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REPORT 

OF THE 

EIGHTY^SECOND MEETING OF THE 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 




DUNDEE: 1912 

SEPTEMBER 4-11 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1913 

Office of the AssociatiojsgS&itffij&tpu House, London, W. 




CONTENTS. 



» o» — 



Page 

Officers and Council, 1912-1913 iii 

Rules op the British Association v 

Tables: Past Annual Meetings:* 

Trustees and General Officers (1831-1912) xxi 

Sectional Presidents and Secretaries (1901-1912) xxii 

Chairmen and Secretaries of Conferences of Delegates (1901-12) xxix 

Evening Discourses (1901-1912) xxix 

Lectures to the Operative Classes (1901-1912) xxxi 

Public Lectures (1912) .' xxxi 

Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, Receipts, and Sums 

paid on account of Grants for Scientific Purposes (1831-1912) xxxii 

Analysis of Attendances xxxv 

Research Committees receiving Grants of Money (1901-1912) ... xxxvi 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL TO THE GENERAL COMMITTEE, 1911-1912 ... xli 

General Treasurer's Account, 1911-1912 xlvi 

Dundee Meeting, 1912: 

General Meetings xlviii 

Sectional Officers xlviii 

Officers of Conference of Delegates 1 

Committee of Recommendations 1 

Research Committees li 

Communications ordered to be printed in externa lxi 

Resolutions referred to the Council lxi 

Synopsis of Grants of Money lxiii 

Annual Meetings, 1913 and 1914 lxiv 

Address by the President, Professor E. A. Schafer, LL.D., D.Sc, 

M.D., F.R.S 3 

Reports on the State of Science 39 

* Particulars for early Meetings not furnished in the following Tables will 
be found in Volumes for 1011 and previous yenrs. 

A 2 



11 CONTENTS. 

Page 
Tbahsaotiohs of the Sectioxs: 

A. — Mathematical ami Physical Science 388 

B -Chemistry 4l'7 

C-Geology 448 

D. /oology 478 

1'..— Geography 518 

I ■'. -Economic Science and Statistics 536 

ii. — Engineering 556 

II -Anthropology 575 

I.— Physiology 624 

K.— Botany 662 

L. — Educational Science 688 

M.— Agriculture 709 

EvBNnra Disco urses 750 

Ai'Im:.ndix 1. — Uei'ort of the CoBBESPONDiua Societies ComtlTTSE 

Urn "| THE I u.M ■■ 1-: l ; I ; N ■ IE OF DELEGATES HELD IH DUBDBE 761 

Appendix II. -Rbpobi on Soli hii.ity, Past II. By J. Vargas Etbe, 

M.A , I'ii. It 795 

UTDBX 873 

List of Members, &o 96 pages 

LIST OF PLATES. 
PLATES I. and II.— Illustrating the Report on Seismological Investigations. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1912-1913. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 
Professor E. A. SOHAFER, LL.D., D.Sc, M.D., F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Hon. the Lord Provost of DuDdee and Lord 

Lieutenant of the County of the City of Dundee. 
The Right Hon. the Earl op Strathmore, Lord 

Lieutenant of the County of Forfar. 
James Ferguson, K.C., Sheriff of Forfarshire. 
The Right Rev. the Moderator of the General 

Assembly of the Church of Scotland. 
The Right Hon. the Earl op Camperdown. 
The Right Hon. Lord Kinnaird. 
Sir William Ogilvy Dalgleish, Bart., of Errol 

Park. 
Sir James Donaldson, LL.D., Principal of the 

University of St. Andrews. 



Sir George Baxter, LL.D. 

The Eight Rev. the Moderator of the General 
Assembly of the United Free Church of 
Scotland. 

The Right Rev. Bishop Robberds, D.D., Bishop of 
Brechin, and Primus of the Episcopal Church of 
Scotland. 

The Right Rev. Bishop Macparlane, D.D., R.C. 
Bishop of Dunkeld. 

J. Yule Mackay, M.D., LL.D , Principal of Uni- 
versity College, Dundee. 

The President of the Dundee Chamber of Commerce. 

Sir J. K. Oaird, Bart., LL.D. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
'Sir Oliver J. Lodge, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of Birmingham 
(Lieut.-Ool. Ernest Martineau, M.A.). 

The Most Hon. the Marquess op Northampton, 
K.G., Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire. 

The Worshipful the High Sheriff of Warwickshire 
(Sir Francis E. Waller, Bart.). 

The Right Hon. the Earl op Coventry, Lord- 
Lieu tenaut of Worcestershire. 

The Bight Hon. the Earl op Dartmouth, V D., 
Lor^-Lieutenant of Staffordshire. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop op Birmingham 
(Dr. Henry Russell Wakefield). 



The Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, LL.D., 
D.O.L., M.P., F.R.S., Chancellor of the University 
of Birmingham. 

Gilbert Barling, M.B., F.R.C.S., Vice-Chancellor 
of the University of Birmingham. 

The Right Hon. Jesse Collings, M.P., Hon. Presi- 
dent of the Birmingham Chamber of Commerce. 

Alderman the Right Hon. William Kenrick. 

Alderman W. H. Bowater, Deputy Lord Mayor of 
Birmingham. 

Professor J. H. Poyntixg, F.R.S. 

Professor Charles Lapworth, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor John Perry, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. | Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
0. J. R. Howarth, M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 

CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 
H. 0. Stewardson, Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT BIRMINGHAM. 

Sir G. H. Kenrick. | Neville Chamberlain. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT BIRMINGHAM. 



Prof. F. W. Gamble, F.R.S. 
Howard Heaton. 



John Humphreys. 
W. Byng Kenrick. 

• Sir William H. White, K.O.B., LL.D., Sc.D., D.Sc, D.Eng., F.R.S., was appoiuted President 
for 1913-14 (Birmingham Meetiug) by the General Committee at the Dundee Meeting. He died on the 
27th February 1913. 

A 3 [P.T.O. 



IV 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Armstrong, Professor H. E.. F.R.S. 

Bhaiirouk, Sir Edward, C.B. 

Clerk, Dr. Dugald, F.R.S. 

Oraigik, Maior P. G., C.B. 

BOOKS, W., B.A. 

Dkxdy, Professor A., F.K.S. 

Farmer, Professor J. B., F.R.S. 

Griffiths, Principal E. H., F.R.S. 

II addon, Dr. A. O., F.R.S. 

Hall, A. D., F.R.S. 

Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 

Trouton, Professor F. 



Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A. 
Lodge, Sir Oliver, F.R.S. 
Lyons, Captain H. G., F.R.S.' 
Marr, Dr. J. E., F.R.S. 
Mki.dola, Professor R., F.R.S. 
Mitchell, Dr. P. Chalmers, F.R.S. 
Myrks, Professor J. L., M.A. 
Prain, Sir David, O.I.E., F.R.S. 
Sherrington, Professor C. S., F.R.S. 
Teall, J. J. H., F.R.S. 
Thompson, Dr. Silvan us P., F.R.S. 

T., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President and Vice-Presidents for the year, the 
President and Vice-Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 

Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

The Right Hon. Lord Avebory, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

The Right Hon. Lord Raylkigh. O.M., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Sir Arthur W. Rucker, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 



PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Lord Avebury.D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Lord Raylcigh, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 
Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir A. Geikie, K.O.B., Pres. R.S 



Sir A. W. Rucker, D.Sc., F.R.S. 
Sir James Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir Norman Lockycr, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Arthur J. Balfour, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 



Sir William Orookes, O.M., F.K.S. Sir E.Ray Lankester,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 
Sir W. Turner, K.O.B., F.R.S. . Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



Sir Francis Darwin, F.K.S. 
Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. G. Boniiev, S-.D., F.R.S. 
Sir W. ltauisay, K.C.B., F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



P. L. Sclater, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., F.R.S. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Sir A. W. Rucker, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 



Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 
Dr. J. G. Garson. 



AUDITORS. 
Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. | Professor H. McLeod, LL.D., F.R.S. 



RULES OF 
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

[Adopted l»j the General Committee at Leicester, 1907, 
with subsequent amendments."] 



Chapter I. 
Objects and Constitution. 

1. The objects of the British Association for the Advance- Objects. 
ment of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in different parts 
of the British Empire with one another and with foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for the objects 
of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

2. The Association shall consist of Members, Associates, Constitution, 
and Honorary Corresponding Members. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall be directed by a Council and conducted by 
General Officers appointed by that Committee. 

3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or Annual 
longer, and at such other times as the General Committee Meetings, 
may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 

in advance : and the arrangements for these meetings shall 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

Chapter II. 

The General Committee. 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the Constitution, 
following persons : — 

(i) Permanent Members — 

(a) Past and present Members of the Council, and past 
and present Presidents of the Sections. 



VI 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Admission. 



Meetings. 



Functions. 



(b) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furthered the advancement of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association. 

(ii) Temporary Members — 

(a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(A) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 
sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies. 

(d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 

number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 

2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and 
claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
General Committee shall be final. 

(i) Claims for admission as a Permanent Member must 

be lodged with the Assistant Secretary at least one 

month before the Annual Meeting, 
(ii) Claims for admission as a Temporary Member may be 

sent to the Assistant Secretary at any time before or 

during the Annual Meeting. 

3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least during 
every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annual 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 
to summon a meeting of the General Committee. 

4. The General Committee shall 

(i) Receive and consider the report of the Council. 

(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations. 

(iii) Receive and consider the report of the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 
than two years in advance. 

(v) Determine the date of the next Annual Meeting. 

(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer, and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting. 

(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council, 
(viii) Appoint General Officers. 

(ix) Appoint Auditors, 
(x) Elect the officers of the Conference of Delegates. 

(xi) Receive any notice of motion for the next Annual 
Meeting. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. Vli 



Chapter III. 
Committee of Recommendations. 

1. * The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution, 
mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 
Association, the President of each Section at the Annual 
Meeting, the Chairman of the Conference of Delegates, the 

General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and 
the Presidents of the Association in former years. 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. Every recommendation made under Chapter IV. and Functions, 
every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 

the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Recommendations 
approve such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidered by the General Committee that is not so transmitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section or Sub- 
Section, for altering the title of a Section, or for any other 
change in the constitutional forms or fundamental rules of 
the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration and report. 

3. The Committee of Recommendations shall assemble, Procedure. 
for the despatch of business, on the Monday of the Annual 
Meeting, and, if necessary, on the following day. Their 

Report must be submitted to the General Committee on the 
last day of the Annual Meeting. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Winnipeg, 1909. 



Vlll 



HULKS OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter IV. 



dare. 



Constitution. 



Proposals by 

Sectional 
Committees. 



Tenure. 



Reports. 



1. 



grant of 



Research Committees. 

Every proposal for special research, or for a 
money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

Tn consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee, composed of Members of the Association, to 
conduct research or administer a grant in aid of research, 
and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; and the 
Committee of Recommendations may include such recoru- 
mendation in their report to the General Committee. 

2. Every appointment of a Research Committee shall be 
proposed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 
at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary. 
Such Research Committee, if appointed, shall have power to 
add to their numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes 
of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall 
be forwarded by the Recorder to the Assistant Secretary not 
later than noon on the Monday of the Annual Meeting for 
presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 

4. Research Committees are appointed for one year only. 
If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 
in that year, application may be made through a Sectional 
Committee at the next Annual Meeting for reappointment, 
with or without a grant— or a further grant — of money. 

5. Every Research Committee shall present a Report, 
whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 
that at which it was appointed or reappointed. Interim 
Imports, whether intended for publication or not, must be .sub- 
mil ted in writing. Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain 
whether a Report lias been made by each Research Committee 
appointed on their recommendation, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations on or before the Monday of 
tin' Annual Meeting. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. IX 

G. In each Research Committee to which a grant of money Guants. 
has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call cJ]airmaja! J 
on the General Treasurer for such portion of the sum granted 
as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting (*) E *P ire on 
expire on June 30 following. The General Treasurer is not 
authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants. 

The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before (<■) Accounts 
the Annual Meeting next following the appointment of 1*^6™* 
the Research Committee, forward to the General Treasurer 
a statement of the sums that have been received and ex- 
pended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains un- 
expended ; provided that a Research Committee may, in the 
first year of its appointment only, apply for leave to retain 
an unexpended balance when or before its report is presented, 
due reason being given for such application.* 

When application is made for a Committee to be re- id) Addi- 
appointed, and to retain the balance of a former grant, and 10Da ' an ' 
also to receive a further grant, the amount of such further 
grant is to be estimated as being sufficient, together with 
the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 

In making grants of money to Research Committees, the (e) Caveat. 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal 
expenses to the Members. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
Committee. 

7. Members and Committees entrusted with sums of money Disposal of 
for collecting specimens of any description shall include in their spe ° im f ??' 
Reports particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens & c . 
thus obtained for disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any ap- 
paratus which may have been purchased out of a grant made 
by the Association, and to state whether the apparatus is 
likely to be useful for continuing the research in question or 
for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of 
the Association, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall 
be deposited at the Office of the Association. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Dundee, 1912. 



HULKS Or TnE URITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter V. 

The Council. 

I litution. 1. The Council shall consist of ex officio Members and of 

Ordinary Members elected annually by the General Com- 
mittee. 

(i) The ex officio Members are — the Trustees, past Presi- 
dents of the Association, the President and Vice- 
Presidents for the year, the President and Vice- 
Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers 
;ind General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty-five in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty shall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
previous year. 

Functions. 2. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 

on behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the affairs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the next 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual Report, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for election by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the 
Council at the Meeting in February, and the names selected 
shall be issued with the summonses to the Council Meeting in 
March, when the nomination shall be made from the names 
on the list. 

The Council shall have power to appoint and dismiss 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 



THE COUNCIL. Xi 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same Elections, 
time as that of the Officers of the Association, 

(i) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for re- 
election in the ensuing year : 

(a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

longest consecutive period, and 

(b) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 

London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 
Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
order of retirement above set forth. 

(u) The Council shall submit to the General Committee, 
in their Annual Report, the names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council, 
(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 
Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
members of Council, and, if only two are so proposed, 
they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two 
are so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
unless five members at least require it to be by ballot. 



Chapter VI. 
The President, General Officers, and Staff. 

1. The President assumes office on the first day of the The Presi- 
Annual Meeting, when he delivers a Presidential Address. c en " 

He resigns office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. In his absence, he shall be represented 
by a Vice-President or past President of the Association. 

2. The General Officers of the Association are the General General 
Treasurer and the General Secretaries. 



Xll 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The QeneraJ 
Treasurer. 



The General 
Secretaries, 



Tho AssiBtanI 
(Secretary, 



stant 
Treasurer. 



be responsible to the 
for the financial affairs 



It sliall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Association, in any matter of urgency which 
cannot he brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

3. The General Treasurer shall 
General Committee and the Council 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretaries shall control the general 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to 
the General Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general routine of the work of 
the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Assistant Secretary shall hold office during the 
pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 
of the General Secretaries, and in their absence shall repre- 
sent them. He shall also act on the directions which may 
be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Assistant Secretary shall be charged, subject as afore- 
said : (i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persons 
therein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 

6. The General Treasurer may depute one of the Staff, as 
Assistant Treasurer, to carry on, under his direction, the 
routine work of the duties of his office. 

The Assistant Treasurer shall be charged with the issue of 
Membership Tickets, the payment of Grants, and such other 
work as may be delegated to him. 



Financial 

nients. 



Chapter VII. 

Finance. 

1. The General Treasurer, or Assistant Treasurer, shall 
receive and acknowledge all sums of money paid to the 
Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 
Council, an interim statement of his Account; and, after 



FINANCE. Xlll 

June 30 in each year, he shall prepare and submit to the 
General Committee a balance-sheet of the Funds of the 
Association. 

2. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, Audit, 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinary pay- Expenditure, 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 

Council. 

4. The General Treasurer is empowered to draw on the Investment?, 
account of the Association, and to invest on its behalf, 

part or all of the balance standing at any time to the credit 
of the Association in the books of the Bank of England, 
either in Exchequer Bills or in any other temporary invest- 
ment, and to change, sell, or otherwise deal with such tem- 
porary investment as may seem to him desirable. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable, Cheque?, 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 

his office, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 



cers and 
Committees. 



Chapter VIII. 
The Annual Meetings. 

1. Local Committees shall be formed to assist the General Local Offi- 
Officers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and 
shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General Officers 
and the Assistant Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Treasurers 
shall be empowered to enrol Members and Associates, and to 
receive subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Committees shall under- Functions, 
take the local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 

name of the Association in all matters pertaining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than the work of 
the Sections. 



XIV 



RULES OK THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Tin; 

Sections, 



Sectional 
Officers, 



Rooms 



Sectional 
oovhittbbs 

Constitution. 



Prh ilege of 

Old Members. 



Daily 

Co-optation. 



Chapter IX. 
The Work of the Sections. 

1. The scientific work of the Association shall be trans- 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time 
to time by the General Committee. 

It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of communica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for each Annual Meet- 
ing in advance, and shall act as the Officers of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting. 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The Section Rooms and the approaches thereto shall 
not be used for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes 
than those of the Association. 

4. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following :— 

(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office. 

(ii) All past Presidents of that Section. 

(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 
any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Committee, 
thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 
meeting : 

Provided always that — 

(a) Any Member of the Association who has served on 
the Committee of any Section in any previous year, 
and who has intimated his intention of being present 
at the Annual Meeting, is eligible as a member of 
that Committee at their first meeting. 

(h) A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 
set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members. 



THE WORK OF THE SECTIONS. 



XV 



<«) 



A Sectional Committee may, at any time during the Additional 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons Jice-Presi- 
present at the meeting to be Vice-Presidents of the 
Section, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 



Executive 
Functions 



And of 
Recorder. 



Organising 
Committee. 



5. The chief executive officers of a Section shall be the 
President and the Recorder. They shall have power to act on 
behalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 
be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
mittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- Of President 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be absolute on all points 
of order that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- 
mission to the Assistant Secretary of the daily programme of 
his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, of the printed returns, abstracts, reports, or papers 
appertaining to the proceedings of his Section at the Annual 
Meeting, and for the correspondence and minutes of the 
Sectional Committee. 

6. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the 
close of the Annual Meeting, not more than six of its own 
members to be members of an Organising Committee, with 
the officers to be subsequently appointed by the Council, and 
past Presidents of the Section, from the close of the Annual 
Meeting until the conclusion of its meeting on the first clay of 
the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

Each Organising Committee shall hold such Meetings as 
are deemed necessary by its President for the organisation 
of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and shall hold a meeting 
on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting : to nominate 
members of the Sectional Committee, to confirm the Pro- 
visional Programme of the Section, and to report to the 
Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be offered by a member, or may 
arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 

No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted 
on its Minutes. 



Sectional 
Committee. 



Papers and 
Reports. 



\\ I 



RULES OP THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



,men- 
ilal inns. 



Pulilic.it ion. 



Copyright. 



Any report or paper read in any one Section may be read 
ako in any other Section. 

No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the 
Annual Report of the Association unless the manuscript has 
boon received by the Recorder of the Section before the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

Il shall he within the competence of the Sectional Com- 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, further, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the task 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa- 
tion, whether by reference to local authorities, public institu- 
tions, or Departments of His Majesty's Government. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Com- 
mittee. 

7. Papers ordered to be printed in extenso shall not be 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 
to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports 
of Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere 
than in the Annual Report without the express sanction of 
the Council. 

8. The copyright of papers ordered by the General Com- 
mittee to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report shall 
be vested in the authors ; and the copyright of the reports 
of Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
shall be vested in the Association. 



ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. XV11 



Chapter X. 
Admission of Members and Associates. 

1. No technical qualification shall be required on the Applications, 
part of an applicant for admission as a Member or as an 
Associate of the British Association ; but the Council is 
empowered, in the event of special circumstances arising, to 

impose suitable conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

* Every person admitted as a Member or an Associate Obligations, 
shall conform to the Rules and Regulations of the Association, 
any infringement of which on his part may render him liable 
to exclusion by the Council, who have also authority, if they 
think it necessary, to withhold from any person the privilege 
of attending any Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of 
admission already issued. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Council, on any occasion of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
Meeting. 

2. All Members are eligible to any office in the Association. Conditions 
(i) Every Life Member shall pay, on admission, the sum and Privileges 

em -n i of Member- 

oi I en Founds. 



Life Members shall receive gratis the Annual 
Reports of the Association, 
(ii) Every Annual Member shall pay, on admission, the 
sum of Two Pounds, and in any subsequent year 
the sum of One Pound. 

Annual Members shall receive gratis the Report 
of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay, 
without intermission, their annual subscription. An 
Annual Member who omits to subscribe for any 
particular year shall lose for that and all future 
years the privilege of receiving the Annual Reports 
of the Association gratis. He, however, may resume 
his other privileges as a Member at any subsequent 
Annual Meeting by paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound. 
(iii) Every Associate for a year shall pay, on admission, 
the sum of One Pound. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Dublin, 1908. 
1912 



ship. 



XV1U 



1UJLES OF THE 1JKIT1SII ASSOCIATION. 



Correspond- 
ing Members. 



Annual Sub- 
scriptions. 



The Annual 
Report. 



Associates shall not receive the Annual Report 
gratuitously. They shall not be eligible to serve on 
any Committee, nor be qualiiied to hold any office in 
the Association. 
(iv) Ladies may become Members or Associates on the 
same terms as gentlemen, or can obtain a Lady's 
Ticket (transferable to ladies only) on the payment 
of One Pound. 

3. Corresponding Members may be appointed by tin- 
General Committee, on the nomination of the Council. They 
shall be entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending the meeting may 
make payment at any time before the close of the financial 
year on June 30 of the following year. 

5. The Annual Report of the Association shall be forwarded 
gratis to individuals and institutions entitled to receive it. 

Annual Members whose subscriptions have been inter- 
mitted shall be entitled to purchase the Annual Report 
at two-thirds of the publication price ; and Associates for a 
year shall be entitled to purchase, at the same price, the 
volume for that year. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of 
publication can only be issued by direction of the Council. 



Affiliated 
Societies. 



AflSOOl LTBD 

Societies. 



Chapter XL 

Corresponding Societies: Conference of Delegate. 

Corresponding Societies are constituted as follows : 

1. (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the British Association. 

Each Affiliated Society may appoint a Delegate, 
who must be or become a Member of the Associa- 
tion and must attend the meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates. He shall be ex officio a Member of 
the General Committee. 
(ii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 
the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and numbers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the British 
Association. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES : CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES. XIX 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con- 
ference. Such Delegates must be or become either 
Members or Associates of the British Association, 
and shall have all the rights of Delegates appointed 
by the Affiliated Societies, except that of member- 
ship of the General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed Applications, 
on the list of Corresponding Societies. Such application must 

be addressed to the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of 
June preceding the Annual Meeting at which it is intended 
it should be considered, and must, in the case of Societies 
desiring to be affiliated, be accompanied by specimens of the 
publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- Corre- 
nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the sponding 
General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves committee. 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties and of superintending the preparation of a list of the 

papers published by the Affiliated Societies. This Com- 
mittee shall make an Annual Report to the Council, and 
shall suggest such additions or changes in the list of Corre- 
sponding Societies as they may consider desirable. 

(i) Each Corresponding Society shall forward every year Procedure, 
to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, on or 
before June 1, such particulars in regard to the 
Society as may be required for the information of 
the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

(ii) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the 
Association a list of the papers published by 
the Corresponding Societies during the preceding 
twelve months which contain the results of local 
scientific work conducted by them — those papers 
only being included which refer to subjects coming 
under the cognisance of one or other of the several 
Sections of the Association. 

4. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies shall consti- Conference 
tute a Conference, of which the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, ° F J^ ELE " 
and Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated annually by 
the Council and appointed by the General Committee. The 
members of the Corresponding Societies Committee shall be 
ex officio members of the Conference. 

(i) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by Procedure and 

lurirj 
a2 



GATES. 



the Secretaries to hold one or more meetings during Functions. 



XX RULES OF THE JiKITISH ASSOCIATION. 

each Annual Meeting of the Association, and 
shall be empowered to invite any Member or 
Associate to take part in the discussions. 

(ii) The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to 
submit Resolutions to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration, and for report 
to the General Committee. 

(iii) The Sectional Committees of the Association shall 
be requested to transmit to the Secretaries of the 
Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions to be made to the General Committee bearing 
on matters in which the co-operation of Corre- 
sponding Societies is desirable. It *h;ill be com- 
petent for the Secretaries of the Conference of 
Delegates to invite the authors of such recom- 
mendations to attend the meetings of the Conference 
in order to give verbal explanations of their objects 
and of the precise way in which they desire thest' 
to be carried into effect. 

(iv) It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make 
themselves familiar with the purport of the several 
recommendations brought before the Conference, in 
order that they may be able to bring such recom- 
mendations adequately before their respective 
Societies, 
(v) The Conference may also discuss propositions 
regarding the promotion of more systematic ob- 
servation and plans of operation, and of greater 
uniformity in the method of publishing results. 



Chapter XII. 
Amendments and New Ruins. 

Alterations. Any alterations in the Rules, and any amendments 

or new Rules that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee on the first day of the Annual Meeting, and referred 
forthwith to the Committee of Recommendations ; and, on the 
report of that Committee, shall be submitted for approval at 
the last meeting of the General Committee. 



XXI 



TRUSTEES AND GENERAL OFFICERS, 1831-3 912. 



1832-70 (Sir) K. I. Murchison (Bart.), 

F.E.S. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1839-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1802-81 Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 

GENERAL 

1831 Jonathan Gray, Esq. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



TRUSTEES. 
1872- 



Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (now Lord 
Avebury), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883- Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord) 
Playfair, F.R.S. 
Prof. (Sir) A. W. Rucker, F.R.S. 



1898- 

TREASURERS 
1891-98 



A. \V. Rucker, 



Prof. (Sir) 
F.R.S. 

1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904- Prof. John Perry, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832- 
1835- 



35 



36 



Rev. W. 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S. 



Vernon Harcourt, 

Vernon Harcourt, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 



1836-37 Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, 
and R. I. Murchison, 
Esq., F.R.S. 
R. I. Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., 
and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 
and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut. -Colonel E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 
J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
53 J. F. Royle, Esq., F.R.S. 
59 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 

61 Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 

62 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 

63 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 
Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 

65 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 

66 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
68 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 



1837- 

' 1839- 

1845- 
1850- 

1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 

1863- 

1865- 
1866- 



39 

45 

50 
52 



1868-71 

1871-72 

1872-76 

1876-81 

1881-82 

1882-83 
1883-95 

1895-97 



1897- I 

1900\ 

1900-02 



1902-03 
1903- 



Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Dr.T. THOMSON,F.R.S.,and Capt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balfour, F.R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Vernon Harcourt, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
A. G.Vernon Harcourt, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

Schafer, F.R.S. 
Prof. Schafer, F.R.S., and Sir 

W.C.Roberts- Austen,F.R.S. 
Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., and 

MajorP.A.MACMAHON.F.R.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES, &c. : 1831-1904. 

1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-1902 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1902-04 J. G. Garson, Esq., M.D. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARIES. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Forbes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832,62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 



1878-80 J. E. II. Gordon, Esq., B.A. 
1901-09 A. Silva White, Esq. 



1909- 



O. J. R. Howarth, Esq., M.A. 



xxn 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association, 

19U1-1912. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION A. 1 — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

H. S.Carslaw.C.H. Lees, AV. Stewart, 
Prof. L. R. AVilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. B. 
Morton, A. W. Porter. 

D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. AV. 
H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees, J. 
Loton, A. AV. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. II. T. Hudson, 
Dr. C. H. Lees, Dr. AV. J. S. Lock- 
yer, A. AV. Porter, W. C. D. 
AVhetham. 

A. R, Hinks, S. S. Hough, R. T. A. 
Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. C. H. Lees. 

Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 
A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. AV. Porter, 
H. Dennis Taylor. 

E. E. Brooks, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, 
Dr. J. A. Harker, A. R. Hinks, 
Prof. A. AV. Porter. 

Dr. AV. G. Duffield, Dr. L. N. G. 

Filon, E. Gold, Prof. J. A, 

McClelland, Prof. A. AV. Porter, 

Prof. E. T. AVhittaker. 
Prof. F. Allen, Trof. J. C. Fields, 

E. Gold, F. Horton, Prof. A. AV. 

Porter, Dr. A. A. Rambaat. 
H. Bateman, A. 8. Eddington, E. 

Gold, Dr. F. HorU.n, Dr. B. R. 

Milner, Prof. A. \Y . Porter. 
H. Bateman, Prof. P. V. Bevan, A. S. 

Eddington, E. Gold, 1'rof. A. AV. 

Porter, P. A. Yapp. 
Prof. P. V. Bevan, E. Gold, Dr. H. B. 

Hey wood, R. Norrie, Prof. A. AV. 

Porter, AV. G. Robson, F. J. If. 

Stratton. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 


1902. 


Belfast 


Prof. J. Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 
—Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 


1903. 


Southport 


C. A r ernon Boys, F.R.S.— Dep. 
of Astronomy and Meteor- 
ology, Dr. AV.N. Shaw.F.R.S 


1904. 


Cambridge 


Prof. H. Lamb, F.R.S.— Sub- 
Section of Astronomy and 
Cosmical Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 


190fi 


York 


Principal E. H.Griffiths.F.R.S. 
Prof. A. E. H. Love, M.A., 


1907. 


Leicester... 






F.R.S. 


1908. 


Dublin 


Dr. AV. N. Shaw, F.R.S 


1909. 


Winnipeg 


Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S. 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 


Prof. E. AV. Hobson, F.R.S.... 


1911. 


Portsmouth 


Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 


1912. 


Dundee ... 


Prof. H. L. Callendar, F.R.S. 



SECTION B. 2 - C HEM ISTRY. 



1901. Glasgow ... Prof. Percy ¥ 

F.R.S. 

1902. Belfast Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 



1903. Southport 



Prof. AV. N. Hartley, D.Sc 
F.R.S. 



Frankland, AV. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 
AV. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 

R. F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof. 
G. G. Henderson, Prof. AV. J. Pope. 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. (i. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. AV. J. Pope. 



1 Section A was constituted under this title in lS.'i.j, when the sectional division 
was introduced. The previous division was into ' Committees of Sciences.' 
• 'Chemistry and Mineralogy,' 1835-1894. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



X.X1U 



Date and Place 



1004. Cambridge 



Presidents 



Prof. Sydney Young, F.R.S.... 



1905. 
1906. 
1907. 

1908. 
1909. 
1910. 



South Africa 

York 

Leicester ... 

Dublin 

Winnipeg... 
Sheffield ... 



George T. Beilby 



Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. 
J. E. Stead, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



Rub- section of Agriculture, A. 

D. Hall, F.R.S 

1911. Portsmouth Prof. J. Walker, F.R.S 



1912. Dundee 



Prof. A. Senier, M.D. ... 



Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. O. Jones, Prof. W. 
J. Pope. 

W. A. Caldecott, Dr. M. O. Forster, 
Prof. G. G. Henderson, C. F. Juritz. 

Dr. E. F.Armstrong, Prof. A.W. Cross- 
ley, S. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 
Crossley, J. H. Hawthorn, Dr. 
F. M. Perkin. 

Dr. E.F.Armstrong, Dr. A. McKenzie, 
Dr. F M. Perkin, Dr. J. H. Pollock. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. T.M.Lowry, 
Dr. F. M. Perkin, J. W. Shipley. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. T. M. 
Lowry, Dr. F. M. Perkin, W. E. S. 
Turner. 

Dr. C. Crowther, J. Golding, Dr. E. 
J. Russell. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. C. H. 
Desch, Dr. T. M. Lowry, Dr. F. 
Beddow. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. C. H. 
Desch, Dr. A. Holt, Dr. J. K.Wood. 



SECTION C. 3 ~ GEOLOGY. 



1901 
1902. 


Glasgow ... 
Belfast 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg. . . 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 


1911. 


Portsmouth 


1912. 


Dundee ... 



John Home, F.R.S 

Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., 

M.Sc. 
Aubrey Strahan, F.R.S 

Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 

G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S 

Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... ! 

Prof. John Joly, F.R.S 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, F.R.S... 

A. Harker, F.R.S 

Dr. B. N. Peach, F.R.S 



H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 
EL L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton, 

J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. Seymour. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L, Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. Woods. 
H. L.Bowman, J. Lomas, Dr. Molen- 

graaff, Prof. A. Young, Prof. R. B. 

Young. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Rev. W. Johnson, J. Lomas. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Prof. T. Groom, J. Lomas. 
Rev. W. L. Carter, J. Lomas, Prof. 

S. H. Reynolds, H. J. Seymour. 
W. L. Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 

R.T.Hodgson, Prof. S.H. Reynolds. 
W. L. Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 

B. Hobson, Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 
Col. C. W. Bevis, W. L. Carter, Dr. 

A. R. Dwerryhouse, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 
Prof. W. B. Boulton, A. W. R. Don, 

Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 



Geology and Geography,' 1835-1850. 



XXIV 



I'KESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE .SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SKi'TION D. 4 - ZOOLOGY. 



1901. 
1902. 



.'l)W 

Bell 



Prof. J. Cosaar Ewart, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... 



1903. Southport Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.B.S. ... 

1904. Cambridge William Bateson, P.R.S 

1905. SoutbAfrica G. A. Boolenger, F.R.S 

L906. York J. J. Lister, F.K.S 

1907. Leicester... Dr. W. B. Hoyle, M.A 

Dublin Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S 

L909. Winnipeg... Dr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. ... 

1910. Sheffield ... Prof. G. C. Bourne, F.R.S. ... 

1911. Portsmouth Prof. D'Arcy \V. Thompson, 

C.B. 

mil-. Dundee ... Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. 
F.R.s. 



J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson. 
Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcmft. A. 

Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H.W. M. 

Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Oxley Grabham, Dr. H.W.M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L Doncaster. 

E. E. Lowe, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. II. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. A. Fraser, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
C. A. Baragar, C. L. Boulenger, Dr. 

J. Pearson, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

T. J. Evans, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. II. Ashworth, C. Foran, R. D. 

Laurie, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, R. D. Laurie, 

Miss D. L. Mackinnon, Dr. H. W. 

M. Tims. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast 


1903. 


Southport... 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SoutbAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 


1908. 


Dublin 



SECTION E. 5 — GEOGRAPHY. 

Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.G.S [H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 

Sandeman, A. C. Turner. 
Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ... G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 

A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. Lindsay, 
Capt. E. W. Creak, R.N.,C.B.,E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
F.R.S. E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. Under- 

wood. 

Douglas W. Fresh field ,E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 

H. Y. Oldham, E. A. Reeves. 
Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton,; A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers. 
R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S. Dr. A. J. Herbertson, H. Y. Old- 

ham. 
Rt. Hon. Sir George Goldie, E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S. E. A. Reeves, G. Yeld. 

George G. Chisholm, M.A. ... E. Heawood, O. J. R. Howarth, 

E. A. Reeves, T. Walker. 
Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., W. F. Bailey, W. J. Barton, O. J. It. 
B.B. Howarth, E. A. Reeves. 



' Zoology and Botany,' 1835-1847 ; ' Zoology and Botany, including Physiology,' 
lsis 1866; 'Biology,' 1866-1894. 

ion E was that of 'Anatomy and Medicine,' 1835-1840; of 'Physiology' 

(afterwards incorporated in Section D), 1841-1817. It was assigned to ' Geography 
and Ethnology,' 1851-1868; 'Geography,' 1869. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXV 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



1909. Winnipeg.. 

1910. Sheffield .. 



Col. SirD.Johnston,K.C.M.G., ; G. G. Chisholm, J. McFarlane, A. 

C.B., R.E. Mclntyre. 

Prof. A. J. Herbertson, M.A., Rev. W. J. Barton, Dr. R. Brown, 

Ph.D. J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves. 

1911. Ports mouth Col. C. F. Close, R.E., C.M.G. J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves, W. P. 

Smith. 

1912. Dundee .,. Col. Sir C. M. Watson, Rev. W. J. Barton, J. McFarlane, 

K.C.M.G. E. A. Reeves, D. Wylie. 



SECTION F. G -ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Canrian, S. J. Chapman. 
A L. Bowie}', Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. A. Duffin. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. Lloyd. 
J. E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg. 
R. a Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

H. E.S. Fremantle, H. 0. Meredith. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Mac- 

gregor, H. O. Meredith, B. S. 

Rowntree. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Macgregor, 

H. O. Meredith, T. S. Taylor. 
1W. G. S. Adams, Prof. S. J. Chap- 
man, Prof. D. H. Macgregor, H. O. 

Meredith. 
Sub-section of Agriculture — A. D. Hall, Prof. J. Percival, J. H. 
Rt. Hon. Sir H. Plunkett. Priestley, Prof. J. Wilson. 

1909. Winnipeg... Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. ... Prof. A. B. Clark, Dr. W. A. Mana- 

han, Dr. W. R. Scott. 

1910. Sheffield ...Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, C. R. Fay, H. O. Meredith, Dr. W. R. 

K.C.B., M.A. Scott, R. Wilson. 

1911. Portsmouth Hon. W. Pember Reeves C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott, H. A. 

Stibbs. 

1912. Dundee ... Sir H.H. Cunynghame, K.C.B. C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott, E. Tosh. 



1901. Glasgow ... Sir R. Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

1902. Belfast ... E. Cannan, M.A., LL.D 

1903. Southport E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

1904. Cambridge Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D 

1905. SouthAfrica Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D 

D.Sc. 
19015. York A. L. Bowley, M.A 



1907. Leicester... Prof. W. J. Ashley, M.A 

1908. Dublin W. M. Acworth, M.A. .. 



SECTION G. 7 — ENGINEERING. 



1901. 
1902. 
1903. 

1901. 
1905. 

1906. 
1907. 



Glasgow .. 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 
SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester... 



1908. Dublin, 



R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. 

Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 

C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... 

Hon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. ... 
Col. Sir C. Scott-Moncrieff, 

G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E. 

J. A. Ewing, F.R.S 

Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, 

F.R.S. 
Dugald Clerk, F.R.S 



H. Bamf ord, W.E. Dalby, W. A. Price. 
M. Barr, W. A. Price, J. Wylie. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 

W. A. Price. 
J. B. Peace.W.T.Maccall.W. A.Price. 
W. T. Maccall, W. B. Marshall, Prof. 

H. Payne, E. Williams. 
W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price, J. Triftit, 
Prof. E. G. Coker, A. C. Harris, 

W. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, Dr. W. E. Lilly, 

W. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 



" ' Statistics,' 1835-1855. 

' ' Mechanical Science,' 1836-1900. 



XXVI 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



I >:it e ;ind Place 



1909. Winnipeg... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



E. E. Brydone- Jack, Prof. K. <i. Coker, 
Prof. E. W. Marchant , \V. A. Price. 



Sir W. II. White, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

1910. Sheffield .. Prof. W. K. Dalby, M.A..IF. Boulden, Prof. E. G. Coker, 

M.Inst.C.E. A. A. Bowse, H. E. w 

1911. Portsmouth Prof. J. II. Biles, LL.D., H. Ashley, Prof K. G. Coker, A. A. 

D.Sc. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

L912. Dundee ... Prof . A. Barr, D.Sc Prof. B. G. Coker, A. It. Fulton, H. 

Richardson, A. A. Bowse, H. E. 
Wimperis. 



SECTION H.*— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1901. 
1902. 

11)03. 
1001. 
1906. 

190G. 
1007. 

1008. 

r. 

1010. 
1011. 



Glasgow ... 
Belfast ... 
Southport... 
Cambridge 
SouthA Erica 

York 

Leicester 
Dublin .. 
Winnipeg 
Sheffield 
Portsmouth 



1012. Dundee 



J. Cunningham, W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 

Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 
R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon 

J. L. Myres. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. 6. Kingsford, 

E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres. 
W. L. H. Duckworth, E. N. Fallaize, 

H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres. 
A. R. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. S. 

Hartland. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize, H. S. 

Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
C. J. Billson, E. N. Fallaize, H. S. 

Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, Dr. 

F. C. Shrubsall, L. E. Steele. 
Prof. J. L. Myres, M.A H. S. Kingsford, Prof. C. J. Patten, 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
VV. Crooke, B.A E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, Prof. 

C. J. Patten, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall 
W. H. R. Rivers, M.D., F.R.S. E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 

E. W. Martindell, H. Rundle, 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. D. D. Craig, E. N. Fallaize, E. W. 

Martindell, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 



Prof. D. 
F.R.S. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. .. 

H. Balfour, M.A 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. .. 

E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A... 

D. G. Hogarth, M.A 

Prof. W. Ridgeway, M.A. .. 



SECTION I. n — PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 

L901. Glasgow ... Prof.J.G. McKcndrick, F.R.S. )W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

W. H. Thompson. 
1002. Belfast ... Prof. W. D. Halliburton, J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne, Dr. 

F.R.S. C. Shaw. 

L904. Cambridge Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. J. Barcroft, Prof. T. G. Brodie, Dr. 

L. E. Shore. 

1005. SouthAfrica Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. ... J. Barcroft, Dr. Baumann, Dr. Mac- 

kenzie, Dr. G. W. Robertson, Dr. 
Stanwell. 

1006. York .'. Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S J. Barcroft, Dr. J. M. Hamill, Prof. 

J. S. Macdonald, Dr. D. S. Long. 



' Established 1884. 
'• Established 1894. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXV11 



Date and Place 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 



Presidents 



Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

Dr. J. Scott Haldane, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. H. Starling, F.R.S.... 
Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. S. Macdonald, B.A. 
Leonard Hill, F.R.S 



Secretaries 



Dr. N. H. Alcock, J. Barcroft, Prof. 

J. S. Macdonald, Dr. A. Warner. 
Prof. D J. Coffey, Dr. P. T. Herring, 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr.H.E.Roaf . 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, Prof. P. T. Herring, 

Dr. W. Webster. 
Dr. H. G. M. Henry, Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf, Dr. J. Tait. 
Dr. J. T. Leon, Dr. Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf, Dr. J. Tait. 
Dr. Keith Lucas, W. Moodie, Dr. 

H. E. Roaf, Dr. J. Tait. 



1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904, 

1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 

1910. 
1911. 



Glasgow ... 
Belfast ... 
Southport 
Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester ... 

Dublin 

Winnipeg... 

Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 



SECTION K.'°— BOTANY 

Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. R. Green, F.R.S 

A. C. Seward, F.R.S 



1912. Dundee 



Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Sub-section of Agriculture — 

Dr. W. Somerville. 
Harold Wager, F.R.S 

Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S.... 

Lieut,- Col. D. Prain, CLE., 

F.R.S. 
Sub-section, of Agriculture — 

Major P. G. Craigie, C.B. 
Prof. J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S. 

Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc 



Sub-section of Agriculture- 

W. Bateson, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. F. Keeble, D.Sc 



D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 

A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 
H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 

H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, H. Wager, 
R. H. Yapp. 

Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 
H. Wager, T. B. Wood, R. H. Yapp. 



R. P. Gregory, Dr. Marloth, Prof. 

Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
W. Bell, R. P. Gregory, Prof. A. G. 

Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. H. H. Dixon, R. P. Gregory, 

A.-G. Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. A. H. R. Buller, Prof. D. T. 

Gwynne-Vaughan,Prof.R.H.Yapp. 
W. J. Black, Dr. E. J. Russell, Prof. 

J. Wilson. 

B. H. Bentley, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp. 

C. G. Delahunt, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan, Dr. C. E. Moss, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp. 

J. GoldiDg, H. R. Pink, Dr. E. J. 
Russell. 

J. Brebner, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan, Dr. C. E. Moss, D. 
Thoday. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



1901. Glasgow 

1902. Belfast 



Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. 



R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 

Howie, C. W. Eimmins, Prof. 

H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. Kimmins 

Prof. H. L. Withers. 



10 Established 1893. 



xxvm 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1903. Sonthport .. Sir VV. de W. Abney, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 
Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... 



1004. Cambridge 
i (06. BouthAfrica 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 



1'rof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., 

M.P. 
Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... 

Sir Philip Magnus, M.P 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Rev. H. 15. Gray, D.D 

Principal H. A. Miers, F.R.S. 

Rt. Rev. J. B. C. Welldon 

D.D. 
Prof. J. Adams, M.A 



Secretaries 



Prof. R. A. Gregory, \V. M. Heller, 

Dr. C. W. Kimmins. Dr. 11. 1.Snape. 
J. H. Flather, Prof. K A. Gregorv, 

W. M. Heller. Dr.C. W. Kimmins. 
A. D. Mall, Prof. Hele-Sbaw, Dr. 0. W . 

Kimmins, J. R. Whitton, 
Prof. It. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

J. S. Laver, Hugh Richardson. 
Prof. E. P. Culverwell, W. D. Eggar, 

George Fletcher, Prof. R. A. 

Gregorv, Hue;h Richari I 
\V. D. Eggar, R. Fletcher, J. L. 

Holland, Hugh Richardson. 
A. J. Arnold, W. D. Eggar, J. I.. 

Holland, Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. lOggar, O. Freeman, J. L. 

Holland, Hugh Richard! 
D. Derridge, Dr. J. Davidson, Prof. 

J. A. Green, Hugh Richardson, 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 

1912. Dundee ... T. II. Middleton, M.A 



Dr. C. Crowther, J. Golding, Dr. A. 

Lauder, Dr. E. .7. Russell. 



CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES OF CONFERENCES OF DELEGATES. XXIX 



CHAIRMEN and SECRETARIES of the CONFERENCES OF 
DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES, 1901-12.* 



Date and Place 


Chairmen 


Secretaries 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


P. W. Rudler, F.G.S 


Dr. J. G. Garson, A. Somerville 


1902 




Prof. W. W. Watts, F.G.S. ... 


E. J. Bles. 


1903. 


Southport .. 


W. Whitaker, F.R.S 


F. W. Rudler. 


1904. 


Cambridge 


Prof. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1905. 


London , . . 


Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1906. 


York 


Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B.... 


F. W. Rudler. 


1907. 


Leicester . . . 


H. J. Mackinder, M.A 


F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 


1908. 


Dublin 


Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1909. 


London ... 


Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 


Dr. Tempest Anderson 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1911. 


Portsmouth 


Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1912. 


Dundee ... 


Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. ... 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 



EVENING DISCOURSES, 1901-1912. 



Dale and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport... 


Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 
Dr. R. Munro 


The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plants. 
Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Inheritance. 
Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 

Palaeolithic Period. 
The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 


Dr. A. Rowe 


1904. Cambridge 


Prof. G, H. Darwin, F.R.S.... 
Prof. H. F. Osborn 


Teachings. 
Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 
Pakeontological Discoveries in the 

Rocky Mountains. 

W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South 

Africa. 
Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 
The Mountains of the Old World. 


1905. South 

Africa : 
Cape Town ... 

Durban 


Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S 

Douglas W. Freshfield 


Pietermaritz-- 
burjf. 


Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... 
H. T. Ferrar 


Marine Biology. 

Sleeping Sickness. 

The Cruise of the 'Discovery.' 

The Distribution of Power. 

Steel as an Igneous Rock. 

Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 
ing Sickness, &c. 

The Milky Way and the Clouds of 
Magellan. 

Diamonds. 

The Bearing of Engineering on 
Mining. 

The Ruins of Rhodesia. 


Johannesburg 


Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. J. O. Arnold 


Pretoria 
Bloemfontein... 


A. E. Shipley, F.R.S 

A. R. Hinks 


Kimberley 


Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S 
Prof. J. B. Porter 


Bulawayo 


D. Randall-Mad ver 



* Established 1886. 



XXX 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



1906. York 

1907. Leicester , 



1008. Dublin 

190'.). Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 



Lecturer 



Dr. Tempest Anderson 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

W. Duddell, F.R.S 

Dr. F. A. Dixey 

Prof. II. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. W. M Davis 

Dr. A. E. II. Tutton, F.R.S... 

Prof. W. A. Herdman. F.R.S 
'Prof. H. P.. Dixon, F.R.S..., 
1 Prof. ,T. H. Poynting, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Stirling, M.D 

D. G. Hogarth 

Dr. Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

Prof. A. C. Seward, F.RS. .., 

Prof. W. H Bragsr, F.R.S. .., 
Prof. A. Keith, M.D , 



Subject of Discourse 



Volcanoes. 

The Electrical Signs of Life, and 
their Abolition by Chloroform. 

The Ark and the Spark in Radio- 
telegraphy. 

Recent Developments in the Theory 
of Mimicry. 

Halley's Comet. 

The Lessons of the Colorado Canyon. 

The Seven Styles of Crystal Archi- 
tecture. 

Our Food from the Waters. 

The Chemistry of Flame. 

The Pressure of Light. 

Types of Animal Movem 

New Discoveries about the HittiU s. 

The Physiology of Submarine Work. 

Links with the Past in the Plant 
World. 

Radiations Old and New. 

The Antiquity of Man. 



1 ' Popular Lectures,' delivered to the citizens of^Winnipeg. 

2 Repeated, to the public, on Wednesday, September 7. 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



XXXI 



LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Lecture 


1901. Glasgow ... 


H. J. Mackinder, M.A 


The Movements of Men by 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 
The Manufacture of Light. 
The Growth of a Crystal. 
The Crystallisation of Water. 
Metallic Alloys. 
Rain. 




1902. Belfast , , , 

1903. Southport... 

1904. Cambridge.. 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester ... 

1908. Dublin 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 


Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Dr. J. S. Flett 


the 


Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 

Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.K.S. 

C. T. Heycock, F.R.S 

Dr. H. R. Mill 











PUBLIC LECTUEES. 



Date and Place 



1912. Dundee ... 



Lecturer 



Prof. A. Fowler, F.R.S 

Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 
Prof. B.Moore, D.Sc 



Subject of Lecture 



The Sun. 

Prices and Wages. 

Science and National Health. 



XXX11 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 







Table showing the Attendances and Receipts 




Date of Meeting 


Where held 
York 


1 

Presidents 


Old Life 
Member 

169 

303 
109 
226 
313 
2(1 
314 
1 19 
227 
238 
172 
164 
111 
238 
in 
182 
286 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
1 96 
204 
314 
246 
246 
312 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
386 
226 
314 
428 
366 
277 
259 
189 
280 
201 
327 
214 
380 
130 

L'Sl 
296 

267 


New Life 
Members 




1831, Sept. 27 

1832, June 19 , 

1833, June 25 1 

1834, Sept. 8 

1835, Aug. 10 

1836, Aug. 22 

1837, Sept. 11 

1838, Aug. 10 | 

1839, Aug. 26 
1810, Sept. 1 7 

1841, July 20 

1842, June 23 . 


Viscount Milton, D.O.L.. F.R.S 1 

The Ilev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S ' 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd.LL.D.. F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S.... 

The Duke of Northumberland, T.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. \V\ Whewell, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egertou, F.G.s. 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John F. W.Herschel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchlson,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquis of Northampton.Pn 1 3. 1 1 . S 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D.. F.R.S. 
Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.s. 
G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.RiS 

William Hopkins, FJl.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F. R.S. . . . 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 
H.R.H. The Prince Consort 





Oxford 1 

Bristol ; 

Neweastle-on-Tyue. . . 

Plymouth ' 


65 

169 

28 

150 

36 
10 

is 

3 

12 

;i 

8 

in 

13 

23 

33 

14 

15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
•14 

81 
26 

is 
21 
39 
38 

36 
27 
13 
86 
35 
18 
is 

16 
11 
28 
17 
BO 
20 
18 
25 
86 
36 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 
::i 
s 
19 

20 
18 








1843, Aug. 17 


Cork 




1844, Sept. 26 

1845, June 19 . 


York 




Cambridge 




1846, Sept. 10 ... 
1817, June 23 


Southampton 




Oxford 




1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 

1850, July 21 














1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 

1854, Sept. 20 

1855, Sept. 12 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 

1858, Sept. 22 

1859, Sept. 14 

1860, June 27 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 

1863, Aug. 26 

1864, Sept. 13 

1865, Sept. 6 

1866, Aug. 22 

1867, Sept. 4 

1868, Aug. 19 

1869, Aug. 18 

1870, Sept. 14 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 

1873, Sept. 17 
1871, Aug. 19 

1875, Aug. 25 

1876, Sept. 6 

1877, Aug. 15 

1878, Aug. 14 

1879, Aug. 20 

1880, Aug. 25 

1881, Aug. 31 

1882, Aug. 23 

1883, Sept. 19 

1884, Aug. 27 

1885, Sept. 9 

1886, Sept. 1 

1887, Aug. 31 

1888, Sept. 5 

1889, Sept. 11 

1890, Sept. 3 

1891, Aug. 19 

1892, Aug. 3 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 

1895, Sept. 11 

1896, Sept. 16 

1897, Aug. 18 

1898, Sept. 7 

1899, Sept. 13 

1900, Sept. 5 


Belfast 




Hull , 








Glasgow 




Cheltenham 




Dublin 




Leeds 








Oxford 


The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.s. 

William Fnirbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis,M.A.,F.R.S. 
SirWilliam G. Armstrong.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.O., F.R.S 

The Duke of Buocleuch, K.( \<J.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R S. 

Prof. J. Tyudall, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson. M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. 0. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Ban., F.R.S 

Dr. C. W. Siemens F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair. K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dawson. O.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, O.B., F.R.S 

Sir A. Getkie. LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury.K.G.. F.R.S 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. . 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pros. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S... 
Sir William Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 




Manchester 




Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 
Bath 




Birmingham 




Nottingham 




Norwich 








Liverpool 




Edinburgh 




Brighton 




Bradford 




Belfast 




Bristol .. 




Glasgow 




Plymouth 




Dublin 




Sheffield 








York 




Southampton 








Montreal 




Aberdeen 




Birmingham 




Manchester 




Bath 




Newcastle-on-Tyne.. 
; Leeds 




Cardiff 




Edinburgh 




Nottingham 




Oxford 




Ipswich 




Liverpool 




Toronto 




Bristol 




Dover 




Bradford 










• Ladles were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 
[Continued on p. xxxiv. 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 



XXX111 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 

















Amount 1 Sums paid 






Old 

Annual 
Members 


New 
Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


received 

during the 

Meeting 


1 on account 

of Grants 

for Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 




— 




— 


353 


1831 
1832 
1833 













— 





900 







— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1298 


£20 


1834 




— 


— 







— 


— 


— 167 


1835 




— 


— 


— 




— 


1350 


— 435 


1836 




— 


— 


— ( 


— 


— 


1840 


— 922 12 6 


1837 




— 


— 


— 


1100* 


. — 


2400 


— 932 2 2 


1838 




— 


— 


— 


— 


34 


1438 


— 1595 11 


1839 







— 




— 


40 


1353 


— 1546 16 4 


1840 




46 


317 




60* 


— 


891 


— 


1235 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33+ 


331* 


28 


1315 


— 


1449 17 8 


1842 




71 


185 




160 


— 


— 


— 


1565 10 2 


1843 




45 


190 


»t 


260 


— 


— 


— 


981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


— 


831 9 9 


1845 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


— 


685 16 


1846 




197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 


— 


208 5 4 


1847 




54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 • 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 




50 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 




121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


1111 5 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


451 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1875 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


529 


349 


13 . 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 




253 


79 


616 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60H.5 


1777 


1855 


1173 4 


1884 




332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 


1511 5 


1888 




412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 




341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 


907 15 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 


583 15 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 . 


977 15 6 


1895 




383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 ; 


1104 6 1 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 | 


1059 10 8 


1897 




327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 


1212 


1898 




324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 


1430 14 2 


1899 




297 


45 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


1801 


1072 10 


1900 


X Including 


Ladies. § F 


ellowsofth 


e American 


Associatioi 


were admit 


ted as Hon. Members for tl 
[Continued cut p. x 


is Meeting. 
XXV. 




1912 


, 














b 



XXX1Y 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 

Table showing the Attendances and Beceipts 



Data <>i Meeting 



When- lu-ld 



1901, 
1902, 
1903, 
190-1, 
1905, 
1908, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 



Sept. ii 
Sept. lo 
Sept. 9 
Aug. 17 
Aug. 15 
Aug. 1 
July 31 
Sept. 2 
Aug. 25 
Ang. 31 
Aug. 30 
Sept. 4 



Glasgow 

Belfast 

Southport 

Cambridge 

South Africa 

York 

Leicester 

Dublin 

Winnipeg 

Sheffield 

Portsmouth .. 
Dundee 



Presidents 



Prof. A. W. Riicker, D.Sc., SecR.S. ... 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.H.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S 

Kev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir W. R*msay, K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. E. A. Schiifer. F.R.S 



Old Life 


New Life 


Members 


Members 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


32 


115 


40 


322 


10 


276 


19 


294 


24 


117 


13 


293 


26 


284 


21 


288 


14 



f Including 848 Members of the South Africau Association. 



ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCES AT 

[The total attendances for the years 1832, 

Average attendance at 7G Meetings : 1848. 

Average 
Attendance 
Average attendance .at 5 Meetings beginning during June, between 

1833 and 1860 " 1260 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during July, between 

1841 and 1907 1122 

Average attendance at 30 Meetings beginning during August, between. 

1836 and 1010 1013' 

Average attendance at 35 Meetings beginning during September, 

between 1831 and 1908 . . 1944 

Attendance at 1 Meeting held in October, Cambridge, 1862 . . 1161 



Meetings beginning during August. 

Average attendance at — 

1 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in August ( 1st- 7th) 

5 „ „ „ „ 2nd ( 8th-l4th) 

8 ,. „ „ „ 3rd „ „ „ (15th-21st.) 

13 „ „ „ „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-31st) 



1905 
2130 
1761 
1996 



1 Average attendance at 31 Meetings, including South Africa, 1905 (August 15- 
September l.i: 1949. 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 



XXXV 





at Annual Meet 


vngs of the Association- 


—(continued). 








Old 
Animal 


New 
Annual 


Asso- T ,. 
ciates Laclles 


Foreigners 


Total 


Amount 

received 

■luring the 

Meeting 


Sums paid 

on account 

of Grants 


Year 




Members 
374 


Members 




20 




for Scientific 
Purposes 


1901 




131 


794 


246 


1912 


2046 


945 




314 


86 


647 


305 


6 


1620 


1644 


947 


1902 




319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1754 


1762 


845 13 2 


1903 




449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 


887 18 11 


1904 




937T 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 


928 2 2 


1905 




356 


93 - 


817 


352 


22 


1972 


1811 


882 9 


1906 




339 


61 


659 


251 


42 


1647 


1561 


757 12 10 


1907 




465 


112 


1166 


222 


14 


2297 


2317 


1157 18 8 


1908 




290** 


162 


789 


90 


7 


1468 


1623 


1014 9 9 


1909 




379 


57 


563 


123 


8 


1449 


1439 


963 17 


1910 




349 


61 


414 


81 


31 


1241 


1176 


922 


1911 




368 


95 


1292 


359 88 


2504 


2349 


845 7 6 


1912 



•* Including 137 Members of the American Association. 



THE ANNUAL MEETINGS, 1831-1910. 
1835, 1843, and 1844 are unknown.'] 

Meetings beginning during September. 
Average attendance at — 

Average 

in -»,r i- l • i -, • , . . Attendance 

12 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in September ( 1st- 7th) . 2100 

^ - » » » 2n <i .. ,. „ (8th-14th). 1860 

.. 3rd „ „ „ (15th-21st). 2206 

2 » » » .. 4th „ „ „ (22nd-30th). 1025 

Meetings beginning during June, July, and October. 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1845, June 19) beginning during the 3rd 

week in June (15th-21st) 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during the 4th week in 

June (22nd-30th) 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1851, July 2) beginning during the 1st 

week in July (lst-7th) 

Average attendance at 2 Meetings beginning during the 3rd week in 

July (15th-21st) 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1907, July 31) beginning during the 5th 

week in July (29th-31st) 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1862, October 1) beginning 'during tlie 1st 

week in October (lst-7th) 



1079 
1306 
710 
1066 
1647 
1161 



2 Average attendance at 9 Meetings, including South Africa. 1905 (August 15- 
Septemberl): 1802. 



XXXVI 



GENEHAL STATEMENT. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account oj 
Grants for Scientific Purposes. 1001-1911. 



1901. 

£ s. d. 
Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 35 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 20 

1'iidergroundWaterof North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 500 

Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegraean Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15-0 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 15 11 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 

Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in Phasophyceae 15 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
maceas 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 

£920 9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 
Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 

Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 















£ 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 
Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 

Indian Ocean 50 

Compound Ascidians of the 

Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 
Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 1 5 
Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Hasmoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 

under Influence of Drugs... 20 
Investigation of the Cyano- 

phyceae 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 

Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com 
mittee 



*. 


,1. 





































































































































. 15 





(I 






£947 









1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Studyof Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances L'O 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Waters of North- 
west Yorkshire 40 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



XXXV11 



£ t. d. 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 

Anthropometric Investigation 5 

Anthropometry of the Todas 
and other Tribes of Southern 
India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycese 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£845 13 2 



1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth GO 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life- zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the 
Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 
Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 
Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 
































































































£ s. d. 

Anthropometric Investigation 
of Egyptian Troops 8 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 40 

Botanical Ph otographs 4 8 11 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 

Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£887 8 11 







1905. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations ... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

I 'Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitramines 25 (> 

Fauna and Flora of the British 
Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog ... 10 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 4 8 

Researches in Crete 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions of Egyptian Troops... 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 17 G 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£928 2 2 



xxxvm 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



1900. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 40 

M agnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Magnetic Survey of South 
Africa 99 12 6 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Aromatic Nitraruines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the British 
Trias 7 8 11 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea 15 

Freshwater Fishes of South 
Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lake and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 30 

Anthropoiuetriclnvestigations 

in the British Isles 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 20 

Research on South African 
Cycads 14 19 4 

Teat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£882 9 



1907. 

Electrical Standards 50 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 40 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 25 7 6 

Wave -length Tables of 

Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro -aromatic 
Substances . . : 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fauna and Flora of British 
Trias 10 



(1 
























£ s. d. 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of 
South-West England 15 

Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, &c 10 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75- 

Development of the Sexual 

Cells 1 11 8 

Oscillations of the Land Level 
in the Mediterranean Basin 50 

Gold Coinage in Circulation 
in the United Kingdom ... 8 19 7 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles... 10 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 55 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Research on South African 
Cycads 35 

Botanical Photographs 5 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 16 14 1 

£757 12 10 



1908. 

Seismological Observat ions ... 40 
Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Investigation of Upper Atmo- 
sphere by means of Kites... 2."> 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis L'"> 

Geodetic Arc in Africa 200 

Wave- length Tables of Spectra 10 
Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 40 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitramines 30 

Erratic Blocks 17 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 10 

Pre-Devonian Rocks 10 

Exact Significance of Local 

Terms 5 

Composition of Charnwood 

Rocks 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Hereditarj' Experiments 10 




































e 




















16 


t; 


















































GRANTS OF MONEV. 



XXXIX 



£ .1. 
Fauna of Lakes of Central 

Tasmania 40 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 50 

Exploration in Spitsbergen ... 30 
Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom 3 7 

Electrical Standards 50 

Glastonbury Lake Village ... 30 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 15 

Age of Stone Circles 50 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 40 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 40 

The Ductless Glands 13 14 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 35 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 30 
Electrical Phenomena and 
Metabolism of Arum Spa- 
dices 10 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Succession of Plant Remains 18 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1157 18 



1909. 

Seismological Observations... 60 
Investigation of the Upper At- 
mosphere by means of Kites 10 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 50 

Establishing a Solar Ob- 
servatory in Australia 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 9 16 
Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitramines 10 

Electroanalysis 30 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 8 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 8 

Paleozoic Rocks of Wales and 

the West of England 9 

Igneous and Associated Sedi- 
mentary Rocks of Glensaul 11 13 

Investigations at Biskra 50 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Heredity Experiments 10 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 ' 

Index Animalium 75 



£ 8. d. 
Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 35 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 5 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Researches in Crete 70 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Electrical Phenomenaand Me- 
tabolism of Arum S/iadices 10 

Reflex Muscular Rhythm 10 

Anesthetics 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 27 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Botanical Photographs 10 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 

Symbiosis between Tur- 

bellarian Worms and Algas 10 

Survey of Clare Island 65 

Curricula of Secondary Schools 5 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 21 

£1014 9 9 


























































































(1 









1910. 

Measurement of Geodetic Arc 

in South Africa 100 

Republication of Electrical 

Standards Reports 100 

Seismological Observations... 60 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitro-amines 15 

Electroanalysis 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 10 

South African Strata 5 

Fossils of Midland Coalfields 25 
Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 1 00 

Index Animalium 75 

Heredity Experiments IS 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Amount and Distribution of 

Income 15 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury. . . 5 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 5 

Neolithic Sites in Northern 
Greece 5 
































































































































xl 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ g. 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Body Metabolism in Cancer. . . 20 

Anesthetics 25 

Tissue Metabolism 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 18 17 
Electromotive Phenomena in 

Plants 10 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 10 
Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 

Survey of Clare Island 30 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£963 17 



1911. 

Seismological Investigations 60 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

Grant to International Com- 
mission on Physical and 
Chemical Constants 30 

St udy of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 25 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitro-amines 15 o 

Blectroanalysis 15 o 

Influence of Carbon, &c, on 
Corrosion of Steel 15 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 2 



£ i, d. 

Mammalian Fauna in Miocene 
Deposits, Bugti Hills, Balu- 
chistan 75 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Feeding Habits of British 
Birds 5 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 30 

Map of Prince Charles Fore- 
land 30 

Gaseous Ex plosions 90 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Artificial Islands in Highland 
Lochs 10 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Anesthetics 20 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 25 

Electromotive Phenomena in 
Plants 10 

Dissociation of Oxy-Ha;mo- 
globin 25 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... Id 

Experimental Study of 
Heredity 45 

Survey of Clare Island 20 

Registration of Botanical 
Photographs 10 

Mental and Physical Factors 
involved in Education 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£'922 0~ 






















































































































EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xli 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1911-1912. 

I. Sir William H. White, K.C.B., E.R.S., has been unanimously 
nominated by the Council to fill the office of President of the Association 
for 1913 (Birmingham Meeting). 

II. The Association was represented at the funeral of Lord Lister 
by Sir William Ramsay (President), Professor J. Perry (General 
Treasurer), and Major P. A. MacMahon (General Secretary). 

A letter was received from the Board of Education expressing regret 
at the death of Lord Lister, and enclosing copy of a letter from the Ger- 
man Ambassador, conveying condolences ' to the official departments 
interested, and in particular to the institutions of which the deceased 
man of science was President. ' 

By invitation of the Presidents of the Royal Society and the Royal 
College of Surgeons, the Council has nominated Prof. E. A. Schafer, 
President-elect, to serve upon a Committee to consider and take steps 
for the creation of a Memorial to Lord Lister. 

Sir William Ramsay has been appointed to represent the Associa- 
tion at the International Congress of Applied Chemistry in Washington, 
September 4, 1912. 

III. The following Address has been presented 

To the President and Council of the Royal Society. 

We, the President and Council of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, offer our cordial congratulations to the Royal 
Society on the occasion of the celebration of the two hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the Society. 

The British Association, since its birth in 1831, has been constantly 
in close relations with the Society. The great majority, not only of 
those who took the leading parts in the foundation of the Association, 
but of those who have filled its presidential chair, besides many others 
to whose earnest co-operation the success of its annual meetings has 
been due, have been Fellows of the Society. 

We would express the hope that the Society may continue to 
prosper, and may always maintain that pre-eminent position which is 
the fitting reward of its labours. 

Signed, on behalf of the Council, 

William Ramsay, 

President. 

IV. The Council has received from the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies a full reply to the representations made by the Association 
in regard to the preservation of antiquities in Cyprus. The Council 
has expressed to him the thanks of the Association for the interest 
which he has shown in this matter, and its hope that the measures 
of preservation announced in his communication may have the desired 
effect. 



xlii HEPOBT OF THE COUNCIL. 

V. A Eesolution has been received 

From the Committee of Recommendations. 

' That the Council be requested to consider the present practice 
of reckoning unspent balances of grants as part of the funds 
available for redistribution, and to report if any alteration in the 
practice is advisable.' 

It was reported to the Council that certain Eesearch Committees had 
found it a hardship to be expected to return unspent balances of grants 
early in the summer following their first appointment. 

The Council therefore resolved to propose: — 

(a) To set aside the Standing Order passed at the Dublin Meeting 

in 1908, under which any balance of a grant remaining un- 
expended at the time of the Annual Meeting next after that 
at which the grant was made, must be regarded as having 
reverted to the funds of the Association. 

(b) To amend Eule 6, chap, iv., as follows, viz. : — 

To omit these words : — 

The Chairman must then either return the balance of the 
grant, if any, which remains unexpended, or, if further ex- 
penditure be contemplated, apply for leave to retain the 
balance. 

and to substitute : — 

The Chairman must then return the balance of the grant, if 
any, which remains unexpended; provided that a Eesearch 
Committee may, in the first year of its appointment only, 
apply for leave to retain an unexpended balance when or 
before its report is presented, due reason being given for 
such application. 

VI. A Eesolution, referred to the Council by the General Committee 
at Portsmouth, has been received. 

From Sections D and H. 

' That the Council be approached with the view of requesting His 
Majesty's Government to equip a vessel for the purpose of making a 
biological and anthropological exploration in Oceania at the close of 
the meeting of the British Association in Australia in 1914.' 

The Council appointed the following Committee to report on any 
necessary steps in this connection : The President and General Officers, 
Professor G. C. Bourne, and Dr. A. C. Haddon. On the report of this 
Committee, it was resolved that no immediate action be taken, but that 
the Committee be allowed to remain in being, with a view to advising the 
CDuncil as occasion might arise in the future. 

VII. A Eesolution, referred to the Council by the General Committee 
at Portsmouth, has been received 



EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xliii 

From Section H. 

' That this Association co-operate with the Royal Anthropo- 
logical Institute in urging upon His Majesty's Government the desir- 
ability of instituting an Imperial Bureau of Anthropology, and that 
the General Officers be empowered to take such action as may be 
necessary for this purpose. ' 

It was reported to the Council that a letter had been received from 
the Eoyal Anthropological Institute, intimating the intention of the 
Council of the Institute to issue a memorial on the above subject to 
Cabinet Ministers, and to include therein the substance of the above 
recommendation. The Council of the Association were invited to 
appoint a representative on a deputation to wait on the Colonial Secre- 
tary, and perhaps also on the Prime Minister. Sir "William Eamsay 
(President) was accordingly appointed to serve on such deputation if 
arranged. 

VIII. A Resolution, referred to the Council by the General Com- 
mittee at Portsmouth, has been received 

From Section I. 

' With reference to Dr. A. D. Waller's paper on the Claim of Sir 
Charles Bell to the Discovery of Motor and Sensory Nerve Channels : 

' (1) The author of this paper has called the attention of the Sectional 
Committee to the fact that his communication conveys a serious charge 
relating to the republication by Bell, in 1824 and subsequently, of papers 
originally published in the " Phil. Trans." of the Eoyal Society in 1821. 

' (2) In view of the importance attaching to the real authorship of the 
discovery of the distinction between motor and sensory nerves we have 
examined the printed documents quoted at pp. 12, 13, and verified the 
accuracy of the quotations given by Dr. Waller of the original passages 
of 1821 and of the republished passages of 1824. 

' (3) In our opinion it will be necessary to reconsider carefully the 
claim first put forward by Bell in ,1824 to the discovery of the distinc- 
tion between motor and sensory nerves. 

' (4) Dr. Waller's paper on the subject contains sufficient grounds 
for the revision of the conclusion published in the Eeport of the British 
Association for 1833, and we recommend that it be published in extenso 
in the Eeport of the present year. 

' (5) In view of the importance of the historical claim of Bell, we re- 
commend that a Committee be appointed to consider the case fully, and 
report upon it. 

' (6) In spite of the fact that many years have elapsed since Novem- 
ber 12, 1824, we are of opinion that a formal communication should be 
made to the Eoyal Society, calling its attention to the existence of a 
spurious version of papers received by the Eoyal Society and published 
on its authority on July 12, 1821. 

(7) The Sectional Committee recommends that the text of the fore- 
going resolutions be printed as an Appendix to Dr. Waller's paper.' 

The Council resolved to take no further action. 



Xliv REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 

IX. In accordance with Recommendations received by the General 
Committee at Portsmouth and referred to the Council, it was agreed 
that the following Committees be authorised to receive contributions 
from sources other than the Association : — 

' To aid Investigators ... to carry on . . . work at the 
Zoological Station at Naples.' (Section D.) 

' To conduct Explorations with a view to ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles.' (Section H.) 

' To investigate the Physical Characters . of the Ancient 
Egyptians.' (Section H.) 

X. The Council, having been made aware of an opinion, held in 
various quarters, that more lectures than the one hitherto given to 
ihe operative classes should be provided for the public at places of 
meeting, have on the present occasion arranged three public lectures, 
open to those who have not joined the Association, at the request of 
the Local Executive Committee in Dundee. 

XI. The Council have had under consideration: — 

(a) An instruction to the General Officers from the General 

Committee at Portsmouth, to inquire into the possibility of 
improving the means of obtaining abstracts of papers 
previously to their reading ; 

(b) A motion to inquire as to whether the publication of the 

Annual Volume confers a benefit to science in any way 
commensurate with its cost ; 

(c) The report of a Committee appointed by the Council. This 

report brought to the notice of the Council, inter alia, the 
increase which has recently taken place in ruling prices for 
printing. 

The Council, after full inquiry, have, with the above considerations 
in view, given certain instructions to the Officers as to the contents and 
arrangement of the Volume, and as to the issue of printed matter at 
Annual Meetings. 

XII. The following Nominations are made by the Council: — 

Conference of Delegates. — Professor F. O. Bower (Chairman), 
Mr. H. \V. T. Wager (Vice-Chairman), Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing (Secre- 
tary). 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Mr. W. Whitaker (Chair- 
man), Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing (Secretary), Rev. J. O. Bevan, Sir 
Edward Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Dr. 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. 
Lewis, Mr. F. W. Rudler, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and the President 
and General Officers of the Association. 

XIII. The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. His Accounts from July 1, 1911, to June 30, 
1912, have been audited and are presented to the General Committee. 



EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xlv 

XIV. la accordance with the Regulations the retiring members of 
the Council are : — 

Professor E. B. Poulton and Sir W. Abney (retiring by seniority), 
Dr. A. E. H. Tutton (by least attendance), Sir W. H. White (to 
become a Member ex-officio as President-elect in 1912-13), Col. C. F. 
Close (resigned). 

The Council have nominated the following new members: — 

Dr. Dugald Clark, 
Prof. A. Dendy, 
Capt. H. G. Lyons, 

leaving two vacancies to be filled by the General Committee without 
nomination by the Council. 

The full list of nominations of ordinary members is as follows: — 



Dr. Tempest Anderson. 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong. 
Sir E. Brabrook. 
Sir Lauder Brunton. 
Dr. Dugald Clark. 
Major P. G. Craigie. 
W. Crooke. 
Prof. A. Dendy. 
Principal E. H. Griffiths. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
A. D. Hall. 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 



E. Sidney Hartland. 

Capt. H. G. Lyons. 

Dr. J. E. Marr. 

Prof. R. Meldola. 

Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. 

Prof. J. L. Myres. 

Col. D. Prain. 

Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 

J. J. H. Teall. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson. 

Prof. F. T. Trouton. 



XV. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council 
for reappointment. 

XVI. The following have been admitted as members of the 
General Committee: — 

Dr. E. A. Newell Arber; Prof. B. H. Bentley; Rev. A. L. Cortie, 
S.J. ; G .F. Daniell; Dr. W. H. Eccles; G. W. Grabham; B. Hobson ; 
Dr. C. A. Matley; J. H. Milton; T. Sheppard; Dr. W. F. G. Swann ; 
Dr T. F. Wall; A. C. Young. 



xlvi GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. 



1. 


d 


13 


5 
































9 


11 


14 


3 


14 





5 


6 





8 


3 






Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER IN ACCOUNT 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 

1911-1912. RECEIPTS. 

£ 

Balance brought forward 353 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 314 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 178 

Annual Subscriptions 628 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 406 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 80 

Sale of Publications 266 

Dividends on Consols IM 

Dividends on India 3 per Cent. Stock 101 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B' Annuity 49 

Interestat Portsmouth Bank 2 

Sale of Consols 620 

Unexpended Balances of Giants returned : £ >. ,/. 

Botanical Photographs ... 4 12 7 

Electroanalysis 11 7 

Corrosion of Steel 4 11 

9 5 3 
Mem.'. Receipts on account of the Dundee Meeting (1912) 
amounting to £49. 6*., and a sum of £100 returnable, are 
not included in this Account, but are paid in to a Separate 
(No. 2) Account at the Bank. 

Investment*. 
Nominal Amount. V" alue at 29tn June > )91 2- 

£ s. d. £ «• d - 

5,701 10 3 2£ per Cent. Consolidated Stock 4,354 10 9 

3,600 India 3 per Cent. Stock 2,808 

£73 Great Indian Peninsula Railway 

1,493 6 6 ' B ' Annuity (cost) 1,533 

1^695 10 9 
Sir Frederick Bramwell's Gift : — 

2£ per Cent. Self-cumulating Con- 

73 12 3 solidated Stock 56 4 :'. 

[To be awarded in 1931 for a paper 

'dealing with the whole question 

of the prime movers of 1931, and 

especially with the then relation 

between steam engines and internal 

combustion engines.'] _^ 

i.'S,751 15 

£3,105 6 



JOHN Perby, General Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. xlvii 



WITH THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE Cr. 

July 1, 1911, to June 30, 1912. 

1911-1912. PAYMENTS. 

£ i. J. 

Rent and Office Expenses 102 10 5 

Salaries, &c 706 19 9 

Printing, Binding, &c 1,158 14 9 

Expenses of Portsmouth Meeting 121 17 10 

Grants made at Portsmouth : — £ 

Seisniological Investigations 60 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere 30 

Grant to International Commission on Physical and 

Chemical Constants 30 

Further Tabulation of Bessel Functions 15 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamiues 10 

Electroanalysis 10 

Study of Plant Enzymes 30 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Igneous and Associated Rocks of Glensaul, &c. 15 

List of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Sutton Bone Bed 15 

Bembridge Limestone at Oreechbarrow Hill 20 

Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 50 

Index Auimalium 75 

Belmullet Whaling Station 20 

Secondary Sexual Characters in Birds 10 

Gaseous Explosions 60 

Lake Villages in the neighbourhood of Glastonbury '..'.'. 5 

Artificial Islands in Highland Lochs 10 

Physical Character of Ancient Egyptians 40 

Excavations in Easter Island 15 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Calorimetric Observations on Man 40 

Structure of Fossil Plants 15 

Experimental Study of Heredity 35 

Survey of Clare Island , 20 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 15 

Overlapping between Secondary and Higher Education 1 

Curricula, &c, of Industrial and Poor Law Schools 10 

Influence of School Books upon Eyesight 3 

Corresponding Societies Committee 25 

Collections illustrating Natural History of Isle of Wight 40 

845 7 6 



s. 


d. 






















































































































































































18 


6 








9 


















£2,935 10 3 
Balance at Bank of England (Western £ s . a. 

Branch) 290 11 2 

Cash not paid in 6 

£296 11 2 
Less Cheques not presented 66 15 5 



229 15 9 

£3,165 6 

An account of about £760 is outstanding due to Messrs. Spottiswoode & Co. 

1 have examined the above Account with the Books and Vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the Balance at the 
Bankers, and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. 

Approved— W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant. 

Hebbeet McLeod, I . ... 
Edwabd BRAjaooK,S Avd%tor *' 
July 26, 1912. 



xlviii GENERAL MEETINGS. 



(GENERAL MEETINGS AT DUNDEE. 

On Wednesday, September 4, at 8.30 p.m., in the Kinnaird Hall, a 
communication was read from Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., P.R.S., who 
was unavoidably absent, resigning the office of President to Professor 
E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S., who took the Chair and delivered an Address, for 
which see p. 3. 

On Thursday, September 5, at 8.30 p.m., the Lord Provost and Mrs. 
fjrquhart held a Reception and Conversazione in the Drill Hall. 

On Friday, September 6, at 8.30 p.m., in the Kinnaird Hall, Professor 
W. H. Bragg, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on ' Radiations Old and New.' 

On Monday, September 9, at 8.30 p.m., in the Kinnaird Hall, Professor 
A. Keith, M.D., delivered a Discourse on ' The Antiquity of Man.' 

On Tuesday, September 10, at 9 p.m., a Ball was given in the Drill 
Hall, by invitation of the Local Executive Committee. 

On Wednesday, September 11, at 3 p.m., the concluding General 
Meeting was held in the Foresters' Hall, when the following Resolutions 
were adopted : — 

1. That the cordial thanks of the Association be given to the 
Honourable the Lord Provost, the Magistrates, and the Town Council 
of Dundee for the hearty welcome accorded to this Meeting ; and to the 
citizens for their unbounded hospitality. 

2. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Council and Professors 
of University College, to the governing bodies of the Chamber of 
Commerce, the Technical College, and other Institutions, for their kindness 
in placing their buildings and resources at the disposal of the Association. 

3. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Provosts and 
Magistrates of the Royal Burghs of St. Andrews, Dunfermline, and 
Arbroath, and to the other public bodies, directors of works, and 
private hosts, who have contributed by means of excursions and garden 
parties, and in other ways, to the entertainment of the members. 

4. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Ladies' Reception 
Committee for the admirable arrangements made for the Meeting. 

•1. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Local Officers and 
Executive Committees for the admirable arrangements made for the 
Meeting. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE DUNDEE MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— Prof. H. L. Callendar, LL.D., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents— Prof. 
II. M. MacDonald, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. Peddie, Ph.D. ; Prof. R. A. Sampson, F.R.S. ; 
Prof. F. T. Trout on, F.R.S. ; Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Prof. A. W. 
Porter, F.R.S. {Recorder); Prof. P. V. Bevan, Sc.D. ; E. Gold, M.A. ; H. B. 
llevwood, D.Sc. ; F. J. M. Stratton, M.A. ; R. Norrie, M.A. ; W. G. Robson, 
A.R.C.S. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. xllX 



SECTION ii. — CHEMISTRY. 



President. — Prof. A. Senier, M.D., Ph.D. Vice-Presidents. — T. Fairley, 
F.R.S.E.; Prof. A. F. Holleman, Ph.D.; Prof. J. C. Irvine, D.Sc. ; Prof. A. 
Liversidge, F.R.S. ; Prof. H. Marshall, F.R.S. Secretaries. — Dr. E.F. Armstrong 
(Recorder); Dr. C. H. Desch ; Dr. A Holt; Dr. J. K. Wood. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 



President. — Dr. B. N. Peach, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. C. Barrois, 
D. esSc. ; W. Lower Carter, M.A.; Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Dr. 
John Home, F.R.S.; Prof. T. J. Jehu, M.D. Secretaries.— Dr. A. R. Dwerry- 
houee, D.Sc. (Recorder); Prof. W. S. Boulton ; A. W. R. Don: Prof. S. H. 
Reynolds, M.A. 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 



President. — P. Chalmers Mitchell, D.Sc, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. A. 
Denby, F.R.S.; Prof. Ch. Julin; Prof. F. Keibel; Prof. E. A. Minchin, F.R.S. : 
Prof. R. Rhuinbler ; Prof. D'Arcy W. Thompson, C.B. Sea-etaries.— Dr. H. \V. 
Marett Tims (Recorder) ; Dr. J. H. Ashworth ; R. Douglas Laurie, M.A. ; Miss 

D. L. M'Kinnon, B.Sc. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Colonel Sir Charles M. Watson, K.C.M.G., C.B., R.E. Vice- 
Presidents,— R. B. Don, M.A.; Colonel H. W. Feilden, C.B. ; Dr. Tempest 
Anderson; Dr. J. Scott Keltie; Colonel Sir D. A. Johnston, K.C.M.G. ; Sir 
Clements Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S. Secretaries. — Rev. W. J. Barton, M.A. 
(Recorder) ; J. McFarlane, M.A. ; E. A. Reeves ; D. Wylie. 

SECTION P. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Sir Henry H. Cunynghame, K.C.B. Vice-Freside)its. — Prof. S. J. 
( 'hapman, M.Com. ; Prof. P. Geddes ; VV. MacKenzie ; Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. ; 
Yen. Archdeacon Cunningham, D D. ; James Cunningham, M.A. Secretaries. — 
Dr. W. R. Scott, M.A. (Recorder) ; C. R. Fay, M.A. ; Elmslie Tosh. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President.— Prof. A. Barr, D.Sc. Vice-Presidents.— Prof. J. H. Biles, LL.D. ; 
Prof. A. H. Gibson, D.Sc. ; Prof. Kennellv ; William Low ; W. B. Thompson ; 
Sir John Wolfe-Barry, K.C.B., F.R.S. Secretaries.— Prof. E. G. Coker, D.Sc. 
(Recorder) ; A. R. Fulton, B.Sc. ; H. Richardson ; A. A. Rowse, B.Sc. ; H. E. 
WimperLs, M.A. 

SECTION II. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Prof. G. Elliot Smith, M.D., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Prof. R. 
Anthony; Prof. R. 0. Bosanquet, M.A. ; Prof. T. H. Bryce, M.D. ; W. II. R. 
Rivers, F.R.S. Secretaries.— E. N. Fallaize, B.A. (Recorder) ; D. D. Crai°\ M V • 

E. W. Martindell, M.A.; F. C. Shrubsall, M.A., M.D. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— -Leonard Hill, M.B., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Prof. Paul Heger ; 
Prof. Hugo Kronecker; Prof. J. S. Macdocald, B.A.; C. S. Myers, M?D. • 
Prof. Waymouth Reid, F.R.S. ; Prof. Max Verworn. Secretaries.— Dr. H. e! 
Roaf (Recorder) ; Dr. Keith Lucas; W. Moodie, M.B. ; Dr. J. Tait 
1912. 



OFFICERS OK SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 



SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President. — Prof. F. A. Keeble, Sc.D. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. F. 0. Bower, 
F.R.S. ; Dr. R. A. Robertson; Harold Wager, F.R.S.; Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc. 
Secretaries. — Prof. 1). T. Gwynne-Vaughan, M.A. (Recorder) ; J. Brebner, M.A. ; 
C. E. Moss, D.Sc. ; D. Thoday, M.A. 

SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Prof. J. Adams, M.A. Vice-Presidents. — \V. D. Eggar, M.A. ; 
Sir George Fordhain ; J. L. Holland, B.A. ; J. Mallocb, M.A. ; Dr. M. Sadler. 
Secretaries. — Prof. J. A. Green, M.A. (Recorder); D. Berridge, M.A. ; Dr. J. 
Davidson, M.A. ; H. Richardson, M.A. 

SECTION M. — AGRICULTURE. 

President. — T. II. Middleton, M.A. Vice-Presidents. — W. Bateson, M.A., 
F.R.S.; Major P. G. Craigie, C.B. ; AV. S. Ferguson : A. D. Hall, M.A., F.R.S.; 
Colonel R. G. Wardlaw Ramsay; Dr. D. Wilson, M.A. Secretaries. — Dr. E. J. 
Russell (Recorder) ; C. Crowther, M.A. ; J. Golding ; Dr. A. Lauder. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES. 

Chairman. — Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. Vice-Chairman — Harold Wager, 
F.R.S. Secretary.— \X. P. D. Stebbing. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of tbe Association ; the General Secretaries ; 
the General Treasurer ; tbe Trustees ; tbe Presidents of the Association in former 
years; tbe Chairman of the Conference of Delegates; Prof. H. L. Callendar ; 
Principal Griffiths; Prof. A. Senier; Dr. E. F. Armstrong: Dr. B. N. Peach; 
Dr. Dwerryhouse ; Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell; Dr. Marett Tims; Sir Charles 
Watson ; Rev. W. J. Barton; Sir H. H. Cunyngbame; Dr. W. R. Scott ; Prof. 
A. Bare; Dr. Dugald Clerk; Prof. Elliot Sm'itb ; E. N. Fallaize ; Leonard Hill: 
Dr. II. E. Roaf ; Prof. F. Keeble ; Prof. D. T. Gwynue-Vaughan ; Prof. J. Adams ; 
Prof. J. A. Green; T. II. Middleton: Dr. E. J. Russell. 



RESEA RCH COMM 1'1'TEES. 



li 



LIST OF GRANTS— Dundee, 1912. 

Research Committees, etc., appointed by the General Committee 
at the Dundee Meeting : September 1912. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS 



Seismological Observations. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmo- 
sphere. 



Grant to the International Com- 
mission on Physical and 
Chemical Constants. 

The further Tabulation of Bessel 
and other Functions. 



Chairman. — Professor H.H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. Milne. 

Mr. C. V. Boys, Sir George Dar- 
win, Mr. Horace Darwin, Dr. 
E. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. 
Gray, Mr. R. K. Gray, Professors 
J. W. Judd, C. G. Knott, and 
R. Meldola, Mr. R. D. Oldham, 
Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. 
Plummer, Dr. R. A. Sampson, 
and Professor A. Schuster. 

Chairman.— Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary.— -Mr. E. Gold. 

Mr. D. Archibald. Mr. C. Vernon 
Boys, Mr. C. J. P. Cave, Mr. 
W. H. Dines, Dr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook, Professor J. E. Petavel, 
Dr. A. Schuster, Dr. W. Wat- 
son, and Sir J. Larmor. 

Chairman.- -Sir W. Ramsay. 
Secretary.— Dr. N. T. M. Wils- 
more. 

Chairman. — Professor M. J. M. 

Hill. 
Secretary.— Dr. J. W. Nicholson, 
Mr. J. R. Airey, Professor Alfred 

Lodge, Professor L. N. G. Filon, 

Sir G. Greenhill, and Professor 

A. G. Webster. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Chairman.— ProfessorW.H.Perkin. 

Secretary. — Professor A. W. Cross- 
ley. 

Dr. M. 0. Forster, Dr. Le Sueur, 
and Dr. A. McKenzie. 



Grants 



£ i.d 

60 0* 



50 



40 



30 



20 



• In addition, the Council was authorised to expend a sum not exceeding £, for the printing of 
circulars, etc., in connection with the Committee on Seismological Observations 

c2 



lii 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grant* of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 


Members of Committee 


Grants 


Dynamic Isomerism. 


Chairman. — Professor H. E. Ann- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

Professor Sydney Young, Dr. Desch, 
Dr. J. J. Dobbie, and Dr. M. 0. 
Forster. 


£ s. d. 
30 


The Transformation of Aromatic 


Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kip- 


20 


Nilroamines and allied sub- 


ping. 




stances, and its relation to 


Secretary. — ProfessorK. J.P.Orton. 




Substitution in Benzene De- 


Dr. S. Ruhemann, and Dr. J. T. 




rivatives. 


Hewitt, 




The Study of Plant Enzymes, 


Chairman. — Mr. A. D. Hall. 


30 


particularly with relation to 


Secretary. — Dr. E. F. Armstrong. 




Oxidation. 


Professor H. E. Armstrong, Pro- 
fessor F. Keeble, and Dr. E. J. 
Russell. 




Section 


C— GEOLOGY. 




To investigate the Erratic Blocks 


Chairman. — Mr. R. H. Tiddeman. 


5 


of the British Isles, and to take 


Secretary. — Dr. A. R. Dwerrvhouse. 




measures for their preservation. 


Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. W. 
Harmer, Rev. 8. N. Harrison, 
Dr. J. Home, Mr. W. Lower 
Carter, Professor W. J. Sollas, 
and Messrs. W. Hill, J. W. 
Btather, and J. H. Milton. 




The Investigation of the Igneous 


Chairman. — Professor W. W. 


10 


and Associated Rocks of Glen- 


Watts. 




saul and Lough Nafooey Areas, 


Secretary. — Professor S. H. Rey- 




Co. Galway. 


nolds. 
Messrs. R. G. Carruthers and C.I. 
Gardiner. 




To consider the preparation of a 


Chairman. — Professor P. F. Ken- 


5 


List of Characteristic Fossils. 


dall. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Lower Carter. 

Mr. H. A. Allen, Professor W. S. 
Boulton, Professor G. Cole, Dr. 
A. R. Dwerryhouse, Professors 
J. W. Gregory, Sir T. H. Hol- 
land, G. A. Lebour, and S. H. 
Reynolds, Dr. Marie C. Stopes, 
Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. 
Marr, Dr. A. Vaughan, Professor 
W. W. Watts, Mr. H. Woods, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 




The further Exploration of the 


Chairman. — Dr. J. Home. 


75 


Upper Old Red Sandstone of 


Secretary. — Dr .T. J. Jehu. 




Dura Den. 


Messrs. H. Bolton and A. W. R. 
Don, Dr. J. 8. Flett, Dr. B. N. 
Peach, Dr. R. 11. Traquair, and 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 





RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



liii 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 


Members of Committee 


Grants 
£ s. d. 






The Geology of Ramsay Island, 


Chairman. — Dr. A. Strahan. 


10 


Pembrokeshire. 


Secretary. — Mr. H. H. Thomas. 
Mr. E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. J. W. 

Evans, and Professor 0. T. 

Jones. 




The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 


Chairman. — Professor Grenville 


15 


Kiltorean, Ireland. 


Cole. 
Secretary. — Professor T. Johnson. 
Dr. J. W. Evans, Dr. R, Kidston, 

and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 




Section 


U.— ZOOLOGY. 




To aid competent Investigators 


Cliairman. — Professor S. J. Hick- 


30 


selected by the Committee to 


son. 




carry on definite pieces of work 


Secretary. — Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 




at the Zoological Station at 


Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor 




Naples. 


A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, Mr. 
G. P. Bidder, Dr.W.B. Hardy.ancl 
Professor A. D. Waller. 




To investigate the Biological 


Chairman. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 


15 


Problems incidental to the Bel- 


Secretary.—- Professor J. Stanley 




mullet Whaling Station. 


Gardiner. 
Professor W. A. Herdman, Rev. 
VV. Spotswood Green, Mr. E. S. 
Goodrich, Dr. H. W. Maiett 
Tims, and Mr. R. M. Barrington. 




Nomenclator Animalium Genera 


Cliairman. — Dr. Chalmers Mit- 


100 


et Sub-genera. 


chell. 




• 


Secretary.— Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 

Dr. M. Laurie, Dr. Maratt Tims, 

and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 




Section G. 


— ENGINEEEING. 




The Investigation of Gaseous Ex- 


Chairman. — Sir VV. H. Preece. 


80 


plosions, with special reference 


Vice-chairman. — Dr. Dugald Clerk. 




to Temperature. 


Secretary. — Professor W. E. Dalby. 

Professors W. A. Bone.F. W. Bur- 
stall, H. L. Callendar, E. G. 
Coker, and H. B. Dixon, Drs. 
R. T. Glazebrook and J. A. 
Harker, Colonel H. C. L. Holden, 
Professors B. Hopkinson and 
J. E. Petavel, Captain H. Riall 
Sankey, Professor A. Smithells, 
Professor W. Watson, Mr. D. L. 
Chapman, and Mr. H. E. 
Wimperis. 





liv 



.RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1 . Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 




Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To investigate the Lake Villages 
in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury in connection with a 
Committee of the Somerset 
Archaeological and Natural 
History Society. 

To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 



To investigate and ascertain the 
Distribution of Artificial Is- 
lands in the lochs of the High- 
lands of Scotland. 



To investigate the Physical 
Characters of the Ancient 
Egyptians. 



To organise Anthropometric In- 
vestigations in the British Isles. 



To co-operate with local Com- 
mittees in Excavations on 
Roman Sites in Britain. 



To Excavate Early Sites in Mace- 
donia. 



To produce certified copies of the 
Hausa Manuscripts in the pos- 
session of Major Tremearne, 
for deposit in centres at which 
Hausa is taught and students 
prepared for the Government 
Service. 



Boyd 



( 'hair man. — Dr. R. Munro. 
Secretary. — Professor W. 

Dawkins. 
Professor W. Ridgeway, Sir Arthur 

J. Evans, Sir C. H. Read, Mr. 

H. Balfour, and Dr. A. Bulleid. 

Chairman. — Sir C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Dr. G. A. Auden, Lord Avebury, 
Professor W. Ridgeway, Dr.J.G. 
Garson, Sir A. J. Evans, Dr. R. 
Munro, Professors Boyd Daw- 
kins and J. L. Mires, and Mr. 
A. L. Lewis. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. Munro. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. J. B. Waee. 
Professors T. H. Bryce, W. Boyd 

Dawkins, J. L. Myres, and W. 

Ridgeway. 

Chairman. — Professor G. Elliot 

Smith. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. F. Wood Jones, Dr. A. Keith, 

and Dr. C. G. Seligmann. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Thomson. 
Secretary.— Br. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Dr. Duckworth, 

Professors A. Keith and G. 

Elliot Smith. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridge- 
way. 

Secretary. — Professor R. 0. Bosau- 
quet. 

Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. Willoughby 
Gardner and Professor J. L. 
Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridge- 
way. 

Secretary.— Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor R. C. Bosanquet and 
Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 

Chairman.— tir. E. Sidney Hart- 
land. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Mr. W. Crooke and Major A. J. N. 
Tremearne. 



£ s. d. 







2 2 2 







34 16 G 







15 



30 



I'd 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



lv 



Grants 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Ductless Glands. 



£ s. d. 
JO 



To aid competent Investigators 
selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of work 
at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 



Chairman. — Professor Schiifer. 

Secretary. — Professor Swale Vin- 
cent. 

Professor A. D. Macallum, Dr. L. E. 
Shore, and Mrs.W. H.Thompson. 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hick- I 20 

son. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 
Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor 

A. Sedgwick, Professor W. C. 

Mcintosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, 

Mr. G. P. Bidder, Dr. W. B. 

Hardy, and Professor A. D. 

Waller. 



Calorimetric Observations on Man I Chairman. — Professor J. S. Mac- 
in Health and in Febrile Con- donald. 



ditions. 



The Dissociation of Oxy-Ha?mo- 
globio at High Altitudes. 



Further Researches on the Struc- 
ture and Function of the Mam- 
malian Heart. 



Secretary. — Dr. Francis A Duffield. 
Dr. Keith Lucas. 

Chairman. — Professor E. H. Star- 
ling. 
Secretary. — Dr. J. Barcrof t. 
Dr. W. B. Hardy. 



Chairman. 

Secretary. 

Kent. 



-Professor F. Gotch. 
- Professor Stanley 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



The Investigation of the Jurassic 
Flora of Yorkshire. 



The Investigations of the Flora Chairman. — Professor F. Keeble. 
of the Peat of the Kennet Valley, Secretary.— Miss M. C. Ravner. 



Berks. 



The Investigation of the Vegeta- 
tion of Ditcham Park, Hamp- 
shire. 







15 



20 



15 



Chairman. — Professor F.W.Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Mr. E. Newell Arber, Professor A.C. 

Seward, and Dr. D. H. Scott, 



Chairman. — Professor A. C. j 15 
Seward. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Hamshaw ' 
Thomas. 

Mr. H. W. T. Wager and Pro- 
fessor F. E. AVeiss. 



15 



Professors F. W. Oliver and F. E. 
Weiss. 

Chairman. — Professor A. G. 45 

Tansley. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. S. Adamson. 
Dr. C. E. Moss and Professor R. H. 

Yapp. 



lvi 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money— continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To inquire into and report upon 
the methods and results of 
research into the Mental and 
Physical Factors involved in 
Education. 



The Influence of School Books 
upon Eyesight. 



To inquire into and report on the 
number, distribution and re- 
spective values of Scholarships, 
Exhibitions and Bursaries held 
by University Students during 
their undergraduate course, and 
on funds private and open avail- 
able for their augmentation. 



Chairman. — Professor J.J. Findlay. 

Secretary Professor J. A. Green. 

Professor J. Adams, Dr. G. A. 
Auden, Sir E. Brabrook, Dr. W. 
Brown, Professor E. P. Culver- 
well, Mr. G. F. Daniell, Miss B, 
Foxley, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Dr. C. W. Kimmins. Professor W. 
MacDougall, Dr. C S. Myers, 
Dr. T. P. Nunn, Dr. W. II. R. 
Rivers, Dr. E. C. Shrubsall, Mr. 
H. Bompas Smith, Dr. C. Spear- 
man, and Mr. A. E. Twcntynian. 

Chairman.— Dr. G. A. Auden. 

Secretary.— Mr. G. F. Daniell. 

Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. W. D. 
Eggar, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Mr. J. L. Holland, Professor 
Priestley Smith, and Mr. Trevor 
Walsh. 



-Sir Henry Miers. 
-Professor Marcus Har- 



Chairvtan . 
Secretary. - 

tog. 
Miss L. J. Clarke, Miss B. Foxley, 

Professor H. Bompas Smith, 

and Principal Griffiths. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary.— Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing. 

Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Dr. J. G. Garson, 
Principal E. H. Griffiths, Dr. 
A. C. Haddon, Mr. T. V. Holmes, 
Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. 
Lewis, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
Mr. W, Mark Webb, and the 
President and General Officers 
of the Association. 



Grants 



£ s. a. 



20 



15 



5 



L'.-) 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Ivn 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Making Experiments for improving 
the Construction of Practical Stan- 
dards for use in Electrical Measure- 
ments. 



To aid the work of Establishing ; 
Observatory in Australia. 



, Solar 



To consider the Nomenclature and 
Definitions of Magnetic and Elec- 
trical Quantities. 



Radiotelegraphic Investigations. 



Chairman. — Lord Rayleigh. 

Secretary. — Dr. R. T. Glazebrook. 

Professors J. Perry and W. G. Adams, Dr. 
G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver Lodge, Dr. 
A. Muirhead, Sir W. H. Preece, Pro- 
fessor A. Schuster, Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
Professor Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. 
Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Rev. T. C. 
Fitzpatrick, Professor S. P. Thompson, 
Mr. J. Rennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
Sir Arthur Riicker, Professor H. L. 
Callendar, and Messrs. G. Matthey, 
T. Mather, and F. E. Smith. 



Chairman. — Sir David Gill. 

Secretary.— Dr. W. G. Duffield. 

Rev. A. L. Cortie, Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, 

Mr. F. McClean, and Professors A. 

Schuster and H. H. Turner. 



Chairman. — Professor Silvanus Thomp- 
son. 

Secretary. — Professor F. G. Baily. 

Professors H. L. Callendar, J. A. Flem- 
ing, and A. Schuster and Mr. F. E. 
Smith. 



Chairman. — Sir Oliver Lodge. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. H. Eccles. 
Mr. S. G. Brown, Dr. Erskine Murray, 

Professors J. A. Fleming, G. W. O. 

Howe, and H. M. Macdonald, Mr. F. 

McLean, Capt. H. R. Sankey, and 

Professor Silvanus Thompson. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



Cliairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretaries. — Professors W. W. Watts and 
S. H. Reynolds. 

Dr. T. Anderson, Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. 
G. Bonney, Mr. C. V. Crook, Professor 
E. J. Garwood, and Messrs. W. Gray, 
R.Kidston, A. S. Reid, J. J. H. Teall, 
R. Welch, W. Whitaker, and H. B. 
Woodward. 



To investigate the Microscopical and Chairman. — Professor W. W. Watts. 
Chemical Composition of Charnwood Secretary. — Dr. T. T. Groom. 
Rocks, ! Dr, F. W. Bennett and Dr. Btracey. 



lviii 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving. Grants of Money — continued. 




Members of Committee 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To investigate the Feeding Habits of 
British Birds by a study of the 
contents of the crops and gizzards 
of both adults and nestlings, and by 
collation of observational evidence, 
with the object of obtaining precise 
knowledge as to the economic status 
of many of our commoner birds 
affecting rural science. 



To defray expenses connected with work 
on the Inheritance and Development 
of Secondary Sexual Characters in 
Birds. 



To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by corre- 
spondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 



To nominate competent Naturalists to 
perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 



To enable Mr. Laurie to conduct Ex- 
periments in Inheritance. 



To formulate a Defioite System on 
which Collectors should record their 
captures. 



A Natural History Survey of the Isle 
of Man. 



Chairman. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. S. Leigh. 

Messrs. J. N. Halbert, Robert New- 
stead, Clement Reid, A. G. L. Rogers, 
and F. V. Theobald. Professor F. E. 
Weiss, Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt, and 
Professors S. J. Hickson, P. W. Gam- 
ble, G. H. Carpenter, and J. Arthur 
Thomson. 



Chairman. — Professor G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Mr. Geoffrey Smith. 
Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Dr. W. T. Caiman, 
and Dr. Marett Tims. 



Chairman. — Sir E. Ray Lankester. 

Secretary. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Professors G. C. Bourne, J. Cossar Bwarl , 
M. Hartog, and \V. A. Herdman, Mr. 
M. D. Hill, Professors J. Graham Kerr 
and Minchin, Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, 
Professors E. B. Poulton and A. Sedg- 
wick, and Dr. A. E. Shipley. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Professor A. 
Dendy. 

Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor A. Sedg- 
wick, Professor Sydney H. ViDes, and 
Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herdman, 

Secretary. — Mr. Douglas Laurie. 
Professor R. C. Punnett and Dr. H. W. 
Marett Tims. 



Chairman. — Professor J. W. H. Trail. 

Secretary. — Mr. F. Balfour Browne. 

Drs. Scharff and E. J. Bles, Professors 
G. H. Carpenter and E. B. Poulton, 
and Messrs. A G. Tansley and R. Lloyd 
Praeger. 



CJiairman. — Professor W. A. Herdman. 

Secretary. — Mr. P. M. C. Kermodc. 

Dr. W. T. Caiman, Rev. J. Davidson, 

Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor E. \V. 

MacBridc, and Lord Raglan. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



lix 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



To inquire into the present state of 
Geographical Teaching in Scotland. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

• 

Chairman. — Dr. J. Home. 

Secretary.— Mi. T. S. Muir. 

Drs. R. N. R. Brown and AV. S. Bruce, 
Messrs. G. G. Chisholm and J. Cossar, 
Professors H. N. Dickson, P. Geddes, 
and A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. Scott 
Keltie, Messrs. J. Malloch and J. 
McFarlane, and Dr. M. Newbigin. 



To inquire into the choice and style of 
Atlas, Textual, and Wall Maps for 
School and University Use. 



Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Secretary. — Rev. W. J. Barton. 

Professors R. L. Archer and R. N. R. 
Brown, Mr. G. G. Chisholm, Col. C. F. 
Close, Professors H. N. Dickson and 
A. J. Herbertson, Mr. O. J. R. Howarth, 
Sir Duncan Johnston, and Messrs. T. S. 
Muir and E. A. Reeves. 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The Present Condition of the Town 
Planning Movement and the means 
by which it can be aided by scientific 
inquiries, civic and regional surveys, 
and other methods within the woik 
of the various Sections of the Asso- 
ciation. 



Chairman.— Professor P. Geddes. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. H. Jones. 

Professor S. J. Chapman, Mr. C. R. Fay, 

Professor Gonner, Dr. W. R. Scott. 

and Professor W. Smart. 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



To report on certain of the more com- 
plex Stress Distributions in Engineer- 
ing Materials. 



Chairman. — Professor J. Perry. 

Secretaries. — Professors E. G. Coker and 
J. E. Petavel. 

Professor A. Barr, Dr. Chas. Chree, Mr. 
Gilbert Cook, Professor VV. E. Dalby, 
Sir J. A. Ewing, Professor L. N. G. 
Filon, Messrs. A. R. Fulton and J. J. 
Guest, Professors J. B. Henderson and 
A. E. H. Love, Mr. W. Mason, Sir 
Andrew Noble, Professor K. Pearson, 
Messrs. F. Rogers and W. A. Scoble, 
Dr. T. E. Stanton, and Mr. J. S. 
Wilson. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation and 
Systematic Registration of Photo- 
graphs of Anthropological Interest. 



To conduct Archa?ological and Ethno- 
logical Researches in Crete. 



Clubirman. — Sir C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. W. Martindell. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, and 
Professor J. L. Myres. 

Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. W. L. H. 
Duckworth, Sir A. J. Evans, Professor 
W. Ridgeway, and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 



Ik 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To report on the present state of know- 
ledge of the Prehistoric Civilisation 
ot' the Western Mediterranean with 
a view to future research. 

To co-operate with a Local Committee 
in the excavation of a prehistoric 
site at Bishop's Stortford. 



To conduct excavations in Easter Island. 



To report on Palaeolithic Sites in the 
West of England. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Professor W. Kidgeway. 
Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Dr. T. Ashby, Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, 
Mr. D. G. Hogarth, and Sir A. .1. Evans. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Eidgeway. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth 
Professor \V. Boyd Dawkins, Dr. A. C. 

Haddon, Rev. Dr. A. Irving, and Dr. 

H. W. Marett Tims. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

Secretary.— Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. 

Mr. R. R. Marett and Dr. C. G. Seligmann. 

Chairman. — Professor Boyd Dawkins. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth. 
Professor A. Keith. 



Section I.- 

Effect of Low Temperature on Cold- 
blooded Animals. 

Electromotive Phenomena in Plants. 



PHYSIOLOGY. 

Chairman. — Professor Swale Vincent. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. T. Cameron. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Mrs. Waller. 
Professors F. Gotch, J. B. Farmer, and 
Veley, and Dr. F. O'B. Ellison. 



To acquire further knowledge. Clinical 
and Experimental, concerning Anes- 
thetics—especially Chloroform, Ether, 
and Alcohol — with special reference 
to Deaths by or during Anesthesia, 
and their possible diminution. 

Colour Vision and Colour Blindness. 



Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary.— Sir F. W. Hewitt. 
Dr. Blumfeld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, and Dr. 
G. A. Buck master. 



Chairman. — Professor E. H. Starling. 
Secretary. — Dr. Edridge-Green. 
Professor F. Gotch, Mr. Leonard Hill, 

Professor A. W. Porter, and Dr. A. I). 

Waller. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



To consider and report on the ad- 
visability and the best means of 
securing definite Areas for the 
Preservation of Types of British 
Vegetation. 



To carry out the Scheme for the Regis- 
tration of Negatives of Botanical 
Photographs. 



Chairman. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Secretary. —Mr. A. G. Tansley. 

Professor J. W. H. Trail, Mr. R. Lloyd 
Praeger, Professor F. W. Oliver, Pro- 
fessor R. W. Phillips, Dr. C. E. Moss, 
and Messrs. G. C. Druce and H. W. T. 
Wager. 

Chairman. — Professor F. W. Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Dr. W. G. Smith, Mr. A. G. Tansley, 

Dr. T. W. Woodhead, and Professor 

R. H. Yapp. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money— continued. 



lxi 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To take notice of, and report upon 
changes in, Regulations — whether 
Legislative, Administrative, or made 
by Local Authorities — affecting 
Secondary Education. 



To inquire into the Curricula and Edu- 
cational Organisation of Industrial 
and Poor Law Schools with special 
reference to Day Industrial Schools. 



The Aims and Limits of Examinations. 



Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Secretary. — Major E. Gray. 

Miss Coignan, Sir Henry Craik, Principal 
Griffiths, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Sir 
Horace Plunkett, Mr. H. Rarnage, 
Professor M. E. Sadler, and Rt. Rev. 
J. E. C. Welldon. 

Chairman. — Mr. W. D. Eggar. 

Secretary. — Mrs. W. N. Shaw. 

Professor R. A. Gregory, Mr. J. L. Hol- 
land, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, and Mr. 
J. G. Legge. 

Chairman. — Professor M. E. Sadler. 

Secretary. — Mr. P. J. Hartog. 

Mr. D. P. Berridge, Mr. W. D. Eggar, 
Professor R. A. Gregory, Principal 
E. H. Griffiths, Miss C. L. Laurie, Dr. 
W. McDougall, Dr. T. P. Nunn, Sir 
VV. Ramsay, Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon. 
Dr. Jessie White, and Mr. G. U. Yule. 



Communications ordered to be printed in extenso. 

Section B.— Dr. J. V. Eyre : Report on Solubility, Part 2. 
Section G. — Sir John Macdonald : The Road Problem. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, 

for action. 

From Section A. 

That it be recommended to the General Committee that the cordial thanks of 
the Association be forwarded to the 'Falmouth' Committee for their valuable 
services since their appointment in 1901, and especially to their Chairman, Sir 
William Preece, and the Secretaries, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook and Dr. W. N. Shaw. 



From Section A. 

That it is desirable that a detailed Magnetic Survey of the British Isles, on 
the lines of that of Professors Riicker and Thorpe for the epoch of 1891, should 
now be repeated, in order to answer the question as to the local variations of the 
terrestrial magnetic elements within twenty-five years. 

That a representation to this effect be made to the Royal Society, the 
Admiralty, the Ordnance Survey, and the Meteorological Committee. 

That, having regard to the importance of the observations at Falmouth in the 
work of the previous Survey and in other work in connection with terrestrial 
magnetism and meteorology, steps be taken to assist an appeal for a Treasury 
Grant, in order that the Observatory at Falmouth may be efficiently maintained. 



lxii RESOLUTIONS, ETC. 

From Section D. 

That the British Association for the Advancement of Science deplores the 
rapid destruction of fauna and flora throughout the world, and regards it as an 
urgent duty that immediate steps should be taken to secure the preservation of all 
kinds of animals and plants, irrespective of their economic or sporting value. 

From Section H. 

That the copies of the fourth edition of Notes and Queries in Anthropology, 
now on the point of publication through the Committee appointed for the purpose 
of its preparation, be delivered as heretofore to the Royal Anthropological In- 
stitute for sale to its members and to the public, the proceeds to be reserved at 
the disposal of the Association towards the expenses of any future editions, and 
accounts of the sales to be submitted to the General Treasurer of the Association 
on demand. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. lxiii 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated for Scientific Purposes by the 
General Committee at the Dundee Meeting, September 1912. 
The Names of Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer for 
the Grants are prefixed to the respective Research Committees. 

Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science. 

£ s. d. 

♦Turner, Professor H. H. — Seismological Observations f60 

♦Shaw, Dr. W. N. — Upper Atmosphere 50 

♦Ramsay, Sir W. — Grant to the International Commission on 

Physical and Chemical Constants 40 

•HOI, Professor M. J. M.— Further Tabulation of Bessel 

and other Functions 30 

Section B. — Chemistry. 

*Perkin, Dr. W. H. — Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 20 

* Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism 30 

♦Kipping, Professor F. S. — Transformation of Aromatic Nitro- 

amines 20 

*Hall, A. D. — Study of Plant Enzymes 30 

Section C. — Geology. 

♦Tiddeman, R. H. — Erratic Blocks 5 

*Watts, Professor W. W. — Igneous and Associated Rocks of 

Glensaul, ifcc ]q q q 

♦Kendall, Professor P. F. — List of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Home, Dr. J. Old Red Sandstone of Dura Den . 75 

Strahan, Dr. A. - Geology of Ramsay Island, Pembroke ... 10 
Cole, Professor Grenville. - Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 

Kiltorcan 15 

Section D. — Zoology. 

♦Hickson, Professor S. J. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 30 

♦Shipley, Dr. A. E. — Belmullet Whaling Station 15 

Mitchell, Dr. Chalmers. — Nomenclator Animalium 100 

Section G. — Engineering. 
♦Preece, Sir W. H. — Gaseous Explosions 80 

Carried forward ,£625 

* Reappointed. 

f In addition, the Council are authorised to expend a sum not exceeding £70 on 
the printing of circulars, &c, in connection with the Committee on Seismological 
Observations. 



I\iv SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OP MONEY. 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward 625 

Section H. — Anthropology. 

' Munro, Dr. R. — Lake Villages in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury 5 

* Read, C. H.— Age of Stone Circles 2 2 2 

Munro, Dr. R.— Artificial Islands in Highland Lochs 5 

"Smith, Professor G. Elliot. — Physical Characters of the 

Ancient Egyptians 34 16 6 

Thompson, Professor A. — Anthropometric Investigations in 

the British Isles 5 

•Ridgeway, Professor W. — Roman Sites in Britain 15 

Ridge way, Professor W.— Excavations in Macedonia 30 

1 1; a rtland, E. S. Hausa Manuscripts 20 

Section I. — Physiology. 

►Schafer, Professor E. A.— The Ductless Glands 40 

*}fickson, Professor S. J. — Table at the Zoological Station at 

Naples 20 

' M ;icdonald, Professor J. S. — Calorimetric Observations 45 

'Starling, Professor. — Oxy-Haemoglobin 15 

Gotch, Professor F. — Mammalian Heart 20 

Section K. — Botany. 

♦Oliver, Professor F. W.— Structure of Fossil Plants 15 

"Seward, Professor A. C. — Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 15 

RLeeble, Professor Jf. — Flora of Peat of Kennet Valley 15 

Tansley, A. G.— Vegetation of Ditcham Park 45 

Section L. - Education. 

■ Findlay, Professor J. J. — Mental and Physical Factors in- 
volved in Education 20 

• Auden, Dr. G. A.— Influence of School Books on Eyesight... 15 
Miers, Sir H.— Scholarships, &c, held by University Students 5 

Corresponding Societies Committee. 

•Whitaker, W. — For Preparation of Report 25 

Total £1,036 18 8 

* Reappointed. 



Annual Meetings, 1913 and 1914. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1913 will be held at 
Birmingham, commencing September 10 ; in 1914, in Australia. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



1912. 



ADDEESS 



BY 



Teofessoe E. A. SCHAFEE, LL.D., D.Sc, M.D., F.E.S 

PRESIDENT. 



It is exactly forty-five years ago— to the clay and hour— that the British 
Association last met in this city and in this hall to listen to a Presi- 
dential Address. The President was the Duke of 
Introductory. Bucc i euc h ; the General Secretaries, Francis Galton and 
T Archer Hirst; the General Treasurer, William Spottiswoode ; and 
the Assistant General Secretary, George Griffith, who was for many 
years a mainstay of the Association. The Evening Discourses were 
delivered by John Tyndall ' On Matter and Force,' by Archibald Geikie 
' On the Geological Origin of the Scenery of Scotland,' and by Alexander 
Herschel ' On the Present State of Knowledge regarding Meteors and 
Meteorites ' The Presidents of Sections, which were then only seven in 
number, were for Mathematics and Physics, Sir William Thomson- 
later to be known as Lord Kelvin; for Chemistry, Thomas Anderson; 
for Geology, Archibald Geikie, who now as President of the Royal 
Society worthily fills the foremost place in science within the realm; 
for Biology, William Sharpey, my own revered master, to whose 
teaching and influence British physiology largely owes the honourable 
position which it at present occupies; for Geography, Sir Samuel Baker, 
the African explorer, who with his intrepid wife was the first to follow 
the Nile to its exit from the Albert Nyanza; for Economic Science, 
Mr Grant Duff; and for Mechanical Science, Professor Rankme. 

Other eminent men present were Sir David Brewster, J. Clerk 
Maxwell, Charles Wheatstone, Balfour Stewart, William Crookes, 
J B Lawes and J. H. Gilbert (names inseparable in the history of 
agricultural science), Crum Brown, G. D. Liveing, W. H. Russell, 
\lexander Williamson, Henry Alleyne Nicholson, G. J. Allman, 
John Hutton Balfour, Spencer Cobbold, Anton Dohrn, Sir John 
Lubbock (now Lord Avebury), William Mcintosh, E. Ray Lankester, 

v B 2 



4 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

C. W. Peach, William Pengelly, Hughes Bennett, John Cleland, John 

Davy, Alexander Christison, Alfred Russel Wallace, Alien Thomson, 

William Turner, George Busk, Michael Foster (not yet founder of the 

Cambridge School of Physiology), Henry Howorth, Sir Roderick 

Murchison, Clements R. Markham, Sir William (afterwards Lord) 

Armstrong, Sir Charles Lyell, and Douglas Galton. Many of those 

enumerated have in the course of nature passed away from us, but not 

a few remain, and we are glad to know that most of these retain their 

ancient vigour in spite of the five-and-forty years which separate us 

from the last meeting in this place. 

For the Address with which it is usual for the President to open 

the proceedings of the annual assembly, the field covered by the aims of 

the British Association provides the widest possible range 

Selection of f material from which to select. One condition alone is 

Subject of 

Address. prescribed by custom, viz., that the subject chosen shall 

lie within the bounds of those branches of knowledge which 
are dealt with in the Sections. There can be no ground of complaint 
regarding this limitation on the score of variety, for within the forty 
years that I have myself been present (not, I regret to say, without a 
break) at these gatherings, problems relating to the highest mathe- 
matics on the one hand, and to the most utilitarian applications of 
science on the other, with every possible gradation between these 
extremes, have been discussed before us by successive Presidents; 
and the addition from time to time of new Sections (one of which, that 
of Agriculture, we welcome at this Meeting) enables the whilom 
occupant of this chair to traverse paths which have not been previously 
trodden by his predecessors. On the last two occasions, under the 
genial guidance of Professors Bonney and Sir William Ramsay, we 
have successively been taken in imagination to the glaciers which 
flow between the highest peaks of the Alps and into the bowels of 
the earth; where we were invited to contemplate the prospective 
disappearance of the material upon which all our industrial prosperity 
depends. Needless to say that the lessons to be drawn from our visits 
to those unaccustomed levels were placed before us with all the 
eloquence with which these eminent representatives of Geology and 
Chemistry are gifted. It is fortunately not expected that I should be 
able to soar to such heights or to plunge to such depths, for the branch 
of science with which I am personally associated is merely concerned 
with the investigation of the problems of living beings, and I am able 
to invite you to remain for an hour or so at the level of ordinary 
mortality to consider certain questions which at any rate cannot fail 
to have an immediate interest for every one present, seeing that they 
deal with the nature, origin, and maintenance of life 

I-.verybodv knows, or thinks he knows, what life is; at least, we are 



president's address. 



all acquainted with its ordinary, obvious manifestations. It would, 
therefore, seem that it should not be difficult to 
Definition. find an exacfc definition. The quest has nevertheless 
baffled the most acute thinkers. Herbert Spencer devoted two chapters 
of his ' Principles of Biology ' to the discussion of the attempts at 
definition which had up to that date been proposed, and himself 
suggested another. But at the end of it all he is constrained to admit 
that no expression had been found which would embrace all the 
known manifestations of animate, and at the same time exclude those 
of admittedly inanimate, objects. 

The ordinary dictionary definition of life is ' the state of living. ' 
Dastre, following Claude Bernard, defines it as ' the sum total of the 
phenomena common to all living beings. ' l Both of these definitions 
are, however, of the same character as Sydney Smith's definition 
of an archdeacon as ' a person who performs archidiaconal functions.' 
I am not myself proposing to take up your time by attempting to grapple 
with a task which has proved too great for the intellectual giants 
of philosophy, and I have the less disposition to do so because recent 
advances in knowledge have suggested the probability that the dividing 
line between animate and inanimate matter is less sharp than it has 
hitherto been regarded, so that the difficulty of finding an inclusive 
definition is correspondingly increased. 

As a mere word ' life ' is interesting in the fact that it is one of those 
abstract terms which has no direct antithesis ; although probably most 
persons would regard ' death ' in that light. A little consideration will 
show that this is not the case. ' Death ' implies the pre-existence of 
' life ' ; there are physiological grounds for regarding death as a pheno- 
menon of life — it is the completion, the last act of life. We cannot speak 
of a non-living object as possessing death in the sense that we speak of 
a living object as possessing life. The adjective ' dead ' is, it is true, 
applied in a popular sense antithetically to objects which have never 
possessed life; as in the proverbial expression ' as dead as a door-nail.' 
But in the strict sense such application is not justifiable, since the use 
of the terms dead and living implies either in the past or in the present 
the possession of the recognised properties of living matter. On the 
other hand, the expressions living and lifeless, animate and inani- 
mate, furnish terms which are undoubtedly antithetical. Strictly and 
literally, the words animate and inanimate express the presence or 
absence of ' soul ' ; and not infrequently we find the terms ' life ' and 
' soul ' erroneously employed as if identical. But it is 
Life not hardly necessary for me to state that the remarks I have 

soul. 103 *" to ma ke regarding ' life ' must not be taken to apply to 
the conception to which the word ' soul ' is attached. 

1 La vie et la mort, English translation by W. J. Greenstreet, 1911, p. 54. 



6 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

The fact that I ho formation of such a conception is only possible 
in connection with life, and that the growth and elaboration of the 
conception has only been possible as the result of the most complex 
processes of life in the most complex of living organisms, has doubtless 
led to a belief in the identity of life with soul. But unless the use of 
the expression ' soul ' is extended to a degree which would deprive 
it of all special significance, the distinction between these terms must 
be strictly maintained. For the problems of life are essentially 

problems of matter; we cannot conceive of life in the 
Problems of scientific sense as existing apart from matter. The 
life are prob- phenomena of life are investigated, and can only be inves- 
matter. tigated, by the same methods as all other phenomena of 

matter, and the general results of such investigations tend 
to show that living beings are governed by laws identical with those 
which govern inanimate matter. The more we study the manifestations 
of life the more we become convinced of the truth of this statement and 
the less we are disposed to call in the aid of a special and unknown form 
of energy to explain those manifestations. 

The most obvious manifestation of life is ' spontaneous ' movement. 
We see a man, a dog, a bird move, and we know that they are alive. 

We place a drop of pond water under the microscope, and 

Phenomena see numberless particles rapidly moving within it; we 

indicative of a f nrrn that it swarms with ' life. ' We notice a small mass 
life : Move- ........ . . . 

ment. of clear slime changing its shape, throwing out projections 

of its structureless substance, creeping from one part of 
the field of the microscope to another. We recognise that the slime 
is living; we give it a name — Amoeba Umax — the slug amceba. We 
observe similar movements in individual cells of our own body ; in 
the white corpuscles of our blood, in connective tissue cells, in growing 
nerve cells, in young cells everywhere. We denote the similarity 
between these movements and those of the amceba by employing the 
descriptive term ' amoeboid ' for both. We regard such movements as 
indicative of the possession of 'life'; nothing seems more justifiable 
than such an inference. 

But physicists ' show us movements of a precisely similar charac- 
ter in substances which no one by any stretch of imagination can 

regard as living; movements of oil drops, of organic and 
Simi an y o inorganic mixtures, even of mercury globules, which are 
livin? and indistinguishable in their character from those of the 
non-living living organisms we have been studying : movements which 

can only be described by the same term amoeboid, yet 
obviously produced as the result of purely physical and chemical 
reactions causing changes in surface tension of the fluids under exami- 

1 G. Quincke, Annal. d. Phytile u. Chem. 1870 and 1888. 



president's address. 7 

nation. 3 It is therefore certain that such movements are not specifically 
'vital,' that their presence does not necessarily denote 'life.' And 
when we investigate closely even such active movements as those of a 
vibratile cilium or a phenomenon so closely identified with life as the 
contraction of a muscle, we find that these present so many analogies 
with amoeboid movements as to render it certain that they are funda- 
mentally of the same character and produced in much the same 
manner. 4 Nor can we for a moment doubt that the complex actions 
which are characteristic of the more highly differentiated organisms 
have been developed in the course of evolution from the simple move- 
ments characterising the activity of undifferentiated protoplasm ; move- 
ments which can themselves, as we have seen, be perfectly imitated 
by non-living material. The chain of evidence regarding this particular 
manifestation of life — movement — is complete. Whether exhibited as 
the amoeboid movement of the proteus animalcule or of the white 
corpuscle of our blood; as the ciliary motion of the infusorian or of 
the ciliated cell; as the contraction of a muscle under the governance 
of the will, or as the throbbing of the human heart responsive to every 
emotion of the mind, we cannot but conclude that it is alike subject 
to and produced in conformity with the general laws of matter, by 
agencies resembling those which cause movements in lifeless 
material. 5 

It will perhaps be contended that the resemblances between the 
movements of living and non-living matter may be only superficial, 
and that the conclusion regarding their identity to which we are led 
will be dissipated when we endeavour to penetrate more deeply into the 
working of living substance. For can we not recognise along with the 
possession of movement the presence of other phenomena which are 
equally characteristic of life and with which non-living 

Assimilation material is not endowed? Prominent among the charac- 
and disas- ... . ... ., , . .. . 

limitation. tenstic phenomena of life are the processes of assimilation 

and disassimilation, the taking in of food and its elabora- 

* The causation not only of movements but of various other manifestations 
of life by alterations in surface tension of living substance is ably dealt with 
by A. B. Macallum in a recent article in Asher and Spiro's Ergebnisse der 
Physiologie, 1911. Macallum has described an accumulation of potassium salts 
at the more active surfaces of the protoplasm of many cells, and correlates this 
with the production of cell-activity by the effect of such accumulation upon the 
surface tension. The literature of the subject will be found in this article. 

4 G. F. FitzGerald (Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1898, and Scient. Trans. Roy. 
Dublin Society, 1898) arrived at this conclusion with regard to muscle from 
purely physical considerations. 

5 ' Vital spontaneity, so readily accepted by persons ignorant of biology, 
is disproved by the whole history of science. Every vital manifestation is a 
response to a stimulus, a provoked phenomenon. It is unnecessary to say this 
is also the case with brute bodies, since that is precisely the foundation of the 
great principle of the inertia of matter. It is plain that it is also as applicable 
to living as to inanimate matter.' — Dastre, op. cit., p. 280. 



8 PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 

tion. 6 These, surely, it may be thought, are not shared by matter which 
is not endowed with life. Unfortunately for this argument, similar 
processes occur characteristically in situations which no one would 
think of associating with the presence of life. A striking example of 
this is afforded by the osmotic phenomena presented by solution* 
separated from one another by semipermeable films, a condition pre- 
cisely similar to that which is constantly found in living matter. 1 

It is not so long ago that the chemistry of organic matter was 
thought to be entirely. different from that of inorganic Substances. But 

the line between inorganic and organic chemistry, which 
Chemical up to the middle of the last century appeared sharp, 

accompany- subsequently became misty and has now disappeared, 
ing life. Similarly the chemistry of living organisms, which is now 

a recognised branch of organic chemistry, but used to be 

considered as so much outside the domain of the chemist that it could 

only be dealt with by those whose special business it was to study 

' vital ' processes, is passing every day more out of the hands of the 

biologist and into those of the pure chemist. 

Somewhat more than half a century ago Thomas Graham published 

his epoch-making observations relating to the properties of matter in 

the colloidal state : observations which are proving all- 
The colloid . . . ... , . , , , 

constitution important in assisting our comprehension of the properties 

of living of living substance. For it is becoming every day more 

Identity of apparent that the chemistry and physics of the living 

physical and organism are essentially the chemistry and physics of 

chemical nitrogenous colloids. Living substance or protoplasm 

processes in . ° i i 

living and always, in fact, takes the form of a colloidal solution. 

non-living I n this solution the colloids are associated with crystalloids 

mittpr 

(electrolytes), which are either free in the solution or 
attached to the molecules of the colloids. Surrounding and enclosing 
the living substance thus constituted of both colloid and crystalloid 
material is a film, probably also formed of colloid, but which may 
have a lipoid substratum associated with it (Overton). This film 
serves the purpose of an osmotic membrane, permitting of exchanges 
by diffusion between the colloidal solution constituting the protoplasm 

' The terms ' assimilation ' and ' disassimilation ' express the physical and 
chemical changes which occur within protoplasm as the result of the intake of 
nutrient material from the circumambient medium and its ultimate transforma- 
tion into waste products which are passed out again into that medium ; the whole 
cycle of these changes being embraced under the term 'metabolism.' 

7 Leduc (The Mechanism of Life, English translation by W. Deane Butcher, 
1911) has given many illustrations of this statement. In the Report of tho 
meeting of 1867 in Dundee is a paper by Dr. J. D. Heaton (On Simulations of 
Vegetable Growths by Mineral Substances) dealing with the same class of 
phenomena. See also J. Hall Edwards, Address to the Birmingham and Mid- 
land Inst., Nov., 1911. The conditions of osmosis in cells have been especially 
studied by Hamburger (Osmotischer Drvck vnd lonenlehre, Wiesbaden, 1902-4). 



president's address. <) 

and the circumambient medium in which it lives. Other similar films 

or membranes occur in the interior of protoplasm. These films have 

in many cases specific characters, both physical and chemical, thus 

favouring the diffusion of special kinds of material into and out of 

the protoplasm and from one part of the protoplasm to another. It 

is the changes produced under these physical conditions, associated 

with those caused by active chemical agents formed within protoplasm 

and known as enzymes, that effect assimilation and disassimilation. 

Quite similar changes can be produced outside the body (in vitro) by 

the employment of methods of a purely physical and chemical nature. 

It is true that we are not yet familiar with all the intermediate stages 

of transformation of the materials which are taken in by a living body 

into the materials which are given out from it. But since the initial 

processes and the final results are the same as they would be on the 

assumption that the changes are brought about in conformity with the 

known laws of chemistry and physics, we may fairly conclude that all 

changes in living substance are brought about by ordinary chemical 

and physical forces. 

Should it be contended that growth and reproduction are properties 

possessed only by living bodies and constitute a test by which we may 

differentiate between life and non-life, between the animate 

the processes anc ' ' namma te creation, it must be replied that no conten- 

of growth tion can be more fallacious. Inorganic crystals grow and 

and repro- multiply and reproduce their like, given a supply of the 

living and requisite pabulum. In most cases for each kind of crystal 

non-living there is, as with living organisms, a limit of growth which 
matter 

is not exceeded, and further increase of the crystalline 

matter results not in further increase in size but in multiplication of 
similar crystals. Leduc has shown that the growth and division of 
artificial colloids of an inorganic nature, when placed in an appropriate 
medium, present singular resemblances to the phenomena of the growth 
and division of living organisms. Even so complex a process as the 
division of a cell-nucleus by karyokinesis as a preliminary to the multi- 
plication of the cell by division — a phenomenon which would primd 
facie have seemed and has been commonly regarded as a distinctive 
manifestation of the life of the cell — can be imitated with solutions of 
a simple inorganic salt, such as chloride, of sodium, containing a 
suspension of carbon particles ; which arrange and rearrange themselves 
under the influence of the movements of the electrolytes in a manner 
indistinguishable from that adopted by the particles of chromatin in a 
dividing nucleus. And in the process of sexual reproduction, the 
researches of J. Loeb and others upon the ova of the sea-urchin have 
proved that we can no longer consider such an apparently vital 
phenomenon as the fertilisation of the egg as being the result of living 



10 president's address. 

material brought to it by the spermatozoon, since it is possible to 
start the process of division of the ovum and the resulting formation 
of cells, and ultimately of all the tissues and organs — in short, to bring 
about the development of the whole body — if a simple chemical reagent 
is substituted for the male element in the process of fertilisation. 
Indeed, even a mechanical or electrical stimulus may suffice to start 

development. Kurz und gut, as the Germans say, vitalism 
The question as a working hypothesis has not only had its foundations 
of . vit ? ll * m undermined, but most of the superstructure has toppled 
force. over, and if any difficulties of explanation still persist, we 

are justified in assuming that the cause is to be found in 
our imperfect knowledge of the constitution and working of living 
material. At the best vitalism explains nothing, and the term ' vital 
force ' is an expression of ignorance which can bring us no further 
along the path of knowledge. Nor is the problem in any way advanced 
by substituting for the term ' vitalism ' ' neo-vitalism, ' and for ' vital 
force ' ' biotic energy. ' 8 ' New presbyter is but old priest writ large. ' 

Further, in its chemical composition we are no longer compelled 
to consider living substance as possessing infinite complexity, as was 

thought to be the case when chemists first began to break 
The possi- up the proteins of the hotly into their simpler con- 
synthe°sis of stituents. The researches of Miescher, which have been 
living matter, continued and elaborated by Kossel and his pupils, have 

acquainted us with the fact that a body so important for 
the nutritive and reproductive functions of the cell as the nucleus — which 
may be said indeed to represent the quintessence of cell-life — possesses 
a chemical constitution of no very great complexity; so that we may 
even hope some day to see the material which composes it prepared syn- 
thetically. And when we consider that the nucleus is not only itself 
formed of living substance, but is capable of causing other living sub- 
stance to be built up ; is, in fact, the directing agent in all the principal 
chemical changes which take place within the living cell, it must be 
admitted that we are a long step forward in our knowledge of the chemical 
basis of life. That it is the form of nuclear matter rather than its 
chemical and molecular structure which is the important factor in 
nuclear activity cannot be supposed. The form of nuclei, as every 
microscopist knows, varies infinitely, and there are numerous living 
organisms in Which the nuclear matter is without form, appearing simply 
as granules distributed in the protoplasm. Not that the form assumed 
and the transformations undergone by the nucleus are without import- 

' B. Moore, in Recent Advances in Physiology, 1906; Moore and Roaf, ibid. ; 
and Further Advances in Physiology, 1909. Moore lays especial stress on the 
transformations of energy which occur in protoplasm. See on the question of 
vitalism Gley (Revue Scientifique, 1911) and D'Arcy Thompson (Address to 
Section D at Portsmouth, 1911). 



presidekt's address. 11 

ance ; but it is none the less true that even in an amorphous condition 
the materia) which in the ordinary cell takes the form of a ' nucleus ' 
may, in simpler organisms which have not in the process of evolution 
become complete cells, fulfil functions in many respects similar to those 
fulfilled by the nucleus of the more differentiated organism. 

A similar anticipation regarding the probability of eventual synthetic 
production may be made for the proteins of the cell-substance. Con- 
siderable progress in this direction has indeed already been made by Emil 
Fischer, who has for many years been engaged in the task of building 
up the nitrogenous combinations which enter into the formation of the 
complex molecule of protein. It is satisfactory to know that the signifi- 
cance of the work both of Fischer and of Kossel in this field of biological 
chemistry has been recognised by the award to each of these distinguished 
chemists of a Nobel prize. 

The elements composing living substance are few in number. Those 
which are constantly present are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. 
With these, both in nuclear matter and also, but to a less 
The chemical degree, in the more diffuse living material which we know 
constitution ag p ro t plasm, phosphorus is always associated. ' Ohne 
stance? 8 8U " Phosphor kein Gedank ' is an accepted aphorism ; ' Ohne 
Phosphor kein Leben ' is equally true. Moreover, a large 
proportion, rarely less than 70 per cent., of water appears essential for 
any manifestation of life, although not in all cases necessary for its 
continuance, since organisms are known which will bear the loss of the 
greater part if not the whole of the water they contain without per- 
manent impairment of their vitality. The presence of certain inorganic 
salts is no less essential, chief amongst them being chloride of sodium 
and salts of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and iron. The combina- 
tion of these elements into a colloidal compound represents the chemi- 
cal basis of life; and when the chemist succeeds in building up this 
compound it will without doubt be found to exhibit the phenomena 
which we are in the habit of associating with the term ' life. ' 9 

The above considerations seem to point to the conclusion that the 
possibility of the production of life — i.e., of living material — is not so 
remote as has been generally assumed. Since the experi- 
life. The ments of Pasteur, few have ventured to affirm a belief in tho 
possibility of spontaneous generation of bacteria and monads and other 
generation! 8 micro-organisms, although before his time this was by 
many believed to be of universal occurrence. My 
esteemed friend Dr. Charlton Bastian is, so far as I am aware, the only 
scientific man of eminence who still adheres to the old creed, and Dr. 
Bastian, in spite of numerous experiments and the publication of many 

* The most recent account of the chemistry of protoplasm is that by Botazzi 
(Das Cytoplasma u. die Korpersafte) in Winterstein's Handb. d. vergl. Physio- 
logie, Bd. I., 1912. The literature is given in this article. 



12 president's address. 

books and papers, has not hitherto succeeded in winning over any con- 
verts to his opinion. I am myself so entirely convinced of the accuracy 
of the results which Pasteur obtained — are they not within the daily and 
hourly experience of everyone who deals with the sterilisation of organic 
solutions? — that I do not hesitate to believe, if living torulae or mycelia 
are exhibited to me in flasks which had been subjected to prolonged 
boiling after being hermetically sealed, that there has been some fallacy 
either in the premisses or in the carrying out of the operation. The 
appearance of organisms in such flasks would not furnish to my mind 
proof that they were the result of spontaneous generation. Assuming 
no fault in manipulation or fallacy in observation, I should find it simpler 
to believe that the germs of such organisms have resisted the effects 
of prolonged heat than that they became generated spontaneously. 
If spontaneous generation is possible, we cannot expect it to 
take the form of living beings which show so marked a degree of 
differentiation, both structural and functional, as the organisms which 
are described as making their appearance in these experimental flasks. 10 
Nor should we expect the spontaneous generation of living substance of 
any kind to occur in a fluid the organic constituents of which have been 
so altered by heat that they can retain no sort of chemical resemblance 
to the organic constituents of living matter. If the formation of life— of 
living substance — is possible at the present day — and for my own part 
I see no reason to doubt it — a boiled infusion of organic matter — and still 
less of inorganic matter — is the last place in which to look for it. Our 
mistrust of such evidence as has yet been brought forward need not, 
however, preclude us from admitting the possibility of the formation of 
living from non-living substance. 11 

Setting aside, as devoid of scientific foundation, the idea of immediate 

10 It is fair to point out that Dr. Bastian suggests that the formation of 
ultramicroscopic living particles may precede the appearance of the microscopic 
organisms which he describes. The Origin of Life, 1911, p. 65. 

" The present position of the subject is succinctly stated by Dr. Chalmers 
Mitchell in his article on ' Abiogenesis ' in the Encyclopedia Britannica. Dr. 
Mitchell adds : ' It may be that in the progress of science it may yet be possible 
to construct living protoplasm from non-living material. The refutation of 
abiogenesis has no further bearing on this possibility than to make it probable 
that if protoplasm ultimately be formed in the laboratory, it will be by a series 
of steps, the earlier steps being the formation of some substance, or substances, 
now unknown, which are not protoplasm. Such intermediate stages may have 
existed in the past.' And Huxley in his Presidential Address at Liverpool in 
1870 says : ' But though I cannot express this conviction' {i.e., of the impossi- 
bility of the occurrence of abiogenesis, as exemplified by the appearance of 
organisms in hermetically sealed and sterilised flasks) ' too strongly, I must 
carefully guard myself against the supposition that I intend to suggest that no 
such thing as abiogenesis ever has taken place in the past or ever will take 
place in the future. With organic chemistry, molecular physics and physiology 
yet in their infancy and every day making prodigious strides, I think it would 
be the height of presumption for any man to say that the conditions under which 
matter assumes the properties we call " vital " may not, some day, be artificially 
brought together.' 



president's address. 13 

supernatural intervention in the first production of life, we are not only 
justified in believing, but compelled to believe, that living 
Life a pro- matter must have owed its origin to causes similar in 
fuUon! eV °" character to those which have been instrumental in pro- 
ducing all other forms of matter in the universe; in other 
words, to a process of gradual evolution. 12 But it has been customary 
of late amongst biologists to shelve the investigation of the mode of origin 
of life by evolution from non-living matter by relegating its solution to 
some former condition of the earth's history, when, it is assumed, 
opportunities were accidentally favourable for the passage of inanimate 
matter into animate; such opportunities, it is also assumed, having 
never since recurred and being never likely to recur. 13 

Various eminent scientific men have even supposed that life has not 
actually originated upon our globe, but has been brought to it from 
another planet or from another stellar system. Some of my audience 
may still remember the controversy that was excited when the theory 
of the origin of terrestrial life by the intermediation of a meteorite was 
propounded by Sir William Thomson in his Presidential Address at the 
meeting of this Association in Edinburgh in 1871. To this ' mete- 
orite ' theory 14 the apparently fatal objection was raised that it would 
take some sixty million years for a meteorite to travel from the nearest 
stellar system to our earth, and it is inconceivable that any kind of 
life could be maintained during such a period. Even from the nearest 
planet 150 years would be necessary, and the heating of the meteorite 
in passing through our atmosphere and at its impact with the earth 
would, in all probability, destroy any life which might have existed 
within it. A cognate theory, that of cosmic panspermia, assumes 
that life may exist and may have existed indefinitely in cosmic dust 
in the interstellar spaces (Eichter, 1865; Cohn, 1872), and may with 
this dust fall slowly to the earth without undergoing the heating which 
is experienced by a meteorite. Arrhenius, 15 who adopts this theory, 
states that if living germs were carried through the ether by luminous 
and other radiations the time necessary for their transportation from 
our globe to the nearest stellar system would be only nine thousand 
years, and to Mars only twenty days ! 

la The arguments in favour of this proposition have been arrayed by Meldola 
in his Herbert Spencer Lecture, 1910, pp. 16-24. Meldola leaves the question 
open whether such evolution has occurred only in past years or is also taking place 
now. He concludes that whereas certain carbon compounds have survived by 
reason of possessing extreme stability, others — the precursors of living matter — 
survived owing to the possession of extreme lability and adaptability to variable 
conditions of environment. A similar suggestion was previously made by 
Lockyer, Inorganic Evolution, 1900, pp. 169, 170. 

13 T. H. Huxley, Presidential Address, 1870 ; A. B. Macallum, ' On the 
Origin of Life on the Globe,' in Trans. Canadian Institute, VIII. 

" First suggested, according to Dastre, by de Salles-Guyon (Dastre, op. cit., 
p. 252). The theory received the support of Helmholtz. 

15 Worlds in the Making, transl. by H. Borns, chap, viii., p. 221, 1908. 



14 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

But the acceptance of such theories of the arrival of life on the 
earth does not bring us any nearer to a conception of its actual mode of 
origin ; on the contrary it merely serves to banish the investigation of 
the question to some conveniently inaccessible corner of the universe and 
s us in the unsatisfactory position of affirming not only that we 
have no knowledge as to the mode of origin of life — which is unfortu- 
nately true — but that we never can acquire such knowledge — which it is 
to be hoped is not true. 10 Knowing what we know, and believing what 
we believe, as to the part played by evolution in the development of 
terrestrial matter, we are, I think (without denying the possibility of 
the existence of life in other parts of the universe 17 ) justified in regard- 
ing these cosmic theories as inherently improbable — at least in com- 
parison with the solution of the problem which the evolutionary 
hypothesis offers. 18 

I assume that the majority of my audience have at least a general 
idea of the scope of this hypothesis, the general acceptance of which 
lias within the last sixty years altered the whole aspect not 
The evolu- on ]y £ biology, but of every other branch of natural 
hypothesis as science, including astronomy, geology, physics, and 
applied to chemistry. 19 To those who have not this Tamiliarity I 

]j ie# would recommend the perusal of a little book by Professor 

Judd entitled 'The Coining of Evolution,' which has 
recently appeared as one of the Cambridge manuals. I know of no 
similar book in which the subject is as clearly and succinctly treated. 
Although the author nowhere expresses the opinion that the actual 
origin of life on the earth has arisen by evolution from non-living 
matter, it is impossible to read either this or any similar exposition in 
which the essential unity of the evolutionary process is insisted upon 

'* ' The history of science shows how dangerous it is to brush aside mysteries 
— i.e., unsolved problems — and to interpose the barrier placarded "eternal — no 
thoroughfare." ' — R. Meldola, Herbert Spencer Lecture, 1910. 

" Some authorities, such as Errera, contend, with much probability, that 
the conditions in interstellar space are such that life, as we understand it, 
could not possibly exist there. 

" As Verworn points out, such theories would equally apply to the origin of 
any other chemical combination, whether inorganic or organic, which is met with 
on our globe, so that they lead diiectly to absurd conclusions. — Allgemeine. 
Physiologic, 1911. 

'* As Meldola insists, this general acceptance was in the first instance largely 
due to the writings of Herbert Spencer : ' We are now prepared for evolution in 
every domain. ... As in the case of most great generalisations, thought had been 
moving in this direction for many years. . . . Lamarck and Buffon had suggested 
a definite mechanism of organic development, Kant and Laplace a principle of 
celestial evolution, while Lyell had placed geology upon an evolutionary basis. 
The principle of continuity was beginning to be recognised in physical 
science. ... It was Spencer who brought these independent lines of thought to 
a focus, and who was the first to make any systematic attempt to show that the 
law of development expressed in its widest and most abstract form was univer- 
sally followed throughout cosmical processes, inorganic, organic, and super- 
organic* — Op. cit., p. 14. 



president's address. 15 

without concluding tiiat the origin of life must have been due to the 
same process, this process being, without exception, continuous, and 
admitting of no gap at any part of its course. Looking therefore at the 
evolution of living matter by the light which is shed upon it from the 
study of the evolution of matter in general, we are led to regard 
it as having been produced, not by a sudden alteration, whether 
exerted by natural or supernatural agency, but by a gradual process 
of change from material which was lifeless, through material on the 
borderland between inanimate and animate, to material which has all 
the characteristics to which we attach the term ' life. ' So far from 
expecting a sudden leap from an inorganic, or at least an unorganised, 
into an organic and organised condition, from an entirely inanimate 
substance to a completely animate state of being, should we not rather 
expect a gradual procession of changes from inorganic to organic 
matter, through stages of gradually increasing complexity until material 
which can be termed living is attained? And in place of looking for 
the production of fully formed living organisms in hermetically sealed 
flasks, should we not rather search Nature herself, under natural con- 
ditions, for evidence of the existence, either in the past or in the present, 
of transitional forms between living and non-living matter ? 

The difficulty, nay the impossibility, of obtaining evidence of such 
evolution from the past history of the globe is obvious. Both the 
hypothetical transitional material and the living material which was 
originally evolved from it may, as Macallum has suggested, have taken 
the form of diffused ultra-microscopic particles of living substance 20 ; 
and even if they were not diffused but aggregated into masses, these 
masses could have been physically nothing more than colloidal watery 
slime which would leave no impress upon any geological formation. 
Myriads of years may have elapsed before some sort of skeleton in 
the shape of calcareous or siliceous spicules began to evolve itself, and 
thus enabled ' life, ' which must already have possessed a prolonged 
existence, to make any sort of geological record. It follows that in 
attempting to pursue the evolution of living matter to its beginning in 
terrestrial history we can only expect to be confronted with a blank wall 
of nescience. 

The problem would appear to be hopeless of ultimate solution, if 
we are rigidly confined to the supposition that the evolution of life 
has only occurred once in the past history of the globe. But are we 
justified in assuming that at one period only, and as it were by a 
fortunate and fortuitous concomitation of substance and circumstance, 
living matter became evolved out of non-living matter — life became 

20 There still exist in fact forms of life which the microscope cannot show 
us (E. A. Minchin, Presidential Address to Quekett Club, 1911), and germs 
which are capable of passing through the pores of a Chamberland filter. 



16 president's address. 

established ? Is there any valid reason to conclude that at some previous 
period of its history our earth was more favourably circumstanced for 
the production of life than it is now? 21 I have vainly sought for such 
reason, and if none be forthcoming the conclusion forces itself upon 
us that the evolution of non-living into living substance has happened 
more than once — and we can be by no means sure that it may not be 
happening still. 

It i6 true that up to the present there is no evidence of such hap* 
pening: no process of transition has hitherto been observed. But on 
the other hand, is it not equally true that the kind of evidence which 
would be of any real value in determining this question has not hitherto 
been looked for? We may be certain that if life is being produced from 
non-living substance it will be life of a far simpler character than any 
that has yet been observed — in material which we shall be uncertain 
whether to call animate or inanimate, even if we are able to detect it 
at all, and which we may not be able to visualise physically even after 
we have become convinced of its existence. 22 But we can look with the 
mind's eye and follow in imagination the transformation which non- 
living matter may have undergone and may still be undergoing to pro- 
duce living substance. No principle of evolution is better founded than 
that insisted upon by Sir Charles Lyell, justly termed by Huxley ' the 
greatest geologist of his time, ' that we must interpret the past history 
of our globe by the present ; that we must seek for an explanation of 
what has happened by the study of what is happening; that, given 
similar circumstances, what has occurred atone time will probably occur 
at another. The process of evolution is universal. The inorganic 
materials of the globe are continually undergoing transition. New 
chemical combinations are constantly being formed and old ones broken 
up; new elements are making their appearance and old elements dis- 
appearing. 23 Well may we ask ourselves why the production of living 
matter alone should be subject to other laws than those which have 
produced, and are producing, the various forms of non-living matter; 
why what has happened may not happen? If living matter has been 
evolved from lifeless in the past, we are justified in accepting the 

51 Chalmers Mitchell (Article 'Life,' Encycl. Brit., eleventh edition) writes 
as follows : ' It has been suggested from time to time that conditions very unlike 
those now existing wore necessary for the first appearance of life, and must be 
repeated if living matter is to be reconstituted artificially. No support for such 
a view can be derived from observations of the existing conditions of life.' 

civ R P° ntaneous generation of life could only be perceptually demonstrated 
l>y filling in the long terms of a series between the complex forms of inorganic 
and the simplest forms of organic substance. Were this done, it is quite possible 
that we should be unable to say (especially considering the vagueness of our 
definitions of life) where life began or ended.'— K. Pearson, Grammar of Science, 
second edition, 1900, p. 350. 

!a See on the production of elements, W. Crookes, Address to Section B, Brit. 
Assoc, 1886; T Preston, Nature, vol. lx., p. 180; J. J. Thomson, Phil. Mag., 
1897. p. 811 j Norman Lockyer, op. cit., 1900; G. Darwin, Pres. Addr Brit. 
Assoc. 1905. 



president's address. 17 

conclusion that its evolution is possible in the present and in the future. 
Indeed, we are not only justified in accepting this conclusion, we are 
forced to accept it. When or where such change from non-living to 
living matter may first have occurred, when or where it may have con- 
tinued, when or where it may still be occurring, are problems as 
difficult as they are interesting, but we have no right to assume that 
they are insoluble. 

Since living matter always contains water as its most abundant 
constituent, and since the first living organisms recognisable as such 
in the geological series were aquatic, it has generally been assumed that 
life must first have made its appearance in the depths of the ocean. 24 
Is it, however, certain that the assumption that life originated in the sea 
is correct? Is not the land-surface of our globe quite as likely to have 
been the nidus for the evolutionary transformation of non-living into 
living material as the waters which surround it ? Within this soil almost 
any chemical transformation may occur; it is subjected much more 
than matters dissolved in sea-water to those fluctuations of moisture, 
temperature, electricity, and luminosity which are potent in producing 
chemical changes. But whether life, in the form of a simple slimy 
colloid, originated in the depths of the sea or on the surface of the land, 
it would be equally impossible for the geologist to trace its beginnings, 
and were it still becoming evolved in the same situations, it would be 
almost as impossible for the microscopist to follow its evolution. We 
are therefore not likely to obtain direct evidence regarding such a trans- 
formation of non-living into living matter in Nature, even if it is 
occurring under our eyes. 

An obvious objection to the idea that the production of living matter 
from non-living has happened more than once is that, had this been the 
case, the geological record should reveal more than one pakeontologJeal 
series. This objection assumes that evolution would in every case take 
an exactly similar course and proceed to the same goal — an assumption 
which is, to say the least, improbable. If, as might well be the case, 
in any other palseontological series than the one with which we are 
acquainted the process of evolution of living beings did not proceed 
beyond Protista, there would be no obvious geological evidence regarding 
it; such evidence would only be discoverable by a carefully directed 
search made with that particular object in view. 25 I would not by any 

** For arguments in favour of the first appearance of life having been in the 
sea, see A. B. Macallum, ' The Palaeochemistry of the Ocean,' Trans. Canad. 
Instit., 1903-4. 

25 Lankester (Art. 'Protozoa,' Encych Brit., tenth edition) conceives that 
the first protoplasm fed on the antecedent steps in its own evolution. F. J. 
Allen {Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1896) comes to the conclusion that living substance 
is probably constantly being produced, but that this fails to make itself evident 
owing to the substance being seized and assimilated by existing organisms. He 
believes that ' in accounting for the first origin of life on this earth it is not 
1912. C 



18 president's address. 

means minimise the difficulties which attend the suggestion that the 
evolution of life may have occurred more than once or may still be 
happening, but on the other hand, it must not be ignored that those 
which attend the assumption that the production of life has occurred 
once only are equally serious. Indeed, had the idea of the possibility 
of a multiple evolution of living substance been first in the field, I 
doubt if the prevalent belief regarding a single fortuitous production of 
life upon the globe would have become established among biologists — so 
much are we liable to be influenced by the impressions we receive in 
scientific childhood ! 

Assuming the evolution of living matter to have occurred — whether 
once only or more frequently matters not for the moment — and 
in the form suggested, viz., as a mass of colloidal slime 
Farther possessing the property of assimilation and therefore of 

evol^ton of g row th, reproduction would follow as a matter of course, 
life. For all material of this physical nature — fluid or semi- 

fluid in character — has a tendency to undergo subdivision 
when its bulk exceeds a certain size. The subdivision may be into 
equal or nearly equal parts, or it may take the form of buds. In either 
case every separated part would resemble the parent in chemical and 
physical properties, and would equally possess the property of taking 
in and assimilating suitable material from its liquid environment, grow- 
ing in bulk and reproducing its like by subdivision. Omne vivum e 
vivo. In this way from any beginning of living material a primitive 
form of life would spread, and would gradually people the globe. The 
establishment of life being once effected, all forms of organisation follow 
under the inevitable laws of evolution. Ce n'est que le premier pas qui 
coute. 

We can trace in imagination the segregation of a more highly 
phosphorised portion of the primitive living matter, which we may now 
consider to have become more akin to the protoplasm of organisms 
with which we are familiar. This more phosphorised portion might 
not for myriads of generations take the form of a definite nucleus, but 
it would be composed of material having a composition and qualities 
similar to those of the nucleus of a cell. Prominent among these 
qualities is that of catalysis — the function of effecting profound 
chemical changes in other material in contact with it without itself 
undergoing permanent change... This catalytic function may have been 
exercised directly by the living substance or may have been carried 

necessary that, as Pfliiger assumed, the planet should have been at a former 
period a glowing fire-ball.' He ' prefers to believe that the circumstances 
which support life would also favour its origin.' And elsewhere : 'Life is not 
an extraordinary phenomenon, not even an importation from some other sphere, 
but raiher the actual outcome of circumstances on this earth.' 



president's address. 19 

on through the agency of the enzymes already mentioned, which are 
also of a colloid nature but of simpler constitution than itself, and 
which differ from the catalytic agents employed by the chemist in the 
fact that they produce their effects at a relatively low temperature. In 
the course of evolution special enzymes would become developed for 
adaptation to special conditions of life, and with the appearance of 
these and other modifications, a process of differentiation of primitive 
living matter into individuals with definite specific characters gradually 
became established. We can conceive of the production in this way 
from originally undifferentiated living substance of simple differentiated 
organisms comparable to the lowest forms of Protista. But how long it 
may have taken to arrive at this stage we have no means of ascertain- 
ing. To judge from the evidence afforded by the evolution of higher 
organisms it would seem that a vast period of time would be necessary 
for even this amount of organisation to establish itself. 

The next important phase in the process of evolution would be the 
segregation and moulding of the diffused or irregularly aggregated 
nuclear matter into a definite nucleus around which all the 
the nucleated chemical activity of the organism will in future be 
cell- centred. Whether this change were due to a slow and 

gradual process of segregation or of the nature of a- jump, such as 
Nature does occasionally make, the result would be the advancement of 
the living organism to the condition of a complete nucleated cell : a 
material advance not only in organisation but — still more important — 
in potentiality for future development. Life is now embodied in the 
cell, and every living being evolved from this will itself be either a 
cell or a cell-aggregate. Omnis cellula e celluld. 

After the appearance of a nucleus — but how long after it is im- 
possible to conjecture — another phenomenon appeared upon the scene 
in the occasional exchange of nuclear substance between 
Establishment cells. In this manner became established the process of 

o? Rpvnft.1 

difierences. sexual reproduction. Such exchange in the unicellular 
Protista might and may occur between any two cells 
forming the species, but in the multicellular Metazoa it became — 
like other functions — specialised in particular cells. The result of 
the exchange is rejuvenescence; associated with an increased tendency 
to subdivide and to produce new individuals. This is due to the intro- 
duction of a stimulating or catalytic chemical agent into the cell which 
is to be rejuvenated, as is proved by the experiments of Loeb already 
alluded to. It is true that the chemical material introduced into the 
germ-cell in the ordinary process of its fertilisation by the sperm-cell is 
usually accompanied by the introduction of definite morphological 
elements which blend with others already contained within the germ- 
cell, and it is believed that the transmission of such morphological ele- 

c 2 



20 president's address. 

ments of the parental nuclei is related to the transmission of parental 
qualities. But we must not be blind to the possibility that these 
transmitted qualities may be connected with specific chemical charac- 
ters of the transmitted elements ; in other words, that heredity also is 
one of the questions the eventual solution of which we must look to the 
chemist to provide. 

So far we have been chiefly considering life as it is found in 
the simplest forms of living substance, organisms for the most part 

entirely microscopic and neither distinctively animal nor 
Aggregate vegetable, which were grouped together by Haeckel as 

a separate kingdom of animated nature — that of Protista. 
But persons unfamiliar with the microscope are not in the habit of 
associating the term ' life ' with microscopic organisms, whether these 
take the form of cells or of minute portions of living substance which 
have not yet attained to that dignity. We most of us speak and think 
of life as it occurs in ourselves and other animals with which we are 
familiar ; and as we find it in the plants around us. We recognise «t 
in these by the possession of certain properties — movement, nutrition, 
growth, and reproduction. We are not aware by intuition, nor can 
we ascertain without the employment of the microscope, that we and all 
the higher living beings, whether animal or vegetable, are entirely 
formed of aggregates of nucleated cells, each microscopic and each 
possessing its own life. Nor could we suspect by intuition that what 
we term our life is not a single indivisible property, capable of being 
blown out with a puff like the flame of a candle; but is the aggregate 
of the lives of many millions of living cells of which the body is com- 
posed. It is but a short while ago that this cell-constitution was dis- 
covered: it occurred within the lifetime, even within the memory, of 
some who are still with us. What a marvellous distance we have 
travelled since then in the path of knowledge of living organisms ! The 
strides which were made in the advance of the mechanical sciences 
during the nineteenth century, which is generally considered to mark 
that century as an age of unexampled progress, are as nothing in 
comparison with those made in the domain of biology, and their 
interest is entirely dwarfed by that which is aroused by the facts relat- 
ing to the phenomena of life which have accumulated within the same 
period. And not the least remarkable of these facts is the discovery of 
the cell-structure of plants and animals ! 

Let us consider how cell-aggregates came to be evolved from 
organisms consisting of single cells. Two methods are possible — 

viz. (1) the adhesion of a number of originally separate 
Se°ceU- n 0l indivi(luals >' ( 2 ) the subdivision of a single individual with- 
aggregate, ou t the products of its subdivision breaking loose from one 

another. No doubt this last is the manner whereby the 



president's address. 21 

cell-aggregate was originally formed, since it is that by which it is still 
produced, and we know that the life-history of the individual is 
an epitome of that of the species. Such aggregates were in the beginning 
solid; the cells in contact with one another and even in continuity: 
subsequently a space or cavity became formed in the interior of the 
mass, which was thus converted into a hollow sphere. All the cells 
of the aggregate were at first perfectly similar in structure and in func- 
tion; there was no subdivision of labour. All would take part in 
effecting locomotion; all would receive stimuli from outside; all would 
take in and digest nutrient matter, which would then be passed into the 
cavity of the sphere to serve as a common store of nourishment. Such 
organisms are still found, and constitute the lowest types of Metazoa. 
Later one part of the hollow sphere became dimpled to form a cup ; 
the cavity of the sphere became correspondingly altered in shape. With 
this change in structure differentiation of function between the cells 
covering the outside and those lining the inside of the cup made its 
appearance. Those on the outside subserved locomotor functions and 
received and transmitted from cell to cell stimuli, physical or chemi- 
cal, received by the organism; while those on the inside, being freed 
from such functions, tended to specialise in the direction of the 
inception and digestion of nutrient material ; which, passing from them 
into the cavity of the invaginated sphere, served for the nourishment 
of all the cells composing the organism. The further course of evolu- 
tion produced many changes of form and ever-increasing complexity of 
the cavity thus produced by simple invagination. Some of the cell- 
aggregates settled down to a sedentary life, becoming plant-like in 
appearance and to some extent in habit. Such organisms, complex in 
form but simple in structure, are the Sponges. Their several parts 
are not, as in the higher Metazoa, closely interdependent : the destruc- 
tion of any one part, however extensive, does not either immediately 
or ultimately involve death of the rest: all parts function separately, 
although doubtless mutually benefiting by their conjunction, if only 
by slow diffusion of nutrient fluid throughout the mass. There is 
already some differentiation in these organisms, but the absence of a 
nervous system prevents any general co-ordination, and the individual 
cells are largely independent of one another. 

Our own life, like that of all the higher animals, is an aggregate 
life; the life of the whole is the life of the individual cells. The life 
of some of these cells can be put an end to, the rest may continue to 
live. This is, in fact, happening every moment of our lives. The 
cells which cover the surface of our body, which form the scarf-skin 
and the hairs and nails, are constantly dying and the dead cells are 
rubbed off or cut away, their place being taken by others supplied 
from living layers beneath. But the death of these cells does not 



22 president's address. 

affect the vitality of the body as a whole. They serve merely as a 
protection, or an ornamental covering, but are otherwise not material 
to our existence. On the other hand, if a few cells, such as those 
nerve-cells under the influence of which respiration is carried on, are 
destroyed or injured, within a minute or two the whole living machine 
comes to a standstill, so that to the bystander the patient is dead ; even 
the doctor will pronounce life to be extinct. But this pronouncement 
is correct only in a special sense. What has happened is that, owing 
to the cessation of respiration, the supply of oxygen to the tissues is 
cut off. And since the manifestations of life cease without this supply, 
the animal or patient appears to be dead. If, however, within a short 
period we supply the needed oxygen to the tissues requiring it, all the 
manifestations of life reappear. 

It is only some cells which lose their vitality at the moment of 
so-called ' general death. ' Many cells of the body retain their indi- 
vidual life under suitable circumstances long after the rest of the 
body is dead. Notable among these are muscle-cells. McWilliam 
showed that the muscle-cells of the blood-vessels give indications of 
life several days after an animal has been killed. The muscle-cells 
of the heart in mammals have been revived and caused to beat regu- 
larly and strongly many hours after apparent death. In man this 
result has been obtained by Kuliabko as many as eighteen hours after 
life had been pronounced extinct : in animals after days have elapsed. 
Waller has shown that indications of life can be elicited from various 
tissues many hours and even days after general death. Sherrington 
observed the white corpuscles of the blood to be active when kept in a 
suitable nutrient fluid weeks after removal from the blood-vessels. A 
French histologist, Jolly, has found that the white corpuscles of the 
frog, if kept in a cool place and under suitable conditions, show at the 
end of a year all the ordinary manifestations of life. Carrell and 
Burrows have observed activity and growth to continue for long periods 
in the isolated cells of a number of tissues and organs kept under obser- 
vation in a suitable medium. Carrell has succeeded in substituting 
entire organs obtained after death from one animal for those of another 
of the same species, and has thereby opened up a field of surgical 
treatment the limit of which cannot yet be descried. It is a well- 
established fact that any part of the body can be maintained alive for 
hours isolated from the rest if perfused with serum (Kronecker, frog- 
heart), or with an oxygenated solution of salts in certain proportions 
(Ringer). Such revival and prolongation of the life of separated organs 
is an ordinary procedure in laboratories of physiology. Like all the 
other instances enumerated, it is based on the fact that the individual 
cells of an organ have a life of their own which is largely independent, 
so that they will continue in suitable circumstances to live, although 
the re9t of the body to which they belonged may be dead. 



president's address. 23 

But some cells, and the organs which are formed of them, are 
more necessary to maintain the life of the aggregate than others, on 
account of the nature of the functions which have become specialised 
in them. This is the case with the nerve-cells of the respiratory 
centre, since they preside over the movements which are necessary 
to effect oxygenation of the blood. It is also true for the cells which 
compose the heart, since this serves to pump oxygenated blood to all 
other cells of the body : without such blood most cells soon cease to 
live. Hence we examine respiration and heart to determine if life is 
present : when one or both of these are at a standstill we know that 
life cannot be maintained. These are not the only organs necessary for 
the maintenance of life, but the loss of others can be borne longer, since 
the functions which they subserve, although useful or even essential to 
the organism, can be dispensed with for a time. The life of some cells 
is therefore more, of others less, necessary for maintaining the life of 
the rest. On the other hand, the cells composing certain organs have 
in the course of evolution ceased to be necessary, and their continued 
existence may even be harmful. Wiedersheim has enumerated more 
than a hundred of these organs in the human body. Doubtless Nature 
is doing her best to get rid of them for us, and our descendants will 
some day have ceased to possess a vermiform appendix or a pharyngeal 
tonsil : until that epoch arrives we must rely for their removal on the 
more rapid methods of surgery ! 

We have seen that in the simplest multicellular organisms, where 
one cell of the aggregate differs but little from another, the conditions 
for the maintenance of the life of the whole are nearly as 
tenance'of simple as those for individual cells. But the life of a 
the life of cell-aggregate such as composes the bodies of the higher 
the cell- animals is maintained not only by the conditions for the 

the higher maintenance of the life of the individual cell being kept 
animals. favourable, but also by the co-ordination of the varied 

mechanisms, activities of the cells which form the aggregate. Whereas 
in the lowest Metazoa all cells of the aggregate are alike in 
structure and function and perform and share everything in common, in 
higher animals (and for that matter in the higher plants also) the cells 
have become specialised, and each is only adapted for the performance 
of a particular function. Thus the cells of the gastric glands are only 
adapted for the secretion of gastric juice, the cells of the villi for the 
absorption of digested matters from the intestine, the cells of the kidney 
for the removal of waste products and superfluous water from the blood, 
those of the heart for pumping blood through the vessels. Each of 
these cells has its individual life and performs its individual functions. 
But unless there were some sort of co-operation and subordination to 
the needs of the body generally, there would be sometimes too little, 



24 president's address. 

sometimes too much gastric juice secreted; sometimes too tardy, some- 
times too rapid an absorption from the intestine; sometimes too little, 
sometimes too much blood pumped into the arteries, and so on. As 
the result of such lack of co-operation the life of the whole would cease 
to be normal and would eventually cease to be maintained. 

We have already seen what are the conditions which are favourable 
for the maintenance of life of the individual cell, no matter where 
situated. The principal condition is that it must be bathed by a nutrient 
fluid of suitable and constant composition. In higher animals this fluid 
is the lymph, which bathes the tissue elements and is itself constantly 
supplied with fresh nutriment and oxygen by the blood. Some tissue- 
cells are directly bathed by blood; and in invertebrates, in which there 
is no special system of lymph-vessels, all the tissues are thus nourished. 
All cells both take from and give to the blood, but not the same materials 
or to an equal extent. Some, such as the absorbing cells of the villi, 
almost exclusively give ; others, such as the cells of the renal tubules, 
almost exclusively take. Nevertheless, the resultant of all the give and 
take throughout the body serves to maintain the composition of the 
blood constant under all circumstances. In this way the first condition 
of the maintenance of the life of the aggregate is fulfilled by insuring 
that the life of the individual cells composing it is kept normal. 

The second essential condition for the maintenance of life of the cell- 
aggregate is the co-ordination of its parts and the due regulation of 
their activity, so that they may work together for the benefit of the 
whole. In the animal body this is effected in two ways : first, through 
the nervous system; and second, by the action of specific chemical 
substances which are formed in certain organs and carried by the 
blood to other parts of the body, the cells of which they excite to 
activity. These substances have received the general designation of 
' hormones ' (opfidw, to stir up), a term introduced by Professor Starling. 
Their action, and indeed their very existence, has only been 
recognised of late years, although the part which they play in the 
physiology of animals appears to be only second in importance to that 
of the nervous system itself; indeed, maintenance of life may become 
impossible in the absence of certain of these hormones. 
Part played Before we consider the manner in which the nervous 

by the system serves to co-ordinate the life of the cell-aggregate, 

swrtem'in the ^ et US See ^ OW '* ^ as Decome evolved. 
maintenance The first step in the process was taken when certain of 

^aggregate the cells of the external layer became specially sensitive to 
Evolution o! stimuli from outside, whether caused by mechanical im- 
a nervous pressions (tactile and auditory stimuli) or impressions of 

light and darkness (visual stimuli) or chemical impres- 
sions. The effects of such impressions were probably at first simply 



president's address. 25 

communicated to adjacent cells and spread from cell to cell throughout 
the mass. An advance was made when the more impressionable cells 
threw out branching feelers amongst the other cells of the organism. 
Such feelers would convey the effects of stimuli with greater rapidity 
and directness to distant parts. They may at first have been retractile, 
in this respect resembling the long pseudopodia of certain Ehizopoda. 
When they became fixed they would be potential nerve-fibres and would 
represent the beginning of a nervous system. Even yet (as Boss 
Harrison has shown), in the course of development of nerve-fibres, each 
fibre makes its appearance as an amoeboid cell-process which is at first 
retractile, but gradually grows into the position it is eventually to occupy 
and in which it will become fixed. 

In the further course of evolution a certain number of these 
specialised cells of the external layer sank below the general surface, 
partly perhaps for protection, partly for better nutrition : they became 
nerve-cells. They remained connected with the surface by a prolonga- 
tion which became an afferent or sensory nerve-fibre, and through its 
termination between the cells of the general surface continued to 
receive the effects of external impressions; on the other hand, they 
continued to transmit these impressions to other, more distant cells by 
their efferent prolongations. In the further course of evolution the 
nervous system thus laid down became differentiated into distinct 
afferent, efferent, and intermediary portions. Once established, such 
a nervous system, however simple, must dominate the organism, 
since it would furnish a mechanism whereby the individual cells would 
work together more effectually for the mutual benefit of the whole. 

It is the development of the nervous system, although not proceeding 
in all classes along exactly the same lines, which is the most prominent 
feature of the evolution of the Metazoa. By and through it all impres- 
sions reaching the organism from the outside are translated into contrac- 
tion or some other form of cell-activity. Its formation has been the 
means of causing the complete divergence of the world of animals from 
the world of plants, none of which possess any trace of a nervous 
system. Plants react, it is true, to external impressions, and these 
impressions produce profound changes and even comparatively rapid 
and energetic movements in parts distant from the point of application 
of the stimulus — as in the well-known instance of the sensitive plant. 
But the impressions are in all cases propagated directly from cell to 
cell — not through the agency of nerve-fibres ; and in the absence of 
anything corresponding to a nervous system it is not possible to suppose 
that any plant can ever acquire the least glimmer of intelligence. In 
animals, on the other hand, from a slight original modification of certain 
cells has directly proceeded in the course of evolution the elaborate 
structure of the nervous system with all its varied and complex func- 



26 president's address. 

tions, which reach their culmination in the workings of the human 
intellect. ' What a piece of work is a man ! How noble in reason ! 
How infinite in faculty ! In form and moving how express and admir- 
able ! In action how like an angel ! In apprehension how like a god ! 
But lest he be elated with his psychical achievements, let him remem- 
ber that they are but the result of the acquisition by a few cells in a 
remote ancestor of a slightly greater tendency to react to an external 
stimulus, so that these cells were brought into closer touch with the outer 
world; while on the other hand, by extending beyond the circumscribed 
area to which their neighbours remained restricted, they gradually 
acquired a dominating influence over the rest. These dominating cells 
became nerve-cells ; and now not only furnish the means for trans- 
mission of impressions from one part of the organism to another, but 
in the progress of time have become the seat of perception and con- 
scious sensation, of the formation and association of ideas, of memory, 
volition, and all the manifestations of the mind! 

The most conspicuous part played by the nervous system in the 
phenomena of life is that which produces and regulates the general 
movements of the body — movements brought about by 
Regulation of the so-called voluntary muscles. These movements are 
by the ner- actually the result of impressions imparted to sensory 
vous system. r afferent nerves at the periphery — e.g., in the skin or 
movements. ' n * ne several organs of special sense; the effect of these 
impressions may not be immediate, but can be stored for 
an indefinite time in certain cells of the nervous system. The regu- 
lation of movements — whether they occur instantly after reception of 
the peripheral impression or result after a certain lapse of time ; whether 
they are accompanied by conscious sensation or are of a purely reflex 
and unconscious character- — is an intricate process, and the conditions 
of their co-ordination are of a complex nature involving not merely the 
causation of contraction of certain muscles, but also the prevention of 
contraction of others. For our present knowledge of these conditions 
we are largely indebted to the researches of Professor Sherrington. 

A less conspicuous but no less important part played by the nervous 

system is that by which the contractions of involuntary muscles are 

regulated. Under normal circumstances these are always 

Involuntary independent of consciousness, but their regulation is 
movements. r ° 

brought about in much the same way as is that of the 

contractions of voluntary muscles — viz., as the result of impressions 

received at the periphery. These are transmitted by afferent fibres to 

the central nervous system, and from the latter other impulses are sent 

down, mostly along the nerves of the sympathetic or autonomic system 

of nerves, which either stimulate or prevent contraction of the involun- 



President's address. 27 

tary muscles. Many involuntary muscles have a natural tendency to 
continuous or rhythmic contraction which is quite independent of the 
central nervous system ; in this case the effect of impulses received from 
the latter is merely to increase or diminish the amount of such contrac- 
tion. An example of this double effect is observed in connection with 
the heart, which— although it can contract regularly and rhythmically 
when cut off from the nervous system and even if removed from the 
body— is normally stimulated to increased activity by impulses coming 
from the central nervous system through the sympathetic, or to 
diminished activity by others coming through the vagus. It is due to 
the readiness by which the action of the heart is influenced 
Effects of j n t hese opposite ways by the spread of impulses generated 

emotions. during the nerve-storms which we term ' emotions ' that 

in the language of poetry, and even of every day, the word ' heart ' has 
become synonymous with the emotions themselves. 

The involuntary muscle of the arteries has its action similarly 
balanced. When its contraction is increased, the size of the vessels is 
lessened and they deliver less blood ; the parts they supply accordingly 
become pale in colour. On the other hand, when the contraction is 
diminished the vessels enlarge and deliver more blood ; the parts which 
they supply become correspondingly ruddy. These changes in the 
arteries, like the effects upon the heart, may also be produced under the 
influence of emotions. Thus ' blushing ' is a purely physiological 
phenomenon due to diminished action of the muscular tissue of the 
arteries, whilst the pallor produced by fright is caused by an increased 
contraction of that tissue. Apart, however, from these conspicuous ' 
effects, there is constantly proceeding a less apparent but not less 
important balancing action between the two sets of nerve-fibres dis- 
tributed to heart and blood-vessels ; which are influenced in one direction 
or another by every sensation which we experience and even by impres- 
sions of which we may be wholly unconscious", such as those which 
occur during sleep or anaesthesia, or which affect our otherwise insensi- 
tive internal organs. 

A further instance of nerve-regulation is seen in secreting glands. 
Not all glands are thus regulated, at least not directly; but in those 
which are, the effects are striking. Their regulation is of 
Regulation ol the same general nature as that exercised upon involuntary 
secretion by rnusc le, but it influences the chemical activities of the 
Sst°m. V0US gland-cells and the outpouring of secretion from them. By 
means of this regulation a secretion can be produced or 
arrested, increased or diminished. As with muscle, a suitable balance 
is in this way maintained, and the activity of the glands is adapted to 
the requirements of the organism. Most of the digestive glands are 



28 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

thus influenced, as are the skin-glands which secrete sweat. And by the 

action of the nervous system upon the skin-glands, together 
Regulation of w jth its effect in increasing or diminishing the blood- 
perature?" su pply to the cutaneous blood-vessels, the temperature of 

our blood is regulated and is kept at the point best suited 
for maintenance of the life and activity of the tissues. 

The action of the nervous system upon the secretion of glands is 
strikingly exemplified, as in the case of its action upon the heart and 

blood-vessels by the effects of the emotions. Thus an 
Effects of emotion of one kind — such as the anticipation of food — will 
secretion. cause saliva to flow — ' the mouth to water ' ; whereas an 

emotion of another kind — such as fear or anxiety — will stop 
the secretion, causing the ' tongue to cleave unto the roof of the mouth,' 
and rendering speech difficult or impossible. Such arrest of the sali- 
vary secretion also makes the swallowing of dry food difficult : advan- 
tage of this fact is taken in the ' ordeal by rice ' which used to be 
employed in the East for the detection of criminals. 

The activities of the cells constituting our bodies are controlled, 
as already mentioned, in another way than through the nervous 

system, viz., by chemical agents (hormones) circulating in 
Regulation by * ne blood. Many of these are produced by special 
chemical glandular organs, known as internally secreting glands, 

hormones '^ ne orcunar y secreting glands pour their secretions on the 
Internal exterior of the body or on a surface communicating with 

secretions. th e ex terior ; the internally secreting glands pass the 

materials which they produce directly into the blood. In 
this fluid the hormones are carried to distant organs. Their influence 
upon an organ may be essential to the proper performance of its func- 
tions or may be merely ancillary to it. In the former case removal 
of the internally secreting gland which produces the hormone, or its 
destruction by disease,' may prove fatal to the organism. This is the 

case with the suprarenal capsules : small glands which are 

adjacent to the kidneys, although having no physiological 
connection with these organs. A Guy's physician, Dr. Addison, in 
the middle of the last, century showed that a certain affection, almost 
always fatal, since known by his name, is associated with disease of 
the suprarenal capsules. A short time after this observation a French 
physiologist, Brown-Sequard, found that animals from which the supra- 
renal capsules are removed rarely survive the operation for more than 
a few days. In the concluding decade of the last century interest in 
these bodies was revived by the discovery that they are constantly 
yielding to the blood a chemical agent (or hormone) which stimulates 
the contractions of the heart and arteries and assists in the promotion 
of every action which is brought about through the sympathetic nervous 



president's address. 29 

system (Langley). In this manner the importance of their integrity 
has been explained, although we have still much to learn regarding 
their functions. 

Another instance of an internally secreting gland which is essential 
to life, or at least to its maintenance in a normal condition, is the 
thyroid. The association of imperfect development or 
Thyroid. d\ sease f the thyroid with disorders of nutrition and inac- 

tivity of the nervous system is well ascertained. The form of idiocy 
known as cretinism and the affection termed myxcedema are both asso- 
ciated with deficiency of its secretion : somewhat similar conditions to 
these are produced by the surgical removal of the gland. The symptoms 
are alleviated or cured by the administration of its juice. On the other 
hand, enlargement of the thyroid, accompanied by increase of its 
secretion, produces symptoms of nervous excitation, and similar symp- 
toms are caused by excessive administration of the glandular substance 
by the mouth. From these observations it is inferred that the juice con- 
tains hormones which help to regulate the nutrition of the body and 
serve to stimulate the nervous system, for the higher functions of which 
they appear to be essential. To quote M. Gley, to whose researches we 
owe much of our knowledge regarding the functions of this organ : ' La 
genese et l'exercice des plus hautes facultes de l'homme sont con- 
ditionnes par Taction purement chimique d'un produit de secretion. 
Que les psychologues meditent ces faits ! 

The case of the parathyroid glandules is still more remarkable. 
These organs were discovered by Sandstrom in 1880. They are four 
minute bodies, each no larger than a pin's head, 
Parathyroids. imbedded in the thyroid. Small as they are, their internal 
secretion possesses hormones which exert a powerful influence upon 
the nervous system. If they are completely removed, a complex of 
symptoms, technically known as 'tetany,' is liable to occur, which 
is always serious and may be fatal. Like the hormones of the 
thyroid itself, therefore, those of the parathyroids produce effects upon 
the nervous system, to which they are carried by the blood; although 
the effects are of a different kind. 

Another internally secreting gland which has evoked considerable 
interest during the last few years is the pituitary body. This is a small 
structure no larger than a cob-nut attached to the base of 
Pituitary. ^ brain. It is mainly composed of glandular cells. Its 
removal has been found (by most observers) to be fatal — often within 
two or three days. Its hypertrophy, when occurring during the general 
growth of the body, is attended by an undue development of the skeleton, 
so that the stature tench to assume gigantic proportions. When the 
hypertrophy occurs after growth is completed, the extremities — viz., the 
hands and feet, and the bones of the face — are mainly affected ; hence 



30 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

the condition has been termed ' acromegaly ' (enlargement of extre- 
mities). The association of this condition with affections of the 
pituitary was pointed out in 1885 by a distinguished French physician, 
Dr. Pierre Marie. Both ' giants ' and ' acromegalists ' are almost 
invariably found to have an enlarged pituitary. The enlargement 
is generally confined to one part — the anterior lobe — and we conclude 
that this produces hormones which stimulate the growth of the body 
generally and of the skeleton in particular. The remainder of the 
pituitary is different in structure from the anterior lobe and has a 
different function. From it hormones can be extracted which, like 
those of the suprarenal capsule, although not exactly in the same 
manner, influence the contraction of the heart and arteries. Its 
extracts are also instrumental in promoting the secretion of certain 
glands. When injected into the blood they cause a free secretion of 
water from the kidneys and of milk from the mammary glands, neither 
of which organs are directly influenced (as most other glands are) 
through the nervous system. Doubtless under natural conditions 
these organs are stimulated to activity by hormones which are pro- 
duced in the pituitary and which pass from this into the blood. 

The internally secreting glands which have been mentioned (thyroid, 
parathyroid, suprarenal, pituitary) have, so far as is known, no other 
function than that of producing chemical substances of this character 
for the influencing of other organs, to which they are conveyed by 
the blood. It is interesting to observe that these glands are all of very 
small size, none being larger than a walnut, and some — the parathy- 
roids — almost microscopic. In spite of this, they are essential to the 
proper maintenance of the life of the body, and the total removal of 
any of them by disease or operation is in most cases speedily fatal. 

There are, however, organs in the body yielding internal secretions 

to the blood in the shape of hormones, but exercising at the same time 

_ other functions. A striking instance is furnished by the 

Pancreas. ° J 

pancreas, the secretion of which is the most important of 
the digestive juices. This — the pancreatic juice — forms the external 
secretion of the gland, and is poured into the intestine, where its action 
upon the food as it passes out from the stomach has long been recog- 
nised. It was, however, discovered in 1889 by von Mering and Min- 
kowski that the pancreas also furnishes an internal secretion, containing 
a hormone which is passed from the pancreas into the blood, by which 
it is carried first to the liver and afterwards to the body generally. This 
hormone is essential to the proper utilisation of carbohydrates in the 
organism. It is well known that the carbohydrates of the food are con- 
verted into grape sugar and circulate in this form in the blood, which 
always contains a certain amount ; the blood conveys it to all the cells of 
the body, and they utilise it as fuel. If, owing to disease of the pan- 



president's address. 31 

creas or as the result of its removal by surgical procedure, its internal 
secretion is not available, sugar is no longer properly utilised by the 
cells of the body and tends to accumulate in the blood; from the 
blood the excess passes off by the kidneys, producing diabetes. 

Another instance of an internal secretion furnished by an organ 
which is devoted largely to other functions is the ' pro-secretin ' found 
in the cells lining the duodenum. When the acid gastric 
juice comes into contact with these cells it converts their 
pro-secretin into ' secretin.' This is a hormone which is passed into 
the blood and circulates with that fluid. It has a specific effect on the 
externally secreting cells of the pancreas, and causes the rapid out- 
pouring of pancreatic juice into the intestine. This effect is similar 
to that of the hormones of the pituitary body upon the cells of the 
kidney and mammary gland. It was discovered by Bayliss and 
Starling. 

The reproductive glands furnish in many respects the most interest- 
ing example of organs which — besides their ordinary products, the 

germ- and sperm-cells (ova and spermatozoa) — form 
cretions oi" hormones which circulate in the blood and effect 
the repro- changes in cells of distant parts of the body. It is 
ductive through these hormones that the secondary sexual 

characters, such as the comb and tail of the cock, the 
mane of the lion, the horns of the stag, the beard and enlarged larynx 
of a man, are produced, as well as the many differences in form and 
structure of the body which are characteristic of the sexes. The 
dependence of these so-called secondary sexual characters upon the 
state of development of the reproductive organs has been recognised 
from time immemorial, but has usually been ascribed to influences pro- 
duced through the nervous system, and it is only in recent years that 
the changes have been shown to be brought about by the agency of 
internal secretions and hormones, passed from the reproductive glands 
into the circulating blood." 

It has been possible in only one or two instances to prepare and 
isolate the hormones of the internal secretions in a sufficient condition 

of purity to subject them to analysis, but enough is known 
Chemical about them to indicate that they are organic bodies of a not 

hormones. verv complex nature, far simpler than proteins and even 

than enzymes. Those which have been studied are all 
dialysable, are readily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol, and are 
not destroyed by boiling. One at least — that of the medulla of the 
suprarenal capsule — has been prepared synthetically, and when their 

aG The evidence is to be found in F. H. A. Marshall, The Physiology of Repro- 
duction, 1911. 



32 president's address. 

exact chemical nature has been somewhat better elucidated it will 
probably not be difficult to obtain others in the same way. 

From the above it is clear that not only is a co-ordination through 
the nervous system necessary in order that life shall be maintained in a 
normal condition, but a chemical co-ordination is no less essential. 
These may be independent of one another; but on the other hand they 
may react upon one another. For it can be shown that the production 
of some at least of the hormones is under the influence of the nervous 
system (Biedl, Asher, Elliott); whilst, as we have seen, some of the 
functions of the nervous system are dependent upon hormones. 

Time will not permit me to refer in any but the briefest manner 
to the protective mechanisms which the cell aggregate has evolved 
for its defence against disease, especially disease produced 
chemical ^y parasitic micro-organisms. These, which belong with 

mechanisms, few exceptions to the Protista, are without doubt the 
antitoxins 4 most f° rm idable enemies which the multicellular Meta- 
zoa, to which all the higher animal organisms belong, 
have to contend against. To such micro-organisms are due inter 
alia all diseases which are liable to become epidemic, such as anthrax 
and rinderpest in cattle, distemper in dogs and cats, small-pox, scarlet 
fever, measles, and sleeping sickness in man. The advances of modern 
medicine have shown that the symptoms of these diseases — the disturb- 
ances of nutrition, the temperature, the lassitude or excitement, and 
other nervous disturbances — are the effects of chemical poisons 
(toxins) produced by the micro-organisms and acting deleteriously 
upon the tissues of the body. The tissues, on the other hand, 
endeavour to counteract these effects by producing other chemical 
substances destructive to the micro-organisms or antagonistic 
to their action: these are known as anti-bodies. Sometimes the 
protection takes the form of a subtle alteration in the livin 
substance of the cells which renders them for a long time, 
or even permanently, insusceptible (immune) to the action of the 
poison. Sometimes certain cells of the body, such as the white 
corpuscles of the blood, eat the invading micro-organisms and destroy 
them bodily by the action of chemical agents within their protoplasm. 
The result of an illness thus depends upon the result of the struggle 
between these opposing forces — the micro-organisms on the one hand 
and the cells of the body on the other — both of which fight with 
chemical weapons. If the cells of the body do not succeed in destroy- 
ing the invading organisms it is certain that the invaders will in the 
long run destroy them, for in this combat no quarter is given. For- 
tunately we have been able, by the aid of animal experimentation, 
to acquire some knowledge of the manner in which we are attacked 
by micro-organisms and of the methods which the cells of our body 



o 



president's address. 33 

adopt to repel the attack, and the knowledge is now extensively utilised 
to assist our defence. For this purpose protective serums or anti- 
toxins, which have been formed in the blood of other animals, are 
employed to supplement the action of those which our own cells 
produce. It is not too much to assert that the knowledge of the 
parasitic origin of so many diseases and of the chemical agents which 

on the one hand cause, and on the other combat, their 
Parasitic symptoms, has transformed medicine from a mere art 

diseases. practised empirically into a real science based upon 

experiment. The transformation has opened out an illimit- 
able vista of possibilities in the direction not only of cure, but, more 
important still, of prevention. It has taken place within the memory 
of most of us who are here present. And only last February the world 
was mourning the death of one of the greatest of its benefactors — a 
former President of this Association 27 — who, by applying this know- 
ledge to the practice of surgery, was instrumental, even in his own 
lifetime, in saving more lives than were destroyed fa all the bloody 
wars of the nineteenth century ! 

The question has been debated whether, if all accidental modes of 
destruction of the life of the cell could be eliminated, there would 

remain a possibility of individual cell-life, and even of 
and death. a gg re g ate cell-life, continuing indefinitely ; in other words, 

Are the phenomena of senescence and death a natural and 
necessary sequence to the existence of life ? To most of my audience 
it will appear that the subject is not open to debate. But some 
physiologists {e.g., Metchnikoff) hold that the condition of senescence 
is itself abnormal ; that old age is a form of disease or is due to disease, 
and, theoretically at least, is capable of being eliminated. We have 
already seen that individual cell-life, such as that of the white blood- 
corpuscles and of the cells of many tissues, can under suitable con- 
ditions be prolonged for days or weeks or months after general death. 
Unicellular organisms kept under suitable conditions of nutrition have 
been observed to carry on their functions normally for prolonged periods 
and to show no degeneration such as would accompany senescence. 
They give rise by division to others of the same kind, which also, under 
favourable conditions, continue to live, to all appearance indefinitely. 
But these instances, although they indicate that in the simplest forms 
of organisation existence may be greatly extended without signs of 
decay, do not furnish conclusive evidence of indefinite prolongation of 
life. Most of the cells which constitute the body, after a period of 
growth and activity, sometimes more, sometimes less prolonged, 
eventually undergo atrophy and cease to perform satisfactorily the 

27 Lord Lister was President at Liverpool in 1896. 
1912. D 



34 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

functions which are allotted to them. And when we consider the body 
as a whole, we find that in every case the life of the aggregate consists 
of a definite cycle of changes which, after passing through the stages 
of growth and maturity, always leads to senescence, and finally 
terminates in death. The only exception is in the reproductive cells, 
in which the processes of maturation and fertilisation result in 
rejuvenescence, so that instead of the usual downward change towards 
senescence, the fertilised ovum obtains a new lease of life, which is 
carried on into the new-formed organism. The latter again itself 
ultimately forms reproductive cells, and thus the life of the species 
is continued. It is only in the sense of its propagation in this way 
from one generation to another that we can speak of the indefinite 
continuance of life : we can only be immortal through our descendants ! 
The individuals of every species of animal appear to have 
Average an avera g e duration of existence. 28 Some species are 

life and pos- known the individuals of which live only for a few hours, 
sibihty of its whilst others survive for a hundred years. 29 In man 
himself the average length of life would probably be greater 
than the three-score and ten years allotted to him by the Psalmist 
if we could eliminate the results of disease and accident ; when these 
results are included it falls far short of that period. If the terms of 
life given in the purely mythological part of the Old Testament were 
credible, man would in the early stages of his history have possessed 
a remarkable power of resisting age and disease. But, although many 
here present were brought up to believe in their literal veracity, such 
records are no longer accepted even by the most orthodox of theolo- 
gians, and the nine hundred odd years with which Adam and his 
immediate descendants are credited, culminating in the nine hundred 
and sixty-nine of Methuselah, have been relegated, with the account of 
Creation and the Deluge, to their proper position in literature. When 
we come to the Hebrew Patriarchs, we notice a considerable diminu- 
tion to have taken place in what the insurance offices term the ' ex- 
pectation of life.' Abraham is described as having lived only to 175^ 
years, Joseph and Joshua to 110, Moses to 120; even at that age 
' his eye was not dim nor his natural force abated. ' We cannot say 
that under ideal conditions all these terms are impossible; indeed, 
M* whnikoff is disposed to regard them as probable; for great ages are 
still occasionally recorded, although it is doubtful if any as consider- 
able as these are ever substantiated. That the expectation of life was 

" This was regarded by Buffon as related to the period of growth, but the 
ratio is certainly not constant. The subject is discussed by Ray Lankester in an 
early work : On Comparative Longevity in Man and Animals, 1870. 

" The approximately regular periods of longevity of different species of 
animals furnishes a strong argument against the theory that the decay of old 
age is an accidental phenomenon, comparable with disease. 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 35 

better then than now would be inferred from the apologetic tone adopted 
by Jacob when questioned by Pharaoh as to his age : ' The days of the 
years of my pilgrimage are a hundred and thirty years; few and evil 
have the days of the years of my life been, and have not attained unto 
the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their 
pilgrimage. ' David, to whom, before the advent of the modern 
statistician, we owe the idea that seventy years is to be regarded as the 
normal period of life, 30 is himself merely stated to have ' died in a good 
old age. ' The periods recorded for the Kings show a considerable falling- 
off as compared with the Patriarchs; but not a few were cut off by 
violent deaths, and many lived lives which were not ideal. Amongst 
eminent Greeks and Romans few very long lives are recorded, and 
the same is true of historical persons in mediaeval and modern 
history. It is a long life that lasts much beyond eighty ; three such 
linked together carry us far back into history. Mankind is in this 
respect more favoured than most mammals, although a few of these 
surpass the period of man's existence. 31 Strange that the brevity of 
human life should be a favourite theme of preacher and poet when the 
actual term of his ' erring pilgrimage ' is greater than that of most 
of his fellow-creatures ! 

The modern applications of the principles of preventive medicine and 
hygiene are no doubt operating to lengthen the average life. But even 
if the ravages of disease could be altogether eliminated, it is certain that 
at any rate the fixed cells of our body must eventually grow 
me 6nd ° ! °^ anc * ultimately cease to function ; when this happens to 
cells which are essential to the life of the organism, general 
death must result. This will always remain the universal law, from 
which there is no escape. 'All that lives must die, passing through 
nature to eternity. ' 

Such natural death unaccelerated by disease — is not death by disease 
as unnatural as death by accident? — should be a quiet, painless pheno- 
menon, unattended by violent change. As Dastre expresses it, ' The 
need of death should appear at the end of life, just as the need of sleep 
appears at the end of the day.' The change has been led gradually up 
to by an orderly succession of phases, and is itself the last manifestation 
of life. Were we all certain of a quiet passing — were we sure that 
there would be ' no moaning of the bar when we go out to sea ' — we 
could anticipate the coming of death after a ripe old age without appre- 
hension. And if ever the time shall arrive when man will have learned 
to regard this change as a simple physiological process, as natural as 

30 The expectation of life of a healthy man of fifty is still reckoned at about 
twenty years. 

31 ' Hominis sevum caeterorum animalium omnium superat prater admodum 
paucorum.' — Francis Bacon, Historia vita et mortis, 1637. 

d 2 



36 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

the oncoming of sleep, the approach of the fatal shears will be as gener- 
ally welcomed as it is now abhorred. Such a day is still distant; we 
can hardly say that its dawning is visible. Let us at least hope that, 
in the manner depicted by Diirer in his well-known etching, the sun- 
shine which science irradiates may eventually put to flight the melan- 
choly which hovers, bat-like, over the termination of our lives, and 
which even the anticipation of a future happier existence has not 
hitherto succeeded in dispersing. 



EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OE SCIENCE. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The farther Tabulation of Bessel and other Functions. — Report oj 
the Committee, consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill {Chair- 
man), Dr. J. W. Nicholson (Secretary), Professor Alfred 
Lodge, Professor L. N. G. Filon, Sir George Greenhill, and 
Mr. J. E. Airey. 

Part I. — Elliptic Functions. 

The calculations of the Committee have proceeded steadily during the 
year, and the results are given in four sheets of tables for four modular 
angles. 

Sir George Greenhill has prepared the following statement for the 
explanation of the notation, and of the mode of use of the Tables for 
the various applications which may arise : — 

The Notation and Use of the Elliptic Function Table. 

The Elliptic Integral which arises in a physical problem of Dynamics 
or Electro-magnetism requires to be carried out to a numerical result, 
and with as little delay as possible ; but so far Table IX. in Legendre's 
' Fonctions ellipliques' is the only source available for reducing the 
labour of the calculation. 

This Table IX. of Legendre gives F(</>), the First Elliptic Integral, 
and E(</>) the Second Elliptic Integral, for every degree of <j>, and for 
every degree of the modular angle ; these are defined by 

(i) F ^)=fiv e(0)=ja^>, 



(2) A <p = s/ (1 — k 2 sin 2 (/>), k = sin 8, k = cos 0. 

Legendre has shown that F(<p) and E(</>), together with the com- 
plete functions F(|tt) and E(|tt), denoted by K and E, are sufficient 
for the numerical calculation of the Third Elliptic Integral, when 
complete ; as required, for instance, for £1, the conical angle subtended 
by a circular or elliptic disc, which gives the magnetic potential for 
uniform normal magnetisation, or the apsidal angle of a spinning-top. 

But for the general incomplete Elliptic Integral of the Third Kind 
(E. I. III.) the Theta and Eta function of Jacobi is required, and these 
are given in the Table by the function 

(3) 
defined by 

(4) 
(5) 



A(r), 


B(r), CM, D(r), 


DM = ®<* K > 
Ki ©(OK)' 


AW = HW_ r = 90; „ 


C(r) t= D(90 - r), 


B(r) =fa A(90 - »■), 



40 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

For this purpose it is convenient to follow Abel and take ¥((f>) 
or hK as the argument in the Table, instead of <f> as in Legendre's 
Table IX., and to proceed in the tabulation with equal increments of 

¥(f), or hK, or * K ; dividing K into 90 degrees, instead of taking equal 

i/VJ 

degree intervals in 4>, as in Legendre's Table IX. 

In this new arrangement r and hK = - K, or F(«p), proceeds by 

equal steps of 1 degree in the quadrant ; and then (j> is tabulated in the 
column adjacent, and ^ in the column adjacent to F(^) or (1 — h)K or 

M _ r ) K ; and in Jacobi's notation <b is the amplitude function of hK, 

and denoted by 

(6) <p = am hK, \1> = am(l — h)K. 
Further, in Gudermann's abbreviation of Jacobi's notation 

(7) sin <p = sn hK, cos <j> = en hK, Af = AnhK; 

and Jacobi shows that, expressed by the function D(r), A(r), B(r), C(r), 
of the Table 

»?"-&$& on " K =!<?>• *«■-?* $ ! 

implying 

(9) A(0) = B(90) = 0, A(90) = B(0) = 1, 
D(0) = C(90) = 1, D(90) = C(0) = ~ 

V K 

instead of Jacobi's ®(hK) and H(feK). 

The function D(r) and A(r), defined in (4), is tabulated, qualified 
by a denominator, because D(r), A(r). . . can be expressed exactly by 
surds at the aliquot division values of the quadrant, such as 

(10) r = 45 ; 30, 60 ; 18, 36, 54, 72 ; 15, 75, 2% . . . 

just as the corresponding values in a Circular Function Table, to which 
the Elliptic Function degenerates when the modular angle 6 = ; and 
then 

(11) A(r) = sinr°, B(r) = cos r°, D(r) = C(r) = 1. 

An important check is introduced thereby on the accuracy of the 
numerical calculation ; these check values are mentioned as they arise, 
and the algebraical formulas were stated in the Report, 1911, the theory 
being given in ' Phil. Trans.,' A, 1904. 

For the Second Elliptic Integral the function E (r) is tabulated, or 
F(r) = E(90 — r) ; and these are given in terms of Jacobi's Zeta function 
by 

(12) E(r) = zn hK, F(r) = zn (1 - h)K ; 
and connected with Legendre's function E(<p) by 

(13) zn hK =Efo) - hE = Efo) - 5 Ffo ). 



ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 41 

Jacobi has shown that the Zeta function is connected with the Theta 
function bv the relation 

In a physical problem, as of Electro-magnetism or Dynamics, it is 
the Elliptic Integral which makes an appearance; and the physical 
student will be anxious to arrive at a numerical result without delay 
by utilising a Table of the Function. 

The integral which arises can be made to depend on three standard 
forms, called the First, Second, and Third Elliptic Integrals (I., II., and 

HI- E. I.). 

These three integrals can be reduced to depend on the differential 

elements 

ds . \ ds 1 ds 

W 7s' (s ~ ff) sTs' T^TB' 

where S is a cubic in the variable s, which may be written 

(16) B = 4 (s -*,)(* - s 2) ( s - s s) 

when resolved into factors. 

Normalised to a standard form, of zero dimensions, the three 
integrals are written 

, r , h/(«,- *,)& (II ) f _ . s -^ ds . (III.) fb^ *± 

2 denoting the value of S for s = a, and assuming a sequence 

(17) oo > s> s x > s 2 > s> s 3 > — co. 

Taking, for example, the interval s 2 >s>s 3 , the substitution 

(18) s — s 3 = (s 2 — s 3 ) sin 2 ^, 

s 2 — s = (s 2 — s 3 ) cos 2 ^>, 
Si — s= (s, — s 3 ) A 2 rf>, 

(19) sin 2 tf = v 2 = S - 2 -— S - 3 , cos 2 = *' 2 = ^^i- 2 , 

Sl — s 3 s t — s 3 

reduces (I.) to Legendre's standard form in (1) : 



where » 3 in- 

(21) [ V(*i— s a )<k = f ^ = K. 
J n/S J A 

Then (II.) becomes 

(22) fa 1 -L») - < s > _ s) -&- = *'"" g f-^- - f A?<to 

j 3 



S[ — s 3 



¥(f)-E(f), 



a — S 3 _ 1 


a — S-2 


A 2 X 


" — s l _. C03 2 x 


s 2 — s 3 k 9 sin 2 x ' 


S 2 S 3 


k 2 sin 2 x ' 


«i - *s sin 2 x 



42 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

and so depends on Legendre's Second Elliptic Integral E(</>), as well 
as F((f>). 

Legendre has shown that (III.), taken as a definite integral between 
the limits s 2 an d s 3> can be expressed by F(<t>) and E(</>), K and E, by 
means of the equation (p') of his ' Fonclions elliptiqucs,' I., p. 141 ; 
thus, taking the sequence 

(23) oo > a > s x >s 2 >s > s 3 > — oo, 
so as to avoid an infinity in the integral, 

(24) g^l <f Kzs/K, 

Jo- — s s/ a 

h 

and similarly, by an interchange of s and a, 

CO 

(25) f i^i 4- = K zn 7j.K = K Efo) - EF(</,), 

J <r — S V 2 
but now 

(26) 

*i — *3 •>" aui"x 

F( x )=/K, 

but and 7tK are given as before in (18), (19), (20). 
The function zs/K in (24) is defined by 

(27) Kzs/K = Kzn/K + K mf ^% fK 

= KE( X ) - BF( X ) + K c -^^, 

sin x 

= KE (x )-EF (x ) + K^/( : -5 Sj)(8i _ Si) 

But for a corrected Integral of the III. kind, between the limits 
s 3 and *•, the Jacobian Theta function is required ; and 

t, 

while 

CO 

in the notation of the Tables, with 

(30) r = 90h, g=0. 



*.)(«■ - **) 



ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 43 

Or with a between a a and s 3 , S2>s, «>s 3 , when <r — s can vanish, 
and the integral becomes infinite 

where 

(33) g ~* 3 = sn 2 /K, S3 ~ g = cn 2 /K, s l^ ff = dnVK, g = 90/. 
s 2 — s 3 s 2 — s 3 s, - s 3 

Putting hK = u, /K = v, these formulas are obtained by a double 
integration with respect to u of the relation 

.„., , „. , -, „ , x — 4k 2 sn v en v dn v sn u en it dn m , 

(34) dn 2 (t; + «) — dn 2 (v — «) = 7 - 5 — 2 5~\1 ; 

v ' v ' v (1 — k- 2 sn 2 v sn 2 w) 2 

the first integration gives 

n en d dn « 

(35) Eam(»+ m) + Eam(i)-w) = C- \ ™-2 — ^ ; 

v ' v ; ' v ■ 1 — ». 2 sn 2 i; sn 2 w' 

(36) E am (v + it) +Eam(o- 11) — 2 E am v 

ncnv dnj; 
_ „ en <o dn v sn « 



sn v 1 — /c 2 sn 2 y sn 2 « 

or, in Jacobi's notation, 

,__. , . . . n — 2 «: 2 sn v en v dn v sn 2 % 

(37) zn (u + «) + zn (v — «) - 2 zn « = , 5 — 2 -2 — — 

v f v ' N 1 — k 2 sn 2 'y sd^m 

Defining Jacobi's Theta function by 

( 38) ^fQ^-ima. **/*>** 

v ' dw ©0 

and integrating (37) again with respect to u 

(39) log ®(v + u) — log ®(v — u) — 2 m zn 1; 



u 

-I 



2 k 2 sn v en d rev sn 2 M 



du, 



1 — r /c 2 sn 2 i> sn 2 w 


and this integral is Jacobi's standard form of the Third Elliptic Integral, 
and denoted by II. (u, v). 
Then, with the notation 

(40) zsu = znt)+ — = , log H(u) 

suv dv 

u 

r en v dn v 

, t - t \ I snv j 11 ®(v — u) 

(41) 1 „ 1 " 1 „ 1 du = uzsv + h log -) — :, 
v ' J 1 - K 2 sn 2 u sn 2 « 2 B 0(t> + m) 





44 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1§12. 

and this integral is converted into the form (III.) by putting 
(42) sn 2 w = i-^ 3 , cn% = s * ~ s , &n 2 u = s L" s , 

S 2 — S3 S 2 — S 3 S l — S3 

/.o\ 1 _ c — s 3 dn 2 # a — s 2 cn 2 « __ ff — s 3 

c* sn^v s 2 — s 3 ir sn'v s 2 — s 3 sn^u S! — s 3 
with the sequence 

(44) 00 > a> Si >s 2 >s>s 3 > —00. 

So also for the other forms, and thus all these integrals can be made 
to depend on the numerical value of a function in these Tables, with 
the addition of an algebraical or logarithmic function in the general 
case. 

But, unfortunately, in the physical problem it is the circular form, 
so called by Legendre, of the Third Elliptic Integral which is required ; 
here n lies in the interval s v >a> s,, or s 3 > <r> — 00 ; so that 2 is 
negative, and the standard form must be changed to 

m fiL=3 * . 

The elliptic parameter v is now a fraction of the imaginary period, 
so that the Theta and D function required would have a complex argu- 
ment, and the tabular value is not available. 

The complete integral is expressible, however, by the function ~F(<j>) 
and E(<p) ; thus, from Legendre's equation (in') F. E., 1. 1., p. 138, we 
lind, with 

s, ><r>s 2 > s> s 3 



^~P %=W+Kzn/K'=KE'( X )-(K-E)F( X ), 



w 2 

(46) j I 

where 

(47) sin 2 x = sn 2 /K' = ^^ , 

Sj — s 2 



A 2 x = dn 2 /K' = 



cos 2 y = cn 9 /"K' 

s, — s 2 



a — S 3 



s i — s 2 

and the accent in E'(x) and F'(x) implies the complementary 
modulus «.'. 

So also for the other forms of the integral ; thus 



00 



(48) [W(~2) .<** = i, ( i _/) _ K zn/K', 

J S — a V b 

and four times this integral will give the expression for £1, the conical 
angle subtended by a circular or elliptic disc at a point, the equivalent 
of the magnetic potential for normal magnetisation. 

The same complete Elliptic Integral of the Third Kind is required 
for the determination of the apsidal angle in the Spherical Pendulum 
or of the symmetrical spinning top. 



ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC.. FUNCTIONS. 45 

As another physical application, consider the potential V of a circular 
disc treated as a plane circle ; then, with Maxwell's notation in § 701, 
' Electricity and Magnetism,' V may be considered a homogeneous 
function of a, A, b, of the first degree ; 

< 49 > Y = a cU +A M + b db- 

Here , is the potential of the rim circumference, and so is given by 

/*(\\ -d _dV _ ( add 

u 

(51) PQ 2 = a? + 2Aa cos 6 + A 2 + 6 2 = r, 2 cos 2 ^0 + r 2 2 sin 2 £0, 

r x and r 2 denoting the greatest and least distance of P from the circle ; 
and putting t) = 2w, 

(52) PQ = V(r! 2 cos *w + r 2 2 sin 2 *) = r 1 V(l - c 2 sin 2 *) = r, A a, 

c « = i _ *v ' = L 2 , 

V r x 


/7A7 

Next — =£ is the component of attraction norma to the disc, or the 

magnetic potential for uniform normal magnetisation ; and so is given 
by ii, the conical angle subtended at P, which depends on the complete 
Elliptic Integral of the Third Kind. 

And Maxwell's M, the coefficient of mutual induction between two 
parallel circles of radius a and A, a distance b apart, is the Stokes 
function of £1 ; 

(54) M = - 2^A ^X = f ~ 2?rAa cos Odd 
V ' dA J PQ 

,Kt:\ dN [a cos Odd ~ 

(55) dA = j-pQ— =_Q ' 

where Q is the component attraction of the disc parallel to a diameter, 
or the magnetic potential when magnetised uniformly in its plane 
Then * 

•2-n \ir 

(56) 4- E — f ffl (l "" c os tfdQ _ ("8a sin 2 wdw 

J PQ r x Aw 

o o 

_8afl-A 2 w, 8aP-E ^ _,,, . 
- rTj c 2 A*T d " = rT -?-» E = E( ^' C) - 

(57) Q = ^(2 F ^1 E - F ). 

Thus 

(58) V = aE - AQ - 6fl, 



46 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

where R, Q, £2 are given by the Elliptic Integral of the First, Second, 
and Third Kind ; and a numerical result is obtained more quickly than 
by the use of the expansion in Spherical Harmonies. 

T^e expression of £2 in terms of functions of the modulus c or 
c' is 

(59) O = 2ir (1 -/) - 2F zn 2/F - 2Ec' sn 2/F, 
where 

(60) sn 2/F = b , en 2/F = A ~ a , dn 2/F = ^±f , 

r 2 r. 2 r, 

and a Quadric Transformation is required, as in Maxwell's § 702, for the 
expression of £2 in the form given in (48), 

(61) O = 2tt (1 -/) - 4K zn/K', 
and then 

(62) P = 



r x + r, 
M = 2ttQA = 4tt (r, + r 2 ) (K - H) = 8«V(Aa) K ~ H i 

V K 



where 
(63) 



1 - c' _ r, - u j K= 2y/(Aft) 



1 + C r x + r 2 r x + r 2 

K=|(l+c')F, H = E(^7r,,). 

When the disc is dished to a spherical surface of radius c, the 
potential V assumes a simpler form, given in the ' American Journal of 
Mathematics,' xxxiii., p. 387, by 

(64) V = ctl + r' $2', 

where £2' denotes the apparent area at F, the inverse point of P in 
the spherical surface, at a distance r' from the centre ; and it is not 
easy to deduce the particular form in (58) by proceeding to c = oo, to 
obtain a flat disc. 

In a more general form, the Elliptic Integral will appear in the 
standard shape 

(65) ^i.ors^or^)^, 

where X is a quartic function of x, which we suppose resolved into 
factors 

(66) X = {x - n) (aj - /3) (x - y) (x - I). 

The reduction to a preceding form in the variable s is made by a 
linear transformation depending on the correspondence 



(67) J 


CO, 


a, ft, y, oo, 

Si, s 2 , S 3 , <T, 


k 

r 




so that 








ic\a\ x ~ a — s s i 


1 


X — /3 _s — s 2 
X — ? <r — S, 


x — y _ s — s 3 


X — (T — S, 


X 


— d a — S 3 



ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 47 

,£qv x — k _ s — t x — 2 a — t x — k s — r . 

X — 3 a — t c — ft s — a 3 — k s — <r' 

(70) x ~ ^ = < 7 ~ * ' ^ _ cfe \/X _y§^ n/K _ n/T 

1 tt-a <r-s' £ - r5 or-s' (s^lp Vs' (A; — a] 2 x/2 

if K, T is the value of X, S, for x = k, $ = r. 
The homogeneity factor 

M = W[(«-y)(/3-3)] 

will make 
(71) 

and then 

(72) 

in which 



Mdx _ n/(s, — s 3 )ds 
(x — h)dx _ (x — ? + <5 — h)dx 



s 7S' 



(73) f (# ~ Wx _ f v/S 

J VX J <T — , 

(74) f V J 5 , -^ is made to depend on [ VT A ; 
V ; |ps - k n/X ^ J r - s n/S 

because, conversely 

(75) VT <Zs ._ 3 — ft v'T n/S ds_ 

_ 3, -ft _n/K (a;-?)daj 
a;- ft (a - ft) 2 VX 

- ( 1 1 \ n/K^x 

" V - ft a "- ft/ VX ' 

The integrals in (65) can thus be made to depend on a numerical 
value entered in the Table, of which four specimen pages are given 
here, calculated for the modular angle 

= 15°, 45°, 75°, and 80° 1, when K = 2K\ 

It will serve no useful purpose to go much below 0=15°, as the 
functions are then indistinguishable from 

D (r) = 1 + -"-^ ver 2r° 

W K 

C (r) = 1 + 1 ~// ver 2(90 - r)° 

A (r) = sin r°, B (r) = cos r° 
E (r) = P (r) = i (1 - *') sin 2r°. 



48 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



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ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 49 



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50 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 





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t» x 


CM CO »0 


r- cs 


CM CO LO 


t» X O 


r-i X T 










rH rH rH 


rH rH CM 


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co 10 ao 


co 10 


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CC1X 


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ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OP BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 53 



00 tr- CO 


ID HI CO 


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CO CM rH 


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tr- CO »D 


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7 


©1 CM CM 


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3 



64 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 




XXX 





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ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 55 



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56 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 19] 2. 



Part II. — Bessel Functions. 

During the course of the year Professor A. G. Webster has kindly 
placed at the disposal of the Committee some tables of Lord Kelvin's 
functions ber x, bei x, and their derivates which he has calculated. 
The importance and value of these Tables, which will be of especial 
service to electrical engineering, are such that the Committee feel justi- 
fied in undertaking their publication in their report. They are also 
desirous that Professor Webster should be elected to the Committee. 
The Tables are given on pp. 57-68. 

A short table of the Bessel functions was printed by the Association 
in 1896. 

The grant of 15Z. has been expended in connexion with the Tables 
of Elliptic Functions — the special purpose for which it was given by 
the Association. The Committee desires to apply this year for an 
increased grant of 30Z., which would greatly facilitate the work. 

The Committee does not feel justified in asking the Association to 
print further Tables this year, and is accordingly reserving a report on 
the remainder of the work until next year. • 



ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 57 



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REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1912. 



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ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 59 




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60 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



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62 



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1912. 



66 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1912. 



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ON THE FURTHER TABULATION OF BESSEL, ETC., FUNCTIONS. 67 



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F 2 



68 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 



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ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



69 



Seismological Investigations.— Seventeenth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. H. Turner (Chairman), 
Mr. J. Milne (Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Sir George 
Darwin, Mr. Horace Darwin, Dr. K. T. Glazebrook, Mr. 
M. H. Gray, Mr. E. K. Gray, Professor J. W. Judd, Pro- 
fessor C. G. Knott, Professor K. Meldola, Mr. E. D. Old- 
ham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Dr. E. A. 
Sampson, and Professor A. Schuster. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 

[Plates I. and II.] 

Contents. rAGE 

NO. 

I. General Notes— Registers — Visitors— New Stations — Situation of Zikaivei 

aid Agincourt J.'-' 

II. Seismic Activity, 1904 to 1910 inclusive, with map of origins . . .70 

III. Relation of Amplitude in Seconds of Arc to the Distance of an Origin . . 88 

IV. Direction of Earthquake Motion 90 

V. Relative Duration of Two Rectangidar Components of Earth-Movement 

at a given Station 91 

VI. Megaseismic Activity and Periods of Quiescence 92 

VII. Megaseismic Frequency in Different Seasons 92 

VIII. Earthquake Periodicity 94 

IX. On a New Periodicity in Earthquake Frequency, by Professor H. H. Turner 95 
X. Intervals in Days from the Commencement of One Group to the Commence- 
ment of another .97 

XI. Intervals and Days between Successive Megaseisms in Particular Districts . 97 

XII. Geographical Distribution of Megaseisms and Thermometry Gradients . . 97 

XIII. A Possible Cause of Megaseismic Activity 101 

XIV 7 . Seismic and Volcanic Activity 102 

XV. On the Mitigation of Air Tremors at Cardiff 102 

I. General Notes. 

The above Committee seek to be reappointed with a grant of 601. 

During the last year the expenditure in connection with seismological 
work exceeded 320Z. Oat of this sum 2001. had kindly been placed 
at the disposal of your Secretary by the Government Grant Committee 
of the Eoyal Society. This covered the salaries of two assistants, with- 
out whom it would not have been possible to carry out the work at 
Shide and that connected with fifty co-operating stations. 

Registers.— During the last year Circulars Nos. 24 and 25 have 
been issued. They refer to Shide, Kew, Bidston, Guildford, Stony- 
lnirst, West Bromwich, Haslemere, Edinburgh, Paisley, Eskdalemuir, 
Ponta Delgada, St. Vincent, San Fernando. Eio Tinto, Valetta, Cairo, 
Mauritius, Cape of Good Hope, St. Helena, Ascension, Fernando 
Noronha, Seychelles, Lima, Baltimore, Toronto, Victoria, B.C., 
Alipore, Bombay, Kodaikanal, Colombo, Cocos Island, Tokyo, Honolulu, 
Perth, Sydney, Wellington. 

Many of the Begisters are received monthly. On arrival, the com- 
mencement and maximum of each disturbance they record are entered 
on a sheet opposite the date on which they were rioted, and beneath the 
name of the station to which they refer. A glance at this table shows 



70 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1912. 

whether a given earthquake was noted at only one or at several stations. 
In the former case the original entry is rejected, and these uncorrobo- 
rated entries are frequently so numerous that registers have to be re- 
copied before they are passed on to the press. All entries in the cir- 
culars, therefore, refer to disturbances which have affected large areas. 
If this course were not pursued the list of local earthquakes for many 
districts would contain possibly one thousand or more entries per year. 
Another reason for not publishing local disturbances is that a catalogue 
of this description is prepared by the International Seismological 
Association. 

Visitors. — The largest party of visitors to the Observatory at Shide 
was some seventy members of the British Association. Among others 
who came for instruction or to obtain special information were the 
following: Dr. E. Naumann, from Frankfurt; Dr. P. Omori ; Major 
A. J. Peile, E.A. ; K. C. Franck, University of Paris; Maxwell Hall, 
from Jamaica; Professor J. Perry; W. E. Plummer; Professor J. W. 
Gregory; J. J. Shaw; E. T. Cottingharn, who kindly put our regulator 
in order; Hon. H. Lockward, from Bermuda; Sir William Crookes ; 
Mrs. L. H. Hoover; M. II. Gray; J. Woodrow, Jun. ; Rev. F. E. 
Pigot, S.J. ; Professor H. H. Turner; Professor T. Swain. 

Stations. — Paisley: At the Coats Observatory arrangements are 
being made for the installation of a twin-boom seismograph. 

A new station is to be established at Accra on the Gold Coast. 

Records are now being received from the Seychelles and Cocos, 
and shortly it is expected that records will be received from Fiji. 

Situation of Stations. 

Zikawei. — This station is on a plain of alluvium as flat as the sea, 
extending in certain directions 30 km. and in other directions more than 
100 kin. The alluvium is said to be about 100 metres deep. Two 
Omori pendulums are fixed each on a block of concrete (O'SOxl'OO 
x 1'80 metres). A Wiechert astatic seismometer of 1,000 kilo- 
grammes is on a similar block (1*00 xl - 45>< 1-65 metres). Water is 
found in the ground at a depth of 1'5 to 2 metres. The building (which 
is the old magnetic room) is composed of two concentric rooms to avoid 
effects due to rapid variations of temperature. It is 10 kilometres 
distant from Shanghai and far away from a public road. The terminus 
of the tramways on the Zikawei road is about 800 metres distant. 

Agincourl. — This station is nine miles from Toronto. It is on 
alluvial soil of very considerable depth. The underlying rocks at 
Toronto and Agincourt are the same (Hudson Eiver Shale). The drift 
deposits no doubt are different to some degree, but there are no sections 
from Agincourt to compare with those at Toronto. 

II. Seismic Activity, 1904 to 1909 inclusive. 

The following catalogue is continuous with the one in the British 
Association Report for 1911, p. 57. The earthquakes to which it refers 
have been recorded at stations all over the world, or at stations repre- 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



71 



senfcing an area of not less than two continents. The number given to 
an earthquake corresponds to that which is given to the same disturbance 
in the Shide Eegister published in British Association circulars. On 
the map, a number underlined means that it was recorded all over 
the world, but if it is not underlined means that it only disturbed 
a hemisphere. For the methods in which the positions of origins 
have been determined reference must be made to the British 
Association Report, 1911. When the time at which an earthquake 
originated is followed by plus or minus so many minutes, this means 
that there is a corresponding uncertainty in the position of its origin. 
The names of places at which an earthquake has been felt are followed 
by the letter F. If destruction has taken place, this is indicated by 
the letter D. The dotted lines on the map are the axes or troughs of 
districts from which megaseisms have radiated. 



Date 


No. 


1904 




Jan. 


7 


804 


>> 


10 


805 


ft 


20 


806 


»» 


29 


807 


Feb. 


4 


810 


Mar. 


1 


820 


>» 


4 


823 


j> 


16 


8236 


>» 


19 


826 


j> 


31 


832 


it 


31 


833 


April 


4 


834 | 


>> 


5 


835 




10 


836 


99 


11 


837 


»> 


12 


838 


99 


14 


839 


99 


24 


841 


May 


1 


845 


>» 


1 


847 


j» 


1 


848 


>) 


14 


851 


June 


7 


857 


99 


18 


857c 


5» 


24 


858 


)> 


25 


859 


99 


25 


860 


J» 


26 


861 


J» 


27 


863 


July 


1 


865 


»» 


10 


869 



Time 
at Origin 



h. m. 
14.50ca 
2.46 
14.50±2 

0.6±3 

20.40^2 

16.10±2 

10.19±3 

7.25c« 



6.28±2 

2.16±1 

5.45±1 

10.3 1 

10.26 j 

10.20 



8.51.5 
13.55ca 
18.48ca 

1.8±3 

6.38 

6.37ca 
15.24ca 

23.20ca 
14.0ca 

8.15 

6.6ca 

1.4 
14.46 
21.1 
10.41 

0.10 
13.29 
23-0ca 



District 



B 

*\ 
M, 



D, 

K 3 
K 7 
K, 



K 7 
F t 
P 

Ft 
E, 
M, 
F t 

Ft 
P 

E, 
M, 

E x 
Et 
E, 
E, PQ 
E t 
Et 
H 



Lat. and Long, 
of Origin 



175 E. 50 S. 
155 E. 7 S. 

82 W. 7 N. 

143 E. 3 N. 

85 W. 1 S. 
178 W. 13 S. 

76 W. 12 S. 
160 E. N.S. 



71 W. 29 S. 
89 E. 31 N. 
89 E. 31 N. 

23 E. 

105 E. 



42 N. 



30 N. 



23 E. 42 N. 
165 E. 13 S. 
175 W. 44 N. 
135 E. 15 N. 
126 E. 23.5N. 
178 W. 33 S. 

130 E. 2 N. 



130 E. 
170 W. 
144 E. 
139 W. 
160 E. 
160 E. 
160 E. 
166 E. 
160 E. 
148 E. 

45 W. 



2N. 
47 N. 
38 N. 

14 S. 
53 N. 
53 N. 
53 N. 
42 N. 
53 N. 
42 N. 

ION. 



Remarks 
F=Felt : D=Destructivt 



Costa Rica and 
Panama, F. 



Lima, D. 

Determined from 

Manila, Batavia, 
Christchurch and 
Honolulu 

Chile, Vallenar, D. 



Macedonia, Kossovo 
and Salonika, D. 

China, Ssuchuan, D. 
Also Taichu, For- 
mosa, 10-20, F. 



Formosa, Tainan, D. 

Ceram, Amahei, at 
15.29, F. 



Petropaulovski, F. 



72 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 









Seismic Activity 


— continued. 








I 


Time 




Lat. and Long. 


Remarks 


Date 


No. 


at Origin 


District 


of Origin 


F=Felt : D = Destructive 


1904 


h. m. 








July 


23 


870 


0.28 


E 2 


133 E. 5 S. 


Fak-Fak, New 
Guinea, F. Perth 
record does not 
agree. 


II 


24 


872 


10.45±3 


E, 


160 E. 53 N. 


Petropaulovski, F. 


|J 


27 


873 


5.20 


K 3 


72 E. 33 N. 




|| 


27 


874 


15.30 


M, 


179 E. 2 N. 




Aug. 


8 


877 


22.49.3 


M x 


179 E. 42 S. 


Wellington, New 
Zealand, F. 


|| 


11 


878 


6.6 


K 5 


27 E. 38 N. 


Samos, D. 


ff 


14 


879 


2.49 


M t 


180 E. 40 S. 


New Zealand, Wai- 
pawa, F. 


>> 


18 


881 


4.42 


E 2 


119 E. 10 S. 


Bima and Lonibok, 

F. 
Samos, Chios, Smyr- 


If 


18 


882 


20.5.5 


K 5 


27 E. 38 N. 














na, F. 


J» 


24 


884 


21.0 


E 3 


135 E. 32 N. 




») 


27 


885 


21.56±2 


A, 


141 W. 67 N. 




II 


30 


886 


11.41 


K, 


101 E. 30 N. 


Tachien In, Ssuchuan, 
D. 


Sept. 


8 


888 


2.29 


F, 


135 E. 8 N. 


J» 


11 


889 


5.4S 3 


K, 


106 E. 23 N. 




II 


13 


890 


17.5 5 


M, 


170 W. 32 S. 




J» 


19 


892 


4.56 


M, 


180 E. 20 S. 




»» 


25 


8956 


15.10m 


M, 


160 E. 40 S. 




f* 


27 


896 


15.9r« 


G, 


38 E. 38 S. 




Oct, 


1 


8986 


10.10 


E 3 


126 E. 7 N. 


C'araga, Davao, Cota- 
bato, D. 


j> 


2 


899 


21.50 


E t 


160 E. 50 N. 




,» 


3 


900 


3.3 


C'i 


61 E. 7 N. 




,» 


8 


903 


18.36 


E 3 


122 E. 18 N. 


Ilocos Norte and 
Cagayan, D. 


,, 


9 


904 


13.51 


J 


15 W. 70 N. 


Another earthquake 
near Wellington, 
at 13.58 ; Nam- 
dalam, Norway, at 
14.0 ; also Quito, 
at 14.15, F. 


•> 


28 


911 


13.51 


F 2 


113 E. 8S. 


E. Java, Batoe, in 
Pasoervean, D. 


Nov. 


5 


918 


20.25 


E 3 


120 F. 23 N. 


Time and origin 
given by Omori ; 
Formosa, D. 


>» 


6 


919 


4.20-L2 


E 3 


120 E. 27 N. 




>» 


21 


9226 


3.20 


M t 


167 E. 39 S. 




j» 


22 


923 


1.7 


F l 


157 E. 2 N. 




»» 


23 


9236 


16.37 


G t 


32 E. 39 S. 




Dec. 


2 


924 


1.30ca 


E B 


132 E. 10 N. 


Origin determined 
from Manila, Bata- 
via and Christ- 
church. 


i* 


2 


9246 


2.19 


B 


85 W. 7 N. 




j» 


4 


025 


10.23ca 





30 E. 10 S. 




ii 


11 


0306 


17.3 


D 3 


68 W. 30 S. 


Santiago to Valpar- 
aiso, F. Centre 
at Vallener. 



;e 


EART 






PI cote I. 




1 1 








x^ 




J80 






/Va(^» 












%A\ 










>5> 








IMS 


A 


/»«' 






' ,'l 


• 










s/1 1 • 






aso* 
















60 












L 








A 











HIDE 











1 








it & C° l&LiXho.I.ondor 


U 




fin 








I Investigations. 


tfs 











Brltlth Association, Send Report, Dundee, I9J&] 



ORIGINS OF LARGE EARTHQUAKES, 1904-1909. 





STATIONS. 


^ 


>^<- 


A 






Guildford. 


B 




K 




£ 


SlonjhBm. 




Piislej. 




rMinrmrnri 






I'i 


'■ark. 






14. 


SLnLubrcg- 


Ifi. 








IN 




1" 


tttHm. 


*l 




"I 


Beirut. 




Tifli. 


HI 


Sejehelle*. 






is. 


Cape Totcii. 








Cape Verdo- 






•et 




aj 


St. Bdeca- 


HI 


<"»■-—"!■ 


?M 


PJar. 


Ml 




-1 


Tricidid 


*s 




IM 




n 


Rfllnmfl^ 




Philadelphia 






VI 


Victoria. B.C. 
















Iri-uui. 




Taahkend. 


M, 




l- 


Vixanpatain. 










M 




SV 




. 


Pmh. 


M 


Adelaide. 




Melbourne. 


M 


Sydney. 




Wellinelon. 




EartfaoTiak* Dirtrirt. are indicated A. B. C. tie. Email number, relet to Bbld. 
Eecordi face B.A- Ciietdan|. If nnd«rliDpd were r«ordud nil over Ibo world. 
Figuiea In Circle* reler lo Earthquake BUtloni, 



Itttwtrntlng the Set»aUtttlh Report on Seiimological Invutiaationi. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



73 



Seismic Activity — continued. 









Time 




Lat. and Long. 


Remarks 


Date 


No. 


at Origin 


District 


of Origin 


F=Felt; D=Destructiv< 


1904 




h. m. 








Dec. 


19 


937 


17.43 


M, 


162 E. 57 S. 






20 


938 


5.44ca 


B 


83 W. 12 N. 


Nicaragua, Costa 














Rica, Panama, 
Port Limon, D. 


1905 












Jan. 


9 


948 


6.17 


K 4 


46 E. 38 N. 


Szirtes gives origin 
S.E. of Tiflis. 




13 


949 


13.18±2 


F, 


143 E. N.S. 






20 


952 


2.32 


K 7 


22 E. 40 N. 


Aghuia, Greece, P. 




20 


953 


18.1±2 


B 


82 W. 13 N. 






20 


954 


22.27ca 


F 2 


123 E. 7 S. 






22 


955 


2.42 


F, 


123 E. 3 N. 


Zamboanga, F. 




29 


956 


12.45ca 


H 


16 W. 53 N. 




Feb. 


2 


9576 


21.4ca 


F 3 


93 E. 7 S. 






4 


9586 


6.26 


K 3 


108 E. 6 N. 






13 


960 


5.16ca 


*\ 


146 E. 2 S. 






13 


9606 


23.31ca 


F t 


157 E. 35 S. 






14 


961 


8.50 


Q 


180 E. 35 N. 






17 


963 


11.42 


K 3 


96 E. 26 N. 






19 


964 


4.35±3 


F t 


168 E. 10 S. 






26 


965 


2.26 


F t 


170 E. 14 S. 






27 


966 


17.25 


M, 


176 W. 23 S. 




Mar. 


4 


967 


16.0±2 


F, 


158 E. 2 S. 






4 


968 


18.30 


F 3 


158 E. 2 S. 






4 


969 


23. 15 ±2 


F, 


142 E. 2 N. 






14 


973 


10.41 


K, 


72 E. 40 N. 






17 


9756 


22.14 


H 


32 W. 33 N. 






18 


977 


23.56 


M, 


168 E. 10 S. 






22 


980 


3 40±2 


Q" 


173.5 E. 40 N. 




A.pril 


4 


982 


0.48 


K, 


76 E. 32 N. 


Kangra Valley, D. 




10 


984 


12.3 


E 3 


120 E. 23 N. 




n 


19 


986 


12.25 


Ma 


171 W. 32 S. 


Origin given by 
Szirtes. 


>> 


24 


988 


8.6 


E 3 


124 E. 12 N. 


Masbate, S.E. Luzon, 
F. 




25 


989 


9.13±2 


M, 


177 E. 3 N. 




26 


990 


21.42±2 


Di 


70 W. 19 S. 






29 


993 


0.47 


K 7 


7 E. 46 N. 




May 


9 


995 


6.43 


B 


105 W. 20 N. 


Autlan, E. of Jalisco, 












Mexico, F. 




11 


996 


17.5±2 


E 8 


144 E. 21 N. 






12 


997 


2.45 ±5 


Di 


76 W. 10 S. 




11 


12 


998 


15.30±5 


E>i 


77 W. 12 S. 


Batanes Is. felt at 
16.49. 


11 


18 


1001 


13.42 


F t 


149 E. 4 S. 


Origin given by 
Szirtes. 


11 


23 


10046 


7.1±8 


G, 


83 E. 12 S. 






31 


1008 


18.21 


E, 


126 E. 12 N. 




June 


1 


1009 


4.40 


K, 


19 E 42 N 






2 


1010 


5.39 


E 3 


132.5 E. 34 N. 


Kyushu, Shikoku, F. 


■i 


9 


1018 


12.22±2 


M 2 


160 E. 3 N. 






12 


1020 


5.13ca 


M 2 


168 E. 5 S. 




ii 


14 


1021 


11.25±3 


M, 


153 W. 30 S. 






30 


1025 


17.6±2 


F t 


167 E. 16 S. 




it 


30 


1026 


19.46±2 


Dt 


100 W. 12 S. 




July 


6 


1031 


16.18 


1 E, 


144 E. 39 N. 


N.E, Japan, F. 



74 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Seismic Activity — continued. 





Date 


No. 


1905 


July 


9 


1036 


t» 


11 


1038 




9 


11 


1039 




9 


14 


1045 




9 


14 


1046 




9 


16 


1047 






17 


1048 




9 


23 


1052 




9 


27 


1054 


Aug. 


4 


1057 


>l 


25 


10636 


Sept. 


1 


1063c 


99 


S 


1064 


J> 


14 


1065 


99 


15 


1066 


J» 


26 


1070 


»> 


29 


1071 


Oct. 


8 


1074 


99 


14 


10756 


99 


15 


1076 


J» 


21 


1077 


J» 


21 


1078 


J» 


24 


1082 


Nov. 


6 


1086 


j> 


8 


1087 


>» 


21 


1092a 


»> 


21 


10926 


?» 


21 


1092c 


Dec. 


4 


1096 


?J 


4 


10966 


J» 


10 


1097 


S> 


10 


1098 


)) 


17 


1101 


)» 


17 


1102 


1906 




Jan. 


3 


1107 


>j 


6 


11096 


j> 


10 


1110 


»j 


15 


11106 


j» 


21 


1111 


?» 


22 


11116 


* 


1 


24 


1112a I 



Time 
at Origin 

h. m. 

9.39 

8.38 
15.37 

8.50 
22.0 
18.50ca 

0.22ca 

2.45 
22.19±2 

5.9ca 

9.45±3 

2.36co 



1.43 
19.41 

5.57 

1.29 
11.50 

7.27 
14.37ca 
21.42 
11.1 
13.20 
17.40±2 
16.51±2 
22.6 

21.50ca 
23.5 
23.45ca 
7.5 

9.40 
12.30 
18.6 

5.27 
9.34 

1.54±4 
21.27±3 
13.2±2 
19.27 
13.46 



4.2±2 
6.40 



District 



K, 
K, 
E,, E 2 
At 
K t 
F 3 
Ft 
K t 
E 3 

K 7 

E 3 

E, 



E, 
E„ P 

K, 
P, 

Kr 

Ct 
Ct 
K 4 
K 4 
Q 
Ft 
K 7 

F t 
G 2 
G 2 



P 

E 3 

B 
B 



F, 

At 
F 3 
E., 



F„ M 2 
A, 



Lat. and Long, i Remarks 

of Origin JF=Felt ; D=Destructive 



98 E. 50 N. 
101 E. 47.5 N. 

140 E. 34 N. 
142 W. 56 N. 

98 E. 50 N. 
87 E. 8 S. 

171 E. 18 S. 

98 E. 50 N. 

130 E. 7 N. 

19 E. 41 N. 

135 E. 39 N. 
148 E. 20 N. 



16 E. 39 N. 
160 E. 40 N. 

164 E. 53 N. 

73 E. 30 N. 
131 E. 8 S. 

23 E. 42 N. 
76 W. 19 N. 
68 W. 24 N. 
42 E. 42 N. 
42 E. 42 N. 

130 W. 15 N. 
146 E. N.S. 

24 E. 40 N. 

165 E. 10 S. 
80 E. N.S. 

70 E. 10 S. 
39 E. 39 N. 

39 E. 39 N. 
160 W. 50 N. 
130 E. 5 N. 

113 W. 17 N. 
113 W. 17 N. 

169 E. 15 S. 
167 E. 54 N. 
146 W. 40 N. 
97 E. N.S. 
143 E. 34 N. 



168 E. 13 S. 
139 W. 50 N. 



Southern part of 
Samar, Leyte, F. 



Origin determined 
from Manila, Zika- 
wei, Honolulu and 
Tashkend. Ten 
minutes later there 
was an earthquake 
in Japan, Aomori 
to Iida, F. 

Calabria, D. 

Origin given by 
Szirtes. 



Bulgaria, F. 
Cuba, Santiago, F. 



Macedonia, Mt. 

Athos, D. 



Malatia : Asia Minor, 
D. 



Mindanao and 

Visayas, F. 



Petropaulovski, F. 

Padang, F. 

Origin given by 

Omori, E. coast of 

Japan, F. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



75 



Seismic Activity — continued. 









Time 




Lat. and Long. 


Remarks 


Date 




No. 


at Origin 


District 


of Origin F=Felt; D=Destructive 


1906 






h. m. 






Jan. 


24 


11126 


21.35±2 


A, 


130 W. 55 N. 






27 


1114 


21.33±3 


E„ P, Q 


168 E. 42 N. 






28 


1116 


14.33±2 


E 2 


140 E. 26 N. 


Tokio, F. 




31 


1118 


15.33 


E»i 


80 W. 1 N. 


Columbia, Pacific 


" 












Coast, D. 


Feb. 


1 


1120 


2.16±2 


M, 


170 E. 12 S. 


Origin determined 
from Christchurch, 
Perth, Honolulu, 
Batavia, Manila 
and Tokio. An- 
other earthquake 
occurred in Europe 
at nearly the same 
time. 




2 


1122 


16.43±3 


»i 


84 W. 8 S. 


Tumaco, F. 




5 


1124 


4.15 


M 3 


152 W. 35 S. 






10 


1124c 


8.47±2 


F a 


128 E. 4 S. 






16 


1126 


17.35 


c, 


59 W. 17 N. 


It broke cables. 




19 


1128 


1.58±2 


M 2 


170 E. 10 S. 






23 


11296 


15 14 


E 2 


149 E. 31 N. 


Awa Kazusa, F. 




24 


1130 


0.12 


E a 


140 E. 31 N 


»> » 




27 


1133 


19.40 


Ks 


79 E. 30 N 


Rampur, D. 


Mar. 


2 


1135 


6.16 


K a 


77 E. £8 N. 


Jarkent, F. 




3 


11356 


8.35co 


A 


90 W. 2 N. 






8 


1136 


17.43±2 


H 


20 W. 40 N. 






9 


1137 


19.24±4 


Ei 


172 E. 20 S. 






10 


1138 


6.30±5 


M 3 


158 W. 28 S. 






10 


1139 


16.18±2 


M 3 


160 W. 30 S. 






11 


1141 


8.36±3 


M s 


162 W. 28 S. 






13 


1143 


13.19±2 


E 3 


133 E. 30 N. 






16 


1145 


22.42 


E 3 


120.5 E. 


Formosa, D. Origin 












23.5 N. 


given by Qmori, 




19 


1146 


7.57 


J 


9 W. 70 N. 






20 


11466 


1.53±2 


'i 


145 E. 5 S. 






20 


1147 


3.48ca 


K 5 


27 E. 33 N. 






26 


1150 


3.28 


E 3 


120 E. 23.5 N. 






27 


1152a 


5.0 


L 


55 W. 52 S. 


Origin determined 














from Cordova, 
Christchurch and 
Mauritius. The 
distance apart of 
these origins is 
i56 ? .. 




27 


11526 


5.23±2 


J 


120 E. 78 N. 


Origin determined 














from Cairo, Bom- 
bay, Shide, Hono- 
lulu and Beirut. 




27 


1152c 


22.53 


E 3 


119 E. 25 N. 


Tainan, F. 




28 


1154 


18.0 


M, 


152 W. 32 S. 






29 


1156 


21.44±2 


B, Di 


85 W. 7 N. 




J April 5 


1160 


22.20ca 


F, 


147 E. N.S. 




11 


8 


1163 


17.30±2 


E., 


142 E. 25 N. 






10 


1164 


21.18 


A to B 


110 W. 20 N. 




>» 


13 
14 


1166 
1168 


19.17 
3.44co 


E 3 
M 3 


120.5 E. 23 N. 
140 W. 32 S. 


Formosa, D. 

Tanna, New He- 














brides, F. 



76 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Seismic Activity — continued. 



Date 


No. 


Time 

at Origin 

h. m. 


District 


I,at. and Long, 
of Origin 


Remarks 
F=Felt ; D= Destructive 


1906 


April 


18 


1170 


13.12 


A 2 


121 W. 38 N. 


California, D. 


99 


19 


1171 


0.54™ 


F, 


168 E. 9 S. 




l» 


23 


1172 


9.10 


A, 


123 W. 42 N. 


Grant Pass, Oregon, 
Berkley, Califor- 
nia, F. 


99 


25 


1175 


1.30 


E 


126 E. 7 N. 


Caraga, Davao, Cota- 
bato, S.E. Min- 
danao, F. 


*» 


29 


1181 


16.20co 


G 2 


82 E. 40 S. 




May 


2 


1182 


1.12 


E 3 


124 E. 23 N. 


Ishigakijima, F. 


91 


5 


1183 


0.18±2 


D„D 2 


71 W. 20 S. 


Arica, F. 


99 


12 


1184 


5.50+_2 


K 3 


92 E. 28 N. 




99 


12 


1185 


10.38 


E, 


155 E. 42 N. 




June 


1 


into 


4.30±2 


T L 


145 E. N.S. 




>> 


2 


1191 


14.20 




153 E. 5 S. 




f> 


10 


1195 


20.50 


G„ 


85 E. 3 S. 




j> 


19 


1199 


11.21 + 2 


K 


128 E. 20 N. 




91 


20 


1203 


2.25+2 


B 


^9.5 W. 13.5 N. 


San Salvador (the 
capital), F. An 
eqke. originated 
N. Luzon about 
3.41 or lh. 16m. 
later. The time 
taken to travel from 
Salvador would be 
lh. 23m. There- 
fore the large waves 
from Salvador 132° 
may have caused 
the Manila eqke. 


99 


22 


1205 


8.17 


B 


95 W. 17 N. 


Mexico, Chiapas, F. 


S> 


24 


1208 


11.20 


F 3 


91 E. 5 N. 




July 


10 


12196 


19.40+2 


E 3 , Fj 


128 E. 6 N. 


S. of Agusan River 
Valley, F. 


>» 


13 


1220 


23.42+2 


H 


34 W. 16 N. 




>J 


20 


1225 


11.16+2 


H 


33 W. 8 N. 




>» 


22 


1226 


18.30+2 


Gi 


63 E. 29 S. 




Aug. 


1 


1232 


23.20 


Q 


155 E. 23 N. 




>> 


9 


1237 


11.0±3 


F, 


170 E. 12 S. 




., 


15 


1240 


22.2+2 


K, 


95 E. 44 N. 


Russian Turkestan, F. 


»• 


17 


1242 


0.6+2 


Q 


168 E. 31 N. 




»> 


17 


12426 


0.41 


D 2 


72 W. 33 S. 


Valparaiso, D. See 
Brit. Assoc. Sc-is. 
Report, 1911. 




18 


12466 


6.45+3 


M, 


157 W. 30 S. 




•9 


19 


1248 


9.27ca 


D a 


72 W. 33 S. 


After-shock of 12426 
Valparaiso, F. 


79 


19 


12486 


15.34ca 


D 2 


72 W. 33 S. 


After-shock of 12426 
Valparaiso, F. 


• 9 


21 


1 252 


11.15+2 


D„ 


76 W. 45 S. 




11 


2- 


1253 


20.43-! 2 


H 


21 W. 42 N. 




>» 


22 


1254 


19.41 


M„ F x 


165 E. 34 S. 




M 


24 


1255 


1.58ca 


^'2 


73 W. 4 N. 




»» 


26 


1256 


11.51 + 2 


O 


33 E. 4 N. 


Addis Abeba in Abys- 
sinia, F. 


>i 


25 


1257 


13.47+2 





33 E. 4 N. 


After-shock of 1256. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



77 



Seismic Activity — continued. 



Date 

1906 
Aug. 26 

„ 28 
„ 30 



riept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



31 



No. 



1258 
1261 
1263 

1264 



6 


12656 


7 


1266 


14 


1271 


14 


1272 


17 


1274 


17 


1275 


20 


1277 


21 


1278 


28 


1281 


2 


1284 


2 


1285 


6 


1286 


10 


1289 


10 


1290 


10 


1291 


11 


12916 


15 


12926 


17 


1292c 


24 


1293 


28 


12936 


29 


1294 


31 


1296 


5 


1297 


5 


12976 


8 


1299a 


10 


12996 


12 


1300 


14 


1301 


19 


1303 


28 , 


1305 



Time 
at Origin 

h. m. 
6.0±2 
5.9 
2.33±2 

14.58 

19.2c« 
18.51 
13.12m 
16.0±2 

4.15 

8.36 
17.24c<r 

1.30ca 
15.23ca 



1.50±2 

14.17±3 
12.34 



7.21 

12.52±2 
23.19 



5.9 
13.23 

9.41 
14.41 

15.47 

1.9 



1.46±2 

19.45±2 
22.57 

0.39 

5.3±2 
17.33 
17.35±2 

7.16±2 

8.58±2 



District 



F, 

B 



E 1; E,, E 3 
L 

F, 
E i» E 2 , E 3 

F, 

D„ 

M 3 

D, 



Lat. and Long, 
of Origin 



F, 

L 
F, 



E, 



E, 



K, 



F, 
F, 

E, 
K„ 



F, 



F, 
F, 

E t , E 2 , E 3 

F t 

K 2 

F, 
F 3 (S. of) 

D, 



146 E. N.S. 

107 W. 8.5 N. 

75 VV. 23 S. 

95 E. 21 N. 

178 W. 34 S. 
145 E. 35 N. 

23 E. 69 S. 

148 E. 4 S. 

145 E. 35 N. 

148 E. 4 S. 

81 W. 29 S. 
157 W. 20 S. 

82 W. 12 S. 



152 E. 2 N. 

10 W. 79 S. 
98 E. 11 S. 



128 E. 12 N. 
125 E. 9 N. 
7 E. 32 N. 



155 E. 10 S. 
177 E. 22 S. 
126 E. 16 N. 
73 E. 38 N. 

101 E. 13 S. 

132 E. 1 N. 



140 E. 55 N. 

132 E. 3 S. 
125 E. N.S. 
144 E. 33 N. 
160 E. 
83 E. 
170 E. 
Ill E. 



10 S. 

44 N. 

10 S. 

22 S. 



82 W. 23 S. 



Remarks 
F=Felt ; D=Destructive 



Tacna, Arica, and 
Iquique, F. 



Japan and Manila, F. 



Tokio, F. 



P, for Cordova, Trini- 
dad, Honolulu, Vic- 
toria, B.C., and 
Shide agree with 
time at origin. 

Buna Bay with sea 
waves, F. 

Origin determined 
from Batavia, 

Perth, Colombo and 
Kodaikanal. 

Surigao and Caraga, 
F. 

Surigao and Caraga, 
F. 

Origin determined 
from Cairo, Tifiis, 
Rome and Edin- 
burgh. 



Luzon, F. 

Samarkand, Khojent, 
Karki,Kelif, &c.,F. 

S.W. Java and Su- 
matra, F. 

Origin determined 
from Manila, Bata- 
via, Honolulu and 
Perth. 



Fak-Fak, F. 



W. Australia, Albany 
to Shark's Bay, F. 



78 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Seismic Activity — continued. 



Date 



1906 
Dec. 3 



18 
19 

22 



23 
23 
26 



No. 



1307 



1318 
1319 
1320 



1321 
1322 
1323 



>> 


26 


1907 


Jan. 


1 


j> 


2 


>> 


4 




_ 


»» 




»» 


8 


99 


12 


99 


14 


»» 


19 


Feb. 


3 


»» 


3 


J> 


16 


»> 


24 


Mar. 


19 


J> 


26 


>» 


27 


»> 


29 



1323a 



1324 
1327 



1328 

1330 
1331 
13326 

1333 
1334 
13346 

1335 

1342 

1347 

13506 

1350c 

1350d 

1351 



Time 
at Origin 



h. m. 
22.58 



20.58±2 

1.13 
18.21 



7.0±2 
17.16±2 
5.54 



6.4±2 



0.20±4 
11.57 



5.17±1 

13.54±4 
5.10±5 
7.45±5 

15.26 
13.9 
6.14 

19.25±5 
21.14±1 

7.10±5 
22.2+1 
11.18-1 

0.14+2 
20.44 



District 



c, 



M„ M 2 

M„ M 2 

K, 



P 

P 

D 1; D 2 



H 



F 2 
M, 

F 3 

L 
K, 

C 

F, 

M 2 

Pi 

L 

*\,F 2 

L 



Lat. and Long, 
of Origin 



57 W. 15 N. 



172 W. 19 S. 
172 W. 18 S. 

86 E. 44 N. 



163 W. 51 N. 

163 W. 51 N. 

73 W. 20 S. 



18 W. 38 N. 



140 E. 
180 E. 



12 S. 
10 S. 



95 E. 2 N. 

160 E. 32 S. 
30 W. 65 S. 
180 E. 70 N. 

76 W. 18 N. 
130 E. 50 N. 
122 E. N.S. 

147 E. 12 N. 
175 E. 10 S. 
55 E. 65 S. 

126 E. N.S. 
140 E. 30 N. 

10 W. 55 S. 

128 E. 7N. 



Remarks 
F=Felt ; D=Destructive 



George Town, F. 
Origin determined 
from Porto Rico, 
Toronto, San Fer- 
nando, measured 
by commencement 
of Large Waves. 

Tonga and Apia, F. 
Manass, Ururntsi 
(N.W. China), D. 
Kopal, Semiret- 
chensk, F. 



Arica, F., observation 
agrees with Cor- 
dova and Trini- 
dad. Com. ofL.W. 
agrees with Chel- 
tenham, U.S.A., 
Azores, San Fer- 
nando, Bidston and 
Shide. 

Origin determined 
from Azores, San 
Fernando, Bidston, 
Messina and Rome. 



There was a second 
shock about 14.30 
or 12.43, Tonga, F. 

Simalur, Nias, Suma- 
tra, D. 



N.E. end of K„ or 

157 W. 55 N. 
Jamaica, Kingston, D. 
Alexandrovsky, F. 
Gorontalo and 

Celebes, F. 
Wareo, N. Guinea, F. 



N.E. Celebes, F. 



Caraga, Talou Is. 
and N. Celebes, F. 
Origin determined 
iroto com. of Manila, 
Zikawei, Calcutta, 
ifonolulu, Samoa, 
and Shide records. 



ON SEISMOLOG1CAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



79 









Seismic Activity 


— continued. 










Time 




Lat. and Long. 


Remarks 


Date 


No. 


at Origiu 


District 


of Origin 


F=Felt ; D= Destructive 


1907 




h. m. 








Mar. 


29 


13516 


20.53ca 


K 3 


70 E. 35 N. 


Origin determined 
from the max. of 
Calcutta, Kodai- 
kanal, Irkutsk, and 
Shide records. Also 
agrees with Verny 
and Tiflis. Perth 
and Sydney also 
suggest third eqke. 
at 110 E. 60 S. 
Time, 20.46ca. 


9) 


31 


1351c 


14.12±2 


K 6 


50 E. 30 N. 




ft 


31 


1352 


21.49±2 


F„ M 2 


167 E. 5 S. 


Tonga, F. 


April 


13 


13596 


17.53 


Ks 


72 E. 38 N. 


Ferghana, F. 




15 


1361 


6.4±1 


B 


99 W. 16 N. 


Guerrero, Mexico, D. 


J J 


18 


1362 


20.59 


F t > E 3 


124 E. 13 N. 


Camarines, D. 




18 


1363 


23.53 


Fj, E 3 


123 E. 13 N. 


>> j? 


99 


24 


13666 


23.24±1 


Ft 


135 E. 5 S. 


Elat., Gt. Kei Is. 
and Merauke, S. 
New Guinea, F. 


May 


3 


1369 


20.34 


E 3 


121 E. 17 N. 


N. Luzon, F. 


>» 


4 


1371 


5.45±2 


E 8 , M 2 


153 E. 10 N. 


Namatani, N. Guinea, 
F 


99 


4 


1372 


8.35±2 


E 2 


150 E. 23 N. 


-L • 


»» 


7 


1375 


10.15±1 


E 3 


130 E. 23 N. 






13 


1379 


20. 50 ±3 


Fi 


150 E. 10 S. 


New Guinea, F. 


1» 


20 


1381 


7.45.5 


E 3 


*126E. ION. 


N.E. Mindanao and 
Leyte, F. 




22 


1384 


22.52 


E, 


142 E. 37 N. 


Rikuzen, F. 


n 


25 


1386 


11.53 


E 2) M 2 


138 E. 13 N. 


Borneo, F. 


) j 


25 


1387a 


13.58±2 


E 1; E 3 


125 E. 24 N. 




»» 


25 


1387 


14.7.5 


H 


35 W. 12 N. 


Another eqke.atBonin 
Islands at 14.4ca. 


» j 


25 


1388 


15.52±2 


Ej, E 8 


125 E. 24 N. 


N. Luzon, D. 




31 


1389 


12.45 


F t 


161 E. 5 S. 


Tonga, F. 


June 


1 


1390 


8.45±3 


r»! 


82 W. N.S. 


Guayaquil, Ecuador, F. 


»> 


5 


1393 


3.18±3 


D, 


86 W. N.S. 


Guayaquil, Ecuador, 

F.' 
Valdivia. Chile, F. 


s> 


13 


1398 


9.18±2 


D, 


80 W. 38 S. 


»j 


24 


1404 


3.31±1 


E, 


140 E. 14 N. 


Celebes, F. 


>> 


25 


1405 


17.56 


Fx 


126 E. 1 N. 


Menado and N. 
Celebes, F. 


>j 


26 


14056 


4.50 


E„ 


140 E. 20 N. 






26 


1405c 


17.15±2 


e; 


140 E. 20 N. 




»» 


27 


1406 


22.26±1 


F t 


170 E. 3 S. 


New Hebrides. F. 


July 


1 


1408 


13.6±3 


Di 


105 W. N.S. 


Honduras, F. 




4 


1409 


9.21 


K 5 


55 E. 27 N. 




■I 


9 


1414 


18.52 


E 3 


123 E. 13 N. 


S. Luzon and Visayas 
Is., F. 




12 


1415 


17.20 


K 3 


72 E. 26 N. 




*) 


20 


1419 


13.33 


E 3 


126 E. 7 N. 


Mindanao, F. 


»» 


29 


1422 


0.51-14 


G t 


28 E. 38 S. 




19 


29 


1425 


19.27 


F t 


120 E. N.S. 


Menado, I). 


Aug. 


5 


1427 


1.55±1 


E 2 


140 E. 32 N. 


Akita, F. 


99 


5 


1428 


6.32±2 


D, 


82 W. 24 S. 


Antofagasta, Chile, F. 


99 


9 


1431 


19.0±2 


B.D! 


90 W. 1 N. 


1 



80 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 











Seismic Activity 


— continued. 










Time 




Lat. and Long, j 


Remarks 


Date 


No. 


at Origin 


District 


of Origin 


t=Felt ; D=Destructive 


1907 




h. m. 








Aug. 


13 


14326 


21.36±3 


F. 


165 E. 3 S. 




JJ 


17 


1433 


17.21ca 


G, 


66 E. 20 N. 


Origin determined 
from Calcutta, 
Mauritius, Cairo, 
and Shide. 


JJ 


17 


1433a 


17.27 


E, 


160 E. 50 N. 


Origin determined 
from Chita, Hono- 
lulu, Shide and 
Osaka. 


It 


22 


1435 


22.14±5 


E, 


155 E. 38 N. 


Origin determined 
from Samoa, Hono- 
lulu and Shide. 
Doubtful. 


Sept. 


2 


1439 


16.2±3 


Q 


166 E. 20 N. 




f) 


2 


14396 


17.34±2 


Q 


166 E. 20 N. 




>» 


15 


1446 


17.45 


K 2 


72 E. 40 N. 


Khokand, Margelan, 
and Adishan, F. 
Second shock at 
19.12ca, Osch, D. 


>j 


22 


1448 


12.9 


E, 


135 E. 23 N. 






23 


1450 


21.34±2 


B 


115 W. 16 N. 




Oct. 


2 


1453!) 


1.42±2 


Pi 

• 


167 E. 15 S. 


Origin determined 
from Christchurch, 
Sydney, Samoa and 
Honolulu. Another 
eqke. about 13.5, 
nr. Capetown. 


JJ 


4 


1454 


10.27 


F 3 


103 E. 6 S. 


S.E. Sumatra and 
W. Java, F. 




5 


1456 


3.30 


E..F, 


122 E. 10 N. 


Panay, Negro Is., F. 






10 


1458 


21.41 


M 2 


155 E. 9 S. 




J 




11 


1460 


14.28 


Mj 


162 E. 5 S. 




9 




16 


1463 


13.55 


A," 


115 W. 23 N. 


Guaymas, Mexico, F. 


J 




17 


1464 


11.20±2 


B 


80 W. 10 N. 




■ 




21 


1468 


4.17 


K 3 


68 E. 39 N. 


Karatagh, D. 






23 


1471 


20.25 


K 6 


16 E. 39 N. 


Ferruzzano, S. Cala- 














bria, D. Same 














time at Kerki, Is. 














of Samor. 


JJ 


27 


1475 


5.12 


K 2 


68 E. 40 N. 


Samarkand, F. 


Nov. 


3 


1481 


19.49±2 


F„ M 2 


172 E. 13 S. 




»» 


12 


14866 


7.0±3 


M, 


180 E. 23 S. 




»» 


13 


1487 


3.12±2 


M 2 


178 E. 10 S. 




>» 


16 


1489 


10.10±5 


B, D 2 


97 W. 2 N. 


Peru, F, 


>> 


16 


14893 


22.3 


E 3 


122 E. 14 N. 


S. Luzon, F. 


j» 


19 


1491 


12.10±2 


D 2 


75 W. 44 S. 


Punta Arenas, F. 


»j 


19 


1492 


21.24±2 


M 2 . E 2 


140 E. 5 N. 




jj 


21 


1495 


20.1 


E 3 


93 E. N.S. 


N.W. Sumatra, F. 


>j 


24 


1496 


13.58 


E 3 


123 E. 13 N. 


Camarines, S.E. 
Luzon, D. 


Dec. 


5 


1505 


12.34 


E 3 


104 E. 4 S. 


S.E. Sumatra, N.W. 
Java, F. 


J» 


5 


1506 


20.12 


F 3 


104 E. 4 S. 


S.E. Sumatra. 


JJ 


15 


150) 


I7.32±2 


M 2 


153 E. 5 N. 


New Guinea 


i 


9 


23 


1510 


1:14 


E, 


145 E. 42 N. 


Kushiro, F. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



81 



Seismic Activity — continued. 



Date 


No. 


Time 
at Origin 


District 


Lat. and Long, 
of Origin 


Remarks 
F=Felt ; D=Destructive 


1907 




h. m. 








Dec. 


24 


1511 


13.26±2 


H 


32 W. 12 N. 




>9 


25 


1513 


22.34±1 


K 2 


77 E. 36 N. 


Kokand, F. 


>> 


30 


1515 


5.22±2 


»i 


97 W. 8 S. 




1908 












Jan. 


5 


1518 


2.6 


E 3 


124 E. 13 N. 


Legaspi, S.E. Luzon, 
F. 

Tainan, Formosa, F. 


j» 


11 


1522 


3.35 


E 3 


121 E. 23 N. 














Origin determined 














by Omori. 


99 


12 


1523 


10.19ca 


K 3 


70 E. 33 N. 




?J 


15 


1526 


12.56 


Ei 


142 E. 36 N. 


Central and North 
Japan, F. 


>» 


16 


1527 


9.3±2 


E 3 


117 E. 23 N. 


Formosa, F. 


)» 


25 


1530 


20.6ca 





32 E. 15 N. 




99 


27 


15306 


15.52±2 


K, 


110 E. 31 N. 




Feb. 


1 


1532 


23.17ca 


M 3 


113 W. 2 S. 


Origin determined 
from Lima, Pilar, 
Honolulu and 
Samoa. 


>> 


1 


15326 


23.22ca 


c, 


67 W. 26 N. 


Origin determined 
from Trinidad, 
Baltimore, Toronto, 
Victoria, B.C., and 
Shide. 


JJ 


5 


1536 


22.0 


D, 


67 W. 23 S. 


Salta and Tucuman, 

F. 
Southern and Middle 


>J 


6 


1537 


1.27ca 


F 3 


100 E. 5 S. 














Sumatra, F. With 














sea waves. 


99 


9 


1540 


18.13 


K 2 


100 E. 26 N. 




99 


14 


1544 


8.50ca 


Di 


80 W. 5 S. 


Lima, F. Eqkes. also 
in Alaska, Tiflis and 
Bohemia. 


Mar. 


2 


1546 


20.21 


^! 


145 E. 30 N. 


Nemuro, F. 


>> 


5 


1549 


2.16 


Fl E 3 


126 E. 9 N. 


Agusan River Valley, 
F. Six mins. later 
felt at Buitenzorg, 
Java. 


j> 


12 


1549 


19.25 


K, 


70 E. 36 N. 


Bokara, F. 


)> 


13 


1550 


6.18 


K 3 


100 E. 23 N. 


Mandalay, F. 


»> 


15 


1553 


9.6±3 


F t 


174 E. 12 S. 




>> 


19 


1556a 


3.0ca 


M 


178 E. 35 S. 




»> 


23 


1560 


12.20±2 


F, 


129 E. 10 S. 


Timor, F. 


»> 


23 


1560a 


12.28ca 


e; 


112 E. 22 N. 


Origin determined 
from Manila, Tokio, 
Calcutta and Sibe- 
rian stations. 


» 


25 


1562 


19.0ca 


M 3 


105 W. 20 S. 


Origin determined 
from Lima, Pilar, 
and Honolulu. 


>» 


26 


1563 


23.2 


B 


101 W. 17 N. 


Chilapa, D. 


»» 


27 


1564 


3.45.5 


B 


101 W. 17 N. 


i, 


April 


2 


1568 


5.52±2 





26 E. 2 N. 




f» 


4 


1569 


6.18 


K, 


89 E. 33 N. 





1912. 



82 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 







Seismic Activity 


— continued. 








Time 




Lat. and Long. 


Remarks 


Date 


No. 


at Origin 


District 


of Origin 


F=Felt ; D=: Destructive 


190S 




h. in. 








April 9 


1570 


23.52±5 


F* 


120 E. 7 S. 


Apparently three 










earthquakes. 


12 


15706 


19.2±2 


E„ 


145 E. 20 N. 




16 • 


1571 


17.38 


K" 2 


69 E. 39 N. 


Pendschikent, Tash- 












kent, F. 


19 


1572 


7.58 


E x 


142 E. 38 N. 


Central and North 












Japan, F. 


„ 22 


1575 


23.45+3 


Ot 


48 E. 38 S. 




„ 30 


1576 


4.45 


B 


85 W. 5 N. 


San Jose, Costa Rica, 

F. 
North Japan, F. 


May 3 

5 


1577 


0.50 


E, 


155 E. 41 N. 


1578 


6.16±2 


E 8 ,F, 


123 E. 3 N. 


Basilan Island, F. 


5 


1579 


11.19±2 


G s 


68 E. 12 S. 




11 


1581 


13.44 


Ex 


119 E. 2N. 


E. Borneo, F. 


12 


1582 


20.18 


E 2 


142 E. 32 N. 


Central Japan, F. 












Another shock at 
20.34. 


„ 15 


1585 


8.32 


K 


145 W. 56 N. 


Yakutat, Alaska, D. 


„ 17 


1587 


12.33 


K 7 


25 E. 42 N. 




20 


1589 


7.39 


F 2 


122 E. 5 S. 




June 3 


1591 


15.56 


K 3 


67 E. 28 N. 


Quetta, F. 


9 


1593 


2.56 


Ej, E 2 , E 3 


142 E. 35 N. 


Awa, Kazusa. F. 


„ 27 


1595 


14.21 


E 2 


147 E. 33 N. 


Central and North 
Japan, F. 


July 1 


1596 


7.26 


E 3 


124 E. 22 N. 


Batanes Island, E. 
Formosa and Ishi- 
gakijima, F. 


1 *"» 


1600 


21.6±5 


E, 


145 E. 35 N. 


Origin determined 
from com. at Osaka, 
Irkutsk, Honolulu. 
Agrees with Bom- 
bay and Baltimore. 


„ 21) 


1601 


16.0 


F 3 


104 E. 6 S. 


Second shock 17.12, 
S. Sumatra, F. 


Aug. 12 


1604 


15.40±3 


M a 


160 E. 5 S. 


Origin determined 
from com. of 
Samoa, Perth, 
Osaka. Agrees with 
Calcutta, Cape- 
town and Lima 
records. 


„ 12 


1€05 


18.39 


F 2 


130 E. 5 S. 


Banda Island, D. 


„ 17 


1607 


10.32±2 


L 


40 W. 60 S. 




., 19 


1609 


0.29ta 


A 


70 W. 8 S. 


Trujillo and Pacas- 
moya, F. 


„ 20 


1612 


9.53 


K., 


89 E. 32 N. 




„ 22 


1618 


i 19.8co 


M, 


175 E. 6 N. 




„ 29 


1619 


18.15±3 


H 


36 W. 36 N. 




Sept. 4 


1620 


16.52±1 


H 


30 W. 40 N. 




„ 13 


16216 


4.6 


E 2 


154 E. 33 N. 


N.E. Japan (Honshu), 

F. 
Puna, Hawaii, F. 


„ 21 


1622 


6.31 


Q 


155 W. 19 N. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



83 



Seismic Activity — continued. 



Date 


No. 


Time 

at Origin 


District 


Lat. and Long, 
of Origin 


Remarks 
F=Felt ; D=Destructive 


1908 




h. m. 








Sept. 


22 


16226 


2.49 


F t 


149 E. 6 N. 




99 


23 


1623 


7.7 


F 3 


90 E. 10 N. 




»■ 


26 


1627 


5.18±2 


L 


150 E. 60 S. 


Origin determined 
from Christchurch, 
Sydney, Cape- 
town and Pilar. 


»» 


28 


1628 


6.28 


Ks 


44 E. 38 N. 




Oct. 


7 


1630a 


0.48±2 


F. 


142 E. N. 




99 


13 


1632 


5.6 


B 


102 W. 18 N. 


Mexico City, F. 


>» 


14 


1633 


14.54 


J 


30 E. 80 N. 


Origin determined 
from Shide, Ir- 
kutsk, Victoria, 
B.C., and many 
other stations. 


99 


20 


1634 


2.40 


E 3 


122 E. 16 N. 


E. Luzon, F. 


9* 


20 


1635 


5.37 


E 3 


122 E. 16 N. 


t> 


>» 


23 


1636 


20.13 


K 3 


70 E. 35 N. 




»> 


24 


1637 


21.12 


K 3 


75 E. 36 N. 




Nov. 


2 


1638 


5.16 


F 3 


97 E. 2 S. 


Padang and N. Su- 
matra. F. Second 
shock 7.20. 




6 


1639 


7.12±5 


Q 


160 E. 30 N. 


S. Bonin Island, F. 




6 


1640 


13.45±2 


P 


169 E. 51 N. 






9 


1642 


15.6 


D 2 


60 W. 23 S. 






10 


1643 


18.51 


E 3 " 


126 E. 9 N. 


Agusan River Valley, 

F. 
Panay Island, F. 




11 


1644 


13.18 


E 3 


121 E. 10 N. 




12 


1644a 


12.8 


Pi 


78 W. 14 S. 


Lima, F. 




12 


16446 


16.37 


F 3 


98 E. 1 S. 


Batoe Island, D. 




15 


1645 


1.30 


F 2 


118 E. 4S. 


S.W. Celebes, F. 




22 


1649 


7.15 


E t 


146 E. 42 N. 






23 


1650 


12.42±2 


K 3 


108 E. 11 N. 


Origin determined 
from com. of Manila, 
Batavia, Calcutta, 
and Osaka. Agrees 
with Perth, Tash- 
kent. 


99 


30 


1656 


21.20 


M, 


177 E. 37 S. 


Whale Island. F. 
Origin determined 
from the com. of 
records from all 
the world stations, 
also max. for Christ- 
church. 


»> 


30 


1656a 


21.33 


E 3 


122 E. 20 N. 


Babuyan Island, F. 
Origin determined 
from Manila, Zika- 
wei, Irkutsk and 
Indian stations. 
Distance from 1656 
to 1656a, 75°. 
Time taken for P t 
to travel this dis- 
tance would be 14 
min. 



G 2 



84 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Seismic Activity — continued. 



Date 

1908 
Nov. 30 



No. 



Time 
at Origin 



h. m. 
16506 21.36 



Dec. 


12 


1659 


J> 


12 


1660 




18 


1663 


>» 


22 


1664 


Ji 


28 


1670 



1909 
Jan. 3 
„ 15 
„ 21 
„ 23 



Feb. 



29 

29 

9 

9 

10 

10 
15 
16 
16 

22 



1677 
1692 
1695 
1701 

1707 
1708 
1718 

1719 

1721 

17216 

1728 

1730 

1731 

173.5 



12.53 

18.50±2 



15.35 
2.41 
4.20.4 



21.40 
10.35 
2.20±3 

2.48 

0.39±2 
12.43±2 
11.23 

14.38 

19.49 

20.30±2 

0.48 

7.58 
16.34 

9.21? 



District 



A, 






G t 

E, 
K„ 



F,, E 3 

K 5 

E, 
E, 
K 6 

K s 

K 5 

E 2 



F„ M 2 



Lat. and Long. Remarks 

of Origin F=Felt; D=Destructive 



135 W. 55 N. 



102 E. 25 N. 
130 E. N.S. 



52 E. 
121 E. 



17 N. 

25 N. 



15.35 E. ] 
38.10 N. J 

151 E. 53 S. 

128 E. 8 N. 
169 E. 8 S. 
50 E. 33 N. 

130 E. N.S. 
133 E. 5N. 
38 E. 40 N. 

38 E. 40 N. 

38 E. 40 N. 

133 E. 6 S. 

99 E. 36 N. 

100 E. 25 N. 
140 W. 63 N. 
175 E. 12 S. 



Queen Charlotte Is., 
F. Origin deter- 
mined from Vic- 
toria, Toronto, Bal- 
timore, Shide and 
European stations. 
Distance, 1656 to 
16566, 100°. Time 
taken for P t to 
travel this dis- 
tance would be 17 
min., and this it 
practically did. 
Five maxima were 
recorded at Shide. 
At 22.15-22.20 
(which refers to the 
Queen Charlotte Is. 
shock), 22.22-22.23 
(which refers to 
Manila), and 22.53 
(which refers to 
New Zealand). 

N.W. New Guinea, 
F. Origin deter- 
mined from com. 
of Manila, Batavia, 
and Sydney. 

Formosa, F. 
Messina, D. 



Burujird to Ispahan, 
D. 



Harpoot and Alex- 

andropol, F. 
Harpoot and Alex- 

andropol, F. 
Harpoot and Alex- 

andropol, F. 
Great Kei, F. 



Determined from com. 
of Christchurch, 
Sydney, Perth, 

Honolulu, Manila, 
and Osaka. Mul- 
tiple earthquake, 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



85 



Seismic Activity — continued. 









Time 




Lat. and Long. 


Remarks 


Date 


No. 


at Origin 


District 


of Origin 


F=Felt; D=Destructive 


1909 




h. m. 








Feb. 


22 


1736 


14.14 


K 5 


37 E. 39 N. 


Sivas, F. 


19 


26 


1738 


16.42±2 


B 


95 W. 5 N. 




Mar. 


5 


1748 


12.16 


K 5 


40 E. 39 N. 


Temran, F. 


9> 


7 


1751 


18.5±5 


Gj, G 2 


50 E. 50 S. 




ft 


8 


1753 


11.20 


M„ 


165 E. 9 S. 




>> 


10 


1755 


23.54 


E, 


130 E. 29 N. 


Oshima and Sat- 
suma, F. 


>* 


11 


1756 


20.28 


Ej, E 2 , E 3 


140 E. 32 N. 




>» 


12 


1757 


0.21 


E,, E 2 , E 3 


140 E. 32 N. 




J> 


12 


1758 


23.14 


E 1( E 2 , E 3 


140 E. 32 N. 


From Aomori to 
Bonin Is., F., and 
Shimosa, Hitachi, 
D. 

Awa, Kazusa, D. 


>y 


13 


1760 


14.21 


E 1? E 2 , E 3 


140 E. 32 N. 














Yokohama and 














Tokio F. 


»> 


17 


1763 


22.53 


F lf F 2 


121 E. 2 S. 


Central and North 
Celebes, D. 


»> 


22 


1766 


4.23 


E 2 


146 E. 29 N. 


East coast of Japan, 

F. 
East coast of Japan, 

F. 
South New Zealand, 

F. 


»> 


22 


1767 


20.2 


E 2 


146 E. 29 N. 


>> 


22 


1768 


22.3 


M t 


168 E. 48 S. 


j» 


27 


1769 


13.20±3 


Fi 


152 E. 2 S. 


April 


10 


1772 


5.23±2 


M, 


180 E. 9 S. 




>> 


10 


1773 


18.43±2 




140 E. 80 N. 


Determined from 
Victoria, Toronto, 
Indian stations, 
Osaka and Euro- 
pean stations. 


j> 


10 


1773a 


19.36±3 


E, 


165 E. 45 N. 




rj 


11 


1774 


4.2 


K 5 


45 E. 36 N. 




)> 


11 


1775 


13.30±3 


M 2 


175 E. 7 S. 




j> 


12 


1777 


1.1 


M 2 


170 E. 11 S. 




j> 


13 


1780 


22.33 


E 3 


126 E. 13 N. 




j> 


14 


1781 


19.53 


E 3 


125 E. 23 N. 




>> 


23 


1785 


17.40 




9 W. 39 N. 


Benavente and 
Samora, D. 


j» 


25 


1786 


1.8 


K 


122 W. 53 N. 


North Victoria, B.C., 
F. 


jj 


25 


1787 


21.49 


E 2 , M 2 


140 E. 10 N. 


j» 


25 


1788 


22.36 


F„ M 2 


135 E. 6 N. 


Determined from 
Manila, Osaka, 
Sydney, Perth, 
and Calcutta. 


»» 


27 


1790 


12.44±3 


F t 


147 E. N.S. 




»» 


29 


1791 


22.34±2 


G x 


63 E. 27 S. 




May 


2 


1792 


6.49±5 


Mj 


180 E. 25 S. 


Determined from 
Samoa, Sydney, 
Perth and Hono- 
lulu. 


u 


2 


1793 


18.9±3 


F 1( M, 


173 E. 10 S. 





8G 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.- 1912. 



Seismic Activity — continued. 



Date 



1909 
May 10 
„ 11 

.. 12 
„ 13 
„ 17 



,, 17 
„ 17 

„ 17 



18 
18 
23 
25 
26 
30 
30 
3 



June 



6 



9 
11 
12 



27 

July 3 

7 
,. 13 

., 15 

„ 26 



No. 



1801 
1802 
1805 
1807 
1812 



1812 
1812 
1812 



1813 
1814 
1823 
1825 
1826 
1831 
1832 
1844 

1848 
1851 

1852 
1855 
1859 



22 1893 



1893 



1910 
1928 

1944 

1957 



1958 



Time 
at Origin 

Ii. in. 
20.14 
13.0 

0.4±2 
14.0±5 

8.3 



8.11 



8.16 



8.21.2 



16.44 

18.9 

10.43 

4.50 

2.0±3 

6.15 
20.57 
18.44 

4.50 
5.46 

0.-6 
21.6 
20.20 
13.55 



13.14 

7. 15ca 
19.53.5 

21.34 

13.2 

0.36 



District 



G, 

M, 

H 



K, 



Lat. and Long, 
of Origin F= 



1980 10.54 



G, 



K. 



A, 

E, 
*i 

*i 

K s , K 6 , K 
F„ 

r, 

M, 
D 3 

D 2 



F, 



E 2 

M. 2 

K, 
K, 



G, 



67 E. 8 S. 
179 W. IIS. 

84 W. 1 S. 
25 W. 30 N. 
65 W. 22 S. 



68 E. 37 N. 



33 E. 35 S. 



9 W. 41 N. 



132 W. 53 N. 
140 W. 51 N. 
120 E. 25 N. 
145 E. N.S. 
145 E. N.S. 

23 E. 39 N. 

131 E. 6 S. 

102 E. 2 S. 

147 E. 9 N. 
73 W. 25 S. 

73 W. 25 S. 

5.3 E. 43.5 N. 

170 E. 19 S. 

10 E. 58 N. 



140 E. 17 N. 

162 E. 10 S. 

7 E. 36 N. 

71 E. 37 N. 
148 E. 62 N. 



21.15 E. 
37.45 N. 



63 E. 8 N. 



Remarks 
Felt; D= Destructive 



Topiza, D. Deter- 
mined from PiJar, 
Toronto, Honolulu 
and European sta- 
tions. 

Determined from In- 
dian stations, Tiflisi 
and Zikawei. 

Determined from 

Capetown, Mauri- 
tius and Perth. 

Determined from 

max. of San Fer- 
nando, Azores and 
Shide. 



Bo!o, D. 

Korintji, Djambi, D., 
200 killed. 

Coquimbo, D. Taltal, 
F. 

St. Cannat, D. 

Determined from 

British, German 
stations, Malta, 
Cairo, Tiflis and 
Calcutta. 

Determined from 

Osaka, Manila and 
Honolulu. 

Ain-Trab, Ain-Fak- 

rouna, F. 
A district 8° by 6° 

shaken. 
Determined from 

Osaka, . Manila, 

Tiflis and British 

stations. 
Havari, Kalivia and 

Sosti, D. More 

than 100 killed and 

wounded. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



87 



Seismic Activity — continued. 









Time at 




Lat. and Long. 


Remarks 


Date 


No. 


Origin 


District 


of Origin 


F=Felt ; D=Destructiv< 


1909 




h. 111. 








July 


30 


1982 


10.47 


B 


101 W. 13 N. 


Acapulco and Chil- 
pancingo, D. 


>» 


31 


1984 


19.18 


B 


101 W. 13 N. 


Acapulco and Chil- 
pancingo, D. 


A 113. 


2 


1986 


10.14 


F 3 


95 E. 14 N. 






7 


1999 


10.45 


M, 


178 W. 6 S. 






10 


2001 


0.42 


Ml 


175 W. 15 S. 


Tonga, F. 




12 


2004 


11.23 


E 3 , F x 


120 E. 8 N. 




" 


15 


2008 


6.27 


Ea 


136 E. 36 N. 


Central Japan, D. 


99 

99 


10 


2016 


0.58 


B 


84 W. 10 N. 


San Jose, Costa Rica, 
F. 




18 


2018 


0.34 


F t 


167 E. 14 S. 




22 


2024 


15.40±2 


K 3 


75 E. 37 N. 






29 


2039 


10.28 


E 3 


128 E. 26 N. 




Sept. 


5 


20546 


9.10±2 


Gt 


72 E. 16 S. 




99 


7 
8 


2058 
2059 


15.28±2 
16.45±5 


K 3 


70 E. 33 N. 

180 E. 60 N. 


Two earthquakes ? 




8 


2060 


23.17 


Ex 


135 E. N.S. 


Dore, D. 




10 


2062 


18.7 


E 3 


26 N. 130 E. 


Nase, F. 




10 


2063 


19.44 


E, 


127 E. 10 N. 


E. Visayas, F. 




11 


2065 


10.52 


E, 


142 E. 17 N. 






10 


2071 


18.49 


F 3 " 


102 E. 4 S. 


S. Sumatra, F. 




10 


2072 


19.35 


E, 


145 E. 40 N. 






21 


2076 


18.49 


E t 


132 E. 3 N. 






23 


2078 


6.29 


E 3 


92 E. N.S. 






28 


2082 


19.57 


E 3 


122 E. 18 N. 


Apani, F. 


Oct. 


4 


2091 


13.39±2 


E t 


160 E. 12 S. 






17 


2102 


22.12±2 


K, 


91 E. 41 N. 




99 


20 


2108 


23.42 


K 3 " 


68 E. 29 N. 


Quetta and Bellpat, 
D. 




27 


2114 


1.30 


M t 


172 E. 36 S. 




28 


2117 


3.53 


H 


5 W. 30 S. 






29 


2118 


6.45 


A 2 


124 W. 41 N. 


Fortuna, N. Cali- 














fornia, D. 




29 


2119 


16.4±1 


K 4 


31 E. 44 N. 






29 


2120 


17.39±1 


K 4 


31 E. 44 N. 






30 


2121 


10.13±2 


Fi 


132 E. 5 S. 


N.W. New Guinea to 














Ambon and Timor- 
laut, F. 




31 


2122 


10.18 


B 


105 W. 8 N. 




Nov. 


1 


2123 


6.15±2 


H 


33 W. N.S. 






1 


2124 


9.10 


K 3 


47 E. 36 N. 






3 


2126 


6.11±5 


M t 


145 E. 56 S. 






8 


2132 


20.12 


D, 


100 W. 30 S. 


Santiago, Copiapo, F. 


99 


10 


2134 


6.12 


E 3 " 


132 E. 32 N. 


Miyazaki, D. An- 
other earthquake at 
135 E. 34 N., Oka- 
yania, D. 


t* 


12 


2137 


19.48±2 


O 


30 E. 4 S. 




»» 


20 


2141 


12.40±3 


E 3 


132 E. 15 N. 




j? 


21 


2142 


7.30 


E 3 


122 E. 25 N. 




99 


28 


2147 


0.53±3 


M, 


176 W. 12 S. 




Dec. 


3 


2154 


3.2 


E! 


145 E. 1 S. 




99 


8 


2159 


9.1 


E t 


160 E. 7 S. 




99 


9 


2160 


15.33 


F, 


161 E. 8 S. 




99 


9 


2161 


21.5 


E t 


165 E. 10 S. 





88 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Seismic Activity — continued. 



Date 


No. 


Time at 




Lat. and Long. 


Remarks 






Origin 




of Origin 


F=Felt ; D=Destructive 


1909 




h. m. 








Dec. 9 


2162 


21.42 


Fi 


127 E. 2 S. 


Ambon and Piroe, F. 


9 


2163 


23.27 


E 2 , M a 


147 E. 14 N. 




9 


2163 


23.27 


M 2 


176 E. N.S. 


Determined from 
Samoa, Honolulu 
and Sydney. 


„ 22 


2180 


12.38ca 


*\ 


152 E. 3 S. 




,. 23 


2182 


22.13±3 


F. 


160 E. 9 S. 




„ 28 


2187 


19.17±2 


F, 


129 E. 5 S. 





III. Relation of Amplitude in Seconds of Arc to the Distance 

of an Origin. 

Those who have experienced earthquake movement in the vicinity 
of an epicentre have many reasons to conclude that it is undulatory 
in character. Earthquake earth-waves have frequently been seen. 
Water in tanks, ponds, and in small vessels has been observed to flow- 
irregularly and intermittently first in one direction and then in another. 
The movement of the fluid suggests that the containing vessel lias been 
subjected to a series of tilts. Pictures and objects free to swing do so 
in an extremely irregular manner. They may move, say, to the right, 
stop, go further to the right, and again come to rest, after which they 
may swing suddenly in an opposite direction. The hanging lamp or 
whatever the object may be does not swing freely like a pendulum, 
but follows a series of irregular displacements of the supporting point. 
At considerable distances from an origin where the movements are less 
violent, although they are not so irregular in character, the records from 
seismographs also give evidence of angular displacements. Two similar 
horizontal pendulums similarly oriented, but adjusted to have different 
periods, give for the large waves of crypto or teleseismic disturbances 
records of amplitude the linear measurements of which are very 
different. The instrument with the longer period yields the larger 
diagram. If, however, we convert these displacements into angular 
measure we find that the two records are comparable. 

In the British Association Report for 1893, p. 221, I gave angular 
measurements for earth-waves which form portions of earthquakes 
which could be felt. I obtained these records from an ' angle measurer 
or clinometer.' A similar but much more sensitive apparatus was in 
1903 devised by Dr. Schliitter. The object was to measure the angular 
component of teleseismic motion. This does not appear to have been 
detected. 

This means that the conclusions arrived at by Dr. Schliitter, which 
at the present time are shared by several seismologists, are very 
different from mine. 

Following my own ideas, in the accompanying diagram I have 
given curves which show for six large earthquakes the approximate 
relation between the amplitudes of teleseismic disturbances in angular 
measure and the distance from an origin measured in geographical 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



89 



degrees. These measurements are deduced from information published 
in the British Association circulars, which contain records from the 
particular kind of instrument they have adopted. The earthquakes 




160 



Relation of Amplitude (in seconds of arc) to distance from an origin for six 

large earthquakes. 

their order in the accom- 



according to 



considered, which I number 
panying diagram, were as follow :- 

I. California, April 18, 1906 : observations from 30 stations, 17 good. 

II. Mexico, March 26, 1908 :'25 observations, 12 good. 

III. Mexico, July 30, 1909 : 20 observations, 11 good. 

IV. Chile, June 8, 1909 : 19 observations, 9 good. 

V. Japan, November 10, 1909 : 22 observations, 11 good. 

VI. Messina, December 28, 1908 : 23 observations, 12 good. 

The observations indicated as ' good ' fall on or near to the curve 
to which they refer; the remainder are far removed and erratically placed 
with regard to the same. The curves as they stand can therefore only 
be regarded as rough approximations to the truth. They indicate that 
up to about 80° from an origin amplitude decreases uniformly. 
From 80° to 120° it decreases less rapidly, and beyond this distance the 



f)0 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



decrease is very slow and the curve tends to become asymptotic to the 
axis representing distance. Professor H. H. Turner very kindly ex- 
amined these curves, together with the observations on which they are 
founded, with the result that two of them were brought more closely in 
conformity with the remaining four. 

At the present time this investigation is, with additional material, 
receiving careful attention from Professor Turner. 

IV. Direction of Earthquake Motion. 

Between 1881 and 1882, partly in conjunction with the late 
Professor T. Gray, I carried out an extensive series of experiments on 
earth-vibrations produced by firing dynamite or some other explosive 
in boreholes of varying depth. The resulting movements were recorded 
by seismographs. One result repeatedly shown indicated that the first 
movement was invariably in the direction of the origin of the explo- 
sion. 1 

An observation corresponding to this has been shown by Prince 
Galitzin to accompany teleseismic motion, and when it is pronounced 
it furnishes the azimuth of the epifocal district. To determine 
whether the maximum movements of teleseisms showed any relation- 
ship to the direction in which they had been propagated I examined 
forty-two seismograms of North-South and East- West motion as 
recorded at Shide. In the following table I give the number of a seis- 
mogram as entered in the Shide Register, published in the British 
Association circulars, its date, the latitude and longitude of origin of 
the disturbance to which it refers, the azimuth of this origin from Shide, 
and the azimuth as calculated from the North-South and East-West 
amplitudes. Each of these latter may be read as so many degrees east 
or a similar number degrees west of North. 



Register No. 


Date 


Position of Origin 


Azimuth of 
Origin 


Azimuth as 
calculated 




1901 








496 


May 25 


165 E. 12 N. 


N. 20 E. 


N. 30 E. 


565 


Dec. 14 


121 E. 14 N-. 


N. 57 E. 


N. 60 E. 


571 


Dec. 31 
1903 


173 W. 41 N. 


N. 15 W. 


N. 11 W. 


705 


Apr. 29 
1904 


143 W. 43 S. 


N. 55 W. 


N. 54 W. 


820 


Mar. 1 


178 W. 13 S. 


N. 20 W. 


N. 25 W. 


838 


Apr. 12 


175 W. 44 N. 


N. 8 E. 


N. 12 E. 


847 


May 1 


130 E. 2 N. 


N. 22 E. 


N. 30 E. 


860 


June 25 


160 E. 53 N. 


N. 11 E. 


N. 17 E. 


S63 


June 27 


160 E. 53 N. 


N. 11 E. 


N. 17 E. 


872 


July 24 


160 E. .53 N. 


N. 15 E. 


N. 25 E. 


877 


Aug. 8 


179 E. 42 S. 


N. 5 E. 


N. 13 E. 


884 


Aug. 24 


135 E. 32 N. 


N. 42 E. 


N. 47 E. 


885 


Aug. 27 


141 W. 67 N. 


N. 18 W. 


N. 20 W. 


886 


Aug. 30 


101 E. 30 N. 


N. 62 E. 


N. 57 E. 


889 


Sept. 11 


106 E. 23 N. 


N. 65 E. 


N. 65 E. 


924 


Dec. 2 


132 E. 10 N. 


N. 55 E. 


N. 62 E. 



i Sec Phil. Tram. U.S., part iii., 1882, p. 871; Trans. Seis. Soc, vol. viii., 
1885, pp. 1-82; Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1885, pp. 363, 364. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 91 

"We have here sixteen instances in which the azimuth of an origin 
determined from the maxima of North-South and East-West motion 
approximately agrees with the azimuth as measured on a globe. There 
are, however, in the same interval of time twenty-six instances where 
no such agreement exists, and this I find to be the case for all the 
large records obtained during the latter half of 1909. The inference 
is that the main portion of teleseismic motion, like that of macro- 
seismic motion, generally takes place in directions independent of the 
azimuth of its origin. 

V. On the Relative Duration of Two Rectangular Components of 
Earth-movement at a given Station. 

The records I refer to were made at Shide by a pair of light horizon- 
tal Milne pendulums mounted on the same cast-iron frame, and 
installed upon a brick column. One of these recorded N.-S. motion 
and the other E.-W. motion. The duration of the movements of 
the latter practically agreed with the duration recorded by a similar and 
similarly oriented pendulum on a separate column. From this it is 
inferred that although two light pendulums are carried on one stand 
they had no sensible effect upon each other's movements. 1 have 
divided the records into the following four groups, the natural period of 
the pendulums being different in each group : — 

Group 1.— May 25, 1901, to January 1, 1902. Period of N.-S. boom 

19 seconds, and E.-W. boom 17 seconds. Ten large earthquakes had a 
total duration of 1,341 minutes fcr N.-S. movements, and 1,313 for 
E.-W. motion. Pendulum with the longest period moved for the 
longest time, but the difference is very small. 

Group 2.— February 27 to December 23, 1903. Period of N.-S. 
boom 20 seconds, and E.-W. boom 17 seconds. Eleven large earth- 
quakes had a total duration of 730 minutes for N.-S. motion, and 725 
for E.-W. motion. 

Group 3.— January 20 to June 27, 1904. Period of N.-S. boom 

20 seconds, and E.-W. boom 30 seconds. Nine large earthquakes had 
a total duration of 1,036 minutes for N.-S. motion, and 1,067 for E.-W. 
motion. Here again the pendulum with the longest period was dis- 
turbed for the greatest length of time. 

Group 4. — July 24 to October 9, 1904. Period of both pendulums 
25 seconds. The total duration for eight earthquakes was for N.-S. 
motion 725 minutes, and for E.-W. motion 732 minutes. In this 
instance pendulums with similar periods have been kept in motion for 
equal intervals of time. Nineteen large earthquakes between July 3 
and December 10, 1909, show a similar result. 

From the above notes it might be inferred that the apparent dura- 
tion of a teleseism largely depends on the sensibility of the recording 
apparatus to tilting. A detailed examination of these records, how- 
ever, distinctly shows that this is not the case, and that a pendulum 
with a short period is frequently in movement for a longer interval of 
time than one with a long period. Amongst the earthquakes referred 



92 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

to in the above groups I find eight instances in which the direction of 
the N.-S. motion has exceeded the E.-W. motion by intervals of from 
10 to 69 minutes. The azimuths of the origins of these earthquakes 
were 41, 36, 45, 8, 20, 13, 15, and 5 degrees east of north, which is 
the direction of Japan or the Central Pacific. In six instances where 
the E.-W. motion exceeded the N.-S. motion by intervals of from 10 to 
46 minutes the azimuths of the origins were 70 E., 79 W., 90 W., 
90 W., 69 E., and 12 W., which with the exception of the last suggest 
origins in Central Asia or Central America. It would therefore appear 
that marked differences in the duration of two rectangular components 
of motion are possibly associated with the azimuth of its origin. 

VI. Megaseismic Activity and Periods of Quiescence. 

In the British Association Report, 1910, p. 54, I gave a note on 
megaseismic activity and rest. The result showed that a large group 
of megaseisms was followed by a long period of quiescence, while small 
groups were followed by comparatively short periods of quiescence. 
This result was based on the examination of twenty-eight groups of 
large earthquakes. The present discussion is based upon eighty groups, 
found in the Registers for the years 1899-1908 inclusive. The number 
of earthquakes in these groups varies from two or three to fifteen. In 
two cases, however, the number of earthquakes is forty-six and fifty- 
one. If an earthquake has been recorded over the whole world I have 
considered its intensity double that of a disturbance which is only 
recorded over a hemisphere. The intensity of a group is assumed to be 
the sum of the intensities of each earthquake it contains. Groups 
usually extend over from one to -three days, and it is seldom they extend 
over more than six days. The intensity per day is the intensity of a 
group divided by the number of days over which it extended. This quan- 
tity does not appear to show any relationship to the number of days of 
rest which preceded or followed the group which it represents. 

The number of days which have elapsed between the centre of one 
group and the centre of the group which follows has usually been from 
fifteen to fifty days. In the accompanying figure the number of earth- 
quakes in different groups are plotted in relation to these intervals. 

At first sight it would appear that these two quantities had a rough 
relationship, but it must be remembered that the intervals between 
centres of groups have frequently been increased by the duration of the 
groups. 

VII. Megaseismic Frequency in Different Seasons. 

In the Report for 1906 for the seven years 1899-1905 I compared 
the frequency of large earthquakes in the following three districts: — 

1. Districts A, B, C refer to the East Pacific coast north of the 
Equator, including the Antillean fold. 

2. Districts E, F refer to the West and South-west portions of 
the North Pacific. 

3. District K, or the various folds extending from the Balkans to 
the Himalayas. 

The ratios of the numbers of disturbances which were noted in 



/ 








Rnfia* JnwM/k-., gSmi B/y,»(. Dmmdm, Vjij 



MEGASEISMS 1899-1909 



1 U LL_L 



I 



Jul 



-u — i i 1 1 111 ii i 



i!& ^a ^5 s 5S § s 



ii. ii 



J U LL 



l l l 



J L 



33 3 3 3 3 



3533 

JiL 



i li I 



J Jll LL 



353 

JlL 






± I i 1 1 I i 



335 3 i S 

nil i I 



3 & 



- 35 1 S 

1 ,111 


It, 


ii i 


S S : 

l I i 


i 


i il ii 1 


33 iiii i % 

1, IIII , , 


i 1 i ii 


1 III llll ll 


1 llll 1 1 


3 3:3 ii 
1 III II 


lit ; 




1 








1 


!- - |1 h 


1 IIII II ' I 1 ! ll'l 


! l " J 






\ 



Jl l! I I 'I 



I II III 



II I I III I l 



Lu 1 I ll HI 1L 



1 1 I 



3 S 3SS 533 3 



III | I I] , I I III | 11 11 I I 1 | J III I I I 1 



»0» Soo 



J I , I 



J u_ 



53 sa 

_u 



J L 



!3 153 §1 

I I I II Ii. 



3 53 

j iL 



»i 



■ ! 5 

I 1 1 



8: I 3 S3 3=3 



I I III I I 



III 



■ 



33313 S 3 s 



; mti 



LU 111 



1 I I II II 1 13 

I I , ! n j i 1 1 



m 



JLJI L 






« *' « Ji V 






I I I lill III I ii I il nlh i I ill inn i i I Ii Ii 1 1 I I 



_U U I I I mi nil, ll 



si II II ; II I IHS 

JjLU I , 1 I II I 



si I 1*1 ill I 1 

II 1. IM I I I I 



IS07 I 1 I " " L 



JI L 



I H INI, I I II L 



III 5 I I i Hi! 

llu I I I 111 



Illll till 

I III I I I I I 



!S 5 S5 



Mi l X 



" Ii Ii ! ,i nil ill i , ii 



i ! I 

,Bos _l — Ul !! MM 



is ili 



Mil KIM 

i_l |ii i "ill i i i i i i I i ill ii 1 1 i 



i I 



5S 5 5; s 



J L 



LLLL 



I I 5l 

j_ i L 



ii ii ii inn ; n 

ii I I nil i U_ 



J L_L 



- 



--«"-" •".;;.. ft **«. Sii Q <>i C< * i «C «« 



J L 



■■ ums ii m in in ?3 3 mil is i i s n i m i am i m \mm a "" I i 

— •-; — i" " y ' i m i m il M i — tW — i ill 1 1 mi Iji' i H ii 1 1 I i M i i , i i u i II i i n i ii i in i in in } n ii 



MBIsSI I i i 



I 



I ill t ll t II li U—L 



. 



fade 



I Diiturbed the Whole World. 
. I ii igin i ..M I .and. 



I Disturbed ;i Hemisphere. 
v Volcanic Eruption, by I.. Kelly. 



S. HIROTA. 
lltiutratfiy thi Snmtunlh Jttport an S«i bgieal jBwilifliHwiM, 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



93 



winter (October 31 to March 31) to those noted in summer in these 
three districts were respectively 1 to 0'55, 1 to T08, and 1 to 1"20. 

In the following tables these comparisons are continued from the 
year 1906 to the year 1910: — 



Districts 


a 


.a' 

SB 


9 


& 


>> 


0) 

a 

3 


j>> 


hi) 


a, 

0) 




> 

o 


o 

CD 


Total 




^3 


Sh 


S 


< 


!-5 


►a 


«! 


02 


O 


'A 


Q 




A, B, C. 1906 


3 


1 


2 


3 





2 


1 


1 














13 


1907 


1 








1 











1 


1 


2 








6 


1908 





1 








1 














1 


1 





4 


1909 











1 


2 





2 


1 





1 








7 


1910 

Total 

E, F. 1906 





1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 








1 


12 


4 


3 


4 


6 


5 


4 


4 


4 


2 


4 


1 


1 


42 


5 


3 


6 


6 


2 


4 


1 


3 


5 


8 


6 





49 


1907 


3 


1 


4 


3 


8 


4 


3 


4 


1 


1 


3 


3 


38 


1908 


3 


1 


4 


2 


3 


2 


2 


1 


1 


3 


8 


2 


32 


1909 


5 


o 


7 


7 


7 


5 





6 


8 


2 


3 


8 


63 


1910 
Total 
K. 1906 


4 


3 





7 


11 


12 


7 


3 


5 


5 


4 


14 


75 


20 


13 


21 


25 


31 


27 


13 


17 


20 


19 


14 


27 


257 





1 


2 


1 


1 








2 





3 


1 


1 


12 


1907 


1 





1 


1 








2 





1 


3 





I 


10 


1908 


1 





3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 





3 


18 


1909 


3 


5 


2 


3 


2 


1 


5 


3 


1 


5 


1 





31 


1910 
Total 


1 


1 





1 


3 


5 


4 


11 


3 


1 


1 


2 


33 


6 


7 


8 


8 


7 


7 


12 


19 


6 


14 


3 


7 


104 



Earthquakes Earthquakes 

in Winter in Summer Ratio 

Districts A, B, C 17 25 1 to 1-47 

E, P 124 133 1 to 107 

District K 45 59 1 to 1-31 

These results suggest that the greater number of large earthquakes, 
whether they originate beneath an ocean or beneath a continent, occur- 
in summer, and a similar result is arrived at if we assume that summer 
commences on May 1 rather than on April 1. 

It must, however, be noted that for A, B, C between 1899 and 1905 
the greater frequency was found in the winter months. With this 
exception the results here given accord with those obtained previously. 

If we combine these three districts for the twelve years ending 1910 
we find that 365 earthquakes have taken place in the summer and 349 
in winter, the winter to the summer ratio therefore being 1 to T04. 

This close correspondence between winter and summer frequency 
suggests that megaseismic frequency is but little influenced by epigenic 
phenomena which follow the six-monthly changes in climate. The 
observation that between 1899 and 1905 the greater frequency was in 
winter, while subsequently it was in summer, also suggests that mega- 
seismic frequency is not related to our seasons, and if there is a 
seismic periodicity it must be sought for outside seasonal recurrences. 

Frequency in the World, 1899 to 1909. — In eleven years, or 4.018 



94: REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

days, there were 976 megaseisms, or on the average one every 4*1 days. 
Of these 117 at least originated on land, and the remaining 859 beneath 
oceans. The suboceanic activity was therefore seven times that on 
land. The average for the latter was one megaseism for every thirty- 
four days, but beneath the ocean one every 4'6 days. 

Frequency in Districts F 1( F 2 and P 3 (East Indies). — -These dis- 
tricts are taken collectively for five years, 1889 to 1893. I select these 
three overlapping areas because at the present time they are more 
active than any other. In the time considered, 1,826 days, sixty 
megaseisms originated in them. The average frequency was therefore 
one disturbance in thirty days. If we regard those disturbances which 
occurred within an interval of less than five days of each other as being 
parts of one effort, the number sixty is reduced to forty-eight, and the 
average frequency becomes one disturbance in thirty-eight days. The 
time intervals between these forty-eight efforts expressed in days were as 
follow : — ■ 



6 


8 


8 


10 


11 


11 


11 


12 


12 


13 


— 





15 


18 


18 


18 


18 


18 


19 


20 


20 


22 


23 


23 


23 


25 


30 


31 


31 


31 


31 


32 


33 


34 


36 


37 


39 


42 




47 


47 


54 


57 


60 


62 


65 


93 


124 


129 


132 







One inference which may be drawn from these figures is that in 
these districts the time taken to bring about conditions of seismic insta- 
bility lies between eighteen and thirty-one days. 

Frequency in Districts E 1 and E 3 (East of Japan). — In the five 
years 1889 to 1893 forty-one megaseisms originated in these districts. 
The average frequency was therefore one disturbance in forty-four days. 
Pour of these disturbances may however be regarded as parts of single 
efforts. With this assumption, the average frequency becomes one 
disturbance in forty-nine days. 

The time intervals between these efforts expressed in days are as 
follow : — 

6 6 7 7 11 14 15 17 18 19 24 24 26 27 29 
30 32 36 38 39 43 43 46 46 46 47 50 
57 60 64 87 91 102 105 109 138 160 

The time interval required to bring about seismic instability may 
lie between thirty-six and forty-seven days, but it is not so well marked 
as it is in the East Indies. 

VIII. Earthquake Periodicity. 

If we plot the megaseisms which have been recorded since 1889 on 
a sheet of paper ruled to show the days of the year (see Plate II.), it 
is seen that these disturbances have occurred in groups separated by 
periods of rest. The number of groups in a year have varied from eight 
to seventeen. Between November 23 and December 24, 1889, there was 
a period of quiescence extending over thirty-one days. If we start on 
December 14, which is in the middle of this period, we find that every 
successive 443 days we arrive at other periods of rest. These are met 
with on the following dates: February 28, 1901, May 17, 1902, August 
4, 1903, October 22, 1904, January 'l7, 1906, April 1, 1907, June 17, 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



95 



1908, September 3, 1909. The last date, however, only represents a 
period of partial quiescence. 

The next section of this Report, drawn up by Professor H. H. 




Intervals in days between centres of groups. Mean position 
of groups are indicated by circles. 1899-1908. 

Turner, shows that my determination of 443 days is somewhat too small. 
It should be about 452 days. 

Another series of periods of rest is separated by intervals of 402 
days. It contains the following dates: December 23, 1899, January 
30, 1901, March 8, 1902, April 14, 1903, May 20, 1904, June 28, 1905, 
August 4, 1906, September 10, 1907, October 16, 1908, November 23, 
1909. 

IX. On a New Periodicity in Earthqtiake Frequency. 
By Professor H. H. Turner. 

The publication of the ' Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes, a.d. 7 
to a.d. 1899,' made it possible to inquire into possible periodicities; and 
I therefore instituted such an inquiry for periodicities near fourteen 
months, the period of the free oscillation of the earth's axis. It was 
soon noticed that there was a marked period near fifteen months, the 
best value for which is 104/7 months: so that twenty-one periods 
occupy twenty-six years very closely. The material used in the first 
instance was from 1899 back to 1750, before which the records become 
very scanty ; but more modern material subsequent to 1899 confirmed 
the result, and the old records from 1750 back to 1350, broken and 
incomplete though they are, still show the periodicity. 

The following table shows the values of the calculated coefficients 
for cos fl and sin I), expressed as percentages of the total number of 
earthquakes per month, with the adopted period 104/7 months. The 
grouping is easily effected by repeating the value for a single month at 



96 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



the end of seven periods of fifteen months. Thus, what would usually 
be a 7x15 = 105 months' interval is reduced effectively to 104. The 
time is reckoned backwards, as it seemed best to begin with more 
modern observations. 



Initial Date 


Total No. of Coefficients of „, . 
Earthquakes Cos Sin Maximum 


Deviation 
from Mean 


June 1909 


409 

530 
809 
779 
315 
191 
201 


- 9-0 


+ 6-4 145° 


+ 195° 


Oct. 1905 
Feb. 1897 
Feb. 1871 
Feb. 1845 
Feb. 1819 
Feb. 1793 

Feb. 1767 
Feb. 1689 
Feb. 1611 
Feb. 1533 
Feb. 1455 
Feb. 1377 


+ 7-6 
+ 5-8 
+ 6-7 

- 33 
+ 18-1 
+ 12-9 

- 7-8 

- 83 
+ 2-4 
+ 11-5 

+ 7-7 
+ 50 


- 34 - 24 

- 6-0 - 48 

- 22 - 19 

- 77 -113 
-131 - 36 

- 4-8 - 20 


+26 
+ 2 
+ 31 
-63 

+ 14 
+ 30 


386 
262 
159 
161 

78 
92 


- 4-7 -149 
-15-3 -118 

- 10 - 23 
+ 2-0 + 10 
-14-4 - 62 
+ 1-1 + 13 


-99 

-68 
+ 37 
+ 60 
-12 
+ 63 


Mean . . . +4*9 


- 5-8 - 50 





Each group extends from the initial date given in the first column 
to the next initial date. The first group is thus from June 1909 to 
October 1905, and contains three periods only : and it is directly dis- 
cordant. This anomaly is under investigation, and for the present we 
will omit the group. The mean formula is then : 

+ 4-9 cos e - 5-8 sin = 7"6 cos (0 + 50°), 

the maximum occurring in December 1905, April 1897, &c, two months 
later than the initial date. 

But a simple harmonic scarcely does justice to the facts. If we 
add together the results for corresponding months for the period of best 
observations, i.e., February 1793 to October 1905 (it will be seen how 
broken is the record in the earlier centuries), and divide by ten so as to 
get simpler numbers, we get the following sequence, counting the 
time now forwards in the usual direction. 



22 20 22 
~~64~ 



21 18 21 

, -— , — *• 

60 



18 18 20 
~~56 



17 18 17 

"~52 



19 16 17 



The starting-point has of course been selected to bring out the main 
feature, which is an almost steady fall, followed by a very rapid rise 
when we return to the beginning. The idea suggested is that of accu- 
mulation. The outward manifestations of stress (earthquakes) fall off in 
number steadily, but this means that stress is accumulating, and ulti- 
mately there is an outburst of numerous earthquakes again. If this is 
the explanation, it may be that the inequality is only quasi-periodic, as 
in the illustration (quoted first by Dr. Johnstone Stoney) of a pot boiling 
over and damping the fire, which would tend to recur roughly after a 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 97 

given interval, but not by any means exactly. The period found can 
then only be regarded as an average period, and the deviations in the 
table are intelligible. But it is noteworthy that Mr. Chandler detected 
a fifteen-month period in the Latitude Variation, 2 though the coefficient 
is extremely small (only 0".03): and some preliminary calculations 
seem to show that the level error of the Greenwich transit circle also 
has an inequality of this period. These matters are being further 
investigated. 

X. Intervals in Days from the Commencement of one Group to the 
Commencement of another. 



1899 . . 


. 47 


21 


24 


21 


28 


32 


25 


33 


39 


41 


33 










1900 . 


. 58 


13 


27 


69 


79 


40 


33 


39 
















1901 . 


. 20 


38 


18 


13 


19 


51 


73 


32 


31 


31 


28 


20 








1902 . 


. 17 


28 


16 


20 


21 


11 


54 


24 


28 


19 


30 


60 


28 






1903 . 


. 22 


11 


18 


23 


26 


37 


15 


20 


22 


30 


19 


24 


46 


43 


22 


1904 . 


. 13 
11 


58 
17 


15 


15 


31 


55 


29 


16 


16 


15 


16 


14 


17 


11 


16 


1905 . 


. 32 

7 

. 37 


29 


19 


10 


41 


15 


22 


30 


24 


33 


20 


48 


20 


14 


6 


1906 . 


33 


18 


18 


10 


75 


21 


10 


26 


29 


15 


12 


14 


12 


43 


1907 . 


. 15 


33 


51 


18 


20 


22 


30 


35 


7 


28 


20 


10 


41 


23 


18 


1908 . 


. 19 


16 


32 


10 


21 


7 


22 


11 


93 


40 


22 


20 


28 


12 




1909 . 


. 15 


37 


24 


16 


19 


15 


15 


7 


17 


19 


35 


34 


7 


52 


42 



A table of the above intervals shows that those of from fifteen to 
twenty-two days recur no less than fifty-five times, whilst those between 
eighteen and thirty-three days are repeated twenty-seven times. Inter- 
vals of seven, ten, eleven and twenty-four days are each repeated five 
times ; the remaining intervals only occur or recur once, with the excep- 
tion of the intervals thirty-seven and forty-one days, which recur twice. 

The inference is that for the world as a whole seismic strain usually 
finds relief every fifteen or thirty days. In other words there is fre- 
quently a rough regularity in the recurrence of megaseismic groups. 

XL — Intervals and Days between Successive Megaseisms in 
Particular Districts. 

In the eleven years 1899 to 1909, off the East Coast of Japan to the 
North of Tokio, I find that thirty-two megaseisms were recorded. 
Twelve of these were separated by intervals lying between fifty-seven 
and ninety-five days. 

To the South of the Philippines round the Celebes and to the West 
of N.-W. New Guinea during the same period forty-two large earth- 
quakes originated ; fifteen of these are separated by intervals which lie 
between fifty-six and ninety-two days. 

XII. — Geographical Distribution of Megaseisms and Thermometry 

Gradients. 

For the five years 1899-1903 we have a list of 313 megaseisms, the 
origins of which are known ; of these, sixty-one originated on continental 
areas, and 252 originated along the lines of troughs or ' deeps,' beneath 

2 Astr. Journal, No. 523 ; p. 152. 
1912 h 



98 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

oceans. It appears from this that for this particular period there was 
four times as much seismic activity beneath the cold waters of particu- 
lar parts of our oceans as there was beneath continental areas. 
This activity is represented by megaseisms, which usually occur 
in groups, and the periods of rest which follow the groups 
are found to be roughly proportional to the intensity of the 
groups by which they are preceded. This suggests that the strain 
• which finds relief in world-shaking disturbances accumulates uniformly, . 
and it may therefore be associated with uniformity in the rate of earth- 
cooling. 3 Should such a relationship exist, it seems likely that sub- 
oceanic thermometric gradients may be considerably steeper than those 
which exist beneath continental areas. This led me to examine such 
material as we have at our disposal relating to heat gradients in different 
parts of the world. In 1882, in the Fifteenth Report of the Under- 
ground Temperature Committee of the British Association, the late 
Professor Everett gives a summary of the results of their investigations. 
From a list of thirty-one localities in various parts of the world where 
observations have been made the conclusion is that the thermometric 
gradient is on the average 1° F. for 64 feet of descent, or 0'000285° C. 
per cm. of depth, which, with a rock conductivity of 0'0058, means an 
average escape of heat annually from each square centimetre of the 
surface of our world of 41'4 gramme-degrees of heat. Sufficient 
materials to make a complete map of the world, showing the heat 
gradients, do not exist, but Professor Everett's table may be split into 
two parts, one of which refers to highlands and the interior of con- 
tinents, and the other to lowlands or localities which are near the sea. 
In the former we find the following seven localities, viz. : Przibram, in 
Bohemia, St. Gothard Tunnel, Mont Cenis Tunnel, Schemnitz, in Hun- 
gary, Manegaon, in India, Yakutsk, in Siberia, and Sperenberg, near 
Berlin. The average gradient for these I find to be 1° F. for 75 feet of 
descent, or 0"000239° C. per cm. of depth. For the remaining twenty- 
four districts, which are comparatively near to the sea, the average 
gradient is 1° F. for 60 feet of descent, or 0-000303° C. per cm. of 
depth. With the latter gradient the number of gramme-degrees of heat 
which escape annually through each square cm. of the earth's crust 
would be 42'4, but with the gradient for the highlands this number 
becomes 35'5. This means that from the lowlands one-fifth, or 20 per 
cent., more heat escapes than that which escapes from the inland high- 
lands. 

I next turned to the tables of the late Professor Prestwich, published 
in 1886. 4 In this register I found 329 sets of observations. Of these, 
283 referred to Great Britain ana Ireland, France, Holland, Belgium, 
Italy, St. Petersburg, Algeria, and Buenos Aires. These I regarded 
as countries and places near to the sea. Out of this group, 217 have 
gradients below 1° in 64 feet, which is Professor Everett's average, 
while the remaining sixty-six have gradients above 64 feet. The latter, 
which are gentle gradients, are to the former, which are steep, in the 
ratio of 1 to 33. 

8 See Brit. Assoc. Report, 1910, p. 54. 

* See Proc. of the Royal Soc, vol. xli,, 1886. 



ON SEISMOLOGI'CAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



99 



For Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Central North America, which 
are distant from the sea, the number of gradients below 1° in 64 feet is 
32, while of those above 64 feet the number is twelve. In this case the 
ratio of the gentle gradients to those which are steep is as 1 to 2*6. 
Here again the inference is that steep gradients increase in frequency 
as we approach the seaboard. In this latter catalogue I find no less 
than twenty localities where the gradients are 33 feet or less. The 
steepest of this group is at the Dolcoath Mine, in Cornwall, where we 
have an increase of 1° F. for 18 feet of depth. For five mines 
beneath the sea the average gradient is 1° for 38 feet of depth. 

The only other materials bearing upon this subject with which I 
am acquainted are lists of heat gradients drawn up by Messrs. Koenigs- 
berger and Muhlberg. 5 When these are combined with those given by 
Professors Prestwich and Everett, the following two tables are obtained : 

Table I. 

This gives the average heat gradients in feet per 1° F. for inland districts and highland* 
together with the number of stations at which observations have been made. 



S.E. Lancashire, S. Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire 

Wales, Inland 

S. Germany, Bohemia, Austria .... 

Central France 

Victoria and tyew South Wales .... 
Central United States and Central Canada 
Witwatersrand, high ground .... 
South America, high ground .... 



No. of 


Average 


Stations 


Gradient 


9 


65 


2 


70 


12 


62 


6 


51 


2 


78 


13 


92 or 79 


1 


207 


5 


113 



The average gradient deduced from these figures is 1° F. for 75 feet descent. From 
Everett's tables the estimate was also 1° F. in 75 feet. 



Table II. 
For low ground, and localities near the sea, the gradients run as follows : — 



Newcastle and Durham District 

West Cumberland 

S. Wales, near the coast 

Cornwall and Devon 

Between Glasgow and Edinburgh 

N. Germany .... 

West France .... 

N. France and Belgium . 

Africa, the Sahara 

N. America, E. Coast 

Mexico, Central 



Stations 


Gradient 


10 


52 


2 


43 


2 


49 


14 


44 


4 


48 


4 


52 


4 


50 


8 


47 


3 


45 


3 


59 


2 


50 



From these figures it would appear that the average gradient of these localities is 
an increase of 1° F. for 52 feet of descent. From Everett's tables this becomes 1° F. 
in 60 feet of descent. 



5 See Trans. Institute Mining Engineers, vol. 39, 1909-10, p. 617. 



H 2 



100 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

The general result, of these examinations indicates that heat gradients 
beneath high grounds and continental areas are markedly less than 
those beneath low grounds and the oceans. Because seismic activity 
beneath certain portions of ocean beds is, as I have already said, 
at least four times greater than it is along shore lines or well inland, 
and if the gradient beneath continental surfaces is 1° in 75 feet, we 
might expect a gradient beneath the deeper parts of oceans of about 
1 in 19. 

Another method by which an approximate estimate may be made of 
suboceanic thermometric gradients is to assume that the steepness of 
these increases as we descend from a shore line to a sea-bed at the same 
rate as they increase as we descend from a high level to a shore line. 
In the tables given by Professor Prestwich I find seventeen entries which 
refer to gradients obtained at elevations lying between 1,017 and 9,529 
feet above sea-level. Ten of these observations were made at metal 
mines, six at coal mines, and one in a borehole. The mean height of 
these stations is 2,723 feet. The mean of the gradients is 1° F. for 
68 feet of descent, which, it will be observed, is somewhat less than the 
average gradient given by Professor Everett. The mean gradient from 
low-lying stations is about 1° P. for 60 feet descent. The difference 
between these gradients is therefore 8 feet, and if this difference steadily 
increases as we descend beneath sea-level, at a depth of 12,000 feet we 
should expect to find a gradient of 1° P. for 25 feet descent. This value 
and the gradient of 1° in 19 feet already suggested, considering what 
has been observed in mines under the sea, may be rough approximations 
to thermometric gradients beneath deep oceans. With rock conductivity 
constant, the rate at which heat is lost beneath our ocean would there- 
fore be about three and a half times that at which it escapes from con- 
tinental surfaces. If this is so, we may assume that the suboceanic 
crust of the world is either thinner or a better conductor of heat than 
that beneath the land. The plumb-line and observations made with 
pendulums show that high ground and mountain ranges have a deficiency 
in their gravitational attraction. To account for this Sir G. B. Airy 
advanced the hypothesis that materials of which they are constituted 
bulged downwards into a heated denser nucleus beneath. This, and 
the fact that the value of gravity increases as we approach the seaboard, 
means that the superficial covering of our earth beneath mountains is 
not only thicker, but it is also less dense than it is beneath lowlands and 
near the sea. 

It may also be added that rocks which are heavy and those which 
are metamorphic or crystalline have a slightly higher conductivity for 
heat than many other stratified rocks which are comparatively light. 
The crust of our earth beneath a suboceanic depression, partly, per- 
haps, because it is continually bathed by an oceanic circulation of cold 
water, is therefore a region where we should expect to find the greatest 
flow of heat, and consequently it is one where sudden contractions 
which accompany solidification should most frequently occur. 

Diabase, which is a volcanic rock, when it passes from the fluid to 
the glassy state contracts about 14 per cent., but at the time of solidifica- 
tion, which takes place at a temperature of about 2,000° F., there is a 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 101 

sudden contraction of from 3 to 4 per cent." Beneath an ocean bed 
with a gradient of 1° F. in 20 feet we should expect this to take place 
at a depth of about eight miles, but beneath a continent with a gradient 
of 1° in 60 feet at a depth of about twenty-four miles. 

XIII. A Possible Cause of Meyaseismic Activity. 

That earth rest after megaseismic activity is roughly proportional 
to that activity as measured by the number of large earthquakes in a 
group (p. 24), and that activity in the world is most frequently 
repeated after fifteen or thirty days of rest (p. 24), suggests that the 
cause which brings large earthquakes into being which cannot be 
traced to epigenic influences may be due to the steady dissipation of 
earth heat. In the first place, this view finds strong support in the 
fact that the regions where geothermic gradients are steepest are those 
from which megaseisms most frequently radiate. 

Volcanic rock, when passing from the fluid state to the solid, con- 
tracts suddenly (see p. 32), and something similar happens when 
molten slag solidifies. Information bearing on this subject was very 
kindly obtained for me by Mr. J. J. Shaw, of West Bromwich. To 
get rid of the slag from an iron furnace it is run into moulds or holders. 
As it mounts upwards in one of these, its outer edges are seen to con- 
tract or curve inwards, leaving a small space between the side of the 
holder and the hot 'metal.' The hot stream, as it continues to pour, 
fills up this space. When, however, it has reached a height of one 
and a half or two inches more in the holder, a second contraction 
occurs. This intermittent contraction and filling up the space it has 
left goes on until the holder is full. ' When the block is turned out 
it shows striae round its sides which correspond to the intermittent 
solidifications. Although the conditions of a cooling block of slag are 
different from those of a cooling globe, they suggest a series of spasmodic 
contractions at regular intervals rather than a contraction that is 
uniform,' a phenomenon which is roughly illustrated in the successive 
sequence of large earthquakes. 

When the block cools it frequently cracks, and hot material is 
exuded. This is due, as pointed out by Mallet, to the grip of the 
contracting outside shell upon the hot interior. 

The huge dykes filled with volcanic rock which traverse many 
countries, together with the fissure eruptions which have buried many 
thousands of square miles to depths of from 2,000 to 6,000 feet of lava, 
correspond, but on a gigantic scale, to the phenomena observed on the 
surface of the cooling slag. 

With each sudden yielding vibrations or waves would be generated 
on the surface of the viscous mass, and if it is assumed that this is 
homogeneous, these would be propagated beneath the crust at a uniform 
velocity, which is the case with the large waves of earthquakes. 

The suggestion here made is the reverse of the old idea. It is not 
a nucleus that contracts to leave a shell to follow downwards, but a 

* See Bulletin of the U.S. Geolog. Survey, No. 103, ' Igneous Fusion and 
Ebullition,' by Carl Barus. 



102 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

forming shell that contracts, which, by its sudden grip on the unshrinking 
nucleus, fractures itself. 7 

XIV. Seismic and Volcanic Activity. 

From the ' Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes ' published in the 
British Association Eeports for 1911 a list was constructed which gave 
the number of earthquakes which had occurred in the year 1800 and 
each following year up to 1900. A second list, based on information 
found in ' Die vulkanischen Erscheinungen der Erde, ' by Dr. Karl 
Schneider, gave the number of volcanic eruptions in each of these 
years. An inspection of these lists showed that from year to year 
seismic and volcanic activity seldom remained constant, but rose or 
fell. When all the entries in the ' Catalogue ' were considered it was 
seen that in forty -nine instances seismic and volcanic activity increased 
or decreased at the same time, but in the remaining fifty-one years 
one of these activities became greater whilst the other became less. If 
only the very large earthquakes having an intensity of II. or III. were 
considered, these numbers became respectively 52 and 47. 

Although we know that a megaseism may shake a dormant volcano 
into activity, 8 the figures here given suggest that volcanic and seismic 
activities of the world increase or decrease independently of each 
other. 

A stricter and therefore more satisfactory comparison of these 
activities may be obtained by reference to the chart which shows the 
chronological sequence of megaseisms between 1899 and 1910, together 
with the volcanic eruptions which have been recorded during the same 
period. The number of the latter, with fixed dates, was fifty-eight, 
and of the former 976. Eruptions and megaseisms have only occurred 
on the same day seventeen times. 

XV. On the Mitigation of Air Tremors at Cardiff. 
Mr. Thomas Chant writes me from Cardiff as follows: — 

' The air tremors recorded by our seismograph, which have now 
been reduced, appear to have been caused by movements of the air 
within the covering case, set up by changes of temperature, and by 
currents of air moving in the room. 

' In the first place it was thought that the heat from the small lamp 
changed the temperature in that part of the case near where it stands. 
To overcome this the lamp is now placed on two strips of asbestos 
fastened with seccotine to the movable top of the clock box, and two 
strips of asbestos have been fastened to the ends of the case (bridge). 
On these latter strips a piece of sheet tin has been fastened. Air now 
passes under the lamp and between the tin and the end of the bridge, 
thus preventing the case from becoming warm. 

' Secondly, movements of air within the case have been partially 
prevented in the following way : Pieces of thin mica have been fastened 
to the interior of the case across each end of the bridge, and the boom 



*B l 



7 See " Bedrock," No. 2, 1912. ■ 
8 See Brit. Assoc. Report, 1902, p. 72, and 1906, p. 97. 



ON SEISMOLOG1CAL INVESTIGATIONS. 103 

now passes through two horizontal slits in these pieces of mica. A 
slit has also been made for the silk thread. These narrow strips of 
mica fixed to narrow cubes of wood, almost making a triangle, rest on 
the top of the clock box under the movable cover. The intention is to 
reduce the space to which the pendulum swings, and to prevent air 
movements as far as possible from acting on it. 

' A small glass slide (microscope cover glass) has been fixed over 
the slit in the top of the clock box, under the blackened shield at the 
end of the boom, and a piece of glass fixed to the underside of the 
movable cover. 

' Screens made of wood and American cloth have been temporarily 
placed round the seismograph. We intend having a large screen with a 
cover made to go round and over the instrument, so that the seismo- 
graph will be practically enclosed in an American cloth cabinet. 

' The pieces of mica and asbestos were used first, and these reduced 
the tremors. When the screens were placed round the seismograph the 
tremors were further reduced, and when we obtain a new screen I 
am hoping things will be better still.' 



Magnetic Observations at Falmouth Observatory . — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir W. H. Preece (Chairman), Dr. 
W. N. Shaw (Secretary), Professor W. G-. Adams, Dr. 
Charles Chree, Captain E. W. Creak, Mr. W. L. Fox, 
Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, Sir A. W. Rucker, and Professor 
A. Schuster. 

The usual number of absolute observations have been made by Mr. 
Kitto. The mean values of the magnetic elements for the year 1911 
are as follows : — 

Declination 17° 33'-0 W. 

Inclination 66° 28'-2 N. 

Horizontal force 0-18798 C.G.S. 

Vertical force 043172 „ 

These results were deduced from the measurements of the curves 
made on the five quiet days a month selected by international agree- 
ment at de Bilt, the curves being standardised in the usual way by 
reference to the absolute observations. 

The measurements of the declination, horizontal force, and vertical 
force curves on the quiet days were also employed for calculating 
diurnal inequalities of these three elements and of the inclination which 
have appeared in the ' Report of the Observatory Committee of the 
Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society for the year 1911,' and in the 
' British Meteorological and Magnetic Year Book, ' Part IV. (2), pub- 
lished by the Meteorological Office. 

A new suspension was fitted to the horizontal force magnetograph 
by Mr. E. Gold in July 1911, and for a few clays thereafter the drift 
of zero in the instrument was too large to admit of satisfactory measure- 
ment of the curves. Under the circumstances it was decided to omit 



104 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

two of the quiet days selected for July at de Bilt, basing the inequality 
on the remaining three. 

The magnetic character of individual days has been decided by 
Mr. Kitto as in previous years, and communicated to Professor van 
Everdingen at de Bilt for inclusion in the International List. 

Having received an intimation that the contributions from the 
British Association and Boyal Society would be discontinued, the 
following letter was circulated to those interested in the work of the 
Observatory : — 

The Observatory, Falmouth, 

December 9, 1911. 

Falmouth Meteorological and Magnetical Observatory. 

Dear Sir, — The work of the Falmouth Observatory was originally under- 
taken at the request of the Meteorological Committee of the Royal Society, and 
it was placed under the local care of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. 
Under a Special Committee of that body the work has been carried on without 
intermission since March 1868, an annual grant being contributed for that pur- 
pose by the Meteorological Office. 

At the close of 1883 negotiations were entered into with the Meteorological 
Office which resulted in the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society providing a new 
site and erecting buildings for observatory purposes. The new observatory was 
opened in 1885. 

At the instance of several prominent members of the Royal Society oppor- 
tunity was taken at this juncture to initiate the recording of the terrestrial 
magnetic elements. A chamber was provided in the basement of the new build- 
ing for this purpose, and a set of self-recording magnetographs was placed there 
by the Royal Society, who also provided the necessary instruments for absolute 
magnetic observation. Regular magnetic records commenced in January 1887, 
and from that date the meteorological and magnetic work has been continued 
without intermission. 

In 1901 the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society gave notice that they were 
unable to continue the magnetic work without pecuniary aid, and that it would 
cease if the aid were not forthcoming. 

From that date grants were given by the Royal Society and the British 
Association. 

In view of matters connected both with the finances and the personnel of the 
Observatory, this Committee do not see their way to continue the observations 
after the close of 1912, and feel it only due to the scientific authorities who have 
so long and so consistently supported the Falmouth Observatory that they should 
be at once apprised of the fact. — Your obedient servant, 

Wilson L. Fox, 
Honorary Secretary, Observatory Committee of the 
Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. 

The Director, Meteorological Office. 

Falmouth Meteorological and Magnetical Observatory. 

The Committee of the Falmouth Observatory respectfully submit the follow- 
ing, amongst other reasons, why it appears to them that upon scientific grounds 
the Falmouth Observatory should be continued. In the Report of the Grant 
Administration Committee of the British Association, consisting of Sir W. H. 
Preece (chairman), Dr. W. N. Shaw (secretary), Dr. W. G. Adams, Captain 
Creak, Mr. Wilson L. Fox, Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Professor A. Schuster, Sir 
A. W. Riicker, and Dr. Charles Chree, allusion is made to several of these points. 

As regards Meteorology. 

1. The situation at the extreme South-West of England and the 
opening of the Channel is one of exceptional meteorological importance. 

2. The Observatory serves the purpose of a central station of refer- 
ence for meteorological data for the South-West of England. 



ON MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS AT FALMOUTH OBSERVATORY. 105 

3. Continuous records of pressure, temperature, wind, rain, &c, 
must still be the foundation of future progress in meteorology, and the 
existence of records over the long period of forty-three years is in itself 
a ground for their permanent maintenance. 

As regards Magnetic Work. 

4. The conjunction of Falmouth with Eskdalemuir for the effective 
representation of the details of the variation of terrestrial magnetic 
force. 

5. On account of the difference in latitude, the character of the dis- 
turbances recorded at the new Observatory at Eskdalemuir is more 
different than that at Falmouth from the accepted standards of Kew 
Observatory; therefore, owing to the similarity of latitude, the Fal- 
mouth records will be suitable in comparison with those at Kew Observa- 
tory for the investigation of secular change. 

6. The position of Falmouth is exceptionally favourable from the 
magnetic point of view, because it is on the coast in close proximity to 
the Atlantic Ocean, and therefore affords special facilities for making a 
connection between the land magnetic surveys and the ocean survey. 
This has been demonstrated by the visit of the ' Carnegie,' the magnetic- 
survey ship of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, which for the 
purpose of such connection made Falmouth its first port of call. 

7. The problems of terrestrial magnetism, to the solution of which 
the observatory has contributed its records during the past twenty-four 
years, are still engaging the joint investigation of eminent physicists 
throughout the world. In this connection special data are frequently 
sought from and furnished by the Falmouth Observatory. 

8. Long before the Kew Observatory was affected by electric trams 
the Royal Society felt the importance of supporting the establishment of 
an additional observatory at Falmouth, by contributing the instruments 
necessary for continuous photographic records, and for absolute observa- 
tions. 

9. The scientific value of and necessity for continuity of observa- 
tions. 

The Committee desire to express their regret that the difficulties in 
the way of continuing the magnetic observations which were begun in 
1887 have not been overcome. 

The Committee hope that, with a view to assisting the appeal for a 
Treasury Grant for the Falmouth Observatory, a resolution may be 
passed by Section A recommending that in the interests of science 
Falmouth Observatory may be efficiently maintained. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere, in co-operation with a 
Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Eleventh 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw 
(.Chairman), Mr. E. Gold (Secretary), Messrs. D. Archi- 
bald, C. Vernon Boys, C. J. P. Cave, and W. H. Dines, 
Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, Sir Joseph Larmor, Professor J. E. 
Petavel, Dr. A. Schuster, and Dr. W. Watson. 

Meetings of the Joint Committee were held in the rooms of the Royal 
Meteorological Society on October 18, 1911, and July 5, 1912. At 
the meeting in October it was decided to continue the ascents of 
registering balloons at Mungrefc College, Limerick, with the co-opera- 



10(3 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



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ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 



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108 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

tion of the Rev. W. O'Leary, S.J., so far as the funds at the disposal 
of the Committee would permit. 

As the cost of hiring cylinders for hydrogen for the ascents was 
considerable, it was subsequently decided to purchase a cylinder, and 
accordingly an 80-foot cylinder and cover were obtained from the 
British Oxygen Co., Glasgow. This, at a cost of 3L 3s. 9d., holds 
sufficient hydrogen for the single and short series ascents, but an 
additional cylinder is necessary for the long series of ascents extend- 
ing over a week. 

Ascents have been made in September, November, December 1911 , 
and January, April, June 1912. No ascents were made in March and 
May owing to unfavourable weather conditions. The ascent could 
not be made in February through the delay in getting hydrogen owing 
to the dock strike at Glasgow. 

Particulars of the ascents, including the date and time, the height 
reached, and the conditions of the pi'essure distribution at the time are 
given in Table I. The detailed values of the temperature at different 
heights are given in Table II. 

Out of the fourteen balloons liberated seven have been recovered, 
giving six good records to heights of 13 to 18 kilometres. In all six 
cases the stratosphere was reached. Out of eighteen balloons liberated 
since ascents were begun at Mungret College in June 1911, ten have 
been recovered, giving nine records to heights varying from 13 to 
21 kilometres. The average height of the stratosphere from these 
ascents is 10'7 kilometres, which is very nearly the same as the mean 
height for England. The majority of the ascents relate, however, to 
the summer and autumn months, when the mean height is greater 
than usual. The pressure was also above the average at the time of 
the ascents, the mean for the nine occasions being approximately 
764 mm. for M.S.L. Thus, so far as these ascents give information as 
to the average state of affairs, the results indicate that the strato- 
sphere is lower over Ireland in the summer and autumn months than 
it is over England or the Continent. 

It ought, however, to be pointed out that the ascents were made 
for the most part during a period when there was a gradient for 
northerly winds, and it is under such conditions that low values of 
He appear to occur in other places. 

Three ascents made in Ireland, in July 1908 and August 1910, by 
Captain Ley, gave a higher value for the mean height, 11.7 kilometres, 
corresponding with a mean sea-level pressure of 767 mm. If account 
is taken of the pressure and of the season the value is, however, not 
greater than the mean value for England or the Continent. (The value 
of He increases by about 0.5 kilometre for each 4 mm. increase of 
pressure.) 

None of the seven balloons sent up in December 1911, January 
.and April 1912, were recovered, but as only one balloon was recovered 
out of eight sent up by Mr. Dines at Pyrton Hill in the same period, 
it is probable that the losses are to be attributed to the special 
character of the weather rather than to the situation of the station. 

The results obtained are indeed very gratifying, and the best thanks 



OX THE INVESTIGATION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 109 

of the Committee are due to the Eev. W. O'Leary and the authorities 
of Mungret College for their assistance, without which such a series of 
ascents would have been quite beyond the resources at the disposal of 
the Committee. 

The Joint Committee have arranged to continue ascents at 
Mungret College, but they have decided that investigations over the 
sea are necessary both to supplement this work and to solve the 
problem of the effect of the ocean on the height of the stratosphere, 
and to throw further light on the connection between the distribution 
of pressure and the vertical temperature gradient. 

There is, moreover, a better chance of l'ecovering balloons at sea 
than on land in clear weather, since a vessel of moderate speed can 
keep the balloon in sight for a sufficient time to give a good indication 
of the place of fall. 

The Committee therefore ask for reappointment with a grant of 
50Z. , to be devoted to balloon ascents over the sea. 



Experiments for improving the Construction of Practical 
Standards for Electrical Measurements. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Lord Eayleigh (Chairman) , Dr. E. T. 
Glazebrook (Secretary), Professors J. Perry, W. G. Adams, 
and G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver Lodge, Dr. A. Muirhead, 
Sir W. H. Preece, Professors A. Schuster, J. A. Fleming, 
and Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. Shaw, Dr. J. T. 
Bottomley, Kev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, Professor S. P. 
Thompson, Mr. J. Kennie, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Sir 
Arthur Pucker, Professor H. L. Callendar, and Messrs. 
G. Matthey, T. Mather, and F. E. Smith. 

It was understood at the last meeting of the Committee that when the 
republication of the Eeports was complete the Committee would not ask 
for reappointment. The Reports from 1861 to 1911 inclusive have now 
passed through the press, and it is intended that this, the 1912 and final 
Report of the Committee, should conclude the reprints, which will be 
on sale in the autumn of the present year. 

It seems desirable, however, that the Committee should remain in 
existence until all questions connected with the republication are deter- 
mined, and accordingly they ask for reappointment. 

With regard to absolute measurements we have, as the direct result 
of the work of members of the Committee, two pieces of apparatus 
which should prove equal to any demand for precise measurements in 
the absolute system for very many years. 

A report of the British Association Ayrton-Jones. current balance 
appeared in 1908, and it was stated at that time that the probable error 
associated with a determination of current in absolute measure was 
about two parts in 100,000. Since then the balance has been used on 
several occasions; it continues to give satisfaction, and there appears to 
be no reason for doubt that so far as the absolute measurement of current 



110 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

is concerned an accuracy within at least five parts in 100,000 can still be 
guaranteed. This conclusion is greatly strengthened by the results 
which were communicated to the Association last year by Dr. Dorsey of 
the Bureau of Standards, Washington. At that institution Drs. Eosa 
and Dorsey have made experiments with a new current balance, the 
coils of which are arranged in a manner similar to those used by Joule 
and by Lord Rayleigh. They obtained results for the electromotive 
force of the Weston normal cell which agree with those obtained at the 
National Physical Laboratory within four parts in 100,000. Whether 
this represents a real difference in the results given by the two balances, 
or is an actual difference in the e.m.f.'s of the reference cells used, has 
not yet been decided. 

With regard to the absolute measurement of current elsewhere, a 
current weigher has been built at the Laboratoire Central d'Electricite, 
Paris, and at the Reichsanstalt further measurements are to be made in 
the near future. It will be seen therefore that the absolute measure- 
ment of current is on a very satisfactory basis. At the National 
Physical Laboratory no efforts will be spared to maintain the Ayrton- 
Jones balance in good condition and to obtain results equal in pre- 
cision to those obtained at the present time. 

Turning now to the absolute measurement of resistance. For many 
years no measurements of this quantity have been carried out, but at 
the present time the Lorenz apparatus at the National Physical Labora- 
tory and other apparatus now being constructed at Berlin and Washing- 
ton will place measurements of resistance in a position equally satis- 
factory with those of current. The Lorenz apparatus is now being 
employed for the measurement of resistance, and it is believed that the 
probable error will not exceed two parts in 100,000. This satisfactory 
state of affairs is largely due to the design and size of the apparatus and 
the ease with which the dimensions of the coils can be measured. Many 
years ago Lord Eayleigh showed that it was not necessary to measure 
accurately the diameter of the coils of a Joule balance ; the ratio of the 
diameters was sufficient, and this ratio could at any time be obtained 
by measuring the ratio of two currents. In consequence, with a Joule 
balance an observer is not handicapped in his measurements by the 
results of linear observations which may have been made many years 
previously and which may be incorrect owing to secular change. With 
the Lorenz apparatus independence of previous linear measurements 
has been secured by winding the coils with bare copper wire and leaving 
them in this condition. This enables linear measurements to be made 
at any time with ease and with precision. 

Referring now to material standards, it is most gratifying to record 
that measurements of resistance, of current, and of electromotive force 
are now made on the same basis in practically all civilised countries. 
This satisfactory state has been achieved within the past four years and 
is a direct result of the labours of the London Conference of 1908, in 
which this Committee was so largely interested. 

As is well known, the International standard of resistance is that 
of a specified column of mercury, and that of current depends on 
measurements with the silver voltameter. The measurement of electro- 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. Ill 



motive force and of current may be conveniently made by means of the 
Weston normal cell. 

During the past two years comparisons of resistance coils and of 
standard cells, and comparative experiments with the silver voltameter, 
have been made by representatives of the National Physical Laboratory 
and the standardising laboratories of America, France, and Germany. 
The results obtained show better than any formal statement the remark- 
able agreement which now exists between the electrical standards of 
the four countries named. 

Table I. gives the results of measurements made at the Bureau of 
Standards, the Reichsanstalt, and the National Physical Laboratory, 
on four hermetically sealed resistance coils of mauganin. The values 
given are in international ohms at 25° 0. 









Table I 










No. of 

Resist- 
anoeCoil 


B.S. 

March 
1911 


N.P.L. P.T.R. 
April Jane 
1911 1911 

100005., 100004 2 

1000053 1-00004, 
1-00010, 100008, 
1-00010, 1-00008, 


P.T.R. 
Dec. 
1911 

100003, 

1-00003, 
IOOOO83 
1 -00008 5 


N.P.L. 
Dec. 
1911 


B.S. 

Jan. 
1912 

1-00005, 
l-00005 4 
1-00009, 
1-00009, 




B.S. 

June 
1912 


Maximum 
Differ- 
ence 


11 

12 
3939 
3940 


100005 3 
100005 5 
100009, 
1-00009, 


1 00005, 
1-00005, 
1 -00010, 
1 -00010, 


100004, 
100005! 
1-00010 
1-00010! 


000001, 

000001, 
00001, 
00001, 



Table IT. gives the results of measurements of the e.m.f. of the 
Weston normal cell. The measurements were made at Washington by 
representatives of the^ Bureau of Standards, the Reichsanstalt, the 
Laboratoire Central d'Electricite, and the National Physical Laboratory. 
The current was measured by means of silver voltameters of various 
types and capacities, and the electrolytes were from various sources. 
In the opinion of some of the experimenters certain forms of the volta- 
meters were untrustworthy and some of the electrolytes were known 
to be impure. The agreement of the various means, while being very 

Table II. 





Number of 


Calculated f.m.f. 




Date, 1910 


Voltameters 


of Weston Normal 


Difference from 




in Circuit 


Cell at 20° C. 


Mean. 1x10 


April 14 


4 


101825 


-6 


,. 15 


8 


33 


-2 


„ 18 


4 


27 


-4 


,, 20 


8 


31 





„ 22 


4 


29 


-2 


„ 26 


8 


37 


+ 6 


„ 28 


4 


32 


+ 1 


„ 30 


5 


34 


+ 3 


May 2 


7 


37 


+ 6 


„ 3 


5 


36 


+ 5 


„ 5 


8 


35: 


+4 


,, 7 


8 


28 


-3 


» 12 


6 


30 


-1 


„ 19 


4 


26 


-5 



Mean= 101831. 



112 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Table III. — Results at Washington with N.P.L. Non-septum Voltameter. 





Calculated e.m.f. of 




Date, 1910 


Weston Normal Cell 


Difference from Mean. 




at 20° C. 


ixio-» 


April 15 


101831 


+2 


„ 15 


28 


-1 


„ 20 


31 


+2 


„ 20 


28 


-1 


„ 30 


31 


+2 


May 2 


27 


-2 


„ 5 


28 


-1 


„ 12 


25 


-4 



Mean =1-01829. 

satisfactory, is not therefore a true indication of the reproducibility of 
the silver voltameter. To give an idea of this reproducibility the results 
obtained at Washington with a non-septum form of voltameter, designed 
at the National Physical Laboratory, are given in Table III. The results 
of one experiment only have been omitted and in that the current was 
unusually unsteady. 

Table IV. gives the results of measurements on a number of Weston 
normal cells. The values given are the differences in microvolts between 
the e.m.f. 's of the cells and the reference standards of the various 
laboratories. 

Table IV. — Differences in Microvolts. 



Stand. 
Cell No. 


B.S. 


N.P.L. 


P.T.R. 


N.P.L. 


L.C.E. 


N.P.L. 


B.S. 


June and 


Aug. 


Sept. and 


Oct. 


Oct. 


Nov. and 


Jan. 


July 1911 


1911 


Oct. 1911 


1911 


1911 


Dec. 1911 


1912 


262 


- 6 





- 70 





-80 


-60 


^_ 


267 


41 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


268 


37 


— 


- 15 


— 


— 


— 


— 


51 


-58 


— 


- 70 


— 


- 30 


— . 


— 


32 


-69 


— ■ 


-115 





-130 


— 


— 


301 


-24 


- 5 


- 30 


— 


- 15 


— 


-40 


304 


19 


23 





— 





— 


7 


309 


-36 


-27 


- 45 


— 


- 20 


— 


-56 


310 





- 4 


- 25 


— 


- 10 


— 


-44 


Al 


-13 


-12 


- 15 


— 


- 10 


. — 


-22 


43 


2 


3 


- 30 


. — . 


5 


— . 





44 





— 


- 15 


- 7 


— 


— 


- 1 


19 


-27 


— 


- 45 


-30 


— 


— 


-28 


22 


-31 


— 


- 40 


-29 


— 


— 


-30 


238 


- 2 


— 


20 


52 


— 


. — 


-10 


350 


-24 


— 


- 20 


1 


— 


— 


-24 


352 


-31 


— 


- 45 


-30 


. — 


— . 


-30 


133 


• — 


— 




— 


30 


— 


34 


142 
1-3 
133 


— 




— 


— 


30 


- 6 
-16 


33 
- 5 
-16 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


17 






— 


■ — 


— 


- 5 


- 8 



The Committee feel that these results are sufficient to show that the 
primary objects for which they were appointed have been achieved, and 



ON PRACTICAL STANDARDS FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 113 

that the present position of electrical standards — as outlined in this 
Report — is very satisfactory. 

With a view to completing the business arrangements connected with 
the republication, the Committee recommend that they be reappointed, 
that Lord Rayleigh be Chairman and Dr. R. T. Glazebrook Secretary. 



Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir David Gill (Chairman), Dr. 
W. G. Duffield (Secretary), Eev. A. L. Cortie, Dr. 
W. J. S. Lockyer, Mr. F. McClean, and Professors A. 
Schuster and H. H. Turner, appointed to aid the work of 
Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia. 

The following report has been received from Dr. Duffield relating to 
the progress of the movement to establish a solar observatory in 
Australia : — 

' The Commonwealth Government of Australia has been pleased to 
accept the following apparatus, which, through the generosity of the 
gentlemen named below, I was enabled to offer in 1909 towards the 
equipment of a solar observatory. 

' 1. A 9-inch Grubb refractor. 



The gift of Mr. James Oddie, 
of Ballarat, Victoria. 



' 2. A 26-inch reflecting telescope. 

' 3. An 8-inch reflecting telescope. 

' 4. Electrical equipment. 

' 5. A 6-inch Grubb refractor, the gift of the trustees of the estate 
of the late Lord Farnham (Sir Howard Grubb, F.R.S., and the late 
Mr. W. E. Wilson, F.R.S.). 

' The Commonwealth Government has already taken delivery of 
the Oddie gift, and I have been authorised by the Commonwealth to 
spend £100 upon the Farnham telescope and to forward it to Australia. 

' In view of this action by the Government there can be no doubt 
of their intentions in tke matter of solar work. 

' I have consequently recently offered to the Government without 
further guarantee the following equipment for solar work: — 

' 6. A spectroheliograph ; 7. A Littrow spectrograph ; 8. A pyrhelio- 
meter. 

' In addition to these there will be attached to the Farnham tele- 
scope : — 

' 9. An Evershed prominence spectroscope. 

' These offers are rendered possible by the generosity of gentlemen 
who either have at heart the progress of solar physics or the prestige of 
Australian science. ' 

The following report over the signature of the Commonwealth 
Statistician concerning the choice of site will be read with interest : — 

' In January 1910 the Commonwealth Government appointed a 
Board consisting of R. A. Macdonald (Under-Secretary for Lands, 
N.S.W.), R. P. Sellors (Geodetic Survey, N.S.W.), C. R Scrivener 

1912. ! 



114 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

(Commonwealth Director of Surveys), H. A. Hunt (Commonwealth 
Meteorologist), P. Baracchi (Government Astronomer, Victoria) to 
inquire and report upon the best site for an observatory within the 
Federal Territory at Yass-Canberra. The Board unanimously selected 
and recommended a site on the summit of a hill some 2,500 feet above 
sea level, which, in their opinion, was probably as suitable for the 
purpose as any place in Australia. 

' The Commonwealth Government, having accepted the recommen- 
dations of this board, instructed Mr. Barracchi to establish a temporary 
observatory at the selected site, and, from an astronomical point of 
view, to test the locality in order to determine definitely whether it 
answered the requirements of modern scientific research, including 
astrophysics. The Department of Home Affairs has prepared plans 
for a dome to house a 9-inch refracting telescope, and the work is now 
actually proceeding. The telescope is the gift of James Oddie, Esq., 
of Ballarat, who offered it, together with other instruments and ap- 
pliances, on condition that it would be utilised as a part of the equip- 
ment of a solar observatory. ... It is proposed to erect at the site this 
9-inch refractor, upon which a Dallmeyer photographic lens, 6-inch 
aperture and 42-inch focal length, is now being mounted, and for a year 
to make observations during one week in every six weeks, the observa- 
tions to be carried out alternatively by Mr. Barracchi and his chief 
assistant, Mr. J. M. Baldwin.' 

Mr. Barracchi in a letter to the Rev. A. L. Cortie thus describes his 
observations : — 

' The little observatory at Yass Camberra consists of a 20-feet dome 
resting on walls of concrete, with four little wings, kitchen, two bed- 
rooms, and a photographic room. The instruments are the 9-inch re- 
fractor by Grubb (which was presented to the Commonwealth Govern- 
ment by Oddie of Ballarat), a chronograph and a clock. We have 
mounted on this telescope a 6-inch doublet (Dallmeyer), focus 38 inches, 
which gives us a first-rate field of 10 degrees in diameter, and I have got 
splendid photographs of rich star fields. We have also a good and con- 
venient transit hut and a 3£-inch transit instrument mounted on a solid 
masonry pier; and that is all for the present. Baldwin and I go there 
once a month alternately, and stay there a week. We find the atmo- 
spheric conditions remarkably good. We have never got less than four 
fine days and nights out of seven. In clear weather the sky is deep 
blue even in the immediate vicinity of the sun, and the definition is good 
at as low an altitude as 10 degrees. The night skies are simply magni- 
ficently brilliant. After our Melbourne sky, the sight of the heavens at 
Mt. Strom is surprisingly beautiful. Mt. Strom is the official name of 
the hill upon which the observatory stands. It is 2,500 feet above sea 
level, and about 500 feet above the general level of the surrounding 
country. I intend to carry on observations of the sun and take star 
photographs as well as other star observations for testing atmospheric 
conditions and definition for a complete year, after which I will report 
to the Government as to the suitability of the locality for a great 
modern observatory, more particularly solar. ' 



THE STUDY OF PLANT ENZYMES. 115 

The Study of Plant Enzymes, particularly with relation to 
Oxidation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. 
A. D. Hall (Chairman), Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Secretary), 
Professor H. E. Armstrong, Professor F. Keeble, and Dr. 
E. J. Eussell. 

The Committee have made considerable progress in the investigations 
which they have undertaken. The following is a list of communica- 
tions by members of the Committee submitted to the Royal Society 
and published during the past year: — 

(a) 'Herbage Studies,' I. 'Lotus corniculatus , a cyanophoric 
plant,' by H. E. Armstrong, E. F. Armstrong, and E. Horton. 

(b) ' Studies on Enzyme Action ' : XV. ' Urease, a Selective 
Enzyme,' by H. E. Armstrong and E. Horton. 

(c) ' The Distribution of Oxydases in the Plant and their role in 
the Formation of Pigment,' by F. Keeble and E. F. Armstrong. 

(d) ' Studies on Enzyme Action ' : XVI. ' The Enzymes of 
Emulsin, (i) Prunase, the correlate of prunasin,' by H. E. Arm- 
strong, E. F. Armstrong, and E. Horton. 

(e) ' Studies on Enzyme Action ' : XVII. ' Enzymes of the 
Emulsin type, (ii) The distribution of /3 -enzymes in plants,' by H. E. 
Armstrong, E. F. Armstrong, and E. Horton. 

(/) ' Studies on Enzyme Action ' : XVIII. ' Enzymes of the Emul- 
sin type, (iii) Linase, and other enzymes in Linacece,' by H. E. 
Armstrong and J. V. Eyre. 

(g) 'The Oxydases of Cytisus Adami,' by F. Keeble and E. F. 
Armstrong. 

Much preliminary work has been done in directions other than those 
considered in these communications, particularly with the object of 
throwing further light on the nature of the oxydases, the manner in 
which they act and the part they play. The subject is one of great 
complexity and difficulty, and it is clear that it will be necessary to 
extend and multiply observations and experiments in a variety of fields 
if definite conclusions are to be arrived at. It is impossible to study 
the already voluminous literature of the subject and not be struck by 
the absence of proof that the oxydases are selective agents comparable 
with enzymes ; at most it has been shown that their activity is of a 
catalytic order and usually limited, a particular oxydase apparently 
exercising its effect only within a certain group of compounds. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of 301. 



Dynamic Isomerism. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor H. E. Armstrong (Chairman) , Dr. T. M. Lowry 
(Secretary), Professor Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, 
Dr. J. J. Dobbie, Dr. M. O. Forster, and Dr. A. Lapworth. 
(Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Camphorcarboxamide and Camphorcarboxypiperidide. — During the past 
year an investigation has been completed of the isomeric changes taking 

I 2 



116 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

place in solutions of two crystalline derivatives of camphorcarboxylic 
acid (the amide and piperidide), which were first prepared and examined 
about four years ago by Dr. Glover. The changes of rotatory power 
which take place in the freshly prepared solutions are extremely com- 
plex. In solutions of the piperidide in benzene, a period of induction is 
followed by two periods of acceleration and two periods of retardation 
in the rate of change of rotatory power; the changes can only be ex- 
plained by assuming that three distinct isomeric changes take place, 
and that a condition of equilibrium is ultimately established between 
four distinct isomerides. 

Measurements of solubility have shown that in the case of each 
substance a proportion amounting to about one-third persists in the 
original form when a condition of equilibrium is finally attained to. 

In purifying the two substances it was found to be almost impossible 
to secure homogeneous material until they were separated in the form 
of measurable crystals from solutions in ethylic acetate. A remarkable 
morphotropic relationship was detected between the amide 



/CH.CO.NH 
C 8 H I4 < I 



and a-benzoyl camphor 



C.H,/ 

x co 



CH.CO.C 6 F 5 



An investigation of the equations for two consecutive unimolecular 
changes has already been published ; ' and a detailed account of the 
experiments referred to above will be published at an early date. 

The Committee ask for reappointment and for a grant of 30/. as in 
the preceding year. 



The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Sub- 
stances, and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Deriva- 
tives. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor F. S. 
Kipping (Chairman), Professor K. J. P. Orton (Secretary), 
Dr. S. Kuhemann, and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 

I. The Conversion of Chloro-, Bromo- and Nitro-aminobenzenes into 

Substituted Anilines. 

In the recent reports of this Committee, the results of work on the 
transformation of chloro- and bromo-aminobenzenes into halogen- 
anilides, and of nitroaminobenzenes into nitroanilines has been com- 
municated. In the case of the former compounds, it has been shown 
that the transformation is not an intramolecular change but consists 

1 Trans. Chem. Soc, 1910, 97, 2634-2645. 



TRANSFORMATION OP NITROAMINES AND ALLIED SUBSTANCES. 117 

of a primary reaction of the chloroamine and hydrogen chloride, the 
presence of which is essential, thus : — 

Ar . NClAc + HCl—j* Ar . NHAc + Cl 2 — > ClAr . NHAc + HC1. 

Whether a true intramolecular change is possible under certain 
conditions has not yet been discovered, but it must not be supposed 
that the possibility is excluded. 

The conversion of the nitroaminobenzenes into the isomeric nitro- 
anilines offers a very marked contrast. 

(i) All acids, and not one specific substance, bring about the trans- 
formation. The relative effectiveness of different acids is generally pro- 
portional to their activities in other processes. Moreover, when no side- 
reactions occur, the speed follows an equation of the first order, and, 
for a monobasic acid, is proportional to the second power of the con- 
centration, at least in aqueous and dilute acetic acid solution. 

(ii) Although there is evidence, but of no certain kind, that the 
nitration of another substance by a nitroamine can occur (for example, 
of acetanilide or 2 : 4-dichloroaniline by s-tribromonitroaminobenzene), 
under certain narrowly defined conditions, there is nothing correspond- 
ing to the remarkable chlorination of one anilide by the chloroamine of 
another, which has been described. No radicle (ion) or substance which 
is a powerful nitrating agent appears to be free in the system. 

(iii) The solid crystallins nitroamine changes into the nitroaniline, 
the crystals of the latter apparently growing out of the former in the 
presence of gaseous hydrogen chloride in a P 2 O s -dry atmosphere. 1 

(iv) Although nitrous acid appears during the transformation, and 
diazonium salts are produced, the presence of urea in the system does 
not affect in any way the speed or the products of the change. 

(v) The nature of the nitroamine and of the catalyst has a very 
marked effect on the extent of the side-reaction in which the diazonium 
salt is produced. The maximum amount of diazonium salt is found 
with 2 : 4-dichloronitroaminobenzene, much less with the correspond- 
ing 2 : 4-dibromo compound, and none with l-methyl-3-bromo-4-nitro- 
aminobenzene. 

The nature of the catalyst has a similar influence. When nitric 
acid is the catalyst no appreciable quantity of diazonium salt can be 
found. In the presence of perchloric acid, the maximum amount of 
diazo compound is produced ; hydrogen chloride yields less and sulphuric 
acid still less. The ratio of diazonium salt to nitroaniline for a given 
catalyst appears to be independent of the concentration of the catalyst 
or the composition of the medium ; thus in the case of hydrogen chloride 
and 2 : 4-dichloronitroaminobenzene in various mixtures of acetic acid 
and water, the ratio, nitroaniline /diazonium salt = 3'7/l. 

Conclusion. — So far as the evidence goes, the provisional conclusion 
may be drawn that the conversion of nitroaminobenzenes into nitro- 
anilines differs from the conversion of chloroamines, and may probably 

1 Reports, 1903. 



118 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

be regarded as an intramolecular change. But the possibility that under 
certain conditions a cleavage into aniline and a nitrating substance 
occurs, at least partly, cannot be excluded. Thus as an instance s-tri- 
chloronitroaminobenzene in an environment when transformation is 
generally rapid, yields largely s-trichloroaniline. 

In the substances which we have closely investigated, one ortho- 
position only is vacant, into which the nitro group can migrate. The 
migration of the nitro group into the para-position is observed in the 
conversion of 2 : 6-dibromonitroaminobenzene into 2 : 6-dibromo-4- 
nitroaniline ; this change is, however, accompanied by the formation of 
about an equal amount, of the isomeric 2 : 4-dibromo-6-nitroaniline, the 
bromine atom in the ortho-position being displaced. 2 From a considera- 
tion of the relative proportions of o- and p-nitro-anilines and -anilides 
produced under various conditions, in the transformation of nitro- 
amines, nitration by acetyl nitrate, &c, Holleman * has concluded that 
the ortho-compound is generally formed by way of the nitroamine, whilst) 
the para-compound is formed by some other process. In the case above 
cited, however, the p-nitroaniline is undoubtedly obtained from the 
nitroamine, although perhaps not by ,a simple intramolecular re-arrange- 
ment. Comparison of the two changes shows at least that the con- 
version to the o-nitroaniline is a far more rapid and easy process. 

Formation of Nitroamhwbenzenes. — Owing to the difficulties of 
following further the conversion of nitroamines into nitroanilines, we 
have been led to study the conditions and mechanism of the formation 
'of nitroamines. An excellent way of converting anilines into nitro- 
amines is by treatment in acetic acid solution with a mixture of nitric 
acid and acetic anhydride. (Orton' 1 and Orton and Edwards. 5 ) The 
behaviour of nitric acid offers in this respect a marked contrast to that 
of other strong acids; they are powerful accelerators of the direct 
reaction between the anhydride and anilines (Orton and Smith). In 
order to investigate these highly distinctive reactions more closely a 
means of determining acetic anhydride in such systems was required. 
A good method was finally devised (Edwards and Orton ; ) which is 
based on the following reactions; certain anilines, for example, 2: 4- 
di-chloroaniline, react with acetic anhydride in acetic acid solution, even 
containing a certain proportion of water, very rapidly and quantitatively ; 
the anilide is extracted from the diluted medium with chloroform and the 
excess of aniline removed by treatment with an acid ; finally the anilide 
is converted into a chloroamine which can be estimated by titration. In 
this manner very small quantities of acetic anhydride can be estimated 
in the presence of acetic acid. 

With the aid of this method of analysis, the hydrolysis of acetic 
anhydride has been studied and remarkable differences between nitric 
and other acids, in their effect on this process, discovered. 

2 Orton and Pearson, Trans. Chem. Soc, 1908, 93, 725. 

3 Ber. d. deutsch. Chem. Gesel., 1911, 44, 704. 
* Trans. Chem. Soc., 1902, 81, 806. 

5 Reports, 1911. 

e Trans. Chem. Soc, 1908, 93, 1242 ; 1909, 95, 1060. 

7 Ibid., 1911, 99, 1181. 



TRANSFORMATION OF NITROAMINES AND ALLIED SUBSTANCES. 119 

II. Hydrolysis of Acetic Anhydride. (With Marian Jones, B.Sc.) 

So far the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride has only been investigated 
in aqueous solution by Menschutkin and Vasilieff , Lumiere and Barbier 
(these investigators used a titrimetric process), and Bivett and Sidg- 
wick 8 (using the change of electric conductivity). With theaid of the 
method above described, it is possible to follow this reaction in various 
media, and in the presence of catalysts. 

(i) Hydrolysis in Aqueous Solution. — The table shows typical results 
of experiments when three different methods of measurement are used. 

Table I. 



Lumiere and Barbier 


Rivett and Sidgwiek 


Orton and Jones 


A 11" 
0-491 0-0735 

0-491 *f=0-03 


A 
0-487 
0-265 
0-058 


0-1383 
0-1484 
0-1561 


I 1 *" 

AI 

0-074 

0-0793 

0-0835 


A a! 8 ' 
0-486 0-074 
0-269 0-084 

0-495 kl =0-028 



On the supposition that the reaction is represented by the equation : 
Ac 2 + H 2 = 2CH,.CO a H, the velocity factor, fc, = the product of 
the velocity co-efficient, Jc u , of this reaction of the second order, and 
the concentration of the water, which is perceptibly constant, 



= - . log e- 



where A is the initial concentration of the anhydride in moles, and x the 
amount changed in time t (minutes). 

(ii) Effect of Medium.— Table II. shows the effect of the composition 
of the medium on the rate of hydrolysis. 

Table II. 



Medium 



Glacial acetic acid . 

95 per cent, acetic acid . 

90 „ 

80 

50 

Water .... 

95 per cent, aqueous acetone 

50 

Acetic anhydride . 





Concentration of 


Velocity-coefficient 


nperature 


Acetic Anhydride 


or Velocity-factor 


16 


0-0804 
([H 2 O]=0-18) 


fr n =0-00042 


16 


0-0782 


fci=0001 


16 


00815 


0-0028 


16 


00813 


0056 


15 


0-083 


0016 


15 


0-473 


0074 


15 


0087 


6% hydrolysed 
in 118 hrs. 


15 


0088 


ir^O-006 


15 


10-3 


fr H =0-000071 




([11,01= 1-8) 





« Trans, Chem, Soc., 1910, 97, 733, 1677, 



120 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



As the acetic acid is diluted, the rate of hydrolysis increases roughly 
proportionally to the amount of water in the medium. It is remarkable 
that pure acetic anhydride should be such a curiously unfavourable 
medium for its own reaction with water. 

(iii) Effect of Catalysts. — In aqueous solution alkalis are very power- 
ful catalysts of the hydrolysis. Acids have, on the other hand, but a 
very feeble effect. Such slightly hydrolysed salts as sodium acetate 
occupy an intermediate position. 

In anhydrous media acids produce a great acceleration of the 
reaction, but the effect diminishes as the proportion of water in the 
medium decreases. 



Table III. 



Medium 



Glacial acetic acid 

90 per cent, acetic acid 

50 per cent, acetic acid 



Concentration 1 
of H2SO4 



00023f 

0-0166 M 
01M 

0034M 



Concentra- 


Tempera- 


tion of AC2O 


ture 


00804 



16 


0077 


16 


00815 


16 


0-0807 


16 


0091 


15 


0-083 


15 


0-0835 


15 



Speed of Hydro- 
lysis 



12% in 24 hrs. 
A-„=000042 
52% in 10 mins. 
&! =0-0028 
0016 
0076 
0016 
003 



With regard to the nature and concentration of the acid, it is to be 
noted that : — 

(i) In 90 and 95 per cent, acetic acid molecular quantities of acids 
are equivalent in accelerating effect. 

(ii) In 50 per cent, acetic acid equivalent quantities of acids produce 
equal effects. 

(iii) At intermediate compositions of the medium there is no simple 
relation. 

(iv) When the effect can be measured as in 90 per cent, acetic acid, 
the rate of hydrolysis is found to be proportional to the concentration of 
the catalyst. 

These relations indicate that the unionised acid is the effective 
catalyst in media containing 90 per cent, acetic acid and upwards, but 
that the ionised acid is the catalyst in media containing 50 per cent, 
acetic acid. 

Nitric Acid as Catalyst. — In its relation to the hydrolysis of acetic 
anhydride, nitric acid occupies a unique position. Whilst in 50 per cent, 
acetic acid its effectiveness is identical with that of other acids; as the 
proportion of water in the medium decreases, its relative activity steadily 
falls off, until in glacial acetic acid it is, compared with sulphuric acid, 
infinitesimal. 



TRANSFORMATION OF NITROAMINES AND ALLIED SUBSTANCES. 121 



Table IV. 



Medium 


Catalyst 


Concentra- 
tion of AC2O 


Speed of 
Hydrolysis 


50 per cent, acetic acid . 





0083 


* I= 0-016 




0034Jf H,S0 4 


0-084 


0021 




0-01M HCi 


0-083 


0022 




0011M HN0 3 


0-087 


0022 


90 per cent, acetic acid. 


— 


0-0815 


0-0028 




0033M HCI 


0-081 


0023 




00165M HN0 3 


0-083 


0-0065 




0-033.W HNO3 


0-0805 


0-008 




0-066M HNO3 


0-079 


0012 


Glacial acetic acid . 


— 


0-0804 


12% in 24 hrs. 




0002M H 2 S0 4 


0-077 


52% in 10 mins. 




005M HN0 3 


0-08 


32% in 24 hrs. 



Nitric acid only acts as other acids when ionised ; the abnormality 
appears when the acid is partially or wholly unionised. On diluting a 
solution of glaciah acetic acid containing nitric acid to 50 per cent, acetic 
acid, hydrolysis follows at the same rate as if nitric acid had been added 
to acetic anhydride dissolved in a 50 per cent, acetic acid. This result 
does not suggest that the formation of such compounds as acetyl nitrate, 
CH 3 .CO.O.N0 2 , or diacetylorthonitric acid, (CH^COj^^OH),, which 
have been described by Pictet and others, is the immediate cause of 
the peculiarity. For it would then be necessary to assume that these 
compounds yield acetic anhydride and nitric acid on diluting the medium 
with water. Moreover, the fact that the addition of a trace of sulphuric 
acid to the system containing nitric acid in glacial acetic acid is followed 
by the usual very rapid hydrolysis, indicates that the condition of the 
nitric acid only, and not that of the acetic anhydride, is the cause of the 
peculiarity. 

Discussion of Results. — The suggestion, in a discussion of Rivett and 
Sidgwick's results in the Annual Reports of the Chemical Society 
(1910), that the mechanism of the hydrolysis of acetic and other an- 
hydrides was not different from that of amides, esters, &c, as these 
authors had supposed, has been verified by our experiments. Since the 
reaction of acetic anhydride with hydroxy compounds (Franchimont, 
Skraup, and others), and with amino compounds, weak bases (Orton 
and Smith), is enormously accelerated by strong acids, it was to be 
expected that its reaction with water would be similarly influenced. 

Tn recent years the mechanism of such reactions has received 
much attention, and it has been shown, more especially in the case of 
esterification (Lapworth, Goldschmidt, and others), that the reaction 
may proceed in various ways, depending on the medium, presence or 
absence of other substances (acids and other catalysts). Following the 
suggestion of these researches the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride may be 
represented by one or other of the equations : — 

(i) Ac 2 + H a O = 2AcOH ; 
(ii) Ac 2 + H,0 + H" = 2AcOH + H" ; 
(iii) Ac 2 + H,0 + HX = 2AcOH + HX ; 
(iv) Ac 3 + H 2 + (OH)' = 2AcOH + (OH)'. 



122 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

The third component, H", OH', or HX, may exert its influence by 
forming a reacting ionic or non-ionised complex with one or other of the 
two reagents. 

In aqueous solution the choice lies between (i), (ii), or (iv). Strong 
acids have a feeble, whilst bases and even such a slightly hydrolysed 
salt as sodium acetate have a powerful, catalytic effect. These relations 
suggest that in aqueous solutions hydroxyl ions play the predominant 
part. In that case traces of acids by decreasing the concentration of 
the hydroxyl ion should have a great retarding influence. It is true 
that acetic acid does slightly retard the hydrolysis, but we have not 
found any such effect with sulphuric. Hence, although hydroxyl ions 
are powerful catalysts, it may be concluded that in pure water the 
hydrolysis mainly follows equation (i) and is non-catalytic. 

In relatively anhydrous media, reaction (iii) obviously predominates. 
The reaction is very slow in the absence of acids ; molecular quantities 
of acids are equally effective, and the speed is a linear function of the 
concentration of the acid. 

In media such as 50 per cent, acetic acid or acetone, the catalytic 
effect is now due to the hydrogen ions (equation ii) for equivalent quan- 
tities of acids are now of equal influence; but inasmuch as the rate of 
hydrolysis is considerable in the absence of an acid catalyst, the reaction 
also follows equation (i). 

In media with less than 50 per cent, of water the catalytic effect of 
acids follows both equations (ii) and (iii). 

It is worthy of note that the velocity factor of the reaction is not 
independent of the initial concentration of the acetic anhydride, the value 
falling as the initial concentration increases. This fact was observed 
and commented on by Eivett and Sidgwick, and is deducible from 
Lumiere and Barbier's results for aqueous solution. In our measure- 
ments the same fact is obvious both in aqueous and in 80 per cent, acetic 
acid. Thus for the initial concentration 0'486 and 0'269 molecule the 
value of ZJ S ° is 0'074 and 0'084, respectively, in aqueous solution; in 
80 per cent, acetic acid, Jc\ 5 ° is 0'0047 and 0'0056 for the initial con- 
centrations 0'1625 and 0'0813 molecule respectively. When log k 
is plotted against log c (the concentration) for a series of values of c (be- 
tween 0'1169 and 0"3947), selected from Eivett and Sidgwick's measure- 
ments, approximately a straight line is obtained. Burke and Donnan 9 
have observed a similar phenomenon in the reaction of silver nitrate and 
alkyl iodides, except that that value of k increases with increase of the 
concentration (of the silver nitrate). Here also log k and log c are 
linearly related, and hence the variation is expressed by the exponential 
law, k = Kc n . 

III. Some Properties of Acetic Anhydride. 
(With Marian Jones, B.Sc.) 

Both our own experience and a study of the literature show that the 
complete separation of acetic acid and acetic anhydride, and hence the 
preparation of pure acetic anhydride is no simple matter. Fractionation 

9 Trans. Chem. Soe., 1904, 85, 555. 



TRANSFORMATION OF NITROAMTNES AND ALLIED SUBSTANCES. 123 

without a still-head of a mixture containing only 10 per cent, of acetic 
acid will give but some 8 to 10 per cent, of pure anhydride. By use of 
Young's ' per.r ' still-head the pure substance, amounting to 50 to 60 per 
cent, of the original material, can be readily obtained. Its physical con- 
stants differ materially from those usually given; Landolt's values 
alone agree with ours. The boiling point is 139'55° under 760 mm. 
pressure and the density 1-0876 at 15°/4°, and T082 at 20°/4°. The 
refractive index for H c at 15° is 1-39069. At 15° about 2'7 grams 
of water dissolve in 100 grams of acetic anhydride, and 12 grams of 
anhydride in 100 grams of water. 

Action of Halogens on Acetic Anhydride. — When light is excluded 
solutions of chlorine and bromine in acetic anhydride are quite stable. 
But in the presence of strong acids, iodine, ferric chloride, &c, a very 
rapid reaction follows. 

Table V. 



H 2 S0 4 = 373000 


I = iV/300 


FeC! s = JS//535 


Time 

(Min.) 


Titre of 5 c.c. in 
N/50 Thiosulphate 


Time | Titre of 5 c.c. in 
(Min.) j iV/50 Thiosulphate 


Time 

(Min.) 


Titre of 5 c.c. in 
A/50 Thiosulphate 




36 

75 

112 


c.c. 
12-4 
7-35 
4-1 
2-5 




5 

45 


c.c. 
9-4 
9-1 
2-05 




8 

12-5 
34 


c.c. 

10-7 

8-7 

7-2 

o-i 



The catalysts are effective as the first power of their concentration ; 
when acids can be compared — for example, sulphuric and perchloric — 
it is found that molecular and not equivalent quantities are equally 
effective. 

The fall in titre of the bromine is independent of the initial concen- 
tration of the solution, and hence bears a linear relation to the time, 
that is, the graph of dx/dt is a straight line. Lapworth accounted for 
an exactly similar relation in the attack of bromine on acetone by sup- 
posing that the bromine only reacts with a tautomeride of acetone, the 
production of which from the acetone is far slower than its reaction with 
bromine. The rate of disappearance of the bromine is dependent, there- 
fore, only on the formation of the tautomeride, and independent of the 
concentration of the bromine. In the case of acetic anhydride the re- 
active material is only formed in the presence of the catalyst. Hence the 
speed of the bromination, which is proportional to the concentration of 
the former, must obviously also be proportional to that of the catalyst. 
There is no such detectable acceleration of the action of bromine on 
acetic acid by acids (except possibly when their concentration is very 
high) ; hence it may be deduced, a similar reactive substance is not pro- 
duced, at least to a proportionate extent, from acetic acid under the 
influence of acids. 



124 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

The Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor A. W. Crossley (Secretary), 
Professor W. H. Perkin, Dr. M. 0. Forster, and Dr. H. R. 
Le Sueur. 

1. The behaviour of c-acetyldimethyl- and c-acetyltrimethyhlihydro- 
resorcins towards hydroxylamine and phenylhydrazine. — It has been 
pointed out x that trimethyldihydroresorcin does not behave towards 
many reagents in a similar manner to dimethyldihydroresorcin, for it 
exhibits tautomeric forms and also its molecule is not symmetrical. In 
order to clear up several points of interest the c-acetyl derivatives of 
these two dihydroresorcins are being investigated. 

C-acetyldimethyldihydroresorcin behaves as a monobasic acid and 
may be represented by one or other of the following formulae, probably 

CMftj 



H 2 C 
HO.C 



' \ r HoC 



V 





CH 2 
CO 




Me.CO Me.C.OH 

the second. "When acted on by hydroxylamine it gives an acid oxime 
([.), an isoxazole (II.), and an oxime of the isoxazole (III.), and with 
C Me 2 C Me. 2 C Me 2 

H 2 C (/\ CH 2 H 2 C |/\ CH 2 H 2 C 

'c=N.OH Ocl Jc = N HO.N=C 






Me.C-OH 
I. 

phenylhydrazine it behaves in a similar manner giving an acid phenyl- 
hydrazone, a phenylpyrazole, and a phenylhydrazone of the phenyl- 
pyrazole. 

The behaviour of c-acetyltrimethyldihydroresorcin towards hydroxyl- 
amine has not been investigated owing to the fact that the isoxazole is 
a liquid or very low melting solid ; but with phenylhydrazine it gives an 
acid phenylhydrazone and a phenylpyrazole, though all attempts to 
prepare a phenylhydrazone of the phenylpyrazole have so far failed. 
It is presumed that c-acetyltrimethyldihydroresorcin is similarly con- 
stituted to the corresponding derivative of dimethyldihydroresorcin, 
but the results will be discussed at length in another publication. 

2. The action of phosphorus pentabromide on dimethyldihydro- 
resorcin. — In 1903 it was shown ~ that phosphorus pentabromide acts 
on dimethyldihydroresorcin to give several bromodimethylcyclohexa- 
nones and also certain bromoxylenols. One of the latter substances 
(melting-point 96-97°) was thought to be a derivative of 1 :2-xylenol-3, 
and this has now been definitely shown by synthesis which proves it 
to be 4: 5-dibromo-l : 2-xylenol-3. The formation of this substance 

' J.C.S., 1911, 99, 1101. a Ibid., 83, 110. 



THE STUDY OF HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 125 

necessitates the wandering of a methyl group into an ortho position, and 
several instances of similar reactions have already been recorded. A 
closer investigation of the reaction shows that apparently derivatives 
of 1 : 3-xylenol-4 are also formed and at first sight this would appear 
to mean that a methyl group had wandered into a meta position. There 
is, however, another possibility. If one methyl group can wander into 
an ortho position why, under certain conditions, should not both methyl 
groups wander into ortho positions, thus giving rise to a 1 : 3-xylenol? 
The reaction is very complicated and not easy to work out, owing 
to the difficulty of separating the mixture of bromoxylenols produced. 
At the present time attention is being particularly directed to the 
synthetic formation of those bromoxylenols which appear likely to be 
produced in the reaction, as very few of these substances are described 
in the literature. 



Composition and Origin of the Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey. — 
Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. 
Harker (Chairman), Mr. E. Greenly (Secretary), Dr. J. 
Horne, Dr. C. A. Matley, and Professor K. J. P. Orton. 

In presenting this, their final Report, the Committee desire to sum- 
marise briefly the work that has been done since their appointment. 
Work was begun in the summer of 1905, and has been proceeding ever 
since, but the time that Mr. J. 0. Hughes' duties as demonstrator in 
the University College of North Wales has allowed has never been very 
great, and progress has consequently been slow, the more so as modern 
methods of silicate analysis make very heavy demands upon time. 

Altogether about 80 rocks have been analysed, 12 qualitatively, 68 
quantitatively. Of the quantitative analyses, 43 have been complete, 
the others partial. As a certain number of older analyses are also 
available, it is probably safe to say that the rocks of hardly any other, 
perhaps no other, district of the same size will have received so much 
attention from the chemical point of view as those of Anglesey. 

The Committee also desire to express their very great obligations to 
Mr. Hughes, without whom the work would have been quite impossible. 
Indeed, it is not too much to say that the work of the Committee is the 
work of Mr. Hughes. (That of the. Secretary has been confined to 
selecting the subjects for analysis and collecting the material in the 
field.) Of the analyses enumerated, all but a few have been made by 
him, and all the complete ones are his work. The total number of 
estimations that have been made is about 730, and of these 39 are bv 
other hands, so that Mr. Hughes has made for the Committee 691 
estimations. Only those who have had some experience of the analysis 
of rocks, especially of silicates, will be able to appreciate the patient 
care involved in such work, carried on unremittingly through seven 
years. Nor will any but those who have had occasion to deal with 
the baffling problems presented by the crystalline schists be wholly 
able to appreciate the value of Mr. Hughes' contribution to petrologies 1 
science in general and to our knowledge of the rocks of the British 
islands in particular. 

The thanks of the Committee are also due to the University College 



I. 


ii. 


53-66 


53 64 


006 


06 


324 


3-25 


3-47 


3-49 


3-89 


3-87 


014 


Oil 


9-24 


9-22 


24-50 


24-52 


Nil 


Nil 


0-51 


050 


003 


04 


1-36. 


1-35 



126 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

of North Wales, for, at the outset of the work, the College generously 
fitted out a special laboratory in which it should be carried on. 

When the last Eeport was presented Mr. Hughes was, as therein 
explained, carrying on his work in the laboratory of the Geological 
Survey, and most of the analyses that will now be given were made in 
that laboratory. 

No. 438 A. Tremoliie Schist, Cerig Efa, Rhoscolyn. 

SiO s 

r liO", 

AI 2 6 3 

Fe 2 3 

FeO -. 

MnO 

CaO 

MgO 

K„0 

Na 2 

H 2 (at 110°) 

H 2 (above 110°) 

10010 10005 

No. 775 A. Tremoliie Marble, Gareg Lwyd, Rhoscolyn. 

Mr. Hughes remarks : ' It was pointed out in a previous Eeport that 
the usual method of digesting with hot HC1 does not appear very suit- 
able for the analysis of metamorphic limestones containing silicates. 
In the case of the ophicalcite from Ehoscolyn it was found difficult to 
obtain concordant values, even when the rock-powder was digested with 
HC1 of exactly the same concentration for the same periods of time. 
The same difficulty has again been experienced in the case of this 
tremolite marble, and the following analyses tend to strengthen the 
view expressed at that time that acetic acid is a more suitable reagent 
in such cases. ' 

Digestion with HCl. 

i. n. 

Residues insoluble in 20% HCl .... 26-70 29-28 

Soluble SiO 0-22 010 

Al 2 3 +Fe,6 3 4 53 3-23 

MnO ." 0-36 0-28 

CaO * . 26-85 26-88 

MgO 10 29 9-24 

C0 2 29 41 29-46 

H 2 6 undetermined 

98-36 98-47 
Digestion with Acetic Acid. 

i. n. 

Residues insoluble in acetic acid .... 3447 34-42 

Soluble Si0 2 Nil — 

A1 2 3 + Fefii 0-42 0-44 

MnO Nil — 

CaO . 26-83 26-86 

MgO 751 7-53 

C0 2 . 29 44 29-40 

H 2 112 118 

99-79 9983 



ON THE CRYSTALLINE ROCKS OF ANGLESEY. 127 

The tremolite schist and tremolite marble are part of the excep- 
tional group to which the ophicalcite belongs, associated with the 
serpentine and gabbro of the Holyhead area. 

Cf. 494 A. Holy Isle, East of Trearddur Bay. 

i. ii. 

Si0 2 '2 30 72-35 

Ti0 2 2 53 2-5 1 

A1,0, 1021 1025 

Fe 2 0, 231 2-30 

FeO 2-62 2-62 

MnO 0-20 0-22 

CaO 2-60 2-66 

M2O 1-26 1-34 

K>0 0-82 0-78 

Na 2 304 3 12 

H 2 (at 110°) 009 09 

H 2 (above 110°) 1-67 1-67 

99-74 99-94 

This is from one of the hard bands in the mica schists, an extensive 
formation about Holyhead. 

Cf. 363 A. Bryntirion, Holyhead. 

1. 11. 

Si0 2 48-50 48-54 

Ti0 2 2-74 2-73 

A1 2 3 2323 23-28 

Fe 2 O s 417 416 

FeO 5-66 5-68 

MnO 016 015 

CaO 1-45 1-51 

MgO 331 3-28 

K-,0 5-96 5-93 

Na 2 0-91 098 

H 2 (at 110°) 012 012 

H 2 (above 110°) 3 81 3-82 

10002 10018 

This is from one of the micaceous, fissile seams in the same mica 
schists as those from which Cf. 494 A was taken, and is intended to 
bring out the difference between the two leading types of material in 
those schists, which are of sedimentary origin. At the same time they 
are intended to compare with some of the mica schists of doubtful origin 
that occur in the central and south-east areas of the island. 

No. 747 A. Traeth Dynion, Amlwch. 

1. 11. 

Sl °2 6716 66-98 

T A 0-69 0-69 

A k0 3 14-80 14-79 

FejOs . 6-34 6-32 

FeO 0-80 0-82 

Mn0 0-27 0-26 

Ca0 115 113 

MgO 2-22 2-25 

K 2° 1-87 1-84 

Na 2° 3-50 3-52 

H 2 (at 110°) 006 008 

H 2 (above 110°) 1-79 1.73 

100-65 100-46 



128 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 



This is one of the rocks composed of purple phyllite rapidly alter- 
nating with bedded jasper. Both types are included in this analysis, 
but there is more of the jasper than of the phyllite. 

770 A. Traeth Dynion, Amlwch. (Fissile part of Amlwch schist.) 



K,0 
Na,0 



I. 


n. 


360 


3-63 


2-87 


296 



This is the fissile type that forms part of the Amlwch schists, corre- 
sponding to the similar part of the schists of Holyhead. The hard part is 
really fine grit, but has not yet been analysed. 

741 A. Variolitic Pillowy Diabase, Amlwch. 

SiO, 

Ti0 2 

Alj0 3 

Fe,O a 

FeO 

MnO 

CaO 

MgO 

K,0 

NajO 

HjO (at 110°) 

H 2 (above 110° 

100-20 100-25 

This rock should be compared with the similar rock analysed some 
time ago and published in a former Report. The types differ consider- 
ably. 

Cf. 82 A. Holland Arms Railway Cutting, Dolerite. 



I. 


n. 


39-18 


39-22 


2-21 


2-20 


18-81 


18-79 


8-62 


8-61 


4-99 


5-01 


Nil 


Nil 


9-70 


9-69 


10-02 


10-05 


0-18 


0-15 


1-87 


1-89 


0-10 


0-10 


4-52 


4-54 



Si0 2 



i. 
46-43 



n. 

46-46 



This is from the Holland Arms Main Dyke, one of the later dykes 
of the island. 

Specific gravities have been taken of the following basic dykes, and 
also of two other basic rocks : — 



Specific gravities. 



Holland Arms Main Dyke 

Holland Arms Minor 

Plas Newydd 

Graig Fach 

Garth Lodge 

Pont Dick 

Castellor 

Yr Allt 

Mynydd Mechell (a) 

Mynydd Mechell (b) 

Wylfa 



2-948 
2-852 
2-966 
2-948 
2-785 
2-987 
2-985 
2-979 
3 029 
2-954 
2-805 



Pillowy Diabase, Cerig Ceinwen 2-825 

Dolerite, Three Lakes 2-894 

Most of the rocks that have been analysed have been from the great 
schistose complex. Some from other systems have also been selected, 



ON THE CRYSTALLINE ROCKS OP ANGLESEY. 129 

but the most valuable part of the analytical work is that which bears 
upon the schistose complex, because of the genetic problems it presents. 
Moreover, that interest is by no means merely local, for similar types 
are found in other metamorphic districts. There is often, in such 
districts, a difficulty in distinguishing schists of igneous from schists of 
sedimentary origin, not to speak of mixed types, which certainly occur. 
In such cases the evidence of the microscope may be inconclusive, and 
resort must be had to chemical analysis. But this is too tedious and 
difficult to be applied with freedom. Every case, therefore, in which 
the mineral composition and microscopic structure of a rock have been 
correlated with its chemical composition constitutes a standard for 
rocks of similar mineral composition and structure. The difficulty is, 
naturally, with the acid schists, and, as Anglesey contains mica schists 
that are, so far as can be ascertained, of both igneous and sedimentary 
origin, it is hoped that the evidence that has been gathered in the course 
of the work of this Committee will be of use in the study of the 
crystalline schists as a whole. 



Bembridge Limestone at Creeehbarrow Hill. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor T. McKenny Hughes 
(Chairman) , Mr. H. Woods (Secretary), Dr. J. J. H. Teall, 
Dr. J. E. Marr, Professor E. J. Garwood, Mr. Clement 
Keid, Mr. W. Whitaker, and Mr. H. A. Allen, appointed 
to investigate the Occurrence of the Bembridge Limestone at 
Creechbarrow Hill. 

On the Results of the Further Examination of Creechbarrow Hill. 

By Henry Keeping. 

In September 1910 I was sent by Professor Hughes to collect fossils on 
Creechbarrow, with a view to determining the age of the limestone 
which caps the hill. In that principal object I was successful, as I 
obtained a sufficient number of characteristic forms to enable me to 
refer the rock to the Bembridge Limestone. 

The collection is now in the Sedgwick Museum. 

In the report which I then published J I further suggested that 
there was plenty of room for the rest of the Tertiary beds which 
might be expected to occur below the Bembridge Limestone, and I 
published a section in illustration of that view. 

I had not, however, then any data to Justify the statement that 
the rest of the Tertiary beds did occur in regular sequence below the 
Bembridge Limestone of Creechbarrow, and therefore confined myself 
to the statement that there was plenty of room for them, as I knew 
them in the adjoining areas, and allowing for such modifications of 
thickness as commonly occurred in the district. 

I regretted leaving the matter in that unsettled state, and applied 

1 C! vol. May., Dec. v. vol. vii., October 1910. 

1912. • k 



130 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1912. 

for a grant from the British Association to enable mc to follow up 
this second line of inquiry and to endeavour to ascertain, by means 
of excavations and borings, what beds reallv did occur along the Hank 
of the hill. 

As soon lis 1 obtained permission 1 commenced work bo as to avail 
myself of the longer days and better weather. I first opened four 
pits on the east side from about 12 feet from the summit to about 
130 feet down the flank of the hill. The total aggregate thickness of 
strata passed through in these trial holes was So feet 3 inches. 1 
then sunk and bored to a depth of M feet on the opposite or west 
side of the hill, starting at 10 feet from the summit. 

The details of the section were as follows: — 

Pit I. (the highest on the cast aide of the hill). 

(«) Surface soil. Ft. in. 

(6) Mixed clay and gravel with .shaijj angular Hints . . .30 
(r) Blocks of hard limestone with Melanopsis and Paludina . . 2 
(rf) Rubbly limestone. This I at once recognised as the same as 
the bed which occurs at the base of the limestone on 
Headon Hill, where it is rich in mammalian remains. I 
found here a tooth of Pakeotherium on my last visit, and 
we now obtained a good tooth of Dictulvmus leporinus 

(Owen) *9 

(c) Caking sand It 

(/) Dark brown sand 14 G 

(g) Light grey sand with a very large Hint at the base. This is 
on the same horizon aa the bed in which Mr. HuddleetoD 
found the curiously coated flints which he thought were 
in situ and passed under the limestone . . . . I ;i 



25 n 



Tit 11. 

(a) Surface soil. Ft. in. 
(6) Clay, sand, and gravel with fragments of weathered limestone 

at the bottom 10 

Pit III. 

(a) Surface soil. Ft. in. 

(b) Dirty gravel 3 

(c) Caking sand .......... 3 

(d) Large and small flints 10 

(e) Brown, stiff, sandy clay ........ 3 

(/) Loose flint gravel 2 

(y) Black streaky clayey sand with flint-chips, concretions, and 

much manganese ......... 7 

(h) Hard irony crust 3 

(») Clayey sand with perished flints ; one large white flint at the 

bottom of the hole 3 

19 6 

Pit IV. Ft, in. 

(a) Vegetable mould 9 

(6) Clay, sand, and gravel with very large flints up to 1 cwt. This 

much resembles the Middle Headon Venus Bed ... 9 

(<) Drab sandy clay like that in brickyard ; not bottomed 15 

24 9 



ON THE BEMBIUPOE LIMESTONE AT CREECHBARROW HILL. 131 

Tit V. (about 10 feet below the summit on the weft *i<h of the hill). 

(a) Surf ace soil, Ft. in. 

(6) Clay with angular flints 2 6 

(r) Very stiff hardened clay with pieces of rubbly limestone con- 
taining much manganese and soot-like patches . . . 9 6 
(rf) Fragments of Bembridge Limestone very rich in fossils. This 
was where I obtained the chief collection made during my 
former visit. On this occasion we obtained a good specimen 
of Unio, the first, I believe, found at this horizon . . 2 

(e) Hard crumbling limestone 7 

(/) Sandy clay 9 

(</) Grey sands with quartz pebbles and broken flints. On my 
former visit I found a large fragment of Bembridge Lime- 
stone at a depth of 13 feet not far from this pit. This 
specimen is now in the Sedgwick Museum .... 4 

34 

The lowest bed we touched was the drab sandy clay at the bottom 
of Pit IV. , which is the same as that seen in the brick-pit, and the 
thickness of which I estimate to be not less than 40 or 50 feet. It 
seems to have been much used for dressing the land, and we found 
many old pits from which it had been obtained along the west side of 
the hill. This clay I regard as the equivalent of the Lower Headon 
formation. The coarse sand, which occurred above this, I take to 
be the Middle Headon Venus Bed, while the mottled red and green 
clays or marls which we found about 16 feet below the summit of the 
hill much resembled the Osborne Series. 

Of the part of the hill explored by us I should say that- about 
three-quarters consisted of Oligocene Strata and the rest of sand 
and gravel. 

There is everywhere evidence of great disturbance of the strata, 
whether we refer this chiefly to large movements of faulting and over- 
thrust, or the more superficial action of landslips, soil creep, &e. The 
result has been a kneading up together of various deposits, so as to 
produce in many parts a mass much resembling some boulder clays. 
In fact, when I noticed the same kind of boulder clay at the bottom 
of the St. Erth Beds, being familiar with the great masses of ice- 
transported rock further north, I often felt inclined to ask whether 
the limitation of the southerly extension of ice action was so certain 
as is generally assumed. But I am also acquainted with the great 
earth movements affecting our south coast, and with the ever-recurring 
landslips along such an escarpment as we have at Creechbarrow. I 
do not, therefore, feel inclined to press any explanation here without 
further evidence. 

In conclusion, I may be allowed to offer my thanks to Mr. Bond, 
the owner of the property, and to Mr. Trent, his tenant, for kind 
permission to carry on the work; also to Mr. Pike and Mr. Bloomfield 
for much information and assistance. 



K 2 



132 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1012. 

Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. E. H. Tiddemax (Chairman), Dr. A. E. 
Dwerryhouse (Secretary), Dr. T. G. Boxxey, Mr. F. W. 
Habmer, Rev. S. X. Harrison, Dr. J. Hobke, Mr. W. 
Lower Carter. Professor! .W. J. Sollas, awl Messrs. Wm. 
Hill, J. W. Stather, and J. H. Milton. 

England. 

Reported by the Northumberland and Durham Boulders Committee of 

the University of Durham Pltilosophical Society. 

1. Reported by G. Weyman, B.Sc. — 

(a) Boulder clay, Kenton Quarries: Greywacke (3); porphyrite, 
Cheviots (2) ; Cheviot granite ; grey granite ; Crystalline limestone ; 
quartz porphyry. 

(b) Gravel deposit, Horsebridge Head, Newbiggin : Flints (2) ; 
quartzite : schist (2) ; quartz porphyry ; granite (3) ; Cheviot granite ; 
syenite (4) ; mica porphyrite ; chert ; andesite : breccia. 

(c) Boulder clay, Tynemouth : Greywacke ; granite (2) ; syenite ; 
porphyrite; micro granite. 

(d) Blue clay, Tynemouth : Volcanic series of Borrowdale ; granite. 

(e) Vicarage Burn, Barrington : Granite. 

2. Reported by F. Walker, B.Sc. — 

(a) Boulder clay, Armstrong Park, Heaton : Cheviot granite. 

(b) Standard Brick Works, Heaton: Basalt; dolerite; quartzite; 
calcareous grit. 

(c) Boulder clay, Monkseaton : Granite; syenite; basalt; volcanic 
sfiies of Borrowdale. 

(</) Corbridge : Volcanic series of Borrowdale and granite. 

3. Reported by Dr. Woolacott. — Ayeliffe Quarries. Resting on 
the limestone here is a blue stony clay, with sand, leafy clay, and yellow 
clay above. The surface is striated 30° W. of S. In the stony clay 
boulders of Threlkeld granite and volcanic series of Borrowdale occur. 

4. Reported by F. Walker, G. Weyman, and Dr. Woolacott. — 
From Armstrong Whitworth's New Shipyard, Walker-on-Tyne : 
Granite (Criffel) ; several other granites ; syenite ; volcanic series of 
Borrowdale; whin; Carboniferous limestone (several); Magnesian lime- 
stone; brockram ; sandstone; conglomerate (Tuedian?). 

5. Reported by Dr. Smythe. — Striations observed on Whin Sill 300 
yards east of Northside, Kirkwhelpington. Height 700 feet. Direc- 
tion E. 

Reported by the Rev. A. Irving, D.Sc, and Mr. Tercy A. Irving, 
B.A.— 
' Erratics found in the Boulder Clay at Harlow (Essex).' 1 

The following geological formations are represented: — 
1. Carboniferous Limestone. — Numerous blocks of various shapes 
(one block nearly a cubic foot). Examples : (a) Striated block 

1 See Nature, June 20, 1912. 



ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 133 

(11x9x6 inches); (b) Well-polished and striated block (9x8 x 2£ 
inches); (c) well-striated block (7x4x2£ inches); (d) Block of ' encrin- 
ital limestone ' (8x5x3 inches) partly marmorised. 

la. Millstone-grit various and numerous towards the southern 
end of the ' till,' two miles south of Harlow, where it ends off abruptly 
upon the London clay in situ. 

2. Permian. — Fragment of ' Rothschiefer ' and marl-slate. 

3. Bunter. — Quartzite and quartz pebbles (the largest 7 inches). 

4. Keuper. — Calcareous basement breccia. 

5. Rhcetic. — Traces of ' bone-bed ' on slab of limestone. 

6. Lias. — (a) Concretionary ironstone from the M. Lias (one block 
7 x 5 x 11 inches) ; (b) Block of hard shelly limestone containing A vicuhi 
ineqirivaivis, Ditrypa quinquecristatq, and plates of Osircea, liassica ('.'); 
(c) Gryphcea incurva (rather common); (d) Pholodomya ambigua (iso- 
lated and worn; (e) Modiola % cjibbosa as in the Lias of Kilsby 
(Northants); (/) Ammonites (Mgoceras) angulatus (?) dispersed on a 
slab of grey limestone. 

7. Great Oolite. — Slabs of unfossiliferous limestone, very similar to 
beds exposed at Great Ponton. 

8. Cornbrash. — Rounded block of tough shelly limestone (10x0x3 
inches); angular block of more shelly limestone with Plcuromya, sp., 
and Nucula Waltoni. 

9. Oxford Clay. — Calcareous nodules ; shale containing small am- 
monites of the Jason group (as at Fletton, near Peterborough); Amvi. 
varic os talus ; Amm. vertebralis (fragment); Belemnites Oweni (puzosi- 
anus) rather common; Gryphcea dilatata; Gryphcea bilobata. 

9a. Calcareous Grit.—- Rolled fragment of cast of Ammonites Solaris 
(plicatilis)? 

10. Kimmeridge Clay and Portland Sand. — Ostrcea deltoidea ; 
Ostrcea expansa; Ammonites biplex; several fragments (one apparently 
complete in a large concretion) (12 x 10 x A\ inches). 

One fragment of Jurassic (?) Ammonite, sp. (?) 

11. Purbeclc. — Slab of argillaceous limestone with Cyprides; block 
of sulphurous limestone with lignite (10 x 6 x 3 inches), striated (no 
direct evidence of its geological age). 

12. Cretaceous. — Boulder of Red Chalk (Lincolnshire or Norfolk) 
(7x6x5 inches); boulders from the harder beds of the Upper Chalk; 
very common, often grooved and striated. 

13. Roughly cleaved Slate from Charnwood. 

Remarks. — (1) Rolled sarsens and septaria from the Eocene arc not 
reckoned as ' erratics. ' (2) The summit of the hill pierced by the sewer- 
age-works is 252 feet, and here the boulder clay was pierced to 32 feet 
without reaching the bottom of the deposit. Two rolled fragments of 
crystalline rock have been found more recently, both bearing a 
resemblance to some Derbyshire dolerites. 

Note. — In the identification of the specimens assistance has been 
freely rendered by members of the staffs at the British Museum 
(Natural History) and at Jenny n Street Museum, and is here gratefully 
acknowledged. The works of the late John Phillips. F.R.S., and 
Robert Etheridge, F.R.S., have been freely used. 



134 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1012. 

Mr. H. Toolcy, the Essex County Council's official, writes: ' In no 
instances have I seen the boulders and fossils so numerous as at Harlow, 
chalk being in some cases the only substance noticed in addition to the 
clay.' 

The boulders and fossils have been presented for the most part to 
the Essex Museum at Stratford. 

Reported by J. W. Stather, F.G.S., Hull Geological Society. 

Within the last few months I have received a collection of boulders 
and pebbles from the Dogger Bank, dredged by Hull trawlers, about 
150 miles east of Coquet Island, off the Northumberland coast. 

The larger boulders consist for the most part of coarse crystalline 
rocks (schist, gneiss, quartzile, quartz-porphyry, <ic), while among 
the pebbles are two or three varieties of fine-grained granite, porphy- 
rite, basalt, and black flint. 

As to the original source of these rocks I am unable to say any- 
thing with certainty at present, as few (if any) of them belong to types 
with which I am familiar in East Yorkshire ; but I hope to be able, with 
the help of Scandinavian geologists, to locate at least some of them in 
the near future. 

The boulders have been sent to me by the ' Admiral ' of the Game- 
cock Fleet of Trawlers. 

Reported by Mr. T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 
The ' Hebbles ' in the Humber Estuary. 

Running parallel with the north shore of the Humber estuary a 
little to the east of the mojith of the River Hull, and at some distance 
from the shore, is a long submerged bank which considerably inter- 
feres with shipping. 

A little while ago it was decided that this should be removed, and 
powerful dredgers were used. The material excavated has been trans- 
ferred to another part of the estuary, and from an examination of this 
it is apparent that the bank instead of being an ordinary sand or mud 
bank, as was suspected, turned out to be of solid boulder clay. The 
boulders consisted of Carboniferous Limestone, Liassic and Oolitic 
fragments and fossils, Chalk, Basalts, Red Granites, &c, many of 
which are well striated. From the boulders and the clay it is apparent 
that the bank consists of the Middle Boulder Clay. Through the 
kindness of Mr. A. E. Butterfield, of the Humber Conservancy, I have 
been able to acquire a good selection of the boulders. 

Ireland. 
Reported by Arthur R. Dwerryhouse, D.Sc., F.G.S. , M.R.I. A. 

County Antrim. 
On main road between Coratavey Bridge and Torteig (5 miles S.E. 
of Ballycastle) [Sheet 8] (620 feet). Red granite, red quartteite, 
basalt, mica-schist (local), dolerite of Fair Head, red quartz-porphyry, 
vein-quartz (striated), Carboniferous sandstone 

Stream section below Torteig (4o0 feet): Brown sandy gravel with 



ERRATIC BLOCKS OP THE BRITISH ISLES. 135 

mica-schist, chalk, flint, basalt, vein-quaite, red granite, red quartz- 
porphyry. 

Stream section below Drumnacoll (340 feet): Section consists of 



3. Coarse gravel (water woi'n). 

2. Current -bedded sand. V = 100 feet. 



1. Red Boulder Clay. J 

The bed (1) contains basalt, chalk, mica-schist, gneiss, vein-quartz, 
flint, and calcareous sandstone with lustre-mottling (Carboniferous). 

Near Retreat Station, Glen Ballyemon [Sheet 14] . Country Rock- 
Basalt: In boulder clay, flint, chalk, Old Red Sandstone, Old Red 
Sandstone conglomerate, quartzite, mica-schist and vein-quartz. 

Friar's Glen, three miles N.N.W. of Soldierstown [Sheet 36] (100 
feet). Country Rock— Basalt : Hornblende diorite, quartzite, coarse 
red inuseovite-granite, andesite. These are all from the district round 
Pomeroy. Also Carboniferous sandstone, flint, and vein-quartz. 

During the year thin sections of a number of Irish erratics have been 
prepared, and the Secretary has visited Arran and Bute with the object 
of ascertaining how far the rocks of those islands have contributed to the 
glacial deposits of the North of Ireland, and has collected a number of 
specimens for purposes of comparison. It is hoped that the results of 
this investigation will he published in the next report of the Committee. 



The Pit pa rat ion of a List of Characteristic Fossils.— Interim 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor P. F. 
Kendall (Chairman), Mr. W. Lower Carter (Secretary), 
Mr. H. L. ALLEN, Professor W. S. BottLTON, Professor G. 
Cole, Dr. A. K. Dwerryhouse, Professors J. W. Gregory, 
Sir T. H. Holland, G. A. Lebour, and S. F. Reynolds, 
Dr. Marie C. Stopes, Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. Marr, 
Dr. A. Vafohan, Professor W. W. Watts, Mr. H. Woods.. 
and Dr. A. Smtttt Woodward, appointed for the considera- 
tion thereof. 

Early in this year answers were received from the members of the 
Committee to the series of questions submitted to them for consideration 
by the Chairman and Secretary. These replies were codified and 
embodied in a circular letter which was sent in April to the members of 
the Committee and to a number of specialists in the palfeontology of the 
various geological formations. 

The members of the Committee unanimously approved of the^fcrg- 
gestion that a small sub-committee of experienced teachers should be 
asked to draw up a list, in the first instance, for presentation to the 
Committee and the specialists. Some members, however, pointed out 
that the list of fossils adopted by the University of Cambridge, and 
which had stood the test of many years' practical use, was in print, 
and suggested that this might very conveniently he adopted as the basis 



] »'» REPORTS ON THE STATE OF .SCIENCE. — 1012. ' 

for the Committee's work, and so obviate a large amount of preliminary 
discussion. This list had been prepared with special reference to the 
collections in the Sedgwick Museum and the local needs of the Cam- 
bridge student, but when this is taken into account it was felt that it 
would be a valuable aid to the work of the Committee. Accordingly, 
by I lie kindness of Professor T. McKenny Hughes and Mr. H. Woods, 
copies of the ' Catalogue of the Fossils in the Students' Stratigraphical 
Series ' of the Sedgwick Museum were circulated to the Committee and 
specialists along with the circular letter. Up to the present a number 
of replies have been received, but others are still outstanding. It is 
hoped that during the next year the complete lists may be received and 
embodied in a general list of fossils for the consideration of teachers 
of geology to whom it will be submitted. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of 51. 



The Excavation of Critical Sections in the Palceozoic Rocks of 
Wales and the West of England. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor Lapworth (Chairman), Mr. W. G. 
Fearnsides (Secretary), Dr. J. E. Marr, Professor W. W. 
Watts, and Mr. G. J. Williams. 

Fifth Report on Excavations among Hie Cumbrian Roelcx of Comley, 
Shropshire, 1911, by E. S. Cobboed, F.G.S. 

T devoted the grant made in 1911 to additional excavations in two parts 
of the area, : (A) South of Robin's Tump ; (B) in the Comley Brook, where 
it has cut a little gorge between Dairy Hill and Hill House Ridge. The 
exact positions of all these excavations are recorded on my own field map, 
and the majority of them can ho. identified by the references given below 
to the map published with my report to the Sheffield meeting (1910). 

(A) Excavations South of Robin's Tdmp. 
Excavation No. 44, Westwards from the Spring. 

It was known that Bala Grits occurred at some little distance to the 
west of the Spring, where Excavation No. 43 (Portsmouth Report) h,ad 
proved the existence of shales with Orthis (Omnia) lenticularis (Wahlen- 
berg). In the hope of finding higher horizons of the Cambrian a number 
of trial-holes, 3 to 4 feet deep, were opened at intervals along a direct 
line between the two points. Shales similar to those at the Spring were 
proved for about 50 yards, but beyond this distance fragmentary green 
sandstone, referable to the Lower Comley Sandstone and, in one place, 
yielding obscure specimens of Hyolithus, occurred in every opening until 
the yellow Bala Grits were encountered. 

Though the actual line of contact between the shale and the sand- 
stone was not observed, it is clear that they are separated by a fault at 
this point as well as close to the Spring, and the trace of this fault can 
be laid down on the map. 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PALEOZOIC ROCKS OP WALES, ETC. 137 

Excavation No. 45, Southwards from the Spring. 
Similar trial-holes were made at intervals upon the surface of the 
slope to the south of the Spring in the direction of another known 
exposure of Bala rock. In each instance the existence of Cambrian shale 
was proved, with here and there ill-defined examples of, probably, the 
same Orthis, but no fossiliferous band was observed. The shale retained 
its general characteristics, but was so much crushed that dip and strike 
could not be satisfactorily determined within the limits of the shallow 
excavations. A nearer approximation to the line between the Cambrian 
and the Bala at this point can now be laid down on the map, but the 
actual contact was obscured by the presence of many large blocks of 
sandstone belonging to the younger series. If, as seems probable, the 
Cambrian shales retain the north and south strike observed near the 
Spring for a considerable distance, the Bala beds are strongly dis- 
cordant to them, with a south-east and north-west trend. 

(B) Excavations along Comley. Bbook. 

The prolonged drought of the summer of 1911 provided an excellent 
opportunity for examining the beds of shale and sandstone which were 
known to occur in the bed of the Brook as well as in the slope above its 
left bank, and I was able to make considerable additions to our knowledge 
of the inter-relations of the various rocks and of their fossil contents. 

The rocks composing the little elevation called Dairy Hill were 
proved in my first and second reports (Dublin 1908, and Winnipeg 1909) 
to be folded into a dome, consisting of a core of Lower Comley Sandstone 
(Lower Cambrian-Olenellus zones) with a covering of the Quarry Ridge 
Grits (Middle Cambrian-Paradoses zones). The Comley Brook has 
cut into the western flank of this dome, and affords some poor natural 
exposures of its component rocks which are much obscured by vegeta- 
tion. The excavation work consisted principally of clearing away soil 
and herbage wherever rock was visible, with occasional pickaxe work in 
the rock itself. 

A straight line of fence (seen near the numbers representing Excava- 
tions Nos. 12 and 13 on the map published with the Sheffield Report) 
forms the south-east boundary of the enclosure called Dairy Hill, and 
cuts the line of the Brook at right angles. This forms a convenient 
point from which measurements may be taken. Theexposures in the 
bed of the Brook down-stream (north-west of this point) are described 
below as Excavation No. 46, and those up-stream (south-east) as Excava- 
tion No. 47. 

Excavation No. 46, Comley Brook. 

Opposite the fence above mentioned, brownish shale with bands of 
hard ringing grit, agreeing in character, strike, and dip with those of 
Excavation No. 13 (Dublin Report, 1908) are to be seen in the Brook. 

At 18 yards to the north-west there is a mass of blue-grey, much 
fractured shale, weathering brown ; at 36 yards similar shale with a strong 
westerly dip occurs, and has yielded a few small fossils, among which 



138 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



I recognise hingulella, Aerotreta, Hyolithus, and Hyolithellus*', at 

38 yards a bed of hard ringing sandstone is seen ; at 50 yards a thick hed 
of pebbly girl (6 or 8 feet seen) occurs in the hank. The shales with the 
hard grit hands and the fossils almost certainly belong to the zone which 
I have previously called Quarry Ridge Shales, hut, the systematic 
position of the thick grit remains to be determined. 

Excavation No. 47, Comley Brook. 

On clearing out the bottom of the Brook to the south-east of the fence 
to Dairy Hill, green sandstones or sandy shale were met with almost 
continuously for about 90 yards, but, owing to the fact that the stream is 
almost parallel to the strike, no detailed section of the beds can be 
measured; they are therefore given in the table below as they occur in 
horizontal plan. The strike is generally north-west and south-east 
and the dip south-west, but there are slight variations from these direc- 
tions, showing that the beds are not steady. 



Distances from 
the fence in yards 



General characters of the rock beds 
and their fossil contents 



Rock Groups to which 
the beds are referred 



From to . Shale with hard ringing grit-hands 



At fi . 

At 7 . 
From to 10 



From 10 to 28 
From 28 to 30 



From 30 to 07 



From 07 to 00 
I From 90 to 03 



A north and south fault, cuts the beds 
obliquely 

Rather soft green sandstone 

Similar sandstone with man}' fossils : — 

Callavia Callavei (Lapworthj 

G. Cobboldi (Raw MS.) 

Wanneria {'!), sp. 

Mirrodisru.i, sp., cf. M. Helena (Walcot) 

P/ychoparia (?) attleborensis (S. and F.) 

Hyolithus (Ortholheca), sp. 

Stenotheea, sp., cf. S. mgosa (Hall) 

Kutorgina cingulnln (Billings) ? 

Linnarssonia, sp. 

An orthid 

No solid rock seen 

Red and green sandy shale, reminis- 
cent of that immediately below the 
Olenellus-lAmestone of the Quarry 

Green sandstone and shaly sandstone 
of varying degrees of hardness, 
with occasional tracks or burrows 
of organisms and also with dark 
calcareous nodules at distances 49 
and 07 yards 

No rock seen 

Green sandstone and shaly sandstone, 
dipping 45° westerly 



Quarry Ridge Shales 
(Middle < 'am- 

hrian). 



Lower Comley 
Sandstone 
(Lower Cambrian). 



The fault at six yards, running obliquely across the bed of the Brook, 
is very distinct, the shale and green sandstone being seen in actual 

contact. 

1 I use the term Hyolithellm for certain straight tubes of circular section com- 
parable with //. mieana Billings, which are of frequent occurrence in both the Lower 
and Middle Cambrian beds "f Comley, 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PALAEOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, ETC. 139 

The fossils at 9 to 10 yards are, in many cases, identical with those of 
the Ohndhi&'IAme&tom of the Comley Quarry, but are embedded in 
green sandstone instead of in the pinkish or red calcareous rock of the 
Quarry. 

The red and green sandy shale at 28 to 30 yards is so like the rock 
immediately below the Olencllus-ljimestouG of the Quarry (see Dublin 
Report, 19U8) that it is probable that the latter occurs close by. A few 
yards down-stream a very characteristic pink calcareous nodule was found 
among the drift pebbles of the bed of the Brook. 

The occurrence of the dark calcareous nodules and burrows or tracks 
further up-stream suggests a comparison of the beds there with those of 
Robin's Tump (see Sheffield and Portsmouth Reports, 1910, 1911). 

Excavation No. 17, Comley Brook. 

At about 40 yards south-south-east of No. 13 (Dublin Report., 19US) 
a small excavation in the left slope of the valley disclosed brownish 
shale, with bands of hard ringing grit, dipping at about 10° to the south- 
west. These rocks, which are in complete agreement with those found 
in Excavations No. 13 (Dublin Report, 1908) and No. 1G (above) I refer 
to the group Quarry Ridge Shales. 

Excavation No. 49, Comley Brook, South-West Slope. 

At about 80 yards up-stream from tho commencement of Excavation 
No. 47 (above), there is a rocky shoulder the foot of which has been 
cut away to make room for a cart-track between it and the stream. Tho 
rock seen consisted of green sandstone, and on clearing away the soil 
and herbage a section was exposed which appears to be of special 
interest both from stratigraphical and pakeontological points of view. 

At first I found here several species belonging to the Olenellus 
(I'rotolcnus-Callavia-) fauna, and then, apparently from the same 
material, a pygidium of a Paradoxides which may be referred to P. 
Hicksii (Salter) or to one of its allies. On further study of the 
section it became evident that just at this point Lower Comley Sand- 
stone, with some calcareous nodules (Lower Cambrian), and of the 
same horizon as that found at distance 9 to 10 yards on Excavation 
No. 47 (see above, p. 138), has been broken up to form a breccia with 
but little addition of extraneous material, so that the matrix and the 
included blocks have very much the same lithological aspect. 

In the upper part of this ' Breccia Bed ' the matrix is somewhat 
calcareous and there are comparatively few included blocks. In the 
median portion of the bed the included sandstone and limestone blocks 
are very plentiful, and the original interstices between the blocks are 
filled up with a matrix of sand clearly derived from the disintegrated 
ruins or wash of the same materials as those of which the blocks are 
composed. At the base the bed consists of fractured sandstone with 
little, if any, matrix between tho fragments. Below this the green 
sandstone seems to be intact, but is not fossiliferous. 

- Cobbuld, QJ.G.S.i vol. l.wii., 1911, p. 2<J7. 



140 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1912. 

The fauna of the included blocks is clearly Lower Cambrian, and 
the same as that found in the OlencUus-IAinestone of the Comley 
Quarry. 

The matrix contains many species of a Paradoxides fauna which 
appears to be new to the district, and which, from the presence of 
Conocoryphe (zqualis (Linnarsson) and a Liostracus, seems to indicate 
a higher horizon of the Middle Cambrian than that of the conglomeratic 
base of the Quarry Ridge Grits, which is in contact with the Lower 
Cambrian in the Comley Quarry and in Eobin's Tump. 

The finding of specimens of Olenellus (or rather of CaUavia) and 
other members of the Lower Cambrian fauna in close contact witli 
fragments of Paradoxides is no new thing in the district, for fossiii- 
ferous pebbles are not infrequent, both at the Quarry and at Robin's 
Tump.Mn the conglomeratic base of the Quarry Ridge Grits (Middle 
Cambrian), bub in those places the distinction between matrix and 
included blocks is obvious, owing to the admixture of numerous rounded 
grains of quai-tz and other pre-existing rocks, while here, at Excavation 
No. 49, the distinction could hardly have been made out without the 
presence of the fossils. 

The section in descending order is as follows : — 

(a) Grits and shale, of undetermined horizon: — Ft. 

(0|) Hard ringing grit, top not seen 2 

(a 2 ) Brownish shale, much crushed . . . . .2 

Probable fault 

(6) The Breccia bed .......... 5 

(c) Lower Comley Sandstone : — 

(c,) Green sandstone, flaggy and reddish m places . . 3 

(e 2 ) ,, ,, compact . . . . . .4 

(c 3 ) „ ,, soft and much broken . . .4 

(c t ) ,, „ harder and more compact . . .3 

(f 6 ) „ ,, broken, base not seen . . -.3 

The dip is about 45° to the south-west. 

Up to the present fossils have only been found in the Breccia bed, 
they are given below in two lists — (A) those derived from the matrix, 
Middle Cambrian; (B) those derived from the included blocks, Lower 
Cambrian : — 

(A) — From the Matiux. 

* Paradoxides, sp., cf. P. Hiclcsii (Salter), and P. Sjogren* (Linnarsson) 

(Pygidia and free cheeks). 
* P., sp., cf. P. rugulosus Corda (Glabella). 
P., sp. indet., various fragments. 
Agraulos, cf. A. quadrangularls (Whitfield). 
Conocoryphe bufo (Hicks). 
C. aqualis (Linnarsson). 
C. impressa (Linnarsson). 
Dorypyge, sp. now, with a reticulate test. 
Microdiscus punctatus (Salter). 

Ptychoparia (Liostracus) sp. allied to Pt. (L.) pulchella (Cobbold). 
Hyolithellus, sp., a large form, similar to that from the Quarry Ridge Grits. 
Kutorgina cingulata (Billings) ? 

Acrothele, cf. A. granulata (Linnarsson), a fragment. 
Linnarssonia ( ? ) 

* Since this report was written better specimens have been found, indicating 
a distinct species of Paradoxides intermediate between the three species here 
mentioned. 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PALAEOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, ETC. 141 

(B) — From thi: Ixcr.tiDKD Blocks. 

C'allavia Callavci (Lapworth). 

Micmaeea (?) ellipsocep/taloides, var. .senior (Cobbold). 

,, ,, var. atrenuelloides (Cobbold). 

Microdiscug, sp., cf. M. Helena (Walcott). 
Pti/e/ioparia (?) attleborcmis (S. and F.). 
Kutoryina cinyulata (Billings)? 
Linncirssonia, sp. 
Lingulella, sp. ■ ■ 

There is often considerable difficulty in deciding whether any par- 
ticular fossil belongs to the matrix or is part of an included block. As 
a rule the state of preservation is a guide. The Paraduxides and 
associated species generally occur as well-preserved casts of a red. 
yellow, or rusty colour, or, where the test is preserved, of a slaty grey, 
but sometimes they are whitish. The fragments of Callavia and its 
ossociates often have a white egg-shell texture, exactly similar to those 
found in the Olenellus-'Limestone of the Quarry, but they akso occur as 
brown ferruginous casts. 

Excavation No. 50, Comlexj Brook, South-west Slope. 

A little tributary hollow joins the course of the Brook jusb above 
Excavation No. 49, and beyond it is another shoulder of rock almost 
entirely covered with herbage. A teench about 18 yards long on this 
ground disclosed a thickness of about 20 feet of green sandstones with 
a dip of about 45° towards 20° south of west. 

Some of the beds of sandstone are very soft, others are harder and 
flaggy, with white silky partings and indistinct tracks of organisms. 
Notwithstanding the length of this trench the Breccia bed of No. 49 
was not encountered, and further elongation was impossible on account 
of the growing crop. 

J. refer these beds to the Lower Comley Sandstone. 

Excavation No. 51, Francis' Field. 

Several trials were made along the line of the western fence to 
Francis' Field near Excavation No. 27 (see map, Sheffield Beport). 
One of these disclosed a thick band of rather coarse grit, with a dip of 
45° towards 18° south of east. The following is the full section in 
descending order : — 

Ft. 

(a) Brownish shales, with hard micaceous sandy bands, top not seen. 

Fossils, Acrotreta, sp., and an ostracod .... 7 
(6) Yellowish grit, with some small pebbles of quartz and some 

patches of dark brown rottenstone 7 

(c) Brownish shale, base not seen 1 

The easterly dip of these beds is so different from that shown in the 
Excavations Nos. 47 to 50, that it is evident that we have passed out of 
the region of Dairy Hill domical fold and have touched beds which 
are probably superior to those of the Hill House Bidge (Excavation 
No. 5, see Dublin Beport, 1908). 



] 12 reports on the state of science.— 1012. 

Conclusion. 

The discovery of fossils of the Olencllus fauna in the bedded green 
sandstones of Comley Brook is of interest, in itself as proving the exist- 
ence of Lower Cambrian strata in situ on the south-west side of the 
Dairy Hill dome, while the occurrence of the specimen, provisionally 
referred to Walcott's genus Wanneria, adds a new form to the Lower 
Cambrian fauna of Europe. 

The Breccia bed of Excavation No. 49 has a double interest. It 
affords new and confirmatory evidence of the break between the Lower 
and the Middle Cambrian of the Comley area, and the fauna of the 
matrix contains forms identical with certain Middle Cambrian species 
from Scandinavia and South Wales. 

The whole story of the Cambrian rocks of Comley in so far as these 
rocks and their fossils are disclosed by the excavations carried out for 
the Committee cannot yet be written, but it may be of interest to 
note the principal results as they have appeared in my annual reports 
since 1908: — 

1. Excavations of 1907, reported to the Dublin Meeting of 1908. 

Discovery of a Protolenus fauna immediately above the fauna of the 
Olcn ellus -Limestone. 

Fixation of the local stratigraphical line of division between the 
Lower and the Middle Cambrian. 

'2. Excavations of 1908, reported to the Winnipeg Meeting of 1909. 

Discovery of a higher Middle Cambrian fauna containing Para- 
doxides Davidis (Salter) succeeded above by shales with Orthis (Orusia) 
lenticularis (Wahlenberg), in the northern part of the area, near the 
Shoot Bough Boad. 

3. Excavations of 1909, reported to the Sheffield Meeting of 1910. 

Additions to the Paradoxidcs Davidis fauna (Billing sell a, P. rugu- 
losus, &c). 

Discovery of Lower Cambrian fossils in the southern part of the 
area near Bobin's Tump, and of the exhibition there of the unconformity 
between the Middle and Lower Cambrian. 

Bublication of a diagram, showing the inter-relations of the Cambrian 
strata of Comley as far as then known. 

4. Excavations of 1910, reported to the Portsmouth Meeting of 1911. 

Additional and confirmatory evidence of the unconformity at Eobin's 
Tump. 

Discovery of O. lenticularis shale to the south of the spot. 

5. Excavations of 1911, the subject of the present Report. 

Discovery of bedded green sandstone of Lower Cambrian age in 
Comley Brook, affording fossils characteristic of the Olencllus -Lime- 
stone of the Comley Quarry. 



ON EXCAVATIONS IN THE PALAEOZOIC ROCKS OF WALES, ETC. 143 

Discovery of a Middle Cambrian Breccia largely composed of the 
debris of the above-mentioned Lower Cambrian sandstone, but having 
a matrix affording a Paradoxidcs fauna, apparently hew to the district. 



Investigation of the Igneous and Associated Rocks of the Glensaul 
and Lough Nafooey Areas, Cos. Mayo and Galway. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. Watts 
(Chairman), Professor S. H. Reynolds (Secretary), Mr. P. G. 
Carrlthers, and Mr. C. I. Gardiner. 

The district to the South of Lough Nafooey was visited during August 
1 ( J12. In general the geological structure is the same as that of the 
Kilbride district to the East. There seems little doubt that the centre 
of eruption in Arenig times lay nearer to Kilbride than to Nafooey, for 
the Arenig lavas (spililes), which show excellent pillow structure, are 
far less intermingled with breccia near Lough Nafooey than they are 
at Kilbride. The lowest beds seen are ashes, breccias, and a con- 
glomerate containing beds of black chert and shale. Limestone breccia 
has been found at two places amongst the ashes. Fossils from these 
beds are very scarce. 

Succeeding these deposits conies a thick mass of spilite, containing 
in places felsite and spilite breccia. 

All these Arenig rocks are pierced by felsite intrusions, but none 
of them are of any great extent. 

On the North a pebbly quartzose grit and conglomerate (probably 
of Llandeilo age) rests on these Arenig rocks, while on the South they 
arc overlain by Llandovery beds continuous with those of the Kilbrido 
district to the Last. These show the same succession of deposits as 
at Kilbride, and are covered, as they are there, with grits, which are 
of Weulock age. 

Just as at Kilbride, linic-bostouite and coarse porphyrite are in- 
truded at the base of the Silurians. Dolerites, sometimes micaceous, 
are intruded into the Silurians and Arenigs, while felsite is intruded 
at the base of the (?) Llandeilo grits and into them as well. 



Index Generum et Specierum Animalium. — Final Report of the 
Committee consisting of Dr. Henry Woodward (Chairman), 
Dr. F. A. Bather (Secretary), Dr. W. T. Calman, Dr. W. 
Evans Hoyle, the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Dr. P. L. 
Sclater, the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, and Lord Walsing- 
ham. 

During the year 1911-12 work on this ' Index ' has proceeded 
steadily, and a large number of volumes has passed through the hands 
of Mr. C. Davies Sherborn. 

Iluebner's entomological works have been thoroughly examined, 



144 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ID 12. 

and the results of the researches of many workers have been embodied 
in a paper by Sherborn and Prout in the ' Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History ' for January 1913. All the books of Fallen and 
Fabricius have been indexed, as also those of Fischer von Waldheim 
and John Fleming, with many others. Increased cabinet accommoda- 
tion has been necessary, and this has been, as before, provided at the 
Natural History Museum by the Keeper of the Geological Department. 

As regards the continuation of the work, the Committee has great 
pleasure in reporting that the Trustees of the British Museum have 
included the compilation of the ' Index Animalium ' in the General 
Library Service of the British Museum (Natural History). It has thus 
become an official undertaking, and Mr. Sherborn will rank as ' Special 
Assistant ' on the staff. This is most gratifying to all parties con- 
cerned, for it ensures the safety and completion of the manuscripts 
which have accumulated during the past twenty-two years. There are 
now some 664,000 slips, representing 332,000 entries in duplicate, and 
a great mass of manuscript notes on the dates of books which have 
passed or will pass through the compiler's bands. Much of this has 
been printed separately or been included in the official catalogue of the 
libraries of the British Museum (Natural History). 

All manuscripts and documents connected with the work have been 
handed over by the Committee to the Trustees of the British Museum 
for preservation in the Natural History Museum, where they may he 
seen, on application during official hours, by those interested. 

In making this final report the Committee desires to express iis 
own and Mr. Sherborn's sincere thanks, not only to the Trustees of the 
British Museum for their past and present help but also to those 
Societies that have from time to time aided the work with pecuniary 
grants — namely, the Royal Society and the Zoological Society of 
London. Above all, those thanks are due to the British Association for 
the consistent way in which it has supported the undertaking for the 
past twenty years, support which alone made possible the successful 
termination of the first part (1758-1800). The Association will doubt- 
less join the Committee in renewing its thanks to the Syndics of the 
Cambridge University Press for their generosity in printing and pub- 
lishing this part. It was issued in October 1902 as a handsome octavo 
volume of 1,255 pages, containing 61,600 entries, at the price of 25s. 
On the value of that volume to the zoologist there is no need to insist 
here ; it has spoken for itself to everyone who has taken the trouble to 
consult it. The manuscript of the second part (1801-50) is well 
advanced and will now proceed safely towards completion under new 
auspices. 

Your Committee cannot cease its connection with this important 
work without an expression of gratitude to Mr. Davies Sherborn for his 
devoted labours in the past, and of confidence in his energy to cany to 
a conclusion the second part of the ' Index Animalium.' 



on belmullet whaling station. 145 



Belmultet Whaling Station.— Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Professor J. 
Stanley Gardiner (Secretary), Professor W. A. Herdman. 
Rev. W. Spotswood Green, Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Dr. H. W. 
Marett Tims, and Mr. E. M. Barrington, 'appointed to 
investigate the Biological Problems incidental to the Belmullet 
Whaling Station. 

The Committee annex a full report from Mr. Bui-field on his work 
ai Belmullet in 1911. The Committee had hoped that Mr. Burfield 
would return to Belmullet in May 1912 for the season. The working 
up of the results of his work there in 1911 had not proceeded sufficiently 
far to make such a course likely to be profitable, and difficulties arose 
as to finding accommodation for any other investigator. Under the 
circumstances it seemed wiser to defer further investigations until 
1913. The Secretary has received 30L from a member of the Com- 
mittee. This sum should meet part of the expenses of sending an 
investigator to Belmullet in 1913. 

The Committee ask for reappointment with a grant of 15Z. 

Report to the Committee. By S. T. Burfield, B.A. 

I. Introduction. 

In the summer of 1911, at the suggestion of Professor J. Stanley 
Gardiner. I proceeded to the Belmullet Whaling Station, on the west 
coast of Ireland. This station is the property of the Blacksod Whaling 
Company, and is situated close to Ardelly Point, in Blacksod Bay, 
Co. Mayo. My object was to obtain any information incidental to 
whales and whaling which might be of interest, and also to collect and 
preserve any parts or parasites of these interesting mammals which 
might be of use for more detailed anatomical work. 

I arrived on June 13. This station was opened in 1910, and as it 
is, I believe, one of the most modern and best equipped stations exist- 
ing at present, 1 have thought it worth while to give some account of 
the general factory procedure in connection with the extraction of oil, 
and the manufacture of guano and cattle food. 

There are two whaling-steamers connected with the station. The 
crews on the boats and the skilled workmen at the factory are Scandi- 
navians, but local Irish labour is employed for unskilled work. 
Through the season an average of about thirty Irishmen are employed 
in this way. 

There are no doubt both advantages and disadvantages in attempting 
scientific work on whales at an actual whaling station. The obvious 
advantage is that during the course of a short stay one is enabled to 
see a comparatively large number of the largest whales in a fairly 
fresh condition. From the whaler's point of view a whale under 
40 feet in length is not worth chasing,- and of course it is rather on the 
largest whales that scientific work must be concentrated at the present 

1912. & 



1J.G REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 11)12. 

time, as extinction threatens only the large Rorquals (Balanoylerida), 
Right whales (Balcenidce), and Sperm whales (Physeterida), which are 
regularly hunted. 

The disadvantages arise entirely from the fact that the hunting and 
subsequent cutting-up of the whales have to be looked at simply from 
a commercial point of view by the whalers. In my own limited 
experience— and 1 believe in the experience of everyone who has visited 
a station with a view to scientific observation — the authorities of the 
company are quite willing to give every facility possible, but obviously 
the prosperity of the company must be the first consideration, and as 
this may be said to depend largely on the celerity with which the 
whale carcases are cut up and transferred to the boilers — every moment 
wasted being so much good oil lost, as it runs from the blubber and 
meat — the time necessary for careful observations and the prosperity 
of the company are incompatible. Again, the practice of pumping air 
into the dead whale to facilitate towing often results in the body 
bursting, on account of the internal accumulation of gases, sooner than 
it would in the absence of this blowing-up of the carcase. Lastly, the 
method of cutting up the body is not the one which a scientific observer 
would choose it he had tin 1 power so to do. In spite of all this there 
is a great advantage which must, not be overlooked. The Whaling 
Company authorities will almost invariably allow an observer to go out 
on the whaling-boats, and this, after all, gives us practically the only 
means of observing these extraordinary mammals under natural con- 
ditions. A minor disadvantage, but one which cannot be entirely 
neglected, depends on the fact that the whaling stations are nearly 
always situated in 'places which arc more or less difficult of access. 
These advantages and disadvantages have been noted by other 
observers, 1 but as they particularly impressed themselves upon me 
during my three months' slay at the Behnullet Station, 1 have thought 
them worth repeating. 

The whaling season for 1911 at the Behnullet Station was fair 
from a commercial point of view. About 2 r 200 barrels - of oil were 
obtained, besides guano and whalebone, from sixty-three whales, 
giving an average of about thirty-six barrels per whale. This is a 
fairly good yield of oil, although the total number of the catch is not 
large. For the Northern Stations — that is, those off Iceland, the 
Shetlands, Ireland, &c. — thirty whales per boat is considered a mini- 
mum for a factory to keep working at a profit, but it must be noted 
that the yield of oil is not by any means proportional to the total 
number of the catch. A female with unborn young gives the best 
yield, whilst a female with a suckling probably yields the least. In 
the case of most of the Southern companies only the blubber is taken, 
this being stripped off and the boiling done on the steamer at sea. The 
carcase is turned adrift, and this is a great waste from a commercial 

1 E.g., Lillk-, Ptoe. Zoo!. Soc., 1910, 2,769. 

- One barrel = 200 kilos. = 1 cut. (approx.). Six barrels = 1 ton is a neaier 
approximation. 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 147 

point of view, if from no other. The carcase represents rather more 
than one-third of the total value of an ordinary whale. 

Most of the whaling has heen carried on to within a few years only 
in the Northern Hemisphere. Recently, however, many stations have 
been opened in the South — e.g., off South Africa— and large catches 
have been taken. I was told of a station which, in the 1911 season, 
was taking twenty whales per day. Most of the whales brought in at 
the Belmullet Station appear to be caught on or about a bank situated 
in a north-westerly direction. There is no doubt that the movements 
of whales, especially of the Mystacocetes, are largely due to the pre- 
sence or absence of suitable food, and the bank mentioned above 
appears to be a regular feeding-ground for Balcenopteridce. A greater 
knowledge of planktonic movements would no doubt go far to explain 
the presence or absence of the ' Finners ' at given places at certain 
times. The state of the weather appears to be an important factor. 
A long spell of fine, calm weather appears to send the whales further 
out, whereas dull, cloudy, and rainy weather brings them in. This is 
especially the case with the Mystacocetes, and is probably almost 
entirely due to the movements of the plankton on which these animals 
chiefly subsist. The sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalvs, L.) are 
generally caught further off the land in deeper water, due no doubt to 
the food consisting almost entirely of deep-sea cephalopods. 

Before passing on to consider the observations and results of my 
stay at Belmullet, I must express my thanks to Professor J. S. 
Gardiner, F.B.S., who, as Secretary of the Committee, gave me the 
opportunity of undertaking the investigation, and who has since given 
me much valuable help and advice at Cambridge, where the detailed 
work has been done. 

During my stay in Ireland Mr. R. M. Barrington, F.L.S., showed 
me great kindness, and helped me greatly by his local knowledge, and 
to him I express my hearty thanks. I cannot express my obligations 
too highly to Mr. D. Bingham, of Bingham Castle, with whom I had 
the good fortune to stay during my visit, and whose help and advice 
on all occasions were freely given, and were invaluable. I have also 
to thank Dr. R. F. Scharff, of the Dublin Museum, for his kind offer 
of help. 

In my actual work at the station I can only say that it was the 
advice, information, and cordial help given by Captain Bruun, the 
manager of the Whaling Company, which made the work possible, and 
for these I thank him most sincerely, and I must extend my thanks 
to many friends at the whaling station. In the more detailed work 
at Cambridge I have to express my indebtedness to Dr. A. E. Shipley, 
F.R.S., Dr. H. Gadow, F.R.S., Dr. H. K. Anderson, F.R.S., and 
Mr. L. A. Borradaile, M.A., for much help and advice on special 
points. 

II. General Factory Procedure. 

Although whales were first hunted for their oil alone, even before 
the use of whalebone was known, there are now at least half, a dozen 

L 2 



1 18 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

products of economic importance obtained from those animals. A 
modern whaling station obtains 

(a) Oil. 

(6) Whalebone. 

(c) Meat (Cattle -food) "I , Manlirp1 

(d) Bones. ) t Manure )- 
(c) Glue. 

Besides these there are two subsidiary products from the Sperm wbale 
(Physeler macrocephalus, L.) — viz., ambergris and sperm teeth. The 
latter (sperm teeth) are now sold as such, and Captain Bruun informed 
me that he had found a market for them in 1911 for the first time. 
There does not seem to be any reason why they should not be used for 
manufacturing articles in the same way as ordinary bones and ivory. 
The trunk bones are far too porous and contain large quantities of 
oil. 

(a) Oil. — This is still the most important product. To extract it. 
every part of the animal, with the exception of the whalebone and 
sperm teeth, is boiled for an average of about twenty-four hours. 
When a whale is towed into the station it is anchored to a buoy until 
the men at the factory are ready to deal with it. When all is ready. 
the animal, perhaps by this time enormously distended by the internal 
generation of gases, is brought to the bottom of the fiensing-slip, 
a large chain is attached round the tail, connected to a steel-wire rope, 
and the whale is slowly hauled up the inclined plane by a powerful 
steam winch. The animal is drawn up rather on its side, but some- 
times nearly on its back. This is due to the fact that it floats in this 
position while in the water, the gases accumulating in the body cavity 
and distending the belly. The flensing-plane has to be very strongly 
supported by piles on account of the great weight of the whales. A 
60-foot whale weighs something like 70 or 80 tons. 

The next process is to strip off the blubber 'blanket.' This is 
performed by two Scandinavians called ' blubber-flensers. ' The work 
of these men consists entirely in stripping off the blubber and taking 
out the baleen. The knives used are of a special kind (fig. 1). The 
blubber is cut through along the mid-dorsal and mid-ventral lines of the 
animal, and two cuts are also made along each side. Thus there are 
marked out the three strips which are taken off from each side of the 
whale. A chain fastened to a steel-wire rope is attached to the head 
end of each of these strips, and the blubber taken off from the head end 
towards the tail by the help of a steam winch, the flensers using their 
knives to ensure the strips coming off cleanly, with as little meat as 
possible. 

The blubber is then cut up into manageable blocks by some of the 
unskilled local workers, and finally the blocks are fed info a arrange- 
ment of a revolving circular knife and an elevator fixed on the fiensing- 
slip. The blubber is thus ti-ansferred in fairly small pieces into the 
boilers s soon as removed from the whale. After the blubber has 
been entirely removed, another Scandinavian, called the ' meat-flenser, ' 
cuts off the head, which is chopped up separately. The carcase, from 
which 'the viscera have been removed, is then handed over to this 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 



141 



meat-flenser, who strips the meat from the bones, the whole of the 
meat being taken off in four strips — two on each side. The ventral strip 
on each side consists of the meat overlying the ribs, and the dorsal 
strip of the main layer of meat lying along the vertebrae. Finally the 
meat-flenser cuts up the backbone, separating the vertebrae very neatly. 
The whole of the meat and bones in pieces of workable size is raised 
by elevators and tipped into boilers. 

With regard to the boilers, the blubber-boilers are open, but those 
in which the meat and bones are put are closed, so that in the latter 




Fig. 1. — Flensing Knife (approx. J., nat. size). 



the pressure of the steam helps to extract the oil, which is relatively 
less plentiful in the meat and bones than in the blubber. A diagram- 
matic sketch of a 'blubber-boiler is shown in fig. 2. 

The blubber is given three successive boilings, the duration of 



which varies, the average being about eight hours each. After each 
boiling the contents of the boiler are allowed to settle, and the oil is run 
off into vats. On the third boiling the boiler is closed at the top and 
the steam allowed to press the contents to ensure all the oil being 
extracted. Finally all the fat disappears and only the dark-coloured 



150 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



integument is left as a black mud. To illustrate the modern no-waste 
methods used at the factory, it may be mentioned that one man does 
nothing but collect the oil, blood, &c.; which runs from the animals 
as they are being cut up, and boil these scrapings in small, open-air 



Gl-l/£ HATER 







1 * 


I 
1 
\ 




[ 


1 


1 


1 

T 


J 


1 

T 


T T 



Fig. 2.— Blubber Boiler. 

boilers. During the 1911 season two hundred barrels of No. 4 oil, 
worth about 6001. , were obtained by this method alone. 

The kinds of oil obtained are arranged according to quality, thus: — 

i. Spermaceti (from the head of the Sperm whale). 

ii. Sperm blubber-oil. 

iii. No. 1 (from the blubber of Fin-whales). 
iv. No. 2 (from the blubber of Fin-whales on second boiling). 

\. No. 3 (from meat and blubber in a closed boiler). _i 

vi. No, t (from t lie bones, runnings, and sperm meal). 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 15] 

ISTosI of the oil poos lo Glasgow, whore much is sold to manu- 
facturers of explosives for the purpose of extracting the glycerine. 

The market price of the oil fluctuates. In the 1011 season ifc was 
about 23/. per ton. This applies to the ordinary oil as put into the 
barrels, which consists of Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 mixed. Spermaceti and 
sperm blubber-oil fetch about 10Z. per ton more. 

The following represent the rough average yields for four of the 
commoner species of whale captured: — 

Barrels 

1. Rudolphi's Rorqual, Sejhval (Bahenoptera borealis, Lesson) . about 10 

2. Common Fin-whale (Balcenoptera muscuhis, Linn,). . . . 15-70 

3. Blue Whale (Balcenoptera sibbaldii, Gray) 50-70 

4. Sperm AVhale (Physeter macrocephalu-s, Linn.) 65-80 

(b) Whalebone. — The treatment of the whalebone is comparatively 
simple. The plates are separated, scrubbed and soaked in warm soda 
solution, washed in warm water, and finally spread out in the open 
air to dry. When dry the plates are packed in sacks. As regards 
the baleen from Fin -whales, there are about fourteen sacks to the ton. 
The price obtained for this in the 1011 season was 457. per ton. and 
fi to 7 tons wore obtained during the season. Much of the whalebone 
goes to Taris, where, I believe, quite a considerable quantity is used 
in the form of fine threads woven into silken fabrics in order to make 
the latter stiff. 

(r) Mral and bones. — The residue from the meat and bones, after 
prolonged boiling until no more oil can he obtained, is dried in a large 
cylinder, which is Heated and made to revolve about its axis. The 
dried products — i.e., from the meat and from the bones — are then 
ground in a mill and finally packed in sacks. The meat in this stage 
has a comparatively pleasant smell, and looks very much like 1 coarsely 
ground coffee. The dried and ground meat alone is used as cattle- 
food in Norway, and a mixture consisting of two parts of ground meat 
to one part of ground bone is used as guano. 

From the first twelve whales caught in the 1011 season 34".'i bags- 1 
of guano were obtained. These products are sent to Norway. 

The meat of most of the Balienopteridfe, when taken fresh, can 
be eaten, and is very palatable, as I can testify by experience in the 
case of meat from Balanoptera muscuhls (L.), the common Finner. 

(J) Glue. — The water produced by the condensation of steam in 
the boilers was formerly run back into the sea. That there is plenty 
of gluey substance in this water is shown by the fact that if two pieces 
of wood be moistened with it and allowed to remain pressed together 
they are found to be firmly attached when dry. The glue is particu- 
larly plentiful in the dark skin situated between the epidermis and the 
blubber. This, in the form of the black mud mentioned above, was 
formerly thrown away. Different processes have been tiled to extract 
(he glue, but without much success. The great difficulty appears to 
be to get the product to settle. At the end of the 1011 season a new 
triple evaporator was installed at the Belmullet Station, and promises 
to be more successful. 

3 One bag = 2 cwt. (approx.). 



152 



REPORTS O.V TIIK STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1012. 



Whaling-boats. — These are somewhere about 100 feet long, and 
are capable of attaining a speed of about 10 knots per hour. To 
enable them to turn quickly while chasing, many have perforated 
keels. There is a crow's-nest placed high on the forward mast. It has 
been the custom to paint the bottoms of the boats a green colour, the 
idea being that the hull would be made less visible to the whales, and 
so less likely to frighten them. 

Captain Bruun thinks, however, that it makes no difference in 
chasing the wdiales, and he now uses the ordinary red-lead paint. 

The harpoon gun is mounted high in the bows of the ship, and is 
arranged on a swivel, so that it can be moved easily and quickly in 
any direction round the bows. The harpoon is shown diagrammatical]}- 
in fi£. 3. It is about 4 feet long over all. There is a conical tip with 




Fig. 3. — Harpoon (in gun) (approx. '^ nat. size). 

three movable hooked barbs, and an arrangement by which an explosive 
shell is attached, the shell exploding inside the body of the whale. 

The harpoon is attached to a strong 3-inch hempen rope, which is 
run round a winch on deck and then over a pulley arrangement 
attached to the foremast, the further end of the rope being fastened to a 
long, strong spring fixed along the bottom of the boat. This latter is 
to prevent any great amount of jarring when the rope is run out. 

The fin-whales, when dead, generally sink, except they be very 
fat. They ai - e hauled up from the bottom, a pipe is thrust into the 
body cavity, and air is pumped in, the hole being afterwards plugged. 
The whales are towed tail foremost, generally alongside the boat, but 
in rough weather they are towed astern. The tail-flukes are cut off 
immediately on capture, to lessen the resistance to towing. 

The harpoons are not fired at a longer range than about 50 yards, 
so that great skill is required in manoeuvring the ship. An attempt 
is made to shoot just as the whale begins 1o dive downwards, and to 
hit, if possible, just behind the shoulder. 



ON 11ELMULLET WHALJNQ STATION. 153 

III. Questions of General Biology. 

1. 77/c extinction of the larger Cetacea.— In view of the large 
numbers of the largest kinds of Cetacea which are now killed every 
year, Ihe question of their probable extinction in the course of com- 
paratively few years must lie seriously considered. The case of 
SI eller's Sea-cow (Rhythm) is a well-known example of extinction pro- 
duced by excessive hunting in recent times. With a view to preventing 
this possible extinction there is some discussion as to legislation in 
Norway and England. It is suggested that there should be a closed 
season for the Northern Whale ' Fisheries ' as in the Seal ' Fisheries. ' 
The serious point is that so many gravid females are killed, and it is 
impossible for the whalers to identify a gravid female, as such, while 
she is swimming in the water. Naturally, the proposed limitation of 
the whale-hunting does not meet with the approval of the whalers. 
According to them the whaling in the Northern stations will cease 
nutomaticallv before the extinction takes place. As mentioned above, 
a minimum catch of about thirty whales per steamer in the Northern 
stations is necessary for a factory to keep working at a profit. Thus, 
when this minimum has been passed, the whaling station closes down 
automaticallv. It is said that this will take place before the total 
extinction of the species on account of the minimum catch being 
comparatively high. 

The underlying idea seems to be that of a definite number of whales 
passing over a given ai'ea at one time, only a certain percentage are 
ever caught, on account of the difficulty in locating the animals and 
Ihe chances of Ihe chase. As the total number of animals passing 
over a given area becomes fewer, the percentage actually caught will 
fall. The conclusion drawn is that this fall will cause the minimum 
catch per boat to be reached before the total extinction takes place. 
TTow far this reasoning is sound is doubtful, but T give it as it was 
given to me. 

The actual reduction in the number of the whales has been less 
than it might have been because the whalers only kill the larger indi- 
viduals, i.e., those over about 40 feet, as noted above. 

In the southern hemisphere there are large numbers of whales, 
which have been extensively hunted only within quite recent times. 
Against this must be put the fact that the minimum catch per boat is 
about three times what it is for the northern stations, on account of the 
greater expenses for transportation, &c, so that the question of ultimate 
extinction will probably soon have to be considered for this region also. 

2. Migration and line of movement. — Many whales manage to keep 
an almost absolutely straight course, as if steering by a compass. How 
is this done? If their sight be good enough, it is possible that they steer 
by landmarks on the bottom, but they could only see these when diving. 
The Right whale (Balmna) especially appears to have this definite line 
of movement, and it is said to keep near the shore while passing the 
Irish coast. If it be guiding itself by landmarks on the sea-bottom, it 
would be easier to do this in shallow water. If a whale be chased out 
of its course, and then left alone, the whalers say that it returns to 



154 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

exactly the same direction of progression as originally. This may 
happen in deep water, where it would he practically impossible for the 
whale to dive deeply enough to see the sea-hot torn for guidance. It 
would appear that whales have a definite sense of direction and location. 
When whales are observed constantly moving in a certain direction, the 
question arises — what is the object of this movement? It may be a 
certain feeding-ground, or perhaps a definite spot for breeding. There 
may be definite migration 4 over long distances for these purposes. Two 
instances of this were given me by Capt. Bruun. A few years ago a 
' school ' of Humpbacks (Megaptera hngimana, Eud.) regularly came 
from the White Sea across to the north of Norway every year in the 
autumn, about October. They passed Norway and made their way to 
Iceland, where the females bore young in the following spring. Ap- 
parently most of these whales have now been killed. 

Tn California there are long inlets with fairly narrow mouths. In 
the autumn ' schools ' of gravid female Humpbacks swim into these 
inlets. The young are born, and in the following spring the. bull 
whales come, apparently to fetch the females and young. 

There seems to lie a more or less definite periodicity in the appear- 
ance of certain species of whales. Thus the whalers say that the Eighl 
whales (Balcena biscayensis, Gray) follow the Sejhvals (Balanoptera 
borealis, Lesson), and both disappear by the end of June. The last 
Sejhval caught from the Bchnullet station in 1911 was brought in on 
May 18, but most of the first half of Tune was foo stormy for ' fishing.' 

Almost all the whales passing the coast of the West of Ireland 
during the summer appear to be moving north. Some of the whaling 
stations further north had had catches on the whole in 1911. There 
were three stations shut down in Iceland. One of these only obtained 
ninety whales with nine steamers. 

It 'is possible that most of the stations on and just off the West of 
Europe ' fish ' from the same batches of whales which come up from 
the south and move northwards gradually through the summer. Thus 
by the time a ' school ' reaches the more northerly stations its number 
will be diminished, and the remaining individuals may he more wary. 

Mr. R. 0. TTaldane !! states that the whales (especially Bnlcpiwptcra 
musculus, the common Pinner) are not getting fewer at the Scotch 
stations. This may point to the conclusion that the whales passing the 
West Coast of Ireland move directly towards Iceland, and may not form 
the same ' schools ' which are hunted from the Shetland stations. 

All the whalers believe that the whales live in separate ' schools.' 
Captain Bruun does not think that whales ever cross the Line. Tn the 
case of whales living fairly near the Line there appears to be nothing to 
prevent them crossing it in their long-distance movements. However, 
during the summer the migrating movements lead almost invariably 
from warmer to colder seas, so that whales living south of the Line would 
naturally move southwards towards the South Polar seas. 

3. Diving and ' blowing.' 6 — The phenomenon of ' blowing ' is very 

« Vide T. Southwell, ' Tlie Migration of the Right Whale,' Nat. Science. 
vol. xii.. No. 7fi. June 1S9S. 
■ 5 Haldane, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., January 1907 and 1910. 
* Vide E. G. Racovitza, Bept. Smithsonian 7n.tr., 1903, p. 627. 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 155 

characteristic of the Cetacea. The duration and manner of effecting 
this are. very definite, according to the whalers, and are different for 
different kinds of whales. Thus it is said that the common ' Finners ' 
(Balcenoptera muscidus, L.) continually ascend and descend with an 
almost undulatory motion. Blue whales (Balcenoptera sibbaldii, Cray), 
on the other hand, behave somewhat differently. They appear at the 
surface, give a definite number of blows or spouts, and then dive, 
apparently fairly deeply. They then remain submerged for a definite 
time. The time of submergence and the number of expirations on 
rising to the surface appear to be directly proportional to one another. 
Thus, if a submergence of 10 minutes is followed by six expirations, a 
dive of 5 minutes' duration will be followed by three ' blows.' It is 
said that the phenomenon may be accurately timed by a watch. 

Of course the great regularity is only found when the whales are 
progressing normally and are not being chased. With regard to the 
possible duration of submergence, the whalers believe that whales can 
remain under water for a comparatively long period if they wish. 

Sometimes, when plenty of whales can be seen at one place, they 
will disappear for perhaps twelve hours, and then all appear again. 
Where do they go? It is certainly very cpuestionable whether they can 
possibly be submerged all the time. The ' reappearance ' may merely 
show the presence of another ' school ' altogether, though the whalers 
do not seem at all certain about this. 

I was informed that Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus , L.) 
normally remain under water longer than do the 'Finners.' In one 
case a Sperm whale was said to remain submerged for 55 minutes. It 
then came to the surface, gave one long blast, and then shorter and 
shorter expirations until it lay on the surface just breathing quietly. 

As regards the deptli of the diving, there seems to be no reason why 
the ' Finners,' which feed on organisms living near the surface, should 
require to swim down to any great depth, as apparently the only object 
in diving must be for food. In the case of the Sperm whales, which 
subsist almost entirely on large cephalopods, a greater depth of dive 
would be necessary in order to reach the bottom-living prey. This is 
confirmed by what has been said above regarding the duration of sub- 
mergence, and it should be noted that the Sperm whales are generally 
found in deeper water. 

In the South in calm weather many Humpbacks (Megaplera longi- 
mana, Eud.) are often found apparently asleep, breathing quietly on the 
surface. 

4. Rate of breeding. — This is not known with any certainty. The 
periods of gestation are probably from about ten months to over a year. 
For Balcenoptera musculun (L.) the period is generally supposed to be 
about eleven months, 7 and for B. sibbaldii from eighteen to twenty 
months (Guldberg). Breeding appears generally to take place once a 
year, but it is said that in the case of Balcenoptera sibbaldii (Cray) it 
is only once in three years. There is almost invariably only one at a 
birth, a twin being very rare among the larger Cetacea. Xo such case 
occurred during the 1911 season at the Belmullet station. 



c 



Huldane, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., April 1905. 



156 RErORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

The actual time of pairing must vary considerably, as the size of the 
foetus at a given time varies. This can be seen in Table XI., showing 
the B. musculus foetuses measured by me. It seems probable that 
pairing takes place during the summer, and that the young are born in 
the winter or early spring months. " The young when born are said to 
be from a quarter to a third the length of the mother. A whaler told me 
of a foetus of B. sibbaldii (Gray), 19 feet long which was seen by him. 
He considered that this was very near its time of birth. It is agreed 
that after birth the young grow quickly. There was a suckling 
estimated at 50 feet long with the female Blue whale (B. sibbaldii, 
(hay) labelled No. 2 in Table HI. A suckling of this length is supposed 
to be not more than a year old, and it is said to remain with the mother 
for about a year. 

5. Probable varieties of the common ' Finner.' — The Norwegians 
believe that there are at least two varieties of the ordinary ' Finner ' 
(B alee no pi era musculus, L.). Slightly differing accounts have been 
given as to the exact differences between the varieties, but the fact that 
there are variations as regards colour appears to be firmly established. 
Thus, Haldane 9 was informed that there were three varieties — large 
brown, dark grey, and smaller black. Lydekker Ju gives the varieties as 
darker, lighter, and yellowish. There is also the ' Bastard whale ' of 
Cocks, which is supposed to be a cross between Balce>ioptera muscu- 
lus (L.), and Balcenoplera sibbaldii (Gray). Southwell ll says that this 
is larger than the type of the former species, and that it has grey on the 
under-surface. The anterior baleen-plates are white and the remaining 
portions darker than usual. Undue importance must not be given to 
colour differences alone. It is well known that after death the intensity 
of the colour alters if the body has been exposed for any length of time, 
and no doubt many colour descriptions have been taken from individuals 
which have been dead for some time. However, it appears certain that 
differences are found commonly among individuals of Balcenoptera 
musculus (L.), B. sibbaldii 12 (Gray), and Megaptera longimana i:< 
(Rud.). The variations may be due to age, or may be merely natural 
variations depending perhaps on the nature of the sea in which the 
animals live. The differences given by the Norwegians are generally 
colour differences alone, but Lydekker '* states that the varieties may 
also be distinguished by their food. 

I elicited the following information on this question of varieties. 
There are two distinct kinds of ordinary ' Finners ' (other than the 
Bastard whale apparently). A smaller variety is of the usual dark blue- 
grey colour on the upper parts of the body, and is fairly hard to capture, 
showing an amount of cunning comparable with that of the Sejhval 
(Balcenoptera borealis, Lesson) and of the Humpback (Megaptera 
longimana, Eud.). 

8 Vide the cases of Humpbacks in Iceland and California, above. 

' Haldane, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist.. April 1908. 

'" Lydekker, Proe. Zool. Soe., 1911. 

" T. Southwell, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xvi., October 1905. 

12 Haldane, op. cit. 

" Haldane, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., April 1905. 

14 Lydekker, op. cit. 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 157 

Larger forms are also met with, having a much lighter coloration 
on the dorsal surface, often with a yellowish tinge. These are not so 
cunning in their habits, and are more easily caught, being more like 
Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus, L.) in their slower movements. 
The smaller form appears to be the ' Herring whale ' of the whalers, 
and to correspond to the smaller black ( ?) variety of Haldane. Lydekker 
concludes that the dark Rorquals are probably the oldest, and that they 
feed on herrings and pilchards. It must be noted, however, that he 
takes a variation in colour on the underside of the tail for the differing 
colour character. Also one would hardly expect the oldest animals to 
be the smallest, although Haldane 's darkest variety is stated to be the 
smallest. 

Evidently this question of varieties is not settled, and further reliable 
information must be obtained. It seems to be certain that there are 
variations in colour, habits, and food, but whether the varieties can be 
given even sub-specific rank remains doubtful. Although a species may 
be cosmopolitan, it does not necessarily follow that the individuals range 
over the whole world, and there seems to be no reason why more or less 
localised races should not arise." In the present state of our know- 
ledge the facts certainly point to the existence of one or two of these 
races in the case of Balcenoptera musculus (L.), differing in several 
points from the type of the species. 

6. Opinions appear to differ with regard to the proportion in which 
the sexes of B. musculus occur. Thus Haldane 1G states that the cows 
are less numerous than the bulls. Southwell 17 says thai the sexes 
occur in about equal proportions, while True concludes 18 that the 
females predominate. 

The actual proportion in which the sexes occur certainly varies; 
thus, in the season of 1906 the Shetland whalers actually found the cows 
to be more numerous than the bulls, 19 although in other seasons the 
reverse had obtained. If reference be made to Table II. in this report 
it will be seen that the proportions are twenty-five males to twenty-one 
females. From Table XL, however, it appears that the female and 
male foetuses occurred in the proportion of five to two. Although the 
number of foetuses is not very large, this would appear to indicate that 
the usual smaller number of large females captured is due probably to 
their greater timidity. If a large number of foetuses be used for this 
calculation it is found that the average shows that the two sexes occur 
in equal proportions, 20 so that the greater timidity of the cow appears 
to be the only explanation of the relatively smaller numbers caught in 
European waters. 

With regard to B. sibbaldii all the adults I examined were females, 
but as the number amounted only to four, no conclusions could be 
drawn as to the proportions of the sexes. 

15 Vide True, Smithsonian Contrib. to Knowledge, vol. xxxiii., 1904, Intro- 
duction, &c. 

10 Haldane, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., April 1905, also April 1908. 

17 Southwell, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xvi., October 1905. 

18 True, op. cit., p. 112. 

" Haldane, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., January 1907. 
=0 Haldane, Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., April 1908. 



158 reports on the state of science.— 1912. 

Thk Species Captured at Belmullet. 

The total catch at this station during the 1011 season consisted of 
63 individuals. Before my arrival 12 had been caught, so 
that I had the opportunity of examining 5L specimens. Each 
of these was examined to a greater or less extent. It was rather 
unfortunate that the whole of these 51 individuals was made up 
of two species only, viz., Balcenoptera musculus (E.), 21 the common 
' Finner, ' and Balcenoptera sibbaldii (Gray), 22 the Blue whale. 
There were 4 Blue whales, and the rest were common ' Pinners.' Of 
the dozen which had been captured in the earlier part of the season, 
2 were Sejhvals (Balcenoptera borealis, Lesson)," both of which were 
caught in the first half of May. There were also 2 Sperm whales 
(Physeler macroceplutlus, L.) 21 both captured on May 20. The rest 
consisted of common 'Finners.' It will be noticed that no Eight 
whales (Balcena biscayensis, Gray) 2i were taken in the 1911 season. 
Also no Humpbacks (Megaptera longimana, Bud.) 20 were taken, 
though several were seen during the season. The first ' Finner ' was 
captured on May 13, and this species was continually taken all through 
the season up to the end of September. The first Blue whale was 
taken on May 30, and the last on August 11. 

The Eight whales and Sejhvals are said to appear only during the 
earlier part of the season — in May and perhaps the early part of June. 

It must be noted that no Sejhvals were taken after the arrival of 
the Blue whales. This is said always to be the case, the latter species 
following the former. Other species 27 are seen off the coast of Ireland, 
but are too small to be worth chasing by the whalers. 

V. Measurements. 

A definite and, whenever possible, complete set of measurements 
was taken of every whale examined. It was found impracticable to 
obtain the distance between the tips of the tail-flukes as intended, as 
most of the flukes were cut off directly the whale was captured, to 
reduce the resistance when towing into the station. Corresponding- 
measurements were taken as nearly as possible in exactly the same 
way, but the weight of the animal distorts the shape of the body when 
on the flensing-slip, so that exact correspondence could not always 
be obtained in some measurements. All the measurements are given 
in English feet and inches. "Where these have been obtained from 
Norwegian measurements, one Norwegian foot was taken as equiva- 
lent to 12J, English inches. The measurements have also been reduced 
to percentages of the total length. This method was adopted by True, 

- 1 Also called B. physalus (Fabricius), B. rorqual (Lacepede), Physalm anti- 
quorum (Gray). 

"- Syn. B. latirostris (Flower). 

23 Syn. B. rostrata (Rud.) ; B. laticeps (Gray). 

24 Syn. P. catodon (Fabricius), P. gibbosus (Schreber), P. trumpo (Gerard), 
and others. 

25 Syn. B. australis (Desmoulins), B. eubalana (Flower), and many others. 

26 Syn. Balana hoops (Fabricius), &c, &c. 
E.g., Balcenoptera rostrata (Gray). 



27 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 



15!) 



and facilitates comparison with measurements taken in other units. 
The station authorities record the total length of the whales captured, 
so that the lengths of those taken before my arrival were obtained and 
incorporated with those taken during the rest of the season. The sex 
of the individuals is not recorded at the station. 



A. Total Length. 

1. Balcenoptera musculus (L.), the Common ' Firmer. ' — For this 
measurement the distance between the tip of the upper jaw and the 
notch of the flukes, measured along the back, was taken. This is 
certainly the most convenient method, and the lengths so obtained may 
be compared without serious error with those taken by the whaling- 
station authorities, and also with lengths obtained from stranded 
specimens. 

Table I. shows the total length, date of capture, and, in the 
majority, the sex of the different individuals of this species captured 
in the 1911 season. The first seven captures took place before my 
arrival at the station, and this accounts for the sexes being unknown. 
It will be seen that the majority of captures took place in July and 
August. 

Table I. — Balcenoptera musculus (L.). 



Capture 


Date of 


Sex 


Total 


Capture 


Date of 




Total 


Number 

1 


Capture 


Length 


Number 


Capture 


Sex 


Length 
Ft. in. 




Ft, in. 


i 


May 13 


V 

• 


51 6 


28 


July 26 


9 


59 


2 


„ 16 


? 


64 


29 


., 26 




68 9 


3 


» 22 


•> 


72 


30 


,.. 31 


o 


62 


1 


., 22 


•> 


43 


31 


„ 31 


o 


67 


5 


„ 29 


1 


57 6 


32 


Aug. 7 


o 


63 


6 


June 11 


1 


72 


33 


„ 7 


9 


75 


7 


„ 13 


•> 


70 6 


34 


„ U 


3 


64 6 


8 


„ 29 


3 


65 


35 


,. 11 


3 


60 





„ 29 


9 


67 


36 


„ 12 


3 


61 6 


10 


July 3 


9 


60 6 


37 


.. 11 


9 


66 


11 


„ 11 


9 


67 3 


38 


„ 12 


3 


64 6 


12 


„ 11 


3 


53 3 


39 


„ 13 


3 


64 7 


13 


„ 12 


3 


55 3 


40 


,. 14 


■ 3 


62 6 


14 


» 12 


9 


70 9 


41 


„ 17 


3 


62 6 


15 


., 12 


9 


54 3 


42 


„ 17 


¥ 


66 8 


16 


., 16 


9 


74 9 


43 


„ 19 


(J 


65 8 


17 


.. 19 


3 


65 7 


44 


„ 19 


<? 


59 5 


18 


,; 20 


9 


65 7 


45 


„ 22 


9 


67 84 


19 


„ 20 


3 


59 6 


46 


„ 22 


9 


60 9" 


20 


„ 20 


9 


59 6 


47 


„ 23 


3 


65 7 


21 


„ 24 


3 


61 6 


48 


Sept. 5 


9 


59 4 


22 


„ 24 


3 


60 6 


49 


„ 10 


9 


68 9 


23 


„ 24 


9 


57 3 


50 


„ 12 


? 


56 9 


24 


,, 24 


9 


57 3 


51 


,, 18 


$ 


67 8 


25 


„ 24 


9 


66 8 


52 


„ 18 


3 


58 4 


26 


» 26 


3 


63 


53 


„ 18 


3 


64 7 


27 


„ 26 


3 


63 6 











Table II. shows averages, total numbers, maxima, and minima 
collected together. 



1G0 



REPORTS ON THE STATIC Ol-< SCIENCE. — 1912. 





Tabu 


II. — Balcenoplera musculm 


(L.). 


rage for 
e Females 


Average for all Speci- 
mens of both Sexes 


Average for all 
Females 


Average for all Avi 
Males Matin 


No. 
53 


Length 


No. 


Length 

Ft. in. 
64 3 


No. 
25 


Length No. 


Length 


Ft, in. 
63 


21 


Ft. in. 
62 5 20 


Ft. in. 
64 8 


' Average for Mature Males 


Maximum 
for Females 


Maximum 
for Males 


Minimum Minimum 
for Females for Males 


No. Length 


Length 


Length 


Length Length 


Ft. in. 

23 03 2 


Ft. in. 

75 
(72 ft., sex 


Ft. in. 

68 9 

unknown) 


Ft. in. Ft. in. 

54 3 53 3 

(51 ft. 6 in. and 43 ft., 

sex unknown) 

I 



Cocks's observations at the Norwegian whaling stations give an 
average length of 63 feet bl inches for all specimens of both sexes. 
This is obtained from 186 individuals. The corresponding figure given 
in Table II., viz., 63 feet obtained from 5.'5 individuals, agrees very 
closely with (his. 1 1 must be remembered thai the whalers do not 
attempt to capture any whale under 10 feet in length. The average 
total length for this species as captured in Newfoundland waters in 
1899, 1900, and 1901 collected by True - >8 is 59 feet 1 & inch, con- 
siderably less than either of the figures given above. 

As regards the average for all females, Cocks gives 64 feet 1A inch, 
deduced from 105 Norwegian captures. This again compares very 
closely with the corresponding figure in Table II., viz., 64 feet 3 inches. 
The figure obtained by True from 15 Newfoundland captures is 
62 feet 3^- inches, 29 which is also smaller than for European specimens. 
We find exactly the same thing when wc consider the males. Cocks 
gives 62 feet 7 inches as the average from 81 captures ; the figure 
in Table II. being 62 feet 5 inches ; and the corresponding measure- 
ment for Newfoundland being 57 feet l^ inches (True). True gives 
65 feet and 70 feet 8 inches as the maxima for Newfoundland males 
and females respectively. 

These are both well below the corresponding figures in Table II., 
bearing out True's conclusion that the European Baleenoptera musculus 
appeal's to be larger than the individuals from Newfoundland waters. 

For the corresponding minima True gives 53 feet 9 inches and 
50 feet 7 inches for Newfoundland males and females respectively. 
In this case the minimum given for males in Table II. is smaller 
than True's figure. We cannot draw any conclusion from this, how- 
ever, as individuals of this length are certainly immature. 

In deducing the average lengths for mature males and females I 
have followed True in taking Cocks's figure of 55 feet 7 inches as repre- 
senting the minimum for mature individuals of both sexes. The 



True, Smithsonian Contrib. to Knowledge, vol. xxxiii., 1904, p. 115. 

-'' True, up. rit., p. 115. 



ON BELMuLLfcT WHALING STATION. 



161 



figures given in Table II., viz., 64 feet 8 inches and 63 feet 2 inches 
for mature females and mules respectively, compared with True's 
corresponding figures, viz., 63 feet 10 inches and 60 feet 5 inches for 
Newfoundland specimens, again show that the latter are shorter on 
the average than European individuals. 

"With regard to the differences between the averages and maxima 
for Newfoundland and European specimens, True concludes that there 
are no sufficient grounds for doubting ' the specific identity of the 
" Common Finback" of the eastern and western Atlantic' 

Although the species is almost ceitainly the same on both sides of 
the Atlantic, there is no reason to suppose that the individuals range 
over both eastern and western sides. 30 As these whales travel in 
' schools ' or herds, there is no reason why the average lengths in 
different ' schools ' should not be different, and it has not been proved 
that the ' schools ' of the east and west mix, the general movements 
being north and south. 

2. Balai)ioptera sibbaldii (Gray), the Blue Whale. — Table III. is 
constructed for this species in the same way as Table I. for the common 
' Finner. ' One individual was captured before my arrival, so that its 
sex is not recorded. The table shows that this species is captured all 
through the season. It will be noticed that all four specimens 
examined by me were females. 



Table III. — Balanoptcra 


sibbaldii (Gray). 


Capture Number 


Date of Capture 


Sex 


Total Length 


1 
2 

3 
4 

r, 
o 


Mav 30 
July 14 

n 15 

.. 18 
Aug. 11 




•> 

$ 

2 

? 
? 


Ft. in. 
71 

83 

84 
64 6 
70 



Table IV. corresponds for this species to Table II. The number 
of individuals is very small, so that the averages are not so trust- 
worthy as those obtained from Table II. 

Table IV. — Balcenoptera sibbaldii (Gray). 



Average for all 

Specimens of both 

Sexes 


Average for all 
Females 


Average for 
Mature Females 


Maximum 
for Females 


Minimum 
for Females 


No. 
5 


Length No. 


Length j No. 


Length 


Length 


Length 


Ft. in. 
74 6 


4 


Ft. in. 
75 4 | 2 


Ft, in. 
83 6 


Ft. 
84 


Ft. in. 
64 6 



From seventy-two individuals Cocks obtained an average of 
7-1 feet 10 inches for all individuals of both sexes from Norwegian 
stations. This agrees very closely with the figure given in Table IV., 
viz., 74 feet 6 inches. The corresponding average given by True for 



1912. 



Vide above, iii., 5. Probable varieties of common Finner. 



M 



162 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

American specimens is 71 feet 7 inches. For all females Cocks gives 
an average of 75 feet 8 inches, which again agrees very closely with 
the figure in the table. True gives a corresponding measurement of 
70 feet. 

The maximum length for females in Table IV. is also larger than 
True's corresponding measurement, and agrees with Cocks 's figure. 

Following True in taking 72 feet as the minimum for mature speci- 
mens, we find that Cocks gives 79 feet 3 inches, True 74 feet 81 inches, 
iind Table IV. 83 feet 6 inches, as the average for mature females. 
The figure from the table is not sufficiently trustworthy to be taken as 
*>xact, as it is deduced from only two individuals, but it shows that, as 
for the general average and maximum, the figures obtained from 
European specimens are larger than those from Newfoundland catches. 

This is a similar result to that obtained for B. musculus, and 
similar conclusions may be drawn, though it is hard to see why in both 
species the larger individuals should bo on this side of the Atlantic. 

The differences can hardly be due to a difference in the system of 
measuring, as the figures in Tables I. to IV. were obtained in the same 
way as True's. 

B. Proportions. 

1. Dalcenoptera musculus (L.). — Table V. shows a series of twelve 
measurements besides the total length. As many as possible of this 
series were taken on every whale examined. The actual measurements 
are those which are most useful in comparing with the results of other 
observers, and it is much to be desired that the series should be taken 
by any observer who is in a position to do so. 

All the distances are those which give the most definite points for 
measuring purposes, with the probable exception of the distances taken 
for the length of the pectoral fin. The ideal measurement for this is 
from the tip to the head of the humerus, but it was found that if the 
flipper be arranged as nearly at right angles to the body as possible the 
posterior and anterior insertions gave fairly definite points. 

As mentioned above, the distance between the tips of the tail-flukes 
could not be obtained at the station, as the flukes were cut off. Table VI. 
shows the same measurements reduced to percentages of the total 
length in the case of each specimen. The individuals are arranged in 
order of total length, the longest being first. 

Leaving out all immature specimens, i.e., those below 55 feet 
7 inches, Table VII. represents the average percentages for different 
dimensions in European (Irish) and American specimens respectively, 
the figures for the American individuals being taken from True. 31 

From this table we get the somewhat curious result that all the 
proportions of the Irish specimens are a little smaller than those of 
the American individuals, although, as was shown above, the average 
total length of the latter is less than that of the former. 

It will be seen that, other things being equal, the averages from 
the Irish specimens should be the more trustworthy, as a much larger 
number of individuals is considered. 

" True, op. cit., p. 118. 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 



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ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 



171 



Table VII. — Balcenoflera musculus (L.). 



Measurement 


Average Per Cent, of Total Length 


European (Irish) 


American 


Tip of snout to centre of eye 

Tip of enout to centre of blowhole 

Tip of snout to posterior insertion of 

pectoral fin 

Tip of snout to posterior insertion of 

Notch of flukes to anus 

Notch of flukes to umbilicus 

Length of pectoral fin (tip to anterior 

Length of pectoral fin (tip to posterior 

Greatest breadth of pectoral fin . 
Vertical height of dorsal fin ... 


(38) 19-4 
(35) 17-3 

(35) 32-3 

(24) 75-8 
(28) 4-7 
(28) 27-3 

(27) 436 

(36) 10-4 

(36) 80 
(36) 2-6 

(28) 2-2 


(10) 20-6 
(8) 18-4 

(5) 33-2 

(8) 771 

(10) 2-9 
(10) 2-4 



Table VIII. — Balcenoplera sibbali 


« (Gray). 








No. 


o 


No 


. 3 


No. 


4 


No. 5 


Measurement 


? 




< 


I 


5 




? 
Ft. in. 




Ft. 


in. 


Ft. 


in. 


Ft. 


in. 




83 





84 





64 


6 


70 


Tip of snout to centre of eye 


15 


7 


16 


5 


12 


5 


13 9i 


Tip of snout to centre of blowhole 


13 


6 


15 





10 


8 


12 


Tip of snout to posterior insertion 
















of pectoral fin ... . 


25 


8 


28 


8 


21 


6 


23 9 


Tip of snout to posterior insertion 








■ 










61 





62 


5 


47 


4 


53 9 




3 


11 




- 


3 


4* 


3 8 


Notch of flukes to anus 


22 


9 


22 


11 


18 


6 


18 11| 


Notch of flukes to umbilicus 


35 


8 


36 


6 


28 


7 


29 7 


Length of pectoral fin (tip to 
















anterior insertion) 


10 


2 


9 


11 


9 





8 11 


Length of pectoral fin (tip to 
















posterior insertion) 


8 


1 


7 


4* 


7 


6 


7 


Greatest breadth of pectoral fin . 


2 


9* 


2 


11 


2 


5 


2 5 


Vertical height of dorsal fin . 




8* 




10 




H 


n 


Number of breast folds between 
















pectoral fins .... 


70 




70 


74 




78 



True compares his percentages with some compiled by him from 
different European specimens, but the largest number of individuals 
giving a corresponding average is eight. He finds that his two series 
of percentages agree very well, but it appears that even here most of 
the average percentages of the European specimens tend to be lower 
than the corresponding figures for the American animals. Unfortu- 
nately all the figures in the first column of Table VII. could not be 
compared, as True does not give the percentages for the corresponding 
measurements. The breadth of the pectoral fin and the vertical height 
of the dorsal fin correspond very closely in botli columns, but the first 
lour measurements all show u difference of about 1.1 per cent. This 



172 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Table IX. — Balcenoptera 


sibbaldii (Gray), percentages. 




Measurement 


No. 3 
? 


No. 2 

9 


No. 5 


No. 1 

9 




Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 




84 


83 


70 


64 6 




or 

/o 


0/ 


o/ 


o/ 




/o 


/o. 


/o 


Tip of snout to centre of eye 


195 


18-8 


19-7 


193 


Tip of snout to centre of blow- 












17-8 


163 


171 


165 


Tip of snout to posterior insertion 










of pectoral fin . 


341 


309 


339 


33 3 


Tip of snout to posterior insertion 










of dorsal fin .... 


743 


735 


76-8 


734 


Eye to ear 


— 


4-7 


5-2 


52 


Notch of flukes to anus 


27-3 


27-4 


271 


28-7 


Notch of flukes to umbilicus 


43-4 


430 


423 


44 3 


Length of pectoral fin (tip to 








■ 


anterior insertion) 


118 


12-3 


12 7 


139 


Length of pectoral fin (tip to 










posterior insertion) 


8-8 


9-7 


100 


11-6 


Greatest breadth of pectoral fin . 


3-5 


34 


34 


37 


Vertical height of dorsal fin 


099 


0S5 


0-77 


084 



Table X. — Balcenoptera silbaldii (Gray). 



Average Per Cent, of Total Length 



Measurement 



: European (Irish) 

9 



Tip of snout to centre of eye 

Tip of snout to centre of blowhole 

Tip of snout to posterior insertion of 

pectoral fin 

Tip of snout to posterior insertion of dorsal 

fin 

Eye to ear 

Notch of flukes to anus .... 

Notch of flukes to umbilicus 

Length of pectoral fin (tip to anterior 

insertion) 

Length of pectoral fin (tip to posterior 

insertion) 

Greatest breadth of pectoral fin . 
Vertical height of dorsal fin ... 



(4) 



19-3 
169 



(4) 330 



(4) 
(3) 
(4) 
(4) 



74-5 

50 

27-6 

432 



Newfoundland 

Specimen <j> 

(True) 

216 

1S-9 

343 

76-9 



(4) 12 7 



(4) 
(4) 
(4) 



ie-o 

3-5 

086 



111 
38 
096 



cannot be a question of units, as the method of taking percentages 
obviates this difficulty. 

It certainly appears as if the individuals of what is probably one 
species on either side of the Atlantic differ somewhat more than True 
supposes in their general proportions. In discussing the question of 
proportions in this species it is interesting to notice that the proportions 
in those whales examined which had fed on herrings, viz., Nos. 8, 9, 
10, and 48, Table V., do not differ appreciably from the figures obtained 
in the case of individuals which had fed on ' krill.' 

2. Balanopiera sibbaldii (Gray). — In Table VIII. we have a similar 



OX BELMULI.ET WHALING STATION. J 73 

set of measurements for B. sibbaldii as that just considered for the 
common ' Finner. ' The measurements were taken in exactly the same 
way as those already discussed. 

There are only four individuals to be considered in this case, so that 
the averages are not so trustworthy. 

Table IX. gives the measurements reduced to percentages of the 
total length, the individuals being arranged in order of size, as in 
Table VI. 

Table X. shows the average percentages compared with correspond- 
ing figures obtained by True from a Newfoundland female measured 
by himself. 32 Here again the proportions of the Irish specimens are 
smaller than those obtained for the American individual. 

In this case the differences are greater than those found from 
Table VII., varying from O'l to 2"4 per cent. It is impossible to 
account for these differences at present, and it will be necessary for 
a larger number of European specimens of this species to be measured 
accurately before a careful comparison can be made. 

VI. Colour. 

1. Balanoptcm musculus (L.). — There is no doubt that the colour 
disposition in this species is variable, but the differences in the descrip- 
tions given by European authors are probably greater than the varia- 
tions which are actually found among the living animals. This is due 
to the fact that the pigmented parts darken comparatively rapidly on 
exposure to the air after the animal is dead. After a whale is killed 
it is brought to the station floating back downwards in the water, as 
stated above, so that if an examination be made as soon as the carcase 
is drawn up on the slip the errors due to darkening will probably not 
be very large, as the greater part of the pigment is found on the back, 
which has not been exposed to the air. The disposition of the light 
and dark portions will be even less affected than the actual shade of 
colour. 

The specimens examined showed a certain number of minor varia- 
tions, but the general colour-6cheme was remarkably constant. This 
scheme was substantially the same as that given by Sars in 1866. 33 

The curious asymmetry of colour in the jaws and baleen of this 
species was found to be very constant. There appears to be always 
more pigment on the left side of the body than on the right. Guldberg 
states that the asymmetry may be reversed, 34 and that the greater 
amount of pigment may be on the right side. True's observations do 
not bear out this statement, and he concludes that the right side is 
always less pigmented than the left. My own observations entirely 
support True's conclusion. In the specimens examined by me the 
greater amount of pigment always occurred on the left side. A few 
of the individual variations in the amount and disposition of the pigment 
in specimens examined serve to show the kind of variation which occurs. 

' 2 True. ov. cit., p. 159. 

" G. 0. Sars, Chris. Videns.-Selsk. Forhandl., Aar 1865, 1866, pp. 266-295. 
translated by True, op. cit., p. 120. 

" Vide also Beddard, ' A Book of Whales,' p. 158. 



174 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

No. 10, ?, length 60 feet 6 iyiches. — The left lower jaw was pale 
grey at its root, but shaded gradually to the general dark slate-colour 
in front. All the baleen-plates were dark grey on the left side, very 
slightly paler in colour towards their inner edges. 

On the right side the anterior one-third of the baleen-plates were 
yellowish-white, then came a few with grey longitudinal stripes, and 
the rest were dark grey as on the left side. 

No. 11, ?, length 67 feet 3 inches. — All the under-side was pure 
white, the upper dark slate-grey, the dark colour sloping down the 
sides, beginning above the genital opening, and the white underneath 
portion being reduced to a strip about two inches wide from the root of 
the tail to half-way between the tail and anus. There was a fairly large 
greyish patch with very irregular edges situated above the right eye, 
and extending along the outside of the right upper jaw. The under- 
side of the front half of the right upper jaw was pure white. This 
was sharply marked off from the grey of the rest of the jaw. The 
white began just behind the level at which the baleen became yellow- 
white. The left jaw was all of the dark slate-grey. All the baleen- 
plates in the left jaw were dark slate-grey, almost black. On the right 
side the first 119 plates were yellowish-white, the rest dark grey. The 
bristles were yellowish on the light-coloured plates, but pale grey on 
1 he dark. The total number of plates on the right side was 380. 

No. 12, g, length 53 feet 3 inches. — The general coloration was 
normal. The under-side of the body was white except in the depressed 
creased part of some of the breast folds, which had patches of the dark- 
grey colour. A light-grey irregular patch extended up the side in front 
of the right pectoral fin. The under-side of the pectoral fins were 
white, and this white extended round the lower edge of the fin for 
about 1J inch. A light-grey line about i inch wide and 1£ foot long 
ran backwards and upwards from the ear-opening. The breast folds 
were less pigmented than in No. 11. 

No. 15, ? , length 54 feet 3 inches. — The dorsal coloration was 
lighter than usual, although the animal had been dead some time. 
There appeared to be none of the large greyish spots usually present 
on the upper part of the body. The right pectoral fin was of a very 
pale colour, and there was less pigmentation around the insertion than 
on the distal part. 

No. 17, <?, length 65 feet 7 inches. — Colour normal over the body. 
On the left pectoral fin the white only just extended round the front 
edge. A light-grey mark stretched across the outer side at the level 
of the posterior point of insertion. On the right pectoral fin the white 
colour extended round the front edge, and for nearly one-quarter of the 
way across the outer surface. 

No. 18, ? , length 65 feet 7 inches. — A dark individual. The dark 
colour extended further than usual in irregular patches on the under- 
side near the notch of the flukes. 

No. 25, ? , length 66 feet 8 inches.— The front half of the right 
upper jaw was of a pink colour, similar to that of the palate. 

No. 28, $ , length 59 feet. — The two dark streaks which normally 
start half-way up the side and half-way between the anus and the root 



On belmullet whaling station. 175 

of the tail, running slightly downward and then horizontally forward, 
ended about 1 foot 3 inches behind the anus, and were here about 
7 inches apart. Generally these streaks run forward right up to the 
anus. 

No. 32, i, length 63 feet. — A very dark individual, although 
examined while quite fresh. The dark colour extended on the breast 
folds as well as in the furrows down to the mid-ventral line. 

No. 36, &, length 61 jeet 6 inches. — Tins individual showed very 
clearly all the different kinds of light spots which are found on this 
animal. There are (a) narrow tadpole-shaped white spots, 1 inch to 
1^ inch long; (b) small oval white spots, | inch long; (c) large oval 
grey spots, with radiating dark lines, 35 about 2| inches by 1 inch at 
the broadest part ; and (d) rings and patches of small grey spots : the 
rings are generally about 2 inches in diameter. These different kinds 
of spots are very variable in their intensity and distribution, and may 
be absent in some cases. 

The conclusion which must be drawn from these observations is 
that while variations in the intensity and distribution of the colour are 
very common, yet in no case do the differences from the accepted type 
warrant the creation of even a sub-species. 

2. Balcenoptera sibbaldii (Gray). — The colour of the four individuals 
examined by me did not show any great variation from the normal. 
They were of a bluish-black all over as the ground-colour, with light- 
grey neckings and spots irregularly placed over the back. The grey 
neckings were especially noticeable in the region of the umbilicus, 
extending up the sides. 

The breast folds from the front end to the level of the insertion of 
the pectorals was of the same colour as the back. Behind this there 
were moro white marks placed irregularly on the folds and ridges. 
The whole of the upper jaw on both sides was of the uniform dark 
colour. The front inner part of the under jaw on both sides was a 
light-grey colour, with the dark colour in spots and fleckings. Both 
the plates and bristles of the baleen were black. The palate was also 
of the dark blue-black colour, not pink as in B. musculus. The 
variations from this scheme were inconsiderable in the four individuals. 

No. 3 36 had a patch of bright yellow on the breast folds, situated 
near the mid-ventral line, just behind the level of the insertion of the 
pectoral fins. The patch extended over about five ridges and was about 
5 feet long. v 

No. 4 was a lighter-coloured 'individual than usual. 

VII. Body Form. 

This was very constant both for Balcenoptera musculus and for 
Balcenoptera sibbaldii. It will be seen by reference to Tables VII. 
and X. that the dorsal fin of B. sibbaldii is relatively much smaller 
than that of B. musculus. In other proportions there is no very 
striking difference between the two species. 

Injuries in the form of large, irregular notches were fairly common 

34 Vide Collctt, Proc Zuvl. Son., 1886, p 2V9. pi. xxvi., fig. 2. (U. boi cutis). 

•• Vide Table III. 



170 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SClE!NCE.--ll)l2. 

in both species. The lip of the pectoral fin was the part most com 1 
inonly injured. Probably some blubber-eating fish may account for 
these abnormalities. 

In both species there was found to be a certain amount of variation 
in the shape of the dorsal fin, although its position was fairly constant. 

VIII. Throat Furrows. 

1. Balcenoplcra musculus (L.). — The number of the grooves counted 
between the insertion of the pectoral fins varies from 56 in No. 28 
(Table V.) to 86 in No. 49. It will be seen that there is no con-elation 
between the number of furrows and the sex or size of the animal. The 
average number deduced from 19 observations is 73. 

The furrows extend from the tip of the mandible to the navel. From 
the level of the pectoral fins to the navel the furrows anastomose some- 
what irregularly. The ridges between the furrows are nearly always 
pure white in this species, but the dark blue-grey colour is often found 
in the furrows, being sometimes present to a greater extent on the left 
than on the right side. The size of the grooves is fairly constant, being 
from 1 to lh inch wide when unextended. The ridges are about the 
same width. 

Lillie 37 suggests that the pink colour sometimes found in the throat 
grooves may be due to high vascularization, and may thus help to aerate 
1 he blood. After an examination of several animals in which this pink 
colour occurred, I have come to the conclusion that the colour is cer- 
tainly due to blood, but I think it must be considered as a blood effusion 
occurring after the death of the animal. If it were an adaptation for 
securing a greater aeration of the blood, and so to allow the animal to 
remain under water longer than it otherwise could, we should expect it 
to occur much more often than it does. Also the pink colour, when it 
occurs, is generally only in patches. 

2. Balcenoptera sibbaldii (Gray). — The throat-grooves in this species 
are arranged very much as in the common ' Finner. ' The number in 
the individuals examined varied from 70 to 78, and the average number 
was 73. A yellowish tinge sometimes occurs on the ridges, as men- 
tioned above under VI. 2. 

IX. Whalebone. 

1. Balcenoptera musculus (L.). — The baleen of this species was 
fairly thick, with moderately fine bristles. The number of yellowish 
plates on the right side varies somewhat, as does also the width and 
number of dark longitudinal stripes which are found on these plates. 

The average number of plates along one side of the upper jaw 
was 383. 

The number of white plates in the iront part of the right upper jaw 
varied from about 140 to 180. 

The average greatest length of a plate of whalebone, measured from 
the gum to the tip of the plate, was 1 foot 8 inches. 

The bristles were never black, but either dirty white or yellow. 

ST Liltie, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1910, 2, p. 784. 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 177 

2. BaLanoptera sibbaldii (Gray). — The whalebone of this species is 
thicker than that from the ' Finner.' The colour is of a uniform dark 
blue-black colour, both plates and bristles. The average number of 
plates was about 314, and their average greatest length, measured as 
above, was 2 feet 1 inch. 

X. Hairs. 

1. Balcenoptera musculus (L.). — Hairs occur in three positions in 
these animals. At the tip of the mandible and running along the line 
of the symphysis on each side, there were found two rows of short 
hairs, from £ to \ inch in length. The hairs are situated about 1 inch 
apart. The number of hairs in this position is variable, the minimum 
number found being twenty-four (No. 12, Table I.), and the maximum 
forty (No. 30, Table I.). Hairs were also found situated on the dorsal 
side of the head in the beak region. These were arranged in two main 
rows on either side, the inner row on each side curving round the blow- 
holes. The rows were not found to be so regular as those shown by 
Lillie, 3S however. On each side the rows began about 6 inches from 
the tip of the snout. There were about twelve hairs on each side, or 
twenty-four hairs in all in this position. There was also a row of hairs 
on either side running along the outer side of the lower jaw and parallel 
with the edge. These two rows each consist of from six to ten hairs. 

When a hair is situated on a dark portion of the skin, there is often 
a light-grey ring round its base, but this ring is not invariably present. 
When the hair is situated on a pale portion of the skin, e.g., on the tip 
of the mandible, we generally find a dark ring round the base. No 
sebaceous glands connected with these hairs could be found. 33 There 
appeared to be a small nerve connected with the papilla of each of these 
hairs,' 10 so that they probably have some sensory function, e.g., the 
detection of food. 

2. Balcenoptera sibbaldii (Gray). — The distribution of hairs in this 
species is almost exactly similar to that in the common ' Finner. ' The 
number of hairs in the different positions is not quite the same in the 
two species, however. At the tip of the lower jaw there generally 
appeared to be about forty hairs. In No. 5, Table III., there were 
forty-four. Along the top of the beak we have about fifteen hairs on 
each side, or thirty in all. The number along the edge of the lower 
jaw is generally six. The hairs are of the same dirty-white colour as 
in Balcenoptera musculus, but there is never a light-grey ring round the 
base of any of the hairs. 

XL Jacobson's Organ. 

This organ 41 appears to be represented only by the ventral ends of 
Stenson's duct on each side, which open underneath the tip of the 
snout. The openings are situated about 3 inches from the tip of the 

M Lillie, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1910, 2, p. 774. 

a » So also Kiikenthal, ' Walthiere,' in Dwhschr. Mcd.-Xat. Gesclh., Jena, 
1S89. 

*" Vide Japha, Zool. Juhrb., xxiv. 

" Lillie, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1912, 2, p. 784; Kiikenthal, op. cit., p. 349, vol. ii. 
1912. N. 



178 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

snout, aud are about 1£ inch apart. They consist of a pair of shallow 
oval depressions (longest ones about J inch and 14 inch). At the hinder 
end of each of these depressions and partly closed by a small flap-like 
projection is a short canal running backwards and slightly upwards. 
These canals are from i inch to 1 inch in length in B. musculus when 
present, but in some cases, e.g., in Nos. 16 and 49, Table I., the canals 
were absent, and only the depressions remained. In B. sibbaldii the 
canals seem to have disappeared entirely, and in all the specimens 
examined only the depressions remained, situated in a similar position 
to those in B. musculus. 

The original function of Jacobson's Organ was probably to bring 
the food taken into the mouth under the direct control of the olfactory 
nerve. Tins function has apparently been entirely lost in the whales, 
and the lower end of Stenson's duct is all that remains, now entiroly 
cut off from the main nasal organ. The fact that even these ducts 
may be absent points to the conclusion that this last vestige is in the 
process of extinction. 

XII. Contents 0^ the Stomach. 

1. BalccHoplcra musculus (L.). — The stomachs of the first three 
whales examined (Nos. 8, 9, 10, Table I.) contained large numbers of 
small fish. The length of the largest of these fish was about 5 inches. 
From tho somewhat damaged specimens taken these fish appear to be 
small herrings. Whale No. 48, Table I., was said to be a ' Herring 
Whale,' but there was very little food in the stomach. The little there 
was appeared to be the remains of small fish. 

In all other whales of this species the pharynx and stomach were full 
of a small red crustacean which appears to be Meganyctiphanes norve- 
gica (M. Sars). This small crustacean forms the ' krili ' of the whalers. 
In the stomach the Crustacea are reduced to a terracotta-coloured fluid, 
in which the eyes float as bluish spots. Tho faeces consist of a semi- 
solid terracotta mass. 

2. Balanoptera sibbaldii (Gray). — In all cases these whales appear 
to have fed on the ' krill, ' nothing else in the way of food ever being 
found in their stomachs. 

XIII. The Eye. 

The eye is very similar in B. musculus and in B. sibbaldii. lire 
length of the eye-opening in situ is from 4 to 5 inches, and vertical 
width 14 inch to 2 inches in the dead animal. When alive the vertical 
width of the opening is probably about 3 inches. The eyeball forms a 
globe of about 5 inches to 5$ inches diameter. The long axis of the 
iris is from 14 inch to 2 inches, and that of the pupil from J inch to 
1£ inch. 

At the anterior commissure of the eyelids there is a ridge with a 
short groove above and below, and there are one or two short grooves at 
the posterior commissure of the eyelids. There are also both above 
and below the eye one or two furrows which vary slightly in number 
and position. The eyelids do not appear to be very mobile. The iris 
is brown, "with a bluish-white, narrow, irregular border. 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 179 

The pupil is elongated antero-posteriorly and has a peculiar shape. 
When expanded the pupil is nearly in the shape of a half-ellipse, the 
curved side being ventral. On contraction the curved part remains 
practically stationary, and the upper, originally nearly flat, boun- 
dary is allowed to drop downward. When closed the pupil is prac- 
tically in the form of a semicircular line with the convexity downwards. 
This peculiar shape of pupil is found also in the bottlenose porpoise. 42 

The internal structure of the eye, as far as could be ascertained 
from the specimens examined, conformed to the normal mammalian 
type, with certain modifications which are usually considered to be 
adaptations to an aquatic mode of life. These consist chiefly in the 
presence of a thick sclerotic, a flattened and fairly thick cornea, and a 
nearly globular lens. All these modifications are well marked in the 
eyea of B. musculus and B. sibbaldii. 

The chief points of anatomical detail noticed were: — 

(a) No Meibomian glands could be found in connection with the 

eyelids. 

(b) The musculature of the iris is well developed. 

(c) The choroid is thin, and the ciliary muscle appears to be 

entirely absent. 

(77) There are four large venae vorticosae in the sclerotic. 

(e) There are many rods and cones in the retina, of medium 
length. The most noticeable thing about the retina is the 
large number of elements composing the outer nuclear 
layer, which is much thicker than the inner. 

XIV. Parasites. 
A. External. 

1. B. musculus (L.). — In about half a dozen cases the parasitic 
copepod Penella balanoptera (Kov. and Dan) was found on the body of 
this species. The external portion of the body of these parasites aver- 
aged about 6 inches in length. The parasite was of a black colour, 
except the egg-sacs of the female, which were in the form of long, 
narrow brown strings, less than a millimetre broad and about as long 
as the projecting part of the body of the parasite. 

These parasites are generally found all through the season, and the 
most usual position is on the body-wall not far behind the ear-opening. 
In some cases they were found on the side of the whale, near the tail. 
The greatest number found on one whale was six. 

The other external parasite found on this species is the copepod 
Balanophilus unisetus (Aurivillius). These occur on the baleen-plates. 
Both nauplius larva? and adults are found on the plates, and when large 
numbers of nauplii are present they are situated chiefly on the outer sides 
of the plates. When few of these parasites are present they are gene- 
rally on the inner sides of the plates. This parasite was not present on 
every specimen of B. musculus examined. 

2. B. sibbaldii (Gray). — The small copepod Balanophilus unisetus 



" True, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. xiii., p 



i. 197. 



180 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 191?| 

(Auriv.) was universally present on the baleen-plates of the ' Blue 
whale.' No other external parasites were found on this species. 

B. Internal. 

1. B. musculus (L.).— In the individual labelled No. 13 in Table I. 
a small number of worm-like animals were found. They were attached 
by one end to the mucous membrane of the second chamber of the 
stomach, which contained no food. They were about 1J inch long, and 
only four were found. These are certainly Echinorhynchi, but the 
exact species has not yet been determined. The presence of Echino- 
rhynchi in the stomach of Ibis species does not seem to have been 
recorded until now. 

In one individual [No. 12, Table I.] about half a dozen small oval 
white bodies were found very loosely attached to the wall of the intes- 
tine. These have been identified as the Trematode Monostomum 
plicatum (Creplin). 43 Their anatomy has been fully worked out by 
L. A. Jagerskiold. 41 They are about 6 mm. long and 3 mm. broad. 
The most interesting thing about them is that they have longitudinal 
striations on the under-surface, which no doubt help them in attach- 
ing themselves to the mucous membrane of the intestine. Creplin 
fancifully compares these striations to the throat-grooves of the whale. 

2. B. sibbaklii (Gray).— The intestines of individuals of this species 
often contained large numbers of an Echinorhynchus, which has been 
identified as Echinorhynchus brevicollis (Malm).' 13 No other intern.nl 
parasites were found. 

XV. Problematical Organs. 

In Balanoptera musculus, just inside the tip of the lower jaw, over 
the symphysis, were noticed two small openings, each partly covered by 
a small valve-like flap. The skin just around these openings and on the 
valve-flap was yellowish white. The openings were about f inch apart, 
and they lead into a small canal, which soon branches into three or four. 
The longest of these extends backwards and slightly downwards, and 
is about 1 inch in length. 

In the case of B. sibbaldii each spot m,arked the position of the open- 
ings of about four very narrow canals, each of which was about 1 inch 
in length. These openings in each species appear to be quite constant 
in form and position. In both cases the outer integument appears to 
be tucked in for the whole course of the tubes. In one preparation there 
appeared to be some mucus-like substance in the tube, but no structures 
comparable to glands opening into the tubes could be discovered. On 
account of the very tough connective tissue around the symphysis of the 
lower jaw, the portions with these canals are very difficult to work with 
in cutting sections. 

The function of these organs is quite obscure, and I can find no 

43 Creplin, Nov. Act.. Acad. N.C. , xiv. , p. 873. 

44 Jagerskiold, Kgl. Svenska. Vitensk. Akad. Handlinger, Bd. 24, No. 7, 
1891 (called here Ogmogaster plicatus). 

" Malm, ' Monogr. Illustr. Balsenopt. . . . cote occ. de Suede,' fol., Stock- 
holm, 1867. 



(N BELA1ULLET WHALING STATION. 



161 



reference to them in literature. It is necessary that further specimens 
should be carefully preserved and examined. 

XVI. Fcetuses. 

An effort was made to obtain a foetus small enough for embryological 
work, but with no success. The genital organs of the adult are so large, 
compared with the size of the fcetus required, that even if one of the 
latter be present there is a great chance that it will be lost among the 
entrails of the mother. Also it will be seen from the remarks above on 
breeding that there would be a much greater chance of obtaining a very 
young fcetus in the earlier part of the season. 



Nine fcetuses were examined altogether. Of these, 



eight 



were 
All 



Balcenoptera, musculus (L.), and one Balcenoptera sibbaldii (Gray), 
the fcetuses lay with the head towards the vagina of the mother. 



1. Balcenoptera musculus (L.). 

A. Measurements. — A complete set of measurements, similar to 
those taken on the adults, was obtained for six of ,the foetuses. 
Table XI. is constructed in the same way as Tables I. and III. From 
this we see that the total length of the fcetuses varied very much during 
the earlier part of the season, but tended to get larger towards the latter 
part. The table also shows that, out of seven individuals, five were 
females and two males. This indicates that, although fewer females may 
be caught, they are at least as numerous as the- m,ales. Table XII. 
shows the set of measurements made on six individuals. In this table 
the distances between the tips of the tail-flukes is included, as this 
measurement could be made on the fcetuses. In Table XIII. we have 
the measurements reduced to percentages of the total length in each 
c.ase, and the individuals are arranged in order of size. Table XIV. 
shows the average percentages of each of the twelve distances taken. 
If we compare these figures with those in the first column of Table VII. , 
we see that, while many agree very well, there are one or two excep- 
tions. The figures for the distance between the tip of the snout and the 
centre of the blowhole show that the latter is nearer the tip in p, fcetus 
of between 5 and 9 feet than it is in the adult. The other noticeable 
point is that both the pectoral and dorsal fins are larger relatively in 
these fcetuses than in the average adult. 



Table 


XI. — Balcenoptera musculus (L.). Foetuses. 


Capture No. 


Date 


Length of 
Ailult 


LeDgth of 
Fcetus 


Sex of Foetus 




aw 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


14 


July 12 


70 9 


8 11 


c? 


16 


July 16 


74 9 


4 11 


9 


18 


July 20 


65 7 


8 5 


9 


25 


July 24 


66 8 


6 


9 


33 


Aug. 7 


75 


5 6 . 


? 


37 


Aug. 11 


66 


9 


9 


49 


Sept. 10 


68 9 


9 


9 


51 


Sept. 18 


67 8 


9 3 


<? ■ 



182 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Table XII.- 


-Balamoptera musculus (L.), Foetuses. 






Measurement 


No. 14 

6 


No. 16 
? 


No. 18 
? 


No. 25 
? 

Ft. in. 


No 


.37 
$ 


No. 01 




Ft. 


in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. 


in. 


B't. in. 


Total length . 


8 


11 


4 11 


8 5 


6 


9 





9 3 


Tip of snout to centre of 


















eye ... 


1 


9 


11 


1 7 


1 2J 


1 


81 


1 8 


Tip of snout to centre of 


















blowhole 


1 


4 


H 


1 4 


101 


1 


4 


1 41 


Tip of snout to posterior 


















insertion of pectoral 


















tin ... 






1 8 


2 lOi. 


2 1 


3 





3 2 


Tip of snout to posterior 


















insertion of dorsal fin 


6 


10 


3 8J 


6 21 


4 5 


6 


9 


7 


Eye to ear 




91 


3 


G" 


?2 




6 


7 


Notch of flukes to anus 


2 


9 


1 6 


2 6 


1 91 


2 


7 


2 10 


Notch of flukes to um- 


















bilicus 


4 


4 


2 4| 


3 91 


2 81 


3 


9 


4 3 


Length of pectoral fin 


















(tip to anterior inser- 


















tion) .... 


1 


31 


n 


1 1 


9 


1 


3 


1 4 


Length of pectoral fin 


















(tip to posterior in- 


















sertion) 


1 





5} 


n 


H 


1 





11 


Greatest breadth of 










* 








pectoral fin. 




4 


If 


3J 


2i 




3J 


4 


Vertical height of dorsal 


















fin ... . 




3i 


u 


4 


2 




3J 


31 


Flukes (tip to tip) 


1 


7 


11* 




— 


1 


2 


1 8" 


Number of breast folds 
















between peoteral fins 


70 


60 


86 


64 




60 



B. Colour. — In all the foetuses the upper part of the body was 
similar to that of the adult, but the under-side was a deep-pink colour. 
This appears to be due to an effusion of blood into the skin, and has 
been noted in the case of Mesoplodon bidens by Southwell and 
Harmer." 

0. Body Form. — This in all the foetuses was the same as that of the 
adult. Thus, the smallest foetus examined, which was about one- 
quarter the average size at the end of gestation, was entirely like the 
adult in form, except that it was less robust. The tail-flukes in all the 
foetuses were markedly bent towards the ventral side of the animal, so 
as to present a very concave ventral surface. In obtaining the distance 
between the tips of the flukes the latter were stretched apart as far as 
they would go, but they could not be stretched out as flat as they appear 
in the adult. 

D. Throat Furrows. — These were as fully formed as in the adult. 
The average from the numbers in five individuals was sixty-eight, a 
number closely agreeing with that obtained from the adults. 

E. Whalebone. — This was not developed sufficiently to show 
through the gum in .any of the foetuses, but if a thin strip were taken 
from the inner edges of the upper jaw the rudiments of the plates could 
be seen. 

46 T. Southwell and S. F. Harnier, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 6, vol. xi., 
April 1893. 



ON BELMULT.ET WHAMNO STATTON. 



]R3 



Table XIII. — Bakenoptera 


mitsculus 


(L.), Foetuses, Percentages 


• 




Xo. 51 


No. 37 


No. 14 


No. 18 


No. 25 


No. 1C 


Measurement 


Ft. in. 


? 


<? 


$ 


? 


? 




Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Ft. in. 


Total length . 


9 3 


9 


8 11 


8 5 


6 


4 11 


Tip of snout to centre of 


/o 


% 


/o 


/o 


0/ 

/o 


% 


eye ... 


180 


190 


19-6 


18-8 


201 


18-6 


Tip of snout to centre of 














blowhole 


14-9 


14-8 


14-9 


15-8 


14-6 


14-4 


Tip of snout to posterior 














insertion of pectoral 














fin .... 


34-2 


33-3 


— 


34-2 


34-7 


33-9 


Tip of snout to posterior 














insertion of dorsal fin 


75-7 


75-0 


76-6 


73-8 


73-6 


75-4 


Eye to ear 


6-3 


5-6 


8-9 


5-9 


?2-8 


51 


Notch of flukes to anus 


30-6 


28-7 


30-8 


29-7 


29-9 


30-5 


Notch of flukes to um- 














bilicus 


460 


41-7 


48-6 


451 


451 


48-3 


Length of pectoral fin 














(tip to anterior in- 














sertion) 


14-4 


13-9 


14-5 


12-9 


12-5 


12-7 


Length of pectoral fin 














(tip to posterior in- 














sertion) 


99 


111 


11-2 


9-4 


8-7 


9-3 


Greatest breadth of 














pectoral fin. 


30 


3-2 


3-7 


3-5 


31 


3 


Vertical height of dorsal 














fin .... 


3-1 


3-2 


3-3 


3-9 


2-8 


21 


Flukes (tip to tip) 


1S-0 


130 


17-7 




— 


19-5 



Table XTV. — Balcenoptera miiscvl-us (L.), Foetuses. 



Measurement 


Average Per Cent. 
of Total Length 


Tip of snout to centre of eye . 

Tip of snout to centre of blowhole . 

Tip of snout to posterior insertion of 

Tip of snout to posterior insertion of 

Notch of flukes to anus .... 

Notch of flukes to umbilicus 

Length of pectoral fin (tip to anterior 

Length of pectoral fin (tip to posterior 

Greatest breadth of pectoral fin 
Vertical height of dorsal fin 
Width of flukes (tip to tip). 


(6) 190 
(6) 14-9 

(5) 340 

(6) 750 

(5) 6-3 

(6) 300 
(6) 45-8 

(6) 13-5 

(6) 9-9 
(6) 3-3 
(6) 30 
(4) 17-0 



F. Hairs. — These were examined carefully in the foetus labelled 
No. 14. The numbers and distribution of the hairs at the tip of the 
lower jaw, and also along the top of the snout, were similar to those 
in the adult. 

Along the outer edge of the lower jaw there were ten hairs, arranged 



181 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1012. 



in one row of eight, and the other two below this row and .about half- 
way along it. This arrangement was similar on both sides. 

G. Jacobson's Organ. — The rudiments of this organ were in a 
similar condition to that found in the adults. 

H. Ovaries. — The ovaries from a fetus 6 feet long [No. 25. 
Table XT.] were about 2£ inches long. They were firmly embraced by 
(lie upper ends of the Fallopian tubes. Both ovaries were equally 
developed. Their outer surface was much furrowed. This may have 
been accentuated by the preservative, but they were distinctly furrowed 




Fig. 4. — Ovary (nat. size), B. musculus. No. 25 Foetus. (Del. ad Nat. — S.T.B.} 



when quite fresh [fig. 4] . A transverse section shows young follicles, 
connective tissue, and blood-vessels as usual. 

I. Testes.— The testes from fetus No. 51, 9 feet 3 inches long, 
were about 2-| inches long, and were equally developed and closely 
attached to the upper end of the vas deferens. The outer surface was 
smooth, and not furrowed as in the ovaries. A transverse section 
showed numerous follicles with developing sperm mother-cells. The 
follicles were separated by well-marked strands of connective tissue, 
and there was a large blood-supply. 

J. Thymus. — This organ consisted of two main oval bodies, each 
about 2 inches long, in a foetus of 5 or 6 feet. They were situated on the 
base of the great vessels of the heart l and showed on their surface a 
finely lobulated structure. A transverse section showed the normal 
mammalian structure, free nuclei, small cells, large cells, and concentric 
corpuscles, with well-marked strands of connective tissue dividing up the 
whole body into lobules. 

K. Flippers. — These were taken from a foetus of 6 feet [No. 25], 
to see whether anything of the extra digit mentioned by Kukenthal re- 
mained to this stage. On dissection no trace of this digit was found, 



ON BKLMULLKT VVHALTNG STATION. 



185 



although its presence in the nippers of very srryill foetuses obtained from 
another source has been confirmed. The scheme for the arm and wrist 
bonea agrees with that given by Kiikenthal, 47 thus: — 



R 



U 



/ 



/ 



TV 



/ 



/ 



/\ / 

/ \ / 
(Ci+c t ) <\,( + c 5 ?) 

\ 



u 



m. 



m 9 



VI, 



m< 



The formula for the number of phalanges, supposing the third 
finger to be missing, may be arranged thus : — 

I., 4; II., 7; IV., 6; V., 4. 

L. Problematical Organs. — In the one large foetus (9 feet 3 inches) 
which I was 'enabled to examine for these organs they were found to be 
in a state similar to that in the adult. 

2. Balanoptera sibbaldii (Gray). 

The only foetus examined of this species was a young female about 
8 feet long. The mother was No. 3, Table III. The only points of 




Fig. 5. — Dorsal Surface of Beak of B. sibbaldii (Foetus), No. 3, showing hairs. 

(Approx. J 3 ). 

interest noted in this specimen were the condition of the Organs of 
Jacobson, .and the distribution of hairs on the upper part of the snout. 

" Kiikenthal, op. cit., vol. ii., p. 285. 



ISO REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

A. Organs of Jacobsnn. — Tn this specimen these were represented by 
a shallow depression only on the left side, while on the right side there 
wns a short tube about 5 mm. long, running just under the surface 
backwards from the hinder end of the depression. 

B. Hairs on upper pari of snout. — These were more numerous than 
in the adult, and were arranged in a slightly different way. The actual 
relative positions of the hairs in this specimen are shown in fig. 5. 



Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. 
Hickson (Chairman), Mr. E. S. Goodrich (Secretary), 
Sir E. Kay Lankester, Professor A. Sedgwick, Professor 
W. C. McIntosh, Dr. S. F. Harmer, Mr. G. P. Bidder, 
Mr. W. B. Hardy, and Professor A. D. Waller, appointed 
io aid competent Investigators selected by the Committee to 
carry on definite pieces of icork at the Zoological Station at 
Naples. 

Since the last report of the Committee was written, Mr. W. O. 
Redman King occupied the table until the end of August 1911 ; Hon. 
Miss Mary Talk from November 5, 1911, until March 28, 1912 ; and Mr. 
C. IT. Martin from May 10 to May 21, 1912. Short reports of the 
work done by Mr. Eedman King and Mr. C. II. Martin during their 
stay in Naples have been received and will be found below. 

During the past year the Zoology Organisation Committee of the 
British Association have made efforts to secure a permanent endow- 
ment for one or more British tables at the zoological station at 
Naples, but so far without success. That Committee will continue its 
work in this matter during the coming session. 

The Naples Committee ask to be reappointed with a "rant 
of 50Z. 

Mr. W. O. Bcdman King reports: 'I occupied the British Asso- 
ciation table at, Naples for about eleven weeks during June, July, and 
August 1911. During this time I investigated the temperature 
coefficient of development of the sea-urchins Sphtrrecliinus and 
Arbncw, over n range of temperature from 10° C. to 30° C. The 
coefficient for Arbacia turned out to be appreciably higher than that 
for Sphcprceluvvs: the values were about 3.0 and 2.8 respectively. 
The work has not yet been published, as I wish to amplify the results 
and extend the experiments to other forms.' 

Mr. C. H. Martin reports: 'I occupied the British Association 
fable from May 11 till May 21. During this time I examined thirteen 
Boxboops. and I had an opportunity of confirming my former observa- 
tion that the so-called Trypanoplasma intcslinalis (Leger) is not really 
a Trypanoplasma, since it possesses three free flagella at its anterior 
end. I was able to find a further series of division stages and (a 
point which is T believe of some importance) a series of stages which 



OCCUPATION OF A TABLE AT THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 187 

I am forced to regard as representing the process of conjugation in 
this form. I hope to publish a full account of these stages, together 
with the observations I have made upon the other Intestinal Trypano- 
plasmas — viz., Trypanoplasma congeri from the stomach of the conger, 
and Trypanoplasma ventriculi (Keysselitz) from Cyclopterus lumpus — 
in a forthcoming paper. ' 



Secondary Sexual Characters in Birds. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor G. C. Bourne (Chairman), Mr. 
Geoffrey Smith (Secretary), Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Dr. 
W. T. Calman, and Dr. Marett Tims, appointed to defray 
expenses connected with work on the Inheritance and Develop- 
ment of Secondary Sexual Characters in Birds. (Drawn up 
by the Secretary.) 

Experiments and observations on the sexual characters of birds kept 
in my aviaries have been conducted on the following lines : — 

On Conditions determining the Growth and Development of the 
Comb. — Measurements have been made on the combs of nineteen 
control hens and nine experimentally treated birds, to ascertain whether 
the injection of testis-extract into the female had any effect in 
causing the fluctuations in size of the comb of the hen. It was found 
that these fluctuations were independent of the experimental treatment 
and followed on the infiltration of fat into the comb which occurs 
during the egg-laying periods. Histological observations showed that 
the comb of the laying hen differed from that of the cock in containing 
a central core of connective tissue, which becomes loaded with fat at 
the reproductive periods. These results are published in ' Q.J. M.S.,' 
vol. 56, p. 591, and vol. 57, p. 45. 

On the Cause of Sterility in Hybrid Birds. — An attempt was made 
to rear hybrids between the common pheasant and the jungle fowl, 
but the incubation of about sixty eggs resulted in the hatching of a 
single chick, which died owing to a cerebral hernia two days after 
hatching. This chick on dissection proved to be a male, and the 
reproductive organs were in a perfectly normal condition for a chick 
of that age, showing no degenerative or retarded development. Three 
hybrid male pigeons (hybrid between domestic dove and pigeon) were 
obtained from a pigeon-fancier. These birds were kept for about a 
year in my aviaries and were paired with female pigeons successfully, 
and the eggs were incubated in the normal manner by both parents. 
In all cases the eggs were sterile. The three hybrids were killed and 
dissected, and their spermatozoa and testes, which on inspection 
appeared quite normal, were examined histologically. On comparison 
with normal doves and pigeons, it was found that the great majority 
of the spermatozoa of the hybrids were twice the normal size, and this 
abnormality of size was traced to the fact that the second maturation 
division was entirely suppressed. The abnormality was traced further 
back to the first maturation division, where it was found that the 



188 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

chromosomes, instead of forming the ordinary eight synaptic groups, 
were irregularly fragmented and scattered on the mitotic spindle, some 
of the chromatin masses being much smaller, others much larger, 
than the normal synaptic chromosomes. Previous to this division it 
appeared that the spermatogonia in the testes were perfectly normal, so 
that we must ascribe the abnormality of the spermatozoa, and the con- 
sequent sterility of the hybrids, to the incapacity of the chromosomes 
derived from the two parents to form synaptic pairs. These results 
will shortly be published in detail in the ' Q.J. M.S. ' 

Further observations on sterile hybrids are being made in the case 
of some birds presented by Mrs. Haig Thomas, which have been kept 
for varying times in my aviaries and some of which are still alive. 
Investigation of the sterile male shows similar features to those observed 
in the case of the pigeon-dove hybrids, but other observations on 
sterile females and another male hybrid are not complete. The sterile 
female hybrids show a partial assumption of cock's plumage, and this 
is probably con-elated with the atrophy of the ovary, since I have 
collected within recent years several examples of this phenomenon, 
which will be described when the observations are complete. 

On the Inheritance of the Spurred Condition in the Domestic Hen. — 
The object of this investigation is to attempt to discover if the inheri- 
tance of spurs in the hen could be explained on the same lines as the 
inheritance of the horns in horned breeds of ewe. The difficulty of 
this breeding experiment lies in the fact that the birds have to be 
kept alive for at least a year, and for more to be on the safe side, 
before it can be settled whether a given female is going to develop 
spurs or not. In consequence the experiment has not yet been going 
on long enough to speak with any certainty, but the following crosses 
have been made: — 

Normal <J X Spurred 9 S 

I 
F, Normal Cock (Four Hens died) 

F x Cock X P Spurred 9 S 

I 
F. 2 Six Normal Cocks and Five Non-spurred Females 

Although the numbers are small, it was expected that half at least 
of the F„ females would be spurred. Now three of the F a cocks have 
been crossed with the F„ females, and there are about twenty-five 
chicks being reared, but it is not yet possible to see if any of them will 
develop the spur. This should appear in six months' time. 

On the Inheritance of Extra-Toe in the Fowl. — Since the first male 
parent used in the above experiment showed the abnormality of extra- 
toe, crossings have been made to deal with the inheritance of this 
character. Two distinct strains of extra-toe differing in the position 
and size of the extra-toe have been detected, and their inheritance 
is being tested against one another. Crossings of what would be 
ordinarily called extracted recessives — i.e., four-toed ,jx four-toed ? — 
have given about ten per cent, of five-toed progeny. An extracted 
four-toed hen of one strain of extra-toed race, crossed with a five-toed 



SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS TN BIRDS. 189 

cock of the other strain, has given a certain number of chicks with 

extra-toe of the type belonging to her own strain of extra-toe. The 
experiment is still in progress. 



Feeding Habits of British Birds. — Fourth Report of the Com- 
. mittee, consisting of Dr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Mr. 
H. S. Leigh (Secretary), Professors G. H. Carpenter, F. W. 
Gamble, S. J. Hickson, J. Arthur Thomson, and F. E. 
Weiss, Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt, and Messrs. J. N. Halbert, 
Robert Newstead, Clement Reid, A. G. L. Rogers, and 
F. V. Theobald, appointed to investigate the Feeding Habits 
of British Birds by a study of the contents of the crops and 
gizzards of both adults and nestlings, and by collation of 
observational evidence, with the object of obtaining precise 
knowledge of the economic status of many of our commoner 
birds affecting rural science. 

The investigation of the feeding habits of the rook, starling, and chaf- 
finch has been continued during the past year. 

The progress of the work has been very much hindered owing to the 
fact that great uncertainties with regard to the financial and other 
arrangements have recently existed. No fresh birds were received. 
Some of the results obtained from the examination of the contents of 
1,062 crops (218 rooks, 487 starlings, and 357 chaffinches) received in 
previous years are now being arranged and tabulated for the publication 
of an interim report, and it is hoped this will soon be ready. In future 
the work of examining the crop-contents will be divided between the 
South-Eastern Agricultural College at "Wye and the Victoria University 
of Manchester, and a grant of money has now been definitely promised 
from the Development Commissionei's to enable this work to continue. 

It has been decided that only England and Wales shall be included 
in the new scheme, and that the Agricultural College at Wye shall 
receive birds obtained from correspondents in the southern, south- 
eastern, and south-midland counties, and Manchester University shall 
receive birds from the northern, north-western (including Wales), and 
north-midland counties. The work of obtaining fresh correspondents 
will now be undertaken by the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. 



The Zoology of the Sandwich Islands. — Twenty-second Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Dr. F. Du Cane Godman 
(Chairman), Mr. D. Sharp (Secretary), Professor S. J. 
Hickson, Dr. P. L. Sclater, and Mr. Edgar A. Smith. 

The completion of the ' Fauna Hawaiiensis ' (which work is the true 
report of this Committee) is now in the press, and the preface thereof 
summarises the operations of the Committee. 



190 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor A. Dendy (Chairman and Secretary), Sir 
E. Kay Lankester, Professor A. Sedgwick, Professor 
Sydney H. Vines, and Mr. E. S. Goodrich, appointed to 
nominate competent Naturalists to perform definite pieces of 
work at the Marine Laboratory , Plymouth. 

During the past year the table has been occupied for one month by 
Mr. H. M. Fuchs, who reports as follows: — 

' In the month during which I have occupied the British Associa- 
tion table this summer, I have continued an investigation into the 
hybridisation of Echinoids. A preliminary account of the inheritance 
of characters in hybrids between the three English species of Echinus 
was published last autumn in conjunction with Messrs. Cresswell 
Shearer and "Walter De Morgan. 1 During the spring and summer of 
this year the experiments have been continued, especially with 
reference to the heredity in the sea-urchins after metamorphosis. As 
the work is as yet incomplete, I do not wish to make a statement of 
results at present. ' 



Zoology Organisation. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir E. Kay Lankester (Chairman), Professor S. J. Hickson 
(Secretary), Professors G. C. Bourne, J. Cossar Ewart, 
M. Hartog, W. A. Herdman, and J. Graham Kerr, Mr. 
0. H. Latter, Professor Minchin, Dr. P. C. Mitchell, 
Professors E. B. Poulton and A. Sedgwick, and Dr. A. E. 
Shipley. 

During the past session the Committee have made an effort to place 
on a permanent basis the allocation of one or more tables at the zoologi- 
cal station at Naples for British subjects. A letter was written by the 
Secretary and forwarded to the Chancellor of the Exchequer asking for 
consideration of the request that the Government should secure two 
tables for British subjects. The reply to this letter was not favourable. 
The Committee have now under consideration other proposals for 
achieving the same object. 

In the early part of the year the Committee decided to take a 
census of the opinion of British zoologists on the question of the strict 
application of the law of priority in zoological nomenclature. 

A circular was prepared and zoologists were asked to sign one of 
the two following statements: — 

(a) The undersigned British Zoologists are of opinion that the 
Law of Priority as regards zoological nomenclature should be 
strictly applied in all cases. 

(b) The undersigned British Zoologists protest against the 
strict application of the Law of Priority in all cases, and desire that 

1 Journ. M.B.A., vol. ix. 



ZOOLOGY ORGANISATION. 11) 1 

tho International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature should 
protest against any change in the generally used names of the most 
important genera and species. 

On July 22 of this year 108 of the slips had been returned to the 
Secretary, and it was found that twenty-six zoologists had signed the 
statement (a) in favour of the strict application of the Law of Priority, 
and eighty-two had signed the statement (b) protesting against the strict 
application of the Law of Priority. Of those who signed state- 
ment (a), five proposed certain amendments to the form in which it 
was sent out, and of those who signed statement (b), four proposed 
verbal alterations. 

As the funds at the disposal of tho Committee were becoming 
exhausted, the zoologists on the register were invited to send a small 
subscription to tho Seeretary. This invitation met with a welcome 
response, and tho Committee have nuw in hand a sum of over 26Z. 
for the purposes of tho Organisation. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed. 



Natural History, dec., of the Me of Wight.— Report of the Com- 
mittcc, consisting of Mr. Clement Keid (Chairman), Professor 
J. L. Mykes (Secretary), Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, Mr. W. 
Dale, Professor E. B. Poulton, and Dr. A. B. Kendle, 
appointed to co-operate with local bodies in acquiring and 
arranging collections to illustrate the Natural History, 
Geography, and Antiquities of the Isle of Wight. 

The Committee report that some progress has already been made in 
acquiring and arranging collections. Tho original proposal which was 
put toward in tho island, and discussed when the Committee was 
appointed at the Portsmouth Meeting, was to transfer to tho Oaris- 
brooko Castle Museum the wholo of the collections formerly belonging 
to the Nowport Literary Society, and so to make Carisbrooke the centre 
for all departments of study. But it has been represented to the Com- 
mittee that it would be more convenient to those who use the collec- 
tions that separate provision should be made for the Archaeological and 
for the Natural History Collections — depositing the former at Caris- 
brooke Castle Museum, as was originally proposed, and developing 
further_ a proposal (which is supported by some of the geologists and 
naturalists of the island) to establish a Natural History Museum in a 
municipal building shortly to be acquired by the Local Authority at 
Shanklin. 

The archaeological collections have accordingly been transferred to 
Carisbrooke, by agreement between the Newport Literary Society and 
the Governor of the Isle of Wight, H.E.H. Princess Henry of Batten- 
berg. The cost of repairing and setting in order has been met from the 
British Association's grant and by the sale of a few objects which had 
no bearing upon the archaeology of the island. Additional museum 
accommodation has been generously provided by Her lvoyal Highness 



102 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

in the castle, and the collections are under the direct supervision of 
the Deputy Governor, Mr. F. Hay Newton, M.V.O., with Mr. 0. G. S. 
Crawford as honorary curator. As was confidently expected when the 
proposal for an island museum was first put forward, other collections are 
already being presented or offered on loan. A beginning has been made 
with the arrangement of a Bronze Age room; and a public appeal has 
been made in the island for subscriptions to furnish this and the pro- 
posed Stone Age room and Iron Age and Roman room. 

Meanwhile the Committee have been in correspondence with geolo- 
gists and naturalists in the island in regard to the Natural History col- 
lections, and expect to be able to announce a working scheme before 
long. They therefore ask to be reappointed, with the unexpended 
balance of their grant. 



Gaseous Explosions. — Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Sir W. H. Pbbece (Chairman), Dr. Dugald Clerk and 
Professor Bertram Hopkinson (Joint Secretaries), Professors 
Boxe, Burstall, Callendar, Coker, Dalby, and Dixon, Dr. 
Glazebeook, Professors Pktaykl, Smith ells, and Watson, 
Dr. Harker, Lieut. -Colonel Holden, Captain Sankey, Mr. 
D. L. Chapman, and Mr. H. E. Wimperis, appointed for the 
Investigation of Gaseous Explosions, with special reference 
to Temperature. 

Five meetings of the Committee have been held, one at the Central 
Technical College, when Professors Callendar and Dalby were good 
enough to show the members of the Committee the apparatus used in 
their experiments on gas-engines, and four (by tlio kindness of Dx--. 
Dugald Clerk) at 57-58 Lincoln's Inn Fields. In accordance with 
their previous practice, notes dealing with their current work have been 
presented for discussion by members of the Committee, as follows : — 

No. 21. Measurements of Turbulence caused by Suction in the 

Gas-engine B. Hopkioson 

No. 22. Rate of How of Air through a Round Orifice . . W. Watson 
Xo. 23. Experiments on Some Conditions which cause great 
Variation in the Rate of Inflammation within the 

Gas-engine Cylinder Dugald Clerk 

Xo. 24. Effect of Turbulence on Heat Elow .... Dugald Clerk 
Xo. 25. The Effect of Turbulence on Rate of Ignition and of 

Heat Loss B. Hopkinson 

No. 26. The Flow of Heat from a Charge of Air subject to 
Cyclical Variations of State in the Cylinder of a Gas- 
engine, and the Comparison of the Temperature 
Readings of a Platinum Thermometer with the 
Temperature computed from the Pressure-volume 
Diagram ' . . . . W. E. Dalby 

During the session 1911-12 the experimental work by members of 
the Committee has been continued, and some of it has been brought to 
a conclusion. Much of this work has consisted of measurements of 
radiation and of turbulence in a gaseous explosion, and W. T. David, 
a pupil of Professor Hopkinson, has published an important paper in 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 193 

the ' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ' dealing with the 
first of these matters. The rest of this work has not yet been pub- 
lished, but an abstract of the results obtained is given in the body of 
this Report. Professor Dalby has continued his measurements of the 
suction temperature in gas-engines and of the gas temperature reached 
in compressing and expanding air. Professor Watson has read a paper 
on the measurement of air-flow by means of an orifice, the results of 
which make available for use an accurate and simple method of 
measuring the supply of air to a gas-engine, and will therefore be of 
great value to those engaged on experimental work on such engines. 

In this Report the Committee propose to give a short review of the 
present state of knowledge with regard to the heat-flow from the work- 
ing substance of a gas-engine into the cylinder walls. It is unnecessary 
to insist on the importance to practical designers of this side of the 
theory of internal combustion engines. It is now fully recognised that 
a great part of the difficulties experienced in the construction and 
working of these engines is ultimately due to heat-flow, and the sub- 
ject has been brought into special prominence in recent years by the 
introduction of large cylinders in which these difficulties have only 
partially been overcome. 

The rate of flow of heat from the gas to any part of the walls at 
each instant of time depends upon the then state of the gas as regards 
temperature, density, and motion, and also on the temperature and 
condition of the wall surface. It differs widely at different points of 
the expansion stroke, being far greater just after firing, when the gas 
is at a high temperature and highly compressed, than towards the end 
of expansion. There will, however, be a certain mean rate of heat-flow 
into any patch of the cylinder walls, and heat must be conducted from 
that patch on the whole as fast as it goes in. In order that the heat 
may be conducted away at the required rate there must be a certain 
temperature gradient in the metal, and there will be a corresponding 
mean surface temperature. Superposed on the mean surface tempera- 
ture are variations due to the varying rate of heat-flow at different parts 
of the cycle. The thermal conductivity and capacity for heat of cast 
iron are, however, so large that these variations on a clean metal sur- 
face must be small — a conclusion which has been verified by Coker, 
who found a maximum cyclical change of but 7° C. at a depth of 
0'015 inch in the wall of the combustion chamber of an engine 
running at 240 revolutions per minute. If the metal surface is not 
clean the variation at the surface of the carbon or other deposit may 
be much greater. 

The important practical question is the mean rate at which heat 
goes into each part of the surface, and the resulting mean distribution 
of temperature. The chief problem in designing large gas-engines is 
to control the mean temperature distribution by water- jacketing or 
otherwise in such a way that the metal does not get overstrained by 
unequal expansion nor reach a temperature sufficient to ignite the gas. 
The temperature gradient necessary to sustain the flow of heat from 
the inside of a combustion chamber to the external water is not likely 
to exceed 50° C. per inch. At places where the metal is not thick and 

1912. o 



194 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

effective external circulation of water is possible, cooling does not 
present great difficulty ; but at places which are not near to the cooling 
water, so that the heat has to travel a long way, the temperature must 
be high to give the necessary gradient. Thus the central portion of the 
head of an ordinary flat-faced piston if not water-cooled gets very hot, 
reaching a temperature of perhaps 600° C. in a four-cycle engine of 
24 inches bore. The piston expands considerably in consequence, the 
expansion being greater at the centre than at the edge which is accord- 
ingly put into tension. In larger cylinders the stresses in the piston 
set up by unequal heating, and the danger of pre-ignition arising from 
the hot metal, necessitate the cooling of this part by the circulation 
of oil or water. Even then the great thickness of metal in certain 
portions of the combustion chamber, and the difficulty of keeping 
the water flowing properly in every corner, may cause high local 
temperatures. 

The heat carried away by the cooling water and by radiation is the 
total given to every part of the walls, and its measurement gives no 
information on the important question of the manner in which the flow 
is distributed over the walls. It is certain, however, that the greater 
part of the heat-flow in a cycle occurs in a comparatively short time 
just after the moment of ignition, and passes therefore into the surface 
of the combustion chamber and valves and into the face of the piston. 
But little goes into the barrel of the cylinder, which is not uncovered 
until the density and temperature of the gases have fallen. That this 
must be so is obvious, but the magnitude of the effect is perhaps not 
generally recognised. Dugald Clerk found in his experiments on the 
compression and expansion of flame 1 that the average heat-flow per 
square foot per second in the first three- tenths of the stroke is three 
times that of the average over the whole stroke for equal temperature 
differences, and he calculates that the actual rate of heat-flow in the 
first three-tenths is six times that of the whole stroke in ordinary gas- 
engines working at full load. This estimate, however, does not include 
loss due to radiation before maximum temperature. In the actual firing 
and expansion stroke of a gas-engine the difference must be even more 
when radiation and other losses incurred before maximum temperature 
are included, and it is probable that in discussing the problem of cool- 
ing the metal it is a sufficiently good approximation to neglect the heat- 
flow into the outer half of the barrel altogether. Professor Hopkinson 
informs the Committee that he has worked a gas-engine cylinder of over 
30 inches diameter in which there was no water circulation round the 
barrel. at all. The whole of the heat passing into the barrel was in this 
case remoyed either by radiation or by conduction into the piston, nor 
was the cooling which was applied to the piston much more than that 
found necessary on other parts of the walls of the combustion chamber. 
In small engines with uncooled pistons the water-jacket round the 
barrel is necessary to keep the piston cool. 

In the scientific analysis of gas-engine phenomena the facts stated 
in the last paragraph are important because they show that the heat- 

1 Proc. Roy. Soc, A., vol. 77 (1906), p. 500. 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. .195 

flow is not much different from that which would occur in a closed 
vessel of invariable volume having the form and size of the combustion 
chamber, the mixture fired having of course the same composition, 
density, movements, &c, as in the engine. Some allowance must be 
made for the fall of temperature and density which occurs in the initial 
stages of the expansion in the engine, but this will be of the nature 
of a correction, and will not affect the value of the general conclusions 
as to the effect of the various factors in heat-flow which may be drawn 
from closed-vessel experiments. 

The Factors in Heat-flow. 

1. The State of the Walls. — The loss of heat following a gaseous 
explosion in a confined space depends partly on the state of the gas 
and partly on the state of the walls of the enclosure. Dealing first 
with the walls, it is obvious that the higher the surface temperature the 
less rapid will be the flow of heat, which (generally speaking) depends 
on the difference of temperature between the gas and the surface. If 
the metal surface be clean the surface temperature cannot rise by more 
than an insignificant percentage of the temperature difference; but if 
it be coated with a non-conducting layer the exposed surface may be 
heated by the first rush of heat after ignition to such an extent as 
materially to check the subsequent flow. For instance, Hopkinson 
found that a layer of brown paper T o R OT7 inch thick pasted inside 
an explosion vessel of 1 cubic foot capacity would reduce the rate 
of heat-flow in the first tenth of a second following maximum pressure 
by more than 30 per cent. 3 The surface of the paper was not charred, 
but it must for an instant have reached a temperature of several 
hundred degrees Centigrade in order to produce such a result. This 
shows that a badly conducting deposit of carbon in a gas-engine may 
materially reduce heat-flow. Since the high surface temperature occurs 
just after explosion, it will not necessarily cause pre-ignition, though 
of course if the mean temperature be high, so that the surface remains 
red-hot throughout the cycle, it will have that effect. 

2. Radiation from the Gas. — Of more scientific, though perhaps of 
less practical, interest is the reduction in heat-loss which is found when 
the walls are highly polished. This is due to the fact that radiation is 
an important, if not the principal, agent in (he transfer of heat from the 
gas to the metal. This matter was dealt with in the third Eeport of 
the Committee, and it is unnecessary to recapitulate the results there 
given. Tt has, however, been carried a good deal further by the 
researches of W. T. David, who has investigated the relation between 
the amount of the radiation and the mean temperature of the gas. 3 He 
finds that the rate of loss from this cause varies roughly as the fourth 
power of the absolute temperature. Thus the products of exploding 
a 15 per cent, mixture of coal-gas and air in a cylindrical vessel 1 foot 
by 1 foot radiate about 5 gramme calories per square centimetre 
per second when the absolute temperature is 2100° C. (maximum 

2 See Engineering, September 11, 1908, p. 328. 
1 Phi?. Trans. Hoy. Soe., A., vol. 211. p. 375. 



196 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912." 

pressure), but a tenth of a second later, when the temperature has 
fallen to 1700° C, the radiation is only half as great. 

In a closed-vessel explosion the rate of heat-flow diminishes with 
very great rapidity as the gas cools down after ignition. Thus 
Hopkinson found that the products of igniting a mixture of coal-gas and 
air in a closed cylindrical vessel 1 foot by 1 foot lost heat at the rate of 
10 gramme calories per square centimetre per second at the moment of 
maximum pressure, when the temperature was 1760° 0. One-fifth of a 
second later, when the mean temperature was 1300° C, the rate of 
heat-loss was reduced to 3h calories, or only one-third of its value at 
maximum temperature. 4 One cause of this is the fact that when the 
flame first touches the walls the heat is drawn almost wholly from the 
surface layer of gas in contact with them, and the flow is at first 
extremely rapid. This surface layer soon parts with its heat, and 
further supplies have to be drawn from the inner portions of the gas, 
the cool surface layer now acting as heat insulation. But it is pro- 
bable that the rapid reduction in radiation as the temperature falls is 
quite as important a factor in this phenomenon. In the gas-engine it 
is, of course, accentuated by the reduction of temperature consequent 
on expansion. The closed-vessel experiments lend confirmation to the 
view already expressed, that in the gas-engine the rate of heat-flow per 
unit of area has fallen to a comparatively small value when the piston 
has moved a short distance out on the expansion stroke. 

An important practical consequence of radiation is the greatly 
increased loss of heat which occurs when the mean pressure in an 
engine is increased by increasing the strength of the mixture. The 
jacket loss and the metal temperatures are raised in a much greater 
proportion than the fuel consumption, and the efficiency is diminished. 
In very large engines this sets a fairly sharp limit to the possible out- 
put, which is as a rule considerably less than the maximum of which 
the engine would be capable if it were given all the fuel that it could 
take. If the load be in excess of this limit the engine overheats rapidly 
in consequence of the greatly increased heat-flow. 

3. The Effect of Cylinder Dimensions on Heat-flow. — At first sight 
it might appear that heat-flow is a surface phenomenon — that is, the 
number of calories per square centimetre per second passing into the 
walls of an engine or explosion vessel containing a gas at a given tem- 
perature and density should be independent of the volume. This view, 
which is rather widely held, is, however, certainly erroneous, and pro- 
bably to a considerable amount. The effect of radiation is necessarily 
to make the heat-loss per unit area from a large volume greater than 
that from a small volume, because the walls receive radiation from 
the inner layers as well as from the portions nearer to them. At some 
depth, of course, the radiation will cease to be sensible, and when that 
has been reached the radiation from the whole mass will not be 
increased by further increasing its volume. The experiments of David, 
to which reference has been made, show that the transparency of the 
products of an explosion while still at a high temperature is very great, 

4 Proc. Hoy. Soc, A., vol. 79, p. 138. 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 197 

and lead to the conclusion that the heat-loss per unit area from a mass 
of glowing gas would go on increasing with the volume of the mass 
until that volume is comparable with the largest sizes of gas-engine 
cylinder now made. David found that the radiation after an explosion 
in a cylindrical vessel 1 foot by 1 foot was nearly twice as great when 
the walls of the vessel were highly polished as when they were black. 
The effect of completely polishing the interior of a vessel is, so far as 
radiation is concerned, much the same as greatly enlarging the volume 
of enclosed gas, so that this experiment gives an idea how far the 
heat-loss from the gas in a cylinder 1 foot in diameter falls short of 
that in a very large cylinder. It is quite clear that in a 12-inch cylinder 
the limit of size beyond which heat-loss per square foot does not 
increase is far from having been reached. 

One practical aspect of this question is the relation between size 
and thermal efficiency. This was fully discussed by Callendar in a 
paper read before the Institution of Automobile Engineers in 1907, 5 
who pointed out the probability that some part of the radiation loss was 
proportional to the volume. If heat-loss were simply a question of the 
surface exposed the percentage losses in similar engines should be 
reduced in proportion to the linear dimensions, and there should be a 
corresponding increase in efficiency. But in so far as heat-flow 
increases with the volume, the efficiency of large and small engines 
will become more nearly the same. Of even greater importance practi- 
cally is the absolute amount of heat-flow per square foot, since it is 
this which determines the internal temperatures and so sets a limit to 
the output of the engine. The results cited show broadly that this 
quantity must be considerably greater in an engine of say 3 -feet bore 
than in one whose cylinder diameter is only 1 foot, and that the 
difficulty of designing and working the first is not alone due to the 
greater thickness of metal, but also to the greater heat-flow. 

4. The Effect of Density. — The density of the gas in a gas-engine 
explosion is from four to seven times that of the atmosphere. In the 
Diesel engine it is, of course, very much greater. The effect of this 
factor is greatly to increase the heat-flow as compared with an ordinary 
closed-vessel explosion, where the density is that of the atmosphere 
and the vessel similar in size and shape to the combustion chamber. 
A rough notion of the magnitude of this effect can be obtained by 
comparisons of the jacket-loss in a gas-engine when the total quantity 
of combustible mixture is altered by throttling or otherwise, the com- 
position remaining the same. It has been found that the total heat 
carried away from the jackets increases with the quantity of mixture, 
but not quite in proportion thereto. A similar result is obtained from 
closed-vessel explosions; it is found that the pressure after firing a 
mixture of given composition falls relatively less rapidly when the 
pressure before explosion is higher, but the absolute amount of heat- 
loss in a given time is greater. 6 The quantitative relation between heat- 

3 Proc. Inst. Aut. Eng., April 1907. 

6 The Gas, Oil, and Petrol Engine, by Dugald Clerk, vol. i., chap. vii. (Long- 
mans, 1910.) 



198 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

flow and density seems to be complicated and dependent upon the 
size and shape of the enclosure. In one experiment on a gas-engine 
of 1H inches bore, the jacket loss varied as (density) ' 9 when the 
density at the moment of the explosion was varied from three times 
atmospheric to about six times. 7 After an explosion in a cylindrical 
vessel 1 foot by 1 foot, the absolute rate of heat-loss is roughly 
twice as great when the initial pressure is li atmosphere, as when it 
is ^ atmosphere, corresponding to the relation 8 (density)" -0 . 

The relation between heat-loss and density in an explosion vessel 
is dependent upon two factors — namely, radiation and direct surface- 
loss by convection and conduction. To a first approximation it may 
be expected that the heat radiated from a given mass of gas at a 
given temperature will be independent of the volume which it occupies 
because the number of radiating molecules is the same. Thus, to 
obtain from closed-vessel experiments at atmospheric density an esti- 
mate of radiation in a gas-engine in which the ratio of compression is, 
say, 5, it would be necessary to experiment with a vessel of the same 
shape as the combustion chamber, but of five times the volume. From 
the work of David, however, it would appear that the radiation 
increases slightly with the density, so that the flame in the gas-engine 
would radiate a little more heat than an equal amount of gas at atmo- 
spheric density in the closed vessel. 9 The effect of the other element 
in heat-loss — namely, convection currents — is probably more affected 
by the density than is radiation, and may perhaps increase in propor- 
tion thereto. The heat-carrying power of the gas depends upon its 
capacity for heat per unit-volume, and this increases in proportion with 
the density. Thus it may be expected that the amount of heat trans- 
ferred to the walls from the interior by a given amount of bodily 
movement of the gas will increase more or less in proportion to the 
density. It is therefore to be expected that the combined effect of 
these two factors, radiation and convection, will be to make heat-loss 
in a vessel of given form increase according to some fractional power 
of the density. 

The most important practical question connected with the relation 
between density and heat-loss is the effect of degree of compression on 
the working and efficiency of gas-engines. To put the matter in its 
simplest form we may suppose that the engine has a cylindrical com- 
bustion space and flat-headed piston, so that the enclosure containing 
the gas at the moment of firing is a cylinder. The length of this 
cylinder will in most cases be a fraction of the diameter, the ratio 
of diameter to length being of the same order as the compression 
ratio of the engine. The problem, then, is to determine how the 
amount and distribution of heat-loss to the walls is altered when the 
compression ratio of the engine is changed, say, by lengthening the 
connecting rod. In the ordinary case of a fairly high compression 
ratio, the effect of this alteration will be to reduce the length of the 

7 Proc. lust. Civil Eng., vol. 176, p. 234. 

8 David, loc. cit. 

9 David, loc. cit., p. 404. 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 199 

cylindrical combustion space without changing its diameter, and to 
keep the mass of gas confined therein substantially constant so that 
the density goes up in inverse proportion to the length of the space. 
At the same time there will be a small rise in the temperature of the 
fired mixture consequent on the higher temperature before firing. 
This, however, would not be very much, amounting to about 100° C. 
for an increase in compression ratio from 4 to 6. 

The average heat-loss per square foot to the surface will increase, 
but not in proportion to the density. On the other hand, the area 
over which that loss is distributed is reduced, but again in a consider- 
ably less proportion than the density. For instance, with an engine 
of equal stroke bore ratio, having a cylindrical combustion chamber, 
the result of increasing the compression ratio from 4 to 6 will be to 
reduce the surface of the combustion chamber by nearly 16 per cent. 
The density is, of course, increased 50 per cent., and if the heat-loss 
increases in a greater ratio than the square root of the density, which 
is almost certainly the case, the effect of this increase of compression 
would be to increase the total heat-loss, and therefore to diminish the 
efficiency of the engine relative to the air standard. This in the case 
supposed would not, of course, lead to any reduction in actual efficiency, 
because the gi'eater heat-loss would be more than counterbalanced by 
the increase in the efficiency due to increased expansion. But it is 
clear that if the process were carried sufficiently far the absolute 
efficiency might also be reduced. Some approach to this state of things 
was found by Burstall when the compression exceeded about 7. 10 

The conclusion gained from practical experience, that there is a 
point beyond which it will not pay to increase the compression in the 
gas-engine, is therefore in full accord with the results of laboratory 
experiments on the relation between density and heat-flow. Not only 
is there a point beyond which increasing compression is not followed 
by an increase in efficiency, but before that point is reached the flow 
of heat per unit area is increased to an amount at which trouble will 
begin to arise on account of the difficulty of cooling. It is sometimes 
supposed that the difficulties which arise from pre-ignition when the 
compression is increased too far are due in some way to the rise of 
temperature of the gas consequent on the high adiabatic compression. 
It is very improbable, however, that this has much to do with the 
matter. The real cause of pre-ignition is the overheating of some part 
of the interior surface of the metal or of a deposit thereon, due to 
excessive heat-flow following an increased density. If the metal could 
be kept clean and cool, compression could be carried to very much 
higher values than are now used in practice without any danger of 
pre-ignition. 

The effect of increasing density on heat-loss is, however, a matter 
on which further experimental evidence is needed. A comparison of 
the rates of loss after explosions in a series of cylinders of the same 

" Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 1908, p. 5. See also Professor Calendar's remarks 
in discussion on paper by Dr. Watson, Proc. Inst. Aut. Bng., vol. iii., p. 457, 
where the limit of advantageous compression in the petrol motor is estimated 
as 4 to 5. 



200 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

diameter but of different lengths, the density of the mixture fired being 
varied in inverse proportion to the length (so as to keep the total 
quantity constant), would be of great interest. Such a comparison 
would throw direct light on the heat-flow in an actual gas-engine if 
among the cylinders tried were some in which the length was a 
fraction — say, one-sixth to one-third — of the diameter. In many gas- 
engines the shape of the combustion space is approximately of this 
character. 

5. Turbulence. — During the suction stroke of a gas-engine, or 
during the period of injection in an engine charged from a separate 
compressor, the mixture of gas and air which is subsequently to be 
exploded enters the engine through the valves or ports at a high 
velocity, so that the gas within the cylinder is in a state of eddying 
or turbulent motion. This motion gradually dies away after the valves 
are closed, but will persist for some time during the compression 
stroke, so that at the moment of explosion there may still be a good 
deal of turbulence. In consequence of this motion of the gas the con- 
vection of heat will go on more rapidly, and what may be called the 
' effective conductivity ' of the gas will be increased. 

Perhaps the most obvious direction in which to look for the effects 
of turbulence in gas-engines is the relation between speed and fuel 
economy, and this aspect of the matter has been discussed by Callendar, 
Lanchester, and others. On the one hand it may be expected that 
the longer the time taken over the operations of compression and 
expansion the more heat, other things being the same, will pass into 
the walls during that period. As against this must be set the con- 
sideration that, with a given valve opening, slow speed means less 
turbulence, first, because the velocity of entry of the gas is less, and 
second, because the time available for the resulting turbulence to die 
out under the influence of viscosity is longer. Reduction of speed 
therefore means less effective conductivity, and it is even conceivable 
that on this account the heat-flow per cycle may be less and the fuel 
economy greater at the lower speed. The effect of heat-flow upon 
economy is not very marked, and it is therefore not surprising that 
no decisive verdict has yet been pronounced on the relation between 
economy and speed. There is no doubt that, given satisfactory 
ignition, economy is somewhat improved by increasing the speed, but 
the relation between these two things has not been so precisely deter- 
mined as to permit a conclusion to be drawn about the part played 
by turbulence, nor in view of the complication of the question does 
it seem likely that much information can be derived from this source. 
A more promising line of inquiry would be a direct measurement of 
jacket-losses at different speeds. The Committee are not aware that 
any very accurate measurements of jacket-loss at different speeds, 
other conditions being kept rigorously the same, have ever been under- 
taken. From some rather rough measurements of this character made 
by various members of the Committee, it appears that the heat-loss per 
cycle does undoubtedly diminish with increase of speed, but not in 
proportion thereto. 

The complete elucidation of the part played by turbulence in the 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 



201 



working of a gas-engine seems, however, to require more direct 
methods of investigation than the ordinary tests. During the past 
year Dugald Clerk has applied his method of indicating the engine 
with tripped valves, so as to obtain a ' zigzag ' diagram, to the investi- 
gation of this point. During the first expansion line in such a diagram 
there is present the normal amount of turbulence which obtains in 
the ordinary working of the engine; during the second and later 
expansions of the ' zigzag ' the turbulence has practically died out. 
We have here obviously a method of considerable delicacy for detecting 
and measuring the effect of turbulence in causing heat-loss on the 
expansion line. Clerk has found that in the compression and expansion 
of air or carbon dioxide without firing, the engine being simply motored 




Fig. 1. — Ordinary ignition, a to 6, takes 0'037 second ; trapped ignition on third 
compression ; line a' to b' takes 0*092 second ; mixture in both cases, 1 vol. 
gas, 9 '3 vols, air and other gases. 



round, the rate of heat-loss at a given temperature is greater in the 
first compression after drawing in the charge than in the subsequent 
compressions. 

For the purpose of studying by this method the effect of turbulence 
on heat-loss in the ordinary working stroke of a gas-engine, Clerk 
tried the experiment of drawing in a combustible charge into the 
engine in the ordinary way and then tripping the valves and com- 
pressing and expanding this charge for one or two revolutions before 
firing. By this means the turbulence which, in the ordinary method 
of working, persists till the moment of firing was given time to die 
away. It was expected that a comparison of an expansion line 



202 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



obtained in this manner with that following a normal ignition would 
show the effect of turbulence on heat-loss. While the experiment did 
not give any very clear indication on this point, it was the means of 
bringing to light a matter of perhaps greater importance. Clerk 
found that the result of damping down the turbulence was to retard 
the rate of inflammation of the gas to a very remarkable extent, so 
that the character of the diagram was completely altered. Two of 
Clerk's diagrams are reproduced (see figs. 1 and 2), from an inspection 
of which the importance of this point in the working of gas-engines 
will be appreciated. If ignition be delayed until the combustible mix- 
ture taken into the engine has been compressed and expanded twice 
and then again compressed, the period of inflammation is about two 







"by 






/ / 






y / 






s ' 






s £ 






o^^/ ^il 






/ 




T>' ^^ 


' (X 1 , 






>0r G 









Fig. 2. — Ordinary ignition, a to 6, takes # 033 second ; trapped ignition on third 
compression ; line a' to b' takes 0*078 second ; mixture in both cases, 1 vol. 
gas, 9 "3 vols, air and other gases. 

and a half times that of a normal ignition in which the gases have some 
turbulent motion. The diagrams shown, figs. 1 and 2, were taken 
by an optical indicator from an engine of 9 inches diameter cylinder 
and 17 inches stroke when running under full load at 180 revolutions 
per minute. The engine was fitted with two electric igniters; one 
operating at the charge inlet-valve at the back of the combustion 
chamber, and the other operating at the side of the cylinder close to the 
piston. In fig. 1 the back electrical ignition was used, and in fig. 2 
the side igniter was in operation. It has been noticed more than once 
that the period of inflammation in the gas-engine is considerably less 
than that obtaining in an explosion of a similar mixture in a closed 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 203 

vessel of the size of the comhustion chamber, and it must have occurred 
to many that, were it not for this fact, it would hardly be possible to 
work internal combustion engines at reasonably high speeds because 
the ignition would be too slow. It now appears that this is wholly, or 
almost wholly, due to the fact that the gas in the engine is in turbulent 
motion. 

Simultaneously with the experiments by Dugald Clerk, described 
in the last paragraph, Professor Hopkinson (with the assistance 
of his pupils, Messrs. Miley and Peache) carried out some measure- 
ments of the effect of turbulence on heat-loss and inflammation 
phenomena in a closed-vessel explosion. A cylindrical vessel, 1 foot 
in diameter by 1 foot long, was used and was lined with copper strip, 
the rate of heat-loss being measured by a record of the rise of electrical 
resistance of this strip. A small fan was mounted in the centre of the 
vessel and comparisons were made of the result of exploding the same 
mixture, first with the fan at rest, and second when the fan was driven 
at a speed of several thousand revolutions per minute. These experi- 
ments also showed the great increase in speed of inflammation conse- 
quent on the motion of the gas. Taking a mixture of 10 per cent, of 
coal-gas and 90 per cent, of air, the time from ignition to maximum 
pressure with the gas at rest is about 013 second ; with the fan running 
at 2,000 revolutions per minute this time was reduced to 0'03 second, 
and at a speed of 4,500 revolutions per minute to 0'02 second. The 
effect on heat-flow was also very marked. At maximum pressure, with 
a 10 per cent, mixture, the rate of flow of heat was approximately 
doubled when the fan was running at a speed of 4,500 revolutions per 
minute, the mean temperature of the gas in the two cases being the 
same (about 1600° 0.). It is interesting, however, to note that at the 
higher temperatures reached with a 15 per cent, mixture — say at 
2000° C. — the heat-flow from the gas was not materially altered by 
the turbulent motion produced by the fan. This is doubtless due to the 
fact that at such temperatures radiation is an important agent in the 
transfer of heat, and this would probably be unaffected by the motion of 
the gas. 

For the application of the results obtained with the closed vessel 
and the fan to the gas-engine, it is necessary to get some measure of the 
amount of turbulence remaining in the latter at the end of the com- 
pression stroke. Mr. H. J. Swain, under the direction of Professor 
Hopkinson, has made some measurements during the past year bearing 
upon this point. It is hoped that full details of these experiments, and 
of those cited above, will be published in the course of the next few 
months, and the results only need be given here. The method used 
was to determine the rate of loss of heat from a platinum wire mounted 
in the combustion chamber of a gas-engine, the wire being heated by 
an electric current. Within moderate limits of temperature the heat- 
loss from such a wire is proportional to the temperature difference 
between it and the surrounding gas. The ratio between heat-loss and 
temperature difference is a measure of the effective conductivity of the 
gas, and depends upon its temperature, density, and state of motion. 
If the first two factors are the same, then the effective conductivity 



204 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

depends only upon the state of motion, and may be taken as a measure 
of its amount. The wire was mounted in the combustion space of an 
engine of 7 inches bore and 15 inches stroke, which was motored round 
so as to compress and expand charges of air, the gas supply being cut 
off, and comparative measurements of effective conductivity at the top 
of compression were made first with the engine valves working in the 
ordinary way, and second with the valves closed, so that the same charge 
of air was continually compressed and expanded, and there was there- 
fore no turbulence resulting from suction. It was found that at 240 
revolutions per minute the conductivity was more than 60 per cent, 
greater in the first case than in the second, while at CO revolutions per 
minute the difference was only about 20 per cent. In these compara- 
tive experiments the temperature and density of the gas were the same, 
and the difference could only be due to the motion. From measure- 
ments of the heat-loss from a similar wire in the closed vessel, Hopkin- 
son infers that the motion of the gas with a fan speed of 2,500 revolu- 
tions per minute is probably considerably greater than that obtaining in 
the gas-engine. At this speed the heat-flow at a temperature of 
1600° C. or over is increased by an amount of the order of 25 per cent., 
and, while it is certain that turbulence is responsible for some increase 
of heat-flow in the gas-engine, it is improbable that this is such as 
materially to affect the thermal efficiency, though it is of importance in 
the problem of cooling. The great influence of this factor on this 
manner of inflammation which has been disclosed by these experiments 
of Clerk, and of Hopkinson also, makes the subject worthy of more 
detailed investigation. 

The Committee consider that their work can be continued with 
advantage, and they therefore recommend that they be reappointed. 
Out of the grant of 60Z. allotted to the Committee at the Portsmouth 
Meeting, 45L has been expended in assisting individual members with 
their experimental work. The Committee are of opinion that the 
Association grant would be better applied if the whole of the money 
could be assigned to one laboratory, where experiments having a direct 
bearing on the work of the Committee could be carried out. Arrange- 
ments with this object are under consideration and will, it is expected, 
be concluded before the meeting of the Association. In these circum- 
stances the Committee feel justified in asking for a grant of 100L 



Artificial Islands in the Lochs of the Highlands of Scotland. — 
Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. Mdnro 
(Chairman), Professor J. L. Myres (Secretary), and Pro- 
fessors T. H. Bryce, W. Boyd Dawkins, and W. Bidgeway, 
appointed to investigate and ascertain the Distribution thereof. 

The Committee have received the following report from Dom F. Odo 
Blundell, of St. Benedict's Abbey, Fort Augustus, in continuation of 
the memorandum printed in the First Report. Fresh information still 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OP HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 205 

comes in from many quarters, and the Committee ask to be reappointed 
with the balance of last year's grant. 



APPENDIX. 

Report from Dom F. Odo Blundell, O.S.B. 

The subject of artificial islands was first brought to my notice 
by Mr. Thomas Wallace, F. S.A.Scot., who suggested that Eilean 
Muireach, in Loch Ness, half a mile from Fort Augustus, might prove 
to be one of these islands. A careful examination of it, a few months 
later, proved that Mr. Wallace's surmise was quite correct, that the 
island stood on a floor of oak beams, and that wooden spars could 
be seen running into the rubble building, with large logs lying round 
the circumference of the island, apparently to keep the rubble from 
slipping down. 

The account of Eilean Muireach was well received by the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland, who voted a small sum to assist in investi- 
gating further examples of these artificial islands. In the following 
summer eight further examples were investigated, of which I shall 
only give the briefest summary. Loch Bruiach is situated about eight 
miles south-west of Beauly, at an elevation of nearly 1,000 feet. The 
district is rich in prehistoric remains, including some hut circles half a 
mile to the east of the loch, a very complete stone circle in the village 
of Bruiach. and two other stone circles a quarter of a mile apart between 
Beaufort Castle and Belladrum. Previous to my visit to the island 
Colonel the Hon. Alastair Fraser had in 1880 cut a section downwards 
and had come upon large oaken beams lying one across the other. His 
investigation was not, however, recorded, as far as I can learn. At 
the time of my visit the woodwork of the island was easily to be seen, 
as also the causeway to the shore. In this example, as also in the 
preceding, large pieces of vitrified material are to be found, the 
existence of which on such islands is difficult to explain. 

In the Beauly Firth two islands were visited. One is now almost 
obliterated by the works in connection with the harbour of Inverness ; 
the other, known as Cairn Dubh, can generally be seen at low tide 
standing out a few feet above the long sandbank upon which it is 
situated. In both these islands, but especially in the latter, numbers 
of oak beams have been found in recent years. 

The two islands in Loch Moy are of the greatest interest. The 
larger, which is about two acres in extent, is no doubt natural. It has, 
however, at different times been so fortified and strengthened as to give 
quite the appearance of being artificial. On the occasion of a second 
visit to this island in June last, I was surprised to find a solid wall 
built up to strengthen the bank. This wall was from five to six feet high 
and was faced with a great accumulation of soil, though as to whether 
this was placed there intentionally, or had accumulated during the 
course of ages, I could not determine. This island ^was used almost 
down to modern times as the emergency residence of the Chiefs of the 



206 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

clan. Two hundred yards from the larger is the smaller island, known 
as Eilean na Clach — the stony island. This only measures 30 feet by 
20 feet, but is clearly artificial, and has always been recognised as 
such. I do not, however, remember seeing any record of its being 
constructed of wood, as we proved it to be on the occasion of my last 
visit. Wherever the iron head of the boat-hook was thrust into the 
foundation, the heavy thud of wood could be heard and even felt, whilst 
in places the wood was so decayed as to come up in small fragments at 
the point of the boat-hook, though we did not succeed in dislodging a 
whole beam. 

Of the two islands in Loch Garry, one shows no traces of wood; 
indeed the natural rock appears amongst the accumulation of stones, so 
that wooden support would have been unnecessary. This island has 
the usual causeway leading to the shore, which, however, is difficult 
to trace in consequence of the loch having risen two or three feet owing 
to the accidental obstruction of the outlet though the falling of several 
large masses of rock. The other island shows wood on all sides ; at 
one point four beams can be seen concentrically converging from the 
centre of the island. 

Three miles east of the Loch Garry islands is that on Loch Lundi, 
which bears a close resemblance to the first-mentioned of them, and is 
very unlike the two natural islands in its immediate neighbourhood. 
Perhaps these were too near the shore, or the water between them 
and the shore was too shallow to afford the protection desired. Three 
miles south of Loch Lundi occur the two islands in Loch Oich. 

The last of the islands visited in 1909 was Keppoch's island in 
Loch Treig, where woodwork can be detected almost at every point. 
This island, like many of the others described in this paper, was used 
as a rendezvous in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but as 
there is no record of its having been constructed at so recent a period, 
it may be safely considered as belonging to the same date as the 
generality of these islands. This is all the more probable when we 
remember how long traditions — such as that of the building of a fort, 
the committal of a murder, or other deed of blood — survive amongst 
the Gaelic-speaking population of these districts. 

The only island investigated by me in 1910 was the one in Loch 
nan Eala, near Arisaig. This proved to be one of that class which are 
composed almost entirely of wood. Some years ago Mr. Astley, the 
proprietor, cut a mill-race from the loch to the sea, and the mill having 
fallen into disuse, the water of the loch was free to flow off to the sea, 
thus lowering the level of the loch fully three feet. The island now 
stands in pasture land of somewhat boggy nature, and is only to be 
visited in fairly dry seasons. At our investigation there were present 
Mr. Nicholson, the present proprietor, and his sister, Dr. Campbell, of 
Arisaig, and Mr. Kerr, the factor. All were greatly pleased to have 
such a good view of the island, which consists of long beams laid 
alongside each other and several layers deep. Under the larger timber 
we found birch, which appeared to he a foot or more in depth. It was 
interesting to note that the birchwood had the bark still on and looked 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OF HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 207 

quite ffesh. When cut the wood had a pinkish colour, hut this rapidly 
changed on exposure to the air to bluish-grey. 

I have dwelt in some detail on the foregoing examples partly to show 
the position of the investigation before the British Association Com- 
mittee was appointed, and partly to give examples of each kind oi 
island. The labour of even a cursory visit to some of these islands is 
often so great that it was evident that one individual would not succeed 
in adding any great number to the list of already recorded examples. 
There was also the fact that many of the islands were known to be 
artificial to persons living in their immediate neighbourhood, of which, 
nevertheless, there was no record. It was to secure information regard- 
ing these that the British Association Committee issued a circular, of 
which four hundred and fifty copies have been sent out. In almost all 
cases I wrote a note amplifying some points of the circular, and the 
number of replies received is in consequence most gratifying. It will, 
I think, be best to consider the replies according to counties, working 
from south to north, and here I may mention that I have generally 
been glad to include in the list islands partly or wholly natural, when 
an artificial causeway proved that they had at some time been adapted 
for habitation. Such causeways seem to prove the island-dwelling pro- 
pensities of the inhabitants almost as much as do the completely 
artificial islands. 

Perthshire. 

Loch Moulin.— Oi this and the following examples Mr. Hugh 
Mitchell, F. S.A.Scot., sends very full reports. He writes: 'Loch 
Moulin— Moy-luine — the plain of the pool from which the present 
parish gets its name. The loch adjoined the village of Moulin on the 
east, and was 600 yards long by 400 yards wide. It was drained about 
1770. The lake 'was shallow — probably not exceeding seven feet or 
less— with a peaty bottom. A crannog, or artificial island, occupied the 
'centre of the lake. About 1320 a large castle was built on this crannog 
by' Sir Neil Campbell, of Lochaw. The castle has been a ruin since 
•about 1550, but its walls, 6 feet thick, stand about 30 feet high. The 
ground shows that the crannog was formed. of small stones from 10 lb. 
to 40 lb. in weight, probably resting on wood to prevent them sinking 
into the peat. The foundation of the castle seems to rest on wood 
lying in the peat. There is a sloping causeway on the shore, but it is 
only about 30 feet in length, and may have been where the boats landed 
from the castle. There is a weem, or earth-house, in the bank near the 
site of the lake. There was also a large stone circle, which was blasted 
eighty years ago for building-stone. There are several standing stones, 
remains of circles, and numerous forts in the neighbourhood. . . .' 
To the above may be added the statement in the Old Statistical Account 
written in 1793' that 'the vestiges of a causeway leading from the 
building to the nearest rising ground, a distance of 110 yards, are quite 
distinct.' This evidently refers to the opposite end of the causeway 
to that mentioned by Mr. Mitchell, and establishes the fact of its 
existence fairly well. 



208 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

Of the larger island on Loch Tay Mr. Mitchell writes : ' The Isle 
of Loch Tay is wholly formed of stones about 30 lb. to 50 lb. in weight. 
There is a long bank of gravel about 3 feet under the water, and the 
island has been formed by conveying stones from the shore and placing 
them on the gravel. The channel between the island and the shore is 
12 feet deep except in one place, where the depth is only 4 feet, and 
this is causewayed all the way from the shore to the island.' Mr. 
Mitchell then gives the later history of the island, and adds regarding 
Loch Tay that there is a small island opposite Fernan, and another 
near Ardeonaig, whilst in Dr. Stuart's extremely valuable paper 1 men- 
tion is made of ' a small islet near the shore in the bay of Kenmore, 
on the south-east shore of Loch Tay, within 100 feet of the head of the 
loch.' Regarding these islands, Rev. J. B. Mackenzie, for forty years 
the much respected minister of Kenmore, writes as follows : ' In Loch 
Tay there are fully half a dozen of artificial islands known to me. I 
have roughly investigated all of these sufficiently to satisfy myself that 
they are artificial. They are of very varying size, down to simply a 
cairn of stones, only visible at very low lake.' 

In Loch Tummel Mr. Mitchell investigated two islands. Of the 
larger, which measures 50 yards by 35 yards, he writes : ' This island 
stands in about 7 feet of water, but there is a deep channel between 
it and the shore. . . . The island is formed of stones, which seem to 
rest on trees. What looked like the ends of trees could be seen below 
the stones. The stones seem to have been carefully laid — almost as if 
built in courses — and average about 1 foot square. ' He also describes 
a smaller island 25 feet in diameter, where ' the stones are placed 
closely together and have the appearance of being almost built into 
their present position. The loch having risen 2 feet in the last eighty 
years, has reduced the surface of the island. ' 

In Loch Rannoch also Mr. Mitchell investigated two islands. Of 
these he writes : ' In the centre of the loch at that part there is a bank 
of sand 200 feet in length and about 3 feet below the surface. At the 
south end of this bank, and just where the loch deepens, an island has 
been formed of stones evidently taken from the shore, as there are no 
stones on the sandbank. . . . Rannoch was part of the old parish 
of Killiechronan, which was merged in Fortingall at the Reformation. 
The church of Killiechronan has disappeared, but the burial ground is 
there, and inside the burial ground is an ancient burial cairn about 
30 feet long by 6 feet high. There are no stone circles in the Rannoch 
district, but several single standing stones.' 

Loch Earn presents an interesting example of how the woodwork, 
known by one person to exist in the foundations of an island, may 
escape the attention of another. In fact Dr. Munro, in his list, places 
the Loch Earn island amongst those in which no wood Is discernible, 
and Mr. Alexander Porteous, the author of several books on the 
district, writes that as far as he knows there is no woodwork in the 
construction of the island. Dr. Richardson, M.D., North Berwick, 

' Proc. Soc. Ant. of Scot., 1865. 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OP HIGHLANDS OP SCOTLAND. 209 

however, sends me the following extract from a rare pamphlet by Angus 
M'Diarmid, printed in Edinburgh in 1816. The English is probably 
some of the most extraordinary issued from any press whatever : ' An 
island, on that part of the said lake (Loch Earn) near Edinaple, which 
island, according to some affirmation, has been erected dexterous 
modelling : its foundations were laid on timber on which they executed 
the operation so emphatically, that it were specious habitation, the 
primary idea of operating the said island for place of refuge to some 
of the inhabitants, to protect their precious goods from the insult of 
multitude of inhuman transactions. 

' Another island at the fit end, of the aforesaid lake, in anciently 
notoriously assaulters inhabited, wherein they were beheaded, in conse- 
quence of felonious conduct, by a valiant gentleman of Macnab, who 
on the execution of that purpose, has contribute the assistance of other 
three in bearing a boat from a far distance on their shoulder, over 
mountainous ground, in dead time of night. By which intellectual 
plan, got in to the island, and forthwith finished the ravished 
inhabitants. ' 

In the Report of last year I quoted the letter of Dr. Th. Johnston, 
M.A., assistant to Sir John Murray, in the Lake Survey of Scotland! 
but the authority of the writer and the appositeness of his remarks 
makes it fitting that his opinion be again recorded here. Dr. Johnston 
suggested that the islands in Loch Hoil, Loch Derculich, and Loch 
Essan are artificial, and added : ' In the majority of the lochs which I 
have visited, artificial islands exist, either as " islands " or more often 
as "cairns," more or less submerged. The existence of causeways is 
frequent, and generally, as you know, they have a bend or turn in 
them, so that strangers or enemies would probably step off into deep 
water. These islands have all a very similar structure and formation 
as far as surface inspection goes, and no doubt if you examined them 
in your diving dress you would find them much the same in construc- 
tion as Cherry Island in Loch Ness.' 

Mr. Alex. Porteous thinks that at least one of the islands in Loch 
Ochlertyre is artificial. 

Stirlingshire. 

Loch Lomond offers examples very similar to Loch Tay, though at 
the time of writing sufficient information is scarcely available. 

In reply to my inquiry, Mr. Robertson, of the Inversnaid Hotel, 
undertook to examine some of the cairns, which are situated five miles 
distant. In order to facilitate his work I sent him a water-telescope. 
On June 10 last he wrote : ' I have now been able to examine the 
cairns which can well be seen in the present low state of the loch. 
They occur in the bay where I have marked a red cross on the map 
enclosed, and immediately to the S. of the point, called Rowchoish. 
. . . They are composed of large boulders, but are laid with such 
regularity that they appear to be artificial. ' 

1912. 



210 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Aberdeenshire. 

Aberdeenshire has so far added no fresh example to the four 
mentioned by Dr. Munro, only one of which however is at present 
really an island, the other examples being now dry land, owing to 
drainage operations. Of this one Mr. Francis Diack, in his recent 
work on Loch Kinnorcl, gives a very full description, and arrives at the 
conclusion that the larger island may eventually be proved to be 
artificial, as well as the smaller one. 

Inverness-shire. 

In this county Dr. Munro gives four examples. To these we can 
now add those on Loch Ness, Loch Bruiach, the two in the Beauly 
Firth, two in Loch Garry and Loch Oich, one in Loch Lundi, Loch 
Treig, and Loch nan Eala. These have already been described at the 
beginning of this Report. On the mainland of Inverness-shire — that 
is excluding the Western Isles — nine other examples have been sug- 
gested, a total of twenty fresh examples. That on Loch Meiklie is 
described by Mr. William Mackay, author of ' Urquhart and Glen- 
moriston,' and a well-known authority on Celtic antiquities. He visited 
the island about 1876, and was informed ' that a causeway was known 
to run some distance from the shore, and then turn at right angles 
in order to deceive strangers.' This island, which I visited last year, 
is now submerged, partly no doubt owing to the soft nature of the 
ground on which it is built, and partly owing to the outlet of the loch 
silting up and thus raising the level of the water. 

Loch Lundavra was suggested by Dr. Miller and Mr. Ewen-Watson, 
F. S.A.Scot., as containing an artificial island, the tradition being that 
Macbeth was slain at his stronghold on this island. 

Loch RutJiven. — A careful survey of the island in this loch was 
made by Mr. Eoderick McLean, C.A., who also took excellent photo- 
graphs. The island is almost circular with a diameter of 57 feet, and 
stands about 4 feet above the average level of the loch. Though no 
causeway was visible, the natives stated that on a clear day one could 
be seen leading to a peculiar hill or mound on the shore south of the 
island. 

Loch Arkaig. — The island here is partly natural, though evidently 
adapted for habitation. The west end is solid rock, but the south side 
seems to show signs of being artificially enlarged and there is a well- 
preserved causeway going zigzag to the shore. The most interesting 
feature of this island is the large masses of vitrified material, one 
piece still in its original position being 8 feet long by 2 feet 6 inches 
high. 

Loch Pilyoulish. — Besides Mr. Angus Grant, who first suggested 
this example, Bev. Mr. Macrae, The Manse, Edderton, writes: 'The 
island in Loch Pityoulish I often visited as a boy, and I remember it 
was always spoken of as artificial.' I accepted the invitation of Sir 
John Macpherson Grant, Bart., of Ballindalloch, to motor to the loch 
and inspect it with him. Captain Dunbar, the tenant of Pityoulish 
House, kindly placed his boat at our disposal, and we found the ' island ' 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OF HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 211 

covered by 18 inches of water. The stones were of very even size and 
the slope of the island about one in five, the depth of water at the 
island's edge being about 8 feet. On the N.E. side we came upon wood 
and made every effort to secure a log by means of the anchor and bring 
it to the surface. But in this we were not successful. From inquiries 
on the spot we learned that a causeway led from the island to a point 
on the N.E. bay of the loch, and that black oak had been found and 
had been taken away as a curiosity. 

Loch Knockie. — I visited the islands in this loch in June. The 
smaller island is certainly artificial and measures 30 feet by 12 feet, 
but the purpose of its construction 50 yards from the larger one, which 
measures 42 feet by 219, is difficult to explain. I trust on a future 
occasion to examine the larger island more carefully. 

Loch Asalaich, Glenurquhart, and Loch Farraline, Boleskine. — 
These islands, which were suggested as artificial, have not yet been 
examined, the latter presents some difficulty as it is now part of the 
reservoir for the British Aluminium Works at Foyers. 

The county of Inverness includes some of the Hebrides, but the 
examples which these afford will "be best considered later. 

Ross and Cromarty. 

Loch Kinellan. — This affords an interesting example of proof as to 
the island being artificial eVen by an unwilling witness. Mr. Herbert 
Corbett, the tenant of Kinellan, was at first most sceptical as to there 
being anything about the island that was not purely natural. After some 
correspondence, however, Mr. Corbett consented to seek for wood 
amongst the foundations of the island, and on October 15 he wrote: 
' My brother and I first tried where I thought you had found the timbers 
and here we found a paved causeway, just beneath the water, extend- 
ing some yards from the island. We also thought we touched timbers 
at about 7 feet below the water-level and 10 to 12 feet from the shore — 
all this on the S.E. angle, so to speak, of the island. Our sounding- 
pole clung so hard to the mud that we could not work properly, so we 
tried along the S. side nearer the stones. Here we found with an iron 
rod four beams about 6 feet apart in rather less than 4 feet of water. We 
then moved to the S.W. angle, where we found four more, much more 
irregularly placed as regards the radii of the island and much nearer 
together, not more than 3 feet apart. There are also the stumps of 
the oak posts above water-level, that look as though they might have 
formed a pier at one time. ' Mr. Corbett also stated that the Ordnance 
Map showed the island to measure "558 of an acre. A fortnight later 
he wrote : ' Taking advantage of the fact that the snow prevented work 
in the garden, I took the men over to the island this morning and dug 
a hole 6 feet or so in diameter, and from 4 to 5 feet deep. All the 
soil was made and had been piled in and was full of big and little 
boulders none larger than could be carried by one man. I selected a 
spot near the middle of the S. side where a kind of gap occurs in the 
stone wall of the island, and about 20 feet from the water-line. At 
about 3 feet or less we came to a layer of sand, consisting mainly of 
white sand and broken pottery or what looks like it, forming a sort 

P 2 



212 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

of beach to a smaller island inside the present wall. Piercing the sand 
layer vertically and also at an angle of about 30 degrees, we found 
sharp and long-pointed stakes driven in groups, evidently with the 
intention of " containing " an earlier island than that now existing, and 
this probably was the basis of the present island. We found bones, 
sticks, and pottery of sorts (much broken) at all levels below 18 inches 
from the surface. I have left the hole open, so that if you can come 
over soon you can see the pit for yourself. I have lifted and preserved 
the stakes, and have kept out a sample of the " pottery sand " into 
which they were driven.' 

As the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland had placed 51. at my 
disposal to investigate any one island, and as other engagements pre- 
vented me from utilising this sum myself, I suggested to Mr. Corbett 
that he should undertake the work in regard to the Loch Kinellan 
Island. He very kindly replied : ' With regard to your suggestion 
about the Society's grant, I could not take it. I am not capable of 
doing such work, and have not the time for it. What I have done 1 
have been glad to do for the interest of it, but I feel that I ought not 
to attempt more, as I may be spoiling the work for a more competent 
observer.' Here the investigation ended for the year, and I can only 
hope that Mr. Corbett 's report may arouse sufficient enthusiasm for 
the island to be completely investigated. In consequence of the loch 
being used as the water-supply for the Spa Hotel, Strathpeffer, its 
level has been lowered at least three feet, so that this island offers very 
favourable, though not perhaps ideal, conditions, since a good deal 
O'f soil has been conveyed to the island in recent times to form a 
garden. 

Loch Ailsh. — Mr. D. Macdonald, for many years Commissioner to 
Sir Charles Eoss, of Balnagown, writes : ' I may mention that I was 
always of opinion that a small island in Loch Ailsh, which is on the 
course of the River Oykel, the boundary between Ross and Sutherland, 
is artificial, it seems to me to be constructed of rough unhewn stones 
regularly piled.' 

Loch Tollic. — Mr. Donald Mackenzie, Inland Revenue, Bonar 
Bridge, writes : ' There is an islet in Loch Tollie, situated on the road 
between Gairloch and Poolewe. This islet, which is said to be a cran- 
nog, was occupied by McLeod of Gairloch towards the close of the 
fifteenth century.' Bartholomew's map marks this as crannog and not 
the following one. 

Loch Kernsary. — Of this loch, three miles E. of the former, the 
same correspondent writes: 'There is a nice island called "The 
Crannog " in Loch Kernsary, about 11 mile to the eastward of Poolewe. 
When last I saw it there was a rookery on it. I know nothing of its 
history.' He further states: 'There is an islet said to be a crannog 
in Loch Mhic Ille Riabhaich 4^ miles E. of Poolewe.' 

Loch Achnahinneach in Kintail is the same loch as that mentioned 
by Mr. Mackenzie as Loch Ach-an-darrach. It has been carefully 
investigated by Mr. George Forbes, Fernaig, Strome Ferry, and affords 
one of many instances of incorrect information supplied as to the recent 
date of an island, later found to be of much earlier date. The following 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OF HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 213 

arc extracts from Mr. Forbes' letters: ' I have been trying to sec some 
of the oldest inhabitants of the estate, as I was told that the island was 
built in Sir Alexander Matheson's time, but the correct history I only 
obtained to-day when I visited the loch. The island is on Loch 
Achnahinneach about four miles from here in the parish of Loch Ailsh, 
County of Ross. It is quite small and was disappearing altogether 
when they raised the level of the loch, and it was then that Sir 
Alexander did some repairs to it. It has been inhabited at one time and 
the house has been built on oak piles, all that meets the eye now is 
nothing more than a pile of stones where about 30 or 40 seagulls have 
their nests every year. . . . The island is round and not more than 
30 feet in diameter, but I expect it had been much larger before the 
level of the loch was raised. ' In a later letter Mr. Forbes writes : 
' I have two other lochs here which I intend to visit whenever I can 
find time ; they are a considerable distance away, but I hope to be able 
to inspect the islands on them during the month of June. I am sure 
there are plenty of others, and I will try and find out about them from 
keepers and then visit them with the camera. ' 

In close proximity to Loch Kinellan, mentioned above, occur Loch 
Ussie and Loch Achilty, as to both of which reports have been sent 
in by Mr. Hugh Fraser, M.A., Dingwall. The islands in the former 
appear to be natural, but a causeway exists between the shore and 
the larger of the islands ; the causeway is said to go zigzag. The Loch 
Achilty island was found to show wood projecting from the rubble on 
the S.W. and also on the N. W. , while at the East end the island has been 
damaged by water-wear and the timbers are to be seen in numbers. 
The island measures 60 feet by 42 feet and is distant fully 80 yards 
from the shore; the water is deep all round, nowhere apparently less 
than 15 feet. Eegarding these three islands it is worthy of note that the 
district is rich in other prehistoric remains. Mr. Hugh Fraser also sent 
me details of the island on Loch Glass, which he says appears from the 
shore to be a heap or cairn of stones in fairly deep water. In this case 
also he mentions the existence in the neighbourhood of cup-and-ring 
marked stones and ruins of circular dwellings. His description and 
photograph of the island in Loch Morie prove it to be of very similar 
construction. Mr. J. Meiklejohn, factor for Mr. Munro Ferguson, of 
Novar, writes in similar terms, and gives the size of the Loch Morie 
island as ten yards by seven. 

Loch Beannachan. — Mr. Hugh Fraser undertook to visit this island 
from Dingwall, but his experience was a not unusual one. ' I spent a 
day,' he writes, ' in going to Loch Beannachan only to find the island 
entirely under water, and what was worse to be misdirected as to its 
location. ' Of this island Mr. John MacLennan writes : ' I do not 
know of a crannog on Loch Luichart, but I have strong reasons for 
believing there is one in Loch Beannachan, and I have filled in the 
form with reference to it. This island is only visible at low water, and 
is 200 yards from the shore at the E. end of the loch. About half a mile 
E. of the crannog there appear to be the remains of an old Druid circle. 
The farmer's son at Carnoch dug inside the circle seven or eight years 
ago and found a brass ring, now in his possession. About forty years 



214 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

ago A stone cist was unearthed In a small mound by the brother of 
said farmer.' 

Loch Achall, Ullapool. — Mr. Hay Mackenzie, National Bank 
of Scotland, reports : ' There is a small island or cairn of stones in 
Loch a Coll, Bhidarrock Forest, two miles from Ullapool, which is said 
to be artificial. . . . There is a path now covered with water leading to 
it, but which can easily be seen when the water is clear.' 

Loch Dhughaill, Achnashellach. — Mr. Norman Eeid, one of the 
judges of the Scottish Land Court, spoke at some length about the 
island in this loch. In filling up the schedule he added: ' The island 
is only above water when the loch is very low. It is about 100 yards 
from the shore. Some years ago oak sticks were washed ashore from 
it ; they had been fastened together with large wooden pins. ' 

Loch Gobhlach. — In this loch, which is just across the boundary 
between Ross-shire and Inverness-shire, Eev. D. Mackay, Marydale, 
Strathglass, is confident that there are two entirely artificial islands, 
one of them with an evident causeway to the shore. 

Sutherlandshire . 

Loch Craggie. — The island in this loch, which is at the E. end of 
Loch Craggie, has every appearance of being artificial. It measures 
46 feet by 34 feet, and is 3 feet 6 inches above the average level of the 
loch. It is situated 110 yards from the shore, and is composed of 
stones of all sizes, without the appearance of any woodwork, nor can 
any causeway to the shore be traced. On the other hand, the floor 
of the loch is quite clear of stones beyond the limit of the island, so 
that there is little doubt but that it is artificial. 

Of Loch Clibrig Eev. Mr. Macrae, Edderton, writes: ' Here there 
is an island with a distinct causeway to the shore.' In Loch Shin Mr. 
Curie suggests four islands as possibly artificial. 

The island of Loch Migdale is similarly reported by Eev. Mr. 
Macrae, whilst Mr. Donald Mackenzie, Inland Eevenue, Lairg, sends 
me the following quotation regarding this set of islands from the 
' History of the Earldom of Sutherland,' by Sir Eobert Gordon, who 
wrote in 1630: ' In sundrie of these laikes ther ar ilands with habita- 
tions, as in Lochshin, Lochbroray, Loch-Migdale, Loch Buy, Loch 
Dolay and others. There are four islands in Lochshin ... all 
pleasant dwellings in summer.' 

Mr. Donald Mackenzie also suggests the island in Loch Loro, on 
the confines of the parishes of Cruich and Lairg, which a gentleman 
who had seen it recently considered to be artificial. 

In the Lochinver district Eev. Angus Maclntyre thinks he can 
identify several islands as artificial. Mr. Maclntyre had collaborated 
with Dr. Erskine Beveridge in the latter 's excellent topographical 
works on Coll and Tiree and on North Uist, and he has thus excep- 
tional opportunities of observing the construction of these islands. He 
writes : ' I have not yet been able to verify several islands that have 
come under my notice, but feel quite or almost quite sure that they 
are the genuine article; one is at the W. end of Loch Assynt, one in 
Loch Awe at Inchnadamph, one in the loch (Borrolan) immediately 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OF HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 215 

in front of Aultnacealgach Hotel, and two in Loch Cama at Elphin — 
five in all. I propose on or after July 12 to make an exhaustive exami- 
nation of all these, and report directly thereafter.' 

Loch Tigh Choimhead. — In reference to this loch Dr. Hew Morri- 
son, LL.D., writes: ' In my native parish of Tongue, Sutherlandshire, 
there is a loch about two miles from Torrisdale, called Loch Tigh 
Choimhead, that is the Loch of the Watch House. In that loch there 
is. a green island, which has become more and more submerged in my 
own memory. My brother, who is a strong swimmer, went to the 
island at my suggestion some years ago, and with a long stick sounded 
the various parts of it, and thought that it was very likely founded 
on piles or some kind of wood. ... It might also be worth while 
examining many of the lochs in the northern part of the county. Not 
far from this loch which I have referred to there are brochs, and in the 
near neighbourhood are two large boulders with cup marks on them.' 

Loch na Hacon, Tongue. — Mr. Evander Mackay, Farr Schoolhouse, 
Thurso, suggested that the island on this loch was artificial. He had 
visited it many years ago, and had noticed a causeway leading to it 
from the shore. 

Caithness. 

On application being made to Mr. Eobert McClements, Schoolhouse, 
Keiss, this gentleman communicated with Mr. John Nicolson, 
Nybster, who is greatly interested in antiquarian matters and is 
thoroughly acquainted with all parts of the county. Mr. McClements 
reported : ' In Loch Alterwall there is an artificial island. The loch was 
drained about fifty years ago by Sir John Sinclair, who led a burn from 
the loch and so left the island dry. On the island is a small dry-built 
structure whose walls are 5 feet thick, with five steps leading down. 
A jug was found in parts, which Mr. Nicolson pieced together, and 
of which he sends a sketch. He has the jug in his house. 

' At the E. end of Loch Waften there is a small island, a round 
heap of stones about 4 feet above water and 200 yards from the shore. 
The Loch of Stemster has a small island planted with trees. An island 
in Loch Rangag has a broch built on it. Loch Colder has a natural 
island which has a hut circle built on it.' 

Sir John Sinclair reports as follows : ' Loch Alterwall. — This island 
was investigated by Sir Francis Barry in 1900, when a square building 
and staircase were found. Lake Dwelling on Stemster. — This is an 
island in the Loch of Scarmlett in the Stemster district of Bower 
Parish, and not in the Loch Stemster in the parish of Latheron. It 
has now trees growing upon it, but before the trees were planted there 
were indications both of a building and of a staircase. . . . The dwelling 
in the island in the Loch of Eangag is an ordinary small broch of about 
20 feet diameter, and it is always quite easy to wade out from the 
shore to the island. ' 

Mr. John Davidson, West Watten, suggests an island in Loch 
Toftingall as possibly artificial. In the near neighbourhood of this loch 
are Standing Stones and at least four Picts Houses. 



216 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

Orkney and Shetland. 

Mr. James Murray, of the Lake Survey, suggested the island on 
Loch Skaill as being ai'tificial. 

Mr. James Johnston, Orphir House, Orkney, further suggests 
among the numerous islands on the lochs of Orkney one on Loch 
Wasdale, with site of chapel; Loch Clumly, the island of which has 
a broch on it; Loch Sabiston, where there are stepping-stones leading 
to the island ; Loch Isbister, the island of which has a broch on it. 

Shetland. — Mr. J. D. Mackintosh, Lerwick, replied to the circu- 
lar: 'I understand that there are some such (artificial islands) in Shet- 
land, and I think if you sent me half a dozen of the circulars I could 
get some information from various parts of the islands of Shet- 
land. . . . At the time of writing these forms had not been returned. 
Dr. Th. Johnston reports that the Loch of Cliff, in Unst, has an island 
cairn, but no causeway observed. 

Argyllshire and the Western Islands. 

On the main land of Argyllshire there have been suggested three 
islands in Loch Nell, the one called Loch a Mhuillinn at Oban, one 
or perhaps two in Loch Awe, and one in Loch Ternate, Morvern. 
Those in Loch Nell, briefly mentioned by Dr. Munro, were visited and 
photographed by Dr. W. D. Anderson, Oban. Dr. Anderson reported 
that there were two artificial islands still above water, and two others 
submerged, and mentioned that his photo ' showed the serpent mound 
on the mainland behind the island and a little to the left of the 
picture.' This item is recorded in view of the question which was 
added to the original circular by one of the members of the Com- 
mittee as to whether there are any artificial mounds or other struc- 
tures in the alluvium on the shores of the loch. The ' Serpent mound ' 
was visited and examined by Dr. Phene, who found at one end a pre- 
historic burial, the contents of which were sent to the museum at 
Edinburgh. I must, however, add that Dr. Joseph Anderson considers 
the mound a natural one, and that Dr. Phene was mistaken. Subse- 
quently Dr. Munro visited the locality and saw the remains of a cist 
in the terminal end of a wavy morainic ridge. Mr. R. D. Murray Allan, 
of Glenfeochan, kindly sent a tracing of the loch showing the position 
of the two visible islands, and also that of the submerged ones. 

The island in Loch a Mhuillinn was suggested by Mr. D. Mclsaac, 
who exhibited a photo of the crannog being dug, and, in addition to the 
workmen, the photograph showed Professor Heddle, of St. Andrews, 
and several members of the Town Council of that day. Mr. Mclsaac 
also showed a piece of one of the logs. The crannog, which was first 
discovered by Mr. Campbell, then Burgh Surveyor, was about 85 feet 
long by 53 feet broad. Dr. J. A. Harvie-Brown, on whose yacht 
Professor Heddle was staying, sent me a copy of the photo along 
with the following extract from his note-book : ' 15th May 1888. We 
inspected, along with Provost Drummond and Mr. Munro, Oban, a 
new discovered lake-dwelling built on piles in the middle of Loch a 
Mhuillinn, which lies close to the town and railway embankment, and 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OF HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 217 

which lately a loch, is now a deep stinking bog of mud and decayed 
vegetation. . . . The whole crannog is some 84 feet long by 56 feet 
wide — one of the largest discovered.' 

Loch Awe. — Mr. Donald Macdonald, Taynuilt Hotel, writes : ' I 
have come across an old man of seventy-nine, John McGregor, who 
knows Loch Awe from end to end. He tells of an artificial island on 
the loch opposite Ardnassaig House. In the old days Ardnassaig was 
called New Inverawe. When McGregor was ten years old he remem- 
bers quite well seeing men building this small island, which is about 
12 yards long. Old Mr. Campbell, of New Inverawe, noticed one day, 
when the loch was very low, some stones appearing under the surface 
of the water. He then got a lot of men to gather stones and earth to 
make up this mound. When finished he had some trees planted.' It 
would thus appear that Mr. Campbell, perceiving that the island was 
being submerged, heightened it on this occasion. All experience goes 
to show that these islands were constantly sinking under their own 
weight, and that even at the time when they were being inhabited 
layer after layer of material was added, so that frequently three and 
four hearths are found one above the other. 

Mr. Francis Darwin suggested the island opposite Inverliever. In 
reply to the circular Mr. H. E. Bury, present tenant of Inverliever, 
wrote: ' West of the Inverliever burn there is a wooded promontory, 
which in very high floods is an island. Bound this promontory is a 
bay, and in the next bay west of this is the island in question. It is 
composed of a mass of stones, in the otherwise sandy bay, and is about 
50 yards from the shore. At the ordinary level of the loch the top of 
it is about 3 feet out of the water, and I should certainly say (and so 
does my friend, Mr. J. B. Hill, who was Geological Surveyor for 
many years for that part of Scotland) that the island is artificial. I 
think there are signs of a causeway to the shore. ' 

Loch Teniate. — This island was suggested as artificial by Mr. A. 
Nicholson, of Arisaig, and Mr. John Boss, keeper, sent some interesting 
traditions about it, but without determining the question as to whether 
or not it was so. 

Loch Kielzievar and Torlundi. — The examples here are mentioned 
in the Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1867 and 
1868, but do not appear in Dr. Munro's volume ' Ancient Scottish Lake 
Dwellings,' which I had taken as the standard authority. After the 
two lists of suggested islands had been printed and the present report 
almost completed I found that they are included in the author's ' Lake 
Dwellings of Europe,' published a few years after the first-mentioned 
volume. This same remark applies to some of the other islands in this 
paper. 

Isle of Mull. — My letter to Messrs. Lindsay, Howe, and Co. was 
forwarded to the Duke of Argyll, who kindly answered it himself. 
' Mar. 12, 1912. I received last night a typed letter with your 
signature asking about artificial islands. That on Loch Baa, Salen, is 
opposite Mr. Melles' house, on my side of the loch, and is a cairn of 
stones. There are one or two, under water, off this low shore, at foot 
of Glen Clachaig, in the same loch, but these may be mere mounds 



218 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

of stone at the foot of some old glacier. The island opposite Mr. Melles' 
house must be at all events largely artificial. It is small.' 

Tiree.- — Miss Elspeth Campbell writes from Inverary Castle: 'I 
would suggest two islands in Loch Bhasapol, in Tiree. They are with- 
out doubt artificial and should be of interest; both islands are fairly 
close to the shore, but there is no trace of a causeway. In fact, the 
bottom of the loch is sand and mud, though the islands are built of 
large stones. No one knows their origin. The two islands are at 
different ends of the loch, half to quarter mile apart. One is very 
small, the other slightly bigger — almost big enough for a small fort.' 
Eegarding these islands, Mr. Peter Anderson, gamekeeper, Scarinish, 
sends the following details : ' As regards the islands on Loch Bhasapol, 
I have been on them hundreds of times while duck-shooting. Eilean 
Mhic Conuill is entirely artificial, and there are a few stones, the remains 
of a causeway, towards the N.W. There is an entire absence of stones 
both on the floor of the loch (which is sand) outside the limits of the 
island. The island is about 18 yards across, partly underwater. 

' Eilean Aird na Brathan appears to me to have been a much more 
important place. It is partly artificial, the stones are very much larger, 
and they must have had great difficulty in getting them there. It is 
50 yards from the shore, and the water round is 3 to 4 feet deep. The 
island is 15 yards by 10 yards. . . The other islet that is partly artificial 
is in Loch na Gile, and is just as Mr. Beveridge mentions in his book 
(" Coll and Tiree," page 115).' Mr. Anderson also considers the island 
in Loch na Buuile as probably artificial. 

Coll. — Besides Tiree, the islands of Coll and N. Uist have been 
described by Dr. Erskine Beveridge, LL.D., whose careful investigation 
and excellent illustrations make one wish that other districts in these 
distant parts could find so able an historian. It is unnecessary here to 
give more than a brief summary of his account of the island Duns. He 
states that they are somewhat numerous in Coll, and that all have 
evidently possessed " clachans " or causeways for approach. The island 
in Loch Fada is 20 yards from the shore, with a causeway from the 
N. Half a mile S. of this is Loch Ghille Caluim, the island in which 
can be reached in a dry summer by wading. It measures about 20 feet 
in diameter. The islands on Loch Rathilt, Loch Urhhaig, and Loch 
an Duin all have causeways to the shore. All the above Dr. Beveridge 
considered as probably artificial. In Loch Cliad there are two natural 
islands, each of them approached by a causeway. About 15 yards S.W. 
of these ' is a smaller islet of stones, to all appearance entirely artificial, ' 
and connected with one of the larger islands by a causeway. The 
Upper and Lower Mill Lochs — marked on the Ordnance Map as Loch 
nan Cinncachan and Loch Anlaimh — both contain islands, evidently 
artificial, ' with well-preserved causeways, through rather deep water.' 

Isle of Eigg. — Just N. of the foregoing islands is the small isle of 
Eigg, measuring 3 by 4 miles. In it is the little Loch na Mna Moire, 
with a distinctly artificial island. Bev. F. McClymont writes : ' I 
thought it might interest you to know that there is one of these islands 
in a loch here. It goes by the name of the Loch of the Big Woman. 
There is a funny tradition of its being inhabited by abnormally big 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OP HIGHLANDS OP SCOTLAND. 219 

women, who use stepping-stones so far apart that none else could use 
them.' The island is 50 yards from the shore, and measures 35 by 
1,5 feet. 

Isle of Skye.- — Although artificial islands are so common in the other 
Hebrides, the only one reported from Skye as probable is that mentioned 
by Major Kenneth Macdonald, of Skeabost, ' in the old Loch of 
Monkstadt, now drained. There are the remains of an old monastic 
building, on what was an island in the loch. The loch was drained 
about eighty years ago, and now gives a wonderful crop of hay.' Hon. 
Godfrey Macdonald, Armadale Castle, and MacLeod of MacLeod both 
write that they know of no artificial islands on their properties, which 
comprise by far the greater part of Skye. 

In singular contrast to the preceding, artificial islands occur in a 
continuous line throughout the Long Island. In Barra there is one in 
Loch an Duin, close to the road from Castlebay to North Bay. In 
S. Uist they occur almost exactly every three miles, and may be seen 
from the high road which runs through the centre of the island. That 
on Loch Dunnalcillie has the remains of buildings upon it, and is a 
fairly large island. In Loch na Faoillen — a small loch only a quarter 
of a mile across — there is an excellent specimen, with causeway to the 
shore. When staying in S. Uist in 1909 1 had this island for six 
weeks just opposite my house, though it was with some difficulty that 
I had a tiny boat put on the loch and landed on the island. It is 50 feet 
in diameter, and is certainly artificial. The causeway to the shore, 
though quite distinct, is now impassable except as a trial of skill. Three 
miles further N., and again alongside the high road, there is another 
similar island, with causeway, in Loch a Mhuillinn. To these, which 
I frequently saw myself, Eev. Alex. Macdoughall adds the islands 
in Loch Ard Bomish, Loch Ceann a Bhaigh, in the Ormaclate district, 
Loch Alt a Briac, in the Stoneybridge district, and in Loch Druidibeg, 
in the Stillingarry district. These are quite independent of the great 
number of natural islets with which most of the lochs abound, and 
which make the presence of so many of the artificial islands all the 
more surprising. 

Benbecula. — Regarding the examples in Benbecula, I have the 
promise of a full report from Dr. Eric Gardner, M.D. 

North Uist. — As already mentioned, N. Uist has been fully and most 
ably described by Dr. Erskine Beveridge in his work published as 
recently as last year. Treating of island forts, he says : ' Our list 
includes no fewer than seventy island forts, each as a rule provided 
with a causeway from the neighbouring shore, whilst in exceptional 
cases it would seem that the only access was by means of a boat. The 
causeways show considerable divergence in type, and most of them 
have evidently been submerged to the extent of 12 or 18 inches, though 
others stand at about the normal surface of the loch. It was of special 
interest to find seven of these approaches interrupted by structural 
gaps, obviously arranged so as to give additional security. Again, and 
no doubt with a similar purpose, the causeways display much irregu- 
larity of outline, in general taking a curvilinear form, but sometimes 
that of zigzag, or of a double curve, shaped like the letter S ' (page xv). 



220 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

Treating of Prehistoric Forts, in Chapter VI., the author adds 
a footnote : ' To all appearance several of the minor island forts have 
heen built upon foundations at least partly artificial, though it seems 
obvious that in each case the site was chosen so as to take advantage Of 
natural conditions already existing. ' 

In a letter of August last Dr. Beveridge wrote : ' 1 am now able to 
send you particulars of the apparently artificial islands in N. Uist. I 
have classed seven as such, numbering them 1 to 7, and five others are 
doubtful, whilst there may be a few others which are less obvious as 
to character. Of the twelve I have only photographed six, and send 
copies herewith.' No. 1 is the island in Loch an Duin, Portnain, 
known as Dun Nighean righ Lochlain. It is about 30 feet in diameter 
and 30 yards distant from the shore, with well-marked causeway. Stone 
circles and a chambered cairn exist in the near neighbourhood. No. 2, 
Loch an Duin, Breinish, also known as Dun Nighean righ Lochlain. 
This measures 28 by 32 feet, is distant 25 yards from the shore, and 
has a distinct causeway. The two islets in Loch Obisary Mr. Beveridge 
considers doubtful. The one measures 18 feet in diameter, the other 
60 feet, but neither has any causeway visible. The two islets in Loch 
Mor, Balesbare, are classed as certainly artificial. One measures 40 feet 
in diameter, the other less. In each case there is a causeway about 
5 feet wide. The two islets in Loch nan Gearrachan are also certainly 
artificial. One measures 32 feet across, the other 29 feet by 41 feet. 
They are distant respectively 35 and 25 yards from the shore, and each 
has its causeway. The island in Loch Eashadcr is of the ' certain ' 
class. It measures 52 feet across, is distant 40 yards from the shore, 
but the causeway in this case is doubtful. The Loch Aonghuis island 
is ' doubtful,' as is also that in Loch Oban Trumisgarry, but this latter 
has a causeway to the shore, a distance of 30 yards. 

Harris. — Mr. J. "Wedderspoon, C.E., a prominent member of the 
Inverness Field Club, sends particulars of two islands in Harris : ' The 
first find was in the island of Scalpay near Tarbert. I had occasion 
to visit the island in connection with a water-supply to the school 
proposed to be taken from a small loch near the centre of the island, 
bearing the common name of Loch an Duin. ' Mr. Wedderspoon 
mentioned that there are two islands about 20 yards apart, and that 
both have the appearance of being artificial, although one is more 
strikingly so. There is a causeway from the shore, and this appears 
to be continued between the two islands. 

The other example is on the Island of Taransay, off the W. coast 
of Harris, which also contains a Loch an Duin. There is a cause- 
way from the shore a distance of about 40 yards and the island 
measures 35 feet across. Mr. Wedderspoon made exact measure- 
ments of the building on the island, which however he considers of 
much later date than the island itself. 

Lewis. — Mr. James Fraser suggests the island on Loch an Duin, 
near Loch Carloway, and that on a loch near Bragar, seven miles 
further north on the W. coast of Lewis. Mr. C. G. Mackenzie, 
Procurator Fiscal, Stornoway, suggests the islands on Loch Arnish 
and Loch Chlathamir. ' In the first of these the foundations of the 



ARTIFICIAL JSLANDS IN LOCHS OF HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 221 

islet seem to be formed of rubble work, and the same remark applies 
to the twin islands on Loch Chlathamir. On several little lochs of 
the island the common brochs or duns are to be seen.' 

Mr. K. J. Boss, Bank of Scotland, Stornoway, writes : ' Quite 
recently another instance of an artificial island, which does not appear 
on the list, has been brought to my notice. It is situated on Loch 
Orisay, which appears on the reduced survey map as Loch Eilean 
Mor, about seven miles from Stornoway, in a westerly direction. I 
do not think there can be any doubt about its being artificial, for the 
person who brought it to my notice had never seen or heard that 
artificial islands of the kind existed, yet he was quite positive that it 
had been built by the hand of man.' 

One of the most interesting examples of the whole series is that 
at Tolsta, first suggested by Bev. W. Morrison, M.A., P.S.A. Scot., 
who writes : ' At Tolsta, some twelve miles north of Stornoway, on 
the croft of a Mr. Mclver, a small shopkeeper, I saw a lake bottom 
on this croft. He had drained the loch with a view to adding it to 
his croft. He was astonished that with the exception of a small 
mound on the otherwise arid area he could get no crops to grow. I 
suggested that the mound was a lake-dwelling. He at once agreed 
that it must be so, for he found stakes stuck all round the mound. 
He added that he found fragments of clay pottery, which he threw 
aside as of no value to him. This took place several years ago. If 
Mr. Mclver is in life he will assist you with good-will. Lake- 
dwellings should be found all over the interior of the island of Lewis.' 

The following delightful letter from Mr. C. G. Mackenzie, 
Procurator Fiscal, Park House, Stornoway, gives further details [the 
letter is given in full as a sample of the many pleasant letters which 
this inquiry has brought me] : ' July 30, 1912. I have had an oppor- 
tunity of visiting the site of the lake at N. Tolsta, as to which you 
wrote me some time ago. I saw Mr. Mclver and got some details 
from him. The superficial area of the loch was something about 
1J acre. It appears that the existence of the island was unknown 
until as the water of the loch was being drawn off the islet revealed 
itself. It proved to be almost 12 yards square and appears to have 
had a foundation of heather with "built stones about it." On the 
island were found a quantity of mussel-shells, deer-horns, and snuff- 
mills made of stone. There was a causeway leading to the islet, and 
stakes were discovered sticking out of the ground along the track of 
the causeway. The stones, etc., forming the islet were removed, and 
while utilising the site for agricultural purposes, a curious discovery 
was made. Under the heather were found immense quantities of 
diatomite. Mr. MacTver tells me that at one part of the loch he forced 
a 15-foot iron rod into the diatomite and found no bottom. 

' While in North Tolsta I saw a loch in the near vicinity of the 
one under notice on which an islet is situated. From the general 
appearance of the island I do not doubt that it is a built one. At 
Aird in the Eye Peninsula I examined an island in Loch an Duin. 
A causeway of stone leads from the shore to the island, and this 
island, too, I regard as artificially formed. Whether the stones forming 



222 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

the island arc the remains of a Dun, or are the actual foundations, 
is not now easily determined, but I incline to the view just stated. 

' In addition to those mentioned in my former letter, there appears 
to be an artificial island on Loch Orisay (spelt phonetically) between 
Grimsheder and Loch Chlathamir, in the parish of Lochs. The Road 
Surveyor, Mr. MacLeod, informs me that the island is undoubtedly 
a " built, island." It may be of interest to know that some years ago, 
when alterations in the water-supply system to Stornoway were 
rendered necessary, the loch from which the town's water is drawn 
(Loch Aird-na-licc) had to be partially drained. At the N.W. 
corner of the loch, some yards from the shore, a perfectly formed 
island was exposed consequent on the draining operations, and it still 
exists, but now, of course, totally covered by water. If I remember 
rightly some stakes were found about it. I am afraid I have not 
helped you much, but if I can be of any further service, please com- 
mand me — Yours very truly, C. G. Mackenzie.' 

With the example at Tolsta, the most north-westerly point of the 
British Isles, and a site which may yet prove of the greatest interest, 
I shall conclude this list of the Artificial Islands which have been 
notified in reply to the circular issued by the Committee. That so 
large a number have been suggested is surely matter for congratula- 
tion, for even if some should eventually be found to ' draw blank,' 
the evidence in the vast majority of cases is quite conclusive. 

Remembering, as I do, the welcome accorded to my paper suggest- 
ing the first addition to the then-known examples, I cannot but wish 
that the same congratulations should be offered to each of those who 
have succeeded in adding to the list. I feel sure that I am express- 
ing the feelings of the Committee when I cordially thank each of the 
correspondents for the information which they have, often with con- 
siderable trouble, elicited in regard to the examples in their various 
districts. 

Table showing the Geographical Distribution of all the Islands, sug- 
gested as Artificial or proved to be such, within the Highland District 
of Scotland and, the Islands. 



Islands mentioned in Dr. Munro's 

Ancient Scottish Lake 

Dwellings 

1 Aberdeenshire : 

Loch Canmore, Banchory, Federatt, 
Peel Bog. 
'2. Argyllshire : 

Kielziebar, Loch na Mial (Isle of 
Mull), Ledaig, Lochnell, Parish 



Islands newly suggested or about 

which fresh information is given in 

the foregoing Report 



Loch Kinnord. 



Loch Awe (island near Ardnasaig) (island 

near Inverliever), Loch Ternate, Loch- 

of Kilchoman (Islay), Fasnacloich. | nell .(four islands), Loch a Mhuilinn 

(Oban), Loch Baa (Isle of Mull), Loch 
Assopol (Isle of Mull), Loch Poit na 
h-I, Loch Bhasapol (Tiree, two islands), 
Loch na Gile (Tiree, two islands), 
Loch na Buaile (Tiree, two islands), 
Loch Fada (Coll), Loch Ghille Caluim 
(Coll), Loch Rathilt (Coll), Loch 
Urbhaig (Coll), Loch an Duin (Coll), 
Loch Chad (Coll), Loch nan Cinneachan 
(Coll), Loch Anlaimh (Coll). 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OF HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 



223 



Islands mentioned in Dr. Muuro's 

Ancient Scottish Lake 

Dwellings 

3. Buteihire : 

Loch Quien, Dhu Loch. 

4. Inverness -shire : 

Loch Lochy, Loch in Croy (drained), 
Loch Gynag, Loch Moy. 



5. Perthshire : 

Loch Rannoch, Loch Clunie, Loch 
Earn, Loch Ard, Loch Laggan, 
Loch Morall, Loch Tummel, Loch 
Tay, Loch Freuchie, Lake in 
Blairgowrie, Locb Moulin (drained). 
Loch Granech, Loch Tulla (this 
loch is in Argyll), Loch Monivaird, 
Loch Achray, Loch Vennachar, 
Loch Kinnard. 

0. Moss and Cromarty . 

Loch Kinellan, Loch Achilty, Loch 
Glass. 



7. Stirlingshire : 

Loch Lomond. 

8. Sulherlandshire : 

Loch Brora, Loch Shin, Loch Dolay. 



Islands newly suggested or about 

which fresh information is given in 

the foregoing Report 



Loch Ness, Loch Bruiach, Beauly Firth, 
Loch Moy, Loch Garry, Loch Oich, 
Loch Lundi, Loch Treig, Loch nan 
Eala, Loch Meiklie, Loch Lun- 
davra, Loch Ruthven, Loch Arkaig, 
Loch Pityoulish, Loch Knockie, Loch 
Assalaich, Loch Farraline, Loch na 
Mna Moire (Isle of Eigg), Loch Monk- 
stadt (Isle of Skye), Loch an Duin 
(Barra), Loch Dunnakillie (South 
Uist), Loch na Faoillen (South Uist), 
Loch a Mhuillinn (South Uist), Loch 
Ard Bornish (South Uist), Loch 
Ceann a' Bhiigh (South Uist), Loch 
Druidibeg (South Uist), Loch an 
Duin, Portmain (North Uist), Loch 
an Duin, Breinish (North Uist), Loch 
Obisary (North Uist), Loch Mor, 
Balesbare (North Uist), Loch nan 
Gearraehan (North Uist), Loch Easha- 
der (North Uist), Loch Aonghuis 
(North Uist), Loch Oban Trumisgarry 
(North Uist), Loch an Duin (Isle of 
Scalpay, Harris), Loch an Duin (Isb 
of Taransay, Harris). 

Loch Rannoch, Loch Earn, Loch Hoil, 
Loch Derculich, Loch Essan, Loch 
Tummel, Loch Tay, Loch Ochtertyrc, 
Loch Moulin. 



Loch Kinellan, Loch Achilty, Loch 
Glass, Loch Ails\ Loch Tollie, Loch 
Ke nsary, Loch Mhic Me Riabhaich, 
Loch Achnahinneach, Loch Ussie, 
Loch Morie, Loch Beannachan, Loch 
Achall, Loch Dhughaill, Loch Gobh- 
lach. 

Also in the Isle of Lewis, Loch an Duin, 
Loch Bragar, Loch Arnish, Loch 
Chlathan'i', Loch Orisay, Loch Tolsta, 
Loch Aird-na-lice. 

Loch Lomond. 



Loch Cragsie, Loch Shin (four islands). 
Loch Clibrig, Loch Migdale, Loch 
Loro, Loch Assynt, Loch Awe, Loch 
Borrolan, Loch Cama (two islands), 
Loch Tigh Chaimhead (Tongue), Loch 
na Hacon (Tongue). 



224 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Islands mentioned in Dr. Munro's 

Ancient Scottish Lake 

Dwellings 

9. Caithness : 



10. Orkney and Shetland : 



Islands newly suggested or about 

which fresh information is given in 

the foregoing Report 

Loch Alterwall, Loch Watten, Loch of 
Stemster, Loch Rangag, Loch Calder, 
Loch Toftingall. 

Loch Skaill, Loch Wasdale, Loch Clumly, 
Loch Sabiston, Loch Isbister, Loch 
of Cliff (in Unst). 



Arcliaological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Mr. D. G. Hogarth (Chairman), 
Professor J. L. Myres (Secretary), Professor E. C. 
Bosanquet, Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Sir A. J. Evans, 
Professor W. Eidgeway, and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Contents, 
part PAGE 

I. The Modern Inhabitants of Crete, especially those of the Province of Sitia . 224 
II. The Craniology of the Ancient Inhabitants of Crete, as revealed by the Prehistoric 

Human Skeletons found at Palaikastro and in its neighbourhood . . . 227 
Appendix A. — Ancient Cretan Skulls with Breadth Index of 80 or more, or with 

Maximum Cranial Breadth of 143 mm. or more 234 

Appendix B. — Ancient Cretan Skulls other than the Brachy cephalic and Broad 

Specimens described in Appendix A 237 

III. Observations on certain Limb-bones of Prehistoric Human Skeletons found at 

Palaikastro and in its neighbourhood 248 

IV. The Physical Characteristics of Modern Greeks 258 

Report to the Committee. By Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth. 

Particular attention is directed to 

(a) The ' Armenoid ' type of cranium in the interments of Minoan antiquity in 
Crete {cf. Part II.). 

(6) The presence of pygmy individuals in Crete during the Neolithic period 
(c/. Part III.). 

(c) The distribution of the cephalic index in Greece (cf. Part IV. and Map 
No. I.). 

This Eeport constitutes an extension of the Special Reports (a), (b), 
and (d) published in Part II. of my Eeport in 1903. x It will be con- 
venient to submit first the observations bearing upon my; Special 
Report (b), which dealt with the modern inhabitants of Sitia. 

Part I. — The Modem Inhabitants of Crete, especially those ,o/ the 

Province of Sitia. 

In this connection I am glad to have an opportunity of referring 
to Mr. C. H. Hawes' remarks, published in 1910, - as Appendix III. 
to a Report furnished in that year to the Cretan Committee. And I 
must thank the Secretary of the Committee (Professor J. L. Myres) 
for having given me an opportunity of studying Mr. Hawes' remarks 
before the final publication of the Report. I have now gone into the 

1 Cf. Brit. Assoc. Reports, Southport, 1903, pp. 406, el seq. 

2 Cf. Brit. Assoc. Reports, Sheffield, 1910, p. 251. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 225 

matter as fully as I can, and have come to the conclusion that Mr. 
Hawes has made out a most convincing case in favour of the recognition 
of an ' armenoid ' element in the modern population of Sitia. 

Reference to Mr. Hawes' remarks in 1910 will show that he urged 
this view of the Sitians against my suggestion that they were colonists 
of ' illyrian ' affinities introduced by the Venetians. So far as the 
matter is controversial, I readily accept Mr. Hawes' correction. With 
characteristic modesty, Mr. Hawes 3 describes his view as a ' hint '; 
and he sets this hint against what he calls my suggestion. The latter 
description is correct; but Mr. Hawes can, in my opinion, claim far 
more for his view, for it seems as near a demonstration as we are 
likely to obtain in such matters. 

In 1903 I was not altogether unmindful of the possibility of finding 
the ' armenoid ' type in Crete. It is perhaps worth mention that in 
my notes I described one of the Minoan crania from Palaikastro 
(No. 2D) as of ' armenoid ' aspect. Of this I shall have more to write 
in the sequel. But as regards the observations on the living, I was 
somewhat prejudiced (against the ' armenoid ' view) by three con- 
siderations. In the first place, I happened to meet with an Armenian 
in Candia, and was much impressed with the extreme nigrescence of 
hair and eyes, together with the thin aquiline nose. In Sitia I failed 
to recognise these features, at any rate in combination, and in particular 
I find frequent references in my notes to the comparative fairness of 
the moustache among the Sitians. Lastly, the individual most 
armenoid ' in appearance among the Sitians measured by me provided 
a cephalic index of 74"1 — almost the lowest figure in my list. 

These remarks are not to be taken as expressive of any reserve in 
my adoption of Mr. Hawes' exposition, but rather as indicating that 
the ' armenoid ' type is perhaps different from the Armenian, or that 
it is not found in its original and unaltered form in Sitia. These are 
matters for future investigation, and as such they will not be discussed 
any further in this place. 

In following Mr. Hawes' descriptions and inferences as expressed 
in his ' Remarks ' and in his subsequent and admirable paper on the 
Dorians, 4 I was careful to test his conclusions on my own observations 
of Sitians. The result is fully confirmatory of the statement that the 
Sitian head is characteristically short. For purposes of comparison I 
selected thirty men from the province of Sitia (measured by me). One 
provided a cephalic index of 83'3, while all the rest gave indices of 
84 or more. The mean value of this index in the thirty examples is 
86'3. These and other data are most concisely given in the form of 
a table, to which I add Mr. Hawes' data for Sitians, as well as those 
published in the ' Remarks ' (p. 255), to exhibit the likeness between 
the Sitians of Crete and the Takhtadji of Asia Minor, as well as the 
contrast with the Selinots (compared by Mr. Hawes with the 
Albanians). 

The agreement is very close in the case of columns I., II., and III., 
while they are in marked contrast with the data (for the Selinots) in 

• ' Remarks,' 1910, p. 252. 

4 Annual of the British School at Athens, No. XVI., 1909-10, pp. 258, et seq. 

1912. q 



22G 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1912. 



Table I. 



Measurements 
in Millimetres 


Crete 


Asia Minor Crete 


Sitians Sitians 
i 


Takhtadji 


Selinots 


(30mostbradiy- 
cephalic)* 
Duckworth 


71 
Hawes 


13 

Petersen (quoted 

by Hawes) 


33 
Hawes 


Head Length . 
Head Breadth . 
Cephalic Index. 
Stature 


I. II. 
178-6 180-1 
1541 153-2 

86-3 85-1 

1682 1678 

1 


III. 
178-8 
153-2 

85-7 
1679 


IV. 
185-3 
157-2 

85 
1701 



* Their names appear to be characteristically Greek ; but Mr. Hawes has pointed 
out the unreliability of this test of ethnic relationship. 

column IV. I have but one criticism to make — viz., that regard must 
be paid to the greater bulk of the latter (the Selinots), in whom the 
head must therefore be somewhat larger. This is seen to be the case, 
while the cephalic index is not very different from those in the 
remaining columns. That .the cephalic index should be reduced (as it 
is) is intelligible in consideration of a general law, formulated by 
Johannsen, as to the relation between this index and the stature. 

Apart from this, the conspicuous shortness of the Sitian, and, I 
may add, the ' armenoid ' head, led me to consider this feature as 
a possible test for ' armenoid ' heads as contrasted with those of 
' illyrian ' affinities. And, as I have been working out some results 
of my observations on Greeks of the mainland, I may anticipate here 
part of the section of this Report dealing with the latter. For the 
purpose of a comparison, I pitted the thirty most brachiocephalic Sitians 
of Crete (cf. Table I., column I) against the forty most brachy cephalic 
of my Greeks. The result is striking, but not satisfactory. For the 
sake of brevity I have presented it in the form of the Table (II.) which 
follows : — 



Table II. 



Sitians (30) 
Greeks (40) 



Sitians 
Greeks 



Sitians 
Greeks 



Mean Cephalic Index 
. 86-3 
87-5 

Head Length 
over 182 
. 6... 20% 
. 13... 32-5% 

Head Breadth 
over 155 
. 13... 43-3 % 
. 22... 550% 



Mean Head Length 
178-6 
178-9 

Head Length 182 
4... 13-4% 
5... 12-5% 

Head Breadth 155 
3... 10% 
6... 15% 



Mean Head Breadth 
1541 
1561 

Head Length less 

than 182 

20... 66-6% 

22... 550 % 

Head Breadth less 

than 155 

14... 46-7 % 



12. 



.300% 



The result is striking, because, if the figures be accepted as they 
stand, a strong suggestion is provided of an ' armenoid ' as contrasted 
with an ' illyrian ' element on the mainland. Short heads are found in 
both the groups (Sitians and Greeks) compared. 

But we cannot take the data absolutely without correction, for the 
Greeks were immature. Although of a mean age of about nineteen 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 227 

years, one or two were certainly younger than this. It follows that 
the value of the head-length as provided by these Greeks is not precisely 
comparable with that of the Cretans of Sitia. Some elongation of the 
heads of the Greeks would certainly have to be allowed for, although 
I do not believe it would amount to more than 5 mm. in any case, and 
would probably be about 3 mm. on the average. (On the other hand, 
the stature, which is not given, does not cause any complication in 
this comparison.) On the whole, therefore, there is some suggestion 
of an armenoid element even in the Peloponnese. If this were substan- 
tiated, the result would be extremely interesting, for it is almost certain 
that the armenoid and illyrian types would be in contact much more 
closely in Greece than in Crete, where, as Mr. Hawes has shown, they 
are separated by a zone occupied by a dolichocephalic element identified 
with the Mediterranean type. 5 An investigation of the inhabitants of 
Eubcea might be very instructive in this connection. Before passing 
to the second part of this Report, I must refer to the question of 
the change in head-form observed in the eastern parts of Crete when 
the Minoan population is compared with the modern one. Whether 
it be armenoid or illyrian, an intrusive element seems accountable for. 
the observed change. The possibility of an evolutionary change whereby 
dolichocephalic ancestors were succeeded by broader-headed descendants 
is not indicated — and, indeed, is contra-indicated. If high altitudes 
tend to produce brachycephalic proportions, Crete is an exception to 
the rule. But this aspect of the subject can be discussed so exhaustively 
by Mr. Hawes that I need do no more than mention it in this place. 

Part II. — The Craniology of the Ancient Inhabitants of Palaikastro and 
its Neighbourhood (with an Appendix containing detailed accounts 
of all the ancient crania examined in 1903). 

On the Craniology of the Prehistoric Inhabitants of Crete. 

In the report furnished by me to the Cretan Committee in 1903, I 
gave a summary of the results of my measurements of the human 
crania in the Museum at Candia. Those crania comprised a series of 
sixteen specimens from an ossuary of Minoan antiquity at Palaikastro. 
In the course of my work at Palaikastro a good many more crania came 
to light, and together with those from Patema and Agios Nikolaos, a 
collection amounting to about one hundred was available for study. 

These ancient Cretans showed a great preponderance of dolicho- 
cephali, and indeed it is fair to say that they establish the fact of this 
preponderance for the epoch they represent. But the mesaticephalic 
and brachycephalic elements are not negligible, and the present report 
deals with the latter, viz., the hrachycephali. In the light of Mr. 
Hawes' work (to which reference is made in Part I. of this report), it 
became urgent to examine the brachycephalic crania of the Minoan 
series as minutely as possible. 

I haVe appended to this account a series of notes made by me in 
1903 on the specimens under consideration, but I have divided the 
Appendix into two parts, having segregated from the rest all crania 

1 Cf. Hawes, Annual of the British School at Athens, loc. cit., p. 279. 

Q 2 



228 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



-1012. 



with proportions in any way suggestive of brachycephaly. It is con- 
venient to submit the notes made on all the specimens, although those 
relating to the broader crania are chiefly in question here. 

The crania thus set aside for special notice are nineteen in number. 
I hasten to add that this does not contradict the estimate of the per- 
centage (8"55) of brachycephali recorded in my earlier report. The 
method adopted here has been to pick out all crania with a breadth- 
index of 80 or more, as well as those having a maximum transverse 
diameter of 143 or more. Some of the latter are not brachycephalic, 
and others are so fragmentary that they do not provide data both of 
length and breadth. These fragmentary crania could not be included in 
the statistics of 1903, and indeed their exact cephalic indices are matters 
of surmise. The nineteen specimens thus set aside include all the 
brachycephalic crania at my disposal. But out of the nineteen only six 
demand special consideration here. It is a matter for regret that in 
Crete the sites providing the most reliable evidence of the circumstances 
of interments are exposed to a climate so different from that of Egypt. 
Considering the destructiveness of alternate phases of damp and dry 
atmospheres, it is a matter for satisfaction that any crania have been 
preserved in such a locality as Eoussolakkos. 

The six crania in question are numbered on my system as follows : 
2D, 19D, 25D, 48D, 105D, 112D. Of these, Nos. 19D and 25D 
must be considered apart, for they are assigned to the Mycenaean age 
or later. The rest are ' Minoan ' or earlier, 
gives their chief dimensions : — 

Table III. 



The following Table III. 



Skull 
No. 


Locality 


Antiquity 


Sex 


Breadth 
Index 


Length 
in mm. 


Breadth 
in mm. 


Remarks (1903) 


2D 


Palaikastro 


Minoan 


<?(?) 


81-5 


178 


145 


' armenoid ' 


19D 


Zakro 


Mycenaean 


' 


81-7 


175 


143 


' curvo-occipital ' 
type (1911)* 


25D 


? 


late 
Mycenaean 


* 


81-2 


186 


151 


' curvo-occipital ' 
type (1911) 


48D 


Palaikastro 


Minoan 


<? 


83-7 


178 


149 


distorted post- 
humously 


105D 


Patema 


?s 


¥(?) 


83-2 


167 


?139 


flattened occiput 


112D 


»» 


» 


? 


83-6 


?165 


?138 


very fragmentary 



* Cf. Toldt, Mitt, der anth. Gesellschaft in Wien, Band 39-20, 1909-10. 

The specimens 2D, 19D, 25D, and 105D alone afford reliable 
information. I have already noticed No. 2D in sufficient detail. A 
sketch (made in 1903) of this specimen is reproduced herewith (fig. 1), 
together with a tracing of the vertex view (fig. 2). No. 105D is of 
similar antiquity to No. 2D, and, like that specimen, has a flattened 
occiput. 

Inasmuch as both specimens are short rather than broad, the appli- 
cation of the term armenoid is further justified. The corresponding 
heads would have provided cephalic indices of about 83*5 (2D) and 
85-6 (105D) respectively. 

The two crania of post-Minoan antiquity resemble each other in 
presenting a curved occipital surface, not a flat one. Otherwise they 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 220 



are not dissimilar in point of index. But one of them (101)) is a short 
brachycephalous skull, the other is long. No. 10D may be claimed as 
a further addition to the stock of armenoid specimens, whereas No. 25D 




Fia. 1. — Sketch of an armenoid ' skull (No. 2D) from a Minoan cemetery at 
Roussolakkos, Palaikastro, Crete. 

is rather to be grouped with the ' dorian ' or ' illyrian ' type recognised 
by Mr. Hawes as distinct from the preceding. But I lay no special 
stress on this point at present. On the whole it appears that Eastern 




Fig. 2.— A skull (No. 2D) from Palaikastro ; Norma verticalis ( x £). 

Crete has thus provided evidence of the existence (in that region) of 
the armenoid type of head-form during the Minoan period, and indeed 
in its earlier part. 



230 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



It is convenient to consider here the question whether there is oilier 
evidence to the same effect. (Probably Mr. Hawes has data, but I 
must write in ignorance of these.) Of well-authenticated examples, I 
would cite the series of skulls described by the late Professor Mosso. He 
measured nineteen crania referred to the Minoan period in Crete. Some 
of the crania were found near Palaikastro. Measurements are given by 
Mosso in his work entitled ' The Dawn of Mediterranean Civilisation.' * 
Of nineteen crania, four provide a breadth index of 80 or upwards, 
and are therefore brachycephalic. The data are reproduced in Table IV. 

Table IV. 
Professor Mosso 's Data : Cretan Crania of the Minoan Period. 



Site 


No. of Specimen Head Length 


Head Breadth 


Cephalic Index 


Gournia 

Palaikastro 
Knossos 


2 

3 

11 

13 


164 
166 
176 
178 


138 
136 
141 
145 


84 1 
81-9* 
801 
81-5 



No records of sex or age are provided. 
* Erroneously given by Mosso (op. cit., p. 410) as 89"9. 

These data give no definite information as to the existence or other- 
wise of the armenoid type. But we may at least note that the brachy- 
cephalic element is here present in an appreciable proportion (21 per 
cent.), and further that these brachycephali are short rather than broad. 

It is noteworthy, however, that Professor Mosso assigns even the 
•most brachycephalic cranium to the Mediterranean race, on the remark- 
able ground that such head-forms are found in Egypt and in North 

Table V. 



— 


Locality 


Epoch 
Neolithic 


Sex 


Head 
Length 


Head 
Breadth 


Cephalic 
Index 


Author 


Remarks or 

Reference 

Number 


I. 


Sicily 


f. 


170 


139 


81-8 


Sergi 


No. 1931 


II. 






f. 


171 


147 


870 




No. 1933 


III. 


»> 


Eneolithic 


m. 


(ab 


out 


880) 


Giuffrida- 
Ruggeri 


No. 2766 


IV. 


») 


>» 


m. 


170 


145 


85-3 


Sergi 


No. 2231 


V. 




Bronze 


in. 


174 


147 


84-5 


» 


No. 2228 


VI. 


Sardinia 


Eneolithic 


m. 


173 


147 


850 






No. 11 


VII. 






m. 


185 


151 


81-6 




> 


No. 25 


VIII. 






f. 


174 


143 


82-2 






No. 33 


IX. 


j> 


»> 


m. 


176 


145 


82-4 




j 


No. 34 


X. 


»» 


>> 


m. 


178 


145 


81-5 




■ 


No. 44 


XI. 


» 


>, 


m. 


170 


146 


85-4 




i 


No. (II.) 17 


XII. 


Corsica 


Bronze 


m. 


V 


1 


81-97 


Chantre 


No. 1 


XIII. 


)> 


)» 


f. 


? 


? 


81-98 


»> 


No. 2 


XIV. 


Antiparos 


' Early 
jEgean ' 




178 


144 


80-9 


Garson 
and Bent 





Note. — It is to be remarked that the evidence of distinct occipital flattening in these 
skulls is not recorded, or is but vaguely indicated in the descriptions. But the illustra- 
tions suggest that it is present in some cases at least. 

6 English translation, by Miss Harrison, p. 410. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 231 



1. Sergi 

2. „ 

3. „ 

4. „ 

5. Giuffrida-Ruggeri 
6. 



References to Literature. 

' Di alcune varie'a umane della Sardegna,' 1892. 
' Crani antichi di Sicilia e di Creta,' 1895. 
' Crani preistorici della Sicilia,' 1899. 
' Crani antichi della Sardegna,' 1906. 

' Antropologia fisica dci Siculi eneolitici.' 
' Contribute) all' antropologia fisica delle regioni dinaricho, 
&c.' 

7. Chantre : ' Assn. franc, pour l'Av. des Sciences.' Ajaccio, 1901. 

8. Garson : ' Journal of Hellenic Studies,' Vol. V., p. 58. 

For numerous references, see Ripley, ' The Races of Europe,' and ' Bibliography.' 
Brachycephalic crania are recorded from various localities in N. Africa, and even in 
the Canary Islands. 

Africa. For the moment it will suffice to note the records and to 
disregard the conclusion as to the origin of these brachycephalic crania. 
For Egypt I must of course refer to the publications of the various 




Fig. 3. — A skull (No. 8D) from Palaikastro ; N.orma verticalis (X J). 

surveys so fully elaborated by Professor Elliot Smith and his staff. 

The early occurrence in Egypt of ' armenoid ' skulls is now well known. 

I have several records for other parts of the Mediterranean area, 

but I must be content to indicate these without further discussion. 



232 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Table V. contains data which are perhaps not well known to English 
writers, although the date of publication is not recent. 




Fiq. 4. — A skull (No. 8D) from Palaikastro ; Norma lateralis ( X £). 




Fig. 5. — A skull (No. 8D) from Palaikastro ; Norma occipitalis (x J). 

The crania numbered I., IT., and III. in Table V. are very similar 
to the early Cretan brachycephali ; moreover, the photographs in the 



ARCHiEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 233 

original memoirs 7 at least suggest that the term armenoid is applicable 
again. I might add that the frequency of brachycephali in the eneo- 
lithic Sardinian series is in strong contrast with the variety of that 
type among modern inhabitants of Sardinia. It would almost seem as 
though the brachycephalic type had been ' bred out, ' or that it never 
established a footing in Sardinia, which is very different from Crete 
therefore. 

The majority of writers appeal to invasions and migrations to 
account for the presence of these ancient brachycephalic individuals. 
Moreover the invasions are said to have occurred as far back as the 
neolithic period, and as for their source, that is supposed to be Eastern, 
with a course through Asia Minor in the cases considered. 




Fig. 6. — A skull (No. 9D) from Palaikastro; Norma facialis (x|). 

Against such opinions we must set that of Professor Giuffrida- 
Ruggeri. He admits invasions only during the more recent periods. 
He insists on the extreme antiquity of the brachycephalic type as an 
indigenous form in Western Europe. He regards it as autochthonous, 
and its appearance he ascribes to the effects of environment. This he 
supposes to have been influential from the very earliest times. 

To discuss these alternative views is not possible here. But refer- 
ence must be made to the very valuable paper (by Professor Giuffrida- 
Ruggeri) on the physical anthropology of the Dinaric and Danubian 
regions. 

The brachycephalic Cretan crania of Mycenaean antiquity (Nos. 19D 
and 25D) may well deserve discussion in connection with Bronze Age 

1 Cf. footnote to Table V. 



231 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



invasions. But they may be relics of an earlier invasion, such as that 
held responsible for the Minoan brachycephali. 

My note-books contain descriptions of certain .ancient Cretan crania 
referable to the Geometric and later periods. But though I have added 
the descriptive notes to the Appendix, I shall not discuss those speci- 
mens in the present report. The figures attached to this section are as 
follows. One skull from Palaikastro (8D), of typical Mediterranean 




Fig. 7. — A skull (No. 12D) from Palaikastro ; Norma facialis ( x £). 

form, is represented in three views (figs. 3, 4, and 5). The facial view 
of two other skulls (9D and 12D respectively) is shown in fig. 6 and 
fig. 7. 

Appendix A. — Ancient Cretan Skulls with Breadth Index of 80 or 
upwards, or with Maximum Cranial Breadth of 143 mm. or more. 
(Detailed notes copied from note-books. — W. L. H. D., Feb. 1903.) 

2D. Palaikastro (cf. figs. 1 and 2). — Calvaria, consisting of frontal, 
parietals, temporals and occipital bone. The base, the facial bones, and 
the mandible are absent. This is in some ways the most interesting 
skull of the series (viz. those then known, being indicated as Nos. ID 
to 13D inclusive), presenting as it does an example of a distinctly brachy- 
cephalic form in a series where dolichocephalic proportions are 
immensely preponderant. 

General condition : very fragile ; surface slightly grooved by rootlets of 
plants. 



ARCH.«OLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 235 

Sex : probably male, though this must remain uncertain. 

Age : advanced, but not senile ; the sagittal, coronal, and lambdoid sutures 

are closed by synostosis. 
Norma verticalis : uniformly rounded and of a low degree of brachycephaly ; 

it was almost certainly cryptozygous. 
Norma lateralis : brow-ridges not prominent ; frontal curve rises abruptly 

and attains its highest point 4 or 5 cm. behind the bregma (cf. 

Armenoid-typus of v. Luschan) ; slight annular compression round 

coronal suture (this is in favour of female sex). The occipital region is 

generally flattened, but actually the surface is interrupted by a series of 

slight elevations and depressions. 
Norma facialis : transverse are regular and fully rounded, the cranial width 

is great in the region of the alisphenoid. 
Norma basilaris : glenoid fossse deep ; tympanies imperforate. 
Norma occipitalis : contour rounded ; mastoids appear large, and project 

strongly downwards. 

13D. Palaikastro. — A calvaria, without a base, face, or mandible. 

Sex : male. 

Age : advanced, yet not senile. 

General remarks : the skull is rather larger, and is distinctly broader than 
the preceding specimens (No. 2D had not been unpacked then). The 
parietal eminences stand out clearly and give the skull a rhomboid 
appearance ; the frontal region is less well developed, and the parietal 
region is better developed than in the other skulls, which are longer and 
narrower. It resembles some Polynesian crania. It tends towards 
mesaticephaly (the index is 74-2). 

Norma verticalis : length moderate, outline rhomboidal, with marked 
parietal eminences ; skull was probably just phsenozygous. Synos- 
tosis almost complete in the sagittal suture and far advanced in the 
coronal suture. Muscular ridges are indistinct on account of the 
' weathering ' of the bones. 

Norma lateralis : very prominent brow ridges, and large massive mastoid 
processes ; the external occipital protuberance is on the contrary 
inconspicuous. The median sagittal curve attains its maximum 
elevation about 5 cm. behind the bregma. There is an area of 
flattening in front of each parietal eminence ; the calvaria is therefore 
slightly ' ill-filled.' 

Norma facialis : the transverse frontal arc is well rounded, but the trans- 
verse arc behind the bregma is interrupted, and a slightly scaphoid 
outline results. 

Norma basilaris : the tympanies are imperforate ; endocranial synostosis' 
is far advanced. 

Norma occipitalis : the outline is pentagonal : large elongated mastoid 
processes extend downwards clear of the cranial base. 

19L. tap^os, Mycencean. — A fragile skull with its mandible; the 
outer margin of the right orbit is fractured. 

Sex : male. 

Age : adult — synostosis is advanced in the sagittal suture near the obelion, 
and in the coronal suture just above the pterion. 

Norma verticalis : brachycephalic (breadth-index 81 -7), cryptozygous, and 
slightly plagiocephalic, owing to flattening on the right side. 

Norma lateralis : brow-ridges moderate, profile orthognathous, slight occi- 
pital, renflement, mastoid processes small. 

Norma facialis : the plagiocephalic character is very evident in the form of 
the transverse cranial arch, the face is broad, the orbits megaseme, the 
nasal aperture leptorrhine, with slight prenasal grooves. 

Norma basilaris : the palate is elliptical, both tympanic bones are per- 
forated ; the last molar teeth are small, their three roots being fused into 
one in the upper jaw. The third lower molars have two roots (as usual). 

Norma occipitalis : the contour is pentagonal, the plagiocephalic asymmetry 
not being noticed. 



23G REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

25D. Between the Mycenamn <ni<l (Icomclria Periods. — A skull 
with other parts of the skeleton, ' found in a coffin. ' The skull is nearly 
complete, the mandible accompanies it and has a bigonial diameter of 
106 mm. The skull is very large in comparison with the others; it is 
btachycephalic. 

Spx : male. 

Age : senile ; synostosis is advanced, but nearly all the teeth are present ; 
the last molars are much smaller than the others. 

Norma verticalis : the contour is bluntly oval ; muscular ridges are distinct. 
The prognathism is ' subnasal ' and ' alveolar,' not ' dental.' 

Norma lateralis : the brow-ridges are distinct but not massive ; the face is 
slightly prognathous. The prognathism is 'subnasal' and 'alveolar,' 
not 'dental,' the median sagittal curve culminates at the bregma, and 
continues as a plateau for nearly 4 cm. before descending to a 
moderate occipital renflement. The mastoid processes are of moderate 
size. 

Norma facialis : the transverse cranial curve is flattened above; the margins 
of the nasal aperture become indistinct near the spine. 

Norma basilaris : the palate is elliptical ; the glenoid fossae are deep ; the 
tympanic bones are imperforate. 

Norma occipitalis : the contour is rather pentagonal than circular. The 
skeleton bears signs of spondybtis, the femur has a stout shaft and very 
prominent linea aspera. The index of platymeria is 89-4 (the bone is not 
platymeric). The right tibia measures 346 mm. and has a platycnemic 
index of 69-8. The left tibial index is 731. 

48D. Palaikaslro. — Calvaria with part of face; important, as it is 
broader (cranially) than most (149 mm.); brow-ridges moderate; cal- 
varia distorted by pressure. 

53D. Probably a female; important, because rather broader than 
most of the rest; brow-ridges insignificant; distinct occipital renflement; 
cranial vault culminates at obelion ; base fractured and distorted. 

58D. No remarks; only three measurements made, viz., maximum 
breadth, 147; length, 187; breadth-index, 78 - 6. 

60D. A small mesaticephalic (it proved to be brachycephalic) 
female skull; young adult; typically feminine; brow-ridges minimal 
(see sketch) ; no occipital bone remains. 

85D. Senile; it is very prognathous. 

93D. A young skull (not in averages) ; third molar teeth not yet 
cut; mandible in situ; important, as being rather broader than most 
(173 x 137); breadth-index, 79"6. 

97D. Important as being a broad skull, but very fragile and frag- 
mentary ; sex, male. 

105D. Patema [near Palaikastro).- — An adult and brachycephalic 
skull ; sex uncertain, but probably female ; occipital region flattened, 
but otherwise ' well filled ' ; synostosed sagittal suture at obelion ; small 
brow-ridges. Quite distinct from the ordinary type. [This specimen 
was not included in the averages, as there was a doubt as to its breadth. 
This seemed to be 139 mm., the length being 167, the resulting breadth- 
index would be 83.2. Moreover it is a short skull rather than a broad 
one, and it is therefore more likely to represent the ' armenoid ' than 
the ' illyrian ' type of Hawes.] 

112D. Patema (near Palaikastro). — A broad skull with mandible; 
very fragmentary. [This skull provided no measurements for the 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 237 

averages : it seems to have measured about 165 mm. x 138 mm. ; this 
would give a breadth-index of about 83"6. Again this would be more like 
the ' armenoid ' than the ' illyrian ' type of Havves.] 

113D. Patema (near Palaikastro). — A very large adult male skull, 
very fragmentary ; perforated by rootlets of shrubs ; brow-ridges small ; 
occipital renflement not marked. [It is introduced here on account of the 
comparatively large figure representing its breadth; the measurements 
are — length, 199; breadth, 146; breadth-index, 73"4.] 

123D. Patema (near Palaikastro). — A large adult male skull; sagit- 
tal suture closed by synostosis ; brow-ridges moderate ; occipital renfle- 
ment moderate ; mastoids of moderate size ; high frontal arch ; orbits 
microsemic ; this skull is rather broader than most in this series. 

139D. Palaikastro. — A large adult male calvaria : occipital renfle- 
ment moderate; the front part of the calvaria having been broken away, 
a false impression of shortness is given. The skull was probably long. 

143D. A distinctly broad ovoid skull ; adult male, moderate size : 
complete sagittal synostosis; neither brow-ridges nor occipital renfle- 
ment marked. 

145D. An aged male skull of moderate size ; brow-ridges marked ; 
occipital renflement not marked ; prognathous. Complete sagittal synos- 
tosis. This skull is much more like a certain Egyptian form than any 
yet seen ; but the nasal bones are not negroid, although the nasal aperture 
is wide. This specimen and No. 143D are distinct from the prevailing 
type; they are broader and rather byrsoid. They probably constitute a 
mesatictphalic sub-type. 

154J). Agios Nikolaos. — Fragmentary skull of a child of about 
six years of age ; complete premature synostosis of the sagittal suture, 
without apparent deformation of the cranial form. The specimen is, 
however, actually broader than most of the adult crania. 

Appendix B. — Ancient Cretan Skulls other than the Brachyceplialic 
and Broad Specimens described in Appendix A. 

Brief descriptions of the crania found in East Crete in 1903. Note 
that in the last series (ten or more in number) the descriptions have 
been published already 8 and need not be repeated here. For the most 
part the descriptions are arranged in the numerical order of the 
specimens. But from the whole series under review nineteen speci- 
mens have been removed, and the descriptions of these are brought 
together in the preceding sub-section of this part of the report. 

System of Numeration. 

Group 1. — Specimens obtained previously to 1903 and in that year examined 
in the Museum at Candia by W. L. H. D. 

1D-13D incl., 21D, 22D, 23D. Palaikastro (ossuary at Roussolakkos) : 

continued as 26D, &c. 
14D, 14aD. Prcesos. 
15D. No information. 

16D, 17D, Zakro (Hogarth) ; 16D, ' later ' ; 17D, ' earlier ' period. 
18D, 18aD. Modern Cretan crania : Candia, Vori, Agia Triatha, &c. 
19D, 20D (Asites), 20aD (Asites), Mycenaean, period. 

8 Cf. Annual Report of the British School at Athens, 1903. 



238 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

4D, with skeleton. From a larnax (locality not given) : just anterior to 

Geometric Period. 
25D, with skeleton. From a tomb. Between Mycenaean and Geometric Periods. 
26D a, Knossos. Mycenaean. 
27D a, Gournia. From tombs (not larnakes). 

Group II. — Excavations at Roussolakkos &c. in 1903. 

26D to 34D. 9 Roussolakkos, Ossuary, Compartment I. 

35D to 44D. „ „ „ II. 

45D to 64D. „ „ „ III. 

65D to 84D. Provided for Compartment IV., but no crania obtained here. 

85D to 104D. Roussolakkos, Ossuary, Compartment V. 
105D to 124D. Patema. 

125D to 146D. Roussolakkos : Ossuary, No. 2. 
150D to 160D. Agios Nikolaos. 

ID. Palaikastro. — A calvaria consisting of the frontal, parietal, and 
temporal bones: the cranial base, the facial bones, and the mandible 
have been destroyed. 

Sex : probably male. 

Age : adult. 

General condition : fragmentary and extremely fragile ; the indications are 

of small size and feeble musculature. 
Norma verticalis : long and narrow ; this effect is heightened by posthumous 

lateral compression. The cranial sutures are open. 
Norma, lateralis : the lateral flattening is attended by an increase in vertical 

height. The brow-ridges are not prominent ; nor are the parietal 

ridges. The mastoid processes are of moderate size. 
Norma facialis : the posthumous compression has increased a pre-existing 

tendency to scaphocephaly. 
Norma basilaris : the glenoid fossae are of moderate depth ; the tympanio 

bones are imperforate. 
Norma occipitalis : the contour is not distinctly pentagonal, the angles being 

rounded off. 

3D. — This specimen consists of a few fragments of the cranial 
vault. The skull was probably dolichocephalic ; the dimensions of the 
plaster casing (now removed) indicate such proportions. 

Sex : probably female. 

Age : adult but not senile, although the sagittal suture has commenced to 

close. 
The general indications are of slight muscular and physical development. 

4D.- — A calvaria, consisting of frontal, parietal, occipital, and 
temporal bones. The base, the facial bones, and the mandible have 
been lost. 

Sex : male. 

Age : fully adult, but not senile ; synostosis in the three chief sutures. 

Norma verticalis : a long ellipsoidal skull ; probably cryptozygous. 

Norma lateralis : massive brow-ridges, stout zygomatic arches ; large 
massive mastoid processes ; at the inion a distinct transverse torus 
culminates in a median spinous protuberance. The median sagittal 
curve rises gradually from the ophryon to culminate 5 cm. behind the 
bregma. 

Norma facialis : the transverse arc is uniformly rounded, with very slight 
bilateral postb.egmatic flattening. 

8 For each compartment or ossuary a distinctive range of numbers was set aside, 
the range being ten or twenty units. Where the special number of skulls was not 
actually obtained, the numbers remain as blanks, so that when 160D Agios Nikolaos 
is mentioned, it does not follow that the total count of ancient Cretan skulls examined 
amounted to 100. The numbers arc inclusive. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 239 

"Norma basilaris : no observations possible. 

Norma occipitalis : the transverse arc is regular, the parietal eminences not 

standing out ; the massive character of the mastoid processes is again 

evident. 

5D. — A calvaria, consisting of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and 
occipital bones, with small portions of the alisphenoids. The specimen 
is very fragile and fragmentary. 

Sex : probably female. 

Age : adult. 

Norma verticalis : an extremely dolichocephalic specimen of ellipsoidal 
form ; hardly any lateral crushing has been sustained. The uniformly 
smooth surface and the faintness of the ridges for muscular attachments 
suggest a female skull. The sagittal suture is commencing to close. 
The specimen was probably just cryptozygous. 

Norma lateralis : the brow-ridges are inconspicuous ; the median sagittal 
curve is continuous and regular from "the nasion to the opisthion, cul- 
minating about 5 cm. behind the bregma. The zygomatic arches 
are feeble and the mastoid processes small. 

Norma facialis : the relatively great height of the cranial vault is at once 
noticed ; the transverse arc is very regular, but in the post-bregmatic 
region there is a suggestion of scaphocephaly. 

Norma basilaris : the tympanic bones are imperforate. 

Norma occipitalis : the contour is somewhat pentagonal with much-rounded 
angles. 

6D. — A calvaria, consisting of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and 
temporal bones. To this (anteriorly) part of the right side of the 
facial skeleton is attached, consisting of malar, maxilla, and sphenoid. 
The base, the left side of the face, and the mandible are absent. 
The general condition resembles that in most of the preceding 
examples. 

Sex : male. 

Age : adult ; well advanced towards senility ; many teeth lost ; there is 
much synostosis in the lambdoid and sagittal sutures. 

Norma verticalis : the cranium is elongated and elliptical ; it is uniformly 
rounded, with distinct though comparatively feeble muscular ridges. 
It was probably cryptozygous. 

Norma lateralis : the brow-ridges are prominent for this series (in which, 
however, numerous female skulls are included). The median sagittal 
arc is flattened at the bregma : no distinct occipital renflement appears ; 
there is a prominence at the inion, and the mastoid processes are 
massive. The facial profile was probably orthognathous. 

Norma facialis : the transverse cranial arc is uniformly rounded ; the orbit 
has micro- or meso-seme proportions. The nasal aperture is leptorrhine. 

Norma basilaris : the right alveolar arcade is edentulous, and the left 
tympanic bone is imperforate. 

Norma occipitalis : the contour is pentagonal ; the mastoids project 
markedly downwards. The lambdoid suture is partly closed by synos- 
tosis. 

7D. — A cranium without face or mandible. 

Sex : male. 

Age : adult ; the cranial sutures are synostosed but chiefly on the endo- 
cranial aspect. 

The surface of the cranial vault is grooved by rootlets of plants. 

Norma verticalis : an elongated ovoid skull. 

Norma lateralis : the cranium is flat ; brow-ridges are massive and promi- 
nent ; the median sagittal curve culminates 3 cm. behind the bregma. 
The occipital renflement is slight but distinct. At the inion a trans- 
versely directed torus is found. The mastoid processes are of moderate 
size only. 



240 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1912. 

Norma facialis : scaphocephaly is distinct, with marked areas of flattening 

on each side of the sagittal suture. This gives an ' ill-filled ' appearance 

to the specimen. 
Norma basilaris : no observations, the base being absent. 
Norma occipitalis : the contour is pentagonal ; the small vertical height 

and the consequently flat appearance of the cranial part of the skull, 

is again remarked. 

8D (Figs. 3, 4, 5). — A cranium without the face or mandible; very 
brittle texture ; the base has been destroyed. 

Sex : female. 

Age : adult, but not senile ; synostosis is extensive in the coronal as well 

as the sagittal suture. 
General features : typically feminine. 
Norma verticalis : very long and narrow ; no irregularities of surface ; 

' well-filled ' aspect. 
Norma lateralis : the cranial cavity is of moderate height ; brow -ridges 

not prominent ; forehead high ; the sagittal curve culminates 2 cm. 

behind the bregma ; occipital renflement slight ; the mastoid processes 

are small ; the alisphenoid joins the parietal at the pterion. 
Norma facialis : the transverse arc is regular and rounded ; the facial 

width was evidently very small. 
Norma basilaris : the great length is again apparent ; the left tympanic 

bone is perforated. 
Norma occipitalis : the contour is rounded, not pentagonal. 

9D (Fig. 6). — Cranium with part of face; mandible absent, base 
destroyed ; surface much pitted and grooved by rootlets. 

Sex : female. 

Age : adult ; cranial sutures are not synostosed.' 

Teeth: three molar teeth (right, M l , M" 2 ; left, 3/ 2 ) remain; the sockets 
for the roots of the last molar teeth ( M s ) show that these were smaller 
than the other molars. 

General features : typically feminine ; resembles a skull from Erganos 
figured by Sergi. 

Norma verticalis : the cranium is long, narrow, and rather byrsoid. Large 
but distinct parietal eminences contribute to the latter character ; 
muscular attachments hardly recognisable. 

Norma lateralis : orthognathous ; slight brow-ridges ; distinct area of 
flattening along vertex from 2 cm. in front of bregma to 4 cm. behind 
that point ; slight occipital renflement ; conformation of occiput is 
feminine ; no ridges ; mastoid processes small ; at the pterion the 
alisphenoid joins the parietal bone ; the cranium is tapeinocephalic. 

Norma facialis : the transverse arc is rounded ; the face is narrow ; the 
maxillae small ; the orbits are megaseme ; the nasal aperture mesor- 
rhine with small sub-nasal grooves ; the canine fossae are deep. 

Norma basilaris : the great length of the skull is apparent ; the palate is 
long and narrow ; the glenoid fossae are deep, and both tympanic bones 
are imperforate. 

Norma occipitalis : the contour is nearly pentagonal, owing to the promi- 
nence of the parietal eminences. 

10D. — A cranium without the face or mandible; the specimen has 
been reconstructed from fragments. 

Sex : female ; muscular ridges inconspicuous. 

Age : fully adult ; not senile. 

Norma verticalis : dolichocephalic ; just cryptozygous ; full synostosis 

in sagittal, coronal, and lambdoid sutures ; very slight ' annular ' 

compression near coronal suture (clinocephaly). 
Norma lateralis : brows not prominent ; forehead vertical ; the median 

sagittal arc culminates about 4 cm. behind the bregma ; distinct 

occipital bulging ; mastoid processes small 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 241 

Norma facialis : the transverse arc is uniformly rounded so that no appear- 
ance of the ' ill-filled ' type can be detected. 

Norma basilaris : the tympanic bones are imperforate. 

Norma occipitalis : the general contour is nearly circular, owing to the 
small development of parietal eminences and mastoid processes. 

Endocranium : synostosis complete ; there is a well-developed internal 
occipital protuberance, not marked for the torcular. 

11D. — A reconstructed cranium without face or mandible. 

Sex : female. 

Age : adult, but not senile. 

General description : a delicate cranium with feebly developed muscular 

impressions. 
Norma verticalis : the form is slightly byrsoid, owing to the distinctness of 

the parietal eminences ; no synostosis hi sagittal or coronal sutures. 
Norma lateralis : insignificant brow-ridges ; forehead rises abruptly ; basi- 

bregmatic height relatively small — i.e., tapeinocephalic proportions 

are present ; occipital renflement slight. 
Norma facialis : the transverse arc is well rounded. 
Norma basilaris : the glenoid fossae are distinctly shallow ; the tympanic 

bones are imperforate. 
Norma occipitalis : the transverse contour is nearly circular — i.e., feminine. 

In fact, all the characters of the specimen proclaim this as its sex. 

12D (Fig. 7). — The specimen is so brittle that it is impossible to 
free it from adherent soil ; it consists of the cranium and face, with part 
of the mandible. 

Sex : 1 female. 

Age : adult. 

Norma verticalis : metopism (persistence of the inter-frontal suture) is 
present, but the metopic suture is obliterated near its mid-point. An 
elongated elliptical contour is seen ; there is a remarkable band of 
flattening about 3 cm. wide, extending backwards from near the obelion. 

Norma lateralis : brow-ridges inconspicuous ; the frontal bone rises steeply ; 
the median sagittal contour culminates at the bregma and is flattened 
from the obelion backwards. The flattening looks as though a com- 
press had been applied in the situation indicated. Orthognathism is 
very distinct. There is a very slight occipital renflement. 

Norma facialis : the face is distinctly leptoprosopic 10 ; the transverse 
cranial arc is uniformly rounded in a plane, anterior to the bregma. 
The orbit is megaseme, the nasal aperture narrow. There is practi- 
cally no fronto-nasal depression. 

Norma basilaris : the palate is small and of parabolic contour. 

Norma occipitalis : the contour is pentagonal ; slightly flattened areas 
are seen on each side of the sagittal suture. 

14D. Prcesos : ? Hellenistic Period. — A much-disintegrated skull 
with the mandible; the adherent soil renders the taking of measure- 
ments almost impossible. 

Sex : 1 female. 

Age : adolescent, but nearly adult ; the wisdom-teeth are just about to 
emerge from the jaws. 

14aD. Prcesos: ? Hellenistic Period. — A skull and mandible; ex- 
tremely fragile and encrusted with earth ; zygomatic arches broken. 

Sex : ? female. 

Age : adult. 

Norma verticalis : elongated and ellipsoidal. 

10 All the specimens that give evidence on this feature provide the saino indication 
as 12D. 

1912. R 



242 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

Norma lateralis : prognathism is the chief characteristic. It is ' sub-nasal ' 
and not suggestive at all of a negroid type. The teeth arc small and 
do not project ; there is a slight occipital renflement ; otherwise, the 
median sagittal contour is regular. The mastoid processes are small, 
and muscular impressions are scarcely recognisable. 

Norma facialis : the transverse arc is uniformly rounded. The face is 
leptoprosopic, with megaseme orbital apertures and a leptorrhine nasal 
aperture ; the breadth of the brain-case in the region of the pterion is 
considerable, and it shows that the skull was cryptozygous. 

Norma occipitalis : the contour is rounded or circular. 

15D. Of uncertain antiquity. — A skull with other bones. The 
antiquity of these specimens is quite uncertain. No data are available 
as to the locality whence they were derived. The collection comprises 
a cranium, two mandibles, a very long sacrum (index just under 83), 
a femur of the left side (with a small ' third ' trochanter), a tibia, a 
humerus of the left side (perforation of the olecranon fossa), a radius 
and various odd vertebra?. The cranium is fragile and apparently not 
ancient. 

Sex : male. 

Age : adult ; the sagittal suture is closed at the obelion, and there is also 

synostosis in the coronal suture just above the pterion. 
Norma verticalis : the skull i3 mesaticephalic, and of ovoid form ; it is 

cryptozygous. 
Norma lateralis : the brow-ridges are prominent ; the profile orthognathous ; 

the median sagittal arch culminates 4 cm. behind the bregma ; there 

is a very slight occipital renflement ; the zygomatic arches are stout 

and the mastoid processes massive. 
Norma facialis : the face is broad and the transverse cranial are uniformly 

rounded. 
Norma basilaris : the palate is of elliptical form ; the last upper molar 

tooth (the left) is the smallest of the series ; both tympanic bones are 

perforated ; there is an ossified ligament of Civinini on each side ; the 

glenoid fossae are deep. 
Norma occipitalis : the contour is pentagonal. 

16D. Zakro (' Hogarth '). — Found in a cave with many fragments 
of skulls and other bones. This specimen appears to be of recent date. 
The calvaria of a child of about six to seven years of age. It is 
brachycephalic; the measurements are only approximate, however; 
they are as follows— length ? 164, breadth 133, cephalic index 81*1. 

17D. ' Early ' Zakro (' Hogarth '). — Possibly from a cave. A 
cranium without the mandible ; the state of preservation is fairly good ; 
it has been varnished, and thus disintegration has been arrested. No 
marks of rootlets seen. 

Sex : female ; of feminine aspect throughout. 

Age : adult. 

Norma verticalis : the contour is of the elongated ellipsoidal variety j the 

principal sutures are just about to close. 
Norma lateralis : the brow-ridges are small ; the profile orthognathous. 

The forehead is high, for the frontal bone rises abruptly, the median 

sagittal curve culminating near the obelion and being somewhat 

flattened near the bregma. There is a slight occipital renflement. 

The zygomatic arches (broken) were slender. The vertical extent of 

the brain-case is small (tapeinocephalic). 
A orma facialis : the transverse cranial arc is perfectly rounded ; the face 

is small, the orbits microseme, the nasal aperture wide. 






ARCHiEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 243 

Norma basilaris : the palate is small and elliptical ; the teeth (especially 
the last molars) are small, delicate, but not decayed ; the tympanic 
bones are perforated. 

Norma occipitalis : the contour is rounded, not pentagonal : all the features 
noted combine to indicate the female sex of the specimen. 

18D. Modem. — Skull of a modern Cretan male. The chief interest 
of the specimen is that it reproduces on a feeble scale the features of 
a cranium from near Damascus, described by me (as of ' armenoid ' 
form) in the ' Journal of the Anthropological Institute. ' The skull is 
of moderate length only, and in norma verticalis the contour is 
'byrsoid.' The occipital flattening so characteristic of the true 
armenoid skull is very slight here. The brow-ridges are heavy; the 
mastoid processes are large and they project anteriorly. 

20D. 'Asircs.' (sic). — A calvaria without base or facial bones; the 
left half of the mandible remains. 
Sex : male. 
Age : adult ; synostosis is observed in the sagittal suture and also in the 

squamo-parietal suture. 
Norma verticalis : the skull is of short ellipsoid form and mesaticephalic ; 

at the ophryon a remarkable depression suggests the former presence 

of a sebaceous cyst in this situation. 
Norma lateralis : brow-ridges moderately developed ; the median sagittal 

curve culminates at the obelion ; there is slight occipital renflement. 

The nasal bones are prominent. 
Norma facialis : the transverse cranial arc is uniformly curved ; this feature 

is present, even posteriorly to the bregma. 
Norma basilaris : both tympanic bones are perforated. 
Norma occipitalis : the contour is ' pentagonal.' 

20aD. ' Astrcs.' (sic). — Occipital parts of skull with mandible. 

Sex : female. 
Age : young adult. 

Norma verticalis : rhomboidal and elongated. 
Norma lateralis : very distinct occipital renflement. 

Mandible : teeth slightly worn ; the last molars are the smallest. The 
mandible is narrow and suggests leptoprosopic proportions of the face. 

21D. Palaikasiro. — A calvaria comprising the frontal, two parietals, 
the occipital and right temporal bones. The face, base, and mandible 
are wanting. 

Sex : ? male ; the general indications are distinctly those of weak physical 
development. 

Age : adult ; synostosis commencing in the usual situation, viz., in the 
sagittal suture near the obelion, and in the lambdoid suture. 

Norma verticalis : the contour is ovoid but elongated ; the parietal emi- 
nences are scarcely distinguishable. 

Norma lateralis : the brow-ridges are but slightly prominent ; the frontal 
bone rises steeply. The median sagittal curve is flattened at the 
bregma, where indications of slight ' annular ' compression are found. 
Occipital renflement is very marked, almost amounting to bathro- 
cephaly. The skull was probably orthognathous and tapeinocephalic. 

Norma facialis : the transverse cranial arc is uniformly rounded, even 
behind the bregma ; the frontal width is small ; the minimum being 
90 mm. 

Norma basilaris : synostosis is far advanced on the endocranial surface ; 
the glenoid fossae is deep and the tympanic bone not perforated. 

Norma occipitalis : the contour is pentagonal rather than circular, but 
the angles are rounded. 

n 2 



244 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

22D. — A skull without the mandible; there is a large deficiency 
on the left side ; the outlines of the nasal and orbital apertures had 
to be cleared by removing an adherent mass of soil. 

Sex : male. 

Age : adult. 

Norma verticalie : the contour is that of a very long ellipse, which is regular 

and symmetrical. The skull is just cryptozygous. 
Norma lateralis : the profile is orthognathous ; the brow-ridges are but 

slightly prominent ; the frontal arc rises abruptly above them ; at tho 

bregma a slight flattening occurs, and the sagittal curve culminates 

about 5 cm. behind this. Occipital bulging is small in amount. The 

mastoid processes are large. 
Norma facialis : the cranium is slightly but certainly scaphoid ; the face 

has the leptoprosopic proportions characteristic of the majority of 

this series ; the nasal aperture is narrow. 
Norma occipitalis : the form of the contour is rather circular than pentagonal, 

but does not conform precisely to either description. 

23D. — A calvaria, consisting of the frontal, two parietal,- the 
occipital, and the left temporal bones; the base is embedded in hard, 
dry clay, which forms a cast of the endocranial cavity. 

Sex : male. 

Age : adult ; synostosis is advanced in the sagittal suture. 

Norma verticalis : a very long elliptical skull. 

Norma lateralis : brow-ridges only moderately developed. The median 

sagittal arc culminates 4 to 5 cm. behind the bregma ; occipital renfle- 

ment is distinct. 
Norma facialis : a slight but distinct degree of the scaphoid character is 

observed in the transverse cranial arc 
Norma occipitalis : the contour is pentagonal, the cranium being distinctly 

' wall-sided.' , 

24D. ' Just anterior to the Geometric Period ' (? late Mycenaean). — 
A calvaria with the skeleton from a larnax; the skeleton was in the 
contracted position. It is extraordinarily brittle. 

Sex : male. 

Age : adult, or senile. 

Norma verticalis : the most interesting point is that the calvaria is nearly 

brachycephalic ; synostosis of the cranial sutures is almost complete. 
Norma lateralis : the brain-case is rather flat ; the brow-ridges are prominent ; 

the median sagittal curve is flattened near the bregma. Occipital 

renflement is slight ; there is a marked occipital torus. The mastoid 

processes are small. 
Norma occipitalis : the contour is pentagonal ; the transverse occipital 

torus with the conceptacula cerebelli beneath it are prominent details 

of conformation. 
The limb bones are so delicate and slender as to suggest the female sex, 

but this is largely discounted by the brow-ridges and occipital torus. 

But in any case the senile changes obscure the general cranial features 

of value in determining sex. 

26aD. Knossos {Mycenaan). — Period probably about 1800 B.C. ; 
found in a magazine beneath a vase, attributed to the earliest period of 
the palace to which a date can be assigned. A calvaria; the base, face, 
and mandible are absent. 

Sex : male. 

Age : adult ; sutures open : denticulation not complex. 

Norma verticalis : elongated and elliptical ; ' well-filled.' 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 245 

Norma lateralis : slight brow-ridges, distinct occipital renflemcnt ; muscular 
impressions minimal. The mastoid processes are small ; the cranial 
height is not great ; the specimen is thus tapeinocephalic. It re- 
sembles several of the Palaikastro skulls, and some others of Mycenaean 
antiquity ; but it is not remarkably dolichocephalic. 

Norma facialis : the transverse cranial arc is regular in front of the bregma ; 
behind are slight parietal flattenings. 

Norma basilaris : capacious frontal sinuses ; the tympanic bones are im- 
perforate ; the styloid processes are very small. 

Norma occipitalis : the outline is pentagonal but the angles are rounded off. 

27aD. Miscellanea. 

1. Gournia. — A number of fragmentary limb bones were found at 
Gournia on March 23, 1903. These bones had been removed from 
tombs (not larnakes) of probably Mycenaean age, by the workmen 
under the direction of Miss Boyd (now Mrs. Hawes). The bones are 
as a rule small. The femora are pilastered, and there are two very 
platymeric examples; they have an ' external flange.' Of the twelve 
tibiae, two are platycnemic. 

2. Kalybia. — Fragments of limb bones from the larnakes dis- 
covered at Kalybia and excavated by Dr. Xanthodides, have an appear- 
ance similar to the bones from Gournia. 

Cemetery (or Ossuary) No. 1 (Excavations under supervision of 

W. L. H. D., 1903). 

Palaikastro : Compartment I. 
Skull 26D. In fragments. 

„ 27D. Fragmentary; a large massive skull with prominent brows ; very dolicho- 
cephalic (206 X 141. Index 68-3). 

Palaikastro : Compartment II. 

„ 35D. A dolichocephalic skull embedded in gypsum for transport. 

„ 36D. A very dolichocephalic skull. 

,, 37D. Very fragmentary ; measurements not in averages ; they are approxi- 
mately as follows : length 164 mm., breadth 118 mm., index 72. 

,, 38D. Cranium placed on its side ; no other notes, save that it was measured 
and packed in gypsum for transport to Candia. 

„ 39D. No notes ; three measurements only. 

Palaikastro : Compartment III. 

„ 45D. A long oval skull ; moderate brow-ridges ; male (typical). 

„ 46D. A small but adult female skull. 

„ 47D. A small (probably female) skull ; dolichocephalic ; brow-ridges insig- 
nificant ; much compressed laterally. 

,, 49D. A very long, narrow male skull ; elongated more than naturally by 
pressure ; brow-ridges moderate ; slight occipital renflement. 

„ 50D. Long skull of an adult male ; slightly distorted ; top broken in, moderate 
brow-ridges ; slight occipital renflement. 

„ 51D. A small dolichocephalic female skull, possessing the general characters 
of the series. 

„ 52D. A small skull, apparently dolichocephalic, but so distorted by pressure 
as to preclude a confident statement. 

„ 54D. Probably female ; long and rather rhomboid ; brow-ridges slight ; occi- 
pital renflement distinct ; mastoids of moderate size. 

,, 55D. Very perfect adult male skull ; base somewhat distorted ; mandible 
preserved ; subnasal prognathism, otherwise typical features. 

„ 56D. A small female skull, interesting because it is a narrow skull compressed 
(posthumously) so as to appear broad. 



246 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

Skull 57D. A small male skull of the usual narrow type ; brow-ridges distinct, but 
small ; slight annular compression (coronal) ; very fragile. 
„ 59D. A small narrow male skull ; brow ridges moderate ; occipital renflement 
slight ; massive occipital torus. 

Palaikastro : Compartment IV. 
No skulls found in 1903. 

Palaikastro : Compartment V. 

Skull 85D. Senile skull ; it is very prognathous. 

,, 86D to 88D incl. Crania too fragmentary and fragile for description. 

„ 89D. This skull is remarkable for the presence of the first two vertebrae remain- 
ing in their natural position in regard to it. 

,, 90D. No note taken. 

,, 91 D. Senile; ? also mollities ossium. 

„ 92D. Typical of the series ; slightly prognathous ; prominent brow-ridges. 

,, 94D. A skull of the usual type ; female ; small brow-ridges and moderate 
occipital renflement. 

,, 95D. A small senile skull, probably female ; brow-ridges minimal ; distinct 
occipital renflement ; lack of development in the vertical direction ; 
the cranium therefore is tapeinocephalie. 

,, 96D. Occipital fragments only. 

„ 98D. A small, narrow male skull ; prominent brow-ridges ; slight occipital 
renflement ; mastoids large. 

,, 99D. A typical elliptical male skull ; moderate size ; distinct occipital renfle- 
ment ; sagittal curve culminates near bregma. 

„ 100D. A large skull of an adult male ; narrow and elliptical ; brow-ridges 
marked ; distinct occipital renflement. 

,, 101D. A slightly scaphoid male skull of moderate size ; brow-ridges marked ; 
distinct occipital renflement. 

,, 102D. A male skull of moderate size ; mastoids large ; marked brow-ridges 
and distinct occipital renflement. 

* Patema. 

„ 106D. A tapeinocephalie (flattened or cylindroid) skull, ? of male sex ; dolicho- 
cephalic ; brow-ridges small ; marked occipital renflement ; zygo- 
matic arches slender ; muscle-ridges feebly marked. 

„ 107D. Very large adult male skull with face ; brow-ridges well marked ; occi- 
pital renflement not marked. 

„ 108D. A small flattened adult female skull ; brow-ridges not marked ; occipital 
renflement marked. 

,, 109D. No remarks ; only one measurement (width) possible. 

„ 1 10D. ? male skull ; compressed laterally ; brow-ridges small ; occipital renfle- 
ment slight. 

„ HID. An adult male skull; excessively fragile; small brow-ridges; distinct 
occipital renflement. 

„ 11 3D. A very large adult male skull ; very fragmentary ; perforated by rootlets 
of shrubs ; brow-ridges small ; occipital renflement not marked. 
Length 199, breadth 146, B.I. 734. 

,, 114D. A large adult male skull ; distorted by lateral pressure. 

,, 115D. A large adult male skull; very fragile; distorted, and perforated by 
rootlets ; face destroyed ; moderate brow-ridges ; sbght occipital 
renflement. 

; , 116D. No remarks. 

„ T17D. A long oval male skull of moderate size ; complete sagittal synostosis ; 
brow-ridges small ; occipital renflement distinct ; small mastoids ; 
right side broken. 

„ 118D. A small female skull ; long and ovoid ; nearly complete sagittal synostosis ; 
brow-ridges small ; occipital renflement not marked. 

„ 119D. A small female skull; elongated; slight annular constriction; brow- 
ridges small ; occipital renflement not marked. 

„ 120D. A moderately long ovoid male skull ; brow-ridges marked ; occipital 
renflement not marked. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 247 



Skull 121D. A laige adult male skull ; sagittal synostosis not far advanced ; measure- 
ments made on skull in situ ; brow-ridgcs small ; occipital renflement 
marked. 

., 122D. Remarks as for 121D. 

„ 124D. A small ovoid female skull with its mandible ; brow-ridges small ; occi- 
pital renflement very marked ; forehead ' high ' ; right temporal bone 
depressed within skull. 



Palaikastro; Ossuary No. 2. 

An adult male skull of moderate size ; brow-ridges moderate ; occipital 
renflement moderate ; mastoids massive. 

An adult male skull of moderate size ; brow-ridges pronounced ; occi- 
pital renflement marked ;' a large tubercle at the inion ; slightly 
scaphoid ; slightly prognathous. 

Skull of an adult male ; similar to the majority of this series ; specimen 
so crushed that only length could be measured. 

Calvaria of an adult male ; fragmentary ; moderate size ; dolicho- 
cephalic ; no measurements. 

No remarks ; evidently very fragmentary. 

No remarks ; evidently very fragmentary. 

Very fragmentary. 

No remarks ; evidently very fragmentary. 

No remarks ; evidently very fragmentary. 

Large adult male calvaria ; occipital renflement moderate ; the front 
part of the calvaria having been broken away, a false impression of 
shortness is given ; skull was really long in all probability. 
„ 140D. A large male skull, much depressed and flattened. 

„ 141D. A large adult male skull, with prominent brow-ridges ; occipital renfle- 
ment slight ; slightly bathrocephalic ; great lateral crushing, and 
with it (in this case) elevation vertically. 
„ 142D. No remarks. 
„ 144D. A long, narrow, slightly byrsoid skull ; adult male ; brow-ridges and 

occipital renflement not marked ; face much damaged. 
,, 146D. An adult male skull of moderate size ; brow-ridges distinct ; occipital 
renflement distinct ; resembles usual type, but its narrowness is 
exaggerated through compression. 

Table VI. — Prehistoric Crania. Crete {Palaikastro, Palema, 
Agios Nikolaos, &c). 



„ 130D. 
„ 131D. 

; , 132D. 

„ 133D. 

„ 134D. 
„ 135D. 
„ 136D. 
„ 137D. 
„ 138D. 
„ 139D. 



Measurements in mm. 


Male 


Female 






mm. 


No. 


mm. 


No. 


Cranial length .... 


186-4 


64 


1773 


23 


Cranial breadth •. 






136-8 


50 


1295 


17 


Breadth index . 






73-4 


— 


73-0 


— 


Basi-bregmatic height 






130-2 


20 


119-3 


9 


Height index . 






69-8 


— 


67-2 


— 


Auricular height 






118-9 


25 


111-5 


11 


Circumference . 






515-9 


21 


499-7 


11 


Basi-nasal length . 






1000 


23 


94-7 


6 


Basi-alveolar length 






95-9 


11 


91-7 


4 


Alveolar index. 






95-9 


■ — ■ 


96-8 


— 


Facial height (upper) 






650 


13 


61-7 


6 


Bizygomatic width . 






122-5 


5 


119-0 


2 


Upper facial index . 






53 1 


— 


51-8 


— 


Orbital height . 






31-7 


22 


32-6 


7 


Orbital width . 






39-5 


13 


37-0 


4 


Orbital index . 






80-2 


— 


86-7 


— 


Naral height . 






48-9 


13 


48-5 


4 


Nasal width 






24-2 


10 


24-6 


4 


Nasal index 






49-4 - 


— 


50-7 


— 



248 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Part III. 
A. Notes on the Tibia from. Palaikastro and its Neighbourhood. 

(a) Bones of Pygmy Dimensions and the Question of a Pygmy Race in Crete 

in the Neolithic Period. 

In a report published in 1903 n I described some limb-bones from 
Agios Nikolaos, and drew attention to their small size. I have realised 
lately that some of those bones are so small as to deserve a more detailed 
description and comparison than I gave in the publication mentioned 
above. In particular I notice that three of the tibiae fall far short of 
the length of the corresponding bone in skeletons of admittedly pygmy 
types, such as the Andamanese and the South African Bush race. In 
drawing attention to this remarkable fact, I have to add that the bones 
from Agios Nikolaos are undoubtedly mature, and that they are shorter 
than the bones from Schweizersbild, upon which Professor Kollmann 
has based his description of a pygmy European race of neolithic 
antiquity. 

The evidence for the preceding statements is here set forth in two 
tables : — 

Table VII. — Early Cretan Bones (measurements of length in mm.). 

Femora . . . Patema, 367 ; Agios Nikolaos, 372 Mean, 369-5 (2) 

Tibiae . . . Agios Nikolaos, 283, 287 „ 285 (2) 

Radii . . . Agios Nikolaos, 211, 214 „ 212*5 (2) 

Such are the dimensions actually observed. It will be noted that 
one very short femur occurred at Patema. The bones from this site 
(near Pioussolakkos) are assigned to the Minoan Period, and are thus 
less ancient than those found in the Neolithic Rock-shelter at Agios 
Nikolaos. 

Turning now to the comparison of these short Cretan bones with 
the other types mentioned, I have to draw upon the data provided by 
Professor Pearson in his memoir on the reconstruction of the stature 
of prehistoric skeletons (' Phil. Trans.' cxcii., A, p. 169). Taking all the 
data together, we find the following list results : — 

Table VIII — Mean Length of Femur, Tibia, and Radius in mm. (cf. fig. 8). 



Bone 


Early Cretan 


Bush 


Anda*nanese 


Schweizersbild 


Femur 

Tibia 

Radius 


369-5 (2) 
285 (2) 
212-5 (2) 


<J and ? 
375 (6) 
317 (6) 
206 (6) 


? 
380 (26) 
321 (26) 
210 (26) 


<J and ? 
373 (3) 
313 (2) 
226 (1) 



The numbers in brackets are those of the observations whence the mean values 
are derived. 

The Akka dwarfs mentioned in Professor Pearson's memoir are 
undoubtedly smaller than any of the types in this table. On the con- 
trary, a Bambute pvginv (an adult male 1 ) provides higher figures — viz., 
left femur 386 (left side), tibia 309, left radius 218. These data are 
provided by Dr. Shrubsall. 12 

11 Annual of the British School at Athens. 

12 Cf. The Uganda Protectorate, vol. ii., by Sir H. II. Johnston. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 249 

Without entering into further details, I have to submit that if the 
neolithic skeletons of Schweizersbild are accepted as establishing the 
existence of a pygmy race in that locality, then these early Cretan 
skeletons here described possess an even better claim to be recognised 
as pygmies. 

But these short Cretan bones do not stand alone in Southern 
Europe. I find that in 1904 Professor Giuffrida-Ruggeri described a 
precisely similar tibia from a neolithic site near Verona. 13 This simi- 

35 i 




Fig. 8. — Various tibiae of pygmy size : (1) (2) (3) Neolithic Cretans ; Agios Nikolaos. 
(4) Mori-ori native ; Chatham Island. (5) Bush native, South Africa. (6) Andaman 
Islander. From specimens in the Cambridge Museum. The scale is in centimetres. 

larity is established by a comparison of the dimensions of the Verona 
tibia with the smaller specimen from Agios Nikolaos. 

(6) Verona 
280 mm. 
229 
13° 



(a) Crete 

1. Length 283 mm. 

2. Ratio of circumference of shaft to length = 100 . 22 9 

3. Angle of retroversion of head on shaft . . . 11° 



Professor Giuffrida-Ruggeri claims that he has established the 
correctness of his view assigning the Verona tibia to the male sex. 
The index quoted as (2) above is considered to provide conclusive 
evidence on this point. The Cretan tibia has an equal claim to be 

1R Cf. V Anthropologic, 1904, p. 37. 



250 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

assigned to the same sex, and the second small Cretan tibia is distinctly 
more massive, as may be seen from the appended tracings from a photo- 
graph (fig. 8), in which the Cretan tibiae appear as Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 
Lest too much stress should be laid upon the characters of the tibia 
only, I may mention that certainly one skull at Agios Nikolaos, and 
several from near Palaikastro, are sufficiently small to be approximate 
in size to these small limb bones. The occurrence of a very short 
thigh-bone at Patema has been mentioned already. 

It is tempting to proclaim at once the discovery of a pygmy race 
in neolithic Crete ; in the case of the Schweizersbild remains the 
temptation was too great for Professor Kollmann to resist. But some 
consideration is necessary, and though pygmy dimensions must be 
conceded to the Cretan remains here considered, I do not believe that 
the facts provide a basis for the conclusion that a distinct race of 
pygmies is thus demonstrated to have existed. At present I do not 
know how to exclude the alternative view, viz., that the pygmy indi- 
viduals are stunted representatives of their congeners. The seriation 
of the tibial lengths is relevant in this respect, and it gives us the 
following list : — 



*6 



Table VIIIa. — Tibim from Palaikastro and its Neighbourhood- 
Maximum length (in mm.). 

355. Palaikastro. 

354. 

353. 

348. Agios Nikolaos. 

343. Palaikastro. 

341. 

330. 

328. Agios Nikolaos. 

327. Palaikastro. (Also Schweizersbild.) 

322-5. 

322. Agios Nikolaos. 

320 

318. Palaikastro. 
(299. Schweizersbild.) 

287. Agios Nikolaos. 

283. „ „ 

(280. Verona.) 

The distinct gap between the specimen (from Palaikastro) measuring 
318 mm. and its successor may ultimately prove the genuineness and 
segregation of a pygmy type; but it will be noticed that one of the 
Schweizersbild ' pygmies ' is on the upper side of that gap. Taking 
this into consideration, and remembering that the total number of 
records is but nineteen, I hold that local degeneracy of growth cannot 
be excluded as a possible explanation. I should be prepared to find 
the gap (mentioned above as existing between 318 mm. and 299 mm.) 
diminished by future records. Indeed, upon investigation I find that 
Professor Pearson M publishes data which do reduce the gap, for he 
mentions a tibia of 307 mm. as derived from a Romano-Gaulish inter- 
ment, and he adds records of nine female ' row-grave ' tibiae, with a 

11 Op. cit. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 251 

mean length equal to 303 mm. only. That these data are for female 
bones must not be forgotten. However, Mr. Hawes, on the other 
hand, has commented with emphasis 15 on the local reduction of stature 
manifested in the little island of Gavados (off the coast of Sphakia) ; in 
the neolithic period (and even later), similar agencies may have been at 
work in the neighbourhood of Palaikastro. At the same time, the 
occurrence of these neolithic individuals with pygmy stature is worthy 
of very special notice, and the interpretation here preferred is not 
submitted as in any way final. 

(6) The ' Squatting ' Facet. 

The tibiae from Agios Nikolaos possess yet another interesting 
character, viz., the presence in six instances (all that were available for 
the observation in question) of the facet at the lower end of the bone 
known as the ' squatting ' facet. This facet is undoubtedly associated 




Fig. 9. — The ' squatting facet ' (No. 1) shown in each of six tibiae of neolithic 
antiquity : from a rock-shelter at Agios Nikolaos near Palaikastro ( x £). 

with the habitual assumption of the attitude thus indicated, but the 
chief point of interest is the constancy with which the facet appears 
in these neolithic Cretan bones. Tracings of the parts of the bones in 
question are appended (fig. 9). 



B.— The Tibia, and Platycnemia. 

A large number of fragmentary tibiae (shin-bones) was available for 
the determination of the occurrence and frequency of the flattened 
variety described as ' platycnemic' It will be fair to consider the 
vast majority of the platycnemic bones as exhibiting the ' posterior 
tibial ' variety of the conformation. For in my notebooks I find but 
one or two specially mentioned as exhibiting the ' soleal ' type of 
platycnemia. 

(i) The Material. 

One hundred and twenty-nine ancient bones were measured at 
Palaikastro and its neighbourhood. For the purpose of comparison it 
was necessary to subdivide them first into two groups according to their 

15 Brit. Assoc. Reports, Sheffield, 1910, p. 234. 



252 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



1912. 



absolute dimensions. The smaller group is probably composed mainly 
of female bones. Each group (large bones and small bones) was then 
subdivided into two others (for the right and left limb respectively). 

(ii) Subdivisions. 
The fourfold mode of division thus adopted results as follows : 

Tibiw, 129. 



Right side 
Left side 



Large bones. 
. 49 
. 60 



Total 



109 



Small bones. 
11 
9 

20 



(iii) The Larger Bones. 

The large bones will be considered first. The means of the 
diameters and of the indices based upon these have been tabulated 
(Table IX.). I have added the determinations of the standard devia- 
tion, the coefficient of variability, and the coefficient of correlation. The 
following remarks are of importance in connection with these results. 

Table IX. — Cretan Tibia (Palaikaslro, <fcc). 





Side 














Character 


to which 
Bones 
belong 


No. of 
Examples 


Mean 


<r 


C 


N 


Remarks 


1. Antero- 


R.+L 


109 


31-65 


2-66 


8-3 


0065 


Only ' large ' tibiae 


posterior 


R. 


49 


31-80 


2-69 


8-4 


0152 


considered 


diameter 


L. 


60 


31-52 


2-63 


8-21 


0115 




2. Transverse 


R. + L. 


109 


20-62 


207 


9-85 


0039 


Ditto 


diameter 


R. 


49 


20-84 


1-84 


8-76 


0069 






L. 


60 


20-44 


213 


10-65 


0076 


Range of Index, 
50-79 


3. Index . 


R. + L. 


109 


65-36 


5-24 


806 


0-252 


65 as mean index 




R. 


49 


6603 


510 


7-72 


0-528 


66 as mean index 




L. 


60 


64-84 
'r' 


516 

P.E. 

off' 


7-94 


0-444 


65 as mean index 


4. Coefficient 


R. + L. 


109 


+0-668 


±003 






' Large ' bones 


of correla- 


R. 


49 


+0-729 








only 


tion^/-': 


L. 


60 


+0-507 










for antero- 
















posterior 
















and trans- 
















verse dia- 
















meters 

















The means of the diameters are less than those for Anglo-Saxon 
tibiae, the only data I have for comparison. 16 But the estimated stature 
of the early Cretans is but 1,625 mm., as against the estimate of 
1,680 mm. provided by Mr. Parsons for the Anglo-Saxons. 

The most variable dimension is shown (by the coefficient of vari- 

16 Cf. Parsons, Journal oj the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. xli., January 
and June 1911, pp. 126, 127. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 253 



ability) to be the transverse diameter of the left tibia, 
tables for this diameter may be summarised as follows :- 



The sedation 



Above the mean value 
Of the moan value 
Below the mean value 



Table X. 

Transverse Diameter 

Right Tibia (49) Left Tibia (GO) 

Per cent. Per cent. 

38-77 55 

2857 10 

32-65 35 



The frequencies for the left tibia clearly explain the greater value 
of the corresponding coefficient, and suggest the presence of two 
strongly contrasted types of bone. Such asymmetry has not been 
recognised previously. 

[Pre-dynastic Egyptians present the same feature ; thirty right 
tibiae yield me a mean index of 66, against 64 for thirty left tibiae.] 

The index of Platycnemia 17 next calls for consideration. And it 
will be noticed that on the average the left bone provides a lower index 
(64 - 84) than does the right (66-03). This difference between the right 
and left bones may be further emphasised by the following summary 
of the seriation tables: — 

Table XI. 



Values below 59 
Values above 75 



Platycnemic Index. 

. Right Tibia 

Left Tibia : 

. Right Tibia 

Left Tibia : 



No example 
Six examples = 10 % 
Two examples =4 08 % 
No example 



Turning to the comparison of the prehistoric Cretan bones with 
those of other localities and races, I find the materials collected by- 
Professor A. Thomson and Professor Manouvrier suitable for my pur- 
pose. From the data supplied by them, 18 I have drawn up the follow- 
ing list, introducing my Cretan and Egyptian data. 







Table XII. 






Type 


No. of 
Examples 


Index 


Type 


No. of 
Examples 


Index 


Europeans 


31 


73-7 


Ancient Egyptians 


3 


66-7 


Vedda . . 


3 


72-5 


Andamanese . 


30 


65-9 


Small Cretans 


20 


7213 


Large Cretans 


109 


65-4 


Peruvians 


6 


70-4 


Pre-dyn. Egyptian. 


60 


65-1 


Lapps 


7 


70-2 


Large Guanche 


? 


64-9 


Negroes . 


12 


69-7 


New Caledonians . 


4 


64-2 


Eskimo . 


5 


68-5 


Large Crecy . 


25 


61-9 


Bush 


5 


68-2 


Moderate Crecy . 


23 


61-5 


Polynesians . 


8 


680 


Moderate Guanche 


? 


61-3 


Australians 


22 


66-8 


Tasmanians . 


3 


60-3 



The prehistoric Cretan bones are observed to fall among the pre- 
historic representatives of other types, and they are not far removed 

17 Platycnemia is distinct when the index is below 69, and it is very marked when 
the index is below 63. 

18 Thomson, Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. xxiii., 1888-89, p. 638 ; 
Manouvrier, Mim. de laSoc. d'Anlh. de Paris (2), 3,'l888 ; Klaatseh, comparing the 
data in the foregoing memoirs, Analomische Hefle, X., 1901, S. 671. 



254 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 



from the early Egyptians and the Guanches. It is to be remarked, 
further, that the large Cretan bones are more platycnemic than the 
small ones. Herein they follow a general rule first recognised by 
Manouvrier. 

The coefficient of correlation (cf. Table IX. 4) is rather high in 
comparison with its value for most cranial characters. I have no 
comparable data, so I will merely point out the fact that the corre- 
lation of the two diameters is least in the left bones, and this is easily 
intelligible in the light of the remarks already made in commenting 
upon their variability as compared with those of the right leg. 

(iv) The Smaller Bones. 

The small tibiae remain for consideration. The data are as follows : — 

Table XIII. 









Antero-posterior 


Transverse 




No. 


Index 


Diameter 


Diameter 




(mean value) 


(mean value) 


(mean value) 








in mm. 


in mm. 


Right . 


11 


72-88 


2523 


20-2 


Left 


9 


71-23 


24-88 


17-72 


Right and Left . 


20 


7213 


2507 


1908 

• 



The outstanding feature is the greater tendency of the left tibia to 
assume platycnemic proportions. This has been the subject of com- 
ment already. The indices show less platycnemia than in the case of 
the large bones. Apart from these remarks, no further discussion of 
these records is necessary here. 

C. The Femora from Palaikastro and its Neighbourhood. 
(i) The Material. 
As in the case of the tibia, the frequency and degree of occurrence 
of various types of femoral conformation could be determined in frag- 
ments useless for estimates of stature. As with the tibiae also, a 
subdivision into large and small groups, and again into those of the 
right and left limbs respectively, has been carried out in respect of the 
femora. One hundred and twenty-four specimens are available. 

(ii) Subdivisions. 
The grouping is therefore as follows: — 

Large femora Small femora 
. 52 8 

. 52 12 



Right 
Left . 



Total 



104 



20 



(iii) The Larger Bones. 
The large bones will be considered first. The observations were 
those necessary for determining the index of Platymeria. This 
character, 19 a flattening of the femoral shaft, is very erratic in its dis- 
tribution, even more so than is platycnemia. Like platycnemia, it is 
locally (e.g., in Western Europe) very characteristic of prehistoric 

19 The recent literature of Platymeria has been summarised admirably by Professor 
Klaatsch in the Anatomische Hefte, Band X. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 255 



skeletons of particular periods, such as the Neolithic Period in the 
area just mentioned. As regards the index, it will suffice to state that 
when this falls below eighty, the character in question becomes very 
distinct. As in the case of the observations on the tibia, I have deter- 
mined the mean values of the two diameters, and of the index derived 
from these. As before, so here I have added the values of the standard 
deviation, the coefficients of variability and of correlation in each case. 
These data are set forth in the following table : — 



Table XIV. — Cretan femora. 


(Palo 


ikastro, 


<kc.) 






Side 














Character 


to which 
Bones 
belong 


No. of 
Examples 


Mean 


2-35 


C 


a* 

N 


Remarks 


1. Antero- 


R.+L. 


104 


22 96 


10-21 


0051 


Only 'large' 


posterior 


R. 


52 


22-77 


217 


943 


0091 


femora are 


diameter 


L. 


52 


2316 


2-30 


1000 


0101 


considered 


2. Transverse 


R.+L. 


104 


30-73 


2-51 


81 


0060 


Ditto 


diameter 


R. 


52 


30-41 


2-41 


8 03 


0112 






L. 


52 


3100 


2-57 


8-29 


0127 




3. Index 


R. + L. 


104 


74-9 


6-38 


8-51 


0-382 


Range : 61-94 




R. 


52 


750 


661 


8-81 


0-839 






L. 


52 


74-8 
'r' 


615 

P.E. 
of 'r' 


8-20 


0-728 




4. Coefficient 


R.+L. 


104 


+0-508 


+ 044 






'Large' bones 


of corre- 


R. 


52 


+0-568 








only 


lation of 


L. 


52 


+0-572 










antero- 
















posterior 






- 










and trans- 
















verse dia- 














• 


meters^ r' 

















Taking the mean values of the diameters, it will be noticed that 
they fall below those of the Anglo-Saxon femora recorded by Parsons, 20 
and far below those of modern British femora. With regard to vari- 
ability, the high coefficient (10"00) provided by the left femora for the 
antero-posterior diameter is especially noteworthy. The difference 
between the right and left sides is not so great as in the tibiae, but it 
is again the left side that yields the indication of greater variability. 
Examining the seriations as in the case of the tibies, and again sum- 
marising the results, we have : — 

Table XV. 



Antero-posterior Diameter 


Prehistoric Femora 
Right 


Cretan Femora 
Left 


Above the mean value . 

Of the mean value .... 

Below the mean value . 


Per cent. 
32-55 
2310 
44 35 


Per cent. 
40-4 
17-30 
42-30 



20 Op. cit., p. 125. 



256 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



To appreciate the difference between the two sides the numbers 
falling on the mean value are to be compared. The difference is thus 
seen to be of the same kind as has been noted already in regard to the 
tibiae. 

Coming to the index of platymeria (Table XIV., 3), it will be 
observed that the index for the left femora is less than that for the 
right. The difference is again less marked than in the tibiae, but it is 
of the same kind. The frequency of distribution is as follows: — 

Table XVI. — Index of Platymeria, Prehistoric Cretan Femora. 



— 


Right Femur 


Left Femur 


Index above the mean value 
Of the mean value (75) . 
Below the mean value (and there- 
fore markedly platymeric) . 


Per cent. 
40-3 
11 5 

48-2 


Per cent. 

38-45 

5-75 

55-8 



The mean value of the index of platymeria (for the large bones of 
both sides combined) associates the prehistoric Cretans with the 
Guanches and the Ancient Egyptians. This indication confirms that 
given by the index of platycnemia. I have made out the following 
list from data recorded by Professors Hepburn and Lehmann-Nitsche 
and summarised by Professor Klaatsch. 21 





Table 


XVII. 










Mean Value of 




Mean Value of 


Type 


Index 


Type 


Index 


Eskimo 


88-3 


Alemans . 


79-7 


Modern French 


88-0 


Chinese 






79-7 


Creoles 


86-6 


Andamanese 






780 


Bush .... 


86-2 


Kaffirs 






77-6 


Negroes . 


85-3 


Venezuelans 






761 


Neanderthal (R.) . 


85-3 (R.) 


Japanese . 






751 


Australians 


82-2 


Large Cretans 






74-9 


Oceanic Negroes 


820 


Spy No. II. 






74-3 


British 


81-8 


Ancient Egypti 


ans 




710 


Small Cretans . 


81-55 


Guanches . 






70-7 


Manitoba Indians . 


80-8 


Fuegians . 






66-9 


Neanderthal (L.) . 


80-5 (L.) 


Polynesians 






65-4 


Spy No. I. (R.) . 


800 (R.) 


Maoris 






63-6 



Lastly, the relation of the smaller to the larger Cretan bones is- 
the same a3 in the case of the index of platycnemia. 

The coefficient of correlation (Table XIV., 4) is not so high as that 
for the two diameters of the tibia, though it is not to be described as 
small in comparison with the values of this coefficient in the case of 
most cranial dimensions. But I have no comparative data for femora, 
so that I must be content to provide the record for the Cretan series- 
without further comment. 



21 Analomische Hefte, 1901, Band X., S. 629. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 257 

(Iv) The Smaller Bones. 

Twenty of the smallest femora have been set aside, and yield the 
following mean values: — 

Number Mean Value of Mean Value of Antero- Mean Value of 

Index posterior Diameter Transverse Diameter 

Right . 8 82-43 22-62 25-93 

Left. . 12 80-97 2112 2612 

As with the larger bones, so here the left femora are more platy- 
meric than the right. And the small series is less platymeric than the 
large one. The factors (a) of sex (b) of absolute dimensions enter into 
this matter, as in the comparable instance of platycnemia. 

D. General Outcome of the Data considered in Sections B and C, supra. 

A general review of the data discussed in sections B and leads 
to the conclusion that the prehistoric inhabitants of Sitia resemble 
other early Mediterranean representatives of that type in respect of 
their tibiae and femora, as well as in their cranial conformation. Other- 
wise the prehistoric Cretan bones follow a general rule whereby the 
longer bones (including a majority of males) differ from the smaller and 
shorter ones (including a majority of females). In both the tibia and 
femur alike the right and left limbs are seen to differ in a manner 
which has not been previously recorded and which has yet to find an 
explanation. Other data are provided, for which no comparable 
materials are yet on record. 

E. Other Observations on the Limb-bones of the Ancient Inhabitants of 

Palaikastro and its neighbourhood. 

The frequency of the perforation of the humerus (in the ' olecranon 
fossa * at its lower end) has been recorded in numerous instances. The 
excavations in Eastern Crete during 1903 provided 68 bones on which 
observations could be made. In regard to the perforation mentioned 
above, the following data were collected : — 

Per cent. 
No. of humeri examined (the sex was not determined) . 68 100 

No. of perforate bones 17 25 

No. of imperforate bones 51 75 

68 100 

The frequency of perforation is greatly in excess of that in modern 
European skeletons. I have the following records for comparison : — 

Table XVIII. 

Per cent. 

Western Europeans (modern) 4 to 5 

African negroes 21-7 

Polynesians 34-3 

4 Altaic * and American races 36 2 

Prehistoric. 

Guanches of the Canary Islands 25-6 

Pre-dynastic Egyptians 600 

1912. s 



258 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 



The similarity of the records from Crete to those from the Canary 
Islands is remarkable. 

Part IV. — The Physical Characteristics of Modern Greeks. 

This report is an extension of section (d) of my Report to the Cretan 
Committee in 1903. The material there described consists of measure- 
ments made on 100 individuals in the Reformatory at Athens. Of these 
individuals, one was a Cretan : this necessitates his exclusion here. In 
another instance, the measurements are not complete as to number. 
In consequence the available data are derived from 99, or in some 
cases 98 individuals. 

In 1903 a very brief abstract of the results was submitted. On the 
present occasion I amplify the earlier notes by the results summarised 
in the two tables appended. 

A. Comparative Lists of Physical Characteristics of Greek Reformatory 
Youths and Modern Cretans. 

A . These tables give results expressed as percentages : the observa- 
tions are tabulated with the corresponding data for adult Cretans. The 
latter are much more numerous than the Greeks : they were measured 
by myself in 1903, but were not included in my report of that year. 
I ought to mention in this place that as regards Crete, and perhaps as 
regards Greece also, Mr. Hawes must possess material incomparably 
greater than mine. But even though the publication of those more 
extensive investigations may lead to modifications of my results, I take 
the view that, since they are not yet published, I ought to report with- 
out further delay to the Committee on the task committed to me. 



Table XIX. — Greek Rejormatory Youths 


; General Physical Characters 


compared 




with those of 


adult Cretans. 






Locality 




Locality 
Greece | Crete 


Greece | Crete 




Number 




Number 


i96 | 173 


96 | 173 


Complexion 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Eyes: Colour 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Pale .... 


44-2 


10-5 


Brown, Light . 


2-8 


1-7 


Ruddy 


358 


60-5 


,, Medium 


5-2 


8-25 


Dark .... 


16-82 


29 


„ Dark . 


38-5 


1260 


Freckled . 


318 





Face 






Hair: Colour 
Red . . . . 
Fair .... 


104 
3 15 


0-56 
340 


Narrow . 
Medium . 
Broad 

Ears 
Flat .... 
Outstanding . 
Lobes of Ears 


42 42 
3333 
24-24 


31 3 
450 
23-7 


Brown 

Dark 

Jet-black. 


27125 
22-825 
45-75 


13-30 
3600 
4710 


541 
45-9 


74 
26 


Eyes : Colour 






Present . 


72-54 


69-5 


Blue. 


2-6 


8-5 


Absent . 


27-46 


305 


Grey 


130 


12-6 


Cheek-bones 






Green 


26 


15-9 


Inconspicuous 


71 1 


50-2 


Hazel 


359 


405 


Prominent 


28-9 


49-8 



ARCH GEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 259 



Table XIX. — This table requires the following comments: — 

"With regard to complexion, the only point worth notice is the 
presence of freckled individuals in Greece and the absence of any record 
of their occurrence in Crete. For the rest the circumstances of 
existence in the Reformatory must be held largely accountable, so far 
as any contrasts appear. 

The hair offers few contrasts in point of colour, save that the 
occurrence of red hair seems rather more pronounced on the mainland. 

The eye- colour is distinctly darker among the Greek youths. The 
proportions of the face are not very different in the two areas. Such 
differences as the table suggests are negligible in view of the lesser age 
of the Greeks. Similar remarks apply to the characters of the cheek- 
bones. On the whole, then, the colour of the eyes offers the only 
reliable basis for argument as to differences between the Cretans and 
the population of the mainland and the nearest islands. 

Table XX. — Greek Reformatory Youth* : Head Dimensions compared with those of 

Adidt Cretans. 



— 


Locality 





Locality 


Greece 


Crete 


Greece 


Crete 


1. Number 


98 or 99 


200 


Mesaticephalic % 


25-51 


45 


2. Head length 


183-6 


186-27 


Brachycephalic % 


7143 


42-5 


3. Head breadth . 


1511 


148-33 


10. Standard devia- 


418 


4-lOf 


4. Cephalic index . 


82-5 


79-6 


tion of cephalic 






5. Head height 


136-8 


136-8 


index 






6. Height index . 


74-7 


735* 


Probable error . 


±0-201 


±0-048 


7. Nasal height 


52-9 


54-2 


11. Coefficient of vari- 


509 


517f 


8. Nasal width 


346 


33-7 


ation of cephalic 






9. Nasal index. 


65-7 


62-2* 


index 






Cephalic Index. 






Probable error . 


±0-246 


±0-061 


Dolichocephalic % 


306 


12 


12. Age in years 


191 


Adult 



* From mean values. 



t Data by Mr. Hawes from 1,600 adult males. 



B. Mean Values, Standard Deviation, and Coefficients. 

Table XX shows that the Greek youths have a greater frequency 
of brachycephaly than the Cretans. The latter are, however, from all 
parts of Crete. If the several provinces of Crete be compared with each 
other and with these Greek records, certain regions of Crete will show 
a frequency of brachycephaly surpassing that met with among these 
Greeks. Further discussion of this matter is reserved for the section 
dealing with the distribution of the various values of the cephalic index. 

The relative value of the vertical diameter of the head shows that 
the latter is more nearly spherical in the Greek youths. 

I ascribe the difference in the nasal index to the difference in age 
of the two series ; at least, I am sure the factor of age is responsible 
for most of the difference observed. 

The standard deviation is represented by a figure which is large 
in comparison with many of those now on record. I have worked out 
a number of comparable data, which will be found in a paper on 

s 2 



260 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Sardinian craniology. 22 I must observe that the youth of the Greeks 
is no doubt partly responsible for the very high numerical values 
assigned to the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation. 
This factor is negligible in the case of the Cretans, who must be 
regarded therefore as the more variable, even though the actual figures 
do not indicate this. But both are to be regarded as very variable or 
as presenting the characters of a mixed stock of humanity. Apart 
from this, and taking the figures as they stand, the standard deviations 
provide a means of testing the value observed to obtain between the 
figures recorded for the cephalic index in the two series. Those values 
are respectively 82'5 (Greeks) and 79'6 (Cretans), or 79'2 if we take 
Mr. Hawes' mean value for 1,600 Cretans. The latter figure (79 - 2) 
is used since the standard deviation (4 - l) is based upon it. The test is 
to compare the expression M, - M 3 (in this case 82'5 - 79'2, or 3"3) with 



0-6745 



a/s 



i- + ^-=0-6745 x 0-434 = 0-293. 



That is, we have to compare 3'3 with - 293. The former is more 
than thrice the amount of the latter, and on this account the difference 
between the Greeks and Cretans here observed is not accountable to 
' random sampling,' but to some real difference independent of the 
actual numbers of individuals measured. 





Table XXI 


— Greek Reformatory 


Youths 














P E of 




P.E. of 




P.E. of 


a* 


Character 




No. 


Mean 


Mean 


ff 


<r 


C. 


C. 


N 








+ 




+ 




+ 




Cephalic index 


98 


82-5 


0-285 


418 


0-201 


509 


0-246 


0178 


Head length 






99 


183-6 


0-430 


6-35 


0305 


3-45 


0165 


0-408 


Head breadth 






98 


1511 


0-422 


6-20 


0-299 


410 


0197 


0-392 


Head height 






99 


136-8 


0-388 


5-735 


0-274 


418 


0-201 


0-332 


Height index 






99 


74-7 


0-261 


3-85 


0183 


513 


0-246 


0-150 


Nasal height 






99 


51-9 


0-245 


362 


0173 


6-96 


0-334 


0-132 


Nasal width 






99 


34-6 


0152 


2-236 


0107 


6-58 


0-316 


0051 


Nasal index . 






99 


65-7 


0-421 


621 


0-298 


9-41 


0-450 


0-390 



Table XXII. — Correlations. 



Characters 


No. 


'r' 


P.E. of V 


Length : Breadth 


98 


+0086 


+ 
00667 


Length : Height • 


99 


+01001 


00667 


Breadth : Height 


98 


+0-255 


00634 


Cephalic index : Length . 


98 


-0-630 


0340 


Cephalic index : Breadth . 


98 


+0-746 


00242 


Cephalic index : Nasal 


98 


+00573 


00678 


index 








Nasal height : Nasal width 


99 


-00133 


00677 



22 Published in the Zeitschrift filr Morphologie und Anthropologic, Band xiii., 1911. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 261 

I have supplied the data necessary for extending tests of this kind 
in the next table (XXI.) where the standard deviation, the coefficient 

2 

of variation, and the numerical value of the ratio — are recorded for 

each of the measurements made on the Reformatory youths. 

Table XXII. — The correlation of the length with the breadth of 
the head is extremely low. The comparable data for the height and 
length, as for the breadth and height, are in an ascending scale, so 
that the sequence runs as follows : — 

1 . Length and breadth (least closely related). 

2. Length and height. 

3. Breadth and height (most closely related). 

But the correlation is of a low value throughout. The value of the 
coefficient for the cephalic index and the length is more interesting. 
As the table shows, this is of high value, but with the negative sign 
(-0*63). That this should be the case could be inferred from what 1 
have stated in regard to the correlation of the length and breadth. It 
is, however, of interest to compare this value with those derived from 
three sets of skulls presenting marked dolichocephalic proportions. 
Thus we have 

Index 

Greek heads -0-630 (805) 

Sardinian crania —0-543 (71-53) 

Naqada Egyptians -0-551 (72-99) 

Mediaeval English -0-547 (74-34) 

Correlation here seems to be comparatively independent of the absolute 
value of the cephalic index. 

C. Distribution of the Cephalic Index and the Nasal Index, as shown 

on the Maps. 

The regional distribution of the young Greeks is now to be con- 
sidered. Their great variability in respect of the cephalic index has 
been noticed already. Hitherto I have dealt with them as a single 
group, but it is necessary to add that they come from a wide area, and 
that, of the ninety-nine, fourteen are from islands close to the main- 
land, while the remote islands supply four individuals. They are 
classified as follows: — 

I Mainland 81 

f Ionian Islands .... 8 

II. Islands close to mainland : \ Eubcea 4 

[ Spetzai 2 

III. Remote islands . . . Amorgos, Mitylene, Naxos, 

Paros, one each ... 4 

99 

With regard to the cephalic index, I have drawn up the comparisons 
set forth in Table XXIII. 



262 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Table XXIII. 

1. Range of the cephalic index (in units) : — 

(a) for 98 individuals from all parts . 
(6) for 18 islanders (Ionian islands, &c.) 

(c) for 8 Ionian islanders 

(d) for 4 islanders of Eubcea 

2. Mean value of the cephalic index : — 

(a) for 98 individuals from all parts . 

(b) for 18 islanders (Ionian islands, &c.) 

(c) for 4 islanders of Eubcea 

(d) for 8 Ionian islanders 

(c) for 2 islanders of Spetzai 

(/) lor 4 islanders (Amorgos, &c.) 



74 to 92 
75-4 to 88-1 
75-4 to 881 
781 to 860 

82-5 

81-75 

82-5 

81-4 

84-4 

80-4 



On this Table XXIII. I have to remark first that the range of 
variation in the Ionian islands is very striking. As regards the mean 
value of the cephalic index, the similarity between the figures for the 
mainland and those for Eubcea are noteworthy. In a previous section 
of this report (Part I., p. 4) I suggested that the investigation of 
Eubcea would be instructive, particularly were a search instituted for 
the type of head described as ' armenoid. ' When I made that recom- 
mendation I had not undertaken the analysis given in Table XXIII. 
But that analysis provides some confirmation (slight, it is true) of the 
validity of my suggestion. Thus two of the four records from Eubcea 
(Nos. 169 and 170) have indices above 85, i.e., are markedly brachy- 
cephalic, and the heads are moreover short rather than broad (the 
lengths being respectively 179 and 181). In each instance the age of 
twenty-one years had been attained, so that the full dimensions of 
the cranium had been nearly acquired. In the absence of any head- 
contours I am unable to press this claim further. 

Eeturning to other points in Table XXIII. , the high degree of 
brachycephaly in the island of Spetzai is worth notice. There are but 
two records. They may serve to show the difficulty of basing any 
argument on such a small number of observations. The mean value 
of the index is 84*4. It is claimed that Spetzai is the site of an 
Albanian colony. This might seem to explain the high mean value 
just recorded, and no doubt it actually does so. But the mean index 
(84*4) is derived from the indices 81'7 and 87"1. The latter should 
provide (according to Mr. Hawes' view) measurements indicative of 
a head of no great length, but very broad. Actually the measurements 
whence the index in question (87*1) is derived were, for length 178 mm. 
and for breadth 155 mm. The individual presents us, therefore, with 
the length characteristic of the armenoid head, combined with the 
breadth deemed indicative of the dorian (illyrian) type. If the age of 
the man be inquired into, the anomalous condition is cleared up to a 
large extent, for the age was but sixteen years. The head in question 
has (I hope) grown by now to its full size. If we allow 5 mm. in 
addition to the length (for the fully formed frontal sinuses), and 2 mm. 
be added to the breadth, the resulting values are for length 183 and 
for breadth 157 (the index becoming 85'7), which brings the head close 
to Mr. Hawes' estimate for Albanians. 23 

28 Cf. Hawes' Annual of the British School at Athens, No. XVI., p. 267. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 263 

The other youth from Spetzai was eighteen years of age. The 
head measured 178 mm. by 147 mm. I think that the additions in 
this case could not exceed 4 mm. for length or 3 mm. for breadth. 
This would give 182 mm. for length, 150 mm. for breadth; in other 
words, the values would be characteristic of the armenoid head-form. 




Map I. 



In continuing the attempt to extract some evidence from the dis- 
tribution of the Greek youths, I prepared two maps. In one of these 
the cephalic index (the nearest whole number is plotted) is shown. 
The other map gives the distribution of the nasal index. Taking first 
the cephalic index (Map I.), and selecting the higher values, viz., those 



264 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



of 84 or more, for purposes of comparison, I endeavoured to ascertain 
whether any regularity could be detected in the distribution of the 
shorter heads (taking those measuring 182 mm. or less), and of the 
broader heads (155 or more). Assuming that all three brachycephalic 




Map II. 



heads are of the piano-occipital type of Toldt, the shorter ones may be 
termed ' armenoid ' and the longer ones ' dorian.' It is to be noted 
that the seriations both of length and of breadth give indications of 
two peaks, one above, the other below, the mean value. But I find 
the two groups inextricably confused; indeed, the sole conclusion I can 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 265 

draw from this map of the cephalic index is that there seems to be a 
rather greater and more frequent brachycephaly on the western side 
than on the eastern. Nor have my attempts to interpret the distribu- 
tion of the nasal index (Map II.) met with any greater success. More- 
over, the factor of age is almost certainly more productive of fallacy in 
the case of this index than in that of the cephalic index. But the 
chief defect is lack of records. 

In concluding this report, I may be allowed to repeat that my first 
aim has been to provide a formal record of work accomplished. Beyond 
this, I have entered into discussions so far only as they were necessary 
to indicate the nature of the records and the objects with which they 
were collected. I hope that the data may be of some use in con- 
junction with the great stores which Mr. Hawes has accumulated. 
The measurements and the chief indices of the Greek Reformatory 
youths will be found in Table XXIV., which is appended. 



Table XXIV. — Greek Youths, Reformatory, Athens. 

Note. — The indications heading the several columns are to be interpreted as 
follows : — ■ 



H.L. =Head length. 

H.B. =Head breadth. 

H.H. =Head height (auricular). 

B.I. = Cephalic index. 



H.I. = Height index. 
N.L. =Nasal length. 
N.W. = Nasal width. 
N.I. = Nasal index. 



No. 


Age 


H.L. 


H.B. 


H.H. 


B.I. 


H.I. 


N.L. 


N.W. 


N.I. 


4 


18 


189 


153 


1425 


81-0 


75-4 


52-5 


34-5 


65-7 


6 


18 


180 


156 


148-5 


86-7 


82-5 


55 


35 


63-6 


7 


19 


190 


143 


130 


75-3 


68-4 


55-5 


34 


61-2 


8 


15 


183 


148 


133 


80-9 


72-7 


45 


36 


800 


10 


16 


187 


159 


148 


850 


791 


56 


33 


58-9 


11 


22 


192 


144 


131 


750 


68-2 


48 


37-5 


781 


14 


25 


189 


157 


127 


831 


67-2 


51 


35 


68-6 


18 


19 


185 


143 


130 


77-3 


703 


545 


365 


66-9 


19 


16 


179 


150 


129 


83-8 


721 


49 


38 


77-6 


20 
23 


17 


190 


149 


133 


78-4 


70 


52 


34 


654 


185 


1864 


1502 


13520 


S06-5 


725-9 


518-5 


353-5 


6860 


18 


181 


152 


137 


84 


75-7 


54 


34 


63 


24 


18 


185 


159 


146 


85-9 


78-9 


56 


34 


60-7 


26 


25 


182 


154 


135-5 


84-6 


74-4 


53 


35 


660 


30 


16 


179 


148 


135 


82-7 


75-5 


55 


345 


62-7 


32 


19 


184 


161 


140 


87-5 


761 


55 


37 


67-3 


33 


20 


181 


155 


139 


85-6 


76-8 


62 


325 


524 


37 


16 


170 


155 


137 


91 2 


80-6 


47 


35 


74-5 


38 


18 


187 


147 


129 


78-6 


690 


50 


35 


700 


40 


14 


172 


140 


137 


81-4 


79-7 


49 


34 


69-4 


41 


19 


187 


? 


131 


? 


701 


48 


34 


70-8 


183 


1808 


1371 


1366-5 


761-5 


756-8 


529 


3450 


656-8 



266 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Table XXIV. — Greek Youths, Reformatory, Athens — continued. 



N... 


Age 


H.L. 


H.B. 


H.H. 


B.I. 


H.I. 


N.L. 


N.W. 


N.I. 


43 


20 


189 


157 


136 


831 


72 


515 


38 


73-7 


44 


18 


180 


136 


134 


756 


74-4 


48 


34 


70-8 


46 


17 


182 


146 


139 


80-2 


76-4 


56 


35 


62-5 


48 


18 


197 


154 


132 


78-2 


67 


54-5 


38-5 


70-6 


51 


20 


186 


145 


126 


780 


67-7 


53 


34-5 


650 


52 


18 


182 


137 


144 


753 


791 


53 


34 


64-2 


53 


20 


183 


152 


133 


831 


72-7 


50 


33 


660 


56 


18 


180 


148 


138 


82-2 


76-7 


58 


36-5 


62-9 


58 


21 


195 


151 


131 


77-4 


67-2 


57 


33 


57-9 


59 

02 


19 


171 


152 


138 


88-9 


80-7 


55 


365 


66-3 


189 


1845 


1478 


1351 


802 


7339 


5360 


353 


659-9 


18 


182 


146 


136 


80-2 


74-7 


50 


35-5 


710 


63 


18 


194 


147 


143 


75-8 


73-7 


53 


36 


67-9 


64 


22 


185 


145 


129 


78-4 


69 7 


52 


35 


67-3 


65 


18 


187 


157 


142 


84 


759 


59 


31 


52-7 


67 


18 


191 


170 


141 


89 


73-8 


46 


325 


70-6 


68 


20 


177 


155 


128-5 


87-6 


72-6 


52 


32 


61-5 


72 


21 


187 


159 


132 


850 


70-6 


60 


31 


51-7* 


73 


18 


182 


157 


140 


86-3 


76-9 


53-5 


355 


66-3 


74 


16 


185 


143 


140 


77-3 


75-7 


46 


365 


793 


76 

77 


20 


183 


143 


141 


781 


770 


50 


35 


700 


189 


1853 


1522 


1372-5 


821-7 


740-6 


521-5 


3400 


658-3 


21 


188 


150 


132 


79-8 


70-2 


56 


33-5 


59-8 


79 


18 


188 


158 


140 


84 


74-5 


55 


34 


61-8 


81 


19 


185 


156 


130 


84-3 


703 


53 


37-5 


70-7 


88 


21 


180 


161 


132-5 


89-4 


750 


52 


35 


67-3 


90 


21 


191 


140 


142-5 


733 


76-0 


58 


37 


63-8 


93 


12 


173 


148 


138 


85-5 


79-8 


51 


30 


58-8 


96 


20 


172 


148 


133 


860 


77-3 


58 


33 


56-9 


97 


17 


182 


148 


134 


81-3 


73-6 


46 


31-5 


68-4 


98 


17 


190 


156 


141 


821 


74-2 


55 


36-5 


66-3 


100 
101 


24 
190 


201-5 


152 


142 


75-4 


70-4 


54 


35 


64-8t 


18505 


1517 


1365-0 


8211 


741-3 


538 


3430 


638-6 


19 


182 


158 


142-5 


86-8 


79-5 


47 


36 


76-6 


102 


20 


186 


156 


140 


83-9 


75-3 


52 


37 


71-2 


103 


16 


179 


152 


139-5 


84-9 


77-6 


50 


34 


680 


104 


19 


174 


144 


12S 


82-8 


73-6 


52 


34 


65-4 


110 


19 


193 


147 


141 


76-2 


73 1 


49 


33 


67-3 


111 


17 


180 


148 


139 


82-2 


77-2 


50 


32 


640 


115 


20 


177 


144 


131-5 


81-4 


740 


55 


30 


54-5 


116 


17 


174 


148 


125 


85 1 


71-8 


55 


34 


61-8 


117 


18 


188 


142 


136 


75-5 


72-3 


54 


33-5 


62 


121 


18 


197 


150 


137 


761 


69-5 


53 


38 


71-7 


183 


1830 


1489 


1359-5 


814-9 


743-9 


517 


341 5 


662-5 



♦ A. Film 10, 



| Rhomboid. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 267 
Table XXIV. — Greek Youths, Reformatory, Athens — continued. 



No. 


Age 


H.L. 


H.B. 


H.H. 

138-5 


B.I. 


H.I. 


N.L. 


N.W. 


N.I. 


123 


19 


188 


144 


76-6 


73-6 


58-5 


34 


581 


124 


19 


174 


145 


132 


83-3 


75-9 


56 


33 


58-9 


127 


19 


188 


146 


137 


77-7 


72-9 


51-5 


355 


68-9 


131 


22 


184-5 


157 


134 


850 


72-7 


59 


34 


57-6 


132 


18 


188 


152 


130 


80-9 


691 


53 


33 


623 


138 


22 


185 


162 


137 


87-6 


741 


56 


37 


661* 


139 


24 


187 


151 


135 


80-7 


72-2 


52 


34 


65-4 


140 


18 


186 


147 


136 


790 


731 


60 


35 


58-3 


141 

• 

143 


18 


187 


151 


136 


80-7 


72-7 


56 


37 


661 


179 


1667-5 


1355 


1215-5 


731-5 


6563 


5020 


3125 


561-7 


20 


176 


155 


135 


881 


76-7 


555 


33-5 


603 


145 


23 


176 


148 


144 


841 


81-8 


53 


375 


70-7 


146 


23 


180 


158 


135 


87-8 


750 


53 5 


33 


61-6 


147 


19 


180 


165 


145-5 


91-7 


80-8 


53 


45 


849 


148 


20 


190 


140 


133-5 


73-7 


70-2 


55 


29-5 


53-6 


149 


16 


170 


147 


133 


86-5 


78-2 


48 


33 


68-8 


150 


21 


186 


151 


151 


81-2 


81-2 


56 


32 


57.1 


153 


22 


190 


160 


142-5 


84-2 


750 


54 


35 


64-8 


157 


18 


182-5 


148 


147 


811 


80-5 


53 


32 


60-4 


159 
160 


17 


185 


156 


145 


84-3 


78-4 


51 


33 


64-7 


199 


1815-5 


1528 


1411-5 


842-7 


777-8 


532-0 


3435 


646-9 


18 


174 


152 


127 


87-4 


73-8 


445 


33 


74 1 


161 


18 


176 


148 


134 


841 


761 


51 


34 


66-7 


162 


22 


183 


151 


130-5 


82-5 


71-3 


50 


365 


730 


166 


16 


182 


159 


1385 


87-4 


761 


47 


365 


77-6 


167 


16 


178 


155 


135 


87-1 


75-8 


54 


35 


64-8 


169 


21 


179 


154 


141 


860 


78-8 


53 


345 


650 


170 


21 


181 


154 


143 


85-1 


790 


56 


36 


64-3 


172 


18 


181 


157 


142 


86-7 


78-5 


55 


38 


69-1 


173 


18 


188 


147 


134 


78-2 


71-3 


48 


35 


72-9 


174 
177 


22 


180 


150 


137 


83-3 


761 


52 


305 


58-6 


190 


1802 


1527 


1362-0 


847-8 


756-8 


5105 


349 


686-1 


22 


183 


150 


148 


82 


80-9 


51 


32 


62-7 


178 


24 


193 


163-5 


146 


84-7 


75-6 


56 


37 


661 


179 


19 


182 


156 


140 


85-7 


76-9 


45 


33 


73-3 


180 


18 


192 


151 


146 


78-6 


760 


56 


36 


64-3 


184 


20 


192 


150 


131 


78-1 


68-2 


52 


36 


69-2 


188 


23 


175 


152 


131 


86-9 


74-9 


56-5 


33 


58-4 


189 


19 


174 


155 


145-5 


891 


83-6 


56 


35 


62-5 


193 


18 


180 


147 


135 


81-7 


750 


56 


35 


62-5 


194 


19 


179 


149 


131 


83-2 


732 


52 


35 


67-3 


197 
Epirotef 


19 


186 


148 


134 


79-6 
829-6 


720 


53 


32 


66-4 


201 


1836 


15215 


1387-5 


756-3 


533 5 


344 


652-7 


9 


163 


153 


1 


939 


? 


? 


? 


? 


136 




















(Cretan) 


17 


179 


158 


136 


861 


75-9 


47 


33 


7021 



* Bathrocephalic, 



t Measured in Crete. 



■2G8 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1012. 



Totals for Averages. 



Sec- 
tion 


No. 


H.L. 


H.B. 


H.H. 


B.I. 


H.I. 

725-9 


N.L. 


N.W. 


N.I. 


Age 


I. 


10 


1864 


1502 


1352 


806-5 


518-5 


353 5 


6860 


185 


II. 


10(9) 


1808 


1371 


1366-5 


761-5 


756-8 


529 


345 


6568 


183 


III. 


10 


1845 


1478 


1351 


8020 


733-9 


536 


353 


659 9 


189 


IV. 


10 


1853 


1522 


1372-5 


821-7 


740-6 


521-5 


340 


6583 


189 


V. 


10 


1850-5 


1517 


1365 


8211 


741-3 


538 


343 


6386 


190 


VI. 


10 


1830 


1489 


13595 


814-9 


7439 


'517 


341 5 


662-5 


183 


VII. 


9 


1667-5 


1355 


1215-5 


731-5 


656-3 


502 


3125 


561-7 


179(9) 


VIII. 


10 


1815-5 


1528 


1411 5 


842-7 


777-8 


532 


3435 


646-9 


199 


IX. 


10 


1802 


1527 


1362 


847-8 


756-8 


5105 


349 


6861 


190 


X. 


10 


1836 


1521-5 


1387-5 


829-6 


756-3 


5335 


344 


652-7 


201 


99(98) 


18171-5 


14810-5 


135430 


8079-3 


7389-6 


52380 


34250 


6509-5 


1888 




1836 


151-1 


136-8 


82-5 


74-7 


52-9 


34 6 


65-7 


191 






















years 


Meai 


1 of . 


(99) 


(9S) 


(99) 


(98) 


(99) 


(99) 


(99) 


(99) 


(99) 



Physical Characters of the Ancient Egyptians. — Interim Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Elliot Smith 
(Chairman) , Dr. F. C. Shrubsall (Secretary), Professor A. 
Keith, and Dr. C. G. Seligmann. (Drawn up by the 
Chairman.) 

This Committee wa9 appointed primarily with the object of acquiring, 
studying, and, if feasible, transporting to England a valuable and 
unique series of skeletons of Ancient Egyptians, buried in mastabas of 
the Second and Third Dynasties at Sakkara, which Sir Gaston Maspero, 
Director-General of the Egyptian Government Antiquities Department, 
had placed at the disposal of the Chairman of this Committee. The 
material was brought to light in the course of the excavations carried 
on for the Antiquities Department by its Senior Inspector, Mr. J. E. 
Quibell, who did everything in his power to facilitate and help in the 
Committee's investigations. The cemetery in which the material was 
obtained is situated a short distance to the north of the Pyramids of 
Sakkara, and included the tomb of Hesy, from which the famous 
wooden panels, carved in relief (now in the Cairo Museum), were 
obtained by Mariette Pasha many years ago. The tombs themselves 
are of very great interest, and will be described in detail in Mr. 
Quibell's official reports, as well as in his demonstration at the Dundee 
meeting. They are the earliest known examples of elaborate subter- 
ranean rock-cut tombs, and range in date from the latter part of the 
Second Dynasty until well into the period of the Third Dynasty. 

The crucial importance of the human remains buried in these tombs 
depends upon the fact that the earliest bodies hitherto found in Lower 
Egypt (exclusive of those brought to light at Turah in the winter of 



ON PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 269 

1909-1910 by Professor Hermann Junker, and described by Dr. Derry, 1 
to which reference will be made later) belonged to a later period, Fourth 
to Sixth Dynasties, and revealed undoubted evidence of considerable 
alien admixture, such as does not occur, except in rare sporadic 
instances, in the earlier remains from Upper Egypt. The problem for 
solution was the determination of when and how this process of racial 
admixture began. 

The contemporary and earlier material found by Professor Junker 
upon the opposite (east) bank of the river and a little further north was 
in a very bad state of preservation, and no adequate photographic record 
was obtained to permit of exact comparisons with other collections. 
But Dr. Derry 's report, which seems to suggest that the alien element, 
in these poorer graves, did not become certainly appreciable until the 
time of the Third Dynasty, served to add to the interest of Mr. 
Quibell's material and to make it more than ever desirable to secure 
and preserve a collection of such crucial importance for the investiga- 
tion of the problems of Egypt's anthropological history. 

The chief difficulty that faced the Committee was how satisfac- 
torily to deal with a collection of most fragile bones, a large proportion 
of which were certain to become damaged more or less severely during 
transport. As there was no anthropologist on the spot to measure and 
make descriptive notes on the material, it was proposed to employ 
experts to photograph each skull and other important bone before they 
were treated with size or other strengthening agent in preparation for 
transport to England. 

But while preparations were being made for carrying out this 
scheme, most of the difficulties were removed by the fact that the 
Egyptian Government requested the Chairman of this Committee to 
go out to Egypt in connection with the work of the Archaeological 
Survey of Nubia, and it thus became possible for him to visit Mr. 
Quibell's excavations in person, to examine and measure all the 
material on the spot, to supervise the work of photographing and pack- 
ing it for transmission to England. It was possible to do so much in 
the short time at his disposal, because Mr. Quibell and his trained 
workmen afforded every help, and Mr. Cecil M. Firth and his native 
photographic assistant, Mahmud Shaduf, of the Nubian Survey, volun- 
teered to help. Mr. Firth took about a hundred and thirty photographs 
of the material. Every help was also given by the Egyptian Survey 
Department in the loan of instruments and other apparatus. Further- 
more, the authorities at the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons 
in London offered to take charge of and repair the material on its 
arrival, and to grant the Committee every facility for its investigations. 
They have borne all costs of transport. 

Full notes and photographs were obtained of all the human material 
rescued by Mr. Quibell, consisting of the remains of thirty-nine indi- 
viduals of the Second and Third Dynasties, most of which is now safely 
housed in the Royal College of Surgeons' Museum. It will take some 
time to complete the investigation of this material for the purposes of 
a final report; but it may be stated that the material closely resembles 

1 Denkschr. d. h. Alcacl. d. Wissensch. in Wien, 1912. 



270 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

the human remains of the Pyramid Age found in neighbouring sites of a 
somewhat later date. There are quite definite evidences of some racial 
influence alien to the Proto-Egyptian race ; but the difficult problem is 
raised as to how much of the contrast in the features of the two popu- 
lations — Upper Egyptian and Lower Egyptian at the Second and Third 
Dynastic Period — are due to admixture and blending, and how much, 
if any, is due to the specialisation in type of the Delta portion of the 
Proto-Egyptian people. 

The investigation also revealed some suggestion of attempts at 
mummification as early as the Second Dynasty — a fact of some interest, 
as the earliest undoubted case of mummification is referred to the 
Fourth or Fifth Dynasty (more probably the latter); and no evidence 
has ever been obtained before of attempted mummification of a body 
which was not buried in the fully extended position. 

While in Egypt the Chairman took the opportunity of comparing 
the Sakkara skulls directly with the type collection of Predynastic 
skulls in the Anatomical Museum of the Cairo School of Medicine, and 
also with skulls of the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties at Dr. George 
Eeisner's excavations (for Harvard University and Boston Museum) at 
the Giza Pyramids. 

It is hoped that the Committee will secure any further material that 
may be found by Mr. Quibell during the coming season, and be able to 
fill up what has hitherto been the most serious lacuna in our knowledge 
of the physical characters of the ancient inhabitants of Egypt. 



The Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Dr. B. Munro (Chairman) , 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins (Secretary), Professor W. 
Eidgeway, Sir Arthur J. Evans, Sir C. Hercules Eead, 
Mr. H. Balfour, and Mr. A. Bulleid, appointed to investi- 
gate the Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury 
in connection with a Committee of the Somersetshire 
Archceological and Natural History Society. (Brawn up by 
Mr. Arthur Bulleid and Mr. H. St. George Gray, the 
Directors of the Excavations.) 

The third season's exploration of the Meare Lake Village by the 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society began on 
May 27, 1912, and was continued for three weeks under the joint 
supervision of Messrs. Arthur Bulleid and H. St. George Gray. The 
ground excavated was situated in the same part of the village and was 
directly continuous with last year's work. 

The digging included the examination of parts of the following 
mounds: N.E. portions of Mounds X. and XL, remaining from the 
excavations of last year; N. quarter of Mound XII., and the S.W. 
portions of Mounds XIII. and XIV. 

With the exception of Mounds XL and XII. , none of the above- 



THE LAKE VILLAGES IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OP GLASTONBURY. 271 



m 

a 
■4 







272 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1912. 

mentioned sites appears to have been occupied for any length of time 
as dwellings, for neither wall-posts nor hurdles were discovered, and 
the clay floors were without the usual covering of black earth and 
charcoal. This no doubt accounts for the paucity of smaller finds 
during the season's digging. Mound XII. contained two hearths, both 
of which were incomplete and in a poor state of preservation. 

With reference to the construction of the mounds, several points of 
interest were noted, and foremost among these was the substructure 
under Mound XIII. This mound was supported by a massive founda- 
tion of logs and timber, of greater importance than any hitherto 
found at Meare. Apart from the strength and arrangement of the 
timber, the substructure yielded many pieces of worked oak and wattled 
hurdles. The latter included one complete hurdle and parts of five 
others. The complete hurdle measured 14 feet in length by 5 feet 
6 inches in width. Amongst the pieces of worked wood were several 
mortised oak beams, three knobbed oak piles with sugarloaf -shaped 
heads, a wheel-shaped disc cut from a solid piece of oak, and a wooden 
handle belonging to some implement. 

With reference to Mound X., a noteworthy feature was the large 
number of slabs of lias covering the surface of the upper floor. 

Although the items of structural interest proved to be of consider- 
able importance, the relics discovered were much less numerous than 
in previous seasons, and some of the clay floors examined did not 
appear to have been lived upon. The following is a summary of the 
objects found : — 

Bone. — A very few pieces of cut bone of minor importance. Another 
worked shoulder-blade bone, with perforation, was found, bringing the 
total number of these objects up to thirty-nine. 

Crucibles. — Seven items from Meare are now classified under this 
heading, including an almost perfect triangular specimen repaired this 
season, which has fused bronze adhering to the inner surface. 

Bronze. — Five objects of bronze were collected this year, including 
a rivet-head and two spiral finger-rings, one being composed of two 
twisted strands of wire, the other ornamented like the fragment of a 
bracelet figured in ' The Glastonbury Lake Village,' vol. i., plate xlii 
E12. e.i, 

Flint. — Six scrapers, two worked knives, and four other small 
roughly worked implements were found this season; also a large 
number of flakes, and several pieces of burnt flint. 

Glass Beads. — Only one (with herring-bone pattern) was added this 
year, bringing the total up to twenty-eight. 

Antler.— Few of the fragments of cut antler were of special interest, 
but an object covered with large dots and circles, presumably the 
greater part of a hair ornament, was found. Only one weaving-comb 
of this material was discovered. 

Iron.— The few pieces of iron collected were in a bad state of 
preservation. 

Kimmeridge Shale.— Part of a plain armlet and another worked 
fragment were added to the collection. 



THE LAKE VILLAGES IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF GLASTONBURY. 273 

Querns. — An upper and a lower stone of rotary querns and frag- 
ments of others were found; also part of a saddle quern. 

Other Stone Objects. — Several sling-stones, found singly; about 
twenty whetstones; a pounder; ten small smooth pebbles (perhaps 
calculi); and a few flat discs, not perforated. A stone socket, formed 
from a water-worn slab of lias, presumably for the support of a wooden 
post, was also found. 

Spindle-whorls. — These objects have now reached a total of forty- 
five. 

Baked Clay. — A few objects of baked clay were found, including 
parts of two triangular loom-weights, and some small balls, partly 
perforated. 

Pottery. — The shards were not so abundant as in former seasons, 
but the proportion of ornamented pieces was perhaps larger than usual, 
and the greater part of some pots was found. The treatment of the 
cuiTilinear designs, herring-bone patterns, the trumpet patterns, and 
the dot-and-circle ornaments fully exemplify the skill and artistic 
feeling of the Late-Celtic potter. Most of the pots bear indented 
designs, and some are ornamented by means of potter's stamps and the 
roulette. Some of the pots are ornamented on the bottom, and several 
of the bases are perforated. 

Animal Remains. — Large quantities of mixed bones of domesticated 
animals, for the most part broken small, were, found in Mounds X. 
and XL, and on the first floor of Mound XIII. Few complete bones 
were dug up, and the remains of beaver, otter, and birds were not so 
plentiful this season. 

A few hazel-nuts were discovered in the foundations, and fragments 
of charred bun-shaped ' cakes,' which await microscopical examination 
to determine the composition of the food. 



The Age of Stone Circles. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Sir C. Hercules Read (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour 
(Secretary), Dr. G. A. Auden, Lord Avebury, Professor W. 
Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir A. J. Evans, Dr. R. 
Munro, Professor Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. Lewis, 
appointed to conduct Explorations with the object of ascer- 
taining the Age of Stone Circles. (Drawn up by the Secre- 
tary.) 

The work has been confined to the making of a careful survey plan 
of the earthwork and stones forming the Avebury stone circle, the grant 
of 151. from the British Association having been applied for for this 
purpose. The survey has been made by Mr. H. St. George Gray, who 
was appointed by the Committee to carry out this work, which involved 
the completion of the survey of the whole monument, a portion of which 
1912. x 



•21 i REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1012. 

had already been plotted out by him in a previous year. The sum of 
251. was assigned to him for the expenses (including the fee for his own 
work), this sum being derived from the grant made in 1911 and the 
balance in hand from the previous account. 

The plan includes all the ancient features and many of the modern 
ones which are included in the area covered by the survey. Those 
modern features which have been omitted can easily be filled in later if 
necessary, either from the 25-inch Ordnance sheet or from further 
original survey. Some buried stones not previously noticed have been 
included. The scale of the plan is 40 feet to tbe inch, and the whole is 
contained in six sheets, which will require to be mounted together. 

Apart from this new survey supplying a really trustworthy record 
of the wbole monument, it will prove invaluable as a plan upon which 
can be indicated with precision the exact areas which have been or may 
in the future be excavated for archaeological purposes. Although the 
survey is completed, the plan is still in the rough, and it will require 
time to work it up into its final form, by inki n g and hill-shading. 

It is very satisfactory to be able to state that certain difficulties 
which have hitherto prevented any excavations being conducted in the 
fosse to the east of the southern entrance-causeway appear to have 
been overcome, and that there is evety probability of its being possible 
to investigate the eastern side of the causeway and to dig through the 
silting of the south-eastern portion of the fosse down to the original 
bottom. It is very desirable that excavations should be conducted on 
this side, the previous sections having been cut on the western side of 
this causeway. In order to enable this work to be carried out, the 
Committee ask for a grant of 45L This amount will not suffice by 
itself, but if a grant of this sum is allotted it is very probable that this 
nucleus will be increased by subscriptions and that a fairly adequate 
fund may be raised. To this end the Committee ask for leave to apply 
for subscriptions, in the event of a grant from the British Association 
being given for the purpose. 

The accounts show a small balance of 21. 2s. 2d., which it is hoped 
may be allowed to be carried forward. There is a sum of 17Z. 4s. 6d. 
also available, though this has been privately subscribed for the special 
purpose of cutting one or more sections through the vallum, and cannot 
be used for excavations in the fosse. The sum would be insufficient for 
any satisfactory excavation of the vallum unless excavations of a more 
extensive nature were possible at the same time, since the inevitable 
initial expenses would be too great in proportion to so limited an amount, 
if that alone were available. It is desirable that excavations in the 
fosse and through the vallum should proceed simultaneously, and it is 
hoped that the results will amply justify the assignment by the British 
Association of the grant applied for. A certain sum is required for the 
repair of damage done during excavation and for the making up of levels 
after the filling in of the portions excavated has had time to settle down 
compactly. 

The possession of an accurate plan will greatly facilitate any further 
excavation which may be authorised upon this most interesting of 
British monuments. The Committee ask to be reappointed, with the 



THE AGE OF STONE CIRCLES. 



275 



above-mentioned grant, for the purpose of further excavations upon the 
portion of the site suggested and, if the sum available suffices, for 
investigations upon other portions of the monument. 



Anthropological Photographs. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir C. H. Read (Chairman), Mr. H. S. Kingsford 
(Secretary), Dr. G-. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, and Pro- 
fessor J. L. Myres, appointed for the Collection, Preservation, 
and Systematic Registration of Photographs of Anthropo- 
logical Interest. 

The Committee issue with this report a fourth list of photographs 
registered with them. The photographs have been taken by Mr. 
N. W. Thomas, Government Anthropologist, in Southern Nigeria. As 
the prints are not in the custody of the Committee, and are numbered 
according to Mr. Thomas's register, it has been considered advisable not 
to allocate a series of numbers in this paiiicular case, as two sets of 
numbers would complicate reference, and it is impossible for Mr. 
Thomas to alter his own numeration. 



Southern Nigeria: Edo-speaking Peoples: Photographed by 
Mr. N. W. Thomas, Government Anthropologist. (The prints are 
deposited at the Horniman Museum, Forest Hill, S.E.) 

The locality to which each photograph refers is shown by the follow- 
ing list of places. The prints are classified under the scheme shown 
in the second list. The names a.re not repeated in this second list, as 
reference can be more easily made to the list of localities. 

The topography of the district is shown in Mr. Thomas's ' Report on 
the Edo-speaking Peoples, ' Part I. 

Localities to which Photographs refer. 





Bini. 






KlJKrRUKTT — c 


ontinued. 


Edo 1-165, 980-1, 1177-87, 1353-64, 


Ugboviato .... 889-895 


1517-26 


Agbede 








897-965 


Shelu 311, 312 


Fuga 








1047-1112 


Idumowina 








315-374 


Uzaitui 








1113-1114 


Utekon 








375-476 


Agenegbode 








1145-1157 


Ugo 








. 1167-1176 


Ewu 








1544-1546 


Eviakoi . 








. 1188-1235 


Ekwe 








1547-1552 


Iyowa 








. 1236-1290 


Iviare 








1553, 1554 


Iguichimi 








1291-1323 


Yanipodi . 








1556-1560 


Jeduma . 








1528-1543 


Opepe 








1561-1584 


Usen Road 








1343-1352 


Kominio . 








1585-1611 


Bini (not located) 






1324-1342 


Ouyiame . 








1612-1618 




Soso 








1619-1651 




Semolika . 








1667-1707 


Kukxruku. 


Ibilo . . 








1700-1733 


Ijeba .... 563-638, 640 


Isua . 




1734, 1741, 1745 


Aroko 




639-645, 647 




Okpe 




648-770 


ESa (Ishax). 






771-841 


Irua 966-991 


Sabongida , 






i 


$42-888, 896 










992-1043 

T 



276 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



SOBO. 



Sapele 

Okwoloho 

Eferun 

Ajeyube 

Ugeli 

Ewu 

Iyede 

Agbasa 

Jesse (A) 

Kokori 

Okpara 

Ovu 

Jesse (K) 

Warifi 



. 1365-1367 
1308-1372, 1373-1376 
1377-1389 
1390-1410 
1411-1417 
1418-1422 
1423-1427 
1428-1439 
1440-1455 
1456-1461 
1462-1480 
1481-1492 
1493-1501 
1502-1510 



Sobo — continued. 

Egoei 1652-1666 

YORUBA. 

Hon 466-502 

Yoruba (not located) . . 978 

Akoko 1736-1740 

Owe 1747-1768 

Jekri ...... 1770 

Ijo 1512-1516 

Ibo and Ika . . . . 1159-1164 

Niger Views . . 1044-1046, 1158 



List for Arrangement of Classified Photographs. 



1. (a) Topography, (6) Farms. 

2. Villages. 

3. Houses. 

4. Physical Types, (a) Men, (6) Women. 

5. Children. 

6. Abnormalities. 

7. Skin-marks ; Tooth-filing. 

8. Daily life. 

9. (a) Hair dressing, (6) Dress and 

Ornament. 

10. Market. 

11. Games. 

12. Dances. 



13. Technology. 

14. Pottery. 

15. Stone Implements. 

16. Decorative Art. 

17. Music. 

18. Ancestor Worship. 

19. Ceremonies and Ceremonial Objects. 

20. Ebo and Gods. 

21. Magic. 

22. Sacrifice. 

23. Secret Societies. 

24. Burial. 

25. Miscellaneous. I , 



List of Photographs Registered. 



Topography. 

View of Ouyiame. 
Houses and rocks (Oloku) 
View of Soso. 



16126 

1632 

16436 

1643c 

1643d „ „ 

1679 View of Semolika. 

1687a Rocks and house 

(Semolika). 
1687c 
1704 View in Semolika. 



under rock 



Farms. 

350 Farm with trees cut down. 

420 Garden farm. 

442 Burning down big tree. 

444 House on farm. 

445 ,, „ beginning of. 
447 Yam stack. 

Villages. 

337 Outside house. 

349 Street in small village. 

362 Village scene. 

431 „ „ (Utekon). 

612a Houses arranged in square. 

953a Entrance to town (Agbede). 



954 



Villages — continued. 
Street with pool of water for 



arranged in 



house building. 
983 Wooden houses 

squares. 
1391 Village path. 
1440a Scene in village. 
1595 Kominio square. 
1612 Scene in village. 



Houses. 

229 Making leaf roof. 

312 Woman sitting in oderie. 

401 Wood house with leaf roof. 

441 Mud house. 

655 House court at Okpe. 

691 Meeting-house (bundles of beans 
hanging from tree). 

885 Wattle house. 

1109 Round house (Kukuruku). 

1361 European house built for native, 

Benin City (never used). 

1384 Making house in Sobo country. 

1453 Sobo house. 

1510 Preparing mud for house. 

1616 Entrance to house. 

1484 Two-storied house, 



ON ANTHROPOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 



277 



Physical Types. 

Men. 

43, 48, 87, 115, 136, 168, 170, 1716, 
176, 1766, 177a, 1776, 178a, 1786, 179a, 
1796, 180a, 1816, 182a, 1826, 183a, 1836, 
184a, 1846, 185a, 1856, 186a, 1866, 187a, 
1876, 188a, 1886, 189a, 1896, 190a, 1906, 
192a, 1926, 193a, 1936, 194a, 1946, 195a, 
1956, 196a, 1966, 197a, 1976, 198a, 1986, 
199a, 1996, 200a, 2006, 201a, 2016, 202a, 
2026, 2036, 219a, 2196, 220a, 2206, 221a, 
2216, 222a, 2226, 223a, 2236, 224a, 2246, 
226a, 2266, 237a, 2376, 238a, 2386, 
23961, 240a, 2406, 241a, 2416, 243a, 2436, 
2446, 250, 256a, 2566, 257a, 2686, 272, 
273, 274, 276, 277, 278, 281, 282, 292a, 
293, 298, 300, 301a, 3016, 302, 303, 304, 
375a, 3756, 376a, 3766, 493, 515, 525, 
531a, 531c, 578, 588a, 595, 648, 649a, 
650c, 651, 651a, 659, 685, 686, 729, 734, 
735, 737, 744, 747, 748, 752, 776, 776a, 
7766, 791, 792, 801, 802, 803a, 8036, 
806, 8066, 808, 808a, 808d, 809a, 8096, 
809c, 811, 8116, 811c, 811a", 812a, 8126, 
825a, 8256, 825c, 8476, 847c, 847a", 8516, 
851c, 852, 8526, 852c, 892, 8976, 897c, 
898a, 8986, 898c, 899a, 8996, 899c, 900a, 
9006, 939, 939a, 940, 941, 9416, 942a, 
9426, 843a, 9436, 947a, 9476, 948, 962, 
964, 975a2, 975c, 9786, 980, 981, 
984, 985, 9856, 986, 991, 998, 999, 1031, 
1032, 1048a, 10486, 1048c, 1048a 1 , 1048e, 
1061, 1061a, 1061c, 1061a 1 , 1061c, 1061a, 
1065, 1068, 1071, 1076a", 10786, 1078c, 
1079, 10796, 1079c, 1080, 10806, 
1080c2, 1082, 1105, 1153, 1184, 1185, 
1186, 1186a, 1187, 1233, 1241, 1242, 1243, 
1244, 1245, 1246, 12466, 1246c, 1247, 
1248, 1249, 1250, 1251, 1287, 1304a, 
1315a, 1316, 1317, 1317a, 1318, 1329, 
1330, 1331, 1331a, 1332, 1337, 13376, 
1338, 13386, 1338c, 13396, 1339c, 
1340a, 13406, 1341, 13416, 1341c, 1342, 
13426, 1342c, 1353, 1354, 1355, 1359, 
1359a, 1362, 1363a, 13636, 1365, 13656, 
1365c, 1368, 1368a, 1369, 1369a, 1370, 
1387a, 1388a, 1404, 14046, 1404c, 1405, 
14056, 1405c, 1406, 1407, 1407c, 1408, 
1408a, 1410c, 1412, 1412c, 1413, 14136, 
1413c, 1420, 1420a, 14206, 1421, 1421a, 
1422a, 14226, 1424a, 14246, 1425, 1425a, 
1426, 1426a, 1427, 1427a, 1428, 1429, 
1429a, 1430, 1430a, 1431, 1432, 1432a, 
1432a", 1433, 1433a, 1434a, 14346, 1435, 
1435a, 1436, 1436a, 1437, 1437a, 1438, 
1438a, 1439, 1439a, 1447, 1448, 1448a, 
1458, 1458a, 1459, 14596, 1460, 1460a, 
1471, 1492, 14926, 1493a, 1502, 1502a, 
1503, 1503a, 1504, 1504a, 1516, 1517, 
1518, 1519, 1520, 1521, 1522, 1523, 1524, 
1525, 1526, 1527, 1554, 15546, 1561, 1562, 
1563, 1564, 1585, 1587, 1594, 1596, 1621, 



Physical Types — continued. 

1622, 1623, 1625, 1630, 1631, 1646a, 1650, 
1652a, 16526, 1652c, 1653a, 16536, 1654, 
1655, 16616, 1667a, 1667c, 1668a, 1668c, 
1674c, 17086, 17116, 17146, 17156, 1716a, 
1746, 1746a, 1752. 

Women. 

74, 85, 129, 130, 131, 242a, 2426, 269a, 
287, 305a, 306a, 3066, 383, 384, 3886, 
388c, 402, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 
410, 411, 452, 458, 505, 526, 527a, 5276, 
529, 530a, 5306, 533a, 5336, 533c, 534a, 
5346, 534c, 586, 591, 592, 593, 603, 614, 
617, 6586, 666, 682, 718, 719, 721, 723, 
728, 738, 7396, 740, 742, 745, 746, 749, 
750, 751, 753, 758, 762, 763, 763d, 7716, 
771c, 771a", 7726, 773a, 773c, 773a", 
774a, 7746, 775a, 7756, 777a, 77761, 
77762, 777c, 777a", 778e, 811, 819a, 
8196, 820a, 8206, 821, 8216, 823a, 8236, 
853a, 8536, 853c, 854, 8546, 854c, 855, 
902a, 9026, 902c, 914a, 9146, 914c, 915a, 
9156, 916a, 9166, 917, 918, 9186, 919a, 
920, 921, 9226, 923a, 9236, 924, 9246, 
924/, 984, 989, 989a, 1009, 1032, 1035, 
1038, 1038a, 1047, 1047c, 1047a", 1060, 
1066, 1070a, 1084, 10846, 1084c, 1085, 
10856, 1085c, 1087, 10876, 1087c, 1098, 
1103a, 1117, 1117c, 1124, 11716, 1216, 
1217, 1218, 1219, 1219a, 1230, 1231, 
1235, 1239, 1251, 1324, 1326, 1327, 13306, 
1336, 1356a, 13566, 1357, 1357a, 1366, 
1366a, 13666, 1367, 13676, 1371, 1380, 
1387, 1388, 14106, 141062, 1410d, 
1410g, 1411, 1411a, 14116, 14126, 1418, 
1418a, 1419, 1419a, 1423a, 14236, 1441a, 
14416, 1442, 1443, 1444, 1445, 1445a, 
1446, 1446a, 1451, 1456, 1457, 1461, 
14616, 1481, 14886, 1489, 1489a, 1489c, 
1490, 14906, 1490c, 1491, 14916, 1491c, 
1492, 1495, 1505, 1505a, 15056, 
1507, 1507a, 15076, 15386, 153862, 
153863, 1550, 1553a, 15536, 1553c, 1553d, 
1553e, 1553/, 1553g, 1553A, 1553/, 1583a, 
15836, 1583c, 1590, 1593, 1615a, 16156, 
1619, 1626a, 16276, 1633, 1634a, 16346, 
1637a, 16376, 16386, 1638c, 1638d, 1639c, 
16406, 1640A, 1644a, 16446, 1645a, 1645c, 
1645e, 1647a, 1647c, 1649a, 16496, 1651, 
1657a, 16596, 1660, 1661a, 1663a, 1723, 
1824a, 1727, 1728a, 17286, 1729, 1730. 

Children. 

35, 275, 365, 367, 418, 426, 436, 454, 
453, 456, 457, 460, 461, 462, 466, 4666 
(Utekon), 517, 564, 565, 573, 5776, 582, 
584a, 604, 618, 622, 623, 623a, 624 
(Ijeba), 684 (Okpe), 741, 788e, 789a, 789d 
789c, 790a, 7906 (Otua), 883, 965, 973, 
987, 988, 990, 996, 1003*. 1006, 1020 



278 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 



>» »> 



?> 5> 



5> ?J 



Physical Types — continued. 

1064, 1069, 1083, 1083a, 1097, 1122, 
1138, 1234a, 1235, 1240, 1245, 1319, 
1322, 1323, 1325, 1377, 1380, 1389, 1389a, 
13896, 14106, 1433, 1433a, 1436, 1436a, 
1437, 1437a, 1438, 1438a, 1447, 1449, 
1461, 14616, 1505, 1508, 1508a, 1509, 
1511, 1532, 1535, 1550a, 1554, 1620, 
1624, 1656, 1665, 1672, 1725, 1726c. 

Abnormalities and Diseases. 

284 Hydrocephalic boy (Benin City). 

«oy j» j» » »> 

286 

581 Girl with strabismus (Ijeba). 

646 Boy with umbilical hernia (Benin 
City). 

686 Malformation of foot (Okpe). 

736 Boy with light coloured eyes 
(Okpe). 

950 Girl with supernumerary mamma. 

9506 

950c 

950a" 

952 Albino (girl). 

952a 

9526 

952c ,, ,, 

952a" 

9556 Albino, with marked back. 

969 Leucoderma. 

969a 

9696 

969c 

1358 Yaws. 
1358a „ 

1360 Diseased prisoner. 
1647c Boy with umbilical hernia. 
1661 Malformed arms (Gori). 

Skin-Marks. 

Woman. 

Face, 1505, 1505a. 

Face and chest, 1366, 1366a, 14126, 

14416, 1444, 1445, 1455a, 1446. 
Face, chest, and neck, 1367, 13676, 1387, 

1387a. 
Chest decoration, 388a, 505, 1127, 1371, 

13716, 1481. 
Neck decoration, 1367c. 
Back decoration, 650a, 1366c, 1538. 
Body marks, 288a, 2886, 289a, 2896, 290, 

290a, 1169, 1169a, 1170. 

Man. 

Face, 8476, 847c, 1369, 1369a, 1408a, 

1431, 1439 (boy). 
Face and neck, 1365. 
Face and chest, 13656, 1388. 1388a. 
Face and arms, 1430a. 
Chest, 1052, 1052a, 10786. 



[Skin-Marks — continued. 

Arms, 1425, 1425a. 
Back, 1365a. 
Body marks, 629. 

Body-jxiinling. 

Black marks, 1070, 1070a. 
Painting, 1072. 





Tooth-Filing. 




Men. 


639 


, 762, 900, 975a - , 1365c, 1412c. 




Women. 


822a, 8226, 1492a. 




Daily Life. 




Loads (Men). 


97 


Boys on road. 


688 


Old man carrying sticks. 


824 


Boy with palm-oil pot. 




Loads (Women). 


33 


Girl standing in doorway. 


94 


Woman on road. 


122 


Girls of Benin city. 


134 


Woman on road. 


209 


Women and babies. 


364 


Street scenes at Idumowina. 


366 


Baby and mother. 


373 


Woman and child before Olokun 




in Egwaibo, Idumowina. 


374a Child, ditto. 


3746 


»> » 


385 


Girls talking. 


423 


Girl with waterpots. 


435 


Girl bathing. 


451 


Climbing palm-trees. 


554 


Spinning cotton. 


555 


Washing yams. 


567 


Girl carrying fufu. 


591 


Children playing. 


602 


Girl with basket. 


619 


Mother with child with waterpots. 


656 


Girl sitting outside house. 


1149 


Women with load of wood. 


1150 


Women with loads. 


1152 


>9 JJ 


1229 


J» 


9 


1410a 


JJ 


9 


14106 


»> 


9 


1486 


J) 


9 


1565 


)» 


9 


1577 


99 


9 




Daily Life. 


661 


Men sewing (0 


kpe). 



6616 Shaving the head. 
663 Washing clothes. 



ON ANTHROPOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 



279 



Daily Life — continued, 

667 Sheep with necklace as property 

mark. 

679 Men winding thread. 

689 Midday rest. 

711 Women with food. 

780 Courtyard of a house. 

781 Outside of a house. 

788a Women preparing to break palm- 
kernels. 
805 Men talking. 
8066 Old men talking. 
8446 Gang of chiefs. 
861 Mashing yams. 
966a King's wives at Irua. 
yvuc ,, ,, ii 

994a ,, „ bathing at Ubiaja. 

9946 
1023a Boy bathing. 
1032a Sitting outside a house. 
1040 Small boy eating. 
1043 Pounding fufu. 
1118 Breaking palm-kernels. 
1134 Man bathing. 
1378 Women drawing water from well. 
1382 Woman grinding cassava. 
1391a Spectators. 
1485 Man sleeping. 
1494 Girls pounding fufu. 
1533 Sitting outside house. 
1537 Woman outside a house. 
1648 Man making hat. 
1686 Sitting on the rock. 



Hair-dressixo. 
Process. 
412, 413, 416, 417, 10116, lOllo". 



Styles. 

On shape : Men, 1459, 14596 ; Women, 
821, 848a, 8486, 922, 925, 9256, 974, 
974a, 1011a, 1011c, 1538, 15386, 
153862. 

Braided : Women, 599a, 1047. 

In thrums: Men, 1448, 1448a, 1458, 
1458a, 1504, 1504a. 

In circles on crown : Men, 1421, 1421a, 

1425, 1425a. 

Head partly shaved : Men, 1132, 1422a, 

14226 ; Women, 1419, 1419a. 
With band round head : Men, 1412a, 

1420, 1420a. 
Arranged in clumps : Women, (a) 11596, 

1456, 1459, (6) 9196, 9216, 9226, 973 ; 

Men (a) 14056, 1405c, 1424a, 14246, 

1426, 1426a, 1430, 1430a. 



317a 
3176 
813 
813a 
8136 
813c 
882 
1106 
1427 
1427a 
1475 



15 

190 

207 

208 

665 

6656 

676 

6766 
1113 
1140 
1140c 
1155c 
11550" 
1155g 
1155/fc 
1639a 
16396 
1639c 
16406 
1640c 
1640w 



Dress. 
Priest of Osa. 

Woman with brass collar. 



Chief in war-dress. 
Woman with ivory anklets. 
Cowry necklace. 

Priestess of Olokun. 

Market. 

Pottery in market. 
Full market. 
Small market. 
Mat-making in market. 
Daily market, Okpe. 
Woman in market. 



Small market. 
Big market. 
Counting cowries. 
Market scene. 
Bargain for beans. 
Market scene. 
Market hat. 



Sitting outside market, 
Market scene. 



341 
342 
343 

871 

871c 

872 

874 

875 

876 

877 

878 

879 

880 

880a 

903 

9036 

904 

905 
906 
906a 



Games. 
Boys. 
Wrestling. 



Osi. 

99 

Agbagagba (?). 

Egegalogembe. 

Ekpemewc. 

Alauxala. 

Opehulelc. 

Dobodariaria. 

Lelelelebelue. 

Anunganunganu (prisoner's Vase). 

Guagua okino (circling under 

arms). 
Alaikana (trying hands of circle). 
Dedemudekaia (leg over head). 



The description of these games has not yet been published. 



280 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



907 
908 

909 

910 
911 
912 
913 

1174 

1174a 

1191a 

1303 

1381 

1566 

1567 

1567a 

15676 

1567c 

1567a - 

1567e 

1567/ 

1570 

1576 

1605 

1606 

1607 

1608 



453 
930a 
9306 
930c 
931 
932 
933 
934 
935 
935a 
936 
1172 
1173 
1173a 
11766 
1188 

1188a 

1189 

1190 

1192 

1193 

1194 
1195 
1196 

1197 

1198 



Games — continued. ' T 
Kpegege (somersault in circle). 
Periupupile (passing through legs 

of line). 
Orokuekue (walking on hands to 

pass through legs of circle). 
Asinabanaba (pushing). 
Amiouilizilota (passing on hands). 
Kekekeke or Amenaikazi. 
Ogue (prisoner's base, second 

form). 
Ukponagbe. 

Olawolo. 

Omodo ogilorholomi (ball on legs). 

Playing Ise. 

Wrestling (Une). 

Head wrestling (Ogbo). 



Standing on head. 
Ikoli (rolling from side to side). 
Oziakpela (pulling rod). 
Iafebedako (shaking leg). 
Elamakele (ducking). 
Ikuekona (rolling). 

Girls. 

Girls playing. 

Ega. 

Ewe. 

Ekolona. 
Ogoniolulu. 
Omoigbe. 
Oialuke Sakbolele 
Asaiio. 

Game. 

Tagame (aku). 
Akpakpa. 

Uke! 

Olato (at Eviakoi) (throw-off 
cloth). 

" >> >> 

Orhomi. 

Aize (ring and step over hands). 

Emoriude (counting out). 

Ekizi (each player walks round ; 

all band, sing, jump up). 
Adamukiele (pairs clap hands). 
Omiwo (ring of hands). 
Tukpe (end-groups may breathe 

while others run across). 
Uakbolologieme (two parties rub 

ground with hand). 
Oviugie. 



G ames — cont inued. 

Bikoko za (beat hands on ground, 

player touches one). 
Ukponagbe (cloth game). 
Iviloberoma (hiding object and 

looking). 
Elemule (palm-kernels). 
Ogieiomomebie (line of girls, first 

pulled out). 

>> »» j 

Carrying sand to Egmo. 
Rope pulling. 
Kizi. 

Carrying boy on shoulders. 
Yam game. 



1200 

1201 
1202 

1203 
1204 

1204a 

1296 

1297 

1298 

1299 

1300 

1300-1 

1300-2 

1300-3 

1300-4 

1300-5 

Dances. 
576 Dancing. 

571 Children. 

577 

5776 „ 

967a King's wives. 

9676 

967c 

1001 Dancing girl. 
1026a 

1058 Dance festival. 
10586 „ 
1059a „ place. 
1156a Dancing. 
1156c 

1462 Oloku dance. 

1463 „ 

1464 „ 

1465 „ 

1466 „ 
1467 
1468 
1489 
1555 
15556 

1555c „ ~ 

1555a 1 „ 

1578 Woman dancing. 
1582a" Girls dancing. 
1582e 
1582/ 
1582; 
1582r 
15825 
1582* 
1582w 

1583 Small girls dancing. 
1603 Women dancing. 
16096 Girls dancing. 
1609c „ 
1609a" „ 
1609c „ 



Girls dancing. 



>*)■ 



ON ANTHROPOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 



281 



Technology. 

Archery : 993, 1386. 

Canoe: 1484. 

Carved Figures: 1000, 1003,1007, 1545a. 

Carving : Drums, 804, 833, 864, 1108 ; 

Doors, 1092 (in stone), 1480. 
Looms : Woman's, 508, 509 ; Man's, 

827 ; Woman's, 857 j Man's, 1617. 
Making string : 1258. 
Materials for body-marking : 49. 
Metalwork : Old bell, 156 ; Iron furnace, 

1610a, 16106. 
Plaiting-bag : 139. 
Spinning cotton : 570, 5766, 1013, 1041, 

1125. 
Traps : Deer-trap, 645 ; Fish-traps, 1482, 

1482a. 
Winding cotton : 856, 959a. 
Palm-oil making: 3166, 1675a, 1677, 

1704, 17046, 17040", 1704e, 1704/, 

1704ft. 
Palm-oil pit : 684. 
Position for childbirth : 1130c. 

Pottery. 
Pots. 
828 Pots in Otua. 
1177 Ulo Olokun pot. 

1179 Ukodo pot. 

1180 Uwawa, oviaxe (two pots). 

1181 Ulu ebo, oviaxe (two pots). 

1182 Axe for yams. 

1183 Ukodo pots. 

Making Pols. 

377a, 3776, 379, 380, 381, 382, 398a, 
3986, 399, 845d, 845/, 8466, 846c, 
846e, 846/, 846a, 846ft, 849, 849a, 8496, 
849cl, 849c2, 849a!, 849ft, 858, 859, 860. 

Stone Implements. 
81a, 816, 157, 158, 1208, 1210, 12106. 

Decorative Art. 



40 


House in Benin City. 




164 


Shrine of Obalifon. 




t> 165 


Rosette, &c, on wall. 




Ct 166 


Interlacing pattern on wall. 


70C766 


Wall-painting, Okpe. 




702 66a 


>» »> 




703 ) 3 


House decoration. 




787 ? 


Geometrical decoration, 


house 


794 A 


Carving of Esu on door. 
Carved doors. 




884 Far 




894 Medi " 




977a 


" ' >> 




977al 


vwings on wall. 





Decorative Art — continued. 

1165a Scroll-work on house. 

1166 „ „ „ 

1207 

1213 ,, ,, „ 

1214 

13456 Circles, &c., on house. 

1349 Animals in relief. 

1528a „ „ 

1529 Scroll-work and wall-painting. 

1543 Painted wall. 

1551 Lizards. 

Music. 

503a Musical box. 

635 Calabash flute. 

636 Midrib of palm (played with cala- 

bash and stick). 
657a Boy with guitar. 
701 Drum. 

971 Instruments at Irua. 
981 Alagiata. 



73 

132 
150 
155 
159 
160 
161 
162 

163 
335 
351 
353 
439 
450 



Ancestor Worship. 

Father's shrine at chief Ini's 

house, Benin City. 
Idion of quarter, Benin City. 
Shrine of father, Ojumo's house. 



Ogwedion of Uzebu (for the 
worship of ancestors). 

>> m »» »» it 

Ogwedion of Idumowina. 
Idogbo or Idion of farm. 



Uxure of Ovia. 

Pots put down in the road by 

men who have not yet buried 

their fathers (Utekon). 
Ikut, Ikute, or at Uxure in Ijeba. 
Stool used for worship of father 

(Ubiaja). 
1054a Place for the worship of the 

father (Fuga). 
Place for the worship of the 

mother. 
Father's shrine (Okpara, Sobo). 
Uxure of Olokun (Jesse). 



546 
1039 



1055 

1479 
1498 



Ceremonies and Ceremonial Objects. 

230 Salutation for Ojumo, Benin City. 
394 Ceremony of purification, Utekon. 
396a ,, ,, „ 

3966 „ „ „ 

519 Oxidari and ceremonial gate, Ijeba. 
814a Ukbe festival. 
816a „ „ 

816/ „ 



282 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Ceremonies and Ceremonial Objects 
— continued. 

816& Ukbe festival. 

816fc 

816* 

818a „ „ 

8186 „ 

818c „ ,, 

818<fl „ 

818a"2 „ 

867 Elegbo for taking oath. 

892a Bark dish for sacrifice. 
1088 Masks. 

1093 Aba cord to separate the room of 
a woman who has borne a child. 

1101 Ceremonial spear. 

1 102 Place for the induction of chiefs. 
1128 Mourning, white, yellow. 

1135 Gate with medicine and side 
entrance. 
Whirling a bull -roarer. 
Carrying Ake to find a thief. 



1257 
1364 
1364a 
1372 



1385 

1403 

1464 

1469 

1472 

1557 

1559 

1559c 

1732 

1733 



39 
125 
322 
324 

333 

124 

144 

154 

321 

1293 

1454 

1496 

1497 

1499 

1534 

15386 

1539 

1543 



135 Esu. 
145 „ 
152 „ 
668 „ 
680 „ 



Sobo women on return from 

sacrifice. 
Sick woman outside Sobo shrine. 
Drum. 
Dance for Olokun. 

Awana and Ovo. 
Girl in marriage-dress. 



Ofuno drums and mask. 



Ebo and Gods. 

Ake on wall of house. 

Ake. 

Ojumo of Ake. 

Ake. 

Ake Nogidia. 
Olokun. 



image at Idumowina. 
(with movements). 



Uxure of Olokun. 
Olokun. 



726 
799a 
1337 
1379 



Ebo and Gods — continued. 
Esu. 



141 Ogun. 

142 Oxwaiye. 



142 

149 

539 

540 

675 

868 

1107 

1111 

1115 

1335 

1383 

334 
732 
863 

151 

153 

296 

314 

325 

326 

327 

328 

331 

352 

422a 

425 

440 

644 

671 

783 

798 
826 

831 

845 

862 

865 

866 

869 

870 

889 

890a 

992 

1030 

1050 

1063 

1089 

1137 

1167 



Osa. 

99 

Ubawiti and house of Osa. 

»» »» j> 

Osa and Osun. 



and Idion. 



Aluoto, the earth. 
Obwada — alu oto (tree). 



Entrance gate to which tortoise 

was offered. 
Osun. 

Osunematon. 
Shrine of the hand. 
Odumha. 
Lamp-holder. 
Blacksmith. 
Doorkeeper's captain. 
Drummer. 
Omaiho. 
Akobie. 
Oxwaiye. 
Uxure of Ovia. 
Stones worshipped by chiefs. 
Osun. 
Hunter's shrine (where he puts 

gun on returning). 
Isemegbe (to keep away sickness). 
Ukpewole (small stove to which 

sacrifice is offered). 
Ebo of the fields. 
Obewutoli. 
Adabi. 
Abofi. 

Ohimixidion (founders of village). 
Ugwenabo. 

Omweki. 

Priest of Omweki. 

Urholi (to keep alive) 

Osun Ogboma. 

Imobe. 

Osalobula. 

Uloko. 

Eho. 

Osun. 



ON ANTHROPOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 



283 



1206 

1211 

12116 

1295a 

12956 

1334 

1373a 

1373c 

1374 

1374a 

1375 

1376 

1394 

1394a 

13946 

1395 

1396 

1397 

1398 

1399 

1401 

1402 

1413a" 

1414 

1415 

1450 

1452 

1473 

1474 

1477 

1478 

1500 

1528 

1528a 

1529 

1530 

1531 

1547 

1548 

1678 

1689 

1731 



Ebq a*)d Gods — continued. 

Oxwaiye. 
Uxure. 
Oxwaiye. 
Ovia erua. 



Osun. 

Nurie. 



Nama. 



house. 



Amyata. 

Urierui. 

Oraime. 

Ogene. 

Ora. 

Ogene. 



Ora. 

Oragodo (small pots). 

Oku. 

Orhirhie. 

Shrine outside village. 

>> >» ?> 

Images. 
Ova to. 



Wood for festival. 

Oleha. 

Omogba, to save. 

Ole, to save. 

Isiokumi. 

Eho. 

Iku. 

Magic. 

230 Magic against sickness and fire. 

449 „ „ leopard. 

5006 Medicine against leopard. 

524 Izobo for purification. 

632 Medicine. 

643 „ for fields. 

669 „ to keep off sickness. 

700 Eka medicine. 

702 Medicine in house court. 

703 Agwe medicine. 
787 Medicine in square. 

794 Ekenado (to keep thieves from 

market). 
884 Farm medicine. 
894 Medicine. 

977a „ to keep off rain. 

977al 



Magic — contin ued. 

977a2 Medicine to keep off rain. 

982 „ „ „ 

1112 Ogbe (to wash feet of travellers). 

1114 „ 

1136 Ogoluhu (to keep away sickness). 

1141 Ogbe. 

1294 Witch-tree. 

1400 Evi. 

1455 Medicine to keep away smallpox 

1540 Ekosi. 

1681 Medicine-house. 



Sacrifice. 

297a Sacrifice to Ehi. 

2976 

830 Place for sacrifice to Ekosi. 
1470a Sacrifice to Olokun. 
1471 
1618a Sacrifice. 



357 
795 
796 
797 
800 
815 
834 
835a 
836a 
837a 
839a 
8406 
886 
888 
889 
1099 
1252 
1253 
1258 
1260 
1261 
1264 
1267 
1272 
1280 
1281 
1282a 
1289a 

1289/ 

1290a 1 

1290/ 

1343 

1345 

1346 

1347 

1348 

1409 



Secret Societies. 

Egbo for small boys. 
Eliminia. 

Edebenia. 

Eliminia dress. 



masks. 



Net mask. 

Entrance to Ovia house. 

Uxure. 

Ovia dancing, first day. 



,, dress. 
Offering cowries. 
Ovia's head-dress. 
Entrance to Ovia house. 
Foundation of hat. 
Back of Ovia house. 
Carrying materials ; women have 

to leave street. 
Dancing, second day. 
>» »> 

Old dresses outside Ovia house. 
Ovia dress. 



,, servant. 
Masker at Ekowari. 



284 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



Secret Societies— 


-coiUin'.ied. 






Miscellaneous, 


1409a Adaubi. 




434a 


Group. 


1555c 




692 


li 


1556 




1391 




j 


1556a 




1417 




, 


15566 




1440 




» 


1556c 




1546 




» 


1558a 




1546a 




> 


1560 




15496 






1579 Masker at Opepe. 




1550 




> 


1580 




1550a 




» 


16416 Masker at Soso. 




5 


Woman lamenting burning of 


1642 






house ; arms on level with 

waist. 


Burial. 








1131 Burial-place of young man. 


429 


Cradle on palm-tree for offering 


1142 Bier. 






when it bears. 


1688 Burial-ground for old people. 


841 


Method of holding spear for war. 


1734, 1734a, 1734A, 1734i 


1734A;, 1734w, 


1057 


Medicine for witches. 


1734* 1734m, 1734x 




1129 


Pot in tree for collecting honey. 


Burial-dance. Hunter's burial. 







Notes and Queries in Anthropology . — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Sir C. H. Bead {Chairman), Professor J. L. 
Myres {Secretary), Mr. E. N. Fallaize, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
Mr. T. A. Joyce, and Drs. C. S. Myers, W. H. E. Eivers, 
C. Gr. Seligmann, and F. C. Shrubsall, appointed to prepare 
a New Edition of ' Notes and Queries in Anthropology .' 

The Committee report that the manuscript for the new edition was 
sent to the printer in June last, and that the book should be ready for 
publication in September. The grant of 40L made by the British 
Association was paid on account of printing in progress at the end of 
June; and it is expected that the proceeds of the sale of the previous 
edition will approximately cover the rest of the expense of producing 
the new one. It has not, however, been possible to close the accounts 
in time for the Dundee Meeting, and the Committee ask to be reap- 
pointed, with a small grant in the event of a deficit. 



A Prehistoric Site at Bishop's Stortford. — Second Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor W. Ridgeway {Chair- 
man), Hew. Dr. A. Irving {Secretary), Dr. A. C. Haddon, and 
Dr. H. W. Marett Tims, appointed to co-operate with a 
Local Committee in the Excavation thereof. {Drawn up by 
the Secretary.) 

It has not been found possible to continue the excavations on the exact 
site where the horse-skeleton was found, but other parts of the same 



ON A PREHISTORIC SITE AT BISHOP'S STORTFORD. 285 

hill-flank have been further opened up in excavations for building pur- 
poses. 

A . A road-cutting up the breast of the hill on the western side has 
exposed the rubble-drift, in which gravel was seen driven in pockets 
into the contorted London clay (to depths of two feet or more) on the 
breast of the hill. 

B. On the eastern side, at about 280 feet, O.D., building excava- 
tions have exposed the rubble-drift on the hill-slope, the sections passing 
down into undisturbed London clay. The suite of ' finds ' in this 
rubble-drift includes: — 

Bones of Horse — two broken rather small metacarpals (too 
incomplete for exact measurement) ; perforated upper end of 
tibia showing marks of a (bronze?) hatchet. 

Bones of Ox — complete metatarsal; two fragments of tibia 
(one the upper, the other the lower half of the bone) ; humerus 
(lower end); two metacarpals (lower end); upper half of radius 
(with the ulna detached). 

Bones of Sheep — left mandible (dentition well preserved). 

Also several fragments of ribs of either ox or horse, too imperfect for 
identification. All these fragments are in an advanced stage of decay, 
probably from surface exposure previous to their inhumation. One or 
more of them bear the marks of teeth of some carnivorous beast. 

In most cases the conditions of the fractures lead to the belief 
that the bones were violently fractured as if for the extraction of the 
marrow. 

Fragment of primitive (neolithic?) tile. 

Fragment of coarse (neolithic ? ) pottery. 

Three (or four?) worked flints, including one blunted scraper. 

One scaled flint (see ' Eeport ' 1911) from the Boulder clay and 
a Gryphaea incurva. 

The ' finds ' were mostly met with at from one and a half to two 
feet from the surface. 



Ancesthetics — Fourth Interim Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. A. D. Waller (Chairman), Sir Frederic Hewitt 
(Secretary), Dr. Blumfeld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, and Dr. 
G. A. Buckmaster, appointed to acquire further knowledge, 
Clinical and Experimental, concerning Ancesthetics — espe- 
cially Chloroform, Ether, and Alcohol— with special refer- 
ence to Deaths by or during Ancesthesia, and their possible 
diminution. 

The Committee has met four times during the past year, and has 
continued to make observations and experiments in estimation of the 



286 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

anaesthetic power of ether with special reference to the clinical pro- 
cedure known as ' open ether administration.' 

The Committee desires to be reappointed for the coming year, at 
the end of which it is intended to present its final report. 



Calorimetric Observations on Man. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor J. S. Macdonald (Chairman), Dr. G. 
Chapman (Secretary), and Dr. Keith Lucas, appointed to 
make Calorimetric Observations on Man in Health and in 
Febrile Conditions. (Drawn up by the Chairman.) 

It was our original intention to conduct a series of experiments, first 
upon normal subjects and later upon subjects in definitely febrile 
conditions, but at the commencement of the year I was unfortunate in 
losing the co-operation of Dr. Chapman owing to his assumption of 
the duties of a new and busy post, and have therefore confined my 
attention to the normal subject. Numerous experiments have been 
carried out with the calorimeter previously described, but with some 
little alteration in technique, as in the insertion of a fan within it to 
produce a thorough admixture of its air content, and the substitution 
of wet and dry bulb readings for the process of absorption with sul- 
phuric acid, and weighing, which was used at first to estimate the 
excess aqueous vapour leaving the calorimeter. 

In each experiment the following sets of observations have been 
made every five minutes, in a definite order more or less closely 
adhered to: — 

(a) The temperature of the water entering, and that of the water 
leaving, an internal radiator system placed beneath the roof of the 
calorimeter. 

(b) The resistance of some 600 ohms of iron wire placed in three 
coils close to the walls of the calorimeter, and dealt with as giving 
the mean temperature of its walls and the basis for corrections due to 
variations in this temperature. 

(c) Temperatures indicated by wet and dry bulb thermometers in the 
room air and by similar thermometers placed in the air stream passing 
from the calorimeter to the suction pump determining its air-supply. 

(d) The current in, and voltage across, the variable incandescent 
lamps and fan, &c, placed within the calorimeter, so that a sub- 
traction might be made for their value as an accessory source of heat. 

(e) The current in the electrical brake of the cycle ergometer. 

(/) The number of revolutions of the cycle as registered upon an 
automatic ' counter. ' 

(g) The galvanometric deflection due to a thermo-couple (rectal) 
giving the deep temperature of the subject. 

(Ji) The galvanometric deflection due to another similar thermo- 
couple (skin) giving the surface temperature of the subject. 



ON CALORIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS ON MAN. 287 

In addition, the weight of the water leaving the internal radiator 
system of the calorimeter was measured at intervals of time determined 
by the rate of water-flow and the complete filling of a pan placed upon 
one arm of a balance. 

Prom observations (a), (b), (o), (d) the heat-output of the subject 
(plus any heat arising from a subsequent conversion of mechanical 
work into heat) was calculated for each five-minute period and the 
results plotted as curves. By correction from observation (<y) these 
curves, altered by allowances for the storage of heat in the subject, 
were converted into heat-production curves — that is to say, curves 
representing the total transformation of energy within the calorimeter. 

This endeavour to obtain results capable of erection into curves 
showing variations corresponding with such short time intervals has 
been unexpectedly justified by coincident observations of the tempera- 
ture of the subject's surface from which the heat is mainly passing into 
the calorimeter. The curves of heat output obtained by the complicated 
addition of data from observations (a), (b), and (c), and by subtraction 
of data from observations (d) are parallel to the surface temperature 
curves obtained simply by one set of observations during the first half- 
hour of each ' work experiment,' that is to say, so long as the observa- 
tions of surface temperature are not complicated by the accumulated 
presence of surface moisture, and in some of the extremely light ' work 
experiments ' continue in parallel fashion to the end of the experiment 
whilst showing corresponding variations at nodal points. 

This confirmation of the value of these curves brings into greater 
prominence the fact that the ' heat-output ' curves, and even the 
' heat-production ' curves — which latter represent an attempt to 
describe the total transformation of energy within the calorimeter — 
rise gradually for the best part of an hour to summits that are then 
more or less maintained during any further period of continuance in 
the performance of uniformly maintained mechanical work — a fact upon 
which I have elsewhere commented. It would thus seem as if the 
transformation of energy per unit of mechanical work performed was 
a quantity that increased up to a certain value which was then main- 
tained, and that the ' efficiency ' of man as a machine varied in this 
fashion with the time spent in work. 

This may be the case, but is improbable as not supported by 
evidence obtained by other observers in different ways — as by the quan- 
titative examination of the carbonic-acid output. If it is not the case, 
then two other lines of explanation have in addition to be examined. 
Thus it may be that the ' deep temperature ' (rectal) is not a satisfac- 
tory criterion of the mean temperature of the human body and does 
not therefore provide a proper basis for corrections representing its 
average storage of heat during any short period (five minutes) of time. 
It might, on the other hand, be the case that energy liberated during 
the performance of mechanical work as the outcome of oxidation 
processes developed as fully at the commencement as at the end of 
the experiment might be stored within the body, possibly within the 
musculature, in some form other than heat, as, for example, in the 



288 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

form of electrical energy, and therefore not discoverable by reference 
to changes of temperature. 

It is impossible to proceed with a discussion of this point until 
the calorimeter has been converted in some measure into a ' respiration 
calorimeter ' such that the carbonic-acid production within it may be 
tested at such short intervals of time as to furnish data for curves of 
oxidation processes, and this I am now attempting with the assistance 
of Dr. F. A. Duffield and hope to report upon at the end of another 
year. 

Leaving on one side, then, the special problem of the ' efficiency ' 
during this initial period, I have used the data obtained after the first 
hour for an estimation of the maintained ' efficiency.' 

Estimations of the ' efficiency ' of man as a machine have been 
found to involve two main difficulties. In the first place, assuming 
that the actual external mechanical work performed at any time is 
accurately known, there are always present processes within the body 
both in parts such as the glands seemingly independent of the muscu- 
lature, and even within the musculature itself, by which internal 
mechanical work is being performed and necessarily accompanied by 
a transformation of energy and a proportional sum of oxidation 
processes; and these processes are not constant, but vary — partly in 
relation to the performance of external work and partly with no relation 
to this factor. The comparison frequently made between measured 
work performance and so-called ' rest ' is then in reality a comparison 
between two imperfectly known quantities of work performance. 
Again, in the second place, it is a difficult matter to measure the 
mechanical work performed by movements of the body and its limbs, 
since work is done in those movements themselves apart from that 
which is done upon any mechanism to which they may be applied. 
This second difficulty I have investigated by experiments upon the 
cycle without any brake and against no more than the almost negligible 
resistance provided by the friction of it's cogs and chain and bearings. 
Thus in separate experiments upon the ' brakeless ' cycle subject E. J. B. 
(age forty-five, weight 55'8 kilos, height 168 cms.) gave the following 
results : — 

(1) 54 revolutions per minute, 107 kals per hour 

(2) 64 „ „ 115 „ „ 

(3) 74 „ „ 144 „ 

(4) 85 „ „ 174 „ „ . 

(5) 96 „ „ 233 „ 

Such results admit of approximate expression in the form (fc + xR 2 ), 
where k is a not too satisfactory constant and R is the revolution rate. 
Although k is not absolutely constant, it is, however, a relatively small 
quantity, and its variations complicate the results obtained at the lower 
revolution rates far more than at the higher. 

The thorough investigation of this question of the amount of 
mechanical work performed in mere movements promises to pave the 
way for a complete elimination of the second difficulty, but in the 
meantime it is more satisfactory to place in the forefront the results 
of experiments where the difficulty has been further avoided by the 



ON CALORtMETRIC OBSERVATIONS ON MAN. 



289 



retention of a uniform rate of movement throughout the whole serieB 
of experiments, as in the following cases : — 



— 


Total Transformation of Energy in Kals 
per Hour 


Current 

in 

Electrical 

Brakes 

Amperes 


Mechanical 
Work per- 
formed on 

Cycle 
in Kals per 

hour 


Number 
of Revo- 
lutions 

per 
Minute 


E. J. B. 

Weight=558 K 
Height=168cm. 


E. S. D. 
Weight=620 K 
Height=170cm. 


Dr. C. 

Weight=618 K 
Height= 165 cm. 


1 

2 
3 

4 
5 


125 
167 
212 
244 

286 


149 

187 

265 
308 


185 
305 




1 

1-5 

1-8 

21 


? 

13 
26 
345 
42-5 


60 

60 
60 
60 
60 



The figures given in this table for the mechanical work performed 
upon the cycle are taken from the results of a series of calibration 
experiments performed upon the cycle ergometer by Mr. Crapper and 
his assistant, Mr. Bisset, in the department of electro-technics in 
Sheffield University, and I have to acknowledge the great obligation 
which I am under for their extensive assistance. In these experiments 
the cycle was driven by a specially convenient motor at the various 
speeds used by my subjects when cycling, and with a range of electrical 
currents in its eddy-current brake similar to that adopted in my 
experiments. Two sets of these calibration experiments were per- 
formed, one prior to and the other later than the bulk of the calorimeter 
experiments, and there was a definite difference between the two 
probably attributable to the difference of temperature at these widely 
separated dates. Unaware of the necessary temperature-coefficient, I 
have taken the figures from the later set (lower values), since this 
coincides better with the dates of, and temperatures prevalent at, the 
experiments given in the Table. It should be understood, therefore, 
that the figures given for the mechanical work performed on the cycle 
are, if anything, under-estimated both from this cause and from the 
nature of the method used in calibration. This is a point of importance, 
since an under-estimation of the mechanical work performed entails an 
under-estimation of the corresponding ' efficiency. ' 

Now, referring to lines 2 and 5 in the table, it will be seen that 
in the, three subjects an increment in work-performance of 29"5 kals 
per hour (from 13 kals in line 2 to 42'5 kals in line 5) has led to the 
following increments in the total transformation of energy : — 



Increment of 
Mechanical Work 


Increment in Total Transformation of Energy 


E.J. B. 


E. S. D. 


Dr. C. 


29-5 


119 
(286-167) 


121 120 
(308-187) (305-185) 



1912. 



u 



290 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

It is clear, in the first place, that the ' efficiency ' of these three 
different persons of different ages (45, 24, 36) and of quite different 
physical appearance and habits is almost the same, and in the second 
place that it is at least (see remarks above) of the magnitude of 24 - 6 
per cent. 

This method of proceeding by the consideration of increments of 
work is obviously preferable to the comparison of work and so-called 
' rest,' and tends to eliminate the first difficulty described previously. 

In addition to these experiments, a large number of other experi- 
ments have been performed at different revolution rates, which when 
detailed will be found to support the conclusion arrived at as to the 
' efficiency ' of man as a machine. 



The Effect of Climate upon Health and Disease. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir Lauder Brunton (Chairman), 
Mr. J. Barcroft and Lieut. -Colonel Simpson (Secretaries), 
Colonel Sir D. Bruce, Dr. G. S. Campbell, Sir Kendal 
Franks, Professor J. G. McKendrick, Sir A. Mitchell, 
Dr. Porter, Dr. J. L. Todd, Professor Sims Woodhead, and 
the Heads of the Tropical Schools of Liverpool, London, 
and Edinburgh. 

The Committee has been in treaty with the Eoyal Society of Medicine, 
which has made certain alterations in its rules necessary for the 
co-option of the Committee with its Section of Balneology and Clima- 
tology. 

The Committee does not ask for reappointment. 



The Dissociation of Oxy-Hcemoglobin at High Altitudes. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. H. Starling 
(Chairman), Mr. J. Barcroft (Secretary), and Mr. W. B. 
Hardy. 

The work of this Committee was practically completed, as it seemed, 
when they returned from Monte Eosa a year ago. The Committee then 
presented an interim report accounting for the expenditure, except in 
so far as the outlay for apparatus was concerned. As the account for 
this was still open, some of the apparatus being under repair, it was 
necessary to defer this portion of the report. The amended statement. 
of account is now presented. During the past year certain control 
experiments have been carried out which show that the value of the 
work carried out in the Alps can only be duly appraised when similar 
experiments have been carried out during ascents from the sea-level to 
1,000 feet. Carlingford Mountain offers an ascent of 1,000 feet which 



THE DISSOCIATION OF OXY-H^MOGLOBIN AT HIGH ALTITUDES. 291 

is very similar to that overlooked by Col d'Olen. A grant of 151. is 
asked for for the purpose of carrying out experiments at Carlingford 
similar to those at Col d'Olen, on the same persons as far as possible. 



The Ductless Glands. — Report of the Committee, consisting, of 
Professor Schafer (Chairman), Professor Swale Vincent 
(Secretary), Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. Shore, 
and Mrs. W. H. Thompson. (Drawn up bij the Secretartj.) 

Mrs. Thompson has been continuing her investigations into the neck 
organs (thyroid, parathyroid, post-branchial body, carotid body, ventral 
branchial body, thymus, procoracoid, and pro-pericardial bodies). Her 
attention has been chiefly directed to these various structures in the 
frog. It seems to be fully established that in the case of the American 
frogs which came into our hands at Winnipeg the thymus disappears 
or becomes invisible during the winter months. The Secretary can 
state definitely that the same is not true of winter frogs in Edinburgh. 
The ventral branchial body of the frog is a large and striking organ 
which must possess important functions. Attempts have been made 
to extirpate the body, but these have been without success up to the 
present time. Professor Vincent has also tried to remove the para- 
thyroids from the frog (since these are quite separate from the thyroid), 
but the small size of the bodies has so far rendered the operation 
impossible. 

Mrs. Thompson's results have been submitted to the Royal Society 
of Canada, and will probably be published in the Transactions. 

Drs. Gardner and Mothersill have continued their experiments upon 
the adrenals of the dog. They find, as others have done, that extirpa- 
tion of one gland causes marked wasting of the animal, though this is 
of a temporary character. They are also able to confirm the statement 
of some writers that after removal of one gland there is a marked com- 
pensatory hypertrophy of the other. But the chief object of their 
experiments was to discover whether, when the animal survives for 
some time with a minimum of adrenal substance, there is a notable 
hypertrophy of the chromaphil tissues which are left behind, and in 
particular the abdominal chromaphil body. 1 The experiments show 
that such hypertrophy actually occurs. 

Professor Vincent has found that the abdominal chromaphil bodv 
of the dog can be stained deep brown by means of bichromate of 
potassium even while the animal is alive. This is a convenient way 
of extirpation of the body without surgical proceedings. But in some 
cases the brown colour has disappeared when the animal has been 
allowed to survive. The nature of the absorbable or soluble compound 
formed with the bichromate is being investigated. A preliminary 
account of this work has been sent in to the Boyal Society of Canada. 

1 See Vincent, Proc. Roy. Soc., 1910. 

u 2 



292 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

In conjunction with Mr. A. T. Cameron, Professor Vincent lias 
commenced an investigation into the chemistry of the thyroid apparatus 
and the role of iodine in the economy. Some analyses of thyroids and 
other glands have been made, but the work has not advanced far 
enough to enable us to make any definite report. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, with a grant of 40L 



The Effect of Low Temperatures on Cold-blooded Animals. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Swale 
Vincent {Chairman), and Mr. A. T. Cameron {Secretary). 

On account of pressure of other work, this Committee can only make 
a preliminary report. 

Taking advantage of the exceptional temperature conditions at 
Winnipeg during the winter Mr. Win. L. Mann, B.A., has carried out 
a series of experiments with frogs. These show that exposure to a 
temperature of— 14° C. for a period of somewhat over an hour is fatal, 
although muscular tissue is still, after thawing, sensitive to induced 
shocks; the heart, although it has ceased beating, is not rigid, and may 
recommence to beat. Exposure to a temperature of -12° for the 
same length of time is not fatal, although the animal becomes com- 
pletely rigid. When, however, the limbs are frozen extended, on 
thawing they are found to be paralysed. It is probable that much 
smaller depressions of temperature would prove fatal if the effect could 
be sufficiently prolonged; a self-regulating apparatus is at present 
being constructed which it is hoped will give constant temperatures 
between -40° and + 20°, and with which a much more systematic 
series of observations can be attempted. 

The Committee request to be reappointed, with a grant of 101. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor F. W. Oliver {Chairman), Professor 
F. E. Weiss {Secretary), Mr. E. Newell Arber, Dr. D. H. 
Scott, and Professor A. C. Seward. 

The whole of the grant of 15L has been devoted to the purchase of an 
extensive series of sections of the coal measure fossil Sutcliffia. The 
interest of the specimen, which is considerable, depends upon the 
presence of much secondary tissue in the stem. 

The sections have been placed in the hands of Dr. E. de Fraine 
for description, and the results, which are of great value, will shortly 
be published. 



ON THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OP HEREDITY. 293 

The Experimental Study of Heredity. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. Francis Darwin (Chairman), Mr. A. G. 
Tansley (Secretary), and Professors Bateson and Keeble. 

The grant has been used to defray part of the cost of experiments 
carried on by Miss E. E. Saunders, Mr. E. P. Gregory, Miss Gairdner, 
and Miss Sutton. 

The results of several years' work by Miss Saunders on the 
inheritance of doubling in stocks has been published in the course of 
the year. 1 The results have shown that in the case of stocks the 
doubling is a character which is inherited in accordance with definite 
laws, and is quite unaffected by the conditions of environment. In 
the case of certain races, it is now possible to formulate the complex 
scheme of gametic segregation which determines the inheritance in a 
given breeding. Certain points concerning the way in which the inherit- 
ance of the double character is bound up with the inheritance of flower- 
colour require further investigation, and the work is being continued 
in the hope of clearing these up. 

The inheritance of doubling in several other genera is also now 
being investigated, but as these plants are mostly biennials, the results 
of the work of the past season will not be obtained until next year. 

Mr. Gregory's experiments on Primula sinensis have been con- 
tinued and extended. A considerable part of the work has been devoted 
to the further investigation of the special inter-relations between certain 
genetic factors which are exhibited in this species. Eeciprocal crosses 
have shown that the gametes of both sexes may constitute series 
exhibiting the remarkably low types of partial ' coupling ' and 
' repulsion ' previously reported ; these low orders of partial coupling 
cannot therefore be explained, as at one time seemed possible, as being 
due to the existence of special inter-relations between the factors in 
the gametes of one sex only, those of the other sex being unaffected. 
The phenomena of ' flaking ' are being investigated more fully. It is 
hoped that results of some interest may be gained from two cases of 
gigantism which are now under investigation; in both cases there is 
evidence that the nuclei differ structurally from those of the giant 
races previously investigated and from those of the ordinary non-giant 
types; in each case, too, a departure from the normal segregation 
appears to be indicated. One of the cases is of special interest in that 
a sister family consisted entirely of non-giant plants, which exhibited 
normal segregation in P 2 . 

Experiments with the gynandrous variety of the common wall- 
flower show that this variety is recessive to the type. These experiments 
are being continued with the assistance of Miss Gairdner, who is also 
making a study of the morphology of the various gynandrous forms. 

Tropceolum. — Miss Gairdner and Miss Sutton are continuing the 
experiments with Tropceolum, principally with a view to studying the 
inheritance of variegation in the leaves. 

1 Journal of Genetics, December 1911. 



294 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

Clare Island. — Final Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor T. Johnson (Chairman) , Mr. K. Lloyd Praeger 
(Secretary), Professor Grenville Cole, Dr. Scharff, and 
Mr. A. G. Tansley, appointed to arrange a Botanical, Zoo- 
logical, and Geological Survey of Clare Island. 

The Committee appointed to promote a biological survey of Clare 
Island and neighbourhood beg leave to report that the field-work has now 
been completed. 

As notified previously, the Royal Irish Academy has undertaken 
the publication l of the results ; these will be contained in a series of 
sixty-eight reports, of which twenty-four have been published, and 
eight more are at press. The wide variety of subjects dealt with in 
the reports so far published, and the incomplete state of the work, 
make the presentation of an abstract of results at the present time 
impossible. 



The Investigation of the Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor A. C. Seward (Chair- 
man), Mr. H. Hamshaw Thomas (Secretary), Mr. Harold 
Wager, and Professor F. E. Weiss. 

The work of the further investigation of this large and interesting flora 
is proceeding steadily. During the year the Gristhorpe plant-bed has 
been further opened up and specimens have been obtained of the new 
Bennettitalean flower William soniella coronata, fruits and seeds of 
Caytonia, fertile fronds of Dictyopliyllum rugosum and Eboracia lobi- 
folia, together with other rare and interesting fossils. Some collecting 
at Whitby has resulted in the discovery of a Williamsonia female flower, 
probably a new species. 

A considerable amount of work has been done in the Marske Quarry, 
where a bed of grey shale containing some interesting plants has been 
discovered; a considerable number of forms has been collected there 
whose excellent preservation renders them suitable for the study of the 
cuticular structure. In this bed a new fern, Stachypteris Hallei, was 
found, which has been described (by H. H. Thomas) in ' Proc. Cambridge 
Phd. Soc.,' vol. xvi., pt. 7, p. 610. The same locality has also yielded 
remains of Bennettitalean flowers. The fossil flora of the Marske 
Quarry has now been re-examined and a paper on it will shortly be 
published. 

The investigation of some rich plant-beds newly discovered on Rose- 
bury Topping has been commenced. This locality is of great interest as 
showing the extension of the plant-bearing Estuarine series towards 
the north-east of the Cleveland Hills. Some new forms have already 
been discovered in this locality, where Marattiopsis anglica is one of the 
commonest species. Part of the grant has been spent in the excavation 
of other localities in this neighbourhood, and we hope in the future to 

1 Vol. xxxi. of its Proceedings. 



ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE JURASSIC FLORA OF YORKSHIRE. 295 

excavate at many more places along the northern side of the Cleveland 
Hills ; at present only the fringe of the plant-bearing strata has been 
touched. 

Though a considerable amount has been done, the work of the past 
year has been considerably hampered by the bad weather during the 
periods available for field-work. 



School-books and Eyesight. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. G. A. Auden (Chairman), Mr. G. F. Daniell 
(Secretary), Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. W. D. Eggar, Pro- 
fessor R. A. Gregory, Mr. N. Bishop Harman, Mr. J. L. 
Holland, Professor Priestley Smith, and Mr. W. T. H. 
Walsh, appointed to inquire into the Influence of School- 
books upon Eyesight. 

From the beginning of its investigations the Committee has had the 
advantage of the assistance of Dr. H. Eason, Professor H. R. Ken- 
wood, Mr. R. B. Lattimer, Miss Brown Smith, and Dr. Louisa Wood- 
cock. 

In view of the fact that Local Education Authorities are able 
greatly to influence the selection of school-books, the Committee made 
an inquiry, on which is based the section of this report headed ' Present 
Practice of Local Education Authorities. ' At the request of the Com- 
mittee Dr. H. Eason, Mr. Bishop Harman, and Professor Priestley 
Smith drew up the ' Oculist Sub-Committee's Report,' to which the 
attention of teachers and parents is invited. The latter portions of the 
report contain suggestions for standardising the typography of school- 
books, and to this portion oculists, school medical officers, directors 
of education, teachers, publishers, printers, and typefounders have con- 
tributed. 

The Present Practice of Local Education Authorities in England and 

Wales. 

In a circular (No. 596) issued by the Board of Education in 1908 
the functions of the School Medical Officer are defined. Under the 
heading of ' Arrangements for attending to the health and physical 
condition of school children ' it is stated that he will advise the Local 
Education Authority with reference to improvements of the school 
arrangements. It is further stated in the Circular that ' As regards 
cases of defective eyesight he will indicate such. measures as can be 
taken to remedy or mitigate the defects by altering the position of the 
children in the class, or improving the lighting of the school in amount 
or direction ; and he will call attention to the strain imposed on eye- 
sight by the use of too small type in text-books, the teaching of very 
fine sewing, &c. ' There can be no doubt that this suggested advice has 
in many cases led to an improvement where certain school arrangements 
had been prejudicial to vision; but hitherto it has not been possible to 
deal effectively with the provision of satisfactory school text-books. 



296 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

A circular letter was sent to the Education Authority of each 
county and county borough stating the objects of the Committee, and 
asking for information on the following points: — 

(1) Whether the eyesight of the children in the schools of the 

Authority is tested at regular intervals ; 

(2) Whether advice on the care of the children's eyesight is given 

to school teachers; 

(3) Whether the teachers instruct the children in the general care 

of eyesight; 

(4) What regulations (if any) have been adopted for the selection 

of school-books and atlases (including limits of price, size of 
type, character of illustrations, weight, &c), wall-maps, charts, 
and diagrams; 

(5) Whether any definite principles or rules have been laid down 

by or for those who select school-books for the Authority. 

Replies were received from sixty Authorities, to whom and their 
officers the Committee is much indebted for the information supplied. 

Under the system of medical inspection now general in public 
elementary schools, in accordance with the day-school code, the eye- 
sight of children of school age is tested at least twice during their 
school life, the test being made, with few exceptions, by means of the 
well-known test-cards. A few Authorities in both counties and 
county boroughs go further, and employ a competent oculist, either 
part or full time, his duty being to examine special cases and pre- 
scribe spectacles or recommend that medical or operative treatment be 
obtained. Some Authorities have arrangements under which spec- 
tacles according fo the prescription of their oculist are supplied to the 
children at cost price, which is comparatively low by reason of special 
contracts. Arrangements are also made for free provision of spectacles 
in case of need, frequently with the aid of voluntary associations. 

The school medical officers and ophthalmic surgeons on the occasion 
of their visits give advice to the teachers concerning the treatment of 
children with defective sight. With one or two important exceptions, 
however, it would seem that instruction concerning proper and im- 
proper use Of the eyes in school-work has not been given to teachers. 
The Committee is pleased to report that, under the new regulations for 
the training of teachers, hygiene, including testing of eyesight, is now a 
compulsory subject for the Board of Education examination of training- 
college students. 

We learn that it is not customary for teachers to give the children 
special instruction concerning the care of their eyes. It is stated in 
several instances that teaching of this kind is given incidentally in the 
course of the lessons on hygiene which form part of the school cur- 
riculum ; but nothing more is done, and what is done amounts to 
very little. 

Speaking generally, no definite principles or rules as to printing 
and other conditions of legibility have been adopted in the selection 
of school-books, atlases, diagrams, &c. Two or three Authorities, 
when drawing up their book-lists, have given considerable attention 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 297 

to their possible effects on eyesight, but without formulating any- 
definite rules. Several state that the Committee or officers responsible 
for the supervision of the book-supply pay attention to the type, 
pnper, &c. ; several, on the other hand, inform us that the selection 
of books, &c, is left to the teachers. 

Summarising the evidence generally, it may be said that whilst 
effective arrangements for the detection of existing defects in the 
eyesight of elementary school children are general and arrangements 
for the supply of proper spectacles at cheap rates are not uncommon, 
practically no systematic attention is given to the influence of school- 
books upon eyesight. 

The replies lead us to believe that the report of the Committee will 
have attention from Local Education Authorities,, 

Report of the Oculist Sub-Committee. 

The eye of the child is a growing eye. It is immature both in 
structure and in function. At birth the eye has a volume equal to 
about half that of the full-grown eye ; the materials of which it is built 
are comparatively soft and yielding ; the functional power of the visual 
apparatus is merely a perception of light. By growth and develop- 
ment, rapid at first, slower later on, the eye tends progressively to 
acquire the dimensions and the powers of the normal completed organ. 

Nutrition by healthy blood, and the natural stimulus of volun- 
tary use, are essential to this process. "We know by experience that 
in early infancy disease may arrest the growth of the eye, and that 
suspension of use, as when a serious ophthalmia prevents an infant 
for many weeks from attempting to use its eyes, may check func- 
tional development to an extent which cannot afterwards be made 
good. On the other hand, excessive efforts, due to unnatural demands 
on the eyesight, are apt to be injurious in the opposite direction. 
Unfortunately there is evidence to show that the demand made on 
the eyesight of school children is not infrequently excessive. 

At the age when school life begins the visual apparatus is still 
immature. The orbits, the eyes themselves, and the muscles and 
nerves which move them, have still to increase considerably in size. 
The various brain-structures concerned in vision have not only to grow 
but to become more complex. The intricate co-ordinating mechanism 
which later will enable the eyes, brain, and hand to work together 
with minute precision, is nwaiting development by training. The 
acuteness of vision is still below the standard proper to the 
finished eye. The refraction of the eyes is not yet fixed. It is usually 
more or less hypermetropic, with a tendency to change in the direction 
of normal sight ; in other words, it has not reached the ideal condition 
in which the eyes see distant objects without accommodative effort, 
but is tending towards it. In short, the whole visual apparatus is still 
unfinished, and is therefore more liable than at a later age to injury by 
over-use. 

Over-use of the eyes is chiefly to be feared in such occupations as 
reading, writing, and sewing, not in viewing distant objects. During 
near work the head is usually bent forward, and the blood-vessels of 



298 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

the eyes tend to become fuller ; the focus of the eyes is shortened by 
a muscular effort which alters the form of the crystalline lens; the 
visual axes, which in distant vision are nearly parallel, are held in a 
position of convergence, and if the work be reading they are also 
moved continuously from side to side. It is near work, therefore, that 
makes the greatest demand upon the eyes, and the nearer the work 
the greater the strain. Moreover, it is chiefly in near work that con- 
tinuous mental effort is required. 

Children who do too much close eye-work surfer in various ways. 
Some simply from fatigue, showing itself by inattention, mental 
weariness, temporary dimness of sight, or aching of the eyes and head. 
Some from congestion of the eyes, as shown by redness, watering, 
and frequent blinking. A certain number, in circumstances which 
predispose them to the disorder, develop strabismus, or squint. Some 
others — and these coses are perhaps the most important of all — develop 
progressive myopia. 

Myopia, or short sight, commonly depends on undue elongation of 
the eyeball. It is never, or hardly ever, present at birth. It is rare 
at five years of age. It usually begins during school life, and increases 
more or less from year to year during the period of growth. It some- 
times continues to increase after growth is completed. It is not 
necessarily, or always, associated with over-use of the eyes, either in 
school or elsewhere, for we see it arise after illness, we meet with it 
in illiterates, and we know that the predisposition to it is strongly 
hereditary. But it is everywhere most frequent among the most 
studious, and there is a mass of evidence to show that it depends very 
largely, both in its origin and in its progress, on over-use of the eyes 
in near work. 

A moderate myopia which does not increase may be regarded as an 
innocent, though somewhat inconvenient, over-development of the rye. 
A high myopia usually involves serious stretching and thinning of the 
coats of the eye, and a liability to further trouble. A high myopia in 
a child is a very grave condition, for further deterioration always 
follows. In connection with myopia alone, to say nothing of other 
eye defects, the question of school-work in relation to eyesight deserves 
more attention than it has hitherto received. 

The subject has many sides: the lighting of school-rooms, the 
arrangement of the desks, the design and proportion of individual desks, 
the attitudes of the scholars, the amount of work required, are all 
factors of importance; but they cannot be considered here. Our 
present effort is directed to the standardising of school-books, a very 
important step in the desired direction. 

Small print leads the young scholar to look too closely at his book. 
He is not yet familiar with the forms of the words, and his eyesight 
has not yet reached its full acuteness. For easy vision he must have 
retinal images larger than those which satisfy the trained reader. To 
obtain these larger images he brings the book too near to his eyes, or 
his eyes too near the book, and this, for the reasons already given, 
is apt to be injurious. Hence the importance of establishing certain 
standards of legibility for school-books, having regard to the ages of 



ON THE INFLUENCE OP SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 299 

the scholars who are required to use them, and of employing only such 
books as reach these standards. 

The importance of the matter becomes still more evident when 
we remember that, according to recent medical inspection, at least 
10 per cent, of the children in our elementary schools have serious 
defects of vision, and about 20 per cent, errors of refraction, and see 
less easily and clearly, even when provided with proper glasses, than 
do normal-sighted children. 

At what age should children begin to read from books? From the 
hygienic point of view the later the better, and there is reason to 
believe that little, if anything, is lost educationally by postponing the 
use of books in school until the age of seven at earliest. Beginners may 
learn to read from wall-charts ; and in the general instruction of 
young children, teaching by word of mouth, with the help of black- 
boards, large printed wall-sheets, pictures, and other objects which are 
easily seen at a distance, is preferable from the medical standpoint, 
for it has the great advantage of involving no strain on the eyes. 

Hygienic Requirements with which School-books should conform. 

The Committee desires to acknowledge the helpful advice received 
from Mr. J. H. Mason, Mr. 11. J. Davies, Mr. H. Fitzhenry, and 
Mr. F. Killick in connection with the technical and trade aspects of 
this section of its report. 

The factors which have been taken into consideration are : (1) The 
nature of the psychological process involved in reading; (2) the quality 
of the workmanship employed in book-production; (3) the quality of 
the paper on winch text and illustrations are printed ; (4) the character 
of the illustrations and the process employed for their reproduction ; 
(5) the colour and quality of the ink used in printing the text ; (6) the 
mode of printing ; (7) the character of the type ; (8) the size of the type- 
faces and their vertical and horizontal separation ; (9) the length of the 
lines; (10 to 18) particular requirements of special subjects. 

1. The psychology of the reading process. — The special considera- 
tion to be here noted is that the printing should be Buch as will facilitate 
the main aim of reading — viz., the getting of the meaning of what is 
read. The trained reader generally recognises whole words and phrases 
at a glance. It is therefore important that the process of beginners 
should be made as easy as possible towards the recognition of word- 
wholes and phrase-wholes by the use of type suitable in character and 
judiciously spaced. The best type for isolated letters is not necessarily 
the best for word-wholes, and attention must be given to the compara- 
tive legibility of letters as seen in context. 

2. Workmanship. — It is possible to neutralise much of the good 
effect of well-selected type, paper, &c, by inefficient workmanship. 
In all the recommendations which follow, good workmanship will be 
assumed. 

8. Paper. — The paper should be without gloss. Glazed paper is 
trying to the eyes by reason of reflections which are apt to interfere 
with binocular vision. Pure white paper gives the greatest contrast 
with the ink, and therefore a paper which is white or slightly 



300 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

toned towards cream-colour is to be preferred under average con- 
ditions of class-room illumination. A hard-pressed paper of suitable 
quality should be used, as a soft paper has two defects — (1) it is readily 
soiled, (2) the surface is easily rubbed off and the detritus is injurious. 
The print of one side must not show through from the other, and the 
printing must not affect the evenness of the surface of the other side. 
These rules also apply to illustrations, which afford a good test of the 
opacity of the paper. Books are occasionally bound and pressed before 
the ink is dried, and a faint impression of the opposite sheets causes a 
haze. Copies with this defect should be rejected. 

4. Illustrations include (1) pictures for young readers, (2) diagrams 
and sketches, and (3) photographic reproductions involving consider- 
able elaboration of detail. For (1) it is important to recollect that 
children are only confused by elaborate or complex pictures. Bold, 
firm treatment of a few objects is appropriate alike to their visual powers 
and to their understanding. From this point of view line blocks from 
pen-and-ink drawings are preferable to half-tone blocks from photo- 
graphs or from wash-drawings. The pictures should be of a good 
size, and the printed text should not extend in narrow lines at the side. 
In the case of (2) diagrams, it is important that the lettering should 
not be too small to be easily read. (3) For the older scholars it is 
sometimes necessary to provide illustrations exhibiting details with 
the precision most readily obtainable by photography. For the sake 
of obtaining effective illustrations of this kind, use is frequently made 
of highly glazed paper. Whenever this is done it is important that 
such paper should be used for illustrations only, and not for the text. 
By the use of recent methods it is possible to secure half-tone prints 
with good rendering of detail on matt paper. (See recent British 
Museum publications, of which some are entirely printed on non-coated 
and non-shiny papers.) 

5. Ink. — The ink should be a good black, and it is important to 
secure a proper, sufficient., and even distribution of it over the whole 
page. The use of coloured inks is strongly to be deprecated, especially 
the use of more than one colour on a page. 

C. Mode of printiyig. — Ordinary text should not be printed in 
double columns. Types should be in true alignment along the base 
line. Hand-set type is greatly to be preferred to ordinary machine-work 
of the present day; indeed, much of the improvement at which this 
report aims will be lost if printing of the standard of hand-set type 
be not insisted upon. The practice of printing from stereos produces 
quite satisfactory results, provided that the stereo is carefully made 
from unworn type. A slight thickening of all the lines results from 
stereotyping, but this in no way detracts from legibility. Stereos 
should not be used when they begin to show signs of wear. 

7. Character of type. 1 — The type should be clean-cut and well- 
defined. Condensed or compressed type should not be used, as 
breadth is even more important than height. The contrast between 
the finer and the heavier strokes should not be great, for hair-strokes 

1 For explanation of technical terms, see Appendix. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 301 

are difficult to see. On the other hand, a very heavy-faced type 
suffers in legibility through diminution of the white inter-spaces, 
as, for example, when the space in the upper half of the e is reduced 
to a white dot. In an ideal type the whites and blacks are well 
balanced in each letter, and it is easy to discriminate between e, c, 
and o, between i and I, and between h and lc; and to recognise m, nn, 
nu, nv, w, in. The general form of the letters should be broad and 
square rather than elongated vertically ; thus the letter o should 
approach the circular shape. Legibility is not increased by adding to 
the height of a letter without adding to its width. There should be a 
lateral shoulder on every type, so> that each letter is distinct. Long 
serifs should be avoided, and any extension sideways which forms or 
suggests a continuous line along the top or bottom is detrimental. 

The upper half of a word or letter is usually more important for 
perception than is the lower half, because the upper half of most letters 
has a more distinctive shape than the lower. In some recent type-faces 
the designers have accordingly shortened the letters below the line, and 
lengthened those above — thus the p is shortened and the h lengthened, 
at the same time the upper parts of the r have been raised. It is too 
early to pass judgment on the results, and more experiment is desirable. 
It is possible that legibility would be increased by giving more distinctive 
character to the lower half of a larger proportion of letters. 

With reference to the question of ' modern-face ' versus ' old- 
face ' design for type, the Committee is not prepared to advise the 
use of either to the exclusion of the other, good and bad varieties of 
both styles being at present in use. It is claimed for the ' modern 
face ' that the letters are more legible, and it may be conceded that 
failure to provide the minimum height of the short letters is mope 
frequent in 'old face.' Hence the letters of the ' modern face ' are 
usually more legible in the case of sizes below twelve-point. The 
advocates of the ' old face ' contend that the ' modern face ' letters 
remain isolated, whereas the letters of the ' old face ' flow more 
naturally into words; thus the form of the word and its meaning are 
apprehended smoothly. It is also claimed that the basic design of 
the ' old face ' is of higher aesthetic merit. The Committee insists on 
the importance of the minimum height and breadth for the small letters 
(vide columns 2 and 3 of the table), and if this be secured, leaves the 
decision between the ' modern face ' and ' old face ' to individual judg- 
ment helped by the criteria provided in various paragraphs of this 
report. 

Italics, being less easy to read than ordinary type of the same size, 
should be used sparingly. 

8. The size of type-faces and their vertical and horizontal separa- 
tion. — The size of the type-face is the most important factor in the 
influence of books upon vision. Legibility depends mainly on the 
height and breadth of the short letters, for the larger the type the 
further from the eyes can it be read with ease, and it is of the first 
importance to induce the young reader to keep a sufficient distance 
between eyes and book. Children under seven years old should be 
able to lean back in their seats and read from the book propped up on 



302 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 



the far side of the desk. (As a rule books should not be too large or 
heavy to be held in the hand.) The appended typographical table shows 
the minimum requirements, in the opinion of the Committee, for the 
various ages given ; the dimensions being given in a form which can 
be understood and utilised by readers unacquainted with the technical 
terms used by printers/ 







Typograph 


ical Table. 






Age of 
Reader 


Minimum 

Height of 

Face of Short 

Letters 


Minimum 

Length of 

Alphabet of 

Small Letters 


Minimum 

Interlinear 

Space 

5 mm. 
or 14 pt. 

3-6 mm. 
or 10 pt. 

2 mm. 
or 6 pt. 

2 mm. 
or 6 pt. 

1-8 mm. 
or 5 pt. 


Maximum 

No. of Lines 

per Vertical 

100 mm. 

or 4 inches 


Maximum 

Length 

or Measure of 

Line 


Under 7 yrs. 

7 to 8 yrs. . 

8 to 9 yrs. . 

9 to 12 yrs. . 
Over 12 yrs. 


3-5 mm. 

2-5 mm. 

20 mm. 

1-8 mm. 

1-58 mm. 
or Jk mcn 


96 mm. 
or 272 pt. 

72 mm. 

or 204 pt. 

55 mm. 
or 156 pt. 

50 mm. 
or 143 pt. 

47 mm. 
or 133 pt. 


12 
16 
20 
22 
24 


100 mm. 
or 4 in. 

93 mm. 
or 3§ in. 

93 mm. 
or 3$ in. 

93 mm. 
or 3| in. 



1 inch =■ 25-4 mm. 1 point = ^ inch = 353 mm. 

Specimens of printed matter conforming with the above table will be found in a 
Supplement. The four-inch steel rule ' Chesterman 410 D ' is convenient for these 
measures. 

The sizes and spacing of the type suggested for age eight to nine 
years may be adopted for older readers, including practised adults. 

The column giving the minimum length of the alphabet of the 
small letters (i.e., not capitals) affords a measure of the breadth of 
the types. Strictly speaking, this cannot be measured by the reader 
of a book. A sufficiently good estimate can be made when it is 
recollected that there are twenty-six letters in the alphabet, and accord- 
ingly a word of thirteen letters should not fall short, to a material 
extent), of half the lengths stated in the third column. Thus the 
word ' typographical ' should measure nearly 25 mm. in type adopted 
for readers under twelve. (This may be tested in the examples 
given in the Supplement.) A rough rule may be given thus: The 
number of letters per running inch or 25 mm. should not on the 
average exceed — 

6 or 7 letters for readers under 7 years. 

8 or 9 „ „ from 7 to 8 „ 

11 or 12 „ „ „ 8 to 9 „ 

13 „ ,. „ 9 to 12 „ 

13 or 14 ,, ,, over 12 ,, 

By ' interlinear space ' is meant the vertical distance between the 
bottom of a short letter and the top of a 3hort letter in the next line 
below. This space between the lines should vary in proportion to the 
size of the type. Too little space is a source of fatigue in reading, 



ON THE INFLUENCE OP SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 303 

for it involves difficulty in passing from the end of a line to the 
beginning of the line below. Very wide space, on the other hand, 
has no advantage as regards legibility, and involves waste of paper 
and undesirable increase in the size of the book. Columns 4 and 5 
of the table indicate a suitable proportion. 

9. The length of the line also is a matter of importance. Other 
things being equal, the longer the line the greater the excursions of 
the eyes and the greater the difficulty in passing from one line to the 
next. Very short lines, on the other hand, demand too frequent a 
change of direction in the movement of the eyes. The use of lines 
longer than the maxima given in the last column of the table is sure to 
cause fatigue to a considerable proportion of readers. 

Approximate uniformity in length is desirable; but not absolute 
uniformity. It is doubtful whether the power of fairly rapid intelligent 
reading can be attained without the unconscious performance of the 
swing from near the end of each line to near the beginning of the 
next. This swing may be compared with the motion of an oarsman's 
body between the strokes. A slight indentation in the lines helps the 
reader; but a large one hinders the acquisition of a good habit of swing. 
Children of eight years old should not have their reading confined to 
very short paragraphs, as the habit of swing has been found well 
established in good readers of between nine and eleven years of age. In 
other words, these readers made the necessary eye-movements without 
conscious effort and with great regularity. 

Unusual separation of letters should be avoided. For 
beginners, lines should not end in the middle of a word ; the whole 
word should be carried to the next line and not be hyphened. The 
admission in the table of a four-inch line for the large type is a 
concession intended to meet the difficulty of securing an even set of the 
letters in a line of shorter measure. 

Good margins are restful to the eye, and are well worth their 
slight cost. 

10. Particular Requirements of Special Subjects: Bibles, Prayer- 
books, and Hymn-books. — It is to be regretted that these books are so 
frequently printed in type which is injurious on account of its small 
size. It is desirable that the standard given in the table should not 
be lowered with respect to these important books, which are frequently 
used under poor conditions as regards illumination. 

11. Books for Evening Work. — The unfavourable conditions result- 
ing from artificial illumination and fatigue of the learners make it 
highly desirable that the rules ' from age twelve ' should be maintained 
for books to be used in all evening classes, or for home-work, even 
for adults. 

12. Exercises, Sets of Examples, and Questions. — These are the 
most important parts of a school-book, so far as influence upon vision 
is concerned, and the rules for the printing of them should on no 
account be less stringent than those applied to the rest of the book. 
The same rules should be applied to test-cards. The use of hektograph- 
ing or other multiplying processes is increasing in schools. Care should 
be taken to secure clear and legible copies. 



304 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1912. 

13.' The Types for Mathematical Symbols should correspond with, 
or be larger than, the sizes of type recommended for the various ages. 
It is important that the smaller symbols should not be too fine, and 
it is advisable to employ the ' heavy ' type for fractions which is 
described by typefounders as ' heavy fractions. ' For children under 
twelve years no fractions should be employed less than 3'5 mm. in 
height of face; thus in J the distance from the top of the 3 to the 
bottom of the 4 should not be less than 3*5 mm. For pupils over 
twelve the minimum face height for fractions should be 3 mm. If 
heavy fractions be not used, these heights should be increased to 4 and 
3 "5 mm. respectively. It should be easy to discriminate between the 
numerals 3, 6, 8 and 9. 

14. Squared Paper. — Use of squared paper should be restricted to 
work for which it is really required. If this be done, and paper with 
rulings not less than one-tenth inch apart be used, there will be little 
danger to vision. The use of millimetre paper should be restricted to 
students over fourteen, and be only used by them in a good light — on 
exceptional occasions. 

15. Atlases. — It does not appear possible to avoid some use in 
atlases of type which is below the desirable standard of size, and the 
care which should be exercised by teachers in regard to the children's 
eyesight needs to be specially emphasised in this connection. Their 
use should be avoided when the illumination is below normal — the less 
they are used for home-work the better. Location by reference lines 
should be taught from the beginning, and children should not be 
allowed to hunt for a name in an undirected fashion, as they may thus 
have to read fifty names in finding the one sought. Atlases intended 
for use by children under nine should have no type smaller than ten- 
point, with minimum height of 1"6 mm. or one-sixteenth inch for the 
short letters. No school atlas should be printed with type smaller 
than eight-point, with minimum height of 1"2 mm. for the short 
letters. The type should be extended ; italics should not be used more 
than is necessary, and should not have fine hair-lines. Type of display 
character may be used with advantage. 

It is not necessary that every map should be coloured. (It has 
already been pointed out that colour decreases legibility.) In the 
case of beginners, the colour helps the appreciation of area; but for 
this purpose the colouring should be pale, and few names inserted. 
For the portrayal of relief, the practice of block-shading the contours 
is better than heavy black hill-shading by hachures. Maps should be 
duplicated where it is necessary (e.g., Switzerland) to exhibit great 
variation of contour together with several place-names. In general it 
is better to multiply maps than to put much detail into one. 

If a system of inserting the names of every town of a certain 
population be .adopted, the result is certain to be overcrowding of 
those portions of the maps which represent highly-populated countries. 
It would be better to avoid this overcrowding, even at some sacrifice 
of systematic uniformity. Modern methods in the teaching of 
geography are reducing the hunting for place-names, and thereby 
diminishing eye-strain. This advantage will be more general when 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPOfc EYESIGHT. 305 

the supply of orographical maps to public elementary schools is 
increased. The reading of Ordnance Survey sheets by the older pupils 
is not objected to, provided they are used in good daylight. 

16. Music. — For the tonic sol-fa notation the minimum height of 
the short letters should be (a) for music, 2 mm.; (b) for words, 
1*5 mm. Staff music is often produced by lithography, in which all 
gradations of size and shape are possible. Care in printing is needed, 
so as to secure well-defined stave-lines and tails. Advantage should be 
taken of the elasticity in the length assigned to different bars in the 
lithographed music, so as to avoid compression of complicated passages. 
For beginners music of the size of the ' Giant Note ' is recommended. 
For others, the stave-lines should not be less than T75 mm. apart 
(see specimen of ruby, or five-point, in the Supplement). The ruled 
paper for music-writing should have lines not less than 2 mm. apart. 

17. Greek. — Greek type is troublesome to beginners by reason of 
its unfamiliarity and of the difficulty of synthetising accents and letters 
into word-wholes. The correct Porson type has a line of uniform 
thickness. Such type affords easy discrimination of individual letters, 
and is legible in mathematical formulae, even when small sizes are 
used. For reading, it is recommended that no type smaller than 
twelve-point be used for beginners, or eleven-point for experienced 
readers. The variety of Greek type which employs fine hair-lines 
should be entirely abandoned. Uncial Greek may be recommended as 
being easy to read (see Supplement). 

18. German. — The older styles of German type are less easily 
.legible partly on account of the ill-placed hair-lines at the top of the 

letters. Eecent forms of the black letter used in German books are 
improved in this respect; but since Koman type is being used largely, 
even for literary works in Germany, the use in our schools of the less 
legible German types may be reduced with some gain to the security of 
eyesight. 

Conclusion. 
The Committee observes in conclusion that: — 

(1) The existence of a very serious amount of visual defect among 
children of school age is established as a result of official inspection. 
Some portion of this defect is preventable by greater care in the selec- 
tion of books. 

(2) It is desirable that a standard of book-production should be 
established, and that the publication of books below standard should 
cease. 

(3) It appears possible that the adoption by local education 
authorities of a common standard would render unprofitable the pub- 
lication of books which failed to reach such standard. 

(4) It is hoped that this report may assist the responsible authorities 
in the work of determining the standard of book-production requisite 
for the protection of the eyesight of children so far as it is influenced 
by the book3 which the children are compelled to read in school. 

1912. X 



30G REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1912. 

APPENDIX. 

Note on Technical Terms used in this Report. 

Type-body, type-face, lateral shoulder, large-face. — The letters 
are cast on a ' type-body ' ; the part of the type which actually leaves 
its impress is the ' face.' When the face is nearly as large as the 
body will carry, the type is ' large-face.' The space on the upper 
surface of the body on each side of the face is the lateral ' shoulder. ' 
All one reads is the impress of the faces of the types. 

Serif. — A type in which each letter had only its bare necessary 
features would be ' without serif,' the serifs being the terminals of 
the letters. If of proper design, the serifs guide the eye from letter 
to letter and give a balanced effect. In some styles the serifs take the 
form of purposeless ornament, which is undesirable in books which 
are intended for continuous reading. 

In condensed or compressed type the bodies are narrow, so that 
the letters are narrow and close together. Column 3 of the typo- 
graphical table excludes such type. 

Old face and modern face refer to styles of type. In the specimens 
in the Supplement the faults of the more extreme varieties of each have 
been avoided. 

Heavy type, heavy fractions refer to type of which the lines are 
thick. 

Point is a unit of measurement = 1/72 of an inch. Thus an 
eighteen-point type has a body one-quarter inch high. The face may 
be of any size smaller than the body. 

Solid and leaded. — If the types of consecutive lines are set with no 
vertical interval between the bodies, the type is 'solid.' When there 
is a vertical interval, say of a thirty-sixth of an inch, the type is ' two- 
point leaded. ' A large-face type of ten-point body with two-point 
leading will produce about the same vertical space between the short 
letters as a small-face type of twelve-point body printed solid. 

An indentation occurs in a line where the print does not extend to 
the same length as in neighbouring lines. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 307 



SUPPLEMENT. 



SPECIMENS OF TYPE. 

The Committee draws attention to the fact that 
there is considerable variation in the size of the 
faces of the various types coming under the same 
rating in point body, or bearing