rudler. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F. W. Rudler. 

F.R.S. 

Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B.... F. W. Rudler. 

H. J. Mackinder, M.A F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S W. P. D. Stebbing. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... W. P. D. Stebbing. 

Dr. Tempest Anderson W. P. D. Stebbing. 

Prof. J. W. Giegory, F.R.S.... W. P. D. Stebbing. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 




1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 



1844. York , 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southamp- 

ton. 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Railways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the Mgean Sea. 

The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammaliaof the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of t he Explosive S ubst ance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researchesof hisownon the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



XC1 



Date and Place 


1847. 


Oxford 


1848. 


Swansea ... 


1849. 


Birming- 
ham. 


1850. 


Edinburgh 


1851. 


Ipswich . . . 



Lecturers 



1852. Belfast. 



1853. Hull. 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S.... 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S.... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astronomer 

Ro3 7 al. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 



Subject of Discourse 



Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 



1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham Col. Sir II. Rawlinson 



Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut. -Col. H. Rawlinson .. 



1857. 


Dublin 


1858. 




1859. 


Aberdeen... 


1860. 




1861. 


Manchester 


1862. 


Cambridge 


1863. 


Newcastle 



1864. Bath. 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. 
Prof. J. Phillips,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L... . 

Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S. ... 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S. ... 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof . W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G.B.Airy,F.R.S.,Astron.Roval 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.R.S. 

Prof. Roscoe, F.R.S 

j Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 



Shooting Stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Didus inepttts). 

Metallurgical Operations of Swansea 
and its Neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying Velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nection with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their Changes of Form, 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 
1851. 

Recent Discoveries in the propertieb 
of Light. 

Recent Discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar Phenomena in the 
Geology and Physical Geography 
of Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of Researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent Discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of 
Cuneiform Research up to the 
present time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent Discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

The Geology of the Northern 
Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly 
rarefied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic 
Battery considered in relation 
to Dynamics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 



XC11 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



1865. 



Birming- 
ham. 



Lecturers 



J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 



1866. Nottingham William Huggins, F.R.S. 
IS67. Dundee 



Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 



Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. 
Norwich ... J. Fergusson, F.R.S 



1868. 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... Prof. J. Tyndall.LL.D., F.R.S, 



Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J.Phillips, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. .. 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton ... 



Prof .W. J. Macquorn Rankine. 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E.B.Tylor, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.B., 
Prof. W. K.Clifford 



Subject of Discourse 



1873. 
1874. 

1875. 

1876. 
1877. 



Bradford ... 
Belfast 



Bristol .... 
Glasgow . 
Plymouth . 



1878. Dublin 



1879. 
1880. 
1881. 

1882. 
1883. 



Sheffield 
Swansea 
York 



Southamp- 
ton. 
Southport . 



Prof. W. C.Williamson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart.. M. P., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

W.Spottiswoode,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

SirWyville Thomson, F.R.S. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A., 

F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

G. J. Romanes, F.L.S 

Prof. Dewar, F.R.S 

W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof . E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S. 
Prof .W.Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S. 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Prof. Huxley, Sec. R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, Pres. R.S.... 

Prof. Sir Wm. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Prof. H. N. Moseley, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. S. Ball, F.R.S 



Prof. J. G. McKendrick. 



Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures be- 
neath the red rocks of the Mid- 
land Counties. 

The Results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological Origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of Knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archaeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulas. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagi- 
nation. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connec- 
tion with Naval Architecture. 

Some Recent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explesive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilisation. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered 
in relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarised Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The ' Challenger ' Expedition. 

Physical Phenomena connected with 
the Mines of Cornwall and 
Devon. 

The New Element, Gallium. 

Animal Intelligence. 

Dissociation, or Modern Ideas of 
Chemical Action. 

Radiant Matter. 

Degeneration. 

Primeval Man. 

Mental Imagery. 

The Rise and Progress of Palaeon- 
tology. 

The Electric Discharge : its Forms 
and its Functions. 

Tides. 

Pelagic Life. 

Recent Researches on the Distance 
of the Sun. 

Galvanic and Animal Electricity. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



XC1U 



Date and Place 


1884. 


Montreal... 


1885. 


Aberdeen... 


188G. 
1887. 


Birming- 
ham. 
Manchester 


1888. 


Bath 


1889. 


Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne 


1890. 


Leeds 


1891. 


Cardiff 


1892. 


Edinburgh 


1893. 


Nottingham 


1894. 


Oxford 



Lecturers 



1895. Ipswich .. 



1896. 


Liverpool... 


1897. 


Toronto . . . 


1898. 




1899. 




1900. 


Bradford ... 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


1903. 


Southport... 


1904. 


Cambridge 



Subject of Discourse 



Prof. O. J. Lodge, D.Sc 

Eev. W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. G. Adams. F.R.S. ... 

John Murray, F.R.S. E 

A. W. Riicker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. Rutherford, M.D. ... 
Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir F. de Winton 

Prof.W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, D.Sc, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 

F.R.S. 
Walter Gardiner, M.A 

E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.R.S.... 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof.L. C. Miall,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 

Prof.A.W.Rucker,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Prof. A. M. Marshall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J.A.Ewing,M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells. B.Sc. 
Prof. Victor Horsley, F.R.S. 

J. W. Gregory, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Prof. J.Shield Nicholson, M.A. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 

Dr. F. Elgar, F.R.S 

Prof. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. 
Prof. W. O. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S. 

J. Milne, F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S 

Herbert Jackson 

Prof. Charles Richet 

Prof. J. Fleming, F.R.S 

Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Stroud 

Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro 

Dr. A. Rowe 

Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.... 
Prof. H. F. Osborn 



Dust. 

The Modern Microscope in Re- 
searches on the Least and Lowest 
Forms of Life. 

The Electric Light and Atmospheric 
Absorption. 

The Great Ocean Basins. 

Soap Bubbles. 

The Sense of Hearing. 

The Rate of Explosions in Gases. 

Explorations in Central Africa. 

The Electrical Transmission of Power. 

The Foundation Stones of the Earth's 
Crust. 

The Hardening and Tempering of 
Steel. 

How Plants maintain themselves in 
the Struggle for Existence. 

Mimicry. 

Quartz Fibres and tbeir Applica- 
tions. 

Some Difficulties in the Life of 
Aquatic Insects. 

Electrical Stress. 

Pedigrees. 

Magnetic Induction. 

Flame. 

The JDiscovery of the Physiology of 
the Nervous System. 

Experiences and Prospects of 
African Exploration. ' 

Historical Progress and Ideal So- 
cialism. 

Magnetism in Rotation. 

The Work of Pasteur and its various 
Developments. 

Safety in Ships. 

Man before Writing. 

Canada's Metals. 

Earthquakes and Volcanoes. 
Funafuti : the Study of a Coral 

Island. 
Phosphorescence. 
La vibration nerveuse. 
TheCentenary of the ElectricCurrent. 
Animal Electricity. 
Range Finders. 
The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plants. 
Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Inheritance. 
Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 

Palfeolithic Period. 
The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 

Teachings. 
Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 
Palaeontological Discoveries in the 

Rocky Mountains. 



XC1V 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 

1905. South 

Africa : 
Cape Town .. 

Durban 

Pietermaritz- 

burg. 
Johannesburg 

Pretoria 

Bloemfontein.. 

Kimberley 



Bulawayo 
1906. York.. 



Lecturers 



Subject of Discourse 



1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 



Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S 

Douglas W. Freshfield 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S 
Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... 

H. T. Ferrar 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S.... 

Prof. J. O. Arnold 

A. E. Shipley, F.R.S 

A. R. Hinks 

Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. J. B. Porter 

D. Randall-Maclver 

Dr. Tempest Anderson 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

W. Duddell, F.R.S 



Dr. F. A. I ixey. 



Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. W. M .Davis 

Dr. A. B. H. Tutton, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
1 Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S... 
1 Prof. J. H. Toynting, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. Stirling, M.D 

D. G. Hogarth 

Dr. Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

Prof. A. C. Sewaid, F.KS. ... 



W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South 
Africa. 

Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 

The Mountains of the Old World. 

Marine Biology. 

Sleeping Sickness. 

The Cruise of the 'Discovery.' 

The Distribution of Power. 

Steel as an Igneous Rock. 

Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 
ing Sickness, &c. 

The Milky Way and the Clouds of 
Magellan. 

Diamonds. 

The Bearing of Engineering on 
Mining. 

The Ruins of Rhodesia. 

Volcanoes. 

The Electrical Signs of Life, and 
their Abolition by Chloroform. 

The Ark and the Spark in Radio- 
telegraphy. 

Recent Developments in the Theory 
of Mimicry. 

Halley's Comet. 

The Lessons of the Colorado Canyon. 

The Seven Styles of Crystal Archi- 
tecture. 

Our Food from the Waters. 

The Chemistry of Flame. 

The Pressure of Light. 

Types of Animal Movement. 2 

New Discoveries about the Hittites. 

The Physiology of Submarine Work. 

Links with the Past in the Plant 
World. 



1 ' Popular Lectures,' delivered to the citizens of Winnipeg. 

2 Repeated, to the public, on Wednesday, September 7. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



XCV 



LECTUKES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 



Liverpool . 
Brighton . 
Bradford . 
Belfast .... 
Bristol .... 
Glasgow . 
Plymouth. 
Sheffield . 
Swansea . 
York 




Subject of Lecture 



1882. Southamp- 

ton. 

1883. Southport... 

1884. Montreal ... 

1885. Aberdeen... 

1886. Birmingham 

1887. Manchester 

1888. Bath 

1889. Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne 

1890. Leeds 

1891. Cardiff 

1892. Edinburgh- 
iagS. Nottingham 

1894. Oxford 

1895. Ipswich ... 

1896. Liverpool... 

1897. Toronto ... 

1898. Bristol 



1900. Bradford. 

1901. Glasgow . 

1902. Belfast..., 

1903. Southport... 



1904. Cambridge.. 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 



Prof.J.Tyndall,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart,,F.R.S. 
W.Spottiswoode.LL.D., F.R.S. 
C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. ' 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S j 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. | 
Commander Cameron, C.B.... 

W. H. Preece 

W. E. Ayrton 

H. Seebohm, F.Z.S 

Prof. Osborne Reynolds, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. John Evans, Treas. R.S. 



Sir F. J. Brain well, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. R.S. Ball, F.R.S 

H. B. Dixon, M.A 

Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock,Bart.,F.R.S. 
B. Baker, M.Inst.C.E 

Prof. J. Perry, D.Sc, F.R S. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. 

Prof. Vivian B. Lewes 

Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. A. H. Fison 

Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S.... 

Dr. H. O. Forbes 

Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A 



Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. S. Flett 



Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 

Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S. 

C. T. Heycock, F.R.S 

Dr. H. R. Mill 



Matter and Force. 

A Piece of Chalk. 

The modes of detecting the Com- 
position of the Sun and other 
Heavenly Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A Piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 

Electricity as a Motive Power 

The North-East Passage. 

Raindrops, Hailstones, and Snow- 
flakes. 

Unwritten History, and how to 
read it. 

Talking by Electricity— Telephones. 

Comets. 

The Nature of Explosions. 

The Colours of Metals and their 
Alloys. 

Electric Lighting. 

The Customs of Savage Races. 

The Forth Bridge. 

Spinning Tops. 

Electricity in Mining. 

Electric Spark Photographs. 

Spontaneous Combustion. 

Geologies and Deluges. 

Colour. 

The Earth a Great Magnet. 

New Guinea. 

The ways in which Animals Warn 

their Enemies and Signal to their 

Friends. 
Electricity in the Industries. 
The Movements of Men by Land 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
' Martinique and St. Vincent: the 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 
The Manufacture of Light. 
The Growth of a Crystal. 
The Crystallisation of Water. 
Metallic Alloys. 
Rain. 



Table showing the Attendances and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



1831, Sept. 27... 

1832, June 19... 

1833, June 25... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22... 

1837, Sept. 11... 

1838, Aug. 10... 

1839, Aug. 26... 

1840, Sept. 17... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23... 

1843, Aug. 17... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19... 

1846, Sept. 10 . 

1847, June 23... 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20.., 

1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 ... 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14... 

1860, June 27.. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 .. 

1863, Aug. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13.. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 22.. 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19.. 

1869, Aug. 18 .. 

1870, Sept. 14 .. 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Auk- 14.. 

1873, Sept. 17.. 

1874, Aug. 19.. 

1875, Aug. 25.. 

1876, Sept. 6 .. 

1877, Aug. 15.. 

1878, Aug. 14.. 

1879, Aug. 20.. 

1880, Aug. 25 .. 

1881, Aug. 31 .. 

1882, Aug. 23.. 

1883, Sept. 19 .. 

1884, Aug. 27.. 

1885, Sept. 9 .. 

1886, Sept. 1 .. 

1887, Aug. 31.. 

1888, Sept. 5 .. 

1889, Sept. 11.. 

1890, Sept. 3 .. 

1891, Aug. 19 .. 

1892, Aug. 3 .. 

1893, Sept. 13 .. 

1894, Aug. 8 .. 

1895, Sept. 11 .. 

1896, Sept. 16.. 

1897, Aug. 18 .. 

1898, Sept. 7 .. 

1899, Sept. 13.. 

1900, Sept. 5 . 

1901, Sept. 11. 

1902, Sept. 10 . 

1903, Sept. 9 ., 

1904, Aug. 17. 

1905, Aug. 15. 

1906, Aug. 1 . 

1907, July 31 . 

1908, Sept. 2 . 

1909, Aug. 25. 

1910, Aug. 31 . 

1911, Aug. 30.. 



Where held 



President! 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham ;.. 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne . 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 

Nottingham 

Oxford 

Ipswich 

Liverpool 

Toronto 

Bristol 

Dover 

Bradford 

Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 

York 



Viscount Milton, D.C.L.. P.R.S 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd.LL.D., F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lans'downe, F.R.S.... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S. ... 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquisofNorthampton,Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D.. F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. O. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S.. . . 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis,M.A.,F.R.S. 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.O., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.O.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. 

Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M. A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. 0. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. 0. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dawson, O.M.G., F.R.S. 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, O.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, O.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggius, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 

The Marquis of Salisbury,K.G.,F.R.S. 

Sir Douglas Gal ton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 

Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. .. 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S.... 

SirWilliam Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. A. W. Rttcker, D.Sc. Secit.S. ... 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S, 

Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. H. Darwin. LL.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S, 

Leicester Sir David Gill, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Dublin I Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Winnipeg Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 

Sheffield I Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S 

Portsmouth Prof. Sir W. Rtmsay, K.C.B, F.R.S. 



Old Life 


New Life 


Members 


Members 


169 


II 1 1 II II 1 IS 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


259 


21 


189 


24 


280 


14 



* Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. f Tickets of Admission to Sections only, 
If Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Old New 

Annual Annual 
Members Members 



Asso- 
ciates 



46 

75 

71 

45 

94 

G5 
197 

54 

93 
128 

Gl 

63 

56 
121 
142 
104 
156 
111 
125 
177 
184 
150 
154 
182 
215 
218 
193 
226 
229 
303 
311 
280 
237 
232 
307 
331 
238 
290 
239 
171 
313 
253 
330 
317 
332 
428 
510 
399 
412 
368 
341 
413 
328 
435 
290 
383 
286 
327 
324 
297 
374 
314 
319 
449 
937«J 
356 
339 
465 
290** 
379 
349 



317 

376 

185 

190 

22 

39 

40 

25 

33 

42 

47 

60 

57 

121 

101 

48 

120 

91 

179 

59 

125 

57 

209 

103 

149 

105 

118 

117 

107 

195 

127 

80 

99 

85 

93 

185 

59 

93 

74 

41 

176 

79 

323 

219 

122 

179 

244 

100 

113 

92 

152 

141 

57 

69 

31 

139 

125 

96 

68 

45 

131 

86 

90 

113 

411 

93 

61 

112 

162 

57 

61 



33f 

»t 

407 
270 
495 
376 
447 
510 
244 
510 
367 
765 

1094 
412 
900 
710 

1206 
636 

1589 
433 

1704 

1119 
766 
960 

1163 
720 
678 

1103 
976 
937 
796 
817 
884 

1265 
446 

1285 
529 
389 

1230 
516 
952 
826 

1053 

1067 

1985 
639 

1024 
680 
672 
733 
773 
941 
493 

1384 
682 

1051 
548 
801 
794 
647 
688 

1338 
430 
817 
659 

1166 
789 
563 
414 



Ladies Foreigners Total 



1101 1'' 



60* 
331* 
160 
260 
172 
196 
203 
197 
237 
273 
141 
292 
236 
524 
543 
346 
569 
509 
821 
463 
791 
242 
1004 
1058 
508 
771 
771 
682 
600 
910 
754 
912 
601 
630 
672 
712 
283 
674 
349 
147 
614 
189 
841 

74 
447 
429 
493 
509 
579 
334 
107 
439 
268 
451 
261 
873 
100 
639 
120 
482 
246 
305 
365 
317 
181 
352 
551 
222 

90 
123 

81 



34 
40 



28 



36 
53 

15 
22 
44 
37 

9 

6 
10 
26 

9 
26 
13 
22 
47 
15 
25 
25 
13 
23 
11 

7 
45J 
17 
14 
21 
43 
11 
12 
17 
25 
11 
17 
13 
12 
24 
21 

5 
26&60H.§ 

6 
11 
92 
12 
21 
12 
35 
50 
17 
77 
22 
41 
41 
33 
27 

9 
20 

6 
21 
121 
16 
22 
42 
14 

7 

8 
31 



353 

900 
1298 

1350 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1315 



1079 

857 
1320 

819 
1071 
1241 

710 
1108 

876 
1802 
2133 
1115 
2022 
1698 
2564 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1856 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1951 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 

915 
2557 
1253 
2714 
1777 
2203 
2453 
3838 
1984 
2437 
1775 
1497 
2070 
1661 
2321 
1324 
3181 
1362 
2446 
1403 
1915 
1912 
1620 
1754 
2789 
2130 
1972 
1647 
2297 
1468 
1449 
1241 



I Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association 
** Including 137 Members of the 

1911. 



Amount 


Sums paid 
on account 




recei 


vea 


of Grants 


Year 


during tne 
Meeting 


for Scientific 
Purposes 








1831 






— 


1832 






— 


1833 






£20 


1834 






167 


1835 






435 


1836 






922 12 6 


1837 






932 2 2 


1838 






1595 11 


1839 






1546 16 4 


1840 






1235 10 11 


1841 






1449 17 8 


1842 






1565 10 2 


1843 






981 12 8 


1844 






831 9 9 


1845 






685 16 


1846 






208 5 4 


1847 


£707 





275 1 8 


1848 


963 





159 19 6 


1849 


1085 





345 18 


1850 


620 





391 9 7 


1851 


1085 





304 6 7 


1852 


903 





205 


1853 


1882 





380 19 7 


1854 


2311 





480 16 4 


1855 


1098 





734 13 9 


1856 


2015 





507 15 4 


1857 


1931 





618 18 2 


1858 


2782 





684 11 1 


1859 


1604 





766 19 6 


1860 


3944 





1111 5 10 


1861 


1089 





1293 16 6 


1862 


3640 





1608 3 10 


1863 


2965 





1289 15 8 


1864 


2227 





1591 7 10 


1865 


2469 





1750 13 4 


1866 


2613 





1739 4 


1867 


2042 





1910 


1868 


1931 





1622 


1869 


3096 





1572 


1870 


2575 





1472 2 6 


1871 


2649 





1285 


1872 


2120 





1685 


1873 


1979 





1151 16 


1874 


2397 





960 1) 


1875 


3023 





1092 4 2 


1876 


1268 





1128 9 7 


1877 


2615 





725 16 6 


1878 


1425 





1080 11 11 


1879 


899 





731 7 7 


1880 


2689 





476 8 1 


1881 


1286 





1126 1 11 


1882 


3369 





1083 3 3 


1883 


1855 





1173 4 


1884 


2256 





1385 


1885 


2632 





995 6 


1886 


4336 





1186 18 


1887 


2107 





1511 6 


1888 


2441 





1417 11 


1889 


1776 





789 16 8 


1890 


1664 





1029 10 


1891 


2007 





864 10 


1892 


1653 





907 15 6 


1893 


2175 





583 15 6 


1894 


1236 





977 15 6 


1895 


3228 





1101 6 1 


1896 


1398 





1059 10 8 


1897 


2399 





1212 


1898 


1328 





1430 14 2 


1899 


1801 





1072 10 


1900 


2046 





945 


1901 


1644 





947 


1902 


1762 





845 13 2 


1903 


2650 





887 18 11 


1904 


2422 





928 2 2 


1905 


1811 





882 9 


1906 


1561 





767 12 10 


1907 


2317 





1157 18 8 


1908 


1623 





1014 9 9 


1909 


1439 





963 17 


1910 


1176 





922 


1911 



were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 
American Association. 



XCV111 



ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCES AT THE ANNUAL 
MEETINGS, 1831-1910. 

[The total attendances for the years 1832, 1835, 1SI3, and 1814 

are unknown.] 

Average attendance at 76 Meetings : 1848. 

Average 
Attendance 
Average attendance at 5 Meetings beginning during June, between 

1833 and 1860 " 1260 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during July, between 

1841 and 1907 . . . . 1122 

Average attendance at 30 Meetings beginning during August, between 

1836 and 1010 11)13 ' 

Average attendance at 35 Meetings beginning during September, 

between 1831 and 1908 1944 

Attendance at 1 Meeting held in October, Cambridge, 1862 . . 1101 



• -•- 



Meetings beginning during August and September. 

Average attendance at — 

4 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in August ( 1st- 7(h) . 1905 

5 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ „ ( 8th-14tli) . 2130 
8 „ , 3rd „ ,. „ (15th-21sr.) . 1761- 

13 „ „ „ „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-31st) . 1996 

Average attendance at — 

12 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in September ( 1st- 7th). 2100 

16 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ „ ( 8th-14tb). 1860 

5 „ „ „ „ 3rd , (15th-21st). 2206 

2 „ „ „ „ 4th , (22nd-30th). 1025 

Meetings beginning during June, July, and October. 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1845, June 19) beginning during the 3rd 

week in June (15th-21st) 1079 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during the 4th week in 

June (22nd-30th) 1306 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1851, July 2) beginning during the 1st 

week in July (lst-7th) 710 

Average attendance at 2 Meetings beginning during the 3rd week in 

July (15th-21st) 1066 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1907, July 31) beginning daring the 5th 

week in July (29th-31st) 1647 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1862, October 1) beginning during the 1st 

week in October (I st^-lth) 1161 

1 Average attendance at 31 Meetings, including South Africa, 1905 (August 15- 
September 1): 1949. 

- Average attendance at 9 Meetings, including South Africa, 1905 (August 15- 
September 1): 1802. 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



XC1X 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

Rritish Fossil Ichthyology ... 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on Long-con- 
tinued Heat 17 

Rain-gauges 9 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 

£435" 



£ s. 
20 


A. 




62 

105 





£167 
























1 





13 

















6 






1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer Construc- 
tion 100 

Strength of Cast Iron 60 

Preservation of Animal and 

Vegetable Substances 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee ... 31 

£932 







1837. 

Tide Discussions 2S4 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 93 3. 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 

fi922 12 6 



























1 


10 


12 


10 














6 


6 








3 





8 


7 








9 


5 



1839. 

£ g. d. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth, &c 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification Experiments ... 9 4 

Cast-iron Experiments 103 7 

Railway Constants ,.. 28 7 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 2 

Steam- vessels' Engines 100 4 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 18 

Stars (Lacaille) 11 6 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue ... 166 16 

Animal Secretions 10 10 6 

Steam Engines in Cornwall... 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 8 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 



£1595 11 



2 2 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature ... 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iran 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations . 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs... 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phe- 
nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 

£1546 16 4 



f 2 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1841. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of ) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 6 

Railway Sections 38 1 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh ... 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 



1842. 
Dynamometric Instruments . . 113 

Anoplura Britannia? 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gaseson Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) ... 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dyna- 
mometric Instruments 90 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 



































10 























8 


6 















£ s. d. 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race ... 7 9 



£1449 17 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 

Association Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Firth of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at Ply- 
mouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 

Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 

at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture, and Sundries ... 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 

Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 

Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomen- 
clature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds ... 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of ) . 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on Bri- 
tish Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CI 



£ s. d. 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 60 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

o'f Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 







8 4 





9 6 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 
Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 
Co-operation 25 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 
East Coast of Scotland ... 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature 
of Stars 1842 2 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 5(5 

Iniluence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 
of the Lower Tertiary Strat a 100 

Registering the Shocks of 
Earthquakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 
^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 
Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 
Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 1812 S 

Exotic Anoplura ,,.. 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 
the Forms of Ships 100 

I nquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 
Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument 1842 10 

£981 



7 


3 














17 


6 








11 


10 














10 




















3 


7 


3 
































3 


6 


12 


8 



1845. 

£ «. d. 

Publication of the British As- 
sociation Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 
at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 
at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil'sBarometrograph... 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces ... 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds ..1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain ... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 fi 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 12 

£685 16~0 



Cll 



GENERAL .STATEMENT. 



1847. 

£ s. d. 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals ... 10 

Physiological Action of Medi- 
cines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves G 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 II 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality cf Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogue of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Bill on Account of Ancmo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

£159 19 G 



1850. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 
Azores 25 

£345 18 

1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Ani- 
mals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 G 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 



1852. 

£ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 '.) 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Irelanel ... 15 

Researches on the British An- 
nelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 G 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 

Experiments on the Influence 
of Solar Radiation 


105 

15 

10 

10 
5 

a 205 








ii 









Researches on the British 
Dredging on the East Coast 






Ethnological Queries 





i 






1854. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of 
former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 
Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 .; 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 1G 4 



185G. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observa- 
tory : — 

1854 £ 75 O 0] 

L855 £500 0/ 







GRANTS OF MONEY. 



nn 



£ i. d. 

Strickland's Ornithological 

Synonyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging 

Forms 9 13 *> 

Chemical Action of Light ... 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Propagation of Sal mon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mol- 

lusca of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Mada- 
gascar 20 

Researches on British Anne- 
lida 25 

Report on Natural Products 

imported into Liverpool ... 10 

Artificial Propagation of Sal- 
mon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterra- 
nean Observations 5 7 

Life-boats 5 

£507 15 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Earthquake Wave Experi- 
ments 25 

Dredging on the West Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seed 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 

Report on the British Anne- 
lida 25 

Experiments on the produc- 
tion of Heat by Motion in 

Fluids 20 

Report on the Natural Pro- 
ducts imported into Scot- 
land 10 

£618 18 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 
Dredging near Dublin 15 



£ s. tl. 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicate > 6 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusida? 5 '0 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels'Performance... 5 
Marine Fauna of South and 

West of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39. 11 



£684 


11 


1 


1860. 








Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 

Inquiry into the Performance 

Explorations in the Yellow 

Sandstone of Dura Den .. 

Chemico-mechanical Analysis 

Researches on the Growth of 
Plants 


500 
16 
15 

121 

20 

25 

10 

30 

25 

1 

'766 



6 









13 















Researches on the Solubility 





ResearchesontheConstituents 
of Manures 





Balance of Captive Balloon 

i 
1861. 


6 


19 


6 








Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 

Dredging North and East 
Coasts of Scotland 


500 
25 

23 

72 

20 
20 
150 
15 
20 
20 

100 

5 

30 

50 
20 
10 
6 
25 

























5 










Dredging Committee : — 

1860 , £50 \ 

1861 £22 J 

Solubility of Salts 








Steam-vessel Performance ... 

Fossils of Lesmahagow 

Explorations at Uriconium ... 









Classified Index to the Trans- 


n 


Dredging in the Mersey and 
Dee 


n 







Photoheliographic Observa- 







n 









10 



£1111 


6 


10 



CIV 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1862. 

£ s. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

Molluscaof N.-W. of America 10 
Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew , 40 

Photographic Pictures of the 

Sun v 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland Coasts 25 

Connection of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast 

of Scotland 6 9 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Re- 
sistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-electric Currents ... 5 

£1293 16 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 600 
Balloon Committee deficiency 70 
Balloon Ascents (other ex- 
penses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east Coast of. 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland 

and Durham 17 

Dredging Committee Superin^ 

tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Electrical Construction and 

Distribution 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 
Photoheliograph 100 





































































3 


K) 
































O 








o 

















(t 



o i 





o 

! 

i 

o 

6 














£ s. d. 

Thermo-electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Dredging, Northumberland... 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Re- 
sistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift , 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee ... 5 

Rain-gauges 1!) 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 







1865. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Rain-gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the 

Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 it 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 10 

Eurypterus 50 <> 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 O 

Gibraltar Caves Researches... 150 o 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands ... 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 7 10 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CV 



1866. 

£ 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall..... 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-bed ... 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation ... 20 
Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c, Devon 

and Cornwall 25 

DredgingAberdeenshireCoast 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast ... 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies 

in Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals , 29 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene 

Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches ... 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund... 100 

£1750 

1867. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 
Meteorological Instruments, 

Palestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-bed ... 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c, Leaf-beds 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl Series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

North Greenland Plant Beds. 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture. . . 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 



s. d. 









13 


4 


















































































































































13 


4 







































































































4 





























4 


(1 



1868. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory... 609 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall .. 30 

British Fossil Carols 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 



1869. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory.. 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

Chemical Constitution of 

Cast Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic Remains in Lime- 
stone Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf -beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 30 
Spectroscopic Investigations 

of Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 





























































































A 





















































































































































































CV1 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ 
Chemical Constit.nt.ion and 
Physiological Action Rela- 
tions 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion... 10 

£1622 
































1870. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical Nature of Cast 

Iron 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Rlood 15 

British Rainfall.. 100 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Iron, &c 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils ... 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilisation of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 50 

£1572 0~ 



1871. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory COO 
Monthly Reports of Progress 

in Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observation 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations ... 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 



£ t. d. 
Fossil Coral Sections, for 

Photographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 




























1872. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-embryological Inqui- 
ries '. 10 tt 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 :i 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta ... 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Anta- 
gonism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Con- 
stitution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Me- 
tals 25 

£1285 



1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 4^0 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Underground Temperature ... 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rain- 
fall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 



GRANTS UK MONEY, 



CV11 



1874. 

£ i. d. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 10 

Anthropological Instructions 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorology 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-West of Scot- 
land 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain Limestone Corals 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High Temperature of Bodies 30 

Siemens 's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrintbodonts of Coal- 
measures 7 15 

£115 1 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetisation of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids... 25 
Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations... 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers ... 20 

Intestinal Secretions 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

£960 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables 159 4 2 

I'.ritish Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine ... 200 

tjpecilic Volume of Liquids... 25 



£ s. d. 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 5 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 100 
Thermal Conductivities of 

Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close^Time 5 

Physiological Action of 

Sound 25 it 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inha- 
bitants of British Isles 13 15 C 

Measuring Speed of Ships ... 10 
Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam-vessels 5 

£1092 4 2 



1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in 

Minerals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Dipterocarpere, Report on ... 20 
Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 35 

Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperature ... 50 

Settle Cave Exploration 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobuty- 

rate on Ethyl Sodaceto- 

acetate 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 

Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and 

Phosphoric Acid 1 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 















11 


7 











































































8 























:i 


7 



CV111 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1878. 

£ s. d. 

Exploration of Settle Caves... 100 

Geological Record 100 

Investigation of Pulse Pheno- 
mena by means of Siphon 
Recorder 10 

Zoological Station at Naples 75 

Investigation of Underground 
Waters 15 

Transmission of Electrical 
Impulses through Nerve 
Structure 30 

Calculation of Factor Table 
for Fourth Million 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 66 

Composition and Structure of 
less -known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Kent's Cavern 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Fermanagh Caves Explora- 
tion 15 

Thermal Conductivity of 

Rocks 4 16 6 

Luminous Meteors 10 

Ancient Earthworks 25 

£725 16 6 



1879. 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 75 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 
of the North of Ireland ... 20 

Illustrations for a Monograph 

on the Mammoth 17 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Composition and Structure of 

less-known Alkaloids 25 

Exploration of Caves in 

Borneo 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration .. . 100 

Record of the Progress of 
Geology 100 

Fermanagh Caves Exploration 5 

Electrolysis of Metallic Solu- 
tions and Solutions of 
Compound Salts 25 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Calculation of Factor Tables 

for 5th and 6th Millions ... 150 

Underground Waters 10 

Steering of Screw Steamers... 10 

Improvements in Astrono- 
mical Clocks 30 

Marine Zoology of South 
Devon 20 

Determination of Mechanical 
Equivalent of Heat 12 15 6 



£ s. d. 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 40 

Tables of Sun-heat Co- 
efficients 30 

Datum Level of the Ordnance 
Survey 10 

Tables of Fundamental In- 
variants of Algebraic Forms 36 14 

Atmospheric Electricity Ob- 
servations in Madeira 15 

Instrument for Detecting 

Fire-damp in Mines 22 

Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships 17 1 8 

Tidal Observations in the 

English Channel 10 

£1080 11 11 



1880. 

New Form of High Insulation 

Key 10 

Underground Temperature ... 10 

Determination of the Me- 
chanical Equivalent of 
Heat 8 5 

Elasticity of Wires 50 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Fundamental Invariants 8 5 

Laws of Water Friction 20 

Specific Inductive Capacity 
of Sprengel Vacuum 20 

Completion of Tables of Sun- 
heat Coefficients 50 

Instrument for Detection of 

Fire-damp in Mines 10 

Inductive Capacity of Crystals 

and Paraffines 4 17 7 

Report on Carboniferous 

Polyzoa 10 

Caves of South Ireland 10 

Viviparous Nature of Ichthyo- 
saurus 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration... 50 

Geological Record 100 

Miocene Flora of the Basalt 

of North Ireland )5 

Underground Waters of Per- 
mian Formations 5 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Table at Zoological Station 

at Naples 75 

Investigation of the Geology 

and Zoology of Mexico 50 

Anthropometry 60 

Patent Laws 5 

£731 7 7 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



C1X 



1881. 

£ 

Lunar Disturbance of Gravity 30 

Underground Temperature ... 20 

Electrical Standards 25 

High Insulation Key 5 

Tidal Observations 10 

Specific Refractions 7 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Japan 25 

Tertiary Flora 20 

Scottish Zoological Station ... 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 75 

Natural History of Socotra ... 60 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 9 

Zoological Record 100 

Weights and Heights of 

Human Beings 30 

£476 



s. 


d. 
































3 


1 





























































3 1 



1882. 

Exploration of Central Africa 100 

Fundamental Invariants of 

Algebraical Forms 76 1 11 

Standards for Electrical 

Measurements 100 

Calibration of Mercurial Ther- 
mometers 20 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra of Elements 60 

Photographing Ultra-violet 

Spark Spectra 25 

Geological Record 100 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 25 

Conversion of Sedimentary 
Materials into Metamorphic 
Rocks 10 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Geological Map of Europe ... 25 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Tertiary Flora of North of 

Ireland 20 

British Polyzoa 10 

Exploration of Caves of South 

of Ireland 10 

Exploration of Raygill Fissure 20 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 

Albuminoid Substances of 

Serum 10 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 
Bcdily Exercise 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Natural History of Socotra... 100 

Natural History of Timor-laut 100 

Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 50 

£1126 m 



1883. 

£ s. d. 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 50 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 20 

British Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 25 

Erosion of Sea-coast of Eng- 
land and Wales 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 15 

Geological Record 50 

Exploration of Caves in South 

of Ireland 10 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Migration of Birds 20 

Zoological Station at Naples 80 

Scottish Zoological Station... 25 

Elimination of Nitrogen by 

Bodily Exercise 38 3 3 

Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro 500 U 

Investigation of Loughton 

Camp 10 

Natural History of Timor-laut 60 

Screw Gauges 5 

£1083 3 3 

1884. 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 O 

Collecting and Investigating 

Meteoric Dust 20 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Chepstow 25 O 

Tidal Observations 10 

Ultra Violet Spark Spectra ... 8 4 
Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 75 

Fossil Plants of Halifax 15 

Fossil Polyzoa 10 

Erratic Blocks of England ... 10 
Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeo- 
zoic Rocks 15 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

International Geological Map 20 
Bibliography of Groups of 

Invertebrata 50 

Natural History of Timor-laut 50 

Naples Zoological Station ... 80 
Exploration of Mount Kili- 

ma-njaro, East Africa 500 

Migration of Birds 20 

Coagulation of Blood 100 

Zoological Literature Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee... 10 

£1173 4~~Q 



ox 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1885. 

£ s. d. 

Synoptic Chart of Indian 

Ocean 50 

Reduction of Tidal Observa- 
tions 10 

Calculating Tables in Theory 

of Numbers 100 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 50 

Meteoric Dust 70 

Vapour Pressures, &c, of Salt 

Solutions 25 

Physical Constants of Solu- 
tions 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 25 

Raygill Fissure 15 

Earthquake Phenomena of 

Japan 70 

Fossil Phyllopoda of Palaeozoic 

Rocks 25 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 50 

Geological Record 50 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 10 

Naples Zoological Station ...100 

Zoological Literature Record. 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

Exploration of Mount Kilima- 
njaro 25 

Recent Polyzoa 10 

Gtanton Biological Station ... 100 

Biological Stations on Coasts 

of United Kingdom 150 

Exploration of New Guinea... 200 

Exploration of Mount Roraima 100 

£1385 



1886. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Solar Radiation 10 6 

Tidal Observations 50 

Magnetic Observations 10 10 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 100 O 
Physical and Chemical Bear- 
ings of Electrolysis 20 

Chemical Nomenclature 5 

Fossil Plants of British Ter- 
tiary and Secondary Beds... 20 

Caves in North Wales 25 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 30 

Geological Record 100 

Palreozo'c Phyllopoda 15 

Zoological Lit erature Record . 100 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Naples Zoological Station 50 

Eesearches in Food-Fishes and 

Invertebrata at St. Andrews 75 



£ 

Migration of Birds 30 

Secretion of Urine 10 

Exploration of New Guinea. . . 1 50 
Regulation of Wages under 

Sliding Scales 10 

Prehistoric Race in Greek 

Islands 20 

North- Western Tribes of Ca- 
nada : 50 

£995~ 



ff. 


,1. 

































6 



1887. 

Solar Radiation 18 10 

Electrolysis 30 

Ben Nevis Observatory 75 

Standards of Light (1886 

grant) 20 

Standards of Light (1887 

grant) 10 

Harmonic Analysis of Tidal 

Observations 15 

Magnetic Observations 26 2 

Electrical Standards 50 

Silent Discharge of Electricity 20 

Absorption Spectra 40 

Nature of Solution 20 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 30 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1886 grant) 50 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 

(1887 grant) 50 

CaeGwyn Cave, N. Wales ... 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 20 

Coal Plants of Halifax 25 

Microscopic Structure of the 

Rocks of Anglesey 10 

Exploration of the Eocene 

Beds of the Isle of Wight... 20 

Underground Waters 5 

' Manure ' Gravels of Wexford 10 

Provincial Museums Reports 5 

Lymphatic System 25 

Naples Biological Station ... 100 

Plymouth Biological Station 50 

Granton Biological Station ... 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Flora of China 75 

Flora and Fauna of the 

Cameroons 75 

Migration of Birds 30 

Bathy-hypsographical Map of 

British Isles 7 6 

Regulation of Wages 10 

Prehistoric Race of Greek 

Islands 20 

Racial Photographs, Egyptian 20 

£1186 18 



GRANTS OP MuNKV. 



CXI 



1888. 

£ s. d. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 150 

Electrical Standards 2 tj 4 

Magnetic Observations 15 

Standards of Light 79 2 3 

Electrolysis 30 

Uniform Nomenclature in 

Mechanics 10 

Silent Discharge of Elec- 
tricity 9 11 10 

Properties of Solutions 25 

Influence of Silicon on Steel 20 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Action of Light on Hydracids 20 

Sea Beach near Bridlington... 20 

Geological Kecord 50 

Manure Gravels of Wexford... 10 

Erosion of Sea Coasts 10 

Underground Waters 5 

Palseontographical Society ... 50 
Pliocene Fauna of St. Erth... 50 
Carboniferous Flora of Lan- 
cashire and West Yorkshire 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Zoology and Botany of West 

Indies 100 

Flora of Bahamas 100 

Development of Fishes— St. 

Andrews 50 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth 100 

Migration of Birds 30 

FloraofChina 75 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Lymphatic System 25 

Biological Station at Granton 50 

Peradeniya Botanical Station 50 

Development of Teleostei ... 15 
Depth of Frozen Soil in Polar 

Regions 5 

Precious Metals in Circulation 20 
Value of Monetary Standard 10 
Effect of Occupations on Phy- 
sical Development 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

' Canada 100 

Prehistoric Pace in Greek 

Islands 20 

£1511 6 



1889. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards 75 

Electrolysis 20 

Surface Water Temperature... 30 
Silent Discharge of Electricity 

on Oxygen 6 4 8 



£ s. d. 
Methods of teaching Chemis- 
try 10 

Action of Light on Hydracids 10 

Geological Record 80 

Volcanic Phenomena of Japan 25 
Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Paheozoic Phyllopoda 20 

Higher Eocene Beds of Isle of 

Wight 15 

West Indian Explorations ... 100 

FloraofChina 25 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 
Physiology of Lymphatic 

System 25 

Experiments with a Tow-net 5 1G 3 
Natural History of Friendly 

Islands 100 

Geology and Geography of 

Atlas Range 100 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 100 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 150 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 30 

Corresponding Societies 20 

Marine Biological Association 200 

' Baths Committee,' Bath 100 

£1417^0~11 



1890. 

Electrical Standards 12 17 

Electrolysis 5 

Electro- optics 50 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Volcanic and Seismological 

Phenomena of Japan 75 

Pellian Equation Tables 15 

Properties of Solutions 10 

International Standard for the 

Analysis of Iron and Steel 10 
Influence of the Silent Dis- 
charge of Electricity on 

Oxygen 5 

Methods of teachingChemistry 10 
Recording Results of Water 

Analysis 4 l o 

Oxidation of Hydracids in 

Sunlight 15 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 20 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 10 

Circulation of Underground 

Waters 5 

Excavations at Oldbury Hill 15 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Geological Photographs 7 14 11 

Lias Beds of Northampton ... 25 
Botanical Station at Perade- 
niya 25 



cxn 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 
Experiments with a Tow- 
net ., 4 3 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 150 

Graphic Methods in Mechani- 
cal Science 11 

Anthropometric Calculations 5 

Nomad Tribes of Asia Minor 25 

Corresponding Societies 20 

£790 16 



9 







1891. 

Ben Nevis Observatory 50 

Electrical Standards..". 100 

Electrolysis 5 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Temperatures of Lakes 20 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 5 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 10 

Ultra Violet Rays of Solar 

Spectrum 50 

International Standard for 

Analysis of Iron and Steel... 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deriva- 
tives 25 

Formation of Haloids 25 

Action of Light on Dyes 17 10 

Geological Record 100 

Volcanic Phenomena of Vesu- 
vius 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 9 5 

Lias of Northamptonshire .., 25 

Registration of Type-Speci- 
mens of British Fossils 5 5 

Investigation of Elbolton Cave 25 

Botanical Station at Pera- 

deniya 50 

Experiments with a Tow-net 40 

Marine Biological Association 12 10 

Disappearance of Native 

Plants 5 

Action of Waves and Currents 

in Estuaries 125 

Anthropometric Calculations 10 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 200 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£1029 10~ 



1892. 

£ s. d. 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 50 
Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Pellian Equation Tables 10 

Discharge of Electricity from 

Points 50 

Seismological Phenomena of 

Japan 10 

Formation of Haloids 12 

Properties of Solutions 10 

Action of Light on Dyed 

Colours 10 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 20 

Underground Waters 10 

Investigation of Elbolton 

Cave 25 

Excavations at Oklbury Hill 10 

Cretaceous Polyzoa 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 17 10 

Deep-sea Tow-net 40 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands... 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 100 

Climatology and Hydrography 

of Tropical Africa 50 

Ant luopometric Laboratory... 5 
Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 20 

Prehistoric Remains in Ma- 

shonaland 50 

North - Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£8(54 10 



1S93. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Observations on Ben Nevis ... 150 

Mathematical Tables 15 

Intensity of Solar Radiation 2 8 6 
Magnetic Work at the Fal- 
mouth Observatory 25 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Underground Waters 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, Chapelhall, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 10 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 30 

Fauna of Sandwich Islands 100 
Zoology and Botany of West 

India Islands 50 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CX111 



£ s. d. 

Exploration of Irish Sea 30 

Physiological Action of 

Oxygen in Asphyxia 20 

Index of Genera and Species 

of Animals 20 

Exploration of Karakoram 

Mountains 50 

Scottish Place-names 7 

Climatology and Hydro- 
graphy of Tropical Africa 50 0-0 

Economic Training 3 7 

Anthropometric Laboratory... 5 

Exploration in Abyssinia 25 

North-Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£907 15 6 



1894. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 15 

Intensity of Solar Eadiation 5. 5 6 

Wave-length Tables 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 5 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Fossil Phyllopoda 5 

Shell - bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 20 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 5 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 14 

Observations on Earth Tre- 
mors 50 

Exploration of Calf - Hole 
Cave 5 

Naples Zoological Station ... 100 

Marine Biological Association 5 

Zoology of the Sandwich 

Islands 100 

Zoology of the Irish Sea 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 10 

Exploration in Abyssinia ... 30 

Economic Training 9 10 

Anthropometric Laboratory 

Statistics 5 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

The Lake Village at Glaston- 
bury 40 

Anthropometrical Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 20 

Corresponding Societies 25 

£58 3 15^ 6 
1911. 



1895. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 5 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 10 

Earth Tremors 75 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Reduction of Magnetic Obser- 
vations made at Falmouth 
Observatory 50 

Comparison of Magnetic Stan- 
dards 25 

Meteorological Observations 
on Ben Nevis 50 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 ti 1 

Formation of Haloids from 
Pure Materials 20 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives 30 

Electrolytic Quantitative An- 
alysis 30 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palaeozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Photographs of Geological In- 
terest 10 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 

Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 3 

New Sections of Stonesfield 

Slate 50 

Exploration of Calf Hole Cave 10 

Nature and Probable Age of 

High-level Flint-drifts 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 35 9 4 

Zoology and Botany of the 

West India Islands 50 

Index of Genera and Species 
of Animals 50 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 5 

Exploration of Hadramut ... 50 O 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments ... 25 

Anthropometric Measure- 
ments in Schools 5 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 30 

Exploration of a Kitchen- 
midden at Hastings 10 

Ethnographical Survey 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies 30 

£977 15 5 



CX1V 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1896. 

£ s. cl. 

Photographs of Meteorological 

Phenomena 15 

Seismological Observations... SO 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain Inte- 
grals 10 

Uniformity of Size of Pages of 
Transactions, &c 5 

Wave-length Tables of the 
Spectra of the Elements ... 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 
Colours 2 G 1 

Electrolytic Quantitative Ana- 
lysis 10 

The Carbohydrates of Barlev 

Straw 50 

Reprinting Discussion on the 
Relation of Agriculture to 
Science 5 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Palajozoic Phyllopoda 5 

Shell-bearing Deposits at 
Clava, &c 10 

Eurypterids of the Pentland 

Hills 2 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 

by Boring and Sounding ... 10 

Examination of Locality where 
the Cetiosaurus in the Ox- 
ford Museum was found ... 2(5 

Palaeolithic Deposits at Hoxne 25 

Fauna of Singapore Caves ... 10 

Age and Relation of Rocks 

near Moreseat, Aberdeen . 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Table at the Biological Labo- 
ratory, Plymouth 15 

Zoology, Botany, and Geology 

of the Irish Sea 50 

Zoology of the Sandwich Is- 
lands 100 

African Lake Fauna 100 

Oysters under Normal and 

Abnormal Environment ... 40 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

Calibration and Comparison of 

Measuring Instruments 20 

Small Screw Gauge 10 

North- Western Tribes of 

Canada 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury . 30 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 25 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 80 

£1104 6 1 



1897. 

£ g. d. 

Mathematical Tables 25 

Seismological Observations... 100 

Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 

Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro- 
chemistry 50 

Elect roly tic Quantitative An a- 

lysis 10 

Isomeric Naphthalene Deri- 
vatives .' 50 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 15 

Remains of the Irish Elk in 

the Isle of Man 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 9 10 8 

Zoological Bibliography and 

Publication 5 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Zoology and Botany of the 

We*t India Islands 40 

The Details of Observa- 
tions on the Migration of 
Birds 40 

Climatology of Tropical 

Africa.". 20 

Ethnographical Survey 40 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children 10 

Silchester Excavation 20 

Investigation of Changes as- 
sociated with the Func- 
tional Activity of Nerve 
Cells and their Peripheral 
Extensions 180 

Oysters and Typhoid 30 

Physiological Applications of 

the Phonograph 15 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone and its Precursors iO 

Fertilisation in rhseophyceie 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1059 10 8 



1898. 

Electrical Standards 75 

Seismological Observations . . 75 
Abstracts of Physical Papers 100 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Electrolysis and Electro-chem- 
istry 35 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 50 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



cxv 



£ s. d. 

Wave-length Tables of the 

Spectra of the Elements ... 20 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 8 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Investigation of a Coral Reef 40 

Photographs of Geological 
Interest 10 

Life- zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 15 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 
in Canada 20 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 14 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 ; 

Healthy and Unhealthy Oys- 
ters 30 ! 

Climatology of Tropical Africa 10 

State Monopolies in other 

Countries 15 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

North -Western Tribes of 

Canada 75 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 37 10 

Silchester Excavation 7 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 75 

Anthropology and Natural 

History of Torres Straits... 12." 

Investigation of Changes asso- 
ciated with the Functional 
Activity of Nerve Cells and 
their Peripheral Extensions 100 

Fertilisation in Phreophyceae 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1212 0~~0 



1890. 

Electrical Standards ..,;, 225 

Seismological Observations.,. 65 14 8 

Science Abstracts 100 

Heat of Combination of Metals 

in Alloys ; 20 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 50 
Calculation of certain In- 
tegrals 10 

Action of Light upon Dyed 

Colours 4 19 

Relation between Absorption 

Spectra and Constitution of 

Organic Substances 50 

Erratic Blocks 15 

Photographs of Geological 

Interest 10 

Remains of Irish Elk in the 

Isle of Man 15 

Pleistocene Flora and Fauna 

in Canada 30 



£ s. d. 

Records of Disappearing Drift 
Section at Moel Try faen ... 5 

Ty Newydd Caves 40 

Ossiferous Caves at Uphill ... 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Apparatus for Keeping Aqua- 
tic Organisms under Definite 
Physical Conditions 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English Chan- 
nel during 1899.'. 100 

Exploration of Sokotra 35 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 50 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of Canada 35 

New Edition of ' Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries 40 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Electrical Changes accom- 
panying Discharge of Re- 
spiratory Centres 20 

Influence of Drugs upon the 

Vascular Nervous System... 10 

Histological Changes in Nerve 
Cells 20 

Micro-chemistry of Cells 40 

Histology of Suprarenal Cap- • 

sules 20 

Comparative Histology of 

Cerebral Cortex 10 

Fertilisation in Phasophyceae 20 

Assimilation in Plants 20 

Zoological and Botanical Pub- 
lication r» 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1430 14 2 



1900. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 00 

Radiation in a Magnetic Field 25 

Meteorological Observatory at 

Montreal 20 

Tables of Mathematical Func- 
tions 75 o 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Constitution 
of Organic Bodies 30 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Electrolytic Quantitative 

Analysis 5 

g2 



CXV1 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 20 

The Nature of Alloys 30 

Photographs of Geological 
Interest 10 

Remains of Elk in the Isle of 
Man 5 

Pleistocene Fauna and Flora 
in Canada 10 

Movements of Underground 
Waters of Craven 40 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 50 

Migration of Birds 15 

Plankton and Physical Con- 
ditions of the English 
Channel 40 

Zoology of the Sandwich 
Islands 100 

Coral Reefs of the Indian 
Region 30 

Physical and Chemical Con- 
stants of Sea-Water 100 

Future Dealings in Raw 
Produce 2 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 50 

New Edition of 'Anthropo- 
logical Notes and Queries ' 40 

Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest 10 

Mental and Physical Condi- 
tion of Children in Schools 5 

Ethnography of the Malay 
Peninsula 25 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 20 

Comparative Histology of 
Suprarenal Capsules 20 

Comparative Histology of 
Cerebral Cortex. 5 

Electrical Changes in Mam- 
malian Nerves 20 

Vascular Supply of Secreting 
Glands 10 

Fertilisation in Phasophycese 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£1072 10 























































































10 














































































1901. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 35 



£ 
Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 
Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 
Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegrsean Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 
Suprarenal Capsules in the 

Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in Phasophycere 1 5 
Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 

maceaa 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 



s. 


d. 








































































































15 


11 



























9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 

Indian Ocean 60 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CXVll 



£ 
Compound Ascidians of the 

Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 
Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 1 5 
Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Haemoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 

under Influence of Drugs... 20 
Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycea? ;• 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 

Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£947" 



d. 



































1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hydro -aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Waters of North- 
west Yorkshire 40 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 | 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 
Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 

Anthropometric Investigation 5 0' 



£ s. d. 

Anthropometry of the Todas 
and other Tribes of Southern 
India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 
phycese 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£845 13 2 



1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 60 

Wave-lengthTables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the 
Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 
Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 
Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road -Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 

Anthropometric Investigation 
of Egyptian Troops 8 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain , 25 

The State of Solution of Pro 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 40 

Botanical Photographs 4 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 

Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£887 8 11 





























































































10 























8 


11 









CXV111 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1905. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations ... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances L'5 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitramines 25 

Fauna and Flora of the British 
Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Development oE the Frog ... 10 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 4 8 

Researches in Crete ... 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions of Egyptian Troops... 10 : 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 17 6 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£928 2 _ 2 J 

1906. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 99 12 6 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Aromatic Nitramines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 7 8 11 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea 15 



£ s. d. 

Freshwater Fishes of South 
Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lake and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 30 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 

in the British Isles 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 20 

Research on South African 

Cycads 14 19 4 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£«S2 9 

1907. 

Electrical Standards 50 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 10 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 25 7 

Wave-length Tables of 

Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro - aromatic 

Substances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

B'aunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of 
South-West England 15 

Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, &c 10 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Sexual 

Cells 1 11 8 

Oscillations of the Land Level 

in the Mediterranean Basin 50 

Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom ... • 8 19 7 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles... 10 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 55 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



CX1X 



g s. d. 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Research on South African 

Cycads 35 

Botanical Photographs 5 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Marsh Vegetation.,, 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 16 14 1 

1757 12 10 



! £ 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Succession of Plant Remains 18 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee , 25 



*. 


a. 








(1 










1908. 
Seismological Observations ... 40 
Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Investigation of Upper Atmo- 
sphere by means of Kites... 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 25 

Geodetic Arc in Africa 200 O 

Wave- length Tables of Spectra 10 o 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 30 O 

Dynamic Isomerism 40 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitramines HO 

Erratic Blocks 17 K! (i 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 10 

Pre-Devonian Rocks 10 

Exact Significance of Local 

Terms 5 

Composition of Charnwood 

Rocks 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Hereditary Experiments 10 o 

Fauna of Lakes of Central 
Tasmania 40 

Investigations in the Indian 
Ocean 50 

Exploration in Spitsbergen ... 30 

Gold Coinage in Circulation ' 

in the United Kingdom 3 7 6 

Electrical Standards 50 

Glastonbury Lake Village ... 30 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
iu Britain 15 

Age of Stone Circles 50 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 40 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 40 

The Ductless Glands 13 11 8 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 35 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 30 O 

Electrical Phenomena and 
Metabolism of Arum Spa- 
dices , 10 



£1157 18 8 



1909. 

Seismological Observations .. 60 

Investigation of the Upper At- 
mosphere by means of Kites 10 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 50 

Establishing a Solar Ob- 
servatory in Australia 50 o 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 9 16 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 15 

Dj'iiamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitramines 10 O 

Electroanalysis 30 

Fauna and Flora of British 
Trias 8 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 8 

Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales and 

the West of England 9 

Igneous and Associated Sedi- 
mentary Rocks of Glensaul 1113 9 

Investigations at Biskra 50 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Heredity Experiments 10 

F'eeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Index Animalium 75 O 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean .15 

Gaseous Explosions 75 O O 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 5 O 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Researches in Crete 70 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Electrical Phenomena and Me- 
tabolism of Arum S/mdicex 10 

Reflex Muscular Rhythm 10 

Anassthetics 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 27 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Botanical Photographs 10 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 

Symbiosis between Tur- 

bellarian Worms and Algaj 10 

Survey of Clare Island 65 

Curricula of Secondary Schools 5 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 21 

£1014 9 !) 



cxx 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1910. 

Measurement of Geodetic Arc 
in South Africa 

Republication of Electrical 
Standards Reports 

Seismological Observations. . . 

Magnetic Observations at 
Fal mouth 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere 

Studyof Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 

Dynamic Isomerism 

Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitro-amines 

Electroanaly sis 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 

South African Strata 

Fossils of Midland Coalfields 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 

Index Animalium 

Heredity Experiments 

Feeding Habits of British 
Birds 

Amount and Distribution of 
Income 

Gaseous Explosions 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury. . . 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 

Neolithic Sites in Northern 
Greece 

The Ductless Glands 

Body Metabolism in Cancer. . . 

Anaesthetics 

Tissue Metabolism 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 

Electromotive Phenomena in 
Plants 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 

Experimental Study of 
Heredity 

Survey of Clare Island 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 



£ 


s. 


d. 


100 








100 








GO 








25 








25 








25 








35 








15 








10 








10 








5 








25 








100 








75 





o 


IS 








5 








15 








75 








5 








5 








5 








40 








20 





o 


25 








25 








18 


17 





10 








10 








30 








30 














































20 
£963 17 



1911. £ s d. 

Seismological Investigations GO 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere 25 

Grant to International Com- 
mission on Physical and 
Chemical Constants 30 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 25 

Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitro-amines 15 

Electroanalysis / 15 

Influence of Carbon, &c, on 
Corrosion of Steel 15 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 2 

Mammalian Fauna in Miocene 
Deposits, Bugti Hills, Balu- 
chistan 75 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Feeding Habits of British 
Birds 5 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 30 

Map of Prince Charles Fore- 
land 30 

Gaseous Explosions 90 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Artificial Islands in Highland 
Lochs 10 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Anesthetics 20 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 25 

Electromotive Phenomena in 
Plants 10 

Dissociation of Oxy-Htemo- 
globin 25 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 1 .i 

Experimental Study of 
Heredity 45 

Survey of Clare Island 20 

Registration of Botanical 
Photographs , 10 

Mental and Physical Factors 
involved in Education 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£922 




























































































































REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. CXX1 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1910-1911. 

I. Professor B. A. Schafer, F.R.S., has been unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Council to fill the office of President of the Association for 
1912 (Dundee Meeting). 

II. Professor J. Perry, General Treasurer, was appointed to repre- 
sent the Association at the ceremony of Their Majesties' Corona- 
tion. 

Professor H. E. Armstrong was appointed to represent the Asso- 
ciation at the celebration of the Centenary of the Royal Frederick 
University in Christiania. 

III. The following Nominations are made by the Council: — 
Conference of Delegates. — Professor J. W. Gregory (Chairman), 

Mr. William Dale (V ice-Chairman), Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing (Secre- 
tary). 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Mr. W. Whitaker (Chair- 
man), Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing (Secretary), Rev. J. O. Bevan, Sir 
Edward Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Dr. 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. Lewis, 
Mr. F. W. Rudler, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and the President and 
General Officers of the Association. 

IV. The Recommendation of the Council (embodied in its Report 
presented at the Sheffield Meeting) that a permanent sub-section of 
Agriculture be formed having been referred back to the Council, the 
following Committee was appointed to report to the Council on this 
question : — < 



The President. 
The General Officers. 
Sir W. Ramsay. 
Sir E. Brabrook. 



Major P. G. Craigie. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer. 
Mr. A. D. Hall. 
Dr. A. E. Shipley. 



Sir W. Tilden. 

After the Report of this Committee had been received, the Council 
resolved by a majority to recommend : — 

That Agriculture be constituted a Section of the Association. 

V. In the Report of the Council for 1909-10 proposals were made 
as to the grouping or reorganisation of certain Sections, but these pro 
posals were not accepted by the General Committee. The discussion 
upon these proposals, however, indicated the desirability of further con- 
sideration of this subject, and the Council have therefore given close 
attention to a series of suggestions for a revised scheme of Sectional 
Meetings which have been brought before them during the present 
year. 

The Council, while resolving not to forward these suggestions to the 
General Committee as a recommendation, consider it desirable to bring 
them to the notice of the Committee in the present Report (see 
Appendix). 

VI. A Resolution, referred to the Council by the General Com- 
mittee at Sheffield, has been received 



CXXU REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

From Section D: — 
' That Section D reaffirms its resolution of September H, 1908, and 
urges the Nomenclature Commission of the International Con- 
gress of Zoology to draw up an official list of generic names, 
with as little delay as possible, which shall not on nomencla- 
torial grounds be changed unless with the sanction of the 
Commission. ' 

It was resolved that no further action be taken by the Council. 

VII. A Resolution, referred to the Council by the General Com- 
mittee at Sheffield, has been received 

From Section E : — 

' That the Council be requested to bring under the notice of His 
Majesty's Government the high prices Hint recently have been 
fixed for many Geological Survey Maps, which tend to keep 
the valuable information given by these maps from being 
circulated as freely as it ought to he, the sale now being practi- 
cally limited to persons of some means. ' 

The Council ordered the following Resolution to be transmitted 
to the Treasury : — 

' The Council of the British Association desire to call the attention 
of the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury to the 
high prices that have been recently fixed for the hand-coloured 
Geological Maps prepared by the Geological Survey and to the 
effect of this action in placing these maps out of the reach of 
persons of small menns^ and thus limiting the usefulness of 
that institution. 

' The. Council are aware that- not only are recently prepared maps 
issued in a colour-printed form at a price which renders them 
readily accessible, but that old hand-coloured maps have been 
replaced by colour-printed editions where circumstances per- 
mitted. But they would point out that many important maps 
are likely to remain for a considerable time in the hand- 
coloured edition, and would urge My Lords to reconsider the 
question whether it is necessary in the meantime to raise the 
price of these maps to a figure which is prohibitive to many 
classes of the community rather than to adhere to the prices 
that have been in use for many years.' 

A reply wns received from which the following extract is made: — 

Sir, — . . . I am to explain that the price of these maps was found 
recently to involve a substantial loss on the cost of production of each 
copy sold, and My Lords have felt obliged to require that the prices 
should be reassessed so as to cover, as in the case of other Government, 
publications, the actual cost of production. 

In these circumstances they regret to be unable to reconsider their 
decision on the matter. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) T. L. Heath. 



KEPOJKT OF THE COUNCIL. CXX111 

VIII. A Besolution, referred to the Council by the General Com- 
mittee at Sheffield, has been received 

From Section H : — 

' To recommend the Council to bring to the notice of His Majesty's 
Secretary of State for the Colonies the defects of the present 
administration of antiquities in Cyprus, and to urge the neces- 
sity of prompt and efficient measures under a trained official 
directly responsible to the island Government to prevent de- 
struction and spoliation of ancient remains in the island. ' 

It was resolved to appoint the following Committee, to advise the 
Council as to action, and to consider whether or not other bodies should 
he invited to take part in representations on the matter : the President, 
the General Officers, Dr. A. J. Evans, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. E. 
Sidney Hartland, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Professor J. L. Myres. 

On the Report of this Committee, the Council resolved to proceed 
by way of a deputation to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, and 
to invite the following Societies and Institutions to co-operate by nomi- 
nating representatives to join the deputation. All did so, the repre- 
sentatives nominated being as under: — 

Society of Antiquaries .... Sir A. J. Evans 

Royal Archaeological Institute 

Hellenic Society .... 

British School at Athens 

Royal Anthropological Institute . 



Sir H. Howorth 
Prof. Ernest Gardner 
Sir A. J. Evans 
Dr. C. H. Bead 



The Council nominated the following to represent the Association, 
in company with the President and General Officers : Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, Mr. E. S. Hartland, Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Professor J. L. 
Myres. 

The Colonial Secretary, Mr. Harcourt, received the deputation on 
June 27 at the Colonial Office, when there were present the President, 
Dr. Haddon, Mr. Hogarth, Professor Myres, Sir A. Evans, and Pro- 
fessor Gardner. Mr. A. Smith of the British Museum also attended. 
The deputation was introduced by the President, and its views were 
laid before Mr. Harcourt by Mr. Hogarth, Sir A. Evans, and Professor 
Gardner, and after some discussion had taken place, Mr. Harcourt 
returned a sympathetic answer to the deputation. 

IX. A Besolution, referred to the Council by the General Com- 
mittee at Sheffield, has been received 

From Section I: — 

' The Committee of Section I begs to call attention to the fact that 
during the past year resolutions have been adopted by the 
General Medical Council in support of early legislation to 
secure better regulation of the administration of general 
anaesthetics, and that the recent report of a Departmental 
Committee of the Home Office has laid special stress upon the 



CXxiv REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

need of careful clinical observation controlled by physiological 
experiments. 
' The Committee asks the Association to support such legislation 
and inquiry.' 

It was resolved to appoint the following Committee to advise the 
Council as to action : Sir Lauder Brunton, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 
Sir W. Ramsay (President Elect), Prof. C. S. Sherrington, Dr. A. D. 
Waller. On the Report of this Committee, the following letter was 
forwarded to the Secretary of State for Home Affairs: — 

Sir, — As one of the main objects of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science is ' the removal of any disadvantage of a 
public kind,' this Council desires to support the proposals for legislation 
embodied in a Bill recently submitted to you by Dr. P. W. Hewitt, 
which Bill, we are glad to observe, has received the approval of the 
General Medical Council. We fully agree with the General Medical 
Council that in the public interest it is important for the protection 
of the public that legislation on the lines of this Bill should speedily 
take effect. 

The Council of the British Association would further endorse the 
recommendations of the Report of the Coroners' Committee on Deaths 
under Anaesthetics, more particularly Recommendation 15 (asking for 
the formation of a small Standing Committee to acquire further know- 
ledge concerning anaesthetics and their administration). 

So fully, indeed, are we convinced of the necessity for further 
scientific inquiry in the matter that a Committee of this Association 
was formed three years ago for that purpose, and is still meeting and 
annually reporting to us. 

Signed, on behalf of the Council, 

T. G. Bonney, 

President. 

X. Recommendations, received by the General Committee at 
Sheffield and referred to the Council, were dealt with as under: — 

It was agreed that the following Committees be authorised to re- 
ceive contributions from sources other than the Association: — 

' To conduct Explorations with a view to ascertaining the Age of 

Stone Circles.' (Section H.) 
' To aid investigators ... to carry on . . . work at the Zoological 

Station at Naples.' (Section D.) 

XL The following letter has been received': — 
University of Manitoba. 

Winnipeg, Man., October 17th, 1910. 
Dear Sir, — I am instructed to convey to you on behalf of the 
Council of the University of Manitoba their hearty thanks for the 
generous gift of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 
of books to the Library of the University. Same was expressed by a 
unanimous vote of the Council at its last meeting on the 6th inst. 

(Signed) W. J. Spence. 

The Secretary, British Association for the Advancement of Science. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



CXXV 



A set of the Annual Reports, so far as available, has been presented 
to the Rhodes University College, Grahamstown, South Africa. 

XII. The Council have authorised Section K (Botany) to form a 
Sub-section for Agriculture for the Portsmouth Meeting, with a 
Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, and Secretariat to deal with its transactions. 

XIII. The Council have received reports from the General 
Treasurer during the past year. His Accounts from July 1, 1910, 
to June 30, 1911, have been audited and are presented to the General 
Committee. 

XIV. In accordance with the Regulations the retiring members of 
the Council are: — 

Dr. IT. T. Brown, Dr. A. E. Shipley, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Dr. 
P. W. Dyson, Mr. A. L. Bowley. 

The Council nominated the following new members: — 

Sir E. Brabrook, 
Professor R. Meldola, 
Professor F. T. Trouton, 

leaving two vacancies to be filled by the General Committee without 
nomination by the Council. 

The full list of nominations of ordinary members is as follows : — 



Sir W. Abney. 

Dr. Tempest Anderson. 

Prof. H. E. Armstrong. 

Sir E. Brabrook. 

Sir Lauder Brunton. 

Col. C. F. Close. 

Major P. G. Craigie. 

W. Crooke. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

A. D. Hall. 

E. Sidney Hartland. 

Dr. J. E. Marr. 



Prof. R. Meldola. 

Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. 

Prof. J. L. Myres. 

Prof. E. B. Poulton. 

Col. D. Prain. 

Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 

J. J. H. Teall. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson. 

Prof. F. T. Trouton. 

Dr. A. E. H. Tutton. 

Sir W. H. White. 



XV. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council 
for reappointment. 

XVI. The following have been admitted as members of the General 
Committee: — 



C. W. Andrews. 

J. Barcroft. 

Prof. V. H. Blackman. 

Prof. R. C. Bosanquet. 

Prof. H. L. Bowman. 

Prof. Grenville Cole. 

Prof. A. R. Cushny. 

Prof. A. Dendy. 

Dr. J. W. Evans. 

Dr. L. N. G. Filon. 

E. S. Goodrich. 

J. H. Grace. 

W. B. Hardy. 

E. Heawood. 

Capt. E. O. Henrici. 



Sir T. H. Holland. 

B. Hopkinson. 

F. J. Lewis. 

H. M. Macdonald. 

D. H. Macgregor. 

Dr. C. J. Martin. 

H. F. Newall. 

Prof. K. J. P. Orton. 

Prof. C. J. Patten. 

Prof. J. E. Petavel. 

Prof. G. Elliot Smith. 

Prof. H. B. Lees Smith. 

A. G. Tansley. 

Sir C. M. Watson. 

Prof. T. B. Wood. 



CXXV1 APPENDIX TO THE REPORT OF THE COl'NCIL 



APPENDIX. 

Suggestions for a Revised Scheme of Sectional Meetings. 

The suggestions for a revised scheme of Sectional Meetings, referred 
to in the Report of the Council, § V., were as follows: — 

1. The scheme had as its main object the fostering of a closer union 
between the Sections, by means of joint meetings, and, in general, an 
extension of their interests by providing greater opportunity, during 
the Annual Meeting, for work not confined to the individual Section- 
rooms. 

It would also diminish the number of rooms required for the 
accommodation of the Association, thus lightening the expense to the 
place visited and making it easier to obtain rooms at a convenient dis- 
tance from the Reception Room and each other. 

2. The main points of the proposal were — 

(i) To leave the organisation of the Sections, as at present con- 
stituted, intact, each having its President, officers, and 
committee. 

(ii) To arrange the Sections in two classes — 

(a) Those having each the exclusive use of a meeting- 
room for all days available for sectional work. 

(b) Those having the exclusive use of a meeting-room 
for two days only out of the four full days so available, 
and being occupied on the other two days with joint meet- 
ings or other work as hereafter specified. 

3. The following suggestions were put forward as a basis for dis- 
cussion : — 

That the Sections * be classified as follows: — 

Class (a).— A, B, C, D. 

Class (&).— 0, E, P, G, I, K, L, M. 

Between the eight Sections in class (b) four rooms would 
be divided as thus : — 

On the Thursday and Monday, Sections C, E, p, and L 
would occupy the. four rooms. 

On the Friday and Tuesday, Sections O, T, K, and M would 
occupy the same four rooms. 

On Thursday and Monday, Sections 0, I, K, M, and on 



* The f Mowing are the existing Sections: — 
A. — Mathematics, &c. E.— Geography. I. — Physiology. 

B. — Chemistry. F. — Economics, Sic. K. — Botany. 

C. — Geology. G. — Engineering L. — Education. 

D. — Zoology. H. — Anthropology. 

The existence of a Section of Agriculture (M), the formation of which is 

recommended in the Report, of the Council, is assumed for the purpose of the 
p-esent argument. 



APTEND1X TU THE KEPOKT OK THE COUNCIL CXXV11 

Friday and Tuesday Sections C, E, F, L, might hold joint 
meetings : — 

(a) Either with class (a) Sections in the rooms of bhose 
Sections. 

(b) Or with the class (b) Sections occupying Section 
rooms (for nothing in this scheme is to be construed as 
prohibiting a class (b) Section from holding a joint meeting 
with any other Section on one of its own two days). 

(c) Or with each other in a room — the ' Common Boom ' 
— set apart for the purpose. It would probably be necessary 
to devote a room exclusively to this, although the room 
used under existing arrangements by the General and other 
committees in the afternoons might also be made available 
for occupation by Sections in the mornings. 

The above arrangement of the Sections in class (b) allots indi- 
vidual rooms on the same two days to Sections which commonly hold 
joint meetings (e.g., to Sections and E), so that such Sections would 
be able to use a common room for joint meetings on other days. 
An alternative arrangement is to allot different days for the individual 
meetings of kindred Sections, e.g., on Thursday and Monday, E on 
Friday and Tuesday. Any joint meeting between these Sections would 
then have to take place during the time when one or other of them 
was in individual occupation of a Section-room, and would thus reduce 
the time available for individual work. This arrangement would tend to 
reduce the demand upon a common room. 

The present organisation of the Sections in class (a) would be left 
untouched, but their organising committees would be invited to give 
particular consideration to the arrangement of joint meetings with Sec- 
tions in class (b). 

4. It was assumed in drafting this scheme that all the Sections in 
class (b) would meet regularly in the afternoons (e.g., from 2.0 to 3.30) 
as well as the mornings of the days on which they occupied rooms 
individually. 

Further, the last Wednesday morning is available for sectional 
business, and five or six at least out of these eight Sections could be 
accommodated on that morning, even if meeting separately. 

5. The practice of certain Sections which habitually adjourn their 
Section-room meetings for the purpose of carrying out field or other 
practical work, or visiting works, schools, &c, would afford valuable 
opportunities, in the case of Sections in class (b), for the use of time 
unoccupied by either individual or joint meetings. 

6. The scheme makes use of eight or at most nine Section-rooms 
instead of twelve as at present (excluding the General Committee room). 

7. Arrangements for occupation of the ' Common Eoom ' would 
have to be made in advance through the office of the Association. 

8. Every Section would have a permanent Committee-room for 
the meeting. 



CXXV111 GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. 



Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER IN ACCOUNT 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 

1910-1911. RECEIPTS. 

£ t. d. 

Balance brought forward 150 15 3 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 339 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 172 

Annual Subscriptions 640 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 551 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 122 

Sale of Publications 73 4 9 

Dividend on Consols , 153 1 4 

Dividend on India 3 per Cents 101 14 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity 49 4 4 

Interestat Sheffield Bank 11 2 5 

Unexpended Balance of Grant to Committee on the Correlation 

and Age of South African Strata 3 8 



Investment*. 

£ s. d. 

2| per Cent. Consolidated Stock 6,50110 5 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 3,600 

£73 Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' 

Annuity (cost) 1,493 6 6 

11,594 16 11 
Sir Frederick BramweH's Gift : — 

2\ per Cent. Self-cumulating Consolidated 

Stock 71 6 10 

[To be awarded in 1931 for a paper ' dealing 
with the whole question of the prime 
movers of 1931, and especially with the 
then relation between steam engines and 
internal-combustion engines.'] 

£11,666 3 9 



£ 2,366 2 9 



John Pekey, General Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. CXXIX 



WITH THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE Cr. 

July 1, 1910, to June 30, 1911. 

1910-1911. PAYMENTS. 

£ j. d. 

Rent and Office Expenses 98 3 

Salaries, &c 670 10 1 

Printing, Binding, &c 225 3 7 

Expenses of Sheffield Meeting 96 15 6 

Payment of Grants made at Sheffield : — £ s. J. 

Seismological Investigations 60 . 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere 25 

Grant to International Commission on Physical and 

Chemical Constants 30 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 25 

Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamiues 15 

Electroanalysis 15 

Influence of Carbon, &c, on Corrosion of Steel 15 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 2 

Mammalian Fauna in Miocene Deposits, Bugti Hills, 

Baluchistan 75 

Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 100 

Index Auimalium 75 

Feeding Habits of British Birds 5 

Belmullet Whaling Station 30 

Map of Prince Charles Foreland 30 

Gaseous Explosions 90 

uake Villages in the neighbourhood of Glastonbury 5 

A.ge of Stone Circles 30 

Artificial Islands in Highland Lochs 10 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Anaesthetics 20 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 25 

Electromotive Phenomena in Plants 10 

Dissociation of Oxy-Haamoglobin 25 

Structure of Fossil Plants 15 

Experimental Study of Heredity 45 

Survey of Clare Island 20 

Registration of Botanical Photographs 10 

Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education .... 10 

Corresponding Societies Committee 20 

922 



£2,012 9 
Balance at Bank of England (Western £ d. 

Branch) 428 11 

Less Cheques not presented 77 

£351 11 
Cash not paid in 2 19 10 

£354 9 
Less Petty Cash overspent 7 4 



353 13 5 
£2,366 2 9 

An account of about £800 is outstanding due to Messrs. Spottiswoode & Co. 

1 have examined the above Account with the Books and Vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the Balance at the 
Bankers, and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. 
Approved — 

Herbert McLeod, \ . ... W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant. 

Edward Brabrook.j \ ■ d - ua " ors - 
Aug. 9, 1911. 
1911. h 



CXXX GENERAL MEETINGS. 



GENERAL MEETINGS AT PORTSMOUTH. 

On Wednesday, August 30, at 8.30 p.m., in the Town Hall, the 
Rev. Professor T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., resigned the office of President to 
Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S., who took the Chair and delivered an 
Address, for which see p. 3. 

On Thursday, August 31, at 2.30 p.m., a visit was made to His Majesty's 
Dockyard ; and at 8.30 p.m. the Mayor and Mayoress (Alderman and 
Mrs. T. Scott Foster) held a Reception at the South Parade Pier. 

On Friday, September 1, at 8.30 p.m., in the Town Hall, Mr. Leonard 
Hill, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' The Physiology of Submarine 
Work ' (p. 634). 

On Monday, September 4, at 2.15 p.m., members assembled on board 
H.M.S. Revenge, which proceeded to Spithead and was attacked by torpedo- 
boats and submarines At 8.30 p.m., in the Town Hall, Professor A. C. 
Seward delivered a Discourse on ' Links with the Past in the Plant 
World ' (p. 647). 

On Tuesday, September 5, at 3 p.m., the Mayor and Mayoress gave a 
Garden Party in Victoria Park. 

On Wednesday, September 6, at 3 p.m., the concluding General 
Meeting was held in the Town Hall, when the following Resolutions were 
adopted : — 

1. That the grateful thanks of the Association be given to Alderman 
T. Scott Foster, Mayor of Portsmouth, for the reception and generous 
hospitality accorded to its members on the occasion of this meeting. 

2. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Commander-in-Chief 
and men of the Royal Navy for the splendid naval display to which they 
have treated the members of the Association. 

3. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Corporation and 
citizens of Portsmouth for the reception which they have accorded to the 
British Association, and to the Directors of the Borough of Portsmouth 
Waterworks Company, the Portsea Island Gas Light Company, and 
Corporation Committees for the facilities offered to the members for the 
inspection of their respective works. 

4. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Local Officers and 
Executive Committees for the admirable arrangements made for the 
meeting. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE PORTSMOUTH MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President— Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. Vice- President ».— Prof. J. 0. Fields ; 
Prof. W. M. Hiche, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. E. H. Love, F.R.S. ; Dr. W. X. Shaw, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. F. T. Trouton, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Prof. A. W. Porter, F.Ii S. 
(Recorder); H. Bateman, M.A. : Dr. P. V. Bevan ; A. S. Eddinetuu, .MA. ; 
E Gold, M.A. ; P. A. Yapp. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. CXXXl 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Prof. J. Walker, D.Sc, F.R.S. Vice-Preside?its.—Pvot\ A. 
Belial; Prof. A. Haller ; Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S.; Prof. A. Senier, M.D.; 
J. E. Stead, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Recorder)-. Dr. F. 
Becldow, D.Sc. ; Dr. C. II. Desch ; Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— A. Harker, M.A., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents— Dr. C. W. Andrews 
F.R.S. ; G. Barrow ; Dr. E. Hull, F.R.S. ; Dr. F. W. Hume ; Clement Reid, 
F.R.S. ; W. Whitaker, F.R.S. Secretaries.— W . Lower Carter, M. A. (Recorder); 
Lieut.-Col. C. W. Bevis ; Dr. A. R. Dwerryliouse; Prof. S. H. Reynolds, M.A. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President.— Prof. D'Arcy W. Thompson, C.B. Vice-Presidents.— Prof. G. C. 
Bourne, F.R.S.; W. T. Caiman, D.Sc; Prof. Maurice Caullery; Dr. P. P.O. 
Hoek ; Prof. II. Jungersen; G. Archdall Reid, M.B. Secretaries.— Dr. H. W. 
Marett Tims, M.A., M.D. (Recorder); Dr. J. II. Ashwortk, D.Sc; C. Foran ; 
R. Douglas Laurie, M.A. 



SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY. 

M 



President.— Colonel C. F. Close, C.M.G., R.E. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. H. N. 
Dickson, D.Sc; Prof. A. J. Herbertson, Ph.D.; Colonel Sir D. A. Johnston, 
K.C.M.G., R.E. ; Captain II. G. Lyons, F.R.S.; M. A. Stein, CLE., Ph.D.; 
A. Silva White. Secretaries.— J. McFarlane, M.A. (Recorder) ; E. A. Reeves- 
W. Parnell Smith. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— Hon. W. Pember Reeves. Vice-Presidents.— Sir Edward Brabrook, 
C.B. ; Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.Com., M.A. ; Right Hon. Sir George H. Reid, 
G.C.M.G. ; Sir II. Llewellyn Smith, K.C.B., M.A. Secretaries.— Dr. W. It' 
Scott, M.A. (Recorder) ; C. R. Fay, M.A. ; II. A. Stibbs. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President.— -Prof. J. H. Biles, LL.D., D.Sc. Vice-Presidents.— 3 . Apsey; Prof 
W. E. Dalby, M.A. ; Charles Hawksley ; Prof. J. E. Petavel, F.R.S. ; Colonel 
W. Russell, R.E. ; Admiral W. T. Sanders ; Alexander Siemens. Secretaries.— 
Prof. E. G. Coker, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; H. Ashley ; A. A. Rowse, B Sc • 
H. E. Wimperis,M.A. ' ' 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Br. W. II. R. Rivers, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents— W. Crooke, B A. • 
Prof. A. A. Goldenweiser ; C. G. Seligmann, M.D. ; Prof. G. Elliot Smith, M.D,' 
F.R.S. ; Prof. Hutton Webster. Secretaries.— E. N. Fallaize, B.A (Recorder)'- 
II. S. Kingsford, M.A.; E. W. Martindell, M.A.; H. Bundle, F.R.C.S ■ Dr F 6' 
Shrubsall, M.A. ' 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President— Prof. J.S.Macdonald, B.A. Vice-Presidents— Leonard Hill FRS • 
Dr. C. J. Martin, F.R.S. ; Prof. E. A. Schafer, F.R.S. ; Prof. C. S. Sherrincton' 
F.R.S.; Prof. AVm. Stirling, M.D. ; Prof. A. D. Waller, F.R.S. Secretaries — 
Dr. H. E. Roaf (Recorder); Dr. J. T. Leon, M.D.: Dr. Keith Lucas ScD • 
Dr. J. Tait, M.D., D.Sc. 

h2 



C.xxxii OFFICERS OF (SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 



SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc. Vice-Presidents— Dr. F. F. Blackmail, 
F.R.S.; Dr. F. Darwiti, F.R.S. ; Prof. II. W. Phillips, D.Sc; Prof. J. W. H. 
Trail, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Prof. R. H. Yapp, M.A. (Recorder) ; C. G. Delakuut ; 
Prof. D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, M.A.; Dr. 0. E. Moss. 

SUB-SECTION. — AGRICULTURE. 

Chairman. — W. Bateson, M.A.., F.R.S. Vice-Chairmen.— A. 1). Hall, M.A. , 
F.R.S.; Leonard Sutton. Secretaries. — Dr. E. J. Russell, D.Sc. (Recorder) ; 
J. Golding ; II. R. Pink. 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Sight Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, D.D. Vice-Presidents.— Prof. R. A. 
Gregory ; Sir Philip Magnus, M.P. ; J. C. Nicol, M.A. Secretaries. — J. L. 
Holland, B.A. (Recorder); W. D. Eggar, M.A. ; 0. Freeman, M.Sc. ; Hugh 
Richardson, M.A. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES. 

Chairman. — Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S. Vice-Chairman — William Dale. 
Secretary. — "YV . P. D. Stebbing. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of the Association ; the General Secretaries ; 
the General Treasurer; the Trustees; the Presidents of the Association in 
former years; the Chairman of the Conference of Delegates; Trof. H. H. 
Turner;' Prof. W. M. [licks; Prof. J. Walker; Dr. E. F. Armstrong ; 
A. Harker; \Y. Lower Carter; Prof. D'Any Thompson; Dr. Marett Tims ; 
Colonel C. F. Close: J. McFarlane ; Hon. \V. Pembur Reeves: Dr. W. R. 
Scott; Prof. J. II. Biles; Prof. E. G. Coker; Dr. W. II. R. Rivera; E. X. 
Fallaize; Prof. J. S. Macdonald; Dr. II. E. Roaf; Prof. F E. Weiss; Prof. 
R. II. Yapp ; Rt. Rev. J. E. 0. Welldon ; J. L. Holland and A. D. Hall. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



cxxxm 



Research Committees, etc.. appointed by the General Committee 
at the Portsmouth Meeting : September 1911. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 




Subject for Investigation, ov Purpose 


Members of Committee 


Grants 


Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS 






£ s.d. 


Seismological Observations. 


Chairman. — Professor H H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. Milne. 

Mr. C. V. Boys, Sir George Dar- 
win, Mr. Horace Darwin, Major 
L Darwin, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, 
Mr. M. H. Gray, Mr. R. K. Gray, 
Professors J. W. Judd, C. G. 
Knott, and R. Meldola, Mr. 
R. D. Oldham, Professor J. 
Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Dr. 
R. A. Sampson, and Professor 
A. Schuster. 


60 


To co-operate with the Committee 


( liairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 


25 


of the Falmouth Observatory 


Secretary Dr. W. N. Shaw. 




in their Magnetic Observations. 

• 


Professor W. G. Adams, Captain 
Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, Professor A. Schus- 
ter, Sir A. W. Riicker, and Dr. 
Charles Chree. 




To aid the work of Establishing 


Chairman. — Sir David Gill. 


50 


a Solar Observatory in Australia. 


Secretary.— -Dr. W. G. Duffield. 
Rev. A. L. Cortie, Dr. W. J. S. 






Lockyer, Mr. F. McClean, and 
Professors A. Schuster and H. H. 
Turner. 




Investigation of the Upper Atmo- 


Chairman. — Dr. W. N. Shaw. 


30 


sphere. 


Secretary/. — Mr. E. Gold. 

Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. Vernon 
Boys, Mr. C. J. P. Cave, Mr. 
W. H. Dines, Dr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook, Professor J. E. Petavel, 
Dr. A. Schuster, Dr. W. Wat- 
son, and Sir J. Larmor. 




Grant to the International Com- 


Chairman.- Sir W. Ramsay. 


30 


mission on Physical and 


Secretary.— Dr. N. T. M. Wils- 




Chemical Constants. 


niore. 





b.3 



CXXX1V 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 




The further Tabulation of Bessel 
and other Functions. 



Cliiiirnwn. — Professor M. J. M. 

Hill. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. W. Nicholson, 
Mr. J. R. Airey, Professor Alfred 

Lodge, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, and 

Sir G. Greenhill. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Dynamic Isomerism. 



The Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitroamines and allied sub- 
stances, and its relation to 
Substitution in Benzene De- 
rivatives. 

Electroanalysis. 



The Study of Plant Enzymes, 
particularly with relation to 
Oxidation. 



Chairman. — Professor E. Divers. 

Secretary. — Professor A. W. Cross- 
ley. 

Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. O. 
Forster, and Dr. Le Sueur. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

Professor Sydney Young, Dr. Desch, 
Dr. J. J. Dobbie, and Dr. M. O. 
Forster. 

Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kip- 
ping. 

Secretary.— ProfessorK.J.P.Orton. 

Dr. S. Ruhemann, and Dr. J. T. 
Hewitt. 

Chairman.— Professor F. S. Kip- 
ping. 

Secretary. — Dr. F. M. Perkin. 

Dr. G. T. Beilby, Dr. T. M. Lowry, 
Professor W. J. Pope, and Dr. 
H. J. S. Sand. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. D. Hall. 

Secretary. — Dr. E. F. Armstrong. 

Professor H. E. Armstrong, Pro- 
fessor F. Keeble, and Dr. E. J. 
Russell. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



To excavate Critical Sections in 
the Palteozoic Rocks of Wales 
and the West of England. 



Chairman. — Mr. R. H. Tiddeman. 
Secretary. — Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse. 
Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. M . Burton, 

Mr. F. W. Harmer, Rev. S. N. 

Harrison, Dr. J. Home, Mr. W. 

Lower Carter, Professor W. J. 

Sollas, and Messrs. W. Hill, 

J. W. Stather, and J. H. Milton. 

Chairman. — Professor C. Lap- 
worth. 

Secretary Mr. W. G. Fearnsides. 

I Dr. J. E. Marr, Professor W. W. 
i Watts, and Mr. G. J. Williams. 



£ s. d. 
15 



20 



30 



10 



10 



30 



5 



10 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



cxxxv 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To investigate the Microscopical 
and Chemical Composition of 
Charnvvood Rocks. 



The Investigation of the Igneous 
and Associated Rocks of Glen- 
saul and Lough Nafooey Areas, 
Co. Galway. 



To consider the preparation of a 
List of Characteristic Fossils. 



To investigate the Bone Bed at 
the base of the Coralline Crag 
at Sutton, with special refer- 
ence to the occurrence of 
Chipped Flints therein. 

To investigate the occurrence of 
the Bembridge Limestone at 
Creechbarrow Hill. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Professor W. W. 

Watts. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. T. Groom. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett and Dr. Stracey. 

Chairman. — Professor \V. W. 
Watts. 

Secretary. — Professor S. II. Rey- 
nolds. 

Messrs. R. G. Carruthers and C.I. 
Gardiner. 

Chairman. — Professor P. F. Ken- 
dall. 

Secretary.— Mr. W. Lower Carter. 

Mr. H. L. Allen, Professor W. S. 
Boulton, Professor G. Cole, Dr. 
A. R. Dwerryhouse, Professors 
J. W. Gregory, Sir T. H. Hol- 
land, G. A. Lebour, and S. H. 
Reynolds, Dr. Marie C. Stopes, 
Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. 
Marr, Dr. A. Vaughan, Professor 
W. W. Watts, Mr. H. Woods, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Chairman. — SirE. Ray Lankester. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. P. Ridley. 
Mr. W. Whitaker. 



Chairman. — Professor T. McK. 

Hughes. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. Woods. 
Dr. J. J. H. Teall, Dr. J. E. Marr, 

Professor E. J. Garwood, Mr. 

C. Reid, Mr. W. Whitaker and 

Mr. H. A. Allen. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To aid competent Investigators 
selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 



Compilation of an Index Generum 
et Specierum Animalfum. 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hick- 
son. 

Secretary.— Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, Mr. 
G. P. Bidder, Dr.W.B. Hardy , and 
Professor A. D. Waller. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. Woodward. 

Secretary. — Dr. F. A. Bather. 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, the 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, Lord 
Walsingham ,nd Dr. Caiman. 



Grants 

£ s. </. 
2 







5 



15 



20 



30 



75 



CXXXV1 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1 . Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, oi' Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Grants 



To investigate the Biological 
Problems incidental to the Bel- 
mullet Whaling Station. 



To defray expenses connected 
with work on the Inheritance 
and development of Secondary 
Sexual Characters in Birds. 



Chairman. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 
Secretary. — Professor J. Stanley 

Gardiner. 
Professor W. A. Herdman, Rev. 

W. Spotswood Green, Mr. E. S. 

Goodrich, Dr. II. W. Marett 

Tims, and Mr. R. M. Barring-ton. 

Chairman. — Professor G.C Bourne. 
Secretary. — Mr. Geoffrey Smith. 
Mr. E. 'S. Goodrich, Dr. W. T. 
Caiman, and Dr. Marett Tims. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



Upon a new series of equal area 
maps, to measure areas of 
vertical relief, vegetation, and 
rainfall ; to calculate the mean 
levels of the sphere, the con- 
tinents and the oceans, and the 
total mean annual rainfall over 
(he lands. 

Calculation of areas of 10' squares 
on the Spheroid. 1 

Section G 
The Investigation of Gaseous Ex- 
plosions, with special reference 
to Temperature. 



Section H. 

To investigate the Lake Villages 
in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury in connection with a 
Committee of the Somerset 
Archaeological and Natural 
History Society. 

To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 



Chairman. — Professor A. J. Her- 

bertson. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. A. Reeves. 
Dr. H. R. Mill, Mr. G. G. Chisholm, 

and Colonel C. F. Close. 



Chairman. — Colonel C. F. Close. 
Secretary. — Mr. K. A. Reeves. 
Captain H. G. Lyons. 

—ENGINEERING. 

Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Secretaries. — Mr. Dugald Clerk 
and Professor B. Hopkinson. 

Professors W. A. Bone, F. W. Bur- 
stall, H. L. Callendar, E. G. 
Coker, W. E. Dalby, and H. B. 
Dixon, Drs. R. T. Glazebrook 
and J. A. Harker, Colonel H.C. L. 
Holden, Professor J. E. Petavel, 
Captain H. Riall Sankey, Pro- 
fessor A. Smithells, Professor 
W. Watson, Mr. D. L. Chapman, 
and Mr. H. E. Wimperis. 

-ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 
Secretary. — Professor W. Boyd 

Dawkins. 
Professor W. Ridgeway, Sir Arthur 

J. Evans, Dr. C. H. Read, Mr. 

H. Balfour, and Dr. A. Bulleid. 

Chairman. — Dr. C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Dr. G. A. Auden, Lord Avebury, 
Professor W. Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Sir A. J. Evans, Dr. R. 
Munro, Professor Boyd Daw- 
kins, and Mr. A. L. Lewis. 



£ 
20 



a. d. 




10 



^0 



2o 



GO 







IS 



1 It was subsequently ascertained that this work had been carried out else- 
where, and the Committee was dissolved. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To prepare a New Edition of Notes 
and Queries in Anthropology. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Dr. C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Had- 

don, Mr. T. A. Joyce, and Drs. 

C. S. Myers, W. H. R. Rivers, 

C. G. Seligmann, and F. C. 

Shrubsall. 



To- investigate and ascertain the Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 

Distribution of Artificial Is- Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
lands in the lochs of the High- Professors T. H. Bryce, W. Boyd 

Dawkins, and W. Ridge way. 



lands of Scotland. 

To investigate the Physical 
Characters of the Ancient 
Egyptians. 



To conduct Excavations in Easter 
Island. 



To organise Anthropometric In- 
vestigations in the British Isles. 



The Ductless Glands. 



Chairman. — Professor G. Elliot 
Smith. 

Secretary. — Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Dr. A. Keith and Dr. C. G. Selig- 
mann. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. 
Mr. R. R. Marett and Dr. C. G. 

Seligmann. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Thom- 
son. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Gray. 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 



Section T._ PHYSIOLOGY. 



Chairman. — Professor Schafer. 

Secretary. — Professor Swale Vin- 
cent. 

Professor A. P>. Macallum, Dr. L. E. 
Shore, and Mrs.W. H.Thompson. 



To aid competent Investigators 
selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 



To acquire further knowledge, 
Clinical and Experimental, con- 
cerning A n aesthetics — especially 
Chloroform, Ether, and Alco- 
hol — with special reference to 
Deathsbyor during Annesthesin, 
and their possible diminution. 



Chairman. — Professor S.J. Hick- 
son. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Sir E. Ray Ennkester, Professor 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, 
Mr. G. P. Bidder, Dr. W. B. 
Hardy, and Professor A. D. 
Waller. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Sir F. W. Hewitt. 
Dr. Blu'mfeld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, 
and Dr. G. A. Buckmaster. 



exxxvn 



Grants 



£ 
40 



s ,!. 




35 



i:s o ii 



40 



15 







20 



20 



i 



CXXXV111 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Caloriruetric Observations on Man 
in Health and in Febrile Con- 
ditions. 



Chairman. — Professor J. S. Mac- 

donald. 
Secretary. — Dr. G. Chapman. 
Dr. Keith Lucas. 



Section K.— BOTANY 
The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



The Experimental 
Heredity. 



A Botanical, Zoological, and Geo- 
logical Survey of Clare Island. 



The Investigation of the Jurassic 
Flora of Yorkshire. 



To inquire into and report upon 
the methods and results of 
research into the Mental and 
Physical Factors involved in 
Education. 



To inquire into and report 
upon the overlapping between 
Secondary Education and that 
of Universities and other 
places of Higher Education. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
40 



Chairman. — Professor F.W.Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Mr. E. Newell Arber, Professor A.C. 

Seward,.and Dr. D. H. Scott. 



Study of Chairman. — Mr. Francis Darwin. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. G. Tansley. 
Professors Bateson and Keeble. 



Chairman. — Professor T. Johnson. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger. 

Professor Grenville Cole, Dr. 

Scharff, and Mr. A. G. Tansley. 

Chairman. — Professor A. C. 
Seward. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Hamshaw 
Thomas. 

Mr. H. W. T. Wager and Pro- 
fessor F. E. Weiss. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



Chairman. — Professor J.J. Findlay. 

Secretary. — Professor J. A. Green. 

Professor J. Adams, Dr. G. A. 
Auden, Sir E. Brabrook, Dr. W. 
Brown, Professor E. P. Culver- 
well, Mr. G. F. Daniell, Miss B. 
Foxley, Mr. J. Gray, Professor 
R. A. Gregory, Dr. C. W. Kim- 
mins, Professor W. MacDougall, 
Dr. C. S. Myers, Dr. T. P. Nunn, 
Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, Dr. F. C. 
Shrubsall, Mr. H. Bompas 
Smith, Dr. C. Spearman, and Dr. 
F. Warner. 

Chairman. — Principal Miers. 

Secretary. — Prof essor R. A. 
Gregory. 

Messrs. D. Berridge and C. H. 
Botbamley, Miss L. J. Clarke, 
Miss A. J. Cooper, Miss B. Fox- 
ley, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
and Professor Smithells. 



15 







20 



20 



5 



5 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



CXXXIX 



I. Receiving Grants of Money— continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 


Members of Committee 


Grants 






£ s. ,1. 


To inquire into the Curricula and 


Chairman. — Mr. W. D. Eggar. 


10 


Educational Organisation of In- 


Secretary. — Mrs. W. N. Shaw. 




dustrial and Poor Law Schools 


Professor R. A. Gregory, Mr. J. L. 




with special reference to Day 


Holland, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 




Industrial Schools. 


and Mr. J. G. Legge. 




The Influence of School Books 


Chairman. — Dr. G. A. Audcn. 


5 


upon Eyesight. 


Secretary. — Mr. G. F. Daniell. 

Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. W. D. 
Eggar, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Mr. J. L. Holland, Professor 
Priestley Smith, and Mr. Trevor 
Walsh. 




CORRESPO 


NDING SOCIETIES. 




Corresponding Societies Com- 


Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 


25 


mittee for the preparation of 


Secretary. — Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing. 




their Report. 

SPE( 


Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Principal E. H. Griffiths, Dr. 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. T. V. Holmes, 
Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. 
Lewis, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Rev. 
T. R. R. Stebbing, and the 
President and General Officers 
of the Association. 

JIAL GRANT. 




To co-operate with Local Bodies 


Chairman. — Mr. Clement Reid. 


40 


in acquiring and arranging Col- 


Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 




lections to illustrate the Natural 


Mr. 0. G. S. Crawford, Mr. W. 




History, Geography, and Anti- 


Dale, Professor E. B. Poulton, 




quities of the Isle of Wight. 


and Dr. A. B. Rendle. 





cxl 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Suction A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Making 1 Experiments for improving 
the Construction of Practical Stan- 
dards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments. 



Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professors J. Perry and W. G. Adams, Dr. 
G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver Lodge, Dr. 
A. Muirhead, Sir W. H. Preece, Pro- 
fessor A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. 
Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. 
Fitzpatrick, Professor S. P. Thompson, 
Mr. J. Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
Sir Arthur Riicker, Professor H. L. 
Callendar, and Messrs. G. Matthey, 
T. Mather, and F. E. Smith. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretaries. — Professors W. W. Watts and 
S. H. Reynolds. 

Dr. T. Anderson, Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. 
G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. Crook, Professor 
E. J. Garwood, and Messrs. W. Gray, 
R. Kidston, A. S. Reid, J. J. H. Teall, 
R. Welch, W. Whitaker, and H. B. 
Woodward. 

To enable Mr. E. Greenly to complete Chairman. — Mr. A. Harker. 

liis Researches on the Composition Secretary. — Mr. E. Greenly, 

and Origin of the Crystalline Rocks Dr. J. Home, Dr. C. A. Matley, and 

of Anglesey. Professor K. J. P. Oiton. 

Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To investigate the Feeding Habits of 
British Birds by a study of the 
contents of the crops and gizzards 
of both adults and nestlings, and by 
collation of observational evidence, 
with the object of obtaining precise 
knowledge as to the economic status 
of many of our commoner birds 
affecting rural science. 

To continue the Investigation of the 
Zoology of the Sandwich Islands, 
with power to co-operate with the 
Committee appointed for the purpose 
by the Royal Society, and to avail 
themselves of such assistance in their 
investigations as may be offered by 
the Hawaiian Government or the 
Trustees of the Museum at Honolulu. 
The Committee to have power to dis- 
pose of specimens where advisable. 



Chairman. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. S. Leigh. 

Messrs. J. N. Halbert, Robert New- 
stead, Clement Reid, A. G. L. Rogers, 
and F. V. Theobald. Professor F. E. 
Weiss, Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt, and 
Professors S. J. Hickson, F. W. Gam- 
ble, G. II. Carpenter, and J. Arthur 
Thomson. 

Cliairman. — Dr. F. Du Cane Godman. 
Secretary. — Dr. David Sharp. 
Professor S. J. Hicksop, Dr. P. L. Sclater, 
and Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



cxli 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



To summon meetings iu London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by corre- 
spondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To nominate competent naturalists to 
perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 



Chairman— Six E. Ray Lankester. 

Secretary. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Professors G. C. Bourne, J. Cossar Ewart, 
M. Hartog, W. A. Herdman, and J. 
Graham Kerr, Mr. O. H. Latter, Pro- 
fessor Minchin, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, 
Professors E. B. Poulton and A. Sedg- 
wick, and Dr. A. E. Shipley. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Professor A. 
Dendy. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor A. Sedg- 
wick, Professor Sydney H. Vines, and 
Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 



To enable Mr. Laurie to conduct Ex- j Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herdman. 
periments in Inheritance. ' Secretary. — Mr. Douglas Laurie. 

Professor R. C. Punnett and Dr. H. W. 
Marett Tims. 

Chairman. — Professor J. W. H. Trail. 
Secretary. — Mr. F. Balfour Browne. 
Dr. Scharff, Professor G. H. Carpenter, 

Professor E. B. Poulton, and Messrs. 

A. G. Tansley and R. LI. Praeger. 



To formulate a Definite System on 
which Collectors should record their 
captures. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

The Collection, Preservation and I Chairman. — Dr. C. H. Read. 
Systematic Registration of Photo- j Secretary. — Mr. H. S. Kingsford. 
graphs of Anthropological Interest, i Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, and 

Professor J. L. Myres. 



To excavate Neolithic Sites in Northern 
Greece. 



To conduct Archaeological and Ethno- 
logical Researches in Crete. 



To co-operate with Local Committees 
in Excavations on Roman Sites in 
Britain. 

To report on the present state of know- 
ledge of the Prehistoric Civilisation 
of the Western Mediterranean with 
a view to future research. 

To co-operate with a local Committee 
in the excavation of a prehistoric 
sile at Bishop's Stortford. 



Chairman. — Professor W. Ridge way. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Mr. J. P. Droop and Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 

Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. W. L. H. 
Duckworth, Sir A. J. Evans, Professor 
W. Ridgeway, and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Dr. T. Ashby. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary.- — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Dr. T. Ashby, Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, 
Mr. D. G. Hogarth, and Sir A. J. Evans. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Rev. Dr. A. Irving. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon and Dr. H. VV. Marett 
Tims. 



cxlii 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money— continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 




Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



Effect of Low Temperature on Cold- 
blooded Animals. 

The Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease. 



Electromotive Phenomena in Plants. 



The Dissociation of Oxy-Ha3moglobin 
at High Altitudes. 



Body Metabolism in Cancer. 



Mental and Muscular Fatigue. 



Chairman. — Professor Swale Vincent. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. T. Cameron. 

Chairman. — Sir T. Lauder Brunton. 

Secretaries. — Mr. J. Barcroft and Lieut. - 
Col. Simpson. 

Colonel Sir D. Bruce, Dr. S. G. Camp- 
bell, Sir Kendal Franks, Professor 
J. G. McKendrick, Sir A. Mitchell, 
Dr. Porter, Dr. J. L. Todd, Professor 
Sims Woodhead, and the Heads of the 
Tropical Schools of Liverpool, London, 
and Edinburgh. 

( 'hairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Mrs. Waller. 
Professors F. Gotch, J. B. Farmer, and 
Veley, and Dr. F. O'B. Ellison. 

Chairman. — Professor E. H. Starling. 
Secretary — Dr. J. Barcroft. 
Dr. W. B. Hardy. 

Chairman. — Professor C. S. Sherring- 
ton. 
Secretary. — Dr. S. M. Copeman. 

Chairman. — Dr. W. MacDougall. 

Secretary. — Miss Edgell. 

Dr. A. D. Waller and Dr. C. S. Myers. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



To consider the promotion of the Study 
of the Plant Life of the British 
Islands, and the preparation of the 
materials for a National Flora. 



To consider and report on the ad- 
visability aud the best means of 
securing definite Ar^as for the 
Preservation of types of British 
Vegetation. 



To carry out the scheme for the Regis- 
tration of Negatives of Botanical 

Photographs. 



Chairman. — Professor J. W. H. Trail. 
Secretary. — Professor R. H. Yapp. 
Colonel D. Prain, Professor I. Bayley 

Balfour, Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, Mr. A. 

B. Rendle, Dr. W. G. Smith, and Mr. 

A. G. Tansley. 



Chairman. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 
Secretary.— My. A. G. Tansley, 
Professor J. W. H. Trail, Mr. R. Lloyd 
Praeger, Professor F. W. Oliver, Pro- 
fessor R. W. Phillips, Dr. C. E. Moss, 
and Mr. G. C. Druce. 



Chairman. — Professor F. W. Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Dr. W. G. Smith, Mr. A. G. Tansley, 

Dr. T. W. Woodhead, and Professor 

R. H. Yapp. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



cxliii 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To take notice of, and report upon 
changes in, Regulations — whether 
Legislative, Administrative, or made 
by Local Authorities — affecting 
Secondary Education. 



To report upon the Course of Experi- 
mental, Observational, and Practical 
Studies most suitable for Elementary 
Schools 



The Aims and Limits of Examinations. 



Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Miss Coignan, Sir Henry Craik, Prin- 
cipal Griffiths, Sir Horace Plunkett, 
Mr. H. Ramage, Professor M. E. 
Sadler, and Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon. 

Chairman. — Sir Philip Magnus. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. M. Heller. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, Mr. R. H. Adie, 
Professor H. E. Armstrong, Miss L. J. 
Clarke, Miss A. J. Cooper, Mr. George 
Fletcher, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Principal Griffiths, Mr. A. D. Hall, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. C. W. 
Kimmins, Professor L. C. Miall, Pro- 
fessor J. Perry, Mrs. W. N. Shaw, 
Professor A. Smithells, Dr. Lloyd 
Snape, Sir H. R. Reichel, Mr. H. 
Richardson, and Professor W. W. 
Watts. 

Chairman. — Professor M. E. Sadler. 

Secretary. — Mr. P. J. Hartog. 

Mr. D. P. Berridge, Mr. W. D. Eggar, 
Professor R. A. Gregory, Principal 
E. H. Griffiths, Miss C. L. Laurie, Dr. 
W. McDougall, Dr. T. P. Nunn. Sir 
W. Ramsay, 1 " Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, 
and Dr. Jessie White. 



I 



exliv RESOLUTIONS, ETC. 

Communications ordered to be 'printed in extenso. 

Section A. — Mr. Cunningham. The Principle of Relativity. 

,, Mr. Eddington. Stellar Distribution and Movements. 

Section B. — Professor A. McWilliam. Report on Electric Steel Furnaces. 

,, Mr. Tizard. The Sensitiveness of Indicators. 

Section D. — Professor A. Dendy. Momentum in Evolution. 
Section G. — Professor G. W. 0. Howe. Recent Developments in Radio- 
telegraphy. ' 
Section I. — Dr. Chick and Dr. Martin. Heat Coagulation of Proteins. 

„ Dr. A. D. Waller. Claims of Sir Charles Bell to the Anatomical 

Distinction of Motor and Sensory Nerves. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, 

for action. 

From Sections D and II. 

That the Council be approached with the view of requesting His Majesty's 
Government to equip a vessel for the purpose of making a Biological and 
Anthropological Exploration in Oceania at the close of the Meeting of the 
British Association in Australia in 1914. 

From Section II. 

That this Association co-operate with the Royal Anthroplogical Institute 
in urging upon His Majesty's Government the desirability of instituting an 
Imperial Bureau of Anthropology, and that the General Officers be empowered 
to take such action as may be necessary for this purpose. 

From Section I. 

With reference to Dr. A. D. Waller's paper on the Claim of Sir Charles Bell 
to the Anatomical Distinction of Motor and Sensory Nerves: — 

1. The author of this paper has called the attention of the Sectional Com- 
mittee to the fact that his communication conveys a serious charge relating to 
the republication by Bell in 1824 and subsequently of papers originally pub- 
lished in the 'Phil. Trans.' of the Royal Society in 1821. 

2. In view of the importance attaching to the real authorship of the dis- 
covery of the distinction between motor and sensory nerves we have examined 
the printed documents quoted at pp. 298, 299, and verified the accuracy of the 
quotations given by Dr. Waller of the original passages of 1821 and of the 
republished passages of 1824. 

3. In our opinion it will be necessary to reconsider carefully the claim first 
put forward by Bell in 1824 to the discovery of the distinction between motor 
and sensory nerves. 

4. Dr. Waller's paper on the subject contains sufficient grounds for the 
revision of the conclusion published in the Report of the British Association 
for 1833, and we recommend that it be published in extenso in the Report of 
the present year. 

5. In view of the importance of the historical claim of Bell we recommend 
that a committee be appointed to consider the case fully and report upon it. 

6. In spite of the fact that many years have elapsed since November 12th, 
1S24, we are of opinion that a formal communication should be made to the 
Royal Society calling its attention to the existence of a spurious version of 
papers received by the Royal Society and published on its authority on 
July 12th, 1821. 

7. The Sectional Committee recommends that the text of the foregoing reso- 
lutions be printed as an appendix to Dr. Waller's paper. 

1 Subsequently withdrawn, having been previously printed elsewhere. 



KESOLUTIONS, ETC. cxlv 

From the Committee of Recommendations. 

That the Council be requested to consider the present practice of reckoning 

unspent balances of grants as part of the funds available for redistribution, and 
to report if any alteration in the practice is advisable. 

Recommendations referred to the Council for consideration, and, if 

desirable, for action. 

That the following Committees be authorised to receive contributions from 
sources other than the Association : — 

'To aid investigators . . . to carry on . . . work at the Zoological .Station 
at Naples." (.Section D.) 

'To conduct Explorations with a view to ascertaining the Age of Stone 
Circles.' (Section H.) 

"To investigate the Physical Characters of the Ancient Egyptians.' 
(Section H.J 



Cxlvi SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated for Scientific Purposes by the 
General Committee at the Portsmouth Meeting, September 1911. 
The Names of Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer for 
the Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematical and Physical Science. , 3 , 

*Turner, Professor H. H. — Seisinological Observations 60 

*Preece, Sir W. H. — Magnetic Observations at Falmouth ... 25 
•Gill, Sir David — Establishing a Solar Observatory in 

Australia 50 

*Shaw, Dr. W. N.— Upper Atmosphere 30 

*Eamsay, Sir W. — Grant to the International Commission on 

Physical and Chemical Constants 30 

*Hill, Professor M. J. M.— Further Tabulation of Bessel 

and other Functions 15 

Chemistry. 

*Divers, Professor E. — Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 20 

* Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism 30 

•Kipping, Professor F. B. — Transformation of Aromatic Nitro- 

amines 10 

*Kipping, Professor F. S. — Electroanalysis 10 

Hall, A. D.— Study of Plant Enzymes 30 

Geology. 

*Tiddeman, R. H— Erratic Blocks 5 

*Lapworth, Professor C. — Palaeozoic Rocks of "Wales and the 

West of England 10 

* Watts, Professor W. W. — Composition of Charnwood Rocks 2 
*Watts, Professor W. W. — Igneous and Associated Sedimen- 
tary Rocks of Clcnsaul 15 

Kendall, Professor P. F. — List of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Lankester, Sir E. Ray.— Sutton Bone I Jed 15 

Hughes, Professor T. McK. — Bembridge Limestone at 

Creechbar row Hill 20 

Zoology. 

*Hickson, Professor S. J. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 30 

*Woodward, Dr. H. — Index Animalium 75 

*Shipley, Dr. A. E.—Belmullet Whaling Station 20 

Bourne, Professor G. C. — Secondary Sexual Characters in 

Birds 10 

Carried forward , £517 

* Reappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OK MONEY. cxlvii 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward 517 

Geography. 

*Herbertson, Professor A. J.— Equal Area Maps 20 

Close, Col. C. F.— Calculation of Areas on the Spheroid 25 

Engineering. 

*Preece, Sir W. H.— Gaseous Explosions GO 

Anthropology. 

*Munro, Dr. R. — Lake Villages in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury 5 

*Read, C. H— Age of Stone Circles 15 

*Read, C. H. — Anthropological Notes and Queries 40 

*Munro, Dr. R.— Artificial Islands in Highland Lochs 13 

Smith, Professor G. Elliot. — Physical Characters of the 

Ancient Egyptians 40 

Haddon, Dr. A. C. — Excavations in Easter Island 15 

♦Thompson, Professor A. — Anthropometric Investigations in 

the British Isles 5 



Physiology. 

*Schafer, Professor E. A.— The Ductless Glands 35 

*Hickson, Professor S. J.- — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 20 

*Waller, Dr. A. D.— Anaesthetics 20 

Macdonald, Professor J. S. — Caloriinetric Observations 40 

Botany. 

*Scott, Dr. D. H— Structure of Fossil Plants 15 

*Darwin, Dr. F. — Experimental Study of Heredity 35 

*Johnson, Professor T. — Survey of Clare Island 20 

Seward, Professor A. C. — Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 20 

Education. 

*Findlay, Professor J. J. — Mental and Physical Factors in- 
volved in Education 5 

*Miers, Principal H. A. — Overlapping between Secondary and 

Higher Education 5 

*Eggar, W. D. — Industrial and Poor Law Schools 10 

Auden, Dr. G. A.— Influence of School Books on Eyesight... 5 

Carried forward £985 

* Reappointed. 



Cxlviii SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. 

£ 8. d, 

Brought forward 985 

Corresponding Societies Committee. 
* Whitaker, W.— For Preparation of Report 25 

Special Grant. 

Read, Clement. — Collections to illustrate Natural History, 

Ac, of the Isle of Wight 40 



*&■ 



Total £1,050 

* Reappointed. 



Annual Meetings, 1912, 1913, and 1914. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1912 will be held at" 
Dundee, commencing September 4 ; in 1913, at Birmingham ; and in 
1914, in Australia. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDEESS. 




1911. 



B 



ADDEESS 

BY 

Professor Sir WILLIAM RAMSAY, K.C.B., Ph.D., LL.D., 

D.Sc, M.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT. 



It is now eighty years since this Association first met at York, under 
the presidency of Earl Fitzwilliam. The object of the Association was 
then explicitly stated : ' To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, to promote the intercourse 
of those who cultivate science in different parts of the British Empire 
with one another and with foreign philosophers, to obtain a more 
general attention to the objects of science and a removal of any dis- 
advantages of a public kind which impede its progress.' 

In 1831 the workers in the domain of science were relatively few. 
The Royal Society, which was founded by Dr. Willis, Dr. Wilkins, and 
others, under the name of the 'Invisible, or Philosophical College,' 
about the year 1645, and which was incorporated in December 1660, 
with the approval of King Charles II., was almost the only meeting- 
place for those interested in the progress of science ; and its Philoso- 
phical Transactions, begun in March 1664-65, almost the only medium 
of publication. Its character was described in the following words of a 
contemporary poem : — 

' This noble learned Corporation 

Not for themselves are thus combined 

To prove all things by demonstration 

But for the public good of the nation, 
And general benefit of mankind.' 

The first to hive off from the Royal Society was the Linnean Society 
for the promotion of botanical studies, founded in 1788 by Sir James 
Edward Smith, Sir Joseph Banks, and other Fellows of the Royal 
Society; in 1807 it was followed by the Geological Society; at a later 
date the Society of Antiquaries, the Chemical, the Zoological, the 
Physical, the Mathematical, and many other societies were founded. 

b 2 



4 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

And it was felt by those capable of forming a judgment that, as well 
expressed by Lord Playfair at Aberdeen in 1885, ' Human progress is 
so identified with scientific thought, both in its conception and realisa- 
tion, that it seems as if they were alternative terms in the history of 
civilisation.' This is only an echo through the ages of an utterance of 
the great Englishman, Eoger Bacon, who wrote in 1250 a.d. : ' Ex- 
perimental science has three great prerogatives over all other sciences : 
it verifies conclusions by direct experiment ; it discovers truths which 
they could never reach; and it investigates the secrets of Nature and 
opens to us a knowledge of the past and of the future.' 

The world has greatly changed since 1831; the spread of railways 
and the equipment of numerous lines of steamships have contributed to 
the peopling of countries at that time practically uninhabited. More- 
over, not merely has travelling been made almost infinitely easier, but 
communication by post has been enormously expedited and cheapened ; 
and the telegraph, the telephone, and wireless telegraphy have simpli- 
fied as well as complicated human existence. Furthermore, the art 
of engineering has made such strides that the question ' Can it be 
done? ' hardly arises, but rather ' Will it pay to do it? ' In a word, 
the human race has been familiarised with the applications of science ; 
and men are ready to believe almost anything, if brought forward in 
its name. 

Education, too, in the rudiments of science has been introduced into 
almost all schools ; young children are taught the elements of physics 
and chemistry. The institution of a Section for Education in our 
Association (L) has had for its object the organising of such instruction, 
and much useful advice has been proffered. 'The problem is, indeed, 
largely an educational one ; it is being solved abroad in various ways — 
in Germany and in most European States by elaborate Governmental 
schemes dealing with elementary and advanced instruction, literary, 
scientific, and technical; and in the United States and in Canada by the 
far-sightedness of the people: both employers and employees recognise 
the value of training and of originality, and on both sides sacrifices are 
made to ensure efficiency. 

In England we have made technical education a local, not an 
Imperial question; instead of half a dozen first-rate institutions of 
University rank we have a hundred, in which the institutions are 
necessarily understaffed, in which the staffs are mostly overworked and 
underpaid ; and the training given is that not for captains of industry 
but for workmen and foremen. ' Efficient captains cannot be replaced 
by a large number of fairly good corporals.' Moreover, to induce 
scholars to enter these institutions, they are bribed by scholarships, a 
form of pauperisation practically unknown in every country but our 
own; and to crown the edifice, we test results by examinations of a 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. O 

kind not adapted to gauge originality and character (if, indeed, these 
can ever be tested by examination), instead of, as on the Continent 
and in America, trusting the teachers to form an honest estimate 
of the capacity and ability of each student, and awarding honours 
accordingly. 

The remedy lies in our own hands. Let me suggest that we 
exact from all gainers of University scholarships an undertaking that, 
if and when circumstances permit, they will repay the sum which they 
have received as a scholarship, bursary, or fellowship. It would then 
be possible for an insurance company to advance a sum representing 
the capital value, viz., 7,464,9311., of the scholarships, reserving, say, 
20 per cent, for non-payment, the result of mishap or death. In 
this way a sum of over six million pounds, of which the interest is now 
expended on scholarships, would be available for University purposes. 
This is about one-fourth of the sum of twenty-four millions stated by 
Sir Norman Lockyer at the Southport meeting as necessary to place our 
University education on a satisfactory basis. A large part of the 
income of this sum should be spent in increasing the emoluments of the 
chairs; for, unless the income of a professor is made in some degree 
commensurate with the earnings of a professional man who has suc- 
ceeded in his profession, it is idle to suppose that the best brains will 
be attracted to the teaching profession. And it follows that unless the 
teachers occupy the first rank, the pupils will not be stimulated as they 
ought to be. 

Again, having made the profession of a teacher so lucrative as to 
tempt the best intellects in the country to enter it, it is clear that such 
men are alone capable of testing their pupils. The modern system of 
' external examinations, ' known only in this country, and answerable 
for much of its lethargy, would disappear; schools of thought would 
arise in all subjects, and the intellectual as well as the industrial 
prosperity of our nation would be assured. As things are, can we 
wonder that as a nation we are not scientific? Let me recommend 
those of my hearers who are interested in the matter to read a recent 
report on Technical Education by the Science Guild. 

I venture to think that, in spite of the remarkable progress of science 
and of its applications, there never was a time when missionary effort 
was more needed. Although most people have some knowledge of the 
results of scientific inquiry, few, very few, have entered into its spirit. 
We all live in hope that the world will grow better as the years roll on. 
Are we taking steps to secure the improvement of the race? I plead 
for recognition of the fact that progress in science does not only consist 
in accumulating information which may be put to practical use, but 
in developing a spirit of prevision, in taking thought for the morrow; 
in attempting to forecast the future, not by vague surmise but by 



6 president's address. 

orderly marshalling of facts, and by deducing from them their logical 
outcome; and chiefly in endeavouring to control conditions which may 
be utilised for the lasting good of our people. We must cultivate a 
belief in the ' application of trained intelligence to all forms of national 
activity. ' 

The Council of the Association has had under consideration the 
formation of a Section of Agriculture. For some years this important 
branch of applied science, borrowing as it does from botany, from 
physics, from chemistry, and from economics, has in turn enjoyed 
the hospitality of each of these Sections, itself having been made a sub- 
section of one of these more definite sciences. It is proposed this year 
to form an Agricultural Section. Here there is need of missionary 
effort ; for our visits to our colonies have convinced many of us that 
much more is being done for the farmer in the newer parts of the 
British Empire than at home. Agriculture is, indeed, applied botany, 
chemistry, entomology, and economics; and has as much right to 
independent treatment as has engineering, which may be strictly 
regarded as applied physics. 

The question has often been debated whether the present method of 
conducting our proceedings is the one best adapted to gain our ends. 
We exist professedly ' to give a stronger impulse and a more systematic 
direction to scientific inquiry.' The Council has had under considera- 
tion various plans framed with the object of facilitating our work, and 
the result of its deliberations will be brought under your attention at 
a later date. To my mind, the greatest benefit bestowed on science by 
our meetings is the opportunity which they offer for friendly and un- 
restrained intercourse, not merely between those following different 
branches of science, but also with persons who, though not following 
science professionally, are interested in its problems. Our meetings 
also afford an opportunity for younger men to make the acquaintance 
of older men. I am afraid that we who are no longer in the spring 
of our lifetime, perhaps from modesty, perhaps through carelessness, 
often do not sufficiently realise how stimulating to a young worker a 
little sympathy can be; a few words of encouragement go a long way. 
I have in my mind words which encouraged me as a young man, words 
spoken by the leaders of Associations now long past — by Playfair, by 
Williamson, by Frankland, by Kelvin, by Stokes, by Francis Galton, 
by Fitzgerald, and many others. Let me suggest to my older scientific 
colleagues that they should not let such pleasant opportunities slip. 

Since our last meeting the Association has to mourn the loss by 
death of many distinguished members. Among these are : — 

Dr. John Beddoe, who served on the Council from 1870 to 1875, 
has recently died at a ripe old age, after having achieved a world- 
wide reputation by his magnificent work in the domain of anthropology. 



president's address. 



Sir Rubert Boyce, called away at a comparatively early age in the 
middle of his work, was for long a colleague of mine at University 
College, and was one of the staff of the Eoyal Commission on Sewage 
Disposal. The service he rendered science in combating tropical 
diseases is well known. 

Sir Francis Galton died at the beginning of the year, at the advanced 
age of 89. His influence on science has been characterised by 
Professor Karl Pearson in his having maintained the idea that exact 
quantitative methods could — nay, must — be applied to many branches 
of science which had been held to be beyond the field of either mathe- 
matical or physical treatment. Sir Francis was General Secretary of 
this Association from 1863 to 1868; he was President of Section E 
in 1862, and again in 1872; he was President of Section H in 1885; 
but, although often asked to accept the office of President of the Asso- 
ciation, his consent could never be obtained. Galton 's name will 
always be associated with that of his friend and relative, Charles 
Darwin, as one of the most eminent and influential of English men 
of science. 

Professor Thomas Eupert Jones, also, like Galton, a member of 
this Association since 1860, and in 1891 President of the Geological 
Section, died in April last at the advanced age of 91. Like Dr. Beddoe, 
he was a medical man with wide scientific interests. He became a 
distinguished geologist, and for many years edited the Quarterly Journal 
of the Geological Society. 

Professor Story Maskelyne, at one time a diligent frequenter of our 
meetings, and a member of the Council from 1874 to 1880, was a cele- 
brated mineralogist and crystallographer. He died at the age of 88. 
The work which he did in the University of Oxford and at the British 
Museum is well known. In his later life he entered Parliament. 

Dr. Johnstone Stoney, President of Section A in 1897, died on 
July 1, in his eighty-sixth year. He was one of the originators of the 
modern view of the nature of electricity, having given the name ' elec- 
tron ' to its unit as far back as 1874. His investigations dealt with 
spectroscopy and allied subjects, and his philosophic mind led him to 
publish a scheme of ontology which, I venture to think, must be 
acknowledged to be the most important work which has ever been 
done on that difficult subject. 

Among our corresponding members we have lost Professor Bohr, 
of Copenhagen; Professor Bruhl, of Heidelberg; Hofrat Dr. Caro, of 
Berlin; Professor Fittig, of Strassburg; and Professor Van't Hoff, of 
Berlin. I cannot omit to mention that veteran of science, Professor 
Cannizzaro, of Rome, whose work in the middle of last century placed 
chemical science on the firm basis which it now occupies. 

I knew all these men, some of them intimately ; and, if I have not 



8 president's address. 

ventured on remarks as to their personal qualities, it is because it may 
be said of all of them that they fought a good fight and maintained 
the faith that only by patient and unceasing scientific work is human 
progress to be hoped for. 

It has been the usual custom of my predecessors in office either to 
give a summary of the progress of science within the past year or to 
attempt to present in intelligible language some aspect of the science 
in which they have themselves been engaged. I possess no qualifica- 
tions for the former course, and I therefore ask you to bear with me 
while I devote some minutes to the consideration of ancient and modern 
views regarding the chemical elements. To many in my audience part 
of my story will prove an oft-told tale ; but I must ask those to excuse 
me, in order that it may be in some wise complete. 

In the days of the early Greeks the word ' element ' was applied 
rather to denote a property of matter than one of its constituents. 
Thus, when a substance was said to contain fire, air, water, and earth 
(of which terms a childish game doubtless once played by all of us is a 
relic), it probably meant that they partook of the nature of the so-called 
elements. Inflammability showed the presence of concealed fire; the 
escape of ' airs ' when some substances are heated or when vegetable 
or animal matter is distilled no doubt led to the idea that these airs 
were imprisoned in the matters from which they escaped ; hardness and 
permanence were ascribed to the presence of earth, while liquidity and 
fusibility were properties conveyed by the presence of concealed water. 
At a later date the ' Spagyrics ' added tbree ' hypostatical principles ' 
to the quadrilateral; these were ' salt, ' sulphur,' and ' mercury.' The 
first conveyed solubility, and fixedness in fire; the second, inflamma- 
bility; and the third, the power which some substances manifest of 
producing a liquid, generally termed ' phlegm,' on application of heat, 
or of themselves being conveiled into the liquid state by fusion. 

It was Robert Boyle, in his ' Skeptical Chymist, ' who first contro- 
verted these ancient and mediaeval notions, and who gave to the word 
' element ' the meaning that it now possesses — the constituent of a 
compound. But in the middle of the seventeenth century chemistry 
had not advanced far enough to make his definition useful ; for he was 
unable to suggest any particular substance as elementary. And, indeed, 
the main tenet of the doctrine of ' phlogiston, ' promulgated by Stahl 
in the eighteenth century, and widely accepted, was that all bodies 
capable of burning or of being converted into a ' calx,' or earthly 
powder, did so in virtue of the escape of a subtle fluid from their pores ; 
this fluid could be restored to the ' calces ' by heating them with other 
substances rich in phlogiston, such as charcoal, oil, flour, and the 
like. Stahl, however false his theory, had at least the merit of having 



president's address. 9 

constructed a reversible chemical equation: Metal — phlogiston = Calx ; 
Calx + phlogiston = Metal. 

It is difficult to say when the first element was known to be an 
element. After Lavoisier's overthrow of the phlogistic hypothesis, the 
part played by oxygen, then recently discovered by Priestley and 
Scheele, came prominently forward. Loss of phlogiston was identified 
with oxidation; gain of phlogiston, with loss of oxygen. The scheme 
of nomenclature (Methode de Nomenclature chimique ') published by 
Lavoisier in conjunction with Guyton de Morveau, Berthollet, and 
Fourcroy, created a system of chemistry out of a wilderness of isolated 
facts and descriptions. Shortly after, in 1789, Lavoisier published his 
' Traite de'Chimie,' and in the preface the words occur: ' If we mean 
by " elements" the simple and indivisible molecules of which bodies 
consist, it is probable that we do not know them; if, on the other 
hand, we mean the last term in analysis, then every substance which 
we have not been able to decompose is for us an element ; not that 
we can be certain that bodies which we regard as simple are not them- 
selves composed of two or even a larger number of elements, but 
because these elements can never be separated, or rather, because we 
have no means of separating them, they act, so far as we can judge, as 
elements ; and we cannot call them ' ' simple ' ' until experiment and 
observation shall have furnished a proof that they are so.' 

The close connection between ' crocus of Mars ' and metallic iron, 
the former named by Lavoisier ' oxyde de fer, ' and similar relations 
between metals and their oxides, made it likely that bodies which 
reacted as oxides in dissolving in acids and forming salts must also 
possess a metallic substratum. In October 1807 Sir Humphry Davy 
proved the correctness of this view for soda and potash by his famous 
experiment of splitting these bodies by a powerful electric current into 
oxygen and hydrogen on the one hand, and the metals sodium and 
potassium on the other. Calcium, barium, strontium, and magnesium 
were added to the list as constituents of the oxides, lime, barytes, 
strontia, and magnesia. Some years later Scheele's ' dephlogisticated 
marine acid,' obtained by heating pyrolusite with ' spirit of salt,' was 
identified by Davy as in all likelihood elementary. His words are : 
' All the conclusions which I have ventured to make respecting the 
undecompounded nature of oxymuriatic gas are, I conceive, entirely 
confirmed by these new facts. ' ' It has been judged most proper to 
suggest a name founded upon one of its obvious and characteristic 
properties, its colour, and to call it chlorine.' The subsequent dis- 
covery of iodine by Courtois in 1812, and of bromine by Balard in 
1826, led to the inevitable conclusion that fluorine, if isolated, should 
resemble the other halogens in properties, and much later, in the able 
hands of Moissan, this was shown to be true. 



10 president's address 

The modern conception of the elements was much strengthened by 
Dalton's revival of the Greek hypothesis of the atomic constitution of 
matter, and the assigning to each atom a definite weight. This 
momentous step for the progress of chemistry was taken in 1803 ; the 
first account of the theory was given to the public with Dalton's consent 
in the third edition of Thomas Thomson's ' System of Chemistry ' in 
1807; it was subsequently elaborated in the first volume of Dalton's 
own ' System of Chemical Philosophy, ' published in 1808. The notion 
that compounds consisted of aggregations of atoms of elements, united 
in definite or multiple proportions, familiarised the world with the 
conception of elements as the bricks of which the Universe is built. 
Yet the more daring spirits of that day were not without hope that the 
elements themselves might prove decomposable. Davy, indeed, went 
so far as to write in 1811 : ' It is the duty of the chemist to be bold 
in pursuit ; he must recollect how contrary knowledge is to what appears 
to be experience. ... To inquire whether the elements be capable of 
being composed and decomposed is a grand object of true philosophy.' 
And Faraday, his great pupil and successor, at a later date, 1815, was 
not behind Davy in his aspirations, when he wrote : ' To decompose 
the metals, to re-form them, and to realise the once absurd notion of 
transformation — these are the problems now given to the chemist for 
solution.' 

Indeed, the ancient idea of the unitary nature of matter was in 
those days held to be highly probable. For attempts were soon made 
to demonstrate that the atomic weights were themselves multiples of 
that of one of the elements. At first the suggestion was that oxygen was 
the common basis; and later, when this supposition turned out to be 
untenable, the claims of hydrogen were brought forward by Prout. 
The hypothesis was revived in 1842 when Liebig and Eedtenbacher, and 
subsequently Dumas, carried out a revision of the atomic weights of 
some of the commoner elements, and showed that Berzelius was in 
error in attributing to carbon the atomic weight 12.25, instead of 12.00. 
Of recent years a great advance in the accuracy of the determinations 
of atomic weights has been made, chiefly owing to the work of Eichards 
and his pupils, of Gray, and of Guye and his collaborators, and every 
year an international committee publishes a table in which the most 
probable numbers are given on the basis of the atomic weight of oxygen 
being taken as sixteen. In the table for 1911, of eighty-one elements 
no fewer than forty-three have recorded atomic weights within one- 
tenth of a unit above or below an integral number. My mathematical 
colleague, Karl Pearson, assures me that the probability against such 
ft condition being fortuitous is 20,000 millions to one. 

The relation between the elements has, however, been approached 
from another point of view. After some preliminary suggestions by 



president's address. 11 

Dobereiner, Dumas, and others, John Newlands in 1862 and the follow- 
ing years arranged the elements in the numerical order of their atomic 
weights, and published in the ' Chemical News ' of 1863 what he 
termed his law of octaves — that every eighth element, like the octave 
of a musical note, is in some measure a repetition of its forerunner. 
Thus, just as C on the third space is the octave of C below the line, 
so potassium, in 1863 the eighth known element numerically above 
sodium, repeats the characters of sodium, not only in its physical 
properties — colour, softness, ductility, malleability, &c. — but also in 
the properties of its compounds, which, indeed, resemble each other very 
closely. The same fundamental notion was reproduced at a later date 
and independently by Lothar Meyer and Dmitri Mendeleeff; and to 
accentuate the recurrence of such similar elements in periods, the 
expression ' the periodic system of arranging the elements ' was 
applied to Newlands' arrangement in octaves. As everyone knows, 
by help of this arrangement Mendeleeff predicted the existence of then 
unknown elements, under the names of eka-boron, eka-aluminium, and 
eka-silicon, since named scandium, gallium, and germanium by their 
discoverers, Cleve, Lecoq de Boisbaudran, and Winckler. 

It might have been supposed that our knowledge of the elements 
was practically complete ; that perhaps a few more might be discovered 
to fill the outstanding gaps in the periodic table. True, a puzzle existed 
and still exists in the classification of the ' rare earths, ' oxides of 
metals occurring in certain minerals ; these metals have atomic weights 
between 139 and 180, and their properties preclude their arrangement 
in the columns of the periodic table. Besides these, the discovery of 
the inert gases of the atmosphere, of the existence of which Johnstone 
Stoney's spiral curve, published in 1888, pointed a forecast, joined 
the elements like sodium and potassium, strongly electro-negative, 
to those like fluorine and chlorine, highly electro-positive, by a series 
of bodies electrically as well as chemically inert, and neon, argon, 
krypton, and xenon formed links between fluorine and sodium, chlorine 
and potassium, bromine and rubidium, and iodine and caesium. 

Including the inactive gases, and adding the more recently dis- 
covered elements of the rare earths, and radium, of which I shall have 
more to say presently, there are eighty-four definite elements, all of 
which find places in the periodic table, if merely numerical values be 
considered. Between lanthanum, with atomic weight 139, and tan- 
talum, 181, there are in the periodic table seventeen spaces; and 
although it is impossible to admit, on account of their properties, that 
the elements of the rare earths can be distributed in successive columns 
(for they all resemble lanthanum in properties), yet there are now 
fourteen such elements; and it is not improbable that other three will 
be separated from the complex mixture of their oxides by further work. 



12 president's address. 

Assuming that the metals of the rare earths fill these seventeen spaces, 
how many still remain to be filled ? We will take for granted that the 
atomic weight of uranium, 238.5, which is the highest known, forms 
an upper limit not likely to be surpassed. It is easy to count the gaps ; 
there are eleven. 

But we are confronted by an embarras de richesse. The discovery 
of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel, of radium by the Curies, and the 
theory of the disintegration of the radioactive elements, which we owe 
to Rutherford and Soddy, have indicated the existence of no fewer than 
twenty-six elements hitherto unknown. To what places in the periodic 
table can they be assigned? 

But what proof have we that these substances are elementary ? Let 
us take them in order. 

Beginning with radium, its salts were first studied by Madame 
Curie; they closely resemble those of barium — sulphate, carbonate, and 
chromate insoluble ; chloride and bromide similar in crystalline form to 
chloride and bromide of barium ; metal, recently prepared by Madame 
Curie, white, attacked by water, and evidently of the type of barium. 
The atomic weight, too, falls into its place; as determined by Madame 
Curie and by Thorpe, it is 89.5 units higher than that of barium; in 
short, there can be no doubt that radium fits the periodic table, with 
an atomic weight of about 226.5. It is an undoubted element. 

But it is a very curious one. For it is unstable. Now, stability 
was believed to be the essential characteristic of an element. Radium, 
however, disintegrates — that is, changes into other bodies, and at a 
constant rate. If a gram of radium is kept for 1,760 years, only half 
a gram will be left at the end of that time ; half of it will have given 
other products. What are they? We can answer that question. 
Rutherford and Soddy found that it gives a condensable gas, which they 
named ' radium-emanation '; and Soddy and myself, in 1903, discovered 
that, in addition, it evolves helium, one of the inactive series of gases, 
like argon. Helium is an undoubted element, with a well-defined 
spectrum; it belongs to a well-defined series. And radium-emanation, 
which was shown by Rutherford and Soddy to be incapable of chemical 
union, has been liquefied and solidified in the laboratory of University 
College, London; its spectrum has been measured and its density 
determined. From the density the atomic weight can be calculated, 
and it corresponds to that of a congener of argon, the whole series 
being: helium, 4; neon, 20; argon, 40; krypton, 83; xenon, 130; 
unknown, about 178; and niton (the name proposed for the emanation 
to recall its connection with its congeners, and its phosphorescent pro- 
perties), about 222.4. The formation of niton from radium would there- 
fore be represented by the equation: radium (226.4) = helium (4) + 
niton (222.4). 



president's address. 13 

Niton, in its turn, disintegrates, or decomposes, and at a rate much 
more rapid than the rate of radium ; half of it has changed in about four 
days. Its investigation, therefore, had to be carried out very rapidly, 
in order that its decomposition might not be appreciable while its pro- 
perties were being determined. Its product of change was named by 
Eutherford ' radium A, ' and it is undoubtedly deposited from niton 
as a metal, with simultaneous evolution of helium ; the equation would 
therefore be: niton (222.4) = helium (4) + radium A (218.4). But 
it is impossible to investigate radium A chemically, for in three 
minutes it has half changed into another solid substance, radium B, 
again giving off helium. This change would be represented by the 
equation : radium A (218.4) == helium (4) + radium B (214.4). 
Radium B, again, can hardly be examined chemically, for in twenty- 
seven minutes it has half changed into radium C 1 . In this case, how- 
ever, no helium is evolved ; only atoms of negative electricity, to which 
the name ' electrons ' has been given by Dr. Stoney, and these have 
minute weight which, although approximately ascertainable, at present 
has defied direct measurement. Badium 1 has a half-life of*19.5 
minutes ; too short, again, for chemical investigation ; but it changes into 
radium C 2 , and in doing so each atom parts with a helium atom ; hence 
the equation: radium C 1 (214.4) = helium (4) + radium C 2 (210.4). 
In 2.5 minutes, radium C 2 is half gone, parting with electrons, forming 
radium D. 

Eadium D gives the chemist a chance, for its half-life is no less 
than sixteen and a half years. Without parting with anything detect- 
able, radium ~D passes into radium E, of which the half-life period 
is five days ; and lastly radium E changes spontaneously into radium F, 
the substance to which Madame Curie gave the name ' polonium ' in 
allusion to her native country, Poland. Polonium, in its turn, is half 
changed in 140 days with loss of an atom of helium into an unknown 
metal, supposed to be possibly lead. If that be the case, the equation 
would run : polonium (210.4) = helium (4) + lead (206.4). But the 
atomic weight of lead is 207.1, and not 206.4; however, it is possible 
that the atomic weight of radium is 227.1, and not 226.4. 

We have another method of approaching the same subject. It is 
practically certain that the progenitor of radium is uranium ; and that 
the transformation of uranium into radium involves the loss of three 
alpha particles ; that is, of three atoms of helium. The atomic weight 
of helium may be taken as one of the most certain; it is 3.994, as 
determined by Mr. Watson, in my laboratories. Three atoms would 
therefore weigh 11.98, practically 12. There is, however, still some 
uncertainty in the atomic weight of uranium; Eichards and Merigold 
make it 239.4; but the general mean, calculated by Clarke, is 239.0. 
Subtracting 12 from these numbers, we have the values 227.0, and 



14 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

227.4 for the atomic weight of radium. It is as yet impossible to draw 
any certain conclusion. 

The importance of the work which will enable a definite and sure 
conclusion to be drawn is this: For the first time, we have accurate 
knowledge as to the descent of some of the elements. Supposing the 
atomic weight of uranium to be certainly 239, it may be taken as proved 
that in losing three atoms of helium, radium is produced, and, if the 
change consists solely in the loss of the three atoms of helium, the 
atomic weight of radium must necessarily be 227. But it is known 
that i8-rays, or electrons, are also parted with during tins change; and 
electrons have weight.- How many electrons are lost is unknown; 
therefore, although the weight of an electron is approximately known, 
it is impossible to say how much to allow for in estimating the atomic 
weight of radium. But it is possible to solve this question indirectly, 
by determining exactly the atomic weights of radium and of uranium ; 
the difference between the atomic weight of radium plus 12, i.e., plus 
the weight of three atoms of helium, and that of uranium, will give the 
weight of the number of electrons which escape. Taking the most pro- 
bable numbers available, viz., 239.4 for uranium, and 226.8 for radium, 
and adding 12 to the latter, the weight of the escaping electrons would 
be 0.6. 

The correct solution of this problem would in great measure clear 
up the mystery of the irregularities in the periodic table, and would 
account for the deviations from Prout's Law, that the atomic weights 
are multiples of some common factor or factors. I also venture to 
suggest that it would throw light on allotropy, which in some cases at 
least may very well be due to the loss or gain of electrons, accompanied 
by a positive or negative heat-change. Incidentally, this suggestion 
would afford places in the periodic table for the somewhat overwhelming 
number of pseudo-elements the existence of which is made practically 
certain by the disintegration hypothesis. Of the twenty-six elements 
derived from uranium, thorium, and actinium, ten, which are formed 
by the emission of electrons alone, may be regarded as allotropes or 
pseudo-elements; this leaves sixteen, for which sixteen or seventeen 
gaps would appear to be available in the periodic table, provided the 
reasonable supposition be made that a second change in the length of the 
periods has taken place. It is above all things certain that it would 
he a fatal mistake to regard the existence of v such elements as irrecon- 
cilable with the periodic arrangement, which has rendered to systematic 
chemistry such signal service in the past. 

Attention has repeatedly been drawn to the enormous quantity of 
energy stored up in radium and its descendants. That in its emanation, 
niton, is such that if what it parts with as heat during its disintegration 



president's address. 15 

were available, ib would be equal to three and a half million times 
the energy available by the explosion of an equal volume of detonating 
gas — a mixture of one volume of oxygen with two volumes of hydrogen. 
The major part of this energy comes, apparently, from the expulsion 
of particles (that is, of atoms of helium) with enormous velocity. It 
is easy to convey an idea of this magnitude in a form more realisable, 
by giving it a somewhat mechanical turn. Suppose that the energy 
in a ton of radium could be utilised in thirty years, instead of being 
evolved at its invariable slow rate of 1760 years for half-disintegration, 
it would suffice to propel a ship of 15,000 tons, with engines of 
15,000 horse-power, at the rate of 15 knots an hour, for 30 years — 
practically the lifetime of the ship. To do this actually requires a 
million and a half tons of coal. 

It is easily seen that the virtue of the energy of the radium 
consists in the small weight in which it is contained; in other words, 
the radium-energy is in an enormously concentrated form. I have 
attempted to apply the energy contained in niton to various purposes; 
it decomposes water, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and carbon dioxide, 
each into its constituents; further experiments on its action on 
salts of copper appeared to show that the metal copper was converted 
partially into lithium, a metal of the sodium column; and similar 
experiments, of which there is not time to speak, indicate that thorium, 
zirconium, titanium, and silicon are degraded into carbon; for solutions 
of compounds of these, mixed with niton, invariably generated carbon 
dioxide; while cerium, silver, mercury, and some other metals gave 
none. One can imagine the very atoms themselves, exposed to 
bombardment by enormously quickly moving helium atoms, failing 
to withstand the impacts. Indeed, the argument a priori is a 
strong one; if we know for certain that radium and its descen- 
dants decompose spontaneously, evolving energy, why should not 
other more stable elements decompose when subjected to enormous 
strains ? 

This leads to the speculation whether, if elements are capable of 
disintegration, the world may not have at its disposal a hitherto un- 
suspected source of energy. If radium were to evolve its stored-up 
energy at the same rate that gun-cotton does, we should have an 
undreamt-of explosive; could we control the rate we should have a 
useful and potent source of energy, provided always that a sufficient 
supply of radium were forthcoming. But the supply is certainly a 
very limited one ; and it can be safely affirmed that the production will 
never surpass half an ounce a year. If, however, the elements which we 
have been used to consider as permanent are capable of changing with 
evolution of energy ; if some form of catalyser could be discovered which 
would usefully increase their almost inconceivably slow rate of change, 



10 president's address. 

then it is not too much to say that the whole future of our race would be 
altered. 

The whole progress of the human race has indeed been due to 
individual members discovering means of concentrating energy, and of 
transforming one form into another. The carnivorous animals strike 
with their paws and crush with their teeth; the first man who aided 
his arm with a stick in striking a blow discovered how to concentrate 
his small supply of kinetic energy; the first man who used a spear 
found that its sharp point in motion represented a still more concen- 
trated form; the arrow was a further advance, for the spear was 
then propelled by mechanical means; the bolt of the crossbow, the 
bullet shot forth by compressed hot gas, first derived from black 
powder, later, from high explosives ; all these represent progress. To 
take another sequence : the preparation of oxygen by Priestley applied 
energy to oxide of mercury in the form of heat; Davy improved on 
this when he concentrated electrical energy into the tip of a thin wire 
by aid of a powerful battery, and isolated potassium and sodium. 

Great progress has been made during the past century in effecting 
the conversion of one form of energy into others, with as little useless 
expenditure as possible. Let me illustrate by examples : A good 
steam engine converts about one-eighth of the potential energy of the 
fuel into useful work ; seven-eighths are lost as unused heat, and useless 
friction. A good gas-engine utilises more than one-third of the total 
energy in the gaseous fuel; two-thirds are uneconomically expended. 
This is a universal proposition; in order to effect the conversion from 
one form of energy into another, some energy must be expended 
uneconomically. If A is the total energy which it is required to con- 
vert; if B is the energy into which it is desired to convert A; then a 
certain amount of energy, 0, must be expended to effect the conversion. 
In short, A = B + C. It is eminently desirable to keep C, the useless 
expenditure, as small as possible; it can never equal zero, but it can 
be made small. The ratio of C to B (the economic coefficient) should 
therefore be as large as is attainable. 

The middle of the nineteenth century will always be noted as the 
beginning of the golden age of science ; the epoch when great generalisa- 
tions were made, of the highest importance on all sides, philosophical, 
economic, and scientific. Carnot, Clausius, Helmholtz, Julius Bobert 
Mayer abroad, and the Thomsons, Lord Kelvin and his brother James, 
Bankine, Tait, Joule, Clerk Maxwell, and many others at home, laid 
the foundations on which the splendid structure has been erected. That 
the latent energy of fuel can be converted into energy of motion by 
means of the steam engine is what we owe to Newcomen and Watt; 
that the kinetic energy of the fly-wheel can be transformed into elec- 
trical energy was due to Faraday, and to him, too, we are indebted 



president's address. 17 

for the re-conversion of electrical energy into mechanical work; and 
it is this power of work which gives us leisure, and which enables a 
small country like ours to support the population which inhabits it. 

I suppose that it will be generally granted that the Commonwealth 
of Athens attained a high-water mark in literature and thought, which 
has never yet been surpassed. The reason is not difficult to find ; a 
large proportion of its people had ample leisure, due to ample means; 
they had time to think, and time to discuss what they thought. How 
was this achieved? The answer is simple: each Greek Freeman had 
on an average at least five helots who did his bidding, who worked his 
mines, looked after his farm, and, in short, saved him from manual 
labour. Now, we in Britain are much better off; the population of 
the British Isles is in round numbers 45 millions ; there are consumed 
in our factories at least 50 million tons of coal annually, and ' it is 
generally agreed that the consumption of coal per indicated horse- 
power per hour is on an average about 5 lb.' (Boyal Commission on 
Coal Supplies, Tart I.). This gives seven million horse-power per 
year. How many man-power are equal to a horse-power? I have 
arrived at an estimate thus: a Bhutanese can carry 230 lb. plus his 
own weight, in all 400 lb., up a hill 4,000 feet high in eight hours; 
this is equivalent to about one-twenty-fifth of a horse-power; seven 
million horse-power are therefore about 175 million manpower. Taking 
a family as consisting on the average of five persons, our 45 millions 
would represent nine million families ; and dividing the total man-power 
by the number of families, we must conclude that each British family 
has, on the average, nearly twenty ' helots ' doing his bidding, instead 
of the five of the Athenian family. We do not appear, however, to 
have gained more leisure thereby, but it is this that makes it possible 
for the British Isles to support the population which it does. 

We have in this world of ours only a limited supply of stored-up 
energy; in the British Isles a very limited one — namely, our coalfields. 
The rate at which this supply is being exhausted has been increasing 
very steadily for the last forty years, as anyone can prove by mapping 
the data given on page 27, table D, of the General B-eport of the Boyal 
Commission on Coal Supplies (1906). In 1870, 110 million tons were 
mined in Great Britain, and ever since the amount has increased by 
three and a third million tons a year. The available quantity of coal in 
the proved coalfields is very nearly 100,000 million tons; it is easy to 
calculate that if the rate of working increases as it is doing our coal will 
be completely exhausted in 175 years. But, it will be replied, the rate 
of increase will slow down. Why? It has shown no sign whatever 
of slackening during the last forty years. Later, of course, it must 
slow down, when coal grows dearer owing to approaching exhaustion. 
It may also be said that 175 years is a long time ; why, I myself have 
1911. c 



18 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

seen a man whose father fought in the '45 on the Pretender's side, 
nearly 170 years ago ! In the life of a nation 175 years is a span. 

This consumption is still proceeding at an accelerated rate. Between 
1905 and 1907 the amount of coal raised in the United Kingdom in- 
creased from 236 to 268 million tons, equal to six tons per head of the 
population, against three and a half tons in Belgium, two and a half 
tons in Germany, and one ton in France. Our commercial supremacy 
and our power of competing with other European nations are obviously 
governed, so far as we can see, by the relative price of coal; and 
when our prices rise, owing to the approaching exhaustion of our 
supplies, we may look forward to the near approach of famine and 
misery. 

Having been struck some years ago with the optimism of my non- 
scientific friends as regards our future, I suggested that a committee of 
the British Science Guild should be formed to investigate our available 
sources of energy. This Guild is an organisation founded by Sir 
Norman Lockyer, after his tenure of the Presidency of this Association, 
for the purpose of endeavouring to impress on our people and their 
Government the necessity of viewing problems affecting the race and 
the State from the standpoint of science; and the definition of science 
in this, as in other connections, is simply the acquisition of knowledge, 
and orderly reasoning on experience already gained and on experiments 
capable of being carried out, so as to forecast and control the course of 
events; and, if possible, to apply this knowledge to the benefit of the 
human race. 

The Science Guild has enlisted the services of a number of men, 
each eminent in his own department, and each has now reported on the 
particular source of energy of which he has special knowledge. 

Besides considering the uses of coal and its products, and how 
they may be more economically employed, in which branches the Hon. 
Sir Charles Parsons, Mr. Dugald Clerk, Sir Boverton Redwood, Dr. 
Beilby, Dr. Hele-Shaw, Prof. Vivian Lewes and others have furnished 
reports, the following sources of energy have been brought under 
review: The possibility of utilising the tides; the internal heat of the 
earth; the winds; solar heat ; water-power; the extension of forests, and 
the use of wood and peat as fuels ; and lastly, the possibility of con- 
trolling the undoubted but almost infinitely slow disintegration of the 
elements, with the view of utilising their stored-up energy. 

However interesting a detailed discussion of these possible sources 
of energy might be, time prevents my dwelling on them. Suffice it to 
say that the Hon. R. J. Strutt has shown that in this country at least 
it would be impracticable to attempt to utilise terrestrial heat from bore- 
holes; others have deduced that from the tides, the winds, and water- 
power small supplies of energy are no doubt obtainable, but that, in 



president's address. 19 

comparison with that derived from the combustion of coal, they are 
negligible ; nothing is to be hoped for from the direct utilisation of solar 
heat in this temperate and uncertain climate; and it would be folly to 
consider seriously a possible supply of energy in a conceivable accele- 
ration of the liberation of energy by atomic change. It looks utterly 
improbable, too, that we shall ever be able to utilise the energy due to 
the revolution of the earth on her axis, or to her proper motion round 
the sun. 

Attention should undoubtedly be paid to forestry, and to the utilisa- 
tion of our stores of peat. On the Continent, the forests are largely 
the property of the State; it is unreasonable, especially in these latter 
days of uncertain tenure of property, to expect any private owner of 
land to invest money in schemes which would at best only benefit his 
descendants, but which, under our present trend of legislation, do not 
promise even that remote return. Our neighbours and rivals, Germany 
and France, spend annually 2,200,000Z. on the conservation and utilisa- 
tion of their forests; the net return is 6,000,000L There is no doubt 
that we could imitate them with advantage. Moreover, an increase in 
our forests would bring with it an increase in our water-power; for 
without forest land rain rapidly reaches the sea, instead of distributing 
itself, so as to keep the supply of water regular, and so more easily 
utilised. 

Various schemes have been proposed for utilising our deposits of 
peat : I believe that in Germany the peat industry is moderately profit- 
able ; but our humid climate does not lend itself to natural evaporation 
of most of the large amount of water contained in peat, without which 
processes of distillation prove barely remunerative. 

We must therefore rely chiefly on our coal reserve for our supply 

of energy, and for the means of supporting our population; and it is 

to the more economical use of coal that we must look, in order that our 

life as a nation may be prolonged. We can economise in many ways : 

By the substitution of turbine engines for reciprocating engines, thereby 

reducing the coal required per horse-power from 4 to 5 lb. to 1\ or 

2 lb. ; by the further replacement of turbines by gas engines, raising 

the economy to 30 per cent, of the total energy available in the coal, 

that is, lowering the coal consumption per horse-power to 1 or 1J lb. ; 

by creating the power at the pit-mouth, and distributing it electrically, 

as is already done in the Tyne district. Economy can also be effected 

in replacing ' bee-hive ' coke ovens by recovery ovens ; this is rapidly 

being done; and Dr. Beilby calculates that in 1909 nearly six million 

tons of coal, out of a total of sixteen to eighteen millions, were coked 

in recovery ovens, thus effecting a saving of two to three million tons 

of fuel annually. Progress is also being made in substituting gas for 

coal or coke in metallurgical, chemical, and other works. But it must 

o 2 



20 president's address. 

be remembered that for economic use, gaseous fuel must not be charged 
with the heavy costs of piping and distribution. 

The domestic fire problem is also one which claims our instant 
attention. It is best grappled with from the point of view of 
smoke. Although the actual loss of thermal energy in the form of 
smoke is small — at most less than a half per cent, of the fuel consumed — 
still the presence of smoke is a sign of waste of fuel and careless 
stoking. In works, mechanical stokers which ensure regularity of firing 
and complete combustion of fuel are more and more widely replacing 
hand-firing. But we are still utterly wasteful in our consumption of 
fuel in domestic fires. There is probably no single remedy applicable; 
but the introduction of central heating, of gas fires, and of grates which 
permit of better utilisation of fuel will all play a part in economising 
our coal. It is open to argument whether it might not be wise to 
hasten the time when smoke is no more by imposing a sixpenny fine 
for each offence; an instantaneous photograph could easily prove the 
offence to have been committed; and the imposition of the fine might 
be delayed until three" warnings had been given by the police. 

Now I think that what I wish to convey will be best expressed by an 
allegory. A man of mature years who has surmounted the troubles of 
childhood and adolescence without much disturbance to his physical 
and mental state, gradually becomes aware that he is suffering from 
loss of blood; his system is being drained of this essential to life and 
strength. What does he do? If he is sensible he calls in a doctor, 
or perhaps several, in consultation; they ascertain the seat of the 
disease and diagnose the cause. They point out that while con- 
sumption of blood is necessary for healthy life, it will lead to a prema- 
ture end if the constantly increasing drain is not stopped. They suggest 
certain precautionary measures; and if he adopts them, he has a good 
chance of living at least as long as his contemporaries ; if he neglects 
them, his days are numbered. 

That is our condition as a nation. We have had our consultation in 
1903 ; the doctors were the members of the Coal Commission. They 
showed the gravity of our case, but we have turned a deaf ear. 

It is true that the self-interest of coal consumers is slowly leading 
them to adopt more economical means of turning coal into energy. 
But I have noticed and frequently publicly announced a fact which 
cannot but strike even the most unobservant. It is this : When trade 
is good, as it appears to be at present, manufacturers are making 
money; they are overwhelmed with orders, and have no inclination to 
adopt economies which do not appear to them to be essential, and the 
introduction of which would take thought and time, and which would 
withdraw the attention of their employes from the chief object of the 
business — how to make the most of the present opportunities. Hence 



president's address. 21 

improvements are postponed. When bad times come, then there is no 
money to spend on improvements ; they are again postponed until 
better times arrive. 

What can be done ? 

I would answer : Do as other nations have done and are doing ; 
take stock annually. The Americans have a permanent Commission 
initiated by Mr. Roosevelt, consisting of three representatives from each 
State, the sole object of which is to keep abreast with the diminution 
of the stores of natural energy, and to take steps to lessen its rate. This 
is a non-political undertaking, and one worthy of being initiated by the 
ruler of a great country. If the example is followed here, the question 
will become a national one. 

Two courses are open to us; first, the laissez-faire plan of leaving 
to self-interested competition the combating of waste; or second, 
initiating legislation which, in the interest of the whole nation, will 
endeavour to lessen the squandering of our national resources. This 
legislation may be of two kinds: penal, that is, imposing a penalty 
on wasteful expenditure of energy-supplies; and helpful, that is, im- 
parting information as to what can be done, advancing loans at an 
easy rate of interest to enable reforms to be carried out, and insisting 
on the greater prosperity which would result from the use of more 
efficient appliances. 

This is not the place, nor is there the time, to enter into detail ; 
the subject is a complicated one, and it will demand the combined 
efforts of experts and legislators for a generation; but if it be not con- 
sidered with the definite intention of immediate action, we shall be held 
up to the deserved execration of our not very remote descendants. 

The two great principles which I have alluded to in an earlier part 
of this address must not, however, be lost sight of; they should guide 
all our efforts to use energy economically. Concentration of energy 
in the form of electric current at high potential makes it possible to 
convey it for long distances through thin and therefore comparatively 
inexpensive wires ; and the economic coefficient of the conversion of 
mechanical into electrical, and of electrical into mechanical energy is 
a high one ; the useless expenditure does not much exceed one-twentieth 
part of the energy which can be utilised. These considerations would 
point to the conversion at the pit-mouth of the energy of the fuel into 
electrical energy, using, as an intermediary, turbines, or preferably gas 
engines ; and distributing the electrical energy to where it is wanted. 
The use of gas engines may, if desired, be accompanied by the produc- 
tion of half-distilled coal, a fuel which burns nearly without smoke, 
and one which is suitable for domestic fires, if it is found too difficult 
to displace them and to induce our population to adopt the more 
efficient and economical systems of domestic heating which are used in 



22 president's address. 

America and on the Continent. The increasing use of gas for factory, 
metallurgical, and chemical purposes points to the gradual concentra- 
tion of works near the coal mines, in order that the laying-down of 
expensive piping may be avoided. 

An invention which would enable us to convert the energy of coal 
directly into electrical energy would revolutionise our ideas and methods, 
yet it is not unthinkable. The nearest practical approach to this is the 
Mond gas-battery, which, however, has not succeeded, owing to the 
imperfection of the machine. 

In conclusion, I would put in a plea for the study of pure science, 
without regard to its applications. The discovery of radium and similar 
radioactive substances has widened the bounds of thought. While 
themselves, in all probability, incapable of industrial application, save 
in the domain of medicine, their study has shown us to what enormous 
advances in the concentration of energy it is permissible to look forward, 
with the hope of applying the knowledge thereby gained to the better- 
ment of the whole human race. As charity begins at home, however, 
and as I am speaking to the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, I would urge that our first duty is to strive for all which 
makes for the permanence of the British Commonweal, and which will 
enable us to transmit to our posterity a heritage not unworthy to be 
added to that which we have received from those who have gone before. 



EBPOBTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE, 




REPORTS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir David Gill (Chairman), Dr. W. G. 
Duffield (Secretary), Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, Mr. F. McClean, 
and Professors A. Schuster and H. H. Turner. 

The movement has gained ground steadily during the past year, and 
it is evident from the support it has received that much more wide- 
spread sympathy has been accorded to it than could have been anti- 
cipated at the outset. In Australia, where there exists a Solar Physics 
Committee to co-operate with the British Association Committee to 
promote the proposed Solar Observatory, the movement has been once 
more the subject of a favourable resolution by the Council of the 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, and public 
attention has been recalled to the subject by the expedition of British 
astronomers that passed through Australia en route for the solar eclipse 
observation at Vavau, in particular by Dr. Lockyer and Father Cortie. 

In England the desirability of Australian co-operation in solar 
research has been emphasised in several ways. Speaking at the Boyal 
Society of Arts the Permanent Secretary of the Commonwealth Office 
described Australia's eagerness to share in those pursuits of science in 
which she is best fitted to participate, and referred to the action taken 
by Mr. Deakin's Cabinet in offering the annual upkeep of this obser- 
vatory provided that 10,000'. were forthcoming from private sources 
for its equipment. The British Empire League has accorded the pro- 
posal its hearty sympathy, and is now vigorously assisting the project 
by an active appeal to its members and sympathisers to support the 
movement. 

It seemed opportune to take advantage of Mr. Fisher's presence 
in London to advance the observatory scheme, and a deputation was 
formed to wait upon him. The Royal Astronomical Society appointed 
the Astronomer-Royal, Sir David Gill, and Professor Newall to attend 
this deputation, the British Empne League being represented by Lord 



2fi REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

Avebury, and this Committee by the Chairman and Secretary. In the 
unavoidable absence of the Prime Minister of the Commonwealth at 
an extraordinary meeting of the Imperial Conference, the deputation 
was received by Mr. Batchelor, the Minister of External Affairs of the 
Commonwealth. 

Sir David Gill, leading the deputation, referred to the gap in longi- 
tude which it is necessary to fill before the complete scheme of solar 
research can he effected, a gap which an Australian Solar Observatory 
would obviate, and pointed out her unique position south of the Equator. 
He mentioned the fact that the British Association had voted the sum 
of 50L towards the scheme, and asked on behalf of the Committee that 
the Australian Government would relieve him of the responsibility of 
this money by promoting the object for which it had been voted. He 
trusted that the work done by existing State observatories would not be 
interfered with by the establishment of a new observatory for the study 
of the sun. 

Professor Ncwall emphasised the need for a station in Australia on 
the ground that continuous observations of the sun were required, 
and spoke of the possibility of solar research proving of value to the 
meteorologist. 

The Astronomer-Royal referred to the excellent climatic conditions 
of Australia for solar observations. Pie pointed out the great theo- 
retical value of a close study of the sun in its relation to the study of 
the physical conditions of the stars and of their development. He 
emphasised the importance of research work being carried on because 
of its educational value, and expressed the view that the existence of 
a Solar Observatory would stimulate the study of physics generally as 
well as astrophysics in the Universities of Australia. 

Lord Avebury dwelt upon the unusual support that has been 
accorded to this scheme by learned societies, and suggested that such 
an observatory if established would ensure three of the four links in 
the chain of solar stations round the earth being within the British 
Empire, and all four — the British, Indian, Australian, and American — 
being conducted by English-speaking peoples. 

Dr. Duffield referred to the progress of the movement in Australia, 
to the previous action of the Fisher Ministry in offering 1Z. for 1/., 
to the vigorously supported public meeting in Melbourne, and to Mr. 
Deakin's promise of the upkeep jwovided 10,0007. were privately sub- 
scribed. He further stated that over 4,000L had already been offered 
in money and apparatus, and that this was a sufficiently substantial 
sum to convince the Government that the people of Australia are in 
earnest in the matter. The Press of Australia were unanimous in its 
favour. 

The Minister, in reply, stated that he was impressed with the 
desirability of filling the gap in longitude, but that before action could 
be taken it would be necessary to consult the other members of the 
Cabinet. This would be done upon his return to Australia, and he 
personally promised to urge upon the Prime Minister and his colleagues 
the desirability of establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia. 



ON THE INVESTIGATION OP THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 27 

Investigation of tlie Upper Atmosphere, in co-operation with a Com- 
mittee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Tenth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw (Chairman), Mr. E. Gold 
(Secretary), Messrs. D. Archibald, C. Vernon Boys, C. J. P. 
Cave, and W. H. Dines, Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, Sir Joseph 
Larmor, Professor J. E. Petavel, Dr. A. Schuster, and Dr. W. 
Watson. 

Meetings of the Joint Committee were held in the rooms of the Royal 
Meteorological Society on October 12, 1910, and March 28, 1911. 

The results of the observations at Barbados, referred to in last 
year's Report, were discussed by Mr. Cave in a paper read before the 
Royal Meteorological Society and published in its Quarterly Journal. 
A further supply of balloons and hydrogen were sent to Professor 
D Albuquerque in order that he might continue the observations. 

During the week August 7-13, 1910, for which international balloon 
ascents had been arranged over a large part of the Northern hemi- 
sphere, arrangements similar to those described in last year's Report 
were made for securing successful ascents in the British Isles. Alto- 
gether 31 balloons were liberated, of which 19 were recovered and 16 
gave records of temperature to heights exceeding 10 km. Of the latter 
five were sent up from Crinan, N.B., five from Pyrton Hill, Oxford- 
shire, three from Manchester, two from Ditcham Park, Petersfield, 
and one from Oughterard, Ireland. 

The British Association grant was allocated partly to ascents made 
by Captain Ley at Oughterard, latitude 53° 25' N., longitude 
9° 20' W., in the West of Ireland, and partly to ascents made from 
Mungret College, Limerick. At Oughterard six registering balloons 
were sent up, and two of these were recovered. The results are shown 
in the Table of Ascents (A) and (B). 

At the March meeting of the Committee it was suggested that the 
authorities of Mungret College, Limerick, who had given evidence 
of keen interest in meteorological work, might be willing to liberate 
balloons during the international week. Such a course would avoid 
the recurrent expense involved in special journeys to Ireland for the 
ascents, and would permit of more frequent ascents being made. The 
College authorities expressed their willingness to fall in with the sug- 
gestion, and Mr. W. H. Dines undertook to provide instruments and 
balloons for preliminary ascents in connection with the short inter- 
national series in June this year, and to send over his assistant to give 
necessary instructions in the preparation for the ascents. 

Three balloons were liberated on this occasion, and two of them 
were recovered and gave records of temperature, in one case up to 
17 km. The results are shown in the Table of Ascents (C), (D). A 
balloon was also liberated from Mungret College in July, and the 
result is shown under (E). The results for all five cases are plotted 
in the diagram. 

At the request of the Joint Committee the week for international 
ascents this year was postponed from September 4-9 to September 11-16, 



28 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



in order to permit of those taking part in the ascents attending the 
meeting of the Association at Portsmouth. 

Arrangements have been made for further ascents from Mungret 
College during that week. 

Results of Balloon Ascents in Ireland, 1910-11. 



?n 






































IB 










































16 






r 


















• <J 
























! 






















' 






















<s 


























\. 
















4 




























>v 
























~ 




















^^5> 
















7 
1 












^~V 












t 


-©— 


o o 








o ^ 










t 


«- 


— • «►- 

— • •- 






V 


N^ 










'• 


9 -— 
f 










OvX 


















N^ 


;> i 


















^ 


%J 


n 


















^i 



lOO° 



ew 



140° 250° 

Temperature in Degrees Absolute. 



280° 



JOO° 



It is desirable that observations of pilot balloons should be obtained 
in Ireland in addition to the records from registering balloons, and the 
Committee recommend reappointment, with a grant of 50?., to permit 
of this extension of the work. A special theodolite, costing about 30?., 
is necessary for the observations. The additional outlay on balloons 
and hydrogen for the pilot-balloon observations would be comparatively 

small. 

In the Table pressure is expressed in megadynes per cm 2 , tempera- 
ture in degrees Centigrade above the absolute zero — 273° on the 
ordinary scale. H c is the height and T c the temperature at which 
temperature begins to be practically constant in a vertical direction. 



ON THE INVESTIGATION OP THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE, 



29 



Results obtained from Ascents of Registering Balloons in Ireland. 





August 1910. 


June 1911. 


July 1911. 


A 


B 


C 


D 


B 


Height 
km. 


Onghterard, 
August 8, 
8.10 P.M. 


Oughterard. 

August 11, 

7 A.M. 


Limerick. 
June 8, 7 A.M. 


Limerick, " 
June 9, 7.10 A.M. 


Limerick, 
Jul y 0, 
7.10A.M. 


Pres- 
sure 


Temp. 


Pres- 
sure 


Temp. 


Pres- 
sure 


Temp. 


Pres- 
sure 


Temp. 


Pres- 
sure 


Temp. 




mgd. 


° A i 


mgd. 


°A 


mgd. 


°A 


mgd. 
1-017 


°A 


mgd. 


^ 


round 


1-013 


289 


1-013 


287 


1-025 


290-5 


28G 


1-024 


285-5 


ii-.-, 


0-955 


285 


. — 


? 


0-908 


289 


0-959 


284-5 


0-978 


287 


1-0 


0893 


281 


— 


? 


0-911 


287 


289 


0-904 


283 


287 


0-924 


285 


1-5 


0-811 


278-5 


0-848 


281 


0-860 


285 


287 


0853 


282 


284 


0-871 


284 


2-0 


0-791 


27G 


0-799 


279 


0-811 


282 


284 


0-804 


280-5 


281-5 


0-818 


281 


2-5 


0-745 


273 


0-751 


278 


0-704 


278 


280 


0-756 


276 


277 


0-769 


278 


3-0 


0-700 


270-5 


0-707 


275 


0-719 


275 


276-5 


0-712 


273 


274-5 


0-724 


275-5 


35 


0-058 


267 


0-604 


271 


0-078 


272 


274 


0-670 


270 


272 


0-683 


274 


4-0 


0-018 


2G4 


0-624 


268-5 


0-030 


2G9 


271-5 


0-028 


206 


267-5 


0-611 


272 


4-5 


0-582 


261 


0-587 


266 


0-598 


206 


268-5 


0-591 


203 


0-601 


269 


5-0 


0-517 


258 


0-551 


263 


0-501 


263 


265 


0-552 


200 


0-565 


265 


5*5 


— 


— . 


0-510 


260 


0-527 


258 


260 


0-516 


250-5 


258 


0-528 


260-5 


6-0 








0-185 


257 


0-192 


253 


250 


0-484 


254 


256 


0-496 


257 


6-6 








0-452 


254 


0-461 


251 


252 


0453 


249-5 


252 


0-464 


252-5 


7-0 








0-424 


249 


0-431 


247 


250 


0-422 


246 


248-5 


0-434 


249 


7-5 








0-395 


244 


0-403 


243-5 


210 


0-395 


242 


245 


0-405 


217 


8-0 








o-:;r.s 


242 


0-376 


240 


212 


0-368 


237 


240 


0-377 


240 


8-5 








0-314 


239 


0-351 


236-5 


238 


0-342 


232 


235 


0-352 


239 


9-0 








0-321 


236 


0-325 


233 


235 


0-318 


228 


231 


0-328 


235 


9-5 





— 


0-298 


233 


0-302 


229-5 


232 


0-297 


224 


227 


0-304 


231-5 


10-0 


— . 


— 


0-278 


229 


0-283 


225 


228 


0-270 


220 


224 


0-284 


228 


11-0 





— 


0-241 


223 


0-243 


218 


221 


0-230 


215 


214 


0-244 


223 


120 





— 


0-208 


217 


0-209 


214 


216-5 


0-203 


21 


*> 


0-211 


217 


130 





— 


0-178 


223 


0-178 


212-5 


215-5 


0173 


213 


0-180 


210-5 


14-0 








0-151 


223 


0-154 


216 


218 


— 


— 


0-155 


218 


15-0 








0-131 


224 


0-131 


216 


221 


— 


— 


0-132 


218 


160 








— 


— 


0-111 ( 218 


221 


— 


— 


0-114 


218 


17-0 











— 


0-096 ! 2: 


1 


— 


— 


0-097 


219 


18-0 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— i — 


— 


— 


0-081 


220 


190 





— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


0-072 


221 


20-0 





— 


— — 


— — 


— 


— 


o-ooi 


222 


21-0 


— 




15-0 km. 


17-0 km. 


~ 


~ 


0-053 


223 


Max. Height . 


50 km. 


13-0 km. 


210 km. 


Minimum 












Temperature 


— 


216° 


212° 


213° 


210° 






(at 12-2 km.) 


(at 12-5 km.) 


(from 11-7 to 13 km.) 


(at 12-7 km.) 


Place of fall . 


' Clear Island, 
| Co. Mayo 


Moyvore, 
Westmeath 


Kiklysart 


Buttevant 


Cooleeney 


Distance . . . 


1 

? 50 km. 


83 km. 


31 km. 


48 km. 


56 km. 


Direction* . . 


f 0° 


80° 


280" 


185° 


68° 


H c To . . . . 


— 


12 km., 217" 


12-5 km., 212°, 216° 


11-7 km., 213° 


12-7 km., 216° 



Notes 

B. The heights above 8 km. are rather doubtful, as the original calibration marks relating to the 

pressure are uncertain, and the instrument was returned badly damaged. 
0. Wind E.N.B., light. Faint cirrus. 
D. Wind N.B., force 3. Cumulus, no high clouds. A rather different type of instrument was 

used, and the double record may be in part due to lag. 
B. Calm, cloudy, cirrus moving slowlv from W. 
■» Direction 0° = N, 90° = E 



30 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Seismohgical Investigations. — Sixteenth Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor H. H. Turner (Chairman), Mr. J. Milne 
(Secretary), Mr.C. Vernon Boys, Sir George Darwin, Mr. Horace 
Darwin, Major L. Darwin, Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. 
Gray, Mr. R. K. Gray, Professor J. W. Judd, Professor C. G. 
Knott, Professor R. Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, Professor 
J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Mr. Clement Reid, Professor 
R. A. Sampson, and Professor A. Schuster. (Drawn up by 
the Secretary.) 

[Plates I. and II.] 

Contents. page 

I. General Notes (Registers, Visitors, Exhibition, New Stations, Colonial Office) 30 

II. Double and Multiple Earthquakes 32 

III. Seismic Activity in Japan, Italy, and America, 1700-190(1 .... 36 

IV. Synchronism of Seismic Activity in different Districts 36 

V. Megaseismic Frequency 38 

VI. Tidal-Load Observations at Ryde 39 

VII. Tidal-Load Experiments in Pennsylvanian Railway Tunnels . . . 40 

VIII. Experiments in Pits in the Midlands 40 

IX. List of Strong Shocks in the United States 41 

X. Destructive Earthquakes in Peru and North Chile 45 

XI. Unpublished Notes relating to Destructive Earthquakes 47 

XII. Seismic Activity 1899-1903 inclusive 55 

XIII. Sensibility of Seismographs recording on Smoked Surfaces .... 66 

I. General Notes. 
The Committee seek to be reappointed with a grant of 607. 

Registers. — During the last year Circulars Nos. 22 and 23 have 
been issued. They refer to Shide, Kew, Bidston, Edinburgh, Paisley, 
Eskdalemuir, Guildford, Stonyhurst, West Bromwich, Haslemere, 
San Fernando, Ponta Delgada, Toronto, Victoria, B.C., Beirut, Cairo, 
Valletta, Cape of Good Hope, Bombay, Kodaikanal, Colombo, Hono- 
lulu, Perth, Sydney, Wellington, Christchurch, Baltimore, Mauritius, 
Cape Verde, Ascension, Calcutta, and Adelaide. 

Visitors. — During the last year many people visited the observatory 
at Shide. Among those who came for instruction or to obtain special 
information were the following: Prince B. Galitzin; G. Baymond, 
H.M. Consul at Corfu ; Professor B. Mano, of the Earthquake Investi- 
gation Committee of Japan; Professor H. H. Turner; J. Woodrow, 
Coats Observatory; P. J. Hood, Eastern Telegraph Company; M. H. 
Gray; T. Chance, Cardiff; Professor J. Swain, Cork University; G. H. 
Harrison, in connection with Tidal Load instrument at Ryde; Colonel 
G. Elliott, B.E.; W. E. Jenkin, Bio Tinto Mines, Spain; Sir Daniel 
Morris, who has given assistance in establishing an instrument in the 
West Indies; W. G. Freeman, Trinidad; F. H. Longhurst, Deputy 
Director of Public Work, Accra ; Members of the Science Section of 
the Bournemouth Natural History Society; B. F. E. Keeling, Cairo. 

Seismological Exhibition. — At the suggestion of the Science Com- 
mittee of the Coronation Exhibition at the White City, I organised a 
Seismological Section. This Committee communicated with most of 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 31 

our Colonies and with individuals and institutions in Great Britain, with 
the object of obtaining exhibits. Mr. M. H. Gray sent a large map of 
the world, 30 feet by 15 feet, which shows stations co-operating with 
the British Association and the centres of marked seismic activity. I 
sent a tidal-load recording instrument made in Newport, and through 
Mr. E. W. Munro, a British Association type of seismograph. The 
Bev. Father W. O'Leary forwarded a model of a new type of seismo- 
graph which he is using at the Mungret College, Limerick. In the 
Machinery Hall, Mr. J. J. Shaw, of West Brornwich, erected a pair of 
horizontal pendulums which, notwithstanding the varying loads and 
vibrations to which they are subjected, have recorded several large 
earthquakes. These with other instruments, enlargements of seismo- 
grams and various pictures, constitute the chief features amongst the 
exhibits. I mention this matter because it is the first exhibition of its 
kind in this country, and also because it has done very much to call 
attention to a new science. 

New Stations. — Mr. W. Davis, Director of the Meteorological Office, 
Argentina, is establishing at least three new stations at which the 
British Association type of instrument will be used. Another instru- 
ment is to be established at the University of Cork, and one at Cardiff 
is now in working order. The instruments despatched last year to 
Cape Verde, Ascension, Fernando Noronha, and St. Helena have 
been installed and records are being obtained from these places. Those 
sent to the Seychelles, Cocos, and Fiji have arrived at these places 
and we may shortly expect to receive records from the same. I may 
here mention that the instrument at Fernando Noronha, like the one at 
San Fernando in Spain, was purchased for our benefit by Mr. Eobert 
K. Gray. The instrument purchased by the Pacific Cable Company 
to be used at Fanning has not yet reached that island. The reason for 
(he delay is that an officer from that' island has not been in England to 
receive instructions, and it is seldom that the island is visited. 

The Colonial Office have kindly sent out circulars to Governors and 
other officers in Colonies bordering the Eastern and Western sides of 
the Atlantic inviting them to co-operate in the seismological work of 
the British Association. These include Newfoundland, Bermuda, Bar- 
bados, Jamaica, and Turks Island; other islands in the West Indies, 
Guiana, Honduras, the Falklands and the Gold Coast. Mr. Joseph 
Rippon of the West India Cable Company has given great assistance 
towards the furtherance of this object. 

On March 28, 1911, the Legislative Council of Bermuda passed a 
Seismographic Act ' enabling the Board of Public Works to purchase 
and maintain a seismograph. 

On behalf of the International Seismological Association I have sent 
out to stations co-operating with the British Association a circular 
which states that the Central International Bureau at Strasburg is 
prepared to test earthquake instruments . These tests will be made 
free of cost for stations in countries which have joined the International 
Association, but for others there will be a charge of from 100 to 150 
marks. An enclosure with this circular asks for material to complete 
a macroseismic catalogue for 1907. 



32 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

II. Double and Multiple Earthquakes. 
Attention has frequently been drawn to the fact that an earthquake 
as it radiates may cause a collapse of strata which are in an unstable 
condition and thus give rise to one or more secondary disturbances. 1 
The great earthquake of Lisbon in 1755 gave rise to secondary shocks 
in England and Ireland, and probably in many other countries. In the 
volume containing Physical Observations made in the Antarctic Eegions 
in 1902-03, published under the superintendence of the Royal Society, 
page 92, I gave illustrations of secondary earthquakes the genesis of 
which corresponded in time to the arrival of certain phases of pri- 
mary disturbances. That the large waves of a seismic disturbance as 
they travel round the world causing the crust of the same to rise and 
fall like a raft on an ocean swell should give rise to one or more secon- 
dary disturbances is not surprising. Further than this, any of the latter 
which may be greater or less than their parent may in turn become the 
originator of further settlements. One megaseism may therefore cause 
a relief of seismic strain throughout the world. An indication of this is 
seen in the fact that large earthquakes originating in widely separated 
districts frequently occur in groups. This idea I wish to extend to the 
possibility of secondary earthquakes originating in consequence of mass 
displacement or ' push ' exerted in a hypofocal region, or on the 
arrival of waves of the type P x and P : , the speeds of which are relatively 
about four times and twice those of P 3 . This means that an earth- 
quake originating at A might result in reliefs of strain in distant 
localities B, 0, D, &c, on the arrival of Pi which radiated from A. 
The seismograms obtained at stations near to B, C, D would on 
account of the differences in the times of arrival of Pi at these places 
coinciding with what we should expect, be attributed to the primary 
impulse originating at A and not to impulses which had been brought 
into existence in the neighbourhood of B, C, and D. Generally this 
supposition is correct, but instances occur where it fails to explain 
the amplitudes of movement and the times of arrival of P a or the 
maximum movement recorded at these latter stations. It has been 
shown that stations at great distances from the origin of a megaseism 
may record movements which have travelled to them in opposite direc- 
tions round the world. This might, at a distant station, give rise to 
at least two maxima and a lengthening of the duration of motion. These 
phenomena may also find a partial explanation in the hypothesis of 
reflections within our world, or the echoes from mountain roots. 2 
What I now suggest is that these unexplained characteristics of certain 
seismograms may partly be the outcome of secondary disturbances the 
existence and importance of which has hitherto been unrecognised. 

Example 1. — Guatemala Earthquake, April 19, 1902. 

On April 19, 1902, a violent earthquake took place in Guatemala. 
It partly obliterated Quezaltenango, Amititlan, and bady damaged many 
other places. It was accompanied by fires. If it could be shown that 
the fires broke out before the earthquake certain fire insurance com- 
panies were liable. On the other hand, if the fires occurred with or 

1 See Earthquakes, ' International Science Series,' p. 248. 

2 See Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1899, p. 227 ; 1900, p. 71 



ON SE1SMOLOGICAL 1NVKSTIUATIONS. 33 

immediately after the earthquake and could therefore be regarded as a 
consequence of the same, the companies were free from liability. The 
result was that a careful inquiry was instituted as to the exact time 
of the earthquake. This involved consultations with observatories near 
to and at great distances from the stricken district as to the exact time 
at which the earthquake had taken place. The result of these investi- 
gations was that 2.22 p.m. in G.M.T. was adopted as the time of the 
disaster, but from information received since this inquiry, I am led to 
think that a safer estimate is 2.21 ± 1 minute. 

The records taken at stations all over the world, if we only consider 
the times at which the first motion or P, was noted, lead with certain 
variations to the same conclusion. Observatories in all the continents 
rightly concluded that their records referred to the Guatemala earth- 
quake, but the idea that these records might also refer to several other 
earthquakes does not appear to have been considered. 

We expect maxima to recur at regularly spaced intervals when the 
period of the pendulum approximates to that of the ground. Recur- 
rences of maxima at varying intervals which we have here to consider 
suggest a variable period in the movement of the ground. Although 
this supposition may be true, it does not preclude the idea that accre- 
tions of activity may arise from the generation of secondary disturbances. 

Mr. R. D. Oldham, who has made a careful study of this earth- 
quake (see Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol. 76) writes to me as 
follows : ' It seemed as if the well-defined maximum at 90° to 100° 
was due to the combined effect of a group of waves, the faster travelling 
having caught up the slower at about that distance, and these as they 
travelled on separated again giving a long drawn out seismogram with 
no defined maximum but a series of bulges, due partly to interference 
of the waves travelling at different rates and partly to interference 
between these and the swing of the pendulum.' 

With regard to this earthquake we know that it originated about 
2.21, and records from stations on the American continent, whatever 
phase of motion we consider, " support this conclusion. Very distant 
stations from Guatemala, however, only fall in line with this so far as 
Pj is concerned. This first maximum recorded at Capetown 2h. 58m., 
Calcutta 3h. 13m., Bombay 3h. 8m., Kodaikanal 3h. 6m., and Perth 
oh. 4m., apparently refers to an epicentre in the Indian Ocean, which 
lies about 60° East and 35° South, and not to Guatemala. This dis- 
turbance originated at about 2h. 34m. The second maximum at Cape- 
town 3h. 26m., Bombay 3h. 43m., Kodaikanal 3h. 52m., and Perth 
3h. 4m., approximately accords with Guatemala. The difference in time 
between the Guatemala shock and the one in the Indian Ocean is about 
fourteen minutes. The time taken for a compressional wave to travel 
between these two origins, or 146°, would be about 21m. This being 
so, unless we admit an error of six or seven minutes in one of these time 
determinations, which might easily be the case, we cannot say that the 
second earthquake was brought about by compressional waves from 
Guatemala. A relationship is not proven, it is only suggested. 
First of all it may be noticed for this earthquake, and also for others, 
that the ground moved for a longer time at very distant stations from 
the epicentre than it did at stations which were comparatively near 
to the same. At Baltimore, Toronto, Victoria, Cordova, Edinburgh, 
1911. d 



34 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

Bidston, San Fernando, Shide, and Kew, the distances of which from 
the epicentre lie between 27° and 79°, the average duration of move- 
ment was 2h. 32m. ; whilst at Christchurch, Tokio, Irkutsk, Capetown, 
Calcutta, Bombay, Perth, Kodaikanal, and Batavia the epicentral 
distances of which lie between 104° and 160°, the average dura- 
tion was 2h. 51m. ; the durations for Capetown and Christchurch were 
respectively 4h. 52m. and 3h. 19m. — the longest recorded in the world. 
One explanation for these observations is the assumption that the flood 
of motion set free in Guatemala had been augmented as it travelled. 1 

Amplitudes point in the same direction. At Wellington, New 
Zealand, the pointers were driven off the recording surface, and the 
seismogram suggested that the earthquake had originated near to that 
place rather than in Guatemala, which is 103° distant. Although 
this particular record is exceptional, the seismograms from quadrantal 
regions do not exhibit the great falling off in amplitude which we should 
anticipate. 

Another indication of reinforcement is in the repeated maxima seen 
in seismograms obtained at different stations. 

The records from Manila 2.46, Tokio 2.51, Irkutsk 2.51, and Wel- 
lington 3.39 may be explained by the assumption that at about 2.36 an 
earthquake originated at 113° E. and 27° N. 

The Wellington maximum which exceeded 15 min., it will be 
observed, roughly agrees with each of the three epicentres which have 
been considered — that is to say, maxima movements from three centres 
reached Wellington at nearly the same time. 

All the observations to which I have referred were made with similar 
installed instruments. 

Example 2. — The Arica Earthquake, December 26, 1906. 

On December 26, 1906, at 5.56 a.m. G.M.T., an earthquake wrecked 
several houses in Arica and was felt severely in Iquique and Pisagua. 
Prom local observations and observations made in Cordova and Trinidad 
I should place the origin about 3° or 4°' from Arica, and conclude that 
the disturbance originated a few minutes before it was recorded in that 
city. A certain number of minutes after the Arica earthquake seis- 
mograms were obtained at observatories in the West Indies, North 
and South America, Great Britain, Europe, Siberia, India, Australia, 
Batavia, China, Manila, and Capetown. These are more than fifty in 
number, and because their commencements are approximately at times 
we should expect P 1 to reach these various stations from an origin off 
the North coast of Chile, seismologists have attributed these various 
records to the Arica earthquake. They however indicate that the time 
at which it originated was at 5.51 or 5.52, which is about 2 min. 
earlier than the time I have just suggested. 3 

A close examination of these numerous records, however, shows that 
those relating to P 2 , P 3 , and, I may add, amplitudes, do not lead to the 
same conclusions as those derived from a discussion of those referring 

1 See Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1908, p. 72. 

2 Ibid., 1907, p. 86, fig. 1323 on the map (Milne) ; Bollettino delta Socield Sis- 
mologica Italiana, Appendice, vol. 13, p. 511 (Martinelli) ; and the Publications du 
Bureau Central de 1' Association Internationale de Sismologie, Catalogues 1906, 
p. 84 (Szirtes). 



ON SETSMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



35 



toPj. Observations made in the Azores, San Fernando, Bidston, Shide, 
Messina, Rome, Tiflis, Colombo, and Irkutsk, point to an origin in the 
Atlantic about 18° W. and 38° N., wliich is not far from the Azores, 
where the amplitude was large. The time of the initial shock would be 
6.4 ± 2 min., or approximately 12 min. after the Arica disturbance. 
Now the distance from Arica to the Atlantic origin is 75°, and this would 
be traversed by Pj in 14 min. Although it may not be certain, it seems 
at least probable that the disturbance near to the Azores was brought 
into existence by the arrival of preliminary tremors which had originated 
off the western coast of Chile. A similar line of reasoning applied to 
the records from Honolulu, Batavia, and a second maximum seen in the 
Irkutsk seismogram suggests that a third disturbance had taken place 
in mid-Pacific. 

Oilier Examples of Multiple Earthquakes. 

In the following list I give the date and times at which these 
occur; after that the longitude and latitude of their origins and the 
distances that these are apart expressed in degrees. Lastly, I give 
the time we should expect P^ P 2 , or P 3 to traverse the distance between 
any two origins and compare this with the difference in time between 
the occurrence of each pair of earthquakes. 











Time 


Actual 


Date 


Time 


Position 


Distance 


expected 
in minutes 


time 
in minutes 


1899, July 11 . 


7.29±3 

7.36±3 


140 E. 15 N. 
42 W. 35 N. 


132° 


P„ 9 


7 ca. 


1899, July 14 . 


13.34±2 
13.40 


150 W. 60 N. 
33 E. 23 N. 


98° 


Pl 8 


6 


1899, Nov. 24 . 


18.39 
18.41 


136 E. 5N. 
132 E. 33 N. 


30° 


W v 6 


2 


1900, Nov. 9 - . 


16.7±2 
17.53 


96 W. 11 N. 
139 E. 34 N. 


112° 


P 3 - 70 


106 


1900, Dec. 18 . 


22.4±2 
23.15±2 


125 W. 67 S. 
120 W. 27 N. 


83° 


P 3 , 53 


71 


1902, April 11 . 


23.41 
23.55 


110 E. 50 N. 
65 W. 27 S. 


155° 


P„ 22 


14 


1902, Sept. 22 . 


1.44 
1.46 


130 E. 30 N. 
175 E. 75 N. 


50° 


Pj. 10 


2 




1.56 


152 E 52 S. 


85° 


P x , 15 


12 


1902, Sept. 23 . 


20.16 
20.29 ca. 


90 W. 15 N. 
77 E. 60 S. 


134° 


Px. 21 


13 


1902, Nov. 15 . 


9.30 
9.33 


128 E. 20 N. 
105 E. 20 S. 


45° 


P x , 9 


3 


1903, Sept. 7 . 


7.10 
7.14 


75 E. 71 S. 

122 E. 23 N. 


100° 


Pi. 16 


4 


1903, Dec. 6 . 


22.48 


45 E. 41 S. 


71° 


P 3 . 45 


44 




23.32 


31 E. 30 N. 


Felt i 


n Cairo 




1904, Oct. 9 . 


13.51 


15 W. 70 N. 




P 3 . 8 


9 




14.0 


Felt at Namdal 


3D, Norway 








14.15 


Quito 


81° 


P 2 , 24 


24 


1906, Mar. 27 . 


5.0 
5.23 


55 W. 52 S. 
120 E. 78 N. 


156° 


P 1( 22 


23 


1906, June 20 . 


2.25 


89 W. 13 N. 


140° 


P 3 . 78 


76 




3.41 


121 E. 18 N. 


Felt in * 


L Luzon 




1906, Aug. 17 . 


0.6 
0.41 


168 E. 31 N. 
72 W. 33 S. 


132° 


P„ 32 


35 



d2 



3G REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



III. Seismic Activity in Japan, Italy, and America during the 
years 1700-1900. By P. M. Walker, B.A. 

With the object of finding, if possible, some well-marked synchronism 
between the periods of maximum seismic activity in the. three widely 
separated districts, the following plan was adopted : — 

An experimental period of eleven years was decided upon, and the 
total activity of each area during this ' undecade ' was calculated. 
This was done by adding together the intensities of all destructive 
earthquakes recorded for that period. Thus, for example, 7 earth- 
quakes of Intensity III, 13 of Intensity II, and 25 of Intensity I 
would give a total for the eleven years of 72. This divided by 11 gives 
the average activity for each year of that period, viz., 6.5. In this 
manner eighteen such averages were calculated for each area and 
plotted, see p. 37. 

With regard to synchronism, the results were not very definite. 
The three curves show agreement at (1723-33), and again (1778-88), 
and in a less marked degree (1823-33). The curves for Japan and 
Italy show agreement at (1723-33), (1778-88), (1823-33), (1889-99) 
for a high average, and synchronic periods of declining activity for 
(1756-66), (1767-77), and (1812-22). 

IV. On the Synchronism of Seismic Activity in different Districts. 

In the British Association Beport for 1908, p. 64, I pointed out 
that since 1902 seismic activity had fluctuated similarly on the East 
and West sides of the North Pacific. I returned to this subject in the 
Beport for 1909, pp. 57 and 58, and showed that during the last three 
hundred years the times of activity in Italy, although separated from 
each other by irregular intervals, had varied between five and twenty 
years, and that these dates of activity in Europe closely corresponded 
to the dates when there had been marked activity in Japan. In 
consequence of additions which have been made during the last twelve 
months to a catalogue of destructive earthquakes of the world, I have 
been able to extend this inquiry and compare the times of earthquake 
activity or quiescence of the four following important but widely 
separated regions: the Italian Peninsula, including Sicily; Japan, 
Formosa, and the Philippines; North, South, and Central America; 
and China. The only earthquakes considered are those which have 
been destructive, and for brevity I refer to the four regions A, B, C, D. 

The analyses only refer to the last two hundred years (1700-1899). 
The reason I have confined the examination to this particular period 
is that the records for the Philippines, and for the two Americas in 
particular, prior to the year 1700 are but few in number. 

Because there has been an increase in the number of records kept 
in any given country as we approach modern times, but not necessarily 
an actual increase in the number of earthquakes which have taken 
place, to determine whether the number of records in a district for any 



ON SELSMOLOOilOAL lNVKSTiUATlONS. 



37 



Intensity. 



r\> 



01 



ro 



w 



Ul 



o 

3 



►a 

to 
H 



fr. 



ff) 



0> 



ro 



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'I *• 










' \ 










l V • 










■ \ ■ 










• \ '• 










1 \ 










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1 \ 


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' 


\ \ 


*, 


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\ ^ 


i \ 


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\ •. 


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mm 


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w 


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z 


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1 1 

I / 


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i 


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1 


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i y 


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v — 1717 



1739 



1761 



1783 



!805 



!827 



1843 



38 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

given year represent an increase or decrease in activity, I have com- 
pared such numbers with the average number which took place in a 
certain period of years. The first average taken for all districts is for 
the years 1700 to 1734. For Italy this, for example, is found to be 
1'7 per year. Any year during which more than two large earthquakes 
were noted is therefore a year in which seismic activity has been above 
the average. The remaining periods are each of thirty-three years, 
and respectively end in the year 1767, 1800, 1S33, 1866, and 1899. 
The years in which these four widely separated districts, A, B, 0, and 
D, have shown abnormal activity are the following: 1720, 1730, 1731, 
1732, 1746, 1751, 1755, 1785, 1822, 1831, 1853, and 1885 (twelve 
times). There was comparative quiescence for all four districts in the 
years 1704, 1708, 1710, 1744, 1745, 1757, 1758, 1761, 1837, 1843, 
1848, 1877, 1890, 1896, and 1899 (fifteen times). 

Three districts have shown unusual activity, while there has been 
comparative quiescence in one in the following years: 1700, 1703, 
1705, 1707, 1714, 1716, 1718, 1719, 1725, 1736, 1739, 1740, 1743, 
1752, 1753, 1756, 1762, 1782, 1787, 1791, 1794, 1797, 1806, 1809, 
1812, 1818, 1819, 1821, 1827, 1828, 1829, 1830, 1834, 1852, 1857, 
1861, 1862, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1874, 1875, 1887, 1889, 1893, 1894 
(forty-six times). 

Three districts have shown unusual quiescence while there 
has been comparative activity in one, in the following years: 1701, 
17U9, 1712, 1728, 1733, 1734, 1737, 1738, 1741, 1748, 1750, 1760, 
1764, 1768, 1769, 1770, 1772, 1773, 1777, 1778, 1781, 1788, 179::, 
1798, 1799, 1801, 1803, 1804, 1805, 1807, 1810, 1813, 1816, 1817, 
1820, 1823, 1824, 1835, 1836, 1838, 1839, 1S40, 1841, 1844, 1845, 
1851, 1860, 1863, 1867, 1869, 1879, 1880, 1883, 1884, 1886, 1895, 
1897, and 1898 (fifty-eight times). 

In all other years between 1700 and 1899 two districts have been 
active and two districts have been quiescent. 

If the seismic activity or quiescence of three large districts out of 
four in the world is an indication that there has been unusual seismic 
activity or quiescence in the world generally, then the last two tables 
may be taken in conjunction with the two first. If we do this we see 
that, in 131 years out of 200, seismic activity or quiescence has 
generally been simultaneously in accordance in various parts of the 
world. In the remaining sixty-nine years the activity of two large 
districts has been balanced by the quiescence in two other large 
districts. 

' V. Megaseismic Frequency. 

Between 1899 and 1909 the number of very large earthquakes 
recorded was not less than 976. Many of these were recorded at 
stations all over the world, others over the whole of the Northern 
Hemisphere, and none of them disturbed an area less than that of 
Europe and Asia. 



British Association, 81st Report, Portsmouth, 1911.] 



[Plate I. 



: O t ^^ 

i h . u 3 Q 



£>^u*' 



o 

r*0 






Illustrating the Sixteenth Report on Seismological Investigations. 



ON SRTSMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



39 



The numbers recorded in successive months were as follow: — 



Year 


J. 


F. 


M. 


A. 
4 


M. 


J. 


J. 


A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 


Total. 


1899 


9 


5 


9 


3 


6 


7 


7 


12 


4 


7 


4 


75 


1900 


7 


3 


3 


2 


3 


4 


2 


4 


5 


6 


5 


3 


47 


1901 


7 


4 


8 


4 


4 


3 





8 


6 


6 


11 


6 


67 


1902 


12 


7 


9 


8 


4 


2 


4 


11 


8 


3 


6 


3 


77 


1903 


10 


11 


7 


4 


8 


8 


5 


5 


8 


9 


6 


10 


91 


1904 


4 


2 


8 


9 


5 


8 


6 


8 


7 


6 


5 


6 


74 


1905 


7 


11 


10 


7 


6 


8 


11 


3 


7 


6 


5 


5 


86 


1906 


14 


18 


20 


11 


4 


9 


5 


22 


12 


10 


8 


7 


140 


1907 


8 


4 


9 


6 


12 


9 


7 


7 


5 


10 


10 


7 


94 


1908 


4 


6 


11 


5 


8 


4 


4 


12 


9 


8 


13 


6 


90 


1909 


9 


10 


11 


14 


11 


14 


8 


13 


13 


15 


8 


9 


135 




91 


81 


103 


74 


68 


75 


59 


100 


92 


83 


84 


66 


976 






275 




217 


251 


233 










Winter 


months . 




5081 
468 J 


976 
















Summei 


months . 


• 











VI. Observations on Tidal Load at Ryde, Isle of Wight. 

By the kind permission of the Committee of the Koyal Victoria Yacht 
Club at Eyde I was aUowed to instal an instrument, somewhat similar 
to the one at Bidston, 1 in one of their. cellars. The room, which is about 
12 feet below the surface, has a concrete floor. The column to support 
the instrument is a glazed earthenware drainpipe. At a distance of 
138 feet from this on the north side, a sea wall forms the face of an 
outside veranda. With a spring tide the water rises against this to a 
height of 5 J feet. The same tide 1,50S feet further to the north, which 
is low-water mark, the depth of the water is about 12 feet. 

From March 4 to April 8 the boom of the pendulum was oriented 
east-west, so that it recorded tilting of the ground in a north-south 
direction. It had a period of 15" and 1° turn of the calibrating screw, 
which gives an angular deflection of l ;/ .9, caused the end of the multi- 
plying lever to move 11 mm. ; 1 mm. displacement on the photograms 
is therefore equal to 0".17 of arc. The average ranges of tide at Ryde 
are from 9 feet to 13 feet. 

A 10-foot tide results in a deflection of 0".85 of arc. At Bidston a 
10-foot tide gives at a distance of two miles a tilt of 0".2. If the Bid- 
ston instrument had been installed within 150 feet of the sea the deflec- 
tions might have been measurably much larger. One inference is that 
the rocks forming the bed of the Solent are more yielding than the rocks 
beneath the Irish Sea at Bidston. See Plate I. 

A curious feature in the Byde photograms is the flatness of many 
of the crests and hollows of the deflections, which seems to indicate 
that from time to time the water remains high or remains low for 
several hours. 

On April 8 the instrument was turned through 90°, i.e., the boom 

1 See Brit. Assoc. Report, 1910, p. 49. 



40 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

was pointed north or towards the advancing and retreating tide; the 
resulting photograms are practically straight lines. 
These observations were discontinued on May 24. 

VII. Tidal Load Experiments in Pennsylvania Railway Tunnels. 
Since 1909 a number of experiments have been made regarding the 

stability of the Pennsylvania Eailway tunnels under the North or 
Hudson Eiver. The results show that the tunnels rise and fall under 
the influence of the superincumbent tidal load. A 4.4-foot tide causes a 
variation in elevation of 0.008 feet. 

This was arrived at by sinking a tube in certain instances to a depth 
of 200 feet through the silt beneath the bed of the tunnel until it reached 
the solid rock. A 2-inch iron rod passed freely down each of these tubes 
and was firmly fixed in the rock. The upper end of the rod passed 
through a stuffing-box on the top of the tube. The assumption made 
was that the top of this rod remained fixed and relatively to it the bottom 
of the tunnel rose and fell. This relative movement was recorded by a 
lever having a multiplication of ten which recorded on a strip of paper. 
The resulting diagrams have an exceedingly regular character and corre- 
spond in time with the records of a tide-gauge which gives the height of 
water in the river. The tunnels are resting in a quasi-fluid material and 
show slight depressions by the passing of locomotives. A load passing 
through the tunnel causes a wave-like action, a point immediately 
beneath the load being depressed, whilst the point 200 feet in advance 
of the same rises. I am indebted for this information to Mr. Forgie. 
Engineer to the North Eiver Division. 

VIII. Experiments in Pits in the Midlands. By J. J. Shaw. 
The experiments commenced at the end of June 1910 by the in- 
stallation of a horizontal pendulum in a chamber 1,960 feet below 
ground at the Sandwell Park Colliei*y, near West Bromwich. The 
instrument used was similar to the one used at Bidston, but with facili- 
ties for obtaining a somewhat higher degree of sensibility. The chamber 
was lined with several feet of concrete, but unfortunately the traffic 
of the pit passed within a few feet of it, whilst at a distance of about 
100 feet there was a large sump from which water was pumped every 
night. From the outset it was seen that the strata were ever moving, 
the movements being partly due to pumping, blasting, and traffic. The 
direction in which the boom wandered was towards the dip of the 
strata. Observations were discontinued early in August, and the instru- 
ment was removed to a new collieiw at Baggeridge, near Dudley, seven 
miles from its previous position. The instrument was installed at the 
end of a concrete-lined cul de sac, where only occasionally traffic passed^ 
and then never nearer than 100 feet. The depth was 1,800 feet. 
Pumping took place once a month. The movements were very similar 
to those at West Bromwich, and there was a tendency for the boom to 
wander in the direction of the dip. In this instance this was towards 
the west, whereas at West Bromwich it had been towards the east. 
The outstanding feature of these experiments is that even at very con- 
siderable depths observers will not be immune from continual changes 
of level. In the early part of this year the rate of the film was changed 



ON SETS MO LOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



41 



from 3 inches per day to 12 inches per hour, the object being 
to record earthquakes. A few small shocks have been recorded, but 
up to the present we have not succeeded in recording shocks of any 
magnitude. Great difficulty is experienced in working underground 
on account of the saline atmosphere, which causes corrosion. One 
device tried for keeping the connection between the style on the boom 
and the multiplying lever was a small pendulum where the bob was a 
globule of shellac and the suspension was a quartz fibre. This was 
found to work well and to be of great delicacy. 

Our very best thanks are due to the Earl of Dartmouth for granting 
permission to work in the mine, and also to Councillors H. W. Hughes, 
F.G.S., and Ivor Morgan for rendering valuable assistance in carrying 
out these experiments. 

IX. List of Strong Shocks in the United States and Dependencies. 

By Professor H. F. Reid. 

The dates of the shocks between 1663 and 1737 are corrected so as 
to give them according to the present method of reckoning, which 
began in 1752. 

Abbreviations. 

B = Brighams' Catalogue, 'Memoirs of Boston Soc. of Nat. History,' vol. ii. ; 

' Note Additionelle,' by A. Lancaster. 
H = Holden's Catalogue, ' Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection,' 1887. 
R=Rockwood's Lists in the ' American Journal of Science.' 
P= Catalogues by Alexis Perrey. Also see Deckert's paper in the' Gesellschaft 

fiir Erdkunde,' Berlin, 1902. 
S = Stewart's Catalogue (manuscript). 
M = Martin's List (manuscript). 
McA=McAdie's Catalogue, ' Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection,' part of vol. xlix. 
I=An intensity sufficient to damage walls and chimneys. 
11= ,, „ to destroy a few buildings. 

111= ,, which has resulted in widespread disaster (see British Association 

Report, 1908, p. 78). 



Date 


1663 Feb. 


5 . 


1727 Nov. 


8 


10.40 p.m. 


1732 Sept. 


15 




noon 


1737 Dec. 


17 


11 


r.M. 



Place 



1786 
1790 (?) 



1806 March 24, 
midnight 
1811-1813 



New England 
States 

Newbury, Mas- 
sachusetts 

Newbury, Mas- 
sachusetts 

New York 



Pavloff, Alaska 
Inyo County, 
Cal. 



Santa Barbara, 
California 

New Madrid, 
Missouri 



Intensity 



I 
I 

II 
I 



III 
III 



1 
III 



Remarks 



Three violent shocks. (B., p. 3.) 
(B, p. 7.) 

Also felt at Boston. Strongest ap- 
parently in Montreal. (B., p. 8.) 

Severe enough to throw down chim- 
neys. Felt in Boston and other 
places. (B., p. 9.) 

With volcanic eruption. (H.,p. 31.) 

Indians state that a shock similar to 
that of March 26, 1872, occurred 
about eighty years earlier. (IL, 
p. 31.) 

Church walls cracked. (H., p. 32.) 

(References. — W. J. McGee, Bull. 
G.S.A., 1892, iv., 411-414 ; G. C. 
Broadhead, ' The New Madrid 
Earthquake,' Am. Geol., 1902, 
xxx., 76-87; W. J. McGee, 



42 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 
List of Strong Shocks — continued. 



.'I 



Date 



1812 
1812 May 

1812 Oct, 8, 

7 to 8 A.M. 



1812 Oct. 21 
1812 Dec. 8 

1812 Dec. 21 

1813 or 1815 
1817 Oct. 5 
183G April 2 
1836 Aug. 
1813 Feb. 8 

1847 

1849 Oct. 22 

1849 

1852 Nov. 9 

1857 Jan. 8 
and 9 



1865 Oct. 8, 
12.45 



Place 



Intensity 



1800 



Atka, Alaska . 

Southern Cali- 
fornia 

Santa Barbara, 
Cal. 

San Juan Capi- 
strano, Cal. 

San Juan, Capi- 
strano, Cal. 

From San Diego 
to Purisinia, 
Cal. 

San Fernando, 
Cal. 

Santa Clara Val- 
ley (?), Cal. 

Woburn, Massa- 
chusetts 

Pribyloff Islands, 
Alaska 

Pribyloff Islands, 
Alaska 

West Indies 



Alaskan Coast, 
Alaska 

Commander Is- 
lands, Alaska 
S.W. Guam 

Fort Yuma, 
Arizona 

Southern Cali- 
fornia 



San Francisco, 
California 



Waniego, Kansas 



III 

I 

II-III 



II 

I 

I 
II 

I 

III 
III 
III 



II 
prob 

II-III 

II 

I or II 

III 



Remarks 



II 



' The New Madrid Earthquake,' 
Am. Geol., xxx., 200-201 ; Edw. 
M. Sheppard, ' The New Madrid 
Earthquake,' Jour. Geol., 1905, 
xiii., 45-62.) 

(H., p. 32.) 

Continual shocks for 4i months. 
(H., p. 32.) 

(H., pp. 32, 33.) 



(H., p. 33.) 

At San Gabriel, church badly 
cracked. (H., p. 33.) 

(H., p. 33.) 

(H., p. 33.) 

(B., p. 17.) 

(H., p. 34.) 

(H.,p.36.) 

Guadaloupe and Pointe Pet re wholly 

destroyed. More than 5,000 

people killed. Distinctly felt in 

various parts of the United States. 

(R., A.J.S., xliv., p. 419.) 

General earthquake, very severe at 
Sitka. (W. H. Dall, ' Alaska and 
its Resources,' p. 342.) 

Violent earthquake lasting all night. 

(P.) 

(Reference: Peterm, Mitt., 1905, li., 
p. 40.) 

The shocks continued almost daily 
for many months. (H., p. 38.) 

Due to displacement of the San 
Andreas fault in Southern Cali- 
fornia for a length of 225 miles. 
(See Rep. Cal. Eq. Com., vol. i., 
pt. 2, pp. 449-451.) (H., pp. 
48, 49.) 

Two violent shocks within half a 
minute. The accounts from 
Sacramento, Stockton, and San 
Jose represent the earthquake as 
the severest ever felt in those 
cities. Ten or eleven distinct 
shocks were felt after the first 
shaking up to 5 a.m. of the 9th. 
(See Rep. Cal. Eq. Com., vol. i., 
pt, 2, pp. 448-449.) (H., pp. 65, 
06, and R., xl., p. 360.) 

(H., pp. 70-80.) 



ON SEISMO LOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



43 



List of Strong Shocks — continued. 



Date 



1868 Oct. 21, 

7.50 A.M. 



1869 Oct. 22, 

6 A.M. 

1869 Dec. 27, 
2.10 A.M. 

1872 March 26 

1872 Dec. 10, 
4.30 p.m. 

1875 Dec, 

8-9 p.m. 

1877 Oct. 12, 

1.53 p.m. 

1878 Aug. 29 

1881 April 10, 
2.05 to 
2.10 a.m. 



Place 



1882 Sept. 7 



1886 



Aug. 31, 

E.S.T., 

9.51.06 

p.m. 

1889 July 19 . 

1894 July 18, 
M.S.T., 
3.50 p.m. 

1896 May 

1898 March 30, 
P.S.T. 
11.42.15 

F.M. 



San Francisco 
and neighbour- 
hood, California 



Intensity 



III 



Remarks 



All over New 
England States 

Sacramento, Cali- 
fornia 

Marysville, Cal. 

Inyo County, 
California 

Helena and Deer 
Lodge, Mont. 

Porto Rico 



Portland, Ore- 
gon 
Makuslin, Alaska 

Santa Clara Val- 
ley and Valley 
of California 



Panama, C.A. . 

Charlestown and 
Summerville, 
S.C. 

Memphis, Tenn. 
Ogden, Utah 



Orca, Alaska . 
Mare Island, Cal. 



II 

I 
HI 



III 



I-II 
III 



I 

K?) 



IK?) 
I 



Due to movement oil the Haywards 
fault, east of San Francisco Bay. 
At the corner of Market and First 
Streets, San Francisco, the ground 
opened several inches wide for a 
distance of forty to fifty feet. 
The earthquake was severe in the 
interior. Felt at Sacremento and 
Stockton ; at Redwood City, 
where the court-house was wrecked; 
Marysville, Grass Valley, and 
Sonora also felt the shock. (See 
Rep. Cal. Eq. Com., vol. i., pt. 2, 
pp. 434^48. ) (R. , xlvi. , p. 428. ) 

With an intensity of III. at Frederick- 
town, New Brunswick. (B., p. 22.) 

(H., p. 84.) 



Movement on fault. (See Holt's 
book.) (H., pp. 88-92.) 

Two shocks of five seconds' duration, 
direction West to East. (R., v., 
p. 262.) 

Town of Arecibo nearly destroved. 
(N.W. Porto Rico). (R., xii., 
p. 29.) 

Two shocks. (R., xv., p. 25 ; H., 
p. 100.) 

Town reported destroyed. (R., 
xvii., p. 16.) 

The centre seems to be in San Joaquin 
County ; VII- VIII at Modesto ; 
VI-VII at Stockton; VI at 
Merced ; VI at lone City ; III-IV 
at Visalia. In the Santa Clara 
Valley, VI; at Hollister, VI; 
V at Salinas, Centerville, San 
Jose ; IV at San Francisco. There 
may have been two centres of 
disturbance, one near Modesto and 
one near Hollister. Felt probably 
over an area of 15,000 square 
miles. (S.) 

Shocks continued for three or four 
weeks. (S.) 

See Ninth Annual Report U.S. 
Geol. Survey. (Dutton.) 



(H, p. 228.) 



Very severe. (M.) 
(McA., pp. 11-12.) 



44 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



List of Strong Shocks — continued. 



Date 



1899 Sept. 3 to 
10 ; Sept. 10 
to 17 



1899 Dec. 25, 
4.29 a.m. 



1900 Oct. 9 . 

1901 Dec. 30-31 



1902 July 27, 

11 P.M., 

to 31 
1902 Sept. 22 



1902 



1905 



1906 



1906 



Nov. 17, 
M.S.T. 

12.53 p.m. 

Dec. 23, 

P.S.T., 

2.23 p.m. 

Jan. 25, 
M.S.T., 
1.32.30 

P.M. 

6.36. 
p. 
7.31 

April 18, 
P.S.T., 
5.11.58 

A.M. 



36.7 ] 

P.M. I 
1 P.M. J 



1906 



1906 



1906 



April 18, 

P.S.T., 

4.26 p.m. 

July 12, 

M.S.T., 

5.15 A.M. 

July 16, 
M.S.T. , 
12 noon 



Place 



Intensity 



Yakutat 
Alaska 



Bay, 



Remarks 



III 



Santa Jacinto, 
Riverside Co., 
S. California 



Prince William j III 

Sound, Alaska | 
Kenai, on Cook ! [ (?) 

Inlet, Alaska 



Los Alamos.Cal., 
and neighbour- 
hood 

Guam . 



Washington Co. 
S.W. Utah 

Bakcrsfield, 
California 

Flagstaff, 
Arizona 



Along coast of 
California 



Brawley, S.E. 
California 

Socorro, New 
Mexico 

Socorro, New 
Mexico. 



II-III 



I or 

less. 



Ill 



(References.- — Nat. Geog. Mag., x., 
421 ; Tarr, ' Recent Changes hi 
Alaska,' Oeog. Jour., 1906, pp. 30- 
43; L. Martin is publishing a 
U.S.G.S. Bull, on these earth- 
quakes, 1910.) Felt from Lynn 
Canal to Aleutian Islands. Some 
islands said to have settled 20 
to 25 feet. Strongest shock on 
September 10. The ' Bonanza ' 
passed between Amukhta and 
Yumaska Islands (Aleutian Is- 
lands) on September 17 ; both 
islands are volcanic cones and 
great clouds of smoke were issuing 
from both. 

Shocks continued. Thirty on 25th 
day, others on the 26th day. Felt 
from San Diego, California, to 
Seligman, Arizona. 

Felt over an area of 121,000 square 
miles on land. (M. ) 

A strong volcanic eruption. Earth- 
quake which accompanied it 
caused several tidal waves. 



(Peterm., Milt., 1905, li., p. 40). 
180 shocks experienced in 24 hours. 



Three shocks. 



Duration 20 sec. Probably in San 
Francisco mountains, north of 
Flagstaff. 

. ^ - J . . _. L~ 
After-shocks. 

Disastrous shock which destroyed 
San Francisco and did serious 
damage in many other cities. 
The earthquake was caused by a 
movement on the San Andreas 
fault for a length of 270 miles. 
Many after-shocks. (See Rep. Gal. 
Eq. Com.) 

Duration 10 sec. Probably felt 
over an area of 30,000 square miles. 

Many shocks between July 2, 1906, 
and end of year. Probably felt 
over 60,000 square miles. 

Probably felt over 60.000 square 
miles. 



ON SETSMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



45 



List, of Strong Shocks — continued. 



Date 



1906 Sept. 27, 
10.47 a.m. 
(14.41.30 
G.M.T.) 

1906 Nov. 15, 
M.S.T., 
5.15 A.M. 



1908 Feb. 14 



1908 



1908 



1909 



May 14 
11 p.m. ± 
(8.32.30, ± 
May 15, 
G.M.T.) 
Aug. 18, 
2.59 A.M. 
3.08 a.m. 
5.27 a.m. 
Oct. 28, 

P.S.T., 
10.48 p.m. 



1909 



1909 



Place 



Intensity 



San Juan, Porto ' 
Rico, Santo 
Domingo, and 
St. Thomas 

Socorro, New 
Mexico 



Prince William 
Sound, Alaska 

Near Yakataga, 
Alaska 



Oct. to 
Dec. 

Dec. 10, 

Local time, 

9.10 a.m. 



Eureka, 
fornia 



Cali- 



II (?) 



II (?) 



N.W. California 
and S.W. 
Oregon 



North of Great 
Salt Lake, 
Utah 

Agano, Guam . 



II 



Remarks 



Duration 30 sec. Shock general 

throughout Porto Rico. Felt for 

a distance of 300 to 350 miles. 

Probably central near San Juan. 

(PR.) 
This was the severest of a long series 

of shocks which began on July 2 

and lasted seven or more months. 

Probably felt over an area of 

100,000 square miles. 
Cables broken in Valdez Fiord. 

Recorded at distant seismograph 

stations (M.) 



Area of the shock probably not 
more than 200 or 300 square 
miles. First shock did all the 
damage. 

Duration 22 sec. The centre of the 
shock was near Fortuna, Hum- 
boldt Co., Cal. (near Eureka), 
where chimneys were thrown 
down and much plate-glass 
broken. At Ferndale and Eureka 
the shock was nearly as strong. 
Probably felt over an area of 
250,000 to 300,000 square miles 
on land. Probably due to a slip 
on a fault near Fortuna. 

Thirty or sixty shocks reported from 
the old lake deposits just north 
of the present Great Salt Lake. 

Two shocks, duration 22 sec. This 
was a heavy shock and did very 
serious damage to buildings in 
Agano. Small fissures were made 
in the ground and water spouted 
out in places. These were near 
high-water mark and were un- 
doubtedly due to slumping and 
vibrations. Surface waves were 
also seen. Recorded at Manila 
at 23.33.9 and at Honolulu at 
23.29.7 G.M.T. This would put 
the time at the origin, sup- 
posed close to Agano, about 23.30 
G.M.T. 



X. List of Destructive Earthquakes which have occurred in Peru, and 
North Chile. By H. Hope-Jones, Esq., Lima. 

All entries in this list are, with the exception of eight, additional 
to those found in the provisional list by Count Montessus de Ballore 



4G 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



(see British Association Eeport, 1910, pp. 69-71). Where dates have 
differed in these two lists those given by the latter author are placed 
in brackets. The meaning of intensities given by the numerals I, II, 
and III are explained on p. -17. 



Date 



1578 June 17 ... 

1582 January 22 (January 10). 

1582 July 2 

1580 July 9 

1590 ? 

1004 November 23 (November 24) 

1009 October 19 . 

1019 February 16 

1630 November 27 . . . 

1647 May 13 ... 

1650 March 31 .... 

1050 March 31 ... . 

1055 November 13 . . . 

1058 February 14 

1664 May 12 ... . 

1687 October 20 . 

1699 July 14 ... . 

1710 February . . . 

1725 January (January 8) 

1725 March 27 ... 

1740 October 28 . 

1747 ? 

1777 January 26 

1784 May 13 ... . 

1794 March 26 ... . 

1806 December 1 . . . 

1813 March 30 .... 

1814 February 1. 

1821 July 10 ... . 

1828 March 30 ... . 

1831 October 8 . . . . 

1833 September 18 (October 18) 

1839 June 10 ... . 

1857 August 20 ... . 

1860 April 18 . 

1860 April 22 .... 

1861 April 13 ... . 

1868 August 13 .... . 

1869 August 24 .... 
1869 November 3 

1871 February 22 ... , 

1871 August 2 

1871 October 5 

1872 January 10 . 

1873 June 10 .... 
1875 April5 . 

1875 December 5 . . . 

1877 May 9 

1878 January 25 (January 23). 
1883 October 1 . . . . 

1897 September 20 (September 23) 

1898 June 20 . 



Classifica- 
tion 



Approximate 
Epicentre 



II 
III 
III 
III 
III 
III 

II 
III 

II 
III 
III 
III 
III 
III 

II 
III 

I 

I 
III 
III 
III 

I 

I 
III 

I 

I 

II 

I 
III 

II 
II 
II 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

III 
II 

I 

I 

1 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 
III 

I 

I 

I 

I 



Lima 
Arequipa 

Lima 
Camana 
Arequipa 
Lima 
Trujillo 
Lima 
C. Chile (?) 
Cuzco 
Lima 

Trujillo 

lea 

Lima 

» 
Torata 
Ancash 
Camana 
Lima 
Carabaya 
Lima 
Arequipa 
Lima 

lea 

Piura 

Arequipa 

Lima 

Arequipa 
C. Tacna 

lea 

Piura 

Arequipa 

Lima 

Andahuailas 

Arica 

Pica 

Arequipa 

Puno 

Arequipa 
C. Iquique 

Arequipa 



C. 

C. 



Trujillo 

Abancay 

Arica 

Iquique 

Arequipa 

Matucana 

lea 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 47 

XL Unpublished Notes relating to Destructive Earthquakes. 

On February 25, 1897, on behalf of the Seismological Committee, 
I approached the Under-Secretaries of State for Foreign and Colonial 
Affairs with the object of obtaining their assistance in the compilation 
of a list of destructive earthquakes. On April 10 a similar application 
was made to the India Office. These applications received favourable 
consideration, and a letter, of which the following is a copy, was for- 
warded to his Majesty's Eepresentatives in certain Foreign Countries, 
English Colonies, and Dependencies: — 

Sir, — At the present time there exists no complete list of the destructive earth- 
quakes which have occurred in various parts of the world, but portions of such a list 
are now being compiled by the Seismological Committee of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, but the information is defective as to many countries. 
It is desired, therefore, to obtain such a register giving the dates and places of origin 
of earthquakes which have produced structural damage in the country in which you 
have the honour of representing his Majesty's Government. In the list of earth- 
quakes which it is hoped you may be the means of obtaining, the numerals I, II, and III 
should be attached to each entry. No. I should refer to those shocks which have 
shattered a few structures. No. II should be attached to those which have destroyed 
structures in a limited area. No. Ill to those which have caused destruction over a 
large area. 

As the records of small earthquakes are not required, the list we ask for will in 
most instances be short. In some countries such a list may already exist in print. 

The objects in view are threefold. First, to provide material for scientific analysis ; 
second, to determine the frequency of destructive disturbances hi various countries ; 
and third, to map out areas where special precautions should be taken with regard to 
construction. 

I trust you will find it possible to co-operate in the collection of this material, 
which will posscsB not only scientific but also practical utility. — I remain, Sir, on 
behalf of the Committee, your obedient servant, 

John Milne, 
Hon. Secretary Seismological Committee of the British 
Association. 

The following notes are a resume of the replies which have been 
received to this letter. In many instances printed matter, as for 
example the Proceedings of learned societies, special works, official 
documents, were sent to Shide. As these are in nearly all cases acces- 
sible to those who desire to see them, I only refer to them by name. So 
far as possible the earthquakes referred to are those not included in the 
' General Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes.' The countries are 
arranged alphabetically. 

Abyssinia. — Lord Herbert Hervey, Hon. Charge d'Affaires, reports 
that no records have been kept so far as he has been able to ascertain. 
Earthquakes which have taken place in recent times have ben insignifi- 
cant, and not of sufficient force to bring them within categories I, II, 
or III. 

West Australia. — The Governor, H.E. Sir Gerald Strickland, 
reports that no destructive earthquake has been experienced in Western 
Australia. 

South Australia. — The Government Astronomer, G. F. Dodwell, 
reports on two earthquakes, May 10, 1897, Class II, origin submarine 
and not far from Kingston and Beachport. At Kingston, Kobe, and 
Beachport walls and chimneys were thrown down; slight damage 



48 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

extended within a radius of about 250 miles from the origin. Septem- 
ber 19, 1902, Class I, origin near Kangaroo Island. Some houses at 
Warooka were wrecked, walls were cracked within a radius of one to 
two hundred miles. Both earthquakes were considered due to fault 
lines running north and south from Lake Torrens through Spencers and 
St. Vincent Gulfs. A pamphlet on South Australian earthquakes is in 
course of publication. 

Queensland. — The Hon. Sir Arthur Morgan, Lieut. -Governor, 
reports that no records have been kept ; and for the last thirty-two years 
at least Mr. J. B. Henderson says that Queensland has been singularly 
free from such disturbances. 

Victoria. — Sir T. D. Gibson Carmichael writes that the Government 
Astronomer is collecting information, which, when completed, will be 
sent to Professor John Milne at Shide. 

New South Wales. — The Hon. G. B. Simpson reports that, so far 
as State records show, no earthquake of sufficient severity to cause 
damage has been experienced in New South Wales. 

Tasmania. — I I.E. Major-General Sir Harry Barron writes that lie 
is informed by the Premier that no destructive earthquakes have 
occurred in Tasmania within the memory of man. 

Canada. — The Secretary of State for External Affairs, the Hon. 
Charles Murphy, says that the earthquake of 1663, which was felt 
throughout the St. Lawrence Valley, was destructive. The earthquake 
of October 1870 did slight damage to chimneys and ceilings, especially 
at Baie St. Paul, on the north shore of St. Lawrence below Quebec. 

Cape of Good Hope.— The Et. Hon. Sir W. F. P. Hely-Hutchin- 
son forwards two minutes from Ministers, but no earthquakes are 
reported. 

Ceylon. — Sir H. E. McCallum says that so far as can be ascertained 
there are no records of destructive earthquakes in Ceylon. Slight 
shocks have stopped clocks and produced cracks in one or two houses. 

Cyprus. — Sir C. A. King-Harman states that although slight shocks 
of earthquakes have occasionally been experienced, nothing of a destruc- 
tive nature has occurred since the British occupation. 

Chile. — H.E. H. C. Lowther writes that the Director of the Seis- 
mological Department is compiling a catalogue of earthquakes in Chile. 
A provisional list of destructive earthquakes which have occurred in the 
Southern Andes south of latitude 16, by Count de Montessus de 
Ballore, will be found in British Association Eeport, 1910. 

China. — Sir John N. Jordan sends ' Catalogue des Tremblemenls 
de Terre Signales en Chine d'apres les Sources Chinoises, 1767 B.C. 
to 1895 a.d.,' par Le R. P. Pierre Hoang. A translation of extracts 
from the ' Shun T'ien Fu Gazeteer,' which gives a list of earthquakes 
from 1665 to 1883; a list of earthquakes in 1882. This is attached to 
a paper by Dr. Macgowan, see ' China Review,' vol. 14, pp. 147-150. AH 
this information will be incorporated in a catalogue of destructive earth- 
quakes published by the British Association. This is now in the press. 

Colombia. — H.E. the British Minister, Francis W. Stronge, very 
kindly forwarded a list, obtained from the Columbian Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, of severe earthquakes felt in that Republic between 1625 



ON SUISMOLOCIICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 49 

and I9l0. With the exception of the two following these have been 
incorporated in the ' Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes ' : 1906, 
January 31, 10 a.m., the following towns were destroyed: Bocagrande, 
Cape Manglares, Puerto Limones, Salahonda, Las Baras, Trujillo, and 
Chagal. 1910, March 30 and 31 and April 1, great landslides at Suta- 
marchin in Boyaca. 

Costa Rica. — Consul F. N. Cox sent a detailed account of the earth- 
quake of April 12-13, 1910. Shocks commenced April 13, 12.37 a.m. 
or 6.13 G.M.T. The greatest damage was done at 1.5 a.m. or 6.41 
G.M.T., and at 8.30 a.m. or 14.6 G.M.T., on April 14. The hypo-centre 
was south-west of Cartago, which, with San Jose and many villages, 
suffered great damage. On May 4, 6.50 p.m., or May 5, 0.26 G.M.T. , 
Cartago, Paraiso, and surrounding hamlets again suffered. The shock 
was felt in all parts of the Eepublic and also in Bocas del Toro. 

Denmark. — The First Secretary of the British Legation, Mr. J. C. 
T. Vaughan, forwarded an account of two earthquakes which occurred 
in 1837 and 1867 in the island of St. Thomas (see St. Thomas). 

Egypt. — Councillor E. W. Graham sends notes on the following 
three earthquakes: 1847, a minaret was thrown down in Cairo; 1887, 
Suakin on the Nile Valley was disturbed, houses in Cairo damaged; 
1906, December 26, the Nile Valley and the Eed Sea coast were 
shaken, the lighthouses of Shadwan and Ashrafi in the Eed Sea were 
damaged; origin probably about 26° N. lat. The intensity of these 
shocks was of the order No. I. 

Fiji. — The Hon. Charles Major reports that no seismological records 
have been kept in Fiji, and beyond ordinary slight shocks no serious 
earthquakes have been known to occur in the Colony. 

France. — The Hon. L. D. Carnegie sends a note for Monsieur 
Pichon which refers to three earthquakes felt in 1889. The first of 
these occurred on June 11, in the Departement des Bouches du 
Ehone; destruction occurred within an area of 360 kilometres square. 
The second occurred on June 23, in the Departement Vendee; no 
damage. The last took place on August 5, in Bretagne, and was felt 
throughout Finistere; the damage was small. 

Gambia. — The Governor reports that no earthquakes have been 
recorded . 

Gilbert and Ellice Islands. — The Eesident Commissioner writes 
that earthquakes appear to be unknown in that Protectorate. 

Gold Coast. — H.E. Sir J. P. Eodger sends a Eeport of a destructive 
earthquake which occurred at Accra in 1862 ; Christiansborg Castle 
was laid in ruins. This was on July 10. In Jamestown all the stone 
houses were entirely overthrown. 

Greece. — Sir F. E. Hugh Elliot transmits a list prepared from the 
records at the Observatory at Athens of destructive earthquakes in 
Greece from 1893 to November 1909. Those which are not in the 
' Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes ' are as follow: 1909, June 15, 
23.26 G.M.T., at Lamia and Domoko, some walls were cracked. 
1903, August 11, 4.37 G.M.T., at Cythera, the village of Mytata 
was destroyed; opposite Biaradika the ground was cracked for 200 
metres; at Cythera and Potamos houses were rendered uninhabitable. 
1911. E 



50 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

1909, May 30, at Vitrinitsa (Doris), at 6.15, the village of Douvia was 
destroyed, houses damaged at Vitrinitsa and Palaioscarion, Galaxidi and 
Itea. 1905, January 20, at Aghuia, at 2.32, destroyed houses in the 
villages of Aramidi, Sklethron, and Canalia. 1909, July 15, at Ama- 
lias (Elis), at 0.35, the villages of Amalias, Havari, Sinoti, Lopesi, 
Bouchioti, Calyria, &c, were overthrown. 

Guatemala. — H.E. British Minister, L. E. G. Carden, forwards a 
list of earthquakes in Guatemala City. Those not in the ' Catalogue ' 
are: 1902, April 19, 2 a.m., great destruction in Quezaltenango, also in 
Guatemala City. 1907, September 24, 10 a.m., damaged building in 
Guatemala City. 

British Guiana. — H.E. Sir E. M. Hodgson reports that no destruc- 
tive earthquakes have taken place in Demerara, but slight earth tremors 
have been felt from time to time. 

Honduras. — Through H.E. L. E. G. Carden, Esq., brief notes are 
sent relating to violent shocks on January 20-23, 1835, and slight 
shocks which did some damage to buildings in 1897, 1899, and 1902. 
They occurred in the north-west and centre of Honduras, and coincided 
with similar movements in Guatemala and Salvador. The Bepublic of 
Honduras, as a whole, is free from earthquakes. 

Iceland. — Sir Allan Johnstone sends with a translation a copy of 
Thoroddsen's ' Icelandic Earthquakes ' (' Landskjalfar A Islandieftir, ' 
Thorvald Thoroddsen, Copenhagen, 1899 and 1905). 

India. — Through the India Office we received lists of destructive 
earthquakes published by the Asiatic Society of Bengal and the Geolo- 
'gical Survey of India. 

Kashgar. — His Majesty's Consul, Mr. George Macartney, in Kash- 
gar sends extracts from his diaries relating to the following distur- 
bances : 1902, August 22, 8 a.m. (2.56 G.M.T.), buildings much 
damaged, the village of Artush destroyed, there were many after-shocks; 
the most severe of these occurred on August 24, 26, and 30, September 

1 and 2, about 10 p.m. or 4.56 G.M.T. 

Luanda. — Mr. Consul H. C. Mackie says that on February 27, at 

2 p.m. (local time), there was an appreciable earthquake shock at Ben- 
guella. 

Malta. — H.E. Gen. Sir H. M. L. Bundle forwards a list of seven 
destructive earthquakes which have been noted in Malta. These are all 
included in the ' General Catalogue. ' 

Malay States. — The High Commissioner of the Malay States reports 
that there are no records of destructive earthquakes. 

Mauritius. — Mr. J. Middleton, Assistant Colonial Secretary, states 
that there is no record of any destructive earthquake ever having 
occurred at Mauritius. 

Mexico. — H.E. Beginald T. Tower, C.V.O., sends a voluminous 
report in Spanish which was drawn up by the Geological Institute ; with 
the exception of the following all the entries relating to destructive earth- 
quakes will be found in the ' General Catalogue ' : 1900, January 19, 
11.45 p.m. local time, strong in Colima, buildings suffered much, par- 
ticularly the cathedral; damage was also done in Ejulta, Jalisco, 
Michoacan, Guerrero, and other places. 1902, January 16, 5.19 p.m. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 51 

local, Chilpancingo, CEilapa, and Tixtla, and over all the south of the 
Republic and in Guatemala. 1905, May 9, 0.8 a.m. local, severe in 
Autlan, in Jalisco, and felt throughout the Central States. 1907, 
April, 14, many houses destroyed in Guerrero; it was felt in Mexico 
City at 11.31, 10 p.m. local, the epicentre was at San Marcos. 1908, 
March 26, much destruction at Ometepec in the State of Guerrero, felt 
all over the south of the Republic; it was recorded in Mexico City at 
9.12 p.m. (March 27, 3.48.5 G.M.T.). 1909, July 30, Mexico time 
4.15.57 a.m. (10.52.27 G.M.T.), epicentre near Acapulco, where many 
houses were destroyed and the sea retreated from the coast. Destruc- 
tion also occurred at San Marcos and Chilpancingo ; extending over an 
area 435 by 310 miles. 

Montenegro. — Mr. W. O'Reilly states that there is no record or 
recollection of a destructive earthquake in the Principality. 

Morocco. — Mr. W. F. Rattigan writes that within the memory of 
the oldest inhabitant nothing beyond shocks of the very slightest nature 
have been felt, and so far as it is possible to ascertain no violent earth- 
quake has occurred in Morocco in historic times. 

Natal. — The Hon. Sir Henry Bale reports that earthquakes are 
very exceptional in Natal and in every recorded case have been very 
slight. 

Nigeria. — The Acting Colonial Secretary states that in this colony 
and protectorate so far as is known earthquakes have not occurred. 

New Guinea, Papua. — Through the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Dudley 
and the Acting Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia we 
learn that so far as can be ascertained there is no record of any 
destructive earthquake in Papua except the one at Buna Bay on 
October 2, 1906. This took place at 11.35 a.m. (local time); the shaking 
lasted three minutes and was accompanied by heavy sea waves. Slight 
tremors are felt throughout the territory six or seven times per year. 

Nyasaland. — Sir Alfred Sharpe states that no destructive earth- 
quakes have occurred since the Protectorate has been known to Euro- 
peans. Mild shocks are felt from time to time on the north and west 
shores of Lake Nyasa. To the north of this lake there is a volcanic 
district, with crater lakes and many hot springs. Earthquakes occurred 
at Zomba on June 6 and 7, 1910. The one on June 6 took place at 
22.23 and was pronounced, but there was no damage. 

New Hebrides. — The Resident Commissioner reports that earth 
tremors are frequent, but no shocks have been felt since his arrival in 
November 1907. 

New Zealand. — H.E. Rt. Hon. Lord Plunket forwards a list of 
destructive earthquakes by Mr. G. Hogben. These will be found in 
the ' Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, ' vols. 37 and 38. 
The one on August 9, 1904, originated at 22.49 G.M.T., 179° E. long., 
42° S. lat. Others of importance which are not included in the ' Cata- 
logue ' occurred on November 16, 1901, and on July 29, August 9, and 
September 8, 1904. 

Norway. — A short list, prepared by Dr. Carl Fred. Kolderup, has 
been forwarded to us by Mr. T. J. "Wingfield. One on October 23, 1904, 
destroyed many chimneys in the Prefectures of Smaalenene, Jarlsberg 
and Larvik, also in Bratsberg and Buskerud. 

e 2 



52 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

Palestine. — Consul E. C. Blech has forwarded a list of earthquake 
shocks felt at Jerusalem since 1864. These were extracted from 
records kept at the Hospital of the London Jews Society in Jerusalem. 
One which took place at 2 a.m. local time, January 5, 1900, and 
another which occurred on March 31, 1903, at 12.45 a.m. local time, 
are not included in our ' Catalogue ' ; the latter damaged buildings in 
Jerusalem. 

Panama. — The Minister Resident, Claude C. Mallet, sends a short 
list of earthquakes which have caused damage in this Republic. Slight 
shocks occurred on July 7, August 17, 1908, May 3, July 28, 
August 28 and 30, 1909, but these were not of a serious nature. 

Paraguay. — Mr. G. W. E. Griffith states that no records exist to 
show that any destruction to property has ever been caused by earth- 
quakes in this Republic. 

Persia. — H.E. Sir G. Barclay sends a report of two earthquakes 
which occurred in the Iverman district : April 18, 1911, 9.52 p.m. or 
5.22 G.M.T., a shock damaged a few buildings in Kerman; March 28, 
1911, also at 5.22 p.m. G.M.T., but it did not cause damage. 

Peru. — Consul-General Lucien J. Jerome forwards a list of earth- 
quakes compiled by Mr. Hope Jones, a member of the Geographical 
Society of Lima. See this Report. 

Rumania. — Sir W. Conyngham Greene forwards a pamphlet pub- 
lished by the Astronomical and Meteorological Society of Bucharest 
on ' Mouvements Sismiques en Roumanie pendant la periode 1907- 
1909.' Mr. R. J. Hamilton forwards a number of pamphlets from 
the ' Annales de 1 'Institute Meteorologique ' containing lists of earth- 
quakes for the years 1891-1908. 

Salvador. — The British Minister, L. E. G. Carden, sends a list of 
earthquakes compiled by the Director of the National Observatory of 
San Salvador. The following are not included in our ' General Cata- 
logue ' : July 19, 1906, had an intensity corresponding to No. VII 
on the Rossi-Forel scale. In May and June 1909 slight shocks were 
felt, and again in October 1910. 

Servia.— : The British Minister, Sir James B. Whitehead, forwards a 
list of destructive earthquakes prepared by the Geological Institute of 
the University in Belgrade, covering the period 1755-1905 inclusive. 
The following are not included in our ' Catalogue ' : January 30, 1902, 
at Mostanica, Ristovac, Vranje, and Vranjska Banja; these places 
were also shaken on April 4 and 10, 1904. On January 6, 1905, and 
July 24, 1906, places lying batween 44° 22' and 44° 32' N. lat. and 
19° 21' and 19° 29' E. long, were severely shaken. On May 13, 1905, 
the district 43° 41' to 43° 44' N. lat. and 21° 46' to 21° 54' E. long, 
suffered. 

Siam. — Consul W. R. D. Beckett transmits a copy of a note which 
he has received from his Royal Highness Prince Devawongse to the 
effect that seismic disturbances in Siam have been very few in number, 
and in no instance have they been violent enough to destroy or damage 
buildings. 

Sierra Leone. — The Acting Colonial Secretary writes that there is 
no record of any destructive earthquake in the history of the colony. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 53 

In another note Lieut. H. C. Lukach refers to a slight earthquake 
which occurred at Freetown on July 28, 1897, at 11 a.m. 

Solomon Islands. — The High Commissioner for the Western 
Pacific understands that earthquakes are of frequent occurrence in the 
western part of the group. They are all of a slight nature. 

St. Helena. — H.E. Lieut. -Colonel Sir H. L. Gallwey writes that 
there is no record of a destructive earthquake ever having taken place 
in St. Helena since the island was discovered. The only records of 
earthquakes refer to the years 1756, 1780, 1817, and 1864, but no 
damage occurred. 

Straits Settlements. — The Colonial Secretary writes that no destruc- 
tive earthquakes have occurred in the Straits Settlements during the 
last twenty years. 

Spain. — H.E. Et. Hon. Sir M. W. de Bunsen says that a list of 
Spanish earthquakes is being collated and will be forwarded in due 
course. 

Tonga, or Friendly Islands. — The Agent and Consul for Tonga 
states that no records have been kept of earthquakes, and that no 
destructive earthquakes have been experienced within the group except 
at the volcanic island of Niafoou. 

Tripoli. — The Acting Consul-General, Alfred Dickson, states that, 
with the exception of feeble shocks at wide intervals, Tripoli has not 
been visited by any earthquake which can be classed under the 
Nos. I, II, or III of the circular of the British Association. 

Tunis. — Consul-General E. J. L. Berkeley reports that after full 
inquiry he cannot hear of any records of earthquakes in this region. 
There has, however, been once or twice extremely slight seismic 
disturbances. 

Uganda. — Mr. W. A. Eussell says there are no records of any 
earthquakes such as are mentioned in the British Association circular. 

Uruguay. — Mr. Ernest Scott states that he is informed by the 
Director of the National Physical and Climatological Observatory at 
Montevideo that the Eepublic of Uruguay is not disturbed by local 
earthquakes, although shocks of some severity have occasionally been 
felt, presumably caused by vibrations in the Andes Eange or other 
distant localities. Professor Luis Morandi has kindly undertaken to 
prepare a memorandum which he thinks may interest the Seismo- 
logical Committee of the British Association. 

Venezuela. — Sir Vincent Corbett forwards a list of the principal 
earthquakes which have occurred in Venezuela since the middle of 
the nineteenth century. This was compiled by the Director of the 
Observatory in Caracas. It only contains one reference which is not 
in our ' General Catalogue.' This occurred on October 29, 1900. The 
districts affected were situated from 40 to 100 kilometres east of 
Caracas, which suffered but slightly. Destruction also occurred in 
Guarenas, Guatire, Eio Chico, Higuerote, and in Macuto. 

West Indies: Antigua. — Mr. H. A. Tempany reports on destruc- 
tive earthquakes in April 1690 and 1833; February 8, 1843. Since 
1889 records of earthquakes have been kept. May 29, 1895, shocks 
were felt in Antigua, St. Kitts, Montserrat, and Barbuda, where 



54 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

slight damage occurred. April 29, 1897, shocks felt at Antigua, St. 
Kitts, Dominica, and Guadeloupe, where considerable damage was 
done to buildings. December to January 1897-98 and September and 
October 1900, shocks of some intensity occurred in Montserrat and 
slight shocks were frequent in Antigua. December 3, 1906, in Antigua, 
and as far south as Barbados, slight damage occurred to buildings in 
most islands. 

Bahamas. — Commissioner P. W. B. Armbrister says that no de- 
structive earthquakes have occurred at Inagua since 1896. In Septem- 
ber 1887, however, in two or three weeks shocks were felt nearly every 
day. They were preceded by rumblings which came from the south. 
Boundary walls and a few old buildings were thrown down; a con- 
siderable number of stone buildings were slightly cracked. It was 
at this time that the city of Port de Paix, Haiti, was partly destroyed. 
The Inspector of Lighthouses, Mr. F. J. Lobb, reports that earth- 
quakes were experienced on September 23, 24, 25, and 26, 1887, at the 
following lighthouses : Inagua, Castle Island, Bird Kock, and Watling 
Island. One on September 23 at 7 a.m. and 8.10 p.m. local time was 
the most severe, and caused trifling damage. 

Barbados. — H.E. the Governor reports that there are no records 
of destructive earthquakes. 

Bermuda. — The Governor, Lieut. -Gen. Walter Kitchener, reports 
that no earthquake has occurred in Bermuda coming under the heading 
of the Circular of the Seismological Committee since the settlement of 
the colony in 1612. 

Dominica. — The Hon. W. H. Porter says that during his forty 
years' experience of the island he only recollects one earthquake 
of any force. This occurred between four and six years ago. It 
exerted its greatest force in the northern half of the island, where a 
masonry chimney was wrenched. At the other extremity of the island 
the walls of a village church were slightly damaged. Shocks are felt 
with greater frequency in the northern and eastern district than to 
the south and west of the central mountain chain. 

Grenada. — The Colonial Secretary, E. E. Drayton, sends an 
extract from the history section of the Grenada handbook referring to 
severe earthquakes in 1766, November 18, 1867, and January 10, 1888. 

Hayti. — Consul-General Alex. P. Murray sends a short description 
of destructive earthquakes which occurred in 1564, 1770, May 7, 1842, 
September 23, 1887. The frequent slight earthquake shocks at Port- 
au-Prince are generally preceded by a subterranean noise which 
approaches from the plains and passes beneath the town. No move- 
ment of the earth is perceptible. The Haytians call it ' le gouffre, ' 
or ' le bruit de gouffre. ' 

Montserrat. — Lieut. -Colonel W. B. Davidson-Houston states that, 
with the exception of the earthquake of February 8, 1843, there do 
not appear to have been any earthquakes of a serious nature within 
recent years. In 1896-7-8-9, and again in 1901-2-3, there were 
numerous slight shocks, but none of these did more than very slight 
damage, although their frequency made them very alarming. A copy 
of President Baynes' speech to the Montserrat Legislature on the 
subject of the earthquake of 1843 was enclosed. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 55 

St. Christopher (St. Kitts and Nevis). — The administrator, Mr. T. 
Lawrence Eoxburgh, only reports on one destructive earthquake, viz., 
that which took place on February 8, 1843. 

St. Croix. — The First Secretary of the Legation in Copenhagen, 
Mr. C. T. Vaughan, states on the authority of M. Erik Scavenius that 
when the island of St. Thomas suffered on November 18, 1867, the 
neighbouring island, St. Croix, was left almost intact. 

St. Lucia. — The Administrator refers to the earthquakes of 
January 11, 1839, which damaged buildings in Castries; that of 
February 8, 1843 ; and, lastly, that of February 16, 1906, which also 
did considerable damage in Castries. 

St. Thomas. — This island was badly shaken on August 2, 1837, and 
again on November 18, 1867 (see St. Croix). 

St. Vincent. — The Agricultural Superintendent does not think that 
St. Vincent has experienced any destructive earthquake since historic 
times, and from an inspection of old forts and buildings he considers 
this statement corroborated. Of course, there are many slight shocks. 

Tortola.— Commissioner Leslie Jarvis, after a careful and long 
search among records of this Presidency, states that the only reference 
to an earthquake which he has come across is that of November 18, 

1867. Reports on this earthquake will be found in Sir A. Eumbold's 
despatch No. 83 of November 25, 1867, and in the diary of Mr. 
G. H. A. Porter, Administrator in the Virgin Islands, an extract from 
which is contained in despatch No. 96, December 23, 1867. This 
earthquake also created great damage in St. Thomas, St. John's, and 
St. Croix. It was accompanied by sea waves. Copies of these 
despatches were enclosed. 

Trinidad. — Notes compiled by Mr. E. J. L. Guppy, M.A., late 
Inspector of Schools, refer to shocks on September 20, 1825, July 10, 
1863, and January 10, 1888. All of these created considerable damage. 
Other shocks were noted on September 26, 1866, at 5.37 p.m. ; July 7, 

1868, 5.1 a.m. ; November 17, 1885, 6.55 a.m. ; May 7, 1886, 1.45 a.m. ; 
May 17, 1886, 3.53 a.m. ; May 5, 1887, 3.39 p.m. ; January 10, 1888, 
8.55 a.m. ; October 5, 1890, 2.31 a.m. ; November 20, 1890, 4.30 a.m. 
The time for these minor shocks is local. 

Virgin Islands. — See St. Thomas, St. John's, and Tortola. 

Cuba. — The British Minister and Consul-General, Mr. Stephen 
Leech, forwards a list of earthquakes, compiled by Mr. Consul Mason, 
recorded at Santiago de Cuba. 

XII. Seismic Activity 1899-1903 inclusive. 

The earthquakes referred to in the following list are those which 
have been recorded at stations all over the world, or at stations repre- 
senting an area not less than that of Europe and Asia. Movements 
which have only been noted in a single continent have not been con- 
sidered. 

Although this catalogue may be used as a basis for many investiga- 
tions, its main object is to show at a glance the regions in which 
important reliefs of strain have, in and beneath the crust of the world, 
taken place in recent years. The numbers given to the earthquakes 



56 , REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

correspond to those of records obtained at Shide and published in 
British Association circulars. The small numbers which appear on the 
map (Plate II.) by their positions approximately indicate those of origins. 
The greater number of these, it will be observed, have been submarine. 
To make these determinations for each earthquake a list of the prin- 
cipal stations at which it had been recorded had to be drawn up. This 
showed the times at which P,, P 2 , P 3 , and the maximum had been 
noted, together with the amplitudes recorded at each station. In the 
publications of the International Seismological Association, the Earth- 
quake Investigation Committee of Japan, and in papers on particular 
earthquakes this fundamental data has for similar work always been 
published, but here it has been omitted. The reason for this is that 
it would occupy some three hundred pages, together with the fact 
that it can at any time be reproduced by consulting British Association 
and other Eegisters. 

The names of places where an earthquake has been felt are followed 
by the letter ' F, ' whilst those at which destruction has taken place 
are indicated by the letter ' D. ' In these instances local observations 
in or near to an epifocal region have been used to determine the 
approximate position of a district from which an earthquake radiated 
and the time of its origin. 

In cases where we have been without this local information, origins 
have been determined by selecting five or six stations at which the earth- 
quake arrived first and where their amplitudes were large, and with this 
data we have computed the position sought, by methods well-known 
to seismologists. The method I find most satisfactory is that of circles 
(see British Association Eeport, 1900, p. 79). This has been applied to 
the differences in time at which P,, P 2 , P 3 or the maximum were recorded 
at selected stations. Another method which gives the distance of an 
origin from a station is the difference of time between the arrival of any 
two of these phases of motion. The results as to the times of occur- 
rence at and position of an origin have been checked by comparing the 
computed times at which the earthquake should be noted at stations 
not included in the group of selected stations with the times actually 
recorded at the non-selected stations. In consequence of this method of 
working I have been led to the idea that certain seismograms which have 
hitherto been referred to as a single disturbance may refer to two or more 
disturbances (see p. 32). When an indicated time is followed by plus 
or minus two or more minutes, this also means that there is a corre- 
sponding uncertainty as to the position of an origin. All other times 
given may be read to within plus or minus one minute, unless they refer 
to records made in inhabited districts. These latter are probably correct 
to within 30 seconds. 

The dotted lines on the map which are parallel to mountain ranges 
or oceanic ridges and troughs are the axes of districts from which many 
large earthquakes have originated. They are indicated by the letters 
A, B, 0, &c. In the list two of these capital letters indicate that the 
earthquake originated near to the junction of two ridges. 

The materials chiefly used for these investigations have been those 
obtained from stations co-operating with the British Association using 



nf J ,nrno 7^/vrfht 



[Plate II. 









' ■ 



Origins <j harm Earthquake 1800 1003 



1'i.vn- II 




E»(lbqMki D .... u.i"-.i..i 1, B,0 Si s, "-'l | nunibow rnTct to Eliido llooorin [una it b li Mtalfon' insulin), n ■ . 

Ilitutratinu tin Sixteautli Report on SeinnoloQt'tal In. ,-..-.■. ■ ■ 



n ,.,.t Ibc World 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



57 



similar instruments. Most valuable assistance has however been received 
from the publications of the Earthquake Investigation Committee of 
Japan, the International Seismological Association, the Commission 
Sismique Permanente of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. 
Petersburg, the Societe Sismologica Italiana, the K. NatUurkundige 
Vereeniging in Nederl-Indie, the Bulletins of the Manila Central Obser- 
vatory, and the weekly, monthly, and other circulars issued by obser- 
vers in various parts of the world. 

The chief difference between the present map and the four corre- 
sponding maps already issued by the British Association is that it con- 
tains more entries and shows more clearly the present-day sites of 
seismic activity. The small numbers on the map which are underlined 
refer to earthquakes which have been recorded all over the world, whilst 
the remainder indicate earthquakes which were recorded over areas 
which are approximately those of half our sphere. 

Dual or multiple earthquakes are linked by brackets, and the stations 
used for the determination of their origin are named. 

Compilations referring to the next five years have been completed, 
but it was felt they could not be entered on the present map for want 
of space, and are therefore held over for the next Report. 

The number of megaseisms which have taken place in the different 
regions in the period considered are as follows : A x twenty, A 2 eight, 
B fourteen, C x thirteen, C 2 five, 1) 1 six, D 2 seven, Ej eighteen, E 2 seven, 
E 3 twenty-three, E 1!2 , 3 one, F, thirty-three, F 2 ten, F 3 twelve, G x five, 
G 2 seven, H fourteen, J two, Id ten, Id five, Id ten, K 4 four, K 5 three, 
K three, Iv 7 two, K 8 nil, L four, M, twelve, M 2 eleven, M 3 two, five, 
P five, Q five, R nil, B D, two, K 5 G, four, F,M, two, G,G 2 one, P E, 
one, A 2 B two, Id, 2, 3 five, F,E 3 three, Id, 3 one, FiF 2 one, M 2 E 2 three, 
K,A, two. Total 313. 

If we draw a circle 70° in radius, with its centre 180° east or west 
long, and 60° north lat., it will be seen that this passes through the 
most active seismic regions in the world. This circle is drawn on the 
map as a line. If it is replaced by a band 40° in width, it contains 186 
entries out of the 313. 



List of Earthquakes 1899-1903 inclusive. 



Date 


No. 


Time at 
origin 


District 


Lat. and long, 
in degrees 


Remarks. F = felt. 
D = destructive 


1899 




h. m. 








Jan. 


12 


247 


8.0 


F» 


128 E. 2 N. 


Halmahera, F. 


tt 


14 


248 


2.37±2 


A 3 


HOW. 20 N. 




99 


22 


249 


8.14 


K 5 


21.30 E. 37 N. 


Greece, Philiatri, La- 
conia, Kyparissia,D. 


» 


24 


250 


23.45 


B 


99 W. 17 N. 


Mexico Republic, 
Vera Cruz to St. 
Bias, Oaxaca, D. 


t» 


30 


251 


17.45 


F 3 


90 E. N.S. 




»» 


31 


252 


11.12 


H 


28 W. 35 N. 




Feb. 


23 


254 


13.36±7 


H 


25 W. 45 N. 




1 " 


26 


255 


13.36±2 




25 W. 45 N. 





58 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







List 


of Earthquakes 1S99-1903 inclusive — 


continued. 


Datfi 


No. 


Time at 


District 


Lat. and long. 


Remarks. F = felt, 








origin 




in degrees 


D = destructive 


1899 




h. m. 








Feb. 


27 


256 


11.17±2 


H 


20 W. 52 N. 




99 


27 


257 


15.21±3 


H 


22 W. 50 N. 




»» 


28 


259 


19.33±3 


J 


10 E. 70 N. 




March 7 


263 


0.53 


El, 2*3 


136 E. 33.8 N. 


Japan, F. 


99 


12 


264 


9.37±2 


B 


103 W. 17 N. 




»> 


21 


267 


14.31±4 


E a 


149 E. 24 N. 




?J 


23 


268 


10.23±5 


D„ 


67 W. 20 S. 




99 


23 


269 


14.26±2 


0, 


59 W. 22 N. 




J J 


25 


270 


14.27±3 


B 


87 W. 10 N. 




April 


12 


278 


17.23 


r> 2 


67 W. 28 S. 


Rioja, Catamarca, 
Tucuman, D. 


99 


13 


279 


3.36 


r> 2 


67 W. 29.5 S. 




J? 


16 


282 


14.38 


At 


138 W. 58 N. 




JJ 


17 


283 


1.36±3 


M 1 


167 W. 27 S. 




May 


8 


286 


3.11±4 


M2 


170 E. 20 N. 




June 


5 


291 


4.30±2 


B.DJ 


85 W. N.S. 




>j 


5 


292 


15.2 


Oi 


73 W. 23 N. 




»> 


14 


294 


11.6 


Q. 


77 W. 18 N. 


Jamaica, Cinnamon 
Hill, F. 


91 


17 


295 


1.8 


E t 


145 E. 40 N. 




J? 


24 


298 


16.57 


F 3 


97 E. 1 N. 


Tapanoeli, Sumatra, 

F. 
Tapanoeli, Sumatra, 

F. 


?> 


29 


299 


22.52 


F, 


97 E. 1 N. 


July 


7 


303 


8.38±2 


Di 


90 W. 10 S. 


)» 


9 


305 


19.8±2 


6, 


65 E. 5 S. 




J? 


11 


307 


7.29±3 


E a 


140 E. 15 N. "1 
42 W. 35 N. J 


Dual Eqke. 


>? 


11 


3076 


7.36±3 


H 


JJ 


12 


308 


1.35±2 


H 


20 W. N.S. 




99 


14 


3086 


13.34±2 


Ax 


150 W. 60N.1 
33 E. 23 N. J 


Dual Eqke. 


»J 


14 


309 


13.40 





Distance A, to O. 98° 


J» 


17 


310 


10. Oca 


Fi 


130 E. 5 N. 


Amboina F at 9.54 ? 


Aug. 


2 


321 


15.16 


(\ 


76 W. 23 N. 




>» 


2 


322 


17.57 


Cx 


90 W. 25 N. 




99 


4 


324 


4.43 


Fi 


120 E. 8 N. 




99 


17 


326 


20.38 


Gfj, K 6 


56 E. 16 N. 




JJ 


24 


332 


15.9±5 


F 1 ,M 1 


165 E. 27 S. 




Sept. 


4 


333 


0.20 


Ax 


140 W. 59 N. 


Yakutat Bay, D. 


»j 


4 


334 


4.53±2 


Ax 


140 W. 59 N. 


ff ** 


>* 


10 


337 


17.0 


A x 


140 W. 59 N. 


»» >» 


>? 


10 


3376 


20.43 


Ax 


140 W. 59 N. 


>» >» 


?> 


10 


338 


21.38 


Ax 


140 W. 59 N. 


99 >> 


j» 


16 


341 


5.14 


A, 


140 W. 59 N. 


99 >» 


»> 


17 


342 


12.51 


Ax 


140 W. 59 N. 


5, J» 


?> 


20 


343 


2.11±2 


K 6 


27.5 E. 37.5 N. 


Aidin, Meander Valley 
Smyrna, D. 


j> 


23 


344 


11.4 


Ax 


140 W. 65 N. 




j> 


23 


345 


13.43±2 


A x 


133 W. 55 N. 




s» 


27 


346 


8.1 


H 


40 W. 9 N. 




»> 


29 


347 


17.1 


F 2 


129 E. 4 S. 


Ceram Ambon, D. 


Oct. 


13 


351 


15.13±2 


M 2 


178 E. 15 S. 




>» 


13 


352 


17.28±2 


Fx 


173 E. 10 S. 




M 


19 


354 


9.16±2 


Fx 


148 E. 5 S. 




9f 


24 


355 


3.57 


F 2 


124 E. 9 S. 


Koeheng Timor, F. 


Nov. 


12 


358 


23.43 


Fx 


162 E. 25 S. 




99 


18 


361 


14.55±3 


Q 


65 W. 3 N. 


. u_^ 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



List of Earthquakes 1899-1903 inclusive. — continued. 



Date 


No. 


Time at 
origiu 


District 


Lat. aud long. 
in degrees 


Remarks. F == felt, 
D = destructive 


1899 




li. hi. 








Nov. 


23 


364 


9.42±2 


Q 


160 E. 30 N. 




99 


24 


365 


9.56±3 


*i 


128 E. N.S. 




99 


24 


366 


18.39 


*i 


136 E.5N.1 
131 E. 33 N. / 


Double Eqke. 


J> 


24 


3666 


18.41 


E, 


Origin Kyushu, Japan 


Dec. 


25 


371 


12.25 


A. 


117 W. 34 N. 


San Jacinto, S. Cali- 
fornia, F. 


99 


26 


372 


0.23 


H 


42 W. 30 N. 




99 


31 


373 


10.50 


K 4 


42 E. 42 N. 


Akbalkalaki, D. 


»> 


31 


374 


20.19±2 


G 1; 2 


68 E. 3 S. 




1900 












Jan. 


5 


376 


18.56 


F 8 


102.5 E. 3 S. 


Palembang, Sumatra, 


>> 


11 


377 


9.5±5 


F x 


148 E. 5 S. 


>» 


13 


378 


9.52±3 


M, 


148 E. 48 S. 




»> 


15 


379 


19.46±2 


H 


40 W. 5 N. 




>» 


20 


381 


6.32 


B 


108 W. 19 N. 


Mexico, Colima, Ja- 
lisco, Guerrero, D. 


99 


29 


383 


22.30±3 


G 2 


82 E. 10 S. 




99 


31 


385 


18.50±3 


M 2 


178 E. N.S. 




Feb. 


3 


3866 


4.15±5 


F, 


126 E. 2 N. 


Akbalkalaki, D., also 
had shocks about 
this time. 


>» 


20 


3906 


21.36 


G a 


80 E. 19 S. 




99 


26 


391 


' 3.41 


At 


140 W. 59 N. 




March 6 


392 


18.0 





33 E. 28 N. 


Cairo, F. 


»> 


9 


394 


2.18 


M 3 


168 E. 8 S. 




99 


12 


397 


1.32 


E, 


142 E. 38 N. 


N-E. Japan, Akita, 
Yamagata, F. 


April 


24 


404 


23.14 


E, 


126.5 E. 27 N. 


S.W. Japan,and For- 
mosa and Oshima,F. 


»> 


30 


4046 


20.17 


G t 


48 E. 12 N. 




May 


11 


405 


17.21 


Ex 


144 E. 39 N. 


N.E. Japan, Ishino- 
maki, F. 


$9 


16 


407 


20.13 


B 


105 W. 20 N. 


Mexico, Colima, Ja- 
lisco, also Mexico 
City, D. 


yj 


26 


408 


15.59±3 


L 


E. & W. 60 S. 




June 


9 


411 


12.11 


E 3 


130 E. 30 N. 


Kiusbiu. 


?> 


12 


414 


20.15±5 


F x 


135 E. N.S. 




»> 


16 


415 


14.43±3 


B 


90 W. 3 N. 




»> 


21 


417 


20.56±2 


B 


86 W. 15 N. 




July 


15 


422 


18.49±2 


c 8 


70 W. 12 N. 




99 


29 


424 


6.59±3 


M, 


178 W. 8 S. 




Aug. 


5 


425 


4.18 


e; 


144 E. 39 N. 


Japan, Isbinomaki, F. 


»» 


13 


427 


20.13±2 


Ex 


137 E. 2 N. 




>> 


28 


430 


10.59±3 


J 


10 W. 68 N. 




>s 


29 


431 


2.32 


E x 


145 E. 42 N. 




Sept. 


1 


432 


7.56±1 


Dx 


94 W. 10 N. 


Mexico, Ometepec, 
Coast of S. Luis 
Allende, F. 


i» 


9 


4336 


22.48 


G 2 


84 E. N.S. 


* 


>> 


17 


435 


21.45±2 


M 2 


148 E. 5 S. 


Herbertshohe, Bis- 
marck Archipel. F. 


j> 


20 


438 


18.57±3 


Ex 


136 E. 5 N. 




Oct. 


7 


441 


21.0 


Ex 


130 E. N.S. 




>• 


8 


4416 


8.42±2 


Ex 


155 E. 12 S. 


i 



60 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 







List of Earthquakes 1899-1903 inclusive — continued. 


Date 


No. 


Time at 


T~) i »5 1 ri pi". 


Lat. and long. 


Remai-ks. F = felt, 








origin 


J/lo ' i ' l V 


in degrees 


D = destructive 


1900 




h. m. 








Oct. 


9 


442 


12.27 


A, 


132 W. 55 N. 


PrinceWilliam Sound, 
Alaska, 1). 


99 


10 


443 


3.6±3 


Gi 


60 E. 16 N. 




J> 


17 


444 


11.2 


A, 


132 W. 55 N. 


Prince William Sound, 
Alaska. 


J 9 


29 


445 


9.26 


c 2 


68 W. 11 N. 


Caracas, San Casi- 
miro, Cua, D. 


Nov. 


5 


446 


7.39 


E 2 


139 E. 34 N. 


Omori gives 139.5 E. 
33.43 N. Izu, F. 


99 


9 


447 


16.7±2 


B 


96 W. 11 N.\ 
139 E. 34 N.J 


Dual Eqke. 


99 


9 


448 


17.52 


E 2 


Nagatsuro, Izu., F. 


JJ 


12 


4486 


1.6 


Fi 


147 E. 3 N. 




*» 


24 


450 


7.54 


E, 


148 E. 40 N. 


Nemuro, F. 


Dec. 


18 


4526 


22.4±2 


L 


125 W. 67 S. "I 
120W.27N. \ 


Dual Eqke. 


99 


18 


452 


23.15±2 


A 2 


99 


25 


454 


5.2±3 


E 2 


146 E. 27 N. 


This may be dual. 


1901 












Jan. 


7 


455 


0.30±5 


r>i 


82 W. 2 S. 




>> 


8 


456 


19.38±2 


F 3 


92 E. 6 S. 


Malabar, Java, F. 


>> 


13 


458 


22.36±3 


E x 


145 E. 42 N. 


Awomori, Japan, F. 


»» 


18 


460 


\A\ca 


Ax 


135 W. 60 N. 




Feb. 


15 


468 


8.12±1 


F 3 


95 E. 8 S. 




J» 


20 


468a 


9.36±4 


Ft 


152 E. 3 N. 




March 3 


470 


7.45±1 


A, 


120 W. 35.30 N. 




M 


4 


471 


16.12±3 


F 2 " 


113 E. 12 S. 


Bima, Soembawa, F. 


>> 


5 


472 


10.45 ±2 


A 2 


120 W. 23 N. 


But Robbies, Cali- 
fornia, is 35° N., F. 


>J 


16 


474 


11.56±2 


O 


40 E. 10 S. 




>J 


18 


475 


23.24ca 


Ex 


159 E. SON. \ 
159 E. 50 N. J 


Two shocks. 


99 


19 




23.46±2 


E, 


Nemuro, F. at 23.50. 


>> 


23 


476 


14.10±3 


P 


170 E. 55 N. 




») 


31 


479 


7.11 


K 7 


28.30 E. 44 N. 




April 


5 


4836 


21.53±2 


F t 


130 E. 2 N. 


Todano, Celebes, F. 


»> 


5 


483 


23.32 


E x 


149 E. 44 N. 


Japan, Nemuro, F. 


j* 


6 


486 


20. 55 ±3 


K-x 


132 E. 55 N. 




»» 


27 


4926 


4.5 


G 2 


75 E. 12 N.? 




May 


14 


493 


6.49 


Ex 


148 E. 42 N. 


Nemuro, F. 


>> 


25 


496 


0.32±2 


M 2 


165 E. 12 N. 




j» 


26 


497 


7.40 


D„D 2 


63 W. 15 S. 




»» 


27 


498 


16.25±3 


c, 


70 W. 20 N. 




June 


7 


500 


0.3 


E 3 


121 E. 23 N. 


Formosa, Giran, D. 


j» 


13 


502 


3.19±2 


P, E x 


160 E. 52 N. 




»> 


24 


505 


7.3 


E 3 


135 E. 25 N. 


Omori gives 130 E. 
28 N., 7.6 G.M.T. 
at Tokio. Loo 
Choo, Oshima, F. 


Aug. 


6 


513 


18.39±3 


G>i> K 5 


55 E. 20 N. 




>» 


9 


514 


9.21 


Ej 


144 E. 40 N. 


Japan, Miyako, Kus- 
hiro, F. 


j» 


9 


515 


13.1±1 


Fx 


159 E. 20 S. 




>> 


9 


516 


18.32 


Ex 


144 E. 40 N. 


Japan, Miyako, Hako- 
date, F. 


5J 


10 


517 


10. 27 ±3 


Fx 


155 E. 5 S. 




)» 


11 


518 


14.32-t2 


M 2 


178 E. 23 S. 




J> 


18 


519 


2.5±4 


Sof F 3 


92 E. 17 S. 




Sept. 


7 


529 


22.34±2 


F 8 


125 E. 5 S. 


Celebes, Tontoli, F. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 
List of Earthquakes 1899-1903 inclusive — continued. 



Gl 



Date 


No. 


Time at 


District 


Lat. and long. 


Remarks. F = felt, 






origin 




in degrees 


D = destructive 


1901 




h. m. 








Sept. 8 


530 


17.42±2 


*\ 


170 E. 11 S. 




„ 10 


532 


4.26±1 


F, 


90 E. 7 N. 




„ 30 


534 


10.6±2 


Q 


170 E. 30 N. 




Oct. 8 


536 


2.16±2 


B 


90 W. 7 N. 




„ 11 


537 


2.56±3 


»x 


85 W. 7 S. 




15 


539 


13.23±2 


A, 


134 W. 53 N. 




17 


542 


5.57±2 


K 3 


70 E. 30 N. 




„ 19 


543 


9.0ca 


F s 




Origin near Java, 
many shacks. 


29 


548 


8.42 


K, 


19 E. 44 N. 


Raca, Servia, F. 


Nov. 8 


551 


6.3 


E, 


150 E. 40 N. 




13 


555 


10.16 


»i 


122 E. N.S. 




14 


5556 


4.35±1 


A 2 


117 W. 37 N. 


Oasis, Beaver, Salt 
Lake City, U.S.A., 
F. 

Cheviot,New Zealand, 
D. 


15 


557 


20.15 


Mx 


173 E. 43 S. 


18 


558 


0.4 


K 3 


77 E. 32 N. 


„ 20 


560 


23.57 


A t 


130 W. 50 N. 




25 


562 


1.51 


Ft 


127 E. 3 N. 


Ternate, F. 


Dec. 9 


564 


2.17±2 


A 2 


120 W. 23 N. 




14 


565 


22.54 


Ea 


121 E. 14 N. 


Batangas, Philippines, 
D. 


26 


5686 


9.58±2 


M t 


140 E. 58 S. 


30 


569 


22.34 


P 


160 W. 52 N. 


Kenai, Alaska, D. 


„ 31 


570 


5.51 


Q 


130 W. 10 N. 




31 


571 


9.0±2 


P 


173 W. 41 N. 




1902. 












Jan. 1 


572 


6.20±2 


P 


165 W. 47 N. 




12 


574 


22.24 


Fs 


100 E. 15 S. 


About 22 h .O Eqke. at 
Donggala, Tontoli 
and Sakitta. 


16 


576 


23.53 


B 


99 W. 17 N. 


Chilpancingo, D. 


18 


578 


23.23±2 


B 


94 W. 16 N. 




,, 21 


580 


21.40±2 


c 2 


71 W. 3 N. 




„ 24 


581 


23.23±3 


F! 


161 E. 8 S. 




28 


582 


18.48±2 


Ci 


68 W. 20 N. 




30 


584 


13.59 


Ex 


145 E. 43 N. 


Japan, Tokachi, F. 


„ 31 


585 


1.41 


Ex 


145 E. 43 N. 




Feb. 9 


586 


7.43±3 


Mx 


171 W. 43 S. 




9 


5866 


10.12±3 


Mx 


171 W. 43 S. 




„ 13 


588 


9.34.6 
or 9.39 


K 4 


50 E. 41 N. 


Shemaka, D. 


17 


589a 


0.39±2 


c, 


70 W. 20 N. 




25 


590 


15.35±2 


Ex 


127 E. N.S. 




March 1 


592 


0.13 


E 3 


122 E. 24 N. 


Formosa, Taihoku, F. 


5 


593 


19.3±3 


D, 


83 W. 20 S. 




12 


596 


15.7 


L 


160 W. 60 S. 




17 


597 


11.22 


A 2 , B 


109 W. 30 N. 




20 


598 


1.50? 


E 3 


122 E. 24 N. 




22 


599 


22.12±2 


Q 


140 W. 23 N. 


• 


24 


600 


17.58±2 


Cx 


80 W. 31 N. 




25 


6006 


3.26^3 


B,Dx 


87 W. 3 N. 




» 28 


601c 


14.43 


Ex 


130 E. 3 N. 


Halmahera, Banda, 
F. 



62 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



List of Earthquakes 1899-1903 inclusive — continued. 



Datfi 


No. 


Time at 


District 


Lat. and long. 


Remarks. F = felt, 








origin 




in degrees 


D = destructive 


1902 




h. m. 








April 

99 


11 
11 


605a 
6056 


23.41 

23.55 


D 2 


110 E. 50N.) 
65 W. 27 S. j 


Double quake. Dis- 
tance between ori- 
gins 155°. 


99 


19 


606a 


2.22 


B 


91.30 W. 15 N. 


Amatitlan, Guate- 
mala, D. 


99 


19 


6066 


2.34±3 


G 2 


60 E. 35 S. 


Origin determined 
from Wellington, 
Perth, Capetown, 
Bombay, Kodai- 
kanal, Calcutta, and 
Batavia. 


99 


19 


606c 


2.36 


W. of E 3 . 


113 E. 27 N. 


Origin determined 
from Tokio, Manila, 
and Irkutsk. 


>> 


21 


606a* 


17.26 


G 2 


68 E. 40 S. 




May 


2 


607 


11.29 


E, 


144 E. 39 N. 


Awomori, Japan, F. 


n 


8 


609 


2.19 


E s 


132 E. 30 N. 


S. E. coast of Kiushiu, 

F. 
Western Asia. 


>> 


25 


610 


17.20ca 


K* 




June 


11 


612 


6.10 


*! 


142 E. 53 N. 




>> 


16 


6136 


1.36 


K 3 


79 E. 29 N. 




July 


5 


616 


14.59 


K 7 


23 E. 40 N. 


Bani, Salonica, D. 


»9 


6 


617 


13.1 


M 3 


160 W. 31 S. 




>» 


9 


618 


3.38 


K 5 


56 E. 27 N. 


Bander Abbas, 
Kishim Id., D. 


99 


20 


619 


8.49 


H 


25 W. 5 S. 




Aug. 


2 


6196 


14.13±2 


M 2 


150 E. N.S. 




»> 


7 


6216 


11.46 


Fa 


108 E. 4 S. 


Palembang, Batavia, 
F. 


*9 


16 


624 


8.0±3 


*\ 


165 E. 15 S. 


M 


21 


625 


11.17 


E 3 


124 E. 8 N. 


Centre of Mindanao, 

D. 
Kashgar, Artush, D. 


>> 


22 


626 


3.1 


K 1( K^, K 3 


75 E. 40 N. 


*» 


23 


631 


12.58±2 


Kj.K^, Kg 


79 E. 41 N. 




»» 


24 


632 


1.45 


K. 1( Kj, Kj 


75 E. 40 N. 




JJ 


29 


635 


15.4 


Kj, K^, K 3 


75 E. 40 N. 


3 


J> 


30 


636 


21.47 


Kj,K2,K 3 


76 E. 40 N. 




Sept. 


16 


639 


10.54 


E 3 , F t 


122 E. 6 N. 


Solo and Basilan, F. 


JJ 


20 


640 


6.30 


K 3 


70 E. 37 N. 


Srinagar, F. 


»> 


22 


641 


1.44 


E 2 


130 E. 13 N.. 


Guam, D. 


19 


22 


6416 


1.46 


K! 


175 E. 75 N. 

1. 


Determined by Ir- 
kutsk, Victoria, To- 
ronto, and Euro- 
pean stations. 


>J 


22 


641c 


1.56 


M x 


152 E. 52 S. 

i 


Determined by ' Dis- 
covery,' Christ- 
church, Wellington, 
and Perth. 


>J 


23 


642 


20.16 


B 


90 W. 15N.\ 


Mexico, Tuxtla, F. 


M 


23 


6426 


20.29ca 


G 2 


77 E. 60 S. 

- 


Origin determined 
from Perth, Bata- 
via, Mauritius, and 
Capetown. 


11 


24 


HU 


4.54 


c 


80 W. 31 N. 





ON SEISMOLOUICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



63 



List of Earthquakes 1899-1903 inclusive — continued. 



Date 



1902 

Oct. 2 

6 

Nov. 4 

„ 15 



15 



17 
20 



„ 21 

Dec. 12 

„ 13 

„ 16 

„ 28 

1903. 

Jan. 4 



5 
14 



Feb. 



No. 



643 
644 
653 
655 



6556 



656 
658 



659 

661 
662 
663 
666 

668 



6686 

670 
671 



Time at 
origin 



h. m. 

17.48 
9.10 

11.35 
9.30 



9.33 



0.36 
20.32 



14 


6716 


17 


672 


19 


673 


24 


674 


24 


675 


1 


676 


2 


6766 


5 


678 


6 


679 


10 


681 1 



7.3 

23.5±2 
17.8±2 

5.8 

1.41 

4.55±5 



5.17 

21.59 
1.44 



2.46 
16.12 
12.36 

5.25±3 
15.37±2 

9.33 

9.30ca 
18.26ca 



District 



7.33 

2.48±2 



At 

K 3 _ 
Kj, K 3 

E 3 



F 2 



E 3 



E 3 

A 2 , B 
K 3 

K x 

D 2 



E 3 
B 



K 6 , G 

*\ 

A 2 



Lat. and long, 
in degrees 



145 W. 58 N. 

72 E. 38 N. 

91 E. 32 N. 
128 E. 28 N. 



105 E. 20 S. 



121 E. 14 N. 
121 E. 21 N. 



Remarks. F = felt, 
D = destructive 



Origin 



K x 
E, 



120 E. 21 N. 

118 W. 23 N. 
85 E. 30 N. 
75 E. 42 N. 
88 E. 52 N. 

83 W. 15 S. \ 



120 E. 13 N. 

124 E. 34 N. 

90 W.3N. \ 



64 E. 24 N. 
88 W. 25 N. 
140 E. 1 N. 
120 W. 27 N. 
86 W. 5 S. 
102 E. 42 N. 
100 W. 15 S. 
178 W. 8 N. 



98 E. 50 N. 
142 E. 11 N. 



Ferghana, D. 

Origin determined 
from Tokio, Manila, 
and Irkutsk. 

determined 
from Bavaria, Ko- 
daikanal, ' Perth, 
Capetown, Dis- 
covery.' 

Batangas, D. 

North of Philippines. 
Another eqke. near 
Christchurch at 
same time, deter- 
mined from Christ- 
church, Perth, and 
Batavia. 

Batanes Is. and Taito, 
F. 



Andijan, D. 

Bijsk, Altai Mts., D. 

Origin determined 
from Christchurch, 
Toronto, Victoria, 
B.C. , England,Cax)e- 
town, and Mauri- 
tius. 

Origin determined 
from Manila, Ir- 
kutsk, Perth, and 
Bombay. 

Chimiampo, S.W. 
Korea, F. 

Suggested by Indian, 
Siberian stations 
and Batavia. 



Origin determined 
from Victoria, Ir- 
kutsk,Batavia, Cal- 
cutta, Kodaikanal, 
Bombay, and Eng- 
land. 

Agana, Guam, D. 



61 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



List of Earthquakes 1899-1903 inclusive — continued. 



Date 



1903 
Feb. 11 
12 

.. 24 
„ 27 
„ 28 



March 12 

15 

22 
25 



28 



»> 


29 


99 


30 


April 


3 


»f 


12 


?> 


28 


»» 


29 


May 


13 



15 

„ 17 
» 23 
., 23 



June 



July 



29 

2 

4 

7 

8 

10 

24 

25 

2 

12 

23 



No. 



682 
683 
685 
686 
687 



689 
690 
692 
694 



090 

698 
699 
700 
703 
704 

705 

707 
708 



709 

710a 

7106 



714 
717 
718 
719 
721 
724 
734 
736 
738 
746 
7486 



Time at 
origin 



16.5 

18.42 

17.33 

0.44 

9.50 



14.19 

14.13 
14.35 
22.27 



7.55 

16.28ea 

3.23 
10.32 

3.13±3 
23.40 

3.59±4 
6.32 
11.41ca 



1.0 

20.7 
22 7 



9 
13, 

15. 
9, 
5, 

10. 
1(5, 
22. 
21. 
5. 
22. 



33 

10±2 

12±5 

5 

23±3 

31 

56 

12 

22 

27? 

36 



District 



Lat. and long. 
in degrees 



F 2 
K„ 

*\ 
F, 



A, 

O 



K 2 

D 2 ? 

F 2 

P 

Uncertain 
K 4 

M 3 
M 2 , E 2 
M 2 , E 2 



f 2 

F 3 



Kj.A, 
O 
E, 

M t 
Ft 

K4 

M, 

Fx 

E 3 



119 E. 8S. 
87 E. 40 N. 
152 E. 8 S. 
104 E. 5 S. 
81 W. 20 N. 



87 E. 54 N. 

128 W. 51 N. 

60 E. 35 N. 

27 E. 27 N. 



72 E. 40 N. 



126 E. 3 S. 
157 W. 57 N. 

43 E. 39 N. 

143 W. 43 S. 
142 E. 8 N. 
142 E. 12 N. 



80 E. 23 N. 
110 E. 8 S. 
120 E. 7 N. 



20 E. 39 N. 
170 W. 67 N. 

37 E. 23 N. 
122 E. 21 N. 

121 E. 50 S. 

149 E. N.S. 
49 E. 39 N. 
96 E. 51 N. 

150 E. 50 S. 
150 E. 5 S. 

121 E. 19 N. 



Remarks. F = felt, 
D = destructive 



Bima, Soembawa, F. 



Tais, Sumatra, F. 

Origin determined 
from Trinidad, 
Toronto, Victoria, 
British stations and 
Bombay. Welling- 
ton does not agree, 
perhaps another 
quake. 

Kuznesk, D. 



Origin determined 
from Tiflis, Tash- 
kent, Shide and 
Capetown. 

Ferghana, Marghilan, 
Kojend, D. 

Argentina, F. 

Boeroe, Masarete, F. 



Melazghird, L. Van, 
D. 



Determined from Ma- 
tt ila,Tokio, Irkutsk, 
Calcutta and Perth. 
Honolulu and Vic- 
toria do not agree. 

This origin does not 
agree with records 
for Perth, W.A. 

Determined from Ba- 
tavia, Perth and 
Mauritius. 

Davao, Mindanao, F. 
Determined from 
'Discovery, 'Manila, 
Tokio, Irkutsk and 
European stations. 

Corfu, F. 



Batanes Ids., F. 
Lenkoran, F. 

Luzon, Apairl, F. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



05 



List of Earthquakes 1899-1903 inclusive — continued. 



Date 



1903 
July 27 
27 
Aug. 11 

13 
16 

Sept. 7 



Oct. 



8 
10 
13 
23 
25 
10 
14 



19 
20 
21 



99 


-6 


M 


29 


»» 


30 


Nov. 


10 


>» 


10 


»» 


17 


99 


24 


»> 


26 


Dee. 


1 


>» 


1 


J9 


3 


J> 


5 


)> 


6 


9> 


7 


99 


10 


» 


J8 


99 


23 


>> 


28 



No. 



750 
751 
759 

760 
761 
764a 



Time at 
origin 

h. in. 

10.34 
12.32ca 
4.30 

15.46 
13.35±5 

7.10 



7646 



765 

7666 

767 

769 

771 

773 

774 



7746 

775 

777 

778 

780 

781 

783 

784 

785 

788 

789 

7896 

790 

7916 

7926 

793 

7936 

794 

7966 

798 



802 



7.14 



5.7 
13.48 
15.3k« 

0.14 

1.20±3 
16.41 

3.20 fa 



3.5ra 

2.47 

9.50a/ 

2.36 
14.19 

3.54 
17.17 
20.46 
20. 23 ±2 

13.34 
11.46 

6.43 
14.21 
21.26 

5.7 
22.48 
14.40±3 

7.8 
12.18 

0.53 



2.50±2 



District 



H 
H 



E, 
M, 



E, 



L 
A, 

H 
M, 

K 3 

E, 



F 3 
F, 
Gi 
K, 
F t 
F t 
M, 
F, 
E 3 

F„ E 3 
K, 

Q 

E 3 
K 3 

K„A, 

6, 

D, 
K 5 , G t 

E 2 , M, 
M, " 



F„ E 3 



Lat. anil long, 
in ilegrees 



57 W. 33 N. 
57 W. 33 N. 
23 E. 36^ N. 

146 E. 41 N. 
72 W. 20 N. 
175 E. 71 S. x 



122 E. 23 N. 



/ 
78 E. 50 8. 
130 W. 58 N. 
19 W. 41 N. 
160 E. 52 S. 
58 E. 34 N. 
132 E. 32 N. 
128 E. 11 S. 



98 E. 3 S. 
168 E. 9 S. 
55 E. 33 S. 
97 E. 50 N. 
167 E. 20 S. 
175 E. 20 S. 
150 E. 50 S. 
167 E. 17 S. 
126 E. 9 N. 

125 E. 3 N. 
110 E. 53 N. 
165 E. 25 N. 
120 E. 24 N. 
93 E. 32 N. 
150 W. 66 N. 
45 E. 41 S. 
71 W. 28 S. 
65 E. 21 N. 
135 E. 5 N. 
170 E. 5 S. 



123 E. 3 N. 



Remarks. F = felt, 
D = destructive 



Greece, Potamos, My- 
tata, D. 

Jamaica, Unity, F. 

Determined from 

Christchureh, Perth, 
and Honolulu. 

Determined from Ir- 
kutsk, Krasnoyarsk, 
Bombay, Cape- 

town, and British 
stations. 



Persia, Turschis, D. 

Japan, Hyuga, F. 

Timor, Atapocpoc, F. 
Determined from 
Manila, Perth, Ba- 
tavia. 

Lais, Sumatra, F. 



Philippines, Surigao, 

F. 
Celebes, Bolaang, F. 
Send, L. Baikal, D. 



Felt at Cairo, 23.34. 
Chili, Vallenar, D. 



Determined from 

Christchureh, Ho- 
nolulu, Batavia, 
and Irkutsk. 40m. 
later another eqke. 
recorded at British 
and Azores stations. 

Celebes, Tontoli, F. 



1911. 



66 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



XIII. Sensibility of Seismographs recording on Smoked Surfaces. 

On several occasions in the British Association Eeports I have given 
illustrations of the marked want of sensitiveness of seismographs which 
record on smoked surfaces. 1 Instruments which work in this manner 
are inexpensive to maintain, you can at any time see your record, and 
they yield most excellent seismograms of strong disturbances. How- 
ever, in consequence of the elasticity of the writing levers, and possibly 
for other reasons, they do not commence to give a record until a certain 
amplitude of motion has been reached. They therefore fail to record 
minute movements, and as these may frequently represent that which 
remains of an earthquake originating at a great distance, those who use 
these types of instrument are entirely cut off from what I have called 
a ' New Departure in Seismology. ' As bearing upon this point I give 
the following quotations from the report of the Director, Bombay and 
Alibag Observatories, 1910. The italics are mine: — 



Milne's Seismograms, 
photographic Re- 
cords. 



Vertical movement 
Seismograms. 



There was no loss of 
record. 



Cola .ba No. 1 (E.-W. 
Seismograms. 



Colaba No. 2 (N. 

Seismograms. 



S.) 



Omori Seismograms. 



Out of 9 principal dis- 
turbances 7 were re- 
corded and 1 was not 
recorded. 

Out of 48 small disturb- 
ances 20 were recorded 
and 26 were not re- 
corded. 

Out of 9 principal dis- 
turbances 8 were re- 
corded. 

Out of 48 small disturb- 
ances 37 were recorded 
and 8 were not recorded 

Out of 9 principal dis- 
turbances 8 were re- 
corded. 

Out of 48 small disturb- 
ances 31 were recorded 
and 13 were not re- 
corded. 

Out of 9 principal dis- 
turbances all were re- 
corded. 

Out of 48 small disturb- 
ances 36 were recorded 
and 11 were not re- 
corded. 



The action of the instrument is 
voluntarily interrupted, e.g., 
for regular changing of the 
tilrn, winding and rating the 
watch and clock, adjustment 
and examination of the instru- 
ment, deflection experiments, 
&o. ; such interruptions are 
not taken into consideration. 

1 disturbance was partially lost 
in shifting time. 



2 disturbances were lost as the 
paper did not come out. 



1 disturbance was partially lost 
in shifting time. 

2 disturbances were lost in 
shifting time and 1 was lost 
owing to the smoked paper 
being destroyed. 

1 disturbance was partially lost 
in shifting time. 

1 was lost owing to the stoppage 
of clock ; 2 were lost in 
shifting time, and 1 was lost 
owing to the smoked paper 
being destroyed. 



1 was lost owing to tho smoked 
paper being destroyed. 



1 See Brit. Assoc. Seis. Reports, 1909, p. 51, 'Aftershocks of the Earthquake at 
Jamaica '; 1910, p. 48, 'A New Departure in Seismology. 1 



ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OP BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 67 

Milne's seismograph registered fifty -seven earthquakes during the 
year under report, besides several small local and other movements. Of 
these, three were great disturbances — namely, those recorded on 
November 9 and 13 and December 16. 

The seismograph for recording vertical movements registered twenty- 
seven disturbances. 

The Japanese (Omori) seismograph recorded forty-five disturbances. 

The Colaba seismographs No. 1 (E.-W.) and No. 2 (N.-S) recorded 
forty-five and thirty-nine disturbances respectively. 



TJie Further Tabulation of Bessel and other Functions. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill {Chairman), 
Dr. J. W. Nicholson (Secretary), Professor Alfred Lodge, 
Dr. L. N. G. Filon, and Sir George Greenhill. 

Part I. — Elliptic Functions. 

During the course of the year Sir George Greenhill has brought forward 
a scheme for the rearrangement of the Elliptic Function Tables on a new 
basis. 

This scheme would, in the event of its acceptance by the Association, 
occupy the greater part of the attention of the Committee for some time', 
and would also involve a grant from the Association towards the ex- 
pense of computing. 

It seems desirable, therefore, that the report for the present year 
should be concerned mainly with this question; and a brief outline, 
with some specimen tables indicating the nature of the proposed work' 
is accordingly submitted to the Association for its approval or criticism! 

Subjoined is a specimen table for modular angle 0=45° and 0=75°, 
which may be taken as typical of the proposed work. The notation used 
is such that, for example, ©(0) is denoted by ©0, and H(K) by HK. 

The argument of the table proceeds by degrees of the quadrant of 
the quarter period K or F (90°), instead of degrees of <£=am/K, as in 
Legendre's Table IX. 

The four columns of A, B, C, D give at r°, where r = 90 /, 

u v I ©0 ' A v i ~ HK ' 

B(O = A(90-r) = H ^/) K , 

C( O = D(90-,)=^/lK 

so that the table proceeds from 0° to 45°, and then turns back again 
upward, as in the ordinary trigonometrical table of a circular functionr 
The elliptic functions are given then by 

V*'sn/K=> cn/K = 5, dn/K = 

D' ' D' Vk' D' 

instead of the usual form of Jacobi 

F 2 



68 



REPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 






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ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 69 





















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CO Ml Ml 


^1 ^1 HJ 


•* 






















t. d 






















o 






















OS 





70 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



X 





»= |i co 




l lv > 




Cu 




X 




CO 




II 


• 


CM 






»o 




L- 




II 


o 


to 


«> 


t- 




o 




rH 




II 




W 


Is 




s 




o 


119 


•w> 




Ci 





•s 

I 



00 00 CO 



© US »H 
00 00 00 



OS CM rH 

00 00 00 



OC55D 
CO t- t- 



t- © US 

t- t- t- 



-* co cm 
t- t- t- 



HO» 
t- t- CO 



z 



I 



rH CO 


en 


00 o 


US 






fc- CO 


CO 


CM 1 .- 




CM 





© 


00 


US 


CM 


Cft 


CO 


TH 


CM 


Cft 


o 


r-< 


CM 


CO 


CO 


CM 


rH 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 



II i 5, 



CO 

eft 


Cft 
CO 


CM 

00 


rH 

00 




o 
o 
o 
© 
© 



o 
o 



in 

o 
o 



2. 



® 



CO 

t-o 

t— CO 

so CO 
Cft us 
. co 
"-* eft 



00 


CO 


■«* 


CM 


us 


CO 


© 


t~ 


-* 


OS 


00 


CO 



ft} 



w 



CO 

o 

us 



II 



CO 

o 
co 

CO 








M 












■ 










*^s 






















V 




o 


CO 


-H 


CM 


00 


CO 


t- 


CM 




M 1 




00 


CO 


us 


CO 


OS 


rH 


T-* 


m 




W 




eft 


Cft 


CO 


c~ 


us 


■* 


CM 


P- 


o 


Cft 


Cft 


eft 


Cft 


Cft 


Oft 


Cft 




w 




r* 


o 


o 


o 


©• 


o 


© 


© 




1 






















w 




© 


OS 


00 


CO 


CO 


oo 


rH 


© 




«s 


M 




CO 


CO 


o 


L- 




© 


© 


«f 


a 






Cft 


M* 


00 




00 


CM 


H 


o 


o 


o 


f-H 


rH 


CM 


CM 


CO 




I 




o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


o 




M 




o 


l~ 


CO 


t- 


oo 


00 


-H 


CO 






o 


CM 


o 


co 


rH 


w 


CM 


■H* 


Q 


<*. 


® 


o 


o 


F-H 


CM 


s* 


CO 


Cft 




s 


© 


o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


o 


rH 








iH 


I-l 


r- 1 


tH 


rH 


rH 


T-t 


r^ 






pa 






















V- 
























o 


CO 


CO 


o 




■* 


Cft 


■* 








o 


CM 


CO 


CO 




CI 


© 


-* 


W 


II 


tr 


o 


IO 


o 


us 


eft 


•■* 


or 


r-i 


■s 

a 


W 


o 


o 


rH 


iH 


rH 


CM 


CM 


CO 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


O 


s 
























N 












































M 






















b 


o 


CO 


CM 


fc- 




o 


r-t 


03 




s 


o 


CM 


US 


co 


t- 


© 


CO 


00 




O 


c 


US 


o 


US 


o 


n& 


© 


•HI 




II 


a 






1-i 


rH 


CM 


CM 


CO 


OS 




■e 
























H 


© 


05 


US 


00 


rH 


•* 


© 


Cft 






o 


CM 


-«* 


CO 


Cft 


rH 


CO 








II 


o 


Cft 


CO 




CO 


© 


us 








© 


o 


rH 


CM 


CO 


-* 


US 


© 




I 


4 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


o 




( 


s 






















s 

© 






















o 


him a 


*«so 


C- CO Cft 


O rH CM 


CO -H* US 


CD t- 00 


© © rH 






11 






















^^ 



















ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 71 



to iO -HI 
U5 L-5 10 



O01JJ 

to -* -i" 



o 

CI 



CO 
-* c- 

"O CO 
-X 10 
CO -« 

ri CO 



CO 



rig 

co 2; 

• CO 



■e- 



W 



01 
CM 
CM 

b 



Ol 

b 



o 




w>S 


CO 


-* CO 


■fll 


-« "2 


Ol 


,-. ■*■ 


t- 


■* 




tj 




1 ' 




t l 




CO 




o 2 


--* 


t- rH 


Ol 


c- £ 


o 


<?'£ 


CO 


O ol 


o 



CO 
CO 

b 




CO 

6 



co 
b 



CO 
CO 

b 



•o 

•° ° 

b CO 



w 

a 



Ait- 

























m 










^ 


"* 


00 ci 








93 




-■* 


CO to 


1*1 






CO 


00 

o 


CO 

»o 


00 GO 


a* 


o 




rH 


H 


rH 


H 7" 












rH 





















O CO 



Ol 

CO 

b 



»o 7* 
o <g 

£Q O 

b co 
b 






CO 
I— I 
-* 

b 






OS 

o 

CO 



f g 

o ;o 



M 



o? 












M 






C2 £> 


O 


CO 


Ol 


Ol 


X CI 








•-i E 


D- 


-* 


Ol 


CO 










•* S 




CO 


00 




X CO 






o 


i— 1 Ol 


01 


CO 


CO 




■** t~ 


1 


3 


f-H 


rH 


1-1 


rH 


rH:* 


ri 
























i-H 












® 

























ri !I? 

co g 
co2 



ol 
b 



I 



CM 

CO 



_ Ol 

CO rH 
O CO 



O 
-* CO 
O CO 
CO co 



"J, 

a 



X 
CO 

r» 

o 


o 

CO 

X 

© 




a § 

9 s oi 

© s 






lO 

rH 

© 

r-t 


o 


OS 

Oi 

fH 


Ol CO -It 
Ol Ol Ol 


Ol Ol Ol 


COOJO 
Ol Ol CO 


CO 


Ol CO 

CO CO 


^ iO © 

CO CO CO 


t> X OS 

CO CO CO 



rH « 
-«l CO 

co ;* 



.rH 



II I 



72 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

The column of E and F gives 

E (r°) = zn /K = E^ - /E, 

F (r °) = E (90 - r) = zn (1 - /) K 
and 

f = am /K, /K = 2ty. 

If the small Theta function is preferred, K must be replaced by \v, 
and ®/K by 6 {\irj), H/K by 0, {\irj), but the numerical entry in the Table 
is unaltered. 

The value of A, B, C, D is chosen as the quotient of two Theta f imctions, 
because it can be expressed algebraically, and calculated to any desired 
number of decimal places, for a Division value of the Elliptic Function ; 
and so the accuracy may be tested of the terms of a series employed in the 
computation. 

Thus at the Bisection, / = |,r= 45, and 



E (45) =F(45) = zn AR = | (1 - «?) 

k =s sin 6, k = cos 6 

V 



D (45) = C (45) = (*±£V 
A(46) = B(4B)=(^)i 

Bn * K =V / (lT?)- m4K = V / G ;'«)• to » K =^ 

At Trisection, in the region 3> 6> 1, 

k2 _(6+1) 3 (3 - 6) ,,_ (6-lf (6+3) 

166 ' ~ "166 . .. 

D(30) = C(60) = @— ^* 

D(60) = C(30) = ^|jJ 

A(30) = B(60) = !^ 
A(60) = B(30) = 2>/Z.p^- )t 

E(30) = F(60) = 9 -^ 

E (60) = F (30) = ( i=- 6) ^ 
6 

6=3! N/6-fV2 =2 . M2 
2 



The value 



makes 6 = 45°, and the Table has been checked by these values. 
Also 6 = s/3 makes 6 = 75°. 



ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 73 



At Quinquisection, 



Region 

(c+3)(c"-4c-l) 
20cj (c^+l)* 
(3c-l)(c--4c-l) 
20c}(c- 1 +lV 

r(c+i)(c-i)ni 

L 32c ! J 

r(c+i)' (e-im 

32c : < J 



I. 

OD>C> V5 + 2 






1 
,-= zn?K 

k' 

@ *K=C (18) 
K=D (36) 



00 
06 



II. 

V5 + 2>C>1 



zn'K 



zn9K 



0iK 
1>0 
0?K 



aV ^F= ^D(18) 



III. 



1>C> 



Vb— 1 



HiK 



=A(18) 



©0 



= -/«'! 



k'C(36) 



HK 
H|K 
HK 
=B(36) 



A(54) 



and so on, as in ' Phil. Trans.,' A, 1904, p. 264. 
We find that 0=45° for 

c=/^?)^+(^^|=l)*+5i+1^5'184 in Region I, 

c =2 cos 18°+2 cos 36°=3-5202 in Region II, 

c = ( 5 r^)^ + ('^ 2 ± 1 )*_5i + i = o-620 in Region III, 

and so obtain an independent verification of the entry in the Tables 
calculated from a series. 

These verifications at the Division value are indicated in the Table 
by round brackets ; values in heavy type have been completely verified. 

Other Division values can be calculated algebraically to serve as a 
check at any stage of the calculation, and are analogous to the surd 
values of the circular functions of 45°, 30°, 60°, and the multiples of 18° 
and 15° ; and it is possible to calculate all the tabular values for every 
3° from an algebraical formula, by a method analogous to Euclid's con- 
struction of the quindecagon. 

The entry is given in a Table to every 3° of the quadrant of K, and to 
four decimals only, as calculated from the first two terms of a q series. 
Discrepancy is apparent, and more terms are required at a high modular 
angle, 6 = 75°, as is seen by comparison with the exact numerical value 
in brackets. 

But the Table is put forward for criticism of the arrangement, and 
further calculation is reserved. 

The Committee invite criticism, and they are desirous of obtaining a 
suitable grant from the Association for the expense of their computations 
on these lines. 

Part II. — Bessel Functions. 

During the year the Committee have been fortunate in securing the 
valuable help of Mr. J. R. Airey, and they are desirous that his name be 
added to the Committee. Mr. Airey has calculated, to seven decimal 
places, the values, for a large range of the argument, of the functions 



74 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

previously dealt with by Aldis and by B. A. Smith. The need for more 
extended tables of these functions has always been felt. 

The tables mentioned in the Eeport of the previous year are not yet 
sufficiently advanced for publication, and in the meantime it seems 
desirable to publish Mr. Airey's tables in the present Report, since they 
are now complete enough in themselves. The whole of the work, of which 
an account is now given, is due to him. 

Tables of the Neumann Functions G„(x) and Y„(x). 

(A.) 
The values of the functions G n (x) and G,(x) have been calculated by 
Aldis 1 to 21 decimal places from x = 0*1 to (K) by intervals of 0*1. In a 
paper by Michell on ' The Wave-resistance of a Ship,' tables of these 
functions in the form 

kJ (x)— Y„(x) and kJ 1 (x)—Yi(x), 

where /.• = log 2— y = '11593 . . . 

were given by B. A. Smith 2 from x = , 00 to l'OO and from 1*0 to 103. 
The calculations were carried out to four places of decimals with an 
error of one in the last place and possibly of two wnen the value of x is 
greater than 3 or 4. 

The following values of the G (x) and G^x) functions were calculated 
from the semiconvergent series 

G„<s)=- Vta { P » 8in ( x -l) + Q » ""("-j) } . 

and the results verified from the relation 

(jiJo — WqJ i ==-. 
x 

The G functions can als-> be calculated from the J functions, and this 
provides another method of verification : — 

For large values of x, 



and 



Jo<*)= \/* x ■ [ PoW cos( x- £) - Q„(.r) Bto(a-]) } 



Put Q tl (x)=R u sin O and P n (x)=R cos ti . 

Then 

tan —Q {l (x) / Po (z) and O can be found. 
Hence 

Go(s)= —J • Jo(«) • tan I x— |+°oJ • 

1 Aldis, Proc. Roy. Soc, lxvi., 1899-1900. 

2 Michell, Phil Mag. [5], xlv., 1898. 



ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OP BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 75 

Similarly, 



where 



OiW-+|.Ji(*).oot(«"«.|+# I V 

tan e,=Q,(a;)/P,(x). 



The following interpolation formulae may be used in connection with 
these tables, viz. : — 



For comparison, it may be noted that G„(x) is the same as 
~~T.(«) [Nielsen], - ^K„(x) [Graf u. Gubler], 

*Y H (x) [dohafheitlin], and — v N„(x) [Jahnke u. EmdeJ. 

Table I. 
Greatest error -0000001. 



X 


0ofo) 


0. (■<•) 


1 


0» (•) 


I ; , U) 


01 


+2-4099764 


+ 10-1456967 


2-8 


-0-6847352 


-0-4139761 


0-2 


+ 1-6981963 


+5-2210521 


2-9 


-0-6407463 


-0-4648616 


0-3 


+ 1-2680624 


+3-6020011 


30 


-0-5919546 


-0-5099974 


0-4 


+0-9519412 


+ 2-7973873 


31 


-0-5389448 


-0-5491967 


0-5 


+0-6982484 


+2-3113834 


3-2 


-0-4823181 


-0-5823120 


0-6 


+0-4846062 


+ 1-9798181 


3-3 


-0-4226887 


-0-6092380 


0-7 


+0-2994958 


+ 1-7329808 


3-4 


-0-3606789 


-0-6299133 


0-8 


+0.-1363487 


+ 1-5364653 


3-5 


-0-2969150 


-0-6443225 


0:9 


-0-0088409 


+ 1-3715040 


3-6 


-0-2320223 


-0-6524959 


10 


-0-1386337 


+ 1-2271262 


3-7 


-0-1666211 


-0-6545100 


1-1 


-0-2547254 


+ 1-0966036 


3-8 


-0-1013215 


-0-6504898 


1-2 


-0-3582727 


+0-9756787 


3-9 


-0-0367188 


-0-6406022 


1-3 


-0-4500887 


+0-8616128 


4-0 


+0-0266105 


—0-6250602 


1-4 


-0-5307644 


+0-752642 1 


4-1 


+0-0881132 


-0-6041189 


1-5 


-0-6007494 


+0-6476529 


4-2 


+0-1472640 


-0-5780732 


1-6 


-0-6604050 


+0-5459743 


4-3 


+0-2035688 


-0-5472556 


1-7 


-0-7100424 


+0-4472469 


4-4 


+0-2565683 


-0-5120335 


1-8 


-0-7499480 


+0-3513320 


4-5 


+0-3058419 


-0-4728055 


1-9 


-0-7804030 


+0-2582480 


4-6 


+0-3510101 


-0-4299980 


2-0 


-0-8016962 


+0-1681262 


4-7 


+0-3917372 


-0-3840617 


2-1 


-0-8141339 


+0-0811766 


4-8 


+0-4277338 


-0-3354674 


2-2 


-0-8180460 


-0-0023370 


4-9 


+0-4587583 


-0-2847016 


2-3 


-0-8137909 


-0-0821170 


50 


+0-4846184 


-0-2322629 


2-4 


-0-8017576 


-0-1578477 


5-1 


+0-5051719 


-0-1786568 


2-5 


-0-7823671 


-0-2292077 


5-2 


+0-5203278 


-01243919 


2-6 


-0-7560723 


-0-2958808 


5-3 


+0-5300453 


-00699752 


2-7 


-0-7233573 


-0-3575642 


5-4 


+0-5343345 


-0-0159079 



76 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Table I. — Continued. 



X 


G (x) 


CM*) 


X 

10-8 


G (x) 


GiW 


5-5 


+0-5332549 


+0-0373194 


+0-2083479 


-0-3099008 


5-6 


+0-5269145 


+0-0892301 


10-9 


+0-2381063 


-0-2848144 


5-7 


+0-5154680 


+0-1393663 


11-0 


+0-2652257 


-0-2571470 


5-8 


+0-4991149 


+0-1872925 


11-1 


+0-2894597 


-0-2271953 


5-9 


+0-4780969 


+0-2325990 


11-2 


+0-3105979 


-0-1952699 


6-0 


+0-4526952 


+0-2749056 


11-3 


+0-3284589 


-0-1617012 


6-1 


+0-4232276 


+0-3138641 


11-4 


+0-3428950 


-0-1268323 


6-2 


+0-3900442 


+0-3491624 


11-5 


+0-3537937 


-0-0910159 


6-3 


+0-3535262 


+0-3805244 


11-6 


+0-3610784 


-0-0546110 


6-4 


+0-3140784 


+0-4077157 


11-7 


+0-3647084 


-0-0179793 


6-5 


+0-272ifi86 


+0-4305415 


11-8 


+0-3646789 


+0-0185178 


6-6 


+0-2281207 


+0-4488507 


11-9 


+0-3610210 


+0-0545247 


6-7 


+0-1825125 


+0-4625354 


12-0 


+0-3538020 


+0-0896913 


6-8 


+0-1357687 


+0-4715324 


12-1 


+0-3431221 


+0-1236796 


6-9 


+0-0883629 


+0-4758218 


12-2 


+0-3291161 


+0-1561661 


7-0 


+0-0407618 


+0-4754287 


12-3 


+0-3119493 


+0-1868435 


7-1 


-0-0065688 


+0-4704202 


12-4 


+0-2918171 


+0-2154260 


7-2 


—0-0531718 


+0-4609071 


12-5 


+0-2689428 


+0-2416485 


7-3 


—0-0986050 


+0-4470397 


12-6 


+0-2435740 


+0-2652730 


7-4 


-0-1424408 


+0-4290079 


12-7 


+0-2159819 


+0-2860869 


7-5 


-0-1842752 


+0-4070381 


12-8 


+0-1864566 


+0-3039080 


7-6 


-0-2237263 


+0-3813912 


12-9 


+0-1553051 


+0-3185840 


7-7 


—0-2604405 


+0-3523587 


13-0 


+0-1228486 


+0-3299P50 


7-8 


-0-2940957 


+0-3202622 


131 


+0-0894179 


+0-3380535 


7-9 


-0-3244022 


+0-2854469 


13-2 


+0-0553523 


+0-3427052 


8-0 


-0-3511068 


+0-2482808 


13-3 


+0-0209911 


+0-3439302 


8-1 


-0-3739929 


+0-2091495 


13-4 


-0-0132827 


+0-3417416 


8-2 


-0-3928844 


+0-1684534 


13-5 


-0-0472449 


+0-3361863 


8-3 


-0-4076450 


+0-1266023 


13-6 


-0-0804483 


+0-3273439 


8-4 


-0-4181801 


+0-0840132 


13-7 


-0-1126076 


+0-3153250 


8-5 


-0-4244371 


+0-0411053 


13-8 


-0-1434122 


+0-3002710 


8-6 


-0-4264047 


-0-0017028 


13-9 


-0-1725664 


+0-2823520 


8-7 


-0-4241139 


—0-0439995 


14-0 


-0-1997937 


+0-2617651 


8-8 


-0-4176355 


-0-0853815 


14-1 


-0-2248377 


+0-2387317 


8-9 


-0-4070808 


-0-1254585 


14-2 


-0-2474666 


+0-2134960 


9-0 


-0-3925994 


-0-1638571 


14-3 


-0-2674724 


+0-1863226 


9-1 


-0-3743773 


-0-2002230 


14-4 


-0-2846758 


+01574914 


9-2 


—0-3526337 


—0-2342253 


14-5 


-0-2989253 


+0-1273006 


9-3 


-0-3276212 


-0-2655609 


14-6 


-0-3101008 


+0-0960550 


9-4 


-0-2996198 


-0-2939520 


14-7 


-0-3181120 


. +0-0640708 


9-5 


-0-2689370 


-0-3191542 


14-8 


-0-3229008 


+0-0316683 


9-6 


-0-2359018 


-0-3409553 


14-9 


—0-3244424 


-00008300 


9-7 


-0-2008649 


-0-3591787 


15-0 


-0-3227425 


-00331024 


9-8 


-0-1641908 


-0-3736818 


151 


-0-3178400 


-0-0648324 


9-9 


-0-1262564 


-0-3843620 


15-2 


-0-3098044 


-00957100 


100 


-0-0874480 


-0-3911526 


15-3 


-0-2987362 


-0-1254361 


10-1 


-0-0481436 


-0-3940261 


15-4 


-0-2847652 


-0-1537274 


10-2 


-0-0087733 


-0-3929909 


15-5 


-0-2680484 


-01803057 


10-3 


+0-030 !139 


-0-3880964 


15-6 


-0-2487694 


-0-2049274 


10-4 


+0-0687201 


-0-3794266 


15-7 


-0-2271358 


-0-2273590 


10-5 


+0-1060764 


-0-3671018 


15-8 


-0-2033775 


-0-2473930 


10-6 


+0-1420237 


-0-3512762 


15-9 


-0-1777434 


-0-2648464 


10-7J 


+ 0-1762211 


-0-3321368 


160 


-0-1504996 


-0-2795630 



(B.) 
From the simple relation between the G, J, and Y functions, viz., 
Y„(a ; )=(log2- y )J Ji (x)-G, l ( a; ), 



ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BFSSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 1 i 



the values of the Neumann functions Y () {x) and Y,(a;) are readily obtained. 
Tables of the functions were calculated to four places of decimals by Smith 
with a possible error of two in the last figure. 3 

For purposes of interpolation formulae similar to those for G„(x) and 
Gi(x) may be used. 

Table II. 

Greatest error -0000001. 



X 


Yo(z) 


Y, (x) 


X 


Y (s) 


Y, (x) 


0-1 


-2-2943346 


-10-1399073 


5-0 


-0-5052074 


+0-1942862 


0-2 


— 1-5834212 


-5-2095168 


51 


-0-5219048 


+0-1395766 


0-3 


-1-1547248 


-3-5848063 


5-2 


-0-5331139 


+0-0846015 


0-4 


-0-8406008 


-2-7746616 


5-3 


-0-5388333 


+0-0298674 


0-5 


-0-5894502 


-2-2832969 


5-4 


-0-5391120 


-0-0241284 


0-6 


-0-3788761 


-1-9465804 


5-5 


-0-5340483 


-00769028 


0-7 


-0-1973369 


-1-6948399 


5-6 


-0-5237877 


-0-1279898 


0-8 


-0-0382373 


-1-4937049 


5-7 


-0-5085214 


-0-1769452 


0-9 


+0-1024584 


-1-3244417 


5-8 


-0-4884837 


-0-2233504 


10 


+0-2273442 


-1-1761105 


5-9 


-0-4639494 


-0-2668153 


1-1 


+0-3381522 


-1-0420112 


6-0 


-0-4352307 


-0-3069820 


1-2 


+0-4360782 


-0-9179113 


6-1 


-0-4026739 


—0-3435269 


1-3 


+0-5219762 


-0-8010938 


6-2 


-0-3666552 


-0-3761647 


1-4 


+0-5964808 


-0-6898135 


6-3 


-0-3275793 


-0-4046482 


1-5 


+0-6600864 


-0-5829705 


6-4 


-0-2858710 


-0-4287732 


1-6 


+0-7132005 


-0-4799054 


6-5 


-0-2419754 


-0-4483766 


1-7 


+0-7561814 


-0-3802657 


6-6 


-0-1963504 


-0-4633398 


1-8 


+0-7893631 


-0-2839159 


6-7 


-0-1494645 


-0-4735886 


1-9 


+0-8130747 


-0-1908736 


6-8 


-0-1017897 


-0-4790933 


2-0 


+0-8276522 


-0-1012656 


6-9 


-0-0538035 


-0-4798680 


2-1 


+0-8334489 


-00152936 


7-0 


-0-0059732 


-0-4759716 


2-2 


+0-8308405 


+0-0667906 


7-1 


+0-0412383 


-0-4675041 


2-3 


+0-8202297 


+0-1447052 


7-2 


+0-0873798 


-0-4546088 


2-4 


+0-8020483 


+0-2181536 


7-3 


+0-1320184 


-0-4374672 


2-5 


+0-7767579 


+0-2868366 


7-4 


+0-1747389 


-0-4162989 


2-6 


+0-7448496 


+0-3504635 


7-5 


+0-2151524 


-0-3913585 


2-7 


+0-7068429 


+0-4087597 


7-6 


+0-2528949 


-0-3629333 


2-8 


+0-6632837 


+0-4614743 


7-7 


+0-2876333 


-0-3313388 


2-9 


+0-6147415 


+0-5083855 


7-8 


+0-3190683 


-0-2969186 


30 


+0-5618064 


+0-5493050 


7-9 


+0-3469349 


-0-2600377 


31 


+0-5050853 


+0-5840829 


8-0 


+0-3710065 


-0-2210791 


3-2 


+0-4451982 


+0-6126099 


8-1 


+0-3910948 


—0-1804410 


3-3 


+0-3827739 


+0-6348198 


8-2 


+0-4070530 


-0-1385432 


3-4 


+0-3184456 


+0-6506912 


8-3 


+0-4187751 


-0-0957947 


3-5 


+0-2528462 


+0-6602489 


8-4 


+0-4261976 


— 0-052C205 


3-6 


+0-1866039 


+0-6635634 


8-5 


+0-4292992 


-0-0094419 


3-7 


+0-1203377 


+0-6607516 


8-6 


+0-4281000 


+0-0333237 


3-8 


+0-0546525 


+0-6519762 


8-7 


+0-4226621 


+0-0752684 


3-9 


-0-0098655 


+0-6374438 


8-8 


+0-4130871 


+0-1159960 


4-0 


-0-0726527 


+0-6174037 


8-9 


+0-3995159 


+0-1551257 


41 


-0-1331723 


+0-5921463 


9-0 


+0-3821269 


+0-1922965 


4-2 


-0-1909188 


+0-5619996 


9-1 


+0-3611334 


+0-2271690 


4-3 


-0-2454214 


+0-5273274 


9-2 


+0-3367803 


+0-2594298 


4-4 


-0-2962467 


+0-4885254 


9-3 


+0-3093440 


+0-2887952 


4-5 


-0-3430029 


+0-4460183 


9-4 


+0-2791264 


+0-3150089 


4-6 


-0-3853418 


+0-4002555 


9-5 


+0-2464545 


+0-3378498 


4-7 


-0-4229611 


+0-3517075 


9-6 


+0-2116746 


+0-3571306 


4-8 


-0-4556067 


+0-3008619 


9-7 


+0-1751518 


+0-3727008 


4-9 


-0-4830736 


1 +0-2482186 


1 9-8 


+0-1372627 


+0-3844449 



Smith, Messengtr of Mathematics, 1897. 



78 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



Table II. — Continued. 



X 


Y (.r) 


Y, (x) 


X 

130 


Y (*) 


Y.Or) 


9-9 


+ 0-0983933 


+0-3922882 


-0-0988593 


-0-3381471 


100 


+0-0589363 


+0-3961925 


131 


-0-0647374 


-0-3437170 


10-1 


+0-0192732 


+0-3961587 


13-2 


-00302316 


-0-3458431 


10-2 


-0-0201652 


+0-3922239 


13-3 


+ 00043165 


-0-3445304 


10-3 


-00590321 


+0-3844657 


13-4 


+0-0385241 


-0-3398172 


10-4 


-00969345 


+0-3729956 


135 


+0-0721689 


-0-3317752 


10-5 


-0-1335114 


+ 0-3579606 


13-6 


+0-1048094 


-0-3205080 


10-6 


-01684138 


+ 0-3395406 


13 7 


+01361673 


-0-3061498 


10-7 


-0-2013136 


+0-3179468 


13-8 


+ 0-1659418 


—0-2888644 


10-8 


-0-2319054 


+0-2934192 


13-9 


+01938491 


-0-2688437 


10-9 


-0-2599086 


+0-2662248 


14-0 


+0-2196265 


-0-2463027 


110 


-0-2850720 


+0-2366520 


14-1 


+0-2430335 


-0-2214829 


11-] 


-0-3071704 


+0-2050143 


14-2 


+0-2638557 


-0-1946443 


11-2 


-0-3260159 


+0-1716369 


14^3 


+0-2819044 


-0-1660660 


11-3 


-0-3414512 


+0-1368628 


14-4 


+0-2970207 


-01 360404 


11-4 


-0-3533537 


+0-1010433 


14-5 


+0-3090745 


-0-1048760 


11-5 


—0-3616369 


+0-0645397 


14-6 


+0-3179684 


-0-0728858 


11-6 


-0-3662508 


+0-0277148 


14-7 


+0-3236352 


-00403916 


11-7 


-0-3671814 


- 0-0090675 


14-8 


+0-3260405 


-0-0077174 


11-8 


-0-3644508 


-0 0454469 


14-9 


+0-3251834 


+00248135 


11-9 


—0-3581170 


-0-0810711 


15-0 


+0-3210934 


+0-0568804 


120 


-0-3482733 


-0-1155959 


15-1 


+0-3138332 


+0-0881706 


121 


-0-3350455 


-0-1486917 


15-2 


+0-3034953 


+01183799 


12-2 


-0-3185930 


-0-1800459 


15-3 


+0-2902029 


+01472173 


12-3 


-0-2991043 


-0-2093642 


15-4 


+0-2741069 


+0-1744069 


12-4 


-0-2767969 


-0-2363760 


15-5 


+0-2553851 


+0-1996910 


120 


-0-2519143 


-0-2608333 


15-6 


+0-2342402 


+0-2228318 


12-6 


-0-2247227 


-0-2825109 


15-7 


+0-2108972 


+0-2436150 


12-7 


-0-1955098 


-0-3012348 


15-8 


+0-1856022 


+0-2618487 


12-8 


-0-1645802 


-0-3168264 


15-9 


+0-1586181 


+0-2773702 


12-9 


-0-1322530 


-0-3291626 


16-0 


+01302233 


+0-2900429 



Mttgn&tic Observations at Falmouth Observatory. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. W. N. Shaw 
(Secretary), Professor W. C Adams. Dr. Charles Chree, Captain 
Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Sir A. W. Ri'cker, 
and Professor A. Schuster. 

The usual number of absolute observations has been made by Mr. 
Kitlo. 

The mean values of the magnetic elements for the year 1910 are 
as follows : — 



Declination . 
Inclination . 
Horizontal force 
Vertical force 



17° 41'6W. 
66° 29'-0 N. 
018802 C.G.S. 
0-43208 C.G.S. 



The declination, horizontal force, and vertical force curves have 
been tabulated as usual for the Astronomer-Royal's five quiet days a 
month, and the usual tables of hourly means and diurnal inequalities 
have appeared in the ' Report of the Observatory Committee of the 
Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society for the year 1910 ' and in the 



ONMAGNETTC OBSERVATIONS AT FALMOUTH OBSERVATORY. 7!) 

' Summaries of Besults of Geophysical and Meteorological Observa- 
tions, 1910, ' published by the Meteorological Office in continuation of 
the reports of the Observatory Department of the National Physical 
Laboratory. 

A few days of horizontal force trace were lost owing to the breaking— 
in the end of October — of the suspension of the horizontal force magnet, 
which had been in use since 1891. Some difficulty was experienced 
in dealing with the November quiet day records of this element, owing 
to a tendency in the trace to drift for some time after the new sus- 
pension was fixed. It was, however, found possible, with the guidance 
afforded by the Kew curves, to surmount this difficulty, except for the 
first quiet day of the month. 

The magnetic character of individual days has been decided by Mr. 
Kitto as in the previous year, and communicated to Dr. van Everdingen 
of de Bilt for inclusion in the International List. 

The magnetographs at Eskdalemuir have now been arranged to 
record directly the variations in the Northerly, Westerly, and Vertical 
components of the magnetic force. Regular tabulation of the curves 
commenced with January 1, 1911. 

Since 1901 the magnetic work at Ealmouth lias been maintained 
by grants to the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society from the British 
Association and the Government Grant Committee amounting to 1001. 
a year. The grounds put forward for the grants in 1901 and subsequent 
years were the notification by the Society that unless pecuniary aid 
were forthcoming the work must cease, and the representation on the 
part of those interested in Terrestrial Magnetism that the instruments 
at Kew had been disturbed by electric tramways, that the new 
observatory at Eskdalemuir was not yet ready to take its place, and 
that the maintenance of continuous records from undisturbed instru- 
ments during the transition period was of special importance. 

The observatory at Eskdalemuir is now in operation, and the period 
of transition must be regarded as coming to an end when the results 
for the first year of the new observatory are published in 1912. 

So far as the observatory at Falmouth is concerned the situation 
reverts to the position of 1901. The Society have no funds for the 
observatory beyond the, 2501. a year contributed by the Meteorological 
Office for the maintenance of a meteorological station of the first order, 
and it may be remarked that that sum, even when augmented by 1001. 
a year for magnetic observations, is not properly adequate for the main- 
tenance of a separate institution with a scientific staff. The withdrawal 
of the grant for magnetic work would therefore have consequences 
beyond the suspension of the magnetic records. 

The Society have been responsible for the maintenance of the obser- 
vatory since 1868 and for the magnetic work since 1887. They have 
provided a site and building for these purposes, and are naturally 
anxious that the work should be continued. They are desirous of 
making an appeal to Government for funds for the purpose if they have 
the necessary support on scientific grounds. 

The Committee recognise the advantage of having a magnetic- 
observatory in the South of England undisturbed by electric trams. And 



80 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

this advantage might well be secured by arranging for a continuance 
of the magnetic work at Falmouth, at least so long as Falmouth remains 
undistu bed. There is also a special advantage in having an observatory 
on the coast so that it may be directly available for comparisons with 
observations at sea, and the position of the Falmouth Observatory is 
very convenient from this point of view. The situation of the 
observatory with reference to the growing town of Falmouth is subject 
to some disadvantages owing to the mechanical disturbances due to 
road traffic. This is a point which would come up for consideration with 
the appeal which the Polytechnic Society propose. In the meantime 
the Committee desire to support the appeal, and in asking the Associa- 
tion to continue its support of the magnetic observations for another 
year, until the first year's results of the Eskdalemuir Observatory are 
published, they understand that by that time, and before the next 
meeting of the Association, the result of the appeal for the mainten- 
ance of Falmouth Observatory as a permanent institution will have 
been ascertained. They therefore recommend their reappointment with 
a grant of 50L 



Experiments for Improving the Construction of Practical Standards 
for Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Lord Rayleigh {Chairman), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook {Secretary), 
Professors J. Perry, W. G. Adams, and G. Carey Foster, Sir 
Oliver Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, Sir W. H. Preece, Professors 
A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming, and Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. 
Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Professor 
S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
Sir Arthur Rucker, Professor H. L. Callendar, and Messrs. 
G. Matthey, T. Mather, and F. E. Smith. 

The Committee have to regret the death, since the last meeting of the 
Association, of Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S. He had been a mem- 
ber since 1861, and up to a few years since continued his active interest 
in the work. In its earlier stages his skill in definition and his admir- 
able choice of nomenclature had proved invaluable to the Committee. 
The collected Reports which are to be issued shortly will indicate 
how large a share in the establishment of the C.G.S. system of units 
is due to him. 

Republication of Reports. — The republication of the Reports is not 
yet completed, but this should be done within the present year. The 
proofs of the Reports from 1862 to 1883 have been finally revised and 
the remaining proofs will soon be ready. 

Lorenz Apparatus. — The progress made has been satisfactory. 
Preliminary experiments have shown that the apparatus is unin- 
fluenced by changes in the earth's magnetic field and that the thermal 
e.m.f.s at the brushes on the two discs very nearly balance. With 
the form of brush in use at present there are sudden changes in the 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 81 

difference of the thermal e.m.f.s amounting to 2 x 10 7 volt, and it may 
be difficult entirely to eliminate these. With other forms of brushes, 
e.g., those made of gauze, the difference was often 1,000 times as great. 
It was this difficulty which led Lord Eayleigh in 1883 to amalgamate 
the edge of the disc, and as a further improvement Professor Viriamu 
Jones and Professor Ayrton used mercury jets instead of brushes. 
Since in the present apparatus the changes are only 1 in 10,000 of the 
difference of potential produced in one arrangement of the brushes 
and less for a second arrangement, it is hoped that mercury contacts 
will not be necessary. Further experiments will be made in order to 
obtain greater perfection if such is possible. 

Resistance Standards. — The construction of new mercury stan- 
dards of resistance in accordance with the specification of the London 
Conference is being proceeded with, and some of the standards will 
be completed this year. Similar work is in progress in France, in 
Germany, in Austria, and in the United States. In the latter country 
four standards have had all of their constants determined, and the 
resistance unit so obtained is in very close agreement with that obtained 
from the old National Physical Laboratory standards. 

In the Committee's Eeport for 1908 it was shown that many 
manganin resistance coils — some of which were purchased by the 
Committee in 1895 — were very changeable in resistance, and in conse- 
quence frequent comparison with mercury standards was necessary. 
In 1908 it was shown at the Bureau of Standards, and confirmed at 
the National Physical Laboratory and at the Eeichsanstalt, that these 
changes were largely due to the effect of moisture on the shellac 
covering the wire. To eliminate this source of trouble, many of the 
coils were hermetically sealed in 1909, and it is satisfactory to record 
that they are now much more constant. The importance of this 
hermetical sealing is so great when manganin resistances are to be 
sent to such places as cable stations in the tropics that the attention 
of instrument manufacturers is drawn to the matter. Standard coils 
are readily sealed and boxes of coils may be sealed in metal cases. 
The following figures for standard coils of manganin show the advan- 
tage of hermetical sealing : — ■ 



Nominal value .... 


100 ohms 


1 000 ohms 


10,000 ohms 




No. 2450 


No. 740 


No. 2449 


No. 244S 

10,000-2 4 
2-4 
3-5 7 
3-8 2 
37 4 
3-8 3 
5-5 3 
5-5 s 
5 -6! 


Open eoils 

Hermetic- 
ally sealed in - 
paraffin oil 


'Oct. 1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
June 1909 
1910 
1911 


99-995 9 

100-01 Ml., 

•004; 

•009.. 
013^ 
•028; 
•036, 
•038 4 
•039,, 


1,00015, 

•17, 
•21 8 
■2* 8 
■26, 
•30, 

•3e; 

•35 7 
•35 9 


1, 000-01 j 
•24 4 
•49 4 
•66 8 

•81 4 
1-13, 
1-04, 

1-07, 
l-06 9 



1911. 



G 



82 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. J 

It will be noted that the changes during the last three years are 
very small. 

Silver Voltameter and Standard Cell. — Although the actions which 
take place when a current passes through a solution of silver nitrate 
as in a silver voltameter are now well understood, the effects of septa 
— such as silk, filter paper, and porous porcelain — are by no means 
clear, and experiments have, therefore, been made to decide whether 
any septum at all should be used in a voltameter. Such experiments 
were suggested at the Washington Meeting in 1910. The results of 
the experiments made at the National Physical Laboratory indicate 
that a septum of any kind is usually a source of trouble, and may 
produce secondary reactions during the electrolysis which affect the 
weight of the silver deposit. Fortunately, voltameters have been de- 
signed which render a septum unnecessary, and these may be useful 
not only in precise current measurements with the silver voltameter but 
for the deposition of metals other than silver. 

The reproducibility and constancy of the Weston normal cell are 
still being carefully examined. The chief anomaly is the hysteresis 
effect mentioned in last year's Eeport : for this effect we have no 
explanation although one is much needed, as probably it would enable 
cells to be made so as to remain even more constant in e.m.f. than at 
present. It is necessary to point out that while the effect is called a 
hysteresis one, the e.m.f. does not lag behind the temperature. Briefly 
put, with ascending temperatures the e.m.f. changes in close agree- 
ment with the temperature — e.m.f. formula, but with descending tem- 
peratures the e.m.f. changes too rapidly, corresponding to values at 
temperatures lower than the temperature of the cell, by from 3° to 15°. 

The Committee had hoped to have made this their last Eeport, but 
in view of the fact that the republication is not complete they ask for 
reappointment, with Lord Rayleigh as Chairman and Dr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook as Secretary. 



The Study of Isomorphous Sulphonic Derivatives of Benzene. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Principal Miers (Chairman), and 
Professors H. E. Armstrong (Secretary), W. J. Pope, and W. P. 
Wynne. 

In the previous report it was stated that the crystallographic study of 
the various derivatives of 1 : 4 di-derivatives of benzenesulphonic acid 
containing halogens had been carried so far that it had been possible 
to publish the results obtained in the case of twenty-nine such com- 
pounds and that these results found a ready interpretation in the Bar- 
low-Pope theory correlating molecular structure with crystalline form. 

During the past year considerable progress has been made with the 
morphological study of other benzenesulphonic derivatives. Many 
derivatives of benzenesulphonic acid have been examined crystallo- 
graphically, including the anilide and several toluidides and xylidides. 

In addition, a number of the derivatives of benzenesulphonic acid 



ON THE STUDY OP ISOMORPHOUS DERIVATIVES OP BENZENE. 83 

containing halogens in the para-position have been similarly examined ; 
also derivatives of the three isomeric benzenedisul phonic acids. 

In almost every case the crystal structure of these compounds can 
be successfully interpreted in the light of the Barlow-Pope theory. 

A second memoir embracing the results of the investigation is now 
in course of preparation. 

The Committee desire to express their thanks especially to Messrs. 
Colgate and Eodd and also to Mr. Mummery for the assistance they 
have rendered in the inquiry during the year. 



The Influence of Carbon and other Elements on the Corrosion of Steel. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor J. 0. Arnold 
{Chairman), Dr. W. E. S. Turner {Secretary), Professor W. P. 
Wynne, Professor A. McWilliam, Mr. C. Chappell, and Mr. F. 
Hodson. 

The subject of the corrosion of iron and steel is one that is rapidly 
engaging considerable attention in the metallurgical world, the 
researches of Friend, Cushman, Walker, Longmuir, and others having 
brought it deservedly into considerable prominence. Despite the fact, 
however, that the modern metallurgy of iron and steel largely centres 
about the influence of various alloying elements upon its physical and 
mechanical properties, no reliable data are available as to the influence 
exerted by them upon its corrodibility. In view of the absence of such 
data regarding the influence of carbon, in gradually ascending per- 
centages, upon the corrodibility of iron, and especially in view of the 
fundamental importance of carbon as an iron-alloying element, the 
Committee have confined their attention solely, during the past year, 
to the investigation of the influence exerted by this element upon the 
corrodibility of iron. 

An attempt was made by Andrews * to obtain some data regarding 
this question, and his results were published in 1885 in a paper on 
' The Corrosion of Metals during Long Exposure in Sea-water ' — one of 
a series of brilliant and systematic researches on corrosion which are 
unfortunately not so well known as they deserve to be. His ascending 
carbon series, however, included such widely diverse materials as 
Wrought Iron, Siemens and Bessemer Steels, and also Crucible Cast 
Steels, in which the percentages of Si and Mn vary considerably, rising 
as high as 0'4 per cent, and 1"3 per cent, respectively, whilst the S and 
P in some cases respectively reach such abnormal figures as 012 per 
cent, and 0'27 per cent. each. The values given by such a series can 
hardly be relied upon as being indicative of the influence of carbon 
alone upon the corrodibility of iron. 

A series of pure iron -carbon alloys have, therefore, been obtained 
by the Committee in order not only to indicate the influence of carbon 
upon the corrodibility and other properties of iron but to serve also 

1 Proc. Inst. Civil Eng., vol. 82, p. 281. 

Q 2 



84 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

as a base line from which the influence of other elements upon 
the corrodibility of steel may be determined in future researches. 
These pure iron-carbon alloys were prepared by the coke crucible 
process in the Metallurgical Department of Sheffield University, 
the materials employed being Swedish bar iron and charcoal, this 
method having been found to give the purest iron-carbon alloys obtain- 
able. Six such alloys have been employed, ranging from O'lO per cent, 
to 0'96 per cent, carbon, and the microscopic examination in the rolled 
condition showed the distribution of the micro-constituents in these 
steels to be remarkably even throughout the whole of the series. It is 
also important to note that, despite careful search, no traces were 
found of manganese sulphide, the powerfully electropositive nature of 
which tends to cause serious electrolytic action when present in steel, 
thus materially increasing the corrodibility. 

The determinations of the corrodibility and other properties of 
these steels have been carried out in several states of heat treatment, 
which have been designed to resolve the pearlite into the principal 
varieties in which it usually exists in carbon steels — viz. : (a) Diffused 
(b) Laminated, and (c) Emulsified, and also into Hardenite, which is 
the essential constituent of hardened carbon steels. The treat- 
ments employed were (1) As Rolled, (2) Normalised, (3) Annealed, 
(4) and (5) Hardened and Tempered at (a) 400° C. and (£) 500° C, 
(6) Hardened. 

Determination of Simple Corrosion in Sea-water. 

The relative corrodibilities of these steels in all states of treatment 
have been measured by immersing polished cylindrical bars of the 
various specimens (4£ inches long x | inches dia.), each separately 
in 700 c.c. sea-water for a period of thirteen weeks, the loss in weight 
per cent, during this period being determined. 

The results obtained, as plotted in fig. 1, indicate that the carbon 
exerts two types of influence upon the corrodibility, dependent upon 
the condition of the carbide in the steel. In the rolled, normalised, 
and annealed specimens, in which the carbide (as shown by micro- 
scopic examination) exists entirely either as the diffused normal 
variety, or as the laminated variety of pearlite, the corrodibility rises 
to a maximum at saturation point (0'89 per cent, carbon), and then 
decreases upon the appearance of cementite in the steel. The rise in 
corrodibility in such steels with increase of carbon from O'lO per cent, 
to 0'89 per cent, is not regular, but is much more rapid in the range 
0'3 per cent, to 0'89 per cent, carbon than in the low carbon range 
O'lO per cent, to 0'3 per cent, carbon. 

In the hardened and tempered specimens, however, in which the 
carbide has been converted respectively either to hardenite or the 
emulsified variety of pearlite, it has been found that the corrodibility 
rises continuously from O'lO per cent, to 0'96 per cent, carbon, no 
maximum being observed at the saturation point. The proportional 
increase of corrodibility in these steels with rise of carbon per cent, 
is very rapid up to about 0'25 per cent, carbon in the case of the 
hardened steels, and about 0'40 per cent, carbon in the tempered 



ON THE INFLUENCE OP CARBON, ETC., ON STEEL CORROSION. 



85 




•)U90 Aid ftidtam ui sso'j 



86 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

specimens. After these points the rate of increase of corrodibility with 
rise of carbon per cent, is small but regular up to 0'96 per cent, 
carbon, being in this respect the reverse of that found in the type first 
described. 

The state of division of the carbide in the pearlite is found to exert 
very considerable influence on the rate of corrosion of iron-carbon 
alloys. In general, the annealed steels, in which the carbide exists 
entirely in the laminated condition, show a mimimum corrodibility, 
whilst the tempered steels containing the carbide as the emulsified 
variety show a maximum corrodibility — except in the very low carbon 
steels. The normalised steels, moreover, in which the carbide is in 
an intermediate state of division, being mainly of the diffused variety, 
take up an intermediate position. This indicates that the finer the 
state of division of the carbide in the pearlite, the greater is the 
liability to corrosion when immersed in sea-water — a conclusion which 
is in complete accordance with the electrolytic theory advanced by 
Cushman ~ and Walker. 3 This is also supported by the fact that in the 
case of tempered steels a rise in the tempering temperature from 
400° 0. to 500° 0. produces a marked decrease in the corrodibility, this 
no doubt being due to the slight decrease in the fineness of division 
of the pearlite which is produced by the rise in tempering temperature. 
The conversion of the pearlite into hardenite is accompanied by a very 
considerable rise in corrodibility, the hardened steels corroding more 
rapidly than any of the unhardened or tempered steels. 

Careful examination of the deposits on the corroded bars on 
removing them from the sea-water shows the rust deposit to be made 
up of two different types. These may be briefly described as 

(a) Light brown deposit, flocculent and easily removed, forming 
an even coating over the whole of the exterior of the rust deposit. 

(b) A deposit of bluish-black colour, somewhat greenish in some 
cases, underlying the previous mentioned deposit. This is mainly 
found at the lower end of the bars, to which it is usually somewhat 
firmly adherent. In the case of the hardened and tempered specimens 
a thin easily removed layer of a similar colour is found covering the 
whole of the bar underneath deposit (a), in addition to the firmly 
adherent deposit at the lower end. Whether this deposit is merely a 
form of deposit (b), or whether it is really a chemically different type 
of deposit of the same colour, is not known. A detailed examination 
of these respective deposits might probably throw considerable light on 
the phenomena involved in the corrosion of steel. 

Determination of Solution Pressures in Sea-water. 

Determinations of the solution pressures of the steels after pro- 
longed immersion in sea-water have also been made with a view to 
ascertaining the influence of carbon on the electro-chemical positions 
of the various steels under conditions of galvanic corrosion. The results 
up to the present, however, are not sufficiently conclusive to warrant 
any definite statements in this direction being made in this report. 

2 Journ. Iron and Steel Inst., 1909, vol. 1, p. 33. 
» Ibid., 1909, vol. 1, p. 69. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OP CARBON, ETC., ON STEEL CORROSION. 87 

The influence of the condition of the carbide upon the relative electro- 
chemical positions of the steels is, however, more definitely shown. 
In the case of a saturated steel it is found that after three weeks' 
immersion in sea-water the emulsified variety of pearlite is electro- 
positive to the diffused and laminated varieties, whilst the conversion 
of the pearlite into hardenite renders it electronegative in this form to 
all the varieties of pearlite. 

Determination of Solubility in Acid Solutions. 

The solubilities of the various steels employed have been determined 
in 1 per cent, solutions of H 2 S0 4 and HOI, in order to determine the 
influence of carbon on the solubility of iron-carbon alloys, and also 
to obtain an indication of the loss in weight per cent, sustained on im- 
mersion in acid solutions, as contrasted with corrosion in such solutions 
as sea-water. 

This was considered of importance in view of corrosion taking place 
under ordinary conditions, especially in large towns, where atmospheric 
acids contained in the rainwater play an important part. This section 
is also of interest in the case of corrosion taking place in such solutions 
as acid pit waters. 

The solubility tests were carried out on polished cylindrical bars 
of the steels (1J inch long x § inch dia.), which were separately 
immersed for a period of forty-eight hours in 100 c.c. of the acid 
employed. The results obtained on immersion in 1 per cent. H 2 SO\i 
are remarkably similar to those obtained in 1 per cent. HC1, both as 
regards the actual values obtained with given specimens and in the type 
of influence exerted upon the solubility by the carbon per cent, and 
the treatment. The two sets are consequently dealt with together, 
and the curves obtained with 1 per cent. H 2 S0 4 only are shown in 
fig. 2. It may be noted that the practice of drawing smooth curves 
through the experimentally determined points has been adopted 
throughout in preference to the direct joining-up of these points by 
straight lines, as is sometimes carried out. The method adopted is 
found, in this case, to give much more satisfactory indications of the 
real positions of the critical points in the curve than the alternative 
one, whilst the possible degree of error introduced thereby is sufficiently 
small to be negligible. 

The influence of carbon on the solubility is found to vary consider- 
ably according to the treatment previously undergone by the steel. 

In the normalised, rolled, and annealed specimens the solubility 
rises very rapidly from 010 per cent, up to 0'22 per cent., carbon 
approx., after which it falls abruptly, reaching a minimum at about 
0'30 per cent, to 0'40 per cent, carbon. Further rise of carbon from 
0'40 per cent, to 0'96 per cent, carbon produces a general, but some- 
what irregular, rise in solubility in the normalised and rolled speci- 
mens, whilst in the annealed specimens a maximum solubility is reached 
at 0'60 per cent, carbon, after which the values gradually decrease 
again to 0'96 per cent, carbon. A comparison of these curves with 
those given by Heyn and Bauer * as indicative of the probable influence 

4 Journ. Iron and Steel Inst., 1909, vol. 1, p. 109. * 



88 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 





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ON THE INFLUENCE OP CARBON, ETC., ON STEEL CORROSION. 80 

of carbon percentage upon the solubility in 1 per cent. H 2 S0 4 reveals 
very important differences. In the curves given by these experimenter? 
no peak is observed at 0"22 per cent, carbon owing to the absence oi 
any steels between 0"14 per cent, and 0'30 per cent, carbon, and it 
is interesting to observe that in the absence of the intermediate steel 
(0'24 per cent, carbon) in this series, the abrupt peak at 0'22 per cent, 
carbon would have been entirely eliminated. In connection with this 
point it may be well to remark that careful microscopic examination 
fails to reveal any abnormalities in any of the microstructures of the 
steels employed in this range of composition. A more important 
divergence, however, arises in the suggestion by these authors that the 
maximum solubility occurs at a ' medium proportion of carbon ' — 
presumably about 0"4 per cent, to 0'5 per cent, carbon. This is 
completely negatived by these results, and in view of the fact that the 
steels employed by Heyn and Bauer in this range of carbon percentage 
also contain over 1 per cent. Mn, it appears probable that this factor 
has exerted much more influence than was supposed by the authors 
themselves. 

The tempered steels show a rapid rise in solubility with rise of 
carbon from O'lO per cent, to 0"30 per cent. This rise is followed 
by a range from 0'30 per cent, to 0'55 per cent, carbon, in which the 
solubility remains constant in the case of the specimens tempered at 
500° 0., and decreases in that of the specimens tempered at 400° G. 
After 0*55 per cent, carbon a very rapid and regular rise in solubility 
occurs with rise of carbon to 0'96 per cent., the values given in the 
latter half of this range being higher than those given by steels of any 
other composition or treatment. 

In the case of the hardened steels, the carbon tends to exert a 
similar type of influence to that described in the steels tempered at 
400° C, this fact being more evident in the 1 per cent. HC1 results 
than in the 1 per cent. H,S0 4 results shown. The variations with 
carbon percentage, however, are very much less pronounced, and the 
total rise in solubility from 0*10 per cent, to 0'96 per cent, carbon is 
very small. In connection with the influence exerted by the con- 
dition of the carbide it is found that the conversion of the pearlite to 
hardenite considerably decreases its solubility (in both acids) as com- 
pared with all the varieties of pearlite. Little decisive difference is 
observed between the steels containing the laminated and diffused 
varieties of pearlite, whilst the resolution of the normal pearlite into 
the emulsified variety results in a decreased solubility below 0"2 per 
cent, to 03 per cent, carbon and a greatly increased solubility in the 
upper part of the range above 0"7 per cent, carbon. 

Determination of Solution Pressures in Acid Solutions. 

The solution pressures in 1 per cent. H 2 S0 4 after twenty-four 
hours' immersion have also been determined, and these results (shown 
in fig. 3) again indicate the influence exerted by the carbon to be of 
two main types. 

In the annealed, rolled, and normalised steels — taking e.m.f. in 
volts and carbon percentage as co-ordinates — two distinct maxima 



90 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 




■m°A *» wj 



ON THE INFLUENCE OP CAKBON, ETC., ON STEEL CORROSION. 91 

aic observed at U'22 per cent, carbon and saturation point respectively, 
whilst the values for e.m.f. reach a minimum at 045 per cent, 
carbon. The values given at the 0'22 per cent, carbon maximum are 
much higher than those at the saturation point. 

In the case of the hardened and tempered steels, the values of 
E.M.F. fall directly from O'lO per cent, carbon to a minimum at 
approximately 0"4 per cent, to 0'5 per cent, carbon, after which a 
rapid rise to a maximum at saturation point takes place, followed by a 
sharp fall to 0'96 per cent, carbon. 

The relations between the values given by the various types of 
treatment are analogous to those noted in the case of the solubilities. 
The hardened steels are consistently electronegative to the other steels. 
The tempered steels are electronegative to the annealed, normalised, 
and rolled steels below O'oO per cent, carbon, whilst the relative electro- 
chemical positions are reversed in the range from 0'7 per cent, up to 
0'95 per cent, carbon. Very little difference is produced in this direc- 
tion by difference in the tempering temperature, as is shown by the 
close agreement of the results given by the two tempered series. The 
divergence between the annealed, normalised, and rolled steels becomes 
quite distinct above 0'3 per cent, carbon when the annealed steels 
become the most electropositive, whilst the normalised steels take up 
the most electronegative position in this group of steels when immersed 
in 1 per cent. H 2 S0 4 . Below 0'30 per cent. 0. the relative electro- 
chemical positions become confused and inconclusive. There appears 
little doubt that the results obtained in this section of the research 
indicate substantially the relative electro-chemical positions which would 
be taken up by the various steels on immersion under galvanic con- 
ditions in 1 per cent. H 2 S0 4 solution or in acid mineral waters of a 
similar type. 

It will be observed that the resistance offered by carbon steels to 
disintegration when immersed in solutions varies considerably accord- 
ing as to whether the solution is of the sea-water type or is acid in 
character, and also as to whether the conditions of immersion are 
simple or galvanic in nature. It is impossible, therefore, to specify 
any particular composition or treatment offering the best resistance 
to attack under all conditions, and each case must be considered 
according to the circumstances involved. 



Dynamic Isomerism. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
H. E. Armstrong (Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. 
M. 0. Forster, and Dr. A. Lapworth. (Draivn up by the 
Secretary.) 

General and Specific Absorption. 

Nearly all carbon compounds absorb light to a considerable extent 
in the far ultra-violet. If the thickness of the column of liquid be 
diminished the limit of transmission extends, as a rule, progressively 



92 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



in the direction of the visible region ; on plotting the thickness against 
the limit of transmission ('/^) a curve D C E of general absorption is 
obtained in shape resembling roughly a portion of a parabola. In 
addition to this general absorptive power, many liquids have the 
property of absorbing specifically light of a particular wave-length; but 
this absorption (unlike the line-spectra of vapours) covers a consider- 
able range of wave-lengths on either side of the maximum absorption ; 
this range increases as the thickness of the liquid is increased, so that 
the curve A B F of ' specific ' absorption is somewhat of the shape of 
a narrow parabola. As the curve of general absorption intersects the 



A,E 




FREQUENCY /a. 



curve of specific absorption at different distances on the axis of ' thick- 
ness,' the arms of the parabola are unequal in length, the complete 
curve being generally of the form A B D. The point B is the 
' head ' of the band ; the thickness at which it occurs under given 
experimental conditions is a measure of the ' penetration ' of the band, 
whilst the range of thickness from B to is a measure of its ' per- 
sistence. ' Both quantities are conveniently measured in terms of ' log. 
thickness in millimetres of millinormal solution,' e.g., if B = 10 mm. 
and C = 100 mm. then 

log penetration = 1*0 

log persistence = 2 -0 — 1 -0 = 1 -0. 

It will be noticed that the depth of penetration of the band is the best 
measure of the intensity of the local absorption, whilst the persistence, 
which depends on the relationship of the local to the general absorption, 
is likely to be greater when the head of the band occurs at a low than 
at a high frequency. 

In classifying absorption-spectra it has been customary to draw 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 93 

a sharp distinction between those substances which produce only a 
' general ' absorption of light and those which give rise to definite 
absorption ' bands.' It has even been suggested that this property 
might be used to classify carbon compounds into two groups, one group 
characterised by a ' fixed ' structure and giving rise to general absorp- 
tion, the other group including ' labile ' compounds undergoing isomeric 
change readily and giving rise to banded spectra. The impracticability of 
tbis demarcation was shown in the report presented at Winnipeg in 
1909, in which an account was given of several labile compounds which 
gave ' continuous ' absorption curves, whilst certain compounds of 
fixed structure were shown to produce ' banded ' absorption. 

• In the report presented at Sheffield in 1910 the origin of banded 
spectra was considered, special attention being directed to those altera- 
tions of molecular structure which have the effect of" increasing or 
diminishing the intensity of the local absorption. It was found that by 
reducing the residual affinity of the absorbing centres an absorption 
band could be driven back almost to the extreme limit of oscillation- 
frequency at which it can be photographed by ordinary methods, and 
that any further weakening of the absorbing centres had the effect of 
converting the banded into a general absorption. The view was there- 
fore adopted that a curve of general absorption might be produced by a 
band situated in such a position as to be inaccessible to ordinary 
methods of observation, say at 1 /A4200 or beyond. 

During the past year attention has been directed to the study of 
general absorption and attempts have been made to determine the 
approximate positions of the inaccessible bands to which this type of 
absorption curve appears to be due. The method adopted depends on 
the well-known fact that most of the optical constants of a substance 
increase with great rapidity when an absorption-band is approached 
and appear to tend towards an infinite value in the case of a sharply 
defined absorption-line. In applying this method to carbon compounda 
the magnetic rotatory dispersion has been found to be a very convenient 
property to discuss, and measurements of this kind have been used to 
calculate the limit of transmission for a large number of substances — in 
other words, the position of the heads of the inaccessible bands by 
which the general absorption is produced. Typical values are as 
follows : — 

\ l /A 

Methyl and ethyl alcohols 1300 7500 

Propyl alcohol, normal esters .... 1350 7400 

Fatty acids, higher ketones, glycol, glycerol . 1380 7200 

Higher alcohols (pr. and sec.) .... 1400 7100 

Water, acetone, ter. alcohols .... 1500 6700 

Allyl alcohol 1700 5800 

Phenyl ethyl carbinol 2000 4900 

Carbon disulphide 2200 4350 

The chief points to be noted are : — ■ 

(1) That the optical properties of the majority of saturated carbon- 
compounds are determined mainly by an absorption in the far ultra-violet 
at wave-length 1300 to 1400; this appears to represent the extreme 
limit of transmission in the case of all compounds containing carbon, 
hydrogen, and oxygen. 



94 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

(2) The shallow absorption bands which appear in the near ultra- 
violet region at wave-lengths from 3000 to 4200 in the case of sub- 
stances such as acetone are almost without influence on the optical 
properties of these substances in the visible region. 

(3) The dominant absorption may, however, be brought nearer to 
the visible region by introducing an ethenoid linkage, as in allyl alcohol, 
or a benzenoid nucleus as in phenyl ethyl carbinol ; but in none of the 
simple compounds of which the magnetic rotatory dispersion has been 
determined does the dominant absorption fall within the region usually 
photographed in the study of absorption spectra. 



The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Substances, 
and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Derivatives. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. Kipping (Chairman), 
Professor K. J. P. Orton (Secretary), Dr. S. Kuhemann, Dr. A. 
Lapworth, and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 

Transformations of Chloro- and Bromo-amines into Halogenanilides . 
In last year's Report the following conclusions were reached: — 

1. The chlorination and bromination of anilides is a direct process, 
and does not take place by way of the chloro- or bromo-amines. These 
substances ai*e by-products. 

2. The conversion of a chloroamine into the isomeric chloroanilide 
can only take place in the presence of hydrogen chloride. This acid 
and the chloroamine react reversibly : — 

ArNCl-Ac+HCl ^ ArNHAc + Cl,. 

The anilide and chlorine can then react directly, forming chloroanilide. 

Hydrogen bromide (and hydrogen iodide) react similarly, for 
example, in a suitable medium: — 

Ar NClAc + HBr ^ BrCl + ArNH Ac. 

Bromination of the anilide and not chlorination now ensues. 

3. When chlorine reacts with an anilide, two very rapid changes 
occur side by side, (a) the formation of a chloroamine, Ar'NCTAc, and 
hydrogen chloride, N-chlorination ; (b) the formation of a chloroanilide, 
ClArNHAc, and hydrogen chloride, C-chlorination. 

4. The existence of a complex, Ar"NHAcCl 2 , as an intermediary 
in these reactions was discussed. Its relations are shown in the 
scheme : — 

^ArNClAc + HCl 
Cl 2 + Ar-NH Ac ^Ar-NH AcCl 2 - 

^^ ClArNHAc + HC1. 

Although its existence is not excluded by the results, it was shown 
that such a complex must have very different properties in the case of 
different anilides ; as the composition of the medium is changed, the 



TRANSFORMATION OF NITROAMINES AND ALLIED SUBSTANCES. 95 



concentration of the complex must vary greatly ; the speed of the trans- 
formation of the complex into chloroanilides must depend not -only on 
the constitution of the anilide hut also on the constitution of the 
medium. 

To avoid such a number of arbitrary assumptions it seems at least 
simpler to regard chlorination as occurring directly and not by way of 
such a complex. 

The Velocity of Chlorination of Anilides. 1 (With Harold King, M.Sc.) 
I The speed of the chlorination of anilides is being investigated with 
the object of ascertaining the effect of the nature, the number, and the 
position of various substituents, and the effect of acyl groups on the 
reaction. 

Owing to the simultaneous formation of chloroamines, ArNCTAc 
and C-chloro-derivatives, ClArNH'Ac, in dilute acetic acids, it is 
obviously simplest to measure the speed of the formation of the latter, 
in glacial acetic acid, when the former does not occur. 

In glacial acetic acid, the reaction of chlorine and anilide is of the 
second order. It appears to be quite simple in character ; no disturbing 
side reactions are observed, and the values of the velocity coefficients 
are remarkably constant throughout the reaction. 

As the change proceeds hydrogen chloride appears in the solution. 
Control experiments have shown that even when as much as 8-gram 
molecular proportions of the acid are added, the velocity of chlorination 
is not affected. This fact offers a marked contrast to bromine in the 
presence of hydrogen bromide. Addition of hydrogen bromide arrests 
the bromination of anilides owing to the formation of hydrogen per- 
bromide, HBr 3 (compare Report 1910). 

The following table gives the value of the velocity coefficient, k", 
temperature 16°, concentrations in gram molecules per litre, and time 
in minutes : — 



Formanilide 
Acetanilide 
Propionanilide • 
Butyranilide 
i'soValeranilide 
Stearanilide 
Oxanilide 
Benzanilide 
Aceto-o-anisidide 
Aceto-p- anisidido 
Aceto-o- phenetididc 
Aceto- p- phenetidido 



4 95 
40 

72 

04-5 

57 

lit 

2 

42 

60 

57 

90 

85 



Aceto-o- toluidide . 


. 9 


Aceto-p-toluidide . 


. 77 


Benzo-o- toluidide . 


. 5-7 


Benzo-p-toluidide . 


. 70 


Aceto- m- xylidide . 


. 9 


Aceto- if'-cumidide . 


. 630 


Aceto- ct-naphthalide 


. 550 


Aceto-j8-naphthalide 


. OO 


Formo-a-naphthalide . 


. 365 


o- Chloroacetanalide 


. 0-073 


1 -Chloroacetanilide 


. 0-21 


p-Chlorobenzanilide 


. 0-16 



Relation between the Nature of the Acyl Groups, and the Proportion 
of Oirtho- and Para-Chloro-derivatives formed in chlorinating Acyl- 
anilides. 2 (With Harold King.) 

We have extended the experiments begun by Mr. W. J. Jones 3 on 
the estimation of the proportion of o- and p-chloro-derivatives which are 



1 Trans. Chem. Hoc, 1911, 99, 1369. 



3 Ibid., 1909, 95, 1056. 



'-Ibid., 1911, 99, 1377. 



96 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



formed in the chlorination of acylanilides. The results so far obtained 
are shown in the table. The acyl group is found to have a very- 
powerful influence. Other circumstances, media, temperature, and 
concentration, have little effect on the proportion, but the production of 
a dichloro-derivative is more pronounced in other media than dilute 
acetic acid. 

The numbers represent the percentage of the anilide chlorinated, 
found in the product in one or other form. 



Anilide 


ju-Chloro- o-Chloro- 
anilide anilide 


Ratio : 
o-Chloroanilide 
/)-Chloroauilide 


2 : 4-Dichluro- 
auilide 


Unchanged 
anilide 


Acctanilide 
Propionanilide . 
Stearanilide 
Benzanflide 

Formanilidc 


51 44 
64 26 
69-5 20-8 
65-5 11-2 
62 3-0 


0-89/1 

0-4/1 

0-3/1 

01 7/1 
0-048/1 


1-2 

3-2 

2-2 

111 


1-2 
3-2 
2-2 
9-2 



Obviously the chlorination of acetanilide is the best method of pre- 
paring o-chloroaniline. 



An Application oj the Reaction between Chloroamines and Hydrogen 
Chloride as a method of Chlorinating Anilines and Phenols.* 
(With Harold King.) 

The fact that chloroamines and hydrogen chloride react quantitatively 
in glacial acetic acid producing anilide and chlorine, gives a very effec- 
tive method of chlorinating such anilides and phenols as are particularly 
susceptible of oxidation, or by the usual methods yield di- or poly- 
chloro-derivatives. 

Molecular proportions of the substance to be chlorinated and a 
chloroamine, for example, that derived from 2 : 4-dichloroacetanilide or 
p-nitroacetanihde, are mixed in glacial acetic acid solution, and some 
small proportion of hydrogen chloride, one-hundredth to one-twentieth 
gram irolecular proportion, added. From the reaction between the 
chloroamine and the hydrogen chloride, chlorine is formed in amount 
molecularly equivalent to the hydrogen chloride used. The chlorine 
in its turn attacks the substance to be chlorinated, forming at the same 
time an equivalent of hydrogen chloride. Chlorine is again regenerated, 
and hence is thus maintained at a constant low concentration, fixed by 
the amount of hydrogen chloride originally introduced, through the 
greater part of the reaction. 

In this way 5-chloro-m-xylidine, 6-chloro- i^-cumidine, 5-chloro-o- 
anisidine, 5-chloro-p-anisidine, 5-chloro-o-phenetidine and 5-chloro- 
m-xylenol have been for the first time prepared. Further, Mr. King 
has been able to chlorinate a-naphthol directly without any oxidation. 
Owing to the fact, however, that the speeds of interaction of a-naphthol 
and 4-chloro-a-naphthol and chlorine are of similar magnitude, much 

4 Trans. Chan. Soc, 1911, 99, 1185. 



TRANSFORMATION OP NlTROAMlNES AND ALLIED SUBSTANCES. 97 

2 :4-dichloro-a-naphthol is formed, and hence an equivalent quantity of 
a-naphthol remains unchanged, a-naphthol can be quantitatively con- 
vezted into 2 :4-dichloronaphthol by this method. 

Formation of Nit roam incs. (With Miss M. G. Edwards.) 

There is no easier way of preparing certain nitroaminobenzenes than 
by treatment of the aniline in acetic acid solution with a mixture of 
acetic anhydride and nitric acid in the same solvent. With di-ortho- 
(negatively)-substituted anilines the yield of nitroamine is quantitative. 
With other anilines the acetyl derivative is formed simultaneously, owing 
to the more rapid interaction of acetic anhydride with anilines in which 
an ortho position is unoccupied, or not occupied by a negative group. 
The proportion of nitroamine to acetyl derivative can be to a certain 
extent regulated by variation of the concentrations of the acetic anhy- 
dride and nitric acid. 

It appears to be generally thought that the formation of the nitro- 
amine is due to the dehydration of the aniline nitrate. There is, how- 
ever, much evidence that such is not the case. 

1. It was shown by Smith and Orton 5 that all acids, except nitric 
acid, acted as powerful accelerators of acetylation of anilines by acetic 
anhydride. There is no formation of the anilide of the acid, of the type 
corresponding to the nitroamine. 

2. Measurements have been made of the rate of the formation of 
nitroamines by this method. In one series of experiments the anhy- 
dride is added to a mixture of aniline and nitric acid in acetic acid; a 
relatively slow regular formation of nitroamine follows. In other series 
the anhydride and nitric acid are mixed in acetic acid and then added 
to the solution of the aniline ; a very rapid formation of the nitroamine 
takes place, the speed, however, falling off after about half the reaction 
is over. 

This result obviously suggests that a compound of acetic anhydride 
and the nitric acid is the nitrating agent. In the second series it can 
be formed and reach a high concentration before it is brought in 
contact with the aniline. This compound may be the compound pre- 
pared by Pictet, 6 (CH 3 -C0 2 )N 2 (OH) 3 , or even acetyl nitrate. 

3. A remarkable confirmation of this view is found in some experi- 
ments which have been recently carried out on the hydrolysis of acetic 
anhydride (with Miss M. Jones). The anhydride was dissolved in a large 
excess of acetic acid, which contains a small proportion of water, 0'12 to 
0'2 per cent. The hydrolysis of acetic anhydride in this medium is 
extremely slow at the ordinary temperature. In the presence of small 
proportions (| to J gram molecular proportion) of all mineral acids, with 
the exception of nitric acid, an extremely rapid hydrolysis occurs. 
With nitric acid there is no acceleration, but even a retardation of the 
hydrolysis. In dilute (80 per cent.) acetic acid there is no difference 
between nitric acid and other acids. 

There seems little doubt then that nitric acid and acetic anhydride, 
even when largely diluted with acetic acid, very rapidly react or 

s Trans. Chem. Soc, 1908 and 1909. ° Zentralblatt., 1903, ii., 1109. 

1911. H 



98 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

combine. On the one hand this compound attacks anilines, forming 
nitroamines, and not acetyl derivatives, and on the other hand this 
compound does not react with water more rapidly than acetic anhydride 
itself. 

The Committee desire to be reappointed for the coming year, and 
ask for a grant of 15Z. 



Electroanalysis. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. 
Kipping (Chairman), Dr. F. M. Perkin (Secretary), Dr. G-. T. 
Beilby, Dr. T. M. Lowry, Professor W. J. Pope, and Dr. 
H. J. S. Sand. (Draicn up by Dr. H. J. S. Sand.) 

Attention has been directed during the past year particularly to the 
application of the electrometric method to the titration of weak acids in 
such liquids as tan liquors. It was found that the potentiometer-box 
and auxiliary electrode constructed for the separation of metals by 
graded potential may be conveniently employed for this purpose in 
conjunction with a form of hydrogen electrode specially designed to 
combine ease of manipulation and rapidity of saturation. The ques- 
tion regarding the ' end-point ' of the titration has been examined. It 
is known that if the object of the titration he to determine the number 
of equivalents of acid present, then not only the nature of the acid or 
acids must be considered but also the concentration of the salts result- 
ing from the titration. It has been pointed out, however, that in most 
practical cases it will be possible to fix end-points of special importance 
for the particular purpose in question. Frequently the liquid may be 
titrated until the hydrion-concentration of pure water is reached. 
This corresponds to a potential difference between the hydrogen-elec- 
trode and the normal calomel electrode recommended for these titrations, 
of 0-69 volt, 1 

By Dr. F. Mollwo Perkin. — It has been found possible by Hilde- 
brand - and E. F. Smith and his co-workers to electrolyse the alkali 
metals with a mercury cathode and to analyse both the anion and 
cation. For this purpose a double cell is employed, the inner and 
outer portion being sealed by means of mercury. The alkali salt to be 
analysed, say potassium sulphate, is placed in solution in the central 
cell where an anode of platinum gauze is rapidly rotated. The outer 
cell contains water with a small quantity of sodium chloride solution 
to make it conductive. On electrolysing, the S0 4 anions are discharged 
at the anode and a solution of sulphuric acid obtained. The K 
cations are discharged on the mercury which is made the cathode. 
Owing to the rotation of the anode the amalgam, which is specifically 
lighter than the pure mercury, is swept into the outer compartment 

1 See Part I. Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind. (in conjunction with D. J. Law), 1911, 30, 3 ; 
reprinted in full Journ. Amer. Leather chemists Assn., 1911, 114; and Ledermarkts 
Kollegium, 1911, p. 150, Part II. (in conjunction with J. T. Wood and D. J. Law), 
Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., July 31, 1911. 

2 Chem. Zentralblat., 1907, ii., 8. 



ELECTROANALYSIS. 09 

where it is decomposed by means of an auxiliary nickel cathode placed 
above the mercury in the solution. When the electrolysis is com- 
plete the SO., in the inner cell is titrated by means of standard 
alkali and the K in the outer cell by means of standard acid. 

There are disadvantages in the apparatus of Hildebrand, the outer 
cell of which is a glass crystallising basin, the inner consisting of a 
beaker with the bottom cut off. The inner cell is kept in a central 
position by having corks wedged at the sides. F. M. Perkin has now 
had a vessel made of fused quartz. The centre cell is kept concentric 
by having quartz rods fused to it and to the inside wall of the outer 
basin. Being of quartz, the vessel can for cleaning purposes be 
heated to redness, is absolutely unattacked by alkali, and there are no 
corks which, if they get accidentally splashed, absorb some of the 
alkali and vitiate the results. 

Experiments on the analysis of the anions and cations are being 
carried out with this apparatus, and the results so far have been 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. E. Divers {Chairman), Professor A. W. Crossley 
(Secretary), Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. 0. Forster, and Dr. 
H. E. Le Sueur. 

Synthesis of cyclogeraniolene (1:1: 3-trimethylcyclohexerie). 1 — Some 
years ago Tiemann and Semmler - prepared from the aldehyde citral 
(geraniol) an open-chain hydrocarbon, C 9 H 16 , named by them geranio- 
lene. The constitution of this substance (I) follows from that of citral, 
which was established by Barbier and Bouveault in 1896. 3 When 
geraniolene is shaken with a 60 per cent, solution of sulphuric acid, 
an isomeric change takes place, the open-chain hydrocarbon being 
converted into a mixture of two cyclic hydrocarbons a and f3 cyclo- 
geraniolene (II and III), in which mixture the a variety is present in 
larger quantity. 

CMe 2 : CH . CH 2 .CH 2 . CMe : CH 2 — >- CMe 2 <gg 2 ' c^^CH and 

(I) ' (H) " 

CMe 2 <gg=^>CH 2 

(III) 

Constitutional formulas were assigned to these hydrocarbons by Tie- 
mann, 4 arrived at from a study of their oxidation with potassium per- 
manganate, and these formulas are proved to be correct by the following 
synthesis. 

1 : 1-Dimethylcyclohexanone (IV) was treated with an ethereal 

1 Crossley and Gilling, J.C.S., 1910, 97, 2218. 

2 Ber., 1893, 26, 2708. » Compt. rend., 12?, 393. 
■ Ber., 1898, 31, 816, 881; 1900, 33, 3711. 

h 2 



100 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

solution of magnesium methyl iodide and the product decomposed with 
water, when trimethylcyclohexanol (V) was obtained as a well-defined, 
crystalline substance, melting at 72°'5. 

oMe <ci:7c c H 2 > cH 2 --> cM ^<gg:^i ( ^>cH 2 

(IV) (V) 

rM .CH, . CMeBr xnTT 
GMe *<CH 2 CH 2 > CH2 

(VI) 

Fuming hydrobromic acid converts the alcohol into 3-bromo-l : 1 :3- 
trimethylcyclohexane (VI), which, when treated with alcoholic potas- 
sium hydroxide, loses the elements of hydrogen bromide in two ways, 
giving rise to the same mixture of hydrocarbons as described by 
Tiemann. The identity was established by preparing the crystalline 
nitrosate, and from it the oxime described by Wallach 6 ; further by 
oxidising the hydrocarbons with potassium permanganate, when the 
products isolated were as-dimethylsuccinic acid, zsogeronic and geronic 
acids. 

1: 1: 2-Trimethylcyclohexan-3-one.* Brief reference was made 
in the last Beport 7 to the method adopted for the preparation of this 
ketone, the object of its isolation being to compare its properties with 
those of camphor on account of the marked similarity of the various 
groupings in the molecules of these two ketones. Further, it was 
thought that a more extended inquiry into the chemical behaviour of 
trimethyldihydroresorcin than has hitherto been carried out was desir- 
able because, unlike dimethyldihydroresorcin (VII), its molecule is not 
symmetrical, and consequently several new points of interest are raised. 
This latter problem has proved to be more complicated than was antici- 
pated, but there can be no doubt that trimethyldihydroresorcin is a 
tautomeric substance, exhibiting the two forms represented by formulas 
VII and VIII 

C(CH 3 ) 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 

H 2 C f) CH.CH 3 H 2 C A CH.CH 3 

OC ^ C.OH HO.C ' v CO 

CH CH 

(VII) (VIII) 

the particular form manifested depending on the nature of the reagents 
with which the dihydroresorcin is brought in contact. As a result, 
In the series of reactions which give rise to 1 : 1 : 2-trimethylcyclo- 
hexan-3-one, both 1:1: 2-trimethylcyclohexan-3-ol and 1:1: 2-tri- 
methylcyclohexan-5-ol are formed, both of which alcohols are capable 
of existing in cis and trans modifications, but so far only the trans form 

5 Annalen, 1902, 324, 97. 

« Crossley and Renouf, J.C.S., 1911, 99- 

7 Brit. Assoc. Beport, Sheffield, 1910, p. 82. 



THE STUDY OP HYDRO- AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 101 

of 1 : 1 : 2-trimethylcyclohexan-3-ol has been isolated. These alcohols 
give rise to the corresponding ketones on oxidation, but here again only 
1:1: 2-trimethylcyclohexan-3-one has been isolated in a pure con- 
dition. Further experiments are now in progress. 



Investigation of the Igneous and Associated Rocks of the Glensaul ana 
Lough Nafooey Areas, Cos. Mayo and Galway. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. Watts (Chairman), 
Professor S. H. Reynolds (Secretary), Mr. H. B. Maufe, and 
Mr. C. I. Gardiner. 

Mr. C. I. Gardiner and the Secretary visited the district in April and 
finished mapping the Kilbride peninsula. The general structure of this 
area was given in the Committee's report for 1910 (Sheffield), and 
except that a new exposure of Arenig sedimentary rocks has been found, 
the present year's work, though adding much to the detailed knowledge, 
has not led to the discovery of any facts which it is necessary to mention 
in the present report. It is hoped that a paper on the Kilbride penin- 
sula will be read before the Geological Society during the coming 
session. 



Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. R. H. Tiddeman (Chairman), Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse 
(Secretary), Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. M. Burton, Mr. F. W. 
Harmer, Rev. S. N. Harrison, Dr. J. Horne, Mr. W. Lower 
Carter, Professor W. J. Sollas, and Messrs. Wm. Hill, J. W. 
Stather, and J. H. Milton. 

Reports have been received from the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, 
the Hull Geological Society, the University of Durham Philosophical 
Society, and the Rev. A. Irving, D.Sc. 

During a recent visit to the North of Ireland in company with the 
Secretary, Mr. B. N. Peach, F.R.S., was able to identify certain 
erratics found at Cushendall, co. Antrim, as derived from the Island 
of Arran. These included a Quartz Porphyry from Drum-a-Doon and 
granites probably derived from the Goat Fell area. It is hoped to 
deal more fully with these in the next report. 

Ireland. 

Reported by the Committee of the Geological Section of the Belfast 

Naturalists' Field Club. 

Co. Down. 

Bally tvalter. — Low bank of unstratified brown boulder clay, at 
sea-level, on coast one mile south of Ballywalter. Subjacent rock, 
Silurian grit. Out of 9G boulders noted, the following were erratics: 



102 RETORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

3 Ailsa Craig Biebeekite-eurite, 7 quartz, 2 flint, 1 chalk, 3 basalt, 1 
red sandstone, 2 quartzite, 1 bole, 1 aphanite, 10 camptonite, 8 granite 
(Donegal type), 7 granite (Newtownards), 2 weathered sandstone, 1 
grit (Ballygowan). The prevailing directions of the parent rock 
were north and north-west. 

Magheralin.- — Chalk quarry one-third of a mile north-east of Mag- 
heralin village. Unstratified red boulder-clay, about 150 feet above 
sea-level. Subjacent rock, chalk. Out of 131 boulders counted, the 
following erratics were noted: 34 basalt, 6 dolerite, 1 clay ironstone, 

3 grit, 6 granite (similar to that of Barnesmore, co. Donegal), 1 granite 
(North Tyrone?), 9 mica schist, 1 eurite (Tornamoney), 11 quartzite, 

4 pebbles Old Bed conglomerate (Cushendun), 5 quartz, 1 porphyry 
(Cushendall), 2 diorite, 12 crushed diorite, 7 hornblende rock, 1 elvan, 
1 Lower Carboniferous sandstone, 1 crushed felsite, 7 gabbro, 2 Lower 
Carboniferous conglomerate, 2 eurite (North Tyrone). Foraminifera 
found in the boulder clay. 

Co. Antrim. 

Kilcoan, Island-mag ee. — Chalk quarry. Bed unstratified boulder- 
clay. Few erratics; basalt largely preponderated, but 2 lias, 1 eurite, 
and 1 dolerite were also noted. At one end of the quarry, where the 
boulder-clay had been cleared off the top of the chalk, a fine striated sur- 
face was exposed. Two sets of striae were observed, running 8. o° W. 
and E. and W. respectively. So far as could be made out from the 
surface, tbe striae from the west were subsequent and superimposed 
on those made by the ice moving from the north. 

England. 

Hull (1 ri)lngical Society. 

The members of the local Boulder Committee have done a fair 
amount of field work during the past year, but have nothing strikingly 
new to record. 

Filey. — On the beach at Filey, a few yards north of Hunmanby 
Gap, a boulder of Bunter sandstone, 30 yards long, was noted, em- 
bedded in the glacial clays which form the beach in this locality. Mr. 
B. M. Bobson reports a boulder of garnetiferous schist, between one 
and two tons in weight, at an elevation of 142 feet, three-quarters 
of a mile west of Filey. 

Holderness. — In June Dr. U. Milthers, of the Danish Geological 
Survey, visited this country and spent several days on the East coast 
of Yorkshire examining the boulders. He was much impressed by the 
great display of Scandinavian boulders in South Holderness, chiefly 
from the Christiania district. One result of his visit will probably be 
the identification of some further Scandinavian rocks in East Yorks. 

South Ferriby, Lines. — Mr. T. Sheppard, F.G.S., records an 
exposure of the clays beneath the Bed Chalk on the south Humber 
shore at South Ferriby. In these are embedded a number of large 
cake-shaped nodules, all of which are glacially striated on their upper 
surfaces, the striae being from east to west, parallel with the old course 
of the Humber estuary. Close by, an exposure in the solid lower chalk 



ei:i;atio blocks of the British isles. 103 

has recently occurred as a result of the covering deposits having been 
removed by the changes in the course of the Humber waters. This 
exposure reveals the pre-glacial bed of the Humber estuary, and it is 
interesting to observe that this also is striated in the same direction as 
the strise on the cement-nodules already referred to. 

Reported by the Northumberland and Durham Boulders Committee of 
the University of Durham Philosophical Society. 

1. Collected by S. E. Haseliiurst. — Percy Square to Spanish 
Battery, Tynemouth : Basalt, amygdaloidal with large crystals of 
anorthite ; volcanic series of Borrowdale ; red sandstone ; syenite ; 
porphyrite (St. Abbs Head); micaceous sandstone. 

2. Collected by E. Merrick. — 

(a) Cowpen Brick Works (late Standard Brick Works) : Bed 
fossiliferous Carboniferous limestone; syenite; andesite; porphyrite; 
three boulders of chalk. 

(b) Sand Pit, South View, R3"ton : Red granite ; volcanic series of 
Borrowdale; ferruginous grit; Threlkeld granite. 

(c) Brick's, Ltd., Forest Hall: Bed porphyrite. 

3. Collected by Dr. Woolacott and E. Merrick. — From founda- 
tions of new buildings for Art Department, Armstrong College : Carbon- 
iferous limestone ; whin sill ; volcanic series of Borrowdale ; rhyolite 
1 cubic foot; grey granite (Dalbeattie); sandstone. 

4. Collected by Dr. Woolacott and G. T. Mackay. — -A boulder of 
decomposed Laurvik syenite or similar rock from Christiania Fiord 
was observed on the coast about a mile north of Castle Eden. 

5. Collected by A. Ball. — A piece of Laurvik syenite from 
Christiania was collected from the foundations of bridge across Castle 
Eden Dene. 

(Note. — The two latter boulders, probably of Scandinavian origin, 
are of great interest as being the most northerly recorded occurrence 
of Scandinavian rocks in the English drift.) 

6. Collected by Dr. Smytiie. — (a) Pebble bed, Horsebridge Head, 
near Newbiggin. Besult of many years' collecting. 

Sedimentary. — Sandstone, commonest constituent, often con- 
taining plant remains (Lepidodendron, Calamites); Magnesian 
limestone abundant (one specimen with Fenestrella rctiformis); 
Carboniferous limestone, not common, fossils often occur (Pro- 
ductus, Lithoslrotion); Greywacke, not common ; chalk flints (6); 
chalk (1) ; cherts and jaspers (22). 

Igneous and mclamorphic. — Whinstone, fairly common, 
pebbles up to 1 foot; of 210 other rocks there were 30 granites, 
white, grey, red, up to 6 inches; 20 mica and hornblende schists 
up to 8 inches; 56 porphyrites (many certainly from Cheviots); 3 
glassy porphyrites and 4 andesites (Cheviots) ; 15 quartz porphyries 
with white, pink, green, and red groundmass, up to 6 inches; 
17 syenites; 3 mica porphyrites; 1 diorite; 61 weathered rocks, 
mostly porphyritic. 



104 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

(b) Akenshaw Bum : Black chert, abundant ; granite (grey and red) 
10; syenite 3; diorite; porphyrite; amygdaloidal basalt. 

(c) Whickhope Burn : Black chert, abundant ; granite 4 ; quartz 
porphyry 2. 

(d) Chirdon Burn: Granites 8; syenite; greywacke; basalt. 

(e) Pundershaw Burn : Granites 7 ; Carboniferous limestone 
crowded with spines of Productus ; porphyrites 2 ; volcanic series of 
Borrowdale ( ?) ; quartz porphyry ; syenite. 

(/) Coalcoates, Wark's Burn: Bed sandstone (Permian or Trias); 
granites 11; mica syenite 1; volcanic series of Borrowdale 1. 

(g) Coal Cleugh, Middle Burn, Wark's Burn : Syenite (same rock 
found in Pundershaw and Sweethope drift) ; granites 7 ; quartz por- 
phyries 3 ; syenite ; porphyry ; greywacke ; diorite. 

(h) Deposit foot of Lyne Burn : Flints 5; chalk; garnetiferous mica 
schist (Pitlochrie ?) 4; Magnesian limestone abundant, fossiliferous ; 
mica schist 2; basalts (abundant); quartz porphyry; syenite; Cheviot 
porphyrites 16; trachyte; chert 2; several greywackes; limestone and 
sandstone. (Note. — Whickhope and Akenshaw drift dam the Wans- 
beck to Mitford. Volcanic series of Borrowdale occur south of Wark's 
Burn (present in Liddle Hall Kaims).) 

Striations have been observed on the rock surface by Dr. Smythe 
at the following places : Barrow Hill (Alwinton), 800 feet E. ; Har- 
bottle Hill (Alwinton), 950 feet E. by N.; Amerside Law (Chilling- 
ham), 1,000 feet S. by W. ; Bellshill, S. 20° E. All these striations 
were on sandstone. 

Reported by Rev. A. Irving, D.Sc. — From Hockerill Vicarage, 
Bishop's Stortford (235 feet): Lydite; dolerite 2; red granite, jasper 2; 
quartzite (several) ; red chalk. 

From Parsonage Lane, Bishop's Stortford (220 to 230 feet): Trap; 
dolerite; red granite; quartzite; Carboniferous limestone (striated); 
red chalk. 

From Maple Avenue, Bishop's Stortford (290 feet): Dolerite; 
jasper; basalt; phyllite; millstone grit 3; shelly limestone; limestone; 
red chalk ; white chalk ; haematite. 

From Hockerill Churchyard (240 feet) : Ash ; Carboniferous lime- 
stone ; white chalk. 

From The Grange, Bishop's Stortford (215 feet): Limestone. 

From Town Cemetery, Bishop's Stortford (260 feet): Pebbly 
sarsen. 

From Start Hill (265 feet) : Bhyolite 2 ; quartzite ; Carboniferous 
limestone; white chalk. 

From Sawbridgeworth (c. 250 feet): Dolerite; jasper; Roth- 
schiefer ( ?) ; shelly limestone 2 ; Northampton ironstone ; red chalk ; 
septaria. 

From Braintree : Carboniferous limestone. 



ON THE FOSSIL FLORA AND FAUNA OF THE MIDLAND COALFIELDS. 105 



The Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Midland Coalfields. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. L. Moysey (Chairman), Dr. B. 
Hobson (Secretary), Mr. H. Bolton, Dr. A. B. Dwerryhouse, 
and Dr. Wheelton Hind, appointed to investigate the Fossil Flora 
and Fauna of the Midland Coalfields. 

Investigation of the Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Midland Coal- 
fields. By A. B. Horwood. 

I have collected personally in Warwickshire, and obtained assistance 
in North Derbyshire, in addition to that rendered by men on the spot. 
I wish to thank those who have collected for me in general, in addition 
to those specially mentioned hereafter. As this is a general report, 
minute details are not given. I also desire to thank Dr. Wheelton 
Hind and Dr. A. Smith Woodward for identifying the mollusca and 
fish respectively. I have examined the other fossils here recorded. 

Warwickshire. 

This small coalfield has not hitherto been examined palasonto- 
logically, and the following results are therefore of special interest. 
As far as possible every exposure or pit has been examined, and 
although this report only covers three months' actual work, much has 
been done since then which does not come into this report, which is 
therefore only a partial record. The following fossils have all been 
collected by me. The chief coal-seams are, in descending order: Four 
Feet, Two Yard, Byder, Bare, Ell, Slate, Seven Feet, Double or Deep, 
Bench. The Bed Bocks have also received attention. 

As a whole the flora and fauna of this tract resemble that of the 
Leicestershire and South Derbyshire coalfield; and, like it, the state of 
the fossils is very unsatisfactory, both plants and animal remains being 
also rare. 

Abbreviations for the localities visited are as follows: — 



Ch. = Charity Pit, Bedworth. 
Ex. = Exhall Colliery. 
Gr.= Griff No. 4 Pit, Nuneaton. 
Gr.Cl. = Griff Clara Pit, Nuneaton. 
Ha. =Haunchwood Old Pit, Stocking- 
ford. 



Ne.=Newdigate Colliery, near Bed- 
worth. 
Nu. = Nuneaton Colliery, Stockingford. 
St. = Stockingford Old Colliery. 
Tu. = Tunnel Pit, Stockingford. 
Wy. = Wyken Colliery. 



Genera and Species 



PLANT.®. 

FlLICALES ET PTERIDOSPERM.E. 

Sphenopteris, spp. 
Urnatopteris tenella (Brongt.) . 
Crossotheca schatz larensis (Stur). 
„ sp. ... 

Mariopteris mvricata (Schl.) 

* These horizons are now being examined. 



•Bench 
Seam 


•Seven 
Foot 
Seam 


Slate 
Seam 


Ryder 
Seam 


Two 
Yard 
Seam 


•Four 

Foot 

Seam 










Gr. CI. 






— ■ 


Gr. 
Ex. 
Gr. 
Wy. 


= 


Gr. CI. 

Gr. CI. 


— 


— 


= { 


l_ 
J 


Nu. 


— 



10G 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Genera and Species 



FlLICALES ET PtEKIDOSPERIVLE COTlt. 

Alethopleris lonchitica (Schl.) 
,, decurrens (Artis) . 

Neuropteris heterophylla (Brongt.) 



„ tenrui folia (Schloth.) 

,, dbliqua (Brongt.) . 

„ gigantea (Sternb.) . 

,, scheuchzeri (Hoffm.) 

Eqtjisetales. 

Catamites schutzei (Stur.) . 

,, undulatus (Sternb.) . 

,, ramosus (Artis) 

,, suckovii (Brongt.) 

,, cistii (Brongt.) 

Cala mocladus cq uisetiformis 
(Schloth.) 
,, charceformis (Sternb.) 

,, lycopodioides (Zeiller, 

Calamostachys, sp. 

Annularia radiata (Brongt.) 

Sphenophyllat.es. 

Sphenophyllum cuneifolium 
(Sternb.) 



var. saxifragm 
folium (Sternb. 



Sphenophyllum trichomatosum 
(Stur) 
Lycopodiales. 

Lepidodendron ophiurus (Brongt.) 

„ aculealum 

(Sternb.) 

„ obovatum (Sternb.) — 




* These horizons are now being examined. 



ON THE 



FOSSIL FLORA AND FAUNA OF THE MIDLAND COALFIELDS. 107 



1 

Genera and Species 


*3eneh 
Seam 


".Seven 

Foot 

Seam 


Slate 
Seam 


Ryder 
Seam 


Two 
Yard 
Seam 


* r'our 
Foot 
Seam 


Lycopodiales — cont. 






( 


Gr. CI. 




Lepidostrobus variabilis (L. & H.) 


— 




St. 


1 

~1 


Ha. 

Nu. 


— 


,, sp. 


— 


— . 


Wy. 




— 


— 


Lepidophyllum majus (Brongt.) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Tu. 


— 


„ triangular^ (Zeiller) 




Gr. 


zi 


Gr. CI. 




Lepidophloios acerosus (L. & H.) 


— — 


— ■ 


Nu. 




sp. 


— 




Wy. 




— 


— 


Cy parties bicarinata (L. & H.) 


— 


r 


Ch. 


) i 

p 


Nu. 


"~ 






J 
1 


Gr. 


Ha. 




Stigmaria ficoides (Sternb.) 


— 


Gr. CI. 

St. 


Ne. 
Nu. 


~~ 






Wy. 






Stigmariopsis unglica (Kidst.) . 


— 


— 


Ex. 


— 


Gr. CI. 

Nu. 


— 


sp. ... 


— 










CORDAITALES. 














Cordaites principalis (Gcrmar) . 


— 


— 


Wy. 




— 


— 


Cordaianthm pitcairnim (L. &H. ) 


— ■ 


— 


St. 


— 


— 


— 


„ anomalus (Morris) . 


■ — 


— 


— ■ 


— 


Nu. 


— 


Carpolilhes ovoideus (Gopp.) 




1 


Gr. 
St. 


l_ 

J 


Ha. 





sp 


— 




— 


Nu. 


— 


Incertje Sedis. 

Pinnularia capillacea (L. & H.) 


— 


_J 


Ex. 

Gr. 
Wy. 


IJ 

1 ( 


Gr. CJ. 

Ne. 
Nu. 
St. 


— 


ANIMALIA. 














Annelida. 










Ha. 
Tu. 




Spirorbis pusillus (Mart.) . 


— 


— 


— 


f 

~~ 1 


— 










1 


Ne. 




Worm-castings 


— 


— 


— 


J 


St. 


— 


Crustacea. 








' 


Tu. 




Entomostraca .... 


— 


— 




. — 


Ch. 


— 


Lamellibranchiata. 














Garbonicola nucularis (Hind) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Ne. 


— 


,, turgida (Brown) 




( 
~1 


Nu. 

St. 




Ha. 

Ne. 
Tu. 
Ch. 




„ aquilina (Sow.) 


— 


St. { 


Gr. CI. 
St. 


H 


Ha. 
Ne. 

Nu. 


— 










Tu. 




,, 8imilis (Brown) 


— 


— ■ 


St. 


I 


Ch. 


— 


Naiadites modiolaris (Sow.) 




— 


— 


- 


Nu. 
St. 
Ch. 




,, triangularis (Sow.) 


. — 


— 


. — 


\ 




,, carinata (Sow.) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Tu. 


— ■ 


sp 


— 





— 


— 


Ha. 




Pisces. 












— 


Ccelacanthus elegans (Newb.) . 


1 


— ■ 


— 


— 


Nu. 


— 



* These horizons are now being examined. 



108 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



North Derbyshire and Notts. 

North Derby and Notts are integral parts of one great coal-tract, 
continuous into Yorkshire, but for geographical purposes it is as well to 
refer to the following distribution of fossils as confined to the Northern 
part of North Derbyshire from which hitherto few collections had 
been made. I am indebted to Mr. W. Hemingway, who has been the 
means of adding so many rich treasures to our Carboniferous flora, 
for the whole of the collections here recorded, and for giving me the 
benefit of his wide field knowledge of Carboniferous plants. 

In the table the coal-seams are arranged in ascending order, the 
lowest seam on the left. Abbreviations for localities are as follows: — 

HI. = Holmwood Colliery, Heath. 

Hn. =Hornthorpe Colliery, Eckington. 

Me. =Mareham Colliery, Eckington. 

Mk. = Markham Colliery, Staveley. 

Mi. =Mickley Colliery, Dronfield. 

No. = Norwood Colliery, Killamarsh. 

Or. = Orchard Colliery, Unstone. 

Pr. = Pearson's Colliery, Newbold. 

Re. = Rectory Colliery, Heage. 

Rn. = Renishaw Park Colliery, Ecking- 
ton. 
S.Wi. = South Wingfield Colliery, Oaken- 

thorpe. 
St. H. = Stubbley Hollow Colliery, Dron- 
Gr. 5=Grassmoor No. 5 Colliery, Grass- field. 

Tu. = Turnoak Colliery, Chesterfield. 

Wa. = Wallsend Colliery, Newbold. 

Wi. = Williamthorpe Colliery, Heath. 



Av. 9 = Avenue No. 9 Colliery, Chester- 
field. 
Bo. = Bond's Main Colliery, Grass- 
moor. 
Bu. = Bullbridge Brickyard. 
Ca. = Calow Main Colliery, Chesterfield. 
CI. 2=Claycross No. 2 Colliery, Clay- 
cross. 
CI. 4=Claycross No. 4 Colliery, Clay- 
cross. 
Gr. 1 = Grassmoor No. 1 Colliery, Grass- 
moor. 
Gr. 4= Grassmoor No. 4 Colliery, Grass- 
moor. 
Grassmoor No. 5 Colliery, Grass- 
moor. 
He. = Heage Colliery, Heage. 
Hi. = Highfield Colfhry, Sheepbridge. 



Genera and Species 



PLANTS 
FMCAIES ET PTERID0SPER1LI1 
Sphenopleria sternhergii (Ett.) 

,, multiftda (L. & H.) 

Crossotheca schatzlarensis (Stur) 

Pecopteris miltoni (Artis) . 



Dactylotlteca plumosa (Axtis) 

Mariopteris muricata (Schl.) 

Alethopteris valida (Boulay) 

Neuropleris heterophylla (Brongt 

„ tenuijolia (Schloth.) 

„ obliqua (Brongt.) 

,, acuminata (Schloth. 

Aphlebia lineare (Gutb.) . 

Megaphyton frondosum (Artis) 
EQUISKTALES 

Caiamites schutzei (Stur) . 
,, undulalus (Sternb.) 

„ ramosus (Artis) . 

Annularia radiata (Brongt.) 



Bu. 



S. Wi. 



He. 



a 



Mi. 



A 



S. Wi. 



Mi. 
St.H. 



C12 
Av.9 

Bo. 
Ca. 
Gr.4 
Av.9 
Bo. 
Ee. 
Av. 9 
Ca. 
CI. 2 
Ca. 
Gr. 4 

Bo. 

Ca. 
Gr. 4 
Gr. 4 

Bo. 



Bo. 
Ca. 
CI. 2 
Ca. 

Bo. 

Ca. 



H 



o 




o 














n 


b 


a 



Mk. 
Mk. 



No. 



ON THE FOSSIL FLORA AND FAUNA OF THE MIDLAND COALFIELDS. 109 





a 










£ 






T3 














G«nera and Species 


u 

$ 

o. 


o 

3 


a 

Q 

ja 
tm 
3 
ea 


E 

3 

a 
M 


S 


CO 
M 

3 


o 

d 


"a 
'£, 

m 
O 

w 


u 

OS 

M 

m 
$ 

Q 


o 
m 

a. 

at 

a 


a 
w 






» 

a. 
o 


a 
* 

o 

D 


SPHENOPHYLLALES 










SphenophyUum cuneifolium 
































(Sternb.) . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Ca. 


— ■ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





var. saxifragcc- 










( 


Av. 11 




















jolium (Sternb.). 










~\ 


a. 2 
















_ 




lf majus (Bronn) . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Mi. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 







trichomatosum 
































(Stur) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Mi. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


LYCOPODIALES 










r 


Av. 9 




















Lepidodendron ophiurus (Brongt.) 


— 


— 


— 


S. Wi. 


- 


Bo. 
Ca. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Mk. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


(| aculcatum(SteTnb.) 






_ 





i 


CI. 2 
Re. 



























)t obovalum (Sternb.) 








— 


— 





Bo. 





— 


— 


— 


Mk. 


— 


— 


— 




Lepidostrobus lanceolatus (L. &H.) 


— 


— 


— . 


— 


— 


Gr. 4 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





Lepidophj/llum majus (Brongt.) . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-{ 


Av. 9 
Gr. 4 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





lanceolatum 
































(L. & H.) . 


— 


— 


— 


S. W i. 


Pt. H. 


Ca. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





LepidopMoios laricinus (Sternb.) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Av. 9 
CI. 2 


\~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





Bothrodendron minutijolium 

































































Sigillaria discophora (Kbnig) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Mi. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





„ mammillaris (Brongt.) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-1 
f 


Bo. 
Gr. 


I_ 


— 


— 


— 


Mk. 


— 


— 


— 















Bo. 


' 


















„ scutellala (Brongt.) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


~{ 


Ca. 
CI. 2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,, rugosa (Brongt.) 







_ 


_ 


\ 






















No. 




,, clongata (Brongt.) 











— 





— 





— 


— 


— 


Mk. 


— 









,, tenuis (Achepol) 

















Gr. 4 





— 


— 


— 





— 










. „ laevigata (Brongt.) 











— 





— 


. 


— 


— 








— 





Xo 




Sigillariostrobus rhombi-bractealus 
































(Kidst.) . . . . 












Bo. 




















Stigmariopsis anglica (Kidst.) . 


. — 





— 


— 





Av. 9 





— 


— 


— 





— 










CORDAITALES 
































Cordaites principalis (Germar) . 


— 














Av. 9 





— 


— 



















Dorycordaitcs palmceformis 
































(Gopp.) .... 

















Av. 9 














. 





, 







Cordaianlhus pitcairnias (L. & H.) 


— 





— 





. 


Bo. 




























,, volkmanni (Ett.) . 

















Av. 9 




























Cardiocarpus cordai (Geinitz) 


— 





— 


— 


Mi. 


— 





— 


— 


— 





— 










Polypterocarpus 


— 





— 


— 





Gr.4 





— 


— 



















Artisia transversa (Artis) . 


— 





— 


— 





Gr. 1 





— 


— 





.__ 








. 




INCERT^) SEDIS 
































PalaHixyris hclicteroidcs (Morris) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


St. H. 


— 


— 


















ANIMALIA. 
































ANNELIDA 






























Spirorbis ptisillus (Mart.) . 








— . 








Wi. 








— 


— Mk. 













CRUSTACEA 
































Beyrichia arcuata (Bean) . 








— 








— 


Hi. 
























LAMELUBRANCHIATA 
































Carboni'cola robusta (Sow.) 












Hn.J 

1 


CI. 4 
Gr.l 
HI. 






























Wa. 


















,, acuta (Sow.) . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




CI. 4 


— 


Gr.5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


„ Subconstricta (Sow.) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


:t 


Gr.l 
HI. 
Wa. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


,, nucularis (Hind) 



















HI. 





Gr.5 


, 














„ subrotunda (Brown) 
































,, turgida (Brown) 












Be. | 


Gr.l 
HI. 


}- 


Gr.5 














„ aquilina (Sow.) 










-1 


Hn. 
Be. 


CI. 2 
Wa. 


\- 


Gr.5 














,, similis (Brown) 











. 





Be. 













Mk. 










Anthracomya wardi (Eth.). 

















— 


CI. 4 





, 





Mk. 










































,, minima (Ludwig) . 





— 








— 


Ee. 


— 


— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



no 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Genera and Species 


% 

d 


c 
o 

Bu. 
Bu. 


a 

o 

9 

03 


a 
§ 

M 


OJ 


CO 

3 


OJ 

a 

a 

ft 

CI. 2 
CI. 4 
Gr.l 

HI. 
CI. 4 

HI. 
CI. 2 
Gr.l 

HI. 

CI. 2 
HI. 


"3 

& 
o 

W 


13 

w 
& 

p 


f 

cfi 

OJ 

CJ 

a 


S 


o 

o 

0) 


=3 

a 

a 
Q 


1 

W 

& 
H 


01 

g 

o 

o 

j 


LAMELLtBRANCHIATA— cont. 
yaiadites modiolaris Sow.) 

„ triangularis (Sow.) 

„ carinata (Sow.) . 

Pterinopeclen papyraceus (Sow.) 
Cephalopoda 

Orlhoceras, sp. 

Gattrioceras listeri (Mart.) 

Goniatites .... 
Pisces 

Acanthodes, sp. 

Gyracanthus formosus (Ag.) 

ilegalichthys hibberti (Ag.) 
sp. 

Ca>lacanthus elegans (Newb.) 

sp. 
Platysomus jorsteri (H. & A.) 




— 


— 


Hn.-J 
Hn. ' 

Be. 

-1 



North Stafford shire. 
I examined the ' Eed Bocks ' in the Keele railway cutting, at 
Madeley, and Etruria to compare the sequence with others in the 
Midland district. In so doing it was found that the Etruria marls at 
Little Madeley contain plant-remains. Since they were considered 
previously to be unfossiliferous this discovery is of interest. They 
occurred in blackish shale above the first grit, casts of Cordaites sp. 
being especially numerous. Similar impressions were observed beneath 
the second grit; they resemble those found in the Keele series, in the 
Keele railway cutting. Beneath the fourth grit are numerous plant- 
remains, Stigmaria ficoides being especially abundant, and also pith- 
casts of Catamites, thus showing that the flora of this part of the Bed 
Bock sequence resembles the Westphalian series. 

South Staffordshire. 
The ironstone nodules in the productive series are a fruitful hunting- 
ground if every available nodule is collected and split open. This was 
a task undertaken many years ago by the late Mr. Henry Johnson. 
His collections, partly at South Kensington, have now been dispersed 
and some of these nodules have been obtained and have come under 
our examination, of which the following is a list. They come from 
between the Brooch and Thick coal of Coseley, near Dudley. 



PLANTJS. 

FlLICALES ET PtBRIDOSPERM^E. 

Sphenopteris honinghausi (Brongt.). 
,, cf. artemisicefolioides 

(Crepin). 
Pecopteris miltoni (Artis). 
Alethopteris lonchitica (Schloth.). 
„ decurrens (Artis). 

,, cf. valida (Boulay). 

Neuropteris hctcrophylla (Brongt.). 



Neuropteris obliqua (Brongt.). 

,, gigantea (Sternb.). 

„ tenuijolia (Schloth.). 

Odontoptcris. 

Equisetales. 

Catamites suckovii (Brongt.). 
Calamocladus equisctiformis (Schloth.). 
Annularia radiata (Brongt.). 

„ galioides (L. & H.), 

Calamostachys. 



ON THE FOSSIL FLORA AND FAUNA OF THE MIDLAND COALFIELDS. Ill 



Li COPOPIALBS. 

Lepidodendron ophiurus (Brongt.). 
Lepidophyllum lanceolalum (L. & H.). 
Cyperites bicarinata (L. & H.)- 
Cordaitales, &c. 

Bhabdocarpus elongatus (Kidst. ). 
Trigonocarpus, sp. 

Mr. Laurie Russ has also collected for me in the Bloxwich or 
northern part of the coalfield from the Shallow seam at the Sneyd Pits, 
Essington; where he obtained : — 



ANIMALIA. 

Myriapoda. 

Euphoberia ferox (Salter) 

Lamellibranchiata. 

Carbonicola aquilina (Sow.). 
„ similis (Brown). 



PLANTJE. 

Lycopodiales. 

Lepidodendron, sp. 
Lepidostrobus variabilis (L. & H.). 
Lepidophloios acerosus (L. & H.). 

„ sp. 

Sigillaria discophora (Konig). 



ANIMALIA. 
Lamellibranchiata. 

Carbonicola acuta (Sow.). 
Pisces. 

Bhizodopsis sauroides (Will.). 

sp. 
Megalichthys, sp. 
Ccelacanthus elegans (Newb.). 

sp. 

Platysomus parvulus (Will.). 

sp. 

From the Shallow seam, Wood Farm Colliery, Bloxwich, he also 
obtained: — 



Lamellibranchiata. 

Carbonicola aquilina (Sow.). 
,, obtusa (Hind), 

sp. 
Naiadites, sp. 

Pisces. 



PLANTS. 
Lycopodiales. 

Lepidodendron ophiurus (Brongt.). 
„ obovatum (Sternb.). 

Lepidostrobus variabilis (L. & H.). 
Stigmaria ficoides (Sternb.). 

ANIMALIA. 
Annelida. 

Spirorbis pusillus (Mart.). 
» sp- 

Crustacea. 
Carbonia, sp. 

Shropshire and Worcestershire. 
The specimens sent in so far from these districts are not of sufficient 
importance to be recorded here. 



Diplodus, sp. 
Megalichthys, sp. 
Bhizodopsis, sp. 
Platysomus, sp. 



The Excavation of Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales 
and the West of England. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor Lapworth {Chairman), Mr. W. G. Fearnsides (Secre- 
tary), Dr. Herbert Lapworth, Dr. J. E. Marr, Professor W. W. 
Watts, and Mr. G. J. Williams. 

[Plate III.] 

Fourth Report on Excavations among the Cambrian Rocks of Comley, 
Shropshire, 1910, by E. S. Cobbold, F.G.S. 

A further grant having been made in 1910 for the continuation of the 
excavations at the Comley area, I devoted my attention to making 



112 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

additional excavations at and near the critical locality known as Robin 's 
Tump, working out the sequence of, and collecting and determining the 
fossils yielded by, the Cambrian rocks at this part of the area. The 
positions of these new excavations can be sufficiently identified by 
reference to the map published with my previous Eeport. In that 
Report x I pointed out that so far as the excavations had then been 
carried out, ' the evidence points to the conclusion that the greenish 
micaceous sandstone of Eobin's Tump belongs to the Lower Comley 
Sandstone as previously defined, and that it is overlain unconformably 
by the Conglomeratic Quarry Ridge Grit of Paradoxides age.' 
'Further excavations between 29a and 29b are urgently required.' 
To these further excavations my field work in 1910 was mainly devoted. 

Excavations at Robin's Tump. 
Excavation 29, Summit of Robin's Tump. 

In order to determine the actual relations of the various strata at 
this critical locality, I opened out a shallow trench, some 20 yards long, 
connecting excavation 29a with 29d (see map, 1910, mentioned above) 
and extending almost the whole length of the summit. This new trench 
when completed gave a continuous section of the rocks concerned, and 
is here plotted to the scale of 12 feet to the inch, or T \± (fig. 1). 

Fio. 1. — Section exposed by excavation at the top of Robin's Tump, Comley, 
1909-10, showing unconformity between the Quarry Ridge Grits and the Lower 
Comley Sandstone. 

*e< ■» « 
N E. / 






f 




i **" / 7 — *Z^~3**^ j- A s.w 



Feet y 2 y* 



S } Exc.29d. 



Quarry Ridge Grits 0?^?J Lower Comley Sandstone with Calcareous Bands /////// 
Surface of Unconformity — ' -^ Faults / 



y' 



Note. — The continuous shaded parts denote the actual excavations made. The 
upper full line denotes the profile of the summit seen above the excavation, and the 
detached shaded portions the positions of the natural exposures. 



Visible Evidences of the Surface of Discordant Superposition. 
The left-hand (north-east) end represents excavation 29a. Here (as 
pointed out in the Sheffield Report) the Quarry Ridge Grits lie discord- 

1 Brit. Assoc. Report, Sheffield, 1910. 



British Association, 81s£ Report, Portsmouth, 1911.] 



Plate III. 



Unconformity between the Quarry Ridge Grits and the Lower Comley Sand- 
stone at Robin's Tump, Comley. Excavation No. 29. 1910. 




Fig. 2. — -Excavation No. 29a, N.E. end of the section. Length about 6 feet. 




Fig. 3. — Excavation No. 29d, S.W. end of the section. Length about 4 feet. 
The white patches below B are pieces of grey fossiliferous limestone wedged into a 
cleft in the calcareous rib. 

Illustrating the Report on the Excavation of Critical Sections in the Palaeozoic 
Rocks of Wales and the West of England. 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN TttE PALEOZOIC ROCKS OP WALES, ETC. H3 

Qiitly upon the Lower Coniley Sandstone, and that the discordance is 
not due to faulting is rendered highly probable by the existence of 
cavities or burrows in the lower strata, which are filled with the material 
of the upper beds. 

At two fresh spots along the line of the new excavation the same 
surface of discordance was laid bare. They are shown in fig. 1 and 
marked Xi, Xa. In these, as in that of excavation 29a, the surface of 
discordance rises towards the south-west. 

At 29d the eroded surface takes a sinuous line, which is roughly 
horizontal and a distinct hollow is shown, but the bedding of the 
superior group is obscured, within the limits of the excavation, by sur- 
face debris. 

It will be seen from the section, fig. 1, that the Quarry Ridge 
Grits occur in patches on the surface of Robin's Tump above the excava- 
tion, and may perhaps there form a practically continuous outcrop above 
the Lower Cambrian. The four repeats of the basement bed shown in 
the figure along the line of the new excavation are, in my opinion, due 
to little faults, some of which are actually visible in the excavation 
itself. 

The right (south-west) portion of the section is the excavation 29a 1 
of the Sheffield Report. In this a rib of dark calcareous rock protrudes 
from the eroded surface of the Lower Comley Sandstone. This rib 
allows of a pocket to the right of it, the sides and base of the pocket 
being all visible. This pocket contained the fossiliferous rock blocks 
alluded to in the Third Report as 'nodules.' Further study and the 
new excavations made it clear that these blocks, which contain Lower 
Comley fossils, are actually pebbles lying in the pocket of erosion and 
in a matrix of Upper Comley (Quarry Ridge Grit). From the gritty 
matrix surrounding these pebbles I collected a free cheek of Parad- 
oxides, only the pebbles themselves afforded me the Lower Comley 
fossils. 

In a transverse cleft in the projecting calcareous rib two or three of 
these Lower Comley limestone pebbles are to be seen, wedged fast with 
the gritty matrix of the Paradoxides beds. Of this exposure a good 
photograph (Plate III., fig. 3) was secured, showing the calcareous rib, 
ABC; the pocket, D; and the pebbles in the cleft, under the letter B. 
The large block above belongs to the upper series, but is not in situ. 
The new excavation also showed two additional ribs of the calcareous 
rock as integral parts of the Lower Comley Sandstone, but their con- 
tact with the superior beds is not visible. These are indicated by the 
letters Y,, Y 2 on the section, and from its position and thickness I am 
of opinion that Y x is the same band as that encountered in excavation 
No. 29c (Sheffield Report), where the contact was observed. Y 2 is a 
much thicker band, and probably not a repetition by faulting of either 
of the other two bands. 

Visible Discordance of Dip and Strike between the Lower and Upper 

Series at Robin's Tump. 

As pointed out in the Third Report, the beds referred to as Lower 
Comley appeared in excavation 29a to show a discordance both in dip 
1911. I 



Ill REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

unci in strike with respect to the local Quarry Eidge Grit, and 1 have 
secured a good photograph of that exposure also (Plate III., fig. 2). 
The bedding, indicated by the direction of the hammer handles, and the 
strikes of the rocks of both series are well shown. The dip of the upper 
series is about 45° and that of the lower about 55°, and the dis- 
cordance of strike amounts to about 30°. 

Relative Ages oj the Upper and Lower Groups at Robin's Tump. 

The Upper Comley (Middle Cambrian) age of the grits above the un- 
conformity at Robin's Tump is shown by the fact that they afforded 
the several specimens of Dorypyge Lakei (Cobbold) which I obtained 
from one of the Grit beds near x*, on the section, and by the Parad- 
oxides cheek from 29d alluded to above. 

The Lower Comley (Lower Cambrian) age of the lower beds at 
Robin's Tump may, I believe, be regarded as established by the fact 
that the dark calcareous bands present in them are identical in cha- 
racter with those that form integral parts of the Lower Comley Sand- 
stone series elsewhere (Excavation No. 30, Sheffield Report, and Exca- 
vation No. 4, bed a, Dublin Report). The exact systematic position of 
the calcareous bands of Robin's Tump in the Lower Comley series how- 
ever is unsettled. No such band was seen in Excavation No. 1 (Dublin 
Report), which exhibited some 50 feet of beds immediately below the 
Olenellus Limestone of the Comley Quarry. It seems probable, there- 
fore, that the horizon covered by the unconformity at Robin's Tump is 
considerably below the top of the Lower Comley Sandstone. 

Supplementary Excavations in the Neighbourhood of 

Robin's Tump. 

Excavation No. 41, South-West of Hill House. 

At a point close to the letter R of the words ' Lower Comley Sand- 
stone ' on the map (see Sheffield Report) a natural exposure of green 
micaceous sandstone was opened up, and the following section of about 
15 feet of beds, with a south-easterly dip of about 50°, was exposed. 

East End of the Section. 

ft. in. 

(a) Band of hard sandstone 

(b) Clayey material 9 

(f ) Rubbly sandstone with brown patches containing one or 

more species of Hyotithm 3 

(d) Band of clayey material 1 3 

(e) Rubbly sandstone 2 

(/) Sandy flags, splitting well, and showing tracks of organisms 

on the surfaces of the beds 9 

West End of the Section. 

The tracks &¥& well-marked depressions on the upper surfaces of the 
beds, with corresponding raised casts upon the lower surfaces, and are 
unlike anything I have yet seen in the Comley area. The burrows 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PAL/EOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, ETC. L15 

obtained from Excavation No. 30 (Sheffield Report) are of the nature 
of tubes in the body of the sandstone. 

Excavation No. 42, West of Hill House. 

At a point close to the K of the words ' Wrekin Quartzite ' on the 
map a few natural exposures of reck were visible on the surface. On 
opening these up, the rock was found to be a dark-blue quartzite inter- 
calated with yellowish sandstone, but the beds are so much fractured 
that no definite section could be measured. The dip is nearly vertical 
and the general strike north and south. Several trial openings between 
Nos. 41 and 42 failed to reach solid rock. 

Excavation No. 43, near Spring, South of Robin's Tump. 
A spring is indicated on the map (Sheffield Eeport) about 150 yards 
south of Eobin's Tump. The Lower Comley Sandstone found on the 
Saddle, in Excavation No. 29 (Sheffield Eeport), is traceable by surface 
debris up to this spring, where it is succeeded southwards by indications 
of shale. Openings made just above and south of the spring proved the 
existence of shale, with a north and south strike and a nearly vertical 
dip, and containing at least one band of rotten-stone, plentifully charged 
with Orthis (Orusia) cf. lenticularis fVYahl.). 2 The shales vary a good 
deal in hardness within a few yards and are strongly reminiscent of 
those of Excavations Nos. 20, 21, 25, 26 (Sheffield Eeport); they may 
therefore be assigned to the Shoot Rough Road group. 

Conclusion. 

The stratigraphical relations of the Cambrian rocks of the Comley 
area, as they have been laid bare during the excavations carried on 
under the auspices of the Excavation Committee, were summarised in 
my previous Report (Sheffield, 1910). But these excavations have also 
yielded me during their progress a large array of Cambrian fossils. 
Most of these Trilobites have now been described and figured by myself 
in papers read during the last two years before the Geological Society 
of London, and the Brachiopods from the higher horizons of Shoot 
Rough Road have been described by Dr. C. A. Matley. 3 The Hyo- 
lithidce and Brachiopoda of the lower horizons have not yet been fully 
determined. 

When it is borne in mind that the excavations already made deal 
with only a small portion of the collective area occupied by the Cam- 
brian of Shropshire, it is evident how very desirable it is for the sake of 
British geology that the excavation work shall be continued. 

2 Dr. Matley has very kindly assisted me with this identification. 

3 See Cobbold, Q.J.O.S., vol. lxvi., 1910. pp. 19-51, plates iii. to viii., and 
vol. lxvii. 



I 2 



116 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Composition and Origin of the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. — Sixth 
Report of the Commit'ee, consisting of Mr. A. Harker {Chairman), 
Mr. E. Greenly (Secretary), Dr. J. Horne, Dr. C. A. Matley, 
and Professor K. J. P. Orton. 

During the autumn, not long after the presentation of the last report, 
the map of Anglesey, in connection with which the work of this Com- 
mittee has been done, was completed. The presentation of this report 
finds some of the analyses already incorporated into the manuscript of 
chapters of the forthcoming memoir, which will accompany the map. 

As indicated in the report for 1910, the principal part of Mr. 
Hughes' rather limited opportunities for research work has been given 
to rocks belonging to the great Schistose Complex, chiefly with a view 
to determining the origin of the completely reconstructed metamorphic 
types. 

No. 638 A. Ysgubor Fawr, Capel Soar. 

Si0 2 

A1 2 3 

Fe 2 3 

FeO 

CaO 

MgO 

K 2 

Na,0 

H,0 (at 110°) 

H 2 (above 110°) 

998-8 99-90 

This is a chloritic siliceous schist of sedimentary origin, with sur- 
viving sedimentary structures, that is the ' country rock ' of the S.E. 
part of the central district of the Island. In it occur many quartzites 
and limestones, as well as the basic schist whose analysis was given in 
the last report. On its further side it adjoins mica-schists that are 
completely reconstructed. 



I. 


II. 


4-25 


7413 


4-52 


14-53 


076 


073 


202 


2-06 


0-00 


o-io 


1-09 


1-08 


1-18 


1-24 


471 


4-78 


015 


0-14 


114 


111 



No. 126 A. Homblende-epidote Schist, Sam Fraint. 

I. 

SiO, 45-86 

18-85 

5-73 

. 5-43 

11-61 

6-73 

2-00 

2-63 

HjO (at 110°) 0-05 

H 2 (above 110°) 1-34 



A1 2 3 

Fe 3 3 

FeO 

CaO 

MgO 

K 2 

NajO 



II. 

45-89 
18-76 
5-70 
5 45 
11-68 
6-80 
1-99 
2-59 
006 
1-37 



100-23 100-29 

This is a hornblende-epidote schist of the S.E. district, in which 
occur also the beautiful glaucophane-schists (analysed by Dr. Washing- 
ton), and also mica-schists of disputed origin. The analysis completes 
a series from that district, among which are those from the pillowy 
diabase lavas. 



ON fHE CRYSTALLINE ROCKS OF AN&LfcgfiY. 117 

No. 528 A. Clegyr Summit] Llanrhyddtdd. 

I. It. 

Si0 2 59-61 59-63 

AL,0 3 1963 19-56 

Fe,0 3 2-62 270 

Feb 3-61 3'56 

CaO 2-85 2-80 

MgO 2-01 2-09 

KjO 3-60 3-52 

NajO 356 3-47 

HL.0 (at 110°) 0-24 022 

H.,0 (above 110°) 2-51 254 



100-24 100-09 

This is from the least altered portion of a large and remarkably 
uniform formation that occupies a great part of the west of Anglesey, 
and is very conspicuous along the western coast. It is finely clastic, 
but with rather peculiar structures, both on the large and the micro- 
scopic scale, and has been analysed with the view to determining 
whether it ought to be regarded as an ordinary sediment or as volcanic 
tuff. The analysis was undertaken at the especial suggestion of Dr. 
Home, who examined the coast sections with the secretary in the 
spring. It will be seen at once that the rock is not an ordinary sedi- 
ment. Incidentally, it is likely that this rock, now that its composition 
is known, will throw considerable light on the perplexing rocks that 
were analysed in the first years of the work of this Committee. 

Dolomite in Carboniferous Limestone, 600 yards N. of Tros y Marian, 

Penmon. 

I. II. 

Residues insoluble in 20 per cent. HC1 1-27 1-23 

AU.O,+Fe s 3 

CaO . 

MgO . 

5 CO a . 



1-94 196 

32-14 3218 

18-33 18-42 

45-96 4605 



Per cent, of CaC0 3 57'39 5746 



99-64 9984 

57-39 5746 

MgC0 3 38-34 3842 

This rock is closely allied to the one whose analysis was published 
last year. It completes a series from the Carboniferous. 

No. G65 A. Diorite on margin of Picrite, Llaneilian. 

I. II. 

Si0 2 48-87 48-76 

This silica percentage was taken to obtain an idea of the variations 
of the series of intrusions to which the well-known hornblende-picrites 
belong. A similar rock from another district was given in the report 
for 1908. 

Mr. Hughes is now in London, and, by the kindness of the Director 
of the Geological Survey, is carrying on his work for some time in 
the laboratory at Jermyn Street, in order to be able, while doing so, to 



118 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

study the methods pursued in that institution. Some important rocks 
of the Schistose Complex still remain unexamined chemically. These 
are now being done, and, as it is hoped that the portions of the memoir 
in which they will be described will be written during the coming 
winter, it is likely that this group of analyses will complete the work of 
this Committee. When certain older analyses, some published, some 
unpublished, are added to those done under its auspices, the body of 
chemical evidence bearing on the problems presented" by the crystalline 
locks of Anglesey will be unusually large. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed for one year more, using 
during that time the balance remaining, but without any further grant 
of money. 



Characteristic Fossils.— Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
P. F. Kendall {Chairman), Mr. W. Lower Carter (Secretary), 
Professor W. S. Boulton, Professor G. Cole, Dr. A. R. Dwerry- 
house, Professors J. W. Gregory, Sir T. H. Holland, and S. H. 
Reynolds, Dr. M. C. Stopes, Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. Marr, 
Dr. A. Vaughan, Professor W. W. Watts, and Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward, appointed to consider the preparation of a List of 
Characteristic Fossils. 

Tins Committee, appointed at the Sheffield Meeting, held a preliminary 
meeting of the members present at Sheffield at the Victoria Hall, on 
September 7, 1910, when the subject was discussed and suggestions 
were made as to the lines on which the work should be carried out. It 
was resolved to consult teachers of geology and to submit to them the 
suggestions of the Committee. 

The Chairman and Secretary have been in correspondence with 
the members of the Committee, and have submitted to them the follow- 
ing questions — 

(1) What should constitute a characteristic fossil? 

(2) How many lists would be needed for various grades of students? 

(3) How many fossils should be included in each list? 

(4) To what extent should the geological formations be subdivided 
for this pur])ose ? 

(5) To what classes of geological teachers should the circular be 
sent ? 

(6) Do you approve of the preparation of preliminary lists of forma- 
tions and fossils by a small sub-committee of experienced teachers, 
which should be circulated round the Committee for revision and sug- 
gestions before the several divisions are submitted to specialists? 

Answers to these questions have been received from nearly all the 
members of the Committee and when they are completed and tabulated 
they will be embodied in a circular of suggestions which will be sent to 
teachers of geology for their consideration. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of o/. for print- 
ing and postages. 



OCCUPATION OF A TABLE AT THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 110 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. Hickson (Chairman), 
Mr. E. S. Goodrich (Secretary), Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor 
A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. McIntosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer. 
Mr. G. P. Bidder, Dr. W. B. Hardy, and Professor A. D. Waller, 

The British Association table at Naples has been occupied during the 
past session by the Hon. Mary Palk, Mr. J. Bayley Butler, and Mr. 
W. O. Bedman King. 

The following reports of the work done by these investigators have 
been received. 

The Hon. Mary E. Palk reports: ' I occupied the British Associa- 
tion table at the Naples Zoological Station for six months from 
November to May. 1 was engaged in examining a large body of 
unknown function occurring within the Zocecium of certain Bryozoa, 
notably in Flustra papyrea (Pallas), which displays a peculiar structure 
and will take no differential stain. I was not able to come to any 
definite conclusion as to the nature of this body, which appears to be 
an organ, not a parasitical growth, but hope eventually, by comparing 
similar structures in various Bryozoa, to be able to elucidate the 
matter. ' 

Mr. J. Bayley Butler, University College, Dublin, reports: ' I beg 
to report that I occupied the British Association table at Naples from 
January 12 to March 20. I desire to thank the Committee for having 
granted me the use of their table, and I wish at the same time to 
express my sense of indebtedness to the members of the staff of the 
Naples Zoological Station for the assistance they so readily accorded 
to me. Two lines of investigation were pursued, in both of which 
further work is necessary before writing a final report. I shall con- 
tinue the experiments during the year and make due acknowledgment 
to the British Association when publishing the results. In the first 
place I was studying the rate and character of the regeneration in 
appendages of Isopods (two species of Idothea) under ordinary condi- 
tions in an aquarium, with a view to determining any alteration that 
changes in the environment may effect. Secondly, I carried out some 
few experiments on the reaction to light of the large Copepod Anomalo- 
ccra Patersoni (Templeton). This species differs in its behaviour from 
most Copepods in plankton, since it swims only in the surface layers 
of the sea (at any rate in the adult) and does not appear to take part 
in the general periodic depth migrations. I believe that the investi- 
gation of its reaction to light and gravity will prove of scientific 
value. ' 

Mr. W. 0. Eedman King reports : ' I have been in Naples now just 
five weeks (July 18). The work has been going on fairly satisfactorily. 
So far I have been for the most part making experiments upon the 
temperature coefficients of the velocity of development of Sphaerechinus 
and Arbacia. These have not been hitherto worked out fully and 
satisfactorily. I had wanted to try some experiments upon the effect 
of acids and alkalis on sea-urchin hybrids, in order to test Tennent's 
work; but the above-mentioned sea-urchins are the only forms that are 



120 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

ripe just now, and they do not cross with sufficient readiness for my 
purpose. I expect to remain in Naples until September 6. ' 

A meeting of zoologists was held in London on March 31 to consider 
what steps should be taken to maintain a table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples for investigators of British nationality. As a result of that 
meeting a promise has been received of financial assistance, not exceed- 
ing 1001., extending over a period of two years, pending arrangements 
to be made for placing the British table on a permanent footing. 

As some time may yet elapse before the necessary arrangements can 
be completed, the Committee ask for reappointment by the British 
Association with a grant of half the usual amount — 501, 



Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Report of the Committee, 

consisting of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bather 

(Secretary), Dr. P. L. Sclater, the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 

• Dr. W. E. Hoyle, the Hon. Walter Rothschild, and Lord 

Walsingham. 

Since the 1910 Report systematic search through literature has pro- 
ceeded up to the letter E. Further, a group of especially troublesome 
and difficult books has been dealt with, e.g. : — • 

Oken's 'Isis,' 41 vols., 1817-48; 

Froriep's ' Notizen,' 102 vols., 1821-50; 

Ersch and Gruber, ' Allgem. Encyclopaedic, ' 103 vols., 1818-50; 
and many other volumes have been indexed out of the general order as 
asked for or required — as, for instance, the works of Jacob Huebner, 
which are now in. Mr. Sherborn's hands in hope that he may obtain 
some further information as to the dates of their publication. 

The search for rare literature continues, and Mr. Sherborn desires 
to thank Dr. Karpinski for obtaining for him the second volume of the 
Trudui of the St. Petersburg Mineralogical Society, 1831 ; Dr. 
Bashford Dean and Mr. O. F. Cook for a complete set of ' Brandtia ' 
1896-97, both of which works will find a resting place in the British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.) when done with. He also desires to thank Mr. 
Tom Iredale for much valuable help in obscure bird genera. 

The following papers have been written in connection with the 
Index :- — 

' On the dates of publication of Costa's " Fauna del Regno di 
Napoli " 1829-1886,' ' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.' (8) v., 1910, 132. 

'A collation of J. C. Chenu's " Illustr. Conch." and a note on 
P. L. Duclos' "Hist. Nat. gen. et part. Coquilles " ' (with Mr. 
Edgar A. Smith), ' Proc. Malac. Soc.,' ix., March 1911. 

' Note on John Curtis ' " British Entom." ' (with Mr. J. Hartley 
Durrant), ' Entom. Month. Mag.,' xlvii., April 1911. 

Your Committee confidently recommend their reappointment, and 
earnestly ask the Association further to support this valuable work by 
a grant of 100?, 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 



121 



Belmullet Whaling Station. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Professor J. Stanley Gardiner 
(Secretary), Professor W. A. Herdman, Rev. W. Spotswood 
Green, Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Dr. H. W. Marett Tims, and Mr. 
R. M. Barrington, appointed to investigate the Biological Problems 
incidental to the Belmullet Whaling Station. 

The Committee have received the following preliminary report from 
Mr. S. T. Burfield, who has proceeded to the fishery for four months : — 

I arrived at the station of the Blacksod Whaling Company on 
Juno 13. This station was opened in 1910, and is situated in Elly Bay 
in the Belmullet Peninsula, Co. Mayo. The ' fishing ' began this year 
in the middle of May, and at the time of my arrival twelve whales had 
been caught. This catch is as shown in the following table : — 



Species 


Total Number 


Length (average) 


Balcenoptera musculus (Linn.) 
B. borealis (Lesson) .... 
B. sibbaldii (Gray) .... 
Physeter macrocephalus (Linn.) 


7 

a 

i 

2 


Feet 
CH 
44" 
71 
57 



As will be seen neither Right whales (Balcena biscayensis) nor 
Humpbacks (Megaptera longimana) had been captured, although both 
these species are found off the west coast of Ireland. 

Since I have been at the station up to the time of writing this report 
(August 1) twenty-seven whales have been brought to the station by the 
two whaling steamers of the Company. These have all been examined 
to some extent. Three of the twenty-seven were Blue whales (Balce- 
noptera sibbaldii, Gray), and the remaining twenty-four were Fin- 
whales (B. musculus). Right whales (Balczna biscayensis) and 
Rudolphi's Rorquals (Balcenoptera borealis) are generally caught earlier 
in the season only, and it is not very likely that specimens will be taken 
again this year. It is quite possible, however, that Sperm whales 
(Physeter macrocephalus) and Humpbacks (Megaptera longimana) 
may yet be caught. 

From the whaler's point of view the present season has been dis- 
tinctly bad. Although the actual catch has been comparatively small, 
the yield of oil per whale has been rather above the average. Generally 
speaking a gravid female gives the best yield, whilst a female with a 
suckling is thin. 

Some information has been obtained on subjects of general interest 
in relation 'to whales and the whale ' fishery,' such as — (a) the general 
factory procedure in connection with the extraction of the oil and manu- 
facture of guano and cattle food; (b) the whaler's point of view as to 
the probable extinction of the larger species of whales; (c) breeding and 
migration, especially the definite routes kept by some whales; (d) the 
blowing of whales; (e) the probable two varfeties of B. musculus, 

The presence of whales off the coast seems to depend to a great 



122 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

extent on the weather. A long spell of fine calm weather appears to 
send the whales farther out, whereas dull, cloudy, and rainy weather 
brings them in. This is especially the case with the Mystacocetes, and 
is probably almost entirely due to the movements of the plankton on 
which these whales chiefly subsist. Of course in very rough weather 
the whalers find it impossible to handle the whales even though they 
may be seen. 

I. Measurements. 

A definite and, wherever possible, complete set of measurements was 
taken of every whale examined. It was found impracticable to obtain 
the distance between the tips of the tail-flukes as intended, as most 
of the flukes are cut off directly the whale is captured to reduce the 
resistance when towing into the station. 

It is intended to examine these measurements more closely later on, 
but a few general conclusions may be noted. 

Balcenoptera musculus. — Average length of whole catch = 61 feet 
9 inches. Number of males = 12. Number of females = 12. 
Average length of males = 61 feet 1 inch. Average length of females 
= 62 feet. 6 inches. From these results it seems, as is generally 
supposed, that about equal numbers of each sex are captured, and that 
the females are slightly larger than the males. As far as can be ascer- 
tained without going into the figures closely, the general proportions of 
these Rorquals agree with those already published by other observers. 

B. sibbaldii. — The average length of the three Blue whales examined 
was 76 feet 2 inches, but of these one was much smaller than the other 
two. All these were females. 

All of the above measurements only refer to the whales captured 
after my arrival. The total lengths of those caught before this have 
been obtained, however, so that the averages will be more trustworthy 
when these are taken into account as well. Unfortunately the sex of 
the individuals is not noted at the station. Corresponding measure- 
ments were taken as nearly as possible in exactly the same way, but 
the weight of the animal distorts the shape of the body when on the 
flensing slip, so that exact correspondence cannot always be obtained in 
some measurements. 

II. External Form. 

The general form of all the specimens seen agreed with previous 
descriptions of the species. In two cases in particular among the 
Balcenoptera musculus the pectoral fins on either side did not corre- 
spond exactly in size. In each case that on the left side was distinctly 
the larger. 

In both B. musculus and B. sibbaldii the pectorals ended in a fairly 
sharp tip, and this tip had an upward turn in the Blue whales, but this 
was very slight in two of the specimens. In many of the whales the 
fins had various small irregular notches round the tip. These appear to 
be injuries, although it is hard to say what could have caused them. 
In one case a larger notch was noticed at the base of the dorsal fin. 

The dorsal fin of Balcenoptera sibbaldii was found to be more pointed 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 123 

at t lie tip than that of B. musculus, but in both cases the exact shape 
varies somewhat. 

The tail fin could not be examined in the adults for the reasons stated 
above, but in the foetal specimens mentioned below the concavity of the 
tail fin was particularly noticeable. The surface of the tail is concave 
beneath, and in the foetus the flukes themselves are bent downwards 
so as to bring the tips towards each other. 

III. Colour Descriptions, &c. 

As most, if not all, the whales must have been dead several hours 
(from six to twelve) before being examined, great care had to be 
exercised in noting actual colours. It is well known that all the colours 
darken after death. In the case of contrasting light and dark (in 
patches, Ac.) the relations would probably not be very much altered for 
some time, so that variations in the arrangement of patches of colour 
were noted. In the case of B. musculus variations in colour-details 
were found to be very common. The asymmetrical jaw-coloration is, 
however, quite definite and constant and the dark patches on the under 
side are often confined to the furrows of the breast folds. 

Specimens of the skin were taken (a) from tail where the second 
layer of black integument is very thick; (b) from the body so as to 
include some of the peculiar white spots ; (c) from breast folds of 
B. sibbaldii to include a portion of a bright yellow patch ; (d) from 
breast folds to include portion of pink coloration (? blcod or pigment). 

IV. Hairs. 

The distribution of these on both B. musculus and B. sibbaldii was 
found to be substantially the same as described by I). G. Lillie (Proc. 
Zool. Soc, 1910). They occur (i) along top of head, (ii) along the side 
of lower jaw, and (iii) as vertical rows at tip of lower jaw. The actual 
numbers in any one of these positions appear to vary somewhat. 

A similar distribution was also found in the foetal specimens of 
B. musculus and B. sibbaldii examined. 

The hairs appear to be rather more numerous on tip of mandible in 
the case of B. sibbaldii than in B. musculus. 

Specimens of hairs with underlying tissues were taken for further 
examination. 

V. Jacobson's Organ. 

In the case of B. musculus the two grooves under the tip of snout 
which represent the openings of this organ generally have short canals 
leading out of the hinder ends of the grooves. These canals are from 
\ to 1 inch in length when they exist, but in some cases there are 
no canals at all. Such canals, so far as I have seen, are absent in 
B. sibbaldii. 

These ducts appeared to be in much the same state in the foetus 
examined. In the case of a fcetus 8 feet long of B. sibbaldii, a short 
duct was present on the right side, but no duct could be detected on the 
left side. 



124 REPORTS ON THE STATE Of SCIENCE. 

Specimens of the ducts with surrounding tissue were taken both 
from adult and foetus. 

VI. The Eye. 

The general appearance of the eye in situ was noted. It is very 
similar in B. musculus and B. sibbaldii. There is a definite series of 
furrows in the integument round the eye. The skin all around the eye 
is almost invariably of the uniform dark blue-grey colour. The eyelids 
are fairly full. 

It was found almost impossible, in the short time which could be 
given to the examination in any one specimen, to observe the muscula- 
tion and innervation of the eye in situ on account of the large amount 
of fatty tissue, &c, round the eyeball. 

Specimens were taken from adults, and whole eyes from the foetus 
also, and on closer examination of these more information may be 
obtained. 

VII. Contents of Stomach. 

The contents of the stomach were examined in nearly every case. 

B. musculus. — In the first three whales examined (captured on 
June 29 and July 3) the stomach and pharynx were found to contain 
large numbers of fish (presumably herrings) up to 5 inches in length. 
In all other whales examined up to the present the stomachs have con- 
tained a varying quantity of small red Crustacea. In the intestines 
these are reduced to a terra-cotta coloured fluid in which the eyes of the 
Crustacea appear as floating blue spots. The faeces consist of a semi- 
solid terra-cotta mass. Specimens of the contents of the stomach both 
in the case of fish-feeding and crustacea-feeding have been preserved. 

B. sibbaldii appear never to feed on anything but the small Crus- 
tacea (the ' krill ' of the whalers). 

VIII. Parasites. 

1. The Baleen of both B. musculus and B. sibbaldii is generally 
largely covered with the Copepod Balcenophilus unisetus. These are 
apparently always to be found on B. sibbaldii. In the case of B. mus- 
culus they are sometimes almost absent. Both the nauplius larvae 
and adults can be detected. When comparatively few of these parasites 
are present they are generally on the inner part of the baleen plates. If 
larger numbers of the younger stages are present, they appear to be 
chiefly on the outer part of the plates. 

2. The Body. — B. sibbaldii: No external parasites on body wall 
were found in any specimen. B. musculus : In some cases the para- 
sitic Cirripede Pennella batcenoptera (Kov. & Dan.) was found. The 
external portions of these averaged about 6 inches in length. They 
are generally found in a position not far behind the ear, but in some 
cases were found fairly high up on the side nearer the tail. The 
greatest number found on one whale was five. 

3. The Gut. — No parasites were found in the gut of B. musculus. 
In some parts of the gut of B. sibbaldii large numbers of parasites were 
found. They appear superficially to be of two kinds, one of which 
is very like the Echinorhynchus described by Professor Collett in Bal<z- 
noptera borealis (Proc. Zool. Soc, 1886). 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 125 

IX. Foetus. 

Efforts have been made to obtain a very small foetus, but with no 
success up to the present. Five foetus have been examined. Four of 
these were B. musculus and one was B. sibbaldii. 

A full set of measurements has been taken of these as for adults. 
All these were too large for embryological work, the smallest being 
nearly five feet in length, and the largest about eight and a half feet: 

Several interesting specimens were taken from these, e.g., (a) Pec- 
toral fin (for the extra digit found by Kukenthal) ; (b) Ovaries and 
ducts; (c) Heart and great vessels; (d) Bodies which appear to be 
thyroids; (e) Jacobson's organ; (/) Part of jaw to show beginning of 
whalebone. 

X. — Just inside the tip of lower jaws two small white spots were 
noticed in B. musculus. In these is a small valve-like flap partly cover- 
ing a small opening. These openings lead into ducts each about an 
inch long extending backwards and slightly downwards. The openings 
ai these canals are about half an inch apart. 

At present I am uncertain what these organs are, as I can find no 
reference to them in literature. 

Aug. 1, 1911. S. T. Burfield. 

The Committee consider that the investigation of the whales brought 
into this whaling station on the coast of Ireland is of great importance 
for the knowledge of the natural history and anatomy of these mam- 
mals. They hope to report more fully next year on the results obtained 
when the specimens secured by Mr. Burfield will have been examined. 
There already seems to be a diminution in the number of whales off the 
West Coast of Ireland, and hence the present whale fishery is unlikely to 
bo continued for more than three or four years. 

The Committee consider that it is imperative that the present in- 
vestigations should be continued next year. The Association gave a 
grant of 307-., which Mr. Barrington has generously supplemented by 
a gift of a like amount. This will pay the expenses of the present year, 
perhaps leaving a balance of 107. 

The Committee ask for reappointment, with a grant of 50L, for the 
season of 1912, when it is hoped to send an investigator (probably Mr. 
Burfield) as soon as the fishery opens, so that any catch of the rare 
Balcenoptera borealis and Physetcr macrocephalus may be investigated. 



Experiments in Inheritance. — Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman), Mr. K. Douglas Laurie 
(Secretary), Professor R. C. Punnett, and Dr. H. W. Marett 
Tims. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

The experiments have yielded results bearing upon several prob- 
lems : — 

(1) In the first place all my yellow mice appear to be heterozygous 
in respect of their yellow coat colour, none which have been fairly 
tested breeding true to yellowness, but on the other hand giving off- 



126 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

spring which include, in addition to yellows, a proportion of individuals 
whose colour is other than yellow. 

Yellow X yellow (25 ma tings) = 53 28 

Yellow X other colours (53 matings) = 124 113 

The anomalous heredity of the yellow coat colour in mice is thus con- 
firmed. 

(2) In the matings yellow x yellow the proportion of yellow to 
non-yellow individuals in the F l generation is 2 : 1 instead of the familiar 
3:1. This harmonises with the results of Cuenot, Castle, and Durham, 
and suggests that the yellow -bearing gametes do actually conjugate, but 
that the zygotes so produced perish. 

(3) In harmony with the latter suggestion is the fact that the 
number of mice in a litter, when both parents arc yellow, is less than 
when either or both of the parents are of some other colour: — 

Average No. 
of young 

Yellow X yellow (25 matings) 3-64 

Yellow X non-yellow (53 matings) 4-75 

Non-yellow X non-yellow (103 matings) 4-75 

Matings in which one or both parents are albino are not included. 
This quite marked difference is not found by Miss Durham in the mice 
which she bred, but is in agreement with the observations of Cuenot and 
Castle. 

(4) In the matings yellow x other colour the F x generation shows 
the expected normal approximate equality of yellow and other coloured 
individuals. 

The above results, and certain others, will, it is hoped, be set out 
in detail during the present year. The Committee therefore ask to bo 
reappointed for one year without a grant. 



The Formulation of a Definite System on which Collectors should record 
their Captures. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
J. W. H. Trail {Chairman), Mr. F. Balfour Browne (Secretary), 
Dr. Scharff, Professor G. H. Carpenter, Professor E. B. 
Poulton, and Mr. A. G. Tansley. 

The Committee were appointed last year and have dealt with the matter 
by correspondence. They have decided that the Watsonian County 
and Vice-County system should be recommended, but the details are 
still under discussion and it is proposed, before issuing a final report, 
to consult the field clubs and natural history societies of Great Britain 
and Ireland with a view to acquainting them with the ideas of the 
Committee and hearing from them any suggestions they may be 
inclined to make. 

The Committee therefore ask for reappointment. 



ON ZOOLOGY ORGANISATION. ]27 

Zoology Organisation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir E. 
Ray Lankester (Chairman), Professor S. J. Hickson (Secretary), 
Professors G. C. Bourne, J. Cossar Ewart, M. Hartog, W. A. 
Herdman, and J. Graham Kerr, Mr. 0. H. Latter, Professor 
Minchin, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, Professors E. B. Poulton and 
A. Sedgwick, and Dr. A. E. Shipley. 

The Committee summoned a meeting of zoologists to consider what 
steps should be taken : — 

1. To maintain a table at the Zoological Station at Naples for inves- 
tigators of British nationality. 

2. To ensure the continuation of the work that has been done by 
a Committee of the British Association in the compilation of an ' Index 
Generum.' 

• By the permission of the Council the meeting was held in the rooms 
of the Boyal Society in London on March 31. There was a good 
attendance of representative zoologists. 
The Committee ask to be reappointed. 



The Mammalian Fauna in the Miocene Deposits of the Bugti Hills, 
Baluchistan. — Interim Report of the Commdttee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor G. C. Bourne (Chairman), Mr. C. Forster Cooper (Secre- 
tary), Drs. A. Smith Woodward, A. E. Shipley, C. W. Andrews 
and H. F. Gadow, and Professor J. Stanley Gardiner, appointed 
to enable Mr. C. Forster Cooper to make an examination thereof. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

This expedition arrived in Jacobabad in the middle of January 1911, 
and after obtaining the necessary camels, stores, and servants proceeded 
into the Bugti territory and arrived in five days at Kumbhi. Here the 
fossiliferous beds were located and four weeks spent in working out 
the exposures each side of Kumbhi. The beds were then followed out 
to the eastward round the Zen Koh range with varying success, the 
strata in parts being much turned up and unsuitable for the preservation 
of fossils. 

During the last four weeks' of the expedition an important bone bed 
was discovered at Churlando of a different character of deposition from 
the other beds. Owing to the difficult nature of the excavation, the 
lack of suitable labour, and to the fact that very heavy rains delayed the 
work for a week, much still remains to be done in this bed, and the 
interesting specimens obtained warrant its further exploration. 

A considerable collection of mammalian re'mains was obtained from 
the various localities which is now in process of development and clean- 
ing in the laboratories of the natural history branch of the British 
Museum prior to its detailed examination and description. 

The fauna consists largely of Anthracotheres, of which group many 
species are represented in the collection. Remains of extinct orders of 



128 REPORTS Otf THfi STATE OP SCIENCE . 

Kliinoceros are also common, including an interesting new genus now in 
process of examination. 

Fragments of small Artiodactyles also occur, but owing to the char- 
acter of the deposits small forms are seldom preserved. The condition 
of the remains is unfortunately poor as a rule, partly owing to the 
weathering and partly to the damage done by contemporary crocodiles 
at the time of deposition, the remains of these animals being abundant 
as well as the marks of their teeth on the fossils obtained. 

The expedition received much kindness and help from the Govern- 
ment officials, as well as from the ruling chiefs of Dera Bugti. 



The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Twenty-first Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. F. Du Cane Godman (Chairman), 
Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary), Professor S. J. Hickson, Dr. P. L. 
Sclater, and Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 

The Committee were appointed in 1890 and have been annually 
reappointed. Since the last report they have published two parts of the 
' Fauna Hawaiiensis,' and there now remains only a general or intro- 
ductory part to complete the work. The preparation of this part is well 
advanced. 

The Committee ask for reappointment, with the expectation of 
making a final report next year. 



Feeding Habits of British Birds.— Third Report of the Committee, Con> 
sisting of Dr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Mr. H. S. Leioh (Secretary) 
P.ofessors S. J. Hickson, F. W. Gamble, F. E. Weiss, J. Arthur 
Thomson, and G. H. Carpenter, and Messrs. J. N. Halbert, 
C. Gordon Hewitt, Robert Newstead, Clement Reid, A. G. L. 
Rogers, and F. V. Theobald, appointed to investigate the Feeding 
Habits of British Birds by a study of the contents of the crops and, 
gizzards of both adults and nestlings, and by collation of observational 
evidence, with the object of obtaining precise knowledge of the economic 
ttatus of many of our commoner birds affecting rural science. 

The investigation of the feeding habits of the rook, starling, and 
chaffinch has been continued during the past year. Some of the 
correspondents whose names appear in the report for 1909 have again 
sent birds to the Secretary. The Committee again desire to express 
indebtedness to them for their kind assistance. 

During the seven months (June 1, 1910, to December 31, 1910) 
forty birds have been received, the number being made up as follows : 
rooks eight, chaffinches eighteen, starlings fourteen. No birds have 
been received during 1911. Each bird is accompanied by a form filled 
in by the correspondent giving such particulars as are set forth in 
the report for 1909. The contents of the gizzards of 218 rooks, 



ON THE FEEDING HABITS OF BRITISH BIRDS. 129 

MSI starlings, and forty chaffinches have been examined up to May 31. 
The evidence obtained from the examination of these specimens is not 
sufficient to form a correct estimate of the economic value of any one 
of the three birds under investigation. It is hoped, however, that the 
work now in hand will soon be completed and the results arranged 
for publication, and further that the scope of the inquiry will be much 
increased. 

A grant of 51. was again made to the Committee by the Associa- 
tion in 1910. As no further financial assistance had been obtained 
up to the end of July the work has been seriously handicapped ; it has 
been carried on during the past year with the help of a loan of 251. from 
the Manchester University. An application has been made to the 
Development Commissioners for an increased grant, so that the extent 
of the investigation can be increased, and they have just recommended 
that an interim grant of 2501. be made during the current year. This 
will enable the work to be continued at Manchester on a larger scale 
than hitherto, but will not allow of any great development. The Com- 
mittee ask for reappointment without a grant. 



Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report of the Committee consisting of 
Professor A. Dendy (Chairman and Secretary), Sir E. Ray 
La.ntkester, Professor A. Sedgwick, Professor Sydney H. Vines, 
andMv. E. S. Goodrich, appointed to nominate competent Naturalists 
to perform definite pieces of work at the Marine Laboratory, 
Plymouth. 

Since last July the table has been occupied by Mr. J. S. Dunkerly, who 
spent a few days at Plymouth in January last for the purpose of making 
investigations on the Choanoflagellate Protozoa. The use of the table 
was granted to Dr. Lyster Jameson for three weeks in May and June 
last, but Dr. Jameson was obliged to postpone his visit. The use of 
the table has also been granted to Dr. John Tait for the month of 
August 1911, for his investigations on the application of physiological 
methods to the classification of invertebrate animals. 



Map of Prince Charles Foreland. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Mr. G. G. Chisholm (Chairman), Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown 
(Secretary), Sir Duncan Johnstone, and Mr. E. A. Reeves, 
appointed to complete the Map of Prince Charles Foreland, Spitsbergen, 
based on the Surveys of 1906, 1907, and 1909 made by Dr. W. S. 
Bruce. 

The original map was constructed on a scale of two inches to a mile, 
with the heights and depths in feet and fathoms. This was reduced 
to a scale of 1 : 100,000, with heights and depths on the metric 
system. The original of this reduction was sent in final form to the 
1911. K 



130 REPORTS ON THE STATE OE SCIENCE. 

Prince of Monaco, who will publish it from the Oceanographical 
Institute in Monaco. A photograph of that map has been presented 
to the British Association as a report of the work. 

A second reduction on the same scale (1 : 100,000) is being pre- 
pared in feet and fathoms for publication in Britain. 

Beports of the field work in connection with the map have already 
been given at the meetings in Dublin and Sheffield. 



Gaseous Explosions. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Mr. Dugald Clerk and Professor 
Bertram Hopkinson (Joint Secretaries), Professors Bone, Bur- 
stall, Callendar, Coker, Dalby, and Dixon, Drs. Glazebrook 
and Harker, Professors Petavel, Smithells, and Watson, Lieut.- 
Col. Holden, Captain Sankey, Mr. D. L. Chapman, and Mr. H. 
E. Wimperis, appointed for the Investigation of Gaseous Explosions, 
with Special Reference to Temperature. 

During the session 1910-11 the work of the Committee has been 
continued, but from various circumstances — partly break-down of 
apparatus and partly pressure upon the time of various investigators — 
only two Notes have been read. Three meetings have been held, two 
at Mr. Dugald Clerk's rooms at Lincoln's Inn Fields and one at the 
Finsbury Technical College, Leonard Street, City Boad, London, 
E.C. The meetings have been excellently attended and two Notes 
have been presented and discussed, viz., No. 19, on ' The Volumetric 
Heat of Carbonic Acid and Air up to 1000° C.,' by Dugald Clerk, and 
No. 20, on ' The Cyclical Changes of Temperature in a Gas-Engine 
Cylinder at and near the Walls, ' by Professor E. G. Coker. 

A great deal of other work is in hand, which will be included in a 
full report to be given next year. 



The Organisation of Anthropometric Investigation in the British Isles. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Arthur Thomson 
(Chairman), Mr. J. Gray (Secretary), and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

The Committee, through lack of funds, have not been able themselves 
to carry out any measurements of the adult population of the British 
Isles. 

It is however satisfactory to note that the scheme embodied in 
their 1908 report, which is published by the Boyal Anthropological 
Institute, is being widely adopted throughout the British Empire and 
elsewhere. 

The Australian Association for the Advancement of Science has 
resolved that the scheme of this Committee be adopted in all anthropo- 
metric survey work carried out in Australia. At the present time an 
extensive and very complete survey of the school children of Victoria 



ON ANTHROPOMETRIC INVESTIGATION IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 131 

is being organised, for which the scheme of this Committee has been 
adopted. 

The Committee hope to come to an agreement, as far as possible, 
with the German and Vienna Anthropological Societies, who are about 
to hold an Anthropometric Conference at Heilbronn, with the view of 
securing uniformity in methods of measurement. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of 51. to cover 
expenses of correspondence, &c. 



A Prehistoric Site at Bishops Stort ford. —Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor W. Eidgeway (Chairman), Rev. Dr. A. 
Irving (Secretary), Dr. A. C. Haddon, and Dr. H. W. Marett 
Tims, appointed to co-operate with a Local Committee in the excava- 
tion thereof. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

The early facts which suggested the prehistoric interest of this site 
were brought to light in the excavation of a boggy patch of ground in 
the high flank of the Stort Valley at nearly 300' O.D., the idea being 
the formation of a ' lily-pond ' to improve the ground above Maple 
Avenue as a building-site. In this way, by the care of the experienced 
workman, F. Curtis, the complete horse skeleton (on which a paper 
was read last year to Section H by myself, the cogent geological facts 
being treated in a paper read before Section C) was uncovered, in the 
exact position indicated in the photographs. The ' finds ' on the actual 
site, taken altogether, suggest its occasional and repeated occupation 
by nomadic peoples (attracted by the high-level spring, to which the 
physiographic details of the locality are due) after the fashion of a 
modern gipsy-camp. 

In 1910 the following gentlemen formed themselves into a local 
committee for the. further exploration of the site where the horse 
skeleton was unearthed : Eev. A. Irving, D.Sc, B.A. (Chairman and 
Secretary); J. Dockray, Esq., M.D., B.Sc. ; W. Hartigan, Esq., M.D. ; 
Eev. H. Hollingworth, M.A. ; A. W. Nash, Esq., M.A. ; F. S. Young, 
Esq., M.A. ; Mr. H. G. Featherby, C.E. ; Mr. Joseph Day (the pro- 
prietor). In response to the appeal made at the time subscriptions to 
the amount of 11. 2s. were received. Of this sum 61. 2s. was expended 
for skilled labour and contingent expenses. Subsequent subscriptions 
have brought the amount (paid and promised) up to 11Z. 18s. The total 
expenditure up to the end of July 1911 has been 11. 2s., leaving a 
balance of 4L 16s. in the hands of the Secretary for further work. 

In the autumn of 1909 the geological structure of the hill was more 
fully determined by two borings on Mr. Day's land and two on Sir 
John Barker's land above. The facts thus ascertained confirm generally 
those previously known from the two well-sections at the waterworks 
350 yards distant. (See ' Mem. Geol. Survey,' vol. iv., p. 449.) In 
May 1910 the pond was drained and the bottom of it thoroughly 
explored. The mud was first scraped off the bottom and passed by two 

k 2 



132 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

workmen through a screen under the supervision of Mr. H. G. Featherby 
and myself. It was then dug all over to the full depth of a shovel 
without finding the slightest trace of anything that could be associated 
with a modern horse. A considerable addition was made, however, to 
previous prehistoric ' finds, ' and a Holocene molluscan fauna was 
discovered in the bog silt. The silt was in places strewn with shelly 
debris, and it was only with the greatest care that complete specimens 
could be secured for identification. Of these the following have been 
yC identified by Mr. B. B. Woodward, F.G.S., of the British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.) : Helix nemoralis, Hygromia (Helix) hispida, Vitrcea 
nitidula, Succinea putris, Pyramidula rotundata, Helix arbustorum. 
Clausilia bidentata was, I think, also found, but unfortunately got 
crushed at the museum before it was identified. A small bivalve was 
fairly frequently met with, which I have identified at the Jermyn 
Street Museum as Pisidium. 

Of the fossil shells mentioned above it may be pointed out that six 
at least of them have been noted in the Holocene deposits at Staines * ; 
six have been described from the Barnwell Gravels 2 ; and three are 
described by Von Hauer as characteristic of the diluvial loess of the 
Rhine and the Danube. 3 

Reasoning from the geological data, the writer of this report was 
led at an early stage of the investigation to conclude that the formation 
of this bog must have taken place in early post-glacial times : that 
inference seems to be confirmed by the palasontological evidence. 

In the paper read last year before Section C 4 palaeolithic and 
neolithic flint implements and ' cores,' fragments of baking-tiles, frag- 
ments of pottery (neolithic and bronze periods), primitive bricks moulded 
with human hands, an ingot of crude bronze, fragments of charcoal, 
and a variety of erratic boulders are enumerated. These were recovered 
by turning over the materials which had been wheeled out of the pond- 
basin, together with several missing small bones of the skeleton. The 
tile-fragments and mammalian bone-fragments are numerous ; a caudal 
vertebra of Bos, and a few molars of Bos and Equus were also found; 
and the vegetable contents of the beast's paunch,' reduced to a state 
of peat (one cake of it strongly stained with phosphate of iron), partly 
within, partly without, the trunk of the skeleton, the skeleton having 
as a whole been deformed and the vertebral column thrown into a curve 
by the invasion of the bog by a later landslide on the side where the 
feet lay. 

Owing to the adverse weather of the early spring and the indifferent 
health of the Secretary nothing further was attempted; and when the 
fine weather set in time was lost through the difficulty of obtaining 
the services of the specially experienced workman who excavated the 
pond-basin. Little progress, therefore, has been made, but the results 
obtained have added to our knowledge, and go to confirm the in- 
ferences which had been drawn from the facts previously known. 

1 See Kennard and Woodward (P.G.A.), vol. xix. (p. 252 fi.). 

2 B. B. Woodward, ibid., vol. x. (p. 356 ff.). 

3 See Die Geologie (Holder, B.A., Wien), by F. Ritter von Hauer (p. 696). 

4 Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1910, p. 616. 



ON A PREHISTORIC SITE AT BISHOP'S STORTFORD. 133 

Method of procedure: — 

(i) A trench four feet deep was driven to the right, and a similar 
trench to the left, from the line of the present streamlet below the 
pond well into the undoubted London clay in situ behind the ' rubble- 
drift ' ; 

(ii) A trench has been dug below the pond up the line of the 
ancient gully, which was found completely choked with remanie clay 
of the character of blackish bog-silt. At a depth of four feet below 
the present surface of the hill-slope a fine angular flinty shingle with 
several erratics was dug into, clearly marking the line of the ancient 
gully which the stream had cut into the flank of the hill in post- 
glacial times. This was observed to be in a line with similar in- 
dications of the ancient line of the stream, across which the trunk of 
the horse was seen to have lain when it was removed in 1909. It 
may be said that no one who has had extensive observation of the 
Eocenes could recognise these phenomena as having anything to do 
with the London clay, which constitutes the solid geology of the hill 
behind, as it had been proved in the trial-borings of the autumn of 
1909, and exposed in recent excavations for building along the same 
contour of the hill slope. Of the ' finds ' from this trench on the 
arterial line of the ancient gully the following list is given: — 

A. Mammalian remains : — 

Four very rotten fragments of split marrow-bone, one lower 
premolar of Equus (broken). 

B. Human artefacts : — 

Fragment of a gritstone hand-mill, two fragments of 
extremely primitive half-baked tiles; one clinker; five or six 
(apparently) ' pot boilers ' ; about a dozen flints, possibly recog- 
nisable as ' cores ' or ' scrapers, ' two of them ' patinated. ' 

The erratics from the three trenches include : — 

Two good-sized boulders of volcanic ash, small boulder of 
weathered dolerite, a sub-angular fragment of jasper, four moderate- 
sized pebbles of vein-quartz, two rolled fragments of coarse white 
gritstone, a rolled fragment of Bothlschiefer ? (Permian), a slab of 
red ferruginous sandstone (Jurassic?) two inches thick; a slab of 
white fine-grained sandstone (Keuper?) one inch thick. 

To these must be added fiints without number, nearly all in a 
highly weathered condition, some extremely so, several showing the 
etching action of organic (humus) acids, while others bear unmistakably 
the marks of long surface-exposure (possibly during the great Miocene 
elevation) before they were picked up by the early ice, which deposited 
the glacial drift which caps the hill, and from which these erratics must 
have been brought down, since the deposit is at a higher level than the 
true chalky boulder-clay of the district. Eight at least of these 
highly altered flints have been not only bleached but scaled, after the 
fashion of those brought years ago by Captain H. G. Lyons, F.B.S., 
from the Egyptian desert. Scarcely a fresh flint was found in the 
course of the excavations, and it may be inferred that these extremely 
altered flints have been transported in many cases by ice-agency from 



134 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Mercian regions far beyond the present chalk escarpment to the basin 
of the Thames. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed. A grant of 51. is asked for 
to supplement the local fund, for the purpose of continuing the work 
of excavation above the pond, and (with the proprietor's permission) 
extending the operations into the adjoining land. 

Note. — This year (1911) extensive excavations connected with 
public works have been made in the peaty alluvium and the underlying 
glacial shingle of the Stort Valley. Most valuable ' finds ' have come 
to hand from these, including pleistocene mammalian remains, as well 
as bones of Equus and Bos longifrons, the former tallying remarkably 
with the bones of the Maple Avenue skeleton. But as these excava- 
tions do not fall under the purview of your Committee, they are dealt 
with in a separate paper communicated to Section H. 



The Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Dr. R. Munro (Chairman), Professor W. 
Boyd Dawkins (Secretary), Professor W. Ridgeway, Sir Arthur 
J. Evans, Dr. C. H. Read, Mr. H. Balfour, and Mr. A. Bulleid, 
appointed to investigate the Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of 
Glastonbury in connection with a Committee of the Somersetshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society. (Drawn up by Messrs. 
Arthur Bulleid and H. St. George Gray, the Directors of the 
Excavations.) 

The second season's exploration of the Meare Lake Village by the 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society began on 
June 5, and was continued for three weeks under the joint supervision 
of Messrs. A. Bulleid and H. St. George Gray. The ground excavated 
was situated in the same part of the village and was directly continuous 
with last year's work. 

The digging included the examination of the remaining portion of 
Dwelling-mound VII., the whole of Mound VIII., and portions of 
Mounds IX., X., and XL 

With reference to the construction of the above mounds, two, i.e., 
Mounds VIII. and IX., had special points of interest and call for 
mention here. Taken as a whole, however, this part of the work has 
been up to the present time somewhat disappointing, as little additional 
information has been gained regarding the structure generally apart 
from that already acquired at the Glastonbury Lake Village. 

Mound VIII. was of medium size, consisting of five floors and situ- 
ated N.E. of Mound VII. No hearth was discovered associated with 
the two uppermost floors, which were separated with much difficulty 
throughout. An interesting series of eight superimposed baked clay 
hearths was, however, found belonging to Floors iii., iv., and v., sur- 
rounded by thick layers of fire-ash. The hearths varied from 2 feet 
6 inches to 5 feet 3 inches in diameter. 



THE LAKE VILLAGES IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF GLASTONBURY. 135 

Mound IX. was of large size, consisting apparently of two floors, 
and was only partially examined. Below the clay was a thick layer of 
black earth composed of charcoal, fire-ash, and debris containing quan- 
tities of bones of animals and fragments of pottery. Under the black 
earth a well-preserved platform of timber was disclosed, bordered by the 
remains of the wattled wall of a circular dwelling. This timber was 
chiefly arranged in a N.E. and S.W. direction, and by far the larger 
number of the wall-posts were made of squared oak, a feature not 
noticed in the dwellings previously examined. 

The relics discovered this season were hardly as numerous as last 
year. A summary of them is appended. 

Bone. — The bone objects were not very numerous. The most 
interesting specimen is a smooth pin without head, having a long recess, 
or notch, along the middle of the shaft. A similar object was found 
with Late-Celtic remains on Ham Hill, S. Somerset (Taunton Museum), 
and another on the Roman site at Iwerne, Dorset (Pitt-Rivers Museum, 
Farnham, Dorset). The other specimens include two tibiae of horse 
(sawn and perforated), two large polishing-bones, pins, a dress- 
fastener, part of a drill-bow, and two objects of worked bird-bone. 

Worked Carpal and Tarsal Bones of Sheep or Goat. — A large num- 
ber of ' bobbins ' and other objects, showing signs of considerable use, 
have been found, especially in Mound VII. where so many weaving 
appliances were discovered. Many of these bones are perforated in 
different directions; others have transverse markings, some deeply 
grooved and very smooth. 

Worked Shoulder-blades of Ox and Horse.— At the end of last 
season no fewer than thirty-two of these objects had been found, all in 
Mound VII. Four more were collected from the same dwelling this 
year; and two others in adjacent mounds. Two of those found in 
Mound VII. are ornamented with large examples of the dot-and-circle 
pattern. In all instances the bones are smooth, and the longitudinal 
spine had been cut down considerably. Many of them are perforated 
at the articular end (probably for suspension). They have been found 
where weaving implements are abundant, but their use remains to be 
explained. 

Crucibles. — Fragments of two found this year. 

Bronze. — Fifteen objects of this material were uncovered this year, 
but no fibulas are included. There are three finger-rings, one orna- 
mented by a cable pattern, two rivets (one of a new type), an awl, three 
thin moulded bosses, part of a belt-fastener, and a large part of the 
bordering of a perishable scabbard, including the bulbous chape. 
Perhaps the most interesting remains of bronze is a pair of pins with 
disc-shaped heads and arched stems. 

Flint. — In addition to a number of flakes, a scraper and two or 
three finely worked knives have been found. 

(Jlass and other Beads. — The beads are numerous and varied. Nine 
were found last season ; eighteen specimens this year. The collection 
includes two polished bone ring-beads. Six of the beads are of a yellow 
opaque glass, and two pale blue (also opaque). One of the finest speci- 
mens is a ring-bead of clear sea-green glass, and two are dark blue. A 



136 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

small blue bead is ornamented round the sides by a continuous wave 
pattern ; two globular beads of clear white glass are ornamented in 
yellow, one by a spiral device, the other by a herring-bone pattern. 
The smallest bead is a little more than an eighth of an inch in 
diameter. 

Antler. — The numbered objects of this material have now reached 
the total of seventy-three, twenty-four being found this season, includ- 
ing three antlers of roe-deer, one bearing knife-cuts, another being 
shaped as a knife-handle. Nothing of exceptional interest has been 
found this season, many being pieces of cut antler impossible to name. 
The two hammers found have not been perforated for fitting handles. 
Several examples of the so-called ' cheek-pieces,' perhaps used in con- 
nection with the bridles and bits of horses, have been found, but the 
precise use of many of these objects is very doubtful, and their-shaping 
and perforating varies very considerably. 

Weaving -combs of Antler. — Again we have a fine series, bringing the 
former number of twenty-one up to a total of thirty-five. Mound VII. , 
which must have been a weaving establishment, contributes no fewer 
than twenty-nine of the number. No dwelling in the Glastonbury 
Lake Village produced more than nine of these combs. One example 
is dentated at both ends, with twelve and thirteen teeth respectively. 
The largest, having ten teeth, is 7f inches long. Several of them are 
ornamented with transverse and oblique lines, and one, at least, with 
dots-and-circles. 

Iron. — The objects of iron are mostly fragmentary and much cor- 
roded as usual. The ' finds ' include a chisel, knife, file, and an awl in 
its handle of antler; also an earth-anvil. The latter was found on the 
top floor of a mound, and only a foot deep below the flood-soil, through 
which, owing to its weight, it may probably have sunk subsequently to 
the occupation of the village. 

Kimmeridge Shale. — Objects of this material have this season been 
increased from twelve to twenty-one, and they are more numerous than 
in the neighbouring village of Glastonbury. These objects are parts of 
lathe-turned armlets, with three exceptions, viz., a set of three roughly 
cut heavy rings, which may have been used in connection with horse- 
harness. In section one of the armlets (half) measures no less than 
21 mm. by 16 mm. 

Lead and Tin.— Last season three net-sinkers of lead were found, to 
which one has been added this year. The first object of tin has been 
found, viz., a small whorl (? bead) ornamented with encircling lines 
of small punch-marks. 

Querns,. — Compared with the Glastonbury Lake Village these are 
plentiful at Meare, but the circular rotary querns are rare as compared 
with the saddle-shaped specimens, of which some well-preserved 
examples have been found. 

Other Stone Objects. — Parts of circular blocks of stone have been 
found, slightly recessed on one face and having a narrow rim ; they 
show signs of intense heat and may be parts of moulds for casting thin 
bronze. A large assortment of stone hammers and whetstones have 
been found. 



THE LAKE VILLAGES IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OP GLASTONBURY. 137 

Sling-bullets. — Several of the baked clay sling-bullets typical of 
the period have been collected. Under the clay floors of the mounds 
three groups of selected ovoid stones were discovered, the numbers 
being 99, 182, and 347, respectively. 

Spindle-whorls. — The former number of twenty -three has this 
season been increased to forty-three. Most of them are formed from 
discs of lias; a few are of baked clay, two being very large. 

Pottery. — Shards of pottery have been very numerous — some three 
or four hundredweight. All of them have been scrubbed and pre- 
served, being sorted under the numbers of the dwellings. Several com- 
plete pots may probably be built up some day. The proportion of 
ornamented fragments is high as compared with those from the neigh- 
bouring village, and a great many new and highly ornate designs have 
been added to the collection. Very little ornamented pottery was dis- 
covered in the deepest layers ; and much of it bearing typical Late- 
Celtic designs was found just under the flood-soil. The coarser plain 
pots were generally found in the black earth and brushwood below 
the clay floors. 

Human Remains.. — Two pieces of skull and one bicuspid tooth. 

Animal Remains. — Found abundantly. The perforated boars' tusks 
and canine teeth of large dog were no doubt used as personal ornament. 
The enormous number of bones of young animals indicates that the 
inhabitants of this marsh village must have been great meat-eaters. 
The remains of beaver and otter are frequently met with; and also a 
considerable number of bird-bones. 



Artificial Islands in the Locks of the Highlands of Scotland. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Dr. R. Munro (Chairman), Professor 
J. L. Myres (Secretary), Dr. T. H. Bryce, and Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, appointed to investigate and ascertain the Distribution 
thereof. 

The Committee desire in the first place to express their indebtedness 
to their local correspondent, Dom. F. Odo Blundell, of St. Benedict's 
Abbey, Fort Augustus, N.B., at whose suggestion the present inquiry 
was put in hand. Dom. Blundell had already wide experience of the 
problems which it raises, and has placed all his knowledge and energy 
at the disposal of the Committee. 

As the extent of country covered by this inquiry is very large, the 
Committee thought that the first step would be to ascertain the number 
of these islands which are already known as artificial by their immediate 
neighbours, but are not otherwise recorded. Accordingly a circular 
was prepared and printed, and so far 246 copies have been issued. 

The replies show that great interest is taken in the subject and 
many excellent suggestions have been offered as to how the inquiry can 
be made more complete. As was to be expected, the replies to the 
circular in many cases gave details of islands which were already 
recorded in Dr. Munro 's ' Scottish Lake Dwellings ' ; but allowing for 
these, we are now enabled to add to that list no fewer than fifty-three 



138 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

fresh examples : and there is every reason to hope that the present 
shooting season will afford opportunities for recording many more. 
Also local scientific and literary societies will make this a subject for 
discussion at their meetings. 

A few extracts from some of the more instructive letters may be of 
interest. Dr. Th. Johnston, M.A., Assistant to Sir John Murray, in 
the ' Lake Survey of Scotland, ' writes : ' In the great majority of the 
lochs which I have visited, artificial islands exist, either as " islands " 
or more often as r ' cairns " more or less submerged. The existence of 
causeways is frequent, and generally, as you may know, they have a 
bend or turn in them, so that strangers or enemies would probably stejj 
off into deep water. These islands have all a very similar structure 
and formation as far as surface inspection goes, and no doubt if you 
examined them in your diving dress you would find them much the 
same in construction as Cherry Island ' (the popular name for Eilean 
Muireach in Loch Ness). 

Rev. D. Macrae writes from Edderton, Ross-shire: 'In my 
former parish of Lairg, Sutherland, I always considered one at least 
of the two islands at the south end of Loch Shin to be artificial. It 
hears a striking resemblance to fig. 1 on page 2 of your notice. . . . 
I am also reminded that Loch Brora contains what appears to be an 
artificial island and that further north at Loch Clibrig there is an island 
with a distinct causeway to the shore.' 

Mr. O. H. Mackenzie, of Poolewe, suggests that ' the only thing 
to do would be to send some antiquary round to make a thorough 
examination and repoi't. ... As there are boats on all these lochs you 
mention, there would be no difficulty to encounter.' 

Mr. Alex. Curie, Secretary of the Historical Monuments Commis- 
sion, expressed his views as follows: ' In the first place I may assure 
you that nothing but personal inspection will procure at all satisfactory 
information, especially in the far North, where as the native says: 
' There is thousands of time," and where replying to a letter, and far 
less a circular, is a feat rarely attempted. In my Sutherlandshire 
Inventory I noted, for your personal benefit, any artificial islet that 
came to my knowledge . . . but as I said before, to get satisfactory 
evidence the trained eye is absolutely necessary. I accept nothing 
unseen.' Similar advice comes from Mr. 0. H. Mackenzie, of 
Poolewe, as quoted above. He and all the other Highland proprietors 
who have so far been asked have readily promised to assist the inquiry. 

Interesting replies have also been received from Mr. Hew Morrison, 
LL.D., Public Librarian, Edinburgh; Dr. Anderson, Oban ; Mr. Angus 
Grant, Drumallan, Drumnadrochit ; Major McNab, Liphook, Hants; 
and Mr. Erskine Beveridge, LL.D., who in a long letter described 
seven islands in North List, and ten probable ones in the Isle of Mull. 

The difficulty, above noted, of determining whether an island sus- 
pected to be artificial really is so — seems to require that a competent 
judge be sent to inspect the islands as suggested in two of the letters. 
Of course one of the chief difficulties of the inquiry is the sparse'popu- 
lation of the districts where the islands are thought to be numerous. 
It is in fact difficult to find anyone with whom to correspond, but the 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OF HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 13 ( J 

above extracts show that where suitable correspondents are found the 
existence of these islands can be traced. The arrival of the shooting 
tenants will to some extent remedy this. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with balance in hand, and if 
possible a further grant, in order that a paper as exhaustive as possible 
may be prepared for the meeting of 1912 in Dundee. There seems to 
be a peculiar fitness that a paper on these prehistoric remains of North 
Britain be read at that meeting. 

Subjoined is the list of islands so far suggested as artificial. 
Several correspondents have not yet returned the replies which they 
promised, and as the present is only an interim report, it was considered 
unnecessary to trouble them. 



Name of Loch 


District 


Name of Correspondent 


Loch-na Ban More 


Eigg 


Rev. F. McClymont 


Loch Kinellan * 


Strathpeffer 


Mr. H. E. Corbett 


Loch Craggie . 


Lairg 


Mr. John Campbell 


Loch Clibrig 


Lairg 


Rev. Mr. Macrae 


Loch Migdale . 


Lairg 


Mr. Alex. Curie 


Loch .... 


North of Scourie 


>» >» 


Loch Dun na Killie 


South Uist 


Rev. A. McDougall 


Loch na Faoillen * . 


»> «> 


>> 9 9 


Loch a Mhoullin * . 


>» )» 


19 99 


Loch Ard Bornish . 


»> 99 


»» »» 


Loch Ceann a'Bhaigh 


J> Jj 


99 M 


Loch Alt-a-Briac 


>» »» 


»> 99 


Loch Druidibeg 


>> )» 


J» »» 


Loch Ailsh 


Sutherland 


. Mr. D. F. Macdonald, factor 


Loch Vaa 


A vie more 


Mr. Angus Grant 


Loch Pit-youlish 


>> 


>» >> 


Loch Quien 


Bute 


Rev. Mr. Hewitson 


Loch Tollie 


Poolewe 


Mr. D. Mackenzie 


Loch Kernsary 


>> 


»» >> 


Loch Mhic M-Riabhaic . 


,, 


>» >> 


Loch Ach-an-darraich . 


Plockton 


»j »» 


Loch Meiklie . 


Glenurquhart 


Mr. W. Mackay 


Loch Tigh Choimhead . 


Tongue 


Mr. Hew Morrison 


Loch Lundavra 


Lochaber 


Dr. Miller, M.D. 


Loch Kinnord * 


Aberdeenshire 


Mr. J. MacPherson 


Loch Ruthven * 


Inverness 


Mr. R. McLean 


Loch Lora 


Lairg 


Mr. D. Mackenzie 


Loch Calder 


Caithness 


J> »» 


Loch Monkstadt 


Skye 


Mr. K. Macdonald 


Loch an Duin . 


Barra 


Rev. W. Mackenzie 


Loch nan Eala * 


Arisaig 


Mr. Nicolson, C.B. 


Loch Arkaig (partly) 


Lochaber 


Dr. Th. Johnston 


Loch Hoil 


Aberfeldy 


>> 99 


Loch Essan 


Perthshire 


)» 3 J 


Loch Derculich 


>> 


>> 3> 


Loch of Cliff . 


Unst, Shetland 


»» *» 


Loch Achnahinneach* . 


Kintail 


Mr. George Forbes, Fernaig 


Loch Glass * . . . 


Sutherland 


Rev. W. Fraser 


Loch Ussie * . . . 


Strathpeffer 


Mr. H. Fraser, Academy, Dingwall 


Loch Achilty * 


>> 


>> »j 


Loch Moric * . 


>9 


»» 99 


Loch Beannachan . 


Ben Wyvis 


Mr. Colin Campbell, Shiel 



Those marked with an asterisk (*) have good illustrations available. 



140 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Name of Loch 


District 


Name of Correspondent 


Loch an Duin * 


Portain, N. Uist 


Mr. Erskine Beveridge, LL.D. 


Loch an Duin * 


Breinish „ 




Loch Obisary (two 






islands) 


j> j> 


SJ J) 


Loch Mor Balesbare (two 






islands) 


»> >> 


s> )> 


Loch nan Clachan * 


r> )> 




Loch Eashader 


?) >> 




Loch Aonghuis * 


>> JJ 




Loch Oban Trumisgarry * 


»> »» 


>> s> 


Loch nan Gearrachan 






(two islands) 


J» >> 


)J >» 


Loch Fada * . 


Coll 




Loch Ghille-Caluim 






Loch Rathalt 






Loch Urbhaig * 




)J >> 


Loch an Duin * 






Loch Cliad (two islands) 


»> 


>> >> 


Loch nan Conneachan * . 






Loch Anlaimh . 


»» 


»» 1> 



Those marked with an asterisk (*) have good illustrations available. 



The Excavation of Neolithic Sites in Northern Greece. — Interim Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Ridgeway (Chairman), 
Professor J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. J. P. Droop, and Mr. 
D. G. Hogarth. 

The Committee, having no grant this year, have been unable to co- 
operate directly in the work for which they were originally appointed. 
They are able to report, however, that Messrs. Wace and Thompson 
have been able to make further surface observations in Northern 
Greece and Macedonia, and have applied for a permit to examine an 
important early site in the neighbourhood of Salonica. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a further grant. 



Notes and Queries in Anthropology. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. C. H. Read (Chairman), Professor J. L. Myres (Secretary), 
Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Haddon. Mr. T. A. Joyce, and 
Drs. C. S. Myers, W. H. R. Rivers, C. G. Seligmann, and F. C. 
Shrubsall, appointed to prepare a New Edition of ' Notes and 
Queries in Anthropology.' 

The manuscript of the new edition is now nearly ready for press ; but 
it has not been possible to complete the work of the Committee before 
the date at which report has to be made. The Committee therefore 
ask to be reappointed, with the balance in hand and leave to expend 
on the new edition, in accordance with the original agreement, the 
sum recovered by the sale of copies of the last edition through the 
agency of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 



ON THE AGE OP STONE CIRCLES. 141 



The Age of Stone Circles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. C. H. 
Read {Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour {Secretary), Lord Avebury, 
Professor W. Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir A. J. Evans, 
Dr. R. Munro, Professor Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. Lewis, 
appointed to conduct Explorations with the object of ascertaining 
the Age of Stone Circles. {Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Excavations were renewed at. Avebury Stone Circle in the spring of 
the present year, and, as in former years, Mr. H. St. G. Gray, Curator 
of the Taunton Museum, was placed in charge of the work, to conduct 
the excavations under the general directions of the Committee. In 
selecting the particular sites most likely to yield important results 
the Committee were impressed with the great desirability of conducting 
excavations in the fosse to the east of the causeway, on the opposite 
side of which cuttings had been made in the fosse in previous years. 
The owner of this portion of the circle, Captain Jenner, readily gave 
his permission, but, unfortunately, the strenuous opposition of the 
occupying tenant caused this scheme to fall through. It is most 
desirable that thorough exploration of the fosse and causeway should 
be made at this point, but for the present the matter must remain 
in abeyance, and this important part of the examination of the earth- 
work must be postponed, perhaps, for a few years. In consequence 
of this primary scheme having been rendered abortive, the Committee 
agreed to extend further the exploration of the S.W. portion of the 
fosse, and to this the season's work was practically confined. The 
results obtained have borne out the views based upon the previous 
excavations, and have strengthened the belief that the monument 
dates from Neolithic (probably late-Neolithic) times. The work has 
been conducted by Mr. Gray in a very thorough manner, and the 
records, plans, and photographs form a very complete series of per- 
manent value. Mr. Gray's detailed report is appended, giving a full 
account of the work done and of the relics found. The thanks of the 
Committee are due to those who have generously responded to an appeal 
for subscriptions to eke out the grant made by the British Association, 
the amount collected (a detailed statement of which is appended to the 
report) being very satisfactory. The Committee wish also to thank 
Lord Avebury and Captain L. C. D. Jenner for permission to excavate 
on their property, and the Rev. J. G. "Ward, Vicar of Avebury, for 
assistance rendered in procuring labourers. Captain Jenner also 
assisted the work by the useful loan of a number of planks, &c. 

Although it is unlikely that excavations at Avebury can be renewed 
next year, the Committee ask to be reappointed with a view to a 
complete survey of the Avebury circle and earthworks being made by 
Mr. Gray, who has already prepared a survey-plan of the S. and S.W. 
portion. For this it is hoped that a grant of 20Z. will be made by 
the Association. This will not cover the expenses, but it is trusted 
that the sum may be slightly augmented by subscriptions. No per- 
fectly reliable plan of this most important monument exists at present. 



142 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

The balance of the fund collected, being allocated by the subscribers to 
special excavation work for the examination of the vallum and the 
' cove, ' will not be available for the survey. 

The Avebury Excavations, 1911. By H. St. George Gray. 

I. Introductory Remarks. 

Having given a general description of Avebury and its surround- 
ings in the former reports, 1 the present account will be almost 
confined to the excavations conducted at Avebury from Monday, 
April 24, till Wednesday, May 10 (the filling-in continuing till Satur- 
day, May 20). It should be stated that all the cuttings so far made 
are situated on Lord Avebury's property. Not only were the 1911 
excavations filled in this season, but similar work was completed in 
regard to the explorations of 1908 and 1909. Fencing now encloses 
these areas, so that in the course of a couple of years nearly all traces 
of the excavations should be obliterated. 

A maximum number of fifteen men was employed this season, sixteen being 
engaged in 1909 and eleven in 1908. The weather was fairly favourable, not 
more than eight hours being lost on account of rain during the period of the work. 
This season we took the necessary precautions, and were not hindered by falls 
from the sides of the. silting as the digging penetrated into the lower strata of 
the great fosse. 

Sectional diagrams of the fosse, &c, were made as the work proceeded, in 
which the deposits of silting were indicated, as well as the position of every 
object of importance found. The scale map of the area excavated in 1908 and 1909 
has been redrawn to include this season's work. An average section of the southern 
fosse was given in the 1908 report (p. 406), and, being fairly representative of 
the other sections, it will be unnecessary to publish another on the present 
occasion. 

Twenty satisfactory photographs (half-plate) were taken during the season, 
and these, added to twenty-two taken in 1909 and sixteen in 1908, not only show 
the progress and chief features of the excavations, but also include general views, 
together forming a somewhat complete photographic survey of ' the Temple ' of 
Avebury. 

One of the most interesting features of the 1909 excavations was 
the discovery of the entrance-causeway of solid chalk, a little to the 
east of the modern road into Avebury from the south, connecting 
the Kennet Avenue with the interior of the monument. The causeway 
proved to be about 24 feet wide, and on its east margin we dug some 
test trenches and found that the solid chalk gradually receded as 
if sloping off to meet the upper margin of the walls of the fosse in 
the form of rough steps, not always well defined. 

With these results before them the members of the Committee 
were anxious to follow up these observations and to excavate the 
rounded (or squared?) end of the fosse at its termination on the east 
side of the causeway ; and it was felt that being close to the entrance 
there would be an increased probability of finding a larger number 
of relics in the silting of the fosse in this position. The silting 
is not high here, and probably has at no time been under cultivation, 

1 Brit. A**oc. Reports, 1908, pp. 400-413; and 1909, pp. 271-284. 



ON THE AGE OP STONE CIRCLES. 143 

so that the labour entailed in re-excavating this part would be propor- 
tionately less than in the fosse on the south and south-west of the 
monument. As stated elsewhere, although Captain Jenner (the 
owner) was willing that this work should be done, his tenant was 
found to be bitterly opposed to excavations being carried out under 
any conditions. Fortunately for archaeological field-work such obstacles 
do not often present themselves. The disappointment, however, had 
to be faced, and, pending further negotiations, it was decided that an 
excavation should be made across the S.W. fosse, on Lord Avebury's 
property, of greater extent than those made in former years. 

II. General Observations on Cutting VIII., through the S.W. Fosse, 

1911. 

This cutting was 30 feet long, and was afterwards extended in the 
middle 6 feet further west in order that a ledge, or bench, might be 
cut, upon which the lower strata of silting could be thrown in clearing 
the bottom of the fosse. The eastern margin of the cutting (in the 
middle of the silting) was 235 feet in a direct line from the gateway 
on the western side of the road at the Kennet Avenue entrance, and 
98 feet from the middle cf the western margin of Cutting I. (1908) 
across the fosse. 

The surface of the silting at the point selected for this year's work 
was practically level (the variation being less than 6 inches). It is 
stated, on the authority of the oldest inhabitants of Avebury, that the 
whole of the S.W. quarter of the fosse had been cultivated as arable 
land some sixty years ago, and this would account for the flatness 
here. As previously stated, 2 it is said by the local people that a 
quantity of loamy tenacious material had been brought to this part of 
the fosse, and especially near the high-road from the site of the new 
bridge across the Kennet stream on the Devizes road. 

While the excavations were in progress a large sectional diagram 
was plotted along the eastern margin of Cutting VIII. fosse, and 
continued in a S.W. direction to include the crest of the vallum, the 
foot of the exterior slope, and the boundary -hedge beyond, and in a 
N.E. direction to cover the turf-clad counterscarp of the fosse and 
part of the central plateau, including one of the standing sarsen stones 
(height 8"5 feet) of the great outer circle. The horizontal distance 
from the north side of the stone to the north upper margin of the 
boundary-hedge proved to be 183 feet, and from the middle of the 
fosse to the crest of the vallum about 78 feet. 

This section showed that the central plateau was 12 feet, and the 
crest of the vallum 31 feet, above the turf level of the fosse. After 
re-excavating the fosse the bottom was found to be 18'7 feet deep below 
the surface of the silting on the eastern margin, and consequently 
49'7 feet below the crest of the vallum. Supposing that the crest 
of the vallum was originally about 5 feet higher, the total vertical 
height from the floor of the fosse to the summit of the embankment 

■ Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1909, p. 279. 



144 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

could not have been less than 55 feet — probably the largest dimension 
of the sort obtainable in any prehistoric earthwork in Britain. 

Along the line of section on the eastern margin of the cutting a 
narrow trench (3 feet wide) was dug from the south side of the cut- 
ting towards the crest of the vallum, to ascertain the position of the 
hewn chalk. It was found to run at an angle of 28° for a considerable 
distance, at a depth of from l'l to 1'6 feet below the surface of the 
turf. This digging was carried far enough to find clear traces of the 
old turf line under the great vallum, and to reach the solid chalk at 
a depth of about 2 - 2 feet below its surface. From this trench and the 
level of the central plateau we were able to obtain a fairly accurate 
estimate of the original depth of the fosse in this part, that is, its depth 
below the ground level at the time of the construction of Avebury. This 
estimate gives the depth of 31'5 feet for the fosse in the midlde, and a 
height of about 16 feet for the vallum above the old surface line at 
the present time; but the original height of the embankment, as 
previously stated, was undoubtedly greater. 

At the close of the excavations we found that on the line of section 
both the escarp and the counterscarp of the fosse, revealed by the 
removal of all the silting, had faces inclined at different angles. The 
following was the inclination of the solid chalk sides: — 

Escarp. — Lower 5 feet, inclination 90°; middle 18 feet, 62°; upper 
part, 28°. 

Counterscarp. — Lower 8 feet, inclination 74°; middle 12 feet, 50°; 
upper part, 28°. 

III. The Excavation of Catling VIII., Fosse. 

A length of 30 feet of fosse was excavated, but as a considerable 
batter to the faces of the silting had to be left to avoid any risk of falls, 
it was only possible to uncover completely a length of 21'5 feet of 
the floor. Unlike the floor in the former cuttings, the bottom was 
found to be very irregular and far from level. The fosse was deepest 
along the eastern margin, viz., 18'7 feet below the surface of the silting. 
It gradually rose as we continued the work of re-excavation westward. 
The depths of the fosse below the surface of the silting along the 
western margin of the cutting were 3 : Maximum, 1 6'8 feet; minimum 
(in the south corner), 15'3 feet; in the middle of the fosse, 16'3 feet. 
The maximum width of the bottom of the fosse was 15 feet at the east 
end, and the minimum width in the middle about 9'5 feet. 

Two sectional diagrams of the floor were made, showing that the 
levels taken varied to the extent of 2'95 feet, which was very surprising. 
This may probably be accounted for by_ the poor quality of the rock, 
which consisted of a soft, smooth, rotten, pale greenish-grey chalk of 
the zone of Rhynchonella Cuvieri. (The common fossil, R. Cuvieri, 
was found close to the floor.) This poor chalk occurred also in the 
lowest part of the profile of the fosse, with occasional solid blocks of 
whiter chalk projecting beyond it, as seen in some of the photographs. 

3 The turf level in the middle of the silting was five inches higher on the east margin 
than on the west margin of the cutting. 



ON THE AGE OF STONE CIRCLES. 145 

The deposits of silting must now be described, beginning at the 
bottom with the pure chalk rubble. The material was found, as in 
the other cuttings, to cover the whole of the solid faces of the fosse, and 
its accumulation must have been very rapid when the ditch fell into 
neglect. Belies found in this deposit would probably all belong to the 
first decade or so following the disuse of the monument. This silting 
was no doubt the result of natural causes, i.e., the scaling of the profile 
of the fosse in frosty and rainy weather, and the falling down of 
material forming the embankment, which in all probability was not at 
that time turf-clad. Comparatively small quantities of turf and mould 
would, in the course of construction, be thrown up with the chalk to 
form the great vallum, and the occasional fall of the dark mould from 
the bank would be sufficient to account for the concave streaks, or 
seams, in the chalk rubble of the fosse, which were even better defined 
in the 1911 section than in the cuttings previously made. The lowest 
seam of mould, which extended right across the cutting in one part, 
reached at the point of greatest concavity to within five feet of the 
bottom of the fosse. The three seams on the south side of the 
silting were, for a length of several feet, exceptionally noticeable.'' 
On the eastern margin the depth of chalk rubble in the middle of 
the fosse was ten feet. This rubble was very large at about 2'5 feet 
from the bottom, especially in the middle of the ditch, but it became 
rather smaller again on the bottom. Pieces of iron pyrites were com- 
monly found in the rubble, but very little flint was observed, and most 
of the pieces were very small. Fragments of charcoal were occasionally 
met with. At the top of this deposit the lumps of chalk were found 
cemented together, no doubt by means of carbonate of lime contained 
in water which had percolated through the upper silting, consolidating 
the chalk and rendering it as durable as the hardest concrete. Its 
thickness was perhaps hardly as great as in Cuttings I. and II. of 
former years. 

The upper deposits of silling consisted, from the top downwards, as 
in the other cuttings, of (1) turf and turf-mould, (2) surface silting, 
(3) mixed silting, and (4) fine mixed silting, their thickness on the 
eastern margin being, in the middle of the accumulation, 0'65, 3'35, 
2'7, and 2 feet respectively. This gives a total depth of silting above 
the chalk rubble of 8'7 feet. On the western margin, where the fosse 
was shallower, these deposits were represented by a thickness of 
7'7 feet. Dividing the surface silting from the mixed silting was a thin 
seam of small pieces of chalk which was traced nearly, the whole way 
along the cutting. So much has been said in the former reports on 
these deposits that it will be unnecessary to make repetition here. 

Above the chalk rubble two distinct patches (not seams extending 
across the cutting) of dark mould and very fine chalk were traced, the 
lower one practically throughout the length of the digging. The higher 
patch was at an average depth of 5 feet, the other about 7'2 feet, below 
the surface, in what are called the ' mixed silting ' and the ' fine mixed 
silting ' respectively. Maximum thickness of each, 0'6 foot. Evidence 

4 See similar seams of mould in the fosse of Wor Barrow, Handley, Dorset (Exca- 
vations in Cranborne Chase, iv., plates 250, 251). 

1911. L 



146 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

of fire was distinctly traceable, and charcoal in small pieces was 
observed in both deposits. In the lower patch a piece of the burr of a 
small red-deer antler, a bit of burnt bone, and fragmentary animal 
remains were found, and the charcoal included remains of beech (iden- 
tified by Mr. Clement Reid) ; the objects described later under No. 160 
were also collected from the same material. The prehistoric pottery, 
No. 167, was found in the upper deposit of burnt material. It is a 
question if these deposits do not indicate some sort of occupation when 
the fosse had silted up to these respective levels. 

IV. Relics found in Cutting VIII., Fosse. 

147, 148, 150, 151. Fragments of rims, &c, of glazed and unglazed 
mediaeval pottery. Depths from 2'2 to 2"6 feet in the surface silting. 
(Several other pieces of mediaeval pottery were found, but only the best 
samples were preserved.) 

149. Two small tines of deer (in poor preservation). Depth six feet 
in the mixed silting. 

152. Fragment of soft New Forest ware, painted and slightly orna- 
mented; Eoman. Depth 4*2 feet near the top of the mixed silting. 

153. Fragment of brown pottery, Romano-British. Found as 
No. 152. 

154. Finely chipped flint knife, of plano-convex section, worked on 
the convex face only and along both edges ; the butt-end shows the outer 
crust of the flint core from which the implement was struck; length 
61 mm., maximum width 30 mm., maximum thickness 8'5 mm. It 
was badly fractured by being struck by an iron pick, but has been neatly 
repaired. Depth 5'7 feet in the mixed silting. 

155. Two fragments of light brown pottery, Eomano-British. Depth 
4*3 feet near the top of the mixed silting. 

156. Small iron cleat (for shoe or sandal); length 22 mm., with 
narrow base (width 7'5 mm.) and the usual projecting points for attach- 
ment. Depth 4 - 7 feet in the mixed silting. 

157. Two fragments of mediaeval pottery, with band of ornament. 
Depth 3 feet in the surface silting. 

158. Fragment of brown pottery, with faint striations, Romano- 
British. Depth 4'5 feet in the mixed silting. 

159. Flat and rounded disc of sandstone. Depth 6'8 feet in the 
chalk rubble. 

160. Part of the beam of a shed antler of red-deer, with burr, 
brow- and bez-tines complete; unworked. Depth seven feet in the fine 
mixed silting in a patch of burnt material. Close to the antler were 
found part of a dog's jaw and a boar's tusk. 

161. Greater part of the rim and sides of a black earthenware 
saucer, Romano-British. It cannot be completely restored. The frag- 
ments were found strewn over a considerable area. Depth 3 "5 feet in 
the mixed silting. 

162. Bronze fibula, Roman, having a semi-circular bow of plano- 
convex section, the rounded upper surface being ornamented longi- 
tudinally by a beaded pattern of the character usual in brooches of this 



ON THE AGE OP STONE CIRCLES. 147 

type; the nose, consisting of a rounded knob, appears to have been 
broken and replaced by a knob of a different metal ; the pin is hinged, 
with an iron axis ; the head of the bow terminates in a plate bearing 
the inscription AVCISSA (unfortunately the initial A has been broken 
off) ; length 49*5 mm. Found near the western margin of the cutting, 
depth 3'9 feet at the top of the mixed silting. (There is no doubt about 
the finding of the brooch in this position, as it was discovered by the 
writer.) 

163. Six small fragments of coarse, hand-made, badly baked pre- 
historic pottery, ornamented on the external surface by lines of twisted 
cord pattern and finger-nail marks. Also a straight rim fragment, of 
similar character, ornamented externally by four parallel lines of twisted 
cord pattern, and internally by a single row of the same, below which 
there is a row of deep finger-nail marks. Depth 5'8 feet near the 
bottom of the mixed silting. 

164. Straight piece of red-deer antler, apparently unworked; length 
6^ inches. Depth eight feet in the middle of the fosse near the 
bottom of the mixed silting. 

165. Greater part of a large rib-bone, probably of ox, with rough, 
slightly incised, longitudinal scoring. Found resting on the floor of 
the fosse. 

166. Hollow-scraper, or arrow-shafter, of flint. Depth 4'6 feet in 
the mixed, silting. 

167. A large number of fragments of hand-made prehistoric pottery, 
the largest piece, after repair-, measuring about 2J by 2f inches; 
maximum thickness, i inch. The fragments were distributed over 
2 or 3 feet of ground in burnt material, and seeing the importance 
of the ' find ' after the first piece or two had been collected, the writer 
obtained a sieve through which all the surrounding material was passed. 
This pottery has not yet been microscopically examined, but the wara 
is coarse internally, the surfaces being carefully finished to receive 
impressed ornament; black on the inner surface, a light reddish-brown 
on the outside. At about 43 mm. below the almost straight rim there 
is a decided shoulder or ridge encircling the vessel with a hollow mould- 
ing below it. The ornamentation between the top of the rim and the 
shoulder consists of a double row of herring-bone pattern impressed 
before baking by means of a notched implement of wood, bone, or 
antler, or perhaps by a piece of shell having natural ribbing. Below 
the shoulder there is similar ornament, but owing to the fragmentary 
state of the portion of the vessel remaining it is impossible to say how 
far this style of decoration extended in the direction of the bottom of 
the pot. With the pottery were found three flint flakes (one with 
secondary chipping), pieces of burnt iron pyrites and very small bits 
of burnt bone. Found in the mixed silting, depth five feet in the 
western half of the cutting. 

168. Small piece of coarse hand-made prehistoric pottery, contain- 
ing grains of quartz ; described as of the Bronze Age type in the former 
reports. Depth 14 feet in the chalk rubble. 

169. Part of a human humerus, and the greater portion of a human 
tibia (both from the left side of the body). The tibia is of small size 

l2 



148 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

and the following measurements can %£ obtained : Antero-posterior 
diameter 30 mm., transverse diameter of the shaft 21 mm., latitudinal 
index 700. Depth 4'5 feet in the mixed silting. 

170. Complete shed antler of red-deer, of medium size, the brow- 
and be(z-tines broken off ; total length in a direct line 22 inches. There 
is no evidence of its having been used as an implement. Found on the 
floor of the fosse near the south margin. 

171. Eib-bone of an animal (smaller than ox), cut to a rounded 
termination at one end, where it is very smooth and slightly bevelled 
from one side. Found on the floor of the eastern half of the fosse, 
against the north face. 

172. Crown of an antler of red-deer, with three points or surroyals, 
which bear evidence of some wear, and may have been used as a rake. 
Found on the bottom of the fosse near No. 171. 

173. Fragment of the base of an antler of roe-deer. Depth five feet 
in the mixed silting. 

174. Small antler of a very young red-deer. Depth 5*5 feet in the 
mixed silting. 

175. Broken pick of shed red-deer antler; the bez- and trez-tines 
removed, the brow-tine broken ; evidence of hammering is seen on the 
back of the burr. Depth 14*8 feet in the chalk rubble, near the floor 
and close to the western margin of the cutting. 

176. Broken pick formed from a shed antler of a large red-deer; 
maximum circumference of the beam between the two lower tines, 
161 mm. ; the bi'ow-tine has its point missing; considerable evidence of 
hammering is seen on the back of the burr. Also part of a rib-bone, 
probably of ox. Found on the bottom of the fosse on the west margin 
of the cutting. 

A few other fragmentary animal bones were found on the bottom of 
the fosse, among which pig was identified. 

Flint flakes were perhaps not quite so numerous as in Cuttings I. 
and II. (1908-09). 

Some of the wood specimens, animal remains, and shells have not 
yet been examined. 



V. General Remarks on the Relics discovered. 

In the last chapter it is shown that no fragment of mediaeval pottery 
was found at a greater depth than three feet, and that all were situated 
well within the deposit called ' surface silting.' The objects and pottery 
of the Boman period were all found between the depths of 3'5 feet and 
4 - 5 feet in the upper part of the 'mixed silting.' In the lower part 
of that deposit the flint knife, No. 154, was found at a depth of 5'7 feet, 
the hollow scraper of flint, No. 166, 5 depth 4'6 feet, and the prehis- 
toric pottery, Nos. 163 and 167, already described, depth 5'8 feet and 
5 feet respectively. It is seen, then, that the lowest object of the 
Boman period and the highest pieces of prehistoric pottery were in 
relative levels, only six inches apart. Bassing to the ' fine mixed 

5 This may, perhaps, belong to the ' fine mixed silting ' deposit at its highest level. 



ON THE AGE OF STONE CIRCLES. 149 

silting,' nothing was obtained but unworked pieces of red-deer and 
roe-deer antler. In the lowest deposit, the ' chalk rubble,' a small 
fragment of prehistoric pottery was found at a depth of 14 feet, a 
broken antler pick at a depth of 14*8 feet, another on the bottom, a 
worked rib-bone also on the floor, and a complete red-deer antler and 
the crown of another in the same position. This season we found no 
traces of worn animals' scapula on the bottom of the fosse, but in 
1909 we obtained convincing proof that these bones were, with slight 
alteration, used as shovels for removing loose chalk. 

There are no special remarks to be made on the mediaeval or Eoman 
pottery shards. The small cleat is an object of frequent occurrence in 
Romano-British deposits, and its use as portion of the iron furniture 
of sandals, or shoe leather, is proved by the discovery of specimens, 
with a quantity of hobnails, at the feet of skeletons at Eotherley and 
Bokerly Dyke. 7 A specimen was found on the old surface line under 
the rampart of the Wansdyke, a few miles south of Avebury. 7 

The Roman brooch, or fibula, No. 162, already described as bearing 
the maker's name, AVCISSA^ is a personal ornament of very definite 
type and date (first half the first century, a.d.); and it adds one speci- 
men more to the short list of brooches bearing this inscription found 
in England. A similar fibula with the same lettering was found in the 
parish of Marlborough last year, and is here placed on record for the 
first time; it may be seen in the collection of Mr. J. W. Brooke of that 
town. Recently the writer recorded and figured a similar brooch (with 
the S's reversed) found on Ham Hill, South Somerset. 8 Two other 
examples come from the same county and were found about 1875 
in the Roman lead-workings at Charterhouse-on-Mendip (Bristol 
Museum). 9 Two others were found at Cirencester (one is in the 
Bathurst Museum, the other in the Cripps Museum). 10 A large col- 
lection of Roman remains bought for Hull Museum in 1905 included 
two ' Aucissa ' fibulae, found presumably in a Roman cemetery at South 
Ferriby, Lincolnshire. 11 Professor P. Haverfield had up to 1905 re- 
corded twenty-eight fibulse bearing this name, of which six were then 
known from England; the Ham Hill, Marlborough, and Avebury 
examples have now been added to the list. The type, without inscrip- 
tion, is not rare, and has been found commonly in many parts of the 
Roman Empire north of the Mediterranean, and outside it, including 
the Caucasus and Tomsk in Siberia. 



6 It will be unnecessary to write at any length on the picks of 1911, as those found 
in 1908 and 1909 were finer specimens, and were fully described in the former Reports. 
The antler picks found in 1908-10 at Maumbury Rings have also been recorded 
{Proc. Dor. Field Club, xxix., 256-272 ; xxx., 217-235 ; and xxxi., 230-266). For 
general particulars on this subject see Mr. H. W. Sandars' recent paper ' On the Use 
of the Deer-Horn Pick in the Mining Operations of the Ancients,' Archceologia, lxii., 
101-124. 

7 ' Excavations in Cranborne Chase,' ii., 190 ; hi., 102, 106, 129, 270, &c. Last 
year two cleats were found at Maumbury Rings. (Proc. Dor. Field Club, xxxi., 245.) 

8 Proc. Som. Arch. Soc, Ivi., ii., plate facing p. 55, fig. 10, A and B. Mentioned 
also in Proc. Soc. Antiq. Lond., xxi., 131, with others. 

a Figured in Arckceol. Journ., lx., plate facing p. 240 ; and Vict. Co. Hist. Somerset, 
i., 343. 10 Archceol. Journ., lxii., 265. » Ibid., lxii., 265-6. 



150 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

The finely chipped flint knife, No. 154, already described, has every 
appearance of great age, and is of typical Neolithic form. It is similar 
in shape to the knife found by Canon Greenwell in a barrow on Wyke- 
ham Moor, Yorkshire, but smaller. 12 

Perhaps the most important discovery made this season is that of 
prehistoric pottery, Nos. 163 and 167 (previously described in detail), 
found at depths of only 5'8 feet and 5 feet respectively below the sur- 
face of the silting. The presence of ornament of a definite type renders 
them the easier of identification. Sufficient remains of the rim and 
sides of No. 167 to identify the typical ' shoulder, ' with hollow mould- 
ing below it, but unfortunately there are no fragments of bottom, and 
therefore it is impossible to say whether the vessels had round or flat 
bases. The upper part of the vessels may be described as having 
straight rims with a slight bevelling of the lips on both sides. The 
rim piece, No. 163, with twisted cord pattern on the external surface, 
can be matched exactly by a fragment of pottery (not figured) found in 
the West Kennet Long-barrow, and now in the British Museum. 

The pattern on the several fragments comprising No. 167 has 
already been described, and it only remains to say here that the orna- 
mentation is of the same kind as that which embellishes the well-known 
pieces of pottery found in the Long-barrow at West Kennet, near Ave- 
bury, of which a few fragments may be seen in the British Museum, 
and a larger series in Devizes Museum. One of these fragments with 
the grooved herring-bone design, the depressions being ornamented 
by transverse notches, has frequently been figured as a specimen of 
Stone Age pottery. 13 

Ornament precisely similar to that on the Avebury fragments (No. 
167) is seen on the Neolithic bowls from Peterborough and the Thames 
at Mortlake (but the ribbing across the grooves is not clear in the latter 
specimen). 14 Similar decoration is also seen on a fragment of prehis- 
toric pottery found in association with Boman remains only l'l foot 
deep in the silting of the ditch of Wor Barrow (long-barrow), Handley, 
Dorset. Its position in the ditch was of no datable value, and the 
fragment must have been mixed with the soil when deposited in the 
position in which it was found. 15 Two round barrows near Handley 
(Barrow 24 16 and Barrow 29 17 ) also produced prehistoric pottery bear- 
ing the same type of ornament as these Avebury shards. That in the 
first barrow was found at a depth of a foot on the chalk floor; the 
mound was small, with encircling ditch, outside which no fewer than 
fifty-two cremated interments were discovered. That in the second 
was found in the body of the mound, depth 1*8 foot. These fragments 
were probably in the soil originally thrown up to form the barrows, 
and as Neolithic man is known to have used Handley Downs for 

12 Evans' ' Stone Implements,' first ed., p. 297, fig. 242 ; Archceol. Journ., xxii., 243. 

13 Archceologia, xxxviii., 405, fig. 15 ; lxii., 343, bottom right-hand fig. ; Lord 
Avebury's Prehistoric Times, sixth ed., p. 152, fig. 160 ; Stone Age Guide, Brit. Mus., 
1902, p. 114, fig. 139. 

14 Archceologia, lxii., 336, fig. 3, and plate xxxvii., fig. 3. 

15 Excavations in Cranbome Chase, iv., plate 261, fig. 17. 

16 Ibid., plate 298, fig. 8 ; see remarks also on pp. 147, 163. 
1T Ibid., plate 304, fig. 7. 



ON THE AGE OF STONE CIRCLES. 151 

funereal purposes, there was every likelihood of Neolithic shards 
becoming scattered in the neighbourhood. This is mentioned because 
General Pitt-Eivers says in regard to this ware that, in spite of the 
West Kennet pottery being assumed to be of the Stone Age, the frag- 
ments from Handley bearing similar decoration were without doubt 
associated with relics of the Bronze Age. He inclined to the con- 
clusion, therefore, that the pottery in question was referable to the 
Bronze Age. 

But the study of prehistoric pottery has developed considerably 
even since the General's time, and although the gisement of shards 
of ancient pottery (upon which one's conclusions are partly based) is 
of the highest importance in archaeological excavations, single pottery 
fragments of earlier date, in a locality successively occupied by tribes 
from and including the Stone Age, must occasionally have become 
mixed with relics of later times, and especially in localities frequented 
by burrowing animals. 

The writer is inclined on the whole to regard these pottery frag- 
ments, Nos. 163 and 167, as being of Neolithic date, and it is possible 
that some of the unornamented fragments described as being of Bronze 
Age type in the former reports may really belong to the Stone Age. 
At the same time it should be pointed out that no pottery of the drink- 
ing-vessel, or beaker, type has yet been discovered at Avebury ; and it 
should also be repeated that only 6 inches of silting divided the lowest 
object of Boman date found from the prehistoric pottery discovered 
nearest the surface. 

A small fragment of pottery belonging to No. 163 was sent to 
Mr. Clement Beid for close examination, and he has kindly sent the 
following interesting report: — 

' The " grout, " or coarse material used for stiffening this pottery and 
making it keep its shape when burnt in an open fire, is of unusual com- 
position. It consists mainly of fragments of burnt bone, with a few 
minute bits of charcoal. I think that ashes of a fire have been used, 
as being grit that would not fly, shrink, or burn out when the pottery 
was fired ; there are also one or two small fragments of flint. The 
clay with which this " grout " was mixed seems to have been a coarse 
sandy clay with large rounded grains of quartz. Probably the so- 
called " clay-with-flints " so common on the chalk-downs was used. 
As far as one can judge from so small a sample, only enough clay was 
used to bind the material.' 



VI. Concluding Remarks. 

From the detailed description of the relics discovered in Cutting 
VIII. , and on reference to the former reports it will be seen that the 
objects found this year are more important with regard to the much 
debated subject, 'the date of Avebury,' than those discovered pre- 
viously. The strong negative evidence of date afforded by the absence 
of metals below the Boman stratum of silting has now been greatly 
strengthened by the discovery of prehistoric pottery of a well-known 



152 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



kind — a type which has been associated with Long-barrows and such 
early settlements as the prehistoric pits at Peterborough. 18 

All the objects discovered in the lower half of the mixed silting, in 
the fine mixed silting, and in the chalk rubble, are such as are charac- 
teristic of the Neolithic period, and we have decidedly less hesitation in 
regarding the fosse of Avebury as being of Neolithic construction than 
we had at the close of the excavations of 1909. The relics discovered 
have not been numerous, but considering the early date and the great 
extent of Avebury, and the comparatively small area yet excavated, the 
most optimistic antiquary could hardly have expected to find a greater 
variety of objects in the prehistoric area than pottery with charac- 
teristic ornament; flint knives and scrapers, and flakes with secondary 
chipping; picks, hammers, levers, and other implements of antler; 
bone shovels, and other bones more or less worked. 

We have proved much, but have yet a good deal to learn with regard 
to the mode of construction of Avebury and the methods adopted in 
excavating the stupendous fosse and raising the great vallum. 

It will be a great disappointment if a means cannot be found to make 
an adequate examination of the southern entrance-causeway of Avebury 
and the items of structural interest adjoining it, and a serious hindrance 
to archaeological research and to the endeavour to piece together the 
history of Britain's greatest prehistoric stone monument. 

VII. Grants and Subscriptions. 

In addition to the grant of 30L made by the British Association for 
I he excavations of 1911, the following private donations and grants 
were kindly subscribed to the fund : — 

The Hon. John Abercromby, F.S.A. Scot. 

Society of Antiquaries of London . 

The Lord Avebury, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Marlborough College Natural History Society 

The late N. Story Maskelyne, F.E.S. 

C. H. Eead. LL.D., P.S.A. 

Henry Balfour 

W. M. Tapp, LL.D., F.S.A. 

Horace Sandars, F.S.A. . 

Albany F. Major 

T. H. M. Bailward . 

And the following donations from members of the Wiltshire. Archaeo- 
logical and Natural History Society (per the Bev. E. H. 



The Marquess of Lansdowne 

Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice 

W. Heward Bell, F.S.A. . 

Sir Prior Goldney, Bart., C.V.O., C.B. 

F. H. Goldney . 

A. W. H. Burder, F.S.A. 

Captain Jenner . 

J. E. Ward 



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1 


1 







10 


6 




10 






18 Archceologia, lxii., 333, et seq. 



ON HAUSA FOLKLORE. 153 

Hausa Folklore. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. S. 
Haktland (Chairman), Dr. A. C. Haddon (Secretary), and Professor 
J. L. Myres, appointed to advise on the best method, of publishing a 
collection of Hausa Folklore with translations and grammatical notes. 

The Committee report that they have approached various publishing 
institutions, but have not been able to induce any of them to under- 
take the publication of the collection of Hausa Folk-tales with 
translations and grammatical notes. The Under Secretary of State 
for the Colonies was memorialised on the subject, but as arrange- 
ments were already in contemplation for subsidising a similar work 
by another officer, Mr. Harcourt regretted that he was unable to 
see his way to recommend a second work of the same nature for 
Government assistance. The Committee do not seek reappointment. 



The Dissociation of Oxy-Hwmoglobin at High Altitudes. — Report of the. 
Committee, consisting of Professor E. H. Starling (Chairman). 
J. Barcroft (Secretary), and W. B. Hardy. 

Mr. Ff. Eoberts collaborated with Dr. G. C. Matheson on the 
expedition to Pisa (sea-level) Col d'Olen (10,000 feet), and Capanna 
Margherita (15,000 feet). They determined the hydrogen-ion concen- 
tration of the blood (exclusive of thatipduced by C0 2 ) by a new method 
as follows : The addition of acid to the blood decreases the affinity of 
the haemoglobin for oxygen. This was first shown by Bohr, who 
used C0 2 . Carbonic acid is not, however, specific. At a standard 
oxygen tension, therefore (15 mm. O 2 mm. C0 2 at 37° C), the 
greater the amount of acid in the blood the less the degree of satura- 
tion with oxygen. A scale was made out at Pisa for the blood of each 
member of the party, and successive given quantities of lactic acid 
were added to the blood, and the degree of saturation with oxygen was 
noted in each case. When the scale had once been made it became 
possible to estimate the abnormal acid present in the blood at higher 
altitudes, by observing the percentage saturation under standard con- 
ditions. 

All members of the party at Col d'Olen showed an addition of 
acid which in most cases was equivalent to about 0"025 per cent. 
lactic acid, and about twice that amount at Capanna Margherita. 
After exercise, however, the amount of acid present was much greater. 
Thus, immediately on arrival at Col d'Olen, after walking from Alagnia 
Sesia, an ascent of from 7,000 to 8,000 feet, Mr. Koberts' blood con- 
tained excess of acid equivalent to 0'08 per cent, lactic acid, and on 
arrival at Capanna Margherita, after a nine days' stay at Col d'Olen, 
0"7 per cent. An interesting point about the addition of acid is that 
it is not immediately excreted on descent from a high altitude. This 
facts lends to a lower CO L . tension in the alveolar air at Col d'Olen 
after descent from the Capanna Margherita than before the ascent ; 
and in order that the respiratory protient might be maintained, 



154 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

there was a correspondingly higher oxygen tension — a striking demon- 
stration of the advantage, at a given altitude, of making an ascent and 
returning. 

Anaesthetics — Third Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. 
A. D. Waller (Chairman), Sir Frederic Hewitt (Secretary), 
Dr. Blumfeld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, and Dr. G. A. Buckmaster, 
appointed to acquire further knowledge, Clinical and Experimental, 
concerning An&sthetics— -especially Chloroform, Ether, and Alcohol 
— with special reference to Deaths by or during Anaesthesia, and their 
possible diminution. 

APrENDIX PAflE 

I. The Installation of a Chloroform-balance in Hospital for 

Ordinary Daily Use. By A. D. Waller, M.U., F.B.S. . 155 
II. On the Percentage of Ether ordinarily afforded by an 
' Open ' Method of Administration. By A. 1). Waller, 

M.D., F.B.S 163 

ITT. Six Months' Experience of the Use of a Chloroform-balance 
in the Out-patient Department of St. George's Hospital. 
By G. B. Phillips, M.B.C.S., L.B.C.P. . ' . . . lf.fi 
IV. By Sir Frederic Hewitt, M.V.O., M.D 169 

General Report. 

The Committee have held five meetings during the past year; their 
attention has been principally directed to the clinical application of 
the laboratory results of the previous year (vide Second Interim Eeport 
of the Committee to the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, p. 268, Sheffield, 1910, and First Interim Report, p. 303, 
Winnipeg, 1909), more especially as regards (1) the administration of 
ether, and (2) the clinical application of the chloroform balance. 

(1) The principles upon which the practice of ether administration 
should be based — entered upon in our report of last year — have formed 
a principal subject of our study during the past year. Our anticipation 
(hat a 10 per 100 mixture of ether-and-air, found to be adequate for 
the continuous ana?thesia of animals in the laboratory, would also be 
found adequate for the production o.nd maintenance of surgical anaes- 
thesia in man, have so far been confirmed that it appears (Appendix II.) 
that in the method of administration termed ' open ether ' the per- 
centage of ether delivery is approximately 10 per 100. 

(2) Acting on behalf of this Committee, Sir Frederic Hewitt early 
in the year approached the Medical Committee of St. George's Hospital 
with a view to the installation at that institution of a chloroform- 
balance for the routine purposes of anaesthesia, and explained that the 
purpose of this installation was to further the safe ansesthetisation of 
patients by the application to them of a method of which the safety had 
been ascertained by experiments upon animals in the laboratory 
(Appendix II. of the First Interim Eeport and Appendix I. of the 
present report). 

A chloroform-balance was accordingly installed in the out-patient 
theatre of St. George's Hospital, where it has been in regular use for 



ON ANESTHETICS. 155 

the past six months, principally in the hands of Mr. G. E. Phillips, 
the resident anaesthetist, whose report is contained in Appendix III., 
and under the frequent observation of Sir Frederic Hewitt, Dr. 
Blumfeld, and Dr. Waller. 

This Committee desire to tender their sincere thanks to the House 
Committee of St. George's Hospital for their liberal co-operation. 

In the laboratory our knowledge has been augmented by the inde- 
pendent work of Dr. Buckmaster and Mr. Gardner, who have through- 
out the year accumulated a large mass of valuable data concerning the 
composition of the blood-gases in chloroform anaesthesia in the physio- 
logical laboratory of the University of London. Their full paper has 
been published in the ' Journal of Physiology ' of March 1911. 

A further paper on the ventilation of the lung during chloroform- 
narcosis, of which the account must be deferred, has been commu- 
nicated to the Royal Society during the present month [November 
1911]. 

APPENDIX I. 

The Installation of a Chloroform-balance in Hospital for Ordinary Daily 
Use. By A. D. Waller, M.D., F.R.S. 

The principle upon which the apparatus is based has been described 
in several publications, most fully so in the fifth Hitchcock Lecture pub- 
lished last year. 1 It will be sufficient in preface to the present descrip- 
tion of the apparatus as set up for practical purposes at St. George's 
Hospital to state that the object to be fulfilled is the delivery at a 
face-piece of a sufficient volume of chloroform-and-air of known and 
easily controlled percentage. 

The essential parts of the apparatus are : — 

1. The chloroform-balance, 

2. The chloroform flask, 

3. A mechanical blower, and 

4. Tubing from the blower to the flask and balance, and from 

the balance to the face-piece or mask. 

Graduation of the Chloroform Balance. 

The chloroform-balance consists of an ordinary enclosed balance 
with the scale-pans replaced by a closed-glass bulb of a capacity 
between 500 and 1,000 c.c. and a brass counterpoise. The bulb rises 
and falls according as the density of atmosphere in the balance-case 
is raised and lowered by chloroform vapour driven into the case from 
the chloroform flask. The sensitiveness and range of movement of the 
beam are such that the deflections of the index embrace a range of at 
least 3 per cent, of chloroform-vapour present. The graduation of the 
scale behind the index is determined by the weight of chloroform- 
vapour per 100 in relation to the capacity of bulb used, taking the 
litre-weight difference between chloroform-vapour and air = 4"045 
grammes at 0° and 760 mm. Hg. Thus for a bulb of 1,000 c.c. the 
weights corresponding to 1, 2, and 3 per cent, are 38, 76, and 114 

1 Physiology the Servant of Medicine, : Chloroform in the Laboratory and in 
the Hospital. The University of London Press, 1910. 



156 



BEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



milligrammes. The weights to be used for the graduation of bulbs of 
500 to 1,000 c.c. are given in the following table: — 





Weights in Milligrammes, indicating 1, 


2, and 3 per cent. 


Capacity of Bulb 


CHC1 3 at 18° and 760 mm. 


Hg. 


1 per 100 


2 per 100 


3 per 100 


c.c. 
264 


10-00 


20-00 


3000 


500 


18-98 


37-95 


56-93 


525 


19-93 


39-86 


59-79 


527 


20-00 


40-00 


6000 


550 


20-87 


41-74 


6261 


575 


21-82 


43-64 


6546 


601" 


22-72 


45-44 


6816 


626 


23-72 


47-44 


71-16 


650 


24-67 


49-34 


74-01 


654 


2500 


50-00 


75-00 


675 


25-62 


51-24 


76-86 


700 


26-58 


5316 


7974 


725 


27-51 


55 02 


8253 


750 


28-46 


56-92 


85-38 


775 


29-41 


58-82 


8823 


790 


30-00 


6000 


9000 


800 


30-36 


60-72 


9108 


825 


31-31 


62-62 


93 93 


850 


32-25 


64-50 


96-75 


875 


33-21 


66-42 


9963 


900 


3415 


6830 


102-45 


922 


35-00 


70-00 


105-00 


925 


35-10 


70-20 


105-30 


950 


36-04 


72-08 


10812 


975 


37-00 


7400 


11100 


1000 


37-95 


75-90 


113-85 


1054 


40-00 


80-00 


120-00 


1186 


4500 


90-00 


13500 


1308 


5000 


100-00 


150-00 



The sensitiveness of the balance and the range of movement of its 
beam between the stops should be such as to afford a maximum range 
of 5 per 100. By adjustment of the counterpoise the zero of the scale 
is taken with the lever to the left of the vertical position by an amount 
effected by a weight = 1*5 per 100 (i.e., by a weight of 30 milligrammes 
in the case of a 525 c.c. bulb). From this zero position the positions 
corresponding to 1, 2, and 3 per cent, are marked as the index is 
deflected with the 5 per cent, rider at 1, 2, 3, on the left side of the 
beam. Graduated in this way the balance is adapted to direct reading 
up to a maximum of 3 per 100 ; the scale is relatively contracted, and 
fine readings are not to be expected; the unit can at best be divided 
into four quarters. This relatively insensitive form of balance can be 
used as a recording instrument (vide infra) and corrections for variations 
of temperature and pressure during observation are negligible. It may 
be referred to as type A. 

Graduation by a 5 per 100 rider. — With the beam of the balance 
divided into ten parts, the counterpoise corresponding to 1, 2, and 3 
per cent, are most expeditiously secured by a rider of which the weight 
corresponds to 5 per cent, of chloroform in relation to the capacity 



ON ANESTHETICS. 157 

of the bulb. Tims with a bulb = 527 c.c. a decigramme rider (100 
milligrammes) placed at the 1, 2, ,3, 4, 5, on the same side as the bulb, 
will counterpoise the ascensional force of air (at 760 mm. and 18°) 
containing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 per cent, of chloroform vapour. The same 
counterpoise placed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, on the opposite side of the beam, 
will raise the bulb (in air) and give deflections of the index corresponding 
to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 per cent, of chloroform vapour. 

Thus by placing the rider at 1, 2, 3 on the left-hand side, the deflec- 
tions of index corresponding to 1, 2, and 3 per cent, of chloroform are 
readily determined. 

Finer readings — one-tenth per cent, and less — can be made by 
means of a more sensitive instrument and a larger bulb, using a null 
method, the first or coarse adjustment being effected by a rider. The 
5 per 100 rider alluded to above is suitable to this purpose. 

With a balance giving a swing of 2 '5 mm. per milligramme, and 
a bulb of 1,054 c.c. capacity, we have 1 per cent. =40 milligrammes, 
so that the 5 per cent, rider is to be taken = 200 milligrammes; 2'5 mm. 
s\ving = l milligramme =]/40 = - 025 percent., so that 1 mm. swing = 
0*01 per cent. Thus on such an instrument we have each 

Per cent. 
Large division of beam = 1-00 
.Small division of beam = 0-10 
Millimetre of swing = 0*01 

With a bulb of 527 c.c. capacity the 5 per cent, rider must be taken 
= 100 milligrammes. In this case 1 mm. of swing indicates 0'02 per 
cent. 

With this more sensitive balance — that may be designated as type B 
—it is possible to observe with great exactness the percentage of 
delivery. Thus, e.g., with the rider at 2 - l and the index at 0, 
the percentage is 2'10. With the rider as before and the index swing- 
ing 10 left-5 right, the percentage is 2 - 05. With the index swinging 
5 left-10 right the percentage is 2' 15. With the index swinging 5 left' 
2'5 right the percentage is 2'075. 

For ordinary hospital use type B is inconveniently and unneces- 
sarily sensitive; the readings to be of any accuracy must be corrected 
for temperature and pressure. Moreover the system cannot be left 
swinging while a current of ehloroform-and-air is passing through the 
balance-case. The beam must be out of action while the current is 
passing, and the current must be interrupted while an observation of 
density is taken. Nevertheless, for purposes of exact study as, e.g., 
where it may be desired to know how closely a given percentage has 
been observed, type B may occasionally be of service, but in such cases 
it should be used in series with an instrument of type A, with a two- 
way tap and short-circuiting tube, so that the delivery to the patient 
is not interrupted while the current through balance B is turned off. 

The corrections for temperature and pressure are made according to 
the formula : — 
log P= 1-8377 + 



log TO — 


log V 


+ 


logT 


logB 


weight of 


volume of 




absolute 


pressure 


counterpoise 


bulb in 




temp. 


in mm. Hg. 


in mgrms. 


c.c 




(centigr.) 





158 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

e.g., given a reading of 2"15 per cent, at 20° and 770 mm. Hg, what is 
the percentage ? 

2-15 per cent. = 86 milligrammes. 

log P = 1-8377 + log 86 - log 1054 + log 293 - log 770 
1-9345 3 0228 

add 2-4669 2-8865 

6-2391 5-9093 

subtr. 5-9093 



0-3298 
P = 21 37, instead of 2150. 

The correction is — 0-013. 

Take an extreme case of a balance used at St. Moritz at tempera- 
ture =20° and pressure = 650 mm. Hg. Reading as before = 2'15 

log P = 1-8377 + log 86 - log 1054 2 — or + log 293 - log 650 
1-9345 3 0228 

2-4669 2-8129 



6-2391 5-8357 

5-8357 



0-4034 
P = 2-531, instead of 2-15. 

The correction is +0-381. 

Adjustment of the Scale to the Index. — With a chloroform-balance 
of type A there is, as stated above, no need to take account of variations 
of temperature and pressure during administration. The position of 
the index in front of the scale (or if the instrument is used as a recorder 
the position of the pen against the recording surface), with only air in 
the balance-case is the zero or point of departure for measurement (or 
record) of the percentage of chloroform vapour subsequently present. 
The position of that zero will be found to vary slightly on different days 
by reason of differences of temperature and pressure; as regards the 
record, if such be taken, this variation of position of the zero line is 
of no account, but if we are taking for our guide the position of the indi- 
cator in front of a fixed scale it is inconvenient to have a zero that does 
not coincide with the zero marked on the scale. The discrepancy, if 
considerable, can be corrected by alteration of the counterpoise, but it 
is more convenient to slide the scale slightly to the right or left by 
means of a screw adjustment until its zero coincides with the zero 
position of the index. 

Readings of the scale are best taken with the beam of the balance 
and the indicator oscillating freely right and left of a middle point, which 
is the actual reading. The oscillations can be clamped so that readings 
are taken with the indicator at rest by means of a light bristle fixed to 
the indicator and rubbing lightly against the glass surface of the scale. 
But if this device is employed it must be verified as not liable to cause 
the indicator to stick in consequence of excessive friction so as to give 
false readings. 

When a record of the administration is taken — a proceeding which 
I do not recommend for the ordinary use of the apparatus — a satisfac- 
tory damping of oscillations is afforded by the point of contact of the 



ON ANESTHETICS. 159 

recording pen with the recording surface. The latter is adjustable to 
the former by means of a fine-pitched screw. The pen itself is filled 
with a special non-drying ink, so that the actual contact between pen 
and paper is formed by the ink itself. But the adjustment is a delicate 
one that requires attention, and I do not like to be troubled with it 
in the hospital use of the balance. 

At the bulb-volume 546 c.c. the bulb sinks with a rise of tempera- 
ture of 1° by reason of a diminution of ascensional force equal to the 

546 

weight of 2 _-o or ^ c.c. of air, i.e., 2'6 milligrammes approximately, 

and the index is displaced to the left. Similarly the bulb rises and the 
index travels to the right with fall of temperature. 

Variations of pressure have a reverse effect. With a bulb of, say, 
532 c.c. and a rise of pressure from 760 to 770 mm. Hg., the ascen- 
sional force affecting the bulb is increased by an amount equal to the 

5$2 
weight of _-„=. or 7 c.c. of air, i.e., 9 milligrammes approximately. 

Obviously the zero or point of departure of the index may wander 
sensibly above or below the zero of a fixed scale. Thus a rise of 2° 
with a fall of 10 mm. in relation to a 527 c.c. bulb gives approximately 
- 5 and — 9 milligrammes. At this capacity the weight value of 1 per 
cent, chloroform is 20 milligrammes, so that the position of the index 
under these conditions will be shifted to a position 14/20 or 0'7 to the 
left of a fixed zero. Obviously, however, the readiest means of correct- 
ing for this wandering is to slide the scale to the left until its zero cor- 
responds to the position of the index. 

The Chloroform Vessel. 

The vessel containing liquid chloroform over which the current of 
air passes into the balance-case is double, consisting of two identical 
vessels each provided with a two-way tap, allowing the current of air 
to pass (a) directly or (b) over the surface of the liquid chloroform. 
With a tap at ' off ' the air passes directly, and no chloroform vapour 
enters the case. With a tap at ' on ' air passes over the chloroform, 
and enters the case more or less charged with chloroform vapour. The 
two vessels are in series, so that the current of air can be directed 
through one or other or both the vessels. 

Under ordinary circumstances, i.e., with a balance-case of a capacity 
of 30 litres and an air current of, say, 10 litres per minute passed 
through only one chloroform vessel, i.e., with its tap turned 'on,' 
the percentage of chloroform vapour in the case, as shown by the rising 
bulb, rises gradually but sufficiently rapidly to a maximum value from 
which it subsequently and slowly declines to a minimum value, at which 
it remains for an indefinite time. The initial rising percentage is the 
natural effect of the current of chloroform-laden air at 10 litres per 
minute pouring into the air-filled reservoir of 30 litres capacity. This 
rise is such that at the end of the first minute the atmosphere in the case 
is at about 1 per cent, chloroform, and in the third minute at about 
2 per cent. The maximum value is between 2 and 3 per cent. The 
subsequent steady minimal value is at about 1'5 per cent. This natural 



160 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

rise and fall of percentage is in my opinion well-adapted to the ordinary 
requirements for the induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. The 
gradual rise to 1 and 2 per cent, during the first two or three minutes 
is precisely what is required at the outset of administration. The rise 
to 2'5 per cent, is not excessive, and is corrected by the use of an open 
mask or by an occasional removal of the mask. The subsequent slow 
fall to 1'5 is what is usually required in the maintenance of anaesthesia 
after the period of induction. 

The Conditions of Ordinary Administration are thus naturally 
favourable and simple. With a normal current of air of 10 litres per 
minute delivered by a rotary pump (vide infra) through a single chloro- 
form-vessel, the percentage of chloroform delivered at the mask is 
approximately what is most suitable throughout an administration of 
chloroform. The sole manipulation required consists in the turning 
' on ' of one tap; the mask is, as a general rule, given to the patient to 
hold, at least for the first minute or two, and as a rule this helps to 
secure confidence. Later, of course, or with a young or refractory 
patient, the mask must be held on by the administrator. 

The main object of a chloroform-balance is to secure the uniform 
delivery of chloroform-and-air in sufficient volume and at suitable 
strength. The considerable capacity of the balance-case affords a reser- 
voir of mixture that prevents the occurrence of sudden variations of 
percentage and acts in the sense of a flywheel. By means of the tap 
the percentage of chloroform can be readily raised or lowered. By 
turning on the second tap the percentage can at once be raised if the 
steady current through one bottle only gives a mixture that requires 
to be enriched, and this augmentation of percentage can be effected 
quite as rapidly as may be desirable. But the apparatus is not adapted 
to sudden lowering of percentage for the purpose of immediately reduc- 
ing an amount of chloroform that may be judged to be greater than 
necessary. Such reduction should, of course, be started at once by 
the obvious means at hand, i.e., by removal of the mask. 

The blood and tissues of an anaesthetised patient are in a reservoir 
filled to a certain degree or tension by the chloroform that has been 
inspired and absorbed, and evidently the first thing to be done when 
the symptoms indicate that there is more than enough chloroform in 
the body is to stop the supply altogether. 

At a time when my chief preoccupation was to influence the discus- 
sion of the chloroform question in the direction of numerical measure- 
ment I stated that safe administration consists in the continuous 
administration of chloroform vapour and air between the limits of 1 and 
2 per 100. I made this statement well knowing that in many cases 
2 per cent, may and must be exceeded, at least nominally, but in the 
belief that it was preferable to name a low rather than a high maximal 
value. Whatever limit was named it was certain to be exceeded, and I 
felt it preferable that a higher limit should be recognised as permissible 
in consequence of the experience of independent observers than that 
it should be stated from the outset. At the present time I am willing 
to admit that the normal upper limit of 2 per 100 may and must 
frequently be exceeded, because in administration by a mask the real 



ON ANESTHETICS. 161 

percentage of mixture inspired is lower than its nominal percentage as 
delivered through the balance. The chief cause of the difference between 
the real and the nominal percentages arises from the mask. 

The mask should be as far as possible continuously applied. I do 
not think it necessary that it should fit hermetically to the face. But 
in order to secure its uniformity of leakage it is advisable to provide 
it with an orifice of exit providing for uniform overflow of the chloro- 
form mixture. Under these conditions it is clear that the percentage 
inspired must be below the percentage delivered. The precise amount 
of this deficit it is difficult to estimate with any degree of accuracy. 
It obviously must vary with the rate of supply and the rate and depth 
of respiration. Given, e.g., a supply of 12 litres per minute or 200 c.c. 
per second, respiration at 400 c.c. twenty times per minute with inspira- 
tion and expiration lasting each for li second, it is evident that in an 
inspiration during 1| second of 400 c.c. from an open mask into which 
only 300 c.c. are pumped, there must be a surplus of 100 c.c. inspired 
directly from the atmosphere. The patient then inspires 300 c.c. of 
2 per 100 mixture plus 100 c.c. of air, i.e., 400 c.c. of 1'5 per 100 
mixture. Under these conditions the percentage of delivery must be 
2| per 100 if the percentage inspired is to be 2 per 100. 

A very brief experience of the balance as used with an open mask 
teaches the percentage values required in different cases and for various 
requirements. The depth of anaesthesia can be increased or diminished 
by driving the apparatus at a higher or lower percentage number. 

By the use of an inspiratory and expiratory valve and an elastic 
bag the percentage actually inspired is made as nearly as possible equal 
to the percentage indicated. The use of a closed mask, while it is 
essential for the study of the real as distinguished from the nominal 
percentages required in varying degrees of anaesthesia, is not practically 
necessary for the actual induction and maintenance of anaesthesia for 
hospital purposes. My own opinion is in favour of the use of an open 
mask for hospital purposes. The fact that the indicated is above the 
actually breathed percentage is a matter of secondary importance as com- 
pared with the simplicity and convenience afforded by the continuous 
delivery at the mask of an adequate mixture. In this method, as in 
every other, due attention must be paid to the state of the patient, and 
I readily admit that for the exact study of minimum necessary percent- 
age continuously inhaled, a closed mask with inlet and outlet valves is 
indispensable. But at the present my sole concern is to render the 
chloroform-balance practically available for hospital use, and by so 
doing to afford further confirmation of my conviction that the effects 
of chloroform are in direct relation with the concentration at which its 
vapour is administered, and that a first cause of fatal accidents asso- 
ciated with the use of chloroform must be removed by removing the 
possibility of the accidental use of the vapour at high concentrations. 

Position of the Chloroform Balance. 

The tubing (a) from the blower to the balance, and (b) from the 

balance to the mask is of ordinary J-inch gas-pipe of suitable length. 

As fixed at St. George's Hospital, the tube from blower to balance is 

quite short, and passes through the wall from an adjacent room where 

1911. M 



162 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

the blower is jilaced. (If necessary, however, this tube might have 
been of any convenient length. I had previously tested the apparatus 
to work without loss of efficiency through a length of 50 feet). The 
delivery tube as fixed in the out-patients' operating room is about 20 feet 
long from balance to mask, and consists in gas-piping fixed to the wall 
and ceiling to the centre of the room with flexible tubing joining its two 
ends to the balance and to the mask respectively. As now set up the 
balance is placed in the corner of the room where the position of the 
indicator is not visible to the administrator. This is a serious drawback, 
and the balance should be moved to a position where the percentage 
indications can be seen by the administrator. I mention this as a 
detail of arrangement that was overlooked at first, but which is of suffi- 
cient practical importance to require remedy at some sacrifice of the 
arrangement of the operating room. It leads me to lay stress, for any 
future installation of a balance, on the advisability of placing the 
balance against a wall in such a position that the indications can be 
seen by the administrator. The length and bends of tubes may be made 
conformable to the position of the balance without appreciable loss of 
efficiency. In the actual use of the balance it will soon be apparent 
that with the indicator visible the alterations of percentage made during 
administration will be much more infrequent than if it is invisible. 
Practically it is preferable—by reason of the flywheel effect of the large 
volume of mixture in the balance-case — to work with as little inter- 
ference with the percentage as possible, and not to meddle with the 
percentage unless it obviously requires to be altered. As stated above, 
the percentage resulting from the air delivery through a single chloro- 
'orm vessel left to itself is very nearly what is required in all ordinary 
"ircumstances. It can, of course, be made a little higher or a little 
fower by manipulation of the taps. It can be promptly raised for a 
few minutes to three or to four per cent, by tinning on the tap of the 
second chloroform vessel. And it can be promptly lowered by turning 
off the tap so ?.s to admit air into the balance-case. But, as stated 
above, any symptoms indicative of more than enough chloroform are 
best met at once by removal of the mask. 

For ordinary hospital requirements the delivery of the chloroform- 
and-air through the balance to the mask must be at a low positive pres- 
sure and of a volume somewhat in excess of the volume of air required 
for ordinary respiration. 

In testing apparatus in the laboratory before using it in the hospital 
I have sought to obtain a delivery through the balance of approximately 
12 litres of air per minute at a pressure of about one centimetre of 
water at the distal end of the delivery tube to be connected with an 
open mask as described. 

Transferred to the hospital and in the absence of measuring appa- 
ratus, I have become accustomed to verify this delivery roughly by 
placing the end of the tube in a glass of water, through which the 
bubbling of air indicated roughly the efficiency of delivery. A water 
manometer in connection with the interior of the balance-case served 
the double purpose of showing ,by the movements of the column of 
water (1) the efficiency of the mechanical blower, (2) the depth and 
frequency of the patient's respiration during application of the mask. 



ON ANESTHETICS. 16S 

The blower was composed of a rotary pump or a fan driven by ai. 
electromotor so as to deliver approximately 12 litres of air per minute. 
An accessory resistance in the circuit of the motor allowed the delivery 
to be increased or diminished at will within the approximate limits of 
10 and 15 litres per minute. 

Note. 
The chloroform-balance as it stands can be used as an ether-balance, 
but by reason of the more abundant vaporisation and more rapid cooling, 
the ether bottles must be surrounded by a warm water-jacket. The 
chloroform scale, 1-, 2, 3 per 100, is practically equivalent to an ether 
scale, 5, 10, 15 per 100. But, as stated in a previous report, I do 
not recommend the use of an ether-balance for the routine anaesthesia 
by ether. As stated in the next appendix, ether is not liable to be given 
in dangerous amount by any ordinary method. The chief use of an 
ether-balance has been in the laboratory to obtain knowledge (1) of 
the relative physiological efficacy of chloroform and of ether vapour 
at known percentages ; and (2) of the actual percentages of ether vapour 
afforded by an ordinary method, and in particular by what is termed 
' open ether. ' 

APPENDIX II. 

On the Percentage of Ether ordinarily afforded by an ' Open ' Method of 
Administration. By A. D. Waller, M.D., F.R.S. 

Appendix I. of the Second Interim Report to the British Associa- 
tion (Sheffield, 1910, page 270) consists in a preliminary report ' On 
the Principles of Anaesthesia by Ether Vapour, ' and contains the fol- 
lowing comparison of the relative efficacy of chloroform and ether as 
anaesthetics : — 

Chloroform is par excellence the powerful anaesthetic. It is easy 
to deliver chloroform-and-air continuously at 1 and 2 per cent, or more. 
And by reason of this facility chloroform anaesthesia, unless great care 
be observed, is dangerous to life. 

Ether is par excellence the safe anaesthetic. It is comparatively 
difficult to deliver ether-and-air continuously at 8 to 16 per 100; and 
by reason of this difficulty ether anaesthesia is more troublesome, the 
trouble being to give enough ether. 

A fortiori it is difficult to give too much ether, while it is only too 
easy to give too much chloroform. 

It is to be estimated that whereas chloroform-and-air should be 
maintained at between 1 and 2 per 100, ether-and-air is required at 
between 8 and 16 per 100. 

This estimate of 8 to 16 per cent, for ether was a preliminary figure 
based on the previous conclusions of the author that for safe anaesthesia 
by chloroform the percentage must be between 1 and 2, and that the 
physiological power of chloroform is six to eight times that of ether. 2 

These rough limits of percentage 8 to 16 — or more properly 6 to 16 — 
served as a guide for preliminary observations on animals by means of 

2 Waller, Presidential Address to the Section of Anatomy and Physiology of 
the British Medical Association, Montreal, September 1897 ; British Medical Journal, 
November 20, 1897. 

m 2 



164 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

an ether-balance, which gave as a preliminary result that full anaesthesia 
could be produced and maintained by ether-and-air at approximately 
10 per 100. 3 

The administration of ether — first employed in 1846 at the Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital, Boston, U.S.A. — has ever since continued 
in use at that hospital to the complete exclusion of chloroform. The 
method of administration there gradually elaborated, is based on the 
same principle as that of the method referred to as ' open ether,' i.e., 
ether is administered from a closed mask kept drenched with ether 
gradually brought closer to the face until it is quite closely applied so 
as to give a maximum value of ether concentration in the inspired 
mixture of ether and air. 

The method of ' open ether ' has rapidly grown in favour in this 
country, and this has afforded a reason for ascertaining for ether, by a 
procedure similar to that followed for chloroform, what are the per- 
centages of delivery under the ordinary clinical conditions of adminis- 
tration. 

Mr. Symes, who took a series of densimetric estimations of chloro- 
form delivery seven years ago ' under definite conditions as closely similar 
as possible to clinical conditions, has carried out a similar task for ether, 
using for the purpose a flannel mask applied to an artificial face pre- 
cisely as practised by Sir F. Hewitt. The observations have been taken 
with the face and face-piece (1) at the ordinary laboratory temperature 
of 22° ( = 71-6° P.). and ( 2 ) at a temperature of 37° ( = 98-7° F.). 

In view of the fact that as regards ether administration the danger 
of giving too much hardly exists, the chief difficulty being to give 
mough, the information principally sought for was the value of maxi- 
mum percentage afforded to the interior of a face-piece freely supplied 
with liquid ether, and the fall that may be expected to occur in a 
prolonged administration by reason of evaporation from and cooling 
of the face-piece. 

Observation 1. — Artificial respiration air-pump at twenty-four 
strokes of 250 c.c, i.e., 6 litres per minute. Densimeter placed on a 
broad tube ( = the trachea) connected with the mouth of an artificial 
face, over which the mask was placed as for anaesthesia of a subject. 
In a first trial the tracheal tube was provided with an inspiratory- 
expiratory valve, so that the expiratory stroke was into the atmosphere 
and only the inspiratory stroke through the mask, and therefore only 
suction took place from under the face-piece. Ether was then dropped 
freely on the flannel. The following scale-readings were taken at 
two-minute intervals. Boom temperature = 22°; barometric pressure 
= 771 mm. Hg: — 

21-4 18 176 17 

which, corrected by the formula: — 

log P = 2- 1392 + log m-log v + log T-log B, 

where the litre-weight difference between ether vapour an d air has been 
taken as 2"020 grams, gives the values : — 

22-12 1859 18-20 1757 

3 Waller, ' On the Dosage of Chloroform,' British Medical Journal, April 23, 1898. 

4 Lancet, July 9, 1904. 



ON ANESTHETICS. 



165 



This example shows that the maximum percentage afforded by ' open 
ether ' with a closed face-piece is approximately 20 per cent., falling 
by reason of evaporation and cooling. It illustrates further that for 
these measurements we may take direct scale-readings without 
troubling to get out corrected figures. 

According to my previous observations, this ether value of 20 per 
cent, is physiologically equivalent to the chloroform value of 2'5 per 
cent. 

Observation 2a. — Same arrangement as in Observation 1, but no 
valve on the tracheal tube, so that both inspiration and expiration 
occurred from and to the face-piece. Temp. =22° ; bar. =760 mm. Hg. 



Time 


Percentage 


Time 


Percentage 


After 2 mins. 
6 „ 
8 „ 
11 „ 


14-6 
10-6 
10-2 
11-6 


After 14 mins. 
20 „ 
24 „ 


12 
9-6 
11-6 



Observation 2b. 
30° C.: — 



-The same, but with all apparatus warmed up to 



Time 


Percentage 


Time 


Percentage 


After 2 mins. 
4 „ 
6 „ 


10 
12 
11-7 


After 9 mins. 
13 „ 
16 „ 


10-7 
8-7 
9-2 



Observation 3. — With Sir Frederic Hewitt, to imitate as closely 
as possible actual procedure: — 



Time 


Percentage 


Time 


Percentage 


After 2 mins. 
4 „ 
6 „ 


9-7 

9-4 

10-8 


After 8 mins. 
10 „ 
12 „ 


9-3 
9-3 
9-7 



An attempt to raise the percentage above 12 by excess of ether 
did not succeed, i.e., there is no liability to danger by accidentally 
exceeding the natural maximum percentage. 

The current phrase ' open ether ' is used, I understand, in opposition 
to ' closed ether ' administered from a bag such as Clover's, but does 
not exclude the use of a Skinner mask brought into close apposition 
with the face, in which case the ' opening ' consists of the pores of the 
fabric. The essential point which is held to be secured by such an 
' open method ' with closed mask is that the patient is not made to 
breathe and rebreathe the same mixture of air, ether, and accumulating 
carbon dioxide. The ' open ether ' method is substantially identical 
with the method that was shown to me in 1898 at the Massachusetts 
General Hospital as the regular method there practised since 1850, 
i.e., the mask kept saturated with ether is gradually brought closer 
and closer to the face to give a gradually increasing percentage, until 
finally it is quite closely applied, so as to give the maximum percentage. 
It would, I think, be a suitable recognition of the pioneer work in ether 



166 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

anaesthesia carried out by the American School to refer to this method 
of ether anaesthesia as the Boston method. The new expression ' open 
ether ' is not justified by any novelty of procedure, and it is distinctly 
misleading, inasmuch as it involves the use of a closely applied face- 
piece. 

APPENDIX III. 

Six Months' Experience of the Use of a Chloroform-balance in the Out- 
patient Department of St. George's Hospital. By G. R. Phillips, 
M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

Dr. Waller's chloroform-balance has been in use in the out-patient 
theatre of St. George's Hospital for six months. It was found at once 
that the machine could not deliver a sufficient volume for a normal 
inspiration through a f-inch bore pipe. A 2-gallon gas-bag was there- 
fore placed in circuit next to the face-piece. This was found to remedy 
the defect, but in order to give accurate and even percentages through- 
out an administration it was found necessary to have an inspiratory 
and expiratory valve interposed between the bag and the face-piece. 
(When there was an expiratory valve only, expirations escaped into the 
bag and upset the mixture and introduced an element of rebreathing 
unless the pressure in the bag was sufficient to keep a constant strong 
outrush of chloroform-and-air. This was very wasteful of chloroform, 
and the fan was much noisier when working at such a pressure. 
Again, the chloroform was cooled much more rapidly, with a resulting 
fall in the percentage given.) 

The apparatus should be placed in such a position that the adminis- 
trator can both see the scale in the balance-case and make any altera- 
tion in the setting of the taps. 

These points are of great importance, because in the use of the 
instrument it is absolutely necessary that the face-piece should be 
adjusted so that there is no leakage whatever, and that the percentage 
should be raised or lowered very gradually and evenly. The great 
advantage of the method in tine out-patient department is that patients 
are quickly anaesthetised to the necessary depth, the average duration 
of induction being six minutes. 

An extremely light anaesthesia or chloroform sleep can be main- 
tained without the usual troubles of light anaesthesia for long periods, 
and the patients are in a better condition and ready to go home sooner 
than those anaesthetised by the mask and drop-bottle in ordinary hands. 
When the apparatus was first installed it was most unpopular with the 
nursing staff', but when they found that the patients were able to go 
home so much sooner they forgave it. With regard to the safety of 
the method, provided that the percentage is evenly and gradually 
raised, the depth of anaesthesia required for any operation is much less 
than by the Skinner's mask. The respirations are stronger, there is 
less liability to vomit during light anaesthesia in the unprepared patient. 
The airway is not interfered with to the same extent as it is when 
chloroform is dropped suddenly on to a Skinner's mask at intervals. 

We have found frequently that when during a satisfactory light 
anaesthesia the percentage has been suddenly raised or lowered (in spite 
of the flywheel effect of the balance-case and reservoir-bag) vomiting 



ON ANESTHETICS. 



167 



has ensued, and the after-effects have been greater than usual. The 
same effect is produced, of course, by removing the face-piece or 
allowing air to enter under the edges. 

The type of anaesthesia produced by the apparatus for small opera- 
tions such as the removal of needles, sebaceous cysts, ganglion of the 
wrist, &c, is shown by the following cases: — ■ 

Case 1. — Mary C, twenty-four years, ganglion of right hand. 



Time 


Percentage 



Remarks 


h. 
2 


m. 

44 


Face-piece applied. 


2 


45 


1 


Peaceful, quiet pulse, no fear or distress ; holding 


2 


4ti 


1-75 


face-piece herself until showing signs of inco- 


2 


47 


2-2 


ordination. 


2 


48 


2-2 




2 


40 


2-2 


Ready for skin incision ; colour, bright pink ; 
respiration, quiet and even ; expiration longer 
than inspiration, normal rate ; pulse, normal ; 
eyes, strongly resists raising lids ; eyeballs rolled 
up and in ; pupils, very small ; conjunctival 


* 






reflex, just present. Slight semi-conscious move- 
ments of fingers and mouth. Muttering. 


2 


50 


2-2 


Cut made. No movement. Still moaning. 


2 


53 


2-2 


Feels nothing. Slight movements irrespective of 
stimuli from surgeon. 


2 


54 


2-2 


Singing. No movement. Raised percentage for 
general convenience. 


2 


56 


3 


Quieter. Again moving slightly. 


2 


58 


3-0 


Pupil still, small faint stertor. Corneal reflex very 
brisk, does not resist raising eyelids, face-piece 
found to have been letting in air. 


3 





2-0 


Very satisfactory ; again muttering ; no movement. 


3 


5 


1-75 




3 


8 


1-5 


Stretching begun ; no reflex in wounded hand, 
slight movement in the other. 


3 


10 




Face-piece removed. 


3 


15 




Bandages put on. 


3 


18 




Answers questions intelligently. 


3 


45 




Dressed ready to go home. No nausea or vomiting. 








Feels well, slight pain in hand. 



Case 2. — Louisa E., thirty-two years, 
appearance, needle in hand. 



twelve stone, alcoholic 



Time 


Percentage 


Remai-ks 


h. 

2 


m. 
6 




Face-piece applied. 


2 


10 


3-0 




2 


13 


3 


Ready for operation. 


2 


31 


2 




3 





1-5 




4 





10 


Face-piece removed. 


4 


7 


— 


Semi-conscious. 


4 


15 


. — 


Answers questions. No vomiting or nausea. 


4 


25 


— 


Tears. Retched once. 


4 


30 


— 


Quite rational, complains of pain in the hand. 


4 


45 




Dressed ready to go home, quite well. No vomiting 
or headache, or giddiness. 



168 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

In these light stages of anaesthesia patients often have control of the 
pharynx. They are able to swallow saliva or small drops of water 
introduced into the mouth without any attempt at retching or coughing. 
Some patients cannot be brought up to and kept at this light level, but 
have to be taken through the surgical degree and gradually brought back 
to it. Men and alcoholics usually require as much as 3 or 3'5 per cent, 
to control them at first. 

The majority of healthy young adults do not require more than 2 - 5 
per cent, for this light stage. 

The apparatus lends itself well to any sequence. A patient can be 
anaesthetised with gas and ether or ethyl chloride and transferred to 2 
or 2-5 per cent, direct. The initial struggling of the alcoholic is thus 
aborted or more safely and easily controlled, and time is saved. 

In the case of small children and infants we have discarded the face- 
piece and bag, preferring to play a stream of vapour over the patient 
while they are partly covered over by a rug in a nurse's arms. The 
effect upon children is even more marked than upon adults. Their 
colour usually remains good instead of the pallor and feeble breathing 
which often results from the Skinner's mask method with chloroform 
or a mixture of chloroform-and-ether. 

The apparatus has not been used for any severe operation yet. 

APPENDIX IV. 
By Sir Frederic Hewitt, M.V.O., M.D. 

The chloroform-balance introduced by Professor Waller, and at the 
present moment installed at St. George's Hospital, has, since its 
transference from the laboratory to the operating theatre, taught many 
valuable lessons to clinical workers in the field of practical anaesthetics. 
It has enabled us to disentangle, so to speak, the complex phenomena 
of chloroform anaesthesia, to study these phenomena separately, and to 
refer them, at all events in many instances, to their true causation. It 
has indicated for us the lines upon which we should proceed if we wish 
to obtain the best results in practice. It has, in particular, revealed 
the origin and nature of certain of the difficulties and complications of 
general anaesthesia, and has thus suggested to us the desirability of 
modifying or abandoning certain methods of administration which, 
though advantageous from some points of view, are disadvantageous and 
possibly dangerous from others. The balance has thus thrown a new 
and philosophic light upon general anaesthesia, and though it would be 
wrong to claim for it that it has been wholly responsible for the funda- 
mental change that is now taking place in this department of practice, 
it has fully justified those who were responsible for the formation of 
this Committee in the view that, by bringing the physiologist and the 
clinical worker into closer association, considerable improvements in 
anaesthetisation would result. 

In addition to the great lesson taught us by the chloroform-balance 
and other appliances for the percentage administration of chloroform, 
namely, that safe anaesthetisation may be secured provided the strength 
of chloroform vapour does not exceed 2 per 100, there are certain 
other lessons to which I would now specially direct attention. The first 



ON ANAESTHETICS. 169 

of these lessons is that excitement and struggling during anaesthetisa- 
tion are referable, in the majority of cases in which they arise, either 
to (1) imperfections in the inhaling system or actual apparatus, causing 
suffocative sensations, or (2) irregularities in the vapour concentration, 
causing irritation to the mucous membrane of the upper air-passages. 
In this connection I would again draw attention to the importance of 
the ' plenum ' system of administration. Any method by which the 
diluted anaesthetic gas or vapour is drawn through comparatively narrow 
channels by the inspiration of the patient is to be deprecated, not only 
on account of the constant stress thrown upon the respiration through- 
out the administration, necessitating, in certain subjects, the use of 
oxygen to correct the air limitation thus introduced, but on account 
of the excitement and struggling which such a system of administration 
is likely to initiate at the very outset, when a patient is conscious or 
semi-conscious. As is well known, the impact upon the fauces, naso- 
pharynx, and larynx of frequently varying strengths of anaesthetic 
vapour is liable to produce numerous reflex phenomena, such as breath- 
holding, swallowing, and coughing; but it is not generally recognised 
that such irregular strengths are also often responsible for the struggling 
and excitement of the induction stage. It would seem that irregular 
concentrations of vapour have the same effect upon half-conscious 
patients as cutaneous stimuli which, as is also well known, are par- 
ticularly liable to induce struggling if brought to bear during the early 
stages of anaesthetisation. It is found, in practice, that the more 
closely the anaesthetist can imitate the physiologist by presenting to his 
patient a dilute vapour of definite strength, or one which very gradually 
increases in strength, the less will be the liability to the phenomena in 
question. The second important lesson which we have learnt is that 
gradual methods of induction, although possessing certain slight disad- 
vantages as compared with rapid methods, have the great advantage of 
securing during the operation a degree of muscular relaxation and 
general quietude which are rarely to be obtained when rapid and com- 
plicated methods of induction have been employed. Ever since the 
days of Clover the practical anaesthetists of this country have been vying 
with one another in their endeavours to eliminate the excitement and 
struggling stages of anaesthesia by the use of various anaesthetic com- 
binations and sequences, and it may be said that they have been suc- 
cessful in their object. Eapidity of induction has been regarded as 
more or less synonymous with skill. By means of such anaesthetics 
as nitrous oxide and ethyl chloride, and by the use of specially con- 
structed inhalers, it has been found possible to plunge patients into 
deep anaesthesia in from one to three minutes, and from some points of 
view such methods doubtless have much to recommend them. But, 
thanks to the combination of physiological experiment and clinical 
observation, we are now able to formulate the proposition that the use 
of these rapid induction methods is liable to be followed by difficulties 
and complications which do not present themselves when slow methods 
of induction have been employed. Fortunately the modern surgeon is, 
or should be, in no sort of hurry; and it is an easy matter for the anaes- 
thetist to commence the anaesthetisation ten or twelve minutes before the 
surgeon is actually ready to begin the operation. It is true that in the 



170 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

ease of highly nervous subjects, as well as in other special circum- 
stances, the loss of consciousness in from three to ten breaths, which 
may be relied upon, for example, in the ' gas-and-ether ' sequence, is a 
great boon to the patient. But the anaesthetist who uses rapid methods 
of induction will often find himself unable to provide his surgical 
colleague with the best possible conditions for operating. The nervous 
system does not like to be taken by storm ; it prefers to be gradually 
invaded. If taken by storm, as when some rapidly acting sequence is 
used, its quiescence during operations, and particularly during certain 
operations, is likely to be interfered with, so that various inconvenient 
reflex phenomena are liable lo arise and to cause difficulties. On the 
other hand, a nervous system which has gradually been invaded by an 
anaesthetic will generally be found to tolerate surgical stimuli even in 
sensitive areas without inconvenient reflex response. The general 
result, therefore, is that it is usually possible after a slow induction 
method to work with a lighter anaesthesia than that required when a 
rapid induction has been employed — a distinct gain to the patient. 
These important differences in the eventual type of anaesthesia are often 
well exemplified in abdominal surgery. Whilst most patients who have 
been anaesthetised slowly will be found to remain tranquilly relaxed and 
with almost inaudible breathing during abdominal manipulations, those 
who have been subjected to rapid induction methods will be very liable 
to display laboured breathing, laryngeal spasm, or persistent abdominal 
rigidity — all of which may be highly inconvenienKo the operator. 

Whilst we are undoubtedly indebted to the chloroform-balance and 
to other appliances for the possibility of reducing the risk of chloroform 
anaesthesia almost to a vanishing point, it is questionable whether, in 
view of recent developments in ether administration, we shall ever wit- 
ness that widespread adoption of the more potent of these two agents 
which some writers have regarded as inevitable. During the past year I 
have given a very thorough trial to so-called ' open ether,' a term now 
generally employed to indicate a method of administering this anaes- 
thetic, the chief characteristic of which is almost continuous drop- 
ping of ether upon one or more layers of gauze, domet, or flannel held 
together by some kind of wire frame which by means of additional 
gauze or pads is kept more or less closely and continuously applied to 
the face. We are indebted, I believe, to America for this simple but 
exceedingly satisfactory method. I have employed it very extensively, 
and with such results as to justify me, I think, in predicting a long 
and successful reign for the method. It will be remembered that 
Professor Waller in Appendix I. to last year's report of this Com- 
mittee referred to certain experiments which he had conducted with 
the object of ascertaining the percentage of ether generally inhaled 
during the use of the open method. Since that report the Committee 
has gone a step further. Having satisfied myself that the best results 
clinically were obtainable by the use of a Skinner's mask covered with 
two thicknesses of flannel, and surounded by oval ' horse collars ' of 
gauze, the Committee instituted a series of experiments with the object 
of ascertaining the precise percentage of ether inhaled when ether was 
fully dropped upon this simple contrivance. The results obtained were 
remarkably constant, thus confirming the clinical observation that with 



ON ANAESTHETICS. 171 

such an arrangement of flannel and gauze a most equable type of 
anaesthesia can be maintained. Without here entering into various 
clinical details, I am desirous of placing on record my complete conver- 
sion to ' open ' as opposed to ' close ' etherisation. I am certainly not 
proud of the fact that for many years my energies have been directed 
towards developments and improvements in a system of etherisation 
which, although still advantageous in certain cases, is without doubt 
faulty in it3 fundamental principles and therefore not suited for routine 
use. A new era in anaesthesia is commencing in this country, and it is 
gratifying to feel that its commencement has been determined both by 
clinical and by physiological considerations. We are completely aban- 
doning the ether cone and its countless modifications. We are almost 
completely abandoning the time-honoured and ingenious inhalers of 
Clover and Ormsby, over the intricacies of which so much valuable time 
has been expended. Now that we know the possibilities and advantages 
of simpler methods and slow inductions, it is almost unintelligible that 
we should have tolerated these complex inhalers for so long. But it 
must be remembered that it is quite as much the element of slow induc- 
tion as the element involved in the open method that is responsible for 
the success of the new system. The irregular ether percentages neces- 
sarily breathed from an ether inhaler, whether it be of the cone or 
reservoir type, must, as we now know, introduce difficulties which do 
not arise when an equable ether vapour is continuously breathed. 
For many years so much attention was paid in this country to the 
elaboration of the close system of ether administration that no one 
seems to have had the patience to try slow induction methods. All 
the teaching of earlier times was opposed to such methods. Thanks, 
however, partly to the example set us by American surgeons, and partly 
to the physiological observations made by this Committee, we now 
understand their advantages. Moreover, by means of appliances for 
securing oral as opposed to nasal respiration, by the use of atropine to 
lessen mucus secretion, and by the employment of morphine, and 
other drugs in suitable cases, to intensify the action of the anaesthetic, 
vn are now able to avail ourselves of the striking advantages of equable 
etherisation free from rebreathing. We have, in a word, achieved that 
most difficult of all achievements — we have thrown off elaborations and 
complications one by one till we have secured the utmost simplicity 
in procedure, and as that simplicity is associated with a corresponding 
degree of safety, there seems every probability that less and less will be 
heard of rival appliances for the percentage administration of chloroform 
and more and more of this new system of etherisation. 



Body Metabolism in Cancer. — Interim Report o\ the Committee, consisting 
of Professor C. S. Sherrington (Chairman) and Dr. S. M. Copeman 
(Secretary). 

In continuation of the experimental work on mice, an account of 
which was given in the report for last year, we had proposed to test 
the effect on the human subject of various substances derived from the 
genital glands, more especially nuclein and its derivatives. 



172 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Unfortunately, considerable difficulty has been experienced in obtain- 
ing the necessary material, and it is only within the last few months 
that, thanks to the generosity and enterprise of Messrs. Parke, Davis, 
& Co., sufficient nuclein of animal origin has become available. Certain 
preliminary tests have been carried out with the object of determining 
the most satisfactory method of administration, the dosage, etc. The 
work has been controlled by careful observation of the effect pro- 
duced, more especially on the elimination of phosphates in the 
urine, the daily output of which has been found to be considerably 
diminished, both relatively and absolutely, in cases of malignant 
disease. 

At the present stage, however, it is impossible to present any 
detailed statement, and we therefore propose the reappointment of 
the Committee for another year, without further grant of money, as 
last year's residue is still in hand. 



Tissue Metabolism, for the Investigation of the Metabolism of Special 
Organs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. H. 
Starling (Chairman), Professor T. G. Brodie (Secretary), and 
Dr. J. S. Haldane. 

The gaseous metabolism first investigated by the Committee was that 
of the small intestine. A good length of the intestine was isolated and 
the interior thoroughly washed out with warm saline and then emptied. 
The loop was then enclosed in an oncometer, so that the rate of blood- 
flow could be estimated by Brodie 's oncometric method. Samples of 
the venous blood wei*e collected from a neighbouring branch of the 
mesenteric vein. Detailed results of these experiments have been pub- 
lished in the 'Journal of Physiology,' vol. xxxix. 

In the next instance preliminary experiments upon the gaseous 
metabolism of isolated organs have been undertaken. In the first place, 
organs perfused with oxygenated saline solutions were examined. This 
involved an extension of the previous methods of analysis of gases in 
saline solutions, and apparatus has been designed for the purpose. The 
results of these experiments agree well with those obtained by other 
methods, so that this method will probably serve for the investigation 
of many problems which it would be impossible to attempt in the 
intact organ. 

The Ductless Glands. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Schafer (Chairman), Professor Swale Vincent (Secretary), 
Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. Shore, and Mrs. W. H. 
Thompson. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Mrs. Thompson has been continuing her investigations into the neck 
organs (thyroid, parathyroid, post-branchial body, carotid body, 
ventral branchial body, thymus, pro-coracoid, and pro-pericardial 
bodies). During the past year her attention has been chiefly directed 
to these various structures in the frog and other amphibians. One 
interesting fact which has come to light is that in frogs the thymus 



THE DUCTLESS GLANDS. 173 

gland is frequently absent, or at least is not to be detected, at certain 
periods of the year (in certain states of nutrition?). 

Drs. Halpenny and Gunn are engaged in experimental work upon 
the thyroid and parathyroid. The results of a series of' extirpation 
experiments upon monkeys are recorded in the ' Quart. Journ. of 
Exp. Physiol.,' vol. iv., No. 3 (1911). The effects differ in some 
respects from those reported by Horsley and by Vincent and Jolly. 

Drs. Gardner and Mothersill have been occupied with extirpation 
of the adrenals in the dog, and the effect of such extirpation upon the 
chromaphil tissues which are left behind. So far as the experiments 
have gone they appear to indicate that when the animal survives for 
some time with a minimum of adrenal substance, there is a notable 
hypertrophy of the abdominal chromaphil body. 

The pituitary bodies of the monkeys whose thyroid apparatus was 
removed are being examined histologically, but the work is not 
sufficiently advanced for a report. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of 40L 



Electromotive Phenomena in Plants. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. A. D. Waller (Chairman), Mrs. Waller (Secretary), 
Professors F. Gotch and J. B. Farmer, and Drs. V. H. Veley and 
F. O'B. Ellison. 

The purpose for which this Committee was originally appointed has 
gradually become transformed from the particular investigation of the 
ferments involved in flowering to that of the electrical changes asso- 
ciated with fermentation of plants. In our last report we described the 
associated chemical and electrical phenomena that characterise the pro- 
duction of hydrocyanic acid in the cherry laurel (Prunus laurocemsus). 

We have continued our observations during the past year, more 
especially as regards the nature of the electrical changes involved. The 
results of our investigation, which is not yet finished, are contained in 
two papers, the first of which has been communicated to the Royal 
Society. A second paper is in preparation. 

In pea and bean seedlings the normal electric current runs from 
the cotyledons up the stem and amounts sometimes to 0'08 volt. The 
blaze current runs from the growing tip of stem towards the cotyle- 
dons. 

Cutting the stem across causes a current from the cut end of 0'02 
volt or more, which subsides in about half an hour. 

A sharp touch sends a current from the point touched and, as 
Dr. Waller has shown, the touch of a fine hair on young stems will 
cause an electrical current from that point. 

A series of observations was taken on the relative effects of water, 
salt solution, ether, and chloral on the blaze currents, using hyacinth 
root tips as the object to be studied. 

In the water the blaze increased from 0*0080 volt to - 0300 in three 
days ; in salt solution it decreased from O0080 volt to O'OOiO ; in ether 
from 0-0070 volt to 0"0013 ; and in chloral from 0-0020 volt to 0-0001. 



174 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. . 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor C. S. Sherrington {Chairman), Dr. W. McDougall 
(Secretary), Professor J. S. MacDonald, Mr. H. Sackville 
Lawson, and Dr. J. E. Chapman. 

The Committee report that Professor MacDonald and Dr. J. E. Chap- 
man have been working during the past year with the large calorimeter 
of the Sheffield University physiological laboratory and have made good 
progress in mastering the many difficulties involved in exact determina- 
tion of heat production in the human body. A statement of the nature 
of their work is appended. Mr. Sackville Lawson has continued his 
investigation into mental fatigue in schoolboys. The sum of 91. has 
been assigned to him in order to complete the purchase of the Rivers- 
McDougall fatigue-apparatus which he is using. The remainder of the 
grant of 251. has been assigned to Professor MacDonald and Dr. Chap- 
man to defray expenses of their calorimetric research. 

Report to the Committee. By Professor J. S. MacDonald and 

Dr. J. E. Chapman. 

We report a year spent in the development and use of a calorimeter 
built, as far as its body is concerned, on the plan, and with the dimen- 
sions, of the Middletown calorimeter of Atwater and Benedict. In 
many minor details, however, we have found it useful to depart from 
that plan, as in the construction of the radiator systam, the resistance 
thermometers, &c. 

Not intending to measure the respiratory exchange of gases at 
present, we are freed from limitations due to the dimensions and resist- 
ance of absorption apparatus. We have thus used a greater air-flow, 
the pump now in place drawing 450 cubic feet per hour through the 
calorimeter. This air passes into the chamber without preliminary 
treatment other than modification of its temperature to suit that of the 
calorimeter, and in this increased air-flow and its normal character we 
have obtained certain advantages. 

Our arrangements for each experiment have been greatly facilitated 
by the discovery of a relationship between the heat output within the 
chamber and the temperature of the calorimeter and radiator system 
such that 



H 



( T --H^) 



where H is the heat output, T is the temperature of the calorimeter, 
and T a and T, the temperatures of the water entering and leaving the 
radiator system respectively. This equation, containing as it does no 
quantity concerned with the rate of water flow, has been of considerable 
use. For a physical explanation of this observed fact we have to thank 
Mr. J. Robinson, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Using the calorimeter simply for the purposes of heat measurement, 
and not as a respiration calorimeter, we have had to deal with water 
vapour leaving the instrument solely as it affected the heat equations, 



ON MENTAL AND MUSCULAR FATIGUE. 175 

and have therefore had to pay nothing more than secondary attention 
to the amount of water condensing on, or evaporating from, the radiator 
in the calorimeter. "We have thus been set free from any necessity for 
weighing the water that is condensed within the calorimeter. 

Measurements of the water vapour leaving the calorimeter were 
obtained at first by direct weighing of absorption apparatus placed in its 
path, but we have now substituted ' wet and dry ' bulb readings taken 
in an accessory chamber of suitable dimensions, and apparently with 
advantage. 

One of the greatest difficulties experienced at first was the great 
delay in the external delivery of heat which was due to the great heat 
capacity of the calorimeter. This has been satisfactorily eliminated by 
observations which have given us its ' water equivalent ' and a means 
of rendering all our figures free from this source of error. Using these 
corrections we are enabled to express our experimental results in con- 
tinuous curves showing variations in heat production of quite short 
duration. 

That item in the construction of Atwater and Benedict's calorimeter 
which appeared at first as likely to need an extraordinary amount of 
experience in handling — namely, the equalisation of the temperature 
of the metal box surrounding the calorimeter to the temperature of the 
calorimeter in its several sections— we have found much more simple 
than was anticipated, and have now proof that it is managed with 
perfect success. 

The only occasions when difficulties arise in this matter are when 
very great changes occur in the amount of heat produced within the 
calorimeter. To meet these special difficulties we have placed within 
the calorimeter an extra source of heat, a number of incandescent 
lamps, using them frequently to balance such violent changes. We 
have considerable evidence to support the statement that no new errors 
of moment are introduced by this plan. It has the further advantage 
that the interior of the calorimeter is lighted and its occupant always 
visible. 

In our more recent experiments we have been enabled to take the 
records of the occupants' temperature using the thermo-couple method 
elaborated by Gamgee, and have thus now all the data required for an 
estimation of the heat production of man as distinguished from his heat 
elimination. 

In expressing the results of experiments it has been found essential 
to take full account of the surface of each subject; a consideration of 
the published results of others and of our own direct measurements 
have led us to adopt a modified formula for the surface in terms of the 
data of height and weight 

S=3H^W 

A large number of experiments have been carried out with a number 
of subjects under conditions of rest, sleep, and work, and we hope in a 
short time to publish a full account of these experiments and their 
bearing upon the questions referred to this Committee. 



176 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Clare Island. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor T. 
Johnson (Chairman), Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor Grenville Cole, Dr. Scharff, and Mr. A. G. Tanslky, 
appointed to arrange a Botanical, Zoological, and Geological Survey 
of Clare Island. 

The Committee desire again to thank the British Association for a grant 
in aid of the expenses of field work. This grant has been spent in 
defraying travelling expenses and incidentals connected with the survey. 
On account of the nature of the expenditure, vouchers are not available. 
The Committee hope to finish their work on Clare Island by the 
end of the present year, and ask for a further and final grant of SOL to 
assist them in accomplishing this. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. D. H. Scott (Chairman), Professor F. W. Oliver (Secretary), 
Mr. E. A. Newell Arber, and Professors A. C. Seward and 
F. E. Weiss. 

The grant of 15Z. has all been spent. A series of sections of a new 
coal-measure Trigonocarpus has been purchased for Professor F. W. 
Oliver, who is describing this Palaeozoic seed. 

For Professor Weiss a number of sections of coal-balls and of the 
coal itself has been obtained, to enable him to investigate the distribu- 
tion of plant-remains within the coal-seam, with a view to finding a clue 
to a possible succession of different stages or types of vegetation. 

Other sections acquired are of Stigmaria and allied forms, on which 
Professor Weiss has long been working. 



The Experimental Study of Heredity .—Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Mr. Francis Darwin (Chairman), Mr. A. G. Tansley 
(Secretary), and Professors Bateson and Keeble. 

The grant of 451. has been used to defray the expenses of experiments 
carried on by E. E. Saunders, B. P. Gregory, and M. G. Thoday. 

During the present year the experiments on the inheritance of 
double flowers have been continued. In the case of stocks the results 
have now shown that this character is inherited in accordance with 
definite though somewhat complicated laws. It is hoped that the full 
account will appear in the autumn. 

Similar experiments have also been carried out on several other 
genera, chiefly biennials (carnation, hollyhock, meconopsis, wallflower, 
and others). These have now been carried to the third generation, 
and when this season's results have been obtained it is proposed 
to give some account of the inheritance in these cases also. 

Investigations are also being continued on the inheritance of a 
mutation in the foxglove. 



ON THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF HEREDITY. 177 

The investigations into the inheritance of colour in Primula sinensis 
have been carried further, and attention has been paid to the genetics 
of parti-coloured and flaked types. Experiments bearing upon the 
special relations which are found to exist between certain distinct 
factors have given interesting results, 1 and are being carried further. 

The inheritance of an abnormal type of flower in the wallflower is 
being investigated, and experiments are also being made with a putative 
hybrid between two species of Taraxacum. 

Mrs. Thoday has continued her experiments on the nature and 
inheritance of the yellow tinge in the sweet pea/ 



Botanical Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
F. W. Oliver {Chairman), Professor F. E. Weiss {Secretary), Dr. 
W. G. Smith, Mr. A. G. Tansley, Dr. T. W. Woodhead, and 
Professor E. H. Yapp, for the Registration of Negatives of Photo- 
graphs of Botanical Interest. 

In accordance with the wish expressed by the Committee of the 
Botanical Section at the Sheffield Meeting of the Association, the second 
list of photographs collected by the Committee has been printed and 
distributed to the botanical members of the Association. This list 
includes mainly single plants or groups of plants, either in their natural 
habitat or under cultivation. Owing to special circumstances it has 
been impossible this year to prepare and publish a list of the ecological 
photographs which have so far been collected. It is hoped that this 
may be done next year, and with this object in view the Committee 
ask to be reappointed. 



Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor J. J. Findlay {Chairman), 
Professor J. A. Green {Secretary), Professors J. Adams and E. P. 
Culverwell, Mr. G. F. Daniell, Miss B. Foxley, Mr. J. Gray, 
Professor K. A Gregory, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Mr. W. 
McDougall, Dr. T. P. Nunn, Dr. W. H. K. Eivers, Professor C. 
Spearman, Miss L. Edna Walter, and Dr.F. Warner, appointed 
to inquire into and report upon the methods and results of research 
into the Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education. 

The following were co-opted to the Committee: Dr. G. A. Auden, 
Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. W. Brown, Dr. C. P. Lapage, Mr. H. S. 
Lawson, Dr. C. S. Myers, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, Mr. H. Bompas 
Smith, and Mr. A. E. Twentyman. 

The Committee have conducted an inquiry during the past year on 
the tests actually in use and to be used in the diagnosis of feeble-minded 

i Proc. Roy. Soc, Sec. B, vol. 84, p. 13, 1911. 
2 Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc., vol. 16, p. 71, 1910. 
1911. N 



178 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

children. To that end they have circulated the following questionnaire 
among School Medical Officers in whose districts Special schools for 
this class of children were provided: — 

1. By what process are the children chosen for examination Ly you ? 

2. What methods and tests have you employed for determining whether those 

children should be accepted in the schools for children of defective 
mental power? 

3. Do you use any specially designed tests, e.g., Binet's, Weygandt's, de 

Sanctis', &c. ? 

4. Which of the. various methods you have used do you prefer, and why ? 
(It would help the Committee greatly if you would comment freely upon 

the various tests you have used.) 

5. Have you evolved any special tests for routine or for exceptional cases ? 

6. How do you test the progress of the children when they are in the schools? 

(A copy of the form of record would be a help.) 

7. Is there any ' psychological ' classification of the children in the .Special 

schools ? 

8. Do you take into consideration such factors as age, irregularity of attend- 

ance at school, frequent change of schools, physical defect, &c. ? 

9. What method do you adopt to determine whether (a) a boy, (b) a girl, may 

leave the Special school before the statutory limit of sixteen years ? 

10. Do you make any provision for sane ' epileptics ' ? Have you any after- 

care committee to continue supervision after school age? 

A second set of questions were addressed to the headmistresses of 
Special schools, as under: — 

1. Number of children in the school aged 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, and 7. 

2. Number (of those now in the school) admitted at 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 

10, 9, 8, and 7. 

3. Into how many classes are they divided ? 

4. What is the basis of classification and how is promotion determined? (A 

copy of your record form would be helpful.) 

5. Have any children ever gone back from your school to the ordinary school ? 

If so, how many ? 

6. Do you make any psychological classification of the various forms of mental 

defect and base your treatment upon it? If so, will you kindly describe 
it. 

7. What proportion of the children reach the normal proficiency of a 

Standard II. child in respect of the three K's? 

8. How much time is given to manual work? What is the nature of it? Is 

it brought into relation with the ordinary work of the class-room, or 
is it outside your control ? 

The Committee have received answers to these questions from the 
following Education Authorities : London, Liverpool, Manchester, Bir- 
mingham, Sheffield, Leeds, Bristol, Nottingham, Leicester, Blackburn, 
Colchester, Smethwick, Eastbourne, Brighton, Middlesbrough, Wolver- 
hampton, Coventry, Willesden, Southend. The information they have 
collected may therefore be regarded as fairly representative of the 
country as a whole. 

The summarised replies to the questions are given in Appendices I. 
and II. to this Beport. The several Education Authorities are indicated 
by capital letters in the first column. 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 179 

The Committee would draw attention to the grave need of some 
standardisation in the matter both of diagnosis and subsequent treat- 
ment. A study of the replies will show: — ■ 

1. That the actual standards of admission to the schools vary very 
greatly in different parts of the country, for, whilst in some cases the 
return of a child from the Special school to the Ordinary school is said 
to be very frequent, in others it never occurs. One Medical Officer 
frankly says that he should regard return as indicating an error in 
diagnosis in the first instance. 

2. That this varying standard is accompanied by great variety in 
methods of testing. Both teachers and doctors find great difficulty 
with border-line cases, and it is clear that much careful research is 
necessary in order that it may be possible to decide with some measure 
of certainty between backwardness and mental defect. 

3. That the number of late entries into Special schools is dispro- 
portionately large. This may be in part due to the recent provision of 
such schools in some areas, and in part to the natural desire of parents 
and teachers to avoid the stigma which seems to attach to the Special 
school. 

4. That the number of children who remain in the Special schools 
until the full statutory age is very small. This is apparently not due 
to transfers to the ordinary school, but to the fact that the children are 
allowed to leave school earlier than is necessary. 

5. That the attempt to teach the three E's is a lamentable failure, 
whilst the amount of time given to manual training is in many cases 
altogether inadequate. If the greater part of school time were devoted 
to hand work of distinctly useful character, probably much better results 
would be achieved. Work in the three R's might in many cases 
actually be confined to such as arose out of the manual work, where it 
would have an obvious meaning and use. 

6. In deciding this and other educational problems diagnosis of a 
scientific character seems essential. A wider acquaintance among 
teachers with modern psychological methods is desirable, especially in 
the interest of backward and mentally defective children. 

7. There is no apparent relation between diagnosis and treatment in 
the Special schools. This is no doubt due to want of precise knowledge 
on types of mental defect in relation to the general problem of educa- 
bility. Research on this point seems to the Committee both possible 
and urgently needed. 

8. That special provision for backward and delicate children on the 
Mannheim plan seems urgently necessary. This would be possible in 
most districts in which Special schools for the mentally deficient are 
organised. 

A third questionnaire was circulated fairly widely amongst teachers 
in elementary schools in the hope of finding out how far the Medical 
Officers and the Teachers were in agreement on the subject of mental 
deficiency: — . 

1. Under what circumstances do you decide to submit a child to the Medical 
Officer as being, in your view, unfitted to profit by the ordinary instruc- 
tion in your school ? • 

n 2 



180 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



2. Are children promoted from the Infants' department on grounds of age? 

3. Have you any experience of children whom you have recommended in this 

way being rejected by the Medical Officer? 
(If you can give the number of cases and the subsequent school history of 
such children we should be grateful. 

4. Have you in your school any special class for dullards of all ages? If so, 

how many are in the class, and how do you provide for them ? 

It was, however, not clear that any very wide disagreement existed so 
far as the inquiry went, but here and there dissatisfaction was 
expressed, and, in the Committee's view, some more careful diagnosis 
should be attempted before the teacher's cases are rejected by the 
Medical Officer. Where the resources of a psychological laboratory are 
available, these might be used with advantage. 

In concluding their report, the Committee would wish to thank 
the Medical Officers and Headmistresses of Special schools for the care 
they have taken in supplying the information asked for. The Com- 
mittee desire to be reappointed. 



APPENDIX II. 
Summary of Returns from Heads of Defective Schools. 



Shows the ages of the children now in defective schools. (Q. 1.) 
Shows the ages of admission of children now in these schools. (Q. 2.) 



.---—- 


665 
















'631 




















\ 


















i 

i 


















\ 






4S0 














,444 44J, 
















37a 


/ "\ 






372 


345 










*» 


307 












273 


























205 


















V 






J76 




HI4 








\ 




















68 






89 


"*t 










'- 


33 


6 


\ 



V. 

w 

« 

1 

H 
O 

f» 
o 

A 
W 



O 

55 



*50 
400 
350 
30X3 



200 



50 



14 



Age in Years. 
A. Provincial Schools. 



der of 
umber} 



toutine 



el6 



10. 



Provision for sane epileptics ? After- 
care Committee ? 



test vast be normal. 
,ion of 



from further 



;e of sixteen. 



record form 



adap 
e been, 
d vari 



iture of em 
s and child's 



A few children sent to a colony for epilep- 
tics. 
No committee. 



No. 

Yes. 



One epileptic boarded out at a special 

school. 
Committee in process of formation. 



No ; there are a few mild cases of epilepsy 
in the Special schools. 

Yes ; an After-Care Committee is at- 
tached to each Special school. 



Residential school for sane epileptics. 
No After-Care Committee. 



■ 

Ui || J In 



■ ■ ■ iij kiyliim 

i 
■ 

i ..i i ■, 

Ualn.^1 Ufll. 



tLimmcd b) ~ 
Officer. 

1 

■ 
Urdiekl UnVi*. 



Reported by leather* of Infant 



i School doctor. 

' TuUito ol ( ■ 

II. »l T«tVt u 
ontekchablr. Ul 

■ ■ 



b By Special Maln.il (Jlhcci. 



■ 



1 . 

■ li .i I ■ • 

i tHum '.i 

to $(.-.: ul 11. di. 






i. 'ii',* wlum - 

tfalerted— 

., I'.. H i ■ 
■ 



* It. port, ri 

■ .1 ... II I 

■(.ported '•■ ■ 



b, A-I-Unt 






■' M ' Bill np ■ i | lorn 

■ ■■ in regard lo 



■ 

i I r. 

■■■ I i- I iilurnu. 

I 

ittondanoo, 







■I'll! I'l'l «fc*l 

'■ 

, .111 | -.1 ii I-.H-. 
I 

■ 
■ 



rho 



■ 



iallrfloai. 

'■ [B 



No— lack ol time 



Toala DOl Limn u. 






I K.miK »nj pi mul haftoty, -iirmaU. 
.. 

. inJUng, drawing 
Re pet) lion 

■ 
i 

■ •— ily. 

■ 

"■ i- ling - 

I 



■ ..linuion. 
... ...inui. 

■ 

|'«n..n*l In 

imJutioa. 

■ . UimuUiion— 



■■■I. r..--,rT"..'. [iLij INK I" I 

■ litfure ; 
nj .loul familiar object* . 
■ irguiDllaiMB 

Ri ■ ■ 

'■■ -• ; 

■ i '.■ rimpli ■! urn 

■■■ pi -i .1 pn 

■ 
■ 

.. .. 
■ ■ 
FkmUkril] 
■ 

i T v nfinu 



■ 



•< Ol luiyul OfiUigg 



iii.ii ",. >■■ ii ! 



... ,. |anl '• 

| UI. . ri.tlnn. 

■ |... '., ■. ni mi mury 

p^MlUlflUP*. fUfiUltj, fak 

; u'.i.ii 

. u... n 

I ....,■■ 



■ 



ui END] ■, i 
Summary oj ftelunu from Utdicai Offiu ■ 
nltteaoa '•■ Int ""'" ol thohtmu ia given in Lha Report— mar* preeiie confidential Infon 
To* numban ol the. bead ol (he column, relcr to ih.i number ot the qu»l Ion, 



llcturd-liook kept. 



ax.it 1mm Iho Secretary ol 1 



l-.i. I..UI..1 i,-.lul. I. Ill J ill I" 

oomplli Ml "< ii>i- '" buiI all 4V 



: Ui i.i..ri [i>tUoul«clj imporUnl 



■ ->[innio lo a 



o Queallon J. The Ni....... n ..I 

Hi i iiimniLT ol ui |'. i I 

OUlulbAQ Ibf ualui. ul tile IOl 



Innual . i., ,, [ n .11 Bun, 

I'll, fu ledla I. 1.1 imloalioo l,,r 
■pa ul , i- ■ Ca« bm,k kept 

„i,l „i I..rui imed. 

1 Bj i, -i ■ i,,, 1 , ■ i ■.:-. ii*> ol 

1 i, ,. I,, r'.i Quarter!) Report Ikmk 



Periodical vuik*. It. -poll lion Ci 



ui. .ii. Detailed c 

»■ ''ion >"» : » ' y«*r— Uai 

rttorded. 



Retard kepi i.f rhild'a capabili 



Eiaminnlicin twice n year — rcpoi 
■ ■ ■ 

parienn wuh prvvioiu rcporU 
manual mul mental attainment! 

eiii mined. 



Inapee twite n year; fuller 

■ - 'i i . ii'iii', ii ']-■ i.iii\ 

■ ■ i..ii.) n..,.|.,i iAk.n^.s.1,,-,1 



, cording to 

.1 IVN.,.. I- 

b. L'apuvily lui li.irm 



.. i. ... 
9 1 .in,, i.. piyohologlcnJ 



iK.'aK!A'sS5a3 



By teal* mouliomd in Q I 



tcaotmr'a rvcord*. 



Qraiipbu i" ohMof, iceordtag I 

,,■■:, I ,1. I,.-, u 






ropUal lo QiuJllon on the 
— In . I i.l. , nllnl iii by Lbo Uund 



.!,;,■ . irr.-giil , ■■ 



InfaiiU and rbildrtn »bo 

Elc-mcnuiti »h,.,l rml „lmili,d 
Uthcf laotutd uot cuu.itlutnJ. 



Toeta forta i 



Quarterly cumioBlioB ; elUU m ■ 



U ■ liila i in i nmpclo with hl» fc 



Vcs — particularly age. 



■ 



I. If illiMMr untie I.- olterrd, 

■ . ■ 

t. I! momlly ■ J ■ < ■ ■ in--, ■ • ■ tuu i . i , . 
». II capable ol attending Efc Bi.utaij Kbool. 
Not yd coosiilcrid. 



Idol other Kbool. 

I'd -lllj 

jU!l I— (IT, .-. 

■ ■ I ... 

cirnga. * 



. 



epili | tii - 



... ul tcbooli for 

■ ■■r; J, anil.' 



After-Sun Committee 



Cuoflrn ■ 

■ main. not i.|nii1I..I 

'■ i.l. .■■ '■■ !■■■■ ul I h.ililinc It 

own m an otdhun aehool. 



o ' Ily, If dulcet ,. ( ||d dI 

c Ulhcr. mmaio in ichw] „,,i,.. , 

Ewh ohOd ...„F„ik „..„,„„ | ,. 



r.>.. ii., l.iy pj further progTta*, n «iurf .il ta 

I' 1 "" 1 "- "■'-'■ h-iiaoeon III 

liiUutuevaDolluin. 



,„■ , pili ptl boarded out *i » >i 
■ ,. I...I.. in omen of formation! 



S ■ ii.'.- ■" -i ileMedofopHopD 

,„ ni. Special '■• ■■! 
1,- in Ml ■■■ 



ToJaMf. LM.] 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 181 



Shows the ages of the children now in defective schools. 

(Q. 1.) 

Shows the ages of admission of children now in these 
schools. (Q. 2.) 




10 II 12 IS 14 15 16 

Age in Yeaks. 
B. London Schools. 



182 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 





3. 


4. 


5. 




No. of 


Basis of Classification and 


Children returned 

to 
Ordinary School 




Classes 


Promotion 


A 


Lowest, 


a. Attainments on entering Special 


None. 




middle and 


school as judged from previous 






upper. 


teacher's report, and the child's 
power to apply itself to any simple 
occupation. 
b. Promotion determined on progress 




• 




shown from a mental, physical, 
and moral standpoint (half-yearly 
report). 




Bi 


Five. 


a- General intelligence. 


Repeatedly. 






b. Improvement in two subjects. 


Last year, ten. 
This year, eight. 


Bii 


Four. 


a. Mental capacity of child. 


Yes ; twenty-five, 






6. Promotion according to mental 


an average of 






development of child. 


2-5 yearly. 


Biii 


Two. 


Classified according to mental capacity. 
Promotion by mental development. 


Yes ; five. 


C 


Three. 


Morning classes classified according 


Yes ; thirty-two 






to educational abilities ; afternoon 


(including four 






classes according to ability in manual 


transferred to 






work. 


P.D. school). 


D 


Two for most 


According to abilities in three R's and 


Yes ; one. 




subjects. 


handwork. 
Classified as ' younger ' and ' older,' 
but individuals occasionally con- 
sidered. 





ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 183 



e. 


7. 


8. 


Psychological or othei 


No. of Children who 
reach Standard 1 1 


Time for Manual Work. Nature 


Classification 


Proficiency 


ami Organisation of 


Each child studied separately : 


Reading — not 


8 hr. 20 min. plus 1 hr. draw- 


1. Obedience to commands. 


more than 


ing. Lower classes — K inder- 


2. Response. 


40 per cent. 


garten. Upper classes — Wood- 


3. Will power. 


Calculation — not 


work," gardening, laundry, 


4. Memory. 


more than 20 


cookery, needlework, rug- 


5. Moral propensities. 


per cent. 


work, &c. 


Lack of self-control often 


Writing — not 


Partly into relation with work 


noticed. 


more than 60 


of schoolroom, woodwork, and 




per cent. 


cookery taken at centres. 


Beyond a certain point too 


Perhaps 5 per 


8 hr. Training for the time 


tedious. 


cent. 


when they leave school. Taken 


Defective speech together for 




in relation with ordinary work, 


speech training. In the 




most of occupations taken in 


case of those whose reason 




conjunction with three R's. 


is undeveloped, begin with 






little that is known. 






This impossible owing to 


Sixteen per cent. 


*U hr. Woodwork, fretwork, 


individual differences. Each 




basket weaving, clay and 


child carefully studied ai d 




paper modelling, paper folding, 


taught, according to mental 




bead-work, cookery, knitting, 


status and moral standard. 




and brick building. 
Yes, brought into relation. 


Individual instruction accord- 


It is probably 


12 hr. Laundry work, cooking, 


ing to child's capacity and 


possible to 


wood-work, and manual train- 


needs. One case of cruelty 


secure 25 


ing as distinct from the kinder- 


treated for a year. 


per cent, at 


garten. Hand-training as a 




this particular 


part of the ordinary routine. 




centre. 


Woodwork by a Technical 
Instructor at the Technical 
Centre. 


No complete classification. 


About 20 per 


lij hr. ; and for older girls, 8 hr. 


Audiles, visuals, and speech 


cent. 


Kindergarten occupations (cut- 


defectives treated individu- 




ting and design, bead thread- 


ally. Majority seem men- 




ing, paper-folding, painting 


tally apathetic rather than 




and colour work, &c), basket- 


definitely deficient in one 




weaving, rug-making, needle- 


sense. 




work, drawing, chip carving, 
metal repousse, cooking and 
laundrywork. With the ex- 
ception of cookery and 
laundry all connected with 
ordinary class-room work. 


Oidy in a somewhat crude 


Out of seven- 


7 hr. 20 min. More modern 


way. (School only opened 


teen in school 


kindergarten occupations ; 


four years.) 


three will 


cookery, laundry (girls), wood- 




eventually be 


work (boys), gardening. 




at the level of 


Yes, except in the case of 




Standard II. 


cookery and laundry. 



184 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 





3 


4 - 


5. 




No. of 

Classes 


Basis of Classification and 
Promotion 


Children returned 

to 
Ordinary School 


F 


Two. 


Classification according to capability, 
not age. 


Yes ; four. 


H 


Two. 


Classification according to capabilities 


Yes ; three (one 






(mental power) as well as attain- 


of whom after- 






ments. 


wards reached 






Promotion, when there is distinct 


Standard VII.). 






advance in mental calibre — occa- 








sionally to make room for younger 
scholars. Individuals considered in 








each subject. 




I 


Three. 
Manual 


a. Classification according to capability 
for lessons. 


Yes ; six. 




work, 


b. Promotion by progress, if accommo- 






sometimes 


dation will permit. 






four. 






J 


Three. 


a. Class 1. — Children who have made 


No (school open 






no progress in the Elementary 
school. 


two years). 






Class 2. — Children withdrawn from 






• 


Standard I., cannot read, write, 








or calculate. 








Class 3. — Children promoted from 2. 
6. Promotion according to mental 








development shown by (i) speech, 
(ii) habits and emotions, (iii) 








powers of attention, <fec. 





ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 185 



Psychological or other 
Classification 



No. 



(i. Studied chiefly through 
physical expression ; cor- 
rective physical exercises 
given. 

b. Aim at cultivating self- 
control (by means of work 
which makes the child feel 
its own power), and self- 
assertion (child encouraged 
to assist others), though 
sometimes this must be 
checked (detailed account 
given). 



No ; impossible, owing to 
smallness of the school. 



Differences classified : — 

1. Defects in receptive paths 

of brain — hearing, sight, 
and touch. 

2. Defects in retentive cen- 

tres of brain — inability 
to perceive, to retain and 
associate ideas, and to 
form judgments. 

3. Defects in emissive paths 

of brain — lack of co-or- 
dination of muscles, 
shown in gait, speech, 
&c. Instruction regulated 
accordingly. 



No. of < 'hildrenwht 

reach Standard 1 1 

Proficiency 



Doubtful if any 
attain pro- 
ficiency in all 
three, though 
some may at- 
tain it in one 
or two. 



Out of a class of 
eighteen, five 
are equal to 
Standard III. 
in reading, 
and four to 
Standard II. ; 
four equal to 
Standard III. 
in writing. 

Arithmetic 
weak, particu- 
lar^- written. 



Only one or two. 
Eight or nine 
per cent, in 
reading (not 
in spelling), 3 
or 4 per cent, 
in writing and 
dictation, and 
1 or 2 per 
cent, in arith- 
metic. 

School opened 
recently. 



Time for Manual Work. Nature 

and Organisation of 



hr. 40 min. Boys : boot- 
making, gardening, basket • 
work, rug-making, knitting, &c. 
Girls: Cookery, housewifery, 
needlework, gaidcning, paper- 
ball making, &c. Garden and 
workshops attached to school. 



hr. 35 min. Kindergarten 
occupations, knitting, needle- 
work, macrame, rug-work, cane 
and basket work, chair caning, 
straw mats, woodwork, bead 
curtains. On school premises, 
under ordinary teachers. 
Articles are made for school 
use. 



Older boys, 480 min. ; older 
girls, 450 min. ; younger 
children, 430 min. Wood- 
work, shoe repairing, domestic 
and cookery, bead - work, 
basket-work, netting, knitting, 
sewing, &c. 

Yes, brought into relation with 
class-room work. 



8 hr. As prescribed by Board of 
Education Regulations for 
Younger Children. All con- 
nected with ordinary class 
work. 



18G 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



M 



Ni 



Nii 



Oi 



()ii 



No. of 

( llasses 



Three. 



Three. 



Three. 



Six. 



Throe. 



Three. 



4. 

Basis of Classification and 
Promotion 



5. 

Children returned 

to 

Ordinary School 



Attainments (chiefly manual) deter- Yes ; eight. 
mine classification. 



Promotion by proficiency in three R'.s ; 
but older children usually placed in 
the first class. 



Yes ; eight. 



Classification by proficiency in three R's. Only one within 
Promotion by progress in same. last eighteen 

months. 



Classification according to elementary 
work. Children who are better in 
one subject are allowed to go in a 
higher class for that subject. 



Eleven in eight 

years. 



Classification on ability in three I!' 
Promotion on ability in three El's. 



Nine 



According to ability in occupations, 
general common-sense, and useful- 
ness. 



None, 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 187 



6. 

Psychological or other 
Classification 



No (small staff). 



No. 



No. 



No. 



None. 



No. of Children who| 

reach Standard II. 

Proficiency 



Between 4 and 
5 per cent ; 
some can read 
and not write ; 
some of "dul- 
lest ' good at 
mental arith- 
metic. 

Only eight out 
of seventy - 
five. 



One per cent. 



a. Extremely dull, inert cases 
— occupations require 
manual work. 

b. Nervous cases — more seden- 
tary employment. 

c. Moral cases — almost en- 
tirely manual work. 



About 2 
cent. 



per 



Very few. 



About 'i percent. 



8. 

'rime for Manual Work. Nature 
and Organisation of 



relation with 
and under 



7 hr. 50 min. Older boys : gar- 
dening, carpentry, rug-making, 
&c. Older girls : cookery, 
domestic work, needlework, &c. 
&e. Younger children : kin- 
dergarten ; it is the practical 
basis of all instruction. 

i hr. Drawing, clay-modelling, 
brush-work, paper folding and 
cutting, paper-mat making, 
rug-work, woodwork, cookery, 
needlework, knitting. 

Brought into -«' 
ordinary work, 
control of H.T 

Younger children, lj£ hr. ; older 
children, 7i hr. 

Preparatory to employment 
after school age. A good 
deal also in connection with 
the elementary work, except 
woodwork, done in school. 

7. 1 , hr. Girls: laundry, cookery, 
needlework, knitting. Boys : 
woodwork, boot-mending, 

basket-making, chair-caning. 
Both : rugwork, clay-modelling, 
paper-folding, mat-weaving. 
Connected with ordinary class 
work. Elementary taught by 
means of manual. 



Older children, 8 hr. ; younger 
children, b' hr. Boys : wood- 
woik, chip carving, cobbling, 
rug-making. Girls : needle- 
work, housewifery, cookery, 
&c. 

Yes, except older boys' wood- 
work, and older girls' cookery. 

10 hr. Boot-repairing, wood- 
carving, gardening, cookery, 
housewifery, needlework, rug- 
making, modelling 

Yes. 



188 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Oiii 



3. 

No. of 

Classes 



Three. 



Qi 



Qii 



Two. 



Four. 



Seven. 



Qiii 



Five (smaller 
divisions for 
manual). 



4. 

Basis of Classification anil 
Promotion 



Classification according to ability in 
manual. 



Children returned 

to 
Ordinary School 



Ten. 



Classification according to reading and Fifteen. 

writing ; reclassified for special 

subjects. 
Promotion in each subject according 

to progress. 



Promotion according to bi-yearly 
examination. 



«. Mental attainments. 
b. Improved general response and edu- 
cational progress. 



a. Mental ability and reading. 
h. Progress. 



Twelve. 



Twelve. 



Five. 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 189 



6. 


7. 


8. 


Psychological or other 


No. of Children who 

roach Standard II. 


Time for Manual Work. Nature 


Classification 


1'i'oficiency 


and ( h'ganisation of 


To a certain extent, followed 


Not more than 


Older, 7 hr. 5 min. ; younger, 


by individual treatment. 


S per cent. 


hr. Older girls : needle- 
work, cookery, housewifery, 
drawing. Older boys : draw- 
ing, gardening, woodwork, cob- 
bling, rug-making, cane-weav- 
ing, paper- modelling. Younger 
children : needlework, kinder- 
garten. 
Yes, except cookery and wood- 
work. 


No ; special forms of defect 


About 50 per 


61 hr. per week. Older girls, 8| : 


receive individual atten- 


cent, at the age 


cookery, laundry, dressmaking. 


tion. 


of sixteen. 


Older boys, 6§ : woodwork, 
weaving in basket, cane, raffia, 
string, wool, paper. Younger 
children : kindergarten opera- 
tions. Correlated as far as 
possible. 


1. Neurotic children — 


Not more than 


10 hr. Occupations according to 


a. ' Nervous ' — gentle dis- 


7 per cent. 


the Code. 


cipline and kindly en- 




Yes, except cookery, laundry, 


couragement. 




and part of wood and tailoring 


b. Neurotic-plenty of work. 




work. 


especially manual. 






2. Apathetic children — rous- 






ing, stimulating training ; 






drill and lessons needing 






activity (e.g., ' shop 






lessons'). 






Teacher makes individual 


Not more than 


Half-time to older children ; 


study of each child. 


10 per cent. ; 


6 hr. to younger. Older boys : 




rarely that a 


tailoring, woodwork, shoe- 




child is satis- 


making. Older girls : domes- 




factory in all 


tic training. Younger chil- 




three. 


dren : kindergarten occupa- 
tions. 
Yes, as far as possible, all the 
work under the control of 
Head Teacher. 


Classification indicated by 


About 11 per 


Half-time. Older children : in- 


S.M.O. Special classifica- 


cent. Many 


dustrial work. Younger chil- 


tion for the word- blind and 


attain the 


dren : kindergarten. 


those who cannot under- 


standard in 


Yes. 


stand number. 


reading, but 
not in num- 
ber or com- 






position. 


■ 



19Q 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 




No. of 
Classes 



Rii 



P.iii 



Five. 



Five for ele- 
mentary 
work ; 
.seven for 
manual 
work. 



Six. 



Six 



Three. 



Kiv Three. 



4. 

Basis of Classification and 
Promotion 



a. General ability. 
h. Progress. 



5. 

Children returned 

to 
Ordinary School 



Ten. 



Classification and promotion bused on None. 
proficiency in the elementary sub- 
jects — particularly reading. 



Classification according to capacity. 
Promotion on attainments. 



Ability. 

No ' record form.' 

Progress books kept by teachers. 



1. Mental capacity. 

2. Physical capabilities. 

Children in each class divided into 
older and younger, according to 
mental attainments ; work graded 
accordingly (details given). 

Classification based on mental capacity 
and physical defects. 

Promotion by progress. 



Eleven (since 
189!)). 



Nine. 



Two. 



Eleven. 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 191 



Psychological or other 
Classification 



7. 

No.of < Ihildren who 

reach Standard II. 

Proficiency 



Undeveloped mental 

powers — 

a. Removal of cause {e.g., 

adenoids). 

b. Food, exercises, simple 

lessons. 

Abnormal eases — special 
attention to manual work. 

Morally defective — bad 
habits checked ; training 
by lessons and example. 



Defect judged by S.M.O.— 

1. Word-blind — reading re- 
placed by manual work. 

2. Number-blind — number 

omitted. 



No ; classes too large, staff 
too small and not qualified 
for such work. Epileptics 
are isolated. 



No. 



Impossible, owing to large 
classes (twenty-five to 

thirty). 



Practically none, but low- 
grade cases placed in lowest 
class. 



About 1 1 per 
cent. 



About 
cent. 



13 



per 



Eleven in twelve 
years. Upper 
children still 
deficient in 
some of the 
three R's. 

Almost nil. 



About 2 per- 
cent. 



About one-ninth 
(11 per cent.) 



Time for Manual Work. Nature 
and Organisation of 



Half-time with older children : 
a little more with younger. 
Older children : industrial 
work. Younger children : 
work preparatory to the older 
occupations. 

Except woodwork, taught in 
school. 



7 \ hr., upper classes ; 6 hr. 40 
min., lower classes. Industrial 
work for boys. Domestic 
training for girls. Younger 
children : kindergarten, rug- 
making, &c. 

Y^es. 

7i hr. Boys : woodwork, metal- 
work, netting, cardboard model- 
ling. Girls : housewifery. 
laundry, cookery, and needle- 
work. 

Yes. 

12 hr. Tailoring, housewifery 
(and cooking), hand and eye, 
plain needlework. 

Y'es. 

6 hr. 40 min. Tailoring, house- 
wifery, strip- work, needlework, 
rug-making, raffia work, flower- 
making, netting, kindergarten. 

Yes. (Record Form under 4. ) 

Class 1, 6 hr. 15 min. ; Class 2, 
8 hr. 45 min. ; Class 3, 6 hr. 
5 min. Boys : tailoring, gar- 
dening, netting, cane - work, 
wire - work, clay-modelling, 
drawing, kindergarten. Girls : 
needlework, macrame, kinder- 
garten, clay-modelbng, paper- 
flower-making, drawing, rug- 
making, housewifery, cookery. 

Yes. (Record Form under Ques- 
tion 4.) 



192 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 





3. 


4 


5. 


. 


No. of 
Classes 


Basis of Classification and 
Promotion 


Children returned 

to 

Ordinary School 


Rv 


Six. 


Classification — general intelligence. 
Promotion — 

a. Incapable of progress — put in 

manual class. 

b. Others promoted according to 

mental improvement. 


Fourteen. 


Rvi 


Six (including 
workshop 
and 
kitchen 
classes). 


\st class. — Older children — half-time 
manual and half-time class instruc- 
tion. 

2nd class. — Young children who show 
improvement — ordinary school work 
and occupations. 

3rd class. — Trial class for newcomers. 

Alh class. — Bad cases. 

Promotion according to capability. 


Eighteen. 


Si 


I< ive. 


'General common-sense' and manual 

work. 
Promotion as vacancies occur in upper 

classes. 


One. 


Sii 


Seven. 


Cross-classification according to sub- 
jects. 


None. 


Siii 


Six. 


As in Standard II., with exceptijns for 
special occasions (e.g., moral). 


None. 


Siv 


— 


As in Standard III. 


None. 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 193 



Psychological or other 
Classification 



No ; teachers guided by 
experience alone. 



7. 

No. of Children who 

reach Standard II 

Proficiency 



Eight per cent. 



Individuals are studied and 
treated as needs require. 



Children are studied and 
characteristics are noted by 
teachers. 



As in Sii. 



As in Sii. 



Reading and 
s p e 1 1 i n g — 
about 40 

per cent. 

Arithmetic — 
none reach 
Standard II. 
level, except 
with regard to 
knowledge of 
money value. 

In ordinary 

sense of words, 
very few. All 
energy bent on 
giving prac- 
tical acquaint- 
ance with these 
subjects in con- 
nection with 
manual work 
only. 

A very small 
p e r c e ntage, 
but present 
progress en- 
courages hope 
for better re- 
sults in future. 

Fifteen per cent, 
in reading, 
but in other 
subjects none. 

Four per cent. 

in reading. 
Four per cent. 

in writing. 



Time for Manual Work. Nature 
and Organisation of 



8 hr. Carpentry, ironwork, clay- 
modelling, boot - repairing ; 
housewifery, cookery, needle- 
work, kindergarten. 

Yes. 



Older children, 10 hr. ; younger 

children, 7£ hr. 
Yes, conducted on premises 

under control of H.T. 



7£ hr. to manual work proper, 

but all lessons taught through 

hand. 
All of it is in close relation with 

school work, and under H.T.'s 

control. 



7 hr. definitely, but manual 
methods constantly in use. 

Under H.T.'s control, and in close 
relation to ordinary work 



6 hr. 40 min. Very varied. 
Under H.T.'s control, and done 

in class-rooms by ordinary 

teachers. 

As in Siii. 
As in Siii. 



1911. 



194 REPORTS ON THE STATE OE SCIENCE. 

London Special ScIlooIs. 
(Summarised returns from eighty headmistresses.) 

For questions 1 and 2 see page 181. 

Question 3. — There is considerable variation between a minimum 
of two and a maximum of twelve (this for manual work). Occa- 
sionally there appears to be an increased number of classes for manual 
work, but this is rare. Fairly frequently, too, there is cross-classifi- 
cation for various subjects. 

Question 4. — (a) In the majority of cases the basis of classifica- 
tion is the tlnee R's, though ' general intelligence ' is preferred in 
a good number of cases. Eeading l alone is taken in a few cases, and 
Reading and Calculation in several. Manual ability, age, interest, 
physical condition, and other factors are also mentioned, generally 
as taken in conjunction with the three R's or ' general intelligence '. 

(b) Promotion is generally determined by progress in the above 
subjects. Many returns draw attention to the fact that promotion can 
only take place as vacancies occur. 

Question 5. — The replies to this question do not admit of statistical 
summary, since such factors as the length of time during which the 
school has been opened cannot be allowed for. In the case of four 
returns it has been possible to calculate the percentage of children 
returning each year to the normal schools, and this is found to range 
between seven and twelve. 

Question 6. — In the majority of cases there appears to be no 
psychological classification, one reason given being that these children 
show too great a variety in their mental constitution to admit of a 
workable system of classification. It is very generally stated that 
each child is considered individually. 

In those cases where a psychological classification is attempted, 
the systems adopted seem to fall under three heads: — 

A. From point of view of energy displayed by the child: — 

1. Nervous, excitable children. 

2. Apathetic. 

B. From medical point of view: — 

1. Hydrocephalic. 

2. Microcephalic. 

3. Epileptic. 

4. Mongols. 

5. Cretins, &c. 

C. From point of view of function affected: — 

1. Weak will. 

2. Wavering attention. 

3. Small relativeness. 

4. Lack of co-ordination. 

5. Lack of imagination, &c. 

1 One return states that Reading is taken as the basis, ' being a subject which 
needs more collective teaching (than Arithmetic).' 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 195 

The opinion is pretty generally expressed that it is advisable to 
separate children of similar defects. 

Question 7. — The replies to this range from ' none ' to ' all.' 

1. All except those irregular in attendance and imbeciles are ex- 

pected to reach this standard. 

2. None — children may improve greatly, but, as a rule, there is 

always one weak subject; should they reach the required 
standard they perform with difficulty what a normal child 
does with ease. 
The mean is apparently about 30 per cent., but there is too much 
variation to admit any importance to this figure. 

One return draws attention to the fact that there is a variation 
from year to year of some 30 per cent. 

Another says that only those children admitted at an early age 
attain the required standard. 

In the few cases where separate returns are given for each sub- 
ject there is considerable diversity of opinion as to the illative diffi- 
culty of the three subjects. A few returns show that in the case of 
Arithmetic and Writing the percentage varies according to what the 
subject is meant to include, thus : — 

(1) Arithmetic, on paper, nil; mental, 30 to 40 per cent.— 

problems are very difficult. 

(2) Writing, 80 per cent., or, including Dictation, 10 per cent. 

(3) Writing, 90 per cent., or, with Spelling, 50 per cent. 

Question 8. — (a) Average, from six to eight hours; and, in case 
of elder boys' schools, half or two-thirds of the total time spent in 
school. 

(b) Many forms of handwork are given, from kindergarten and 
paper-folding to 'laundry, cookery, and woodwork, bootmaking, and 
tailoring. 

(c) With the exception of the domestic subjects and woodwork 
(and in the elder schools, often these subjects, too), the handwork 
appears to be under the control of the head teacher of the Special 
School. 

APPENDIX III. 

Detailed Report on Methods of Testing Mental Deficiency. 
(The Committee is indebted to Dr. Shrubsall for this Report.) 

The methods employed in arriving at a diagnosis involve medical, 
psychological, and pedagogical elements. It is not possible to draw 
a hard and fast line between these, and it will probably be clearer to 
describe the examination without at first distinguishing between the 
elements. 

Before the child is seen by the medical officer a nomination form is 
usually filled up by the teacher of the school, if any, the child has 
attended. In the case of children nominated by the Attendance Officers' 
Departments, there is usually no information at all available. 

The first items, name, age, and address, call for no comment ; 

o 2 



196 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

the time the child has attended school is valuable as giving information 
bearing on possible backwardness. Most teachers here enter the 
regularity of attendance, and any information they may possess as to 
the causes of any absences of note. As every child is seen by the 
medical officer, item 5, asking whether the appearance of the child 
is stupid or bright, throws more light on the teacher's personal equation 
or powers of observation than on the child's mental condition, though 
it might be useful if any cases were rejected at the nomination stage. 
Information as to whether the child is obedient, mischievous, or spiteful 
is valuable, especially the first and last points. Most children seem to 
be entered as either apathetic or mischievous. Spitefulness is often men- 
tioned, sometimes on the authority of the parent, but sometimes, and 
this is of value, because of complaints lodged at the school of the 
child's behaviour in the street. Spitefulness appears to be more 
common in low-grade educable defectives and in imbeciles, but also 
markedly occurs in a group which will demand separate attention — 
the a-moral children. Question 7, on the habits of the child, is essential, 
since one who has not acquired the first elements of cleanly behaviour, 
even in respect to the excreta, cannot be tolerated in any school even 
if there are difficulties in the way of immediate classification as an 
imbecile. It is sometimes sufficient to invalid these children for six 
months or a year, making the parents fully understand the obstacles 
to formal education. It is remarkable that a number of parents are 
quite careless in respect to this primary education in habits until it 
is forced on them by the inconvenience of having a child at home when 
they wish to be rid of him during school hours. It might also be noted 
that these children when not complete imbeciles are almost always, in 
my experience, of the male sex. The information derived from item 8, 
as to any peculiar or dangerous propensities, usually only leads to a 
repetition of (6) 3 as to spitefulness, but occasionally some information 
as to particular misdeeds is given. Question 9, asking for direct in- 
formation as to the teacher's estimate of capacity along certain lines, 
is most valuable as an estimate of the standard of the school or of the 
teacher, and after a sufficient number of forms from one school have 
been studied it becomes a great aid in regard to the chance a child 
would have in the said elementary school after discharge from a special 
school. In spite of the abolition of payment by results there is still 
in many schools a certain standard which is looked on as the irre- 
ducible minimum consistent with being a reasonable soul, and if the 
school has a good scholarship record this minimum in no wise coincides 
with even the mean standard intelligence of the merely backward group 
of children. Where differences between the medical officer's estimate 
and that of the teacher occur, the children should be submitted to 
a psychological investigation by the more recent experimental 
methods. Teachers sometimes fail to realise the importance of the 
questions under this heading, and this is to be regretted, as during the 
time in the infant school or in the standard opportunities must have 
occurred of testing all the points under far more favourable con- 
ditions than arise at an admission examination, where the work must 
be done rapidly, and the confidence of the child may not be thoroughly 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 197 

established even when the class teacher is also present. A ■priori the 
results of an admission examination should be below the teacher's 
estimate; in practice the reverse happens in a large proportion of 
cases, especially when the child comes from a senior department. 
Notes on observation, imitation, and special tastes are conspicuous 
by their absence ; attention and memory are usually described in 
negative terms ; reading, writing, and calculation as Standard O. 

It is only right to say that there are many exceptions in which 
most accurate and valuable information is afforded, and the deficiency 
in others is doubtless to be attributed to a failure to recognise the 
real value of the information on the schedule as a corrective to the 
direct observations and conclusions of the medical officer. 

The question as to whether a child is affectionate elicits little 
information, and again is confused with spitefulness. Question 11 is 
too indefinite, but may elicit information in regard to any sexual 
irregularities. The remaining questions need no comment. 

The schedule is of value in giving some indications of the line of 
inquiry to pursue, but does not fulfil expectations. As time goes on 
the value will probably increase, particularly when head masters and 
mistresses have closer acquaintance with modern methods of psycho- 
logical diagnosis. 

At the time of the examination the child attends accompanied by 
his parents, if they choose, and by the class teacher, when possible. 
The examination usually begins by inquiries addressed to the parent 
as to the general state of health of the child, his conduct, and any 
points to which she may draw attention. The results when to the point 
are entered in a special record-book, but the real object is to enable 
the child to become accustomed to the room and to enable observa- 
tions to be made as to his behaviour and general carriage. 

The child may be restless or apathetic, his attention may be given 
to some object in the room, he may start playing on the floor, pick 
restlessly at objects, or even take up and begin to destroy some object 
which attracts his attention. On the other hand, many are shy and 
cling to their parents. 

The child is spoken to and asked his or her name, and the 
attention attracted if possible by something such as a picture-book. 
The order of the succeeding tests and those employed must depend 
on the response obtained and the willingness displayed. The less 
ready the response, the more the early stages must be made attractive 
or even to resemble a game. The tests cover such medical observa- 
tions as may explain any deficiency or backwardness, including rough 
tests of the acuity of the senses, muscular control, carriage, presence 
of adenoids, and," if necessary, a more complete examination of the 
body generally. The tests which might be classed as psychological 
cover spontaneity, motor and sensory response, immediate and remote 
memory, will-power, as shown perhaps with memory in responding to 
a series of commands. Finally, partly pedagogical and partly psycho- 
logical tests in relation to reading, writing, and calculation. 

Medical tests or observation. — General aspects; whether under- 
grown or otherwise. 



198 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Form and size of the head. — Microcephaly, oxycephaly, rickets, 
hydrocephalus, marked asymmetry, &c. It seems impossible to lay any 
stress on the diameters, the variation is as great in normal children, 
■pace certain observers. 

Shape of the face. — Features normal or coarse. Shape of the 
nose, whether a good bridge or sunken, small or large orifices, in- 
cidentally evidences of catarrh or rhinitis. Changefulness or fixity of 
expression. Overaction of frontal and facial muscles, coarse or fine. 
Presence of epicanthic fold. Knitting of eyebrows, grinning, &c. 
Power of fixation with eyes and eye movement, squint, &c. Move- 
ment of head instead of eyes in following an object moved a short 
distance. Defects in these respects may lead to backwardness from 
inability to fix attention, or inversely may be the sign of a mobile 
attention. Shape of the ear, of the palate, and tongue. Dribbling. 
While irregularities in shape, size, &c, accompany mental defects, 
they are not pathognomonic — defective movements are more important. 

The movements and attitude of the child are noted, erect carriage 
being as a rule better than slackness. The way in which the hand is 
held is recorded, but the nervous pose is far more common than 
mental deficiency. A far more important point is to note whether a 
child having been asked to do something, say hold out his hand or 
open his mouth, will leave his hand in position or remain with his 
mouth open while his attention is directed elsewhere. This is usually 
a sign of deficiency at the age of six onwards, but errors can arise, as 
the child may have the drill-lesson so impressed on his mind that he 
will wait in any prescribed position until ordered to assume some 
other. In a certain number of children at this stage the power of 
touching the nose with the finger from the horizontally stretched 
position of the arm as a starting-point may be tested with the eyes shut. 
This tests both motor co-ordination, muscular or position sense, and 
the will-power, both to execute the movement and to keep the eyes 
shut. A preliminary failure may occur through suspicion on the child's 
part as to what is to happen while the eyes are shut. It is unfortunate, 
that the parents and sometimes the teacher tell the child they are to 
see the doctor and constantly refer to the examiner as doctor before 
the child. If the child has recollections of uncomfortable episodes 
associated with doctors confidence is hard to establish, though its 
absence is a test of memory and sometimes may be utilised to obtain 
evidence of descriptive power by asking the child why he dislikes 
doctors. 

At this stage certain defects, as chorea, hemiplegia, various paralyses 
or ataxia are noted down, though they would really have been noted 
before much of the foregoing. At this stage, too, the power of imitation 
is tested in doubtful cases. The movements to be followed may, if 
desired, begin with fine movements as of the fingers, and if these 
fail the larger arm or trunk movements attempted. It is better in a 
case of suspicion to commence with a massive movement as picking up 
some object, then to try arm and leg movements, finishing off with the 
fingers. It does not take long, and in cases with a rapid response 
several stages can be omitted. Any additional movements should be 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 10'J 

noted, the most common being overaction of the facial muscles. In- 
cidentally by this time some information as to the child's hearing 
powers, grasp of new ideas, and speed and range of response will have 
been obtained. 

A child of seven to eight or over who cannot or will not imitate 
may provisionally be regarded as below the ordinary elementary school 
level. It is perhaps necessary to go into the question of will, in the 
sense of a strong will not to do anything, but some indication of this 
will have been obtained from the child's demeanour. 

In the case of a child who failed to imitate, one would have had 
some indication as to how far, if at all, his attention had been fixed, 
by watching the movements and listening to the instructions. Further 
tests might be made in such a case by the use of various objects, 
coloured balls, spelicans, a pocket knife, or as a supreme test a penny. 
If these fail to attract attention the child may be either invalided or 
excluded as, for the time being at any rate, ineducable, and if there if 
satisfactory evidence from the demeanour and history of lack of atten 
tion he may be classed as imbecile, especially if the inattention extends 
to matters of common cleanliness. If some attention is paid, the child 
may be tested with other simple movements, as folding a piece of paper, 
turning over a picture-book, &c, or by asking him to sit down or open 
the door. With no response the child may be regarded as below the 
special school level; with a response the history needs to be gone into 
to determine what opportunities the child has had, but at the best such 
a one would be admitted on probation. These cases are revised within 
three months of admission to a London special school, and in times of 
great pressure if the home circumstances were fair the child might be 
left at home for six months and then re-examined. 

Throughout it is most important to note all evidences of spon- 
taneity — there is no worse sign than a child doing nothing at all. 
The child whose imitative response had been adequate would be 
asked to perform certain well-known movements, such as sitting down, 
opening the door, &c. Here it is as easy to, at the same time, test 
certain features of attention and memory by asking for the per- 
formance in a specified order of several separate actions. Thus : ' Put 
on your hat ' ; ' Take a pencil from the table and put it on the form 
outside '; ' Come back and mind to shut the door after you.' A child 
who performs all in the right order after being told once possesses a 
considerable basis of power on which the teacher could build, and a 
close examination would be necessitated in order to determine that he 
was deficient and not merely backward. Most, however, fail to carry 
out more than two commands. A usual result is for the child to put 
on his hat, go outside, and have to be fetched back. Normal eight- 
year-olds in Standard II. do all without hesitation. 

The examination may next be extended to the nature and use of 
well-known objects. Suitable ones are a key, a knife, coins, &c, 
and the statements of what a child would do with them are of great 
value. The knife is practically always known and the key usually, 
the coins depend on the value. The children at this age rarely have 
experience in actual life of anything above sixpence or of personal 



200 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

possession above a penny. 2 Though coins are taught in the infant 
school, the impression is less real and vivid. With older children it 
is well to know what they do outside of school, as some who sell 
newspapers, &c, have a much greater acquaintance with coins than 
others. 

Pictures give some interesting results. At admission examinations 
it is sometimes difficult to get a response without pointing to the 
object in the picture required — many children insist on saying ' pitty 
picsher ' instead of mentioning what it represents. The response, 
when obtained, usually consists of nouns used as interjections, and 
given forth with considerable vehemence in the delight of new dis- 
covery, e.g., cat, dog, horse, &c. In this test some care is needed 
to be sure the child might reasonably be acquainted with the object. 
Children have been found who had never seen a cat or a picture of 
one, and if a cat is not an object of common knowledge, how much 
must one guard against inferences from failure to recognise other 
animals. The human figure, cats, dogs, and horses are usually recog- 
nised, though the latter may be called a cow. Sheep, pigs, and goats 
are less well known. Sometimes success follows an elephant, tiger, 
camel, or rhinoceros when a sheep is unknown. This is due to 
pictures in infants' rooms or a school visit to the Zoo — an impressive 
event. Birds are usually called ' bird ' without distinction of kind 
even in Standard I. of the Elementary schools. With defectives at this 
stage of their education descriptive or qualifying adjectives are 
extremely rare, and often not more than one noun per picture can be 
elicited. 

The powers of observation and also probably memory can be tested 
by asking, ' What did you have for breakfast? ' ' What did you see 
on your way to school? ' &c. A poor response is obtained in seven- 
and eight-year-olds suitable for special schools. A good response 
leads ultimately to more detailed inquiries into possible causes of 
backwardness. 

Tests of general knowledge such as ' What pulls a cart? ' ' What 
street do you live in? ' ' Where do the trams go? ' &c, are often neces- 
sary and useful. The best response is to the second query, since even 
defective children usually have their address drilled into them by 
their parents in case they should get lost in the streets. Still corre- 
sponding children in the ordinary school answer these immediately, the 
defectives slowly. With these can come simple associations of number 
and powers of addition and subtraction set, not as propositions but 
as corollaries. Thus: ' How old are you? ' ' How old will you be in 
two years' time? ' ' How old were you two years ago? ' ' What day of 
the week is it? ' ' What is the day after to-morrow? ' ' What was the 
day before yesterday? ' &c. Dr. Hogarth has described a method of 
marking the answers in No. 5 of School Hygiene : he gives one mark 
for the present age, two for age last year, next year, and the year after, 

2 If as a question in a formal series a child were asked ' Would you rather have 
a penny or a sixpence ? ' it is well to remember an answer ' a penny ' does not 
mean necessarily it does not know the difference in value, but rather that it is 
aware the mother would take away the sixpence. 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 201 

three for an answer dealing with a three-year period, and four for one 
who can at once say his age in, say, nine years. Similarly with the 
days of the week. Four for an immediate response, three if prompting 
is required such as not to-morrow but the day after. Most can only 
answer the primary question, ' What day is to-day ? ' by the help of 
prompting, as ' Is it Sunday ? ' An answer then gets one mark, but 
by afterwards giving to-morrow and yesterday two can be obtained. 

Dr. Hogarth follows this test by asking, ' What is a cat? ' His 
marking being — 

1. No response. If the child's confidence has been gained it is then probably 

defective. 

2. It's a kitten, it's a pussy, or it's a cat — One mark. 

3. What catches mice, &c. — Two marks. This is the average answer of a 

dull or backward child over seven, and of some of the less severe cases 
of general mental deficiency. 

4. A cat has four legs, &c. — Three marks. The answer of an average child 

of seven to eight. 

5. A cat is an animal — Four marks. 

6. A cat is an animal with four legs and a fur coat — Five marks. 

Only bright intelligent children give such answers. Three, four, 
and five marks on these scales show a considerable degree of intelli- 
gence. 

The children with one and two marks are further asked ' Have you 
a pussy-cat at home ? ' ' Have you ever seen a cat ? ' &c. Or to test 
the number of ideas, ' What does a cat do? ' As a last resort, Dr. 
Hogarth tries ' What would it do if you pulled its tail? ' He says this 
always produces some such response as ' scratch ' or ' bite. ' 

For older children at the leaving stage similar methods can be used 
with harder subjects, as steam-engine's, motors, &c, paying attention 
to the boys' opportunities for knowledge. Still this test alone will not 
suffice, for a boy may know some subject well and yet be unable to do 
any form of school-work. It is not sufficient to test the intelligence 
only without relation to school-work. 

In some cases the colour sense would be tested both as to the 
power of naming simple colours and of matching simple colours. There 
are a good many children who will match reasonably correctly and 
yet make some extraordinary efforts at nomenclature. Generally, 
however, a child of seven to eight years in the Elementary schools 
should be able to name red, yellow, green, blue, brown, black, and 
white, which are the ones employed. Some children up for the 
examination may only know, say, red in addition to black and white. 
All who respond at all to questions know black and white. Most of 
the children who failed to give names of colours correctly match them 
passably and do not make the classical errors in matching. If any- 
thing, the tendency in naming seemed to be to put deep yellows with 
red, and greens with blues, under either name. This is a phase passed 
through in the infants' school some two or three years earlier with 
the majority of normal children. 

The tests of educational acquirements or powers of production are, 
with the present arrangements of schools and curricula, forced to play 
an important part in the inquiry. Eoughly, these are confined to the 



202 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

three E's, but an endeavour should be made to distinguish between 
pure mechanical performance and intelligent use. 

The three E's may be taken separately or together; with an older 
or more intelligent-looking child I like the combined methods. Thus, 
show the child a paper on which is typed or written ' Pick up a pen 
and write your name.' If this is done, the power of intelligent reading 
is established. Or end up with 'Write down what is in the fire.' 
A response shows the power of spontaneous writing, and if such a 
child can do some reasonable calculation no question of deficiency 
arises. Indeed even if the calculation failed, but the child could 
count, much evidence would be necessary to show that it is more than 
backward. However, with the bulk of the children seen at admission 
examinations no such short cuts can be employed. 

Reading. 

It is necessary to have several grades and varieties of reading- 
books, as a certain initial shyness may prevent a child making an 
effort with a book which has a different type from that to which he is 
accustomed. Children say, ' We don't have this book at our school.' 
However, with the help of the teacher from the school in question 
a suitable book may be chosen, and the child is shown a simple sen- 
tence and asked to start reading. I generally choose three- and four- 
letter words — e.g., the cat was on the mat, &c. If this is read satis- 
factorily I ask the child to show me a mat (if there is one in the room), 
or the cat (if a picture of one is available). This being done correctly, 
harder sentences in this or other readers are found until the child's 
limit as to (a) mechanical and (b) intelligent reading have been deter- 
mined. The results are entered as Grade I., II., III., or Standard 
I., II., &c. , as the case may be, corresponding to the level of these 
classes in the average Elementary school. Should the child not start 
to read, it may be shown some little words and asked to read them, 
is, it, was, on, no, &c, being useful. Or the child may be shown 
the picture in the reader of a cat, dog, cow, &c, and asked to point 
out the word on the page. It is well to note all instances of reversal, 
thus, on called no, Ac, for they are fairly common. They repre- 
sent a common phase in the lower grades of infants' schools, but 
should have been dropped entirely by the age of eight. To connect 
the mechanical process of reading with an understanding of what is 
read is most important, and in this connection an examination of, say, 
twenty children from some two or three schools throws light on the 
teaching methods even more than on the attainments of the individual 
children. 

It is well to get the child to spell out a word or two, as quite a 
number know words while only knowing a few letters. I feel con- 
vinced that the bulk of children in the schools learn each word initially, 
if not permanently, as individual ideographs, and that the process of 
learning to spell them afterwards is slow and painful. For this reason, 
if a child has been referred back to the infants' school for, say, six 
months, and then comes up for re-examination, it is well to adopt a 
somewhat different order and method on the second occasion, for an 
observant parent — and there are some such, even of defective children — 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 203 

may have noted the sentences used in the methods previously referred 
to and specially taught these to the child. It is also necessary to bear 
in mind that a child may be able to read only small letters or only 
capitals, or vice versa; that he may or may not know anything of 
cursive script. In cases of doubt, when using the sentence methods, 
the teacher from the child's school should write the sentence in the 
way usually adopted at school. 

Certain other points crop up and may be recorded in regard to 
reading. There is the impressionist child who, seeing two letters, 
builds a word and reads away apparently fluently, but if you chance 
to be watching the passage, often inaccurately. There is a similar 
type who will take a book and at once begin to read, but not a word 
that the child says may be on the page in question; yet such children, 
usually girls, may appear to read long and reasonably connected 
sentences. Such children must have good memories of a kind, I 
should think, with an aural basis. Others spell out words very slowly, 
obviously gaining the word from the letters. Of such there are two 
types : those who say out loud or under their breath the letters named 
as letters, c-a-t, and then produce cat and those who deal in sounds, 
ker-aJt-te, and may also give cat. In unusual words both these 
methods lead to disaster, which should be credited to the system 
rather than the child. Indeed, one of the great difficulties in assess- 
ment, especially for a recently appointed medical officer, is the weight 
to attach to the effects of different systems of teaching reading. Due 
allowance must be made for the method used at the school whence the 
child came. Most stress should be laid on whether the reading is 
accompanied by any understanding of the subject-matter read. It is 
often necessary at these admission examinations to enlist the aid of 
the teacher to get the child to read at all, and in any case the reports 
of school performance are of great value, particularly in the case of 
a child who does nothing at the examination. In the rarer case, in 
which a child said to do nothing at school performs well at the examina- 
tion, the capacity must be estimated by the better performance, and 
sometimes a change of school may be advantageously suggested. 

Writing. 

This, as before mentioned, is tested as to transcription, dictation, 
and spontaneous writing. It is quite common for it to be said that 
a child can write, and on investigation for it to turn out that it can 
write its name and nothing else, sometimes not even a component 
letter. The form of inquiry from the teachers might well be modified 
so as to cover these points, since the answer too often applies to 
transcription only. 

If a child of seven to eight cannot do transcription, and has 
received a reasonable amount of instruction, he would be regarded as 
defective. Dictation reveals several types of defect included generally 
under the word blindness. In some instances the child may make a 
little progress in reading, but in writing, although quite able to copy, 
show by the gibberish put down in dictation that letters are nearly 
meaningless. On this account it is well to have at the examination a 
specimen of the child's ordinary school production. The milder grades 



204 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

of defectives in this respect generally show the influence of associa- 
tions of sound, and in some cases the reading methods may have 
been in part to blame. Spontaneous writing is tested by asking the 
child to write down the names of simple objects held up for him or 
otherwise indicated. The final test may be to get a child to read, 
after a brief interval, a word or sentence he has written. If, for 
example, he had written to dictation ' Pick up your cap, ' and he is 
later shown the sentence and told to do what it says, and does it, the 
chain of writing connections would seem to be complete, though 
there is the possibility of the reinforcement of his reading by the aural 
and motor memories of the preceding stages. 

Arithmetic. 
The variation in this is so great that no one line of procedure can 
be suggested. Perhaps the most usual start is to ask some such 
question as ' What is three and two more? ' If this fails, try 'If 
you had three apples and I gave you two more, how many would you 
have? ' The latter is far more often answered than the former. 
Similarly with subtraction. These points are often brought out at an 
earlier stage by the query, ' How old will you be in two years' time? ' 
The knowledge of multiplication may be tested if the child has learnt 
it at all, but they rarely have attempted anything beyond the six-times 
table. Even then it is a common experience for a child to know say, 
all the three-times table if allowed to start at the beginning, but not 
to have any idea of three times six without saying the table through 
to that point. However, inquiries into the acquaintance with the 
table belong far more often to the examinations in the schools with a 
view to return to the elementary school than to admission examina- 
tions. A child who has failed at 3 + 2 under all mental forms is 
asked to count them out, using any convenient objects— counters, 
spelicans, or the fingers. Addition in defective children, if performed 
at all, almost always involves counting from the beginning, even if 
only one object has been added to the heap already counted. A 
certain number cannot count at all ; these are reviewed with the 
special question as to educability in the foreground. A child who has 
had opportunities of education for some time and who still cannot 
count, would at the best be admitted to a special school on probation. 

Speech. 
In the course of the foregoing tests evidence as to speech will have 
been collected. There are many forms of mis-pronunciation, and only 
those who cannot be understood at all are necessarily thereby rendered 
unfit for a special school. Defective speech without other defects 
(to a marked degree) might qualify for special instruction, or for a 
stammering class where such exists, rather than a defective school. 

General Intellectual Capacity. 

In estimating the results of the examination allowance must be 
made for educational opportunities. This is largely done in the course 
of inquiries into general knowledge, memory, and power of attending. 
A child who has not been to school at all, or who has attended but 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 205 

rarely, cannot be expected to have many educational attainments unless 
the parents have been able and willing to give some instruction at 
home. The home atmosphere is very important; where this is bad 
and the children are never talked to intelligently, little can be expected ; 
but a very backward child in a bright home may, in the absence of 
special explanations, be regarded as defective. A child of ten or 
more unfit for Standard I., even if showing some signs of general 
intelligence, would make moi"e rapid progress after spending a term or 
two in a special school. Such a child is too old for the infants' school, 
and does not profit by the large classes and necessary mass methods 
of the upper departments, but responds well to the more individual 
methods that are possible when dealing with smaller classes. Many 
children of the higher grades in special schools might do well in schools 
of the intermediate or Mannheim type. 

Children may be, as a result of this examination, either (1) sent 
back to elementary school; (2) sent back to the infants' school for a 
period if their age allows (nine is the limit); (3) certified as mentally 
deficient; (4) excluded as imbecile or ineducable; (5) invalided for a 
specified period. 

Once admitted to special schools children are re-examined about 
three months from the date of admission, and thereafter at intervals of 
from six months to a year. The examiner sees the teachers' reports 
and the children's exercise books and manual work. The examination 
in the main is on similar lines to that at admission, but there is more 
opportunity to go into details or to follow out any particular line of 
inquiry. In the upper classes of special schools, where all the children 
(or nearly all) can do some writing, mass methods save time. Paper 
and pencils are distributed and the children told to write their name at 
the head of the paper. They are then shown an object or picture and 
told to write the name. Then to write the answer to some simple 
question, as ' What does a cat eat? ' Then three or four words of dicta- 
tion. Then to answer a question written on the blackboard, as ' What 
is in the grate? ' Then the answer to the written question, ' What is 
twice two? ' or such like query. Then the answer is to a similar but 
spoken question. An addition or other sum is then dictated and 
another written down on the board. When these are finished the 
children are seen individually. As they come they are handed a slip 
with such a request as ' Pick up a pen,' and are told to do what it says. 
A preliminary experiment to explain that this does not mean either 
reading the sentence aloud or writing it down is often needed, in which 
case the marking is a point lower than for an immediate response. 
Then some general questions, including perhaps ' What is the day after 
to-morrow ? ' 

In general the examination otherwise follows the lines before 
mentioned, except when any special point is being tested, or when the 
medical officer is experimenting with some test or other, which would 
then be tried on all cases, in addition to the usual routine of general 
knowledge, intelligence of response, attention, and the three R's. 

Up to the age of twelve and a half children who would be 
reasonably able to enter Standard II. are returned to the ordinary 



206 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

Elementary school; after this age the boys go on to older mentally 
deficient schools, where there is much manual work and training with 
a view to special trades, which provide a better education for them than 
they could have in the ordinary schools. To a lesser degree similar 
facilities are provided for the girls. 

From the start in the special schools half the day is devoted to 
manual training in some form or other. 

In dealing with such special investigations as have been made it 
would perhaps be easier to follow the lines of some text-book and 
indicate how far they have been or could be easily tried. For this 
purpose Whipple's ' Manual of Mental Tests ' has been used. 

Anthropometric Tesls. 

These can all be easily taken, and most have been tried on a larger 
or smaller scale. From the standpoint of diagnosis they are of very 
little use. Stature and weight can be dismissed at once, though I agree 
with the conclusion that the defective children are inferior to the aver- 
age. But so they are in social status, on the average, and if compared 
with those from corresponding poor districts only there is not much 
difference. Head dimensions are very variable and only characteristic in 
extreme forms, when they are often associated with imbecility, e.g., the 
hydrocephalic or the microcephalic. The results are of pathological 
rather than educational interest; even marked deformity is sometimes 
associated with an ordinary degree of intelligent educational perform- 
ance. Grip, vital capacity, and tests with the ergograph or dyna- 
mometer might easily be taken, though they are not usual at present. 
In the ordinary way it is clear that the attention flags quicker in the 
special school than in ordinary children and that the children tire more 
quickly even of a game. The tapping test could be tried, but does not 
seem to offer much promise of educational results. The principle of 
beginning with the massive muscles and larger joints is fully realised in 
the drill, manual training, and even in teaching writing. 

The target test for aiming is used as a game, but the results have 
not, so far as I know, been recorded. The electrical tracing test offers 
some promise, since it could be used as a game, while at the same time 
giving a valuable training in muscular co-ordination. For this the bell 
would be the important part of the apparatus. The same applies to 
the steadiness tester. 

Sensory Capacity. 

Visual acuity is tested by Snellen's types if the children know the 
letters, or by Cohn's E test, and some experiments have been tried 
with pictures of animals in place of letters. Visual defects are common 
among mentally defective children and are a source of trouble, in that 
the glasses have to be prescribed from the retinoscopy alone, while the 
careless habits of the children lead to frequent damage to the glasses 
when obtained. To avoid loss they are often kept at school and not 
allowed to be taken away. Some tests of eye balance have been under- 
taken. Colour vision is in a sense tested in the course of instruction 
and the wool tests are sometimes used. 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IX EDUCATION. 207 

Hearing is tested by the response to the ordinary voice and to the 
forced whisper at varying distances. The elaborate detail of the 
psychological laboratory is not possible in the classroom. Some experi- 
ments in discrimination of pitch have been made in the case of the deaf 
and defective, as have some with Galton's whistle. They would not aid 
in the duties prescribed by the Act. 

The discrimination of weight and form, size, &c, is definitely 
taught in some of the special schools. There can be no doubt that most 
mentally defective children are behindhand in this respect, but the 
influence of practice goes a long way. The method might be utilised 
perhaps with advantage in the later examinations, but save for definite 
research purposes elaborate method could hardly be adopted. Pain tests 
are not tried, but a defective child with a broken tooth and exposed pulp 
has been known to worry very little over it. The difficulty would be to 
get any results at all. With special care such experiments might be con- 
ducted by someone with whom the children were very familiar; e.g., a 
teacher who had received the necessary training. I should have little 
doubt that in the defectives it was largely a study of states of attention. 

The range of visual attention is only tested in reading, a topic too 
long to discuss here from the school medical officer's standpoint, 
though it would be worthy of much attention. 

Those who use word-wholes or dominant letters make the most 
effective 'intelligent' readers; the others spend so long on letters or 
sounds in various building processes that there is nothing left to under- 
stand with. 

The spot pattern test might be experimentally tried, though the 
difficulty would be to get the children to understand what they were 
to do. 

Tests of visual apprehension are now used as a game and as part of 
the training of boy scouts. The test has been employed at admission 
examinations using some four or five common articles, but not with 
success; better results might be got at centre visits. The use of 
pictures has already been discussed. 

Cancellation tests, or the similar underlining test, is recommended 
by Sherlock for use with mentally deficients. It is useless for admis- 
sion-examinations unless only such a letter as were chosen, and it 
takes too long. It seems to offer some promise as a mass test for 
the highest class or of those proposed to return to the elementary 
school, but other tests seem to give quicker and equally accurate 
results. 

Dot counting might be tried, but if a child will at an admission 
examination count correctly twenty large marbles it is all that can be 
expected from a good-grade defective. Large numbers cannot count 
to five. We always record gross counting results, and later this, in the 
form of a rosary, is the basis. of a popular way of teaching arithmetic to 
certain defectives. They get into simpler methods after a time. 

Simultaneous disparate activities would, I fear, be beyond use unless 
sewing and reading were tried with the girls, or knitting. Description- 
has been more or less utilised, but it must be verbal unless you have a 
long time to spare. The higher classes who can write spontaneously 



208 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

are tried, as part of their education, with easy compositions, which are 
often descriptive, and from these very useful information may be 
obtained by the school medical officer, who would naturally look 
through the books of cases proposed for return to Elementary school or 
for exemption. 

The Aussage test could be tried with very long exposures, but as 
before mentioned it would hardly be possible to get all the questions 
answered, even if the picture or object were all the time in the sight of 
the pupil. The same applies to Binet's card of objects; but the method 
might perhaps be used with advantage in teaching these children. 

The association tests suggested look promising. In a way they are 
used, of course, in the line of inquiry involved in the question, ' What is 
a cat?' previously referred to, but the list method might be tried. 
They also come in in such questions as ' Is it day or night ? ' followed 
by ' How do you know ? ' 

Memory is tested only by the multiplication table and recitations, 
apart from its obvious bearing on all work. Some can learn little 
verses quite well. It is the useful forms that always seem wanting. 
It is tested, too, in questions as to breakfast, things seen on the way to 
school, &c, but this mixes up with fidelity of report, which is often con- 
spicuously absent. Logical memory is trained in the repetition and 
explanation of little tales and accounts of current events. Some 
teachers record impressions on this, but I know of no accurate records 
or definite investigations. It is a useful accessory, but of less certain 
direct diagnostic value, save in its misuse, as in the children who will 
read fluently what is not on the page. 

Suggestibility. — See size-weight illusion. 

hnagination. — Ink blots as described have not been tried. The 
children, like others, often add to a blot in an effort to make a picture, 
but there are no records of results. 

Development of sentences. — Used in teaching, and might well be 
used in examination. 

Vocabulary. — Tested in relation to the intelligence of the reading it 
is clearly very limited, but there are no accessible lists made for this 
purpose. 

Size-weight Illusion. 

Demoor's test consists in presenting to the child two objects of 
identical form and weight but differing in size. To persons of normal 
intelligence the smaller appears to be the heavier when handled. It 
is claimed that mentally defective children respond that the larger 
package is the heavier. Dr. Thomas found in London special 
schools that the test generally elicited a normal response in the 
higher grades of children, but the defective response in the lower 
grades. The test, therefore, divides the defective children in the 
schools roughly into two classes, one approximating to the dull and 
backward, the other to the imbecile. He regards it as of considerable 
'value. 3 

' Dr. Myers points out that the ' clef ect ' occurs in normal very young children. 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 209 

Graded Tests for Developmental Diagnosis: de Sanctis' Tests. 

The principle employed in these tests has in part been utilised, but 
not the exact method. In particular the time required for response 
has not been noted. This applies to all the other tests. One reason 
is that whilst the child is thinking, the time is used in getting points 
of history, &c, from parent or teacher, at the admission examinations, 
or in noting the performance of some other child at a centre. The con- 
ditions under which the work must be done require a considerable 
number to be passed in a short time. This must be borne in mind in 
evaluating the opinions of the school medical officers. Occasionally 
there is the opportunity for more. We have, however, no such stan- 
dard set of objects as de Sanctis suggests to carry about, desirable as it 
would be from a comparative standpoint ; but perhaps some commen- 
tary from the methods, having a similar aim, which have gradually 
grown up in use quite independently of the Italian authority may be 
pertinent. They will be placed as if for the strict method as narrated 
by "Whipple. 

Test 1. — This is tried in almost eveiy low-grade case at an admission 
examination, and with shy or nervous children generally, as it so 
resembles a game that a response can usually be obtained. Very few 
refuse. Of these, some are obstinate and in nearly every case will 
respond later, if necessary, with the aid of the teacher. The rest turned 
out to be imbeciles or ineducable. 

Test 2. — Tried less often, as, unless distinctly coloured objects are 
available, it is out of the question. I have tried a similar test showing 
various objects, including the one the child had previously picked up. 

Not having anticipated at any time that I should want to refer in 
detail to the results obtained by these tests, I find my notes are too 
brief to allow of an analysis. But I am confident the response was 
quicker and more accurate when different objects were used than when 
the recognition depended on colour. Errors in colour certainly arose, 
particularly between a deep yellow (some might call it an orange) 
ball and a rather dirty light vermilion ball. The response to this was 
generally good. 

Test 3. — Only tried with a limited range given by wooden bricks, 
and actually not very often. (I might point out that when a test 
must statutorily be made on a certain day and time the postulates of 
the general directions cannot be ensured and the children are not all 
comparable in the matter of comfort, fatigue, mental attitude towards 
the test and the observer. This from a diagnostic, as opposed to the 
experimental psychologist's standpoint, can be reasonably, though not 
entirely, discounted by appropriate allowances of time, encouragement, 
&c. Repetition after a day or two is impossible.) 

Response is, generally speaking, good even in low-grade cases, 
who, however, take very much longer and want to stop and play with 
the bricks instead of finishing collecting those that resemble the one 
indicated. It gives indications of observation, attention, and persever- 
ance and is very useful, but as time presses it is not used for the better 
grade of case. 

Test 4. — Onlv tried with letter-cards and pictures of animals as 
1911. p 



210 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 

used in vision testing, &c. Then ask, Show me the E's or the cats, as 
the case may be. But are these cases comparable? 

Test 5. — Tried with bricks or any similar objects of varying size, 
and without reference to the foregoing. Out of questions asked singly, 
to elucidate ideas of number, size, and distance, the order of correct- 
ness seems ordinarily to be distance, size, and number. But if differ- 
ences are only slight the estimate of size falls off more than that 
of distance, both being diminished in accuracy and rate of response 
very materially, while the estimate of number is unimpaired. The 
majority of the grade at which this was used touched and counted 
the objects. There was, unfortunately, no attempt at timing. 

Test 6. — These and similar questions seem more adapted to better- 
grade children. They are useful to detect backwardness, for a child 
who can answer them at all readily is bright and intelligent or well 
trained. Now, if a child could answer such questions, yet could not 
read or write, and had attended school to a reasonable extent, that child 
must have some specialised defect. If, on the other hand, it had not 
had any opportunity of education, then it may be expected to progress 
rapidly and would be regarded as merely backward, because of the 
comparative rarity of specialised defects associated with a quite bright 
general response. Such cases do, however, exist; e.g., there is a dis- 
tinguished draughtsman and inventor who cannot letter his drawings. 

The general method of de Sanctis' tests is of high value, especially 
in dealing with those who cannot read or write, or whose powers in 
that direction are very limited. Tests 1 to 5 should be passed by 
the child of seven to eight, as should Tests 6 (a) and (c). Test (d) 
yields a more doubtful response, as the child hardly grips what is 
meant, but if time be allowed and the object put in the new position 
it will be done. 

Older children can answer it quickly, but the defectives take much 
longer. Out of six of these two at least failed. 

The Binet-Simon Tests : 
1905 Seeies. 

1. Never tried with a match, but frequently by asking child to 
follow movements of the finger while keeping his head still. Accessory 
test tried in various forms. 

2. Always tested, though not usually with direct intent, but any 
failure to co-ordinate movements would be noted. 

3. As above. Failure with these leads to an examination along 
physically defective lines — i.e., more strictly medical, with a view to 
a provisional diagnosis. Invaliding the almost certain result. 

4. Tried in so far that the offer of a sweet or a halfpenny is some- 
times tried as a last resource with a very low-grade or obstreperous 
case. Conclusions seem sound. 

5. Tried unintentionally, much as described, with a caramel. One 
unwrapped it, the other threw it at me. The test I have tried is to 
give the child a simple knot to untie, but not done often enough to 
have more than the general impression that all but the lower grades 
attempt it correctly. 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 211 

6. Always tried. See earlier remarks. A very useful test, as all 
not defective at seven to eight 'can pass this. Those that cannot, 
usually ineducable. 

7. Very useful; always directly or indirectly tried, usually the 
latter. In a definite test on about 400 children in special schools about 
five per cent, failed to point to their mouths. These were recent 
admissions in the lower classes. 

8. Tried so far as (a). See previous note. 

9. This does not seem to give the line between idiocy and imbecility 
at any age ; 6 is nearer my experience. The question involves a good 
deal, and the response is by no means always obtained in the lower 
classes of normal infants' schools. See also the 1908 series. 

10. Tried. I agree in the main with the text. I have never used 
lines of known length. 

11. Tried. General agreement as to result. Have never laid stress 
on it. In asking this and similar questions, or others, echolalia may be 
noted. 

12. 13. Not tried in a reasonably comparable manner. Discrimi- 
nation of weights is taught in some special schools. 

14. See note on ' What is a cat? ' 

15. Tried. No defective child at an admission examination could 
do such long sentences, except perhaps (1). I have not used the 
examples quoted. Yet the child may know a verse of a popular comio 
song. 

16. Tried. Usually looked on as a catch, and so is apt to spoil 
the examination. Many stick to 'don't know.' I am not sure a 
response, unless quite to the point, is a good sign. 

17-25. Not tried. 

26. Tried with older children. More often by listening to the 
spelling lessons actually in progress. Serve the purpose, but more 
convenient methods. 

27. In some form often tried, especially at later examinations. 
Questions must not be abstract or the mentally deficient fails. 

28. Quite satisfied if a mentally deficient child at later stages can 
tell the time at all. If a child passed this at admission, should hesitate 
over saying mentally deficient save for special defect; e.g., word- 
blindness. 

29. 30. Not tried. 

1908 Series." 

Three-year-olds. 

1. A little hard for many threes, or even fours, until some time at 
school. French family life must involve far more talking intelligently 
to the child — i.e., true education — than obtains in many poor English 
homes. On this base a general disagreement with Binet's standards 
as too high in the main ; with some exceptions equally too low. 

2. Varies. Few will do so long a sentence until some time at 
school; then they pick up quickly. There are few opportunities of 
testing cbildien under five in school. 

* The comments on defective children refer to those'of seven and upwards to 
fifteen. 

r 2 



212 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

3. All who respond could do two at least. I found all the mentally 
deficients, seven to ten, could do digits, but not always possible to 
understand what they said. 

4. See previous notes. I have never seen a three or four who said 
' A man and a dog ' ; ' Man-dog, ' or even ' Man and dog, ' I could more 
easily credit. In saying this I confine myself strictly to the Elemen- 
tary schools grade of child. Some four-year-olds in good families can 
and do read the newspaper. (An imbecile might say cat or dog, but 
would add no descriptive word unless he had had some more definite 
training than they have usually had when up for report.) 

5. I think a three-year-old would give Tommy or Nelly, not the 
family name. I have tried, but kept no exact records. Five per cent, 
of the younger mentally deficients, seven to ten, did not know their 
names. 

Four-year-olds. 

6. Agree; three per cent, of mentally deficients did not know, and as 
many said Yes to both ' Are you a little girl ? ' and ' Are you a little 
boy?' 

7. Agree in the main, but many fours would call any coin ' penny ' 
or ' farden ' ; all mental deficients who answered recognised and 
named the objects, though several confused the halfpenny with other 
coins. 

8. Agree; all the mentally deficients passed. 

9. Agree; all the mentally deficients passed. 

. Fivc.-y car-olds. 

10. Not tried. 

11. No certainty as to age level. Tried in mentally deficients with 
a pencil; the upper classes made successful efforts; about half the 
lower-class children failed. A simple test of manual powers. 

13. Fifteen per cent, of the mentally deficients failed to count to 
five. I have no record of the counting to four correctly but failing at 
five, but can recall two instances. 

Six-year-olds. 

14. There are a good many failures at six and over in this. In 
regard to the feet or turning round any drill mistress could confirm 
this. The mentally deficients are far behind the normal, but I have 
no figures. 

15. Mentally deficients, or the majority, cannot do it with easier 
sentences. 

17. See previous note on ' What is a cat? ' A useful test in good 
hands. 

18. Done earlier than Binet suggests with normal children. Of 
the mentally deficients almost all failed to carry out more than two of 
the orders. 

19. More than half the younger mentally deficients knew their 
age. 

20. Three-quarters of the younger mentally deficients knew 
whether it was morning or afternoon. 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 213 

Seven-year-olds. 

21. Not tried. 

22. See under Writing above. All sevens should be able to do this 
unless pen and ink have not been allowed, and then pencil could be 
substituted. At six and a half infants move to senior departments and 
learn to use ink. Of mentally deficients one-fifth utterly failed, many 
scrawled, and half were scarcely intelligible. 

27. See under 13. 

28. Of mentally deficients a quarter failed outright, and another 
quarter made a mistake. 

Eight-year-olds. 

29. Much too hard a passage for most eights in elementary 
schools, but varies directly with the home surroundings. Too hard 
for most mentally deficients who are leaving. Time certainly longer 
than given. An absurd test for imbecility as understood for school 
purposes. 

30. Some younger mentally deficients could count two simple 
coins ; the older ones varied. It is a good differential test of a border 
case. 

31. See previous notes. Most mentally deficients passed. 

32. All mentally deficients failed, turning round and going back to 
twenty at some stage or other. I should not use it as a test ; too many 
normals fail at even older ages. 

33. See previous notes. Children of eight can do more than this. 

Nine-year-olds. 

35. Known earlier, except perhaps (4) the year. Mentally defi- 
cients very variable at later stages; beyond them at earlier, i.e., seven 
to ten. 

36. Mechanically in order from Sunday very much earlier. Many 
passed as mentally deficients could do this. See note on ' What is 
to-morrow ? ' 

Beyond this point Binet's tests pass out of the mentally deficient 
range, ■ or my experience. Some, as 47, 49, and 51, could be easily 
tried but ? diagnostic. 

The tests included in this series closely resemble those we actually 
use; they may test school results more than intelligence, perhaps, as 
some allege, but that is one factor to be borne in mind in deciding 
whether a child needs a special school education. The best of them 
from the school medical officer's standpoint will be included. The 
real point, I suppose, is whether the series should be used in prefer- 
ence to others. If so, I should not care to give up the three types 
of writing, the last of which I believe Binet does not include, or the 
question of response to a written command. The last is very useful, 
as where present the child does not need special school training in the 
terms of the Act, excepting a rare condition, as word-deafness, and this 
needs a modified deaf training. 

From the account of the various methods which have been from 
time to time suggested and tested in the course of examinations, it 
might appear as if these were lengthy and very detailed inquiries, 



214: REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

lasting, say, three-quarters of an hour each. This is not the case. 
All the tests are never used at any one time, and eighteen to twenty- 
two children are supposed to be dealt with in two hours. If one takes 
a long period, say fifteen to twenty minutes, the time is made up on 
the others. Most of the points dependent on observation are noted in 
the course of tests, in which they appear as accidents or necessary, 
concomitants of the action in the test itself. The central feature is 
to confirm or to controvert the teacher's estimate of backwardness, and 
if this is present to endeavour to apportion its cause. The distinction 
required is to divide backwardness from mental causes from backward- 
ness due to lack of opportunities, ill-health, or physical defect, and in 
particular to arrive at anything remediable. Research into mental con- 
ditions is not a primary point, and the opportunities, in point of time, 
for so doing are distinctly limited. With more time a finer classifica- 
tion might be possible, but this would be of little use without a far 
more elastic curriculum than at present exists. 



The Curricula and Educational Organisation of Industrial and Poor 
Law Schools, tvith special reference to Day Industrial Schools. — 
Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. D. Eggar 
(Chairman), Mrs. W. N. Shaw (Secretary), Mr. J. L. Holland, 
Dr. C. W. Kimmins, and Mr. J. G. Lec-ge.. appointed to inquire 
thereinto. 

The Committee was appointed to inquire into the curricula and educa- 
tional organisation of Industrial and Poor Law schools with special 
reference to day industrial schools. The terms of reference of the 
"Committee appear to include all such schools in Britain. The 
certified schools in question fall under two Government departments : 
the Industrial schools being under the Home Office, and the Poor Law 
schools under the Local Government Board. There are also a number 
of uncertified schools of the same kind. It was therefore apparent 
that three separate inquiries and three reports would be needed. 

The Committee commenced work by ascertaining from the Inspec- 
tor's Report of Certified Industrial Schools for 1909 (the last issued) the 
number and situation of such schools and the number of their scholars. 
There are in Britain 77 certified residential schools and ships containing 
12,042 boys; and 47 residential schools containing 3,887 girls. There 
are two mixed residential schools containing 203 boys and 54 girls ; and 
there are 10 short-term residential schools providing for 861 scholars. 
In addition to these there are 19 day industrial schools with 2,015 boys 
and 1,220 girls. 

In March of the present year a notice appeared in the Press that a 
Committee had been appointed by the Home Office to inquire into the 
constitution, management, discipline, and education of reformatory and 
industrial schools in England and Wales. By the courtesy of Mr. 
Maxwell (the Secretary to the Home Office Committee) the Committee 
received a copy of the warrant of appointment of the Home Office Com- 



THE CURRICULA, ETC., OP INDUSTRIAL AND POOR LAW SCHOOLS. 215 

mittee which includes in the inquiry : ' The adequacy of the inspec- 
torate ; the relation of the schools to the Education Committees and 
other local authorities; the qualifications of superintendents and other 
officers, their remuneration and the practicability of any scheme of 
superannuation; variation in the types of schools, and whether further 
provision is necessary for the proper grading of boys and girls ; the 
suitability of ships for use as schools ; the preparation given boys for 
entry into industrial or other careers, and the training and disposal of 
girls. The care of boys and girls after leaving the schools, and the 
relation of the schools in this connection to existing institutions for the 
welfare of young persons ; the provision for physical training, recrea- 
tion, and playtime in the schools ; the opportunities for conference and 
co-operation between managers and officials of the schools ; the medical 
care of the schools ; the methods of maintaining discipline and en- 
couraging good conduct, and the extent to which further regulations 
with regard to punishments are desirable ; the relations with parents, 
and the methods of obtaining payment from them.' 

The Report of the Home Office Committee will probably be pub- 
lished in 1912. As the warrant of appointment covered the inquiry 
contemplated by this Committee, it appeared advisable to delay inquiry 
into the schools connected with the Home Office until that report is 
published. 

The Home Office Committee, however, deals only with the certified 
reformatory and industrial schools of England and Wales. The 
British Association Committee desires to include the uncertified indus- 
trial schools. 

Of the 77 residential schools for boys cited above 13 schools con- 
taining 2,165 boys are in Scotland, and of the 47 residential schools for 
girls 14 schools containing 1,286 girls are in Scotland. Of the 19 day 
industrial schools six schools with 644 boys and 412 girls are in Scot- 
land. The reference of the British Association would include an 
inquiry concerning the uncertified industrial schools of Britain, the 
industrial schools of Scotland, and the Poor Law schools of Britain. 

In addition to the points of inquiry tabulated in the Home Office 
warrant of appointment this Committee (acting on information received 
by them but not yet tabulated) would include inquiry into : — 

(1) Qualification of school officers. 

(2) Grading of children in small schools. 

(3) Provision for training in scientific method and logical reason- 
ing, e.g., by simple laboratory work. 

(4) Opportunities for developing initiative in both girls and boys. 

(5) Medical care of the children and provision for training the 
children in cleanly habits. 

(6) The apportionment of punishment to faults to secure that faults 
due to environment shall not be punished more heavily than moral 
delinquencies. 

(7) The provision for the training of girls in sewing, cookery, and 
laundry work by trained teachers of the subjects. 

(8) The provision of industrial training for girls in other than 
domestic matters. 



216 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

(9) The use to the children in after-life of the industrial training 
received in the schools. 

The British Association Committee ask to be reappointed to inquire 
into the curricula and domestic and educational arrangements of un- 
certified reformatory and industrial schools in England, of all refor- 
matory and industrial schools in Scotland, and of Poor Law schools in 
Britain. 

The inquiry is a wide one and will involve some expense in visiting 
certain of the schools. The Committee therefore ask for a grant of 10L 
towards the expenses of the inquiry. 



The Overlapping between Secondary Education and that of Universities 
and other places of Higher Education. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Principal H. A. Miers (Chairman), Professor E. A. 
Gregory (Secretary), Mr. D. Berridge, Mr. C. H. Bothamley, 
Miss S. A. Burstall, Miss L. J. Clarke, Miss A. J. Cooper, Miss B. 
Foxley, Principal E. H. Griffiths, and Professor A. Smithells, 
appointed to inquire into and report thereupon. 

The Committee desires it to be understood that the siibjoined 
statement is an Interim Report only, and is limited to evidence relating 
to certain types of educational institutions. Further evidence, and 
the conclusions of the Committee, are reserved for a later Report. 

During the past few years there have been many complaints of the 
want of co-ordination between the work of secondary schools and that of 
universities and other places of higher education. On one side it is 
stated that secondary schools are encouraged to retain pupils who 
should be continuing their studies in an institution of university stand- 
ing, and to present these pupils for such examinations as those of Inter- 
mediate Arts or Science of London University. On the other side, it is 
held that universities and technical institutions are to some extent 
doing the work of secondary schools by admitting students who are 
unable to profit by the instruction given and ought to be taking school 
courses. In an organised educational system this alleged overlapping 
of educational work would, of course, be avoided. There would be a 
definite standard of entrance to a university or technical institution, 
and any work which a pupil at a secondary school might do beyond 
this standard would be of a supererogatory character carrying with it no 
additional academic distinction. Our educational institutions have, 
however, grown up in haphazard fashion without proper interrelation- 
ship between them ; so it has come about that measured by numbers of 
successful candidates in university examinations some secondary and 
technical schools compare favourably with institutions which are 
ranked as of higher educational standing, while universities and uni- 
versity colleges are holding preparatory classes to enable a certain num- 
ber of students to pass a qualifying examination, such as that of London 
matriculation or its equivalent, which ought to be taken from a 
secondary school. 



OVERLAPPING BETWEEN SECONDARY AND OTHER EDUCATION. 217 

The present conditions of want of relationship between educational 
institutions of different grades are natural consequences of the inde- 
pendent growth of these institutions. Much can, of course, be said in 
favour of autonomy in education, but there is no doubt that it leads in 
some cases to undesirable competition and dissatisfaction which would 
be avoided if the work of each type of institution were clearly defined. 

It is of interest to record here that in the United States precisely the 
same situation has arisen as exists in England, and that the latest report 
(1910) of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 
deals particularly with this subject. The report points out that a great 
number of colleges are scattered over the United States having no satis- 
factory relation to the secondary schools from which they draw their 
students, exacting entrance requirements with little regard to the 
secondary schools, and receiving in turn from the high schools pupils 
who are in the majority of cases ill-prepared for college work. The 
situation, as in England, is unsatisfactory alike to the college and to the 
secondary school, and can be regarded only as a transitional stage in the 
development of an organised educational system. 

The subjoined summary of the conclusions arrived at by the President 
of the Carnegie Foundation, as the result of a detailed discussion of the 
problem, is particularly worthy of consideration in connection with the 
inquiry of the present Committee ; for the views expressed are as applic- 
able to our own schools and colleges as they are to similar institutions 
in the United States : — 

The President of the Foundation urges that this whole question be ap- 
proached by secondary school men and college men in a spirit of co-operation. 
Neither the certificate method of admission nor the piecemeal examination 
method have in his opinion solved the problem. He urges that the college must 
find a solution which will test better than \he certificate or the piecemeal exami- 
nation the fundamental qualities of the student, and will at the same time leave 
to the high school a larger measure of freedom. He recommends a combina- 
tion of certificate and examinations, the latter of a simple and elementary 
character, but calling for a high quality of performance without which the 
candidate will not be admitted. For example, under this plan the boy who 
cannot write good idiomatic English would not be admitted to college at all, but 
would be sent back to the secondary school. The President of the Foundation 
urges a co-operation between the secondary school and the college not as unrelated 
institutions, but as two parts of a common system of education. He argues that 
the interest of the great mass of high school students must not be sacrificed to 
the interest of the minority who are looking toward college. He insists on a 
larger measure of freedom for the secondary school, but on the other hand he 
argues that the interest of the boy who goes to college and of the boy who goes 
from the high school into business are alike conserved by learning a few things 
well, not by learning many things superficially. The boy who has obtained such 
intellectual discipline is a fit candidate for college, whether he has studied one 
set of subjects or another; without this intellectual discipline he is unfit alike 
for college or business. It is therefore, in the opinion of the President of the 
Foundation, the plain duty of the college to articulate squarely with the four-year 
high school and to leave to the secondary school the largest freedom so that it 
may educate boys, not coach them ; but at the same time to require of the candi- 
dates for admission tests which rest upon high performance in the elementary 
studies and mean mastery of the fundamentals. 

In the present inquiry the Committee decided to deal, in the first 
instance, only with schools, colleges, and universities in England, 
and not to consider the special subject of the relationship between 



218 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

secondary schools and medical schools. For the purposes of the inquiry 
the various institutions were classified as follows : — 

I. Universities. 

II. Polytechnics and other Technical Schools and Colleges. 

III. Secondary Schools for Girls. 

IV. Public Schools represented upon the Headmasters' Con- 

ference. 
V. Boys' Secondary Schools other than those represented upon 
the Headmasters' Conference. 

The chief points upon which questions were asked related to the 
extent to which schools are doing work of a university character and 
how far universities are concerned with work of a secondary school 
standard. The results of the inquiry as regards each. of the foregoing 
divisions of educational institutions in England, except No. V., will 
now be given. 

I. Universities. 

Inquiry was made of a large number of teachers and others repre- 
senting English Universities, with the view of eliciting information as 
to the following points : — 

General Question. 
Are the universities attracting students who ought to be at school, and are 
the schools retaining students who ought to be at the University ? Are the 
universities doing work that should be done in schools, and are the schools 
doing work that should be done at the universities ? 

Specific Questions. 

1. In what subjects, and for how many students approximately, do you think 
that teaching is being conducted at your University which should properly be 
carried on at school ? 

2. To what cause, in your opinion, is this due? 

3. How do you think this is to be remedied ? 

4. In your opinion, would matters be improved by any change in the age 
limits now fixed for matriculation or degree examinations ? 

In reply to these questions much valuable information was obtained 
from leading representatives of university education. An attempt is 
here made to summarise the views expressed. In the case of London 
the summary includes the substance of replies received from the 
Imperial College of Science and Technology. 

Some correspondents do not think that there is any serious overlap- 
ping ; others regard it as unavoidable and not undesirable ; but the large 
majority consider that there is a real and serious duplication which is 
harmful and should, if possible, be prevented. The conditions in the 
universities are so different that the replies concerning them must be 
considered separately. 

Oxford. 

From Oxford comes the complaint that a certain number of under- 
graduates proceed to the university without having passed Besponsions 
or an exempting examination ; these, however, are only few in number. 
Both here and at Cambridge the average age of undergraduates when 
they enter, r.ither above than below eighteen, prevents this from being 



OVERLAPPING BETWEEN SECONDARY AND OTHER EDUCATION. 210 

much of a grievance. There is some complaint that, boys are kept at 
school after they are ready for the university ; many public schools being 
reluctant- to part with boys who are useful in their houses, or good at 
games, until the latest possible time. 

Some hold that Classical Pass Mods., which involves perhaps as 
many as 500 students at one time of the year, and about 250 at another 
— that is, about 60 per cent, of the men reading for Final Schools in 
Literce Humaniores, Law, and Modern History — is really school work, 
and it is proposed that the remedy for this is a real Entrance examina- 
tion. There might then be an Intermediate examination with various 
options, introductory to the Final Honour Schools, but also forming 
part of the course for a Pass Degree. 

On the other hand, the opinion has been expressed that Pass Mods, 
is not a bad thing, for it teaches undergraduates to read a Latin or 
Greek text thoroughly, and introduces them to Logic. Considerable 
waste of time might be avoided by encouraging such men to begin their 
Final Schools' work as soon as they come up and to carry it on simul- 
taneously with their work for Pass Mods. 

Honour Classical Mods., which affects about 170 students each year, 
is by some regarded as a mere duplication of Sixth Form work at 
school; and it has been suggested that if students are not encouraged 
to come to the university younger the better men should be allowed 
to enter for Honour Mods, after six months. 

A good deal of the work for the Preliminary examinations in science 
is stated to be really school work. The scholarship system, which 
sends boys up with an insufficient knowledge of the elementary parts 
of a good many subjects, is partly responsible for this and for some 
of the other duplication. Thus, some students who are reading for 
Final Honours are very imperfectly equipped in preliminary subjects : 
e.g., mathematics for engineering students and German for science 
students. 

Cambridge. 

Much that has been said concerning Oxford applies mutatis mutandis 
to Cambridge. Here again it is stated that many boys are kept longer 
at school than is to their advantage. Several correspondents state that 
300 or 400 students attending lectures for the Previous examination are 
doing work that should have been done at school. Little-go lectures are 
regularly given at some colleges. The remedy proposed is to abolish 
the Previous and to replace it by a real Entrance examination, or to 
convert it into one. 

There is the same complaint, as at Oxford, concerning the effect 
of Entrance Scholarships and the consequent omission of elementary 
training which should have been supplied at school. For example, the 
English of many science students is very defective. 

Neither from Oxford nor Cambridge is the opinion expressed that 
matters would be improved by any alteration in the age limits for 
Matriculation; and opinions are divided on the question whether boys 
should be encouraged to come up younger than eighteen or nineteen. 

But at these universities the matter is, of course, in the hands of 
the colleges. 



220 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

London. 

Here the question, is far more complicated. It is confessed by most 
of those who have expressed an opinion that there is a great deal 
of overlapping between the Matriculation and Intermediate stages. 
The External system of this university renders it possible for the Inter- 
mediate and even the Final examination to be taken from school. It 
is therefore to be expected that there is more university work being 
done at school than school work at the university, so far as London is 
concerned. Moreover, the situation is different from that at Oxford and 
Cambridge even for Internal students, for many of them come to the 
university at a younger and many at a more advanced age. Further, the 
evening students in London form a distinct class of considerable magni- 
tude who are working under different conditions. 

A considerable amount of preparation for Matriculation takes place 
at the colleges in London. At one college about 100 day students are 
taking Matriculation classes ; at another college about thirty day students 
and forty evening students are doing so ; and there are probably some at 
most of the colleges. Some Intermediate students are attending Matri- 
culation classes. Opinions are very much divided as to the desirability 
of allowing Intermediate work to be done both at school and at the 
university. Some think it a good and others think it a bad plan. 
Some hold that the Intermediate students are a good element at schools 
and correspond to post-graduate students at the university. At one 
of the Women's Colleges connected with the university it is stated that 
about 20 per cent, of the students working for the Final courses took 
tbe Intermediate before they entered, and the number is increasing. 

Among the criticisms that have been received from various indi- 
viduals are statements that the French, German, and mathematics for 
science students is largely schoolwork; that the first year's science 
for engineering students should have been done at school ; that 
elementary Greek has to be taught for the Intermediate Arts to those 
who have not taken it at Matriculation ; that work in the higher forms 
of Public schools for boys and girls in classics and mathematics is 
often up to Pass B.A. standard; that the Pass B.A. really corresponds 
more to work of the Ober Gymnasien and Ober Eealschulen; that it 
would be better for clever boys who intend to be medical students 
not to do any science at school; and, finally, that those who have done 
their Intermediate science at school do not do so well as those who 
have done it at the university. 

The problem in London is complicated by many special circum- 
stances. Evening students are often of an advanced age, and must be 
provided with elementary teaching. Day students who enter colleges 
between the ages of fifteen and eighteen are not always really prepared 
for the university. Students who are training for the ministry often 
come to the university too old to get elsewhere the elementary training 
which should have been done at school. Many women cannot afford 
to stay more than three years at a residential college, and therefore, 
if they wish to devote three years to their final course, they are forced 
to take their Intermediate examination at school. 



OVERLAPPING BETWEEN SECONDARY AND OTHER EDUCATION. 221 

Some persons think that to raise the age for Matriculation would 
help matters ; others consider that the ages for Intermediate and Finals 
should be raised ; while a third view is strongly opposed to such changes. 
There are those who think that the School-leaving examination should 
be of the present Intermediate standard, and that the Pass B.A. should 
be abolished on the ground that it is really of school standard. 

On the whole there is very widespread feeling that, so far as 
London is concerned, there is considerable overlapping both on the side 
of university work done at school and of school work done at the 
university. 

Other Universities. 

Opinion from the provincial universities and university colleges 
seems to indicate that a decided amount, of overlapping exists between 
the university work and that of the Secondary schools. There is, 
however, little definite complaint on the subject, and in the case of 
one university, indeed, the schools are encouraged to retain their better 
pupils in order that they may pass the Intermediate examination of 
the university work and that of the secondary schools. It is believed 
that pupils thereby benefit from receiving the full period of school 
discipline, and also from being able to reach a higher standard during 
their three years at the university. Other universities protest strongly 
against allowing any work of university standard to be carried on in 
the schools. There is some complaint as to want of general education 
and of the admission to the university of pupils who should not be 
admitted, not merely because they are ill-prepared, but because even 
a longer period at school would probably not have brought them to 
the necessary level. Attention is directed to overlapping in the 
teaching of Elementary Science, but it is not altogether deplored. 
It is felt to be an advantage both for the students to have preliminary 
scientific knowledge before coming to the university and also to revise 
this elementary knowledge in the university, where it has to serve as 
the basis of a professor's particular system. 

II. Polytechnics and other Technical Schools and Colleges. 

Most of the work of the technical schools and colleges in England 
is carried on in evening classes and does not therefore come within the 
scope of the present inquiry, which is concerned in this section with 
the extent to which the day work of such institutions may be considered 
to belong to secondary schools. On account of the diversity of functions 
exercised by technical schools and colleges it is perhaps desirable to 
describe briefly the characters of the classes which are conducted in 
these institutions before proceeding to inquire as to overlapping with 
secondary schools. 

A technical school or college may have under the same roof, or 
directly connected with it, (1) a day secondary school ; (2) a technical 
institution ; (3) day technical classes ; (4) a school of art ; (5) evening 
schools and classes. Each of these types of instruction is recognised 
by a regulation of the Board of Education, and grants are made for 



222 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

it. The various schools and classes are defined by the Board as 
follows : — 

1. Secondary Schools. 

A secondary school, in the sense in which the term is used in the Board's 
regulations, must offer to each of its pupils a progressive course of instruction 
(with the requisite organisation, curriculum, teaching staff, and equipment) in the 
subjects necessary to a good general education, upon lines suitable for pupils of 
an age-range at least as wide as from twelve to sixteen or seventeen. The 
provision, if any, made for pupils below the age of twelve must be similarly 
suitable, and in proper relation to the work done in the main portion of the 
school. 

The regulations also require that an adequate proportion of the pupils must 
remain at least four years in the school, and that an adequate proportion must 
also remain up to and beyond the age of sixteen ; but these requirements may 
be reduced to three years and the age of fifteen respectively in the case of rural 
areas and small towns, where such a course appears to the Board to be advan- 
tageous in view of local circumstances. 

2. Technical Institutions. 
A technical institution, within the meaning of the regulations (Article 35) of 
the Board, is an institution giving an organised course of instruction in day 
classes, including advanced instruction in science, or in science and in art, and 
provided with a staff and equipment adequate for the purpose. Provision must 
be made in such institutions for at least a two years' systematic course in science, 
or in science and in art, either alone, or in conjunction with subjects of general 
commercial, manual, or technological instruction. Except that for the present 
students may be admitted between the ages of fifteen and sixteen, the attention 
of the Inspector being specially drawn to any such student, no student may be 
admitted to the course unless he has passed through at least a three years' course 
of instruction in a school recognised under the regulations of the Board for 
secondary schools, or is over sixteen years of age and is qualified from his 
general education to profit by a course of advanced instruction. 

3. Day Technical Classes. 

Grants are payable under Article 42 of the Board's Regulations for Technical 
Schools, &c, to schools and classes which are, as a rule, for students younger 
than those in the technical institutions. Under this category there are included, 
however, some classes of a standard equal to that required in a technical insti- 
tution, but with courses not of sufficient duration to be eligible for grants 
as technical institutions. Day technical classes vary in their aims, some being 
preparatory to trades, such as engineering, others providing instruction of a 
domestic type, others again being for blind or deaf students. The classes are 
held in technical schools and colleges, and may be classified as (1) commercial 
day schools; (2) trade preparatory schools; (3) special trade schools; (4) domestic 
economy schools for girls; (5) training schools for domestic economy teachers; 
(6) detailed classes. 

4. Schools of Art. 

A school of art, as defined by the regulations of the Board, is an institution 
giving an organised course of instruction, including advanced instruction, in 
ornamental and decorative art. The work must be carried on methodically under 
recognised teachers, in day and evening classes, for not less than thirty-six 
weeks in the year, and the opportunities for instruction and practice in the 
several subjects must be adequate. The regulations for 1908-09 required that 
the day classes must meet on at least two days a week for two hours at each 
meeting, and that the evening classes must meet on at least three evenings a 
week for two hours at each meeting. 

5. Evening Schools and Classes. 
The defining feature of these schools and classes is that they are intended to 
maintain educational facilities for those already engaged in some occupation which 
takes up the greater part of their time. The usual time of meeting is therefor© 



OVERLAPPING BETWEEN SECONDARY AND OTHER EDUCATION. 2*23 

in the evening, or on Saturday afternoons; but where the conditions of employ- 
ment, or other circumstances, render a different time more convenient, classes 
meeting in the day-time may be recognised under the same category, and may 
receive the same grants as classes meeting in the evening. The classes vary very 
widely in character and scope, for they range from the small and unambitious 
continuation classes of a rural school to the highly specialised work done in the 
best equipped of the technical colleges. 

This section of the Committee's inquiry need only be concerned with 
the question whether the work of day technical classes and of technical 
institutions, as defined by the regulations of the Board of Education, 
overlaps that of secondary schools ; and if so, to what extent. Particu- 
lars of the number and ages of students in these two groups are given 
in the volume of the ' Educational Statistics for 1908-09 ' issued by 
the Board (Cd. 5355; price 4.s\ 2d.), and from the tables in that volume 
the following numbers have been extracted: — 

Table I. — Technical Institutions (England). 

1. Number of institutions and courses : — 1908-09. 

(a) Number of institutions recognised 40 

(b) Number of courses 121 

2. Students : — 

(a) Number of students who attended a full course of instruction . . 1,962 

(b) Number of students who attended at any time during the year : — 

(i) Age at date of first registration for the session : — 

15 and under 16 years of age 211 

16 „ „ 18 „ „ 835 

18 „ „ 21 , 1,360 

21 years of age and over 908 

(ii) Sex :— 

Boys and men 3,091 

Girls and women 223 

(c) Number of students returned as having been previously educated : — 

(i) At public elementary (including higher elementary) schools only . 264 
(ii) At secondary schools on the Efficient List : — 

(o) For four years after reaching the age of twelve . . 660 

(/3; For three years after reaching the age of twelve . . 423 

(iii) Otherwise 1,222 

(d) Number of students returned as admitted : — 

(i) On account of passing a university Matriculation (or equivalent) 

examination 669 

(ii) On account of passing an examination recognised by the institu- 
tion as a test of ability to profit by the courses . . . 1,169 
(iii) Without passing any such examination test .... 908 

In reply to an inquiry, the Board of Education has kindly informed 
the Committee that the forty technical institutions referred to in the 
foregoing table are distributed as shown below. It will be noticed that 
the Board recognises as work of technical institutions the courses in 
engineering and other branches of applied science carried on in some 
of the provincial universities. The two thousand students who attended 
full courses of instruction in technical institutions in 1908-09 thus 
include a number of students of technology in universities. As to the 
Day Technical Classes in Table III., the Board estimates that the 
number of students doing work which approximates to the standard 
of a first year's course or higher in a technical institution is about 
400, the remainder being below that standard. 



224 



REPORTS ON THE state oe science. 



Table II. — Technical Institutions under Article 35 of the Board of Education's 
Regulations for Technical Schools, dkc. 

Cornwall . . Mining School, Camborne ; School of Mines, Redruth. 

Derbyshire . Municipal Technical College, Derby. 

Devonshire . Municipal Technical School, Plymouth. 

Durham . . Technical College, Darlington ; Municipal Technical College, 
Sunderland. 

Essex . . Municipal Technical Institute, West Ham. 

Gloucestershire . Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester ; Merchant Venturers' 
Technical College, Bristol. 

Hampshire . Municipal College, Portsmouth ; Hartley University College, 
Southampton. 

Kent . . . Horticultural College, Swanley. 

Lancashire . Municipal Technical School, Blackburn ; University of Liverpool 
(Engineering and Architecture) ; Municipal School of Tech- 
nology, Manchester ; Victoria University, Manchester (Engineer- 
ing) ; Harris Institute, Preston ; Royal Technical Institute, 
Salford ; Wigan and District Mining and Technical College, 
Wigan. 

Leicestershire . Municipal Technical School, Leicester. 

London . . Battersea Polytechnic ; Herold's Institute, Bermondsey ; South- 
Western Polytechnic Institute, Chelsea ; Northampton Poly- 
technic Institute, Finsbury ; Northern Polytechnic Institute, 
Holloway ; St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Paddington ; 
The Polytechnic, Regent Street ; East London College, Stepney. 

Northumberland Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne (Engineering, Naval Archi- 
tecture, and Mining) ; Rutherford College, Newcastle-on-Tyne 
(Engineering). 

Nottinghamshire University College, Nottingham (Engineering and Mining). 

Surrey . . School of Horticulture, Wisley. 

Sussex . . Municipal Technical College, Brighton. 

Warwickshire . University, Birmingham (Engineering, &c). 

Yorkshire (East Municipal Technical School, Kingston-upon-Hull. 
Riding) 

Yorkshire ( West Technical College, Bradford ; Municipal Technical College, Halifax ; 
Riding) Technical College, Huddersfield ; University, Leeds (Engineering. 

Textile Industries, &c.) ; University, Sheffield (Department of 
Applied Science). 

Table III. — Day Technical Classes (England) under Article 42 of the Board of 
Education' s Regulations for Technical Schools, «fcc. 

1. Number of institutions and courses : — 1908-09. 

(a) Number of institutions in which day technical classes were recognised . 100 

(b) Number of courses for which grants were paid 175 

2. Students :— 

(a) Number of students who attended at any time during the year : — 

(i) Age at date of first registration for the session : — 

12 and under 15 years of age 3,380 

15 „ „ 18 , 2,759 

18 „ „ 21 „ „ 1,128 

21 years of age and over " 2,799 

(ii) Sex:— 

Boys and men 5,700 

Girls and women 4.366 

(b) Number of students returned as having been previously educated at — 

(i) Public elementary schools 6,935 

(ii) Secondary schools 2,316 

To supplement the particulars provided by the Board of Education's 
volume of statistics, a circular of inquiry was sent to the principal, 
director, or headmaster of the seventy-one polytechnics, technical 
schools, and colleges in Great Britain and Ireland represented upon the 



OVERLAPPING BETWEEN SECONDARY AND OTHER EDUCATION. 225 

Association of Technical Institutions. For a list of these institutions 
and a suggested form of inquiry the Committee is indebted to Dr. 
R. S. Clay, until lately secretary of the Association. University Col- 
lege, Nottingham, Hartley University College, Southampton, and the 
Technical Department of Sheffield University are also represented in 
the Association, but as they are included in another section of this 
report the circular was not sent to them. The circular asked for infor- 
mation on the following points: — 

Questions asked of Polytechnics and other Technical Colleges 

and Schools. 

1. Is there a secondary day school at your institution 

If so, (a) total number of students in this school 

(6) Number of students above the standard of London Matriculation or 

similar general examination 

Note. — Day trade-schools, preparatory trade- schools, apprenticeship 
schools, and domestic economy schools are to be excluded from 
the particulars desired in Question 2 below. 

2. Total number of day students in university courses, or in engineering, building, 

textile, or other technical courses 

(a) Number of such students doing first year's work 

(6) „ „ „ second 

(r.) „ ,. „ third 

(d) Number of such students, if any, in Preliminary or Preparatory classes 
continuing the subjects of an ordinary general education not higher than 
the standard of London Matriculation 

3. Remarks as to Preparatory classes 

Replies were received from fifty-nine technical colleges and schools 
in England. Of this number, twenty have secondary day schools con- 
nected with the technical schools, though usually independent as 
regards staff and organisation. The total number of students in these 
secondary schools is about 5,000, of whom about 200, or 4 per cent., 
are above the standard of London Matriculation or its equivalent. 

At the secondary school attached to the Technical Institute, 
Swindon, the percentage is much higher, no fewer than twenty-seven 
pupils out of a total of 220 having attained the standard of London 
Matriculation. This, however, is unusual, and the Principal of the 
school remarks : — 

Although I have so many post-matriculation students in the secondary school, 
I am strongly of the opinion that it would be better if all except those who are 
preparing for University Scholarships were now regular students of those higher 
institutions which they will ultimately join. 

It cannot be said that the schools connected with technical colleges 
are to any appreciable extent doing work of institutions of a higher 
grade. The work of the schools is usually planned to enable the Sixth 
Form to take the London Matriculation examination ; and to the few 
students who have matriculated opportunities are given to remain 
another year preparing for the examinations of Intermediate science or 
1911. Q 



226 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



arts. In some of the schools special courses in engineering and other 
technical subjects are provided for pupils in the upper forms. At the 
Cockburn Technical School, Leeds, for instance, with a total of 450 
boys and girls as pupils, from twenty to thirty (ages fourteen to six- 
teen) take a special course in engineering subjects as part of their 
school course. At the Technical Institute, Keighley, with a total of 
280 pupils, boys who have reached the age of fifteen years and are 
fitted by their educational progress are permitted by the Board of 
Education to take seven hours a week in the textile department instead 
of continuing their work in general physics and chemistry. 

Table IV. — Day Students in Poh/te clinics, Technical Schools, and 

Colleges (England). 





Students 
in 




dumber of Students 






Third 






Prepara- 
tory 
Courses 


First 
Year 


Second 
Year 


and 
Fourth 
Years 


Total 


Blackburn, Municipal Technical 












School ..... 


— 


11 


C 


3 


20 


Bolton, Municipal Technical 












School ..... 


— 


11 


13 





24 


Bradford, Technical College . 





92 


68 


54 


214 


Brighton, Municipal Technical 












College ..... 





39 


14 


11 


64 


Camborne, Mining School 


1 


29 


41 


25 


95 


Coventry, Municipal Technical 












Institute .... 





44 


24 


15 


83 


Derby,Municipal Technical College 


— 


24 


35 


18 


77 


Huddersfield, Technical College . 


12 


42 


35 


31 


108 


Leicester, Municipal Technical 






• 






School ..... 


10 


44 


26 





70 


London, Battersea Polytechnic . 


15 


180 


92 


77 


364* 


London, Birkbeck College 


CO 


57 


12 


20 


89 


London, Northampton Poly- 












technic Institute 





42 


15 


30 


87 


London, Northern Polytechnic . 


13 


24 


17 


12 


53 


London, Regent Street Poly- 












technic .... 





00 


32 


18 


110 


■ London, South-Western Poly- 












technic .... 


3 


49 


28 


20 


97 


Manchester, Municipal School of 












Technology .... 





149 


119 


78 


346 


Plymouth, Municipal Technical 












Institute .... 


— 


22 


10 


7 


39 


Portsmouth, Municipal College . 


— 


26 


47 


31 


104 


Preston, Harris Institute . 


37 


54 


34 


20 


108 


Rochdale, Municipal Technical 












School ..... 


— 


19 


. 





19 


Salford, Royal Technical Institute 


— 


45 


12 


8 


65 


Swindon, Technical Institute 


— 


56 


16 


15 


87 


West Ham, Municipal Technical 












Institute .... 


13 


24 


10 


11 


45 


Wigan, Mining and Technical 












College ..... 
Total .... 


— 


3 


4 


2 


9 


164 


1,146 


710 


506 


2,377 



* Including the Domestic Science Training 
are eighteen years of 



Department, in 
age, or above. 



which all students 



OVERLAPPING BETWEEN SECONDARY AND OTHER EDUCATION. 227 

The results of the inquiry as regards technical schools and colleges 
in England are shown in Table IV. For the particulars supplied by 
the principals of the institutions included in the table the Committee 
desires to express their thanks. When no definite information was given 
as to number of students, a line is placed in the appropriate column 
instead of a number. It may be noticed that Table IV. does not include 
some of the colleges and technical departments of universities named 
in Table II. as technical institutions recognised by the Board of Educa- 
tion. From a list issued by the Board it has been possible, however, 
to find the number of day students taking technical courses in such 
institutions as are not included in Table IV. ; and the results are shown 
in Table V. The total number of day technical students included in 
Tables IV. and V. will be seen to be about 3,900. 

Table V. — Technical Students in Schools and Universities (England) 
not included in Table IV., but recognised by the Board of Education 

as Technical Instihitions . 

Number of 
Students 

Birmingham, University 180 * 

Bristol, Merchant Venturers' Technical College 73 

Cirencester, Royal Agricultural College 73 

Darlington, Technical College 22 

Halifax, Municipal Technical College 28 

Kingston-upon-Hull, Municipal Technical School .... 30 

Liverpool, University 115 

Leeds, University 183 * 

London, Bermondsey, Herald's Institute 11 

,, East London Technical College 106'* 

Manchester, University 91 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, Armstrong College 107 

„ Rutherford College 17 

Nottingham, University College 48 

Redruth, School of Mines 13 

Sheffield, University, Department of Applied Science .... 130 

Southampton, Hartley University College 24 

Sunderland, Municipal Technical College 57 

Swanley, Horticultural College 66 

Wisley, School of Horticulture 35 

Total ... 1,409 

* Including in the case of the University of Birmingham forty-one students 
taking subjects preliminary to courses in engineering; in Leeds University 
thirty-three such students; and in the East London Technical College twenty- 
three such students. 

It will be seen from Table IV. that the Municipal School of Tech- 
nology, Manchester, occupies a leading position among technical in- 
stitutions. There are nearly 350 day students, none of whom are. 
under sixteen years of age, taking organised courses; and in addition, 
nearly 500 students attend special courses during the day. The 
opinion of the Principal, Mr. J. H. Reynolds, upon the relation 
between secondary and technical institutions is, therefore, of value. 
Mr. Reynolds writes in reply to the Committee's circular: — 

On the general question I do not think that technical schools should undertake 
work which is peculiarly the province of secondary schools. I am at the same 
time aware that there are difficulties in carrying out a policy of this kind in 

Q 2 



228 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

certain areas, and would like my opinion to be recorded bearing in mind circum- 
stances of this kind. 

I am convinced that the secondary school should restrict itself to subjects of 
general education, in preparation for specialised courses in technical schools or 
in universities, and that it is to the advantage of education that the two classes 
of institutions be kept entirely separate in their sphere of work. 

Summary relating to Polytechnics, &c. 

The work of day technical classes cannot be said in any way to over- 
Lip that of secondary schools. In the main it consists of preliminary 
training for apprentices or other specialised preparation for industrial, 
commercial, agricultural, or domestic life, and is equally suitable for 
students who have received their previous education either at public 
elementary or at secondary schools. The courses followed could not 
form part of the work of a secondary school, and few of the students 
Would attend secondary schools even if day technical classes did not 
exist. 

The day classes at the Borough Polytechnic Institute, London, 
S.E., belong entirely to day schools of the preliminary trades type. 
There are no students above the standard of London Matriculation 
or similar general examination ; and the 464 day students in the Institute 
are grouped as follows: — 

Pupils 
National School of Bakery and Confectionery ... 36 

Technical Day School for Boys 200 

Trade School for Girls 168 

Domestic Economy School for Girls 60 

464 

Schools of this type stand by themselves and do not interfere with 
secondary schools on the one hand or higher technical training on the 
other. 

As to technical institutions, a certain' amount of the day work, 
namely, that of the preparatory classes, may perhaps be considered as 
belonging to secondary education rather than technical. A number of 
students enter the day classes of technical institutions at too late an age 
to be admitted to secondary schools, and it is largely on their account 
that the preparatory classes are necessary. It appears from the 
numbers given in Table I. that less than one-fifth of the students in 
the technical institutions of England had passed a university Matricu- 
lation examination or its equivalent upon entrance, and that nearly 
one-quarter was admitted without passing any examination test. 
' There is still a tendency,' says the latest report of the Board of 
Education, ' to admit students to technical institutions before they have 
had an adequate course of general education.' As, however, the 
number of students under sixteen years of age at entrance is only 
about 200, the overlapping so far as age is concerned is not very 
great; and technical institutions cannot be said to compete with 
secondary schools to any serious extent. From the latest report of the 
Board of Education it appears that in the year 1908-09 there were fewer 
than 2,000 students taking full courses of instruction in technical insti- 



OVERLAPPING BETWEEN SECONDARY AND OTHER EDUCATION. 229 

luitons in England and Wales connected with the Board of Education, 
this number including students of technology in several provincial 
universities or university colleges. Of these students, 806 were engaged 
in the work of the first year, 653 in that of the second, 403 in that 
of the third, and 125 in still more advanced work. If the standard 
of entrance to a technical institution, as defined by the Board, were 
that of a secondary school Leaving Certificate or university Matricula- 
tion, most of the institutions would be unable to exist. The Board of 
Education's statistics reveal, in fact, the poverty of the position of 
systematic technical education in England as regards day classes. 
Referring to this point, the Board remarks, ' The total amount of 
advanced instruction of the kind provided in technical institutions is 
still disappointingly small. In some of the more important industries, 
as, for example, engineering, the instruction is largely utilised by 
students ; but in a great many others the supply of students is very 
small. It is to be deplored that there are several schools in which the 
well-qualified staffs and the excellent equipment practically stand idle 
in the day-time through lack of students. ' 



III. Secondary Schools for Girls. 

In the case of these schools it was considered desirable to send 
personal letters, asking for information as to overlapping between 
the school education and that of universities, &c, to representative 
secondary schools for girls instead of issuing circulars to all girls' 
secondary schools. 

In order to determine which schools should be chosen, reference was 
made to the volume published recently by the Committee appointed by 
the Headmistresses' Association to report on the curricula of public 
secondary schools for girls. 

A list is given in that volume of girls' secondary schools ' con- 
sidered in some ways to be typical of many others and to include every 
variety of public secondary schools for girls.' 

■ Letters enclosing a list of the questions to which answers were 
requested were sent, therefore, to these schools and to a few others 
in addition, and in most cases the required information was obtained. 
Inquiries were made to elicit information on the following points: — 

1. Number of girls in the school. 

2. Number of girls who at the end of the school year 1909-10 were qualified 
for entrance into a university. 

3. How many of these girls are still at the school ? 

4. What the above girls are doing. 

5. Opinion re 'overlapping.' 

The total number of girls in attendance at the schools from which 
information was received was 8,734. In 1910, 410 girls — nearly 5 per 
cent, of the present number — had passed some examination quali- 
fying for entrance into a university; and of these girls, 225 — that 
is, about 56 per cent. — have remained at school after passing the 
examination. Most of those girls who are now at school and are 



230 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

already qualified for entrance into a university are doing work which 
may be included under one of the following heads: — 

1. Preparation for Intermediate Arts or Intermediate Science. 

2. Preparation for the Final B.A. (five from one school alone). 

3. Preparation for a scholarship examination at a university. 

4. Preparation for the Cambridge Higher Local. 

5. Preparation for entrance into certain training colleges. 

A great difference exists between the views on the subject of ' over- 
lapping ' expressed by (c) Headmistresses of schools outside London 
and (b) Headmistresses of London schools: — - 

(a) Most of these, including headmistresses of large schools in 
Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester, and Wakefield, consider there is no 
difficulty as regards overlapping. One headmistress says: 'The fact 
that there is no overlapping here shows, I think, the value of the local 
university and the importance of having a close relation between the 
school and it.' 

(b) With one exception all the London headmistresses who express 
opinions on the subject of overlapping agree in stating that they are in 
favour of girls staying at school after they have matriculated, and taking 
higher work. One headmistress states that she would like all girls 
who had matriculated to stay on for a year, as she considers : (1) They 
are often too young and immature to go straight to college ; (2) It is 
important for the staff to do more advanced work ; (3) It is good for the 
school as a whole to have work beyond Matriculation, as the standard 
of the final school is thereby raised. 

The opinions expressed by two headmistresses of long experience 
are here given in full : — 

North London Collegia!- School (Mrs. Bryant). 

In schools like this, Matriculation is taken (generally in the form of the 
Senior School examination of the University of London) in the Upper Fifth Form. 
The Sixth Form studies are on the lines (1) of Intermediate Arts or (2) Inter- 
mediate Science, except in the case of those who are specialising more closely in 
preparation for Oxford and Cambridge. .Since the leaving age is nineteen, girls fre- 
quently take two years in the Sixth Form, when the method of work is transitional 
between school and university. These girls generally take Honours courses at the 
university, and, by having passed Intermediate Arts or Science at school, they 
have three years for their Final Honours work in London, as they would have if 
they became students at Cambridge. Others who enter the university with 
Matriculation attainments only become, with some exceptions, Pass students. 

Thus the Sixth Form overlaps the university with respect to the course for 
Intermediate examinations in the colleges. By doing so it increases the supply 
to the university of the better type of student more developed in intelligence, 
more mature in character, with more independent habits of study. On the other 
hand, the colleges, by overlapping with the schools, make it possible for boys and 
girls with fewer advantages to enter the university at an earlier age, and go out 
into the world on a shorter, but still sufficient, course of higher education. There 
are only two alternatives to overlapping : (1) To level down by the abolition of 
Sixth Form work, and (2) to level up by raising the standard of university 
entrance. Each of these alternatives would, in my opinion, have disastrous 
effects. A certain amount of overlapping appears to me to be highly beneficial. 

Clapham High School (Mrs. Woodhouse). 

With regard to 'overlapping,' I feel strongly the desirability of encouraging 
girls to remain longer at school, and not to enter the university before the age of 



OVERLAPPING BETWEEN SECONDARY AND OTHER EDUCATION. 231 

nineteen at the earliest. I consider that at the age of seventeen or eighteen girls 
profit more by school than by college instruction — by reading under the guidance 
of a teacher rather than a lecturer. I believe that a distribution of labour on 
these lines between school and university would in the long run much improve 
the average quality of university students. 

But the scholastic view weighs less with me than does the advantage which 
girls gain in character by facing the responsibilities and the privileges given by 
the characteristic spirit of a Sixth Form, and which are as valuable in the forma- 
tion of the character of girls as is the case with public school Sixth Form boys. 
I may add that I have reason for believing that the above statement represents 
the general opinion of the Association of Headmistresses as a whole. 

The regulations of some London training colleges are held to be 
responsible for a certain amount of overlapping between secondary and 
university education. On this point, Miss Clement, the Headmistress 
of the Godolphin and Latymer Girls' School, Hammersmith, says: — 

There seems to be a great deal too much pressure and strain in the higher 
classes of many secondary schools, owing to the preparation of pupils for the 
London Intermediate Arts and Science examinations. But under present con- 
ditions this seems inevitable. The point is that many candidates from London 
secondary schools for open scholarships to the women's colleges must, if unsuc- 
cessful, fall back upon free places in the London Day Training College ; and, as 
the London Day Training College openly declares its intention of entering only 
students who have passed the London Intermediate Arts or Science examination, 
the schools' first duty with regard to these pupils who compete for open scholar- 
ships is to safeguard their future by equipping them with the necessary qualifica- 
tions, should they be obliged to be satisfied with gaining an ordinary Pass degree 
at a non-residential college. Otherwise, university work is, of course, best done 
at the university. 

The inability of girls living at a distance from a university to meet 
the necessary expenses is another reason why girls are kept in school. 
The headmistress of one school, not in London, but in which there 
are at the present time five girls preparing for the Intermediate Arts 
and five for the Final B.A., states that ' all the girls who are doing 
degree work are quite unable owing to poverty to enter into residence 
at any college.' 

Consideration of the information received from various sources 
shows that the question of overlapping between girls' secondary edu- 
cation and university education is especially prominent in connection 
with the University of London. Several" headmistresses think that the 
Intermediate Arts and Intermediate Science work is better taken at 
school than at the university; and one remarks: ' Intermediate work 
is properly VIa Form work and does not really trench on university 
work. ' 

IV. Public Schools represented by the Headmasters' 

Conference. 

It is always difficult to define a ' Public School,' but in this section 
of the report it has been assumed that the chief difference between such 
schools and the grammar schools is that the former keep their pupils 
to a later age than do the latter; it may be that as an indirect result 
of this they draw their pupils from a more wealthy and possibly higher 
social class of parent, but this is chiefly due to the fact that a poor 
man cannot afford to keep his boy at school sufficiently long for him 



232 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 

to be able to reap the full benefit of the Public School system ; that it. 
is not solely a question of the fees charged is proved by the fact that 
of the 101 schools represented upon the Headmasters' Conference no 
fewer than thirty are in receipt of Government grants. 

Circulars were sent to about thirty-five schools represented upon 
the Headmasters' Conference, the selection being made to include 
about equal numbers of the larger and smaller schools. Questions 
were asked as to the number of boys at present in the school who had 
passed the various university examinations, and what they were then 
reading ; also whether in the general opinion of the masters in the 
school it was advisable for boys who had passed a university exami- 
nation to spend the remainder of their school life in reading the subject 
they would study at the university if that subject was (a) classics, 
(b) mathematics, (c) science, (d) history. 

Since the especial aim of the Public Schools is to develop the sense 
of responsibility and the power of command in their boys, and these 
can only be acquired by the older pupils, there is a unanimous feeling 
on the part of the masters in such schools that nothing should be done 
to discourage the boys from remaining at school until they are eighteen 
or nineteen years of age; if, however, they are to do this it follows that 
unless boys entering the Public Schools are less able than those who 
join the grammar schools (and of this there is no evidence), the various 
subjects taught can, and must, be carried to a more advanced stage 
in the former than in the latter. In other words, there must be a 
certain amount of overlapping between the subjects taught in the Public 
Schools and in those universities which draw their undergraduates 
chiefly from schools in which the average leaving age is sixteen. 

The tutorial system at Oxford and Cambridge prevents any of the 
undergraduates from being obliged to attend lectures unsuited to their 
requirements ; those who begin the study of a new subject, e.g. , science, 
are able to attend the lectures given to pass-men ; while those who go 
up with a certain amount of groundwork already covered are advised 
by their tutors which lectures can be omitted with advantage. On the 
other hand, there seems to be no adequate tutorial system in force at 
most of the colleges of the London University, and frequent complaints 
are received at the Public Schools from the old boys that they are 
obliged to waste the greater part of their first year in going over work 
they have thoroughly mastered at school : this chiefly affects those boys 
who have spent a year at school after passing the Matriculation exami- 
nation but have not succeeded in reaching the standard of the Inter- 
mediate B.A. or B.Sc. ; it certainly seems to be desirable that there 
should not be so sharp a distinction drawn by the London colleges 
between their first and second year courses, and that those who are 
able to do so with advantage should be allowed to attend second-year 
lectures, even if they have not passed the Intermediate examination. 

All the schools to which circulars were sent, with the single excep- 
tion of the City of London School, reply that in their opinion boys who 
have passed some examination in general education should be allowed 
to spend the greater part of their remaining school life in working at 



OVERLAPPING BETWEEN SECONDARY AND OTHER EDUCATION. 233 

the subject which will form their special study at the university. It 
is, however, widely felt that a smaller amount of time should be 
devoted to some other work which will tend to widen their minds, 
e.g. , those who are to take a degree in classics should also read a certain 
amount of modern history, those who aim at a science degree should 
learn German, and for those who are to read mathematics or history 
a course of elementary science should be provided. 

The following opinions are typical of many letters received: — 

Mr. 0. H. Latter (Charterhouse). 

I have no hesitation whatever in pronouncing in favour of boys staying on at 
school after passing the Entrance examination to a university. If a boy has the 
natural aptitude for classics, and if his father's purse is deep enough, by all 
means let him enlarge his mental outlook as much as possible. But the majority 
are boys whose intellectual bent is in the direction in which they incline to 
specialise ; and in such cases I do not see why the side of the mind which can be 
cultivated con amort should not get its opportunity at school. 

I am dead against the idea that a boy should leave school at sixteen. It is 
those last years from sixteen to eighteen that give our English Public Schools 
(and Englishmen) the quality that is the envy of the world. It is then that 
they learn self-control, how to use authority, and all the most valuable part of 
character-training. I am not blind to the faults of our Public Schools, but I 
would sooner continue many of these than sacrifice the one thing which has gone 
a long way towards forming our conception of an English gentleman. Reform 
us in some matters if you like, but do not interfere with that remarkable mixture 
of self-government and tutelage that is our peculiar possession, and that no other 
nation in the world attempts. 

Mr. C. F. Mott (Giggleswick). 

During his last few terms at school a boy who aims at an Honours degree at 
the university should run no risk of losing ground in his special subject. He 
should therefore devote a considerable time to it. English should be retained 
for the sake of general culture, and subjects which are likely to be useful should 
be added ; e.g., a science student should give attention to mathematics and modern 
languages. It is greatly to the advantage of a boy who is going to specialise at 
the university to remain as long as possible at school, if the conditions are such 
that a master or masters can give him a good deal of attention and help in his 
special work, which is generally the case at Public Schools. 

There can be little or no overlapping between Public Schools and Oxford or 
Cambridge, as it is not customary to enter these universities