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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"




lA.'?^ 



REPORT 



OF THE 



EIGHTY.THIRD MEETING OF THE 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 




BIRMINGHAM: 1913 

SEPTEMBER 10-17 



'^ 




LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1914 

Ojfice of the AssociaiiGii : Btirlingtou House, Loudon, II' 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Ofpicees and Council, 1913-1914 iii 

Rules of the British Association v 

Tables : Past Annual Meetings : * 

Trustees, General Officers, &c. (1831-1913) 'xxi 

Sectional Presidents and Secretaries (1901-1913) .xii 

Chairmen and Secretaries of Conferences of Delegates (1901-1913) xxix 

Evening Discourses (1901-1913) xxix 

Lectures to the Operative Classes and Public Lectures (1901 -1913) xxxi 
Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, Receipts, and Sums 

paid on account of Grants for Scientific Purposes (1831-191:'>) xxxii 

Analysis of Attendances xxxiv 

Grants for Scientific Purposes (1901-1912) xxxvi 

Repoet of the Council to the Geneeal Committee, 1912-1913 ... xli 

Geneeal Tebasueer's Account, 1912-1913 xlvi 

BlEMINGHAM MEETING, 1913: 

General Meetings xlviii 

Sectional Officers xlviii 

Officers of Conference of Delegates 1 

Committee of Recommendations 1 

Research Committees li 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso Ixii 

Resolutions referred to the Council Ixii 

Synopsis of Grants of Money Ixiv 

Address by the President, Sie Olivee J. Lodge, D.Sc, LL.D.,F.R.S. 3 
Reports on the State op Science 45 

* Particulars for early Meetings not furnished in the following Tables will 
be found in Volumes for 1911 and previous years. 

a2 



n CONTKNTS. 

Page 
Tbansactions of the Sections : 

A. — Mathematical and Physical Science o67 

Ji.— Chemistry 408 

C . — Geol ogy -15o 

D.— Zoology 500 

E. — Geography o30 

F. — Economic Science and Statistics ofJO 

< i . — Engineering 587 

1 1 . — Anthropology 6 1 o 

I.— Physiology 652 

K.— Botany 01>2 

L. — Educational Science 7'J'2 

M. — Agriculture 758 

Evening Discourses 78;j 

Al'PKNLilX: Papers ordered to he printed i)i rrteiian 788 

Index 815 

List of Members, &c 100 pages 



LIST OK PLA'l'ES. 

Plate I. — Ilhislrating the Report on Seisniolo'jical Investigations. 

J'lates it., III., AND IV.— Illustrating the lleporl on the lurlher 'I'al.uhition 

on Be.ssel and other Function-'. 



officp:rs and council, i;»i3-iyi4. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

PRESIDENT. 

Siu OLIVER J. LODGE, U.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

The Right Hou. tlio Lord Mayor of Uinuingham ' The Right Hon. Jiispii'n Chambebi.ain, 1) f L 

(Lieut.-Ool. E. Mautineau, JI.A., V.U.). M.P., Cliaiicclloi- of tlie University of Birniiii"-' 

Tlie Right Hon. the Earl of Cravex, Lor J- linm. 

Lieutenant of War-vickshire. , The Vicc-Chauccllor of the University of Birining- 

Tlio Worshipfnl the High Sheriff of Warwickshire I hara (Gilheiit Bauling, M.B., F.R.O.S.). 

(Sir F. E, Wallkk, Bart.). The Right Hon. JussK Coli.ings, il.P., Hon. Prcsi- 

Tlie Right Hon. the Earl •)¥ Covkxtry, Lord- ' deut of the Birmingham Chamber of Oomuioroe. 

Lieutenant of Worcestershire. ] AMerman the Right Hon. William Kexrick. 

The Right Hon. the Earl ok D.A.liTMOurH, V.D., The Deputy Lord Mayor of Birmingliam (Alderman 

Lord-Lieuteuaiit of Staffordshire. W. H. Bo\vatei; ). " 

The Right Re", tlie Lord Bishop of Birmingham Professor Charles Lapworth, LL.D., F.R.S. 

(Dr. H. Ru.ssELL Wakefield). ' Professor J. H. PoTXTixti, Sc.D., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 

Profe.s.sor William Batesox, M.A., F.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 

His E.Kcellency the Governor-General of the Com- ■ The Honourahlc the Premiers of New South Wales, 
mouwealth of Australia. ■ Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western 

Their Excellencies the Governors of New South Australia, Tasmania. 

Wales, Victoria, (^neenslaud, Sonth Australia. The Right Houonrable the Lord Mayors of Syduev 
Western Australia, Tasmania. and Melbourne. 

The Houourable the Prime Minister of the Com- | The Right Worshipful the Mayors of Brisijane, 
monwealth. Adelaide, Perth, Hobart. 

The Chancellors of the Universities of Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Tasmania, Qneeusland, 
Western Australia. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor Joh.v Perry, D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Professor W. A. Herd.man, D.Sc, F.R.S. | Professor H. H. Tl-kxek, D.Sc., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
O. J. R. HiiWARTH, M.A., Burlington House, Loudon, W. 

CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 
H. 0. Stewardson, Burlington House, London, W. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL FOR THE AUSTRALIAN MEETING. 

I'.esicli'xt : The Hon. the Prime Minister of the Oo^[.MOx«^:AL■rH. 

Chairman : Professor Orme Massox, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Seerelnrn : M. L. Shepherd, Prime Minister's Department, Melbourne. 

GENERAL ORGANISING SECRETARY FOR THE AUSTRALIAN MEETING. 
.\. C. D. RiVETT, B.A., D.Sc, University of Melbourne, Victoria. 

[I'.r.o. 



IV OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 

LOCAL OFFICERS FOR THE AUSTRALIAN MEETING. 

Nkw South ViXhES.— Chairman : Professor T. W. Eduewokth David, O.M.G.. 
D.Sc, F.K.S. 

Secretary: J. H, Maidex, F.L.S. 

Treasurer: H G. Ghapmax, M.D., B.S. 
Victoria. — Chairman: Professor OitME Massox, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Secretary: Professor BALnwix Spexceh, M.&.., O.M.G,, F.ll.S. 

Treasurer: Fuederick White. 
QUEEXSLAXD. — Chairman : Professor B. D. Steele, D.Sc. 

Secretary: T. E. Joxes, B.A. 
South Australia —Chairman: Professor E. 0. Stirlixo, M.D., D.Sc, F.H.S. 

Secretary : Professor Kerr GiiAXT, M.Sc. 

Treasurer: Thomas Gill. 
Westeux Australia.— CA«)nH((»; Sir Wixthrop Hackbtj', K.C.M.G., LL.D. 

Secrttary: James S. Battye, JI.A., LL.B. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Arustroxg, Professor H. E., F.R.S. Hall, A. D., F.R.S. 

Brabrook, Sir Edward, G.B. Halliburtox, Professor \V. D., F.R.S. 

Bragg, Professor W. H., F.R.S. IM Thurx, Sir E. F., K.C.M.O. 

Clerk, Dr. Ddgald, F.R.S. Lodge, Alfred, M.A. 

Graigie, Major P. G., G.B. Lyoxs, Captain H. G.. F.R.S. 

Crooxe, W., B.A. Marr, Dr. J. E., F.R.S. 

Dexdy, Professor A., F.R.S. Meldoi.a. Professor R., F.R.S. 

Dixey, Dr. F. A., F.R.S. Myres, Professor J. L., M.A. 

Dixox, Professor H. B., F.R.S. Praix, Sir David, O.I.E., F.R.S. 

Far.mer, Professor J. B., F.R.S. Sherringtox, Professor C. S., F.R.S. 

Grifpiths, Principal E. H., FJl.S. Teall, Dr. J. J. H., F.R.S. 

Haddox, Dr. A. C., F.R.S. Thompson, Dr. Silvaxus P., F.R.S. 
Troutox, Professor F. T., F.R.S. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Tile Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President and Vice-Presidents for tlie year, the 
President and Vice-Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 

Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

The Right Hon. Lord Ravt.ei6H, O.M., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
Sir Arthur W. Rxjcker, M.A., D.Sc. LL.D., F.R.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahox, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Lord Rayleifh, D.C.L., F.R.S. Sir A. W. RUcker, D.Sc, F.R.S. Sir Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S. Sir James Dewar, LL.D., P.R.S. , Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., F.R.S. 

Sir A.Geikie.O.M., K.G.B., F.R.S. Sir Norman Lockyer,K. G.B. , F.R.S. ' Prof. T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Orookes, O.M., Pres.R.S. Arthur J. Balfoui-, D.C.L., F.R.S. Sir W. Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Sir W. Turner, K.O.B., F.R.S. SirE.EayLankester,K.O.B.,F.R.S. | Sir E. A. Schafer, LL.D., F.R.S. 

PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Prof. T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., F.R.S. I Sir E. A. Schafer, LL.D., F.R.S. I Dr. J. G. Garson. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, D.C.L., F.R.S. Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S. Major P. A. MacMaliou, F.R.S. 

Sir A. W. Rucker, D.Sc, F.R.S. | Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. | 

AUDITORS. 
Sir Edward Brabrook, G.B. | Professor H.McLeod, LL.D., F.R.S. 



RULES OF 
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

[Adopted hy the Geiieral Committee at Leicester, 1907, 
"vith mhseqvent amendments.'] 



Chapter I. 
Objects and Constitution. 

1. The objects of the British Association for the Advance- Objects, 
ment of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in different parts 

of the British Empire with one another and with foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for the objects 
of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

2. The Association shall consist of Members, Associates, Constitution. 
and Honorary Corresponding JMembers. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall be directed by a Council and conducted by 
General Officers appointed by that Committee. 

3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or Annual 
longer, and at such other times as the Genei-al Committee Meetings, 
may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 

in advance ; and the arrangements for these meetings shall 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 



Chapter II. 

The General Committee. 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the Constitution, 
following persons : — 

(i) Permanent Members — 

(a) Past and present Members of the Council, and past 
and present Presidents of the Sections. 



Admission. 



Meetings. 



Functions. 



VI PJll.ES OK THE JililTISIl AsSOCIATK )\. 

(b) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furtheied the, advancenitnl of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association. 

(ii) Tanijwrary Members — 

(a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(b) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 

sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies. 
{d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 

number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 

"2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and 
claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
General Committee shall be final. 

(i) Claims for admission as a Permanent Member must 

be lodged with the Assistant Secretary at least one 

month before the Annual Meeting, 
(ii) Claims for admission as a Temporary Member may be 

sent to the Assistant Secretary at any time before or 

during the Annual Meeting. 

3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least during 
every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annua! 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 
to summon a meeting of the General Committee. 

4. The General Committee .shall 

(i) Receive and consider the report of the Council. 

(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations. 

(iii) Receive and consider the report of the Committee of 
Recommendations. 

(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 
than two years in advance. 

(\) Determine the date of the next Annual Meeting. 

(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer, and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting. 

(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council, 
(viii) Appoint General Officers. 

(ix) Appoint Auditors, 
(x) Elect the officers of the Conference of Delegates. 

(xi) Receive any notice of motion f<ir the next Annual 
Meeting. 



c:OMMnTEK OK KWDMMKNnATlU^y. 



ClIArTKR IIT. 

Committee of Recommendalions. 

1. *The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution. 
mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 
Association, the President of each Section at the Annual 
Meeting, the Chairman of tlie Conference of Delegates, the 

General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and 
the Presidents of the Association in former years. 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. Every recommendation made under Chapter IV. and Functions. 
every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 

the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Recommendations 
approve such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidered by the General Committee that is not so transmitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section or Sub- 
Section, for altering the title of a Section, or for any other 
change in the constitutional forms or fundamental rules of 
the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration and report. 

3. The Committee of Recommendations shall assemble. Procedure, 
for the despatch of business, on the Monday of the Annual 
Meeting, and, if necessary, on the following day. Their 
Report must be submitted to the General Committee on the 
last day of the Annual Meeting. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Winnipeg, 1909. 



VUl 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter IV. 
Research Committees. 

Procedure. 1. Every proposal for special research, or for a grant of 

money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

In consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee, composed of Members of the Association, to 
conduct research or administer a grant in aid of research, 
and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; and the 
Committee of Recommendations may include such recom- 
mendation in their report to the General Committee. 

Constitution. 2. Every appointment of a Research Committee shall be 

proposed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 
at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary. 
Such Research Committee, if appointed, shall have power to 
add to their numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes 
of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall 
be forwarded by the Recorder to the Assistant Secretary not 
later than noon on the Monday of the Annual Meeting for 
presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 

Tenure. 4. Research Committees are appointed for one year only. 

If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 
in that year, application may be made through a Sectional 
Committee at the next Annual Meeting for reappointment, 
with or without a grant — or a further grant — of money. 

Reports. 5- Every Research Committee shall present a Report, 

whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 
that at which it was appointed or reappointed. Interim 
Reports, whether intended for publication or not, must be sub- 
mitted in writing. Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain 
whether a Report has been made by each Research Committee 
appointed on their recommendation, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations on or before the Monday of 
the Annual Meeting. 



Proposals by 

Sectional 

Committees. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



G. In each Research Committee to which a grant of money 
has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call 
on, the General Treasurer for such portion of the sum granted 
as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting 
expire on June 30 following. The General Treasurer is not 
authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants. 

The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before 
the Annual Meeting next following the appointment of 
the Research Committee, forward to the General Treasurer 
a statement of the sums that have been received and ex- 
pended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains un- 
expended ; provided that a Research Committee may, in the 
first year of its appointment only, apply for leave to retain 
an unexpended balance when or before its report is presented, 
due reason being given for such application.* 

When application is made for a Committee to be re- 
appointed, and to retain the balance of a former grant, and 
also to receive a further grant, the amount of such further 
grant is to be estimated as being sufficient, together with 
the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 

In making grants of money to Reseai'ch Committees, the 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal 
expenses to the Members. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
Committee. 

7. Members and Committees entrusted with sums of money 
for collecting specimens of any description shall include in their 
Reports particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens 
thus obtained for disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any ap- 
paratus which may have been purchased out of a grant made 
by the Association, and to state whether the apparatus is 
likely to be useful for continuing the research in question or 
for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of 
the Association, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall 
be deposited at the Ofiice of the Association. 



Grants. 

(a) Drawn by 

Chairman. 



(J) Expire on 
June 30. 



(c) Accounts 
and balance 
in hand. 



id) Addi- 
tional Grant. 



(e) Caveat. 



Disposal of 
specimens, 
apparatus, 
&c. 



* Amended by the General Committee at Dundee, 1912. 



KULFS UK ri]E ISHITiyn AS^UC;iATlUi\. 



C H A P I' E R V". 

Tlie Council. 

Constitution. 1. The Council shall consist of ex officio Members and nf 

Ordinary Meml)ers elected annually by the General Com- 
mittee. 

(i) The ex officio Members are — the Trustees, past Presi- 
dents of the Association, the President and Vice- 
Presidents for the year, the President and Vice- 
Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty-hvc in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty sliall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
pi-evious year. 

Functions. 2. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 

oil behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the affairs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the next 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual Report, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for election by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the 
Council at the Meeting in February, and the names selected 
shall be issued with the summonses to the Council Meeting in 
March, when the nomination shall be made from the names 
on the list. 

The Council shall have power to appoint and dismiss 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 



TIIR COtlNTIL. XI 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same Elections. 
time as that of the OfKcers of the Association, 

(i) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for re- 
election in the ensuing year : 
(a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

longest consecutive period, and 
(f)) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 
London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 
Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
order of retirement above set forth. 

(u) The Council shall submit to the General Committee, 
in their Annual Report, thie names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council, 
(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 
Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
members of Council, and, if only two are so proposed, 
they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two 
are so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
unless five members at least require it to be by ballot. 



Chapter YT. 
The President., General Officers, and Staff. 

1. The President assumes office on the first day of the The Presi- 
Annual Meeting, when he delivers a Presidential Address. '^^"'■• 

He resigns office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings' of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. In his absence, he shall be represented 
Ijy a Vice-President or past President of the Association. 

2. The General Officers of the Association are the General General 
Treasurer and tlie General Secretaries. Officers. 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The General 
Treasurer. 



The General 
Secretaries. 



The Assistant 
Secretary. 



Assistant 
Treasurer. 



It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Association, in any matter of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

3. The General Treasurer shall be responsiljle to the 
General Committee and the Council for the financial affairs 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretaries shall control the general 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to 
the General Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general I'outine of the work of 
the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Assistant Secretary shall hold office during tiie 
pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 
of the General Secretaries, and in their absence shall repre- 
sent them. He shall also act on the directions which may 
be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Assistant Secretaiy shall he charged, subject as afore- 
said : (i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persons 
therein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 

6. The General Treasurer may depute one of the Staff, as 
Assistant Treasurer, to carry on, under his direction, the 
routine work of the duties of his office. 

The Assistant Treasurer shall be charged with the issue of 
Membership Tickets, the payment of Grants, and such other 
work as may be delegated to him. 



Financial 
Statements. 



Chapter VII. 

Finance. 

1. The General Treasurer, or Assistant Treasurer, shall 
receive and acknowledge all suras of money paid to the 
Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 
Council, an interim statement of his Account ; and, after 



FINANCE. xm 

June 30 in each year, he shall prepare and submit to the 
General Committee a balance-sheet of the Funds of the 
Association. 

2. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, Audit, 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinary pay- Expenditure, 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 

Council. 

4. The General Treasurer is empowered to draw on the Investments, 
account of the Association, and to invest on its behalf, 

part or all of the balance standing at any time to the credit 
of the Association in the books of the Bank of England, 
either in Exchequer Bills or in any other temporary invest- 
ment, and to change, sell, or otherwise deal with such tem- 
porary investment as may seem to him desirable. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable, Cheques. 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 

his office, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 



Chapter VIII. 

The Annual Meetings. 



Local Offi- 
cers and 
Committees. 



1. Local Committees shall be formed to assist the General 
Officers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and 
shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General Officers 
and the Assistant Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Treasurers 
she.U be empowered to enrol Members and Associates, and to 
receive subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Committees shall under- Functions, 
tak e the local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 

naiie of the Association in all matters pertaining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than the work of 
the Sections. 



KLLES OF illE liKITLSII ASSOCIATIUN. 



The 

bECTlUNS. 



Sectional 
Officeis. 



liooiiis. 



Sectional 
committke- 



Constitution. 



Chapter 1 X. 
I'he Work of the Sectioits. 

1. The scieiitilic woik of the Association shall be trans- 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time 
to time by the General Committee. 

It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of connnunica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for ejicli Annual Meet- 
ing in advance, and shall act as tlie Officeis of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting. 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The Section Rooms and the appi'oaches thereto shall 
not be used for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes 
than those of the Association. 

4. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following : — 

(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office. 

(ii) All past Presidents of that Section. 

(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 
any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Conmiittce, 
thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 
meeting : 



Privilege of 
Old Members 



Daily 
Co-optation. 



Provi'led always that — 

(ffl) Any Member of the Association wlio has served on 
the Committee of any Section in any previous year, 
and who has intimated his intention of being present 
at the Annual Meeting, is eligible as a member of 
that Committee at their first meeting. 

{b) A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 
set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members. 



THE W'OHK OF THE SECTIONS. XV 

(c) A Sectional Committee may, at any time during the Additional 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons Jice-Presi- 
present at the meeting to be Vice-Presidents of the 
yection, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 

5. The chief executive officers of a Section shall be the Executive 
President and the Recorder. They shall have power to act on Functions 
behalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 

be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
mittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- Of President 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be absolute on all points 
of order that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- and of 
mission to the Assistant Secretary of the daily programme of Recorder, 
his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, of the printed returns, abstracts, reports, or papers 
appertaining to the proceedings of his Section at the Annual 
Meeting, and for the correspondence and minutes of the 
Sectional Committee. 

6. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the Organising 
close of the Annual Meeting, not more than six of its own Committee, 
members to be members of an Organising Committee, with 

the officers to be subsequently appointed by the Council, and 
past Presidents of the Section, from the close of the Annual 
Meeting until the conclusion of its meeting on the first day of 
the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

Each Organising Committee shall hold such Meetings as 
are deemed necessary by its President for the organisation 
of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and shall hold a meeting 
on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting : to nominate 
members of the Sectional Committee, to confirm the Pro- 
visional Programme of the Section, and to report to the 
Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- Sectional 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt t'ommittcu. 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be offered by a member, or may 
arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 

No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been Papers and 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted Reports. 
on its Minutes. 



XVI 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Recommen- 
dations. 



Any report or paper read in any one Section nJay be read 
also in any other Section. 

No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the 
Annual Report of tlie Association unless the manuscript has 
been received by the Recorder of the Section before the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

It shall be within the competence of the Sectional Com- 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, furtlier, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the ta.sk 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa- 
tion, whether by reference to local authorities, public institu- 
tions, or Departments of His Majesty's Government. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Com- 
mittee. 

7. Papers ordered to be printed in extenso shall not be 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 
to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports 
of Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere 
than in the Annual Report without the express sanction of 
the Council. 

8. The copyright of papers ordered by the General Com- 
mittee to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report shall 
be vested in the authors ; and the copyright of the reports 
of Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
shall be vested in the Association. 



ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 



Chapter X. 
Admission of Members and Associates. 

1. No technical qualification shall be required on the Applications. 
part of an applicant for admission p.s a Member or as an 
Associate of the British Association ; but the Council is 
empowered, in the event of special circumstances arising, to 

impose suitable conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

* Every person admitted as a Member or an Associate Obligation.s. 
shall conform to the Rules and Regulations of the Association, 
any infringement of which on his part may render him liable 
to exclusion by the Council, who have also authority, if they 
think it necessary, to withhold from any person the privilege 
of attending any Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of 
admission already issued. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Council, on any occasion of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the. next 
Meeting. 

2. All Members are eligible to any office in the Association. Conditions 
(i) Every Life Member shall pay, on admission, the sum and Privileges 

of Ten Pounds. ship^''"^""" 

Life Members shall receive gratis the Annual 

• Reports of the Association. 

(ii) Every Annual Member shall pay, on admission, the 
sum of Two Pounds, and in any subsequent year 
the sum of One Pound. 

Annual Members shall receive gratis the Report 
of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay, 
vnthout intermission, their annual subscription. An 
Annual Member who omits to subscribe for any 
particular year shall lose for that and all future 
years the privilege of receiving the Annual Reports 
of the Association y?-a<t5. He, however, may i-esume 
his other privileges as a Member at any subsequent 
Annual Meeting by paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound, 
(iii) Every Associate for a year shall pay, on admission, 
the sum of One Pound. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Didilin 1908 
1913 



XV 



RULES OF THE HRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Conespond- 
intr Member!- 



Annual Sub- 
scriptions. 



Till.' Annual 
U'.'port,. 



Associates shall not receive tlie Annual Report 
gratuitously. They shall not be eligible to serve on 
any Committee, nor be qualified to hold any office in 
the Association, 
(iv) Ladies may become Members or Associates on the 
same terms as gentlemen, or can obtain a Lady's 
Ticket (transferable to ladies only) on the payment 
of One Pound. 

3. Corresponding Members may be appointed by the 
Ceneral Committee, on the nomination of the Council. They 
shall lie entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending the meeting may 
make payment at any time before the close of the financial 
year on June 30 of the following year. 

5. The Annual Report of the Association shall be forwarded 
gratis to individuals and institutions entitled to receive it. 

Annual Members whose subscriptions have been inter- 
mitted shall be entitled to purchase the Annual Report 
at two- thirds of the publication price ; and Associates for a 
year shall be entitled to purchase, at the same price, the 
volume for that year. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of 
publication can only be issued by direction of the Council. 



Affiliated 
Societies. 



Associated 
Societies. 



Chapter XI. 

Corresponding Societies : Conference of Delegates. 

Corresponding Societies are constituted as follows : 

1 . (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the British Association. 

Each Affiliated Society may appoint a Delegate, 
who must be or become a Member of the Associa- 
tion and must attend the meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates. He shall be ex officio a Member of 
the General Committee, 
(ii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 
the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and numbers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the BritisJi 
Association. 



COKRESrONDIN(i SOCIETIKS : CONKKKENt'I-: Ol'' DELECiATKS. XIX 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con- 
ference. Such Delegates must be or become either 
Members or Associates of the British Association, 
and shall have all the rights of Delegates appointed 
by the Affiliated Societies, except that of member- 
ship of the General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed Applications. 
on the list of Corresponding Societies. Such application must 

be addressed to the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of 
June preceding the Annual Meeting at which it is intended 
it should be considered, and must, in the case of Societies 
desiring to be affiliated, be accompanied by specimens of the 
publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- Cokke- 
nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the ^ponding 
General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves qommittek. 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties and of superintending the preparation of a list of the 

papers published by the Affiliated Societies. This Com- 
mittee shall make an Aiinual Report to the Council, and 
shall suggest such additions or changes in the list of Corre- 
sponding Societies as they may consider desirable. 

(i) Each Corresponding Society shall forward every year I'locedure. 
to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, on or 
before June 1, such particulars in regard to the 
Society as may be required for the information of 
the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

(ii) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the 
Association a list of the papers published by 
the Corresponding Societies during the preceding 
twelve months which contain the results of local 
scientific work conducted by them — those papers 
only being included which refer to subjects coming 
under the cognisance of one or other of the several 
Sections of the Association. 

4. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies shall consti- Confekknce 
tute a Conference, of which the Chaii-man, Vice-Chairman, °*' Dele- 

PATES 

and Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated annually by 
the Council and appointed by the General Committee. The 
members of the Corresponding Societies Committee shall be 
ex officio members of the Conference. 

(i) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by Procedure and 
the Secretaries to hold one or more meetings during functions. 

a2 



KULIiS OF THE IsKlTISH ASSOCIATION. 

each Annual Meeting of the Associatiun, and shall 
be empowered to invite any Member or Associate 
to take part in the discussions. 

(ii) The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to 
submit Resolutions to the Committee of Ptecom- 
mendations for their consideration, and for report 
to the General Committee. 

(iii) The Sectional Committees of the Association shall 
be requested to transmit to the Secretaries of the 
Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions to be made to the General Committee bearing 
on matters in which the co-operation of Corre- 
sponding Societies is desirable. It shall be com- 
petent for the Secretaries of the Confei'ence of 
Delegates to invite the authors of such recom- 
mendations to attend the meetings of the Conference 
in order to give verbal explanations of their objects 
and of the precise way in which they desire these 
to be carried into effect. 

(iv) It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make 
themselves familiar with the purport of the several 
re'commendations brought before the Conference, 
in order that they may be able to bring such re- 
commendations adequately before their respective 
Societies, 
(v) The Conference may also discuss propositions 
regarding the promotion of more systematic o1)- 
servation and plans of operation, and of greater 
uniformity in the method of publishing results. 



Chaptkh XII. 

Aiaeiidinents and Neio Rulea. 

Alterations. Any alterations in the Rules, and any amendments 

or new Rules that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee on the first day of the Annual Meeting, and referred 
forthwith to the Committee of Recommendations ; and, on the 
report of that Committee, shall be submitted for approval at 
the last meeting of the General Committee. 



TEUSTEES, GENERAL OFFICERS, &c., 1831-1913 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) K. 1. Mukchison (Bait.), 
F.R.S. 
John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Baii.y, Esq., F.R.S. 
Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 



1832-62 
1832-30 
1 839-44 

1844-58 
1858-82 
18()2-81 



1872- rSir J. Lubbock, Bart, (after- 

191 3 'i wards Lord Avebuey), F.R.S. 

1881-83 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., Pres. 

R.S. 
1883- Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord) 

Playfaie, F.R.S. 
1898- Prof. (Sir) A. W. Ruckee, F.R.S. 
1913- Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURERS. 



1831 Jonathan Geay, Esq. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



1891-98 Prof. (Sir) A. W. Ruckee, 

F.R.S. 
1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904- Prof. John Peeey, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832 
1835. 

1836. 

1837- 

1839- 

1845- 
1850- 

1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861. 
1862- 

1863- 

1865- 
1866- 

1868- 



35 Rev. W. A^EENON Harcouet, 
F.R.S. 

36 Rev. W. Vernon Harcouet, 
F.R.S., and F. Baily, Esq., 
F.R.S. 

37 Rev. W. Veenon Haecourt, 
F.R.S., and R. I. Muechison, 
Esq., F.R.S. 

39 R. I. Muechison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
45 Sir R. I. Muechison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
.50 Lieut.-Colonel E.Sabine,F.R.S. 
.52 General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. ROYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
■53 J. F. RoYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
■59 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
-61 Prof. R. VValkee, F.R.S. 
.62 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
63 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 

65 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S, 

66 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
68 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. IIiest, F.R.S. 
71 Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.E.S., and Dr. 
T. Thomson, F.R.S. 



1871-72 

1872-70 

1876-81 

1881-82 

1882-83 
1883-95 

1895-97 



1897- ] 

1900 I 

1900-02 



1902-03 
1903-13 

1913- 



Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R-.S., and 

Dr. Michael Foster, P.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. Sclatee, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balpoue, F.R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Veenon Haecourt, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
A. G. Veenon Haecourt, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

Schaper, F.R.S. 
Prof. Schaper, F.R.S., and Sir 

W.C.Roberts-Austen,F.R.S. 
Sir W. C. Roberts-Austkn, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., and 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Herdman, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., 

and Prof. H.H.TuENEE, F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES, &c. : 1831-1904. 



1831 
1832 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 
Secretary. 

1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 
Secretary. 

1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 
Secretary. 

1890-1902 G. Griffith, E.sq., M.A. 

1902-04 J. G. Garson, Esq., M.D. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARIES. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A. I 1909- O. J. R. Howarth, Esq., M.A. 

1904-09 A. SiLVA White, Esq. | 



John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 
Prof. J. D. Forbes, Acting 
Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acthig 
Secretary. 



TRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association, 
1901-1913. 




SECTION A. 1— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1901. Glasgow ...iMajorP.A.MacMahon.F.R.S.i 

j — Bep. of Astronomy, ?Tot.\ 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

1902. Belfast IProf. J.Purser,LL.D..M.R.I.A.I 

I — De2}- of Aatronomy, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S. — Bep. 
of Astronomy anil Mtteor- 
ology,T)T.\\'.N. Shaw,F.R.S. 

Prof. H. Lamb, F.B.S.— Sub- 
Section of Astronomy and 
Cosinical Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Principal E. H.Griffiths.F.R.S. 



1903. Southport 
11)0-1. Cambridge 

1905. South Africa 
lOOG. 



York. 



H.S.Carslaw,C.H.Lees, W. Stewart, 
Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R, Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees, Prof. W. E. 
Morton, A. W. Porter. 

D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 
H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lee.s 
.1. Loton, A. W. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. H. T. Hudson, 
Dr. C. H. Lees, Dr. W. J. S. Lock- 
yer, A. W. Porter, W. C. D. 
Whetham. 

A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough, R. T. A. 
Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. C. H. Lees. 

Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 
A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. W. Porter, 
H. Dennis Taylor. 

E. E. Brooks, Dr. L. X. G. Filon, 
Dr. J. A. Harker, A. R. Hinks, 
Prof. A. W. Porter. 

Dr. W. G. Duffield, Dr. L. N. G. 

Filon, E. Gold, Prof. .J. A. 
j McClelland, Prof. A. W. Porter, 
; Prof. E. T. Whittaker. 
Prof. F. Allen, Prof. J. C. Fields, 
I E. Gold, F. Horton, Prof. A. W. 

Porter, Dr. A. A. Rambaut. 
H. Bateman, A. S. Eddington, E. 

Gold, Dr. F. Horton, Dr. S. R. 

Milner, Prof. A. W. Porter. 
H. Bateman, Prof. P. V. Bevan, A. S. 

Eddington, E. Gold, Prof. A. W. 

Porter, P. A. Yapp. 
Prof. P. V. Bevan, E. Gold, Dr. H. B. 

Heywood, R. Norrie, Prof. A. W. 

Porter, W. G. Robson, F. J. M. 

Stratton. 
Prof. P. V. Bevan, Prof. A. S. Edding- 
ton, E. Gold. Dr. H. B. Heywood, 

Dr. A. O. Rankine, Dr. " G. A. 

Shakespear. 

SECTION B.2— CHEMISTRY. 
1901. Glasgow ... Prof. Percy F. Frankland, W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 



1907. 
1908. 

1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 



Leicester... 
Dublin 

Winnipeg 
Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 
Dundee ... 



1913. Birmingham 



Prof. A. E. H. Love, M.A. 
F.R.S. 

Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S 



Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S.... 
Prof. E. W. Hobson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. H. L. Callendar, F.R.S. 

Dr. H. F. Baker, F.R.S 



F.R.S. 
1902. Belfast Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 



W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose. 

R. F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof. 

G. G. Henderson, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

1903. Southport Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, Dr. M. 0. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 

F.R.S. derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

' Section A was constituted under this title in 183.5, when the sectional division 
was introduced. The previous division was into ' Committees of Sciences.' 
* ' Chemistry and Mineralogy,' 1835-1891. 



TKESIDENTS AND SECHETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS, 



Date and Place 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. South Africa 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 



1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birminarham 



Presidents 



Prof. Sydney YouEg.F.R.S..., 



George T. Beilby 



Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Smithells, F.E.S. ... 



Prof. V. S. Kipping, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S, 
J. E. Stead, F.R.S 



Suh-scction- of Ar/ricidtxrr 

A. D. Hall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Walker, F.R.S 



Prof. A. Senier, M.D 

Prof. W. P. Wynne, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 

Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. O. Jones, Prof. 
W. J. Pope. 

W. A. Caldecott, Mr. M. 0. Forster, 
Prof. G. G. Henderson, C. F. Juritz. 

Dr. E. F.Armstrong, Prof. A.W. Cross- 
ley, S. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. Pope. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 
Crosslcy, J. H. Hawthorn, Dr. 
F. M. Perkin. 

Dr. E. F.Armstrong, Dr. A. McKenzio, 
Dr. F. M. Perkin, Dr. J. H. Pollock. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. T. M. Dowry , 
Dr. F. M. Perkin, J. W. Shipley. 

Dr. B. F. Armstrong, Dr. T. M. 
Lowrjs Dr. F. M. Perkin, W. E. S. 
Turner. 

Dr. C. Crowther, J. Gelding, Dr. 
E. J. Russell. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. C. H. 
Descb, Dr. T. M. Lowry, Dr. F, 
Beddow. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. C. H. 
Desch, Dr. A. Holt. Dr. J. K.Wood. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Dr. C. H. Desch, 
Dr. A. Holt, Dr.H. McCombie. 



C.3 



1901. 
1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 

1912. 

1913. 



Glasgow 
Belfast... 



Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester 
Dublin.., 
Winnipeg 
Sheffield 
Portsmouth 



SECTION 

John Home, F.R.S 

Lieufc.-Gen. C. A. McMahon 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A. 

M.Sc. 
i Aubrey Strahan , F.R. S 

i 

' Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc. 

' F.R.S. 

G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S 

Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... 

Prof. John Joly, F.R.S 

Dr. A. Smith 
! F.R.S. 
Prof. A. P. Coleman, F.R.S.. 

A. Harker, F.R.S 

Dr. B. N. Peach, F.R.S 



Dundee 
Birmingham I Prof . E. J. Garwood, M.A 



GEOLOGY. 

... , H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton, 

J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. Seymour. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton. 
H. L, Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. Woods. 
H. L. Bowman, J. Lomas, Dr. Molen- 

graaff, Prof. A. Young, Prof. R. B. 

Young. 
H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Rev. W. Johnson, J. Lomas. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Prof. T. Groom, J. Lomas. 
Rev. W. L. Carter, J. Lomas, Prof. 

S. H. Reynolds, H. J. Seymour. 
Woodward, i W. L. Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 

R.T.Hodgson, Prof. S.H. Reynolds. 
W. L. Carter, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 

B. Hobson. Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 
Col. C. W. Bevis, W. L. Carter, Dr. 

A. R. Dwerryhouse, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 
Prof. W. B. Boulton, A. W. R. Don, 

Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Prof. S. H. 

Rej'nolds. 
Prof. W. S. Boulton, Dr. A. R. 

Dwerryhouse, F. Raw, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 



' ' Geology and Geography,' 1835-1830. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECHETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



SECTION D."— ZOOLOGY. 



1901. 
1902. 



Glasgow 
Belfast... 



1903. Southport 



1904. Cambridge 



1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912 



SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester ... 

Dublin 

Winnipeg... 
Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 
Dundee ... 



1913. Birmingham 



Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. ... 



William Bateson, F.R.S 

G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S 

J. J. Lister, F.R.S 

Dr. W. E. Hoyle, M.A 

Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S 

Dr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. G. C. Bourne, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. D'Arcy W. Thompson, 

C.B. 
Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, 

F.R.S. 

Dr. H. F. Gadow, F.R.S 



J. G. Kerr, J. Rankin, J. Y. Simpson. 
Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, 

A. Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Sirapaon, Dr. 

H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Oxley Grabham, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

E. E. Lowe, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. n. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. A. Eraser, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
C. A. Baragar, C. L. Boulenger, Dr. 
i J. Pearson, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

T. J. Evans, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, C. Foran, R. D. 
I Laurie, Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
'Dr. J. H. Ashworth, R. D. Laurie, 
1 Miss D. L. Mackinnon, Dr. H. W. 

M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, Dr. C. L. 
I Boulenger, B. D. Laurie, Dr. H. 
I W. M. Tims. 



SECTION E.-^— GEOGEAPHY. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast 


1903. 


Southport... 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 


1908. 


Dublin 



Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.G.S 

Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ... 

Capt. E. W. Creak, R.N., C.B., 
F.R.S. 



Douglas W. Freshlield. 



Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton, 
R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Sir George Goldie, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
George G. Chisholm, M.A. ... 

Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., 
R.E. 



H. N. Dickson, E. Heawood, G. 
Sandeman, A. C. Turner. 

G. G. Chisholm, E. Heawood, Dr. 

I A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. Lindsay. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. Under- 
wood. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
H. Y. Oldham, E. A. Reeves. 

A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, H. Y. Old- 
ham. 

E. Heawood, Dr. A. J. Herbertson, 
E. A. Reeves, G. Yeld. 

E. Heawood, 0. J. R. Howarth, 
E. A. Reeves, T. Walker. 

W. F. Bailey, W. J. Barton, O. J. R. 

1 Howarth, E. A. Reeves. 



* ' Zoology and Botany,' 1835-1847 ; 'Zoology and Botany, including Physiology,' 
1848-1865 ; ' Biology,' 18C6-1894. 

■■ Section E was that of ' Anatomy and Medicine,' 1835-1840; of 'Physiology' 
(afterwards incorporated in Section D), 1841-1847. It was assigned to 'Geography 
and Ethnology,' 1851-1868 ; 'Geography,' 1869. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECKETAKFES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1909. Winnipeg... 



1910. Sheffield .. 



1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 




Secretaries 



Col. SirD.Johnston.K.C.M.G., G. G. Chisholm, J. McFarlane, A. 

C.B.. E.E. I Mclntyre. 

Prof. A. J. Herbertson, M.A., ; Rev. W. J. Barton, Dr. R. Brown, 

Ph.D. I J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves. 

Col. C. F. Close, R.E., C.M.G. J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves, W. P. 

Smith. 
Col. Sir C. M. Watson, Rev. W. J. Barton, J. McFarlane, 
K.C.M.G. ' E. A. Reeves, D. Wylie. 

1913, Birmingham; Prof. H. N. Dickson, D.Sc. ... Rev. W. J. Barton, P. E. Martineau, 

J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves. 



SECTION F.«— ECONOMIC .SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



1901, 
1902, 
1903, 
1904, 
1905 
1906. 

1907. 
1908. 

1909. 

1910. 

1911. 

1912. 
1913 



Glasgow ... 
Belfast . . . 
Southport 
Cambridge 
SouthAfrica 
York 

Leicester . . . 
Dublin 



Winnipeg... 

Sheffield ... 

Portsmouth 

Dundee ... 
Birmingham 



Sir R. Giffien, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

E. Cannan, M.A., LL.D 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D 

Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D. 

D.Sc. 
A. L. Bowley, M.A 



Prof. W. J. Ashley, M.A 

W. M. Acworth, M.A 



Sub-sectio/i of Agriculture — 

Rt. Hon. Sir H. Plunkett. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. ... 

Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, 

K.C.B., M.A. 
Hon. W. Pember Reeves 

Sir H.H. Cunynghame, K.C.B. 
Rev. P. H. Wicksteed, M.A. 



W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan, S. J. Chapman. 
A. L. Bowlej^, ProL S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. A. Duffin. 
A. L. Bowley, Prof. S. J. Chapman, 

Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. Lloyd. 
J. E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg. 
R. 4 Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley, Prof. 

H.E.S. Fremantle, H. O. Meredith. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Mac- 

gregor, H. 0. Meredith, B. S. 

Rowntree. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, D. H. Macgregor, 

H. 0. Meredith, T. S. Taylor. 
W. G. S. Adams, Prof. S. J. Chap- 
man, Prof. D. H. Macgregor, H. O. 

Meredith. 
A. D. Hall, Prof. J. Percival, J. H. 

Priestley, Prof. J. Wilson. 
Prof. A. B. Clark, Dr. W. A. Mana- 

han, Dr. W. R. Scott. 
C. R. Fay, H. 0. Meredith, Dr. W. E. 

Scott, R. Wilson. 
C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott, H. A. 

Stibbs. 
C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott, E. Tosli. 
C. R. Fay, Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy, 

Prof. H. O. Meredith, Dr. W. R. 

Scott. 



SECTION G.'— ENGINEERING. 



1901. Glasgow ., 

1902. Belfast ., 

1903. Southport 



R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. 

; Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 

C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ... 



1904. Cambridge jHon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. ... 

1905. SouthAfrica Col. Sir C. Scott-Moncrieflf, 

I G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.E. 

1906. York J. A. Ewing, F.R.S 

1907. Leicester... Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, 

F.R.S. 

1908. Dublin Dugald Clerk, F.R.S 



H. Bamf ord, W.E. Dalby, W. A. Price. 
M. Barr. W. A. Price, J. Wylie. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 

W. A. Price. 
J. B. Peace, W.T.Maccall.W. A.Price. 
W. T. Maccall, W. B. Marshall, Prof. 

H. Payne, E. Williams. 
W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price, J. Triffit. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, A. C. Harris, 
: W. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, Dr. W. E. Lilly, 
, W. A. Price, H. E. Wimperis. 



« ' Statistics,' 1835-1855, 



' Mechanical Science,' 1836-1900. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield .. 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

lOlo. Birmingham 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., E.E.Brydone-Jack, Prof. E.G. Coker, 

F.K.S. Prof. E. W. Marchant, W. A. Price. 

Prof. W. E. Dalby, M.A.jF. Boulden, Prof. E. G. Coker, 

M.Inst.C.E. I A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

Prof. J. H. Biles, LL.D., ! H. Ashley, Prof. E. G. Coker, A. A. 
D.Sc. Kowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

Prof. A. Barr, D.Sc i Prof . E. G. Coker, A. R. Fulton, 

i H. Richardson, A. A. Rowse, H. E. 
Wimperis. 
Prof. Gisbert Kapp, D.Eng.... Prof. E. G. Coker, J. Pur.ser, A. A. 
Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 



SECTION H."— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 

1912. 
19-13 



Glasgow ... 
Belfast ... 
Southport... 
Cambridge 
SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester 
Dublin ... 
Winnipeg. 
Sheffield . 
Portsmouth 

Dundee ... 
Birmino;ham 



Prof. D. J. Cunningham, 

F.K.S. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. ... 

H. Balfour, M.A 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 

E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A.... 

D. G. Hogarth, M.A 

Prof. W. Ridgeway, M.A. ... 

Prof. J. L. Myres, M.A 

W. Crooke, B.A 

W. H. R. Rivers, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. 
Sir Richard Temple, Bart. ... 



\V. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 

Gemmill, J. L. Myres. 
R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 

J. L. Myres. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. 8. Kingsford, 

E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres. 

W. L. H. Duckworth, E.'n. Fallaize, 
H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres. 

A. R. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. S. 
Hartland. 

Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize, H. S. 
Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

C. J. Billson, E. N. Fallaize, H. S. 
Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, Dr. 

F. C. Shrubsall, L. E. Steele. 

H. S. Kingsford, Prof. C. J. Patten, 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
B.N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, Prof. 

C. J. Patten, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 

E. W. Martindell, H. Rundle, 

Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

D. D. Craig, E. N. Fallaize, E. W. 
Martindell, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize, E. W. Martindell, 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, T. Yeatos. 



SECTION I.^'— .PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 

1901. Glasgow ... Prof.J.G.McKendrick, F.RS.lW. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof . 

W. H. Thompson. 

1902. Belfast ...Prof. W. D. Halliburton. J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne, Dr. 

F.R.S. ' C. Shaw. 

1904. Cambridge Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. ; J. Barcroft, Prof. T. G. Brodie, Dr. 

L. E. Shore. 

1905. SouthAfrica Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. ...JJ. Barcroft, Dr. Baumann, Dr. Mac- 

j kenzle. Dr. G. W. Robertson, Dr. 
I I Stanwell. 



' Established 1884. 



Established 1894. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



Date and Place 



1906. York 

1907. Leicester ... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birminoham 



Presidents 



Secretaries 



Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

Dr. J. Scott Ilaldane, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. H. Starling, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, B.A. 

Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

Dr. F. Gowland Hopkins. 
F.R.S. 



J. Barcroft, Dr. J. M. Hamill, Prof. 
I J. S. Macdonald, Dr. D. S. Long. 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, J. Barcroft, Prof. 

J. S. Macdonald, Dr. A. Warner. 
Prof. D. J. Coffey, Dr. P. T. Herring, 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr.H.E.Roaf. 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, Prof. P. T. Herring, 

Dr. W. Webster. 
Dr. H. G. M. Henry, Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf, Dr. J. Tait. 
Dr. J. T. Leon, Dr. Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf, Dr. J. Tait. 
Dr. Keith Lucas, W. Moodie, Dr. 
1 H. B. Roaf, Dr. J. Tait. 
'C. L. Burt, Prof. P. T. Herring, Dr. 
; T. G. Maitland, Dr. H. E. Roaf, 
i Dr. J. Tait. 



SECTION K.'o— BOTANY. 



1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 

1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 



Glasgow ... 
Belfast 
Southport 
Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester ... 

Dublin 

Winnipeg... 



1910. Sheffield .. 



Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. R. Green, F.R.S 

A. C. Seward, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Sub-section of jigriouUure — 

Dr. W. Somerville. 
Harold Wager, F.R.S 

Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S.... 

Lieut.-Col. D. Prain, CLE., 

F.R.S. 
Suh-seetion of Agriculture — 

Major P. G. Craigie, C.B. 
Prof. J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S 



1911. Port.smoutli Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc 



Subsection of Agriculture- 

W. Bateson, M.A., F.R.S. 

1912. Dundee ... | Prof. F. Keeble, D.Sc 



1913. Birmingham Miss Ethel Sargant, F.L.8. 



D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward, H. Wager. 

A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 
H. Wager, R. H. Yapp. 

H. Ball, A. G. Tan.sley, H. Wager, 

R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 

H. Wager, T. B. Wood, R. H. Yapp. 

R. P. Gregory, Dr. Marloth, Prof. 

Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
W. Bell, R. P. Gregory, Prof. A. G. 

Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. H. H. Dixon, R. P. Gregory, 

A. G. Tansley, Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. A. H. R. Buller, Prof. D. T. 

Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof .R.H. Yapp. 
W. J. Black, Dr. E. J. Russell, Prof. 

J. Wilson. 

B. H. Bentley, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp. 

C. G. Delahunt, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan, Dr. C. E. Moss, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp. 

J. Golding, H. R. Pink, Dr. E. J. 
Russell. 

J. Brebner, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan, Dr. C. E. Moss, D. 
Thoday. 

W. B. Grove, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan, Dr. C. B. Moss, D. 
Thoday. 



'• Established 1895. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



SECTION L.- EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



Date and Place 


1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1903. 


Belfa.st ... 


1903. 


Southport .. 


1904. 


Cambridge ' 


1905. 


SoutbAfrica ' 


1906. 


York ' 


1907. 


Leicester . . . 


1908. 


Dublin 



1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 
191.3. Birniinf;ham 



Presidents 

Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. 

Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... 

Prof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., 

M.P. 
Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... 

Sir Philip Magnus, M.P 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Rev. II. B. Gray, D.D 

Principal H. A. Miers, F.R.S. 

Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, 

D.D. 
Prof. J. Adams, M.A 

Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 

Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 

H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. Kimmins, 

Prof. H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. L. Snape. 
J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

W. M. Heller, Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 
A. D.Hall, Prof. Hele-Shaw, Dr. C.W. 

Kimmins, J. R. Whitton. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, 

Hugh Ricliardson. 
W. D. Eggar, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

J. S. Laver, Hugh Richardson. 
Prof. E. P. Culverwell, W. D. Eggar, 

George Fletcher, Prof. R. A. 

Gregory, Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, R. Fletcher, J. L. 

Holland, Hugh Ricliardson. 
A. J. Arnold, W. D. Eggar, J. L. 

Holland, Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar,^ O. Freeman, J. L. 

Holland, Hugh Richardson. 
D. Berridge, Dr. J. Davidson, Prof. 

J. A. Green, Hugh Richardson. 
D. Berridge, Rev. S. Blofeld, Prof. 
I J. A. Green, Hugh Richardson. 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 

1912. Dundee .,.'T. H. Middleton, M.A jDr. C. Crovvther, J. Golding, Dr. A. 

Lauder, Dr. E. J. Rus.sell. 

191.3. Birmingham Prof. T. B. Wood, M.A ! W. E. CoUinee, Dr. C. Crowther, 

I J. Golding, Dr. B. J. Russell. 



CHAIRMEN AND SECKETAKIKS OV CONFERENCES OF DEI.EdA TES. XXIX 



CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES of the CONFERENCES OF 
DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES, 1901-13.' 



Date and Place 



1901. 
1902 
1903. 
1901. 
1905. 

1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1 909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1913. 
1913. 



Chairmen 



Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport .. 
Cambridge 
London . . . 



York 

Leicester . . . 

Dublin 

London . . . 
Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 
Dundee ... 
Birmingham 



F. W. Kudler, F.G.S 

Prof. W. VV. Watts, T.G.S. ... 

W. Whitaker, F.R.S 

Prof. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 

F.R.S. 
Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B.... 

H. J. Mackinder, M.A 

Prof. H. A. Mier.s, F.R.S 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 

Dr. Tempest Anderson 

Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... 
Prof. F. O. Bower, F.R.S. ... 
Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, 

F.R.S. 



Secretaries 



Dr. J. G. Garson, A. Souierville. 

E. J. Bles. 

F. W. Rudler. 
F. W. Rudler. 
F. W. Rudler. 

F. W. Rudler. 
F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 



EVENING DISCOUKSES, 1901-1913. 



Date and Place 
1901. Glasgow ... 

1903. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport... 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. South 

Africa : 
Cape Town ... 

Durban 

Pietermaritz- 

burg. 
Johannesburg 

Pretoria 

Bloemfontein... 

Kimberley 

Bulawayo 




Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S, 
Dr. R. Munro 

Dr. A. Rowe 

Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.... 
Prof. H. F. Osborn 



Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S.... 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S 

Douglas W. Freshfield 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 

j Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... 

H. T. Ferrar 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. O. Arnold 

A. E. Shipley, F.R.S 

A. R. Hinks 

Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. J. B. Porter 

D. Randall-Maclver 



Subject of Discourse 

The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plants. 
Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Inheritance. 
Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 

Palaeolithic Period. 
The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 

Teachings. 
Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 
Palasontological Discoveries in the 

Rocky Mountains. 

W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South 

j Africa. 

Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 

The Mountains of the Old World. 

Marine Biology. 

Sleeping Sickness. 

The Cruise of the ' Discovery.' 

The Distribution of Power. 

Steel as an Igneous Rock. 

Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 
ing Sickness, &c. 

The Milky Way and the Clouds of 
Magellan. 

Diamonds. 

The Bearing of Engineering on 
Mining. 

The Ruins of Rhodesia. 



Established 1885. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 




Subject of Discourse 



1906. York I Dr. Tempest Anderson 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

1907. Leicester ... [W. Duddell, F.R.S 

jDr. F. A. Dixey 

1908. Dublin Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. W. M. Davis 

1909. Winnipeg ..iDr. A. B. H. Tutton, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
'Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S... 
' Prof. J. H. Povnting, F.R.S. 

1910. Sheffield ... Prof. W. Stirling, M.D 

D. G. Hogarth 

1911. Portsmouth Dr. Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. ... 

1912. Dundee ... Prof. W. H. Brag?, F.R.S. ... 

iProf. A. Keith, M.D 

1913. Biimingham Sir H. H. Cunynghame,K.C.B. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
i F.RS. 



Volcanoes. 

The Electrical Signs of Life, and 
their Abolition by Chloroform. 

The Ark and the Spark in Radio- 
telegraphy. 

Recent Developments in the Theory 
of Mimicry. 

Halley's Comet. 

The Lessons of the Colorado Canyon. 

The Seven Styles of Crystal Archi- 
tecture. 

Our Food from the Waters. 

The Chemistry of Flame. 

The Pressure of Light. 

Types of Animal Movenient.- 

New Discoveries about the Hittites. 

The Physiology of Submarine Work. 

Links with the Past in the Plant 
World. 

Radiations Old and New. 

The Antiquity of Man. 

Explosions in Mines and the Means 
of Preventing them. 

Missing Links among Extinct 
Animals. 



' ' Popular Lectures,' delivered to the citizens of Winnipeg. 
■^ Repeated, to the public, on Wednesday, September 7. 



LECT[]RES TO TilE OrEKATlVE CLASSES. 



LECTUEES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 
H. J. Mackinder, M.A 


Subject of Lecture 


1901. Glasgow ... 


The Movements of Men by Land 






and Sea. 


11)02. Belfast 


Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 


Gnats and Mosquitoes. 


l'.»03. Southport... 


Dr. J. S. Flett 


Martinique and St. Vincent : 1 he 
Eruptions of 1902. 


1904. Cambridge.. 


Dr. J. E, Marr, F.R.S 


The Forms of Mountains. 


1906. York 


Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 


The Manufacture of Light. 


1907. Leicester... 


Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 


The Growth of a Crystal. 


1908. Dublin 


Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S. 


The Crystallisation of Water. 


1910. Sheffield ... 


C. T. Heycock, F.R.S 


Metallic Alloys. 


1911. Portsmouth 


Dr. H. R. Mill 


Rain. 



PUBLIC OE CITIZENS' LECTUEES. 



Date and Place 




1912. Dundee 



Prof. B. Moore, D.Sc 

Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A, 

Prof. A. Fowler, F.R.S. ... 

1913. Birmingham Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. , 

Dr. Vaughau Cornish , 

Leonard Doncaster, M.A. , 

Dr. W. Rosenhain, F.R.S. , 
Frederick Soddy, F.R.S 



Science and National Health. 

Prices and Wages. 

The Sun. 

The Decorative Art of Savages. 

The Panama Canal. 

Recent Work on Heredity and its 

Application to Man. 
Metals under the Microscope. 
The Evolution of Matter. 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 

Table sJioioing the Attendances and Heceijyis 



Date of Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 


Old Life 
Members 


New Life 
Members 




1831, Sept. 27 

1832, June 19 

1833, June 25 

1834, Sept. 8 

1835, Aug. 10 

1836, Aug. 22 

1837, Sept. 11 

1838, Aug. 10 

1839, Aug. 26 

1840, Sept. 17 

1841, July 20 

1842, June 23 

1843, Aug. 17 

1844, Sept. 26 

1845, June 19 

1846, Sept. 10 . ... 

1847, June 23 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 

1850, July 21 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 

1854, Sept. 20 

1855, Sept. 12 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 

1858, Sept. 22 

1859, Sept. 14 

1860, Jiuie27 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 

1863, Aug. 26 

1864, Sept. 13 

1865, Sept. 6 

1866, Aug. 22 

1867, Sept. 4 

1868, Aug. 19 

1869, Aug. 18 

1870, Sept. 14 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 

1873, Sept. 17 

1874, Aug. 19 

1875, Aug. 25 

1876, Sept. 6 

1877, Aug. 15 

1878, Aug. 14 

1879, Aug. 20 

1880, Aug. 25 

1881, Aug. 31 

1882, Aug. 23 . . 

1883, Sept. 19 . 

1884, Aug. 27 

1885, Sept. 9 

1886, Sept. 1 .... 

1887, Aug. 31 . 

1888, Sept. 5 .... 

1889, Sept. 11 

1890, Sept. 3 

1891, Aug. 19 

1892, Aug. 3 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. K 

1895, Sept. 11 

1896, Sept. 16 

1897, Aug. 18 

1898, Sept. 7 

1899, Sept. 13 

1900, Sept. 5 


York 

Oxford 


Viscount MUton, D.C.L., P.R.S 

The Rev. W. Buckland, P.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, P.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., P.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Llo.yd,LL.D., P.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, P.R.S.... 

The Earl of Burlington, P.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, P.R.S. 
Tlie Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, P.R.S. 
Tlie Marquis of Breadalbane, P.R.S. 

The Rev. W. Whewell, P.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egertou, P.G.S. 

The Earl of Rosse, P.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., P.R.S. . . 
Sir John P. W.Herschel, Bart., P.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Mm-chisou,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., P.R.S. ... 
TheMarquisotNorthampton,Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., P.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., P.R.S. 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, P.R.S. 
Lieut.-General Sabine, P.R.S. ... 

William Hopkins, P.R.S. 

The Earl of Harrowby, P.R.S. 

The Duke of Argyll, P.R.S 

Prof. 0. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., P.R.S.. . . 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., P.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L., P.R.S... . 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., P.R.S. ... 

William Pairbairn, LL.D., P.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis,M.A.,P.R.S. 
SirWUIiam G. Armstrong.O.B., P.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., P.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.O., P.R.S 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B.,P.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, P.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., P.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., P.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., P.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, P.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, P.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyudall, LL.D., P.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, P.R.S 

Prof . T. Andrews, M.D., P.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., P.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., P.R.S 

Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D., P.R.S. ... 

A. 0. Ramsav, LL.D., P.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., P.R.S. ... 

Dr. 0. W. Siemens, P.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.O.L., P.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, P.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., P.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dawson, O.M.G., P.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. BramweU, P.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, C.B., P.R.S. 
Sir P. A. Abel, O.B., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Su- A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, P.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury,K.G.,P.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Gal ton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. ... 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, P.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.R.S. 
Sir WiUiam Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 


169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 
314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 
314 
246 
245 
212 
162 
239 
221 
173 
201 
184 
144 
272 
178 
203 
235 
225 
314 
428 
266 
277 
259 
189 
280 
201 
327 
214 
330 
120 
281 
296 
267 


6^ 
169 
28 
150 
36 
10 
18 
3 
12 
9 
8 
10 
13 
23 
33 
14 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 
28 
36 
27 
13 
36 
35 
19 
18 
16 
11 
28 
17 
60 
20 
18 
25 
86 
36 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 
31 
8 
19 
20 
13 




Edinburgh 




Bristol 




Newcastle-on-Tyne... 








Plymouth 








Cork 




York 












Oxford 








Birmingham 












Belfast 




Hull 












Cheltenham 

Dublin 








Aberdeen 




Oxford 




Manchester 




Cambridge 




Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 
Bath 




Birmingham 




Nottingham ... 




Dundee 

Norwich 




Exeter 




Liverpool 




Edinburgh 




Brighton 




Bradford 




Belfast 




Bristol 




Glasgow 




Plymouth 




Dublin 




Sheffield 




Swansea 




Y'ork 




Southampton 




Southport 




Montreal 




Aberdeen 




Birmingham . . 




Manchester 




Bath 




Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 




Cardiff 




Edinburgh 








Oxford 




Ipswich 




Liverpool 




Toronto 




Bristol 




Dover 




Bradford 









« Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections only- 
[Continiced on p. xxxiv. 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 












Old 
Annual 
Members 


New 
Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


?oreiguers 


1 
Total 


Amount 
received 
during the 
Meeting 


Sums paid 

on account 

of Grants 

for Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 














353 


_ 


_ 


1831 




















— 


— 


1832 

















900 


— 


— 


1833 
















1298 





£20 


1834 




z 

















167 


1835 




_ 











1350 





435 


1836 














__ 


1840 


— 


922 12 6 


1837 












1100* 





2400 


— 


932 2 2 


1838 












34 


1438 





1595 11 


1839 















40 


1353 





1546 16 4 


1840 




4G 


317 





60» 




891 


— 


1235 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33t 


331* 


28 


1315 


— 


1449 17 8 


1842 




71 


185 


160 





_ 


— 


1565 10 2 


1843 




45 


190 


9t 


260 





— 


— 


981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


— 


831 9 9 


1845 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 


_ 


685 16 


1846 




197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 


— 


208 5 4 


1847 




54 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


345 18 


1850 




01 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1861 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 




56 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 




121 


121 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1864 




142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1855 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1856 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2016 


507 15 4 


1857 




111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1859 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


lUl 6 10 


1861 




150 


57 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1865 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


45J 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1876 




331 


185 


1265 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1U92 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2578 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


614 


24 


2557 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 




253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


5 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60H.§ 


1777 


1855 


1173 4 


1884 




332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


U 


2453 


2532 


995 6 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 


1511 6 


1888 




412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 




341 


152 


672 


107 


35 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


50 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 




328 


67 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1653 


907 16 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 


583 15 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 


977 15 5 


1895 




383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 


llOi 6 1 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1 1398 


1059 10 8 


1897 




327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 


1212 


1898 




324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 


1430 14 2 


1899 




297 


1 45 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


1801 


1072 10 


1900 1 



i Including Ladies. § Fellows ofthe American Association were admitted asHon. Members for this Meeting 



i9i; 



[Contimied on p. xxxv. 



XXXIV 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 

Table shoiving the Attendances and Beceipts 



Date of lloetiiig 


Where hi-l.l 


1901, Sept. 11 

1902, Sept. 10 

1903, Sept. 9 

1904, Aug. 17 

1905, Aug. 15 

1906, Aug. 1 

1907, July 31 

1908, Sept. 2 

1909, Aug. 25 

1910, Aug. 31 

igil.Aua-. 30 

1912, Sept. 4 

1913, Sept. 10 




Belfast 




Cambriilge 

Sou til Africa 


York 




Dubliu 




Sheffield 

Portsmouth 











Prof. A. W. Rucker, D.Sc.. Sec.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., P.R.S 

Sir Norman Lookver, K.C.B., P.R.S, 
Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., P.R.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin. LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. Ray Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.O.B., F.R.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S. .. , 
Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R S. . . . 
Prof. Sir W. Ramsay, K.C.B , P.R.S. 

Prof. E. A. Sehafer. P.R.S 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S ... 



Uld Life 
Members 



310 
243 
250 
419 
115 
322 
27G 
294 
117 
293 
281 
288 
376 



New Life 
Members 



% Iiii'liidi]i£; 848 Members of the South African Association. 



ANALYSTS OF ATTENDANCES AT 

[The total attendancffi for thf ypnrs 1832, 

Ave.ragp, attendance at 79 Meetinyfi : ISHH, 

Average 
Attendanen 
Average attendauce at. ,'') Mcotiug.', beginning during June, hctivi-rn 

]833««f/! 18(iO 1260 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during Jvlij, hitween 

]S41«//(n907 1122 

Average attendance at 33 Meetings beginning during Annnsf, hetn-cen 

1836«;w<! 1911 ' . . . 1927 

Average attendance at 37 Meetings beginning during Srpti'iiilipr, 

1)etween \%'i\ and \':W^ 1977 

Attendance at 1 Meeting lield in <?r/«/;w, r<tw(//yvY/c/r, 1 8(;2 . . 1101 



Meetings heyinniny dii.riny Aiiyit.i^t. 

Average attontlanee at — 

4 Meetings beginning during tlie 1st week in Avijvstt ( 1st- 7tli) 

T) „ ^ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ „ ( 8tli-14th) 

9 ,. „ „ „ 3rd „ „ „ (l.'>tli-21st) 

14 » » ., >, 4tli „ „ „ (22nd- 31st) 



] 90.'5 
2130 
1802 
103.IJ 



ATTENDANCES ANO I{J':CEIPTS. 



xx.w 



at Aiiniud MccLiiujs of llie Assucuitioii — (coiibiuucd). 



OM 


New 


Aiuuial 


Aniiuiil 


Ueuibci's 


Members 


374 


131 


314 


86 


319 


90 


419 


113 


937T 


411 


356 


93 i 


339 


61 


165 


112 


290«« 


102 


379 


57 


319 


61 


368 


95 , 


480 


149 



Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


794 


216 


20 


1912 


647 


305 


6 


1620 


<:88 


365 


21 


1754 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


817 


352 


22 


1972 


659 


251 


"12 


1C47 


1166 


222 


11 


2297 


789 


90 


7 


ur.s 


563 


123 


H 


1U9 


414 


81 


31 


1211 ■ 


1292 


S59 


88 


2.11)1 


1287 


291 


20 


26l:j 



Ainoiiiit 

received 

lUiriiig the 

Meetinff 



Siiuis paid 
on account 

of Gi-anta 
for Scientific 

Purposes 



£2016 £920 9 U 



1644 

1762 

2B50 

2122 



947 
845 13 2 
887 18 11 
928 2 2 
882 9 
757 12 10 
8 



1811 

1561 U 

2317 1157 18 

1623 U 1014 9 9 

U:!9 U 963 17 

1176 922 

2349 , 845 7 6 

2756 978 17 1 



1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 



Incliidiug 137 Mctiibcrs of tlie American Association. 



THE ANNUAL MEETINGS, 1831-1913. 
1835, 184:3, and 1844 a?'e unknoivn.] 

Meetings hcginning during Septembci 
Average attendance at — 



13 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in September ( 1st- 7tli) . 
17 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ „ ( 8tli-Htl)). 

5 „ „ „ „ 3rd „ „ „ (15th-21st). 

2 „ ,, ,, ,. 4th „ „ „ (22nd-30th). 

Meeliji(is heginuiny duriiuj Jitmi, July^ and October. 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1845, June It)) beginning during the old 

week in June (15th-21st) 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during the 4th week in 

June (22nd-30th) 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1851, July 2) beginning during the 1st 

week in Jicly (lst-7th) 

Average attendance at 2 Meetings beginning during the 3rd week in 

July (15th_21st) 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1{»07, July 31) beginning during the 5th 

week in July (29th-31st) 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1862, October 1) beginning during tlie Ist 

week in <?(f()?>er (lst-7th) 



Average 

Attendaucp 

2131 

1906 

2206 

1025 



lOZil 

130G 

710 

1066 

1647 

1161 
b 2 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



General Statement of Sums which have been 'paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes, 1901-1912. 



1901. 

Electrical Stanclards 

Seismological Observations... 

Wave-length Tables 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 

Underground Water of Nortlr- 
west Yorkshire 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 

Table at the Biological La- 
boratory, Plymouth ". 

Index Genorum et Specierum 
Animalium 

Migration of Birds 

Terrestrial Surface Waves . . . 

Changes of Land-level in the 
Phlegrfean Fields 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 

Small Screw Gauge 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 

Silchester Excavation 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 

Anthropological Teaching . . . 

Exploration in Crete 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 

Chemistry of Bone Man-ow... 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 
Rabbit 

Fertilisation in Phseophyceje 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
maceaj 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 



£ 


s. 


d. < 


45 





! 


75 





I 


4 


14 





35 








20 








50 





! 


15 








100 








20 








75 








10 








5 








50 








15 








45 








75 








10 








?.0 








5 








145 








•30 








5 


15 


" 


5 








15 








20 








15 









£920 9 11 



1903. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 



Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 
Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 

Indian Ocean 50 

Compound Ascidians of the 

Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 
Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 1 5 
Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Hfemoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 

under Influence of Drugs... 20 
Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycefe 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 

Schools 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 



£947 



s. 


d. 

































































































































2 







1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Waters of North- 
west Yorkshire 40 



GRANTS OF MONKY. 



XXXVll 



£ s. d. 

Life-zones in British Ciir- 
boniferous Kocks 5 

Geological Photographs \0 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 

Anthropometric Investigation 5 

Anthropometry of the Todas 
and other Tribes of Southern 
India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phyceffi 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding iSocieties Com- 
mittee 20 

£845 13' 2 



1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 60 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the 
Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 
Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 
Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 
































































































£ s. d. 

Anthropometric Investigation 
of Egyptian Troops 8 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 40 

Botanical Photographs 4 8 11 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 

Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee .... 20 J) J) 

£887 18 11 







1905. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 

Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitroamines 25 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog ... 10 
Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 

Researches in Crete 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions of Egj-ptian Troops... 10 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£928 





























































4 





8 




























17 







(i 









XXXVIU 



fi KNICHAL STATEMENT. 



1906. 

£ 

Electrical Slandards 25 

Reismological Observatious... 40 
Magnetic Observations at Fal- 

moutli 50 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 99 

Wave-lengtli Tables of Spectra 5 
St\i(i}' of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances S.T 

Aromatic Nil roaiuines 10 

Fa una and Flora of the Britisli 

Trias 7 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 
Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea , 15 

Freshwater Fishes of South 

Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lalie and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 10 
E.TCavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 30 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles ... 30 
State of Solution of Proteids 20 
Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 20 

Research on South African 

Cycads 14 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£882_ 
1907. ~ 

Electrical Standards 50 

Seismological Observations... 40 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 40 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 25 

AVave - length Tables of 

Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro -aromatic 

Substances 30 

Dynamic Lsomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
lioniferous Limestone of 
South-Wcst England 15 



s. 


d. 




















12 


6 




















8 


u 





























1 





1 

















f 























! 








19 


4 ' 

















1 





y ' 





1 


















































£ s. d. 

Correlation and Age of Soutli 

African Strata, &c 10 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Sexual 

Cells 1 11 S 

Oscillations of the Land Level 

in the Mediterranean Basin 50 

Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom ... 8 19 7 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the Britisli Isles... 10 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 55 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Research on South African 
Cycads 35 

Botanical Photographs 5 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 16 14 1 

£757 12 10 

1908. 

Seismological Observations ... 40 

Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Investigation of Upper Atmo- 
sphere by means of Kites... 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 25 

Geodetic Arc in Africa 200 

V/ave-lengthTables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 40 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 30 

Erratic Blocks 17 16 6 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 10 

Pre-Devonian Rocks 10 

Exact Signiticance of Local 
Terms 5 

Composition of Charnwood 

Rocks 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Hereditary Experiments 10 

Fauna of Lakes of Central 

Tasmania 40 

Investigations in the Indian 
Ocean .^.0 



(iKANTS OK iMONEV. 



XXX IX 



£ s. d. 

Exploralion in Spitsbergen ... .30 
Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom ;! 7 G 

Electrical Standards .50 

Glastonburj' Lake Village ... 30 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 15 

Age of Stone Circles 50 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 40 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 40 

The Ductless Glands ■. 13 14 8 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 35 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 30 
Electrical Phenomena and 

Metabolism of Arum Spa- 

diecs 10 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Succession of Plant Remains 18 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1157 18 8 



1900. 

Seismological Observations... (iO 
Investigation of the Upper At- 
mosphere by means of Kites 10 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 50 

Establishing a Solar Ob- 
servatory in Australia 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 9 
Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines K) 

Electroanalysis 30 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 8 

Paleozoic Rocks of Wales and 

the West of England 9 

Igneous and Associated Sedi- 
mentary Rocks of Glensaul 1 1 

Investigations at Biskra 50 

Tableat the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Heredity Experiments 10 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Index Animalium 75 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 35 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 5 



























6 






























8 















13 


9 

















































£ s. d. 

Age of Stone Circlus 30 

Researches in Crete 70 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Electrical Phenomena and Me- 
tabolism of A rum. S/mdiceg 10 

Reflex Muscular Rhythm 10 

Anesthetics 25 

Mental and Mu.scular Fatigue 27 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

P>otanical Photographs 10 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 

Symbiosis between Tur- 

bellarian Worms and Algaj 10 

Survey of Clare Island 65 (I 

Curricula of Secondary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 21 G 

£1014 9" ! ) 
1910. 

Measurement of Geodetic Arc 

in South Africa 100 

Republication of Electrical 

Standards Reports 100 

Seismological Observations... (iO 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 15 

Electroanalysis 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 10 

South African Strata 5 o 

Fossils of Midland Coalfields 25 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Heredity Experiments 15 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Amount and Distribution of 

Income 15 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury. . . 5 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 5 

Neolithic Sites in Northern 

Greece 5 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 20 

An.^esthetics 25 

Tissue aietabolism 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 18 17 

Electromotive Phenomena in 

Plants 10 



xb 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 10 
Experimental Study of 

Heredity .'^O 

Survey of Clare Island oO 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£963 17 



1911. 

Seismological Investigations 60 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 2.5 

Grant to International Com- 
mission on Physical and 
Chemical Constants .30 

Study of Hydro -aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 25 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 1.5 

Electroanalysis 15 

Influence of Carbon, &c., on 

Corrosion of Steel 15 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 2 

Mammalian Fauna in Miocene 
Deposits, Bugti Hills, Balu- 
chistan 73 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Belmullet Whaling Station... .SO 

Map of Prince Charles Fore- 
land .30 

Gaseous Explosions 90 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... .5 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Artificial Islands in Highland 
Lochs 10 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Anesthetics ., 20 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 25 

Electromotive Phenomena in 

Plants 10 

Dissociation of Oxy-Hremo- 

globin 25 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 45 

Survey of Clare Island 20 

Registration of Botanical 

PhotograjDhs 10 

Mental and Physical Factors 

involved in Education 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£922 "o 



1912. 

£ s. d. 
Seismological Investigations 60 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 30 

Grant to International Com- 
I mission on Physical and 

Chemical Constants 30 

Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 10 

Electroanalysis 10 

Study of Plant Enzymes 30 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Igneous and Associated Rocks 

of Glensaul, &c 15 

I/ist of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Sutton Bone Bed 15 

Bembridge Limestone at 

Creechbarrow Hill 20 

Table at the Zoological 

Station at Naples 50 

Index Animalium 75 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 20 
Secondary Sexual Characters 

in Birds 10 

Gaseous Explosions 60 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 
Artificial Islands in High- 
land Lochs 10 

Physical Character of Ancient 

Egyptians 40 

Excavation in Easter Island 15 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Calorimetric Observations on 

Man 40 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 
Experimental Study of 

Heredity 35 

Survey of Clare Island 20 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 15 
Overlapping betvyeen Second- 
ary and Higher Education 118 6 
Curricula, &c., of Industrial 

and Poor Law Schools 10 

Influence of School Books 

upon Eyesight 3 9 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

Collect ions illustrating 
Natural History of Isle of 
Wight , 40 

£845 7 6 



REPORT OF THK COUNCIL. *xli 



KEPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1912-13. 

I. The Council have to record their profound sorrow at the death of 
Sir WilUam H. White, K.C.B., P.R.S., President-Elect. A resolution 
expressing their deep sympathy with the members of his family was 
conveyed to Lady White by the President. 

The Association was represented at the funeral by Professor E. A.. 
Schafer, President, Major P. A. MacMahon, General Secretary, and a 
number of Members of the Council and others. 

IL A Resolution expressing the Council's sympathy and deep sense of 
loss at the death of Sir George Darwin, F.R.S., ex-President, was conveved 
to the members of his family ; and the Association was represented at the 
funeral by Major P. A. MacMahon, General Secretary. 

III. A Resolution expressing the Council's regret and sympathy at the 
death of the Rt. Hon. Lord Avebury, F.R.S., ex-President and Trustee of 
the Association, was conveyed to the members of his family. 

IV. Sir H. A. Miers, F.R.S., was appointed to represent the Association 
at the International Geological Congress at Toronto in August, 1913. 

V. Professor W. Bateson, F.R.S., has been unanimously nominated 
by the Council to fill the office of President of the Association for 1914 -15 
(Australian Meeting). 

VI. (a) The arrangements for the Australian Meeting have occupied 
the attention of a Committee appointed by the Council to assist the 
President and General Officers, and are progressing favourably. Draft 
programmes have been prepared, furnishing details of the arrangements 
proposed. 

(6) The Council have considered what alterations, if any, it may be 
necessary to make in the transaction of business at the Austrahan meeting 
in consequence of the exceptional distance. They recommend that the 
General Committee hold only two meetings in Australia (following the 
precedent of previous oversea meetings), and are of opinion that it will 
probably be found most convenient to hold these at Adelaide and Brisbane, 
the Committee of Recommendations being held at Sydney during the 
intervening period : they further recommend that a third meeting of the 
General Committee should be held in London, after the Austrahan meeting, 
if necessary for the consideration of outstanding business. 

(c) The Committee appointed to advise the Council in respect of any 
action to be taken in connection with the proposed exploration in Oceania 
in 1914 was authorised to approach the Secretary to the Admiralty, and 
subsequently the Federal Government through the High Commissioner for 
Australia, on behalf of the Council, and negotiations and inquiries are 
proceeding. 

(d) A letter has been received from Dr. A. Loir, of Havre, Local Secretary 
for the Meeting of the French Association for the Advancement of Science 
in Havre in 1914, intimating that the municipality of Havre desires to 
invite as guests leading Members of the British Association who do not 



Xlit EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

attend the meeting in Australia, and that all Members not attending that 
meeting will be welcomed at tlie meeting of the French Association ; also 
proposing that the Conference of Delegates should meet in Havre. Informa- 
tion has also been received from Dr. Loir that a Local Committee, including 
some of the principal British residents in Havre, has been formed for the 
reception of Members of the British Association. 

It was resolved that the invitation be cordially accepted, in general 
terms, and that details of the arrangements be left to the consideration of 
the President and General Officers and a committee appointed to assist 
them. 

(e) The attention of the Coimcil has been drawn to the question of relax- 
ing for the year 1914 (Australian Meeting) the rule under which Annual 
Members intermitting their subscrijrtions for one year lose thereafter the 
right to receive the Annual Report free. This question was referred by 
the General Committee at Sheffield to the consideration of the Council. 

The Council have resolved to rej)ort that they are unable to support the 
proposal to relax this rule. 

VII. (a) The Council, having considered the question of the disposa 
of Sir J. K. Caird's gift of 10,000L to the Association, have resolved to 
recommend : — 

That the income remain in the hands of the Council under the 

name of ' The Caird Fund ' ; and be available for allocation by the 

Council at any time for special scientific purposes. The Council are 

also of opinion that further consideration might be given hereafter 

to the question as to whether the capital or a part thereof should be 

spent on some special scheme or schemes. 

(b) The following memorial, to which were appended the signatures 

of an influential body of biologists, sixty-nine in number, has been 

received : — 

' The biologists whose names are subscribed desire to call the atten- 
tion of the Council to the urgent importance of the maintenance of a 
table at the Zoological station at Naples for the use of British subjects. 
They consider that it is very desirable that the table which has for 
many years been known as the "' British Association Table " should 
be given a permanent endowment, so that its maintenance should no 
longer depend upon the vote in the Committee of Recommendations 
at the yearly meetings of the Association. The Zoology Organisa- 
tion Committee will be pleased to appoint a small deputation of 
biologists to wait upon the Council to discuss the arrangements that 
should be made.' 

The Council, in consideration of the interest on Sir J. K. Caird's gift 
accumulating during the present year, authorised the payment of 50^ to the 
Committee appointed to aid investigators to carry on work at the Zoo- 
logical Station at Naples, in addition to the grant made to the Committee 
at the Dundee Meeting. 

VIII. Resolutions referred to the Council by the General Committee 
at Dundee : — 

Fwm Section A. 
'That it is desirable that a detailed Magnetic Survey of the British 
Isles, on the lines of that of Professors Rlicker and Thorpe for 



KEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XllU 

the epoch of 1891, should now be repeated, in order to answer the 
question as to the local variations of tlie terrestrial magnetic 
elements within twenty-tive years. 

' That a representation to this effect be made to the Royal Society, 
the Admiralty, the Ordnance Survey, and the Meteorological 
Committee. 

' That having regard to the importance of the observations at Falmouth 
in the work of the previous Survey and in other work in connection 
with terrestrial magnetism and meteorology, steps be taken to assist 
an appeal for a Treasury grant, in order that the Observatory at 
Falmouth may be efficiently maiiitained.' 

The Council appointed a Committee to consider and report on any 
necessary steps in connection with the above proposals. The Committee 
was subsequently empowered to act as might be necessary, and resolved 
that its report be communicated to the Royal Society, as it was under- 
stood that the Society already had the matter under consideration. 
The Committee's report is as follows : — 

I. 

The Committee is of opinion that it is desirable to repeat without delay 
the Magnetic Survey of the British Isles carried out under the auspices of 
the Royal Society between the years 1886-96 ; and further considers that 
the approximate number of stations for the fundamental survey should 
be about 200, and that about 50 more will be wanted for testing the 
permanence of the position of one of the chief ridge hues. It is estimated 
that such a survey could be carried out for a sum of, approximately, 
1,000/. 

The Committee recommends that the British Association make a 
substantial contribution towards this sum. 

IT. 

While the Committee attaches importance to the existence of a station 
in the south-west, it was of opinion that if the Survey were carried 
through rapidly the maintenance of the observations at the Falmouth 
Observatory would not be essential. After consideration and enquiry 
it was unable to recommend that steps be taken to assist an appeal for 
a Treasury grant, in order that the Observatory might be maintained. 

From Section D. 

' Tliat the British Association for the Advancement of Science deplores 
the rapid destruction of fauna and flora throughout the world, and 
regards it as an urgent duty that immediate steps should be taken 
to secure the preservation of all species of animals and plants 
irrespective of their economic or sporting value.' 

The Council approved the principle of the above Resolution, and resolved 
to give expression to it in the following terms :— - 

* That the British Association for the Advancement of Science deplores 
the rapid destniction of fauna and flora throughout the world, and 
regards it as an urgent duty that steps should be taken, by the 



Xliv REPOET OF THE COUNCIL. 

formation of suitably placed reserves, or otherwise, to secure the 
preservation of examples of all species of animals and plants, 
irrespective of their economic or sjiorting value, except in cases 
where it has been clearly proved that the preservation of particular 
organisms, even in restricted numbers, and places, is a menace to 
human welfare.' 

From Section H. 
' Tliat the copies of the fourth edition of Notes and Queries in Anthro- 
pology, now on the point of jDublication through the Committee 
appointed for the purpose of its preparation, be delivered as 
heretofore to the Royal Anthropological Institute for sale to its 
members and to the pubhc ; the proceeds to be reserved at the 
disposal of the Association towards the expenses of any future 
editions, and accounts of the sales to be submitted to the General 
Treasurer of the Association on demand.' 

The Council resolved to confirm the arrangements proposed in the above 
resolution, and further (a) that members of the Association and Fellows 
of the Royal Anthropological Institute may obtain copies at 3s. Qd. each 
(the price to the pubhc being 5s.) ; (b) that the President of the Royal 
Anthropological Institute may occasionally present copies to workers who 
in his opinion are likely to make good use of them. 

IX. The following Nominations are made by the Council : — 
Conference of Delegates. — Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell {Chairman), Sir 

H. G. Fordham (Vice-Chairman), Mr. W. P. D. Stebbiag (Secretary). 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Mr. W. Whitaker (Chairman), 
Mr. W. P. D. Stebbing (Secretary), Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward Brabrook, 
Sir H. G. Fordham, Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. Lewis, Rev. 
T. R. R. Stebbing, Mr. W. Mark Webb, and the President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

X. The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. His Accounts from July 1, 1912, to June 30, 1913, 
have been audited and are presented to the General Committee. 

XI. The retiring members of the Council are : — 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge (on becoming a member ex-officio and President 
for the year) ; Mr. E. Sidney Hartland and Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell (by 
seniority) ; Dr. Tempest Anderson and Sir Lauder Brunton (resigned 
during the year). 

The Council have nominated the following new members : — 

Prof. W. H. Bragg, 
Dr. F. A. Dixey, 
Mr. Alfred Lodge, 

leaving two vacancies to be filled by the General Committee without 
nomination by the Council. 



liEPUKT OF THE COUNCIL. 



xlv 



The full list of nominations of ordinary members is as follows : — 



Prof. H. E. Armstrong. 
Sir E. Brabrook. 
Prof. W. H. Bragg. 
Dr. Dugald Clerk. 
Major P. G. Craigio. 
W. Crooke. 
Prof. A. Dendy. 
Dr. F. A. Dixev. 
Prof. J. B. Farmer. 
Principal E. H. Griffiths. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
A. J). Hall. 



Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 

Capt. H. G. Lyon.s. 

Alfred Lodge. 

Dr. J. E. Marr. 

Prof. R. Meldola. 

Prof. J. L. Myres. 

Sir D. Prain. 

Prof. C. S. Sherrington. 

J. J. H. Teall. 

Prof. S. P. Thompson. 

Prof. F. T. Troiiton. 



XII. Major P. A. MacMalion lias been nominated by the Council as a 
Trustee of the Association in succession to the late Lord Avebiiry. 

XIII. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council 
as follows : — 

General Treasurer : Prof. J. Perry. 

General Secretaries : Prof. W. A. Herdman. 
Prof. H. H. Turner. 

The Council have received with great regret Major P. A. MacMahon's 
intimation of his intention to resign the office of General Secretary at the 
Birmingham Meeting. 

XIV. The following have been admitted as members of the General 
Committee : — 



Mrs. E. A. Newell Arber. 

Dr. T. Ashby. 

Dr. Henry Bassetfc. 

Miss M. J. Benson. 

Sidney G. Brown. 

F. Balfour Browne. 

Dr. W. S. Bruce. 

Miss Florence Buchanan. 

E. R. Burdon. 

W. Lower Carter. 

Prof. F. J. Cole. 

Dr. W. Cramer. 

Major H. A. Cummins. 

Dr. 0. V. Darbishire. 

J. Burtt Davy. 

Prof. H. H. Dixon. 

Prof. W. E. Dixon. 

W. G. Fearnsides. 

H. T. Ferrar. 

Dr. F. E. Fritsch. 

Dr. R. R. Gates. 

Dr. J. F. Gemmil. 

R. P. Gregory. 

Prof. D. T. Gwyiine-Vaughan. 

Dr. H. S. Harrison. 

Prof. J. P. HiU. 

Prof. G. W. O. Howe. 

Dr. A. A. Lawson. 



Dr. R. Marloth. 

Prof. A. Meek. 

Dr. S. R. Milner. 

Prof. B. Moore. 

Sir F. W. Moore. 

W. M. Mordey. 

Dr. C. E. Moss. 

Prof. T. G. B. Osborn. 

Prof. H. H. W. Pearson. 

Prof. R. W. Phillips. 

Prof. A. W. Porter. 

R. Lloyd Praeger. 

Dr. W. Rosenhain. 

Miss E. R. Saunders. 

Dr. S. Schonland. 

R. E. Slade. 

Miss A. Lorrain Smith. 

Dr. 0. Stapf. 

W. Stiles. 

Dr. Marie C. Stopes. 

D. Thoday. 

Prof. A. H. Trow. 

Dr. E. W. Ainley Walker. 

Miss E. J. Welsford. 

Prof. G. S. West. 

Dr. J. C. WiUis. 

Prof. R. H. Yapp. 



xlvi 



GEiNEKAL TKEA.SL'KEH 8 ACCOUNT. 



Dr. 



THE GENERAL TREASURER IN ACCOUNT 
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 



1012-1913. KECEIPTS. 

Balance brought forward 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 

Annual Subscriptions 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 

Sale of Publications 

Sale of Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B' Annuity 

Sir James Caird's Gift 

Interest on temporary investment thereof 

Interest on Deposit at Dundee Bank 

Unexpended Balances of Grants returned : £ j. ,i. 

Belmullet Whaling Station G 2 it 

Gaseous Explosions 15 

Solar Observatory in Australia 50 



£ 

229 

356 

286 

642 

1,262 

357 

203 

617 

10,000 

75 

39 



15 9 











11 

8 6 


11 1 

1 6 



Income Tax returned 

Dividend on Consols 

- Dividend on India 3 per Cent. Stock 

Dividend on Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity 

Dividend on India 3| per Cent. Stock, ' Caird Fund' 

Dividend on London and North-Western Railway Consoli- 
dated 4 per Cent. Preference Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 

Dividend on London and South-Western Railway Consoli- 
dated 4 per Cent. Preference Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 

3Iem. : Receipts on account of the Birmingham Meeting 
(1913) amounting to ^^84. 10«. id., are not included in 
this Account, but are paid to a Separate (No. 2) Account 
at the Bank. 

Investments. 
Nominal Amount. Value at 30tb June, 1913. 

£ i. it. 

2| per Cent. Consolidated Stock 4,169 4 9 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 2,700 

£43 Great Indian Peninsula Railway 

'B' Annuity (cost) 827 16 

India 3i per Cent. Stock,' Caird Fund' 2,285 10 6 

London and North-Western Railway 
4 per Cent. Preference Stock,' Caird 
Fund' 2,525 

Canada 3^ per Cent. 1930-1950 Regis- 
tered Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 2,325 

London and South-Western Railway 
4 per Cent. Consolidated Pre- 
ference Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 2,475 

Sir Frederick Bramwell's Gift : — 
2i per Cent. Self-cumulating Con- 
' solidated Stock. 
[To be awarded in 1931 for a japer 
dealing with the whole question 
of the prime movers of 1931, and 
especially with the then relation 
between steam engines and internal 
combustion engines.] 



71 


2 


9 


55 


12 


4 


134 


4 


8 


101 


14 





39 


3 


4 


21 


12 


11 



47 1 



47 1 8 



£ 


.5. 


(/. 


5,701 


10 


5 


3,600 








879 


14 


9 


2,627 





10 


2,500 









2.5U0 
2,500 



76 1 3 



£14,585 11 1 



John Perky, General Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURERS ACCOUNT. 



xlvii 



WITH THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
July 1, 1912, to June 30, 1913. 



Cr. 



1912-1913. 



PAYMENTS. 



Rent and OflSce Expenses 

Salaries, &c 

Printing, Binding, &c 

Expenses of Dundee Meeting 

Purcliase of Stock 

Kelvin Memorial Volume 

Grants to Research Committees : — 

Seismological Investigations 

luvestigatioi] of the Upper Atmosphere 

Grant to International Commission on Physical and 
Chemical Constants 

Further Tabulation of Bessel Functions 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Substances 

Dynamic Isomerism 

Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamiues 

Study of Plant Enzymes 

Igneous and Associated Rocks of Glensaul, &c 

List of Characteristic Fossils 

Exploration of the Upper Old Red Sandstone of Dura Den 

Geology of Ramsey Island 

Old Red Sandstone Rocks of Kiltorcan 

Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 

Ditto ditio (Special Grant) 

Nomenclature Animalium Genera et Sub-genera 

Belmullet Whahug Station 

Ditto (Special Grant) 

Gaseous Explosions 

Lake Tillages in the neighbourhood of Glastonbury 

Age of Stone Circles (Special Grant) 

Artificial Islands in the Highlands of Scotland 

Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain 

Hausa Manuscripts 

Ductless Glands 

Calorimetrlc Observations on Jtan 

Dissociation of Oxy-Hiemogloblu at High Altitudes .... 

Structure and Function of the Mammalian Heart 

Structure of Fossil Plants 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 

Vegetation of Dltcbam Park, Hampshire 

Influence of School Books on Eyesiglit 

Corresponding Societies Committee 



£ 


». 


'/. 


16!» 


(1 


H 


09.5 


7 


ri 


1,078 


11 


7 


232 


2 





0.000 








55 


13 


6 



£ s. 

GO 

50 

40 

30 

20 

30 

20 

30 



75 

10 

15 

50 

50 

100 

15 

10 



15 

20 

40 

45 

15 

20 

15 

4 12 

45 



P.alance at Bank of Scotland, Dundee (includ- £ .,. 

ing accrued Interest) l,l!j(i 4 

Balance at Bank of England 

(Western Branch), including 

£191 7s. 4d. Income from the 

Caird Fund £327 3 0' 

Ca-sh not paid in 2 



329 3 
ZfM Cheques not presented 110 18 



Petty Casli in hand. 



218 
1 



978 17 1 



1,375 13 3 

£14,585^ U 1 

A» Accovnt of ahout £910 h out standing (hie to Messrs. Spottiswoode ,$• Co. 

I liave examined the above Account with the Books and Vouchers of the Associa- 
tion, and certify the same to be correct. I have also verified the Balance at the 
Bankers, and have ascertained that the Investments are registered in the names 
of the Trustees. W. ]{. Keen, Chartered Accountant. 

Approved— 23 Queen Victoria Street, E.C. 

Edward Brabrook, "I . ... J«Z?/ 31, 1913. 

Herbert McLeod, j^"'^'''"' 



xlviii GENERAL MEETINGS. 



GENERAL MEETINGS AT BIRMINGHAM. 

On Wednesday, September 10, at 8.30 p.m., in the Central Hall, a 
communication was read from Sir E. A. Schafer, F.R.S., who was 
unavoidably absent, resigning the office of President to Sir Oliver J. 
Lodge, F.R.S., who took the Chair and delivered an Address, for which 
see p. 3. 

On Thursday, September 11, at 8.30 p.m., the Lord Mayor held a 
Reception and Conversazione in the Council House and Art Gallery. 

On Friday, September 12, at 8.30 p.m., in the Central Hall, Sir H. H. 
Cunynghame, K.C.B., delivered a Discourse on 'Explosions in Mines and 
the means of preventing them.' 

On Monday, September 15, Evening Entertainments were given by the 
Local Committee in the Prince of Wales' Theatre (Opera), the Repertory 
Theatre, and the Picture House. 

On Tuesday, September 16, in the Central Hall, Dr. A. Smith Wood- 
ward, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on 'Missing Links among Extinct 
Animals.' 

On Wednesday, September 17, at 3 p.m., the concluding General 
Meeting was held in the Midland Institute, when the following 
Resolutions were adopted : — 

1. That the cordial thanks of the Association be given to the Right 
Hon. the Lord Mayor and Corporation of the City of Birmingham for 
the hearty welcome accorded to this Meeting, and to the citizens for their 
generous hospitality. 

2. That a cordial vote of thanks be extended to the goveining bodies 
of the University of Birmingham and other Institutions for their kind- 
ness in placing their buildings and resources at the disposal of the 
Association. 

3. That a cordial vote of thanks be extended to the ladies and gentle- 
men who, in the kindest manner, gave themselves personal trouble in 
the recejjtion of members of the Association, both in connection with 
excursions and also private garden parties and other receptions ; and to 
the firms which generously threw open their works to members of the 
Association. 

4. That a cordial vote of thanks be given to the Honorary Local 
OiHcei's, to the Executive Committees, and to the members of the General 
Committee for the admirable arrangements made for the Meeting. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT 
THE BIRMINGHAM MEETING. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE.* 

Pre.ndent.—Di: 11. F. Baker, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.^Vvot R. S. Heath, 
iJ.Sc. ; Prof. E. W. Hobsou, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. H. Povntiug, F.R.S. ; R. Threlfall, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. A. W. Porter, F.R.S. ; Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. Secretaries.— 
Prof. P. V. Bevan, Sc.D. {Recorder) ; Prof. A. S. Eddington, M.Sc. ; E. Gold, 
M.A. ; Dr. H. B. Heywood : Dr. A. 0. Rankiue ; Dr. G. A. Shakespear. 

* The name of Prof. J. E. A. Steggall was omitted in error from the list of Vice- 
presidents of this Section in the Report of the Dundee Meeting, 1912. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. xlix 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 



President. — Prof. W. P. ^Vynne, F.R.S. Vice-Fi-esidents. — Prof. Adrian .T. 
lirown, FR.S. ; Madame Curie; Prof. P. Fninkland, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. Senier, 
M.D. ; Prof. T. Turner. Secretaries. — Dr. E. F. Armstrong [liecorder); Dr. C. 11. 
Descb; Dr. A. Holt; Dr. Hamilton McCombie. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 



President. — Prof H J. Garwood, M.A. Vice-Presidents. — George Barrow ; 
Prof T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. Cadman, D.Sc. ; Dr. Victor Goldsclimidl ; 
Prof. Cbas. Lapwortb, F.R.S. Secretaries. — Dr. A. R. Dwerrybouse {Pecorder) : 
Prof. W. S. Boulton, D.Sc. ; Prof. S. H. Reynolds ; F. Raw,"B.Sc. 



SECTION D. ZOOLOGY. 



Presideyit.—Br. H. F. Gadow, F.R.S. Vice-Preside7its.— G . T. Betbune-Baktr ; 
Dr. F. A. Dixey, F.R.S. ; Prof. Louis DoUo ; Prof. F. W. Gamble, F.R.S. ; Prof. 

F. Keibel; Dr. P. Gbalmers Mitchell, F.R.S. Sea-etaries.—Di: H. W. Marett 
Tims (Recorder); Dr. J. H. Asbwortb ; Dr. 0. L. Boulenger: R. Douglss Laurie. 
M.A. 

SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Prof JL N. Dickson, D.Sc. Vice-Presidents. — Dr. AV. S. Bruce ; 

G. G. Cbisbolm, M.A. ; Col. C. F. Close, C.M.G. ; Dr. J. Scott Keltic; Sir C. P. 
Lucas, K.C.M.G. ; Capt. H. G. Lyons, F.R.S. Secretaries.— 'Ray. W. J. Barton, 
M.A. (Pecorder); J. McFarlane, M.A. ; P. E. Marticeau ; E. A. Reeves. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Rev. P. H. Wicksteed, M.A. Vice-Presidents.— Trof. W. .1. 
Asbley, M.A. ; Dr. A. L. Bowley, M.A. ; Prof. E. Cannan, LL.D. ; Neville 
Chamberlain; Sir H. H. Cunynghame, K.C.B. Secretaries. — Dr. W, R. Scott 
(Pecorde?-) ; 0. R. Fay, M.A. ;' Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy, M.A.; Prof. H. 0. Mere- 
dith, M.A. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President. — Prof. Gisbert Kapp, D.Eng. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. A. Barr, 
D.Sc. ; Prof. S. M. Dixon, M.A. ; G. R. Jebb ; G. G. Stoney, F.R.S. ; Dr. 
W. E. Sumpner. Secretaries. — Prof. E. G. Coker, D.Sc. [Recorder); A. A. 
Rowse, B.Sc. ; H. E. Wimperis, M.A. ; J. Purser, M.Sc. 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President. — Sir Richard Temple, Bart., CLE. Vice-Presidents. — Dr. G. A. 
Auden, M.A.; Sir Everard im Thurn, K.C.M.G. ; Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. ; 
Prof. E. A. Sonnen.ficbein ; Prof. P. Thompson, M.D. Secretaries. — E. N. Fallaize 
{Recorder) ; E. W. Martindell, M.A. ; Dr. F. C. Shrubsall ; T. Yeates, M.B. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— T>r. F. Gowland Hopkins, F.R.S. Vice-Presidenfs.-Vrof. E. "\V. 
Wace Carlitr, M.D. ; Dr. W. H. Gaskell, F.R.S.; Prof Leonard Hill, F.R.S. ; 
Prof. R. F. C. Leith, M.A. ; Prof. J. 11. Muirhead, LL.D. Secretaries —Tir. 
n. E. Roa^ (Recorder) ; C. L. Burt, M.A. ; Prof. P. T. Herring, M.D. ; Dr. T. (!. 
Maitland ; Dr. J. Tait. 

1913. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 



SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President. — Miss Ethel Sargant, F.L.S. Vice-Presidents. — Prof. F. Keeble, 
F.ll.S. ; Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.K.S. ; Sir David Prain, C.M.G., F.R.S. ; Dr. D. H. 
Scott, F.R.S. ; Prof. A. 0. Seward, F.R S. ; Prof. G. E. AVest, D.Sc. ; Prof. 
R. H. Yapp, M.A. Secretaries. — Prof. D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, M.A. {Recorder) ; 
W. B. Grove, M.A. ; Dr. C. E. Moss ; D. Ttioday, M.A. 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Principal E. II. Griffiths, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. — 11. Gary 
Gilson, M.A. ; Sir A. Hopkinson ; Prof. A. Hughes, M.A. ; Sir G. H. Kenrick; 
A. Moselv, C.M.G. Secretaries. — Prof. J. A. Green (^Recorder); D. Berridge, 
M.A. ; Rev. S. Blofeld, B.A. ; H. Richardson, M.A. 



SECTION M. — AGRICULTURE. 

President.—FioL T. B. \^'ood, M.A. Vice-Presidents.— VroL ^V. Bateson, 
F.R.S.; A. D. Hall, F.R.S.; T. H. Middleton, C.B. : Prof. W. Somerville, M.A. 
Secretaries. — Dr. E. J. Russell {Recorder) ; W. E. CoUinge, M.Sc. ; Dr. C. 
Orowther; J. Golding. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 
SOCIETIES. 

Chairman. — Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, F.R.S. Vice- Chairman. — Sir II. G 
Fordham. Secretary. — W. P. D. Stebbing. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The President and Vice-Presidents of the Association ; the General Secretaries ; 
the General Treasurer ; the Trustees ; the Presidents of the Association in former 
years ; the Chairman of the Conference of Delegates ; Dr. F. H. Baker ; Prof. 
H. H. Turner ; Prof. W. P. Wynne ; Dr. E. F. Armstrong ; Pi of. E. J. Garwood ; 
Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse; Dr. H. F. Gadow ; Dr. Marett Tims; Prof. H. N. 
Dickson; Rev. W. J. Barton; Rev. P. H. Wicksteed ; Dr. W. R. Scott; Prof. 
Gisbert Kapp ; Prof. E. G. Coker; Sir R. 0. Temple; E.N. Fallaize ; Dr. F. 
Gowland Hopkins; Dr. H. E. Roaf; Miss E. Sargant; Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan; Principal E. If. Griffiths; Prof. .7. A. Green: Prof. T. B. Wooi ; 
Dr. E. J. Russell ; Sir H. G. Fordham. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



LIST OF GRANTS : Birmingham, 1913. 

Research Committees, etc., appointed by the General Committee 
AT THE Birmingham Meeting : September 1913. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Seismological Observations. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmo- 
sphere. 



Annual Tables of Constants and 
Numerical Data, chemical, phy- 
sical, and technological. 



Calculation of 
Tables. 



Mathematical 



Disposing of Copies of the 
' binary Canon' by presentation 
to Mathematical yocioties. 



Chairman. — ProfessorH.H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Perry. 

Mr. Horace Darwin, Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, 
Mr. R. K. Gray, Professors J. W. 
Judd and C. G. Knott, Sir J. 
Larmor, Professor R. Meldola, 
Mr. W. E. Plummer, Dr. R. A. 
Sampson, Professor A. Schuster, 
Mr. J. J. Shaw, and Mr. G. W. 
Walker. 

Chairman. — Dr. W. N. Shaw. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. Gold. 

Mr. D. Archibald, Mr. C. J. P. Cave, 
Mr.W. H.Iiines, Dr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook, Sir J. Larmor, Professor 
J. E. Petavel, Dr. A. Schuster, 
and Dr. W. Watson. 

Chairman. — Sir W. Ramsay. 
Secretary — Dr. W. C. McC. Lewis. 



Chairman. — Professor M. J. M. 
Hill. 

Secretary. -Fvoiessox J. W. Nichol- 
son. 

Mr. J. R. Airey, Professor Alfred 
Lodge, Professor L. N. G. Filon, 
Sir G. Greenhill, and Professors 
E. W. Hobson, A. E. H. Love, 
H. M. Macdonald, and A. G. 
Webster. 

Chairman. — Lieut. -Col. A. Cun- 
ningham. 

Secretary. — Professor A. E. H, 
Love. 

Major P. A, MacMahon. 



Grants 



60 



s.d. 
0= 



25 



40 



20 







» 111 aililitiou, the Oouuoil was authorised to expend a sum not exceeding £70 for tlie printiuf of 
ciruuliirs, etc., iu connection with the Committee on Seismological Observations. See also C.Tirci 
Fund, p. l.^vi. 

c 2 



lli 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Grants 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Dynamic Isomerism. 



-ProfessorW.H.Perkin. 
Professor A. W. Cross- 



Chairman 
Secretary. 

ley. 
Dr. M. 0. Forster, Dr. Le Sueur, 

and Dr. A. McKenzie. 



Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

Professor Sydney Young', Dr. Desch, 
Dr. J. J. Dobbie, and Dr. M. O. 
Forster. 



£ s. a. 

15 







The Transformation of Aromatic 
Nilroamines and allied sub- 
stances, and its relation to 
Substitution in Benzene De- 
rivatives. 



The Study of Plant Enzymes, 
particularly with relation to 

Oxidation. 



Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kip- 15 

ping. 
Secretary. — ProfessorK.J.P.Ortou. 
Dr. S. Euhemann and Dr. J. T. 

Hewitt. 



Chairman.— M.r. A. D. Hall. 

Secretary. — Dr. E. F. Armstrong. 

Professor H. E. Armstrong, Pro- 
fessor F. Keeble, and Dr. E. J. 
Russell. 







Correlation of Crystalline Form 
with Molecular Structure. 



Chairman. — Professor W. J. Pope. 

Secretary. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Mr. W. Barlow and Professor 
W. P. Wynne. 







Study of Solubility Phenomena. 



Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. V. Eyre. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Professor A. 
Findlay, Dr. T. M. Lowry, and 
Professor W. J. Pope. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To investigate the Erratic Blocks 
of the British Isles, and to take 
measures for their preservation. 



Chairman. — Mr. R. H. Tiddeman. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse. 

Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. W. 
Harmer, Rev. S. N. Harrison, 
Dr. J. Home, Mr. W. Lower 
Carter, Professor W. J. SoUas, 
and Messrs. W. Hill, J. W. 
Stather, and J. II. Milton. 



15 







RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



liii 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 


Members of Committee 


Grants 

. 1 


To consider the preparation of a 


Chairman. — Professor P. F. Ken- 


J£ s. (1. 
5 


List of Characteristic Fossils. 


dall. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Lower Carter. 

Mr. H. A. Allen, Professor W. S. 
Boulton, Professor G. Cole, Dr. 
A. R. Dwerryhouse, Professors 
J. W. Gregory, Sir T. H. Hol- 
land, G. A. Lebour, and S. H. 
Reynolds, Dr. Marie C. Stopes, 
Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. 
Marr, Dr. A. Vaughan, Professor 
W. W. Watts, Mr. H. Woods, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 




The Geology of Kamsay Island, 


Chairmati. — Dr. A. Strahan. 


10 


Pembrokeshire. 


Secretary — Mr. H. H. Thomas. 
Mr. E. E. L. Dixon, Dr. J. W. 

Evans, and Professor 0. T. 

Jones. 




The Old Red Sandstone Eocks of 


Chairman. — Professor Grenville 


10 


! Kiltorcan, Ireland. 


Cole. 
Secretary. — Professor T. Johnson. 
Dr. J. AV. Evans, Dr. R. Kidston, 

and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 




' Fauna and Flora of the Trias of 


Chairman. — Mr. G. Barrow. 


10 


the AYestern Midlands. 

1 


Secretary. — Mr. L. J. Wills. 

Dr. J. Humphreys, Mr. AV. Camp- 
bell Smith, Mr. D. S. Watson, 
and Professor AV. AV. AVatts. 




To excavate Critical Sections in 


Chairman. — Professor AV. W. 


1.5 


the Lower Palreozoic Rocks of 


AVatts. 




j England and Wales. 


Secretary. — Professor AA''. G. 

Fearnsides. 
Professor AA^ S. Boulton, Mr. E. S. 

Cobbold, Mr. A^ C. Illing, Dr. 

Lapworth, and Dr. J. E. Marr. 




Section 


D.— ZOOLOGY. 




To investigate the Biological 


Chairman. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 


20 


Troblems incidental to the Bel- 


Secretary. — Professor J. Stanley 




mullet Whaling Station. 


Gardiner. 
Professor AV, A. Herdman, Rev. 
W. Spotswood Green, Mr. E. 8. 
Goodrich, Dr. H. W. Marett 
Tims, and Mr. R. M. Barrington. 




Nomenclator Auimalium Genera 


Chairman. — Dr. C!halmers Mit- 


uO 


et Sub-genera. 


chell. 
Secretary.— 'R&v. T. R. R. Stebbing. 
Dr. M. Laurie, Dr. Marett Tims, 

and Dr. A, Smith AA'oodward. 





llv 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Meceivmff Gfrants of Money — continued. 



B'lembers of Committee 



To provide assistance for Major 
G. B. H. Barrett-Hamilton's 
Expedition to Soutli Georgia to 
investigate tlie position of the 
Antarctic Whaling Industry. 



Chairman.— Dr. S. F. Harmer. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. T. Caiman. 
Dr. Bather, Dr. W. S. Bruce, and 
Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. 



Section E.— GEOGEAPHY. 



To inquire into the choice and 
style of Atlas, Textual, and Wall 
Maps for School and University 
Use. 



Strengths and Directions of Tidal 
Currents in the Moray Firth 
and adjacent firths. 



Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Secretary. — Rev. W. J. Barton. 

Professors R. L. Archer and 
R. N.R. Brown, Mr. G. G. Chis- 
holm. Col. C. F. Close, Professor 
H.N. Dickson, Mr. A. R. Hinks, 
Mr. 0. J. R. Howarth, Sir Dun- 
can Johnston, and Mr. E. A. 
Reeves. 

Chairman. — Dr. H. N. Dickson. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. G. Ogilvie. 
Dr. J. Home and Dr. J. S. Owens. 



Section G.— ENGINEEEING. 



The Investigation of Gaseous Ex- 
plosions, with special reference 
to Temperature. 



To report on certain of the more 
complex Stress Distributions in 
Engineering Materials. 



Chairman. — Sir W. H. Preece. 

Vice- Chairman. -'Dr. Dugald Clerk. 

Secretary.— Professor W. E. Dalby. 

Professors W. A. Bone, F. W. Bur- 
stall, H. L. Callendar, E. G. 
Coker, and H. B. Dixon, Drs. 
R. T. Glazebrook and J. A. 
Harker, Colonel H.C. L. Holden, 
Professors B. Hopkinson and 
J. E. Petavel, Captain H. Riall 
Sankey, Professor A. Smithells, 
Professor W. Watson, Mr. D. L. 
Chapman, and Mr. H. B. 
Wimperis. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Perry. 

Secretaries. — Professors E. G. 
Coker and J. E. Petavel. 

Professor A. Barr, Dr. Chas. Chree, 
Mr. Gilbert Cook, Professor 
W. E. Dalby, Sir J. A. Bwing, 
Professor L. N. G. Filon, Messrs. 
A. R. Fulton and J. J. Guest, 
Professors J. B. Henderson and 
A. E. 11. Love, Mr. W. Mason, 
Sir Andrew Noble, Messrs. F. 
Rogers and W. A. Scoble, Dr. 
T. B. Stanton, and Mr. J. S. 
Wilson. 



Grants 



s. a. 





40 



40 



50 



5)0 



RESEABCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Iv 



Members of Cornmittee 



Grants 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To investigate the Lake Villages 
in the neighbourhood of Glas- 
tonbury in connection with a 
Committee of the Somerset 
Archfeological and Natural 
Historj' Society. 



To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 



To investigate and ascertain the 
Distribution of Artificial Is- 
lands in the lochs of the High- 
lands of Scotland. 



To investigate 
Characters of 
Egyptians. 



the Physical 
the Ancient 



To co-operate with Local Com- 
mittees in Excavations on 
Roman Sites in Britain. 



To conduct Anthropometric In- 
vestigations in the Island of 
Cyprus. 

To excavate a Palajolithic Site in 
Jersej'. 



Chairman. — Professor Boyd Daw- 
kins. 

Secretary. — Mr. Willoughby Gard- 
ner. 

Pro fessorW. Ridge way, Sir Arthur 
J. Evans, Sir C. H. Read, Mr. 
H. Balfour, and Dr. A. Bulleid, 

Chairman. — Sir C. H. Read. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Dr. G. A. Auden, Professor W. 
Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir 
A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, Pro- 
fessors Boyd Dawkins and J. L. 
Myres, Mr. A. L. Lewis, and 
Mr. H. Peake. 

Chairman. — Professor Boyd Daw- 
kins. 

Secretary. — Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 

Professors T. H. Bryce, W. Boyd 
Dawkins, J. L. Myres, and W. 
Ridgeway. 

Chairman. — Professor G. Elliot 

Smith. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. F. Wood-Jones, Dr. A. Keith, 

and Dr. 0. G. Seligmann. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridge- 
way. 

Secretary. — Professor R. C. Bosan- 
quet. 

Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. Willoughby 
Gardner, and Professor J. L. 
Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres 
Secretary. —Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. R. INIarett. 

Secretary. — Col. Warton. 

Dr. C. W. Andrews, Dr. Dunlop, 

Mr. G. de Gruchy, and Professor 

A. Keith. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Ductless Glands. 



Chairman. — Sir E. A. Schafer. 

Secretary. — Professor Swale Vin- 
cent. 

Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. 
Shore, and Mrs.W. H.Thompson. 



£ s. d. 
20 



20 



.5 



3i 16 G 



20 



5) 



50 



35 



Ivi 



RESEARCH COiMMITTEES. 
I. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To acquire further knowledge, 
Clinical and Experimental, con- 
cerning AnEesthetics — general 
and local — with special refer- 
ence to Deaths by or during 
Ansesthesia, and their possible 
diminution. 

Calorimetric Observations on Man 
in Health and in Febrile Con- 
ditions. 



Further Researches on the Struc- 
ture and Functicm of the Mam- 
malian Heart. 

The Binocular Combination of 
Kinematograph Pictures of dif- 
ferent Meaning, and its rela- 
tion to the Binocular Combina- 
tion of simpler Perceptions. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Sir F. W. Hewitt. 
Dr. Blumfeld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, 
and Dr. G. A. Buckmaster. 



Chairman. — Professor J. S. Mac- 
don aid. 
Secretary. — Dr. Francis A. Duffield. 
Dr. Keith Lucas. 

Chairman. — Professor C. S. Sher- 
rington. 
Secretary. — Professor Stanley Kent. 

Chairman. — Dr. C, S. Myers. 
Secretary. — T. H. Pear. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



The Investigation of the Jurassic 
Flora of Yorkshire. 



The Investigations of the Flora 
of the Peat of the Kennet Valley, 
Berks. 



The Investigation of the Vegeta- 
tion of Ditcham Park, Hamp- 
shire. 



Experimental Studies ii 
Physiology of Heredity. 



the 



The Renting of Cinchona Botanic 
Station in Jamaica. 



To carry out Breeding Experi- 
ments with (Enotheras. 



Chairman. — Professor V.W .Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor F. E Weiss. 

Mr. E. Newell Arber, Professor A.C. 

Seward, and Dr. D. H. Scott. 

Chairman. — Professor A. C. 
Seward. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Hamshaw 
Thomas. 

Mr. H. W. T. Wager and Pro- 
fessor F. E. Weiss. 

Chairman. — -Professor F. Keeble. 
Secretary. — Miss M. C. Rayner. 
Professors F. \V. Oliver and F. E, 

Weiss. 

Chairman.— My. A. G. Tansley. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. S. Adamson. 
Dr. C. E. Moss and Professor R. H. 
Yapp. 

Chairman. — Prof essorF.F. Black- 
man. 
Secretai-y. — Mr. R. P. Gregory. 
Professors Bateson and Keeble. 

Chairman. — Professor F. O. Bower 
Secretary. — Professor R. H Yapp. 
Professors R. Buller, F. W. Oliver, 
and F. E. Weiss. 

Chairnian. — Professor W. Bateson. 
Sierctary. — Professor F. Keeble. 
Mr. R. P. Gregorv. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
20 



40 



30 



10 



15 



.5 



15 



20 



30 



25 



20 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Rcceicing Grants of Money — continued. 



Ivii 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



lo inquire into and report upon 
the methods and results of 
research into tlie Mental and 
Physical Factors involved in 
Education. 



The Influence of School Books 
upon Ejesight. 



To inquire into and report on the 
number, distribution and re- 
spective Values of S jholarships, 
Exhibitions and Bursaries held 
by University Students during 
tlieir undergraduate course, and 
on funds private and open avail- 
able for their augmentation. 

To examine, inquire into and re- 
port on the Character, Work 
and Maintenance of Museums, 
with a view to their Organisa- 
tion and Development as In- 
stitutions for Education and 
Research ; and especially to 
inquire into the Requirements 
of Schools. 



Chairman. — 

Secretary Professor J. A. Green. 

Professor J. Adams, Dr. G. A. 
Auden, Sir E. Brabrook, Dr. W. 
Brown, Mr. C. Burt, Professor 
E. P. Culverwell, Mr. G. F. 
Daniell, Miss B. Foxley, Pro- 
fessor R. A. Gregory, Dr. C. W. 
Kimmins, Professor W. Mc- 
Dougall, Dr. C. S. Myers, Dr. 
T. P. Nunn, Dr. w". H. R. 
Rivers, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, Mr. 
H. Bompas Smith, Dr. (J. Spear- 
man, and Mr. A, E. Twentyman. 

Chairman. — -Dr. G. A. Auden. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. F. Daniell. 

Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. W. D. 
Eggar, Professor R. A. Gregory, 
Mr. J. L. Holland, Dr. W. E. 
Sumpner, and Mr. Trevor Walsh. 

Chairvian. — Sir Henry Miers. 

Secretary. —Professor Marcus Har- 
tog. 

Miss Lilian J. Clarke, Miss B. 
Foxley, Professor H. Bompas 
Smith, and Principal Griffiths. 



Chairman, — Professor J. A. Green. 

Secretaries.— Mr. H. Bolton and 
Dr. J. A. Clubb. 

Dr. Bather, Mr. E. Gray, Professor 
S. F. Harmer, Mr. M. D. Hill, 
Dr.W. E. Hoyle, Professors E.J. 
Garwood and P. Newberry, Sir 
Richard Temple, Mr. H. H. 
Thomas, Professor F. E. Weiss, 
Mrs. Dr. White, Eev. H. Browne, 
Drs. A. C. lladdon and H. S. 
Harrison, Mr. Herbert R. Rath- 
bone, and Dr. W. M. Tattersall. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr. W.P. D. Stebbing. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Sir H. G. Fordham, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. 
T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Mr. A. L. Lewis, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, Mr. W. Mark Webb, 
and the President and General 
Officers of the Association. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
30 



15 15 



5 



10 



2.5 



Iviii 



KESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Orants of Money* 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Seotiont a.— mathematics AND PHYSICS. 



*Radiotelegraphic In vestigat ions. 



To aid the work of Establishing a Solar 
Observatory in Australia. 



To consider the Nomenclature and 
Definitions of Magnetic and Elec- 
trical Quantities. 



Chairman. — Sir Oliver Lodge. 
Secretanj. — Dr. W. H. Eccles. 
Mr. S. G. Brown, Dr. C. Chree, Professor 

A. S. Eddington, Dr. Erskine-Murraj, 

Professors J. A. Fleming, G. W. 6. 

Howe, and H. M. Macdonald, Sir H. 

Norman, Captain H. R. Sankey, Dr. 

A. Schuster, Dr. W. N. Shaw, and 

Professor S. P. Thompson. 

Chairman. — 

Secretary.— Dr. W. G. Duffield. 

Rev. A. L. Cortie, Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, 

Mr. F. McClean, and Professors A. 

Schuster and H. H. Turner. 

Chairman. — Professor Silvanus Thomp- 
son. 

Secretary. — Professor F. G. Baily. 

Professors H. L. Callendar, J. A. Fleming, 
A. W. Porter, and A. Schuster, and Mr. 
F. E. Smith. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



To investigate the Microscopical and 
Chemical Composition of Charnwood 
Rocks. 

The further Exploration of the Upper 
Red Sandstone of Dura Den. 



To consider the Preparation of a List 
of Stratigraphical Names, used in the 
British Isles, in connection with the 
Lexicon of Stratigraphical Names in 
course of preparation by the Inter- 
national Geological Congress. 



Chairman. — Professor J. Geikie. 

Secretaries. — Professors W. W. Watts and 
S. H. Reynolds. 

Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. C. 
V. Crook, Professor E. J. Garwood, 
and Messrs. R. Kidston, A. S. Reid, 
J. J. H. Teall, R. Welch, W. Whitaker, 
and H. B. Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor W. W. '\\'atts. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. T. Groom. 

Dr. F. W. Bennett and Dr. Stracey. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. Home. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. J. Jehu. 

Messrs. H. Bolton and A. W. R. Don, 

Dr. J. S. Flett, Dr. B. N. Peach, and 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. E. Marr. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. A. Bather. 
Professor Grenville C< le, Mr. Bernard 

Hobson, Professor Lebour, Dr. J. 

Horne, Dr. A. Strahan, and Professor 

W. W. Watts. 



E xcopting the case of Ccirrnittces recthing grants from the Cairrl 'FuimI, for which see p. Ixvi. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Afoney — continued. 



lix 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



*To aid competent Investigators se- 
lected by the Committee to carry on 
definite pieces of work at the Zoolo- 
gical Station at Naples. 



To investigate the Feeding Habits of 
British Birds by a study of the 
contents of the crops and gizzards 
of both adults and nestlings, and by 
collation of observational evidence, 
with the object of obtaining precise 
knowledge as to the economic status 
of many of our commocer birds 
affecting rural science. 

Todefray expenses connected with work 
on the Inheritance and Development 
of Secondary Sexual Characters in 
Birds. 

To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by corre- 
spondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To nominate competent Naturalists to 
perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 



To enable Mr. Laurie to conduct Ex- 
periments in Inheritance. 



To formulate a Definite System on 
which Collectors should record their 
captures. 



A Natural History Survey of the Isle 
of Man. 



Chairman. — Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. H. Ashworth. 

Mr. G. P. Bidder, Drs. W. B. Hardy and 
S. F. Harmer, Professors. J. Hickson, 
Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor W. C. 
Mcintosh, and Dr. A. D. Waller. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. B. Shipley. 

Secretary.— '^[r. H. S. Leigh. 

Messrs. J. N. Halbert, Robert New- 
stead, Clement Reid, A. G. L. Rogers, 
and F. V. Theobald. Professor F. E. 
Weiss, Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt, and 
Professors S. J. Hickson, F. W. Gam- 
ble, G. H. Carpenter, and J. Arthur 
Thomson. 

CJiairman. — Professor G. C. Bourne. 
Secretary. — Mr. Geoffrey Smith. 
Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Dr. W. T. Caiman, 
and Dr. Marett Tims. 

Chairman. — Sir E. Ray Lankester. 

Secretary. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 

Professors G. C. Bourne, J. Cossar Ewart, 
M. Hartog, and W. A. Herdman, Mr. 
M. D. Hill, Professors J. Graham Kerr 
and Minchin, Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, 
Professors E. B. Poulton and Stanley 
Gardiner, and Dr. A. E. Shipley. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Professor A. 

Dendy. 
Sir E. Ray Lankester, Professor J. P. 

Hill, Professor Sydney H. Vines, and 

Mr. E. S, Goodrich. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herdman. 
Secretary. — Mr. Douglas Laurie. 
Professor R. C. Punnet t and Dr. H. W. 
Marett Tims. 

Chairman. — Professor J. W. H. Trail. 

Secretary. — Mr. F. Balfour Browne. 

Drs. Scharff and E. J. Bles, Professors 
G. H. Carpenter and E. B. Poulton, 
and Messrs. A. G. Tansley and R. Iiloyd 
Praeger. 

Cliairman. — Professor W. A. Herdman, 

Secretary. — Mr. P. M. C. Kermode. 

Dr. W. T. Caiman, Rev. J. Davidson, 

Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor E. W. 

Mac Bride, and Lord Raglan. 



Ix 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Kot receiving Grantg of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Pui-pose 



Members of Committee 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The question of Fatigue from tiie 
Economic Standpoint, if possible in 
co-operation with Section I, Sub- 
section of Psyeliology. 



Chairman. — Professor Muirliead. 

Secretary. — Miss Hutchins. 

Miss A. M. Anderson, Professor "VV. J. 
Asliley, Professor F. A. Baiubridge, 
Mr. E. Cadbury, Mr. P. Sargant 
Florence, Professor Stanley Kent, Mr. 
W. J. Layton, Dr. T. G. Maitland, 
Miss M. C. Matheson, Dr. C. S. Myers, 
Mr. J. W. Ilamsbottom, and Dr. 
Jenkins Robb. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



The Collection, Preservation and 
Systematic Registration of Photo- 
graphs of Anthropological Interest. 



To conduct Archffiological and Ethno- 
logical Researches in Crete. 



To produce certified copies of the Hausa 
Manuscripts in the possession of 
Major Treroearne, for deposit in 
centres at which Hausa is taught and 
students prepared for the Govern- 
ment Service. 

To report on the present state of know- 
ledge of the Prehistoric Civilisation 
of the Western Mediterranean with 
a view to future research. 



To co-operate with a Local Committee 
in the Excavation of a Prehistoric 
Site at Bishop's Stortford. 



To conduct Excavations in Easter Island. 



To report on Palfeolithic Sites in the 
West of England. 



Chairman. — Sir C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. AV. Martindell. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, and 
Professor J. L. Myres. 

Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. W. L. H. 
Duckworth, Sir A. J. Evans, Professor 
W. Ridgeway, and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Chairman. — Mr. E. Sidney Hartland. 
Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Mr. W. Crooke and Major A. J. N. Tre- 
mearne. 



Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgewa}-. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. Ashby. 

Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth, Mr. D. G. 

Hogarth, Sir A. J. Evans, and Professor 

J. L. Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth. 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Dr. A. C. 

Haddon, Rev. Dr. A. Irving, and Dr. 

H. W. Marett Tims. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. 

Mr. R.R. Marett and Dr. C. G. Seligmann. 

Chairman. — Professor Boyd Dawkins. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth. 
Professor A. Keith. 



RESEARCH COjMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



hi 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



The Teaching of Anthropology. 



To excavate Eatlj Sites in Macedonia. 



To report on the Distribution of Bronze 
Age Implements. 



Members of Committee 



Chainiian. — Sir Richard Temple. 

Secrefary. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

Sir E. F. im Thurn, Mr. W. Crooke, Dr. 
C. G. Seligmann, Professor G. Elliot 
Smith, Dr. R. R. Marett, Professor '• 
P. E. Newberry, Dr. G. A. Auden.Pro- ; 
fessors T. H. Bryce, P. Thompson, : 
R. W. Reid, H. J. Fleure, and J. L. j 
Myres, and Sir B. C. A. Windle. [ 

Chairman. — Professor AV. Eidgeway. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 
Professors K. C. Bosanquet and J. L. 
Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Peake. 

Sir Arthur Evans, Professor W. Ridge- 
way, Mr. H. Balfour, Sir C. H. Read, 
and Professor W. Bovd Dawkins. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



Effect of Low Temperature on Cold- 
blooded Animals. 

Electromotive Phenomena in Plants. 



The Dissociation of Oxy-Hajmoglobin 
at High Altitudes. 



Colour Vision and Colour Blindness. 



To investigate the Physiological and 
Psychological Factors in the produc- 
tion of Miners' Nystagmus. 



Chairman. — Professor Swale Vincent. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. T. Cameron. 

Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Mrs. Waller. 
Professors J. B. Farmer and Veley and 
Dr. F. O'B. Ellison. 

Chairman. — Professor E. H. Starling. 
Secretani. — Dr. J. Barcrof t. 
Dr. W. B. Hardy. 

Chairman. — Professor E. H. Starling. 
Secretary. — Dr. Edridge-Green. 
Professor Leonard Hill, Professor A. W. 

Porter, Dr. A. D. Waller, Professor C. S. 

Sherrington, and Dr. F. W. Mott. 

Chairman. — Professor J. H. Muirhead. 

Secretary.—'Dr. T. G. Maitland. 

Dr. J. Jameson Evans and Dr. C. S. Mj-ers. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



To consider acd report on the ad- 
visability and the best means of 
securing definite Areas for the 
Preservation of Types of British 
Vegetation. 



Chairman. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 

Secretary. —Mr. A. G. Tansley. 

Professor J. W. H. Trail, Mr. R. Lloyd 
Praeger, Professor F. W. Oliver, Pro- 
fessor R. W. Phillips, Dr. C. E. Moss, 
and Messrs. G. C. Druce and H. W. T. 
Wager. 



Ixii 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. IVot receiving Grants of Money —contm.vi.&A. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Ccmmiltee 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To take notice of, and report upon 
changes in, Regulations — whether 
Legislative, Administrative, or made 
by Local Authorities — affecting 
Secondary and Higher Education. 



The Aims and Limits of Examinations. 



Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Secretary. — Major E. Gray. 

Miss Coignan, Principal GriflSths, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Sir Horace Plunkett, 
Mr. H. Kamage, Professor M. E.Sadler, 
and Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon. 



Chairman. — Professor M. E. Sadler. 

Secretary. — Blr. P. J. Hartog. 

BIr. D. P. Berridge, Professor G. H. 

Bryan, Mr. W. D. Eggar, Professor 

R. A. Gregory, Principal E. H. 

Griffiths, Miss C. L. Laurie, Dr. W. 

McDougall, Mr. David Mair, Dr. T. P. 

Nunn, Sir VV. Ramsay, Rt. Rev. J. E. C. 

Welldon, Dr. Jessie White, and Mr. 

G. U. Yule. 



Communications ordered to he printed in extenso. 

Section A. — As many of the remarks made in the Discussion on Radiation as 
the Recorder may be able to obtain. 

Section B. — The Papers comprising the Discussion on the Proper Utilisation 
of Coal and Fuels derived therefrom. 

Section C. — Professor W. J. Sollas : The Formation of ' Rostro-carinate ' Flints. 

Section. D.— Professor J. Yersluys : The Carapace of the Chelonia. 

Section Gf.— Professor F. W. Burstall : Liquid, Solid, and Gaseous Fuels for 
Power Production. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, 

for action, 
(a) Resolutions eelating to the Caikd Fund (see p. xlii). 

(1) That the Council be asked to appoint a Committee to can-y out the request of 
Sir J. K. Caird in his letter of September 10 (viz., that his further gift of 1,000^. be 
earmarked for the study of Radio-activity as a branch of Geophysics. 

(2) That the request of Section A (Mathematics and Physics) for a grant from 
the Caird Fund of 500Z. for Radiotelegraphic Investigations tie sent to the Council 
for consideration and action. 

(3) That a grant of lOOZ. for the comiog year be made to the Committee on the 
Naples Table from the Caird Fund, and that the Council be requested to consider 
the advisability of endowing the Committee with a capital sum yielding an annual 
income of lOOZ. 

(4) That a grant of 1001. for the coming year be made to the Committee on 
Seismological Investigations from the Caird Fund, and that the Council be asked 
to consider the advisability of endowing tlie Committee with a capital sum yielding 
an annual income of 100/. 

(b) Other Resolutions. 

From Sections A and E. 

That the terms First Oider, Second Order, Third Order, and Fourth Order of 
Triangulation, as connoting different degrees of preciiion, be used to describe 



RESOLUTIONS, ETC. Ixiii 

triangulation, even though the tcims now in use (eg., Major, Minor, etc.), whioh 
have only a local significance, are also employed. 

That this resolution be communicated through the proper channels to (a) the 
Geodetic Association, and {b) the Institute of Surveyors. 

From Section I. 

That in view of the fact that numerous deaths continue to take place from 
auresthetics administered by unregistered persons, the Committee of the Section of 
Physiology of the British Association appeals to the Council of the Association to 
represent to the Home Office and to the Privy Council the urgent need of legislation 
to protect the public against such unnecessary risks. 

From Scctio?i I. 

The Committee of Section I requests the Council of the Association to forward to 
the Board of Trade the following resolution: — 

(i) That co'our vision tests are most efficiently conducted by means of what 

is known as the ' Lantern Test.' 
(ii) That the best form of such lantern has not yet been finally decided upon, 

and can be arrived at only after further expert report, 
(iii) That the actual application of sight tests requires the co-operation of an 
ophthalmic surgeon with a practical navigator. 



Ixiv SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money {exclusive of Grants from tlic Caird 
Fund) api^ropriated for Scientific Purposes by tie General Gotmnittee 
at the Birmingham Meeting^ September 1913. The Names of 
Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer for th e Grants ri re 
prefixed to the respective Research Committees. 

Section A.- — Mathematical and Fltysical Science. 

£ s. d. 

*Turner, Professor H. H. — Seismological Observations 60 

Tn addition, the Council are authorised to expend on the 
printing of circulars, cfec, in connection with the Com- 
mittee on Seismological Observations a sum not exceeding 70 

*Bhaw, Dr. W. N. — Upper Atmosphere 25 

*Ramsay, Sir W.— Grant to the International Commission on 

Physical and Chemical Constants 40 

*Hill, Professor M. J. M.— Calculation of Mathematical 

Tables -20 

Cunningham, Lieut.-Col. A. — Copies of the ' Binary Canon,' 

for presentation •") 

Section B. — Chemistry. 

*Perkin, Dr. W. H. — Study of Hydro- aromatic Substances 15 

* Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism 25 

*Kipping, Professor F. B. — Transformation of Aromatic Nitro- 

amines 15 

* Hall, A. D.— Study of Plant Enzymes 25 

Pope, Professor W. J. — Correlation of Crystalline Form with 

Molecular Structure 25 

Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Solubility Phenomena 15 

Section C. — Geology. 

*Tiddeman, R. H.— Erratic Blocks 5 

*Kendall, Professor P. F. — List of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Strahan, Dr. A. - Geology of Ramsay Island, Pembroke ... 10 
Cole, Professor Grenville. — Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 

Kiltorcan • 10 

Barrow, G.— Trias of Western Midlands 10 

Watts, Professor W. W. — Sections in Lower Palfeozoic 

Eocks 15 

Section D. — Zoology. 

*Shipley, Dr. A. E.—Belmullet Whaling Station 20 

Mitchell, Dr. Chalmers. — Nomenclator Animalium 50 

Harmer, Dr. S. F. — Antarctic Whaling Industry 90 

Carried forward £555 

* Reappointed. 



SYXOrslS 01'' GRAN'l'S OF MONEY. Ixv 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward 555 

Section E. — Geography. 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Maps for School and University Use 40 
Dickson, Professor H. N. — Tidal Currents in Moray and 

adjacent Firths 40 



Section (J. — Engineering. 

*Preocp, Sir W. H. — Gaseous Explosions 50 

*Perry, Professor J.— Stress Distributions 50 

Section H. —Anthropology. 

Dawkins, Professor Boyd. — Lake Villages in the neighljour- 

hood of Glastonbury 20 

*Read, Sir C. IL— Age of Stone Circles 20 

Dawkins, Professor Boyd. — ^Artificial Islands in Highland 

Lochs 5 

*Sinith, Professor G. Elliot. — Physical Chai'acters of the 

Ancient Egyptians 34 IG (i 

* Ridge way. Professor W. — Roman Sites in Britain 20 

Myres, Professor J. L. — Anthropometric Investigations in 

Cyprus 50 

Marett, ] )r. R. R. ~ PaliTolithic Site in Jersey 50 



I 



Section I. — PhysioJngy. 

•*Schafer, Sir E. A.— The Ductless Glands .35 

*Waller, Dr. A. D. - Auipsthetics 20 

*Macdonald, Profes.sor J. S. — Calorimetric Ob.servations 40 

Sherrington, Professor C. S. — Mammalian Heart 30 

Myers, Dr. C. S. — Binocular Combination of Kinematograph 

Pictures .' 10 



Section K. — Botany. 

' Oliver, Professor P. W.— Structure of Fossil Plants 15 

Seward, Professor A. C. — Jurassic Flora of Yorksliii'e ..... 5 

Keeble, Professor F. — Flora of Peat of Kennet Valley \f) 

Tansley, A. G.— Vegetation of Ditcliam Park ". 20 

Blackmail, Profe.s.sor F. F. — Physiology of Heredity 30 

Bower, Professor F. O. — Renting of Cinchona Botanic Sta- 
tion, Jamaica 25 

Bate.son, Professor W. — Breeding E.Kperiinents in Oenotheras 20 

Carried forward £1,199 IC G 

* Iteappointed. 

1918. d 



XVI SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF JIONEY. 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 1,199 16 6 

Section L. — Ediication. 

— Mental and Physical Factors in- 
volved in Education 30 

*Auden, Dr. G. A.— Influence of School Books on Eyesight... 15 15 o 

*Miers, Sir H.— Scholarships, e^c, held by University Students 5 
Green, Px-ofessor J. A. — Character, Work, and Maintenance 

of Museums 10 

Corresijonding Societies Coinmittee. 
*Whitaker, W.— For Preparation of Report 25 

Total £1,285 11 9 

* Reappointed. 

Cairo Fund. 

An unconditional gift of 10,000/. was made to the Association at the 
Dundee Meeting, 1912, by Mr. (afterwards Sir) J. K. Caird, LL.D., of 
Dundee. 

The Council in its Report to the General Committee at the Bir- 
mingham Meeting made certain recommendations as to the administration 
of this Fund (§ VII., p. x\n). These recommendations were adopted, 
with the E,eport, by the General Committee at its meeting on Sep- 
tember 10, 1913. 

Recommendations were made by certain Sectional Committees at 
Birmingham of grants from the Caird Fund, for which see p. Ixii. 

The following allocations have been made from the Fund V)y the 
Council (including those made at the Council meeting on November 7, 
1913, the first ordinary meeting following the Birmingham Meeting) : — 

JVnjAe.i ZooJogiccd Station Cominidee (p. lix).— 50/. (1912-13); 100/. 
(1913-14) ; 100/. annually in future, sul^ject to the adoption of the Com- 
mittee's report. 

Seismology Committee (p. li). — 100/. (1913-14) ; 100/. annually in 
future, subject to the adoption of the Committee's report. 

Hadiotelegraphic Conunitlee (p. Iviii). - 500/. (1913-1 1). 

Magnetic He-survey oj the British Isles (in collaboration with the 
Royal Society).— 250/. 

Sir J. K. Caird, on September 10, 1913, made a further gift of 1,000/. 
to the Association, to be devoted to the study of Radio-activity. 



Annual Meetings, 1914 and 1915. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1914 will be held in 
Australia in August ; in 1915, at Manchester. 



PEESIDENT'S ADDKESS. 



1913. 



ADDEESS 

BY 

Sir OLIVEE J. LODGE, D.Sc, LL.D., F.E.S., 
PRESIDENT. 



CONTINUITY. 

First let me lament the catastrophe which has led to my occupying 
the Chair here in this City. Sir William White was a personal friend 
of many here present, and I would that the citizens of Birmingham 
could have become acquainted with his attractive personality, and 
heard at first hand of the strenuous work which he accomplished in 
caiTying out the behests of the Empire in the construction of its first 
line of defence. 

Although a British Association Address is hardly an annual stock- 
taking, it would be improper to begin this year of Office without refer- 
ring to three more of our losses: — One, that cultured gentleman, 
amateur of science in the best sense, who was chosen to preside over 
our Jubilee meeting at" York thirty-two years ago. Sir John Lubbock, 
first Baron Avebury, cultivated science in a spirit of pure enjoyment, 
treating it almost as one of the Arts ; and he devoted social and political 
energy to the welfare of the multitude of his fellows less fortunately 
situated than himself. 

Through the untimely death of Sir George Darwin the world has 
lost a mathematical astronomer whose work on the Tides and allied 
phenomena is a monument of power and achievement. So recently as 
our visit to South Africa he occupied the Presidential Chair. 

By the third of our major losses, I mean the death of that brilliant 
Mathematician of a neighbouring nation who took so comprehensive 
and philosophic a grasp of the intricacies of physics, and whose eloquent 
though sceptical exposition of our laws and processes, and of the 
modifications entailed in them by recent advances, will be sure to 
attract still more widespread attention among all to whom the rather 
abstruse subject-matter is sufficiently familiar. I cannot say that I 
find myself in agreement with all that Henri Poincar6 wrote or spoke 

B 2 



4 president's address, 

in the domain of physics, but no physicist can help being interested in 
his mode of presentation, and I may have occasion to refer, in passing, 
to some of the topics with which he dealt. 

And now, ehminating from our purview, as is always necessary, a 
great mass of human activity, and hmiting ourselves to a scrutiny on 
the side of pure science alone, let us ask what, in the main, is the 
characteristic of the promising though perturbing period in which we 
live. Different persons would give different answers, but the answer 
I venture to give is — Eapid progress, combined with Fundamental 
scepticism. 

Eapid progress was not characteristic of the latter half of the nine- 
teenth century, — at least not in physics. Fine solid dynamical founda- 
tions were laid, and the edifice of knowledge was consolidated; but 
wholly fresh ground was not being opened up, and totally new 
buildings were not expected. 

' In many cases the student was led to believe that the main 
facts of nature were all known, that the chances of any gi^eat 
discovery being made by experiment v,'ere vanishingly small, and 
that therefore the experimentalist's work consisted in deciding 
between rival theories, or in finding some small residual effect, 
which miglit add a more or less important detail to the theory.' — 
Schuster. 

With the realisation of predicted ether waves in 1888, the discovery 
of X-rays in 1895, spontaneous radioactivity in 1896, and the isolation 
of the electron in 1898, expectation of fui'ther achievement became 
vivid; and novelties, experimental, theoretical, and speculative, have 
been showered upon us ever since this century began. That is why I 
speak of rapid progress. 

Of the progress I shall say little, — there must always be some 
uncertainty as to whicli particular achievement permanently contri- 
butes to it; but I will speak about the fundamental scepticism. 

Let me hasten to explain that I do not mean the well-worn and 
almost antique theme of Theological scepticism : that controversy is 
practically in abeyance just now. At any rate the major conflict is 
suspended; the forts behind which the enemy has retreated do not 
invite attack; the territory now occupied by him is little more than 
his legitimate province. It is the scientific allies, now, who are waging 
a more or less invigorating conflict among themselves; with Philoso- 
phers joining in. Meanwhile the ancient foe is biding his time and 
hoping that from the struggle something will emerge of benefit to 
himself. Some positions, he feels, were too hastily abandoned and 
may perhaps be retrieved ; or, to put it without metaphor, it seems 
possible that a few of the things pi-ematin-ely denied, because asserted 



president's address. 5 

un inconclusive evidence, may after all, in bome form or other, have 
really happened. Thus the old theological bitterness is mitigated, and 
a temporising pohcy is either advocated or instinctively adopted. 

To illustrate the nature of the fundamental scientific or philosophic 
controversies to which I do refer, would require almost as many 
addi-esses as there are Sections of the British Association, or at any 
rate as many as there are cliief cities in Australia; and perhaps my 
successor in the Chair will continue the theme; but, to exhibit my 
meaning very briefly, I may cite the kind of dominating controversies 
now extant, employing as far as possible only a single word in each 
case so as to emphasise the necessary brevit^nd insufficiency of the 
reference. 

In Physiology the conflict ranges round Vitalism. (My inunediate 

predecessor dealt with the subject at Dundee.) 
In Chemistry the debate concerns Atomic structure. (My pen- 
ultimate predecessor is well aware of pugnacity in that region.) 
In Biology the dispute is on the laws of Inhcrilance. (My 
nominated successor is likely to deal with this subject; probably 
in a way not deficient in liveliness.) 
And besides these major controversies, debate is active in other 

sections : — 
In Education, Curricula generally are being overhauled or funda- 
mentally criticised, and revolutionary ideas are promulgated 
concerning the advantages of freedom for infants. 
In Economic and Pohtical Science, or Sociology, what is there 
that is not under discussion? Not property alone, nor land 
alone, but everything, — back to the Garden of Eden and the inter- 
relations of men and women. 
Lastly, in the vast group of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 
' slurred over rather than summed up as Section A,' present-day 
scepticism concerns what, if I had to express it in one word, I 
should call Continuity. The full meaning of this term will 
hardly be intelligible without explanation, and I shall discuss 
it presently. 
Still more fundamental and deep-rooted than any of these sectional 
debates, however, a critical examination of scientific foundations gene- 
rally is going on; and a kind of philosophic scepticism is in the 
ascendant, resulting in a mistrust of purely intellectual processes and 
in a recognition of the limited scope of science. 

For science is undoubtedly an affair of the intellect, it examines 

everything in the cold light of reason; and that is its strength. It is 

a commonplace to say that science must have no likes or dislikes, must 

aim only at truth; or as Bertrand Eussell well puts it: — 

i'- ' The kernel of the scientific outlook is the refusal to regard 



b PRESIDENT S ADDRESSj 

our own desires, tastes, and interests as affording a key to the 
understanding of the world.' 

This exclusive single-eyed attitude of science is its strength ; but, if 
pressed beyond the positive region of usefulness into a field of dogmatic 
negation and philosophising, it becomes also its weakness. For the 
nature of man is a large thing, and intellect is only a part of it : a recent 
part too, which therefore necessaiily, though not consciously, suffers 
from some of the defects of newness and crudity, and should refrain 
from imagining itself the whole — perhaps it is not even the best part — 
of human nature. 

The fact is that some of the best things are, by abstraction, excluded 
from Science, though not from Literature and Poetry; hence perhaps 
an ancient mistrust or dislike of science, typified by the Promethean 
legend. Science is systematised and vieirical knowledge, and in 
regions where measurement cannot be applied it has small scope ; or, as 
Mr. Balfour said the other day at the opening of a new wing of the 
National Physical Laboratory, 

Science depends on measurement, and things not measur- 
able are therefore excluded, or tend to be excluded, from its 
attention. But Life and Beauty and Happiness are not measur- 
able. ' And then characteristically he added: — 'If there could 
be a unit of happiness, Politics might begin to be scientific. ' 

Emotion and Intuition and Instinct are immensely older than 
science, and in a comprehensive survey of existence they cannot be 
ignored. Scientific men may rightly neglect them, in order to do their 
proper work, but philosophers cannot. 

So Philosophers have begun to question some of the larger generali- 
sations of science, and to ask whether in the effort to be universal and 
comprehensive we have not extended our laboratory inductions too far. 
The Conservation of Energy, for instance, — is it always and every- 
where valid ; or may it under some conditions be disobeyed ? It would 
seem as if the second law of Thermodynamics must be somewhere dis- 
obeyed — at least if the age of the Universe is both ways infinite, — else 
the final consummation would have already arrived. 

Not by philosophers only, but by scientific men also, ancient postu- 
lates are being pulled up by the roots. Physicists and Mathematicians 
are beginning to consider whether the long-known and well-established 
laws of mechanics hold true everywhere and always, or whether the 
Newi;onian scheme must be replaced by something more modem, some- 
thmg to which Newton's laws of motion are but an approximation. 

Indeed a whole system of non-Newtonian Mechanics has been 
devised, having as its foundation the recently discovered changes which 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 7 

must occur in bodies moving at speeds nearly comparable with that of 
light. It turns out in fact that both Shape and Mass are functions 
of Velocity. As the speed increases the mass inci-eases and the shape 
is distorted, though under ordinary conditions only to an infinitesimal 
extent. 

So far I agi-ee ; I agree with the statement of fact ; but I do not 
consider it so revolutionary as to overturn Newtonian mechanics. 
After all, a variation of Mass is familiar enough, and it would be a great 
mistake to say that Newton's second law breaks down merely because 
Mass is not constant. A raindrop is an example of variable mass; or 
the earth may be, by reason of meteoric dust ; or the sun, by reason of 
radio-activity; or a locomotive, by reason of the emission of steam. 
In fact, variable masses are the commonest, for friction may abrade 
any moving body to a microscopic extent. 

That Mass is constant is only an approximation. That Mass is 
equal to ratio of Force and Acceleration is a definition, and can be 
absolutely accurate. It holds perfectly even for an electron with a 
speed near that of light ; and it is by means of Newton's second law that 
the variation of Mass with Velocity has been experimentally observed 
and compared with theory. 

I urge that we remain with, or go back to, Newton. I see no 
reason against retaining all Newton's laws, discarding nothing, but 
supplementing them in the light of further knowledge. 

Even the laws of Geometry have been overhauled, and Euclidean 
Geometry is seen to be but a special case of more fundamental generali- 
sations. How far they apply to existing space, and how far Time 
is a reality or an illusion, and whether it can in any sense depend on 
the motion or the position of an observer : all these things in some form 
or other are discussed. 

The Conservation of Matter also, that main-mast of nineteenth 
century chemistry, and the existence of the Ether of Space, that sheet- 
anchor of nineteenth century physics, — do they not sometimes seem 
to be going by the board? 

Professor Schuster, in his American lectures, commented on the 
modern receptive attitude as follows: — 

' The state of plasticity and flux — a healthy state, in my 
opinion, — in which scientific thought of the present day adapts 
itself to almost any novelty, is illustrated by the complacency with 
which the most cherished tenets of our fathers are being aban- 
doned. Though it was never an article of orthodox faith that 
chemical elements were immutable and would not some day be 
resolved into simpler constituents, yet the conservation of mass 
seemed to lie at the very foundation of creation. But now-a-days 



8 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

the student finds little to disturb him, perhaps too little, 
in the idea that mass changes with velocity; and he does not 
always realise the full meaning of the consequences which are 
involved. ' 

This readiness to accept and incorporate new facts into the scheme 
of physics may have led to perhaps an undue amount of scientific 
scepticism, in order to right the balance. 

But a still deeper variety of comprehensive scepticism exists, and 
it is argued that all our laws of nature, so laboriously ascertained and 
carefully formulated, are but conventions after all, not truths: that 
we have no faculty for ascertaining real truth, that our intelligence 
was not evolved for any such academic purpose; that all we can do 
is to express things in a form convenient for present purposes and 
employ that mode of expression as a tentative and pragmatically useful 
explanation. 

Even explanaliini, however, has been discarded as too ambitious 
by some men of science, who claim only the power to describe. They 
not only emphasise the how rather than tlie why, — as is In some sort 
inevitable, since explanations are never ultimate — but are satisfied with 
very abstract propositions, and regard mathematical equations as 
preferable to, because safer than, mechanical analogies or models. 

' To use an acute and familiar expression of Gustav Kirchboff, 
it Is the object of science to describe natural phenomena, not to 
explain them. When we have expressed by an equation the 
correct relationship between different natural phenomena we have 
gone as far as we safely can, and if we go beyond we arc entering 
on purely speculative ground. ' 

But llic modes of statement preferred by those who distrust our 
power of going correctly into detail are far from satisfactory. Pro- 
fessor Schuster describes and comments on them thus: — 

' Vagueness, which used to be recognised as our great enemy, 
is now being enshrined as an idol to be worshipped. Wo may 
never know what constitutes atoms, or what is the real structure 
of the ether; why trouble, therefore, it is said, to find out more 
about them. Is It not safer, on the contrary, to confine our- 
selves to a general talk on entropy, luminlferous vectors, and un- 
defined symbols expressing vaguely certain physical relation- 
ships? What really lies at the bottom of the great fascination 
which these new doctrines exert on the present generation is 
sheer cowardice; the fear of having its errors brought home 
to it.' . . . 

' I believe this doctrine to be fatal to a healthy development 
of science. Grnniing the impossibility of penefrnting beyond tlie 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. V 

most superficial layers of observed phenomena, I would put the 
distinction between the two attitudes of mind in this way : One 
glorifies our ignorance, while the otlier accepts it as a regrettable 
necessity.' 

With this criticism I am in accord. 

In further illustration of the modern sceptical attitude, I quote from 
Poincar^ : — 

' Principles are conventions and definitions in disguise. They 
are, however, deduced from experimental laws, and these laws 
have, so to speak, been erected into principles to which our mind 
attributes an absolute value.' . 

' The fundamental propositions of geometry, for instance 
Euclid's postulate, are only conventions; and it is quite as un- 
reasonable to ask if they are true or false as to ask if the metric 
system is true or false. Only, these conventions are con- 
venient.' 

' Whether the etiier exists or not matters httle, — let us leave 
that to the metaphysicians; what is essential for us is that every- 
thing happens as if it existed, and that this hypothesis is found 
to be suitable for the explanation of phenomena. After all, have 
we any other reason for believing in the existence of material 
objects? That, too, is only a convenient hypothesis.' 

A needed antidote against over-pressing these utterances, however, 
is provided by Sir J. Lai^mor in his Preface : — 

' There has been of late a growing trend of opinion, prompted 
in part by general philosophical views, in the direction that the 
theoretical constructions of physical science are largely facti- 
tious, that instead of presenting a valid image of the relations of 
things on which further progress can be based, they are still little 
better than a mirage.' 

' The best method of abating this scepticism is to become 
acquainted with the real scope and modes of application of con- 
ceptions which, in the popular language of superficial exposition — 
and even in the unguarded and playful paradox of their authors, 
intended only for the instructed e3'e — often look bizarre enough." 

One thing is very notable, that it is closer and more exact know- 
ledge that has led to the kind of scientific scepticism now referred to; 
and that the simple laws on which we used to be working were thus 
simple and discoverable because the full complexity of existence was 
tempered to our ken by the roughness of our means of observation. 

Kepler's laws are not accurately true, and if he had had before him 
all the data now available he could hardly have discovered them. \ 



10 president's address. 

planet does not really move in an ellipse but in a kind of hypocycloid, 
and not accurately in that either. 

So it is also with Boyle's law, and the other pimple laws in Physical 
Chemistry. Even Van der Waals' generalisation of Boyle's law is only 
a further approximation. 

In most parts of physics simplicity has sooner or later to^ give place 
to complexity : though certainly I urge that the simple laws were true, 
and are still true, as far as they go, their inaccuracy being only detected 
by further real discovery. The reason they are departed from becomes 
known to us ; the law is not really disobeyed, but is modified through the 
action of a known additional cause. Hence it is all in the direction of 
progress. 

It is only fair to quote Poincar6 again, now that I am able in the 
main to agree with him — 

^' Take for instance the laws of reflection. Fresnel established 
them by a simple and attractive theory which experiment seemed 
to confirm. Subsequently, more accurate researches have shown 
that this verification was but approximate; traces of elliptic polari- 
sation were detected everywhere. But it is owing to the first 
approximation that the cause of these anomalies was found, in the 
existence of a transition layer; and all the essentials of Fresnel 's 
theory have remained. We cannot help reflecting that all these 
relations would never have been noted if there had been doubt in 
the first place as to the complexity of the objects they connect. 
Long ago it was said : If Tycho had had instruments ten times as 
precise, we would never have had a Kepler, or a Newton, or 
Astronomy. It is a misfortune for a science to be born too late, 
when the means of observation have become too perfect. That is 
what is happening at this moment with respect to physical 
chemistry : the founders are hampered in their general grasp by 
third and fourth decimal places ; happily they are men of robust 
faith. As we get to know the properties of matter better we see 

that continuity reigns It would be difficult to justify [the 

belief in continuity] by apodeictic reasoning, but without [it] all 
science would be impossible.' 

Here he touches on my own theme, Continuity; for, if we had to 
summarise the main trend of physical controversy at present, I feel 
inclined to urge that it largely turns on the question as to which way 
ultimate victory lies in the fight between Continuity and Discontinuity. 

On the surface of nature at first we see discontinuity ; objects 
detached and countable. Then we realise the air and other media, and 
so emphasise continuity and flowing quantities. Then we detect atoms 



president's address. H 

and numerical properties, and discontinuity once more makes its 
appearance. Then we invent the ether and are impressed with con- 
tinuity again. But this is not likely to be the end ; and what the ulti- 
mate end will be, or whether there is an ultimate end, is a question 
difficult to answer. 

The modern tendency is to emphasise the discontinuous or atomic 
character of everything. Matter has long been atomic, in the same 
sense as Anthropology is atomic; the unit of matter is the atom, as the 
unit of humanity is the individual. Whether men or women or chil- 
dren — they can be counted as so many ' souls.' And atoms of matter 
can be counted too. 

Certainly however there is an illusion of continuity. We recognise 
it in the cose of water. It appears to be a continuous medium, and yet 
it is certainly molecular. It is made continuous again, in a sense, by 
the ether postulated in its pores ; for the ether is essentially continuous. 
Though Osborne Reynolds, it is true, invented a discontinuous or 
granular Ether, on the analogy of the sea shore. The sands of the 
sea, the hairs of the head, the descendants of a Patriarch, are typical 
instances of numerable, or rather of innumerable, things. The difficulty 
of enumerating them is not that there is nothing to count, but merely 
that the things to be courted are very numerous. So are the atoms in 
a drop of water, — they outnumber the drops in an Atlantic Ocean, — - 
and, during the briefest time of stating their number, fifty millions or so 
may have evaporated; but they are as easy to count as the grains of 
sand on a shore. 

The process of counting is evidently a process applicable to discon- 
tinuities, i.e., to things with natural units; you can count apples and 
coins, and days and years, and people and atoms. To apply number to 
a continuum you must first cut it up into artificial units; and you are 
always left with incommensurable fractions. Thus only is it that you 
can deal numerically with such continuous phenomena as the warmth 
of a room, the speed of a bird, the pull of a rope, or the strength of a 
current. 

But how, it may be asked, does discontinuity apply to number? 
The natural numbers, 1, 2, 3, etc., are discontinuous enough, but 
there are fractions to fill up the interstices ; how do we know that they 
are not really connected by these fractions, and so made continuoua 
again ? 

(By number I always mean commensurable number ; incommensur- 
ables are not numbers : they are just what cannot be expressed in 
numbers. The square root of 2 is not a number, though it can be 
readily indicated by a length. Incommensurables are usual in physics 
and are frequent in geometry; the conceptions of geometry are essen- 
tially continuous. It is clear, as Poincar6 says, that ' if the points 



12 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

whose co-ordinates are commensurable were alone regarded as real, the 
in-circle of a square and the diagonal of the square would not. intersect, 
since the co-ordinates of the points of intersection are incommensur- 
able.') 

I want to explain how commensurable fractions do not connect up 
numbers, nor remove their discontinuity in the least. The divisions on 
a foot rule, divided as closely as you please, i-epresent commensurable 
fractions, but they represent none of the length. No matter how 
numei'ous they are, all the length lies between them ; the divisions arc 
mere partitions and have consumed none of it ; nor do tliey connect up 
with each other, they are essentially discontinuous. Tlie interspaces 
are infinitely more extensive than the barriers which partition them off 
from one another; they are like a row of compartments with infinitely 
thin walls. All the incommensurables lie in the interspaces; the com- 
pai'tments are full of them, and they are thus infinitely more numerous 
than the numerically expressible magnitudes. Take any point of the 
scale at random, tliat point will certainly lie in an interspace : it will 
not lie on a division, for the chances are infinity to i against it. 

Accordingly inconunensurable quantities are the rule in physics. 
Decimals do not in practice terminate or circulate, in other words vulgar 
fractions do not accidentally occur in any measurements, for this would 
mean infinite accuracy. We proceed to as many places of decimals as 
correspond to the order of accuracy aimed at. 

Whenever, then, a commensurable number is really associated with 
any natural phenomenon, there is necessarily a noteworthy circum- 
stance involved in the fact, and it means something quite definite and 
ultimately ascertainable. Every discontinuity that can be detected and 
counted is an addition to knowledge. It not only means the discovery 
ol natural units instead of being dependent on aiiificial ones, but it 
throws light also on the nature of phenomena themselves. 

For instance: — 

The ratio between the velocity of light and the inverted square root 
of the product of the electric and magnetic constants was discovered by 
Clerk Maxwell to be i ; and a new volume of physics was by that dis- 
covery opened. 

Dalton found that chemical combination occurred between quantities 
of different substances specified by certain whole or fractional numbers ; 
and the atomic tlieory of matter sprang into substantial though at first 
infantile existence. 

The hypothesis of Prout, which in some modified form seems likely 
to be substantiated, is that all atomic weights are commensurable 
numbers; in which case there must be a natural fundamental unit 
underlying, and in definite groups composing, the atoms of every form 
of matter. 



president's address. 13 

The small number of degrees of freedom of a molecule, and the 
subdivision of its total energy into equal parts corresponding thereto, 
is a theme not indeed without ditHculty but full of importance. It is 
responsible for the suggestion that energy too may be atomic ! 

Mendelejeff 's series again, or the detection of a natural grouping of 
atomic weights in families of seven, is another example of the signi- 
ficance of number. 

Electricity wns found by Faraday to be numerically connected with 
quantity of matter; and the atom of electricity began its hesitating but 
now brilliant career. 

Electricity itself — i.e. electric charge — strangely enough has proved 
itself to be atomic. There is a natural unit of electric charge, as 
suspected by Faraday and Maxwell and named by Johnstone Stoney. 
Some of the electron's visible effects were studied by Crookes in a 
vacuum; and its weighing and measuring by J. J. Thomson were 
announced to the British Association meeting at Dover in 1899 — a 
fitting prelude to the twentieth century. 

An electron is the natural unit of negative electricity, and it may not 
be long before the natural unit of positive electricity is found too. But 
concerning the nature of the positive unit there is at present som.e divi- 
sion into opposite camps. One school prefers to regard the unit of 
positive electricity as a homogeneous sphei'e, the size of an atom, in 
which electrons revolve in simple harmonic orbits and constitute nearly 
the whole effective mass. Another school, while appreciative of the 
simplicity and ingenuity and beauty of the details of this conception, and 
the skill with which it has been worked out, yet thinks the evidence 
more in favour of a minute central positive nucleus, or nucleus-group, 
of practically atomic mass; with electrons, larger — i.e. less concen- 
trated — and therefore less massive than itself, revolving round it in 
astronomical orbits. While from yet another point of view it is in- 
sisted tliat positive and negative electrons can only differ skew-symmet- 
rically, one being like the image of the other in a mirror, and that the 
mode in which they are grouped to form an atom remains for future 
discovery. But no one doubts that electricity is ultimately atomic. 

Even magnetism has been suspected of being atomic, and its 
hypothetical unit has been named in advance the magneton : but I con- 
fess that here I have not been shaken out of the conservative view. 

We may express all this as an invasion of number into unsuspected 
regions. 

Biology may be said to be becoming atomic. It has long had 
natural units in the shape of cells and nuclei, and some discontinuity 
represented by body-boundaries and cell-walls; but now, in its laws of 
heredity as studied by Mendel, number and discontinuity are strikingly 
apparent among the reproductive cells, and the varieties of offspring 



14 president's address. 

admit of numerical specification and prediction to a surprising extent; 
while modification by continuous variation, which seemed to be of the 
essence of Darwinism, gives place to, or at least is accompanied by, 
mutation, with finite and considerable and in appearance discontinuous 
change. 

So far from Nature not making jumps, it becomes doubtful if she 
does anything else. Her hitherto placid course, more closely examined, 
is beginning to look like a kind of steeplechase. 

Yet undoubtedly Continuity is the backbone of evolution, as taught 
by all biologists — no artificial boundaries or demarcations between 
species — a continuous chain of heredity from far below the amceba up 
to man. Actual continuity of undying germ-plasm, running through all 
generations, is taught likewise; though a strange discontinuity between 
this persistent element and its successive accessory body-plasms — a dis- 
continuity which would convert individual organisms into mere tem- 
porary accretions or excretions, with no power of influencing or con- 
veying experience to their generating cells — is advocated by one school. 

Discontinuity does not fail to exercise fascination even in pure 
Mathematics. Curves are invented which have no tangent or differ- 
ential coefficient, curves which consist of a succession of dots or of 
twists ; and the theory of commensurable numbers seems to be exerting 
a dominance over philosophic mathematical thought as well as over 
physical problems. 

And not only these fairly accepted results are prominent, but some 
more difficult and unexpected theses in the same direction are being 
propounded, and the atomic character of Energy is advocated. We had 
hoped to be honoured by the presence of Professor Planck, whose theory 
of the quantuvi, or indivisible unit or atom of energy, excites the 
greatest interest, and by some is thought to hold the field. 

Then again Radiation is showing signs of becoming atomic or dis- 
continuous. The corpuscular theory of radiation is by no means so 
dead as in my youth we thought it was. Some radiation is certainly 
corpuscular, and even the etherial kind shows indications, which may 
be misleading, that it is spotty, or locally concentrated into points, as 
if the wave-front consisted of detached specks or patches; or, as J. J. 
Thomson says, ' the wave-front must be more analogous to bright 
specks on a dark ground than to a uniformly illuminated surface,' thus 
suggesting that the Ether may be fibrous in structure, and that a wave 
runs along lines of electric force ; as the genius of Faraday surmised 
might be possible in his ' Thoughts on Ray Vibrations. ' Indeed 
Newton guessed something of the same kind, I fancy, when he super- 
posed ether-pulses on his corpuscles. 

Whatever be the truth in this matter, a discussion on Radiation, 
of extreme weight and interest, though likewise of great profundity and 



president's address. 15 

technicality, is expected on Friday in Section A. We welcome Pro- 
fessor Lorentz, Dr. Arrhenius, Professor Langevin, Professor Prings- 
heim, and others, some of whom have been specially invited to England 
because of the important contributions which they have made to the 
subject-matter of this discussion. 

Why is so much importance attached to Eadiation? Because it is 
the best-known and longest-studied link between matter and ether, and 
the only property we are acquainted with that affects the unmodified 
great mass of ether alone. Electricity and magnetism are associated 
with the modifications or singularities called electrons : most phenomena 
are connected still more directly with matter. Eadiation, however, 
though excited by an accelerated electron, is subsequently let loose in 
the ether of space, and travels as a definite thing at a measurable and 
constant pace — a pace independent of everything so long as the ether 
is free, unmodified and unloaded by matter. Hence radiation has much 
to teach us, and we have much to learn concerning its nature. 

How far can the analogy of granular, corpuscular, countable, atomic, 
or discontinuous things be pressed? There are those who think it can 
be pressed very far. But to avoid misunderstanding let me state, for 
what it may be worth, that I myself am an upholder of ultimate 
Continuity, and a fervent believer in the Ether of Space. 

We have already learnt something about the ether; and although 
there may be almost as many varieties of opinion as there are people 
qualified to form one, in my view we have learnt as follows : 

The Ether is the universal connecting medium which binds the 
universe together, and makes it a coherent whole instead of a chaotic 
collection of independent isolated fragments. It is the vehicle of 
transmission of all manner of force, from gravitation down to cohesion 
and chemical affinity ; it is therefore the storehouse of potential energy. 

Matter moves, but Ether is strained. 

What we call elasticity of matter is only the result of an alteration 
of configuration due to movement and readjustment of particles, but 
all the strain and stress are in the ether. The ether itself does not 
move, that is to say it does not move in the sense of locomotion, 
though it is probably in a violent state of rotational or turbulent 
motion in its smallest parts; and to that motion its exceeding rigidity 
is due. 

As to its density, it must be far greater than that of any form of 
matter, millions of times denser than lead or platinum. Yet matter 
moves through it with perfect freedom, without any friction or 
viscosity. There is nothing paradoxical in this : viscosity is not a 
function of density; the two are not necessarily connected. When a 
solid moves through an alien fluid it is true that it acquires a spurious 
or apparent extra inertia from the fluid it displaces; but, in the case 



16 president's address. 

of matter and ether, not only is even the densest nialter excessively 
porous and discontinuous, with vast interspaces ui and among the 
atoms, but the constitution of matter is such that there appears to be 
no displacement m the ordinary sense at all; the ether is itself so 
modified as to constitute the matter in some way. Of course that 
portion moves, its inertia is what we observe, and its amount depends 
on the potential energy in its associated electric field, but the motion 
is not like that of a foreign body, it is that of some inherent and 
merely individualised portion of the stuff itself. Certain it is that 
the ether exhibits no trace of viscosity.^ 

Matter in motion. Ether under strain, constitute the fundamental 
concrete things we have to do witli in pliysics. The first pair represent 
kinetic energy, the second potential energy; and all the activities of 
the material universe are represented by alternations from one of these 
forms to the other. 

^Yhenever this transference and transformation of energy occur, 
work is done, and some effect is produced, but the energy is never 
diminished in quantity : it is merely passed on from one body to 
another, always from ether to matter or vice versa, — except in the case 
of radiation, which simulates matter — and from one form to another. 

The forms of energy can be classified as either a translation, a 
rotation, or a vibration, of pieces of matter of different sizes, from stars 
and planets down to atoms and electrons; or else an ethei'ial strain 
which in various different ways is manifested by the behaviour of such 
masses of matter as appeal to our senses. - 

Some of the facts responsible for the suggestion that energy is 
atomic seem to me to depend on the discontinuous nature of the 
structure of a material atom, and on the liigh velocity of its constituent 
particles. The apparently discontinuous emission of radiation is, I 
believe, due to features in the real discontinuity of matter. Disturb- 
ances inside an atom appear to be essentially catastrophic ; a portion is 
liable to be ejected with violence. There appears to be a critical 
velocity below which ejection does not take place; and, when it does, 
there also occui-s a sudden re-arrangement of parts which is presumably 
responsible for some perceptible etherial radiation. Hence it is, I 
suppose, that radiation comes off in gushes or bursts ; and hence it 
appears to consist of indivisible units. The occasional phenomenon of 
new stars, as compared with the steady orbital motion of the millions 
of recognised bodies, may be suggested as an astronomical analogue. 

The hypothesis of quanta was devised to reconcile the law that 

' For details of ihy experiment on this subject see Phil. Trans. Itoy. Soc. for 
1893 and 1897 ; or a very abbreviated reference to it, and to the other matters 
above-mentioned, in my small book The Ether of Syacc. 

' See, in the Philo.^ophical Maijazinc for 1879, uiy article on a Classification 
of the. forms of energy. 



president's address. 17 

llie energy of a group of colliding molecules must in the long run be 
equally shared among all their degrees of freedom, with the observed 
fact that the energy is really shared into only a small number of equal 
parts. For if vibration-possibilities have to be taken into account, the 
number of degrees of molecular freedom nmst be very large, and 
energy shared among them ought soon to be all frittered away ; whereas 
it is not. Hence the idea is suggested that minor degrees of freedom 
are initially excluded from sharing the energy, because they cannot be 
supplied with less than one atom of it. 

I should prefer to express the fact by saying that the ordinary 
encounters of molecules are not of a kind able to excite atomic vibra- 
tions, or in any way to disturb the ether. Spectroscopic or luminous 
vibrations of an atom are excited only by an exceptionally violent kind 
of collision, which may be spoken of as chemical clash; the ordinary 
molecular orbital encounters, always going on at the rate of millions 
a second, are ineffective in that respect, except in the case of phos- 
phorescent or luminescent substances. That common molecular 
deflexions are ineffective is certain, else all the energy would be dissi- 
pated or transferred from matter into the ether ; and the reasonableness 
of their radiative inefficiency is not far to seek, when we consider the 
comparatively leisurely character of molecular movements, at speeds 
comparable with the velocity of sound. Admittedly, however, the 
effective rigidity of molecules nmst be complete, otherwise the sharing 
of energy must ultimately occur. They do not seem able to be set 
vibrating by anything less than a certain niiniuium stimulus; and that 
is the basis for the theory of quanta. 

Quantitative applications of Planck's theory, to elucidate the other- 
wise shaky stability of the astronomically constituted atom, have been 
made; and the agreement between results so calculated and those 
observed, including a determination of series of spectrum lines, is very 
remarkable. One of the latest contributions to this subject is a paper 
by Dr. Bohr in the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for July this year. 

To show that I am not exaggerating the modern tendency towards 
discontinuity, I quote, from M. Poincare's ' Dernieres Pensees,' a 
proposition which he announces in italics as representing a form of 
Professor Planck's view of which he apparently approves: — 

' A physical system is susceptible of a finite number only of 
distinct conditions; it jumps fi-om one of these conditions to 
another without passing through a continuous series of inter- 
mediate conditions. ' 

Also this from Sir Joseph Larmor's Preface to Poincare's ' Science 
and Hypothesis ' : — 

Still mure recently it has been luund that the good Bishop 

iyi3. o 



18 president's address. 

Berkeley's logical jibes against the Newtonian ideas of fluxions 
and limiting ratios cannot be adequately appeased in the rigorous 
mathematical conscience until our apparent continuities are re- 
solved mentally into discrete aggregates which we only partially 
apprehend. The irresistible impulse to atomise everything thus 
proves to be not merely a disease of the physicist : a deeper 
origin, in the nature of knowledge itself, is suggested. ' 

One very valid excuse for this prevalent attitude is the astonishing 
progress that has been made in actually seeing, or almost seeing, the 
molecules, and studying their arrangement and distribution. 

The laws of gases have been found to apply to emulsions and to 
fine powders in suspension, of which the Brownian movement has 
long been known. This movement is caused by the orthodox mole- 
cular bombardment, and its average amplitude exactly represents the 
theoretical mean free path calculated from the ' molecular weight ' of 
the relatively gigantic particles. The behaviour of these microscopi- 
cally visible masses corresponds closely and quantitatively with what 
could be predicted for them as fearfully heavy atoms, on the kinetic 
theory of gases; they may indeed be said to constitute a gas with a 
gram-molecule as high as 200,000 tons ; and, what is rather important 
as well as interesting, they tend visibly to verify the law of equiparti- 
tion of energy even in so extreme a case, when that law is properly 
stated and applied. 

Still more remarkable — the application of X-rays to display the 
arrangement of molecules in crystals, and ultimately the arrangement 
of atoms in molecules, as initiated by Professor Laue with Drs. 
Friedrich and Knipping, and continued by Professor Bragg and his 
son and by Dr. Tutton, constitute a series of researches of high interest 
and promise. By this means manj^ of the theoretical anticipations of 
our countryman, Mr. "William Barlow, and — working with him — Pro- 
fessor Pope, as well as of those distinguished crystallographers von 
Groth and von Pedorow, have been confirmed in a striking way. 
These brilliant researches, which seem likely to constitute a branch of 
Physics in themselves, and which are being continued by Messrs. 
Moseley and C. G. Darwin, and by Mr. Keene and others, may be 
called an apotheosis of the atomic theory of matter. 

One other controversial topic I shall touch upon in the domain 
of physics, though I shall touch upon it lightly, for it is not a matter 
for easy reference as yet. If the ' Principle of Relativity ' in an 
extreme sense establishes itself, it seems as if even Time would become 
discontinuous and be supplied in atoms, as money is doled out in 
pence or centimes instead of continuously; — in which case our cus- 
tomary existence will turn out to be no more really continuous than 



president's address. 19 

the events on a kinematograph screen; — while that great agent of 
continuity, the Ether of Space, will be relegated to the museum of 
historical curiosities. 

In that case differential equations will cease to represent the facts 
of nature ; they will have to be replaced by Finite Differences, and the 
most fundamental revolution since Newton will be inaugurated. 

Now in all the debatable matters of which I have indicated possi- 
bilities I want to urge a conservative attitude. I accept the new 
experimental results on which some of these theories — ^such as the 
Principle of Eelativity — are based, and am profoundly interested in 
them, but I do not feel that they are so revolutionary as their pro- 
pounders think. I see a way to retain the old and yet embrace the 
new, and I urge moderation in the uprooting and I'emoval of landmarks. 
And of these the chief is Continuity. I cannot imagine the exer- 
tion of mechanical force across empty space, no matter how minute ; a 
continuous medium seems to me essential. I cannot admit discon- 
tinuity in either Space or Time, nor can I imagine any sort of experi- 
ment which would justify such a hypothesis. For surely we must 
realise that we know nothing experimental of either space or time, we 
cannot modify them in any way. We make experiments on bodies, 
and only on bodies, using ' body ' as an exceedingly general term. 

We have no reason to postulate anything but continuity for space 
and time. We cut them up into conventional units for convenience' 
sake, and those units we can count ; but there is really nothing atomic 
or countable about the things themselves. We can count the rotations 
of the earth, or the revolutions of an electron, or the vibrations of a 
pendulum, or the waves of light. All these are concrete and tractable 
physical entities ; but space and time are ultimate data, abstractions 
based on experience. We know them through motion, and through 
motion only, and motion is essentially continuous. We ought clearly 
to discriminate between things themselves and our mode of measuring 
them. Our measures and perceptions may be affected by all manner 
of incidental and trivial causes, and we may get confused or hampered 
by our own movement; but there need be no such complication in 
things themselves, anymore than a landscape is distorted by looking at 
it through an irregular window-pane or from a travelling coach. It 
is an ancient and discarded fable that complications introduced by the 
motion of an observer are real complications belonging to the outer 
universe. 

Very well, then, what about the Ether? Is that in the same 
predicament? Is that an abstraction, or a mere convention, or is 
it a concrete physical entity on which we can experiment ? 

Now it has to be freely admitted that it is exceedingly difficult 
to make experiments on the ether. It does not appeal to sense, and 

c 2 



20 president's address, 

we know no means of getting hold of it. The one thing we know 
metrical about it is the velocity with which it can transmit transverse 
waves. That is clear and definite, and thereby, to my judgment, it 
proves itself a physical agent; not indeed tangible or sensible, but 
yet concretely real. 

But it does elude our laboratory grasp. If we rapidly move 
matter through it, hoping to grip it and move it too, we fail: there 
is no mechanical connection. And even if we experiment on light 
we fail too. So long as transparent matter is moving relatively to 
lis, light can be affected inside that matter; ])nt when matter is 
relatively stationary to matter nothing o])servablo takes place, how- 
ever fast things may be moving, so long as iliey move together. 

ITence arises the idea that motion wilh respect to Ether is mean- 
ingless : and the fact that only relative motion of pieces of matter 
with respect to each otlier has so far been observed is the foundation 
of the Principle of Eelativity. It sounds simple enough as thus 
stated, but in its developments it is an ingenious and complicated 
doctrine, embodying surprising consequences, which have been \\orked 
out by Professor Einstein and his disciples with consummate ingenuity. 

What have I to urge against it? Well, in the first place, it is 
only in accordance with common sense that no effect of the first 
order can be observed without relative motion of matter. An Ether- 
stream through our laboratories is optically and electrically undetect- 
able, at least as regards first-order observation; this is clearly 
explained for general readers in my book 'The Ether of Space,' 
Chapter IV. (Also in Nature, vol. 46, p. 497.) But the Principle of 
Eelativity says more than that ; it says that no effect of any order of 
magnitude can ever be observed without the relative motion of matter. 

The trutli underlying this doctrine is that absolute motion without 
reference to anything is unmeaning. But the narrowing down of 
' anything ' to mean any pieee of matter is illegitimate. The nearest 
approach to absolute motion that we can physically imagine is motion 
through or with respect to the Ether of Space. It is natural to 
assume tjhat the Ether is on the whole stationary, and to use it as 
a standard of rest; in that sense motion with reference to it may 
be called absolute, but in no other sense. 

The Principle of Eelativity claims that we can never ascertain -such 
motion : in other words it practically or pragmatically denies the 
existence of the Ether. Every one of our scientifically observed 
motions, it says, are of the same nature as our popularlj^ observed 
ones, viz., motion of pieces of matter relatively to each other; and 
tliat is all that we can ever know. Everything goes on — says the 
Principle of Eelativity — as if the Ether did not exist. 

Now the facts are that no motion with reference to the ether 



president's address. 21 

alone has ever yet been observed : there are always curious com- 
pensating effects which just cancel out the movement-terms and 
destroy or effectively mask any phenomenon that might otherwise 
be expected. When matter moves past matter observation can be 
made; but, even so, no consequent locomotion of ether, outside the 
actually moving particles, can be detected. 

It is sometimes urged that rotation is a kind of absolute motion 
that can be detected, even in isolation. Tt can so be detected, as 
Newton pointed out ; but in cases of rotation matter on one side the 
axis is moving in the opposite direction to matter on the other side 
of the axis ; hence rotation involves relative material motion, and 
therefore can be observed. 

To detect motion through ether we must use an etherial process. 
We may use radiation, and try to compare the speeds of light along 
or across the motion; or we might try to measure the speed, first 
with the motion, and then against it. But how are we to make the 
comparison? If the time of emission from a distant som'ce is given 
by a distant clock, that clock must be observed through a telescope, 
that is by a beam of light; which is plainly a compensating process. 
Or the light from a neighbouring source can be sent back to us by a 
distant mirror; when again there will be compensation. Or the start- 
ing of light from a distant terrestrial source may be telegraphed to us, 
either with a wire or without; but it is the ether that conveys the 
message in either case, so again there will be compensation. 
Electricity, Magnetism, and Light, are all effects of the ether. 

Use Cohesion, then; have a rod stretching from one place to 
another, and measure that. But cohesion is transmitted by the ether 
too, if, as believed, it is the univei'sal binding medium. Compensa- 
tion is likely; compensation can, on the electrical theory of matter, be 
predicted. 

Use some action not dependent on Ether, then. Very well, where 
shall we find it? 

To illustrate the difficulty I will quote a sentence from Sir Joseph 
Larmor's paper before the International Congress of Mathematicians 
at Cambridge last year: — 

' If it is correct to say w^ith Maxwell that all radiation is an 
electrodynamic phenomenon, it is equally correct to say with 
him that all electrodynamic relations between material bodies are 
established by the operation, on the molecules of those bodies, 
of fields of force which are propagated in free space as radiation 
and in accordance with the laws of radiation, from one body to 
the other.' 

i'lio fact is we are living in an e[ioch of some very comprehensive 



22 president's address. 

generalisations. The physical discovery of the twentieth century, so 
far, is the Electrical Theory of Matter. This is the great new theory 
of our time; it was referred to, in its philosophical aspect, by Mr. 
Balfour in his Presidential Address at Cambridge in 1904. We are 
too near it to be able to contemplate it properly ; it has still to establish 
itself and to develop in detail, but I anticipate that in some form or 
other it will prove true.^ 

Here is a briefest possible summary of the first chapter (so to 
speak) of the Electrical Theory of Matter. 

(1) Atoms of Matter are composed of electrons, — of positive and 

negative electric charges. 

(2) Atoms are bound together into molecules by chemical affinity, 

which is intense electrical attraction at ultra-minute 
distances. 

(3) Molecules are held together by cohesion, which I for one 

regard as residual or differential chemical affinity over 
molecular distances. 

(4) Magnetism is due to the locomotion of electrons. There 

is no magnetism without an electric current, atomic or 
otherwise. There is no electric current without a moving 
electron. 
(6) Radiation is generated by every accelerated electron, in 
amount proportional to the square of its acceleration; and 
there is no other kind of radiation, except indeed a corpus- 
cular kind; but this depends on the velocity of electrons, 
and therefore again can only be generated by their accelera- 
tion. 

The theory is bound to have curious consequences ; and already it 
has contributed to some of the uprooting and uncertainty that I speak 
of. For, if it be true, every material interaction will be electrical, 
i.e., etherial; and hence arises our difficulty. Every kind of force is 
transmitted by the ether, and hence, so long as all our apparatus is 
travelling together at one and the same pace, we have no chance of 
detecting the motion. That is the strength of the Principle of Rela- 
tivity. The changes are not zero, but they cancel each other out of 
observation. (Nature, vol. 46, page 165, 1892.) 

Many forms of statement of the famous Michelson-Morley experi- 
ment are misleading. It is said to prove that the time taken by light 
to go with the ether stream is the same as that taken to go against or 
across it. It does not show that. What it shows is that the time 
taken by light to travel to and fro on a measured interval fixed on a 

' For a general introductory account of the electrical theory of matter my 
Komanes lecture for 1903 (Clarendon Press) may be referred to. 



president's address. 23 

rigid block of matter is independent of the aspect of that block with 
respect to any motion of the earth through space. A definite and 
most interesting result : but it may be, and often is, interpreted loosely 
and too widely. 

It is interpreted too widely, as I think, when Professor Einstein 
goes on to assume that no non-relative motion of matter can be ever 
observed even when light is brought into consideration. The relation 
of light to matter is very curious. The wave front of a progressive 
wave simulates many of the properties of matter. It has energy, it 
has momentum, it exerts force, it sustains reaction. It has been 
described as a portion of the mass of a radiating body, — which gives it 
a curiously and unexpectedly corpuscular ' feel.' But it has a definite 
velocity. Its velocity in space relative to the ether is an absolute 
constant independent of the motion of the source. This would not 
be true for corpuscular light. 

Hence I hold that here is something with which our own motion 
may theoretically be compared ; and I predict that our motion through 
the ether will some day be detected by the help of this very fact, — by 
comparing our speed with that of light : though the old astronomical 
aberration, which seemed to make the comparison easy, failed to do so 
quite simply, because it is complicated by the necessity of observing 
the position of a distant source, in relation to which the earth is 
moving. If the source and observer are moving together there is no 
possibility of observing aberration. Nevertheless I maintain that 
when matter is moving near a beam of light we may be able to detect 
the motion. For the velocity of light in space is no function of the 
velocity of the source, nor of matter near it; it is quite unaffected by 
motion of source or receiver. Once launched it travels in its own 
way. If we are travelling to meet it, it will be arriving at us moi'e 
quickly; if we travel away from it, it will reach us with some lag. 
That is certain; and observation of the acceleration or retardation is 
made by aid of Jupiter's satellites. We have there the dial of a clock, 
to or from which we advance or recede periodically. It gains while we 
approach it, it loses while we recede from it, it keeps right time when 
we are stationary or only moving across the line of sight. 

But then of course it does not matter whether Jupiter is standing 
still and we are moving, or vice versa:' it is a case of relative motion 
of matter again. So it is if we observe a Doppler effect from the right 
and left hand limbs of the rotating sun. True, and if we are to permit 
no relative motion of matter we must use a terrestrial source, clamped 
to the earth as our receiver is. And now we shall observe nothing. 

But not because there is nothing to observe. Lag must really occur 
if we are running away from the light, even though the source is 
running after us at the same pace: unless we make the assumption, — 



24 president's address. 

true only for corpuscular light,- — that the velocity of light is not an 
absolute thing, but is dependent on the speed of the source. With 
corpuscular light there is nothing to observe; with wave light there 
is something, but we cannot observe it. 

But if the whole solar system is moving through the ether I 
see no reason why the relative ether drift should not be observed by 
a different residual effect in connection with Jupiter's satellites or the 
right and left limbs of the sun. The effect must be too small to 
observe without extreme precision, but theoretically it ought to be 
there. Inasmuch however as relative motion of matter with respect 
to the observer is involved in these effects, it may be held that the 
detection of a uniform drift of the solar system in this way is not 
contrary to the Principle of Eelativity. It is contrary to some state- 
ments of that principle ; and the cogency of those statements breaks 
down, I think, whenever they include the velocity of light; because 
there we really have something absolute (in the only sense in which 
the term can have a physical meaning) with which we can compare 
our own motion, when we have leai'nt how. 

But in ordinary astronomical translation — translation as of tlie 
earth in its orbit — all our instruments, all our standards, the whole 
contents of our laboratory, are moving at the same rate in the same 
direction ; under those conditions we cannot expect to observe anything. 
Clerk Maxwell went so far as to say that if every particle of matter 
simultaneously received a graduated blow so as to produce a given 
constant acceleration all iji the same direction, we should be unaware 
of the fact. He did not then know all that we know about radiation. 
But apart from that, and limiting oui'selves to comparatively slow 
changes of velocity, our standards will inevitably share whatever 
change occurs. So far as observation goes, everything will be prac- 
tically as if no change had occurred at all ; — though that may not be 
the truth. All that experiment establishes is that there have so far 
always been compensations; so that the attempt to observe motion 
through the ether is being given up as hopeless. 

Surely, liowever, the minute and curious compensations cannot 
be accidental; they must be necessary? Yes, tliey are necessary; and 
I want to say why. Suppose the case were one of measuring thermal 
expansion ; and suppose everything had the same temperature and 
the same expansibility; our standards would contract or expand with 
everything else, and we could observe nothing; but expansion would 
occur nevertheless. That is obvious, but the following assertion is not 
so obvious. If everything in the Universe had the same temperature, 
no matter what that temperature was, nothing would be visible at all; 
the external world, so far as vision went, would not appear to exist. 



president's address. 25 

Visibility depends on radiation, on differential radiation. We must 
have differences to appeal to our senses ; they are not constructed for 
uniformity. 

It is the extreme omnipresence and uniformity and universal agency 
of the ether of space that makes it so difficult to observe. To observe 
anything you must have differences. If all actions at a distance are 
conducted at the same rate through the ether, the travel of none of 
them can be observed. Find something not conveyed by the ether 
and there is a chance. But then every physical action is trans- 
mitted by the ether, and in every case by means of its transverse or 
radiation-like activity. 

Except perhaps Gravitation. That may give us a clue some day, 
but at present we have not been able to detect its speed of transmission 
at all. No plan has been devised for measuring it. Nothing short 
of the creation or destruction of matter seems likely to serve : creation 
or destruction of the gravitational unit, whether it be an atom or an 
electron or whatever it is. Most likely tlie unit of weight is an electron, 
just as the unit of mass is. 

The so-called non-Newtonian Meclianics, witli mass and shape 
a function of velocity, is an innnediate consequence of the electrical 
theory of matter. The dependence of inertia and shape on speed is 
a genuine discovery and, I believe, a physical fact. The Principle 
of Eelativity would reduce it to a conventional fiction. It woidd 
seek to replace this real change in matter by imaginary changes in 
time. But surely we must admit that Space and Time are essentially 
unchangeable : they are not at the disposal even of mathematicians ; 
though it is true that Pope Gregory, or a Daylight-saving Bill, can 
play with our units, can turn the .Srd of October in any one year 
into the 14th, or can make the sun South sometimes at eleven o'clock, 
sometimes at twelve' 

But the changes of dimension and mass due to velocity are not 
conventions l)ut I'ealities : so I urge, on tlie basis of the electrical 
tlieory of matlor. Tlie Fitzgerald-Lorentz hypothesis I have an 
affection for. I was present at its birth. Indeed I assisted at its birth ; 
for rfc was in my study at 21 Waverley Eoad, Liverpool, with Fitzgerald 
in an armcliair, and while I was enlarging on the dilTiculty of recon- 
ciling the then new Michelson experiment with the theory of astrono- 
mical aberration and with other known facts, that he made his brilliant 
surmise: — 'Perhaps the stone slab was affected by tlio motion.' I 

In the historical Ccase of Governnifiital interference with tlie calendar no 
wonder the populace rebelled. Surely someone might have explained to the 
authorities that dropping leap-year for the greater part of a century would do 
all that was wanted, and that the horrible inconvenience of upsetting all engage- 
ments and shortening a single year by eleven days could be avoided. 



26 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

rejoined that it was a 45° shear that was needed. To which he replied, 
' Well, that's all right, — a simple distortion.' And very soon he said, 
' And I believe it occurs, and that the Michelson experiment demon- 
strates it.' A shortening long-ways or a lengthening cross-ways 
would do what was wanted. (See Nature for June 16, 1892, p. 165.) 

And is such a hypothesis gratuitous? Not at all: in the light of 
the electrical theory of matter such an effect ought to occur. The 
amount required by the experiment, and given by the theory, is 
equivalent to a shrinkage of the earth's diameter by rather less than 
three inches, in the line of its orbital motion through the ether of 
space. An oblate spheroid with the proper excentricity has all the 
simple geometrical properties of a stationary sphere; the excentricity 
depends in a definite way on speed, and becomes considerable as the 
velocity of light is approached. 

All this Professoi's Lorentz and Larmor very soon after, and quite 
independently, perceived ; though this is only one of the minor achieve- 
ments in the electrical theory of matter which we owe to our dis- 
tinguished visitor. Professor H. A. Lorentz. 

The key of the position, to my mind, is the nature of cohesion. 
I regard cohesion as residual chemical affinity, a balance of electrical 
attraction over repulsion between groups of alternately charged mole- 
cules. Lateral electrical attraction is diminished by motion; so is 
lateral electric repulsion. In cohesion both are active, and they nearly 
balance. At anything but molecular distance they quite balance, but 
at molecular distance attraction predominates. It is the diminution 
of the predominant partner that will be felt. Hence while longitudinal 
cohesion, or cohesion in the direction of motion, remains unchanged, 
lateral cohesion is less ; so there will be distortion, and a unit cube 
X y z moving along x with velocity u becomes a parallelepiped with 
sides l/k^, k, k; where l/k« = l-uVv^^ 

The electrical theory of matter is a positive achievement, and has 
positive results. By its aid we make experiments which throw light 
upon the relation between matter and the Ether of Space. The 
Principle of Eelativity, which . seeks to replace it, is a principle of 
negation, a negative proposition, a statement that observation of 
certain facts can never be made, a denial of any relation between 
matter and ether, a virtual denial that the ether exists. Whereas if 
we admit the real changes that go on by reason of rapid motion, a 

* Different modes of estimating the change give slightly different results ; 
some involve a compression as well as a distortion — in fact the strain associated 
with the name of Thomas Yoiing; the details are rather complicated and this is 
not the place to discuss them. A pure distortion, as specified in the text, is 
simplest ; it appears to be in accord with all the experimental facts- — including 
some careful measurements by Bucherer, — and I rather expect it to survive. 



president's address. 27 

whole field is open for discovery; it is even possible to investigate the 
changes in shape of an electron — appallingly minute though it is — 
as it approaches the speed of light; and properties belonging to the 
Ether of Space, evasive though it be, cannot lag far behind. 

Speaking as a physicist, I must claim the Ether as peculiarly our own 
domain. The study of molecules we share with the chemist, and matter 
in its various forms is investigated by all men of science, but a study 
of the ether of space belongs to physics only. I am not alone in feeling 
the fascination of this portentous entity. Its curiously elusive and 
intangible character, combined with its universal and unifying per- 
meance, its apparently infinite extent, its definite and perfect properties, 
make the ether the most interesting as it is by far the largest and most 
fundamental ingredient in the material cosmos. 

As Sir J. J. Thomson said at Winnipeg: — 

' The ether is not a fantastic creation of the speculative 
philosopher; it is as essential to us as the air we breathe. . . . 
The study of this all-pervading substance is perhaps the most 
fascinating and important duty of the physicist.' 

Matter it is not, but material it is; it belongs to the material 
universe and is to be investigated by ordinary methods. But to say 
this is by no means to deny that it may have mental and spiritual 
functions to subserve in some other order of existence, as Matter has 
in this. 

The ether of space is at least the great engine of continuity. It 
may be much more, for without it there could hardly be a material 
universe at all. Certainly, however, it is essential to continuity; it is 
the one all-permeating substance that binds the whole of the particles 
of matter together. It is the uniting and binding medium without 
which, if matter could exist at all, it could exist only as chaotic and 
isolated fragments : and it is the universal medium of communication 
between worlds and particles. And yet it is possible for people to deny 
its existence, because it is unrelated to any of our senses, except sight, — 
and to that only in an indirect and not easily recognised fashion. 

To illustrate the thorough way in which we may be unable to detect 
what is around us unless it has some link or bond which enables it to 
make appeal, let me make another quotation from Sir J. J. Thomson's 
Address at Winnipeg in 1909. He is leading up to the fact that even 
single atoms, provided they are fully electrified with the proper atomic 
charge, can be detected by certain delicate instruments, — their field of 
force bringing them within our ken — whereas a whole crowd of 
unelectrified ones would escape observation. 

' The smallest quantity of unelectrified matter ever detected 
is probably that of neon, one of the inert gases of the atmosphere. 



28 president's address. 

Professor Slrutt has shown that the amount of neon in ]/20 of 
a cubic centimetre of the air at ordinary pressures can be detected 
by the spectroscope ; Sir Wilham Eamsay estimates that the neon 
in the air only amounts to one part of neon in 100, OUO parts of 
air, so that the neon in 1/20 of a cubic centimetre of air would 
only occupy at atmospheric pressure a volume of half a millionth 
of a cubic centimetre. When stated in this form the quantity 
seems exceedingly small, but in this small volume there are about 
ten million million molecules. Now the population of the earth 
is estimated at about fifteen hundred milhons, so that the smallest 
number of molecules of neon we can identify is about 7,000 times 
the population of the earth. In other words, if we had no better 
test for the existence of a man than we have for that of an 
unelectrified molecule we should come to the conclusion that the 
earth is uninhabited. ' 

The parable is a striking one, for on these lines it might legitimately 
be contended that we have no right to say positively that even space 
is uninhabited. All we can safely say is that we have no means of 
detecting the existence of non-planetary immaterial dwellers, and that 
unless they have some link or bond with the material they must always 
be physically beyond our ken. We may therefore for practical purposes 
legitimately treat them as non-existent until such link is discovered, 
but we should not dogmatise about them. True agnosticism is legiti- 
mate, but not the dogmatic and positive and gnostic variety. 

For I hold that Science is incompetent to make comprehensive 
denials, even about the Ether, and that it goes wrong when it makes 
the attempt. Science should not deal in negations : it is strong in 
affirmations, but nothing based on abstraction ought to presume to 
deny outside its own region. It often happens that things abstracted 
from and ignored by one branch of science may be taken into con- 
sideration by another: — 

Thus, Chemists ignore the Ether. 

Mathematicians may ignore experimental difficulties. 

Physicists ignore and exclude live things. 

Biologists exclude Mind and Design. 

Psychologists may ignore human origin and human destiny. 

Folk-lore students and comparative Mythologists need not trouble 
about what modicum of truth there may be in the legends which they 
are collecting and systematising. 

And Microscopists may ignore the stars. 

Yet none of these ignored things should be denied. 

Denial is no more infallible than assertion. There are cheap and 



president's address. 29 

easy kinds of scepticism, just as there are cheap and easy kinds of 
dogmatism; in fact scepticism can become viciously dogmatic, and 
science has to be as much on its guard against ipersonal predilection in 
tlie negative as in the positive direction. An attitude of universal 
denial may be very superficial. 

' To doubt everything or to believe everytliing are two equally 
convenient solutions; both dispense with the necessity of 
reflection. ' 

All intellectual processes are based on abstraction. For instance, 
ITistory must ignore a great multitude of facts in order to treat any 
intelligently: it selects. So does Art; and that is why a drawing is 
clearer than reality. Science makes a diagram of reality, displaying 
the works, like a skeleton clock. Anatomists dissect out the nervous 
system, the blood vessels, and the muscles, and depict them separately, 
— there must be discrimination for intellectual grasp, — but in life they 
are all merged and co-operating together; they do not really work 
separately, though they may be studied separately. A scalpel 
discriminates : a dagger or a bullet crashes through everything. That 
is life, — or rather death. The laws of nature are a diagrammatic frame- 
work, analysed or abstracted out of the full comprehensiveness of reality. 

Hence it is that Science has no authority in denials. To deny 
effectively needs much more comprehensive knowledge than to assert. 
And abstraction is essentially not comprehensive : one cannot have it 
both ways. Science employs the metliods of abstraction and thereby 
makes its discoveries. 

The reason why some physiologists insist so strenuously on the 
validity and self-sufficiency of the laws of physics and chemistry, and 
resist the temptation to appeal to unknown causes — even though the 
guiding influence and spontaneity of living things are occasionally 
conspicuous as well as inexplicable — is that they are keen to do their 
proper work ; and their proper work is to pursue the laws of ordinary 
physical Energy into the intricacies of ' colloidal electrolytic structures 
of great chemical complexity ' and to study its behaviour there. 

What we have clearly to grasp, on their testimony, is that for all 
the terrestrial manifestations of life the ordinary physical and chemical 
processes have to serve. There ai'e not new laws for living matter, and 
old laws for non-living; (he laws are the same; or if ever llioy differ, 
the burden of proof rests on him who sustains the difference. The 
conservation of energy, the laws of chemical combination, the laws of 
electric currents, of radiation, etc., etc., — all the laws of Chemistry and 
Physics, — may be applied without hesitation in the Organic domain. 
Whether they are sufficient is open to question, but as far as they go 



30 president's address. 

they are necessary ; and it is the business of the physiologist to seek out 
and demonstrate the action of those laws in every vital action. 

This is clearly recognised by the leaders, and in the definition of 
Physiology by Burdon Sanderson he definitely limited it to the study 
of ' ascertainable characters of a chemical and physical type.' In his 
Address to the Sub-section of Anatomy and Physiology at York in 1881 
he spoke as follows: — 

' It would give you a true idea of the nature of the great advance 
which took place about the middle of this century if I were to 
define it as the epoch of the death of " vitalism." Before that 
time even the greatest biologists — e.g. J. Miiller — recognised that 
the knowledge biologists possessed both of vital and physical 
phenomena was insufficient to refer both to a common measure. 
The method, therefore, was to study the processes of life in 
relation to each other only. Since that time it has become funda- 
mental in our science not to regard any vital process as understood 
at all unless it can be brought into relation with physical standards, 
and the methods of physiology have been based exclusively on 
this principle. The most efficient cause [conducing to the 
change] was the progress which had been made in physics and 
chemistry, and particularly those investigations which led to the 
establishment of th© doctrine of the Conservation of 
Energy.' .... 

' Investigators who are now working with such earnestness 
in all parts of the world for the advance of physiology, have 
before them a definite and well-understood purpose, that purpose 
being to acquire an exact knowledge of the chemical and physical 
processes of animal life and of the self-acting machinery by which 
they are regulated for the general good of the organism. The 
more singly and straightforwardly we direct our efforts to these 
ends, the sooner we shall attain to the still higher purpose — the 
effectual application of our knowledge for the increase of human 
happiness. ' 

Professor Gotch, whose recent loss we have to deplore, puts it more 
strongly : — 

'It is essentially unscientific,' he says, 'to say that any 
physiological phenomenon is caused by vital force. ' 

I observe that by some critics I have been called a vitalist, and in 
a sense I am ; but I am not a vitalist if vitahsm means an appeal to an 
undefined ' vital force ' (an objectionable term I have never thought 
of using) as against the laws of Chemistry and Physics. Those laws 
must be supplemented, but need by no means be superseded. The 



president's address. 31 

business of science is to trace out their mode of action everywhere, as 
far and as fully as possible ; and it is a true instinct which resents the 
mediaeval practice of freely introducing spiritual and unknown causes 
into working science. In science an appeal to occult qualities must be 
illegitimate, and be a barrier to experiment and research generally; 
as, when anything is called an Act of God — and when no more is said. 
The occurrence is left unexplained. As an ultimate statement such a 
ptu'ase may be not only true but universal in its application. But there 
are always proximate explanations which may be looked for and dis- 
covered with patience. So, lightning, earthquakes, and other portents 
are reduced to natural causes. No ultimate explanation is ever attained 
by science: proximate explanations only. They are what it exists for; 
and it is the business of scientific men to seek them. 

To attribute the rise of sap to vital force would be absurd, it would 
be giving up the problem and stating nothing at all. The way in which 
osmosis acts to produce the remarkable and surprising effect is dis- 
coverable and has been discovered. 

So it is always in science, and its progress began when unknown 
causes were eliminated and treated as non-existent. Those causes, so 
far as they exist, must establish their footing by direct investigation 
and research; canied on in the first instance apart from the long- 
recognised branches of science, until the time when they too have 
become sufficiently definite to be entitled to be called scientific. Out- 
landish Territories may in time be incorporated as States, but they 
must make their claim good and become civilised first. 

It is well for people to understand this definite limitation of scope 
quite clearly, else they wrest the splendid work of biologists to their 
own confusion, — helped it is true by a few of the more robust or less 
responsible theorisers, among those who should be better informed and 
more carefully critical in their philosophising utterances. 

But, as is well known, there are more than a few biologists who, 
when taking a broad survey of their subject, clearly perceive and teach 
that before all the actions of live things are fully explained some 
hitherto excluded causes must be postulated. Ever since the time of 
J. E. Mayer it has been becoming more and more certain that as regards 
performance of work a living thing obeys the laws of physics, like 
everything else; but undoubtedly it initiates processes and produces 
results that without it could not have occun-ed, — from a bird's nest to 
a honeycomb, from a deal box to a warship. The behaviour of a ship 
firing shot and shell is explicable in terms of energy, but the dis- 
crimination which it exercises between friend and foe is not so explic- 
able. There is plenty of physics and chemistry and mechanics about 
every vital action, but for a complete understanding of it something 
beyond physics and chemistry is needed. 



32 president's address. 

And life introduces an incalculable element. The vagaries of a 
fire or a cyclone could all be predicted by Laplace's Calculator, given 
the initial positions, velocities, and the law of acceleration of the mole- 
cules; but no mathematician could calculate the orbit of a common 
house-fly. A physicist into whose galvanometer a spider had crept 
would be liable to get phenomena of a kind quite inexplicable, until 
he discovered the supernatural, i.e. literally superphysical, cause. I 
will risk the assertion that Life introduces something incalculable and 
purposeful amid the laws of physics; it thus distinctly supplements 
those laws, though it leaves them otherwise precisely as they were 
and obeys them all. 

We see only its effect; we do not sec Life itself. Conversion of 
Inorganic into Organic is effected always by hving organisms. The 
conversion under those conditions certainly occm-s, and the process 
may be studied. Life appears necessary to the conversion; which 
clearly takes place under the guidance of life, though in itself it is a 
physical and chemical process. Many laboratory conversions take 
place under the guidance of life, and, but for the experimenter, would 
not have occurred. 

Again, putrefaction, and fermentation, and purification of rivers, 
and disease, are not purely and solely chemical processes. Chemical 
processes they are, but they are initiated and conducted by living 
organisms. Just when medicine is becoming biological, and when the 
hope of making the tropical belt of the earth healthily habitable by 
energetic races is attracting the attention of people of power, philo- 
sophising biologists should not attempt to give their science away to 
Chemistry and Physics. Sections D and H and I and K are not really 
subservient to A and B. Biology is an independent science, and it is 
sensed, not dominated., by Chemistry and Physics. 

Scientific men are hostile to superstition, and rightly so, for a 
great many popular superstitions are both annoying and contemptible; 
yet occasionally the term may be wrongly applied to practices of which 
the theory is unknown. To a superficial observer some of the practices 
of biologists themselves must appear gi-ossly superstitious. To combat 
malaria Sir Eonald Boss does not indeed erect an altar; no, he oils a 
pond, — making libation to its presiding genii. What can be more 
ludicrous than the curious and evidently savage ritual, insisted on by 
United States Officers, at that hygienically splendid achievement the 
Panama Canal, — the ritual of punching a hole in every discarded tin, 
with the object of keeping off disease ! What more absurd, again — 
in superficial appearance — than the practice of burning or poisoning 
a soil to make it extra fertile ! 

Biologists in their proper field are splendid, and their work arouses 
keen interest and enthusiasm in all whom they guide into their domain. 



president's address. 33 

Most of them do tlieii' work by intense concentration, by narrowing 
down their scope, not by taking a wide survey or a comprehensive 
grasp. Suggestions of broader views and outlying fields of knowledge 
seem foreign to the intense worker, and he resents them. For his own 
purpose he wishes to ignore them, and practically he may be q^uite 
right. The folly of negation is not his, but belongs to those who mis- 
interpret or misapply his utterances, and take him as a guide in a 
region where, for the time at least, he is a stranger. Not by such aid 
is the universe iu its broader aspects to be apprehended. If people 
in general were better acquainted with science they would not make 
these mistakes. They would realise both the learning and the limita- 
tions, make use of the one and allow for the other, and not take the 
recipe of a practical worker for a formula wherewith to interpret the 
Universe. 

What appears to be quite certain is that there can be no teiTestrial 
manifestation of life without matter. Hence naturally they say, or 
they approve such sayings as, 'I discern in matter the promise and 
potency of all forms of life.' Of all terrestrial manifestations of life, 
certainly. How else could it manifest itself save through matter? 
' I detect nothing in the organism but the laws of Chemistry and 
Physics,' it is said. Very well: naturally enough. That is what 
they are niter; they are studying the physical and chemical aspects 
or manifestations of life. But life itself — life and mind and con- 
sciousness — they are not studying, and they exclude them from their 
purview. Matter is what appeals to our senses here and now ; 
Materialism is appropriate to the material world; not as a philosophy 
but as a working creed, as a proximate and immediate formula for 
guiding research. Everything beyond that belongs to another region, 
and must be reached by other methods. To explain the Psychical in 
lei-ms of Physics and Chemistry is simply impossible; hence there is 
a tendency to deny its existence, save as an epiphenomenon. But all 
such philosophising is unjustified, and is really bad Metaphysics. 

So if ever in their enthusiasm scientific workers go too far and say 
that the things they exclude from study have no existence in the 
universe, we must appeal against them to direct experience. We 
ourselves are alive, we possess life and mind and consciousness, we have 
first-hand experience of these things quite aipart from laboratory 
experiments. They belong to the common knowledge of the race. 
Births, deaths, and marriages are not affairs of the biologist, but of 
humanity; they went on before a single one of them was understood, 
before a vestige of science existed. We ourselves are the laboratory 
in which men of science, psychologists and others, make experiments. 
They can formulate our processes of digestion, and the material 

1913. B 



34 president's addrksSi 

concomitants of willing, of sensation, of thinking; but the hidden 
guiding entities they do not touch. 

So also if any philosopher tells you that you do not exist, or that the 
external world does not exist, or that you are an automaton without free 
will, that all your actions are determined by outside causes and that 
you are not responsible, — or that a body cannot move out of its place, 
or that Achilles cannot catch a tortoise, — then in all those cases appeal 
must be made to twelve average men, unsophisticated by special studies. 
There is always a danger of error in interpreting experience, or in 
drawing inferences from it; but in a matter of bare fact, based on our 
own first-hand experience, we are able to give a verdict. We may be 
mistaken as to the nature of what we see ; stars may look to us like 
bright specks in a dome; but the fact that we see them admits of no 
doubt. So also Consciousness and Will are realities of which we are 
directly aware, just as directly as we are of motion and force, just as 
clearly as we apprehend the philosophising utterances of an Agnostic. 
The process of seeing, the plain man does not understand ; he does not 
recognise that it is a method of etherial telegraphy ; he knows nothing 
of the ether and its ripples, nor of the retina and its rods and cones, 
nor of nerve and brain processes; but he sees and he hears and he 
touches, and he wills and he thinks and is conscious. This is not an 
appeal to the mob as against the philosopher; it is appeal to the 
experience of untold ages as against the studies of a generation. 

How consciousness became associated with matter, how life exerts 
guidance over chemical and physical forces, how mechanical motions are 
translated into sensations, — all these things are puzzling, and demand 
long study. But the fact that these things are so admits of no doubt; 
and difficulty of explanation is no argument against them. The blind 
man restored to sight had no opinion as to how he was healed, nor could 
he vouch for the moral character of the Healer, but he plainly knew 
that whereas he was blind now he saw. About that fact he was the 
best possible judge. So it is also with ' this main miracle that thou art 
thou, With power on thine own act and on the world. ' 

But although Life and Mind may be excluded from Physiology, they 
are not excluded from Science. Of course not. It is not reasonable to 
say that things necessarily elude investigation merely because we do Jiot 
knock against them. Yet the mistake is sometimes made. The ether 
makes no appeal to sense, therefore some are beginning to say that it 
does not exist. Mind is occasionally put into the same predicament. 
Life is not detected in the laboratory, save in its physical and chemical 
manifestations ; but we may have to admit that it guides processes 
nevertheless. It may be called a catalytic agent. 

To understand the action of life itself, the simplest plan is not to 
think of a microscopic organism, or any unfamiliar animal, but to make 



president's addres? 35 

use of our oWn experience as living beings. Any positive instance serves 
to stem a comprehensive denial ; and if the reality of mind and guidance 
and plan is denied because they make no appeal to sense, then think how 
the world would appear to an observer to whom the existence of men 
was unknown and undiscoverable, while yet all the laws and activities 
of nature went on as they do now. 

Suppose, then, that man made no appeal to the senses of an observer 
of this planet. Suppose an outside observer could see all the events 
occurring in the world, save only that he could not see animals or men. 
He would describe what he saw much as we have to describe the 
activities initiated by life. 

If he looked at the Firth of Forth, for instance, he would see piers 
arising in the water, beginning to sprout, reaching across in strange 
manner till they actually join or are joined by pieces attracted up from 
below to complete the circuit (a solid circuit round the current). He 
would see a sort of bridge or filament thus constructed, from one shore 
to the other, and across this bridge insect-like things crawling and 
returning for no very obvious reason. 

Or let him look at the Nile, and recognise the meritorious character 
of that river in promoting the growth of vegetation m the desert. Then 
let him see a kind of untoward crystallisation growing across and begin- 
ning to dam the beneficent stream. Blocks fly to their places by some 
kind of polar forces ; ' we cannot doubt ' that it is by helio- or other 
tropism. There is no need to go outside the laws of mechanics and 
physics, there is no difficulty about supply of energy — none whatever, — 
materials in tin cans are consumed which amply account for all the 
energy; and all the laws of physics are obeyed. The absence of any 
design, too, is manifest; for the effect of the structure is to flood an area 
up-stream which might have been useful, and to submerge a structure 
of some beauty; while down stream its effect is likely to be worse, for it 
would block the course of the river and waste it on the desert, were it 
not thai fortunately some leaks develop and a sufficient supply still goes 
down — goes down in fact more equably than before : so that the ulti- 
mate result is beneficial to vegetation, and simulates intention. 

If told concerning either of these structures that an engineer, a 
designer in London, called Benjamin Baker, had anything to do with 
it, the idea would be preposterous. One conclusive argument is final 
against such a superstitious hypothesis — he is not there, and a thing 
plainly cannot act where it is not. But although we, with our greater 
advantages, perceive that the right solution for such an observer would 
be the recognition of some unknown agency or agent, it must be 
admitted that an explanation in terms of a vague entity called vital force 
would be useless, and might be so worded as to be misleading; whereas 

O 2 



36 president's address. 

a statement in terms of mechanics and physics could be clear and 
definite and true as far as it went, though it must necessarily be 
incomplete. 

And note that what we observe, in such understood cases, is an 
InterarJion of Mind and Matter ; not Parallelism nor Epiphenomenalism 
nor anything strained or difficult, but a straightforward utilisation of the 
properties of matter and energy for purposes conceived in the mind, and 
executed by muscles guided by acts of will. 

But, it will be said, this is unfair, for we know that there is design 
in the Forth Bridge or the Nile Dam, we have seen the plans and under- 
stand the agencies at work : we know that it was conceived and guided 
by life and mind, it is unfair to quote this as thougli it could simulate 
an automatic process. 

Not at all, say the extreme school of biologists whom I am criticis- 
ing, or ought to say if they were consistent, there is nothing but 
Chemistry and Physics at work anywhere; and the mental activity 
apparently demonstrated by those structures is only an illusion, an 
epiphenomenon ; the laws of chemistry and physics are supreme, and 
they are sufficient to account for everything ! 

Well, they account for things up to a point; they account in part 
for the colour of a sunset, for the majesty of a mountain peak, for the 
glory of animate existence. But do they account for everything com- 
pletely? Do they account for our own feeling of joy and exaltation, 
for our sense of beauty, for the manifest beauty existing throughout 
nature? Do not these things suggest something higher and nobler and 
more joyous, something for the sake of which all the struggle for 
existence goes on? 

Surely tliere must be a deeper meaning involved in natural objects. 
Orthodox explanations are only partial, though true as far as they go. 
When we examine each particoloured pinnule in a peacock's tail, or 
hair in a zebra's hide, and realise that the varying shades on each are so 
placed as to contribute to the general design and pattern, it becomes 
exceedingly difficult to explain how this organised co-operation of parts, 
this harmonious distribution of pigment cells, has come about on merely 
mechanical principles. It would be as easy to explain the sprouting 
of the cantilevers of the Forth Bridge from its piers, or the flocking of 
the stones of the Nile Dam by chemiotaxis. Flowers attract insects 
for fertilisation; and fruit tempts birds to eat it in order to carry 
seeds. But these explanations cannot be final. We have still to 
explain the insects. So much beauty cannot be necessary merely to 
attract their attention. We have further to explain this competitive 
striving towards life. Why do things struggle to exist? Surely the 
effort must have some significance, the development some aim. We 
thus reach the problem of Existence itself, and the meaning of 
Evolution. 



president's address. 37 

The mechanism whereby existence entrenches itself is manifest, or 
at least has been to a large extent discovered. Natural Selection is a 
vera causa, so far as it goes ; but if so much beauty is necessary for 
insects, what about the beauty of a landscape or of clouds? "What 
utilitarian object do those subserve? Beauty in general is not taken 
into account by science. Very well, that may be all right, but it exists 
nevertheless. It is not my function to discuss it. No; but it is my 
function to remind you and myself that our studies do not exhaust the 
Universe, and that if we dogmatise in a negative direction, and say 
that we can reduce everything to physics and chemistry, we gibbet 
ourselves as ludicrously narrow pedants, and are falling far short of 
the richness and fullness of our human birthright. How far preferable 
is the reverent attitude of the Eastern Poet: — 

* The world with eyes bent upon thy feet stands in awe with 
all its silent stars. ' 

Superficially and physically we are very limited. Our sense organs 
are adapted to the observation of matter; and nothing else directly 
appeals to us. Our nerve-muscle-system is adapted to the production 
of motion in matter, in desired ways ; and nothing else in the material 
world can we accomplish. Our brain and nerve systems connect us 
with the rest of the physical world. Our senses give ns information 
about the movements and arrangements of matter. Our muscles enable 
us to produce changes in those distributions. That is our equipment 
for human life; and human history is a record of what we have done 
with these parsimonious privileges. 

Our brain, which by some means yet to be discovered connects us 
with the rest of the material world, has been thought partially to dis- 
connect us from the mental and spiritual realm, to which we really 
belong but from which for a time and for practical purposes we are 
isolated. Our common or social association with matter gives us certain 
opportunities and facilities, combined with obstacles and difficulties 
which are themselves opportunities for struggle and effort. 

Through matter we become aware of each other, and can communi- 
cate with those of our fellows who have ideas sufficiently like our own 
for them to be stimulated into activity by a merely physical process 
set in action by ourselves. By a timed succession of vibratory move- 
ments (as in speech and music), or by a static distribution of materials 
(as in writing, painting, and sculpture), we can carry on intelligent 
intercourse with our fellows; and we get so used to these ingenious 
and roundabout methods, that we are apt to think of them and their 
like as not only the natural but as the only possible modes of com- 
munication, and that anything more dix-ect would disarrange the whole 
fabric of science. 



38 president's address. 

It is clearly true that our bodies constitute the normal means of 

manifesting ourselves to each other while on the planet; and that if 
the physiological mechanism whereby we accomplish material acts is 
injured, the conveyance of our meaning and the display of our personality 
inevitably and correspondingly suffer. 

So conspicuously is this the case that it has been tpossible to suppose 
that the communicating mechanism, formed and worked by us, is the 
whole of our existence: and that we are essentially nothing but the 
machinery by which we are known. We find the machinery utilising 
nothing but well-known forms of energy, and subject to all the laws of 
chemistry and physics,— it would be strange if it were not so, — and from 
that fact we try to draw valid deductions as to our nature, and as to the 
impossibility of our existing apart from and independent of these 
temporary modes of material activity and manifestation. We so 
uniformly employ them, in our present circumstances, that we should 
be on our guard against deception due to this very uniformity. Material 
bodies are all that we have any control over, are all that we are experi- 
mentally aware of ; anything that we can do with these is open to us ; 
any conclusions we can draw about them may be legitimate and true. 
But to step outside their province and to deny the existence of any other 
region because we have no sense organ for its appreciation, or because 
(like the Ether) it is too uniformly omnipresent for our ken, is to wrest 
our advantf.ges and privileges from their proper use and apply them to 
our own misdirection. 

But if we have learnt from science that Evolution is real, we have 
learnt a great deal. I must not venture to philosophise, but certainly 
from the point of view of science Evolution is a great reality. Surely 
evolution is not an illusion; surely the universe progresses in time. 
Time and Space and Matter are abstractions, but are none the less 
real : they are data given by experience ; and Time is the keystone of 
evolution. ' Thy centuries follow each other, perfecting a small wild 
flower. ' 

We abstract from living moving Eeality a certain static aspect, and 
we call it Matter; we abstract the element of progressiveness, and we 
call it Time. When these two abstractions combine, co-operate, 
interact, we get reality again. It is like Poynting's theorem. 

The only way to refute or confuse the theory of Evolution is to 
introduce the subjectivity of time. That theory involves the reality 
of time, and it is in this sense that Prof. Bergson uses the great phrase 
' Creative Evolution. ' 

I see the whole of material existence as a steady passage from past 
to future, only the single instant which we call the present being actual. 
The past is not non-existent however, it is stored in our memories, there 



president's address, 39 

is a record of it in. matter, and the present is based upon it ; the future 
is the outcome of the present, and is the product of evolution. 

Existence is like the output from a loom. The pattern, the design 
for the weaving, is in some sort ' there ' already ; but whereas our 
looms are mere machines, once the guiding cards have been fed into 
them, the Loom of Time is complicated by a multitude of free agents 
who can modify the web, making the product more beautiful or more 
ugly according as they are in harmony or disharmony with the general 
scheme. I venture to maintain that manifest imperfections are thus 
accounted for, and that freedom could be given on no other terms, nor 
at any less cost. 

The ability thus to work for weal or woe is no illusion, it is a reality, 
a responsible power which conscious agents possess; wherefore the 
resulting fabric is not something preordained and inexorable, though by 
wide knowledge of character it may be inferred. Nothing is inexor- 
able except the unifoiTn progress of time ; the cloth must be woven, but 
the pattern is not wholly fixed and mechanically calculable. 

Where inorganic matter alone is concerned, there everything is 
determined. Wherever full consciousness has entered, new powers 
arise, and the faculties and desires of the conscious parts of the scheme 
have an effect upon the whole. It is not guided from outside but 
from within, and the guiding power is immanent at every instant. 
Of this guiding power we are a small but not wholly insignificant 
portion. 

That evolutionary progress is real is a doctrine of profound signi- 
ficance, and our efforts at social betterment are justified because we 
are a part of the scheme, a part that has become conscious, a part 
that realises, however dimly, what it is doing and what it is aiming 
at. Planning and aiming are therefore not absent from the whole, 
for we are a part of the whole, and are conscious of them in 
ourselves. 

Either we are immortal beings or we are not. We may not know 
our destiny, but we must have a destiny of some sort. Those who 
make denials are just as likely to be wrong as those who make assertions : 
in fact, denials are assertions thrown into negative form. Scientific men 
are looked up to as authorities, and should be careful not to mislead. 
Science may not be able to reveal human destiny, but it certainly should 
not obscure it. Things are as they are, whether we find them out or 
not; and if we make rash and false statements, posterity will detect 
us — if posterity ever troubles its head about us. I am one of those 
who think that the methods of Science are not so hmited in their 
scope as has been thought: that they can be applied much more 
widely, and that the Psychic region can be studied and brought under 
law too. Allow us anyhow to make the attempt. Give us a fair 



40 president's address. 

field. Let those who prefer the materiahstic hypothesis by all means 
develop their thesis as far as they can ; but let us try what we can do 
in the Psychical region, and see which wins. Our methods are really 
the same as theirs — the subject-matter differs. Neither should abuse 
the other for making the attempt. 

Whether such things as intuition and revelation ever occur is an 
open question. There are some who have reason to say that they do. 
They are at any rate not to be denied off-hand. In fact, it is always 
extremely difficult to deny anything of a general character, since evi- 
dence in its favour may be only hidden and not forthcoming, 
especially not forthcoming at any particular age of the world's history, 
or at any particular stage of individual mental development. Mys- 
ticism must have its place, though its relation to Science has so far 
not been found. They have appeared disparate and disconnected, but 
there need be no hostility between them. Every kind of reality must 
be ascertained and dealt with by proper methods. If the voices of 
Socrates and of Joan of Arc represent real psychical experiences, they 
must belong to the intelligible universe. 

Although I am speaking ex cathedra, as one of the representatives 
<il orthodox science, I will not shrink from a personal note summaris- 
ing the result on my own mind of thirty years' experience of psychical 
research, begun without pi'edilection — indeed v^^ith the usual hostile 
prejudice. This is not the place to enter into detail or to discuss 
facts scorned by orthodox science, but I cannot help remembering 
that an utterance from this chair is no ephemeral production — it 
remains to be criticised by generations yet unborn, whose knowledge 
must inevitably be fuller and wider than our own. Your President 
therefore should not be completely bound by the shackles of present- 
day orthodoxy, nor limited to beliefs fashionable at the time. In 
justice to myself and my co-workers I must risk annoying my present 
hearers, not only by leaving on record our conviction that occurrences 
now regarded as occult can be examined and reduced to order by the 
methods of science carefully and persistently applied, but by going 
further and saying, with the utmost brevity, that already the facts 
so examined have convinced me that memory and affection are not 
limited to that association with matter by which alone they can 
manifest themselves here and now, and that personality persists beyond 
bodily death. The evidence — nothing new or sensational, but cumula- 
tive and demanding prolonged serious study — to my mind goes to prove 
that discarnate intelligence, under certain conditions, may interact with 
us on the material side, thus indirectly coming within our scientific 
ken; and that gradually we may hope to attain some understanding of 
the nature of a larger, perhaps etherial, existence, and of the conditions 
regulating intercourse across the chasm. A body of responsible in- 



prestd'ent's address. 41 

vestigcators has even now landed on tlie treacherous but promising 
shores of a new continent. 

Yes, and there is more to say than that. The methods of science 
are not the only way, though they are one way, of being piloted to 
truth. ' Uno itinere 11011 potest perveniri ad tarn grande secreium.' 

Many scientific men still feel in pugnacious mood, towards Theo- 
logy, because of the exaggerated dogmatism which our predecessors 
encountered and overcame in the past. They had to struggle for 
freedom to find truth in their own way; but the struggle was a deplor- 
able necessity, and has left some evil effects. And one of them is 
tliis lack of sympathy, this occasional hostility, to other more spiritual 
forms of truth. We cannot really and sei'iously suppose that truth 
began to ari'ive on this planet a few centuries ago. The pre-scientific 
insight of genius — of Poets and Prophets and Saints — was of supreme 
value, and the access of those inspired seers to the heart of the 
universe was often profound. But the camp followers, the scribes and 
pharisees, by whatever name they may be called, had no such insight, 
only a vicious or a foolish obstinacy : and the prophets of a new era 
were stoned. 

Now at last we of the new era have been victorious, and the stones 
are in our hands. But for us to imitate the old ecclesiastical attitude 
would be folly, for it cannot be sustained; humanity would ultimately 
rise against us, and there would come yet another period of reaction, 
in which for a time we should be worsted. Through the best part of 
two centuries there has been a revolt from religion, led by Voltaire 
and other great writers of that age ; but let us see to it that the revolt 
ceases when it has gone far enough. Let us not fall into the mistake 
of thinking that ours is the only way of exploring the multifarious 
depths of the universe, and that all others are worthless and mistaken. 
The universe is a larger tiling than we have any conception of, and no 
one method of search will exhaust its treasures. 

Men and brethren, we are trustees of the truth of the physical 
universe as scientifically explored : let us be faithful to our trust. 
Genuine religion has its roots deep down in the heart of humanity 
and in the reality of things. It is not surprising that by our methods 
we fail to grasp it : the actions of the Deity make no appeal to any 
special sense, only a universal appeal; and our methods are, as we 
know, incompetent to detect complete uniformity. There is a Prin- 
ciple of Relativity here, and unless we encounter flaw or jar or change, 
nothing in us responds ; we are deaf and blind therefore to the Imma- 
nent Grandeur, unless we have insight enough to recognise in the woven 
fabric of existence, flowing steadily from the loom in an infinite pro- 
gress towards perfection, the ever-growing garment of a transcendent 
God. 



42 president's address^ 

Summary of the Argument. 

A marked feature of the present scientific era is the discovery 
of, and interest in, various hinds of Atomism; so that Continuity 
seems in danger of being lost sight of. 

Another tendency is toward comprehensive negative generalisa- 
tions from a limited point of view. 

Another is to take refuge in rather vague forms of statement, and 
to shrink from closer examination of the puzzling and the obscure. 

Another is to deny the existence of anything which makes no 
appeal to organs of sense, and no ready response to laboratory experi- 
TYient. 

Against these tendencies the author contends. He urges a belief 
in ultimate continuity as essential to science; he regards scieniiflG 
coyicentration as an inadequate basis for philosophic generalisation; he 
believes that obscure phenomena may be expressed simply if properly 
faced; and he points out that the non-appearance of anything perfectly 
uniform and omnipresent is only what should be expected, and is no 
argument against its real substantial existence. 



KEPOETS 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Seismological Investigations. — Eighteenth Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. H. Turner {Chairman), 
Mr. J. Milne (Secretanj), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Mr. Horace 
Darwin, Mr. F. W. Dyson, Dr. R. T. (Ilazebrook, Mr. 
M. H. Gr.\y, Mr. R. K. Gray, Professor J. W. Judd, Pro- 
fessor C. G. Knott, Professor E. Meldola, Mr. E. D. 
Oldham, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. Pldmmer, Dr. E. A. 
Sampson, and Professor A. Schuster. (Drau-n up by the 
Secretary.) 

[Plate I.] 

Contents. p^^^ 

I. General Notes, Registers, Visitors, Stations 4.5 

II. Seismic Activity in 1910 40 

III. On the 443 or 452 Day Period 51 

IV. On the Determination of the Position of Epicentres .... 51 
V. On the Variation of Earthquake Speed with the Variation in the Direction of 

Propagation 52 

VI. Comparison of the Amplitudes of the East- West and North-South Motion at 

a given Station 55 

VII. On the Direction in which Earthquake Motion is most easily propagated . 56 
VIII. On the Times of Occurrence of Maximum Motion on Pendidums di^erently 

Oriented 59 

IX. Disturbances only recorded at Two or Three Widely Separated Stations , 60 

X. Recurrence of Megaseismic Groups 61 

XI. Frequency of Earthquake Followers 62 

XII. Large Earthquakes recorded at different Observatories, January to June 1910 63 

XIII. Seismic and Volcanic Activities 65 

XIV. Report on an Improved Seismograph 67 

XV. Indexing Materials published by the British Association and the Seismo- 
logical Society of Japan relating to Geophysics . . ... 68 

XVI. Shinobu Hirota : Obituary Notice ... 85 

XVII. John Milne; Obituary Notice , ... 85 



I. General Notes. 

Tub; above Committee seek to be reappointed with a grant of 60Z. 

The expenditure in connection with seismological work dming the 
last twelve months exceeded 300/. This covered the salaries of two 
assistants, sundry expenses connected with the Observatory at Shide 
in carrying out the work connected with 58 co-operating stations. 
Out of the above sum 200L was kindly placed at the disposal of your 
Secretary by the Government Grant Committee of the Eoyal Society. 

Registers. — During the last year Circulars Nos. 26 and 27 have 
been issued. They contain 117 pages of entries which refer to the 
following stations : Shide, Kew, Bidston, Stonyhurst, West Bromwich, 



46 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Guildford, Haslemere, Eskdalemuir, Paisley, Edinburgh, Cork, Ponta 
Delgada, Eio Tinto, San Fernando, Valetta, Cairo, Beirut, Ascension 
Island, St. Vincent, Cape of Good Hope, Fernando Noronha, Trinidad, 
Toronto, Victoria, B.C., Honolulu, Alipore, Bombay, Kodaikanal, 
Colombo, Seychelles, Mauritius, Adelaide, Sydney, Wellington, 
Christchurch. 

Mr. Alan Owston, of Yokohama, kindly sends me records of earth- 
quakes he has noted at that place; whilst Mr. Joseph Eippon, of the 
West India Cable Co. , and Mr. Maxwell Hall, of the Weather Office, 
Jamaica, send records relating to that country. Observers in various 
parts of the world send from time to time results of their observations. 

Visitors. — Baron Kujo; H. M. B. Cooke, Kolas Gold Field, South 
India; Dr. J. B. A. Treusch, Fanning Island; G. Hewett, Paramaribo; 
Sir H. B. Donkin; Lord Tennyson; Hon. A. E. D. Elliott; Officers 
of the Eoyal Fusiliers; L. F. Eichardson, Eskdalemuir; G. F. 0. Searle 
ajid D. L. Scott, Cambridge; Prof. W. J. Sollas and a party of 
geological students from Oxford; G. Owen, Liverpool University; 
Prof. H. H. Turner, Oxford. 

Stations. 

Fanning Island, 159° 40' W., 4° N.— This is a Coral Atoll about 
30 miles in circumference, no part of which is more than 1000 feet 
distant from the sea and not more than 10 feet above it. The instru- 
ment is in charge of Dr. J. B. A. Treusch. 

Agincourt. — In the Eeport for 1912, page 70, this appeared as if 
it were a station at which there was a seismograph, which, however, 
is not the case. Certain of the magnetometers at the Agincourt 
Observatory are, however, occasionally disturbed by teleseismic motion, 
which did not happen with the same instruments when they were 
installed in Toronto. 

Toronto.- — The seismograph here was furst installed in the old 
Observatory buildings. In March 1908, when these were abolished, 
it was temporarily erected in a dwelling-house. On September 30, 
1909, it was permanently installed in the barograph room in the 
basement of the new Meteorological Office, which is a.bout half a mile 
north of the site of the old Observatory. 

Shide, Wireless Telegra-phy at. — At the end of last year Mr. J. J. 
Shaw, of West Bromwich, very kindly installed me a wireless tele- 
graphic system, the object of which was to obtain time signals from 
the Eiffel Tower or North Germany. Up to date it has worked 
satisfactorily, giving time to within half a second. This it has done 
in all kinds of weather, when it was impossible to make an observa- 
tion on the sun or to obtain a Greenwich signal. The cost of an 
installation for this purpose is less than lOZ. 

II. Seismic Activity in 1910. 

The following catalogue is a continuation of catalogues published 
iu the British Association Eeport, 1911, p. 57, and 1912, p. 70. 

The number given to an earthquake corresponds to that which 
is given to the same disturbance in the Shide Eegisters, published as 
British Association Circulars. The numbers with an asterisk (*) refer 
to earthquakes which have disturbed the whole world. Those which 
are not thus marked have been recorded over areas of not less than two 



17 

P, 

>y 

0- 

ke 
ns 
le 
;n 
is 
es 
d. 
r- 
ze 
a- 
er 




e- 
to 
;h 
ih 

.16 

)n 
3d 



ORIGINS OF LARGE EARTHQUAKES, 1910. 




ON SEISMOLOGIOAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



47 



continents. These numbers are reproduced on the accompanying map, 
and those which are underhned correspond to numbers in the catalogue 
which carry an asterisk (*j. For a description of the methods by 
which the position of origins has been determined see British Asso- 
ciation Eeport, 1900, p. 79. When the time at which an earthqualie 
originated is followed by plus or minus so many minutes, this means 
that there is a coiTesponding uncertainty as to the position of the 
origin. The names of places at which an earthquake has only been 
felt is followed by the letter F. If destruction has taken place it is 
followed by the letter D. The dotted lines on the map are the axes 
of troughs or ridges from which large earthquakes have originated. 
In the column for remarks I have made a few references to deter- 
mination of origins by other investigators. Those given by Prince 
Gahtzin are of interest from the fact that they are made from observa- 
tions at a single station. ^ The detemiinations by Dr. Kurt Wegener 
depend upon observations made at three to six stations.^ 

In connection with my own observations, to make which I fre- 
quently had materials from 30 or 40 stations, it is interesting to 
note that these stations could sometimes be divided into groups, each 
of which would give different epicentres, the distances between which 
might be as much as six degrees. One interpretation of this is the 
assumption that the earthquake originated over an area the dimension 
of which is indicated by the distances which separate the calculated 
epicentres. 



Date 


No. 


Time at 


District 


Lat. and long. 


Remarks. 


1910 




origin 




in degrees 


F=felt, D=destructive 


Jan. 1* 


2194 


11.2 


C'l 


90 W. 24 N. 


Wegener gives 82 W. 
25 N., time 11.2.26. 
kSeismograms evi- 
dently refer to two 
or three disturbances 


.. 6 


2200 


19.54i:2 


E3 


125 E. 25 N. 


IsLigakijima, Loochoo, 

F. 
In Chili, Kwangsu and 


8 


2204 


14.48±2 


K. 


122 E. 35 N. 












Shantung, F. 


15 


2212 


22.15 


E3 


125 E. 5 N. 


Mindanao, Agusan 
VaUey, F., also Hal- 
mahera and Talaud, 
F 


19 


2220 


14.50±4 


Mo 


180 E. 4 y. 


22* 


2225 


8.48 


J- 


19 W. 67 N. 


Gahtzin gives 17 W 

68 N. 
St. Vincent, George • 


23* 


2228 


18.48ca 


<^2 


55 W. 12 N. 












town, Paramaribo, 
F. 
Probably a dual earth- 


30* 


2241 


3.45ca 


i-'l 


168 E. 33 S. 


Feb. 3 


2247 


16.34ca 


F, 


168 E. 17 S. 


quake. 


4* 


2248 


14.0ca 


F. 


168 E. 17 S. 


Lifu in Loyalty Is., 
F. Wegener gives 
177 W. IS S., and 
times 13.59.7, 
15.40.2, 17.36.5 and 
18.32.5. 



I See Bulletin del'AcademiedesScieTicesdeSt.-Peiersbourg, No 13 1911 n 0^,., 
» See d. Kgl. Qts. d. Wise, rmth.-phyt. Kl. 1912, Heft 3. ' '^' ^''"' 



48 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1913. 



Date 




Time at 


District 


Lat. aud long. 


Remarks. 1 


1910 


No. 


origin 


in degrees 


F=felt, D = destructive 

. i 


Feb. 


7 


2255 


15.40 




121 E. 13 N. 


N. Mindoro at Calapan, 

F. j 
CentralJapan, F. Gal- 




12* 


2262 


18.G 


El 


141 E. 32 N. 














itzin gives 131.5 E. 














34.58 N. 




13 


2264 


16.21c-a 


Fi, r„ Ej 


125 E. N.S. 




^^ 


18 


2267 


5.11 


Ks 


24 E. 36 N. 


Crete, Varipetro, D. 




27 


2278 


14.27crt 


El, K, E3 


145 E. 37 N. 


Central Japan, F. 




28* 


2280 


21.0±4 


At 


150 W. 47 N. 




Mar. 


1 


2281 


11.22 


M, 


170 W. 13 S. 






11 


2284 


6.50ca 


A., 


121 W. 38 N. 


Central California, F. 




25 


2297 


15.17i2 


Di, 1). 


80 W. 20 S. 


Antofagasta, F.(?) 




2.5 


2298 


18.38 


E, " 


121 E. 25 N. 


N. Formosa, F. 




30* 


2301 


16.55 


i\ 


168 E. 17 8. 






31* 


2302 


18.13i3 


I. 


6 W. 71 S. 




April 


1 




13.46 


F^ 


129 E. 4 S. 


Ambon and Neiia, F. 
Not recorded at 
Shide. 


" 


8 


2308 


16.28i:5 


M, 


175 W. 2 N. 


Wegener gives 171 W. 
16 S. Time 16.34.7. 




9 


2309 


9.274-4 


K, 


93 E. 22 N. 






12* 


2313 


0.22 


E3 


124 E. 26 N. 


Formosa and Loochoo, 
F. Galitzin gives 
122.55 E. 27.31 N. 
AVegener gives 122 E. . 
23 N. Time 0.21.6. 


„ 


13 


2314 


G.41 


B 


84 W. 11 N. 


Costa Rica, Cartago, 

1). 
Ambon and Neira, F. 




16* 


2318 


12.30 


F-z 


130 E. 5 S. 




17 


2319 


0.52crt 


H 


30 W. 30 S.CO 


Possibly 10 W. 65 S. 




20 


2323 


22.12c« 


M, 


166 E. 8 N. 




May 


1* 


2329 


18.30.4 


e; 


170 E. 18 S. 


AVegencr's determina- 
tion. ; 


. 


4 


2332 


15.17ca 


E-, 


137 E. 17 N. 






5* 


2334 


0.26 


B 


84 W. 9 N. 


Co.sta Rica, Cartago, D. 




9 


2335 


9.47 


El 


142 E. 36 N. 


E. Coast N. Japan, F. 


1 


10 


2337 


9.29 


E3 


130 E. 26 N. 






10 


2338 


13.55 


El 


140 E. 34 N. 






10* 


2340 


17.42f« 


L 


20 W. 55 S. 


Origin doubtful. 




11 




7.38ca 


Ci 


71 \V. 18 N. 


Haiti, W. Indies, D. 
Not recorded at 
Shide. 




11 


2341 


15.51ca 


K2 


71 E. 42 N. 


Talas Ala-tau in 
Turkestan. 




12 2344 


3.21 


E, 


141 E. 33 N. 


Off Boso, E. Coast 1 














Japan, F. '■, 




13* 


2345 


7.57ef( 


P 


163 W. 48 N. 






15 


2348 


16.3±3 


E2 


122 E. 10 S. 


Maoo Merc in Flores, : 
also in Timor, F. 




18 


2351 


8.58 





38 E. 9 S. 


Tanganyika and Ger- 
man E. Africa, F. 




20* 


2354 


12.9ca 


Ct 


58 W. 22 N. 






21 


2355 


7.46ca 


K, 


12 E. 21 N. 






22* 


2356 


6.25 


El 


145 E. 42 N. 


N.E. Japan, Yoke- 1 
hama, Kushiro, F. 




23 


2357 


18.38 


Ex 


142 E. 3 N. 






27 


2361 


11.59ca 


K, 


9 E. 28 N. 






28 


2362 


0.21c(t 





25 E. 14 S. 


Rhodesia, Livingstone, ' 
F. 1 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS, 



49 



Date 
1910 


No. 


Time at 
origin 


District 


Lat. and long, 
in degrees 


Remarks. 
F=felt. D=destructive 


May 


30 


2365 


12.33ca 





22 E. 15 N. 




" 


31*1 2366 


4.54 


B 


105 W. 10 N. 


Galitzin gives 92.16 W. 
23.5 N. 


June 


1* 2367 

! 


5.57±2 


Fi 


165 E. 23 S. 


Wegener gives approxi- 
mate origin as 170 E. 
18 S. at 5.55.1. 


1 » 


9*i 2376 


11.47 


El, E,, E3 


138 E. 28 N. 


Benin Is. and C. E. 
Japan, F. 


„ 


14 2379 


19.39ca 


H 


' 44 W. 32 N. 




" 


16 2381 


4.15 


Ks 


2 W. 37 N. 


S. Spain, Almeria, 
Malaga and Algeria, 
D. 

New Caledonia and 


J, 


16* 2382 


6.30 


Fi 


166 E. 19 S. 




1 








Loyalty Is., F. 


„ 


17 2384 


5.26 


E, 


128 E. 22 N. 


Formosa, Pescador 














Is., Batanes Is., 














and N. Luzon, F. 


" 


23 


2391 


2.50ca 


E. 


121 E. 2 N. 


Celebes, Posso and 
Paleleh, F. 


" 


23 


2393 


18.52.5 


Mo 


174 W. 18 S. 


D e term i n e d by 
Wegener. 


" 


24 


2394a 


13.27.5 


Ks 


4 E. 36 N. 


Algeria, Aumale, Tab- 
lat, D. 


" 


25 


2395 


19.26 


K. 


34 E. 41 N. 


Asia Minor, Iskelib, 

F. 
C. Japan, F. 


„ 


26 


2398 


15.57 


El 


139 E. 35 N. 


,, 


29* 


2402 


10.49ca 


M^ 


180E.W.15S. 




,, 


29* 




14.21ca 


M, 


178 W. 28 S. 


Not recorded at Shide. 


,, 


29 




18.9c« 


K 


130 E. 18 S. 


Not recorded at Shide. 


„ 


30 


2404 


2.55 


E3 


127 E. 4 N. 


S.E. Mindanao, F. 


July 


2 


2406 


5.37 


E3 


125 E. 7 N. 


Agusan River, E. Min- 
danao, F. 


,, 


3 


2412 


9.9 


Ai 


135 W. 59 N. 


Skagway, F. 


„ 


5 


2415 


18.30 


E3 


128 E. 25 N. 


Loocboo, Naba, F. 


,, 


7 


2417 


4.41 


Ai 


135 W. 60 N. 


Skagway, F. 


„ 


7* 


2418 


8.17 


F3 


108 E. 12 S. 


Kediri, Soerakarta, F. 


" 


8 


2419 


3.59 


F. 


108 E. 11 S. 


Madioen, Pasoeroean, 

F. 
Not recorded at Sbide. 


„ 


10 


2422 


15.9ca 


Ci 


69 W. 16 N. 


„ 


11 


2424 


20.33ca 


Fi 


170 E. 33 S. 






12 


2427 


7.31(?) 


K. 


72 E. 40 N. 


Galitzin gives 35.55 N. 
69.18 E. N. Af- 
ganistan, nr. Hindu 
Kush Mts. 


„ 


12 


2428 


21.6 


El 


163 E. 29 S. 




„ 


15 


2433 


12.1ca 


E 


174 E. 23 S. 




»» 


21 


2443 


22.17ca 


Gi 


60 E. 3 N. 




„ * 


22 


2444 


14.13 


E3 


126 E. 10 N. 


Surigao, F. 


„ 


24 , 


2446 


15.19ca 


Mj 


176 E. 7 S. 




„ 


29*, 


2450 


10.27±3 


El 


145 E. 3 N. 




lug. 


1 , 


2454 


10.43 


K, 


19 E. 39 N. 


Italy, South, F. 


,„ 


1 


2455 


22.15ca 


K5 


35 E. 35 N. 




<„ 


2 


2456 


2.35ca 


K5 


21 E. 37 N. 




" 


5 


2460 


1.30ca 


Ai 


117 W. 48 N. 


Galitzin gives 116.50 W. 
39.48 N. 


„ 


7 


2461 


20.45 


Ks 


28 E. 38 N. 


Smyrna, F. 


>» 


10 


2465 


20.16ca 


E^ 


Ill E. 10 S. 




„ 


11 


2466 


16.37 i 


C'l 


70 W. 25 N. i 




" 


13 : 


2472 


21.19 


K, 


90 E. 28 N. 1 





1913. 



50 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 



Date 


No. 
2473 


Time at 


District 


Lat. and long. 


Remarks. 


1910 


origin 


in degrees 


F=felt, D=destructive 


Aug. U 


7.33ca 


H 


32 W. 10 N. 




16 


— 


7.27ca 


F^ 


118 E. 3 S. 


Not recorded at Shide. 


IV 


2477 


11.58 


Ks 


68 E. 30 N. 


Galitzin gives 28.39 N. 
67.10 E. Sind and 
Shikarpur, F. 


21* 


2486 


5.20 


M^ 


165 E. 9 N. 




21 


2487 


16.0ca 






In the Shide Register 
the date is given 
wrongly as Aug. 24. 
North of India. 


Sept. 1* 


2500 


0.45 


Ea 


122 E. 21 N. 


GaUtzin gives 120.22 
E. 23.30 N. Taito 
Taichu and Keelung 
in Formosa, also in 
Batanes Is., F. 


1* 


2501 


14.20 


Ea 


122 E. 24 N. 


Galitzin gives 119.54 E. 
23.13 N. Taihoku 
Keelung, Tainan, 
Taichuin,Formosa,F. 


6* 


2506 


19.59crt 


Di.D, 


82 W. 21 S. 


At 20. 32 ±2 a shock 
originated 5 W. 2 S. 
At 20.14i3 shocks 
were noted at Andal- 
gala, in Catamarca, 
Argentina. 


7* 


2508 


7.10±2 


F: 


155 E. 5 S. 


Wegener gives a 
locality near to 
USE. 4 S. at 7.10.4. 


9* 


2513 


1.11 


P 


170 W. 45 N. 


Gahtzin gives 160.24 E. 
45.26 N., E. of the 
Kuriles. Unalaska 
and Bogoslof Is., F. 


14 


2522 


]3.53 


F, 


116 E. 10 S. 


Soembawa and Bah, F. 


16 


2525 


23.7 


E3 


125 E. 19 N. 


N. Luzon, F. 


24 


2533 


3.23=a 


Di 


102 W. 2 S. 


Arizona, F. 


24 


2535 


1512ca 


D2 


69 W. 35 S. 


Rioja, San Juan, and 
Mendosa, in Argen- 
tina, F. 


Oct. 2 


2541 


20.33 & 
21.15 


E3 


123 E. 12 N. 


Nueva Caceres and 
throughout S.E. 
Luzon, F. 


4* 


2543 


22.51ca 


Ml 


132 E. 51 S. 




7 


2545 


6.52 


M, 


180 E. or W. 
10 S. 




7 


2546 


11.54 


Ex 


171 E. 18 S. 


Valparaiso, F.(?) 


7 


2547 


16.2 


E3 


89 E. 2 N. 




13 


2551 


14.56 


Ex 


142 E. 38 N. 


Eastern part of Central 
Japan, F. 


18 


2553 


2.36 


El 


171 E. 19 S. 


i 


20 


2554 


5.3ca 


E. 


97 E. 4 S. 


Padang, Bovenlanden, 
Sumatra, F. 


27 


2560 


0.59 


Ks 


5 W. 35 N. 


Fez in Morocco, also in 
Tetuan, Melilla, in 
Malaga, F. 


30 


2561 


7.33 


M., 


180 E. or W. 

10 S. 




Nov. 6 


2572 


20.29 


Ai 


135 W. 63 N. 




9* 


2578 


5.51ca 


F, 


164 E. 12 S. 


Mallieolo, in New 1 
Hebrides, F. | 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



5i 



Date 




Time at 


District 


Lat. and long. 


Remarks. 


1910 


No. 


origin 


in degrees 


F=felt, D=destructive 


Nov. 10* 


2579 


12.11ca 


M., 


160 E. N.S. 




14* 


2585 


7.33 


E3 


120 E. 21 N. 


N. Formosa, F. 


15* 


2589 


14.18ca 


L 


16 W. 62 S. 




24 


2594 


15.41ca 


F3 


90 E. 6 N. 




25 


25966 


19.12 


E3 


125 E. 6 N. 


S.E. Mindanao, Saran- 
gani Is., F. 


26* 


2598 


4.39ca 


Ft 


167 E. 8 S. 


Not recorded at Shide. 


29* 


2599 


2.24 


E, 


125 E. 25 N. 


E. coast Formosa, F. 


Dec. 1 


2601 


15.42 


El 


135 E. N.S. 


About this time an 
earthquake was re- 
corded in Tondano 
in Menado. 


3 


2603 


4.5ca 


Ei 


155 E. 4 S. 


Namatani, New Ire- 
land, F. 


3* 


2604 


7.47ca 


E, 


155 E. 4 S. 




4* 


2606 


11.0m 


E, 


140 E, 10 S. 


About this time an 
earthquake was re- 
corded in Ambon. 


5 


2609 


16.21 


E, 


150 E. 42 N. 


Off N.E. Japan. 


10* 


2612 


9.25 


El 


159 E. 8 S. 


Recorded in Ambon. 


13* 


2620 


11.34 





33 E. 9 S. or 
30 E. 7 S. 




14* 


2622 


20.27ca 


M^ 


176 E. 10 N. 




16* 


2624 


14.45 


E3 


125 E. 5 N. 


S. Mindanao, Saran- 
gani Is., F. 


16 


2625 


18.50 


E3 


125 E. 5 N. 


S. Mindanao, Saran- 
gani Is., F. 


17 


2627 


6.33 


E3 


127 E. 4 N. 


N.E. Celebes. 


18 


2629 


2.42ca 


E3 


127 E. 4 N. 


N.E. Celebes, S. Min- 
danao. 


23 


2639 


0.29ca 


Ki 


150 E. 62 N. 




26 


2640 


5.34ca 


E, 


149 E. 18 N. 




27 


2642 


18.50ca 


e; 


123 E. 5 N. 




29 


2647 


13.5 


E3 


122 E. 3 N. 


Ambon and Mindanao, 

F. 
Mindanao, Samar, 


30* 


2650 


0.4oca 


E3 


128 E. 8 N. 












Leyte, Butuan, D. 



III. On the 443 or 452 Day Period. 

In the Eeport for 1912, p. 94, I pointed out that marked periods of 
rest followed groups of megaseisms every 443 days. Professor H. H. 
Turner increased this period to 452 days. December 14, 1899, is the 
middle of a rest period, and we find similar periods every successive 
448 days. The last period — which, however, is only one of partial 
quiescence — was about September 3, 1909; we should expect the next 
one about November 20, 1910. The fact that the accompanying 
catalogue shows that between November 14 and 24 no large earth- 
quake was recorded verifies the expectation. 

IV. On the Determination of the Position of Epicentres . 

In the British Association EepoTt, 1896, p. 230, I showed by 

example that the distance of an epicentre could be determined from 

the duration of preliminary tremors. In 1911 Prince Galitzin showed 

that not only could a distance be determined from these precursors, 

E 2 



52 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

but the first of them gave the direction in which we should seek for 
an origin. In the British Association Eeport, 1900, p. 79, I gave 
several methods which I use when mapping the position of epicentres. 
These methods were dependent on a number of observations made 
at several more or less widely separated observatories. 

As a slight addition to these I submit the following : If we have 
registers from a number of stations for large earthquakes it is usually 
easy to read the times of commencements and other phases of motion, 
together with the amplitudes. An inspection of the records which 
refer to a given earthquake shows the stations nearest to its epicentre, 
and any one of these should give us the distance of the same, and 
if we know this we can easily compute the time at which the shock 
originated. The difference between this and the arrival of the large 
waves or the maximum motion at other stations enables us to compute 
their respective distances from the district from which they radiated. 
The intersection of arcs, which I draw upon a 'black globe,' which 
correspond to these distances should represent the epifocal area. 

I venture to mention this simple and self-evident way of procedure 
because it is frequently of use when other methods fail. Preliminary 
tremors may have been eclipsed by air tremors or microseisms, or 
they may have died out on their journey, with the result that the 
seismogram may only present very small records which represent the 
large waves or maximum motion. 

V. On the Variation of Earthquake Speed ivilh Ihc Variation in the 
Direction of Propagation. 

In the British Association Report, 1908, p. 74, I showed that 
megaseismic motion was propagated from its origin farther to the 
east and west than it was in the direction of a meridian. One 
explana'tion for this is that in the former direction the rigidity of the 
propagating medium may be greater than it is in the latter direction — 
a suggestion that falls in line with the observations of Dr. Hecker 
on the gravitational influence of the moon on the crust of our world. 
If this hypothesis is correct it might be inferred that the velocity of 
propagation of earth waves would be greatest in an east-west direction. 

To test this I took earthquakes Nos. 859, 860, 884, 1111, 1170, 
1260, 1363, and 1632 (see British Association Report, 1912, p. 71). 
I selected these particular disturbances because the positions of their 
epicentres and times of origin were known, and also because they 
had been recorded at widely separated stations. For any particular 
earthquake the only observations considered were those made at stations 
the bearings of which from the epicentre were within 30 degrees of 
east and west or within 30 degrees of north and south. The following 
tables only refer to maximum motion or large waves : — 

Earthquake No. 859, June 25, 1904, origin 160° E. 53° N. 

Per see. 

I Bombay, time to travel 48 m., distance 74°, velocity 2'85 km. 

^ , ^^ , J Mauritius, „ 68 m., „ 114°, „ 3-10 km. 

Ji.a9t.-west 1 Kodaikanal, „ 48 m., „ 77°, ., 2-93 km. 

\ Calcutta, „ 41 m., „ 61°, „ 2-75 km. 

Average . . . 2'90 km. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



58 

















Per sec. 




( Shide time to travel 
Kew, „ 


48 m. 


distance 


76°, 


vel 


Doity 


2-92 km. 




49 m. 




75°, 






2-83 km. 




Bidston, „ 


43 m. 




72°. 






3-09 km. 


North -South - 


Edinburgh „ 


44 m. 




71°, 






2-98 km. 




Paisley, „ 


54 m. 




71°, 






2-43 km. 




San Fernando, „ 


55 m. 




90°, 






3-02 km. 




I Wellington, „ 


80 m. 




95°, 






2-19 km. 






Average 






• 


2-78 km. 



Earthquake No. 860, June 25, 1904, origiiv 160° E. 53° N. 





/ Mauritius, time to travel 


68 m. 


distance 101°, velocity 


2-74 km 




Calcutta, „ 


37 m. 


jj 


60°, 


3-00 km. 


East-West 


•j Bombay, „ 


49 m., 


jj 


72°, 


2-72 km 




Kodaikanal, „ 


50 m. 


,, 


76°, 


2-81 km. 




^ Honolulu, „ 

[ Shide, time to travel 


26 m. 

52 m. 


Average 
distance 


44°, 

76°, velocity 


313 km 




2-88 km 




2-70 km 




Kew, 


49 m. 




75°, 


2-84 km 


North-South 


^ Bidston, „ 
Edinburgh, „ 


43 m. 
43 m. 




72°, 
71°, 


3-02 km 
3-05 km 




San Fernando, „ 


56 m. 




90°, 


2-97 km 




V Christchurch „ 


81m. 




97°, 


2-21 km. 



2-79 km. 



Earthquake No. 884, August 24, 1904, d-igin 135° E. 32° N. 





1^ Beirut, time to travel 


55 m. 


distance 79°, velocity 


2-65 km 


East-West 


Calcutta, „ 


25 m. 


42°, 


3-09 km 


Kodaikanal, „ 


44 m. 


67°, 


2-39 km 




[ Cape Town „ 
Shide, time to travel 


85 m. 
60 m., 


,, 129°, 

Average . 

distance 88°, velocity 


2-80 km 




2-73 km 




2-71 km. 




Kew, 


59 m., 


86°, 


2-72 km. 




Bidston „ 


58 m. 


85°, 


2-75 km 


North-South - 


Edinburgh „ 


59 m. 


84°, 


2-71 km 




Toronto „ 


72 m. 


98°, 


2-51 km. 




Christchurch „ 


40 m. 


84°, 


2-88 km 




^ Wellington „ 


44 m. 


.. 82°, 


3-51 km 



Average 



2-82 km. 



Earthquake No. 1111, January 21, 1906, origin 143° E. 34° N. 

East- West /Calcutta, time to travel 23 m., distance 49°, velooi(.y 3'94 km. 
\Honolulu „ 38 m., „ 51°, „ 2*48 km. 



3-20 km. 



{Baltimore, 
Bidston, 
Perth, 



time to travel 



72 m. 
53 m. 
56 m. 
37 m. 



, distance 98°, velocity 2'51 km. 

89°, „ 3-10 km. 

88°, „ 2-90 km. 

„ 71°, „ 355 km. 

Average . . , 3'01 km. 



54 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



Earthquake No. 1170, April 18, 1906, origin 121° W. 38° N. 

Per sec. 





/ Cape Town, 


time to travel 


83 m., distance 148°, 


velocity 3-29 km. 




Toronto 




21 m., 


33°, 


„ 2-90 km. 




Batavia, 




91 m., 


125°, 


2-54 km. 


East-West . 


Perth, 




74 m.. 


132°, 


3-30 km. 




Honolulu, 




17 m., 


34°, 


„ 3-70 km. 




Samoa, 




33 m., 


69°, 


3-86 km. 




Manila, 
Victoria, 


time to travel 


56 m., „ 100°, 
Average . 

5 m., distance 10.5° 


3-30 km. 




. 3.27 km. 




velocity 3-86 km. 




Mauritius, 




98 m., 


158°, 


2-98 km. 




Calcutta, 




68 m.. 


112°, 


3-04 km. 


North-South - 


Bombay 




82 m.. 


121°, 


„ 2-73 km. 




Kodaikanal, 




74 m., 


127°, 


3-17 km. 




Irkutsk, 




53 m., 


80°, 


„ 2-78 km. 




Cairo, 




82 m., 

Average 


107°, 


„ 2-41 km. 
. 2-95 km. 



Earthquake No. 1260, September 7, 1906, origin 145° E. 35° N. 
(calculated by Mr. J. Horikawa). 

time to travel 



Ent-West 



I Bombay, 
' Calcutta, 
• Kodaikanal, 
Cape Town, 
Mauritius, 



46 m., distance 65°, velocity 2"61 km. 

34 m., „ 50°, „ 2-73 km. 

44 m., „ 65°, „ 2-72 km. 

86 m., „ 137°, „ 2-94 km. 

67 m., „ 100°, „ 2-78 km. 



Average 



2-74 km. 



North-South 



/ Shide, 
I Kew, 

Bidston, 
-, Edinburgh, 

Paisley, 

Perth, 
^ Wellington, 



time to travel 60 m., distance 92°, velocity 2'64 km. 



56 m., 
54 m., 

58 m., 

62 m., 

59 m., 

63 m.. 



86°, 
85°, 
86°, 
72°, 
82°, 



2-9 km. 
2-94 km. 
2-71 km. 
2-56 km. 
2-25 km. 
2-40 km. 



Average 



2-62 km. 



Earthquake No. 1363, April 18, 1907, origin 123° E. 13° N. 





Bombay, 


time to travel 


31m. 


distance 48°, velocity 2-43 km 


East - WesC 


Kc'daikanal, 


„ 


32 m. 


45°, „ 2-60 km. 




Samoa, 


jj 


32 m. 


70°, „ 4-04 km. 




Honolulu, 
Shide, 


time to travel 


45 m. 
64 m. 


„ 75°, „ 3-08 km. 




Average . , . 3 '04 km. 




distance 101°, velocity 2*91 km. 




Kew, 




71m. 


100°, „ 2-60 km 




Edinburgh, 




64 m., 


99°, „ 2-86 km. 


North-South - 


Paisley, 




63 m. 


„ 100°, „ 2-93 km. 




Tokio, 




13 m. 


27°, „ 3-84 km. 




Perth, 




33 m. 


46°, „ 2-57 km. 




Christchurch 


, „ 


43 m. 


73°, „ 3-14 km. 



Average 



km. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



55 



Earthquake No. 1362, April 18, 1907, origin 124° E. 13° N. 

For sec. 

( Bombay, time to travel 31 m., distance 49°, velocity 2'92 km. 

Eai5t-West ] Kodaikanal, „ 40 ra., „ 45°, „ 2-08 km. 

( Honolulu, „ 43 m., „ 74°, „ 3-19 km. 



North-South 



' Irkutsk, 

Shide, 

Kew, 

Bidston, 

Edinburgh, 
V Tokio, 



time to travel 



Average 



2-73 km. 



28 m., distance 42°, velocity 2'77 km. 
65 m., „ 102°, „ 2-90 km. 



63 m. 
54 m.', 
59 m., 
14 m., 



102°, 
99°, 
99°, 

27°, 



Average 



2-90 km. 
3-39 km. 
3-07 km. 
3-56 km. 

3-09 km. 



Earihquake No. 1632, Octx:yber 13, 1908, origin 102° W. 18° N, 
East- West Honolulu, time to travel 28 m., distance 52°, velocity 3 '43 km. 





f Victoria, 


time 


to travel 


23 m. 


distance 35°, 


velocity 


2-81 km 




Irkutsk, 




,, 


60 m., 




105°, 




3-23 km 




Tashkend, 




„ 


60 m.. 


, 


122°, 




3-76 km 


North-South - 


Victoria, 
Beuut, 
Edinburgh, 
Bidston, 




.. 


23 m., 
82 m., 
54 m., 
54 m., 


• ; 


35°, 
114°, 

81°, 
79°, 




2-81 km 
2-56 km 
2-77 km 
2-70 km 



Average 



2-95 km. 



When we look at the averages at the end of the above nine tables, 

it appears that in seven instances the velocity for East-West motion 
has been greater than that given for North-South motion. In two 
instances — viz., those for Earthquakes Nos. 884 and 1362 — the reverse 
has been the case. 

If we combine the results for all nine earthquakes we get 35 
observations for East- West motion, which give an average velocity of 
2'96 km. per second, and 58 observations for North-South motion, the 
average velocity for which is 2"88 km. per second. 

VI. Comparison of the Amplitudes of East-West and North-South 
Motion at a given Station. 

At Eskdalemuir during the year 1910 two Milne pendulums, one 
of which recorded North-South motion and the other Easb-West motion, 
had periods which did not differ from each other more than one second. 
At times they had the same period, but usually the former had a 
period of 17 seconds and the latter 18 secoTids. From this we should 
expect that, if the displacement of the booms was due to tilting, the 
amount of this as measured in millimetres would be slightly greater 
in the East-West direction than in the North-South direction. For 
40 earthquakes recorded during this year this was the case, but there 
are 16 instances in which the boom recording North-South motion 
showed the greatest displacement. In nine instances the amount of 
displacement was the same on both pendulums. It may be added 
(hat for a short period — viz., from January 1 to February 12 — the 



56 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

boom recording North-Sotith motion was as sensitive or more sensitive 
than the one recording East-West motion. Notwithstanding this, the 
amphtudes for East-West motion were usually greater than those for 
the North-South motion. 

If, instead of comparing boom displacements measured in miUi- 
metres, we convert these into angular units, the conclusion arrived at 
is that East-West tilting is usually greater than that at right angles. 

VII. On the Direction in which Earthquake Motion is most easily 

propagated. 

In the British Association Eeport for 1908, p. 74, I discussed 
the direction in which megaseismic motion is most freely radiated. 
Two general conclusions at which I arrived were, first, that the motion 
of large earthquakes travelled farther westwards than it did eastwards, 
and, second, that the range of motion across the equator was shorter 
than it is to the East or West. 

In the following note this inquiry has been extended to four groups 
of earthquakes, the members of each group having origins in the same 
district. Each earthquake is designated by a number corresponding 
to entries in the Shide Register, in the Circulars issued by the British 
Association, and also in a-Catalogue published in the Eepnrt for 1912, 
p. 71. 

District No. 1. — West Coast of Central America, or approximately 
90° W. 6° N. 

The earthquakes considered are Nos. 806, 1164, and 1450. As 
there are only three members in this group no single station can have 
more than three records. 

At 11 stations lying northwards from this origin 25 records were 
made, or on the average 2'2 records per station. At five stations lying 
to the south of the origin eight records were obtained, the average 
therefore being I'G per station. 

Inasmuch as all stations within 60 degrees of the origin each 
obtained the possible three records, I find that if these are omitted 
when comparing records obtained in the North with those obtained 
in the South I get the following results: — 

Nine northerly stations recorded on the average two shocks. Four 
southern stations recorded on the average 1"5 shocks. 

I also find that the avei'age distance from the origin of the 11 North- 
lying stations is 98 degrees, whilst that of the five southerly stations 
is 77 degrees. 

From these examinations it would appear that for the three earth- 
quakes considered, two of which were recorded at Batavia, 159 degrees 
distant from the origin, that motion was transmitted moi-e freely 
towards the North than in the opposite direction. 

If we compare the transmission of motion eastwards with that 
which is transmitted towards the West we obtain the following: — 

At. 11 eastern stations 19 records were obtained, or an average 
of 1"8 per station. 

At eight western stations 17 records were obtained, or an average 
of 2'1 per station. 



ON SEISMOLOGIOAL INVESTIGATIONS. 57 

If we omit the stations lying within 60 degrees of the origin, 
the above two averages respectively become 1'5 and 2'0. 

The average distance from the origin of the eastern stations is 
88 degrees, whilst that of the western stations is 90 degrees — two 
distances which are practically equal. 

The inference is that motion is transmitted more freely towards 
the West than it is towards the East. 

District No. 2. — North of India, or approximately 80° E. and 
40° N. 

The earthquakes considered are Nos. 832, 886, 982, 1070, 1293, 
and 1468. 

The number of records obtained at 9 stations lying to the North of 
this district was 46; the average per station was therefore 5.1. 

At 8 stations lying to the South of this district 29 records were 
obtained, the average per station therefore being 3'6. 

If we only consider stations more than 60 degrees distant from 
the origin, these two averages respectively become 5'2 and 3'8. Here, 
again, we are led to the conclusion that motion was propagated more 
freely towards the North than in the opposite direction. 

It must, however, be pointed out that the average distance of these 
BCuthern stations from the origins was somewhat greater than that 
of the northern stations, these distances being respectively 65 and 
85 degrees. 

To the East of long. 80° E. 33 records were obtained at 9 stations, 
or 3'6 records per station. To the West of this meridian 38 records 
were obtained at 9 stations, or on the average 4*2 records per station. 
It would seem, therefore, that in this district, as in District No. 1, 
motion was propagated more freely towards the West. 

The average distances from the origin of these East and West 
stations are respectively 76 and 75 degrees. 

District No. 3. — East Coast of Japan, or approximately 140° E. 
40° N. 

The earthquakes considered are Nos. 884, 1031, 1266, 1427, and 
1510. 

Nine stations with northerly bearings recorded 28 distui'bances, 
or on the average 3'1 per station. 

Eight stations with southerly bearings noted 20 disturbances, or 
on the average 2*5 per station. 

If we only consider stations more than 60 degrees distant from 
this district these averages become 3'0 and 2"6. 

The average distance from the origin for the southerly stations is, 
however, soinewhat greater than for the northerly stations, these 
distances respectively being 91 and 77 degrees. 

Five stations lying to the East of 150° E. long, gave 13 records, 
or an average of 2-6 per station. 

Eleven stations lying to the West of this same region yielded 34 
records, or on an average 3'1 per station. Here again we observe 
motion has been propagated more freely towards the West. 

District No. 4. — North and North-East of Now fininea, or approxi- 
mately 150° E. and 0° N. or S. 



58 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1913. 

The earthquakes considered are Nob. 977, 1025, 1128, 1190, 1272, 
1301, and 1460. 

Eleven stations Korth of the Equator recorded 61 disturbances, 
or an average of 6'5 per station. Six stations South of the Equator 
recorded 29 disturbances, or an average of AS per station. If we 
only consider statio'ns more than 60 degrees distant from an origin 
these averages respectively become 6"4 and 5- 

That the average number of northern records preponderates over 
those obtained in the South seems more remarkable when we consider 
the average distances of these two gioups of stations from the origin — 
the former being 95 degrees and the latter 75 degrees. 

Six stations lying to the East of long. 150° E. noted 32 disturb- 
ances, or on the average 5"3 per station. 

Twelve stations lying to the West of this meridian noted 65 dis- 
turbances, or an average of 5"4 per station. 

This last result suggests that the quantity of motion propagated 
eastwards is the same as that which is propagated towards the West. 

With this exception, the four gi'oups of earthquakes considered 
indicate that motion travels to greater distances northwards and west- 
wards than it does southwards and eastwards. 

If we take the four districts together we find the following: — 

40 northerly stations gave 160 records, or 4"0 per station. 

27 southerly ,, 86 ,, 3-2 

40 westerly ,, 154 ,, 3-7 

31 easterly ,, 97 ,, S'l 

District No. 5. — West of South America, or approximately 80° W. 
30° S. 

The earthquakes considered are Nos. 1248, 1248b, 1277, 1398, 1851, 
and 1852. 

Each of these six disturbances was recorded at two or more stations 
in Great Britain, 105 degrees distant from the origin. 

Five were noted at San Fernando, Honolulu, and Cape Town, the 
respective distances of which from the origin are 95, 88, and 78 degrees. 
The average distance is 87 degrees. 

Four were recorded at Toronto, Victoria, Azores, Tokio, Perth, 
and Zikaiwei. The distances of these from the origin are respectively 
73, 83, 85, 145, 115, and 160 degrees. The average distance is 110 
degrees. 

Three were noted at New Zealand, Mauritius, Bombay, and 
Calcutta. The distances of these places are respectively 85, 125, 
155, and 170 degrees. The average distance is 134 degrees. 

Two were noted at Colombo, Kodaikanal, and Irkutsk, the distances 
of which are 150, 150, and 160 degrees; the average distance is 163 
degrees. 

One was noted at Sydney, 100 degrees distant. 

This examination simply shows that stations near to an origin 
obtain more records than those at a great distance. 

The average number of records for stations lying westwards from 
the origin is 3*4, and the average distance of these stations from the 
origin was 105 degrees. The average number of records for stations 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 59 

lying eastwards from the origin was 4"6, and the average distance of 
these stations was 102 degrees. 

The average number of records for stations lying northwards from 
the origin vas 4' 6, and the average distance of these stations was 101 
degrees. 

The average number of records for stations lying southwards from 
the origin was 3'2, and the average distance of these stations was 95 



Although the average distance of stations was practically the same, 
the greater number of records had been obtained at stations lying 
eastwards and nort-hwards from the origin. 

District No. 6. — Near New Zealand, or approximately 180° East 
or West, 40° South. 

The earthquakes considered are Nos. 804, 877, 922b, and 1768. 

Each of these four disturbances was recorded in New Zealand, 
and at approximately 180 degi'ees distance in Great Britain. 

Three were recorded in Toronto, Perth, Honolulu, San Fernando, 
and India. The distances of these stations from the origin are 122, 
52, 65, 180, and 105 degrees; the average distance is 105 degrees. 

Two were noted at Victoria, B.C., Cape Town, Irkutsk, Mauritius, 
Cordova, and Batavia. The distances of these places from the origin 
are 102, 105, 112, 100, 85, and 72 degrees. The average distance 
is 96 degrees. 

Only one disturbance was noted at Cairo and Sydney, the distances 
of which from the origin are respectively 150 and 22 degrees. 

Ten stations with a northerly bearing recorded on the average 2'4 
shocks, the average distance of these stations from the origin being 
109 degrees. 

Cape Town, which has a southerly bearing from the origin, recorded 
two shocks; its distance from the origin is 105 degrees. 

Material for comparing propagation in these two directions is 
evidently too scanty. 

Three stations to the eastward of the origin recorded on the average 
2"3 shocks, the average distance being 103 degrees. 

Six stations to the westward of the origin recorded 2'1 shocks, 
the average distance being 76 degrees. 

The result of these examinations does not suggest that earthquake 
motion is radiated more freely in one particular direction rather than 
in some other. 

For the six groups of earthquakes originating in six different 
districts it appears that more motion has been propagated towards the 
North than towards the South. For the first four groups more records 
were obtained to the westward of an origin than were obtained to the 
East of the same. For Groups 5 and 6 this is reversed, but it 
is based on observations which were comparatively few in number. 

\III. On the Times of Occurrence of Maximum Motion on Pendulums 
Differently Oriented. 
In the records from certain stations (see British Association Circu- 
lars) we observe that the maximum for East-West motion is frequently 
reached from one to four or even more minutes before that for North- 



60 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

South motion. A good illustration of this is found in all the registers 
from Eskdalemuir. In 1910 the East-West and North- South pendulums 
indicated a maximum 12 times simultaneously; the East-West 
pendulums, however, had a maximum 41 times in advance of and 
six times later than the North-South instrument. When the natural 
period of the pendulums was not identical they did not vary from each 
other more than one second, the period for the East-West recording 
instrument being 18 seconds whilst that for the North-South was 
17 seconds. This slight difference in sensibility in the two instru- 
ments does not, however, explain why the East-West component, 
although usually giving earlier I'ecords, should occasionally give them 
simultaneously with and sometimes after the North-South instrument. 
At San Fernando in South Spain there is a pair of Milne pendulums 
mounted to record East- West and North-South motion. The natural 
period of the first of these instruments is 16 sees., and 1 mm. deflection 
of the outer end of the boom corresponds to a tilt of 0"*43. The 
peiiod of the second is 20 seconds, and 1 mm. deflection of the outer 
end of the boom is equivalent to a tilt of 0"'25. As regards the 
displacement produced by tilting, the first of these instruments, which 
records East- West motion, has only half the sensitiveness of the other. 
Notwithstanding this, in 1910 the maximum for East-West motion 
was obtained before North-South motion 17 times. Twice both 
pendulums recorded maxima simultaneously, while the very sensitive 
North-South instrument showed maxima 26 times earlier than the 
East-West boom. 

IX. Disturbances only recorded at Two or Three Widely Separated 
Stations. 

In the British Association Eeport for 1858, p. 55, Mallet refers 
to a number of shocks which had been felt simultaneously, or nearly 
so, at two distant places. The most remarkable pair are shocks noted 
at Okhotsk and Quito, places which are nearly antipodal to each 
other. As these coincidences cannot be assured within several hours. 
Mallet agrees with Mylne ^ that ' the probability of anything more 
than mere coincidence is extremely slight. ' 

In the British Association Reports, 1908, p. 64, and 1909, p. 51, 
I called attention to 148 small disturbances which had been noted in 
Jamaica. Fifty-one of these were undoubtedly recorded 43 minutes 
later at several stations in Great Britain. They were not, however, 
noted in Europe. This absence of records across the Channel was 
attributed to a want of sensibility in the seismographs which were 
there employed. Although we know that the seismograph recording 
photographically will pick up very small movements which may or 
may not be visible on the record received on smoked paper, whether 
a microseism shall or shall not be noted apparently depends not 
only on the sensibility of the recording instrument but on other 
conditions not yet defined. 

As illustrative of this I called attention to the fact that from 
time to time Batavia and Cairo have recorded the same earthquake, 
which, however, has not been recorded at stations lying between 
' yee ' liiit. Eartlii£iiakes,' Edin. Phil. Journ., vol. 31. 



ON SEISMOLOQICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 61 

these places or at any other station in the world. The distance 
between these places is 80 degrees, and the times taken for com- 
pressional, distortional, and surface waves, or Pj, Pj and P3, to travel 
t'his distance would be 15, 24, and 50 minutes. A disturbancfe 
originating in Java might after one of these intervals be recorded 
in Cairo or it might in the vicinity of Cairo bring into existence 
a secondary disturbance. There would be practically the same time 
intervals between the observations at these two places if the primary 
disturbance had its origin somewhat to the East of Java. Had the 
origin of the primary been between Batavia and Cairo the time 
intervals might be anything less than the given three intervals. If 
the time intervals exceed 50 minutes it is extremely likely that these 
two records refer to independent earthquakes. 

The following are illustrations of records peculiar to Batavia and 
Cairo made in 1911 : — 

Feb. 4 at 7.8 in Batavia and Gi m. later in Cairo. 

Feb. 8 at 4.0 „ ., „ 

Feb. 9 at 18.40 „ 42 m. 

Feb. 10 at 17.25 „ 42 m. 

Feb. 11 at 0.54 „ • 32 m. „ . Felt in Sumatra. 

March 6 at 9.57 „ 11m. earlier in Cairo. 

March 19 at 0.59 „ 41 m. later in Cairo. 

April 26 at 10.0 „ 16 m. 

Aug. 2 at 10.7 „ 22 m. 

Aug. 19 at 0.49 „ 12 m. „ . Felt in Sumbawa. 

Sept. 14 at 23.16 in Samoa and 19 m. later in Cairo. 

The fact that with but one exception all these disturbances were 
recorded at Batavia before they were recorded at Cairo suggests that 
their origins were nearer to the former place than the latter. 

Well-equipped stations nearer to Batavia than Cairo, and at which 
we should have expected to find records of these earthquakes, are 
the following: Mauritius, Tokio, Irkutsk, Zikawei, Tsing-tau, Calcutta, 
Bombay, Kodaikanal, Manila, Perth, Sydney, Wellington, Christ- 
church, Tiflis, Beirut, Harpoot, and Tashkend. 

X. Recurrence of Megaseismic Groups. 
Between 1899 and 1909 I find 88 groups of megaseisms. The 
number of disturbances in a group varies from 2 to 14, while the 
number of days over which a group extends varies between 1 and 
25. The former numbers divided by the latter give what I call the 
seismicity of a group period. If three earthquakes have taken place on 
one day I call the seismicity 3, but if four have happened in 5 days 
I call it "8. These seismicities, or earthquake-activity numbers, vary 
between '4 and 3. In the following lines I give in the form of 
numerators and denominators the relationship between seismicities 
and the average number of days of rest which have followed each 
group. 

•4 ^ j^7 S '9 1:0 L2 LI L5. 1:5 2;2 2;^ 3j) 
15 10 i6 8 11 7 8 9 8 8 11 8 ' 10 6 

No definite conclusion can be drawn from these figures, but in 
connection with them I must call attention to a .somewhat similar 
investigation referred to in the Report for 1910, p. 54, where it is 



62 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

shown that great megaseismic activity is followed by long periods 
of rest. In that case the intensity of a group was considered inde- 
pendently of the number of days over which it was spread. 

XI. Frequency of Earthquake Followers. 

In the British Association Reports, 1899, p. 227, and 1900, p. 71, 
under the title of 'Earthquake Echoes,' I discussed the vibrations 
which follow the main shock or shocks of an earthquake and which 
bring the same to a conclusion. These occur in groups, and as these 
rise and fall in amplitude it may be inferred that an earthquake does 
not become extinguished at a unifonn rate, but it dies in surges. 
I sought for the origin of these surgings, particularly for those groups 
which resemble each other in form, in the hypothesis of i-epeated 
reflection. 

Another possible explanation is to assume that these repetitions 
are interference phenomena consequent on the difference in period 
between the free swing of the recording pendulum and that of the 
earth. 

Now steady-point seismographs have shown for earthquakes we can 
feel that their period increases as they die out at a given station, 
and that it also increases as they radiate from an origin. Assuming 
this to be correct for megaseismic motion, then beats or recurrences 
at stations at diffei'ent distances from an origin should show differences 
in their frequency. To test this I have compared' the time frequency 
of pulsatory recurrences for disturbances recorded in the Isle of Wight 
which originated in different localities. 

The localities chosen were as follow : — 

1. East Coast of Japan, distant from Shide . . . 80° to 85°. 

2. West Coast Central America, distant from Shide . 80° to 85°. 

3. Central Asia, distant from Shide . . . . 50° to 60°. 

4. Between East New Guinea and Fiji, distant from Shide 130° to 140°. 

The earthquakes originating in these four districts, and of which 
I have seismograms recorded in the Isle of Wight, are referred to 
by numbers corresponding to the numbers given in the Earthquake 
Catalogue published in the British Association Eeports, 1911, p. 57, 
and 1912, p. 71. 

For District No. 1 these numbers were 263, 397, 405, 425, 431, 
446, 448,, 450, 457, 483, 493, 514, 884, 1031, 1266, 1427, and 1510. 
The average time interval between successive groups was found to be 
2'8 minutes. 

For District No. 2 the numbers were 248, 264, 407, 415, 417, 
432, 447, 536, 576, 606a, 642, 806, 924b, 1164, 1450. The average time 
interval for these disturbances was 3'4 minutes. 

For District No. 3 the numbers were 542, 558, 626, 644, 662, 
663, 832, 886, 982, 1064, 1070, 1293, 1468. The average time interval 
for these disturbances was 2'7 minutes. - 

For District No. 4 the numbers were 351, 352, 354, 377, 435, 
515, 530, 581, 977, 1025, 1128, 1190, 1272, 1301, and 1460. The 
average time interval for these disturbances was 28 minutes. 

If we compare the time intervals for Districts 1, 3, and 4, it would 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



63 



appear that these are not dependent on the distance at which they 
are recorded from an origin. 

XII. Large Earthquakes recorded at different Observatories, January 

to June 1910. 

The total number of large earthquakes, each of which disturbs 

a continental area, between January and June 1910, was about 166. 

Each of these was recorded at from 3 to 50 or 60 different observatories, 

and all extended to a distance of more than 20 degrees from their 

origin. In the following tables, drawn up by th'e late Shinobu Hirota, 

instruments which record photogi'aphically are followed by the letter P, 

whilst those which write mechanically on a smoked surface are 

marked S. The Milne instruments, unless otherwise stated, are 

single-boom instruments recording East and West motion only. 

District I. — British Islands, Central aiid Western Europe. 



Station 


Fouudatiou 


Seismographs 


Instru- 
ment 


No. of 

Cor. 

Record.s 


Shide 


Disintegrated Chalk 


Milne, twin boom 


P. 


144 


Hamburg 


AUuvium 


Wiechert, Hecker 


P. & S. 


131 


Edinburgli 


Andesite Lava 


Milne 


P. 


111 


Bidston 


New Red Sandstone 


Milne 


P. 


75 


Strassburg . 


Thick Compact 
Gravel 


Wiechert, Rebeur- 
Ehlert, Milne, Vicen- 
tini, Schmidt, 
Mainka 


P. & s. 


68 


Gottingen 




Wiechert 


p. &s. 


64 


Vienna . 


Alluvium . 


Wiechert 


s. 


64 


Paris 




Wiechert, Bosch- 
Mainka 


s. 


59 


Kew 


Thick Alluvium 


Milne .... 


p. 


58 


San Fernando 


Calcareous Rock 


Milne, two machines . 


p. 


56 


W. Bromwich 


Thick Alluvium 


Milne .... 


s. 


55 


Grenada 


Limestone 


Stiatesi, Wiechert, 
Vicentini and Omori 


s. 


50 


Laibach 


Alluvium . 


Vicentini, Grablovitz- 
Belar, Rebeur-Ehlert 


p. & s. 


43 


Eskdalemuir . 


Palaeozoic Rock 


Milne, twin boom 


p. 


27 


Catania . 


Rock .... 


Cancani, Vicentini, 
Agamennone, Omori 


s. 


26 


Malta 


Limestone 


Milne .... 


p. 


26 


Azores 


Basalt 


Milne .... 


p. 


23 


Tortosa . 


Alluvium . 


Vicentini, Grablovitz . 


s. 


22 


Monte Cassino 


Limestone 


Cancani 


s. 


17 





DiSTBICT II. 


— North America. 






Station 


Foundation 


Seismographs 


. , No. of 
Instru- (^oj.. 

^'^n* Records 


Victoria, B.C. 

Toronto 
Ottawa . 
St. Louis, 
j U.S.A. 


Hard Pan above Ig- 
neous Rock 
Alluvium . 
Boulder Clay . 
Alluvium . 


MUne .... 

Milne .... 
Bosch .... 
Wiechert 


P 

P. 
P. 

S. 


36 

35 
34 
13 



64 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1913. 



District III. — W. Pacific, Australia, and New Zealand. 



Station 


Foundation 


Seismographs 


Instru- 
ment 


No. of 

Cor, 

Records 


Cairo 


Eocene Limestone . 


Milne, two instruments 


P. 


91 


Tiflis . 


Rock .... 


Milne, Rebeur-Ehlert, 
Bosch, Zollner and 
Cancani 


P. &s. 


85 


Adelaide 


Thick Alluvium 


Milne .... 


p. 


76 


Batavia 


Alluvium . 


Milne, Rebeur-Ehlert, 
Wiechert 


p. &s. 


67 


Zikawei . 


Thick Alluvium 


Omori, Wiechert 


s. 


53 


Osaka 


Thick AUuvium 


Omori .... 


s. 


52 


Honolulu 


Coral Limestone 


Milne .... 


p. 


52 


Riverview, 


Sandstone 


Wiechert 


s. 


51 


Sydney 










Manila . 


Alluvium . 


Gray-Milne, Bertelli, 
Cecchi, Vicentini, 
Omori 


p. &s. 


48 


Sydney . 


Clay and Ironstone 
Shale 


Milne .... 


p. 


45 


Tsintau 




Wiechert 


s. 


45 


Mauritius 


Alluvium on Basalt 


Milne .... 


p. 


38 


Kodaikanal . 


Rock .... 


Milne .... 


p. 


37 


Calcutta 


Alluvium . 


Milne .... 


p. 


31 


Wellington, 




Milne .... 


p. 


34 


N.Z. 










Colombo 


Laterite 


Milne .... 


p. 


27 


Mizusawa 


Alluvium . 


Omori .... 


s. 


24 


Bombay 


Red Earth above 
Basalt 


Milne, Colaba, Omori 


p. &s. 


22 


Tokio . 


Alluvium . 


Milne .... 


p. 


21 


Perth, West 


Limestone 


Milne 


p. 


15 


Australia | 










Reykjavick . 


Volcanic Materials . 


Wiechert 


s. 


16 



A glance at the preceding tables shows that while one station 
has recorded 144 of the possible 166 disturbances, another station 
has only recorded 15. These marked differences in the number of 
records in different places are dependent upon many conditions, and 
at no two stations are the conditions exactly the same. At one, rapid 
changes in temperature may be accompanied by air tremors, which 
may eclipse all but the largest seismic records. In this respect 
I have found marked differences between adjoining rooms. At certain 
obsei'vatories insects, particularly small spiders, cause trouble. A 
more important cause leading to differences in the number of earth- 
quakes recorded at stations in the same district is difference in the 
adjustment of the instrument. If two horizontal pendulums have 
different periods, the one with the longer period yields the greater 
number of records. Unfortunately, however, it is the one most 
influenced by air tremors. The expiring efforts of large earthquakes, 
which at a distance from their origin may be represented by minute 
ripples or thickenings in consequence of their smallness, have fre- 
quently been overlooked. Proximity to or remoteness from epicentral 
district has naturally a considerable influence upon the number of 
records obtained at a station. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL IKVESTIGATIONS. 65 

Those stations which are in or near to areas in whicli large earth- 
quakes radiate, as, for example, Batavia, Manila, and Osaka, should 
obtain more records than Toronto, Ottawa, and St. Louis, which are 
distant from sites of seismic activity. For this reason stations have 
been grouped according to their relative distances from seismic regions. 
The first group refers to stations in the British Isles, Central and 
Western Europe, the second group is in Nortli America, and the 
third group is India, the Western side of the Pacific, Australia, and 
New Zealand. 

The average number of records obtained in these three districts 
is respectively 58, 29, and 41, but why the average for the first 
of these districts should exceed that for the last is contrary to expec- 
tations, and to explain it we must look for something more than 
nearness to or distance from epicentral regions. 

If we consider the average number of records given by different 
types of instruments in different districts, the results we arrive at are 
as follow : — 

In District 1 the average number of photographic records was G9 

1 „ smoked-paper „ 55 

2 „ photographic ,, 35 

2 „ smoked-paper ,, 13 

3 „ photographic ,, 39 
3 „ smoked-paper ,, 45 

Districts 1 and 2, together with records from Cairo, Tiilis, and 
Reykjavick, indicate that with photographic recording apparatus more 
records can be obtained than with mechanical registration. The same 
is true if we take all the records, including those for District 3, en bloc, 
but for this latter district by itself the conclusion is reversed. 

If we next turn to the character of the foundations we find for 
Districts 1 and 3 that the average number of records obtained if this 
was rock was 62, but where it was alluvium it was 60. 

Other observations bearing upon this subject will be found in 
British Association Reports for 1901, pp. 43 and 51; 1902, p. 68; 
1903, p. 81; and 1904, p. 42. 



Xin. Seismic and Volcanic Activities. 

In the Report for 1912, p. 102, I pointed out the material in 
certain catalogues suggested that volcanic and -seismic activities in 
the world increased and decreased independently of each other. From 
this it might be inferred that if there is any periodicity in volcanic 
activity it would not be the same as the one exhibited by the 
megaseisms. With the object of examining this question more closely 
I asked Mr. Leo Kelley, of Dublin, who has made an extensive 
collection of materials in connection with volcanoes, to furnish me 
with a list of eruptions which have taken place during the last 200 
years. This he kindly did, but unfortunately in many instances the 
authors from whom he has quoted only mention the year in which 
an eruption took place and omit the month and date. In the first 

1913. F 



66 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OV SCIENCE. — 1913. 



column of the accompanying table the year is given, and in the second 
and third columns the number of eruptions and eartliquakes. The 
earthquake numbers are taken from the ' Catalogue of Destructive 
Earthquakes,' published in the Eeport for 1911. In this table we 
have entries relating to 110 years. AVhen v/e compare successive 
years we see, for example, that in 1790 thei'e were 14 eruptions and 
11 earthquakes, but in the year following the number of eruptions 
had fallen to seven, while the number of earthquakes remained 
constant — volcanic activity had decreased while seismic activity 
suffered no change. 





No. of 


No. of 




No. of 


No. of 




No. of 


No. of 


Year 


Erup- 


Earth- 


Year 


Erup- 


Earth- 


Year 


Erup- 


Earth- 




tions 


quakes 


1827 


tions 


quakes 1 




tions 


quakes 


1790 


14 


11 


20 


16 


1864 


10 


33 


1791 


7 


11 


1828 


21 


23 


1865 


10 


24 


1792 


7 


7 


1829 


10 


15 


1866 


5 


28 


1793 


12 


5 


1830 


15 


18 


1867 


9 


32 


1794 


5 


11 


1831 


10 


14 


1868 


15 


41 


1795 


5 


4 


1832 


9 


7 


1869 


21 


41 


1796 


10 


6 


1833 


8 


9 


1870 


12 


28 


1797 


11 


4 


1834 


10 


11 


1871 


16 


33 


1798 


5 


6 


1835 


12 


11 


1872 


24 


30 


1799 


8 


9 


1836 


16 


11 


1873 


5 


38 


1800 


5 


6 


1837 


7 


9 


1874 


9 


32 


1801 


5 


6 


1838 


18 


7 


1875 


12 


31 


1802 


5 


11 


1839 


8 


16 


1876 


9 


20 


1803 


7 


6 


1840 


10 


11 


1877 


22 


21 


1804 


6 


4 


1841 


9 


23 


1878 


24 


32 


1805 


7 


6 


1842 


8 


7 


1879 


11 


25 


1806 


10 


15 


1843 


18 


15 


1880 


8 


35 


1807 


6 


3 


1844 


11 


14 


1881 


5 


45 


1808 


6 


7 


1845 


14 


21 


1882 


5 


27 


1809 


4 


10 


1846 


12 


26 


1883 


29 


27 


I8I0 


3 


8 


1847 


19 


29 


1884 


7 


33 


1811 


7 


8 


1848 


14 


20 i 


1885 


18 


57 


1812 


11 


18 


1849 


12 


17 


1886 


18 


29 


1813 


2 


6 


1850 


11 


14 


1887 


8 


34 


1814 


7 


10 


1851 


10 


30 


1888 


8 


34 


1815 


7 


10 


1852 


30 


35 


1889 


7 


33 


1816 


4 


3 


1853 


11 


35 


1890 


5 


19 


1817 


7 


5 


1854 


16 


27 


1891 


5 


20 


1818 


9 


9 


1855 


17 


36 i 


1892 


8 


24 


1819 


8 


12 


1856 


27 


30 


1893 


17 


30 


1820 


13 


7 


1857 


20 


32 


1894 


19 


42 


1821 


9 


12 


1858 


8 


36 


1895 


5 


20 


1822 


22 


14 


1859 


10 


24 


1896 


3 


26 


1823 


12 


7 


1860 


11 


26 


1897 


3 


35 


1824 


8 


10 


1861 


8 


35 


1898 


4 


21 


1825 


17 


9 


1862 


10 


43 


1899 


8 


18 


1826 


10 


8 


1863 


8 


34 


1900 


3 


— 



Prof. H. H. Turner writes to me about the above table as' follows : 
' If we calculate tlie correlation between tbese animal totals 

they stand, we obtain the coefficient 

r=-^- 0-45 ±0-05. 

But there is a systematic effect which should first be eliminated. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



67 



mere glance at the figures shows that the number of recorded earth- 
quakes steadily increases; in the first 50 years (1790-1839) there are 
4:71, and in the last 50 years (1850-1899) there are 1555. The number 
of eruptions also increases, though not so markedly : in the first 
50 years there are 465, and in the last 50 years 601. Now it seems 
probable that these increases are chiefly due to increased facilities for 
newsgathering; at any rate, a real secular change of this kind would 
require independent evidence. Further, it is clear that if the two 
series of numbers are both steadily increasiug there will be a tendency 
for small numbers in one series to be associated with small numbers 
in the other, and large with large — that is to say, we shall get a 
spurious correlation (or rather, a spurious increase in the correlation) 
due to this cause. 

' Hence a further computation was undertaken in which the secular 
effects were eliminated in the following manner: — 



• Taking 10 


yearly 


sums. 


the numbers 


and their logs 


are :- 


- 






No. of 








No. of 








Years 


Erup- 
tions 


Log. 


Calc. 


0-C 


Earth- 
quakes 


Log. 


Calc. 


0-C 


1790-9 . 


84 


1^92 


1^71 


-^•21 


74 


1^87 


1^67 


+ •20 


1800-9 






61 


1-78 


1-84 


-•06 


74 


1^87 


1^81 


+ 


06 


1810-9 






65 


1^81 


194 


-•13 


89 


1^95 


1-95 




00 


1820-9 






142 


215 


201 


-•06 


121 


2-08 


2-07 


+ 


01 


1830-9 






113 


205 


2-07 


-•02 


113 


205 


2-16 




11 


1840-9 






127 


2-10 


2^10 


•00 


183 


2-26 


2-26 




00 


1850-9 






160 


2^20 


211 


+ •09 


299 


2^48 


2-34 


+ 


14 


186i)-9 






107 


2 03 


2 09 


-•06 


337 


253 


2-41 


+ 


12 


1870-9 






144 


2^16 


2-06 


+ •10 


290 


2-46 


2-47 




01 


1880-9 






113 


2 05 


2-00 


+ •05 


374 


2^57 


2-51 


+ 


06 


1890-9 






77 


1^89 


r9i 


-•02 


255 


2^51 


2^55 


-•14 



' The " calculated " columns are from the formulae 

Eruptions 210 + nx 0-020 - n^ x 0*0114, 
Earthquakes 226 + n x 0*087 - n^ x O'OOeO, 
where n is the number of the term, counting from the middle term 
(1840-9). Part of these assumed secular terms may, of course, be 
real; but we have no means of testing the point, and for the present 
we shall assume that they are spurious and therefore to be eliminated. 
' When these formulae are suitably modified and applied to the 
individual years and the correlation again calculated it is found to 
be 

r = 0-39±0^05. 

This is still quite comparable with the former value, and the conclusion 
seems justifiable that earthquakes and eruptions are affected by the 
same cause. ' 

XIV. Report on an Improved Seismograph. 
Experiments are being made by Mr. J. J. Shaw, of West Bromwich, 
with a view to increase the efficiency and economy of the Milne-type 
seismograph. 

K 2 



6S UErORTS ON TIIR RTATK OF ROTKNCR. — 1910. 

The improvements it is proposed to incorporate are electro-magnetic 
damping, more delicate means of calibrating, clearer definition in the 
trace of seismograms, a still further economic use of the sensitised 
paper, increased maximum amplitude, adjustable light slits, &c. 

Hitherto these pendulums have been quite undamped (except for 
the natural damping of the mechanism), and herein has partly lain 
the secret of its very high degree of sensitivity. The fact has long 
been recognised that most forms of damping, such as the air and liquid 
systems used on the Continent, would be too crude to apply to so 
sensitive an apparatus. 

The Galitzin method of electro-magnetic damping seemed to offer 
the best opportunities for development ; but the lightness and delicacy 
of the Milne booms is such that the addition of heavy copper plates 
was impracticable. Tests have been made with aluminium foil, and 
it has been found that this metal is superior to copper for the purpose, 
in so far that its conductivity is higher than that of copper, weight 
for weight. 

Partly due to the feeble inertia of these pendulums and partly to 
the efficiency of the aluminium as a damping medium, it is found that 
a strong magnetic field acting upon five grains of the metal will give 
a damping effect of 8:1. Any lower value is readily obtained by a 
sliding adjustment. 

The new calibrating device will obviate the usual disturbance of 
the apparatus in the process, either by opening cover cases or walking 
round the pedestal. The usual calibrating screw is fitted with a worm 
and wheel; one whole turn of the worm produces a 2-degree turn of 
calibrating screw, which gives a tilt of 2" of arc. 

The worm is operated from the vicinity of the clock-box by means 
of an intervening length of flexible cable, and the movement of the 
calibrating screw is read on a scale fixed on top of the recording case. 
The angular motion is read by means of a beam of light from a mirror 
fixed to the calibrating screw. This direct reading eliminates any error 
due to flexure in the cable or womi. 

XV. Indexing Materials published by the British Association and the 
Seismological Society of Japan relating to Geophysics. 

Although the British Association has since the year 1841 published 
fifty-three Annual Eeports and other notices about seismology and other 
branches of geophysics, it is but rarely these are referred to by modern 
investigators. To make these publications better known and to give 
to geophysicists an easy means of reference to them, the following 
index has been compiled. With these a few references are made to 
the ' Transactions of the Seismological Society of Japan ' and the 
' Seismological Journal.' The former are indicated by the letters 
T.S. and the latter by S.J. These for the most part are detailed 
accounts of investigations which in the Eeports of the British Asso- 
ciation are only referred to as abstracts. 

Authors' names are attached to all reports and writings, \^■ith the 
exception of those written by myself. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVE.STIGAXJOJSIS. 



Gd 



Aftcr-Sliock« ((Jiuuri) 

Aftcr-iShocks of the Jamaica Earthquake, 

Jauuaiy 14, 1907 
After-Shocks of the Jamaica Earthquake, 

January 14, 1907 
Air Tremors at Cardiff, Mitigation of 
AmpHtude in relation to Continental and 

Suboceanic Paths 
AmpHtude, Relation of, in Seconds of Arc, to 

the Distance of an Origin 
Analyses for J 888 and 1889 . . . . 
Analyses of Earthquakes recorded in 1 899 

,, of Records for the year 1900 
Animals, Effects of Earthquake on . 

Antarctic Earthquakes 

Areas from which Shocks felt in Tokio and 

Yokohama emanate 
Areas from which Shocks felt in N. Japan 

emanate 
Areas shaken by Earthquakes in 1885 and 188G 

Areas shaken by Earthquakes (Mallet) . 

Artificial Earthquakes, Experiments in the 
Alluvium of the Tokio plane 
Ditto 

Artificial Disturbance ])rodueed by the Ex- 
plosion of a Charge of Dynamite 

Artificially-produced Disturbances, Experi- 
ments of Mallet, Abbot, Fouque, Lev}', 
Gray and Milne 

Astatic Suspension (Ewing) .... 

Astronomical and Meteorological Phenomena 
and Earthquakes, Connection between 
(Mallet) 

Atami, Hot Springs of (Kuwabara) 
(Dan) . 

Atmospheric Phenomena 

Aurora (Mallet) 

Azumasan (Omori) .... 



B. 

Bandaisan (Odium) 

(Sekiya) 

„ (Kikuchi) 

(Knott) 

(Smith) 

Barometer and Earthquakes (Mallet) 
Barometrical Effects on Horizontal Pentlu- 

lums 
Bibliography of Earthquakes (Mallet) 
Bifilar Pendulum (Darwin) 
Buildings, Effects of Earthquakes on 
,, in Earthquake Countries 



Choice of a Site 
Foundations 
Archwork . 



S. J. 



T. S. 



T.S. 



T. S. 
T.S. 



S.J. 



T. S. 
T. S. 
T.S. 
T. S. 

T.S. 



S.J. 
T.S. 



Vol. 



111. 



XII. 



VI. 



III. 
V. 



III. 



XI II. pt. 1 
XIII. pt. 2 
XIII. pt. 2 
XIII. pt. 2 
XIII. pt. 2 



III. 
II. 



Year 


Pago 


1908 


64 


1909 


51 


1912 


102 


1900 


69 


1912 


88 


1892 


98 


1900 


(iO 


1901 


41 


1906 


100 


1881 


200 


1882 


205 


1884 


241 


1888 


424 


1890 


164 


18.W 


30 


1881 


203 


1882 


210 


1883 


213 


18.51 


272 


1895 


159 


1850 


63 


1850 


74 


1850 


74 


1889 


301 


1850 


68 


1893 


218 


1858 


106 


1885 


372 


1889 


303 


1889 


304 


1889 


305 


1889 


307 



70 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 





— Vol. 


Year Page 


Buildings, Doors and Windows 







1889 307 




, Chimneys 


— 


— 


1889 308 




, Roofs 


. — . 


— 


1889 309 




WaUs 


— 


— 


1889 309 




, Balconies and Cornices . 


— 


— 


1889 310 




, Shape and Orientation of Buildings 


— 


— 


1889 • 310 




, Floors ". 


— 


— 


1889 311 




, Ceilings 


— 


— 


1889 311 




, Staircases 


— 


— 


1889 311 




, Materials 


— ■ 


— 


1889 311 




, Types of Buildings 


— 


— 


1889 312 




, Conclusions 


— 


— 


1889 313 




, in Earthquake Countries 


T. S. 


XIV., XV. 


— — 




, ,, ,, . , . 


T. S. 


XI. 


— 1 




, to resist Earthquake Motion, Ex- 


— 


— 


1884 , 248 


periments on 






' 


„ to resist Earthquake Motion, Ex- 


— ■ 


— 


1885 371 


periments on 










C. 
Carisbrooke Castle and Shide, Observations at 






1897 146 


Catalogue of Earthquakes (Mallet), 1606 B.C. 


— 


— 


1852 1 


to December 11, 1755 a.d. 








Catalogue of Earthquakes (MaUet), December 


— 


— 


1853 — 


13, 1755, to August 1785 








Catalogue of Earthquakes (Mallet), August 


— 


— 


1854 2 


1784 to December 1842 








Catalogue of Earthquakes, Japan, 1881-1885 . 


T. S. 


X. 


— — 


Catalogue of Earthquakes, Japan, 1885 


T. S. 


X. 


— j — 


(Sekiya) 










Catalogue of Earthquakes at Tokio, 1883-1885 . 


T. S. 


VIII. 


— 


— 


Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at Tokio, 


— 1 — 


1886 


414 


May 1885— May 1886 










Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at Tokio, 


— 


— 


1887 


212 


May 1886— May 1887 










Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at Tokio, 




— . 


1888 


435 


June 1887— June 1888 










Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at Tokio, 


— 


— 


1889 


295 


June 1888— March 1889 










Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at Tokio, 


— 


— 


1890 


160 


March 1889— April 1890 










Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at Tokio, 


— . 


— 


1891 


123 


May 1890— April 1891 










Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at Tokio, 


— 


— 


1892 93 


May 1891— April 1892 








Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at Tokio, 


. — 


— 


1893 214 


May 1892— April 1893 








Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at Tokio, 





_ 


1895 i 82 


April 1893— May 1894 






1 


Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded at Tokio, 


— 


— 


1895 1 114 


May 1893— February 1894 










May 1895— February 1896 


— 


— 


1897 


133 


Catalogue of Earthquakes, Japan, 1887-1890 . 


T. S. 


XV. 


— 


— 


Catalogue of 8,331 Earthquakes recorded in 


— 


— 


1895 


149 


Japan between Jan. 1885 and Dec. 1892 








Catalogue of Earthquakes recorded in Tokio, 


— 


— 


1898 189 


December 17, 1896 — December 16, 1897 








Catal 


Dgue of Destructive Earthquakes 


— 


— 


1908 


78 I 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



71 



— 


- 


Vol. 


Year 


Page 


Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes in Ice- 


— 


— 


1910 


64 


land (Tboroddsen) 










Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes in 


— 


— 


1910 


57 


Russian Empire (MusketofE and Orlofi) 










Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes (Hirota) . 


— 


— 


1908 


82 


„ „ „ (Omori) 


S.J. 


I. 


— 


- — • 


„ „ „ (Parker) . 


— 


— 


1909 


62 


Catalogue of Destructive Earthquakes in the 


— 


— 


1910 


69 


S. Andes (S. Peru), Chile, Bolivia, W. Argen- 










tina) (Ballore) 










Catalogue of Perrey's Memoirs (Mallet) . 


■ — 


— 


1858 


122 


„ of large Earthquakes, 1910 


— 


— 


1910 


65 


Cause of Earthquakes (Daubree) 


S.J. 


III. 


— 


— 


„ „ (Mennier) 


T. S. 


XIII. pt. 1 


— 


— 


Causes producing Movements which may he 


— 


— 


1895 


182 


Mistaken for Earth Tremors 










Centres of Earthquake Vibrations and the 


— 


• — 


1847 


90 


Requisites of the Instruments to be em- 










ployed (Hopkins) 










Changes in Temperature, Effects on Hori- 


— 


— 


1893 


217 


zontal Pendulums 










China, Earthquakes in (MacGowan) 


T. S. 


X. 


— 


— 


Civil Time employed throughout the World 


— 


— 


1898 


255 


Clinometric Experiments 


— 


— 


1902 


70 


Column, A Rocking of (Perry) .... 


T. S. 


III. 


— 


— 


Comrie, Earthquake of Aug. 8, 1872 (Bryce) . 


— 


— 


1873 


194 
pt. 1 


„ Shocks in (W. Buckland and D. Milne) 


— 


— 


1843 


121 


„ Shocks observed at, July 1841— 


— ■ 


— 


1842 


93 


June 8, 1842 (D. Milne) 










Construction of Chimneys .... 


— 


— 


1895 


180 


Criticisms and Analyses (Knott) 


■ 




1900 


74 


D. 

Daily Change in Position of Pendulums . 






1895 


130 


Daily Tilting 


— 


— 


1895 


95 


„ „ ....... 


— 


— 


1893 


216 


Daily Wave Records 


— 


— 


1895 


122 


Destructive Earthquakes, Notes relating to . 


— 


. — 


1911 


47 


Developing, Fixing, and Copying a Film . 


— 


— 


1909 


61 


Displacements of Horizontal Pendulums . 


— 





1895 


128 


Distribution of Earthquakes in 1909 


— 


— 


1910 


47 


„ „ Motion in a small 


— 


— 


1889 


297 


Area 










„ „ in Time 


— 


— 


1888 


423 


» » i> 






— 


— 


1890 


167 


„ in Space (Mallet) . 






_ 


— 


1868 


57 


Diurnal Waves .... 








— 


— . 


1897 


176 


„ „ also see 








— 


— 


1906 


99 


fj »»•••• 











. — 


1895 


131 


>» »»•••. 








. 


— 


1896 


212 


Double and Multiple Earthquakes 








— 


— 


1911 


32 


Duration of Earthquakes (Mallet) 








— 


— 


1850 


29 


„ of two Rectangular Components of 


— 


— 


1912 


91 


Earth-Movement at a given Station 










E. 
Earth Currents (Shide) 


T. S. 


IX. 




_ 


,. „ Experiments on the produc- 


— 


— 1882 


211 


tion 

















72 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 



— 


- 


Vol. 


Year 


Page 


Earth Currents, Observations on . . . 








1884 


251 


„ Interna] Heat of 


T.S. 


IV. 






„ Mitigation of Earthquake Effects 


S.J. 


I. 








„ Pulsations 


T.S. 


IV. 








,, „ 


S.J. 


I. 








„ „ or Earth Waves 


— ■ 


— 


1893 


219 


„ Temperatures 


— 


— 


1885 


379 


„ Tremors 


T.S. 


VII., XL, 
XIIL 


— 


— 


„ „ Earth Pulsations 


— 


— 


1884 


249 


„ „ „ „ . . . . 


— 


— 


1885 


374 


,, „ and Fire Damp .... 


— 


— 


1892 


107 


,. or Earth Tips .... 


— 


— 


1892 


107 


Kesults of Analysis in .Japan . 


— 


— 


1888 


433 


,, „ Work done in Japan . 


— 


— 


1887 


221 


„ ,, Notes relating to Work done in 


— 


— 


1887 


219 


Italy 










,, ,, The Recording of 


. — 


— 


1881 


202 


,, ., Observations regarding . 


— 


— 


1883 


211 


„ Waves of Earthquakes .... 


_ 


_ 


1893 


221 


,, „ or Pulsations .... 


. 


— 


1893 


219 


Earth's Crust form, Solidification, and Thick- 





— 


1847 


40 


ness of (Hopkins) 










Earthquake, October 28, 1891 


S. .1. 


L, IL 


— 





,, >, )» ... 


— 


— 


1892 


114 


June 20, 1894 . 


— 


— 


1895 


111 


February 22, 1880 


T.S. 


I. 







July 25, 1 880 (Knipping) . 


T.S. 


IIL 


— 





March 8, 1881 (Ewing) 


T. S. 


IIL 


, . 





„ March 8, 1881, Horizontal and 


T. S. 


IIL 


, 





Vertical Motion of 










May 9, 1877, Peru . 


T. S. 


IL 





. 


„ January 15, 1887, JajDan 


T. S. 


XL 








(Sekiya) 










March 11, 1882 (Ewing) . 


T. S. 


IV. 








and Magnetometer, Disturbance 


_- 


— 


1899 


233 


„ Catalogue, Construction of 


_ 


_ 


1851 


317 


(Mallet) 










„ Commencements as P>,ecorded at 








1903 


82 


Strassbiirg and in Britain 










,, Echoes 


— 


— 


1899 


227 


,, ,, ..... 





— 


1900 


71 


„ Effects, Emotional and Moral . 


T. S. 


XL 








„ „ on Structures (Powaall) 


T. S. 


XVI. 


— 


— 


„ Frequency (Knott) 


T. S. 


IX., XV. 


189G 


220 


,, Intensity, Curve of . . . 


— 





1883 


214 


„ Motion, Direction of . . . 








1912 


90 


,, Motion, Dissipation of, as 





— 


1908 


67 


Measured by Amplitude and 










Duration 










„ Motion, General Character of 


— . 


— 


1885 


363 


,, „ ,, ,, „ 


— 


— 


1898 


218 


„ „ Normal 







1885 


364 


„ „ in a Small Area 


T.S. 


XIIL pt. 1 








„ Motion, Relative Extent and 


— 


— 


1881 


203 


Variation in Direction of an 










Earthquake passing over a 










Limited Area, the Contour 










and Geological Structure of 










which is Irregular 










„ Ditto Ditto 


— 


— 


1882 


200 



ON SElSMOLOfUC'AL INVESTIGATIONS. 



Vol. 



Earthquake Motion, Determine the Nature of 

„ „ Direction in whicli it is 

most freely propagated 

„ „ Maximum Velocity and 

Intensity of 
;, Movement as recorded at a 

Great Distance from its Origin 
,, Measurements (Gray) 

,, Measurements in a Pit and on the 

Surface (Sekiya and Omori) 
„ Observing Stations round the 

World, Establishment of 
„ Observations in Italy and 

Europe 
Oliservations, 1885 (Sekiva) . 

188r. . 

1887 . 

1888 . 

1889 . 

1890 . 

„ Periodicity 

,, Precursors .... 

,, Projjagation, Velocity of 

,, Records ivom Japan and other 

Places 

,, Records obtained at British 

Stations 

„ Recurrences 

„ Shocks, Effects produced on In- 

struments (D. Milne) 

,, Varieties and Diu'ation 

,, in India (D()3'le) .... 

in Scotland, "187.3 (Bryoe) . 

,, ,, (Bryce) 

EarlJKiniikes, Peru and North Chile (H. Hojie- 
Jones) 

„ and Changes in Latitude 

„ (Knott) . 

,, and Rain (,s-ff Rain) 

„ and Timekeepers a( Observa- 

tories 

of 1885-1880 .... 

of 1886-1887 .... 

of 1886 

of 1888-1889 .... 
„ in 1885 and 1880, Area shaken 

by 

in 1887 

„ in connection with Electric and 

Magnetic Phenomena 
„ in connection with Magnetic 

and Electric Phenomena 1. — 

Magnetic 

„ II. Electric .... 

„ Recorded by Horizontal Pendu- 

lums in Tokio 



T. S. 
T. S. 



111. 
XVI. 



■r. s. 


X. 


T. s. 


X. 


T. S. 


XIII. |)t. 1 


T. S. 


XV. 


T. S. 


XVI. 


T. S. 


XVI. 


S.J. 


I. 



'I', s. 



IV, 



Year 


Page 


1881 


202 


1882 


208 


1908 


74 


1885 


365 


1902 


71 


1898 


170 


1898 


258 




1912 


94 


1899 


230 


1890 


171 


1897 


153 


1909 


59 


1900 


66 


1842 


94 


1899 


225 


1874 


241 


1871 


197 


1911 


45 


1906 


97 


1907 


91 


1900 


107 


1900 


100 


1900 


105 


188G 


416 


1887 


214 


1888 


422 


1892 


95 


1888 


424 


1890 


163 


1891 


128 


1850 


72 


1890 


169 


1850 


72 


1890 


169 


1895 


147 



74 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



-1913. 





— Vol. 


Year 


Page 


Earthquakes recorded at SMde, Edinburgh, 





1898 


191 


Bidston, and certain Stations 








in Europe, with Discussions on 








the same 








,, recorded in Japan, Feb. 1893 . 


— — 


1893 


223 


,, „ inTokio 


— — 


1888 


426 


„ recorded by the Kamakura In- 


— — 


1895 


91 


strument 








„ Simultaneous .... 


— _. 


1858 


55 


,, AVhere Wave Paths have been 


— — 


1895 


163 


long (Newcombe, Button, 








Agamennone, Ricco, Cancani, 








Von Rebeur-Paschwitz, Milne) 








„ Where Wave Paths have been 


— — 


1895 


163 


short (Milne and Omori) 








El May on (Casariego) 


T. S. V. 


— 


— 


Electrometer (Mallet) 




1850 


72 


Electric and Magnetic Phenomena . 


T. S. XV. 


— 


— 


,, ,, ,,.... 


S. J. III. 


— 


— 


Emptying a Well, Effects produced nn a Hori- 


— . — 


1895 


107 


zontal Pendulum 








Eruption of Bandaisan 


— — ■ 


1889 


301 


Eruptions in relation to Months and Seasons 


— — 


1886 


424 


„ Intensity of 


— — 


1886 


426 


„ Number of 


— — . 


1886 


423 


Evaporation, Experiment on, in connection — — 


1895 


106 


with a Horizontal Pendulum 






Experiences of Lady Moncrieff at Comrie — — 


1844 


89 


House (D. Milne) 






Experiments at Oxford with a Horizontal — — 


1896 


216 


Pendulum (Prof. Turner) 








Experiments in Pits in the Midlands (J. J. 


— — 


1911 


40 


Shaw) 






Experiments made in Granite (Mallet) . . — — 


1851 


294 


„ on Piers ...... — — 


1901 


43 


F. 
Fault, Selection of a. Locality Suitable for — — 


1900 


108 


Observations on Earth Movements (Clement 






Reid) 






Fire Damp and Earth Tremors .... — — 


1892 


112 


Fissures (Mallet) — — 


1850 


52 


Force due to Shock, Indirect Estimation of — — 


1858 


134 


(Mallet) 






Fractions of an Hour (S. Hirota) ... — — 


1898 


257 


Fracturing of Brick and other Columns 




— — 


1891 


126 


„ and Overturning of Columns 




— — 


1892 


113 


,, ,, jj 




— — 


1893 


226 


„ „ ,, 




S. J. L, IL 


— 


— 


Frequency of Earthquakes 




— ■ — 


1850 


64 


,, jj . . 




1 — . — 


1888 


422 


Frequency of Earthquakes (see ' Seismic 


— — 


1890 


163 


Energy in Relation to Time ') 








Frequency of Earthquakes at different Stations 


— — 


1901 


41 


„ and General Character of recent 


i — — 


1886 


415 


Earthquakes 








„ of Waves, No. of Waves in 20 sees. . 


— — 


1884 


245 


Fujiyama (Wada) .... 




T. s. : IV. 


— 





ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



75 



Vol. 



Fujij'ama, Pendulum Experiments of 
(Mendenhall) 

.G. 

General Notes on Stations and Registers 



T. S. 



II. 



Year Page 



Geographical Distribution of Megaseisms and 
Thermometric Gradients 

Geological Structure and Direction of Move- 
ments of Horizontal Pendulums 

Geology, Notes on Dynamics of (Kangsmill) 

Gravity at Tokyo (Mendenhall) 

Gray-MUne Seismograph, Observations with 



Great Britain, Earthquakes in 
Great Circles and Charts of the World 
Great Earthquake of October 28, 1 89 1 . 

H. 

Horizontal Pendulum Observations at Kama- 
kura 

„ Pendulum Records obtained ir 

1894 

„ Pendulum Observations in Tokio . 

„ Pendulum Observations at Yoko- 

hama and Kanagawa 

„ Pendulums (Paschwitz) 



1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1912 



T. S. 
T. S. 



S.J. 
S.J. 



Description of . . i — 

Movements of . . | — 

Installation, Character 1 — 

of Movements ■ 

Records from 3 at Shide ' — 



III. 
I. 



,, Velocity and Coseismal Line, De- 

termination of (MaUet) 

„ Comparison of three differently 

installed H.P.'s. 

I. 

Influence of the Season of the Year and Time 

of Day on Earthquakes (Mallet) 
Instrumental Seismometry and the Construc- 
tion of Seismometers (MaUet) 
Instruments, Description of (D. Milne) . 

„ which will record Earthciuakes 

of Feeble Intensity 



1895 



1895 



1895 
1895 



1895 
1893 
1895 

1902 
1903 
1904 
1858 

1909 



77 
41 
83 
92 
83 
60 
48 
44 
30 
69 
97 



1893 218 



1884 , 247 

1886 413 

1887 ' 212 
1889 I 295 

1897 ; 132 
1843 , 121 

1898 256 
1892 114 



96 



94 
109 



85 
215 
115 

68 
81 
42 
95 

53 



1850 


64 


1858 


86 


1842 


94 


1896 


181 



76 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. ^1913. 



Vol. 



Year Page 



Intensity of Shocks 

Interior of the 'World, Speed of Earthquake 
Motion and Inferences based thereou 
relating to 

International Co-operation for Scismological 
Work 
Ditto Ditto 

International Seismological Association, Re- 
lationship to 

Intervals between Preliminary Tremors and 
Large Waves 

Intervals in Days from the Commencement f)f 
one Group to the Commencement of Another 

Intervals and Days between Successive Mega- 
seisms in Particular Districts 

Inverted Pendulum Seismometer (D. Milne) . 

Ischia, Earthquakes of (DuBois) 
,, ,, Further Notes on 

Ital}', Instruments Used in (Dr. Davison) 



Jamaica Earthquake, After-shocks 
,, Instruments in 

Japan Earthquakes, 1883-1884 
„ 387 Earthquakes in 
„ Great Earthquakes of . 



Kumamoto Earthquake 



Otsuka 



Kurile Islands, Volcanoes 



18.58 134 
1903 84 



1904 45 



1905 
1908 

1900 

1912 

1912 

1841 



T. S. 
T. S. 



T. S. 
T. S. 
T. S. 



T. S. 



VII. 
Vill. 



1908 
1910 



XV. 



Lady MoncricS, Experiences at Comrie House, 

(D. Mihie) 
Lakes and Rivers Formed (Mallet) . 

Landshps (MaUet) 

Large Earthquakes, Miscellaneous Notes re- 

liting to 
Large Earthquakes, Relationship to each 

other and to Volcanic Eruptions 
Large Earthquakes and Small Changes in 

Latitude 
Large Earthquakes in Relation to Time and 

Space 

Large Waves, Nature of 

Lavas, Lithological and Chemical Character of 
Letter from Lieut. Baird Smitli (Buckland 

and D. Milne) 
Letter from J. Bryce to D. Milne, July 1841 

(D. Mihie) 
Letter from Mr. Mathie Hamilton, M.D. (W. 

Buckland and D. MQne) 
Letter to Assistant Secretar}' to British 

Association (MaUet) 
Level, Changes in 

„ „ on two Sides of a Valley 

„ ,, due to Tides .... 



92 
60 

65 

97 

97 

47 



1896 220 



64 
47 



VII. — — 

VII., pt. 2 — — 

III. — — 



1890 163 
1886 418 



1844 


89 


1850 
1850 
1895 


50 

49 

179 ' 


1906 


97 


1903 


78 


1906 


95 


1 1900 

' 1886 

1843 


73 
425 
123 


1841 


49 


1843 


124 


1850 


88 


1 1910 

1906 

1 1910 


49 
99, 102 

49 1 



ON RKTSMOLOOTCAL INVRRTIOATIONR. 



Vol. 



Lisbon, Great Earthquake (Pereira) . 
Luminous Effects from certain Rocks 

„ „ obtained from Rock Sur- 

faces 
Luzon Earthquake in 1880 (Garcia) . 



M. 

Magnetic Movements and their Possible Re- 
lationship with Horizontal Pendulums 
Magnetic Declination in Japan (Naumann) 
Maf^net<iineter Distuiljanccs and Earthquakes 



Map of the World (R. D. Oldham) . . 
Measurement of Earth((uakes (Sekiya) . 
Mestaseisinio Activity and Rest 

,, Activity and Periods of Quies- 
cence 
„ Frequency .... 

,, „ in Different Seasons . 

„ Acti^aty, Possible Cause of . 
Meteorological Observations at Comrie, Im- 
portance of (D. Milne) 
Meteorological Tables for Tokio 
Meteorology of Japan (Knipping) 

Meteors (Mallet) 

Milne Horizontal Pendulum, Installation and 

Working of 
Mine Gas and Earth Pulsations 
Miscellaneous Notes on Large Earthquakes, 

Vibrations of a Ghimney 
Model of an Earthquake (Sekiya) 

Moon 

Molten Metal disturbed by an Earthquake 

(Gergens) 
Motion relative to two Points 
,, recorded in Buildings 
Motions of the Bubbles of Two Delicate Levels 

Mountains, Theoretical 

Movements of Horizontal Pendulums 

"„ Daily Tilting .... 

,, Effects of Changes in Tem]iera- 

ture 

„ Barometrical Effects . 

,, Possible Relationship with 

Magnetic Movements 

„ Geological Structure and Direc- 

tion of Movements 

,, Irregular Movements . 

„ Barometric Pressure . 

„ Strata at Ridgeway Fault (H. 

Darwin) 

,, Strala at Ridgeway Fault 



Water in a Well 



T. S. 



T. S. 



T. S. 



T. S. 



XIL 



V. 



XI. 



T. S. 

S. J. 

T. S. 

T. S. 

T. S. 
T. S. 



VIIL 

IIL 

XL 

VI. 

XII. 
XIL 



Year 


Page 


1907 
1909 


87 
60 


1893 


218 


1898 
1899 
1850 
1908 


220 

233 

72 

82 


1910 
1912 


54 
92 


1911 
1912 
1912 
1842 


38 

92 

101 

97 


1895 


143 


1850 
1897 


74 
137 


1805 


181 


1858 


32 


— 


— 



1883 212 
1880 i 429 
1895 ! 90 
1893 I 215 
1893 i 210 
1893 ! 217 

i 
1893 218 
1893 218 

1893 218 



1893 
1901 
1900 

ll^Ol 
1902 
HK)4 

1895 



219 



119 



52 



51 
104 



78 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913, 



Vol. 



Year • Page 



N. 

Nausea (Mallet) 

Nebulosity of Solar System 
New Departure in Seismology 

New Installations 

New Zealand Earthquakes in 1855 (Mallet) 



0. 

Observation of Earthquakes .... 
Observations with Horizontal Pendulums : — 
Instruments, Installation, Character of 
Movements 

Daily Wave Records 

Tremors, Mioroseismic Disturbances or 

Earth Pulsations 
Slow Displacements of Pendulums 
Periodic Movements of Several Days . 
Wandering of the Pendulum 
Daily Change in Position of the Pendulum 

Diurnal Wave 

Tremors 

Meteorological Tables for Tokio . 
Observations with Milne Pendulums T. and U, 
1895 to 1896 

LocaUties and their Geology 

The Instruments T. and U. and their 

Installation 
Artificially-produced Disturbances . 
Sudden Displacements and Earthquakes 

in the Isle of Wight 
Earthquakes recorded in Europe and 

possibly noted in the Isle of Wight 
Notes on Special Earthquake (also Ap- 
pendix, p. 229) 
Tremors and Pulsations, their Relation- 
ship to the Hours of the Day, Air Cur- 
rents, Effects of Barometric Pressure, 
Temperature, Frost, Rain, &c. 

Diurnal Waves 

Observations in a Pit 10 feet deep . 
Observing Stations and Registers obtained 

from the same. Notes on 
Orientation of an Instrument with regard to 

Building in which it is placed 
Origins, Determination of : — 

By Comparison between Time Intervals 

By Method of Circles 

By Time Intervals between P.T.'s and 
L.W.'s 

By Seismic Recurrences .... 

Origins of Large Earthquakes recorded in 
1902 and since 1899 

Ditto in 1903 

„ 1904 

Origins of Earthquakes recorded in 1905 

1906 
1907 
1908 



T. S. 





1858 


133 


— 


1847 


56 


— 


1910 


48 


— 


1908 


60 


— 


1858 


105 


IV. 


— 


— 


— 


1895 


115 





1895 


122 


— 


1895 


126 





1895 


128 


— . 


1895 


129 


— 


1895 


129 


— 


1895 


130 


— 


1895 


131 


— 


1895 


139 


— 


1895 


143 


— 


1896 


184 





1896 


184 




1896 


187 




1896 


188 


— 


1896 


189 


— 


1896 


191 


— 


1896 


199 


— 


1896 


200 




1896 


212 


— 


1885 


371 


— 


1899 


162 


— 


1908 


63 




1900 


79 


— 


1900 


79 


— 


1900 


79 




1900 


80 


1 


1858 


95 




1903 


78 





1904 


43 


— 


1905 


91 


— 


1906 


94 


— 


1907 


86 


— 


1908 


63 


— 


1909 


51 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



79 



Origins for the Earthquakes of 1899 . . . — 
Origins of Earthquakes (Foster) . . . j T. S. 
„ of Earthquakes recorded in 1899, — 
1900, and 1901 

Oscillographs, Double (Bertin) . . . . T. S. 
Overturning and Fracturing of Brick and — 
other Columns 

Ditto — 

Ditto — 



Paths followed by Earthquake Motion, Hypo- 
theses of Hopkins, Seebach, Schmidt 

Pendulum, Astatic (Gray) .... 

„ with a Single Bob (Ewing) 
,, Duplex (Sekiya) .... 

Periodicity in Earthquake Frequency, New 
(H. H. Turner) 

Perrey's Catalogues, Discussion of (Mallet) . 

Perrey's Memoirs, A List of (Mallet) 

PerryTromometer(Prof. J. Perry) . 

Peru and N. Chile Earthquakes (H. Hope- 

Jones) 
Peruvian Earthquake, May 9, 1877 . 
Phenomena and Theories of Volcanoes (Hop- 
kins) 
„ Connected with Earthquake Pro- 

pagation (Hoefer) 
„ Demanding Solution 

Philippine Islands Earthquakes, 1881 
Photograms obtained with Seismometer 

(Plummer) 
Photographic Record Receivers 
Photography appUed to Seismology (Burton) . 

Piers, Experiments on 

Pit, 18 ft. deep, observations .... 
Point, Experiments on Direction of Motion of 
Prehminary Tremors, Duration of . 
Prehminary Tremors, Duration of (R. D. 

Oldham) 
Publication of a Seismological Journal . 

Q. 

Quick Vibrators as Applied to Seismometry . 



R. 



Rain and Earthquakes 



Rate of Wave Transit in the Killiney Bay 

Sand (MaUet) 
Recent Earthquakes (Ewing) .... 
Records obtained from Three Horizontal Pen 
dulums at Shide 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Records obtained from Two Similar Seismo- 
graphs at Kew (Di\ Chree) 



T. S. 
T. S. 
T. S. 



T. S. 



T. S. 



T. S. 
T. S. 



S. J. 



Vol. 
XV. 
XV. 



Year 



III. 
VI. 
VIII. 



II. 



XIII. 



XII. 
IV. 



1900 
1902 

1891 

1892 
1893 

1895 

1912 

1858 
1858 
1896 
1897 
1911 

1847 



1898 



1907 



1909 



1900 
1850 
1851 



T. S. 



III. 



Page 
SO 
61 

126 

113 

226 

173 

95 

1 

122 

218 

181 

45 

33 



272 



85 



1901 


43 


1891 


24 


1884 


244 


1902 


64 


1907 


93 


1893 


226 



55 



106 

72 
273 



1902 i 68 



1903 
1904 
1901 



81 
42 
51 



80 



REI'URTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — I'Jlo, 



i 


Vol. 


Year 


Page 


Records obtained at Tokio by the Gray- 1 — 


1905 


92 


Milne Seismograph for the years 1886-1901, 








Tabulation of (R. D. Oldham) 








Record-Receiver, Improved .... — 


— 


1904 


43 


Register of Earthquake Shocks, .July 1842 . 1 


_ 1 


1844 


86 


to September 1844 (D. Milne) 1 


I 


1843 


126 


Registers, Discussion of — 


— 


1899 


192 


Registers, Comparison of, from Sliide, Kew, | 


- 1 


1901 


43, 51 


Bidston and Edinburgh J 


1902 


73 


Ditto . . . " — 


— 


1903 


81 


Ditto — 


— 


1904 


42 


Relative Motion of Two Neighbouring Points — • 


— • 


1882 


211 


of Ground, Experiments to Determine 








Report upon the Facts of Earthquakes (Mallet) — 


— 


18.W 


25 


Reports, Form of — 


— 


1899 


238 


Reports relating to Earthquakes ijublishcd by — 


— 


1898 


276 


the British Association 








Ridgeway Fault, Relative Movement of — 


— 


1900 


119 


Strata (H. Darwin) 








Ditto — 


— 


1901 


52 


Ditto — 


— 


1902 


75 


Ditto — 


— ■ 


1904 


51 


Rivers, Stoppage of (Mallet) .... — • 


— 


1858 


131 


Rookfolding, Seismic and Volcanic Activities, — 


— 


1902 


72 


Relationship between 








s. 

Safety Lamps for Earthquake Countries 1 . S. 


XIL 






(Sekiya) 








San Francisco and Columbian Earthquakes, — ■ 


— 


1907 


93 


Duration of First Preliminary Tremors 








(R. D. Oldham) 








Sea Waves (Mallet) — 


— ■ 


1850 


45, 60 


— 


■ — ■ 


1858 


124 


Seiche's (Forel) T. S. 


XV. 


— 


— 


,, at Hakone (Burton) . . . . T. S. 


XVI. 


— 


— 


Seismic Activity in Different Districts, Syn- 

chronism between J 


1" 


1909 


56 


" 1 


1911 


36 


Seismic Activity in Japan, Italy, and America — 


— 


1911 


36 


during the years 1700-1900 (F. M. Walker) 








Seismic Activity in .Japan . . . . T. S. 


IV. 


— 


— 


1899-1903 . . . . — 


— 


1911 


55 


1904-1909 inclusive . . — 


— 


1912 


70 


„ ,, an I Volcanic Activity . . — 


— 


1912 


102 


,, Energy in Relation to Season . . — 


— 


1858 


51 


„ Energy in Relation to Time, Seasons, — 


— 


1858 


1,47 


Months, Position of Moon (Mallet) 










— 


1858 


57 


„ „ Distribution of . . .1 — 


— . 


1888 


422 






1890 


163 


„ „ Force of (Mallet) ... — 


— 


1858 


134 


„ Experiments i T. S. 


VIIL 


— 


— 


,, Science in Japan j T. S. 


I. 


■ — ■ 


— 


„ Survey in Tokio T. S. 


X. 


— 


— 


„ Survey of the World (Letters sent to — 


— 


1897 


129 


the Foreign and Colonial Offices) 








Scismogram obtained in London, Oct. 16, 1907 — 


— 


1908 


81 


„ Interpretation of (Alexander) . ' T. S. 


VI. 


— 


— 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



81 



Seismogranis, Illustrations of 

Seismograph, the Gray-Milne . 
Seismographs, Modern Forms of 
„ The Cocchi (Dubois) 

,, A Pendulum (Ewiug) 

,, A Ball and Cup (Alexander) 

,, Vertical Motion (Gray) . 

,, A Torsion Pendulum (Gray) 

A Parallel Motion (West) . 
„ Vertical Motion (Ewing) . 

Seisaiological Journal, PubUcation of 
„ Notes (Ewing) 

,, Stations already establislietl 

,, ,, Abroad & in Gt. Britain 



,, Work, Directions iii which it may 

be extended 
„ Work in Progress 

Seismology, Experimeuts .... 

,, New Departure in. 

Seismometer at Comrie (Bryce) 

,, at Liverpool Observatory, Ex 

amination of Photograms (W 
E. Plummer) 
„ Common Pendulum (D. Milne) 

,, Duplex Pendulum 

„ On a (Wagner) . 

„ for Mantelpiece . 

Seismometers, Construction under the Super 
intendence of Major James (Col. Portlook) 
Seismometry applied to Trains 
SensibiUty of Seismographs recording on a 

Smoked Surface 
Sensitiveness of the Horizontal Pendulum 

Severe Earthquakes 

Shide, Instruments at 

Shocks in Comrie and elsewhere (W. Buck- 
land and D. Milne) 
Shocks Observed at Comrie, July 1841 to 

June 8, 1842(0. Milne) 
Simultaneous Observation of Earthquakes at 
Three Stations in Telegraphic Connection 
Ditto at Several Stations in Electrical Con 

nection 
Situation of Stations : — ■ 

Abassia (Cairo) . . ' . 

Azores 

Baltimore 

Batavia 

Beirut 

Bidston 

Bombay 

Calcutta (ibid. 1899, p. 177) 

Cape of Good Hope 

Coimbra 

Edinburgh 

Helwan (Cairo) 

Honolulu 

1913. 



T. S. 
T. S. 
T. S. 
T. S. 
T. S. 
T. S. 
T. S. 
T. S. 
T. S. 
T. S. 

T. S. 



T. S. 



T. S. 



Vol. 



XV. 
XII. 
XII. 
VIII. 

I. 

VI. 

III. 
I. 

VI. 
ILL 



Year 



1900 



Page 



87 



V. 



1893 226 



1899 ' 161 

1900 59 



1901 
1902 
1904 



40 i 
59 1 

48 i 



III. 



VIII. 

I. 

XVI. 



XV. 



1904 I 46 

1910 48 

1872 1 241 

1898 I 272 



1841 i 46 



1854 370 

1858 ' 73 

1911 I 66 

1895 i 94 

1890 168 

1902 60 

1843 121 

1842 93 

1884 , 244 

1885 367 



1905 
, 1905 
I 1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 

1905 
1905 

i 1905 
1905 

i 1005 



84 
84 
85 
85 
85 
85 
86 

86 
87 
87 
87 
87 



82 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



Situation of Stations (cont.) : — 

Kew • 

Kodaikanal 

Mauritius 

Paisley 

Perth (W. Australia) 

San Fernando 

Shide 

Strassburg 

Sydney 

Toronto (ibid. 1899, p. 170) 

Trinidad 

Victoria, B.C 

Akhakalaki 

Batoum 

Borshom 

Shemakha 

Derbent 

Tiflis .... .... 

Pilar (Argentina) 

Colombo (Ceylon) 

Perth (W. Australia) 

Lima 

Eskdalemuir 

Toronto (Canada) 

Porto Rico (W. Indies) 

Stonyhurst 

Guildford 

West Bromwich 

Zikawei 

Agincourt 

Sonora Earthquake in 1887 (Hunt and 

Douglas) 

Sound Phenomena 

Sounding Asama Yama 

Sounds, Earthquake (Knott) .... 
Special Earthquakes in Japan 

,, „ W. Indies, Notes on. 

Speed of Earthquake Motion and Inferences 

based thereon relating to the Interior of 

the World 
Speed of Earthquakes (Ewing) 
Strong Shocks, List of, in United States and 

Dependencies (H. F. Reid) 
Sub-oceanic Changes 

Bradyseismic Action 

Sedimentation and Erosion .... 

Causes resulting in the Yielding of Sub- 
marine Banks 

Cable Fracture 

Conclusions and Suggestions for a Seismic 
Survey of the World 
Sub-oceanic Changes in Relation to Earth- 
quakes 
Subterranean Forces on the SoUd Crust of the 

Earth, Effects of (Hopkins) 

State of Tension of the Elevated Mass 
Formation of Fissures .... 

,, Systems of Fissures 

Application of the Theory 



Vol. 



Year 



T. S. 
T. S. 



T. S. 



T. S. 



XII. 
XII. 
XII. 



111. 



1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 

1905 
1905 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1906 
1907 
1907 
1908 
1908 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1910 
1910 
1912 
1912 



1887 

1888 
1898 
1903 



1911 I 41 

1897 I 181 

1897 182 

1897 187 

1897 I 188 

1897 ! 189 

1897 j 204 

1898 I 251 

1847 j 57 

1847 I 57 

1847 I 68 

1847 I 60 

1847 I 60 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIOATIONS. 



83 



Subterranean Forces, &c. (cont.) : — 

Secondary Phenomena of Elevation . 
Relative Displacement of Stratified Beds 
at a Fault 

Horizontal Pressure 

Folded Strata 

Inverted Strata 

Thickness of Fractured Portions of the 

Earth's Crust 
Contraction of the Earth's Crust 
Contemporaneity of Elevation 
Slow Movements of Elevation and De 
pression and their Relation to Par^ 
oxysmal Movements 

Sunspots 

Survey of Earthquake Theories (Mallet) . 

T. 

Theoretical Mountains .... 

Theories of Earthquakes (Mallet) . 

Theories of Volcanoes, Fundamental Hypo- 
theses (Hopkins) 

Thermometer and Earthquakes 

Thickness of Earth's Crust, Form and SoUdi- 
fication (Hopkins) 

Tidal Load at Ryde, I.W., Observations on 

Tidal Load Experiments in Pennsylvania Rail- 
way Tunnels 

Tidal Observations 

Time Curves for Earthquakes recorded during 
the four years ending Dec. 31, 1900 

Time Indicator 

Time of Origin of Earthquakes, Determina 
tion of (R. D. Oldham) 

Time Signals 

Timekeepers at Observatories and Earth 
quakes 

Times of Occurrence of Earthquakes (Mason) 

Tokio Earthquakes, 1882-1883 

Tokio Earthquake, June 20, 1894 . 

Tokio and Yokohama Earthquakes, Com- 
parison of 

Transit Rates of Wave Propagation (Mallet) . 

Transit Velocity of Waves, Experiments at 
Holyhead 

Tremors 



Micro-seismic Disturbances or Earth 
Pulsations 



Vol. 



Year 



1847 
1847 

1847 
1847 
1847 
1847 

1847 
1847 
1847 



1858 
1850 



Page 



T. S. 
T. S. 



XV. 
VL 



Preliminary 



Underground Observatory, Establishment of 
„ „ Notes on 

V. 
Velocity of Earthquake Propagation . . 
„ of Propagation of Earthquake 
Motion, Nature of (Dr. Knott, Lord 
Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh) 



1847 



1850 
1847 



1911 
1911 



1884 
1902 



1898 
1906 



1908 
1900 



1895 
1890 

1861 
1861 

1892 
1895 
1895 
1895 

1896 
1902 
1907 

1884 
1884 

1890 
1895 



62 

62 

63 

67 
68 



69 
71 



37 

2 



1886 , 429 
1850 — 



36 



70 
40 



39 
40 



251 

65 



255 
100 



60 
105 



111 
170 

219 
201 

109 
109 
139 
126 

210 
64 
93 

249 
250 

171 
170 



n2 



84 



REPORTS ON TIIK STATE OP SOIENf'E. — 1013. 



Vol. 



Velocities of Earthquake Waves 



of Earth Waves (Lord Kelvin) 
for Large Waves 

,, Preliminary Tremors . 
Highest Apparent, at which Earth 
Waves are propagated 
,, with which Waves and Vibrations 
are propagated on the Surface of 
and through Rock and Earth 
Vertical, Changes in, Observed at Tokio . 
,, Motion Diagrams (Omori) 
,, .Spring Seismograph Experiments 
Vibration, Effect of Ground on 

,, Produced in the Ground liy Trains 

(Paul) 
Vibrations, Artificially jiroduced (Palmer) 
,, of Locomotives, Rolling Stock, 

and Structures 
,, of Chimneys and Buildings . 

Vibratory Motions of Earth's Crust produced 

by Earthquakes (Hopkins) . 

Volcanoes and Earthquakes (Mallet) 
„ ChemicalTheory of (Hopkins) 

,, Form of Japanese .... 

„ Japanese, Position and Relative 

Age of 
,, Map of Japanese . 

,, Number of Japanese 

,, of Honshin and Kinshii 

,, of Japan . 

,, of Yezo 

,, Phenomena and Theories of (Hop 

kins) 
Volcanic Action, Theory of (Hopkins, Bischoff) 
,, Eruptions, Effect on People 

W. 

Wandering of Pendulums 



Water Level, Five Miles long (Mayet) 

Waves, Diurnal * . 

„ Frequency of Number in 20 Seconds 
,, of Earthquakes at Great Distances 
(Paschwitz) 
Wave Surface, Production of (Hopkins) . 
Weather and Earthquakes 
West Bromwich and Guildford, New Stations 
Wind and Earthquakes .... 



Yokohama, Earthquakes in (Pereira) 



S.J. 



Year Page 



1850 ! 37 

1851 312 
1900 61 



IIL 



T. S. 



T. S. 
T. S. 



XVL 



IIL 



1900 
1900 
1897 

1895 



1896 215 



64,70 

63 

172 

158 



T. S. IX. pt. 2 



S.J. 



S.J. 



IL 



II. 



T. S. 
S.J. 



XV. 
III. 



1902 
1885 


71 
363 


1889 


303 


1895 


181 


1847 


74 


1850 


26 


1847 


38 


1886 


427 


1886 


425 


1886 


418 


1886 


422 


1886 


420 


1886 


418 


1886 


419 


1847 


33 


1847 


5,39 


1886 


430 


1895 


99 


1895 


129 


1897 


176 


1884 


245 


1847 


88 


1850 


66 


1910 


46 


1850 

1 


73 


— 


— 



ON SEISM0L06ICAL INVKSTIGATIONS. 85 

XVI. Shinobu Hirota. 

Many in the Isle of Wight, and many more outside, will regret 
lo hear of the death of Shinobu Hirota, which sad event took place 
;it his home in Japan on April 24. He came to England in 1895, 
and within a week of his arrival the seismograph which he brought 
with him was at work at Shide. To convince those who had doubts 
as to the possibility of recording an earthquake which had originated 
even so far away as our antipodes and to corroborate whatever records 
might be obtained at Shide, a second instrument was installed at 
Carisbrooke Castle. To look after this Hirota had, wet or fine, a 
daily walk of four miles. The fact that these two instruments gave 
similar records and also that from a single record we could tell the 
distance from which a megaseism had oi'iginated, naturally attracted 
some attention. Directl}' it was shown tliat certain sub-oceanic dis- 
turbances had interrupted cables, Colonies desirous of knowing the 
cause of these sudden isolations from the rest of the world set up 
seismographs. This was the commencement of the British Association 
co-operation of seismological stations. To bring this into being Hirota 
played an active part. He knew personally many of the directors, 
and gave instruction to their officers. In practical seismometry 
he made many innovations, some of which have rendered instruments 
more sensitive. His multiplying levers made of grass stems gathered- 
I'rom ' bents ' give pointers exactly one-third the weight of their 
equivalent in aluminium and yet twice if not three times as stiff. It 
was by using these that we got at Bidston the first record of rock 
deformation due to tidal load. In the workshop he was a good all- 
round workman, and in the Observatory office he kept most careful 
records. For photographic work he held a gold medal from the Isle 
of "Wight Photographic Society. Above all this, his sharp eyes would 
find in a seismogram two records where at other stations only one 
had been discovered. 

In view of the great attention and large sums which have been 
spent, particularly in foreign countries, on the new seismological 
ileparture, I feel it my duty to give recognition to an assistant pioneer 
in these new studies. His work is embodied in annual Seismological 
lieports for the last seventeen years and twenty-six Circulars, being 
tlie records received from obsei-vatories. His chief work at Shide was 
lo assist in working up an absolutely new branch of geophysics, which 
lias received recognition throughout the world. He died at the age 
of forty-three. 

XVII. John Milne. 

The above Report was, as stated in the heading, drawn up by the 
Secretary of the Committee, and in correcting the proof alterations 
have been made as sparingly as possible. 

It falls to the lot of the Chairman to add a paragraph recording the 
sudden removal of the mainstay of the work. John Milne died, with 
but a few days' warning, on July 31. This is not the time or place 
for an adequate account of his life and work ; but it may fitly be recalled 
that since he became Secretary of this Committee in 1895, seismology 



86 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

has become a new science, largely owing to his own initiative. During 
twenty years' residence in Japan he became acquainted with earthquakes 
as disasters, and devoted himself to the study of them at close quarters, 
with a view to preventing loss of life. On his return to England he 
looked for a place where these studies at close quarters might be con- 
tinued on minor disturbances, and Shide was selected after consultation 
with Professor J. W. Judd, F.E.S., then Chairman of this Committee. 
But almost simultaneously the possibility of detecting large earthquakes 
at a distance was realised ; at once Milne seized the new opportunity ; 
he devised a simple instrument for collecting such distant records, and 
stimulated the establishment of stations equipped with this instrument 
scattered over the globe, especially in British territory. Their records 
were sent to him at Shide, and he gave them information in return 
which maintained their interest and enthusiasm. The results are 
embodied in the annual reports of this Committee, in which the growth 
of a new department of knowledge can be traced. Facts about the 
structure of our globe are now familiar which were not only unsuspected 
in themselves when Milne began work, but to which it was not sus- 
pected that we had the means of access. Milne was cordially recog- 
nised, at the last meeting of the International Seismological Associa- 
tion, as the pioneer in their discoveiy. 

Such a man cannot be replaced. At a meeting of the Committee 
held on September 10, 1913, it was determined that the vvork he had 
organised should for the present be carried forward as nearly as possible 
on the same lines as before. Mr. J. H. Burgess, who has for some 
years past been assisting Professor Milne at Shide (especially since 
the departure of Shinobu Hirota for Japan last year), will carry on 
the routine, under the general direction of the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee. Professor Perry has accepted nomination as Secretary of the 
Committee, as a purely temporary expedient, which will allow of full 
consideration of a successor. It will not be easy to raise funds for 
the proper continuation of the work, even on the present lines, since 
Professor Milne himself subsidised the work to an unknown amount ; 
but this provision of funds is under consideration. 

The following resolution was passed by the General Committee of 
the British Association on September 17: — 

' That this Committee desires to put on record its deep sympathy 
with Mrs. Milne, and its profound sense of the loss which 
seismology, and especially British seismology, has sustained 
in the death of John Milne. As Seci'etaiy of the Committee 
from 1895 to his death, he secured the establishment of half a 
hundred observing stations scattered over the face of the earth ; 
he organised a co-operative scheme of work among them and 
incorporated the results of it in a series of Keports of this Com- 
mittee which have revolutionised the science, if indeed they 
may not rather be said to have created it. ' 



ON THE TABULATION OF BRf=!SEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 87 



The ftirthcr Tahidation of Bessel and other Functions. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill (Chair- 
man), Professor J. W. Nicholson (Secretary), Mr. J. E. 
AiREY, Professor L. N. G. Filon, Sir George Geeenhill, 
Professor Alfred Lodge, and Professor A. G. Webster. 

[Plates II., III., and IV.] 

The grant of 30/. given to the Committee during tlie past year has been 
expended on the calculation of the ElHptic Function Tables, according to 
the scheme of Sir George Greenhill approved by the Association. The 
Tables of these functions, printed in the present report, are accompanied 
by some graphs, and by a further explanation prepared by Sir George 
Greenhill. One of these Tables is given only in a skeleton form in the 
present report. 

The Committee desires reappointment, with a further grant of 30Z. 
during the coming year. It is proposed that this should be expended 
mainly on the further calculation of the I, Y, and K Bessel Functions, as 
the Secretary has received several requests for such Tables from scientific 
workers during the past year. The remainder of the approved scheme of 
work on the Elliptic Function Tables does not require much expenditure 
for the present. 

Mr. Airey has completed his Tables of the Neumann Fimctions or 
Bessel Functions of the second kind, for an argument a;=0-00 to a:=15-26, 
at intervals of 0-01. The functions are of order zero and unity, and the 
Tables can be made a basis for the accurate calculation of the functions 
of higher orders. The Committee desires to point out that this very 
complete and important Table is entirely the work of Mr. Airey, and has 
been calculated without a grant. The necessity of a grant for the con- 
tinuation of this part of the work will be apparent. 

The Committee seeks the formal sanction of the Association for a 
change of name to ' The Committee for the Calculation of Mathematical 
Tables.' Its scope has been enlarged several times by the Association, 
and this change of name seems now to be necessary. 

The Committee desires to recommend that, in view of the scarcity of 
the past reports, more copies should be printed, and at the same time a 
smaller number placed on the tables at the meeting, so that the greater 
number of those printed should be placed in the hands of the Secretary 
for distribution. 



88 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SOIENOE. — ] 0] 3. 

' Part I. Elliptic Functions. 

Report III. on Tables of the Elliptic Function. 
Ten new tables have been calculated, for whicli the ratio of the periods 

K'^72' ^2' 2 v/2, 2v'3, 3, A, 3v/2, 3^/3, 4, 5. 

The square root of a rational number was chosen as the period ratio, 
so as to utiHse the singular modulus of the elUptic function which arises 
in the theory of Complex Multiplication, and thence obtain an independent 
numerical check. 

The table of the period ratio K'/K = v/3 and modular angle = 15° 
has been printed already ; also of K/K' = \/3, 6 = 75° ; and thence the 
table for K/K'=-2v/3 or 3v/3 was derived hy the quadric or cubic 
transformation. 

The table for 






was calculated by a quadric transformation of K = 2K', given in 
Keport II., and it could have been calculated immediately from K = K' 
by a quartic transformation; and K = 5K', sin 2^ =(2 sin 18°)'- was 
calculated by a quintic transformation of K =K'. 
A sketch of the table for 

K = 7K', .sin 26= (^^ + ^.^^^l^^y\ i/. + ^.'=^^^2, 

is ,sul)mitted, oljtained from K=K' by a transformation of the seventh 
order, with a view of showing the shape of the curve for E (r), D (r), A (r) 
in a penultimate form, when the modular angle is undistinguishable from 
a right angle. 

Curves of the function E (r), D (r), A (/•) are given in the figures to show 
the change of shape as the modular angle 6 increases from 0° to 90°. 

It will be observed that these curves are featureless for 6 up to 15°, 
and even to 45°, showing that the elhptic fimction does not require tabula- 
tion for a modular angle much below 45°, as E(r), D(r), A(r) may be re- 
placed by a circular function formula within the limits of accuracy of tlie 
four significant figures required in a practical problem. 

But in the important cases which arise in physical applications of a 
modular angle in the last degree of the quadrant it will be noticed that 
the curve of a function preserves a definite character in a penultimate 
form, even when the modular angle is imdistinguishable from a right 
angle, provided the period ratio is as!3igned. 

The tabulation must be abandoned here which takes the modular 
angle as a parameter of the function ; and the period ratio K/K', or else 
Jacobi's q = exp( — ttK'/K), must be adopted instead, as the parameter of 
a table. 

To ensure the accuracy of a transformation formula employed in the 
calculation of a table the check values were apphed at the beginning and 
end, r— and 90 ; half-way, at bisection, where r=45 ; and then at tri- 



ON TITR TABin.ATTO.V OF BESSES AND OTHER FUNCT[ONS. 89 

section, r=30, 60 ; and at qmnquesectiou, when possible, where r=l8, 
36, 54, 72 ; in accordance with the formulas of Report I., pages 6, 7, which 
provide an algebraical numerical value to contrast with the number 
obtained by the expansion of a g' series, or else by the formula of trans- 
formation. 

These check values can be assigned for a singular modulus, and are 
given as they arise in the calculation of a table, and entered at once on 
the sheet of numbers to serve as standard points of reference in the same 
way as the cyclotomic values in a table of the circular function. 

Thus in all cases we have the check values — 

E(0)=0, D(0)==1, A(0)=0, 
E(90)=0, D(90)=J-,, A(90)=l; 

E(4G)-^ 7', D(4r.)-.(^)' Am=^{^^^\ tan ^(45)^^^,^0(90). 

The trisection and quinquesection foi'mulas are given on pages 6, 7, 
Report I., and at full length in the ' Phil. Trans.,' 1904, pages 261, 264 ; 
and they can be quoted as required in the check of a table. 

Thus the new table for K'IK=-^2, K=^2-l=sm 24°-47, required 
the g' series formulas for a complete tabulation ; and it was checked at 
trisection by taking fc=v/3+s/2. 

The table for K/K'— \/2, k=^2-1, can be derived by the second 
quadric transformation, and checked at trisection by 6:=n/3 — \/2. 

Another quadric transformation gave K/K'=2^2, and here 
?,•-':=( ^/2+l) (2+v/3) for tiisectiou. 

Any function, sucli as A(/'), may be distinguished as regards the period 
ratio by writing it 



('4). 



and the formulas of the second quadric transformation are written 

K 



4'4H.4).;|l 



(-■4)- 



:(..,^,) 






d(2,,|) 



90 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



So also for the second cubic transformation, requiring in going from 
K/K' to 3K/K', the formulas can be written, putting for simpUcity A(r) 
for A(r, K/K'), . . . , 

A if 3K/K') - A (r)3 P (^0, K'/K)^ / D {r^ A (eCK'/Krn 

D(r,3K/K)-D(») |_1 + p (^p g ^qq^ ;g^./£^)2j 

A/ N -D/ ^ n/ N A (60, KVK)^ 
A(r) B(r) C(r) ^ )« ' i^,' ' 



ME (r, 3K/K') = 3E (r) + 2/c 



D (r, 3K/K') 



B (60, K'/K)^ 



M= 



1+cnJK 
1-cn IK 



In this way the table was obtained of 

At the trisection check 
M=6= V3^-^i;'^-^=2V3 sin 75°, 3(^/3+^2), 3(^3 -y2), . . . 

In deriving K = 5K' from K = K', the formulas of the quintic trans- 
formation were 

Mr 5)-A(r).^p(36)' + ^W'^(^^n [5(72) D(,)^ A(72)n 
^ ' '^>-'^^^> LD(36)2^ A(r)2 D(36)2j LD(72^ ^ Mr)'' 0(72)^] 

■^^ ' '' ^' L DW B(36)-^J L D('-)' B(72)'^J 



ME(r, 5) = E(r) + 2E(2r) + 



A(2r) 
'D(0)D(2r) 



— A(r)^ , A(36)^ 

D(r )^"^B(36)^ 

, , A(r)2 A(3^)2 

_ ^D(r)'^-B(36p 

A(r)2 A(72)2- 

I p{rY "*" B( 72p 

J A(r)"2 A(72)2 



D(r)2 B(72)2_J 



_ 1+^^^K 1 + en f K ^ ^5 _ 2_ 
l-cn|K l-cn|K 



ON THE TABULATION OF BBSSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 91 



A quill quesection test can be applied here of tlie formulas on page 7, 
Eeport I., by taking 

c - 1 = 64 (sin 18°)-^ = 2 {^'-Y = 5y 5 - 11, 

So also for K=7K' from K=K' ; the transformation formulas would be 
f3Go)2 ^ D(r)2 A(^«-&)2- 



A{ry D( 






3G 0)2-1 

D(r)2 A(^^)n 
i(r)2 D(A4-0)2j 

V . ; V ; ^ -r -^^^^2 B(if^)n 

n , A(r)2 A(^-] 
L ^ D(r)2 B(^fi^)2j 

fi 4- M^' Aizizin 

L ^ D(r)-^ B(i|^)2j 



ME(r,7)=B(r) + 3E(r). 



+ 



A{2r) ^ 
D{0)D(2r) 



D(r)2"+'B(-Lf'-t)2 



1 + 



A(r)2 A(i4ii) 



2 + 



A(r' 
D(r)2 



A(ii^fi)^ 



D(r)2 B(ifi)2 



1 + 



~A(r)2 A(^l-'^)2 



D(r)2 B(^fo-)'' 
A(r)2 
D(r)2 



+ 



B(A4 0)2 



^ D(r)2 B("^ii)2_J 



M^ 



l+cnjK l+cn|K l+cnyK 
1— cnfK ' 1— cn^K 1— cnVK' 



The calculation has been made at r=4:5, . . . , so as to show the 
general shape of the curve of the elHptic function of penultimate 
character. 

Some appKcations of the ElHptic Function Table were mentioned in 
Report II., p. 7, including the potential of a spherical bowl, which can be 
given by cil-\-r'il' instead of the expansion in a series of spherical har- 
monics, as in Maxwell's ' Electricity and Magnetism,' II. §694, where it is 
denoted by P ; and then 

Pr = era + c^', leading to ^(Pr) = cfi, as in §695. 
dr 



92 



IlEPORTS ON THK STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



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ON TILE TATllTLATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTION,^. 



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94 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 



IT. 



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II, 



ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 



95 



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96 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



III. 





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98 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 



IV. 























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1 



IV. ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 



99 



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100 



UKPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 



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OOt-CO ■* CO (M 0051- 



ososoi 0.0503 050505 S 00 CO 9g 9S SS 9SE;:&: 
00 CO 00 oooooo oooooo oooooo oooooo 00 CO QO 



CO-* N 
00 00 00 



-t-iH (MCOOO »— 105 



OrHrH OCOO COi-HCO t-Cltl ICOOO 

coco-* (M05t- -^i-lt- C0O3-* 00^ "O 

0<-^0'^ coco^* lococo --—. ,^ — ~ 



t-cocn OiHC-i co-^io 

■00O5 i-((MCO -*lOCD 



o 05 on 
t-t-t- 

CO t-00 
t-00 05 
iH iH rH 

ooo doo 



.-H Utli-IIM 



Ttl^t 



00 00 00 

t— I— t o 

(M 05 CO 

OO lO CO 



O CO 00 f— CO t- 



t-CO >0 CO(M O 
in N C<I (n CT (N 
lO »0 lO lO IC »0 lO »0 lO 



05co^ oiMio -*in-* 

00 -^ <M CO O O CD CO 05 



) t- O 05 kO t- OOt-O 

'inira i-tcooo oocoim 
>CO(M oocooo coooco 



)-*0 cot--* O-Htl 



O 00 O CO O CO O CO G5 



05 05 03 03 00 CO 



CO rH ^ OOOIM TfCOCO 



> 00 CO CO 05 



t-COCO COCOCO t-fflt- 

OOt-lO CO O CD 05 I-H 00 

cqcoci i-i-^rH -1<0(M 

•::5cooo oooocrs 0(Min 

050505 OS0505 OOO 

o 1-1 (M co-*ira t-cx)05 



rH t- -r}* 00 CO 05 lO t— rH 

05 -* O CO O >0 C3 CO 00 

0OCOC5 lOCOCl Cl-*t- 

O rH T-H (M CO Tjf lOCDt- 

O rH (M CO Tt< in CO t- 00 

rH rH rH rH i-H rH rH rH rH 

dcbo 666 666 



N 05 00 00 05 rH 
t-CO OO (M 00 t- 



lO (M 00 

S8^ 

OCO lO 



ooo ooo rHrHrH 



•NCO O rH CO ONCO 



lOco-DH CO in CO Qow* cocom 



rH 05 CO CI CD OO 



00 CO CI 

CO rocj 



•-tOTCi CT CO CO 



lO OS rH 
t- rH 05 

-* rH 00 



rH rH (M C^ CO CO CO CO 

666 666 666 



^ CO OO 

6 6 6 



)(M CO -t lO c 



g CO (^a 05 (M e-1 



iS s 



05 o CO 00 CD 'O 00 e-i 



rHrHrH C1(M(M (NCOCO COCO-fl< -*"*■* •^<OlC 



O 05 t- CCltlCO 



00 00 00 
t-T)< rH 
O CO'tO 
rH CO rH 



t-t- t- 

00 in CI 

00 rH -r(< 

CO (N t- C^ t-CO 



C5 CO CO O t- - 

CO 05IM in t- c 



-*usco t-aoo> OiHN eti-fiti «t-oo 



ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 



JOl 





00 I- CO 

CO CO CO 


m ■* CO 
CO CO CD 


IM >H Q 
CO COCO 


aooi- 
mmm 


CD m-^ 
mmm 


COIN iH 

mmm 


O Oj 00 

m-<)i ^ 


t-co m 


•^ 




-rClOl- 
C0 03(M 
00 00 05 
CO S 03 
COOL- 
QOCOt- 

CO COCO 


OOOSr^ 

m oo<M 

m OS o 
CM in 02 

in(M 05 
(M t-i-H 

-f COCO 
coco CO 


<M ■* m 

m qO rH 
O 0>H 

(N moo 

IN (M rH 

CO CO CO 


t-oo ® 

-* t-O 

©coco 

sss 

eococo 


m OS-* 

Od GO OO 

e<i<NiN 


2-7929335 
2-7402366 
2-6875398 


Tt< IN 05 
CO 00 IN 

com m 

(NININ 


2-4767523 
2-4240555 
2-3713586 


^ 
bi 




fH C5 IT] 

r-iOil- 

i-c6cd 

CO 00 00 

'r> 00 fH 

CO iO 00 

<» t-co 

cq (M (N 

666 


0-275539 86-51 
0-286394 86-30 
0-297222 86-08 


m o-^ 

00 CO CO 

in mm 

00 00 CO 
00 i-H I- 

sss 

CO 00 OJ 
O i-H CN 
CO COCO 

666 


0-340204 85-07 
0-350855 84-78 
0-361450 84-47 


m iH m 

rHOOTl" 

■*cocb 

00 00 00 


t- 1- m 

ppiN 
CO IN IN 

00 GO 00 


fH mi- 

p CO 00 
■H rH 6 
00 00 00 


t-m rH 
CO OOCO 

66os 

CO t-t- 


-S- 




C] -D IN 

IN IN IN 

t-00 OS 

eococo 
666 


rH 00 fH 
HI OS CO 
INrJ<CD 
eococo 

666 


fH L-CD 
IN CD 00 
L—CD -^ 

eococo 
666 


miNO 

CO os-gi 

rH IN 6 

eoiM(N 
666 


H 




CO lO t- 
-f -^ CO 
CO 00 CO 

■* Tf •* 


0-* t- 

(M 1-1 m 

OCO CD 
CO COIN 

■^ -^ ^ 


OCO o 
CD CO 00 
CO CD I— 


03IN m 

O) O) 00 

eococo 


o m CO 

t-oco 
t-t-p 


-* OO OS 
IN OS^ 

oom 

m 00 Q 
m •* ■* 

CO CO CO 


I- COL- 

IN m t- 

pNfH 

CO CO CO 


OCO CD 
(N rH CO 

III 
COCO IN 






sii 

CO in CO 

COVO-* 
00 00 00 

666 


t-CDIN 
tH 05 t- 

00 00 00 

666 


CO CD m 
m m CO 

■^ rl OD 
03 00 CD 

666 


OOOO 

00 o m 

t-OO t- 

•<S< O CO 

m Tf IN 
I- 1- 1- 
666 


CO t-iH 
IN -*CO 

m fH CD 

IN 00 CO 

666 


CO CO m 

fH OS 05 

comco 

CO CO CO 

666 


t-iNm 

COIN OS 
CO t-t— 
■* OS-"* 
(N O OS 

CO CD m 
666 


0-*r)< 

mco CO 

00 OS OS 
OS ^ OS 
l-CO-<lt 

mmm 
666 


05 




^ (N t- 
ipco 00 

•* CD CO 
00 -5 lO 
<M (M N 

666 


coco lO 

00 CD O 

(NmiM 
666 


iHOrH 
f-H 00 rH 

m m GO 
666 


iH m rH 
0-* i-H 

OlIN CD 

^cot- 
coco CO 

666 


00 00 iH 

eo-*^ 
666 


OCDCO 
CD OS-* 

CO •># CD 

666 


rH Osm 

p m OS 

OCDCO 

CD o m 
^ "^ m 
666 


O CD CO 
(M OOS 

omos 

(MCO-* 

mmm 

666 




r-1 OCO 
COffirH 

rH lO O 

>o in CO 


00 o> a> 

o t-.-l 

CD r— rH 

m o CO 

CD t-t-- 

A rH rH 


i-co CO 

(N 05IN 
CD IN rH 

tH l-CO 
00 CO Oi 


53 00 IN 

Oi m r-l 
05 p rH 
rH CI 6l 


<3s IN oo 

00^ O 
fH IN CO 
IN ff'l N 


mco o 
mco IN 

00 t-t- 
1;- -^ iH 

CO -^ m 

(NININ 


T)<H< GO 
OSCD O 
1— OS IN 

00 m CO 
m p t- 

CSI IN Cl 


lOH<CO 

iNOeo 
p p p 

(N iM CI 


O 




rHTt< t- 
CO CD tH 

o in t- 

COQOIN 

in in in 
666 


<M 00 in 
00^ O 

mm 00 

00 00 00 

m m m 
666 


CD O ■* 
CO IN CO 

CO ro CD 
t-mco 

CO 00 00 

m m m 
666 


iH t-O 

mco 00 
•^ m 05 

mmm 
666 


IN IN m 
CO iH m 
l-O t- 

CD fH Tt< 

CO CD m 
mmm 
666 


m CD CO 
coos t- 
oooco 

00 OCO 

mmm 
666 


OOCO IM 
rH CO t- 

mco 00 

mmm 
666 


CQOQ 

mo-* 

rH C^ O 

iii 

666 


fs. 




oot-o 

rH op -* 

into 00 
mm in 


CO OrH 

o m OS 

6 -H cq 
CD CD CD 


CDTtI t- 

iNm t- 


■* m.H 

OSOrH 

t-di 6 
coco t- 


IN 00 OS 
.H oos 

fHININ 
t- t-t- 


CO-"* m 
t-t-t- 


comrH 

rH 00 m 
CO COIr- 

t-t- 1- 


T)( Tf rH 
rH l-p 
00 00 6 
t- t- t- 


-9- 




ill 

m-Hco 

rH N N 


meoN 

C0«^ 


OOSOO 

miN gi 
m 00 o 


co mco 

CQ OSCD 
05 05 
COIN C5 

coco 00 
CO 00 CO 

p CD t;- 


g?8§ 

OS OS qp 

COCO o 
tr-p op 


CO CD m 
CO o t- 

osiN m 

S588 

rH(N(N 


t-t- CO 

GomM 
t-oco 

iHrHIM 
IMNIN 


C» 00 CD 
-*rHOO 

COCO m 

OS CD CO 
moo rH 
CD rH t- 
CQCOCO 
INININ 


5 

fe 










rHrHrH 








m CD t- 

(N(M(N 


00 050 

M CI CO 


rHINCO 
COCO CO 


HI in CO 
CO CO CO 


t-OO OS 

MCO CO 


§55! 


CO Him 
•*■>*■* 


T 



102 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 



VI. 



CO „ 



m 

m 
-< 

H 

o 

I— I 
EH 

o 



> 



2 9J95£: wo-^ coc^i-h oosqo t-couj 

0> 00 00 00 00 QO 00 00 00 OO OOb-t- t- t- t- 



-t-t- t-t-co 



Tjoieo ooffqt- ihcoc 

lO Q CO rH t- !M QO CO < 

O O 05 050000 t-t-C 

00 <M lo oscot- t-H m c 



■^OOCO t-CTCD i-t >0 O "^OOCO 
■<T Oi iO O CO t-H t— (MOO CO 00 -^ 
CO lO lO m^^ COCOW (M i-H .H 



CD02<N -^COt- OOOSO O 05 00 



■*00<NI COO-* t-Ot 

05 00 00 Ir-t^Cp *^ ^ ■■ 

050505 050505 OSOSOi Ci Oi Ci 050500 OOOOOO 000000 

000000 OOOOOO OOOOOO OOOOOO OOOOOO OOOOOO ooooco 



i-i(Meo cocoiM 

OOO QOO 



) OOTJH 00 rHlM rH 1 



0>— 00 cot)<c 



> 05 05 00 00 t- CO -^ CO t-l O W3 IM O ■■ 



iiocD t-c»05 ocqco 

IIOCO t-C005 rH(MCO 



ICO-^ lOCOCD t-O50O 
< lO CO t-OOOS OCOIM 



OOO OOO OOO 



OCO-* 
C^ lO 00 

CO locg 

05 00 tr- 
io 10»0 


00 OJ ># 


t-U5CO 

OOCO O 

t-C0O5 
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OlO^S 
inco t- 

■* 05C0 
CO(M<M 


05 OOCO 
05<M-* 
CO IN CO 


lO 00^ 
OCOCO 
I-— 05 f— 1 
05 00 00 


ost-o 
m 05C0 

t-co »o 


t-t-t- 


t-t- 1- 


t- t-t- 


t- t-t- 


t-t-t- 


CO CO CO 


coco CO 



M 


o 
o 

o 
p 


0-999664 
0-998656 
0-996979 


0-994636 
0-991631 
0-987971 


(M T)< CO 

CO ,-1 CO 

CO t-rH 
CO OOCO 
00 t-t- 

05 05 05 

666 


05 in 05 

05 1— I t— 
COO(M 
COCO lO 
05C105 

666 


C5 05 05 

666 


O5O00 
1-1 05CO 

loco i- 

t- t-CD 

rH O CS> 
05 05 00 

666 


■*COtr- 

CD rH rH 
ira-* (M 
00 t-CO 
00 00 CO 
666 




6 


IMOOIO 

CO CO in 

05 05 05 
t-lO CO 

8S§ 

666 


g?2g 

coS -1< 
OOO 

666 


ill 

OOO 

666 


gag 

666 


05IM in 

OrH IM 
f-l rH rH 
666 


rH oeo 

05CD^ 

IC lO lO 

co-5j< lO 
666 


t-QO in 

■^CDrH 

in »o CO 
CO t-oc 

iH iH rH 

666 


Q 


rH 


05 t--»l< 
-* 05-* 

OOO 


(M C50 
CO t-CO 

gS8 


05 t-M 

Orfi 00 
CO lo o 

t-02(M 
OOrH 


lOCDO 

05 O-^lt 
■>* OOfH 
rHrHCT 


U5 O t- 

COIMCO 

oocq lO 
(M(MCO 


cp^^ 


CO(M O 

^IM 05 

lOinp 


















H 


8 
8 

o 
o 
6 


i-H-^irq 
t-Ob- 
(MrHO 

a 00 CO 

666 


-<* M lO 
t-Tt* CO 
t-00 00 
(N «— O 
05CO 00 
1-1 (NOl 

666 


00 O CO 
CO t-00 
00 (M O 
1-1 OCD 
Cq CD 05 
CO CO CO 

666 


r-ITtf t- 
1-CDt)I 

ill 
-* -^ -* 

666 


coco 05 
iH CO(M 
1-1 CO U5 
lO lO lO 

666 


rH 05>0 
(M t-O 
t-0(M 

05Tj<CD 
CD 00 05 

iioin lO 
666 


OrH CO 
00 t-tM 

3518 
8gg 

666 


•0- 


"i 


opeo-^ 

^ 05 CO 

cocd6 


1-1 -^N 

l;-pCO 
CO t-6 

rH i-icg 


■* 00r)( 
lOCO t- 
CO CD 6 
(M(M <M 


1-1 00-* 

i^-ioco 
(M ira ob 

CO CO CO 


QCON 

pop 


00 CO 00 
cocpi?- 
00 6(N 

•^lOlO 


eq t-ei 

00 t-co 
•>#6ob 
*o »o lo 




o 
o 
o 
o 
6 


^ 05C0 

CD(N 00 
OrHiH 

666 


(N OOCO 
(M t-CO 
coffq t- 
1-1 cq <M 

T)<OCD 
(MCOCO 

666 


(35-* O 
00-* O 

M 00 5 
TJi-^Ji lO 

666 


CO 1-1 1- 

>Or-l CD 

lo o-fl< 

■^ IC »o 
OCOIM 
CO CO t- 

666 


(M OOCO 
IM t-CO 

05C0 OO 
>0 CO CD 
OO -# O 
t-00 05 

666 


Oi-5l< o 
OD-^O 
(M t-(M 
t-t-00 

CD IM 00 
CJ500 
6rHrH 


COrH t- 

lOrHCO 
CDrH lO 
00 OS 05 
-* OCD 
iH (M <M 
rH rH rH 


^ 


o 


rHIMCO 


■>*U5CO 


t-00O5 


Oi-KM 
rH t-l 1-1 


CO-^lO 
IH r-tiH 


CO t-ao 


sss 



VI. 



ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 



103 





OOh-CD 

CO CO CO 


S3S 


(M i-IQ 


C» 00 t- 

in in in 


coin-* 
in in in 


CO (M rH 

m in in 


005 00 

inrn^ 


^^^ 


- 




0-243892 88-26 4-110978 
0-254931 88-13 4-050522 
0-265965 88-00 3-990067 


3-929611 
3-869156 
3-808700 


•"foico 
'*< ooco 
N t-co 

00 t-t- 

CO CO CO 


00(M t- 

t-iri CD 

00 -tl 03 
CO CD in 

coo-* 
inin^ 
CO CO CO 


rH cog 

in in ^ 

00 (MCD 
COCO (N 
CO CO CO 


^ 05C0 

-* ooco 

rH CO(M 

-fi coco 

0-* 00 

CO CO CO 


00(M l- 
t-(M CO 

t-co 00 
(M M >-l 

CO(M(M 


rH^ O ' 

rH in O 

00 t-t- 
(M(M(M 

1 






CON t- 
CO Ir-in 

00 00 GO 


00 GO 00 


CO CO rH 
op CO-* 

00 00 00 


OOTtI 00 
rH (35CO 

6 invra 

00 00 CO 


rH(MrH 
^ rH 00 

inin-^ 

00 00 00 


00 CO CO 

'^ 'T* '\" 
-ct( ^ CO 

00 00 <«5 


t-in o 
CO (35in 

CO(M (M 
00 00 00 


■©■ 




t-ooco 

00 05 05 

Oi a c^ 

CO t-00 
t-OO 05 
(M(M(M 

666 


O 00 00 

00 -1< Oj 
C3 C5 00 
O Oi-I 
otqco 
CO coco 
666 


COffq rH 
CO CO CO 

666 


rH t-CD 

CO t-in 

-*(M O 

in CD t- 

t-00 05 
CO CO CO 

666 


CCIrHin 
t-00 Ol 

666 


OOCO (35 
00 05 rH 
CO rHCO 
(350<5 

666 


rHCO-# 

CO OCO 

05(M CO 
O rH rH 
t-00 03 

666 






COrHiN 
lO 05 lO 
I— OrH 
lO CD CO 

-* eo(M 
COCO 6 


00 CO in 

lO(M t- 

05 lOOO 

W3 m th 
1-1 o en 
66»o 


CO CTi O 
(M 00 05 

^(M -H 

opi^cp 
in lo lo 


t-co oo 

■* t-03 

-* oico 
ooot- 
incoN 
in in in 


oo t-IM 

IM CO (35 
t- 05 rH 

in co(M 

rH (O (35 

inin-i< 


O 05C0 


00 005 

rHrH-* 

5cO(M 


in (35 CO 
05t-C0 
p C33QO 
Tt( CO C(5 


o 




t-coeq 

lO CO-* 
t-OS 00 
02 COCO 
rhCOlM 
00 00 00 

666 


00 lOCD 
rH O 00 

00 c-t- 

666 


in CO Id 

oo CO(M 
O-tlCD 
QOCO oo 

CO loco 
t-t-t- 
666 


CO CO CO 
t-in t- 

in CO cs 

CO 00 (M 
(MOO 
t- t-CD 

666 


CO t-co 

CD Tjl -:)( 
•^ CO ^ 
t~rH CO 

t-co -* 
CD CD CD 

666 


-* (M t- 
t-CD (M 
CO in t- 

O^ 00 

666 


(MCOCO 
<35 t-(35 
00 0(M 
(M t-rH 

00 CD in 
in in in 


t-in(M 

COrHin 

in 05CO 
in OS'S" 

COrHO 

in in in 
666 


.li 




(M •* CO 
05g0 

CTO iH 

666 

1^ O 00 
rf 00 05 


1-1 t-lO 
Oi-ICO 
CO^ lO 
(M (M IM 

666 


ininm 

mcD 1-1 

CO C5 10 

lO t-o 

(M (M Cd 

666 


(N CO(M 
OCJ 00 

CO CO in 

CO CO o 
O rH(M 
COCO CO 

666 


CO^ 05 
CD t-05 
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CO CO o 

CO coco 
666 


00 rH t- 
CO CO ^ 

666 


rHOrH 
(M rH CO 
tHCOCO 
OOCO 00 

666 


rHCO(M 

CO 05in 
in ooco 

CO 00 "^ 
t- 00 O 

Tf tH in 
666 


M 




oco o 

CD rH C^S 


05 CO iH 

in-»<iM 

N N N 


t-t-co 
■* lo in 


t-(M (M 
T)< CO (35 
(M 05 GO 
(35 00 00 
CO t-00 
(M(M(M 


rH ooco 
CO CO (33 
OCO OO 
C5 O5 05 
(33 O rH 
(MCOCO 


t-(35 t- 

(35 CO c:3 

OrH(M 

cp-^ in 
CO CO CO 


o m 03 

t- t-05 

CD OCO 

CO"* CO 

CD t-cp 
CO CO CO 






t-COU3 

00 05 00 
t-CO iH 
■* t-OS 
(MIM IM 

CO COCO 

666 


Oi-ICO 
00 Q »0 
CO^ CO 
05 00 CD 
(N (N (M 
CD CD CO 

666 


in CO t- 
in ooco 

CO-* 00 
CO OS-* 
(M rt rH 

COCO CO 
666 


00 rH t- 

^ in 05 
666 


CO CO rH 

o -* in 

0(M ■* 

(JO oo t- 

m in m 
666 


(M ^ rH 
O CO 00 

S!n^ 
1(5 in m 
666 


CO coco 

t-5 (33 

crs o o 

CO CO(M 

in m m 
666 


o^co 

(M coco 
rH oo 

mm-* 
666 


fe 




00 in CO 

CO C3cp 

CO CO CO 


»o6i^- 

COCOCO 


t-t-O 

rHCO in 

66rH 
CO t-t- 


t-t-IM 

in in in 

(M CO"* 

t- t-t- 


in6t- 
t- 1- 1- 


t^ab6 
t-t- 1- 


^^3 
^§3 


■*coo 
mom 

rH (M (M 

00 GO 00 


•9- 




(MOO CO 

COCO-* 
rtrt iH 


CO 00 CO 
rH i-tCd 
1-4 t- CO 

in locp 


COrHb- 
inrH CO 
t-IM CO 
(M coco 
Olin rH 
CO t-00 
i-H rH rH 


(M GO CO 
(M t-co 

•* ^ in 
t-co o 

op (35 O 


c»:^o 
in in CO 

in rH t- 
OrH rH 

(M IM(M 


COrHt- 
in rH CO 
OOCO t- 
CO t- t- 
CO (35in 
(M (MCO 
(M(MIM 


CT ooco 

(M t-co 

00 00 (35 
rH t-co 

^■*in 

(M(M (M 


mco t- 

(M(M(M 


?■ 

fe 




s^ss 


lOCOt- 
(MCdCd 


oo oso 

(N<MCO 


CO CO CO 


CO CO CO 


t-00 (35 

CO CO CO 


i5!g 


^1!^ 


1 

o 



]04 



REPORTS ON THE STATR OP fOIRNOR. — 1013. 



vir. 



I + 



EH 

'^ 

O 
I— I 

EH 

O 





1 

O 


g 


03 00 t- 

00 00 00 


CO uti -^ 

00 00 00 


com rH 
00 00 00 


Q 03 00 

oo t-t- 


t-com 


•*cocq 

b-L- t- 


rH O 05 
t-t-CO 






in 

00 

CO 
CO 
<M 
CO 


N 03CO 

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2gc3 



VIT. ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEI- AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 



105 



)T+*CO fMrHO «»COt- COO"^ COC^r-J 
ScOCO cOCO^O lO«3iO I0i0»0 LO^OWj 



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9 233a ' ' 

T ~ ~ ^ C3 



106 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



VIII. 



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O 05 05 Oi O 00 00 
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0OCO-* (NOOO CDiraCO rHOt- lOCOrH Ot-lO COrHO 

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t--*(M Ot--* rH O CD -* rH GO COCOrH 00 lO CO O 00 ^ 



O rHCqcO ■*U5CO t-OOO OrHCd CO -^ US 



tOt-00 O QrH 



VIII. ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 107 



OOt-O lO^CO Wi-HO OJOOb- tDlO-* "N'T) 022 £:52I2 

S^S cooto C050C0 mmio w3>oio miraio lO'^Tti •^tjitji 



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03(Nt1I C01:-t- COOCO O CD iH "5 1- » 52 5S J2 



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inroco co«So i?(rq03 inioco :* ^h p "oo OOM s^JgJS 

CTrnS CDrHCO rHCDCO OiOOCO COOt- 3^=353 ^"Q!^ 2SSS 

l--CO-5< (MOt- '^JIQCD C<100Ttl OCDrH JtWOT !2;I^£ '^Zi^ 

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cot-00 cc^co O5Q00 eq 03 00 (mcoco ococo OSCOt;- 



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CO cococo cococo cococo ■^'#'3* ■^ -^ - 



108 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



IX. 



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IX. ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHEll FUNCTIONS. 100 



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110 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 





2 

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S°o5 



X. 



ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 



Ill 



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112 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



XI. 



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XI. ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 113 



to^'S 


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114 KEPOUTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— ] 913. 



PART II. BESSEL FUNCTIONS. 
See p. 115. 



7) 00 IX tD ' 




1 

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1 
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40 



Plate III. 
90 



e-^5°K-K' 



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■ ^y ^ ■ ^ — 7^ 



yy 



y y 
y y 
y y 

y y 
y y 



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/' — ;?T 



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^y^ 



40 



10 



0-9 



0-8 



07 



0-6 



5 



0-4 



0-3 



0-2 



01 



I 90 

\nA other Fimctions. 



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Plate IV. 




— o 

6 6 

tion of Bessel and other Ftcnctiom. 





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i 



ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 1 15 



Part II. Bessel Functions. 
Mr. Airey's Table. 

Tables of the Neumann Functions GrJ^x) and Ct,(x) or Bessel Fu clioJis 
of the Second Kind. 

Tables of the first solution y = J„{x) of Bessel's diffeiential equation 

dx' X ax \ x'l 

when n =Oancl ?i = 1 have been calculated by MeisseP from the ascending 
series 

JiW - 2 ~ 2^4 '^ 2^TPT6~ ■ ■ ■ 

to 12 places of decimals from x = 0-00 to x = 15-50 by the interval 0-01. 
For greater values of x than 15-50, these functions can be found from the 
semi- convergent expansions. 

It is possible, however, to use these semi-convergent series to deter- 
mine the values of Jo(a;), J,(x), etc., to 12 places of decimals' for values of 
X as small as 8. 

Tables of the second solution'' of BesseFs equation — viz. 

Y,{x), Y,(x), G,{x), G,{x) . etc.— 

are much less complete, and as these functions — Bessel functions of 
the second kind or Neumann functions, as they are sometimes called — 
are of considerable importance in their application to many physical 
problems, tables of Gg{x) and G^{x) have been calculated to seven places of 
decimals. 

Different writers have given different definitions of these second 
solutions. 

The Neumann cylinder function^ defined by 



Y„(,r) = ^ 



(2) - (1 + ^)5) + • • • - (log 2 - 7 - loge ^) Ju (t) J , 



2!- 

etc, differs from the G^i^) and Gi(x) function only by the factor -. 

' Gray and Mathews, Treatise on Bessel Functions, 1S95. 
- Archil', der Math. u. Physik. III. Reihe, XX., 1913. 

•* B. A. Smith, Messenger 0/ Mathematics, 26, 1897; Smith, Phil. Mag., 45, 1898 ; 
Aldis, Proc. Royal Society, London, C4, 1898-9. 
'' Nielsen, Theorie der Zylinderfunktionen, p. 12. 

I 2 



110 REPORTS ON TJfR STATE OP Sf'IRNOE.— 1913. 

On the otlier hand, the Neumann function"' Y^{x), etc., defined by 

xo fxV fxy 

Y„(a;) = Jo(x).log,=c+(|)-(l-f I)v2; + (l + i+*)l2i_. . . etc., 

are found readily from Gq (x), etc. by the relation 

Y„(x) = (log 2 - y) J„(x) - G„(a;). 

The following tables were calculated, with some slight corrections, from 
those already published,'^ by interpolation, first to fifths and then to 
halves. 

The values for .r =^ 001 to .r = 0-40 were found from the ascending- 
series, 



-(U^ = Uj-i^ 



,& 



. -(I.,g2-y- 



/(■) .i;(.i:), etc. 



2P 



To determine the value of Go{x) and Ct,(.«) for intermediate values of the 
argument, interpolation formula; may be used, such as 



and 



Go (X ± /.) ^ [ 1 - I' . . . ] G., {X) + [+ h + y G,(.T) 

g,(. + ^)=[it^^^^(i-|)...]g.(.)+[±^-J\..]g„(..). 

Neumann Functions or Bessel Functions of the Second Kind. Oo(.r) and Gi(.r). 



.V 


Go(.v) 


«i{-'-) 


.r 


Go(.r) 


VnU) 


001 


+4-7209587 


+ 1000261051 


0-20 


+ 1-6981963 


+5-2210521 


0-02 


+4-0274517 


+ 50-0452769 


0-21 


+ 1-6471663 


+4-9887552 


003 


+ 3-6214494 


+ 33-3951624 


0-22 


+ 1-5983499 


+4-7778488 


0-04 


+ 3-3330736 


H-25-0766778 


0-23 


+ 1-5515475 


+4-58,55201 


005 


+ 3-1090945 


+ 200902576 


0-24 


+ 1-50658.55 


1-4-4094258 


006 


+2-9258067 


+ 16-7694905 


0-25 


+ 1-4633116 


-1 4-2475986 


007 


+ 2-7705685 


+ 14-4002597 


0-26 


+ 1-4215915 


+4-0983739 


0-08 


+ 2-6358361 


+ 12-625.5419 


0-27 


+ 1-381,3067 


+3-9603349 


0-09 


+ 2-5167454 


+ 11-24701,37 


0-28 


+ 1-3423516 


+ 3-8322673 


0-10 


+ 2-4099764 


+ 10-14.56966 


0-29 


+ 1-3046317 


+ 3-7131248 


Oil 


+2-3131625 


+ 9-2458884 


0-30 


+ 1-2680624 


+ 3-6020011 


012 


+2-2245569 


+ 8-4971288 


0-31 


+ 1-2325676 


+3-4981072 


013 


+ 2-1428339 


+ 7-8644903 


0-32 


+ 1-1980784 


+ 3-4007530 


014 


+ 2-0669638 


+ 7-3230293 


0.33 


+ 1-1645327 


H-3-3093323 


015 


+ 1-9961309 


+ 6-8544580 


0-34 


+ 11318738 


+ 3-2233107 


016 


+ 1-9296778 


+ 6-4450632 


1 0-35 


+ 1-1000.501 


+ 3-1422149 


0-17 


+ 1-8670675 


+ 6-0843612 


0-36 


^- 1-0690145 


+ 3-0656245 


0-18 


+ 1-8078556 


+ 5-7642001 


0-37 


(-1-0387238 


+ 2-9931649 


019 


+ 1-7516700 


H-5-4781456 


0-38 


+ 1-0091385 


+ 2-9245007 



^ Gray and Mathews, Bessel Functions, p. 14. 

^ Report of the Mathematical Tables Committee: British Association, 1911, 
pp. 73-78. 



J 



ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 117 
Neuinaim Functions — continued. 



0-39 

0-40 

0-41 

0-42 

0-43 

0-44 

0-45 

0-46 

0-47 

0-48 

0-49 

0-50 

0-51 

0-52 

0-53 

0-54 

0-55 

0-56 

0-57 

0-58 

0-59 

0-60 

0-61 

0-62 

0-63 

0-64 

0-65 

0-66 

0-67 

0-68 

0-69 

0-70 

0-71 

0-72 

0-73 

0-74 

0-75 

0-76 

0-77 

0-78 

0-79 

0-80 

0-81 

0-82 

0-83 

0-84 

0-85 

0-86 

0-87 

0-88 

0-89 

0-90 

0-91 

0-92 

0-93 

0-94 

0-9.5 

0-96 



Go(.r) 

+0-9802222 
+0-9519412 
+0-9242645 
+0-8971635 
+0-8706115 
+0-8445840 
+0-8190579 
+0-7940117 
+0-7694257 
+0-7452813 
+0-7215610 
+0-6982484 
+0-6753283 
+0-6527865 
+0-6306094 
+0-6087844 
+0-5872995 
+0-5661436 
+0-5453060 
+0-5247768 
+ 0-5045465 
+0-4846062 
+ 0-4649474 
+0-4455622 
+0-4264429 
+ 0-4075825 
+0-3889740 
+0-3706111 
+0-3524875 
+0-3345974 
+ 0-3169352 
+0-2994958 
+0-2822740 
+ 0-2652650 
+0-2484643 
+0-2318674 
+0-2154704 
+0-1992692 
+0-1832600 
+0-1674391 
+0-1518031 
+0-1363487 
+0-1210727 
+ 0-1059722 
+0-0910442 
+0-0762859 
+0-0616946 
+0-0472680 
+0-0330034 
+0-0188985 
+0-0049511 
-0-0088409 
-0-0224797 
-0-0359671 
-0-0493051 
-0-0624956 
-0-0755403 
I -0-0884409 



Gi(.v) 



+2-8593316 

+ 2-7973873 
+ 2-7384238 
+ 2-6822210 
+ 2-6285790 
+ 2-5773161 
+ 2-5282673 
+ 2-4812818 
+ 2-4362218 
+ 2-3929611 
+2-3513837 
+ 2-3113834 
+ 2-2728620 
+ 2-2357292 
+ 2-1999014 
+ 2-1653015 
+ 2-1318578 
+20995041 
+ 2-0681786 
+ 2-0378241 
+ 2-0083871 
+ 1-9798181 
+ 1-9520705 
+ 1-9251008 
+ 1-8988685 
+ 1-8733358 
+ 1-8484670 
+ 1-8242286 
+ 1-8005894 
+ 1-7775199 
+ 1-7549924 
+ 1-7329808 
+ 1-7114606 
+ 1-6904087 
+ 1-6698031 
+ 1-6496233 
+ 1-6298497 
+ 1-6104640 
+ 1-5914488 
+ 1-5727875 
+ 1-5544646 
+ 1-5364653 
+ 1-5187754 
+ 1-5013818 
+ 1-4842717 
+ 1-4674332 
+ 1-4508548 
+ 1-4345258 
+ 1-4184358 
+ 1-4025749 
+ 1-3869340 
+ 1-3715040 
+ 1-3562765 
+ 1-3412435 
+ 1-326.3972 
+ 1-3117303 
-1-1-2972359 
+ 1-2829072 



0-97 

0-98 

0-99 

1-00 

1-01 

1-02 

1-03 

1-04 

1-05 

1-06 

1-07 

108 

1-09 

1-10 

1-11 

1-12 

1-13 

1-14 

1-15 

1-16 

1-17 

118 

119 

1-20 

1-21 

1-22 

1-23 

1-24 

1-25 

1-26 

1-27 

1-28 

1-29 

1-30 

1-31 

1-32 

1-33 

1-34 

1-35 

1-36 

1-37 

1-38 

1-39 

1-40 

1-41 

1-42 

1-43 

1-44 

1-45 

1-46 

1-47 

1-48 

1-49 

1-50 

1-51 

1-52 

1-53 

1-54 



GoU-) 



-0-1011991 

-0-1138162 

-0-1262939 

-0-1386337 

—0-1508369 

-0-1629049 

-0-1748389 

-0-1866402 

-0-1983100 

-0-2098494 

-0-2212596 

-0-2325417 

-0-2436966 

-0-2547254 

-0-2656290 

-0-2764084 

-0-2870644 

-0-2975980 

-0-3080099 

-0-3183010 

-0-3284721 

-0-3385240 

-0-3484573 

-0-3582727 

-0-3679711 

-0-3775529 

-0-3870190 

-0-3963698 

-0-4056061 

-0-4147283 

-0-4237372 

-0-4326332 

-0-4414169 

-0-4500887 

-0-4586493 

-0-4670990 

-0-4754385 

-0-4836681 

-0-4917884 

-0-4997997 

-0-5077026 

-0-5154974 

-0-5231845 

-0-5307644 

-0-5382375 

-0-5456041 

-0-5528647 

-0-6600195 

-0-5670691 

-0-5740137 

-0-5808537 

-0-6875894 

-0-5942212 

-0-6007494 

-0-6071744 

-0-6134964 

-0-6197158 

-0-6258329 



Gi(x) 



+ 1-2687378 
+ 1-2547216 
+ 1-2408530 
+ 1-2271262 
+ 1-2135361 
+ 1-2000774 
+ 1-1867454 
+ 1-1736355 
+ 1-1604432 
+ 1-1474643 
+ 1-1345946 
+ 1-1218304 
+ 1-1091679 
+ 1-0966036 
+ 1-0841341 
+ 1-0717560 
+ 1-0594664 
+ 1-0472622 
+ 1-0351405 
+ 1-0230987 
+ 1-0111340 
+0-9992441 
+0-9874264 
+0-9756787 
+0-9639989 
+0-9523848 
+0-9408343 
+0-9293456 
+0-9179169 
+0-9065463 
+0-8952321 
+0-8839729 
+0-8727670 
+0-8616128 
+ 0-8505091 
+ 0-8394545 
+0-8284477 
+0-8174875 
+ 0-8065726 
+0-7957021 
+0-7848748 
+0-7740897 
+ 0-7633458 
+0-7526423 
+0-7419783 
+ 0-7313528 
+ 0-7207651 
+0-7102146 
+0-6997004 
+0-6892220 
+0-6787786 
+0-6683696 
+ 0-6579946 
+0-6476529 
+0-6373441 
+0-6270677 
+0-6168232 
, 4 0-6066102 



118 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OV SCIENCE. — 1913. 



Neumann Functions — con'binued. 



1-55 


Go(.r) 
-0-6318481 


Gi(.r) 


.r 


Go(.i') 


Gi(.r) 


+0-5964284 


2-13 


-0-8161870 


+0-0557487 


1-56 


-0-6377616 


+0-5862773 


2-14 


-0-8167024 


+0-0473427 


1-57 


-0-6435737 


+0-5761566 


2-15 


-0-8171340 


+0-0389723 


1-58 


-0-6492848 


+0-5660661 


2-16 


-0-8174820 


+00.306376 


1-59 


-0-6548951 


+0-5560054 


2-17 


-0-8177469 


; +0-0223391 


1-60 


-0.6604050 


' +0-5459743 


2-18 


: -0-8179289 


1 +0-0140769 


1-61 


-0-6658147 


+ 0-5359725 


2-19 


' -0-8180285 


+0-0058514 


1-62 


-0-6711246 


+0-5259999 


2-20 


j -0-8180460 


' -00023370 


1-63 


-0-6763348 


+0-5160561 


2-21 


-0-8179819 


' -0-0104881 


1-64 


-0-6814458 


+0-5061411 


2-22 


-0-8178364 


'■ -00186016 


1-65 


-0-6864578 


+0-4962547 


2-23 


-0-8176099 


-0-0266772 


1-66 


-0-6913710 


+ 0-4863967 


2-24 


; -0-8173029 


-0-0347145 


1-67 


-0-6961858 


+ 0-4765671 


2-25 


-0-8169158 


-0-0427132 


1-68 


-0-7009024 


+0-4667656 


2-26 


-0-8164488 


-0-0506730 


1-69 


-0-7055212 


+0-4569922 


2-27 


-0-8159025 


-0-0585936 


1-70 


-0-7100424 


+0-4472469 


2-28 


-0-8152771 


-0 0664747 


1-71 


-0-7144662 


H-0-4375296 


2-29 


-0-8145731 


-00743159 


1-72 


-0-7187930 


+0-4278403 


2-30 


-0-8137909 


-0-0821170 


1-73 


-0-7230231 


+ 0-4181789 


2-31 


-0-8129309 


-00898776 


1-74 


-0-7271567 


+0-4085454 


2-32 


-0-8119935 


-0-0975974 


1-75 


-0-7311941 


+0-3989398 


2-33 


-0-8109791 


-0-1052760 


1-76 


-0-7351356 


+ 0-3893622 


2-34 


-0-8098881 


-0-1129132 


1-77 


-0-7389814 


+0-3798125 


2-35 


-0-8087210 


-01205086 


1-78 


-0-7427319 


+0-3702909 


2-36 


-0-8074781 


-0-1280619 


1-79 


-0-7463874 


+ 0-3607974 


2-37 


-0-8061599 


-0-1355728 


1-80 


-0-7499480 


+0-3513320 


2-38 


-0-8047668 


-0-1430409 


1-81 


-0-7534141 


+0-3418948 


2-39 


-0-8032992 


-0-1504660 


1-82 


-0-7567860 


+0-3324859 


2-40 


-0-8017576 


-0-1578477 


1-83 


-0-7600639 


+ 0-3231054 


2-41 


-0-8001424 


-0-1651857 


1-84 


-0-7632482 


+ 0-3137534 


2-42 


-0-7984540 


-0-1724796 


1-85 


-0-7663391 


+0-3044301 


2-43 


-0-7966929 


-0-1797292 


1-86 


-0-7693369 


+0-2951355 


2-44 


-0-7948596 


-0-1869341 


1-87 


-0-7722419 


+0-2858699 


2-45 


-0-7929544 


-0-1940940 


1-88 


-0-7750544 


+0-2766333 


2-46 


-0-7909779 


-0-2012086 


1-89 


-0-7777747 


+0-2674260 


2-47 


-0-7889304 


-0-2082776 


1-90 


-0-7804030 


+ 0-2582480 


2-48 


-0-7868125 


-0-2153006 


1-91 


-0-7829397 


+0-2490996 ! 


2-49 


-0-7846246 


-0-2222774 


1-92 


-0-7853851 


+ 0-2399809 1 


2-50 


-0-7823671 


-0-2292077 


1-93 


-0-7877394 


+ 0-2308921 i 


2-51 


-0-7800406 


-0-2360911 


1-94 


-0-7900030 


+ 0-2218335 


2-52 


-0-7776454 


-0-2429272 


1-95 


-0-7921762 


+ 0-2128052 


2-53 


-0-7751822 


-0-2497159 


1-96 


-0-7942592 


+0-2038074 


2-54 


-0-7726513 


-0-2564567 


1-97 


-0-7962524 


+0-1948404 


2-55 


-0-7700532 


-0-2631493 


1-98 


-0-7981561 


+01859044 


2 56 


-0-7673884 


-0-2697937 


1-99 


-0-7999706 


+0-1769996 


2-57 


-0-7646575 


-0-2763893 


2.00 


-0-8016962 


+0-1681262 1 


2-58 


-0-7618608 


-0-2829359 


201 


-0-8033332 


+0-1592844 


2-69 


-0-7589989 


-0-2894332 


2-02 


-0-8048820 


+0-1504746 


2-60 j 


-0-7560723 


-0-2958808 


203 


-0-8063429 


+01416970 


2-61 


-0-7530815 


-0-3022785 


2-04 


-0-8077161 


+0-1329518 


2-62 


-0-7500269 


-0-3086260 


2-05 


-0-8090020 


+01242393 


2-63 


-0-7469091 


-0-3149230 


206 


-0-8102010 


+0-1155598 1 


2-64 


-0-7437286 


-0-3211692 


2-07 


-0-8113133 


+0-1069134 


2-65 


-0-7404859 


-0-3273644 


2-08 


-0-8123394 


+0-0983006 j 


2-66 


-0-7371815 


-0-3335082 


2-09 


-0-8132795 


+0-0897216 


2-67 


-0-7338159 


-0-3396004 


210 


-0-8141339 


+0-0811766 


2-68 


-0-7303897 


-0-3456406 


211 


-0-8149031 


+ 0-0726659 I 


2-69 


-0-7269033 


-0-3516286 


2-12 


-0-8155873 


+0-0641898 


2-70 


-0-7233573 


-0-3575642 



ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 119 
Xeiinimin Functions — toutiiiueil. 



•c 


Go(.r) 


GU.i-) ] 


3-29 


Go(a-) ! 


Ou.r) 


2-71 i 


-0-7197522 


-0-3634471 


-0-4287691 i 


-0-6068260 


2-72 1 


-0-7160885 


-0-3()92769 ' 


3-30 


-0-4226887 


-0-6092380 


2-73 1 


-0-7123668 


-0-3750535 


3-31 


-0-4165846 


-0-6115874 


2-74 


-0-7085876 


-0-3807765 


3-32 


-0-4104572 


-0-6138742 


2-75 


-0-7047515 


-0-3864457 


3-33 


-0-4043073 


-0-6160985 


2-76 


-0-7008589 


-0-3920609 


3-34 


-0-3981354 i 


-0-6182601 


2-77 


-0-6969104 


-0-3976218 


3-35 


-0-3919422 


-0-6203590 


2-78 


-0-6929066 


-0-4031281 


3-36 


-0-3857284 


-0-6223963 


2-79 


-0-6888480 i 


-0-4085796 ' 


3-37 


-0-3794946 


-0-6243689 


2-80 


-0-6847352 \ 


-0-4139761 


3-38 


-0-3732413 


-0-6262797 


2-81 


-0-6805687 ; 


-0-4193173 


3-39 : 


— 0-3669692 


-0-6281279 


2-82 


-0-6763490 \ 


-0-4246030 


3-40 t 


-0-3606789 


-0-6299133 


2-83 


-0-6720768 j 


-0-4298329 


3-41 


-0-3543711 


-0-6316361 


2-84 


-0-6677526 i 


-0-4350067 


3-42 


-0-3480464 


-0-6332962 


2-85 


-0-6633769 


-0-4401244 


3-43 


-0-3417054 


-0-6348936 


2-86 


-0-6589503 


-0-4451856 


3-44 


-0-3353487 


-0-6364283 


2-87 


-0-6544734 


-0-4501901 


3-45 j 


-0-3289771 


-0-6379004 


2-88 


-0-6499467 


-0-4551378 


3-46 ^ 


-0-3225910 


-0-6393099 


2-89 


-0-6453708 


-0-4600284 


3-47 1 


-0-3161911 


-0-640656a 


2-90 


-0-6407463 


-0-4648616 


3-48 


-0-3097780 ' 


-0-6419411 


2-91 


-0-6360737 


-0-4696373 


3-49 


-0-3033524 


-0-6431630 


2-92 


-0-6313537 


-0-4743552 


3-50 1 


-0-2969150 


-0-6443225 


2-93 


-0-6265868 


-0-4790153 


3-51 t 


-0-2904662 


-0-6454196 


2-94 


-0-6217736 


-0-4836172 


3-52 


-0-2840068 


-0-6464542 


2-95 


-0-6169147 


-0-4881608 


3-53 


-0-2775374 


-0-6474266 


2-96 


-0-6120106 


-0-4926458 


3-64 


-0-2710585 


-0-6483368 


2-97 


-0-6070620 


-0-4970722 


3-55 


-0-2645708 


-0-6491849 


2-98 


-0-6020694 


-0-5014397 


3-56 


-0-2580750 


-0-6499709 


2-99 


-0-5970334 


-0-5057482 


3.57 


-0-2515716 


-0-6506949 


300 


-0-5919546 


-0-5099974 


3-58 


-0-2450613 


-0-6513570 


301 


-0-5868337 


-0-5141872 


3-59 


-0-2385446 


-0-6519573 


3 02 


-0-5816711 


-0-5183175 


3-60 


-0-2320223 


-0-6524959 


303 


-0-5764675 


-0-5223880 


3-61 


-0-2254949 


-0-6629728 


304 


-0-5712235 


-0-5263987 


3-62 


-0-2189630 


-0-6533882 


3-05 


-0-5659397 


-0-5303493 


3-63 


-0-2124273 


-0-6537422 


306 


-0-5606167 


-0-5342397 


3-64 


-0-2058884 


-0-6540349 


307 


-0-5552552 


-0-5380698 


3-65 


-0-1993469 


-0-6542664 


308 


-0-5498556 


-0-5418394 


3-66 


-0-1928033 


-0-6544369 


309 


-0-5444186 


-0-5455484 


3-67 


-0-1862583 


-0-6545464 


310 


-0-5389448 


-0-5491967 


3-68 


-0-1797125 


-0-6545951 


311 


-0-5334348 


-0-5527841 


3-69 


-0-1731666 


-0-6545831 


312 


-0-5278893 


1 -0-5563105 


i 3-70 


-01666211 


-0-6645106 


313 


-0-5223088 


1 -0-5597758 


! 3-71 


-0-1600766 


-0-6543777 


314 


-0-5166940 


-0-5631798 


3-72 


-0-1536338 


-0-6641845 


3-15 


-0-5110454 


-0-5665225 


3-73 


-0-1469932 


-0-6539312 


316 


-0-5053637 


-0-5698037 


3-74 


-0-1404554 


-0-6536181 


317 


-0-4996495 


! -0-5730233 


3-75 


-0-1339210 


-0-6532452 


318 


-0-4939035 


] -0-5761813 


3-76 


-0-1273907 


-0-6528126 


319 


-0-4881261 


' -0-5792776 


3-77 


-0-1208650 


-0-6523206 


3-20 


-0-4823181 


1 -0-5823120 


3-78 


-0-1143445 


I -0-6517694 


3-21 


-0-4764801 


-0-5852845 


3-79 


-0-1078298 


-0-6611590 


3-22 


-0-4706126 


i -0-5881950 


3-80 


-0-1013215 


-0-6504898 


3-23 


-0-4647163 


i -0-5910433 


1 3-81 


-0-0948202 


-0-6497619 


3-24 


-0-4587919 


-0-5938295 


I 3-82 


-0-0883265 


! -0-6489755 


3-25 


-0-4528400 


-0-5965535 


1 3-83 


-0-0818409 


-0-6481308 


3-26 


j -0-4468611 


! -0-5992152 


3-84 


-00753640 


; -0-6472279 


3-27 


! -0-4408559 


-0-6018146 


3-85 


-0-0688965 


-0-6462671 


3-28 


-0-4348250 


1 -0-6043515 


: 3-86 


, -0-0624389 


, -0-6452486 



120 



RRPORTS ON THE STATE OF SOIENOE. — 1013. 



Ni'umann Fiinr I ions— continued. 



.V 


Go(.r) 


Gi(.r) 


.r 


Go(.v) 


Gl(.r) 


3-87 


-00559917 


-0-6441727 


' 4-45 


+0-2816955 


-0-4928942 


3-88 


-0-0495556 


-0-6430395 


4-46 


+0-2866048 


-0-4889507 


3-89 


-0-0431311 


-0-6418493 


4-47 


+0-2914745 


-0-4849697 


3-90 


-0-0367188 


-0-6406022 


4-48 


+0-2963041 


-0-4809515 


3-91 


-0-0303192 


-0-6392986 


4-49 


+0-3010934 


-0-4768966 


3-92 


-0-0239330 


-0-6379386 


4-50 


+0-3058419 


-0-4728055 


3-93 


-00175606 


-0-6365225 


4-51 


+0-3105494 


-0-4686786 


3-94 


-00112027 


-0-6350506 


4-52 


+0-3152154 


-0-4645163 


3-95 


-0 0048598 


-0-6335231 


4-53 


+0-3198396 


-0-4603190 


3-96 


+ 0-0014676 


-0-6319402 


4-54 


+0-3244216 


-0-4560873 


3-97 


+0-0077788 


-0-6303022 


4-55 


+0-3289612 


-0-4518215 


3-98 


+00140734 


-0-6286093 


4-56 


+0-3334580 


-0-4475222 


3-99 


+0-0203509 


-0-6268619 


4-57 


+0-3379116 


-0-4431897 


400 


+00266105 


-0-6250602 


4-58 


+0-3423217 


-0-4388246 


401 


+0-0328518 


-0-6232045 


4-59 


+0-3466880 


-0-4344272 


402 


+0-0390744 


-0-6212950 


4-60 


H-0-3510101 


-0-4299980 


403 


+0-0452776 


-0-6193321 


4-61 


+0-3552878 


-0-4255376 


4-04 


+00514609 


-0-6173160 


4-62 


+ 0-3595207 


-0-4210463 


4-05 


+0-0576237 


-0-6152470 


4-63 


+ 0-3637086 


-0-4165246 


4-06 


+00637656 


-0-6131254 


4-64 


+0-3678511 


-0-4119730 


4-07 


+0-0698860 


-0-6109515 


4-65 


+0-3719480 


-0-4073920 


4-08 


+0-0759844 


-0-6087255 


4-66 


+0-3759989 


-0-4027820 


4-09 


+0-0820603 


-0-6064479 


4-67 


+0-3800035 


-0-3981435 


4-10 


+0-0881132 


-0-6041189 


4-68 


+0-3839616 


-0-3934770 


4-11 


+0-0941425 


-0-6017388 


4-69 


+0-3878729 


-0-3887829 


412 


+0-1001478 


-0-5993080 


4-70 


+0-3917372 


-0-3840617 


4-13 


+0-1061285 


-0-5968267 


4-71 


+0-3955541 


-0-3793140 


4-14 


+0-1120842 


-0-5942953 


4-72 


+0-3993234 


-0-3745401 


4-15 


+0-1180143 


-0-5917141 


4-73 


+0-4030448 


-0-3697406 


4-16 


+0-1239183 


—0-5890835 


4-74 


+0-4067181 


-0-3649160 


4-17 


+0-1297958 


-0-5864038 


4-75 


+0-4103431 


-0-3600667 


418 


+0-1356462 


-0-5836752 


4-76 


+0-4139194 


-0-3551933 


419 


+0-1414691 


-0-5808982 


4-77 


+0-4174468 


-0-3502961 


4-20 


+ 0-1472640 


-0-5780732 


4-78 


+0-4209252 


-0-3453757 


4-21 


+0-1530304 


-0-5752004 


4-79 


+0-4243543 


-0-3404327 


4-22 


+0-1587679 


-0-5722801 


4-80 


+0-4277338 


-0-3354674 


4-23 


+0-1644759 


-0-5693129 


4-81 


+0-4310636 


-0-3304804 


4-24 


+0-1701540 


-0-5662990 


4-82 


+0-4343433 


-0-3254721 


4-25 


+0-1758017 


-0-5632387 


4-83 


+0-4375729 


-0-3204432 


4-26 


+0-1814186 


-0-5601325 


4-84 


+0-4407521 


-0-3153940 


4-27 


+0-1870042 


-0-5569807 


4-85 


+ 0-4438807 


-0-3103250 


4-28 


+0-1925581 


-0-5537837 


4-86 


+ 0-446958() 


-0-3052368 


4-29 


+0-1980798 


-0-5505419 


4-87 


+ 0-4499854 


-0-3001299 


4-30 


+0-2035688 


-0-5472556 


4-88 


+0-4529611 


-0-2950047 


1 4-31 


+ 0-2090247 


-0-5439253 


4-89 


+0-4558854 


-0-2898618 


4-32 


+0-2144472 


-0-5405513 


4-90 


+0-4587583 


-0-2847016 


4-33 


+0-2198356 


-0-5371340 


4-91 


+0-4615795 


-0-2795247 


4-34 


+0-2251897 


-0-5336737 


4-92 


+0-4643488 


-0-2743316 


4-35 


+0-2305090 


-0-5301709 


4-93 


+0-4670661 


-0-2691228 


4-36 


+0-2357930 


-0-5266261 


4-94 


+0-4697312 


-0-2638987 


4-37 


+0-2410413 


-0-5230395 


4-95 


+0-4723440 


-0-2586599 


4-38 . 


+0-2462536 


-0-5194116 


4-96 


+ 0-4749043 


-0-2534069 


4-39 


+0-2514294 


-0-5157428 


4-97 


+0-4774121 


-0-2481402 


4-40 


+0-2565683 


-0-5120335 


4-98 


+0-4798671 


-0-2428603 


4-41 


+0-2616699 


-0-5082841 


4-99 


+0-4822692 


-0-2375677 


4-42 


+0-2667338 


-0-5044951 


5-00 


+0-4846184 


-0-2322629 


4-43 


+ 0-2717i>96 


-0-5006668 


5-01 


+0-4869145 


-0-2269464 


4-44 


+0-2767470 


-0-4967997 , 


5-02 


+0-4891573 


-0-2216188 



ON THK TABULATION OF BKSSEL AND OTHKR FI'NOTrONS. 



121 



Neumann Functions — continued. 



.V 


Go(.v) 


Gi(.v) 


X 


Go(x) 


Gi(x) 


503 


+0-4913468 


-0-2162805 


5-61 


+0-5259967 


+0-0943309 


5-04 


+0-4934828 


-0-2109321 


5-62 


+0-5250279 


+0-0994135 


505 


+0-4955654 


-0-2055740 


5-63 


+0-5240084 


+0-1044775 


50G 


+0-4975943 


-0-2002068 


5-64 


+0-5229384 


+0-1095224 


5-07 


+0-4995695 


-0-1948310 


5-65 


+0-5218180 


+ 0-1145478 


508 


+0-5014908 


-0-1894470 


5-66 


+0-5206475 


+ 0-1195532 


509 


+0-5033583 


-0-1840555 


5-67 


+0-5194270 


+01245381 


510 


+0-5051719 


-0-1786568 


5-68 


+0-5181568 


+ 0-1295023 


511 


+0-5069314 


-0-1732515 


5-69 


+0-5168371 


+0-1344452 


512 


+0-5086369 


-0-1678402 


5-70 


+0-5154680 


+0-1393663 


513 


+0-5102883 


-0-1624233 


5-71 


+0-5140498 


+0-1442653 


514 


+ 0-5118854 


-0-1570014 


5-72 


+0-5125828 


+0-1491418 


515 


-1 0-5134283 


-0-1515749 


5-73 


+0-5110671 


+ 0-1539954 


51(i 


+ 0-5149169 


-0-1461444 


5-74 


+0-5095029 


+0-1588255 


517 


+0-516351L 


-0-1407103 


5-75 


+0-5078906 


+ 0-1636319 


5-18 


+0-5177311 


-0-1352732 


5-76 


-(-0-5062304 


-1 01684141 


519 


+0-5190567 


-0-129833G 


5-77 


+0-5045224 


-hO-1731716 


5-20 


+ 0-5203278 


01243919 


5-78 


+0-5027670 


-1 0-1779041 


5-21 


+0-5215445 


-0-1189488 


5-79 


+0-5009644 


-1-0-1826112 


5-22 


+ 0-5227068 


-0-1135046 


5-80 


+0-4991149 


-1-01872925 


5-23 


+ 0-5238140 


-0-1080599 


5-81 


+0-4972187 


+ 0-1919476 


5-24 


+0-5248680 


-0-1026152 


5-82 


+0-4952760 


+0-1965760 


5-25 


+0-5258669 


-0-0971711 


5-83 


+0-4932872 


+ 0-2011775 


5-26 


+0-5268114 


-0-0917279 


5-84 


+0-4912520 


+0-2057515 


5-27 


+0-5277015 


-0-0862862 


5-85 


+0-4891723 


+0-2102978 


5-28 


+ 0-5285371 


-0-0808465 


5-86 


+0-4870467 


+0-2148159 


5-29 


+ 0-5293184 


-00754094 


5-87 


+0-4848761 


+ 0-2193055 


5-30 


+ 0-5300453 


-0-0699752 


5-88 


+0-4826607 


+0-2237661 


5-31 


+0-5307179 


-0-0645446 


5-89 


+0-4804009 


+ 0-2281974 


5-32 


+ 0-5313362 


-0-0591179 


5-90 


+ 0-4780969 


+0-2325991 


5-33 


+ 0-5319003 


-0-0536958 


5-91 


+0-4757490 


-1-0-2369708 


5-34 


H 0-5324101 


-0-0482786 


5-92 


+0-4733576 


-1-0-2413120 


5-3a 


+ 0-5328658 


-0-0428669 


5-93 


+ 0-4709229 


-1-0-2456225 


5-30 


+ 0-5332675 


-0-0374612 


5-94 


+ 0-4684453 


+0-2499019 


5-37 


+0-5336151 


-0-0320620 


5-95 


-1 0-4659250 


+0-2541499 


5-38 


+0-5339088 


-0-0266697 


5-96 


+0-4633624 


-1-0-2583660 


5-39 


+0-5341486 


-0-0212848 


5-97 


+ 0-4607578 


+0-2625500 


5-40 


+ 0-5343345 


-0-0159079 


5-98 


+0-4581115 


+ 0-2667015 


5-41 


+ 0-5344667 


-0-0105393 


5-99 


+0-4554239 


+ 0-2708201 


5-42 


fO-5345453 


-0-0051797 


6-00 


+0-4526952 


+ 0-2749056 


5-43 


+ 0-5345703 


+ 0-0001705 


6-01 


+0-4499259 


+ 0-2789576 


5-44 


+ 0-5345419 


+0-0055109 


6-02 


+0-4471162 


+0-2829757 


5-45 


4 0-5344602 


+0-0108409 


6-03 


1 0-4442665 


+0-2869596 


5-46 


+0-5343252 


+0-0161601 


6-04 


+0-4413771 


+0-2909091 


5-47 


+0-5341370 


+00214680 


6-05 


+0-4384484 


+0-2948238 


5-48 


+ 0-5338958 


+0-0267642 


606 


+0-4354807 


+0-2987034 


5-49 


+0-5336017 


+ 0-0320482 


607 


+0-4324744 


+0-3025475 


5-50 


+0-5332549 


+0-0373194 


6-08 


+0-4294298 


-1-0-3063559 


5-51 


+0-5328554 


+ 0-0425774 


609 


+ 0-4263474 


+0-3101283 


5-52 


+0-5324034 


+0-0478218 


6-10 


+0-4232274 


+ 0-3138643 


5-53 


+ 0-5318990 


+0-0530520 


6-11 


+ 0-4200703 


+ 0-3175637 


5-54 


+ 0-5313424 


+ 0-0582677 


0-12 


-1 0-4168763 


+0-3212261 


5-55 


+ 0-5307337 


+ 0-0634683 


613 


+0-4136459 


+ 0-3248514 


5-56 


+0-5300731 


+ 0-0686535 


614 


+0-4103794 


+ 0-3284391 


5-57 


+0-5293607 


+0-0738227 


615 


+ 0-4070772 


+0-3319890 


5-58 


+ 0-5285967 


+ 0-0789755 


6-16 


+0-4037397 


+0-3355009 


5-59 


+0-5277812 


+ 00841115 


6-17 


+0-4003673 


+0-3389745 


5-60 


+0-5269145 


+00892301 


6-18 


+0-3969604 


+0-3424094 



122 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1!)]3. 

Neumann Functions — continued. 



.r 


CfoGr) 


C4i(.r) 


6-77 


Go(a-) 


c;i(.i-) 


619 


+0-3935193 


+0-3458055 


+0-14988.39 


+0-4693276 


6-20 


+0-3900444 


-1-0.3491624 


6-78 


-1-0-1451867 


+0-4701097 


6-21 


+0-3865361 


+0-3524799 


6-79 


+ 0-1404819 


+ 0-4708447 


6-22 


+0-3829949 


+0-.3557578 


6-80 


-1-0-1357699 


+0-4715325 


6-23 


+0-3794211 


1-0-3589958 


6-81 


+0-1310513 


+0-4721732 


6-24 


+0-3758152 


+0-3621937 


6-82 


+0-1263266 


-HO-4727668 


6-25 


+0-3721774 


+0-3653512 


6-83 


+0-1215962 


+0-4733133 


6-26 


+0-3685083 


+0-3684681 


6-84 


+0-1168605 


-hO-4738128 


6-27 


+0-3648082 


+0-3715441 


6-85 


+0-1121200 


+ 0-4742652 


6-28 


+0-3610775 


+ 0-3745790 


6-86 


+0-1073753 


+ 0-4746705 


6-29 


+0-3573167 


-1-0-3775726 


6-87 


+0-1026268 


+0-4750288 


6-30 


+0-3535262 


+0-3805247 


6-88 


+0-0978749 


+ 0-4753401 


6-31 


+0-3497063 


+0-3834350 


6-89 


+00931202 


+0-4756045 


6-32 


+0-3458576 


+0-3863034 


6-90 


+0-0883630 


+ 0-4758220 


6-33 


+ 0-3419804 


+0-3891296 


6-91 


+ 0-0836039 


+0-4759926 


6-34 


+ 0-3380752 


+0-3919135 


6-92 


+0-0788433 


+0-4761164 


6-35 


+0-3341423 


+0-3946547 


6-93 


+0-0740817 


+0-4761934 


6-36 


+0-3301823 


+0-3973532 


6-94 


+0-0693196 


+ 0-4762237 


6-37 


+0-3261954 


+0-4000087 


6-95 


+ 0-0645575 


+ 0-4762074 


6-38 


+0-3221822 


+0-4026211 


6-96 


+0-0597957 


+0-4761445 


6-39 


+0-3181431 


+ 0-4051902 


6-97 


+ 0-0550348 


+ 0-4760351 


6-40 


+0-3140786 


+0-4077157 


6-98 


+0-0502752 


+0-4758793 


6-41 


+0-3099890 


+0-4101975 


6-99 


+0-0455174 


+0-4756771 


6-42 


+0-3058748 


+0-41263.55 


7-00 


+0-0407618 


+0-4754286 


6-43 


+0-3017.365 


+0-4150295 


7-01 


+ 0-0360090 


+0-4751339 


6-44 


+0-2975744 


+0-4173793 


702 


+0-0312.593 


+0-4747932 


6-45 


+0-2933890 


+0-4196848 


7-03 


+0-0265133 


+0-4744065 


6-46 


+0-2891808 


+0-4219457 


7-04 


+0-0217713 


+0-4739738 


6-47 


+ 0-2849503 


+0-4241620 


7-05 


+0-0170340 


-f 0-4734954 


6-48 


+0-2806978 


+0-4263334 


7-06 


+ 0-012.3016 


+ 0-4729713 


6-49 


+0-2764238 


+0-4284600 


7-07 


+00075747 


+0-4724016 


6-50 


+0-2721287 


+ 0-4305415 


7-08 


+ 0-0028537 


+0-4717865 


6-51 


+0-2678131 


+0-4325778 


7-09 


-0-0018609 


+0-4711260 


6-52 


+0-2634773 


+0-4345687 


7-10 


-0-0065687 


+0-4704203 


6-53 


+0-2591218 


+0-4365142 


7-11 


-00112692 


+0-4696695 


6-54 


+0-2547471 


+0-4384142 


7-12 


-0-0159620 


+0-4688738 


6-55 


+0-2503537 


+0-4402685 


7-13 


-0-0206466 


+0-4680333 


6-56 


+0-2459419 


+0-4420769 


7-14 


-0-0253225 


+0-4671481 


6-57 


+0-2415123 


+0-4438395 


: 7-15 


-0-0299894 


-1-0-4662183 


6-58 


+0-2370652 


+ 0-4455560 


j 7-16 


-0-0346467 


+ 0-4652442 


6-59 


+0-2326012 


+0-4472265 


7-17 


-0-0392941 


+0-4642259 


6-60 


+0-2281208 


+0-4488507 


7-18 


-0-0439311 


+0-4631635 


6-61 


+0-2236244 


+0-4504287 


719 


-0-0485572 


+0-4620572 


6-62 


+0-2191124 


+0-4519603 


7-20 


-0-0531721 


+0-4609071 


6-63 


+0-2145853 


+0-4534455 


7-21 


-0-0577752 


+0-4597135 


6-64 


+0-2100436 


+0-4548841 


1 7-22 


-0-0623662 


+ 0-4584764 


6-65 


+0-2054877 


+0-4562762 


7-23 


-0-0669446 


+0-4571962 


6-66 


+0-2009182 


+0-4576216 


7-24 


-0-0715100 


+0-4558729 


6-67 


+0-1963355 


+0-4589203 


7-25 


-0-0760619 


+0-4545067 


6-68 


+0-1917400 


+0-4601723 


7-20 


-0-0806000 


+0-4530979 


6-69 


+0-1871322 


+0-4613774 


7-27 


-0-08512.38 


+0-4516466 


6-70 


+0-1825126 


+0-4625356 


7-28 


-0-0896328 


+0-4501530 


6-71 


+0-1778816 


+0-4636469 


7-29 


-0-0941267 


+0-4486173 


6-72 


+0-1732398 


+0-4647113 


7-30 


-0-0986050 


+ 0-4470397 


6-73 


+0-1685876 


+0-4657287 


7-31 


-0-1030674 


+0-4454205 


6-74 


+0-1639254 


+0-4666990 


1 7-32 


-0-1075133 


+0-4437598 


6-75 


+0-1592538 


+ 0-4676223 


7-33 


-0-1119424 


+0-4420578 


6-76 


+0-1545731 


+0-4684985 


7-34 


-0-116.3543 


+0-4403148 



ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND^OTHER FUNCTIONS, ^^ 123 
Neumann Functions — coiutinued. 



7-35 


Go(.>-) 


Oi(u-) 


7-93 


Go(a-) 


Gi(..-) 


-0-1207486 


+0-4385310 


-0-3328025 


+0-2745266 


7-36 


-0-1251248 


+0-4367067 


7-94 


-0-3355294 


+0-2708413 


7-37 


-0-1294826 


+0-4348420 


7-95 


-0-3382193 


+0-2671340 


7-38 


-0-1338215 


+0-4329371 


7-96 


-0-3408720 


+0-2634050 


7-39 


-01381412 


+0-4309923 


7-97 


-0-3434873 


+0-2596548 


7-40 


-0-1424412 


+0-4290079 , 


7-98 


-0-3460650 


+0-2558838 


7-41 


-0-1467212 


+0-4269841 1 


7-99 


-0-3486049 


+0-2520923 


7-42 


-0-1509808 


+0-4249211 


8-00 


-0-3511068 


+0-2482808 


7-43 


-0-1552195 


+0-4228192 


8-01 


-0-3535705 


+0-2444496 


7-44 


-0-1594370 


+0-4206787 


8-02 


-0-3559957 


+0-2405992 


7-45 


-0-1636329 


+0-4184997 


8-03 


-0-3583823 


+0-2367298 


7-46 


-0-1678069 


+ 0-4162826 


8-04 


-0-3607302 


+0-2328420 


7-47 


-0-1719585 


+0-4140277 


8-05 


-0-3030391 


+0-2289361 


7-48 


-0-1760873 


+0-4117351 


8-06 


-0-3653089 


+0-2250120 


7-49 


-0-1801930 


+ 0-4094051 


8-07 


-0-3675393 


+0-2210718 


7-50 


-0-1842753 


+0-4070381 


808 


-0-3697303 


+0-2171141 


7-51 


-0-1883337 


+0-4046343 


8-09 


-0-3718816 


+0-2131399 


7-52 


-0-1923679 


+ 0-4021940 


8-10 


-0-3739930 


+ 0-2091497 


7-53 


-0-1963775 


+0-3997174 


8-11 


-0-3760645 


+ 0-2051438 


7-54 


-0-2003621 


+0-3972049 


8-12 


-0-3780958 


+ 0-2011227 


7-55 


-0-2043214 


+0-3946567 


8-13 


-0-3800869 


+0-1970867 


7-56 


-0-2082551 


+0-3920731 


8-14 


-0-3820375 


+0-1930362 


7-57 


-0-2121628 


+0-3894644 


8-15 


-0-3839476 


+0-1889717 


7-58 


-0-2160441 


+0-3868010 


8-16 


-0-3858169 


+0-1848937 


7-59 


-0-2198987 


+0-3841131 


8-17 


-0-3876454 


+0-1808024 


7-60 


-0-2237262 


+0-3813910 


8-18 


-0-3894329 


+0-1766983 


7-61 


-0-2275264 


+ 0-3786350 


8-19 


-0-3911793 


+0-1725818 


7-62 


-0-2312988 


+0-3758455 


8-20 


-0-3928845 


+0-1684534 


7-63 


-0-2350431 


+0-3730227 


8-21 


-0-3945483 


+ 0-1643134 


7-64 


-0-2387591 


+0-3701669 


8-22 


-0-3961707 


+0-1601623 


7-65 


-0-2424464 


+ 0-3672786 


8-23 


-0-3977515 


+0-1560005 


7-66 


-0-2461046 


+0-3643579 


8-24 


-0-3992907 


+0-1518283 


7-67 


-0-2497334 


+ 0-3614053 


8-25 


-0-4007881 


+0-1476462 


7-68 


-0-2533326 


+0-3584210 


8-26 


-0-4022436 


+0-1434547 


7-69 


-0-2569018 


+0-3554054 


8-27 


-0-4036571 


+0-1392542 


7-70 


-0-2604406 


+0-3523587 


8-28 


-0-4050286 


+0-1350450 


7-71 


-0-2639488 


+0-3492814 


8-29 


-0-4063580 


+0-1308276 


7-72 


-0-2674261 


+0-3461738 


8-30 


-0-4076451 


+0-1266023 


7-73 


-0-2708722 


+0-3430362 


8-31 


-0-4088900 


+0-1223697 


7-74 


-0-2742867 


+ 0-3398689 


8-32 


-0-4100925 


+0-1181301 


7-75 


-0-2776695 


+0-3366724 


8-33 


-0-4112525 


+0-1138840 


7-76 


-0-2810201 


+0-3334469 


8-34 


-0-4123701 


+0-1096318 


7-77 


-0-2843383 


+0-3301927 


8-35 


-0-4134452 


+0-1053738 


7-78 


-0-2876238 


+0-3269103 


8-36 


-0-4144776 


+0-1011106 


7-79 


-0-2908764 


+0-3236000 


8-37 


-0-4154674 


+0-0968425 


7-80 


-0-2940957 


+0-3202621 


8-38 


-0-4164144 


+ 0-0925700 


7-81 


-0-2972815 


+0-3168970 


8-39 


-0-4173187 


+ 0-0882935 


7-82 


-0-3004336 


+0-3135051 


8-40 


-0-4181803 


+0-0840133 


7-83 


-0-3035516 


+0-3100867 


8-41 


-0-4189990 


+0-0797299 


7-84 


-0-3066352 


+0-3066421 


8-42 


-0-4197749 


+0-0754438 


7-85 


-0-3096843 


+0-3031718 


8-43 


-0-4205079 


+0-0711554 


7-86 


-0-3126986 


+0-2996761 


8-44 


-0-4211980 


+00668650 


7-87 


-0-3156778 


+0-2961554 


■ 8-45 


-0-4218452 


+0-0625731 


7-88 


-0-3186216 


+0-2926101 


! 8-46 


-0-4224495 


+0-0582801 


7-89 


-0-3215299 


+0-2890405 


i 8-47 


-0-4230108 


+0-0539864 


7-90 


-0-3244024 


+0-2854469 


8-48 


-0-4235292 


+0-0496925 


7-91 


-0-3272388 


+0-2818298 


8-49 


-0-4240047 


+0-0453988 


7-92 


-0-3300389 


+0-2781896 


8-50 


-0-4244372 


+0-0411056 



124 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — U>13. 



Neuinann Functions — coutiuued. 



X 


Go(.r) 


GiGr) 1 


X ' 


(io'x) 


(Ai(x) 


8-51 


-0-4248268 


+0-0368134 


9-09 


-0-3763619 


-0-1966875 


8-52 


-0-4251735 


+0-0325227 


910 


-0-3743773 


-0-2002230 


8-53 


-0-4254772 


+0-0282338 


9-11 


-0-3723575 i 


-0-2037348 


8-54 


-0-4257381 


+0-0239471 


912 


-0-3703027 


-0-2072227 


8-55 


-0-4259562 


+0-0196631 


9-13 


-0-3682131 


-0-2106863 


8-56 


-0-4261314 


+0-0153821 


9-14 


-0-3660890 


-0-2141254 


8-57 


-0-4262638 


+00111046 


9-15 


-0-3639307 


-0-2175395 


8-58 


-0-4263535 


+00068310 


916 


-0-3617383 


-0-2209284 


8-69 


-0-4264004 


+0-0025617 


9-17 


-0-3595122 


-0-2242918 


8-60 


-0-4264047 


-0-0017028 


9-18 


-0-3572525 


-0-2276293 


8-61 


-0-4263663 


-0-0059622 ; 


9-19 


-0-3549596 


-0-2309408 


8-62 


-0-4262854 


-0-0102161 j 


9-20 


-0-3526338 


-0-2342258 


8-63 


-0-4261620 


-0-0144641 ! 


9-21 


-0-3502752 


-0-2374841 


, 8-64 


-0-4259961 


-0-0187057 


9-22 


-0-3478842 


-0-2407155 


1 8-65 


-0-4257879 


-0-0229406 


9-23 


-0-3454611 


-0-2439196 


8-66 


-0-4255373 


-0 0271683 


9-24 


-0-3430059 


-0-2470961 


8-67 


-0-4252445 


-00313884 


9-25 


-0-3405192 


-0-2502448 


8-68 


-0-4249096 


-0-0356006 i 


9-26 


-0-3380011 


-0-2533653 


8-69 


-0-4245325 


-0-0398044 


9-27 


— 0-3354519 


-0-2564575 


8-70 


-0-4241135 


-0-0439995 


9-28 


-0-3328720 


-0-2595210 


8-71 


-0-4236526 


-00481854 


9-29 


-0-3302616 


-0-2625556 


8-72 


-0-4231498 


-0-0523618 ' 


9-30 


-0-3276210 


-0-2655609 


8-73 


-0-4226054 


-0-0565282 ! 


9-31 


-0-3249505 


-0-2685368 


8-74 


-0-4220193 


-0-0606842 


9-32 


-0-3222504 


-0-2714829 


8-75 


-0-4213917 


-0-0648296 


9-33 


-0-3195210 


-0-2743991 


8-76 


-0-4207228 


-0-0689638 


9-34 


-0-3167625 


-0-2772851 


8-77 


-0-4200125 


-0-0730865 


9-35 


-0-3139754 


-0-2801405 


8-78 


-0-4192611 


-0-0771972 


9-36 


-0-3111598 


-0-2829652 


8-79 


-0-4184687 


-0-0812957 


9-37 


-0-3083161 


-0-2857590 


8-80 


-0-4176353 


-0-0853815 


9-38 


-0-3054447 


-0-2885215 


8-81 


-0-4167611 


-0-0894542 


9-39 


-0-3025458 


-0-2912526 


8-82 


-0-4158463 


-00935135 


9-40 


-0-2996198 


-0-2939520 


8-83 


-0-4148909 


-0-0975590 


9-41 


-0-2966669 


-0-2966195 


8-84 


-0-4138952 


-0-1015903 


9-42 


-0-2936875 


-0-2992548 


8-85 


-0-4128593 


-0-1056070 


9-43 


-0-2906819 


-0-3018578 


8-86 


-0-4117832 


-0-1096087 


9-44 


-0-2876505 


-0-3044282 


8-87 


-0-4106671 


-0-1135951 


9-45 


-0-2845935 


-0-3069658 


8-88 


-0-4095113 


-0-1175658 


9-46 


-0-2815113 


-0-3094704 


8-89 


-0-4083159 


-0-1215204 


9-47 


-0-2784042 


-0-3119417 


8-90 


-0-4070810 


-0-1254586 


9-48 


-0-2752726 


-0-3143796 


8-91 


-0-4058068 


-0-1293800 


9-49 


-0-2721167 


-0-3167839 


8-92 


-0-4044935 


-0-1332842 


9-50 


-0-2689370 


-0-3191543 


8-93 


-0-4031412 


-0-1371709 


9-51 


-0-2657337 


-0-3214907 


8-94 


-0-4017501 


-0-1410397 


9-52 


-0-2625073 


-0-3237928 


8-95 


-0-4003205 


-0-1448903 


9-53 


— 0-2592580 


-0-3260606 


8-96 


-0-3988524 


-0-1487223 


9-54 


—0-2559862 


-0-3282937 


8-97 


-0-3973461 


-0-1525353 


9-55 


-0-2526923 


-0-3304920 


8-98 


-0-3958017 


-0-1563290 


9-56 


-0-2493765 


-0-3326554 


8-99 


-0-3942195 


-0-1601031 


9-57 


-0-2460393 


-0-3347836 


900 


-0-3925997 


-01638571 


9-58 


-0-2426810 


-0-3368764 


901 


-0-3909424 


-0-1675908 


9-59 


-0-2393019 


-0-3389338 


9-02 


-0-3892479 


-01713038 


9-60 


-0-2359024 


-0-3409556 


903 


-0-3875164 


-0-1749958 


9-61 


-0-2324829 


-0-3429415 


904 


-0-3857481 


-0-1786664 


9-62 


-0-2290437 


-0-3448915 


905 


-0-3839431 


-0-1823154 


9-63 


-0-2255852 


-0-3468053 


906 


-0-3821018 


-0-1859423 


9-64 


1 -0-2221077 


-0-3486829 


9-07 


-0-3802244 


-01895468 


9-65 


1 -0-2186117 


-0-3505240 


908 


-0-3783110 


; -0-1931287 


9-66 


-0-2150974 


-0-3523286 



ON TUK TAnUT.ATION OK BKSSEL ANI» OTHER FUNOTrONR. 125 
NciiiiKinn F II m: I ions — continued. 



.r 


Go(.r) 


Gi(.r) 


i ■''■' 


Go(.v) 


Gi(.r) 


9-67 


-0-2115653 


I -0-3540965 


10-25 


+0-0108311 


-0-3910216 


9-68 


-0-2080156 


-0-3558275 


10-26 


+0-0147388 


-0-3905127 


9-69 


-0-2044488 


-0-3575216 


10-27 


+0-0186412 


-0-3899656 


9-70 


-0-2008653 


-0-3591785 


10-28 


+0-0225380 


-0-3893805 


9-71 


-0-1972654 


! -0-3607982 


10-29 


+0-0264287 


-0-3887574 


9-72 


-0-1936495 


! -0-3623806 


10-30 


+0-0303130 


-0-3880964 


9-73 


-0-1900179 


-0-3639255 


10-31 


+0-0341905 


-0-3873976 


9-74 


-01863711 


1 -0-3654328 


10-32 


+0-0380608 


-0-3866611 


9-75 


-0-1827094 


! -0-3669024 


10-33 


+ 0-0419236 


-0-3858871 


9-76 


-0-1790332 


-0-3683343 


10-34 


+0-0457784 


-0-3850756 


9-77 


-0-1753428 


-0-3697282 


10-35 


+0-0496249 


-0-3842267 


9-78 


-0-1716387 


-0-3710842 


10-36 


i- 0-0534628 


-0-3833406 


9-79 


-01679212 


-0-3724021 


10-37 


+ 0-0572916 


-0-3824174 


9-80 


-0-1641908 


-0-3736818 


10-38 


+ 0-0611110 


-0-3814573 


9-81 


-0-1604478 


, -0-3749233 


10-39 


+0-0649206 


-0-3804603 


9-82 


-0-1566925 


, -0-3761264 


10-40 


+ 0-0687201 


0-3794266 


9-83 


-0-1529254 


1 -0-37729U 


10-41 


+0-0725090 


- 0-3783563 


9-84 


-0-1491468 


-0-3784172 


10-42 


-1-0-0762871 


-0-3772496 


9-85 


-0-1453571 


-0-3795048 


10-43 


+0-0800539 


-0-3761066 


9-80 


-0-1415568 


-0-3805538 


10-44 


+0-0838091 


-0-3749274 


9-87 


-0-1377462 


-0-3815640 


10-45 


+0-0875523 


-0-3737122 


9-88 


-0-1339256 


-0-3825355 


10-46 


+0-0912832 


-0-3724612 


9-89 


-01300956 


-0-3834682 


10-47 


+0-0950014 


-0-3711745 


9-90 


-0-1262564 


-0-3843620 


10-48 


+0-0987066 


-0-3698522 


9-91 


-0-1224085 


-0-3852168 


10-49 


+0-1023984 


-0-3684940 


9-92 


-0-1185522 


-0-3860327 


10-50 


+0-1060764 


-0-3671018 


9-93 


-0-1146879 


-0-3868096 


10-51 


+ 0-1097403 


-0-3656739 


9-94 


-0-1108161 


-0-3875474 


10-52 


+0-1133898 


-0-3642112 


9-95 


-0-1069371 


-0-3882462 


10-53 


+0-1170244 


-0-3627138 


9-96 


-01030513 


-0-3889058 


10-54 


+ 0-1206439 


-0-3611819 


9-97 


-0-0991591 


-0-3895263 


10-55 


-1-0-1242479 


-0-3596157 


9-98 


-0-0952609 


-0-3901076 


10-56 


-1-0-1278361 


-0-3580153 


9-99 


-0-0913571 


-0-3906497 


10-57 


+0-1314081 


-0-3563810 


1000 


-0-0874480 


-0-3911526 


10-58 


-1-0-1349636 


-0-3547129 


1001 


-0-0835341 


-0-3916163 


10-59 


-[-0-1385022 


-0-3530112 


1002 


-0-0796158 


-0-3920408 


10-60 


+0-1420237 


-0-3512762 


1003 


-0-0756934 


-0-3924261 : 


10-61 


+0-1455276 


-0-3495080 


1004 


-00717674 


-0-3927722 


10-62 


-t-0-1490137 


-0-3477069 


1005 


-0-0678381 


-0-3930791 , 


10-63 


+ 0-1524817 


-0-3458730 


10-06 


-0-0639059 


-0-3933467 


10-64 


-1-0-1559311 


-0-3440066 


1007 


-0-0599713 


-0-3935751 


10-65 


+0-1593617 


-0-3421079 


1008 


-00560346 


-0-3937644 


10-66 


-1-0-1627731 


-0-3401770 


1009 


-0-0520962 


-0-3939145 


10-67 


+0-1661651 


-0-3382142 


1010 


-0-0481564 


-0-3940255 


10-68 


+0-1695373 


-0-3362198 


1011 


-0-0442158 


-0-3940974 


10-69 


+0-1728894 


-0-3341939 


1012 


-0-0402746 


-0-3941302 


10-70 


+0-1762211 


-0-3321368 


1013 


-0-0363333 


-0-3941240 


10-71 


+0-1795321 


-0-3300487 


1014 


-00323922 


-0-3940787 


10-72 


+0-1828220 


-0-3279299 


1015 


-0-0284518 


-0-3939945 


10-73 


+0-1860906 


-0-3257805 


1016 


-0-0245125 


-0-3938714 ; 


10-74 


+0-1893375 


-0-3236009 


10-17 


-0-0205740 


-0-3937094 ' 


10-75 


+ 0-1925625 


-0-3213912 


1018 


-0-0166384 


-0-3935086 


10-76 


+0-1957653 


-0-3191518 


1019 


-0-0127045 


-0-3932690 


10-77 


+0-1989455 


-0-3168828 


10-20 


-0-0087732 


-0-3929908 


10-78 


+0-2021028 


-0-3145845 


10-21 


-0-0048449 


-0-3926739 ; 


10-79 


+0-2052371 


-0-3122571 


10-22 


-0-0009199 


-0-3923185 


10-80 


+0-2083479 


-0-3099010 


10-23 


+0-0030014 


-0-3919246 


10-81 


+0-2114350 


-0-3075163 


10-24 


+0-0069185 


-0-3914923 ! 


10-82 


+0-2144981 


-0-3051034 



126 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ]913. 



Neumann Functions — continued. 



X 


Go(.i-) 


C4i(.r) 


X 


Gr)''.i-) 


iW(x) 


10-83 


+0-2175370 


-0-3026625 ! 


11-41 


+0-3441456 


-0-1232874 


10-84 


+0-2205513 


-0-3001938 : 


11-42 


+0-3453007 


01197334 


10-85 


+0-2235408 


-0-2976977 ! 


11-43 


+ 0-3465402 


-0-1161706 


10-86 


+0-2265051 


-0-2951743 


11-44 


+ 0-3476841 


-0-1125994 


10-87 


+0-2294441 


-0-2926240 


11-45 


+0-3487922 i 


-0-1090202 


10-88 


+0-2323575 


-0-2900471 


11-46 


+ 0-3498644 


-01054333 


10-89 


+0-2352450 


-0-2874438 


11-47 


+0-3509007 


-0-1018390 


10-90 


+ 0-2381063 


-0-2848144 


11-48 


+0-3519011 1 


-0-0982378 


10-91 


+0-2409412 


-0-2821592 


11-49 


+0-3528655 


-0-0946300 


10-92 


+0-2437494 


-0-2794784 


11-50 


+0-3537937 


-0-0910159 


10-93 


+0-2465307 


-0-2767724 


11-51 


+0-3546858 


-00873959 


10-94 


+0-2492848 


-0-2740415 


11-52 


+0-3555416 ! 


-00837704 


10-95 


+0-2520114 


-0-2712859 


11-53 


+0-3563611 ; 


-0-0801398 


10-96 


+0-2547104 


-0-2685059 


11-54 


+ 0-3571443 


-00765043 


10-97 


+0-2573815 


-0-2657018 


11-55 


+0-3578912 


-00728644 


10-98 


+0-2600244 


-0-2628740 


11-56 


+0-3586016 


-00692204 


10-99 


+0-2626389 


-0-2600226 


11-57 


+0-3592755 


-0-0655727 


11-00 


+0-2652248 


-0-2571481 


11-58 


+ 0-3599130 


-0-0619217 


11-01 


+0-2677818 


-0-2542507 


11-59 


+ 0-3605140 


-00582677 


11-02 


+0-2703097 


-0-2513307 


11-60 


+0-3610784 


-0-0546110 


11-03 


+0-2728083 


-0-2483884 


11-61 


+0-3616062 


-00509521 


11-04 


+0-2752774 


-0-2454242 


11-62 


+0-3620974 


-0-0472912 


11-05 


+0-2777167 


-0-2424384 


11-63 


+ 0-3625520 


-00436288 


11-06 


+0-2801261 


-0-2394312 


11-64 


+0-3629700 


-0-0399653 


11-07 


+0-2825053 


-0-2364030 


11-65 


+0-3633514 


-00303009 


11-08 


+0-2848541 


-0-2333541 


11-66 


+ 0-3636961 


-0-0326360 


11-09 


+0-2871723 


-0-2302848 


11-67 


+ 0-3640041 


-0-0289711 


11-10 


+0-2894597 


-0-2271954 


11-68 


+0-3642755 


-00253064 


11-11 


+0-2917161 


-0-2240863 


11-69 


+ 0-3645103 


-0-0216424 


11-12 


+0-2939413 


-0-2209578 


11-70 


+0-3647084 


-0-0179793 


11-13 


+0-2961352 


-0-2178102 


11-71 


+0-3648699 


-0-0143176 


1114 


+0-2982975 


-0-2146438 


11-72 


+0-3649948 


-00106576 


11-15 


+0-3004280 


-0-2114590 


11-73 


+0-3650831 


-0-0069996 


11-16 


+0-3025266 


-0-2082561 


11-74 


+0-3651348 


-0-0033441 


11-17 


+0-3046931 


-0-2050354 


11-75 


+0-3651500 


+0-0003087 


11-18 


+0-3066272 


-0-2017972 


11-76 


+0-3651286 


+0-0039583 


11-19 


+0-3086289 


-0-1985419 


11-77 


+0-3650708 


+ 0-0076044 


11-20 


+0-3105980 


-0-1952699 


11-78 


+0-3649766 


+ 0-0112467 


11-21 


+0-3125343 


-0-1919814 


11-79 


+0-3648459 


+ 0-0148847 


11-22 


+0-3144376 


-0-1886768 


11-80 


+ 0-3646789 


+ 0-0185182 


11-23 


+0-3163078 


-0-1853565 


11-81 


+0-3644756 


+00221468 


11-24 


+0-3181447 


-0-1820207 


11-82 


+0-3642360 


+00257701 


11-25 


+0-3199481 


-0-1786698 


11-83 


+0-3639602 


+0-0293878 


11-26 


+0-3217180 


-0-1753042 


11-84 


+0-3636483 


+ 0-0329995 


11-27 


+0-3234542 


-0-1719242 


11-85 


+0-3633003 


+ 00366049 


11-28 


+0-3251565 


-0-1685301 


11-86 


+0-3629162 


+0-0402036 


11-29 


+0-3268248 


-0-1651223 


11-87 


+0-3624962 


+0-0437953 


11-30 


+0-3284589 


-0-1617012 


11-88 


+0-3620403 


+00473796 


11-31 


+0-3300588 


-0-1582671 


11-89 


+0-3615486 


+0-0509562 


11-32 


+0-3316242 


-0-1548203 


11-90 


+0-3610212 


+0-0545247 


11-33 


+0-3331551 


-0-1513612 


11-91 


+ 0-3604581 


+ 0-0580848 


11-34 


+0-3346514 


-0-1478901 


11-92 


+0-3598595 


+0-0616362 


11-35 


+0-3361129 


-0-1444074 


11-93 


+0-3592254 


+0-0651785 


11-36 


+0-3375395 


1 -0-1409135 


11-94 


+0-3585560 


+0-0687113 


11-37 


+0-3389312 


! -0-1374087 


11-95 


+0-3578512 


+0-0722344 


11-38 


+0-3402877 


-0-1338933 


11-96 


+0-3571113 


+00757474 


11-39 


1 +0-3416090 


-0-1303677 


11-97 


+0-3563363 


+0-0792499 


11-40 


) +0-3428950 


-0-1268323 


11-98 


+0-3555263 


+0-0827416 



UN THE TABULATION OF liKSSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 127 
Newnwun Functions — continued. 



X 


Go(.i') 


Gi(,v) 


.r 


Go(.r) 


Gl(.r-) 


11-99 


+0-3546815 


+0-0862222 


12-57 


+0-2514309 


+0-2584717 


12-00 


+0-3538019 


+00896913 


12-58 


+0-2488347 


+0-2607666 


1201 


+0-3528877 


+00931486 


12-59 


+ 0-2462157 


+0-2630338 


12-02 


+0-3519389 


+0-0965938 


12-60 


+0-2435741 


+0-2652730 


12-03 


+0-3509558 


+0-1000266 


12-61 


+0-2409103 


+0-2674841 


12-04 


+0-3499384 


+0-1034466 


12-62 


+0-2382245 


+0-2696669 


12-05 


+0-3488869 


+0-1068535 


12-63 


+0-2355170 


+0-2718212 


1206 


+0-3478014 


+0-1102469 


12-64 


+0-2327882 


+0-2739467 


12-07 


+0-3466820 


+0-1136265 


12-65 


+0-2300382 


+0-2760433 


12-08 


+0-3455289 


+01169921 


12-66 


+0-2272674 


+0-2781109 


12-09 


+0-3443422 


+0-1203433 


12-67 


+0-2244761 


+0-2801492 


12-10 


+0-3431221 


+0-1236798 


12-68 


+0-2216645 


+0-2821581 


12-11 


+0-3418687 


+0-1270012 


12-69 


+0-2188330 


+0-2841374 


12-12 


+0-3405821 


+0-1303073 


12-70 


+ 0-2159819 


+0-2860869 


12-13 


+0-3392626 


+0-1335977 


1 12-71 


+0-2131114 


+0-2880065 


12-14 


+0-3379103 


+0-1368722 


12-72 


+0-2102219 


+0-2898959 


12-15 


+0-3365252 


+ 01401304 


12-73 


+0-2073136 


+0-2917550 


12-16 


+0-3351077 


+0-1433719 


12-74 


-1-0-2043869 


+0-2935837 


12-17 


+0-3336579 


+0-1465965 


12-75 


+0-2014421 


+0-2953818 


12-18 


+0-3321759 


+ 0-1498040 


12-76 


+0-1984794 


+ 0-2971491 


12-19 


+0-3306619 


+0-1529940 


12-77 


+0-1954992 


+0-2988856 


12-20 


+0-3291161 


+0-1561661 


12-78 


+0-1925018 


+0-3005910 


12-21 


+0-3275387 


+0-1593202 


12-79 


+0-1894875 


+0-3022652 


12-22 


+0-3259298 


+0-1624558 


12-80 


+0-1864566 


4-0-3039080 


12-23 


+0-3242896 


+0-1655727 


12-81 


+0-1834094 


+ 0-3055194 


12-24 


+0-3226184 


+0-1686706 


12-82 


+0-1803463 


+ 0-3070991 


12-25 


+0-3209163 


+0-1717493 


12-83 


+0-1772676 


+ 0-3086471 


12-26 


+0-3191835 


+0-1748084 


12-84 


+0-1741735 


+0-3101633 


12-27 


+0-3174202 


+0-1778477 


12-85 


+0-1710644 


+0-3116474 


12-28 


+0-3156266 


+0-1808668 


12-86 


+0-1679406 


+0-3130994 


12-29 


+0-3138029 


+0-1838655 


12-87 


+0-1648025 


+0-3145192 


12-30 


+0-3119493 


+0-1868435 


12-88 


+0-1616503 


+0-3159066 


12-31 


+0-3100660 


+0-1898006 


12-89 


+0-1584844 


+0-3172616 


12-32 


+0-3081533 


+0-1927364 


12-90 


+0-1553052 


+ 0-3185840 


12-33 


+0-3062114 


+ 0-1956507 


12-91 


+0-1521129 


+0-3198737 


12-34 


+0-3042404 


+0-1985432 


12-92 


+0-1489078 


+ 0-3211307 


12-35 


+0-3022406 


+0-2014136 


12-93 


+0-1456903 


+0-3223547 


12-36 


+0-3002121 


+0-2042617 


12-94 


+0-1424608 


+0-3235458 


12-37 


+0-2981553 


+0-2070873 


12-95 


+0-1392196 


+0-3247038 


12-38 


+0-2960704 


+0-2098900 


12-96 


+0-1359669 


+0-3258287 


12-39 


+0-2939576 


+0-2126696 • 


12-97 


+0-1327031 


+ 0-3269204 


12-40 


+0-2918171 


+0-2154258 ■ 


12-98 


+0-1294286 


+0-3279787 


12-41 


H-0-2896492 


+0-2181584 ' 


12-99 


+0-1261436 


+ 0-3290036 


12-42 


+0-2874540 


+0-2208672 


1300 


+0-1228486 


+0-3299950 


12-43 


+0-2852319 


+0-2235518 


13-01 


+0-1195439 


+0-3309529 


12-44 


+0-2829831 


+0-2262121 : 


13-02 


+0-1162297 


+0-3318771 


12-45 


+0-2807078 


+0-2288478 


13-03 


+0-1129064 


+ 0-3327677 


12-46 


+0-2784063 


+0-2314586 


13-04 


+0-1096744 


+0-3336245 


12-47 


+0-2760788 


+0-2340443 


13-05 


H-0-1062340 


+0-3344475 


12-48 


+0-2737255 


+0-2366047 


13-06 


+0-1028856 


+0-3352366 


12-49 


+0-2713467 


+0-2391396 


1307 


+ 0-0995294 


+0-3359918 


12-50 


+0-2689428 


+0-2416487 


13-08 


+0-0961659 


+0-3367131 


12-51 


+ 0-2665139 


+0-2441318 ! 


13 09 


+0-0927953 


+0-3374003 


12-52 


+0-2640603 


+0-2465886 


13-10 


+00894180 


+0-3380535 


12-53 


+0-2615822 


+ 0-2490190 


13-11 


+00860344 


+0-3386726 


12-54 


+ 0-2590800 


+0-2514228 


13-12 


+0-0826447 


+0-3392575 


12-55 


+0-2565539 


+0-2537996 


13-13 


+00792493 


+0-3398083 


12-56 


+0-2540041 


+0-2561493 


13-14 


+0-0758486 


+ 0-3403249 



128 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 
Nauniann Functions — c-outinued. 



X 


tio(.v) 


Gi(.v) 


a- 


Go(.r) 


Gi(.r) 


13-15 


+0-0724429 


+0-3408073 


13-73 


-0-1220050 


+0-3111202 


13-16 


+0-0690326 


+0-3412554 


13-74 


-0-1251089 


+0-3096586 


1317 


+0-0656180 


+0-3416692 


13-75 


-01281981 


+0-3081673 


13-18 


+0-0621994 


+0-3420488 


13-76 


-01312722 


+0-3066465 


1319 


+0-0587771 


+0-3423941 


13-77 


-01343310 


+0-3050963 


13-20 


+0-0553516 


+0-3427052 


13-78 


-01373741 


+0-3035168 1 


13-21 


+00519232 


+0-3429820 


13-79 


-0-1404013 


+0-3019083 


13-22 


+0-0484921 


+0-3432244 


13-80 


-0-1434122 


+0-3002710 


13-23 


+0-0450588 


+0-3434325 


13-81 


-0-1464066 


+0-2986050 


13-24 


+0-0416235 


+0-3436064 


13-82 


-0-1493842 


+0-2969105 


13-25 


+0-0381867 


+ 0-3437460 


13-83 


-0-1523447 


+0-2951877 


13-26 


+0-0347487 


+0-3438513 


13-84 


-0-1552879 


+0-2934368 


13-27 


+0-0313098 


+0-3439224 


13-85 


-0-1582134 


+0-2916580 


13-28 


+0-0278703 


+0-3439592 


13-86 


- 0-1611210 


+0-2898514 


13-29 


+00244306 


-f-0-3439618 


13-87 


-0-1640103 


+0-2880174 


13-30 


-1-0-0209912 


+0-3439302 


13-88 


-01668812 


+0-2861560 


13-31 


-|-0-017o522 


-1-0-3438645 


13-89 


-0- 1697334 


+0-2842675 


13-32 


+00141140 


+ 0-3437646 


1390 


-01725665 


+0-2823521 ' 


13-33 


+00106770 


+0-3436306 


13-91 


-01753803 


+0-2804100 


13-34 


H-00072415 


H- 0-3434625 


13-92 


-0-1781746 


+0-2784414 


13-35 


-hO-0038078 


+0-3432604 


13-93 


-01809491 


+0-2764465 


13-36 


+0-0003764 


+0-3430244 


13-94 


-01837035 


+0-2744256 


13-37 


-0-0030525 


+0-3427544 


13-95 


-01864375 


+0-2723788 


13-38 


-0-0064786 


+0-3424506 


13-96 


-01891509 


+0-2703064 


13-39 


-00099014 


+0-3421130 


13-97 


-01918435 


+0-2682086 


13-40 


-00133207 


+ 0-3417416 


13-98 


-01945150 


+0-2660856 


13-41 


-0-0167361 


+0-3413365 


13-99 


-01971652 


+0-2639377 


13-42 


-0-0201473 


+0-3408978 


1400 


-0-1997937 


+0-2617651 


13-43 


-00235539 


+0-3404255 


1401 


-0-2024004 


+0-2595680 


13-44 


-0-0269557 


+0-3399197 


1402 


-0-2049850 


+0-2573466 


13-45 


-0-0303522 


+0-3393805 


1403 


-0-2075472 


+0-2551012 


13-46 


-00337432 


+ 0-3388080 


1404 


-0-2100869 


+0-2528321 


13-47 


-00371283 


+0-3382022 


1405 


-0-2126038 


+0-2505395 


13-48 


-00405072 


+0-3375633 


1406 


-0-2150976 


+0-2482235 


13-49 


-0-0438795 


+0-3368913 


14-07 


-0-2175682 


+0-2458845 


13-50 


-00472449 


+0-3361863 


14-08 


-0-2200152 


+0-2435227 


13-51 


-0-0506031 


+0-3354484 


1409 


-0-2224385 


+0-2411383 


13-52 


-0-0539538 


+0-3346777 


14-10 


-0-2248379 


+0-2387317 


13-53 


-0-0572966 


+0-3338743 


14-11 


-0-2272131 


+0-2363030 


13-54 


-00606311 


+0-3330383 


1412 


-0-2295639 


+0-2338526 ' 


13-55 


-00639572 


+0-3321698 


1413 


-0-2318901 


+0-2313806 


13-56 


-00672744 


+ 0-3312689 


1414 


-0-2341914 


+0-2288874 


13-57 


-00705824 


+ 0-3303358 


14-15 


-0-2364677 


+ 0-2263732 1 


13-58 


-00738810 


+0-3293705 


14-16 


-0-2387188 


-10-2238382 ] 


13-59 


-00771697 


+0-3283732 


14-17 


-0-2409444 


+0-2212828 1 


13-60 


-00804483 


+ 0-3273439 


14-18 


-0-2431444 


+0-2187071 i 


13-61 


-00837164 


-1-0-3262828 


1 14-19 


-0-2453185 


+0-2161115 ! 


13-62 


-0-0869738 


-fO-3251901 


1 14-20 


-0-2474666 


+0-2134962 


13-63 


-0-0902201 


+ 0-3240658 


14-21 


-0-2495884 


+ 0-2108615 


13-64 


-0-0934550 


+0-3229102 


14-22 


-0-2516838 


+0-2082077 


13-65 


-0-0966782 


+0-3217233 


14-23 


-0-2537525 


+0-2055351 


13-66 


-00998894 


+0-3205053 


14-24 


-0-2557944 


+0-2028439 


13-67 


-0-1030882 


+0-3192563 


14-25 


-0-2578093 


+0-2001344 


13-68 


-0- 1062744 


+0-3179765 


14-26 


-0-2597970 


+0-1974069 


13-69 


-01094476 


+0-3166660 


14-27 


-0-2617574 


+0-1946617 


i 13-70 


-0-1126076 


+0-3153249 


14-28 


-0-2636902 


+ 0- 1918990 


13-71 


-01157540 


+0-3139535 


14-29 


-0-2655953 


+01891192 


i 13-72 


-01188866 


+0-3125519 


, 14-30 


-0-2674725 


H 01863225 



ON THE TABULATION OF BESSEL AND OTHER FUNCTIONS. 129 
Neumann Functions — continued. 



X 


«o(.r) 


Gi(a-) 


.V 


' Go(a-) 


Gi(x) 


14-31 


-0-2693217 


+0-1835092 


14-89 


-0-3244344 


+0-0024150 


14-32 


-0-2711426 


+0-1806797 


14-90 


-0-3244423 


-0-0008299 


14-33 


-0-2729352 


+0-1778342 


14-91 


-0-3244178 


-00040726 


14-34 


-0-2746992 


+0-1749729 


14-92 


-0-3243608 


-0-0073127 


14-35 


-0-2764346 


+01720962 


14-93 


-0-3242715 


-00105499 


14-36 


-0-2781411 


+0-1692044 


14-94 


-0-3241498 


-00137839 


14-37 


-0-2798186 


+0-1662978 


14-95 


-0-3239958 


-0-0170143 


14-38 


-0-2814669 


+0-1633767 


14-96 


-0-3238096 


-0-0202409 


14-39 


-0-2830860 


+0-1604414 


14-97 


-0-3235911 


-0-0234633 


14-40 


-0-2846757 


+0-1574921 


14-98 


-0-3233403 


-0-0266812 


14-41 


-0-2862358 


+0-1545292 


14-99 


-0-3230574 


-00298944 


14-42 


-0-2877662 


+0-1515530 


15-00 


-0-3227425 


-0-0331024 


14-43 


-0-2892668 


+0-1485638 


15-01 


-0-3223955 


-0-0363050 


14-44 


-0-2907374 


+0-1455619 


15-02 


-0-3220164 


-0-0395018 


14-45 


-0-2921780 


+0-1425476 


15-03 


-0-3216054 


-0 0426926 


14-46 


-0-2935884 


+0-1395211 


15-04 


-0-3211626 


-00458770 


14-47 


-0-2949684 


+0-1364829 


1505 


-0-3206880 


-0-0490547 


14-48 


-0-2963180 


+0-1334332 


15-06 


-0-3201816 


-0-0522255 


14-49 


-0-2976370 


+0-1303723 


15-07 


-0-3196435 


-0 0553890 


14-50 


-0-2989254 


+0-1273006 


15-08 


-0-3190738 


-0-0585448 


14-51 


-0-3001830 


+ 0-1242183 


15-09 


-0-3184726 


-00616927 


14-52 


-0-3014098 


+ 0-1211258 


1510 


-0-3178400 


-0-0648324 


14-53 


-0-3026056 


+ 01 180234 


1511 


-0-3171760 


-00679636 


14-54 


-0-3037702 


+ 0-1149113 


15-12 


-0-3164808 


-0-0710859 


14-55 


-0-3049037 


+0-1117900 


15-13 


-0-3157544 


-0-0741991 


14-56 


-0-3060060 


+0-1086597 


1514 


-0-3149968 


-00773028 


14-57 


-0-3070769 


+0-1055207 


1515 


-0-3142083 


-0-0803968 


14-58 


-0-3081164 


+01023734 


1516 


-0-3133889 


-0-0834807 


14-59 


-0-3091244 


+00992181 


15-17 


-0-3125387 


-00865543 


14-60 


-0-3101008 


+00960550 


15-18 


-0-3116579 


-00896172 


14-61 


-0-3110455 


+0-0928846 


15-19 


-0-3107464 


-00926692 


14-62 


-0-3119585 


+00897071 


15-20 


-0-3098045 


-0-0957100 


14-63 


-0-3128396 


+0-0865228 


15-21 


-0-3088322 


-0-0987393 


14-64 


-0-3136889 


+0-0833321 


15-22 


-0-3078297 


-01017567 


14-65 


-0-3145063 


+0-0801353 


15-23 


-0-3067971 


-0-1047620 


14-66 


-0-3152917 


+0-0769327 


15-24 


-0-3057345 


-0-1077550 


14-67 


-0-3160450 


+0-0737246 


15-25 


-0-3046420 


-0-1107352 


14-68 


-0-3167661 


+0-0705114 


15-26 


-0-3035198 


-0-1137025 


14-69 


-0-3174551 


+0-0672934 


15-27 


-0-3023680 


-0-1166565 


14-70 


-0-3181120 


+0-0640708 


15-28 


-0-3011867 


-0-1195969 


14-71 


-0-3187366 


+0-0608441 


15-29 


-0-2999761 


-0-1225235 


14-72 


-0-3193289 


+0-0576135 


15-30 


-0-2987363 


-0-1254361 


14-73 


-0-3198889 


+0-0543793 


15-31 


-0-2974675 


-0-1283342 


14-74 


-0-3204165 


+0-0511419 


15-32 


-0-2961697 


-0-1312177 


14-75 


-0-3209117 


+0-0479017 


15-33 


-0-2948432 


-01340863 


14-76 


-0-3213745 


+0-0446589 


15-34 


-0-2934880 


-0-1369396 


14-77 


-0-3218049 


+0-0414138 


15-35 


-0-2921044 


-0-1397774 


14-78 


-0-3222028 


+00381668 


15-36 


-0-2906925 


-0-1425994 


14-79 


-0-3225682 


+00349182 


15-37 


-0-2892525 


-0-1454055 


14-80 


-0-3229011 


+0-0316683 


15-38 


-0-2877845 


-0-1481952 


14-81 


-0-3232015 


+0-0284175 


15-39 


-0-2862887 


-0-1509684 


14-82 


' -0-3234694 


+0-0251660 


15-40 


-0-2847652 


-0-1537247 


14-83 


-0-3237048 


+0-0219142 


15-41 


-0-2832143 


-0-1564639 


14-84 


; -0-3239077 


+0-0186624 


15-42 


-0-2816360 


-0-1591858 


14-85 


-0-3240781 


+0-0154110 


15-43 


-0-2800306 


-0-1618901 


14-86 


-0-3242159 


+0-0121602 


15-44 


-0-2783983 


-0-1645765 


14-87 


! -0-3243212 


+0-0089104 


15-45 


-0-2767391 


-0-1672448 


14-88 


, -0-3243940 


+0-0056619 


15-46 


-0-2760534 


-0-1698948 



1913. 



130 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



Neumann Functions — continued. 



X 


Go(^-) 


Gi(x) 


X 


GouO 


Gi(.i-) 


15-47 


-0-2733413 


-0-1725261 


15-74 


-0-2178739 


-0-2356711 


15-48 


-0-2716030 


-0-1751385 


1 15-75 


-0-2155071 


-0-2376877 


15-49 


-0-2698386 


-0-1777318 


15-76 


-0-2131203 


-0-2396794 


15-50 


-0-2680484 


-01803057 


15-77 


-0-2107136 


-0-2416460 


15-51 


-0-2662326 


-0-1828600 


15-78 


-0-2082874 


-0-2435872 


15-52 


-0-2643913 


-0-1853945 


15-79 


-0-2058420 


-0-2455029 


15-53 


-0-2625248 


-0-1879088 


! 15-80 


-0-2033775 


-0-2473930 


15-54 


-0-2606332 


-0-1904029 


1 15-81 


-0-2008943 


-0-2492573 


15-55 


-0-2587168 


-0-1928764 


15-82 


-0-1983925 


-0-2510955 


15-56 


-0-2567757 


-0-1953291 


15-83 


-0-1958724 


-0-2529076 


15-57 


-0-2548102 


-0-1977608 


15-84 


-0-1933344 


-0-2546934 


15-58 


-0-2528205 


-0-2001712 


15-85 


-0-1907787 


-0-2564527 


15-59 


-0-2508068 


-0-2025602 


15-86 


-0-1882055 


-0-2581853 


15-60 


-0-2487694 


-0-2049274 


15-87 


-0-1856151 


-0-2598912 


15-61 


-0-2467084 


-0-2072727 


15-88 


-0-1830077 


-0-2615701 


15-62 


-0-2446240 


-0-2095959 


15-89 


-0-1803837 


-0-2632219 


15-63 


-0-2425165 


-0-2118967 


15-90 


-0-1777434 


-0-2648464 


15-64 


-0-2403861 


-0-2141750 


15-91 


-0-1750869 


-0-2664436 


15-65 


-02382330 


-0-2164305 


15-92 


-0-1724146 


-0-2680132 


15-66 


-0-2360575 


-0-2186630 


15-93 


-0-1697267 


-0-2695552 


15-67 


-0-2338598 


-0-2208723 


15-94 


-0-1670236 


-0-2710693 


15-68 


-0-2316401 


-0-2230582 


15-95 


-0-1643055 


-0-2725555 


15-69 


-0-2293987 


-0-2252205 


15-96 


-0-1615726 


-0-2740136 


15-70 


-0-2271358 


-0-2273590 


15-97 


-01588253 


-0-2754436 


15-71 


-0-2248516 


-0-2294735 


15-98 


-01560638 


-0-2768452 


15-72 


-0-2225464 


-0-2315638 


15-99 


-0-1532885 


-0-2782184 


15-73 


-0-2202204 


-0-2336297 


16-00 


-0-1504996 


-0-2795630 



Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere, in co-operation with a 
Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society. — Twelfth 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. N. Shaw 
(Chairman) , Mr. E. Gold (Secretary), Messrs. D. Archibald, 
C. J. P. Cave, and W. H. Dines, Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, 
Sir Joseph Larmor, Professor J. E. Petavel, Dr. A. 
Schuster, and Dr. W. Watson. 

A MEETING of the Joint Committee was held in the rooms of the 
Royal Meteorological Society on April 8, 1913. It was decided to 
continue the ascents at Mungret College, Limerick, with funds pro- 
vided by the Eoyal Meteorological Society, and to approve of the 
allocation of the grant of 501. made by the Association at Dundee to 
the purchase of instruments and balloons for the meteorologist accom- 
panying the ice ship ' Scotia,' Mr. G. I. Taylor, Schuster Eeader in 
Meteorology. 

Ascents have been made at Mungret College on July 6, 31, 
October 4, November 7, 1912, January 3, July 3, 1913, and also on 
four days during the International week (May 5-10), when observations 
were obtained which, in conjunction v»ith others made at Pyrton Hill 
and Eskdalemuir (forming with Limerick a nearly equilateral triangle), 
give a remarkable series in illustration of the structure of a cyclonic 



1 



ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE. 



131 



disturbance having its centre near Limerick on three of the four days 
A brief summary of the results obtained is given in the accompanying 
table. 

The results of ascents at Barbadoes have been discussed in a paper 
by Mr. J. S. Dines, read before the Eoyal Meteorological Society. 

Mr. Taylor, who returned at the end of August, I'eports that owing 
to continued unfavourable weather and other conditions no ascents of 
registering balloons could be undertaken with any prospect of regaining 
the balloon and instrument. He succeeded, however, in obtaining a 
valuable set of kite observations, especially on occasions of fog, and a 
report on these will appear in due course. 

In view of the possibility of a further opportunity of investigation 
over the ocean next spring, the Committee ask for reappointment with 
a grant of 25L 

Summary of Registering Balloon Ascents at Limerick, July 1912 to July 1913. 



! 






Place of Pall 










Appro.xi- 

mate 
Pressure 

at Sea 


Character of 


Date 


Time 


Maxi- 
mum 
Height 






H.. 


Tc. 


Gra- 
1 dient 
! Velo- 
! city 


Gra- 
dient 
Direc- 
tion 


Curvature of 

Isobars, 

(a = anticyclouic, 

c= cyclonic, 


Dist- 
ance 


Direc- 
tion 






















s=straight) 


1912 


a.m. 


km. 


km. 


o 


km. 


°A. 


m/s. 


, 


mm. 




July 6 . . 


7.15 


15 


55 


320 


10.1 


221 


? 


? 


765 


No gradient 


„ 31 . . 


7.15 


14.8 


107 


56 


9.0 


227 


12 


155 


751 





October 4 


7.0 


15.7 


88 


160 


« 


« 


13t 


225+ 


777 


a 


November 7 . 


7.15 


14.1 


131 


82 


11.9 


208 


15 


220 


768 


s 


1913 






















January 3 


7.15 


9.8 


27 


85 


9.0 


225 


11 


225 


752 


s 


May 5 . . 


7.0 


11.3 


60 


130 


9.4 


217 


? 


? 


756 


Irregular 


„ 6 . . 


7.12 


14.9 


12 


30 


8.2 


225 


13 


330 


750 


c 


„ 7 . . 


7.7 


10.5 


32 


355 


7.8 


223 


17 


350 


743 


c 


„ 9 . . 


7.13 


14.2 


56 


327 


7.3 


222 


13 


130 


744 


c 


July 3 . . 


7.17 


15.3 


66 


192 


11.9 


207 


7 


7 


770 


a 



• The temperature gradient above 9 km. is so irregular that no definite value can be assigned 
to He 
t Gradient at 6 p.m. At 7 a.m. the station was in the central calm area of au autioyclone 



Radiotelegraphic Investigations. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir Oliver Lodge {Chairman), Dr. W. H. Eccles 
{Secretary), Mr. Sidney G. Brown, Dr. Erskine Murray, 
Professors J. A. Fleming, G. W. 0. Howe, ayul H. M. 
Macdonald, Captain H. Eiall Sankey, and Professor Sil- 
van us Thompson. 

At a meeting held on June 13, 1913, the Committee came to the 
conclusion that the most urgent and most profitable work they could 
promote was the investigation of the following large-scale phenomena :- 

1. The influence of sunrise and sunset, of daylight and dark- 
ness, and of meteorological conditions, on the propagation of 
electric waves over long distances ; 

2. The origin and the laws of ' strsiys ' — i.e., natural electric 
waves. 

K 2 



132 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

These are subjects which seem particularly suitable for the British 
Association, since they are such as cannot be efficiently pursued by 
uncoordinated individual effort. 

In order to promote the necessary widespread observations, the 
Committee propose to draw up a simple scheme of instructions which 
will be circulated to amateurs throughout this country, and also, 
with the permission of the Companies concerned, to operators on ships. 
These instructions would include directions for simultaneous observa- 
tions of. forexnmple, the strength of the time-signals from such stations 
as the Eiffel Tower, and the average strength and frequency of strays. 
The observations would subsequently be classified and reduced by this 
Committee ; and it is felt that this work would open up at once an 
almost unexplored, and exceedingly promising, branch of research — 
one which cannot be entered upon in any other way. It is, of course, 
essential that the work should be carried out over a very large area and 
by very numerous observers ; and after full consideration of this fact 
the Committee resolved to apply for a grant of 200L to enable the work 
to be started in a thorough manner. 



Estahlishinq a Solar Ohservatory in Australia. — Beport of the 
Committee, consisting of Sir David Gill (CJiairman) ^ Dr. 
W. G. DuFFiBLD (Secretary), Rev. A. L. Cortib, Dr. 
W. J. S. LocKYER, Mr. F. McClean, and Professors A. 
Schuster and H. H. Turner, appointed to aid the work of 
Estahlishinq a Solar Ohservatory in Australia. 

The following Resolution was passed by the Council of the Eoyal 
Meteorological Society in October 1912: — 

' The Council of the Royal Meteorological Society desires to asso- 
ciate itself with the movement to establish a Solar Observatory in 
Australia and expresses the decided opinion that such an observatory in 
the longitude of Australia or New Zealand is essential for the elucida- 
tion of the connection between solar changes and meteorological con- 
ditions upon the earth. It regards with great satisfaction the oppor- 
tunity at present afforded to the Government of Australia of acquiring 
the equipment necessary to initiate this work.' 

The opportunity referred to was the offer of the balance of the 
necessary equipment of a Solar Observatory which comprised a spectro- 
heliograph, pyrheliometer, and Littrow spectrograph. The Fisher 
Ministry did not at the time see its way to the immediate acceptance 
of this offer on the ground that ' the establishment of scientific observa- 
tories is a matter for the future, and the organisation of such institu- 
tions should perhaps be left in the hands of those who may at some 
future time be appointed to take charge of them. ' 

Mr. Fisher's Ministry passed out of office during the year and has 
been succeeded by that of Mr. Cook. The new Ministry has been 



ON ESTABLISHING A SOLAR OBSERVATORY IN AUSTRALIA. 133 

uppi-oaclied with a view to their carrying tlie intentions of tlie i)revioua 
Coahtion Cabinet into effect. 

It is understood that the Commonwealth Government contemplates 
the erection of a Solar Observatory upon a large scale, but it is unlikely 
that any further step will be taken before the British Association visits 
Australia next year, when, it is officially announced, a report embodying 
observations of the intended site which have been made for a period 
of more than a year will be presented and further advice sought. 
News has reached England of the offer by Mr. Cawthron, of Nelson, 
New Zealand, of 15,000L to erect a Solar Observatory in the neigh- 
bourhood of that town. Miss Proctor, to whom belongs the immediate 
credit of obtaining the munificent offer, had previously lectured in 
Australia in support of the Solar Observatory to be established in 
that country. 

Need still exists for a Solar Observatory in lower southern latitudes 
than that of Nelson, New Zealand, and Mr. C. G. Abbot writes 
urging that the Australian Observatory shall undertake the study of 
Solar Radiation, for which he regards the conditions as favourable. 

In spite of the Government's attitude towards the recent offer of 
apparatus, the Commonwealth will shortly accept delivery of the 
Parnham telescope. This is the last of the three telescopes accepted 
in 1909 when the Commonwealth Government offered lOOL for its 
repair and alteration for Australian latitudes. A prominence spectro- 
scope has been added to it out of the funds provided. 

At the International Solar Union at Bonn in August 1913, it was 
proposed by Professor Campbell, Director of the Mount Hamilton 
Observatory, that the resolution passed at Meudon in 1907 be re- 
affirmed, and that the desirability of the erection of an Australian 
station be again urged upon the Commonwealth Government. 



Experiments for improving the Construction of Practical Stan- 
dards for Use in Electrical Measurements. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Lord Eayleigh (Chairman), Dr. 
E. T. Glazebrook (Secretary), Professors J. Perry and 
W. G. Adams, Dr. G. Carey Foster, Sir Oliver Lodge, 
Dr. A.Muirhbad, Sir W. H. Preece, Professor A. Schuster, 
Dr. J. A. Fleming, Professor Sir J. J. Thomson, Dr. W. N. 
Shaw, Dr. J. T. Bottomley, Eev. T. C. Fitzpatrick, 
Professor S. P. Thompson, Mr. J. Eennib, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, Sir Arthur Eucker, Professor H. L. C.\llendar, 
Professor T. Mather, and Mr. F. E. Smith. 

The republication of the Eeports of the Committee from 1862 to 
1870 and from 1881 to 1912 is now complete. The volume consists 
of about 800 pages, with several plates, and is published by the 
Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Association. 

The Committee are indebted to Mr. R. K. Gray for a generous 
donation towards the expenses of the republication, and are glad to report 



134 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

that the Council have taken over the volume as a publication of the 
Association. 

During the year the death of Mr. G. Matthey, F.K.S., has deprived 
the Committee of a valued colleague. His ready help was always 
given when questions dealing with the purity of the metals required 
for the work of the Committee were under discussion. 

In 1861 the first work to be undertaken by the Committee was the 
realisation of the absolute unit of resistance. In 1882, 1883, 1888, 
1894, and again in 1897, other measurements were made by members 
of the Committee, and in this their last Eeport they are pleased to 
be able to announce a further development. The new Lorenz apparatus 
at the National Physical Laboratory is now complete, and measure- 
ments of resistance can be made by means of it with an uncertainty 
of not more than a few parts in 100,000. During the present year 
a large number of such measurements have been made, and the results 
obtained are now being prepared for jDublication. 

A satisfactory feature oi the machine is that it can be used at 
all times for absolute measurements, and the plans adopted for the 
re-determination of the dimensions of the coils ensure an accuracy in 
the future as great as that obtained in the recent measui'ements. The 
nominal values of the resistances measured are O'OOl, 0"002, and 
,0*01 ohm. As an instance of the care taken, it may be mentioned 
that the dimensions of the coils have been measured with a current 
flowing through them, and the radius of a disc 63 cm. in diameter 
has been determined within O'Ol mm. when running at 1,200 revolu- 
tions per minute. Electrical methods of setting the coils parallel and 
coaxial with the shaft proved to be more sensitive than the usual 
methods, and a Wheatstone bridge with a condenser in one arm proved 
to be the most sensitive indicator of constancy of speed. This instru- 
ment, together with the Ayrton-Jones current balance, enables the 
fundamental electrical units to be realised with an accuracy sufficient 
for all present purposes. It is hoped to re-wind the coils of the current 
balance and leave them uncovered with paraffin wax so that their 
dimensions may be determined at any time. 

The Committee are pleased to report that the original rotating-coil 
apparatus, designed by Lord Kelvin in 1861, is in good condition, 
and steps are being taken for its inclusion in the Science Museum, 
South Kensington. Some rough measurements of resistance were 
made by the apparatus in the spring of this year, and the coils used 
by Lord Eayleigh in 1882 were also experimented with. An account 
of the apparatus is given in the Secretary's ' Kelvin ' Lecture to the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

A statement on international comparisons of resistances and 
standard cells was included in last year's Eeport and sufficiently 
indicates the arrangements that have been made for the maintenance 
of constant electrical standards in the future. The Committee regard 
these arrangements as satisfactory. They do not ask for reappoint- 
ment. 



ON THE STUDY OF HYDRO-AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 135 

The Study of Hydro -aromatic Substances. —Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor W. H. Perkin {Chairman), 
Professor A. W. Crossley {Secretary), Dr. M. 0. Forster, 
Dr. H. K. Le Sueur, and Dr. A. McKenzie. 

1. Bromoxylenols obtained from dimethyldihydroresorcin^ — During 
the past year work has been largely concerned with the transformation 
of certain hydro-aromatic substances into bromoxylenols. These con- 
versions were originally noticed^ during the action of phosphorus 
pentabromide on dimethyldihydroresorcin, when the main initial pro- 
ducts are not bromoxylenols, but are hydro-aromatic in nature, the prin- 
cipal ones isolated being dibrorao- and tribromodimethylcyclohexenones. 

As the original reaction is very complicated, it was decided to study 
the transformations using the pui'e above-mentioned cyclic ketones, and 
as a result of the work so far concluded it has been established that : 

(a) The action of heat on dibromodimethylcyclohexenone (I) gives 
vise to 5-bromo-o-3-xylenol (II) and 6-bromo-o-4-xylenol (III). 



CH, 




am,), 

H,,C| |CH, 
CBi- 




OH 



II. HI. 

In the first of these rearrangements a methyl group has wandered, 
as previously noted, from carbon atom 1 to carbon atom 2; but in the 
second case from carbon atom 1 to carbon atom 6. 

{b) The action of dilute alcoholic potassium hydroxide on dibromo- 
dimethylcyclohexenone gives rise to 5-bromo-o-3-xylenol and 
4 : 5-dibromo-o-3-xylenol (V). 

(c) Tribromodimethylcyclohexenone (IV) gives, under the influence 
of heat or alcoholic potassium hydroxide, mainly 4 : 5-dibromo-o-3- 
xylenol (V) and another bromoxylenol, which has not, so far, been 
characterised. 

C(CH,), CHj 

H,C, ^CHBr 

C Br Br 

IV. V. 

The constitutions of 5-bromo-o-3-xylenol, 6-bromo-o-4-xylenol, and 
1 : 5-dibromo-o-3-xylenol have been definitely established by synthetic 
methods.^ 

2. Derivatives of isopropyldihydroresorcin. — The method for the 
preparation of isopropyldihydroresorcin * has been improved so as to 
yield 75 per cent, of the theoretical amount of the dihydroresorcin. 

» Troc. C.S., 1912, 28, 332. « j.c.s., 1903, 83, 110. ^ J.C.S., 1913, 103. 

^ J.C.S., 1902, 81, 675. 




136 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



l-Isopropylcyclohexan-3-ol and l-isopropylcyclohexan-3-one have 
been prepared, and it is intended to use them as starting-points for the 
px-eparation of several meta-terpene derivatives. 



The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines and Allied Sub- 
stances, and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Deriva- 
tives. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
F. S. Kipping (Chairman), Professor K. J. P. Orton 
(Secretary), Dr. S. Euhemann, and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 

The Transformation of Acetylchloroaminohenzenes and the Chlorination 
of Anilides. The Reactions of Chloroamines in Aqueous Solution. 

[With W. H. Gray, B.Sc] 

In a previous report, • we have given a summary of the results of a large 
number of experiments on the transformations of chloroamines into the 
isomeric chloroanihdes : Ar . NCI . Ac ^Cl Ar . NH . Ac ; it was shown that 
this change could not be regarded as an intramolecular rearrangement, but 
consisted primarily of a reversible reaction of hydrogen chloride with the 
chloroamine : thus, 

Ar . NCI . Ac + HCl ->Ar . NH . Ac + C1,,->C1 Ar . NH . Ac + HCl, 

followed by a direct irreversible interaction of chlorine and the aniUde. 

In these experiments the medium was aqueous acetic acid containing 
not less than 50 per cent, of acetic acid. We have now examined the 
behaviour of acetylchloroaminobenzene in pure aqueous solution, and have 
discovered an interesting modification of the ordinary reaction. 

The production of hydrogen chloride during the transformation of a 
chloroamine, in the presence of hydrogen chloride, was first indicated by 
Blanksma,^ who foimd that the amount of this acid at the end of the 
reaction was slightly greater than that originally introduced. Moreover, 
it was demonstrated by Chattaway and Orton ^ that any change of the 
chloroamine which occurred in the presence of other acids — for example 
sulphuric — was invariably accompanied by the appearance of hydrogen 
chloride. The first quantitative experiments were made by Orton and 
Jones (compare Reports, 1910). These were carried out in an acetic acid 
medium containing from 0-35 per cent, of water, both in the presence and 
absence of various acids. The following table shows some of the results : — 

Table I. 



Medium 


Acid 


Time of Reaction 


Chloroamine 
Disappeared 


Chloroamine 
Reduced 


Per cent. 
65 HA 


none 
H.,SO, 
HiSfO, 
HCIO, 


Days 

22 

13 

7 

9 


Per cent. 
50-8 
49-16 
54-96 
48-0 


Per cent. 

6-04 
11-2 
3-72 
18-67 



' Reports, 1910. 



- Recueil des Trav. Chim. 1903, 22, 290. 
Proc. Chem. Soc. 1902, 18, 200. 



TRANSFORMATION OF NITROAMINES AND ALLIED SUBSTANCES. 137 

The following experiment serves as a comparison when a chloroamine, 
which cannot yield an isomeride, is used : — 

65 per cent. HA H.,SO, 16 clays 8-25 per cent. 81 per cent. 

In the following experiments hydrogen chloride (1 molecular proportion) 
is initially present : — 

Per cent. 

Glacial puriss. Reaction complete 3-24 

,, ordinary. ,, 6-0 

93-4 per cent, puriss. ,, 1-96 

75 per cent, puriss. „ 1-84 

There can be little "doubt as to the manner of this reduction. In all 
aqueous media some hydrolysis of the chloroamine occurs :— 

Ar . NCI . NAc + H.^O ^ HCIO + Ar . NH . Ac. 

The reduction of hypochlorous acid is rapid in aqueous acetic acid 
even when carefully shielded from light. From an aqueous solution 
of chloroamine it is possible to distil off hypochlorous acid under 
reduced pressure. Thus at 25° and under 13-9 mm. the first .50 cc. 
of distillate from 250 cc. of a 0-1 per cent, solution of a chloro- 
amine had a titre of 2-57 cc. of N/20 thio. No chlorine was foixnd in the 
distillate, and there was no loss of chloroamine from the mother hquor 
other than by hydrolysis. The distillation of an equivalent solution of 
hypochlorous acid showed that the hydrolysis of the chloroamine is not 
extensive ; for the first 50 cc. gave a titre of 30 cc. N/20 thio. 

Reditction of the Chloroamine, in Aqueous Solution. — The behaviour of 
acetylchloroaminobenzene in pure water would be expected to show a 
marked difference from that in concentrated acetic acid media on several 
grounds. If it be granted that the mechanism of tlie isomeric transforma- 
tion consists in a reaction between chloroamine and hydrogen chloride, 
yielding anilide and chlorine, which then react to form the C-chloro- 
derivative, any extensive hydrolysis of the chlorine should lead to ab- 
normalities and retard the production of chloroanilides. Jakowkin^ 
showed that the reversible hydrolysis of chlorine, which is governed by the 
equation KfCl.,] = [HCIO] [HCl]', is very extensive in dilute aqueous 
solution. Thus, for example, over 90 per cent, of the chlorine at a con- 
centration of 0-05 per cent, and less is present as hypochlorous and 
hydrochloric acids. From the form of the equation it will be seen that 
the proportion of free chlorine in the system would rapidly increase as the 
concentration of hydrogen chloride was raised ; according to Jakowkin in 
solutions of hydrogen chloride above 0-1 N very little of the chlorine is 
present as hypochlorous acid. Above these limits of concentration of 
hydrogen chloride, therefore, the ordinary conversion of chloroamine 
would predominate. 

Our experimental study is generally in harmony with these anticipa- 
tions. With a high concentration of hydrogen chloride, the main reaction 
is a transformation of the chloroamine into monochloroacetanilides, but 
with low concentrations the reactions are greatly modified. In fact, the 
behaviour with hydrogen chloride then closely resembles that with other 
acids. 

Aqueous solutions of acetylchloroaminobenzene change very slowly 

< Zeit. f. Physik. Chem., 1899. 



i;38 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 11»13. 

if due regard is had to the purity of the water, and the protectiou of the 
solution from contamination with reducing materials. At 2.5° a 0-1 per 
cent, aqueous solution of this chloroamine drops only a few per cent, in 
titre in the course of several weeks ; at 60°, however, .50 per cent, has 
disappeared in 38-5 hours. The addition of small quantities of an acid 
(1-2 molecular proportions, which give a concentration of 0-0058-0-0116) 
increases the rate of change, which is, however, still very slow ; about .50 
per cent, of the chloroamine disappears in one month at 25°, but in less 
than a day at 60°. There is no great difference between different acids, 
including hydrochloric, in their effect. Careful examination of the re- 
actions, which lead to a fall in titre both in aqueous and highly dilute acids, 
discloses the fact that the principal change is a simple reduction of the 
chloroamine to anihde and hydrogen chloride ; at the same time a small 
and very variable amount of chlorate appears. The production of chloro- 
anihdes is quite subsidiary. The most obvious interpretation of the facts is 
that the chloroamine is hydrolysed : 

Ar . NCI . Ac + H^O ^ HC104- Ar . NH . Ac 

and the hypochlorous acid then reduced. It is not so easy to see how 
the latter change is brought about. Both an aqueous solution of 
hypochlorous acid and also solutions containing a strong acid are quite 
stable. Moreover, the pure anilide does not reduce hypochlorous acid ; 
the sole interaction is the equihbrium represented above. It seems most 
probable that the reduction is effected by aniline arising from the hydrolysis 
of the anilide — a change which has been shown to occur, but slowly, under 
the circumstances. The hydrolysis of the anihde in pure water is yet 
slower than in acids, and hence the permanence of solutions of chloro- 
amine in this medium at ordinary temperatures. The development of the 
characteristic colour reactions of aniHne with liypochlorous acid in the 
course of the change is in harmony with this suggestion. Further, aniline 
is particularly effective as a reducing agent for hypochlorous acid, since 
one molecular proportion reduces several of the acid. 

At higher concentrations of the acids (0-023 N) the specific effect of 
hydrogen chloride appears ; but with the other acids the speed of hydro- 
lysis and reduction is merelj' increased. But even with very great excess 
of hydrogen chloride, when the disappearance of the chloroamine is rela- 
tively rapid, the hydrolysis and reduction can still be detected as a sub- 
sidiary reaction. The formation of hydrogen chloride by reduction in the 
experiments with other acids is the obvious cause, as previously indicated, 
of the production of the small quantities of chloroanilide. 

Method of Experiment. — Aqueous solutions of acetylchloroaminoben- 
zene containing about 1 gram per litre were used, the reactions being 
carried out at 25° and 60°. After more than 50 per cent, of the chloroamine 
has disappeared, the hydrogen chloride is estimated. The remaining 
chloroamine (and the very small amount of hypochlorous acid) is reduced 
by arsenite, and the chloridion weighed as silver chloride. In order to 
estimate any chlorate which has been formed from the hypochlorous acid 
the reduction in another portion is carried out by sulphite. The chloro- 
anilide is assumed to be given by difference, but it is quite possible that 
some chlorine disappeared in the oxidation of the aniline or in chlorinating 
free aniline. Some of the results are shown in Table II. 



TRANS FORM ATtON OF NITRO.AMINES AND ALLIED SUBSTANCES. 139 







Table 11. 






Aci.l 


Tempera- 
ture 


Percentage 


of Chloroaniine converted into : 






(a) C'l' 


(b)Cr + CIO.' 


If) Chloroanilide 


HCl (2 mob.) . 


25° 


54-24 


8-12 


37-64 


H.,SO, (1 mol.) 


jj 


68-77 


12-74 


18-52 


H.,SO, (4 mols.) 


jj 


65-39 


15-46 


J9-14 


HNO;, (1 mol.) 


^, 


76-56 


5-59 


17-85 : 


{COOH)..(lmol.) 


„ 


74-36 


— 


25-64 


HCl (10 mols.) 


,, 


12-2 


— 


87-78 


HCl (20 mols.) 


,, 


7-73 


— 


92-28 


HCl (4 mols.) . 


fiO" 


25-42 


3-93 


70-65 


HCl (10 mols.) 


GO" 


11-47 


— 


88-54 


HCl(2moK) . 


58-5° 


43-76 


9-36 


46-98 


Water 


60° 


63-59 


— 


36-42 


H,SO, (1 mol.) 


60° 


60-85 


12-19 


26-96 


H,SO< (10 mols. 


60° 


73-86 


0-91 


25-23 



The times wliicli the reaction occupies in various cases are very different. 
The chlorination of the anihde is in an aqueous medium an extremely rapid 
reaction (Orton and Jones, loc. cit.), and hence in circumstances when 
chlorine and anilide are present at relatively liigh concentrations, the 
chloroaniine rapidly disappears, and a large proportion of chloroaniUde is 
formed. This condition is reaHsed when the concentration of the hydrogen 
chloride is sufficiently raised, for, as was shown in the foregoing, the hypo- 
chlorous acid is then replaced by chlorine : H'+ CI' + HCIO - Cl^+HvO, 
and further hydrolysis of the chloroaniine follows from disturbance of tho 
equilibrium : Ar . NCI . Ac + H2O ^ Ar . NH . Ac + HCIO. 

The time of the half-change in a number of the experiments is shown in 
Table III. 

T.VBLE III. 



E\pt rinient 


Acid 
HCl (2 mols.) 


Tempera- 
ture 


Half-period 


Percentage of 
Chloroanilide 




25° 


16-75 days 




37-64 ' 


11 


HCl (2 mols.) 


60° 


8-2 hours 




43-6 


in 


HCl (4 mols.) 


60° 


2-8 hour.s 




70-65 


IV 


HCl (10 mols.) 


60° 


40-5 mins. 




88-54 


V 


H.,SOj (1 mol.) 


25° 


31-5 days 




18-52 


VI 


H.,SO, (4 mols.) 


25° 


11-3 days 




19-14 


Vll 


H.,SO, (1 mol.) 


60° 


18-7 hours 




26-96 


\aii 


H.SO^ (10 mols.) 


60° 


4-9 hours 




25-23 



(i) A comparison of the experiments in which hydrogen chloride was 
used with that in which sulphuric acid was used at equivalent concentra- 
tion (i with V and ii with vii), whether at 25° or 60°, shows that with 
double the production of chloroaniUde, the speed of the disappearance of 
chloroamine is also approximately doubled. 

(ii) With increase in the concentration of the hydrogen chloride, the 
production of chloroaniUde rapidly increases. Raising the proportion of 
hydrogen chloride from 10 to 20 mols., roughly quadruples the speed, but 
only slightly raises the proportion of chloroaniUde (from 88 to 92 per cent.). 

(iii) Increase in the concentration of the sulphuric acid is accompanied 
by an increase in the rate of disappearance of the chloroamine. But in 
marked contrast to the effect of hydrogen chloride, the reaction is still 



140 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913; 

identical ; tlie production of cliloroanilide and the reduction remain in 
the same proportion. 

These results illuminate some recent observations of Rivett'' on the 
* transformation ' of acetylchloroaminobenzene in aqueous solution. In 
one series of experiments he used hydrogen chloride, biit never below a 
concentration of 0-1351. Although the values for 

ki/[HCl]2 (= 0-0413-0-0419) 

between the limits of •2702-0-4797 for [HCl], are very close, he 
seeks for an explanation of the slightly divergent values outside these 
limits of concentration only in the degree of ionisation of the hydrogen 
chloride, and in the secondary influences of the ions on one another or on 
the unionised molecules on the ions. Our demonstration of the existence 
of a subsidiary side reaction would indicate another cause for the diver- 
gence from strict constancy of the expression ki/ [HCl]^. We have pre- 
viously attempted (Eeports 1910) to show how this relation, ki/ [HCl]'^ 
= const., is accounted for on our view of the transformation. 

The speed of the formation of chloroanilides is given by the equation : 

d [chloroanilide] / di = Jcu [CI2] [anilide] = hi K [chloroamine] [HCl]^, 

since 

K [chloroamine] [HCl]'^ = [CI 2] [aniUde], 

from the equilibrium : 

Ar.NCl.Ac+H'+Cl'v-Cl. + Ar.NH.Ac; 
Hence as chloroamine is the only variable, 
d [chloroanilide] / rfi = {kn . K [HCl]') [chloroamine] = hi [chloroamine]. 

Apart from the completeness of the ionisation of the hydrogen chloride, 
and apart from the slight increase in the concentration of the hydrogen 
chloride during the reaction, the quantity of chloroamine in the equation 
is supposed to be sensibly identical with that used in the preparation of the 
system, the reaction with hydrogen chloride being disregarded. These 
approximations would imdeniably cause variation in the expression, 
^•i/[HCl]-^. 

The final form of the equation is not changed if the hydrolysis of the 
chloroamine is taken, as seems necessary in an aqueous medium, as the 
first step. 

Ar . NCI . Ac + H,0 .Ar . NH . Ac+HClO and HClO+H' + Cl'.-Cl^+H.O. 

For 

K^ [chloroamine] [H.^O] = [aniUde] [HCIO], 

Kb [CI2] [H2O] = [HCIO] [HC1]^ 

Ka [chloroamine] / Kb [CL,] = [anilide] / [HCl]^, 
or 

K [chloroamine] [HCl] ' = [CL] [anilide]. 

In Rivett's experiments with a pure aqueous medium, and also with 
other acids, he fails to recognise that the transformation of the chloroamine 
to the chloroanihdes is merely a side-reaction, and that hydrolysis and 
reduction are tlie primary changes. His measurement of the rate of dis- 

' Zeit. j. Physilc. Chem., 1913, 82, 201. 



TRANSFORMATION OF N1TR0AMINE3 AND ALLIED SUBSTANCES. HI 

appearance of chloroamine iu these solutions led him to the conclusion 
that hydrogen chloride was produced, but he does not determine the 
amoimt of hydrogen chloride, and thus misses this fact. Without attempt- 
ing to examine his views as to the series of changes (reversible) by which 
he supposes hydrogen chloride to be produced, it may be stated that he does 
not suggest the reduction of chloroamine or hypochlorous acid. Moreover, 
it may be pointed out that the pink or purple colour referred to above, 
which appears during the decomposition of the chloroatnine, is without 
doubt identical with the ordinary colour reaction of bleaching powder 
and aniline, and not as is suggested due to a compound, Ar . Nx . Ac, 
produced together with hydrogen chloride in a reversible reaction with the 
acid :— Ar . NCI . Ac + Hx v- Ar . Nx . Ac + HCl. 

Sumviary. 

1. The decomposition of acetylchloroaminobenzene iu pure aqueous 
solution, or in the presence of all acids including hydrochloric, at a very low 
concentration is mainly hydrolysis and reduction of the hypochlorous 
acid : 

Ar . NCI . Ac + H„0 ^ Ar . NH . Ac + HCIO 
Ar . NH . Ac + H^O^Ar . NHo + CH, . CO.H. 
x(HClO) 4- Ar . NHo^ (Ar . NH.^ + xO) + xHCl. 

The transformation of the chloroamine into chloroanihdes, which 
follows from the formation of hydrogen chloride, is quite subsidiary. 

2. With higher concentrations of hydrogen chloride, more chlorine 
appears in the system from the reaction H' + CI' + HCIO ^ CIj + H.jO. 
According to Jakowkin's measurements, chlorine is nearly completely 
hydroiysed in water at concentrations below 0-05 in the absence of excess 
of hydrogen chloride, whilst on the other hand in solutions of hydrogen 
chloride above 0-1 N, hydrolysis of the chlorine is nearly absent. Hence, 
now that chlorine and anilide are both at relatively high concentrations, 
the transformation of chloroamine to chloroanilide is the main reaction. 

3. With acids other than hydrogen chloride, increase iu the concentra- 
tion cannot cause a similar change in the reaction. 

4. The results of the study of the decomposition of chloroamine in 
aqueous solution are in complete harmony with the earher view as to the 
part played by hydrogen chloride in the conversion of chloroamines to the 
isomeric chloroanihdes. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed with a grant of 201. 

The Report is a summary of the work which has been carried out. A 
detailed account of the experimental work will be pubhshed later in one 
of the chemical journals. 



Dynamic Isomerism. — Rej)ort of the Committee, consisthuj of 
Professor H. E. Armstrong {Chairman) , Dr. T. M. Lowry 
(Secretary), Professor Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, 
Dr. J. J. Dobbie, and Dr. M. 0- Forster. (Drawn up by 
*he Secretary.) 

A. Rotatory Dispersion. 
The past year has witnessed the culmination of an investigation that 
has a close relationship to the main line of research for which the 



142 BEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Committee is responsible. The marked progress that has been made 
in the study of rotatory dispersion may be shown by the hst of papers 
which have been pubhshed during the year. These include a paper on 
' Optical Eotatory Dispersion, Part I. The Natural and Mag- 
netic Eotatory Dispersion in Quartz of Light in the Visible 
Eegion of the Spectrum' ('Phil. Trans.,' 1912, A. 212, 
261-97), 
which will be followed shortly by Part II., in which the extension 
of the poiarimetric method through the ultra-violet and infra-red regions 
of the spectrum will be described. 

The application of these new physical methods to the study of 
chemical problems is described in a second series of papers, of which 
the following have been published already, or are in preparation for 
publication in the autumn : 

' The Rotatory Dispersive Power of Organic Compounds. ' 
I. The Measurement of Eotatoiy Dispersion (' Trans. Chem. See.,' 

1913, 103, 1062-1067). 
II. The Form of the Eotatory Dispersion Curves (' Trans. Chem. 
Soc.,' 1913,103,1067-1075). 

III. The Measurement of Magnetic Eotatory Dispersion C Trans. 

Chem. Soc.,' 1913, 103, 1322-1331). 

IV. Magnetic Eolation and Dispersion in some simple Organic Liquids 

(' Proc. Chem. Soc.,' June 19, 1913). 
V. A Comparison of the Optical and Magnetic Eotatory Dispersion 

in some simple Organic Liquids. 
VI Anomalous Eotatory Dispersion (' Proc. Chem. Soc.,' June 5, 

1913). 
Attention may also be directed to a paper by Armstrong and Walker 
on ' The Causes of Variation in the Optical Eotatory Power of Organic 
Compounds and of Anomalous Eotatory Dispersive Power ' (' Proc. Eoy. 
Soc.,' 1913, A. 88, 388-403), in which the close relationship between 
rotatory dispersion and dynamic isomerism is specially emphasised. 

The general result of these investigations has been to show that a 
knowledge of the phenomena of dynamic isomerism is essential for the 
interpretation of optical rotation, especially in the case of liquids which 
show anomalous rotatory dispersion ; conversely, it is believed that the 
study of rotatory dispersion will open up a new and fruitful field for 
the investigation of dynamic isomerism in the case of large groups of 
important compounds. 

B. Successive Isomeric Changes. 
The past year has also seen the completion of a long series of 
experiments on the complex isomeric changes which take place in the 
amide and piperidide of camphor-carboxylic acid. Nearly five years 
ago it was discovered that these substances were capable of giving 
inflected mutarotation curves. An investigation of ' The Equations for 
Two Consecutive Unimolecular Changes ' (Lowry and John, ' Trans. 
Chem. Soc.,' 1910, 97, 2634-2645) showed that inflected curves might 
be produced by two successive isomeric changes, but the experimental 



ON DYNAMIC ISOMERISM. 143 

curves were found to be more complex, giving indications of at least 
three successive changes involving four isomeric compounds. These 
experiments have been described in detail in two papers published during 
the past year (Glover and Lowry, ' Trans. Chem. Soc.,' 1912, 101, 
1902-1912; 1913, 103, 913-924). 

Experiments are now in progress with a view to investigating 
Forster's a-benzoyl camphor, the enolic form of which has been found 
to give inflected mutarotation curves when ethylene chloride is used as 
a solvent in place of chlox'oform. Even nitrocamphor has been found 
to give inflected curves if dissolved in ethylene chloride or in benzene 
(Lowry and Courtman, 'Trans. Chem. Soc.,' 1913, 103, 1216), but 
it is believed that these are due to the gradual absorption of a catalyst 
from the walls of the polarimeter tube, and not to successive isomeric 
changes. 

0. Influence of Light. 

A series of experiments on the influence of light on isomeric change 
(Lowry and Courtman, 'Trans. Chem. Soc.,' 1913, 103, 1214-1221) 
has shown that no marked acceleration is produced by exposing nitro- 
camphor, glucose, galactose or maltose to the action of powerful ultra- 
violet light. In the case of aminomethylene camphor, however, verj- 
marked acceleration occurs whilst the Light is acting, but the actioii 
reverts to its original slow rate of change when the light is withdrawn. 
In the case of (enolic) a-benzoyl camphor a similar acceleration is pro- 
duced, but the effect continues after the light has been extinguished; 
it is believed that this permanent stimulation of the action is due to the 
liberation of benzoic acid acting as a catalytic agent. 



The Study of Plant Enzymes, particularly with relation to 
Oxidation. — Second Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. A. D. Hall (Chairman) , Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Secre- 
tary), Professor H. E. Armstrong, Professor F. Keeble, and 
Dr. E. J. EussELL. 

The inquiry has been continued in various directions during the past 
year, as shown by the following list of communications to the Eoyal 
Society : — 

(a) Herbage Studies. II. Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium 
repens, cyanophoric plants. By IT. E. Armstrong, E. F. Armstrong, 
and E. Horton. 

(b) Studies on Enzyme Action. XIX. Urease. II. Observa- 
tions on Accelerative and Inhibitive Agents. By H. E. Armstrong, 
M. S. Benjamin, and E. Horton. 

(c) Studies on the Processes operative in Solution (XXX.) and on 
Enzyme Action (XX.). The nature of enzymes and of their action as 
hydrolytic agents. By E. P. Armstrong and H. E. Armstrong. 

(d) Studies on Enzyme Action (XXt.). Lipase. III. By H. E. 
A.rmstrong and H. W. Gosney. 

(e) The Pole of Oxydases in the Formation of the Anthocyan Pig- 



144 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

ment of Plants. By P. Keeble and E. F. Armstrong [in the ' Journal 
of Genetics '] . 

(/) The Formation of the Anthocyan Pigments of Plants. IV. The 
Chromogens. By F. Keeble, E. P. Armstrong, and W. N. Jones. 

(g) The Formation of the Anthocyan Pigments of Plants. V. The 
Chromogens of White Flowers. By W. N. Jones. 

(h) The Formation of the Anthocyan Pigments of Plants. VI. By 
F. Keeble, E. F. Armstrong, and W. N. Jones. 

Considerable progress has been made in elucidating the part played 
by oxidising catalysts in the production of plant pigments. By means 
of suitable agents — in particular benzidine and a-naphthol — oxydases 
and peroxydases can be localised in plants both in the flower petals 
and in the vegetative parts. Evidence has been accumulat-ed in favour 
of the hypothesis that the soluble sap pigments of plants are formed 
by the oxidation of a colourless chromogen through the agency of an 
oxydase. The method has been applied with success to certain pro- 
blems in genetics. 

The sap pigment may be reduced to the colourless chromogen by 
the agency of a reducing substance. Such a change takes place when 
the coloured cell is stimulated by a hormone (a substance which pene- 
trates the cell membrane) under conditions in which the amount of 
water present is a minimum. When the conditions are reversed and 
there is an excess of water in the system, the chromogen is reoxidised. 
Both the reducing substance and the reduced pigment are soluble in 
aqueous alcohol of a suitable strength (90 per cent.). After extraction 
of a coloured petal by alcohol of this strength, both the solution and 
the extracted petal are colourless; hut they can be caused to recover 
their original colour — the solution on evaporation of the alcohol 
and dissolution of the residue in water, the petal on warming in 
water. There is evidence that the flower contains an excess of 
chromogen beyond that normally converted into pigment. The 
reducing substance is not destroyed by boiling : it cannot therefore 
be classed as an enzyme. The experiments afford proof of the exist- 
ence of an oxidising-reducing mechanism in the cell sap which controls 
the formation of flower colour and is itself regulated by the condition of 
concentration of the cell sap. Dilution favours oxidation, concentra- 
tion alters the balance in the opposite direction. 

Very little progress has yet been made in determining the chemical 
nature of the sap piginents. The researches of A. G. Perkin have made 
it almost certain that the soluble yellow pigments belong to the class of 
hydroxyflavones of which quercetin is the best known representative. 
On genetical grounds there is strong evidence in favour of regarding 
these yellow pigments as antecedents of the red, magenta, and blue sap 
pigments. By hydrolysis and subsequent reduction and oxidation or by 
hydrolysis and oxidation, red pigments have been obtained from a 
number of yellow flowers, such, for example, as the wallflower, daffodil, 
and primrose; it is possible that the coloured varieties of these species 
may arise in a similar manner. 

The most fruitful discovery during the year has been the proof 
afforded by Chodat that the action of tyrosinase on an amino- acid, 



ON THE STUDY OF PLANT ENZYMEi?, 145 

e.g.,, glycine,, gives rise to tlie production of fonnaldeliyde, 
amnionia, and carbon dioxide. Elements are thus available for 
the production of all manner of complex compounds and the method 
has a wide application. Starting, for example, from a mixture 
of the glucoside arbutin with glycine, it is possible, by the action 
of emulsin and an oxydase at the ordinary temperature, to obtain 
first a red compound, then a brownish black substance, as well 
as a volatile compound possessing the characteristic odour of ripe 
plums. In short, both the colour and odour of the ripe fruit are 
obtained by a biological synthesis from the glucoside and an amino- 
acid. This synthesis appears of general application and is being further 
studied. Presumably the colours produced in this manner are those 
characteristic of the fruit and leaves of the plants rather than of the 
flower petals. The interaction appears to involve the oxidation of the 
phenolic constituent of the glucoside either to an ortho- or to a para- 
quinone, the condensation to quinhydrone and the interaction of this 
compound with ammonia and formaldehyde. Meta- phenols do not 
undergo the same transformation. 



Erratic Blocks of the British Isles. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Mr. E. H. Tiddeman (Chairman), Dr. A. E. 
DWERRYHOUSB (Secretary), Dr. T. G. Bonney, Mr. F. W. 
Harmer, Eev. S. N. Harrison, Dr. J. Horne, Mr. W. 
Lower Carter, Professor W. J. Sollas, and Messrs. Wm. 
Hill, J. W. Stather, and J. H. Milton. 

England. 

Reported hy the Rev. A. Irving, D.Sc, B.A., and Mr. Percy A. 
Irving, B.A. 

Localities all in the Upper Start Valley. 

1. Thorley, Herts. (Boulder Clay.) 230 feet to 240 feet (O.D.). 

(1) Hypersthene Andesite (Sin. by 7 in. by 4 in., weight 12 lbs.). 
From the Boulder Clay. This is the same rock as an eiTatic recorded 
as ' trap ' in the 1911 Report, from Parsonage Lane, which has been 
recognised by Mr. G. Campbell Smith, of the British Museum (Natural 
Histoiy), as ' quite comparable with some of the Cheviot andesites, and 
may be referred to that district provisionally. ' Subangular, columnar, 
both blocks extensively bleached by the leaching-out of the iron in 
weathering. Fragments of this rock not uncommon in the Rubble- 
Drift. 

(2) Coarse Phyllite (13 in. by 12 in. by 5 in.) intersected by a 
network of vein-quartz, considerably weathered with oxide of iron on 
the divisional planes. It closely resembles the rock continuous with 
the coarser type of slate of the Swithland quarries (Chai'nwood). 

(3) Angular slab (5^ in. by 6 in. by li in). Fine-grained sandstone 
(coal-measures?), pressure-scarred and coarsely striated on one surface. 

1913. L 



146 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

2. Maple Avenue, Bishop's Stortford. (Rubble-Drift.) 300 feet. 

(O.D.) All derived immediately from the glacial drift of the 
Herts plateau. 
Phyllite (subangular), fragment of a larger slab (3 in. by 2 in. by 
f in.) : derived from the older and higher ' Drift ' of the Herts 
plateau. This specimen strongly resembles some of the highly 
altered bedded ' ash ' of Snowdonia. 
Dolerite : bomb (broken), 2 in. in diam. 

Fliul: extremely weathered ami devitrified (cortex of one extensively 

flaked), probably result of Miocene weathering of the quondam 

' Mercian ' chalk. (See Eeport in the 1911 volume, pp. 131 ff.) 

Limestone : vermiculate, weathered, probably from the Cornbrash 

or the Lias (6 in. by 5 in. by 2 in.). 
Sandstone, cuboidal block, very hard and fine-grained 

(2^ in. by 2 in. by 2 in.): Eothliegendes (?). 
The erratics found here have mostly been obtained in the excavations 
connected with the horse skeleton described at Sheffield (in 1910), 
with further comparative anatomical notes at Portsmouth (1911), 
Section H; see clso Repoi'ttothe Special Committee in the 1911 Eeport 
(pp. 131 ff.). As a whole erratics from this source are far more exten- 
sively ' weathered ' than those found in the Harlow Till, the Chalky 
Boulder Clay of the lower plateau, and the still yoimger Valley Boulder 
Clay at Thorley, where it is intercalated with the contorted gravels. 

3. Hockerill Vicarage. (Excavations in Eubble-Drift.) 230 feet to 

240 feet (O.D.). 

(a) Quartz-porphyry : deeply weathered on exterior. Felspar more 
or less kaolinised throughout, suggesting a Bunter pebble 
(4 in. by 3 in. by IJ in.). 

(b) Quartz-porphyry: slab-like, subangular; more felsitic in texture 
than (a), slightly kaohnised. 

Dolerite (3 in. by 2^ in. by 1| in.) : and several smaller fragments- 

Hypersthene Andesite : several fragments. 

Basalt : several fragments. 

Rotelschiefer (3 in. by 3 in. by li in.) from Eothliegendes. 

Rhaxella Chert (4 in. by 2 in. by 3 in.) : several smaller fragments, 

4. Hallingbury Road. (Gravel-pit) (B.S. Urban Dist. Council.) 
Quartz-porphyry (3 in. by 3 in. by li in.). 

Bedded Ash (6 in. by 5 in. by 3 in.). 

Same with included fragments (3 in. by 2 in. by 1^ in.). 

Palaozoic Conglomerate (5 in. by 4 in. by 3 in.). 

SiUcified Wood (?) (8 in. by 4 in. by 3 in.). 

Boulder of vein-qiiartz (7 in. by 4 in. by 3 in.). 

Several blocks of millstone-grit and of older grits (probably of 

Cambrian age). 
All from the ' interglacial sands, '210 feet to 230 feet (O.D.), which 
are strongly current-bedded : probably dropped by ice-rafts. 

Reported by Mr. Thomas Sheppabd, F.G.S., F.S.A. 
Excavations continue to be made in the gravel pits at Burstwick 
and Kelsey Hill in Holderness. In the latter pit enormous quantitiesf 



ERKATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 147 

of gravel have been removed, and have revealed many interesting 
mammalian remains, including the bone of a seal, which is the first 
record for that species from the Holderness drifts. 

Ireland. 

Reported by the Committee of the Geological Section of the Belfast 
Naturalists' Field Club. 

The Committee record the extension of the area of distribution of 
Ailsa Craig Eiebeckite-eurite to Moys, two miles west of the Eoe, by 
Madame Christen; the rock has also been found for the first time at 
Limavady, Kilrea, Aghalee, Drumaneway, Dervock, and the White 
Mountain, north of Lisbui-n; at the latter locality it was found by 
Mr. Eobert Bell, at an elevation of 800 feet. 

Dungannon , Tyrone, Briclcfield. Brown Boulder-Clay, overlain by 
black Boulder-Clay. Erratics: — Jasper, green rock series of Mid- 
Tyrone — red granite, ironstone nodules, dolomitic limestone, red lime- 
stone, concretionary iron ore, sandstone (probably local) — porphyritic 
syenitic granite, quartz-porphyry, probably Slieve Gallion — quartzit-e, 
diorite, epidiorite, Dalradian series, chalk, flint, gneiss, basalt, 
Carboniferous conglomerate. 

Portstewart, Sand-hills. Epidiorites, metamorphic grits, granite, 
quartzites, arkose, porphyritic felsite, metamorphic sandstone, 
Dalradian, from Londonderry, Donegal, or Scotland — rhyolite 
(? trachyte), Tertiary series, Antrim — coarse granite, orthoclase rock 
(syenite group), granite-porphyry, syenite, Slieve Gallion, quai'tzite, 
porphyries — granite, riebeckite rock, Ailsa Craig — schist, altered 
diabase with epidote. 

Limavady, Ballast-Pit near Railway Station. Erratics: — Riebeckite 
rock, Ailsa Craig — gabbro, hypersthenite (Slieve Gallion) — meta- 
morphosed grit, epidiorites, quartzite, vein quartz — fine gneiss, 
granulite, Tyrone — red granites, hornblende schist — diorite, with 
granular ground. 

Derrybeg Briclcfield, Limavady, Boulder-Clay. Erratics: — Meta- 
morphosed grit, Carboniferous sandstones, quartzite, diorite with 
granular ground, mica hornblende-schist, red and pink granites, crushed 
felsite, epidote granite with hornblende. 

Moys, nearly four miles S. of Limavady, Gravel-Pit, Knockandunn. 
Erratics: — Riebeckite rock, Ailsa Craig — fine-grained granite — meta- 
morphosed grits and sandstones, quartzite — pink granite. Carboniferous 
sandstone — gneiss. 

Aghadowey, Gravel-Pit, Clare Hill. Erratics: — ^Micropegmatitic 
gi'anite, quartz -poi-phyry, grey granites — crushed granite — quartzite, 
felsite, metamorphosed grit — vein quartz, epidiorite. 

Kilrea Gravel-Pits. Erratics: — Riebeckite rock, Ailsa Craig — red 
and pink granites, green phyllite, rhyolite, diorite, gabbro — red 
Carboniferous limestone — coarse gneiss, dark red granite — quartzite. 

Cavanmore Boad, Gravel-Pit three miles from Kilrea. Erratics: — 
Hornblendic granite, quartzites, grey granite, red granites — meta- 

L 2 



148 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

morphosed sandstone, crushed felsite — limestone, probably Carboni- 
ferous — dark red granite, diorite, flints. 

Garvagh Quarries. Boulder-Clay and ' Sands and Gravels.' 
Erratics: — Numerous red and pink granites, grey granite, hornblendic 
lamprophyre (camptonite?). andesite, pebbly grits, quartz-porphyries, 
syenite (Slieve Gallion) — mica schist, metamorphosed grits, quartzit-e. 

Coohsiown District, Gravel-Pits. Erratics: — Numerous red and 
pink granites, grey granite, aplite vein, felsites, felsite porphyries, 
syenites, diorites, crushed fragmental rock, ophitic gabbro, quartz- 
hornblende-porphyry, pink pegmatite, quartz -porphyry, Slieve Gallion 
— dolerite — ^banded granite, gneiss, metamorphosed sandstones and 
grits, quartzite (Dalradian). 

Coalisland, Sand- and Gravel-Pits, fine current bedding. Erratics : — 
Syenite, grey, pink, and red granites, hornblendic granite, crushed 
felsite, felsite porphyries, quartz-porphyries, fine-grained gneiss, 
hvpersthenite or pyroxenite, granite porphyries, lamprophyre, felsites, 
Slieve Gallion — gneiss — quartzite, reddened by haematite, I'ed band of 
Slieve Gallion — andesite, Tyrone Devonian — flint. 

Sherrygroom Gravel-Pit, about five miles South of Cookstown. 
Erratics: — Crushed conglomeratic sandstone (Dalradian), epidiorite 
(Dalradian). syenites. felsit« porphyry, granite (aplite in), lamprophyre, 
pink granites, hornblende schist, Slieve Gallion — granites, Barnes- 
more (?) — andesite, Tyrone Devonian — diorite, Slieve Gallion or 
Tyrone axis — gneiss — flint, basalt, mica schist. 

' Blue Door ' or ' Finger ' Gravel-Pit, near Cookstown. Erratics: — 
Ped granites, syenites, hornblendic gi'anites, Slieve Gallion — chalk, 
flint, quartzit-e. 

Glasgow Bill, esker one mile north of Cookstown. Erratics: — 
Hornblendic granite, including pieces of diorite, coarse felsite porphyry, 
granite with inclusions of mica schist, hornblendic granites, syenite, 
diorites, porphyritic felsite, Slieve Gallion — granulitic gneiss, epidiorite, 
chalk flint breccia (local) — flints, basalts, chalk, quartz. 

Aghalee, Section of Sands and Gravels overlying basalt in a quarry 
south of the Aghalee Bridge over Lagan Canal. Eiratics : — 
Eiebeckite rock, Ailsa Craig — granites, hornblendic granites, diorites, 
syenite, aplitic gi-anite, quartz-felsite (altered rhyolite), Slieve Gallion — 
fine-grained sandstone, rhyolite, clay ironstone, jasper, flint, chalk, 
mica schist, white quartz. 

Cullion Glen, North Slieve Gallion, Boulder-Clay overlying 
Carboniferous limestone. Erratics: — Carboniferous conglomerate — 
haematite and quartz, Red band Slieve Gallion — sheared felsite, Tyrone 
axis to West — andesites, quartz andesite, syenites, granites, hornblendic 
rock, diorites, camptonitic lamprophyre, local — chalk, flints, jasper, 
schist, red sandstone, quartz. 

Carmean, esker close to Railway Station, about two miles North of 
Monevmore. Sands and Gravels. Sands of a red colour, and 
numerous pink granites common throughout the section — jasper, 
haemntite ore. fine graine^l sandst-on-e — granites, syenites, hornblende 
granite, diorite, Slieve Gallion — Carboniferous conglomerate, sand- 
stone (probably Lower Carboniferous), crushed pegmatite. 



ERRATIC BLOCKS OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 149 

Driunanewaij, esker two miles west oi Raiulalbtow ii. Erratics; — 
Kiebeckite rock, coarse and fine, Ailsa Craig — rliyolite. 

Dervock, Carncullagh Gravel-Pit, one mile to East. Erratics: — 
Riebeckite rock, Ailsa Craig — rhyolite, pink granites, mica felsites, 
gneiss, mica schists, quartz schists, fine granite, quartzites, granite 
and quartz vein — granite, felsite with quartz and mica, sandstone. 

Ballymoney, very small Gravel-Pits, Seacon. Erratics: — Rhyolite 
— felsite, quartz-felsite — felsite, altered rhyolite. Heagles: — Rhyolite 
— chalk with manganese dendrites, granite, granulitic felsite, felsite, 
ironstone, quartzite. Ballybrates : — Ferrugmous sandstone, gneiss, 
felsite, red granite from N.E. Another small pit near (Darcus) con- 
sisted almost entirely of basalt boulders in a stiff matrix, but sand- 
stone, red granite, and flint recorded. 

Macfin, Gravel-Pit right bank of Bann near Macfin Station. 
Erratics: — Granites, diorites, aplites, quartzites, felsites, flint, quartz. 

Coleraine, Hillman's Fancy Sand-Pit, near Railway Station. 
Erratics: — Riebeckite rock, Ailsa Craig — pink granites, porphyritic 
granite, crushed felsite, pegmatite vein in granite, diorite, granite in 
diorite, andesite, granite, quartz felsite, syenite, felsite, red granite, 
porphyritic felsite, jasperised rock (?), felsite, granite with micaceous 
knots, andesite — chalk, flint, quartz, quartzite. 

Monaghaii. Erratics: — Ferruginous jasperised shale, local, pos- 
sibly Bally jamesduff area — sandstone, local — white chert, Carboniferous 
limestone — from canal bank — calcareous pebbly sandstones, limestone, 
dolerite, calcareous grit, sandstones, all local — felsite (?), local. From 
Threemile House, S. of Monaghan — felspathic grit ?Silurian — felsite 
porphyry, (?) Slieve GuUion — quartzite, quartz vein — sandstone, local, 
metamorphosed grit, chert, local. From esker eight miles from 
Monaghan — calcareous sandstone with cemented coating of pebbles, 
felsp. grit, felsite, chert, limestone, sandstone, local — felsite porphyry, 
(?) Slieve Gullion. 

Ballymiirphy, Belfast (Springfield Brick-works), Boulder-Clay over- 
lying Trias. Erratics: — Riebeckite rock, Ailsa Craig — chalk, flint, 
chalcedony, basalt, quartzite, quartz, clay ironstone, dolerite, Rhgetic, 
Lias, Old Red Sandstone, weathered granite. 

Portrush, New Waterworks, Boulder-Clay. Grey granite. West of 
Scotland. 

Glenoe, Boulder-Clay. Rhyolite (Tardree type) and a few imperfect 
fossils. 

Armagh. Granite invading hornblende rock, Tyrone axis. 

Maghaherry , near Moira. Hornblendic granite — epidiorites, Done- 
gal or Tyrone type, also Co. Derry type — quartzite, mica schist, Ailsa 
Craig rock 12 in. x 7 in. x 6 in. 

White Mountain, North of Lisburn. Riebeckite rock, Ailsa Craig, 
from an elevation of 800 feet. 

Lagan, Bricl(field. Porphyritic felsite, hornblendic gi'anite. 



150 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913, 

Investigation of the Igneous and Associated Rocks of the Glensaul 
and Lough Nafooey Areas, Cos. Mayo and Galway.— Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. Watts 
(Chairman), Professor S. H. Eeynolds {Secretary), Mr. 
E. G, Carruthees, and Mr. C I. Gardiner. 

Mb. Gardiner and the Secretary visited the Lough Nafooey district 
in April 1913 and completed their work in the field. A general 
account of the structure is given in the report presented at the Dundee 
Meeting (1912), page 143, and the work of the present year did not 
disclose any additional facts of primary importance. It is hoped to 
bring an account of the Lough Nafooey district before the Geological 
Society during the coming session. 

The Committee has now completed its work and does not seek 
reappointment. 



The Preparation of a List of Characteristic Fossils. — Interim 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor P. F. 
Kendall {Chairman), Mr. W. Lower Carter {Secretary), 
Mr. H. L. Allen, Professor W. S. Boulton, Professor G. 
Cole, Dr. A. E. Dwerryhouse, Professors J. W. Gregory, 
Sir T. H. Holland, G. A. Lebour, and S. H. Eeynolds, 
Dr. Marie C. Stopes, Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. Marr, 
Dr. A. Vaughan, Professor W. W. Watts, Mr. H. Woods, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward, appointed for the considera- 
tion thereof. 

During the year, in response to the request of the Committee, lists 
of fossils characteristic of the various geological formations have been 
prepared and sent in by specialists, to whom the sincere thanks of 
the Committee are due. The arrangement of these lists into a whole 
has been undertaken and the result will be issued in print, at an 
early date, to the members of the Committee, and subsequently to 
teachers of geology throughout the United Kingdom. 

The Committee ask for reappointment with a grant of 51. 



The Upper Old Red Sandstone of Dura Den. — Preliminary Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. Horne {Chairman), 
Dr. T. J. Jehu {Secretary), Mr. H. Bolton, Mr. A. W. E. 
Don, Dr. J. S. Flett, Dr. B. N. Peach, Dr. E. H. Traquair, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward, appointed for the further 
exploration thereof. 

The Committee now present a preliminary report regarding the excava- 
tions for fossil-fishes in the Upper Old Eed Sandstone at Dura Den, 



ON THE UPPER OLD RED SANDSTONE OF DURA DEN. 151 

Fife. At the outset they desire to acknowledge the courtesy of Mr. 
Bayne-Meldrum, of Balmungo, the proprietor, who kindly granted 
permission to continue the work and gave facilities for extending the 
operations. 

The excavations, begun so successfully by the Dundee local com- 
mittee in 1912, ceased during the meeting of the British Association 
in September last. They were not resumed till May 5, 1913, when 
our Committee took the work in hand. They have been carried on 
continuously since that date with marked success. 

A definite plan has been followed in conducting these excavations. 
The sandstone layer, rich in fish remains, is restricted to a zone 
about 2 inches thick. It lies at an average depth of 9 feet from 
the surface, and is overlain by about 4 feet of comparatively barren 
sandstone, capped by about 4 feet of loose superficial materials. It 
was arranged that the fish-bearing zone should be uncovered and 
removed in successive sections. The first section laid bare 11 square 
yards of the rich layer, the second 23 square yards, and the work now 
in progress w-ill expose 28 square yards when completed. 

The contractor was authorised to proceed with the third section 
on July 3, when the Chairman, the Secretary, and Mr. Don met at 
Dura Den. When this work is finished and. the ground levelled, the 
outlay will exceed the British Association grant of 751. Mr. Bolton, 
of the Bristol Museum, has kindly offered a contribution of 121. on 
condition that some of the fossils be given to that museum. The Com- 
mittee have accepted this offer, and should further funds be required, 
the money will be raised privately. 

The fish-remains obtained from the first and second sections have 
been stored in an adjoining shed under lock and key. Those from 
the third section will be placed beside them. Dr. Smith Woodward 
is expected to undertake the determination of the fish-remains. A list 
will appear, together with a ground plan of operations, in the detailed 
report to be presented to Section C in 1914. 

The Committee cordially acknowledge their obligations to Mr. 
Dunlop, from Dunfermline, who, at the request of the Chairman, 
undertook to superintend the work on the spot. 

The Committee ask authority to distribute the fish-remains to various 
public institutions. 



Geology of Ramsay Island^ PemhroTceshire.— Interim Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. A. Steahan (Chairman), 
Mr. Herbert H. Thomas (Secretary), Mr. E. E. L. Dixon, 
Dr. J. W. Evans, Mr. J. F. N. Green, and Professor O. T. 
Jones. 

The Committee have to report that the grant made to them to aid 
Mr. ,T. Pringle in carrying out his researches in the West of Pembroke- 
shire has been spent. 

They have also to report that considerable progress has been made 



152 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

in the detailed mapping of the island, and a great number of fossils and 
rocks has been collected. 

The southern half of the island, excluding the high ground of Carn 
Llundain, has been found to consist of Didymograptus bifidus shales, 
which have been invaded by a large mass of quartz-porphyry. At Foel 
Fawr these shales, with thick beds of tuff, ai'e conformably overlain by 
dark grey rhyolites. Carn Llundain itself is built up of a series of 
rhyolites, brecciated and banded tuffs, and thin beds of highly altered 
sediments. A quartz -porphyry also occurs as an intrusive rock and is 
indistinguishable from the large mass mentioned above. At Ogof 
Colomenod there is a remarkable conglomerate. The lavas have proved 
to belong to a volcanic outburst which took place in Lower Llanvirn 
time. 

In the northern half of the island a portion of the gi'ound occupied 
by Lingula Flags and Didymogi'aptus extensus beds has been mapped 
out, and a large collection of fossils has been made from the so-called 
Tremadoc deposits, the T). extensus beds, and the Lower Llanvirn. 

Many of the rock specimens have been sliced, and together with the 
collection of fossils are undergoing investigation. 

Neither the field-work nor laboratory examinations ai'e yet complete, 
and the Committee ask that they may be reappointed with a grant 
of lOZ. 



The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of Kiltorcan, Ireland. — Report 
of the Committee, consistinq of Professor Grenville Cole 
(chairman), Professor T. Johnson (Secretary), Dr. J. W. 
Evans, Dr. E. Kidston, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
appointed for the Exploration thereof. 

During the year further exploration of the Upper Devonian deposits 
at Kiltorcan, co. Kilkenny, has brought to light more material of the 
stem of Archaopteris hihernica and of, apparently, the stem of 
Sphenopteris Hooheri, of which up to the pi'esent scraps of foliage 
only had been found. Kiltorcan is particulai'ly rich in remains of 
.4. hihernica and of Bothrodevdron hiltorkense. A few fish scales 
were also found. 

The Committee thought it desirable to examine other possible 
sources of Devonian fossils. Accordingly Tallow Bridge (co. Water- 
ford) was visited. The ' linear ' plant recorded from the Old Red 
Sandstone there proved to be a Bothrodendron. It is very abundant 
at the particular exposure sketched by J. B. Jukes in 1855. A little 
material of (apparently) Arch(enT)ier\s hihernica was found. 

This locality would repay thorough exploration. Your Committee 
recommends its reappointment and a total grant for 1913-14 of 20Z., 
inclusive of the balance of 97. odd. 



OCCUPATION OF A TABLE AT ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES, 153 

Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples.— 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor S. J. 
HiCKSON {Chairman), Mr. E. S. Goodrich (Secretary), 
Sir E. Eay Lankester, Professor W. C. McIntosh, Dr. 
S. F. Harmer, Mr. G. P. Bidder, Mr. W. B. Hardy, and 
Professor A. D. Waller, appointed to aid competent Investi- 
gators selected by the Committee to carry on definite pieces 
of work at the Zoological Station at Naples. 

Since the last report of the Committee was written the table at 
Naples has been occupied by the Hon. Miss Mary Palk from July 5, 

1912, to April 16, 1913, and by Dr. Stuart Thomson from March 25, 

1913, to April 16, 1913. 

The Committee have received a grant of 50L from the Council of 
the Association out of the Sir J. K. Caird benefaction, which can be 
used towards the contribution for the table next session. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a further grant of 501. 

Dr. J. Stuart Thomson, of the University of Manchester, reports : — 

' I beg to report that I occupied the British Association table at 
Naples for one month during the Easter vacation of 1913. I made 
histological studies on the muscles of the dorsal vibratile fin of 
Hippocampus , and the impregnation of these muscles with haemoglobin 
and myo-haematin, and also worked at Motella with the same object 
in view. I devoted considerable attention to the general fauna, but 
more especially to the Alcyonaria of the Gulf of Naples. I collected 
and carefully preserved the brains of several genera of Elasmobranch 
fishes for future work by the Weigert Pal and Bielschowsky methods 
in connection with an investigation on which I am engaged on the 
Telencephalon of Selachians.' 



Nomenclator Animalium Generum et Suhgenerum. — Beport of 
the Committee , consisting of Dr. Chalmers Mitchell (Chair- 
man), Eev. T. E. E. Stbbbing (Secretary), Dr. M. Laurie, 
Dr. Marett Tims, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. (Drawn 
up by the Chairman.) 

I have to report that after consulting the Committee I paid over the 
grant in full to Professor Schulze last December. 

He writes to me that the amount has been expended in helping to 
pay the large staff of specialists employed in carrying out the work, 
and he has furnished me with detailed accounts and statistics showing 
that he is making good progress with his gigantic task. The grant 
made by the Association is, of course, only a very small part of the cost 
of the work, but Dr. Schulze asks me to convey his thanks to the 
Association for the encouragement and assistance extended to him. 

The Committee asks for reappointment, and hopes that the Associa- 
tion will be able to afford some further help for speeding the publi- 
cation of the Nomenclator. 



154 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Zoology Organisation. — Report of the Committee, consisting oj 
Sir E. Eay Lankester {Chairman), Professor S. J. Hickson 
{Secretary), Professors G. C. Bourne, J. Cossar Ewart, 
M. Hartog and W. A. Herdman, Mr. M. D. Hill, Pro- 
fessors J. Graham Kerr and E. A. Minchin, Dr. P. 
Chalmers Mitchell, Professor E. B. Poulton, and Dr. 
A. E. Shipley. 

The past session has been a quiet one as far as the work of the 
Committee is concerned. Some cori'espondence has been carried on 
regarding the question of the permanent endowment of the British 
table at Naples. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed. 



Delmiillet Whaling Station. — Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. A. E. Shipley {Chairman), Professor J. 
Stanley Gardiner {Secretary), Professor W. A. Herdman, 
Eev. W. Spotswood Green, Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Dr. H. W. 
Marett Tims, and Mr. E. M. Barrington, appointed to 
investigate the Biological Problems incidental to the Belmullet 
Whaling Station. 

The Committee, having decided to further investigate the catch of 
whales during 1913, requested Professor W. A. Herdman to nominate 
one or more naturalists to proceed to Belmullet and also to direct 
and advise them as far as might be necessary. He selected two of 
his pupils, R. J. Daniel, B.Sc, and J. E. Hamilton, B.Sc, who 
proceeded to Belmullet on June 24. At the request of the Board of 
Agriculture and Fisheries Mr. Daniel was released on August 28 to 
take up a temporary appointment as Assistant Naturalist for Hen'ing 
Investigations, but Mr. Hamilton still remains at the Fishery. 

The following is an extract from a short report sent to the 
Secretary by Messrs. Daniel and Hamilton : 

Blacksod, Belmullet, August 29, 1913. 

Since June 26 we have examined altogether thirty-eight whales, of which 
twenty-eight have been Common Rorquals. The remainder consisted of six 
Sperm Whalee, all males, three Sibbald's Rorquals, and one Humpback. A com- 
plete set of standardised measurements has been taken of each whale. The 
length and sex of the whales caught at the neighbouring whaling station on 
Rusheen Island have also been procured. 

Four foetus of the Common Rorqual have been examined ; they were not 
sufficiently small to be of embryological interest. The smallest, which had been 
about four feet long, was almost completely destroyed by the explosion of the 
bomb, and was considerably decayed. 

The stomachs have been examined to ascertain the food of the different 
species, but we believe that there is nothing of importance to record. The 
Schizopod, which is the principal food of the Balsenopterid whales, has been 
noted in many Rorquals, and also in the single Humpback examined. A nearly 
complete cuttlefish of very large size was taken from the stomach of one of 
the Sperm Whales. 

The external parasites found include Penella and BalccnophUus on the 
Common Rorqual, Cyamvs and Conchodervia on the Sperm Whales, and a large 
Balanus-\\ke. Cirripede on the MegnpUra. Of internal parasites the sole 



ON THR BEUIULLRT WHAIJXG STATION, 155 

treniatode was Monostomum from DalcEnopteia muscularis. In B. sibbaldii a 
ceetode and an echiuoihynch were foiuid, in Phi/seter nematodes and echino- 
rhynchs, and in Majaptera a large echinorhynch. 

In the whalebone whales we discovered a peculiar dendritic tubular process 
projecting into the vena cava at the level of the kidneys. It appears to be the 
blind termination of a series of branching tubes ramifying in the kidney, and is 
nearly always stuffed with mineral matter in small irregular masses. 

Although not as yet fully assured on the point, we are inclined to think that 
Burfield's ' Problematical Organ' will prove to be the external aperture of a masa 
of gland-like tissue situated between the mandibles at the symphysis. 



Experiments in Inheritance. — Sixth Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman) , Mr. E. 
Douglas Laurie (Secretary), Professor E. C. Punnett, and 
Dr. H. W. Marett Tims. 

The final report is unavoidably held over, and jiending its presentation 
to the Association next year the Committee ask to be reappointed 
without a grant. 



Marine Laboratory , Plymouth. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor A. Dendy (Chairman and Secretartj), 
Sir E. Eay Lankester, Professor Sydney H. Vines, and 
Mr. E. S. Goodrich, appointed to nominate competent 
Naturalists to perform definite pieces of work at the Marine 
Laboratory , Plymouth. 

DuEiNG the past year the use of the table has been granted to Professor 
J. Playfair McMurrich, of the University of Toronto, for one week, in 
order to enable him to procure specimens of the various Sagartiidse that 
are to be found in the neighbourhood; also to Mr. W. O. Eedman King, 
B.A., of the University of Leeds, for a fortnight, to enable him to 
investigate the temperature coefficient of the developing egg and the 
enzymes in the ova and spermatozoa of echinoderms. 



Natural History, &c., of the Isle of Wight. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Mr. Clement Eeid (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, 
Mr. W. Dale, Professor E. B. Poulton, and Dr. A. B. 
Eendle, appointed to co-operate with local bodies in acquiring 
and arranging collections to illustrate the Natural History, 
Geography, and Antiquities of the Isle of Wight. 

In 1912 arrangements were made for transferring further archaeological 
collections to Carisbrooke Castle, and half the grant was devoted to 
this purpose. There was, however, no room available in the Castle 
for anything but the archaeological collections ; and a recent visit by 
the Chairman of your Committee shows also that this old castle is 
scarcely suitable for the purpose. 



156 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE — 1913. 

The other avuihible collections are almost entirely geological. For 
these, excellent accommodation has been found in the public library 
at Sandown. Here a well-lighted large room has been devoted to 
them, and they will be properly cared for. The cases from the old 
museum at Newport have now been removed to Sandown, and with 
a certain amount of adaptation and repair they will do very well. 
The whole of the specimens, however, require re-tableting and cleaning. 
The Committee has devoted the remainder of the grant to this work, 
which is now being carried out by a local committee. 

Your Committee does not ask to be reappointed. 



Atlas, Textual, and Wall Maps for ScJiool and University Use. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor J- L. Myres 
(Chairman) , Eev. W. J. Barton (Secretary), Professor R. L. 
Archer, Dr. R. N. Eudmose Brown, Mr. G-. G. Chisholm, 
Colonel C. F. Close, Mr. G. F. Daniell, Professor H. N. 
Dickson, Mr. 0. J. R. Howarth, Colonel Sir D. A. 
Johnston, and Mr. E. A. Peeves, appointed to inquire into 
the Choice and Style thereof. 

The Committee was appointed at the Dundee Meeting of the Association, 
and has spent its first year in preliminary work in two principal direc- 
tions. One Sub-Committee has devoted itself to questions of content 
and arrangement; another to questions of style and draughtsmanship. 
The former necessarily had to settle many important points before the 
cartographical aspect of the matter could be discussed with profit; but 
the members of the Cartographical Committee have taken the oppor- 
tunities of map-inspection which are described below to meet the 
members of the Contents Committee and discuss general points of 
principle. 

The needs of junior and senior students differ widely, and it was 
found necessary from the outset to deal with them separately. But 
throughout the inquiry it has been the object of the Committee to 
provide as far as possible for a senior and a junior atlas which should 
be consistent in their general plan and execution. In order to keep in 
touch with the actual needs of teachers, and with the current practice 
of map-publishers, the Committee held one oi its meetings at the School 
of Geography in Oxford, where it was able, by the courtesy of Professor 
Herbertson, to consult a very large collection of atlases, British and 
foreign, and to frame a series of questions for circulation among 
teachers and also among the Directors of Education in the larger 
administrative areas. The replies to these questions, so far as they 
shall havebeen received, are to be discussed at a conference to be held 
in connection with the Binningham Meeting of the Association, and will 
be summarised in an Appendix to this Eeport. The questions, mean- 
while, are printed below. 

The Cartographical Sub-Committee will then be in a position to draft 
its recommendations with fuller knowledge of the limiting conditions of 



ATLAS, TEXTUAL, AND WALL MAPS. 157 

size, shape, and eventual cost, than would have been the case if it had 
begun its part of the work earlier. 

The Committee therefore asks to be reappointed. It also asks for a 
grant to enable it to prepare the sp_ecimen sheets of maps which are 
already seen to be essential, if the Committee is to illustrate adequately 
the practical reforms which it hopes to recommend in map-production 
and to obtain the criticisms both of teachers and of publishers on the 
many points of detail and execution which arise at every stage. 

The Committee desires to express its thanks to the many teachers 
and geographers whom it has consulted, and particularly to the Royal 
Geographical Society and the Oxford School of Geography for the oppor- 
tunity of holding meetings and inspecting collections of geographical 
material. 

Letter and Questions addressed to Teachers and Directors of Education. 

Dear Sib, — The above Committee, appointed by Section E 
CGeography) at the Dundee Meeting (1912) of the British Association, 
hopes to present a preliminary report for discussion at Birmingham 
in September 1913. That the discussion may be effective, we venture 
to send you (Enclosure 1) a portion of this report in draft, and to 
invite your co-operation and, in particular, replies to the appended 
questions. 

It would enhance the value of the replies if you would kindly state 
(a) what type of school you have in mind, and (b) what atlas is at 
present in use in the school. 

1. "What maps would you wish to see in duplicate, physical and 

political? 

2. What would be the order of utility for your purposes of the 

large scale maps of the British Isles (1) A, B, C, D, E; 
(2) a, b. c (Enclosure 2)? 

3. What chief inconveniences have you remarked in existing maps, 

and especially 

(a) What regions are inadequately represented? 

(b) What maps contain too many names? What maps too 

few? 
Any communication addressed to the Rev. W\ J. Barton, The 
College, Winchester, before the end of August would be welcomed. 

Thanking j^ou for your generous assistance, we have the honour 
to be 

Yours faithfully, 

John T;. Myres, Chairman nf the Committee. 
Walter J. Barton, Secretary of the Committee. 

Enclosure 1. 
Senior School Atlas. 
' Royal ' paper (25" x 20") will give a map 101" x 8h" , single page. 
Double-page maps should be mounted on guards. 

To make maps readilv comparable, (a) all world maps should be 
on the same projection fMercator's projection to be used for Map 7 
only); (b) few scales should be employed. The continents should be 



158 



REPORTS ON THE STATE 6f SCIENCE. —l^l^. 



shown on the same scale, and for larger scale maps simple sub- 
multiples of this scale should be used. 

List of Maps. 
World Maps. 

1. Maps of a selected region, to exhibit scales, methods of showing 
relief, &c. 

2. Hamispheres, heights, depths : section along 45° N. 




European areas to be shown are enclosed by broken lines (Maps 13 and 17a) 
and continuous lines (Maps 14, 15, 17b, and 18). 

3. Hemispheres, political: inset Eiver Basins. 

4. Hemispheres, population, density: Eaces insei. 

5. Polar Eegions : Land and Sea Hemispheres. 

6. Vesfetation : Ocean Currents. 



ATLAS, TEXTUAL, AND WALL MAPS. 159 

7. Mercator (Australia repeated), showing Commercial Highways 
and Development. 

8. Temperature: January, July, Year, Annual Range. 

9. Pressure and Winds, two or four months. Eainfall : Year, 
Seasonal. 

Eiirope. 

10. Europe (20 million), physical. Inset (40 million), tem- 
perature: January, July. 

11. Europe (20 million), political. Inset (40 million), rainfall, 
seasonal. 

12. (a) Population, density; languages. (5) Minerals and manu- 
facturing regions. 

13. Mediterranean (10 million). 

14. Central Europe (5 million). 

15. Italy and Balkans (5 million). 

16. Alps. 

17. (a) N.-W. Europe (10 million), (b) Spain (5 milhon). 

18. (a) France (5 million), (b) British Isles (5 million). 

19. Large scale maps — e.g., position of Vienna. 

America. 

20. (a) North America (40 million), physical. Inset (80 million), 
temperature. 

(b) North America (40 million), political. Inset (80 million), 
rainfall. 

21. (a) U.S.A. (20 million), (b) Atlantic Coast (10 million). 

22. Canada (20 million), and Special Areas. 

23. S. America (40 million), pohtical. S. America (40 milhon), 
physical. 

Asia. 

24. Asia (40 million), physical. Inset (80 million), temperature: 
January, July. 

25. Asia (40 million), political. Inset (80 million), rainfall. 

26. Southern Asia (20 million). 

27. China, and Japan (20 million) ; Palestine. 

28. India, pohtical (large scale); climate. 

Australasia. 

29. (a) Oceania, including East Indies (40 million), political, 
(b) Australia (20 million), physical. 

30. (a) E. Austraha, (S) New Zealand, larger scale. 

Africa. 

31. Africa, physical (40 milhon). Political (40 million). 

32. S. Afi'ica (20 or 12 million). Insets, AY. Africa, Egypt, 
temperature, rainfall. 



160 reports on the state of science. — 1913. 

Enclosure 2. 




A, B, C, D,;E are areas, some of which might be shown by double-page maps on a 
large scale {e.g. 1 : 500,000) ; a, b, c, single- page maps of holiday areas on a still 
larger scale (say 1 : 200,000). 



ATLAS, TEXTUAL, AND WALL MAPS. 161 

British Isles. 

England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, physical and political 
(2 million). 

Special regions. A, B, C, D, E, 1: 500,000. 

Special regions, a, b, c, 1: 200,000. 

Climate, Geology, Population, &c., to be determined. 

About 40 double pages in all. 

For a Junior School Atlas, one map of each continent (physical, 
with political boundaries shown in red) would meet all needs. Maps 4 
and 5 would be combined; also 8 and 9 (temperature and I'ainfall only). 
For 26 and 27, India, China, and Japan (20 million) might be sub- 
stituted, and the following maps omitted — viz. 12, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21b, 
22, 29a, and 30a, together with 18a if France were shown on Map 14. 



Geographical Teaching in Scotland. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. J. Horne (Chairman), Mr. T. S. Muir 
(Secretary), Dr. E. N. Eudmose Brown, Dr. W. S. Bruce, 
Mr. H. M. Cadell, Mr. G. G. Chisholm, Mr. J. Cossar, 
Professor H. N. Dickson, Professor P. Geddes, Professor 
A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. Scott Keltie, Mr. J. Malloch, 
Mr. J. McFarlane, and Dr. M. Newbigin, appointed to 
inquire into the present state thereof. 

The following questions were issued in the form of a circular to all 
the Secondary and Higher Grade schools, and to some of the Elemen- 
tary schools in Scotland, care being taken in the latter case to select 
representative areas: — 

1. How many hours per week are devoted in your school to the 
teaching of Geography in (a) the Qualifying stage? (b) Inter- 
mediate stage ? (c) Post-Intermediate stage ? 

2. Has that time increased, diminished, or remained stationary as 
compared with previous years? (a) Qualifying? (b) Inter- 
mediate ? (c) Post-Intermediate ? 

3. What is the staple subject in your school outside of English? 
How many hours per week are devoted to it? (a) Qualifying? 
(b) Intermediate? (c) Post-Intermediate? 

4. (a) How many candidates did you present in 1912 for the 
Leaving Certificate in Geography ? (b) What proportion did the 
number of candidates bear to the total Leaving Certificate candi- 
dates from your school ? 

5. (a) Have you a ' qualified ' teacher of Geography? (b) Is any 
* practical ' work done ? (c) What kinds of maps and atlases are 
in use? 

6. Please add any remarks you think may prove helpful to the 
Committee. 

From the replies received, and from other sources, a considerable 
mass of information has been accumulated which has enabled the 
Committee to come to what it believes are trustworthy conclusions. 

I. It is clear that in very many Elementary schools, especially in 

1913. M 



IG2 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913, 

country districts, Geography teaching is stiU on the old hnes. To 
quote from one correspondent : ' All elementary teachers (in my 
district) are of the old school — i.e., text-book, map, and memoiy. I 
find great difficulty, more in this than in any other subject, in getting 
them to teach Geography in a reasonable and attractive way.' The 
causes of this unfortunate state of matters are : (1) lack of knowledge 
on the part of the teachers, due to the extremely limited opportunities 
for acquiring instruction; (2) the reluctance, frequently the refusal, 
of School Boards to supply modern equipment, even such essentials 
as proper text-books and physical wall-maps. Some Boards issue 
admirable lists of approved text-books, &c., but, rightly or wrongly, 
many teachers are of opinion that the smaller their annual bill for such 
things is the more favourably they are looked upon by their employers. 
Teachers here and there exist who, at the expenditure of their own time 
and labour, construct wall-maps and simple instruments; but the 
ordinary elementary teacher who has to undertake many subjects has 
little. If any, leisure to devote to special work in one of these subjects. 
Nor can it reasonably be expected of him. 

The ' Memorandum on the Teaching of Geography in Scottish 
Primai-y Schools ' issued by the Scotch Education Department in 
1912, m spite of some defects which need not be mentioned here, as 
they have already been noticed in several geographical reviews, un- 
doubtedly marks a great advance, and will promote the setting up of a 
higher standard than before in Elementary schools. 

It is advisable that classes for teachers be held in suitable centres 
all over Scotland. The experiment has been tried in at least one place 
with considerable success, and correspondents indicate that the demand 
for such instruction is both strong and widespi'ead. Secondly, pressure 
should be brought to bear upon School Boards by inspectors or by 
other means to equip their schools with at least modern text-books and 
physical wall-maps. 

II. In the Intermediate stage (ages 12 to 15) a higher standard 
of teaching is maintained. The Intermediate Certificate examination 
is here the end in view. Geography is compulsory, but is counted as 
part of English on the basis of 100 marks to English and 50 to 
Geography. No time allowance for teaching is prescribed, but one 
and a half hours per week is recommended. Needless to say, that 
allowance is rarely exceeded. Six schools only reported an allowance 
of more than two hours, one of them giving three hours. 

The Committee notes with satisfaction the recent improvement in 
the type of paper set in the Intermediate examination, but thinks it 
capable of improvement. The following is an account of the paper 
set in 1913, which was of the same character as those for some years 
past. The paper was divided into three sections : A, B, and C. Two 
outline maps were provided — one of the World, the other of the British 
Isles. Section A consisted of three parts : (a) to insert in their proper 
places names such as Borneo, Lake Chad, Tibet ; (b) to show by a dot 
and write beside it towns such as Bilbao, Canton, Colombo ; (c) either 
to write names of races in their native places — e.g. , Kafir, Dyak, Ainu — 
or to draw in the Arctic and Antarctic Circles and the two tropics. 
Section B also consisted of three parts : (a) two towns famous for 
certain industries — e.g., cutlery, brewing, &c. ; (b) indicating regions 



ON GEOGRAPHICAL TEACHING IN SCOTLAND. 163 

of heavy and light rainfall ; (c) inserting certain names — e.g., Stranraer, 
the Lizard, &c. In all, 42 separate facts were asked to be recorded 
for a maximum of 26 marks. Both sections were compulsory, and 
choice was given only in the case of part (c) of Section A. Section C 
consisted of eight questions of a wide range, from which the candidate 
was expected to select two. The marks for this section amounted to 
24, making up for the paper a total of 50. 

In the compulsory sections it would be of advantage that some 
further choice be afforded to the candidates, that greater opportunity 
be given for displaying knowledge of places associated with current 
events, and that a more reasonable proportion of the marks be allotted 
to that part of the paper which exercises the intelligence of the 
candidate. 

The written examination is supposed to be supplemented by an 
oral examination conducted by an inspector, but this is usually per- 
functorjf, and in some schools the inspector pays no attention whatever 
to Geography. Throughout the Intermediate course a compulsory 
minimum time-allowance of three and a quarter hours per week would 
be very beneficial, and inspectors of Geography might encourage 
attempts at a higher standard of teaching. 

III. In the Post-Intermediate stage Geography is no longer a 

compulsory subject, except in the case of junior students, who, 

however, are at no time examined as to their knowledge of Geography. 

In the Leaving Certificate examination Geography is separated from 

English, which is the only compulsory subject, is put on a level with 

other optional subjects, and is allotted 100 marks. It may form one 

of a * group,' but the curriculum must then be submitted to the Scotch 

Education Department for its specific approval. This is not required 

if a school commits itself to English, Mathematics, and French; or to 

English, Mathematics, and Latin. It is distinctly laid down that 

Geography is on the same level with, for example, languages, and that 

a candidate must spend upon it an adequate amount of time. The 

Committee finds that the average amount of time spent upon languages 

at this stage is seven hours per week. The following tabular statement 

will help to make matters clear : — 

1912. 1913. 

No. of candidates for Group Leaving Certificate .... 2,202 2,290 

Successful L711 1,739 

No. of candidates with Geography as part of Group 195 146 

Successful 155 92 

No. of candidates who sat Geography examination 319 212 

Successful 227 116 

From these figures it will be seen that while in 1912 Geography 
candidates formed only about 9 per cent, of the total number of Leaving 
Certificate candidates, in 1913 even that small proportion was reduced 
to a little more than 6 per cent. The presentations for Geography as 
a separate paper also fell from 124 to 66 ; while the number of candi- 
dates with Geography as part of their group fell from 195 to 146. 

The Committee has received some information regarding 1912. It 
is awars of 70 candidates who were accepted by the Department, and 
who had had an hour and a half, or less, teaching per week. It is also 

M 2 



164 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

aware of 35 of these candidates who passed. This last piece of informa- 
tion was not asked for in the circular sent out, but some correspondents 
gave it voluntarily. These figures speak for themselves. 

From the returns received it is definitely proved that the making an 
optional subject of Geography has practically killed it in the Post- 
Intermediate stage. Only seventy-two schools sent in information on 
this pomt. The average time allowance was just over an hour and a 
half per week; in nine schools it was more than two hours. Some give 
an hour or so for the first year, then drop it entirely. Twelve have 
dropped it altogether. The Committee is aware of some others which 
have made no returns, and which have also dropped Geography. It is 
a fair inference that a complete census would reveal many more. In 
only eleven schools has the time allowance been recently increased, 
and in most cases this increase has been from a totally inadequate to 
but a slightly less inadequate amount. The Committee is of opinion that 
this is a very serious matter. It finds that in many Secondary schools, 
some of them the largest and most important in the country, situated in 
great educational centres, the pupils cease to study Geography at the 
age of fifteen. Further, that the average time devoted to Geography up 
to that age is only an hour and a half per week. Now the time up to the 
close of the Intermediate stage should be devoted to providing that 
foundation of fact which is the basis of scientific Geography, and it is 
only in the Post-Intermediate stage that a pupil is mentally fitted to 
build upon that foundation by studying Political and Economic Geo- 
graphy — in other words, how man adapts himself to his environment, 
and how that envii^onment reacts upon man. It is not considered 
necessary to emphasise the value of Geography as an educational 
subject beyond expressing the opinion that after a knowledge of the 
English language there is nothing more essential to the mental equip- 
ment of the modem Briton than a thorough grounding in Geography. 
This is impossible of achievement under the present regulations. It 
seems only reasonable that Geography be made a compulsory subject 
throughout the Post-Intermediate stage, and that in this stage also a 
minimum time allowance of three hours and a quai'ter per week be 
fixed. 

IV. Training Colleges. — It may be explained that students prepar- 
ing for the Teaching Profession in Scotland may either receive their 
training at the Training Colleges, where the course extends for two 
years, or may continue their professional training with a University 
course, or may first complete their graduation and then devote one year 
to their professional training under the auspices of the Provincial 
Conunittees for the Training of Teachers established in the four centres 
— ^Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and St. Andrews. 

The University students in training at Edinburgh or Glasgow may 
mclude Geography among the subjects required for graduation at the 
University, but this is not possible at fhe other centres, where so far 
there is no University teaching of the subject. 

The position of the subject varies considerably at the different 
centres. At the Training Colleges of Edinburgh, Glasgow, and St. 
Andrews, lecturers in Geography have been appointed, and at these 
centres instruction in Geography forms an integral part of the cur- 
riculum for all Training College students. 



6iSI GEOGRAPHICAL TEACHING IN SCOTLAND. 1G5 

At Aberdeen Training College the previous training of tlie students 
and their knowledge of the subject are regarded as satisfactory, so that 
there is now no special instruction in the subject, and attention is 
confined to the methods of teaching Geography. The classes consist of 
thirty to forty students, and thirty periods are devoted to the methods 
of teaching Mathematics, Nature Study, and Geography, so that if the 
time is equally divided Geography can receive only ten periods. 

At Edinburgh at least thirty periods are given to the study of 
Geography, and the classes consist of forty to fifty students. At 
Glasgow the Geography course extends to thirty periods, and for 
lectures the classes average eighty students, while for practical work 
they are reduced to twenty-seven. At St. Andrews sixty periods are 
devoted to the study of Geography, and the classes number twenty-five 
students. 

The University students in training at the Edinburgh centre receive 
no instruction in Geography unless they elect to include the subject in 
their graduation course at the University; a considerable number do 
so, but the larger number, who do not, are being sent out each year — 
many to teach in Secondary schools — without any equipment to teach 
the subject so far as the Training College is concerned. 

At Glasgow the subject has been dropped from the curriculum 
of the University students in training, and attention is confined to 
methods in teaching Geography, in spite of the fact that in very many 
cases the previous study of the subject has been quite insufficient. 

Finally, recent legislation by the Scotch Education Department, and 
local conditions at several of the Training Centres, now make it quite 
possible for students who may have ceased the study of Geography 
after obtaining the Intermediate Certificate to complete their professional 
training without much, if any, further instruction in the subject. 

In the opinion of the Committee it should be rendered necessary for 
all University students in training to have obtained the Leaving 
Certificate in Geography unless adequate instruction in the subject is 
provided in their professional course, or unless they include the subject 
in their graduation course at the University. 

V. Universities. — Geography was first recognised by the Scottish 
Universities in 1908, when a lecturer was appointed as head of a new 
department in that subject in the University of Edinburgh. The 
lecturer has an ordinary class extending over the whole session (three 
terms) and two advanced classes, each of which is confined to a single 
term. From the first the ordinary class has qualified for admission to the 
M.A. examination. Geography being now one of the optional subjects 
in that degree. One of the advanced classes is a non-graduation class. 
The other, which is devoted especially to Economic Geography, is the 
qualifying class for an optional paper for the degree of M.A. with 
honours in Economic Science. In five years during which the ordinary 
class has been held, the attendance has been 48, 40, 116, 132, 98. The 
attendance at the advanced class varies from 5 to 10. 

The only other Scottish University which so far recognises Geo- 
graphy is Glasgow, where the lecturer was appointed on similar con- 
ditions to those in Edinburgh in 1909. There Geography may now be 
taken as a subject for either the M.A. or the B.Sc. degree. The 
ordinary class is the qualifying clnss for the M.A., and the advanced 



IGG REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913, 

class for the honours degree of B.Sc, and was held for the first time 
last winter. The attendance at the ordinary class for the four years 
during which the lectureship has been in existence has been about 30, 
65, 73, 94. 

It should be added that under a recent regulation, which comes into 
force next year, the position of Geography in the prehminary examina- 
tion for admission to the Arts and Science Faculties of Edinburgh 
University has been seriously prejudiced. Down to 1913 Geography was 
one of the branches under the head of English, which is a compulsory 
subject in the preliminary examination, but from 1914 onwards the 
only recognition of Geography is in connection with the history of the 
British people, one of the subjects included in the English syllabus. 
' Candidates will be expected to show acquaintance with the social as 
well as the political history of the British people and the relevant 
geography. ' 

In conclusion the Committee is of opinion that while the worst 
result of the present regulations for the Post-Intermediate stage is that 
pupils leave school with a very imperfect and one-sided educational 
equipment, a subsidiary result of nearly as much importance may soon 
appear. It is that the majority of the pupils who intend to become 
teachers will not care to take up the study of Geography again after the 
lapse of two or three years. Thus the supply of capable teachers will 
diminish, and once more, as in the past, even in the Intermediate stage. 
Geography will be entrusted to the ' general ' teacher, and it will fall 
back into its old position of memory work, unintelligent and uncom- 
prehended. 

Gaseous Explosions. — Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir W. H. Peeece {Chairman), Dr. Dugald Clerk 
{Vice-Chairman), Professor W. E. Dalby {Secretary), Pro- 
fessors Bone, Burstall, Callendar, Coker, and Dixon, 
Drs. Glazebrook and Harker, Lieut. -Colonel Holden, Pro- 
fessors B. HoPKiNSON and Petavel, Captain Sankey, Pro- 
fessors Smithells and Watson, Mr. D. L. Chapman, and 
Mr. H. E. WiMPERis, appointed for the Investigation of 
Gaseous Explosions , with special reference to Temperature. 

Note on the Proceedings of the Committee for the year 1912-13. 
At the Dundee Meeting certain changes were made in the constitution 
of the Committee. Sir Wilham Preece continues to be Chairman, but 
Dr. Dugald Clerk and Professor Hopkinson resigned the joint secretary- 
ship. Dr. Dugald Clerk, however, consented, to the great satisfaction 
of the Committee, to act as Vice-President, and Professor Dalby was 
appointed Secretary. 

The Committee allocated the whole of the grant to the Secretary, 
with the object of providing him with a permanent research assistant to 
carry on the work. The moment is favourable for this action of the 
Committee. The new laboratories of the Imperial College of Science 
and Technology are approaching completion, and it is intended by the 
governing authority of the college that these laboratories shall be 



GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 167 

devoted to research. Professor Dalby is working on a scheme with 
Dr. Dugald Clerk for equipping one bay with internal-combustion 
engines. It is recognised that the Imperial College would be materially 
assisted in carrying out their ideals if the work of the Committee were 
concentrated in the new laboratories. 

Owing to a delay in the completion of the laboratories it is not 
possible to present a report this year. Work, however, has been 
carried on with the old plant by Professor Dalby with the aid of a 
research scholar, and some important results have been obtained which 
will be communicated in due course. The general work of the Com- 
mittee has also gone steadily on during the year. 

Three meetings have been held at the City and Guilds (Engineering) 
College, at which the following Notes were presented and discussed: — 

Note 26. ' The flow of heat from a charge of air subject to cyclical 
variations of state in the cylinder of a gas engine,' 
and 
* The comparison of the temperature readings of a plati- 
num thermometer with the temperature computed from 
the pressure volume diagram.' By Professor Dalby. 
Note 27. ' The flow of heat between a charge of air enclosed in a 
gas-engine cylinder and the walls of the cylinder when 
the charge is subjected to a cyclical variation of tem- 
perature.' By Professor Dalby. 
Note 28. ' Leakage of charge.' By Professor Dalby. 
Note 29. ' Gas-engine temperatures.' By Professor Hopkinson. 
Note 30. ' The effect of compression ratio on the efficiency of a 
gas engine.' By Professors G. Asakawa and J. E. 
Petavel. 
Note 31. ' Determination of leakage by the method of alternate 

compression and expansion.' By Dugald Clerk. 
Note 26. — In this Not-e, which was presented last year, Professor 
Dalby drew attention to a method of testing and coiTecting for leakage 
in a gas-engine cylinder. A detailed explanation of this method was 
given in the note, which was accompanied by eight photographic records 
relating to the experiments referred to; these were carried out at one 
constant speed. The observations were made by two research students 
of the Imperial College — Messrs. Mawson and Begg — working under 
the direction of Professor Dalby. 

Note 27. This Note is a record of the results obtained by applying 
the method to the same engine run at different speeds in order to 
ascertain the effect of speed on the leakage. The paper was accom- 
panied by eleven large blue prints giving the data and the deductions 
drawn from them. 

Note 28. There was considerable discussion at the Committee 
regarding the amount of leakage found, and at the request of the 
Committee Professor Dalby made some further experiments, the results 
of which are embodied in Note 28. Tliis Note was accompanied by a 
blue print of two curves and a photographic record. 

Note 29. Professor Hopkinson 's Note consisted of general remarks 
relating 1o the importance of knowing the suction temperature and its 
influence on the heat flow. 



168 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Note 30. This Note relates to the efficiency of a gas engine with 
varying degrees of compression, and is embodied in a paper which 
is to be present-ed at the Birmingham Meeting of the Association. 

Note 31. This Note, presented by Dr. Clerk, relates to experiments 
on the determination of the specific heat of gases, with special relation 
to the correction applied to eliminate the effect of the small amount of 
leak of charge. 

Certain of the More GompJex Stress Distributions in Engineering 
Materials. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
J. Perry (Chairman) , Professors E. G. Coker and J. E. 
Petavel (Secretaries), Professor A. Bare, Dr. C. Chree, 
Mr. Gilbert Cook, Professor W. E. Dalby, Sir J. A. Ewing, 
Professor L. N. G. Filon, Messrs. A. E. Fulton and J. J. 
Guest, Professors J. B. Henderson and A. E. H. Love, Mr. 
W. Mason, Sir Andrew Noble, Professor Karl Pearson, 
Messrs. F. Eogers and W. A. Scoblb, Dr. T. E. Stanton, 
and Mr. T. 8. Wilson, appointed to report thereon. 

Bcfort on Combined Stress. By W. A. Scoble, B.Sc. 

Index. 

Historical . . 168 

Theories 169 

Failure 170 

Materials 170 

Systems of Stress 170 

Rate of Loading and Repeated Loading 171 

Mechanism of Failure 171 

Early Engineering Tests 172 

Experiments -with Ductile Materials under Combined Stresses .... 172 

Brittle Materials under Combined Stresses 175 

Friction Theory 176 

Liider's or Hartmann's Lines 176 

Some other Considerations in Combined Stress Researches 176 

Alternating Combined Stresses 177 

Separation of Materials 178 

An Engineering View 178 

Conclusion 179 

(The small figures in the text refer to the bibliography.) 

Historical. — Coulomb ^ appears to have been the first to study the kind of 
strain we now call shear, and he considered that rupture takes place when 
the shear of the material is greater than a certain limit. This is the first 
recorded Theory of Strength, but since it refers to rupture, the shear 
defined is a permanent set. Vicat^ drew attention to the flow of metals 
when he discovered that the yield of iron is dependent on the time it is 
stressed, but Tresca,^ by his extended researches, kindled great interest 
in this subject, and he also stated that the maximum difference of the 
greatest and least principal stresses is the measure of the tendency to 
rupture. Theories of molecular action were devised by various investiga- 
tors to account for the viscosity and the elastic afterworking.* Love 

* See The Mathemntical Theory of Elasticity, Love, 2nd edit., p. 116. 



COMPLEX STRESkS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 109 

points out that the stress difference theory of Tresca leads to a limit which 
is Kttle different from the shear strain hypothesis enunciated by Coulomb. 
The Stress Difference Theory was applied by G. H. Darwin ^^ and C. Chree.^* 
It is probable that they were influenced by Tresca, and also by the 
knowledge that a brittle material fractures by shearing when loaded in 
compression. 

The Maximum Strain Theory is usually named after St. Venant,^ but he 
attributed it to Mariotte,^ who wrote : ' que c'est le degre d'extension qui 
fait rompre les corps.' St. Venant adapted this theory to the elastic 
breakdown of a material by assuming that after the limit of mathematical 
elasticity is reached, the body will ultimately be ruptured if it has to sus- 
tain the same load.* He also rejected Coulomb's theory when applied to 
rupture in compression, and followed Poncelet,^ who ascribed rupture by 
compression to the transverse stretch which accompanies a longitudinal 
squeeze. 

Lame * assumed that the greatest tension had a limiting value to ensure 
safety. This view was adopted by Rankine, who was followed by British 
and American engineers, but when known as the Maximum Stress Theory 
it is usually assumed to apply in compression as well as in tension. 

A modification of the Stress Difference Theory was suggested by Navier, 
and is based on the assumption that the shear stress at failure is modified 
by the internal friction of the material to an extent proportional to the 
stress normal to the plane of the shear. Perryj" has been the principal 
exponent of this modified shear stress theory in this country. He notices 
that cast iron, stone, brick, and cement fracture at angles greater than 45 
degrees with the cross section. For cast iron the angle is 54f degrees, 
which corresponds to a coefficient of internal friction equal to 0'35. 
Perry also suggested that there is no internal friction in wrought iron and 
mild steel, in which case the modification is eliminated, and the simple law 
holds. Mohr ^ has proposed a further development of the shear theory to 
take account of the kind of stress which is developed within the body. 

Poisson's Theory indicated that the ratio which bears his name should 
be J. The early determinations by Wertheim^ have been noted here 
because they disproved the theory by giving different values, and thus 
had a great influence on the rariconstancy and multiconstancy controversy 
in the Theory of Elasticity. 

1. Theories. 

We desire to define the conditions which determine the failure of a 
material when subjected to any system of stress. Theories have been 
advanced which suggest as a criterion of strength : (a) the maximum 
stress ; (b) the maximum strain ; (c) the greatest stress difference, or 
shear stress or strain ; (d) the maximum value of the shear stress modified 
by a friction term proportional to the stress perpendicular to the plane of 
the shear. 

The shearing stress and the stress normal to the plane of the shear have 
received increasing attention, not always on the lines indicated by theories 
(c) and (d), but these have to a great extent eclipsed the other suggestions. 

In a recent paper, Mallock ''''■ ^^ considers the hmit of shear and the hmit 
of volume extension as the fundamental limits of a material, and failure 
is assumed to occur according to which is first reached. 

* Todhunter and Pearson, History of the Theory of Elasiicidj, vol. ii., pfc. i., p. 107. 
t Perry, Applied Mechanics, 1898, pp. 345 to 348, 356. 



170 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Too frequently tlie complexity of our subject lias not been realised, 
and confusion has followed tbe omission of conditions and limitations. 
This is particularly noticeable in early statements of theories, and has not 
been eliminated in some of the most important modem contributions. 

2. Failure. 

The laws of failure for materials are important to elasticians, experi- 
mentalists, theorists, and engineers, and we must inquire whether one 
definition of failure can be generally acceptable. The theory of elasticity 
is based on Hooke's Law which holds to the elastic limit, consequently the 
elastic hmit is the fail point for the elastician, and also for the experimenter 
who calculates his stresses from formulae based on Hooke's Law. But 
the elastic limit is not a well-defined point even under the most favourable 
conditions,* and many materials extensively used in engineering practice 
have no elastic range. In the case of steel the yield point has been taken 
for experimental purposes instead of the elastic limit,^^ and modern tests 
imder simple loading indicate that these points coincide for some steels 
initially in a state of ease. Engineers are justified in considering fracture '* 
because in many structures the yield point is exceeded locally (as in riveted 
joints), and where the stress intensity varies through the mass of the 
material the distribution at rupture is entirely different from that within 
the elastic range of the material. 

These considerations lead to the suggestion that for the purpose of the 
present investigation experiments should be arranged with uniform distri- 
bution of stress, and then important data will be obtained at elastic failure 
and at fracture. Experiments which employ non-uniform stress distribu- 
tions will give useful results at the elastic limit and possibly at the yield 
point of the material, but the data obtained at fracture or other complete 
failure in such cases is of no value for the present purpose. 

3. Materials. 

We have to consider materials with widely different mechanical pro- 
perties,f and it is certain that all materials do not behave similarly when 
tested under identical conditions. To the present the distinction appears 
to have been between ductile and brittle materials,^^' *^ which is better 
than the frequent neglect of this consideration ; but this is not a complete 
definition, and, furthermore, it does not readily enable the physical pro- 
perties of a material to be defined with exactness. It is possible that 
Mallock's suggestions will lead to more accurate scales, and consequently 
to a knowledge of the relation between the elastic constants and the 
behaviour under any system of combined stresses. 

4. The Systems of Stress. 

The stresses may be referred to the three principal stresses. Each 
principal stress may be either a tension or a compression. In cases of 
simple tension or compression two of the principal stresses are zero. With 
two-dimensional stress one principal stress is absent, and we can have 
combinations of two tensions, two compressions, or one tension and one 
compression. There are corresponding combinations for three-dimensional 

* The correspondence on this point should be consulted. 

f Mallock " suggests relations between the unclassified mechanical properties, 
brittle, ductile, tough, &c., and the measurable constants of the substances to which 
they are applicable. 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEEUINC MATERIALS. 171 

stresses, but in this case there is very httle experimental evidence available. 
It is certain that some materials do not fail in the same manner under all 
systems of stress, and Mallock's double limit is an attempt to meet this 
difficulty," by which the material is supposed to fail according to the 
limit which is first reached. 

It is probable that each of the principal theories contains a germ of 
truth if its apphcation be properly limited. Difficulty has arisen because 
a theory has been assumed to apply mider too wide a range of condition.?. 
The experimental evidence will be shown later to indicate that a 
ductile body fails when the maximum stress difference (or shear stress) 
reaches a certain value. So far as is known, the intermediate principal 
stress is without effect on the failure. If the failure be hmited to yield, 
this limit will apply for compressive as well as tensile stresses. 

A brittle material appears to fracture at a definite maximum principal 
stress when this is a tension. Under compressive stress failure seems to be 
by shearing modified by friction on the plane of the shear. 

Theories (a) and {d} are so far justified under definite conditions by the 
experimental evidence, and (c) is a particular case of (d), and not very 
different frorn it, which applies to ductile steels because the coefficient 
of internal friction is zero.^" 

It will be noticed that Mallock's double limits cover all the above if the 
shear theory is modified by friction, and maximum stress is used to replace 
the volume extension. The double Hmits apply to brittle materials, and the 
relation between them should be determined. It is difficult to conceive a 
volume extension Hmit, because in two-dimensional stress a material 
under tension in one direction would be strengthened by a compression 
perpendicular to the tension. Further, the very dift'erent strengths of 
most brittle substances in simple tension and simple compression are 
accompanied by very different strains at fracture, and a maximum strain 
theory could not always apply. 

It is clear that tests will be incomplete unless they employ most of the 
possible combinations of the principal stresses. 

5. The Rate of Loading, and Bepealed Loading. 
The most common and simplest method of applying the stresses is by a 
slow rate of increase so that the material fails imder sensibly static con- 
ditions. In engineering practice combined stresses are also appHed under 
rhythmically repeated and shock conditions. The former is of special 
interest because it is one of the most common cases of combined stresses, 
and causes fractures which resemble those of brittle materials under 
similar, but static loading. It is probable that the practical cases which 
involve shock will require special treatment, but some attention might be 
given to the matter in our investigations. 

6. The Mechanism of Failure. 
Consideration of this subject has been largely dissociated from that 
of combined stresses, to the detriment of both. That there is the closest 
connecrion is evident, and it is possible that a study of the mechanism of 
failure might be of assistance in the case of a material to which the more 
usual methods cannot be applied. Tlie matter is noted here as a reminder 
rather than for present discussion. 



172 keports on the state of science. — 1913. 

Previous Researches. 
7. Early Engineering Tests. 

Reference has been made to the important experiments of Tresca,® 
which led him to support the stress difference theory of rupture for ductile 
materials, and his conclusions have been generally accepted. Most 
modern researches have dill'ered from Tresca's because attention has been 
concentrated on the yield point or the elastic limit of the material. 

Experiments on steel by the Committee of Civil Engineers are of 
interest because the tension and compression specimens were 1"5 inch 
diameter and 10 feet long, so that the longitudinal strains could be mea- 
sured accurately. There was little difference in the stress at the yield 
point in any case, a result which supports the contention that the co- 
ef&cient of mternal friction for steel is zero, and that Theory (c) is a par- 
ticular case of {d) to suit ductile steels. 

Hodgkinson ^ found that cast iron fractured at stresses of 7 tons per 
square inch in tension, and 24 tons per square inch in compression. The 
form of the fracture in compression m common with those of other brittle 
materials has led to the acceptance of Theory {d) under these conditions, 
in the absence of direct experimental evidence. It is remarkable that the 
great differences in strength and form of fracture did not lead to an earher 
recognition of the possibiUty of two limits for failure, at least for brittle 
substances. 

The tests of iron and steel in different ways by Appleby^^ and Kirkaldy^® 
were of great engineering importance, but since results are given tor 
fracture they lead to no definite conclusions for our purpose. This apphes 
also to the later work of Piatt and Hayward,^'' which included tests of cast 
iron in tension, torsion, and shear, because Scoble *^ has concluded that cast 
iron yields too much before fracture to allow the elastic formula to be used 
to calculate the true breaking stress in torsion. The results of the shearing 
tests are not acceptable. 

8. Exferiments tvith Ductile Materials under Combined Stresses. 

WeJiage ^^ tested circular steel and wrought-iron plates supported roimd 
their edges and loaded at their centres. The extension at the elastic limit 
was about half that in simple tension. 

Carus Wilson's paper ^'^ on ' The Rupture of Steel by Longitudinal 
Stresses ' describes an attempt to test the stress difference theory (c) 
employed by Darwin. ^^ Tension specimens of rectangular cross section 
were tested to fracture when plain, with a ' V ' notch, and with a ' U ' notch 
on each side. He used the true mean stresses calculated on the contracted 
areas at fracture. The ' V ' notched specimens were weaker and the 
' U's ' stronger than the original bar. The notches caused an uneven 
stress distribution across the breadth of a bar, which tended to weaken it ; 
they also reduced the tension area more than that which resisted the shear. 
He concluded that the material fractured by shearing. He also found 
that the shear stresses in tension, and in double shear tests agreed very 
well if the true stresses at tensile fracture were taken. 

Foppl^^ tested materials imder a uniform pressure of 50,000 lb. per 
square inch and also with compression in two directions, and a third 
principal stress absent. His experiments led to no definite conclusions., 
except that the uniform pressures apphed did not cause rupture. 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 173 

Guest"^ conducted by far the most important early research. He dis- 
tinguished between brittle and ductile materials. Thin tubes of steel, 
copper, and brass were tested to yield under combinations of tension, torsion , 
and internal fluid pressure. The principal stresses were two tensions, or 
one tension and one compression, with the third always very small. An 
abstract cannot do justice to Mr. Guest's paper, which raised the experi- 
mental side of our subject to a higher level, and has directly suggested 
much of the more recent research. He concluded that the condition for 
initial yielding of a uniform ductile material is the existence of a specific 
shearing stress, and that the intermediate principal stress is without efEect. 

Colcer 2^ studied iron and steel under torsional stress, and included some 
data in relation to torsion with tension or bending. This paper indicates 
the general character of the effect of tension and bending on a specimen 
subjected to torque. 

Wehage"^^ presented no new experimental results. He contended that 
although two tensile stresses at right angles counteract one another when 
the extensions are considered, their destructive effect on the material ia 
really superposed. The previous experiments of Guest prove him to be 
wrong. Mohr's Theory is quoted as only considering the stress normal to 
the plane of maximiim shear 

Hancock ^^' ^^' *^' *^' ^^ first tested solid steel rounds, and then steel 
tubing, in tension and tors'on. His results have been adversely criticised, 
and certainly supported neither hypothesis, although the author favoured 
the shear stress theory. Later tests under tension or compression with 
torsion indicated that the maximum tension was seldom greater than the 
tensile strength of the steel, but the maximum shear stress was often greater 
than its shearing strength. 

Izod ^^ tested materials to fracture in double shear. The discussion on 
his paper malces it clear that shearing tests of this type are complicated by 
cross stresses after yield. The ratio of shear to tensile strength was 0'62 
to 0'78 for iron and steel, the tensile strength being the maximum load 
divided by the original area of the cross-section. The results were con- 
firmed by Goodman. Lilly held the surprising view that only under ex- 
ceptional conditions was the shear strength less than the tensile, and that 
isotropic materials were strongest in compression, next in pure shear and 
weakest in tension. There was a rough indication that ductile materials 
followed the shear rather than the maximum stress law of failure. 

Fremont ^^ modified the usual shearing test by filing away the sheared 
face from time to time to eliminate the friction between the steelings and 
the sheared faces. He then found that the shear stress at fracture was 
about 04 times the maximum tensile stress for irons and steels which had 
a range of tensile strength from 19 to 65 tons per square inch. 

Scoble^^'^^ employed combinations of bending and torsion on solid 
round steel bars. Yield was taken as the point of failure. The maximum 
shear stress varied from 29,170 to 33,500, and the maximum principal 
stress from 29,170 to 64,600 lb. per square inch, having the low values in 
pure torsion. The bending moment was not constant over the length of 
a bar, which would tend to mask the yield and give a high stress 
under bending. It was concluded that the maximum shearing stress was 
approximately constant at yield, but it was also shown that engineering 
materials are not perfectly isotropic, and consequently have different 
shearing strengths in different directions. Later tests included steel and 



171 KEP0F.T8 ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — lljlo. 

copper tubes subjected to torque and a luiiform bending moment. The 
maximum shear stress again varied, being greater in bending than in 
torsion, but this deviation from the law is in tlie contrary direction to that 
required by Tlieories (a) and (h). 

Turner's ^^' ®^ early experiments were modelled on those of Cxuest. He 
tested steel tubes in simple tension, and under simple torque, and included 
a few tests under combined tension and internal pressure. The shear 
stress theory was confirmed at elastic breakdown. Later he made a few 
experiments with solid mild, tool, and nickel steels in simple tension and 
torsion. The maximum shear stresses were : for mild steel 21.200 and 
24,400, tool steel 33,900 and 38,400, and for nickel steel 40,600 and 40,800 
lb. per square inch. He says : ' It is clear that the shear theory is no 
general law which covers all elastic materials. The tool steel shows the 
greatest inequality of shear in the two distributions of stress ; yet even for 
it the theory that failure occurs through sliear is obviously very much 
closer than the tension hypothesis.' 

Three-dimensional stress was secured by the use of thick steel cylinders 
under internal pressure and longitudinal tension. The tubes were so thick 
that the radial compressive stress was usually about 11,000, but in one 
case reached 17,200 lb. per square inch. The principal stresses were two 
tensions and one compression. The external diameter of the cylinder 
decreased at yield. For one tube the extreme value of the maximum 
shearing stress were 16,600 in simple tension, and 20,900 under simple 
torque. He deduces from these experiments that the shear theory is not 
very far from true, but that it is sensibly untrue. The tube was used for 
several tests with intermediate annealing. The maximum shear stress for 
one test in simple tension was 18,500 lb. per square inch. 

Smith 54. 59. 60, 68 tested solid steel specimens in tension or compression 
with torsion. He supported Theory (c). Experiments with non-ferrous 
metals demonstrated the attendant difficulties and did not lead to satis- 
factory residts. 

Mason ^^ extended the range of conditions by testing steel tubes in 
tension, compression, compression and hoop tension, compression and 
hoop compression. His experimental results show an approximate 
agreement between the maximum shear stress at the yield point in com- 
pression, and the jdeld point stress in pure shear (obtained by equal 
tensile and compressive principal stresses), the mean difference in the 
tests of annealed specimens being about 3 per cent. ' It appears, then, 
that mild steel in direct compression yields by shearing ; and to a first 
approximation that the value of this shear stress is independent of any 
normal compressive stress on the planes of the slide.' The direct applica- 
tion of two compressive principal stresses to steel was an important 
advance. 

Cooh and Robertson '^^ determined the strength of thick hollow cylinders 
of cast iron and steel under internal pressure. They concluded that the 
failure of cast-iron cyHnders is determined solely by the maximum principal 
stress, and for mild steel cylinders the pressure is about 20 per cent, in 
excess of that required by the shear stress theory, or nridway between that 
indicated by Theories (b) and (c).* 

* These results differ from those of other observers. Cast-iron cylinders fractured 
according to the formula based on the principal stress law, but since this formula 
applied also to the steel cylinders, there is no proof here that cast iron fractures 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTHIBUTIONS IN ENGINEEHIiNG MATERIALS. 175 

Bfidgman''^'''^ worked with extremely liigh-liuid pressures applied to 
the curved surface of a rod of circular section, on the outside of plugged 
liollow cylinders, and to the inside of heavy cyhnders. All tests were to 
ruptui'e. Brittle materials were also tested. Little numerical data is 
given. The original paper should be consulted since it does not lend itself 
to abstraction, and the results are very remarkable. It is doubtful 
whether the deductions, that all the theories of strength are not valid under 
certain conditions, are justified by these experiments. 

9. Brittle Materials under Combined Stresses. 

Cams Wilson^^ fomid the tensile strength of cast iron to be 104, and 
the shearing stress at fracture to be 546 tons per square inch, ratio 1-9. 
Piatt and Hay ward found the ratio to be 2 '2 . The mean crushing strength 
was 41 -5 tons per square inch. The rupture of cast iron in compression by 
shearing is well known, and he appeared to consider that it also held for 
tension. 

Izod " gives the ultimate shear stress of cast iron from 11 to 1 -5 times 
the ultimate tensile strength. 

Scohle ^' ^ fractured round cast-iron bars by combined bending and 
torsion. The calculated stresses followed neither law, but the angles of 
fracture agreed well with the planes of maximum principal stress. On 
the assumption of a redistribution of stress by yield the maximum princi- 
pal stress varied 10 per cent, on either side of the mean value. Hardened 
cast-steel bars were elastic to fracture. At least two tests were made on 
each bar. The maximum principal stress was nearly constant at fracture 
for each bar, and the bar broke along the plane of maximum principal 
stress with extreme accuracy. 

Williams *2 attempted to determine the effect of fluid pressure on the 
strength of rock salt and hard aluminium. He claimed to disprove the 
Poncelet Theory, but the range of the experiments was too hmited to draw 
further conclusions. 

Griihler^^ used cement mortar formed round a central shaft and 
covered by a clamp which carried torsion levers. The shear stress was the 
same at all points at the same distance from the axis. The cement failed 
by tension, but never by shearing. 

Kdrmdn'''^ compressed marble and sandstone and supplied latera 
pressure by means of glycerine under pressure. He quotes Mohr's Law 
as the shear stress law. With no side pressure these stones behave as 
brittle materials, but with a pressure of 700 atmospheres the material 
becomes perfectly plastic, and the elastic hmit is raised. Further deforma- 
tion is possible after the elastic limit if the lateral pressure is increased, 
but the effect is rapidly diminished at high pressures. The stones flowed 
on planes at 45 degrees to the axis. Permanent set may take place by 
relative shearing of the crystals for low values of the lateral pressure, or by 
internal changes in the crystals at high values. The first kind of failure 
occurs at a maximum value of the shear stress which depends on the 
normal stress, but the second form takes place at a limiting constant 
shear stress, and the material hardens. 

according toJTheory (a). The results for steel are ratios depending on the tensile 
.strength, and would be high unless the first yield was detected. Their cylinders 
mcreased in diameter at yield. Turner's diminished. 



170 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 191B. 

Adams,^^ and Nicholson,^^ and Coher *^ tested rocks in compression, and 
supplied lateral support by enclosing each specimen in a steel cylinder 
which bulged laterally. Marble flows as a plastic body imder difiereutial 
pressure by distortion of the calcite grains, and the deformed specimen 
retains 60 to 85 per cent, of its original compressive strength. Its specific 
gravity is not increased. By Kick's process — in which the specimen is 
embedded in a fused salt, usually alum, to fit the retaining cylinder — 
minerals with hardness under 5 show plastic deformation, which is less 
pronounced as they are harder. Still harder minerals, which do not flow, 
have their structure broken down and are powdered. Fine-grained, 
massive limestones show combined flow and fracture. Harder rocks, like 
granite, crumble under pressure, but the flow structure is developed in 
these by greater differential pressures. 

10. The Friction Theory. 

Many investigators have studied the internal friction of solids, and 
when not associated with combined stresses the favourite method has been 
by the decay of torsional oscillations. Only a few references are given 
to the large volume of research of this type. Lord Kelvin ^^ pointed out 
that the damping was caused by all the effects included under the class of 
hysteresis phenomena. Bouasse dealt with torsional oscillation, and paper 
No. 32 includes a review of his work. Ercolini*^ again pointed out that 
the damping is due to hysteresis, and not to molecular friction. Guye's 
work is of a similar character. 

Reference has been made to the angles of fracture of brittle materials in 
compression, which probably suggested Theory {d), and to the equality 
of the yield stresses for steel in tension and compression . 

In connection with combined stresses, Scoble *"• ^^ considered that the 
friction theory does not apply to steel. Gulliver*' found that steel yields 
in tension at an angle of 50 degrees to the axis {/x. = 0-176), but this is not 
confirmed by yield at 40 degrees in compression. A study of combined 
stress experiments led him to the same conclusion as that of Scoble, since 
calculated values of ' /x " varied from —0-24:2 to 0-38. Smith's ^* tests did 
not support the friction theory for steel, nor did those of Mason ^^ which 
were specially well adapted to test it. 

11. Liider's or Hartmann's Lines. 

These markings have been studied in this country chiefly by 
Gulliver^*' ^'^ in relation to the friction theory, and by Mason '^'' in connec- 
tion with his combined stress experiments. Their papers will furnish 
further references. 

12. Some other Considerations in Combined Stress Researches. 
The pecuUarities in the behaviour of steel — variation of the elastic hmit, 
hysteresis, &c. — have been discussed elsewhere. It is possible that their 
importance has been magnified, since the elastic limit and yield point 
coincide approximately for thoroughly annealed steel, and the hysteresis 
effect is extremely small. The difficulties are intensified in the case of 
.other metals, because most have no elastic range and no well-defined yield. 
Apparently we must study the fracture of these materials under uniform 
stress distribution. Brittle substances, like rocks, cement, &c., are 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 177 



probably simpler to deal with than non-ferroua metals, or even cast iron, 
to a first approximation ; but Bauschinger found that the strength of 
stone varies considerably with the proportions of the specimens ,^2 and 
that stone has no elastic Umit, taking sets with small loads." Hard and 
dense stones are better in these respects, and all are better at higher loads. 
The difference in the strength of some rocks in different directions is very 
great. Nagaoka^s ^\^q found rocks to be very imperfectly elastic, but 
Adams and Coker''^ consider their elasticity in compression to be better 
than that of cast iron, especially after they are loaded several times to 
attain a state of ease. 

The errors which are likely to be introduced in tests of rocks in com- 
pression are now well known, and the best-conducted tests leave some 
uncertainty regarding the true compressive strength. ^^ 

It is impossible to deal fully here with the behaviour of the crystals in a 
material under stress. The researches of Ewing and Rosenhain are well 
known, and those of Beilby deserve notice. The discussion on the papers 
of Mason and Smith ^s included a reference to this matter by GulUver, and a 
most suggestive contribution from M. Osmond. 

Papers which deal with experiments made on rocks usually refer to the 
behaviour of the separate crystals. 

13. Alternating Combined Stresses. 
The only experiments with which we are acquainted which have been 
intended directly to investigate alternating combined stresses are those of 
Turner.'^^ The plan of the research was not all that could be desired, but 
was probably the best that could have been done with the available faciU- 
ties. Specimens were tested under alternating bending and torsion, but 
not combined. The torsion was taken as an example of combined stresses. 
The chief results are shown in the table. 



Material 


Tube Steel 


Mild Steel 


Tool Steel 


Nickel Steel 


- 


Elastic Limit . 
Endurance 
Elastic Limit . 
Endurance 

Per cent. Elong. (8) 


Ib./sq. in. 
31,000 
29,000 
17,000 
16,000 

24 


Ib./sq. in. 
42,300 
40,000 
24,000 
22,000 

29 


Ib./sq. in. 
67,000 
50,000 
38,400 
38,000 

9 


Ib./sq. in. 
81,200 1 
59,000 ) 
40,800 1 
35,000 i 

14 


Tension by 
bending 

Shear 
At fracture 



The tube and mild steel specimens conformed to the shear stress law 
under alternating stresses. The tool steel was particularly weak in 
alternating tension, and with nickel steel the drop in strength was greater 
in tension than under torsion. The percentage elongations indicate that 
the more ductile steels obey the shear stress law under repeated loadings, 
and the behaviour of the more brittle samples approaches more closely to 
that required by the maximum strain and maximum stress theories. 

Wohler tested steels under repeated tension and compression, bendmg, 
and torsion. It is difficult to compare his results for our purpose, since there 
were considerable differences in the material included imder the same 
title— the elongation at fracture for Krupp's cast steel for axles varied 
from 11-7 to 23-7 per cent. The range of stresses which he selected from 
all his tests probably refer to an average sample, and these for cast steel 
1913. ^^ 



178 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

axles are under tension, compression, or bending 13-38 to — 13-38, range 
26-76 ; 23 to 0, range 23. Shearing or torsion 10-5 to -10-5, ran^e 21. 
18-2 to 0, range 18-2. These figures would approximately fit the maximum 
strain theory. It is evident that more work is required in this portion of 
our field. 

14. The Separation of Materials. 

A distinction has been drawn between ductile and brittle materials. 
Frimont "^ has arrived at the interesting conclusion that steel is brittle or 
tough accorduig to whether the ratio of the elastic limits in tension and 
compression is less or greater than one. It is quite possible that the usual 
classification is not along correct lines, and this should be discovered when 
greater attention is paid to substances of an intermediate character. The 
latter appear likely to introduce considerable complexity. For com- 
pletely ductile and brittle materials it appeared possible that double Hmits 
would cover all the conditions, and these would be shear modified by fric- 
tion, and possibly the maximum stress in tension. The intermediate steels 
appear to show an intermediate behaviour, and then we cannot apply the 
two limits. Scoble ^^ has suggested that a criterion might be found of the 
form 

Pi -1- mV-i = c 

in which m depends on the degree of ductility of the material. This 
equation is a general expression for all the laws except that of maximum 
strain, which would require a P.2 term. For brittle materials m and c have 
different values in tension and compression. A microscopic study is 
particularly desirable to discover the mechanism of failure for the inter- 
mediate materials, since it is possible that it is not of a simple character, 
but a combination of that exhibited by the extremes. It is further neces- 
sary to give each substance its correct position in a scale based on those 
standard properties which determine its behaviour imder combined 
stresses. 

15. An Engineering Vieiv. 

Yield has been taken to denote failure in most tests of ductile materials 
under compound stress. The reason has sometimes been given that the 
yield stress, and of course certain other considerations, fixes the working 
stress. This is only partly correct ; the ultimate strength retains much of 
its old importance, and the relative bearing of the yield and maximum 
stresses depends on the conditions of the case under consideration. The 
real reason for the selection of the yield point appears often to have been, 
either that the scheme of the tests was such that they could not con- 
veniently be continued to fracture, or that the stress distribution varied 
from point to point and could be estimated only within the elastic range. 

Although a knowledge of the ' Law of Failure ' is of great interest, it is 
not of great importance to the engineer in cases of simple static loading. 
He will prefer to fix his working stresses by tests which are modelled on the 
working conditions. When combined stresses are produced by the loading, 
the theories are liable to be misleading or of no assistance. Two examples 
will illustrate this contention. 

The yield and maximum stresses are considered to fix a workiag stress 
for a sample of steel in tension. The yield stress should not be exceeded, 
and the excess of the maximum over the yield stress is a reserve of strength. 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 170 

The experiments which have been recorded indicate that a plain shaft 
subjected to combined bending and torsion shoukl be designed for an 
equivalent torque, \/'M^ + T^. The maximum stress theory gives M + 
VM^ + T^. The latter emphasises the importance of the bending moment, 
and bending jaeld is much more serious than torsion yield. A small 
bending yield would cause a considerable deflection of the shaft, but a 
twist would fully stress more material with a strain of little importance. 
It is not at all clear that the formula which gives the equivalent torque 
to cause yield is the best for the purposes of design. The results of the 
repeated loading tests, at least for the harder steels, lend further support 
to this view. 

The important cases of combined stresses in practice are usually accom- 
panied by a variable stress distribution. We may assume that the shear 
stress theory will allow the load at yield to be calculated, but the engineer 
requires to know the fracture load to estimate the reserve of strength. 
Bridgman ''*' ''^ states he found that he could raise the yielding pressure 
of a thick cyhnder mider internal pressure tenfold by giving it a set. The 
reserve strength here is not only due to the difference between the yield and 
maximum stresses, but also to the understressed material. A law of 
failure does not help an engineer to calculate to fracture in many such 
cases, and he must depend on experiments made under the conditions of 
each case. 

The above considerations point to the ad^^sability of confining tests 
on ductile steels to the elastic limit or yield point, and of considering the 
importance of tests to fracture in cases of ' Special Problems ' which 
involve complex stress distributions. 

16. Conclusion. 

Most experimental work has been done on ductile steel, but more tests 
are required under three-dimensional stress, and particularly under com- 
pressive stresses. 

One point appears to have escaped notice. A material might appear 
to have different shearing strengths under different sj^stems of stress, as 
in the case of cast iron in shear and imder compression. The shearing 
stress has been shown to be approximately constant at the elastic failure 
of steel imder modification of the same general type of stress distribution. 
Are these maximum shearing stresses the same imder all conditions of 
loading ? 

They have frequently been compared with the tensile strength, and the 
differences do not seem to be great, but it would be of interest, and neces- 
sary for further refiiiement, to test exactly the same material imder very 
different combinations of principal stresses. 

Few experiments have been made with the materials now classed as 
brittle, and those already made should mostly be repeated. Here we can 
assume that there is a clear field. The same apphes to non-elastic ductile 
metals, and to those intermediate between ductile and brittle. 

The methods of experiment will require further consideration. Simple 
tension and compression are the most direct tests available. Longi- 
tudinal tension and internal fluid pressure apphed to a thin hollow 
cylinder appear to be the readiest means of securing two tensions. 
Longitudinal compression and external fluid pressure have been used 

N 2 



180 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



for obtaining two compressions, but it is bardly satisfactory for all cases, 
and might be replaced by external fluid pressure on a solid specimen with 
free ends, as in Bridgman's pinching-ofE test, but this requires extremely 
high pressures. A complete treatment of the problem in three dimen- 
sions appears possible only by the use of high-fluid pressures. 

Cases of combined stresses in engineering practice should be the sub- 
jects for separate tests, and cannot entirely replace those which are in- 
tended to determine the laws of failure. ComlDined alternating stresses 
are mainly of practical interest, and here again the experiments should be 
modelled to suit the engineering examples. Cases are not uncommon in 
which compound stresses are apphed under shock conditions, but a further 
consideration of this matter might well be the subject for a later report. 

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1 


Coulomb 


1776 


2 


Vicat 


1834 


3 


Mariotte 




4 


Lame 


1833 


5 
6 


Poncelet 
St. Venant 


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7 


Wertheim 


1848 


8 


Hodgkinson, E. 


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9 


Tresca, H. 


1868 

1872 
1878 


10 




1870 


11 


Bauschinger 


1875 


12 
13 


Bauschinger 
Darwin, G. H. 


1876 
1882 


14 


Chree, C. 




15 


Appleby, P. V. 


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16 


Kirkaldy 


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17 
18 


Piatt and 

Hayward 
Wehage 


1887 
1888 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 181 



19 



1890 



20 


Wilson, C. 


1890 


21 
22 


Foppl, A. 
Foppl, A. 


1899 
1899 


23 


Guest, J. J. 


1900 


24 


Mohr, 0. 


1900 


25 


Nagaoka 


1900 


26 


Martens, Foppl 
and Berner 


1899 
1900 


27 
28 


Voigt 
Fremont, C. 


1901 
1901 


29 


Coker, E. G. 


1901 


30 
31 


Adams, F. D., 
and Nicholson. 
J. T. 

Filon, L. N. G. 


1901 
1902 


32 


Bouasse, H. 


1903 


33 
34 


Obermeyer, 
Tammann, 
Werigin, 
Lewkogiw 
GulUver, G. H. 


1905 
1905 


35 


Wehage, H. 


1905 


36 


Hancock, E. L. 


1905 


37 


Izod, E. G. 


1906 


38 


Hancock, E. L. 


1906 


39 


Fremont, C. 


1906 


40 


Scoble, W. A. 


1906 


41 


Scoble, W. A. 


1907 


42 


VVUliams, W. E. 


1908 


43 


Hancock, E. L. 


1908 


44 


Bouasse, H. 
Carriere, Z. 


1908 


45 


Smith, C. A. 


1908 



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' Proc. Roy. Soc.,' vol. xlix., March 1890, and ' Phil. 

Mag.,' June 1890. 
' Mittheilungen (Miinchen),' xxvii., 1899. 
The Relation of Failure to the Manner of Application of 

Stress. ' Centralblatt der Bauverwaltung,' 1899. 

Abstract in ' Proc. I.C.E.,' vol. cxl. 
On the Strength of Ductile Materials under Combined 

Stress. 'Phil. Mag.,' July 1900. ' Phys. Soc. 

Proc.,' vol. xvii., Sept. 1900. 
' Zeitschrift Ver. Deutschen Ing.,' Bd. 44, 1900. 
The Elastic Constants of Rocks, &c. ' Phil. Mag.,' 

1900. 
The Relation of Failure to the Manner of Application 

of Stress. ' Centralblatt der Bauverwaltung,' 1899, 

p. 590 ; 1900, p. 147. 
Theory of Solids. ' Ann. Phys.,' Ser. 4, March 1901. 
Relation between Brittleness and Elastic Limits for 

Tension and Compression. ' Compte.s Rendus,' 132, 

Jan. 28, 1901. 
Iron and Steel under Torsional and Combined Stress. 

' Roy. Soc. Edinburgh Trans.,' 40, Nov. 12, 10, 1901. 
An Experimental Investigation into the Flow of Marble. 

' Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc.,' Series A, vol. cxcv. 

Elastic Equilibrium of Circidar Cylinders under certain 

Practical Systems of Load. ' Roy. Soc. Phil. Trans.,' 

198, Feb. 28, 1902. 
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July 1903. 
Flow of Solids. 'Beiblatter Annal. Phys.,' vol. 29, 

1905. 



Permanent Deformation of Metals. ' Proc. I.M.E.,' 

Jan., Feb. 1905. 
Stresses in Materials simultaneously loaded in Several 

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1905. 
The Effect of Combined Stresses on the Elastic Proper- 
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Dec. 22, 1905. ' Proc. I.M.E.,' Jan. 1906. 
The Effect of Combined Stress in Iron and Steel. ' Phil. 

Mag.,' 12, October 1906. 
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Rev. de Metall.,' 3, July 1, 1906. 
The Strength and Behaviour of Ductile Materials under 

Combined Stress. ' Proc. Phys. Soc.,' xx., and ' Pliil. 

Mag.,' Dec. 1906. 
The Strength and Behavioiu- of Brittle Materials under 

Combined Stress. ' Proc. Phys. Soc.,' xx., Jan. 1907. 
Rupture of Materials under Combined Stress. ' Phil. 

Mag.,' Jan. 1908. 
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Feb. 1908. 
Decay of Oscillations. 'Annal. Chim. Phys.,' 14, 

Juno 1908. 
Guest's Law on Combined Stresses. 'Engineering,' 

July 10, 1908. 



182 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 



46 


Hancock, E. L. 


1908 


47 


Gulliver, G. H. 


1908 


48 
49 


Gulliver, G. H. 
Ercolini, G. 


1908- 
1909 
1909 


50 


Turner, L. B. 


1909 


51 


Grill jler 


1909 


52 


Coker, E. G. 


1909 


53 


Poynting, J. H. 


1909 


54 


Smith, C. A. 


1909 


55 


Hancock, Ed. 


1909 


56 


Guye, C. E. 
Friedericksz, V. 


1909 


57 


Schulze, F. A. 


1909 


58 


Mason, W. 


1909 


59 


Smith, C. A. M. 


1909 


60 




1909 


61 


Scoble, W. A. 


1910 


62 


Adams 


1910 


63 


Morley, A. 


1910 


64 


Scoble, AV. A. 


1910 


65 
66 


Adams, F. D. 
Coker, E. G. 
Turner, L. B. 


1910 
1910 


67 


Gulliver, G. H. 


1909 
1910 


68 


Smith, C. A. M. 


1910 


69 


Turner, L. B. 


1911 


70 


Mason, W. 


1911 


71 


Karman, T. V. 


1911 


72 


Houstoun. R. A. 


1911 



The Behaviour of Metals under Combined Stress. 

' Phil. Mag.,' Nov. 1908. 
The Cohesion of Steel and Relation between the Yield 

Points in Tension and Compression. ' Proc. Roy. 

Soc. Edin.,' 28, 1908. 
■ Internal Friction in Cases of Compound Stress. ' Proc. 

Roy. Soc, Edin.,' 29, 1908-09. 
Recent Experiments on Elasticitj'. ' N. Cimento,' 17, 

Jan. 1909. 
The Elastic Breakdown of Materials under Combined 

Stress. ' Engineering,' 87, Feb. 5, 1909. 
Shear Strength and Elasticity. ' Zeitschr. Ver. Dcutsch. 

Ing.,' 53, March 20, 1909. 
Testing Machine for Combined Bending and Torsion. 

' PhU. Mag.,' April 1909. 
Pressure Perpendicular to Shear Planes and Lengthening 

of Wires when Twisted. ' Proc. Roj'. Soc.,' A, 82, 

July 1909. 
Solid Steel Bars under Combmed Stress. ' Engineer- 
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Design in Case of Combined Stress. ' Eng. News, 

62, Sept. 2, 1909. 
Internal Friction of Solids at Low Temperatures. 

'Comptes Rendus,' 149, Dec. 6, 1909. See also 

Guj'e and Mintz, ' Arch, des Sciences,' 26, 1908. 

Guye and Schaffer, ' Comptes Rendus,' 150, April 

1910. 
Relation between the Elastic Modulus, Tension, Tor- 
sion and Strain. ' Ann. d. Physik,' 31, Dec. 30, 1909. 
Mild Steel Tubes in Compression and under Combined 

Stress. ' Proc. I.M.E.,' 4, 1909. 
Compound Stress Experiments. ' Proc. I.M.E.,' 4, 

1909. 
The Elastic Breakdown of Non-Ferrous Metals. ' Inst. 

Metals Journ.,' 2, 1909. 
Ductile Materials under Combined Stress. ' Proc. 

Phys. Soc.,' vol. xxii. ' Phil. Mag.,' Jan. 1910. 
Differential Pressures on Minerals and Rocks (Kick's 

Process). ' Journ. of Geology,' Sept., Oct. 1910. 
Strength of Materials under Combined Stress. ' En- 
gineering,' April 29, 1910. 
Further Tests of Brittle Materials under Combined 

Stress. ' Proc. Phys. Soc.,' vol. xxii. ' Phil. Mag.,' 

June 1910. 
Experiments on the Flow of Rocks. I. The Flow of 

Marble. ' Am. Jouru. Sci.,' 29, June 1910. 
Stresses in a Thick Cylinder subjected to Internal 

Pressure. ' Camb. Phil. Soc. Trans.,' 21, No. 14, 

Sept. 12, 1910. 
A New Experimental Method of Investigating Certain 

Systems of Stress. ' Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin.,' 30, 

1909-10. 
The Elastic Breakdown of Certain Steels. ' Iron and 

Steel Instit. Journ.,' 1910. 
The Strength of Steels in Compound Stress and Endur- 
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July 28, 1911. 
Liider's Lines on Mild Steel. ' Phys. Soc. Proc.,' 23, 

Aug. 1911. 
Compression Tests of Marble and Stone. ' Zeits. Ver. 

Deutsch. Ing.,' 55, Oct. 21, 1911. 
A Relation between Torsion and Tension. ' Phil. 

Mag.,' Nov. 1911. 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERrNa MATERIALS. 183 

73 Cook, G. 1911 The Strength of Thick Hollow Cylinders under Internal 
Robertson, A. Pressure. 'Engineering,' 92, Dec. 15, 1911. 

74 Bridgraan, P. W. 1912 The Collapse of Thick Cylinders under High Hydro- 

static Pressure. ' Phys. Rev.,' 3-1, Jan. 1912. 

75 1912 Breaking Tests under Hydrostatic Pressure and Con- 

ditions of Rupture. ' Phil. Mag.,' July 1912. 

76 Basquin, 0. H. 1912 The Circular Diagram of Stress and its Application to 

1913 the Theory of Internal Friction. ' West Soc. Eng. 
Journ.,' 17, Nov. 1912. ' Sci. Abs.,' Feb. 1913, 
No. 149. 

77 Mallock, A. 1912 Some Unclassified Properties of Solid' and Liquids. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc. A.,' Deo. 1912. 

78 Mallock, A. The Extension of Cracks in an Isotropic Substance. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc.,' A. vol. 82, pp. 26-29. 

79 1912 The Yield Point and the Elastic Limit. ' Engineer- 

ing,' Jan. 26, 1912. Definitions by the Engineering 
Standards Committee and Recommendation of the 
Ships Committee. 

80 Report on ' Theories and History.' Also Applied 

Mechanics, Perry. 

Report on Alternating Stress. By W. Mason, M.Sc, ivith Notes by 
F. EoGERS, D.Eng., and E. M. Eden. 

Index. 

PAGf5 

Introductory 183 

Testing Machines 184 

Data from Published Tests 184 

Bausc hunger's Theory 184 

Recovery of Elasticity 186 

Elastic Hysteresis 189 

Speed Effect 190 

Divergent Results of Fatigue Tests 190 

Carbon-Content of Steels and Resistance to Alternating Stress .... 191 

Effects of Annealing and Quenching upon Resistance to Alternating Stress . 191 

Tests with Repeated Cycles of Combined Stresses 192 

Alternate Stress with Repeated Impact 122 

Practical Utility oJE the Alternate Stress Test 192 

Rapid Means of determining Endurance under Stress Repetition .... 192 

Materials other than Wrought Iron and Steel 193 

Suggestions for Research 193 

Note by Dr. F. Rogers on Heat Treatment 194 

Note by Dr. F. Rogers on Microscopic Effects of Alternating Stress . .195 

Remarks on the Phrase ' Crystallisation through Fatigue ' 196 

Note by Mr. E. M. Eden on Stress Alternation Curves for Bending Tests on 

Rotating Bars 196 

Note by Mr. E. M. Eden on Divergent Results of Alternating Stress Tests . 197 
Appendix I. Review of recent Papers on Elastic Hysteresis . . . .198 

Appendix II. Table of certain Data 200 

Introductory. 

By an ' alternating stress ' is meant a stress varying cyclically between 
raaximnm and minimum values. Unless otherwise stated, it is implied 
that the stresses are imposed without shock, and that the variation of 
stress on either side of the algebraic mean of the maximum and minimum 
stresses is, or is approximately, simple-harmonic. The range of stress is 
the algebraic difference between the maximum and minimum stresses. 

The resistance of a material to alternating stress may be measured by 
the values of the maximum and minimum stresses of the cycle whose 



184 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 

repetition for some particular very large number of times will just produce 
fracture. If unlimited time were available for testing, the very large 
number referred to would be indefinitely great or would exceed the 
number of repetitions which the material would be required to withstand 
in service. 

The cycle of stress having its maximum and minimum respectively of 
equal (or nearly equal) positive and negative values is the most important 
practically ; and the bulk of experimental work has been done with this 
cycle. The usual method of finding experimentally the resistance of a 
material is to make a number of tests to destruction with a series of ranges 
of stress of this (equal i) cycle ; the first of the series having an appropriate 
high range, and subsequent series a successively less and less range. This 
succession of tests is continued until the number of the repetitions before 
fracture is at least a million. Plotting the ranges of stress, '/ ' (or half the 
range of the cycle of equal + and — stresses) , against the respective number 
of repetitions, ' n,' before fracture, an ' f,n' curve, or ' endurance curve,' 
is obtained. This curve (at any rate for iron and steel) becomes less and 
less inclined to the axes of ' n ' as ' w ' becomes larger. Where the curve 
becomes sensibly asymptotic to a line parallel to the axis of ' n,' the 
ordinate — i.e., the range of stress — between the asymptote and the axis of 
'«' is called the 'limiting range,' or the ' Wohler safe range.' This range 
is a definite measure of the ' endurance ' under the type of stress and con- 
ditions of test. The term ' endurance ' has been somewhat loosely used, 
and it is not employed herein to denote any particular measure of the 
resistance to alternating stress. 

Testing Machines. 

The machines used in making the alternating stress tests that have been 
pubhshed are referred to in the bibHography and the notes contained 
therein. 

Data from Published Tests. 

It has been suggested * that a list of all pubhshed data of tests should 
be made out. Such a Hst should include (if available) information con- 
cerning the chemical composition, manufacture, previous heat treat- 
ment, testing machine, shape and preparation of specimen, and an attempt 
to estimate how nearly the Wohler safe ranges have been approached in 
each case. This matter is one of some magnitude, and is at present left 
over for further discussion. 

Bauschinger's Theory. 

This theory is thus concisely stated by Bairstow (No. 2,f page 168, 
Vol. VI. ' Collected Researches,' N.P.L.) : — ' The superior Hmit of elas- 
ticity can be raised or lowered by cychcal variations of stress, and at the 
same time the inferior Umit of elasticity will be raised or lowered by a 
definite, but not necessarily the same, amount. The range of stress be- 
tween the two elastic hmits has therefore a value which depends only on 
the material and the stress at the inferior limit of elasticity. This elastic 
range of stress is the same in magnitude as the maximum range of stress 
which can be repeatedly applied to a bar without causing fracture, no 

* By Prof. J. E. Petavel. 

f The mimbers refer to the bibliography of this Section. 



COMPLEX STRESS rtlSTRIBUTTONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 185 

matter how great the number of repetitions. Bauschinger made experi- 
ments to show that these definitions did not apply to the elastic limits as 
measured on a previously unstrained specimen, and he made experiments 
to show that the elastic Umits in this case, which he called primitive elastic 
limits, were imstable, and that only a few reversals of stress were necessary 
to produce a condition in which the theory was satisfied. In this latter 
state Bauschinger defined the elastic Umits aa " natural elastic limits." ' 

It is interesting, here, to note that the ideas underlying Bauschinger's 
theory had been published so long ago as 1848 by James Thomson * ; who 
wrote : there are ' two elastic Hmits for any material, between which the 
displacements or deflexions, or what may in general be termed changes of 
form, must be confined, if we wish to avoid giving the material a set, or in 
the case of variable strains, if we wish to avoid gi^^ng it a succession of sets 
which would bring about its destruction ;'.. . these limits ' may there- 
fore, with propriety, be called the superior and the inferior limit of the 
change of form of the material for the particular arrangement which has 
been given to its particles ; that these limits are not fixed for any given 
material, but that, if the change of form be continued beyond either 
hmit, two new Umits will, by means of an alteration in the arrangement 
of the particles of the material, be given to it in place of those which it 
previously possessed.' 

There is now no doubt concerning the existence, for iron and steel, of 
elastic ranges such as those foimd and actually measured by Bairstow. 
Provided that these ranges, when once attained, are never exceeded, it 
may be regarded as qviite certain that any number of cycles of any speed 
of alternation can have no destructive effect. (See Article ' Elastic 
Hysteresis ' of this Report.) But in most cases, certainly with cycles of 
unequal ± stresses, and most probably with equal ± stresses, the elastic 
range is reached through a partially elastic period which is gradually ended 
by recovery and the attainment of elastic Umits adjusted to the range of 
stress. Though it is improbable that these elastic ranges can be affected, 
either in range or position of range, by speed of alternation, yet it seems 
quite certain that the duration of the period and the number of cycles 
necessary for the adjustment may be very largely influenced by this speed 
(No. 43). It is not so certain that the range ^ of adjustment does not 
depend on the temperature of testing ; but experimental evidence on this 
point is wanting. Thus it is not quite certain that the elastic ranges found 
by Bairstow would have been exactly the same if the temperatures of his 
experiments had been different. 

Mr. Bairstow's method of finding the values of the elastic ranges from 
his observations is one that leaves a Uttle room for personal judgment ; 
but since he estimates the probable error of this process to be within half 
a ton per square inch, it is clear that the elastic ranges found were quite 
definite. 

The identity of these elastic ranges with the Umiting safe ranges of 
fatigue tests can hardly be said to be conclusively proved. But there is 
considerable evidence in favour of it, and it appears to the writer that this 
identity may be regarded as sufficiently well estabUshed. 

The term ' natural ' elastic limit is in certain respects a Uttle misleading. 
A piece of material of a definite composition and crystalUne structure will 

* Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal. The~paper is quoted by Kelvin 
in his Article ' Elasticity,' Ency. Brit., 9th ed. vol. vii.," p. 800, § 19, but "does not 
appear to be generally known; it has recently been pointed out by Prof. J. Perry. 



186 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

certainly possess ' natural ' elastic limits when it has been subjected to a 
number of repetitions of stress of approximately the amount of the limiting 
range ; and it has been shown by Bairstow that a hmit exists above which 
the tension elastic limit cannot be raised, so long as the stress is entirely 
removed in each cycle. The piece maij possess natural elastic limits when 
the process of overstrain and recovery attempted by Bauschinger, and 
carried out with more (though not complete) success by Bairstow, has been 
applied to it. It has not yet been proved that the natural elastic limits 
for equal ± stress cycles are the same as would be found in static tension 
and compression by the use of an exceedingly dehcate extensometer on the 
piece in its primitive state. The question has not been definitely settled 
whether, when the primitive elastic limits have been altered, and the granu- 
lar structure distorted, by cold working, the natural elastic hmits will or 
will not remain the same ; though it is certain that the part of the /, n 
curve for small values of n will be made to fall above the corresponding 
part of the curve for the miworked stuf?. It appears from the Table, 
Appendix II., that the annealing to which the specimens of pubHshed 
repeated stress tests have been subjected produces, in general, some little 
lowering of the ' natural ' elastic limits ; though the primitive elastic 
limits may be very much altered by this heat treatment. 

There appears to be no definite relation between the ' natural ' elastic 
limits and either the prinutive elastic limit, the yield point or the ultimate 
tensile stress. 

Recovery of Elasticity. 

It is a well-known fact, discovered by Weber in 1835, that ' when a body 
is strained beyond the elastic hmit and is set free, part of the strain 
disappears at once, and the strain that does not disappear gradually 
diminishes. The body never returns to its primitive condition, and the 
ultimate deformation is the permanent set ; the part of the strain that 
disappears is called elastic after-strain.' * In the case of the metals of 
engineering construction, the immediate re-apphcation of the stress after 
such overstrain shows the metal to be in an imperfectly elastic state ; but 
if the stress be re-appUed after a considerable period of rest, during which 
the elastic after-strain disappears, the elasticity is found to be restored. 
The period of rest may be shortened to one of a few minutes only, if the 
temperature be raised to 100° C. ; presumably the elastic after-strain dis- 
appears in this short interval, though, so far as the writer is aware, this has 
not been verified experimentally. After this recovery the elastic Umit is 
somewhat higher than at the first overstraining. Provided the recovery 
is complete, further exposure to this temperature, or to considerably liigher 
temperature in the case of many metals, produces no further effect ; 
and the additional exposure has no more effect than on a piece of the 
unstrained material. 

It may be noticed here that the limit of proportionahty of wrought iron 
is practically the same at 0° C. and 250° C, there being some little varia- 
tion between these temperatures with a maximum about 200° C.f 

It has been proved that, in general, non-elastic strain is effected by 
cleavage plane shpping in the crystaUine grains. The parts of a crystal 
not immediately contiguous to the slipped surfaces are, so far as can be 

* Quoted from Love's Theory oj Elnsticity. 
t A. Martens, Proc. Inst. C.E., vol. civ. 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTIUBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. ] 87 

detected imder the microscope, unaffected by plastic strain.* The effect 
of the increase of temperature which promotes recovery of elasticity must 
therefore be upon the material which, according to Beilby,f exists in an 
altered physical and perhaps molecular condition between the slipped 
surfaces; or, at any rate, upon material in the immediate neighboiu'hood 
of these surfaces. 

Recovery, then, is due to the effect of temperature on this material, 
resulting in the heahng up of the crystaUine shps. It seems reasonable to 
suppose the disappearance of ' elastic ' after-strain to be a phase of this 
heahng process, rather than a distinct and different phenomenon. The 
fact that recovery is much impeded or totally stopped in the case of iron 
and steel at a temperature of 0° C. shows that rest, unless accompanied by a 
suitable temperature, is ineffective in promoting restoration of elasticity ; 
the rapidity of recovery — i.e., the duration of rest required — being thus a 
function of the temperature. 

Turning now to the consideration of cychcally apphed stresses, Ewing 
has remarked : { ' When in the overstrained condition, and before re- 
covery has taken place, iron and steel exhibit much hysteresis in the rela- 
tion of extension to load. Any process of loading and unloading, repeated 
imtil the changes become cychc, then shows a well-marked difference in 
the length of the piece for any one amount of load in the two stages of the 
process. The curves exhibiting extension in relation to load form a loop, 
and this loop closes up as the piece gradually recovers its elasticity by pro- 
longed rest.' Recovery of elasticity may thus be defined, for cychcally 
apphed stresses, by reference to the hysteresis loop. With regard to the 
physical meaning of this loop, may it be regarded as the cychc coimterpart 
of the elastic after-strain before mentioned, or is it a combined effect of 
permanent set and elastic after-strain ? The answer seems to be, in the 
strict sense, neither ; for the cychcal apphcation of stresses, unless very 
slowly made, leaves very httle time for the healing during rest. The 
internal condition, then, would appear to be very similar to that of the 
statically overstrained bar immediately after the elastic hmit is passed ; 
and when, therefore, no period of rest has differentiated the strain into 
elastic after-strain and permanent set. 

In the ultimate stage of fatigue, the cracks which finally end in rupture 
are doubtless produced by the continual to and fro shding along crystalline 
cleavage surfaces. TMs action causes the attrition and removal of ma- 
terial from between these surfaces (Ewing and Humphrey, No. 27). It is 
reasonable to suppose that such to and fro sliding is in operation from the 
time of appearance of a hysteresis loop ; and upon this is based the 
commonly accepted explanation of plastic hysteresis. 

The work of L. Bairstow (No. 4) has thrown much hght on plastic 
hysteresis. When the cycles consist of vmequal + and — stresses, he has 
demonstrated that, before adjustment of elastic hmits to a range of stress, 
the hysteresis loop is not closed ; and that plastic hysteresis then consists 
of a cychcal strain, called by him ' cychcal permanent set,' which is accom- 
panied by an average strain of gradually increasing amoimt, named (the 
tensile maximum stress being greater than the compressive) ' permanent 
extension.' If the range is not too great, the ' permanent extension ' 

* ^oseahsin.. Iron and Sled Inst. Journal,vo\.hs.s.., 190G. 

t The hard and soft states in metals. Engineering, May 19, 1911. 

X Strength of Materials, Art. 41. 



188 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 

gradually ceases to increase, and the ' cyclical permanent set' gradually tends 
to disappear ; with such disappearance the elastic limits become adjusted 
to the stresses, and the material recovers its elasticity. Recovery during 
cycles of equal ± stress was observed by Bairstow (No. 4), the width of 
the hysteresis loop being seen to decrease with repetitions of the same 
stresses. Recovery under equal stress alternations is usually masked in 
fatigue tests by the circumstance that the primitive elastic limits are 
further apart than the adjusted hmits ; but some tests of Rogers (No. 62) 
of heat-treated steel appear to show adjusted limits higher than those found 
by static tests on the same treated material. 

Recovery during repetitions of stress is difficult to explain. The heal- 
ing up, which occurs with rest after a single overstrain, is not by itself a 
sufficient explanation, for the stresses succeed each other too rapidly in 
alternating stress tests for any material healing up to take place in any one 
cycle. It has been shown (No. 82) that adjustment of elastic limits (and 
therefore recovery) occurs not only with slow repetitions of two cycles per 
minute, but also with 800 cycles per minute ; and, of course, the existence 
of safe ranges of stress, one of whose limits may be outside the primitive 
elastic limits, is a fact known since the time of Wohler. It may be con- 
jectured that recovery during cyclical stressing is a slow continuous action 
due to change in the material between shpping cleavage planes. The 
slowness of this action, in tests at laboratory or workshop temperatures, 
still obtains at higher temperatures ; but it appears from the experiments of 
Unwin* (No. 91) and Howard (No. 47) that the resistance to fatigue was 
somewhat greater at 400° to 500° F. It may be noticed that the energy 
correspondmg to the hysteresis loop, which may cause considerable rise of 
temperature of the test piece, is generated at the slipping cleavage surfaces, 
wliich is the very locahty where increased temperature will have its 
greatest effect. 

The small increase of resistance to fatigue mentioned above may 
possibly result either from a tendency to create a more extended elastic 
range (due to recovery at the higher temperature, in which case the 
adjusted elastic limits would be further apart) ; or merely from a greater 
heahng tendency counteracting the disintegrating action of the to and 
fro slipping, but not leading to any extension of the elastic range ; or from 
both these two together : the three suggested alternatives being, of course, 
different aspects of the same thing. The first of the three seems impro- 
bable from some experiments of Bairstow (No. 4) on alternate boihng and 
overstrain of a specimen previously subjected to repetitions of stress m his 
machine. The considerations concerning temperature and recovery in 
static tests, also, are in accordance with this view. In short, it seems 
probable, though not quite certain, that for large hmits of temperature 
the rapidity of (or rather slowness), or degree of tendency to, recovery 
is somewhat affected, but not the extent of the elastic ranges of iron and 
steel. 

It should be noticed that Howard in a further paper (No. 48) found the 
resistance to fatigue much increased for tests carried out at 400° to 600° F. 
Whether the increase of 100° F. between the experiments of Howard's 
papers No. 47 and No. 48 corresponds to some critical change in tempera- 

* Unwin attributes the increased resistance rather ' to the annealing efiect each 
evening when the bars were left to cool.' 



COMPLEX STRKSS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 18'.) 

ture effect on unstable material between slipping cleavage surfaces, it is 
impossible, so far as the writer is aware, to say. 

A point worthy of notice in Bairstow's experiments (No. 4) is that the 
increase of width of hysteresis loop for a given increase of range applied was 
greatest for equal ± stresses. It would be expected that, with the accom- 
panying increase of ' permanent extension ' under unequal ± stresses, the 
increase of width of loop would have been the greater. That it is otherwise 
indicates that recovery must be in comparatively rapid operation during 
the increase of ' permanent extension,' so as to efiect a continuous (because 
less interrupted) heahng of the average amount of strain per cycle. 

In view of Coker's (No. 18) and McCaustland's (No. 55) conclusions 
concerning absence of recovery at 0° C, experiments such as Bairstow's, 
conducted at 0° C, should throw light on the operation of recovery, 
especially in the case of cycles of unequal ± stresses. Hopkinson has 
already suggested that his own experiments (No. 43) should be carried 
out at higher temperatures. 

Elastic Hysteresis. 

When a metal is put through a cycle of stress of which the extreme 
stresses are less than any known elastic Umit or hmits of the material, the 
stress-strain diagram is found to be not a straight line, but a closed curve 
containing a very small area (No. 26). The name of ' elastic hysteresis ' ia 
given to this phenomenon ; its physical nature is not understood.* A 
review of recent papers on the subject is given in Appendix I. of this 
Report. 

In the first place, there is ground for beUef that the increased decrement 
which has been observed after long- continued torsional oscillation of wires, 
and the subsequent decrease of decrement with rest, are accidental circum- 
stances pertaining to the use of wires in decrement experiments, but other- 
wise quite extraneous to the phenomenon of elastic hysteresis. The draw- 
ing process of wire-manufacture renders material Uable to give abnormal 
results, and it appears probable that these effects are due to crystalhne 
cleavage sHpping, of which they are quite characteristic. Hopkinson and 
WilHams (No. 45) found no perceptible increase of hysteresis with a quarter 
of a milhon stress-cycles on a steel bar ; correspondingly, if no ' fatigue of 
elasticity ' (as this alleged increase of hysteresis has been called) occurs 
there would be no corresponding recovery of elasticity. Should this 
absence of fatigue of elasticity be supported by further experiment, 
alleged points of resemblance between elastic hysteresis, and fatigue of 
strength and recovery of elasticity in plastic hysteresis, would disappear. 

It may be remarked that there is good ground for believing that elastic 
hysteresis will always accompany plastic hysteresis. The latter is an 
aggregate effect of movements in the crystals, and is of much greater 
magnitude than the former ; but it seems clear that in general the cleavage 
shpping of plastic hysteresis affects at the same time only parts of a por- 
tion of the whole number of crystalhne grains composing a material ; thus 
the remaining parts and grains will doubtless be affected with elastic 
hysteresis. 

The chief contrast between the two kinds of hysteresis is fiu'uished by 

* The following articles should be consulted : ' Viscosity of Solids,' Art. 54 ; 
Love's Theory of Elasticity ; Art. 56, Ewing's Strength of Materials ; Article ' Elasti- 
city,' Lord Kelvin, Emy. Brit., 9th ed., vol. vii. 



190 REPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

certain effects of temperature. So far as the writer knows, there are no 
actual measurements giving a comparison of the actual amounts of hys- 
teresis, of either variety, at various temperatures. But it appears to be 
certain from experiments on torsional oscillations of wires that increase 
of temperature causes considerable increase of decrement of oscillations — • 
i.e.. increased loss of energy by increased elastic hysteresis. On the other 
hand, the effect of temperature on plastic hysteresis is complex (see article 
' Recovery of Elasticity ' in this Report) ; the tendency is for decrease 
with higher temperature, owing presumably to increased potency of 
recovery by ' heahng ' together of displaced portions of crystals. 

These temperature effects are evidence of a difference of nature, 
and not merely of degree, between the two kinds of hysteresis. The 
question arises whether elastic hysteresis under cyclically apphed stresses 
causes weakening or predisposition to plastic hysteresis. The suggestion 
of Bairstow (No. 4) that ' below the static yield-point, iron and steel appear 
to be capable of maintaining an unstable condition for a considerable time 
against cychcal variations of stress ' admits of a different and more simple 
explanation (see No. 66). Hopkinson, as already mentioned, foimd no sign 
of increase of (elastic) hysteresis with 250,000 repetitions of a range of 
stress of 28-6 tons per square inch ; and the results of experiments on resist- 
ance to alternating stress provide many instances of very long- continued 
cyclic stressing without fracture. Thus, 200 milhon revolutions in a 
rotating-bar machine with calculated stresses of ± 40,000 lb. per square 
inch (No. 48) have been withstood without fracture by a steel specimen. 

It is interesting to know that the experiments of Hopkinson and 
Wilhams (No. 45) are being continued, with the general object of discover- 
ing how elastic hysteresis is related to the elastic hmit. 

Speed E-ffect. 

The influence of high rate of alternation of stress is to increase the 
number of repetitions required for fracture, and afparently to increase the 
Wohler range (No. 43). It is pointed out in No. 43 that the range may not 
really be increased ; but that, on account of the large number of cycles 
required to fracture a specimen, the practical effect is virtually to increase 
the endurance either in range or number of cycles. 

Speed effect does not appear to become apparent at less than 2,000 
reversals per minute. (See Nos. 23, 43, 80, 65, 82, and 84 ; also No. 59.) 

The article on ' Probable Causes of Speed Effect ' on p. 147 of 
No. 43 should be consulted ; and reference may be made to the article 
' Recovery of Elasticity ' in this Report. 

Divergent Results of Fatigue Tests.* 
Suggested Causes. — (1) Impurities (No. 3), flaws, &c. (No. 94), in- 
cipient cracks (No. 23) (such as would be left by a lathe cutting tool after a 
deep cut) . The imj^roved endurance of ground specimens and of specimens 
filed and polished, in alternate bending tests, is probably due to the re- 
moval of small surface cracks. J. B. Kommers (No. 51) states that poHshed 
and also ground specimens showed an increased resistance over turned 
specimens of 45 to 50 per cent. 

(2) Unrecognised stresses, due to bending in a direct stress ; to vibra- 

* See Note by Mr. E. M. Eden (p. 41). 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 10 i 

tion iu any kind of test ; or to stress accumulation (No. 58). From the 
knowu difficulty of getting an axial pull or push in a direct static test, it is 
to be expected that there will be some bending iu alternate stress tests 
with directly apphed tension and compression. In No. 43 it would appear 
that bending oscillations would surely have been detected by the apparatus 
used to measure the lengthwise strain. The records of the only other 
experiments in which strains corresponding to directly applied stresses were 
measured, viz. Nos. 4 and 74, do not state that any bending effect was 
observed. It is noteworthy that the experiments iu No. 82 with varying 
ratios between the maximum tensile and maximum compressive stresses 
gave httle variation in the values of the limiting range ; showing that 
bending, if any, had httle effect ; or that the bending was caused equally 
during tension and compression. Though it is difficult to draw conclusions, 
it seems likely that the line of resultant force in the specimen does not 
appreciably alter its position after the first few alternations of the approxi- 
mate limiting stresses. This early change of position in this line would be 
one tending to equalise the distribution of stress in the specimen.* 

Alternate bending tests ujion sohd rotating bars give an apparently 
greater value for the Wohler Umiting range. The number of revolutions 
reqmred for fracture is considerably greater than the number of reversals 
in tests with stresses directly apphed. The ' /, n' curves for the former 
are not, generally speaking, even approximately parallel to the axis of 
' n ' after 10® revolutions ; while in the latter there is indication that the 
curve is asymptotic to a line, parallel to the axis ' n,' and not far removed 
from the curve, at this number of cycles. It is to be expected that the 
calculated maximum stresses in a bending test will be somewhat higher 
than the actual, even when the bendings give the Wohler hmiting stresses, 
because of stress equalisation near the ' skin ' of a specimen (see remarks 
on No. 23). Unwin remarks f that 'Bending experiments are not less 
trustworthy than tension experiments, and for stresses considerably less 
than the statical breaking weight probably the error in the calculated stress 
is not a large one.' Hollow test bars are foimd to give ' f, n' curves more 
nearly approaching the curves for directly applied tension and compression. 

Carbon-Content of Steels and Resistance to Alternating Stress. 
Speaking of steels which consist partly of pearhte and partly of ferrite, 
Rosenhain (No. 66) remarks : ' From the point of view of the resistance to 
comparatively steadily apphed alternating stresses, the higher the carbon- 
content up to 0-9 per cent, of carbon, the better the resisting power of the 
metal.' Nos. 23, 47, 62, 82, 90, 93, and especially No. 48, contain evidence 
in accordance with this statement. Heat treatment of steels may have, of 
course, an enormous influence on their resistance. 

Effects of Annealing and Quenching wpon Resistance to Alternating Stress. 
The effect of the ' anneaUng ' which has been done | upon the speci- 
mens of pubUshed alternate stress tests has been, in general, to diminish 
the resistance as compared with that of the material in untreated com- 
mercial condition ; and the effect of the quenching done has been to 

* See No. 82, and Proc. I.C.E., clxvi. p. 100. 

t The Testing of Materials oj Construction, 1 910 ed., j). 377. 

j See Appendix II. 



192 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 

increase the resistance greatly. It is pointed out elsewhere in the Eeport 
(Note on ' Heat- Treatment ') by Dr. F. Kogers that for adequate study of 
this branch of the subject very precise information concerning manufac- 
ture and of treatment previous to the specific treatment given must be 
available. 

Tests with Repeated Cycles of Combined Stresses. 

The question has been raised, notably by Turner (No. 90), whether a 
common factor may not be found for all kinds of stress systems when these 
systems are apphed in simple harmonically varying cycles. Since the 
Wohler limiting ranges have been shown to coincide with the elastic ranges 
(at any rate for direct stresses) this question becomes very pertinent. 

, The main result of Turner's experiments is very briefly indicated in the 
comments on No. 90 in the bibliography. More experimental data are 
required. The Table (Appendix II.) gives all the information available at 
present. 

Alternate Stress with Repeated Impact. 

The very important conclusion (see No. 83) arrived at by Stanton and 
Bairstow seems to be well substantiated by Roos (No. 64). The practical 
importance of the discovery may be gauged from the following quotation 
from No. 83 : ' The authors are of opinion that conclusive evidence has 
been shown that materials which are strong under alternating stresses are 
in general strong under those shocks which are likely to be put upon them 
in ordinary machine practice.' 

Practical Utility of the Alternate Stress Test. 

The practical bearing of Wohler's results has long been recognised, 
witness the Launhardt and Weyrauch formulse. ('Proc. LCE.' Ixiii. 
1880-1. See also No. 3.) In view of the result of No. 83, it would appear 
that the repeated stress test ought to have enhanced importance. A 
Wohler test is rarely specified by engineers, who rely on the general result 
of research tests and on the convenient ' factor of safety.' Resistance to 
sudden large shock is of at least equal importance with resistance to alter- 
nate stress, and these in general seem to be somewhat opposing require- 
ments. (See Nos. 3, 83, and 66.) The former necessitates ductihty, while 
the latter requires a high natural elastic Umit. These exacting and in many 
cases apparently inconsistent conditions would appear to render the 
Wohler test, as well as a sudden large impact test (for the former does not 
detect brittleness), all the more necessary. But it is unUkely, however, 
that any test for resistance to repeated stress will be extensively used until 
a rapid, simple, and inexpensive test has been discovered. 

Rapid Means of determining Endurance under Stress Repetition. 

(1) Prof. J. H. Smith's Method. (No. 74.) 

The method seems to be open to certain objection, and confirmation is 
required of its vahdity (see Notes on No. 74 in the bibUography) ; but 
there is promise that it may meet the need for a quick method of finding 
commercially the safe hmits for alternating stress. 

(2) Professor J. 0. Arnold's Test. (Nos. 1, 2, and 3.) 

This test does not profess to give the elastic ranges, but only to be a 
practical substitute for the difficult Wohler test. The test, however, is 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 193 

qualitative only ; it certainly detects brittleness, which the Wohler test 
does not ; but whether it can give a quahty factor which, besides excluding 
brittleness, includes resistance to repeated stresses of very small overstrain, 
is a matter quite unproved. 

(3) Method suggested by Bauschinger and latterly investigated by 
Bairstow (No. 2), viz., a very few repetitions of alternate overstrain and 
heating to 100° C. This has not been advanced as a quick method for 
finding the elastic ranges ; indeed, further experiment is required. If the 
method should prove satisfactory for certain classes of steel only, it would 
seem to be worth while to design special apparatus for carrying out 
expeditiously the present rather cumbersome process. 

Should (i) or (3) be adopted means would have to be taken to discover 
impurities and flaws, since these, which- vastly Hmit the endurance, would 
not be detected. 

Materials other than Wroiujht Iron and Steel. 
The information concerning the resistance of materials other than 
wrought iron and steel is not extensive ; what the writer has found may be 
consulted by the aid of the following references :— 

Cast Iron. 

/No. 23. Alternate + and — bending. 
No. 59. Alternate direct stress. 
Endurance tests . . -i No. 93. Repeated bending in one 

direction (see Unwin's 
\ ' Testing of Materials '). 

Elasticity and strains \ 

under repeated loading, INos. 8 and 9. 

&c ) 

Coffer. 

Endurance tests . . ■ -kt^' go' [ Alternate + and — bending. 

No. 24. Alternate combined stress 
(with considerable over- 
strain). 

Suggestions for Research. 

The writer understands that the following researches are in progress :— 

High-speed tests on resistance at temperatures of 100° C. and other 
temperatures. 

Experiments on elastic hysteresis on a high-speed direct-stress machine. 

Experiments on alternating combined stress. 

Experiments on the effect on resistance of keyways, &c. 

The following suggestions for further research seem worthy of con- 
sideration : — 

(1) That experiments be made at 0° C. with imequal ± stresses, in 
order to study the efEect of recovery and adjustment of the elastic hmits 
at that temperature. 

(2) That (as suggested by L. Bairstow, No. 2) experiments be made to 
determine the ' permanent extension,' if any, when the range of stress 
(direct) is less than the safe range. 

(3) That the validity of the method of finding the safe elastic ranges by 

1913. o 



194 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

two or three repetitions of alternate small overstrain and boiling be 
further tested. 

(4) That the effect of cold working upon the ' natural ' elastic hmits be 
further investigated. 

(5) It would appear that two desiderata, viz., resistance to repeated 
stress and resistance to large impact, require somewhat inconsistent 
quaUties in the case of steel. (Nos. 83, 3, and 66.) Thus further work 
(though probably mainly metallurgical and micrographic) should be done 
in order to ascertain, if possible, the best conditions for maximum resist- 
ance when both kinds of straining action above mentioned operate, as in 
certain service conditions. A point to be tested is the resistance to sudden 
impact of steel which has undergone test by alternating stress of approxi- 
mately the Wohler safe range. 

(6) That an elaborate series of alternating stress endurance tests, all 
with the same material, be made on all the alternating stress testing 
machines in use ; at the very least twenty test pieces to be tested in each 
machine, and special precautions to be taken to ensure uniformity in the 
material.* 

Note on Heat Treatment. By Dr. F. Kogees. 

The effects of heat treatment upon the resistance of metals to alternat- 
ing stress form an almost entirely metallurgical aspect of the subject. 

The value of some pubhshed work is very doubtful, because of the 
vague use of such terms as ' annealing ' and ' quenching.' In order that a 
heat treatment may be sufficiently specified the following particulars or 
others from which they may be derived should be given : — 

Composition of the steel, process of manufacture, its condition before 
the treatment in question (whether as rolled or forged, or heat-treated and 
how), the size of the piece, top temperature of the treatment, duration of 
heating at that temperature, rate and manner of cooling, whether in a 
furnace, in the air, or a hquid. 

A so-called anneahng of a small piece may happen to be equivalent to 
the quenching of a large piece at some point m the large piece, except in 
so far as the result is affected by the previous treatment in each case. 

The present state of knowledge is such that the condition of the ma- 
terial can frequently be equally well, if not better, defined by the results of 
various famihar mechanical tests, together with composition and micro- 
structure, as by a precise statement of the known portions of the heat 
treatment. On this account, when the effects of heat treatment on the 
endurance imder alternating stress are being dealt with, it is desirable that 
as much collateral information about the material as possible should also 
be given. Largely on account of the more or less natural jealousy of 
manufacturers, httle information of practical value has been published. 

It may be as well to confine present attention to carbon steels of carbon 
contents not exceeding what is usual in rails, say about 0-50 per cent. 
carbon, since practically no information on the remaining steels is to be 
found in the literature. 

The complexity of the subject has already been suggested. Further, 
however, it is necessary to remember that in any dynamic tests the relative 

* Suggested by Mr. E. M. Eden. 



COMPLEX STEESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 1!>5 

importance of a flaw such as a crack, a non-metallic enclosure, or even a 
tool-mark, is relatively very great, and depends upon the composition 
generally, increasing, for example, with the carbon content. Heat treat- 
ment may increase or decrease the relative importance of such flaws 
according to the kind of treatment and the previous condition of the steel. 

Apart from flaws of the kinds mentioned, steel in the rolled or forged 
condition occasionally happens to be weak dynamically. For the present 
purpose it appears necessary to consider the effects of heat treatments 
upon steels in the rolled or forged condition which are not weak from 
either of these causes. 

There are then three main classes of treatments to consider : — 

(1) Overheating. — This in general diminishes the endurance under 
alternating stress (62 and 87). When extreme it merges into ' burning,' 
from which it is distinguished technically. Slight overheating, on the 
othor hand, is the same thing as some of the processes which are called 
annealing. 

(2) Reheating through the critical range is, in general, capable per se of 
bringing the endurance to a normal high value, or of leaving it undisturbed, 
according to the state of the steel before the treatment (Nos. 62, 85, 86, 
and 87). The following factors tend to make the effects of such reheating 
approximate more and more to those of overheating : (a) the more the 
temperature exceeds the upper limit of the critical range ; (6) the greater 
the duration of heating above the lower hmit of the critical range ; (c) the 
slower the coohng through the critical range (62). 

(3) The speed of cooling through the critical range has in any event a 
most profound influence upon the endurance under alternating stress. 
Generally speaking, it appears that the more rapid this cooling the greater 
is this endurance (62, 33). 

As to the effect of Cold Work upon endurance of alternating stress, 
there are no data available. It is well known to manufacturers that it 
increases the endurance greatly in some cases — for example, wire. This 
fact also explains partly why in some pubUshed experiments (e.g., 62) 
' anneahng ' diminished the endurance. The bars from which the tests 
were cut were of small section, and therefore they were somewhat cold 
worked, and also relatively rapidly cooled, in manufacture. They were 
much more slowly cooled in some of the experimental anneahngs. 

The effect of annealing after a metal has withstood large numbers of 
alternations is also one which can only be answered when many practical 
particulars of the metal are known. In (47) no effect was found. In (62) 
it was clearly proved why no effects could be obtained from anneahng after 
a certain stage of the fatigue had been passed. At a comparatively early 
stage minute incipient cracks are sufficiently open to contain air. Hence 
the faces oxidise, effectually ending any possibility of reunion. 

Note on Microscopic Effects of Alternating Stress. 
By Dr. F. Eogers. 
This has been exhaustively elaborated in a very few papers. The main 
conclusion is to show that cracks form by the development of repeated 
cleavage, seen as shp-bands. This was done in (27) for iron, and in 
(62, 63, and 82) for steel. In (63) and (82) the influence of the constituents 
is noted, and in particular the avoidance of the harder carbon containing 



196 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

constituent by the incipient fracture is noted.* Further, the fatigue of 
steels which had been variously heat-treated on systematic lines is simi- 
larly studied. This helps to throw Ught upon the overheating of steel &c. 

RemarTis on the Phrase * Crystallisation through Fatigue.' 

From views which I have elsewhere expressed (No. 63a) as to the 
microscopic nature of strain effects it will doubtless be expected that I do 
not endorse the use of this hackneyed phrase. Twinning and the recrystal- 
lisation of polyhedric steels might, however, be regarded as admissions of 
the possibility of recrystallisation after straining, and therefore possibly 
after fatigue. But my view is that the expression arose through' the 
crystalline appearance which is well known upon the fracture of defective 
iron, and was later sometimes found on fractures of relatively brittle steel. 
I always find evidence that when such ' crystalline ' fractures are obtained 
they can also be obtained without fatigue ; and, further, that metal which 
gives a fibrous or silky fracture does not develop ' crystalline ' fractures 
by fatigue. 

Note on Stress Alternation Curves for Bending Tests on Rotating Bars. 
ByE. M. Eden. 

Wohler's rotating cantilever experiment showed that n (the number 
of rotations to fracture) depended on / (the maximum stress). For two 
materials ' Phoenix Iron ' and ' Homogeneous Iron ' a fairly definite curve 
can be obtained by plotting the stress / against the number of alter- 
nations n, the curve extending in the case of the Phcenix Iron from 
n — 50,000 to n = 20,000,000, and in the case of the Homogeneous Iron 
from n = 3,000 to n = 4,000,000. 

The other materials experimented with by Wohler appeared to obey 
similar laws, but the results were much more irregular. 

Later rotating beam experiments than Wohler's on steel, iron, and 
copper confirm the form of /, n curve given by these wrought-iron tests, 
but the more modern experiments have usually only carried the /, n curve 
up to n = 10^. The form of the /, n curve suggests that there is a limiting 
value of the stress / below which fracture cannot be caused by any number 
of alternations ; this limiting stress may be called /,. Values have been 
assigned to this hmiting stress by Wohler, but I cannot see any reason for 
thinking that the values he gives are correct. 

In practice, material does not have to withstand an indefinite number of 
alternations of stress, but the useful life of some machinery may involve 
some hundreds of milhons of alternations of stress. In sohd rotating 
beam tests the resistance of a material to 10* alternations (fui^) would 
appear to be considerably lower than the resistance to 10^ alternations 

(/lo^)- ... . . , 

fi, the limiting stress, is the value of / where the /, n curve is horizontal ; 

as far as I know it has not been reached in any soUd rotating beam test. 

Alternating stress tests in direct tension and compression on recipro- 
cating weight-testing machines with a presumably uniform distribu- 
tion of stress over the cross-section of the test piece show /, n curves, 
which although in many cases rather vague in form are more nearly hori- 

* For a review of this question ^ee 78, 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 197 

zoutal after 10® alternations than the curves from solid rotating beam 
tests, and it is possible that in these tests the limiting stress /, has been 
nearly reached or that /,„** may not be much lower than /m". Quite lately 
it has been shown that rotating cantilever tests with hollow test pieces 
where the stress should be nearly imiform over the cross-section also give 
a curve more nearly horizontal at 10® alternations than the curve from 
sohd test pieces ;* in fact, /, appears to have been reached with 500,000 
alternations. 

These hollow cantilever tests help to explain the difference between 
the form of /, n curve obtained from the rotating bar and reciprocating 
mass types of testing machine, but unfortimately this is not the only 
difference in the results of tests on the two machines. 

Note on Divergent Results of Alternating Stress Tests. 
By E. M. Eden. 

In the reciprocating weight-testing machine, rate of alternation of 
stress, number of revolutions per minute, largely affect the endurance 
strength, whereas in a rotating-beam machine the endurance strength is 
quite unaffected by speed. 

Although, as far as I know, alternating stress tests of the same material 
in different testing machines have not been pubUshed, yet it appears to be 
impossible for the two types of machine just mentioned to give the same 
endurance figures, as if they did agree at one speed they would not do 
so at another. It appears that endurance under an alternating stress or 
resistance to an alternating stress cannot at present be determined for 
any material — the values obtained will depend on the testing machine that 
is used. 

In the Reynolds-Smith endurance tests with a reciprocating weight 
machine a high tenacity steel showed a lower endurance strength than a 
steel of much lower tenacity. Such a result has never been obtained with 
a rotating-beam machine where increase in endurance usually accompanies 
increase in tenacity, and this again rather points to some unexplained 
difference in the destructive action of the two types of machine. 

Apparently either the calculated stress in one or both types of testing 
machine is not the true stress, or something else besides the intensity of the 
alternating stress affects the endurance. 

In either case the calculated values of f, and f, are not the only factors 
affecting the endurance of a piece of material. 

There are some other factors besides /, and /,, which are known to 
affect endurance ; the distribution of the stress over the cross-section has 
been referred to before, and the condition of the surface, and the form of 
the test-piece, are also known to largely affect endurance, but none of these 
can explain the speed effect. 

In this connection it is, I think, worth noticing that it is not at all easy 
to repeat an endurance test and obtain exactly the same result. Two test 
pieces cut from the same bar of metal will not usually show the same 
endurance when tested under what are intended to be the same conditions, 
on the same alternating stress-testing machine ; a great deal depends on 
the machine and on the care taken ; but in many pubhshed tests there is a 
great want of agreement between different tests of what is said to be the 

* ' Welded Joints in Iron and Steel.' Proc I.C.E., vol. clxxxviii. 



198 IlEPOIiTa ox THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

same material, and it is probable tbat many impublislied tests would show 
even larger variations. 

This A^ariation in the apparent endurance strength of test pieces cut 
from the same bar may be due to an actual variation in the material, to 
local weak spots in the structure of the bar, or to differences in the amount 
of surface damage in machining or grinding the test pieces, or they may be 
due to the test piece really being treated differently in testing, such as one 
piece being run more out of truth than another. 

While there is no doubt that in the case of some materials there may 
really be a difference in different parts of the same bar, yet there is some 
evidence that the apparent variation in endurance strength is not always 
due to this alone. In the alternating shock or Repeated Impact Tests of 
Dr. Stanton * different test pieces from the same bar of steel gave prac- 
tically identical endurance results. If the variation in endurance of 
different test pieces from the same bar when tested in an alternating 
stress-testing machine is due to variation in the material, it is remarkable 
that alternating shock tests should not be affected in the same way, for the 
impact tests referred to are really alternating stress tests with suddenly 
apphed stresses, which are not calculated in tons per square inch. 

Alternating stress in practice is often accompanied with repeated shocks 
or occasional shocks or vibrations. In a testing machine such shocks or 
\dbrations are as far as possible eUminated, but it may be that these or the 
stresses caused by these affect the endurance. 

Suggestions for Experimental Work. — There seems to be room for a 
great deal of purely experimental work on alternating stress and endur- 
ance ; to help to clear up some of the immediate difficulties of the subject I 
would suggest : — 

(1) An elaborate series of alternating stress endurance tests all with the 
same material on all the alternating stress-testing machines in use, at the 
very least twenty test pieces to be tested in each machine, and special 
precautions to be taken to ensure uniformity in the material. 

APPENDIX I. 

Brief Review of the Papers in the Bibliography on Internal Friction, 
Hysteresis, Effects of Magnetism, Temperature, and Oscillatory Discharge. 
By Dr. F. Rogers. 

The estimate (in 45) of the area of the hysteresis loop in ' static ' tests, 
as being, say, 10 to 20 per cent, greater than in alternating tests at a speed 
of average frequency of 136 alternations per second, is of much interest, and 
it would be of value if direct confirmation could be otherwise obtained. 

It is of great importance to inquire whether this hysteresis at stress well 
below the elastic limit, determined statically by a good extensometer, is 
(a) simply a matter of local permanent set beyond the elastic Hmit owing to 
microscopically visible or other want of homogeneity ; or (b) strain of 
some sort which is as homogeneously distributed as purely elastic strain is 
commonly supposed to be, and therefore possibly dependent upon inter- 
molecular distances, or even upon orientations of molecules or of relatively 
small groups of molecules. Since magnetisation of a bar is accompanied 
by a change of length, and since straining of a bar assists the bar to take 

* Proc. Inst. Mech. Engs., No. 4, 1908. 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERINO MATERIALS. 199 

permanent magnetisation, it is conceivable that the mechanism involved, 
whatever precisely it may be, is the same for both mechanical and magnetic 
hysteresis ; or (c) a combination of these two. 

Most frequently this aspect of the subject has been studied by observa- 
tion of the torsional oscillations of wires. The decrement of oscillations 
a ppears to be increased by : 

Temperature above atmospheric (36, 38, 37). 

Temperatures below — 80° C. for gold and magnesium (38), or — 40 for 

gold (36). 
Very high frequency oscillatory discharge (20). 
It is decreased by : 
Temperatures below atmospheric. 

In No. 36 this decrease is fomid for copper, platinum, silver, and 

steel ; gold having a minimum at — 40° C. 
In No. 37 this decrease is foimd for silver, iron, and more especially 
aluminium ; magnesium and gold having a minimum 
at - 80° C. 
(Exceptions are noted above.) 
Magnetic field, particularly alternating (34, 19, 20). 
Oscillatory discharge (34, 19, 20) . 
(34 is concerned with tensile hysteresis.) 

On the other hand (12), successive torsions decrease the magixetisation 
ill a given field. 

A relation between the decrement and the maximum strain is not in 
most cases available, but would be desirable from the point of view of 
answering the above inquiries. A glance at this summary suggests, how- 
ever, that the analogy between mechanical and magnetic hysteresis (6) 
finds some support. An important Hmitation is, however, suggested by 
the fact that whereas an alternating magnetic field tends to diminish the 
energy absorbed in mechanically straining (19, 20), yet, on the other hand, 
repeated torsion causes an increase in the energy required for magnetisa- 
tion (12). 

The suggestion should be regarded rather as a basis for investigation, 
than as based upon existing data. 

Bibliography on Alternating Stress. 
Drawn up by W. Mason and Dr. F. Eogers. 

1 Arnold, J. 0. 1903 Dangerous Crystallisation of Mild Steel and Wrought 

Iron. (Description of Main Features of Arnold's 
Alternate Bending Machine.) 'Inst. C.E. Proc.,' 
154. Supplement, 1903. 

2 Arnold, J. O. 1904 Fracture of Structural Steels under Alternating Stress. 

' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1904. ' Science Abs.,' 1904, 
Nos. 1929b, 2795b. 
Some preliminary experiments indicated that the resistance of structural 
steel to cycles of stress with considerable overstrain was inversely as the 
rate of alternation. 

3 Arnold, J. 0. 1908 Factors of Safety in Marine Engineering. ' Inst. 

Naval Arch.,' L., 1908. 

An analysis of ' factors of safety ' for various purposes is given ; and 
the practical importance of the Wohler phenomenon shown. 

The author demonstrates that the Wohler test does not detect brittle- 
ness — a fact now accepted. He argues that the Wohler limiting stresses 



200 



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COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBHTIONS IN ENGINEERIKO MATERIALS. 201 

(equal ± alternations of stress) are a ' reflection ' of the yield point or elastic 
limit, giving figures in support — a contention not borne out by nearly all 
other tests. 

The e£Eect upon resistance to fatigue of microscopic ' rods ' of manganese 
sulphide is shown ; tests being made with stresses parallel and also per- 
pendicular to the length of the ' rods.' 
i Bairstow, L. 1900 Elastic Limits of Iron and Steel under Cyclical Varia- 

tions of Stress. ' Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc.,' 210, 
Dec. 9, 1909. 

This paper is a very important contribution to the subject of alternating 
stress. The author has thrown much light on the strain history of the 
Wohler test on iron and steel, and has revealed the nature of the stress- 
strain relations, whetlier of hysteresis or permanent extension, throughout 
his tests. The main conclusions are mentioned in various places in the 
Report, and only one or two salient facts need be mentioned here. He has 
proved the existence of elastic ranges of stress which were suggested by 
Bauschinger as the explanation of Wohler's results ; and from comparison 
of these elastic ranges (ranges for which the hysteresis loop disappears), 
with the safe limiting ranges found by Wohler for presumably similar mate- 
rial, he has concluded that the former are identical with the latter. 

Work (previous to Bairstow's) on the points just mentioned is con- 
tained in No. 7, Bauschinger ; No. 82, Stanton and Bairstow. See also 
Unwin's 'Testing of Materials,' Article 253, edition 1910. 

5 Baker, E. 1905 Report of Tests of Metals. Abstract in ' Iron and 

Steel Inst. Journ.,' 1905, II., p. 7C8. 
Tests of material at the Watertown Arsenal. Re-tests made of wrought 
iron, following a period of rest of twenty -two years, showing that certain 
tensile properties characteristic of the early overstraining still remain in the 
iron. 

6 Baker, Sir E. 1886 Influence on Steel of repeated subjection to Stress. 

' Proc. Inst. Civil Engineers,' cxxiii. See Unwin's 
' Testing of Materials.' 

7 Bauschinger, J. 1886 Ueber die Veranderung der Elasticitatsgrenze und 

Festigkeit des Eisen, etc. ' Mitthlg. aus dem Mechan- 
ischtechnischen Laboratorium in Munchen.' See 
Unwin's ' Testing of Materials,' also for Bauschinger's 
earlier paper. 

8 Berger, Karl 1899 Elasticity of Cast Iron subjected to repeated tensile 

and Compressive Strain. See Abstract in ' Proc. 
Inst. Civil Engs.,' cxxxvi. 370. 
No particular value can be assigned for the elastic strain due to a definite 
load, since this strain depends upon previous loadings. See No. 9. 

9 Berliner, S. 1 906 Behaviour of Cast Iron under slowly Alternating Stress. 

' Ann. de Physique,' 20, 3, June 1906. ' Sc. Abs.,' 

1906, No. 1528. 
Investigation of the amount of strain after successive loadings of cast 
iron in equal tension and compression ± p'. An expression is given for the 
strain at any stress p, after such loadings, in terms of p and p'. Similar 
work for ± torsion of cast iron. See No. 8. 

10 Blount, B. 1910 Tensile, Impact Tensile, and Repeated Bending Tests 
Kirkaldy, W. G. of Steel. ' Inst. Mech. Engs. Proc.,' 2, 1910. ' Sci. 
Sankey, H. R. Abs.,' A, 300, 1911. 

In the repeated stress tests the specimen is bent to and fro in a machine 
worked by hand. The angle of bending on either side is 46J°, and a very 
few cycles break the specimen. The work done is automatically recorded 
and is found to be a measure of the ductility. See No. 3. 

11 Boiiasse, H., and 1908 Decay of Oscillations. 'Sci. Abs.,' 1908, No. 1225. 
Carri^re, L. ' Annal. Chem. Phvs.,' 14, June 1908, also ' Annal. 

Chem. Phys.,' 2, May 1904. 
See Report, Appendix I. 



202 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 

12 Bouasse, H., and 1907 Decay of Oscillations. ' Annal. Chem. Phys.,' 10, 
Berthier Feb. 1907. ' Sci. Abs.,' A, 1907, No. 710. 

See Report, Appendix I. 

1.3 Bondouard, 0. 1910 Tests on Metals by study of the damping of Oscillations. 
' Comptes Rendus,' 150, Mar. 14, 1910. ' Sci. Abs.,' 
1910, No. 645. 

14 Bondouard, O. 1910 Tests of Metals by the Abatement of Vibrating Move- 

ments. ' Comptes Rendus,' 152, Jan. 3, 1911. ' Sci. 
Abs.,' 1911, No. 295. 

15 Bondouard, 0. 1912 Breakdown Tests of Metals. (Alternate Bending.) 

' Intern. Assoc, for Testing Materials,' Paper V. 3, 
1912. 

The tests of Nos. 13, 14, and 15 were made on bars 1 cm. x ^ em. x 20 cm. 
to 30 cm. long ; these were clamped in a vice, and vibrations of the free end 
started and maintained by an electro-magnetic device. The free end of the 
bar carried a mirror, from which photographic records were obtained of the 
oscillations. 

Tests were made, under continued oscillation, of commercial steels of 
0-3 per cent, carbon and other steels, the tests being made on this material as 
received, after annealing, and after tempering. The resistance to fatigue 
was found to be in the order just mentioned, the tempered specimens having 
the lowest resistance. It is stated that the numbers of vibrations before 
fracture are inversely proportional to the carbon content ; puddled iron being 
more resistant than soft Martin's steel. Under the test, 0-3 carbon steels 
showed no sensible difference between the ' annealed ' and hardened 
states ; but with high carbon steels, hardening considerably diminished 
the time for fracture at a given rate of oscillation. 

These results are directly opposed to those of Nos. 23, 93, 02, 90, 47. 

It is stated that the stresses were below the ' elastic limit,' but no 
calculation is given of the stresses. The numbers of oscillations before 
fracture were, however, between one and two millions in certain cases. 

16 Breuss, E. About History of Fatigue Tests of Metals. ' Baumaterialen- 

1905 kunde,' xi., pp. 24.5-249. 

17 Coker, E. G. 1898 Endurance of Steel Bars subjected to Repetitions of 

Tensional Stress. ' Proc. Inst. Civil Engineers,' 
cxxxv. 294. 
Shows that very large elongation may be produced by repetitions of a 
process of alternate stressing beyond the yield point and annealing. 

18 C'oker, E. G. 1902 Effect of Low Temperature on Over-strained Iron and 

Steel. 'Phys. Rev.,' 15, Aug. 1902. 'Sci. Abs.,' 
1903, No. 227. See also E. J. McCaustland, No. 55. 
A temperature of 0° C. appears to prevent recovery from tensile over- 
strain ; and moreover to retard recovery when the temperature is after- 
wards made normal. 

Recovery appears to proceed more slowly in the case of steels with larger 
percentage of carbon. 

19 Drago, E. 1911 Influence of Oscillatory Discharge on Decay of Torsional 

Oscillations. ' Accad. Lincei,' Atti 20, pp. 100-107. 
'Sci. Abs.,' A, 1911, 1423. 

20 Drago, E. 1911 Influence of Oscillatory Discharge on Decay of Tor- 

sional Oscillations. ' Accad. Lincei,' Atti 20, pp. 369- 
376. ' Sci. Abs.,' A, 1912, 2. 
For Nos. 19 and 20, see Report, Appendix I. 

21 Dudley, C. B. 1904 Alternate Bending Stresses. ' Iron and Steel Metal- 

turgist,' Feb. 1904. 
A photograph shows fatigue fractures of an axle, a bolt, and three rotating 
bar test pieces. The conclusion is drawn that if one is having trouble with 
' detail ' (i.e., fatigue) fractures the best cure is to adopt a stiffer,?!.c., harder, 
steel. 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 203 

Three examples are given which illustrate the conclusion. These are 

(1) On the Pennsylvania Railroad, many fatigue failures of axles were 
obtained with acid oioen-hearth axles containing 0-25 to 0-28 per cent, carbon, 
with a tensile strength of 29 tons per square inch, and 25 per cent, 
elongation. The maximum calculated stiess in the middle of the axle was 
G-8 tons, and in the journal 3 tons, per square inch. These axles failed 
in the journal. Steel of about 36 tons tensile was then substituted, and 
this cured the trouble. 

(2) 0-22 to 0-25 per cent, carbon steel rollers for a sugar mill used to 
break, and these were successfully replaced by rollers of 0-40 to 0-45 per 
cent, carbon steel. 

(3) A soft tough steel was successfully replaced by a higher carbon steel 
for use in the form of piston rods for steam hammers. 

On the above subject there is, and perhaps always will be, much diver- 
gence of opinion. The chief reason is that conditions vary so greatly. The 
treatment of the steel is obviously a very important factor. The axles, 
for example, if treated at all, could have been treated so as to give different, 
and probably much better, results, and to some users this would have formed 
a more acceptable solution of the problem. One has to allow, arnongst 
other things, for considerable shock and some ill-treatment. This is em- 
phasised by the fact that the calculated stress in the journals is only 3 tons 
per square inch. No Wohler test results are given. 

22 Eden, E. M. 1910 Endurance of Metal under Alternating Stress and 

Effect of Rate of Alternation on Endurance. ' Univ. 
of Durham Phil. Soc. Proc.,' 3, 5, 1910. ' Sci. Abs.,' 
1910, No. 1384. 

23 Eden, E. M., 1911 The Endurance of Metals. ' Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.,' 4, 
Rose, W. N., Oct., Dec. 1911. ' Sci. Abs.,' 1912, No. 1145. 
Cunningham, 

P. L. 

The main results of these well-known experiments were : — 

No ' speed effect ' between 250 and 1,300 r.p.m. ; agreeing with Nos. 43, 
80, 65 and 82. 

Greater resistance of high tenacity steels ; agreeing with Nos. 93, 82, 62, 
90, 47 and 48. 

Tests with loaded rotating solid bars appear to give either a higher 
limiting range of stress (calculated by the usual theory of bending) or require 
a larger number of cycles to fracture than direct-stress experiments ; a 
result in agreement with Nos. 47, 48 and 93. The tests of these papers 
(Nos. 22 and 23) were carried to fracture or to 10" revolutions. In No. 43 
a small difference only was found in some comparative tests on machines 
of the rotating bar and reciprocating mass type. 

Rest intervals during a test appear to have little effect. This appears to 
be the case in all tests with cycles of equal ± stresses. 

The effects of the kind of finishing process used in preparing the speci- 
men, and of the kind of finished surface, are found to be important. See 
also No. 51. 

A few cast-iron and copper specimens were tested. The relative resist- 
ance of certain forms of specimens was tested, with results in agreement 
with Nos. 74, 75, 82 and 93. 

24 Ercolini, G. 1900 Effect of Deformation upon Torsional Couple exerted 

by a Twisted Wire. ' Accad. Lincei,' Atti 15, Sept. 2, 
1906. ' Sci. Abs.,' 1906, No. 1807. 
Some experiments with combined stress and with alternating combined 
stress on copper wire. The strains appear to have been considerably beyond 
the elastic limits. 

25 Ercolini, G. 1909 Recent Experiments on Elasticity. 'Sci. Abs.,' 1909, 

No. 965. 
The following is quoted from ' Science Abstracts ' : ' It is concluded 
that the damping of vibrations is due to the dissipation of energy corre- 



204 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

spending to the hysteresis efiect on taking a specimen through a cycle of 
strain, and not to molecular friction.' The meaning of this is not clear. 

26 Ewing, Sir J. A. 1889 On Hysteresis in the Relation of Strain to Stress. 

' British Assoc. Report,' 1889. See also Ewing's 
' Strength of Materials.' 

27 Ewing, Sir J. A. 1902 Fracture of Metals under Alternations of Stress. 'Phil. 

and Trans.,' A, 200. 

Humfrey,J.C.W. 

The important conclusions are well known, and therefore do not require 
to be quoted. For further micrographic work, see Nos. 62, 63 and 82. 

28 Fairbairn, Sir W. 1864 The Effect of Impact Vibratory Action and Changes 

of Load on Wrought-iron Girders. ' Phil. Trans. 
Roy. Soc' See Unwin's ' Testing of Materials.' 

29 Finley, W. H. 1906 Case of Failure of Iron from Fatigue. ' Engineering 

News,' 55, p. 487. ' Sci. Abs.,' A, 1906, 1200. 
Coupling pin of a ' mine trip ' found to be brittle. Toughness was 
restored by ' annealing.' 

30 Foster, F. 1903 Repetition of Stress. ' Mech. Eng.,' Nov. 22, 1902. 

' Sci. Abs.,' 1903, No. 866. 
It is suggested that fatigue is an effect of accumulated permanent strain, 
the latter being the aggregate of a prolonged series of hysteresis loops. The 
relation between permanent extension and hysteresis is cleared up in No. 4. 

31 Fremont, C. 1910 The Fatigue of Metals and New Methods of Testing. 

' Genie CivU,' Oct. 22, 1910. 

32 Fremont, C. 1910 Continuation of No. 31. ' Genie Civil,' Nov. 19, 1910. 

Accidents caused by the fracture of steel and attributed to mysterious 
causes, notably fatigue, are in many cases due to bad quality of steel ; i.e., 
either bad quality generally, or local impurities. 

See also Papers VIII. and X., International Congress for Testing Materials, 
1912. See also Nos. 3, 23 and 94. 

33 Gardener, J. C. 1905 Effect of Stress Reversals on Steel. ' Journ. Iron and 

Steel Inst.,' 67, 1905. ' Sci. Abs.,' 1905, No. 1804. 

Quenched steel specimens submitted to alternating stress in a rotating- 
bar machine of cantilever (Wohler) type. High resistance was found. This 
agrees with No. 65. See also No. 66. 

34 Grimaldi, G., 1909 Influence of Oscillatory Discharge and of Magnetisation 

and upon the Elastic Hysteresis for Extension of Iron. 

AccoUa, G. ' Elettricista, Rome,' 8, pp. 329-31. ' N. Cimento,' 18, 

pp. 446-77. 'Sci. Abs.,' 1910, 276. 

35 Do. 1905 Influence of Magnetisation upon the Elastic Hysteresis 

for Extension of Iron. See ' Sci. Abs.,' A, 1905, 927. 

36 Guye, C. E. 1912 Internal Friction of Solids, Variation with Tempera- 

ture. ' Journ. de Ph}'sique,' 2 Ser. 5, Aug. 1912. 
' Sci. Abs.,' A, 1912, 1793. 

37 Guye and 1908 On Internal Friction of Solids at Low Temperatures. 
Mintz ' Archives des Sciences,' 26, pp. 136 and 263, 1908. 

38 Guye and 1909 Internal Friction of Solids at Low Temperatures. 
Friedericksz (Decrement of Torsional Oscillations.) ' Comptes 

Rendus,' 149, Dec. 6, 1909. 'Sci. Abs.,' 1910, 
No. 224. 'Comptes Rendus,' 150, April 18, 1910. 
'Sci. Abs.,' 1910, No. 1189. 
Note. — For Nos. 34, 35, 36, 37 and 38, see Report, Appendix I. 

39 Do. 1912 Description of Krupp's Laboratory. (Mentions battery 

of six alternating-shock bending machines.) ' Revue 
de M6tallurgie,' 9, 9, Sept. 1912. 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 205 



The machines are on the principle of Stanton and Bairstow'a alternating- 
shock bending machine (No. 78). 

Notched specimens are used ; the number of blows is 80 per minute. 
The machines are arranged to give, if desired, jV of a turn to the specimen 
after each blow. No results are given. 



40 Haigh, B. P. 1912 Alternating Load Tests. ' British Association,' 1912- 

' Engineering,' Nov. 29, 1912. ' Sci. Aba.,' 1912, 

No. 1612. 

A description of the author's machine for testing wire in repeated ten 

sion. A few preliminary experiments only are recorded, the cycles having a 

frequency of 60 per second, and the stresses varying between and a tensile 

maximum. 

41 Hancock, E. L. 1906 Tests of Metals in Reverse Torsion. ' Phil. Mag.,' 12, 

pp. 426-30. ' Sci. Abs.,' A, 1906, 1810. 
This paper is concerned with alterations of elastic limits by torsional over- 
strain in alternate directions of twist, the latter being slowly applied. 

42 Haughton, S. A. 1905 Failure of an Iron Plate through Fatigue. ' Sci. Abs.,' 

A, 1905, 1846. 
FaUm-e of a barrel plate of a boiler. The plate had been exposed to 
severe ' panting ' stresses. 

43 Hopkinson, B. 1912 A High-speed Fatigue Tester and the Endurance of 

Metals under Alternating Stress of High Frequency. 

' Proc. Roy. Soc.,' A, 86, Jan. .31, 1912. ' Sci. Abs.,' 

1912, No. 628. 
Description of the Hopkinson high-speed macliine and of the checks on 
the calculated stresses. A variety of results given for speeds of 7,000 cj^cles 
per minute. It is conclusively shown that there is a very marked speed 
efiect, both the number of cycles and the time required for producing fracture 
being greater than with machines at one or two thousand cycles per minute. 

Table of Limiting Ranges of Stress, with Three Machines of Different Type for 
same Material. 



Material 


Stanton's Direct- 
stress Machine. 
1,100 perminute 


Wohler Rotating-bar 
Machine, N.P.L. 
2,200 per minute 


Hopkinson's 

Machine. 

7,000 per minute 


C 
D 


tons per square inch 

±25 
±24 


tons per square inch 
±26-5 


tons per square inch 
±32 
±31-5 



It is inferred that ' recovery of elasticity ' is not an important factor in 
tests with equal ± alternations at high speeds, though at low speeds ' re- 
covery ' may be sufficient to mark the speed effect. 

It is pointed out that it is not proved that the limiting range is higher, 
but that the apparent resistance to fatigue (in time and in number of cycles) 
is increased. The speed effect is shown to be the reverse of that found by 
Reynolds and Smith, No. 59. 

Nos. 23, 65, 80, 82 and 84 show that speed effect is apparently negligible 
at speeds between 60 and about 2,400 cycles per minute. 



44 



Hopkinson, B. 
and F. Rogers 



1905 



Elastic Properties of Steel at High Temperatures. 
' Proc. Roy. Soc.,' A, 76, 1905. 
Tensile testa of iron and steel, using an extensometer, at temperaturea 
up to 900° C. Tests not carried to fracture. 

The elastic time effect {i.e., that strain which occurs with lapse of time 
under a constant load, and which disappears with lapse of time upon removal 
of the load, as distinguished from hysteresis, which is independent of time) 
probably increases with temperature, since it was found to be very great 
at high temperatures. 



206 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

45 Hopkinson, B., 1912 The Elastic Hysteresis of Steel. ' Proc. Roy. Soc , 

and Nov. 21, 1912. 

WUIiams, G. T. 

See Report, Appendix I. 

46 Howard, J. E. 1888 Watertown Arsenal Reports. 

1893 See 'Massachusetts Institute of Technology.' 
' Quarterly Proceedings,' 1899. 

47 Do. 1906 Alternate Stress Testing and Heat Treatment of Steels. 

' Engineering Record,' Sept. 22, 1906. ' Int. Assoc. 

Testing Materials Congress,' 1908. ' Sci. Abs.,' 

1906, No. 1808. 

Rotating loaded bar tests, at 500 r.p.m. Material, steels 0-17 to 0-82 % 

carbon. No steels were found to endure 100 x 10' rotations with greater 

stresses than ±40,000 lb. per square inch (calculated); but below this 

stress some bars withstood 150 x 10' rotations. 

At 400' P. the endurance was rather greater than at ' atmospheric ' 
temperature. 

48 Howard, J. E. 1909 Resistance of Steels to Rejieated Alternate Stresses. 

Paper read Intern. Assoc. Testing Materials, 1909. 
See also ' Mech. Eng.,' 24, Dec. 31, 1909. 'Sci. 
Abs.,' 1910, No. 218. 
Rotating bar tests. Bars, 1 inch diameter, loaded to give uniform 
bending moment over 4 inches. 
Speed, 500 r.p.m. 

Material, G grades of open-hearth steel, hot rolled for commercial pur- 
poses ; carbon content, 0-17 to 1-09 per cent. 

Since the existence of or the possibility of finding a ' limiting range ' of 
stress in rotating bar tests has been questioned the following results are 
quoted : — 

0-55 per cent. C. Steel — 

With -b 35,000 lb. square inch rujDture occurred with 9 x 10' 

rotations. 
With ± 30,000 lb. square inch rupture did not occur with 76 x 10'' 
rotations. 
0-82 per cent. C. Steel — 

With ± 45,000 lb. square inch rupture occurred with 605 x 10'' 

rotations. 
With ± 40,000 lb. square inch rupture did not occur with 202 x 10" 
rotations. 

See also some results of Wohler, page 378 Unwin's ' Testing of Mate- 
rials.' Of the range of steels tested, the highest resistance was found for 
the 0-73 per cent, and 0-82 per cent, carbon. This agrees with Rosenhain's 
statement (No. 66), also substantially with Nos. 23, 62, 82, 90, 93. Occa- 
sional annealing at intervals during a test did not increase the endurance. 

See section Heat Treatment in Report. 

The number of rotations necessary for fracture was much increased when 
the temperature of the test was 400° F. to 600° E., a result which differs 
somewhat from Unwin's (No. 91), and also from the author's own result in 
No. 47. 

49 Kapp, G. 1911 Alternating Stress Machine. ' Zeits. Vereines Deutscher 

Ing.,' Aug. 26, 1911. 
The stresses are direct tension and compression, and are obtained by the 
pull of an electro-magnet excited by an alternating current. 

50 Lord Kelvin Article Elasticity, ' Ency. Brit.,' vol. vii., 9th ed. 

51 Kommers, J. B. 1912 Repeated Stress Testing. Papers V. 4a and V. 4b., 

' Intern. Assoc, for Testing Materials,' 1912. ' Sci. 
Abs.,' A, 1912, 1794. 
Tests on a Landgraf-Turner machine. To and fro bending given by 
an oscillating die, the .slot in the die being longer in the direction of the 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS, 207 

stroke than the (unfixed) end of the specimen engaging with it. The length 
of the slot could be varied so as to give various proportions of impact (?) 
Avith the bending. The stroke of the die could also be varied. 

Speeds, 150 to 700 (double) strokes per minute. 

Specimens, '} inch diameter and 8J inch long. 

The maximum stresses were higher than the tensile elastic limit. 

Material, cold rolled steel, carbon O'l per cent., annealed at a red heat. 

Within the limits of the experiments it was found that the endurance 
was independent of the proportion of the ' impact ' factor in the bending. 
It is doubtful whether there was any dynamic effect at all at the moment 
of highest stressing. See Nos. 65 and 83. The nature of the surface of the 
specimen, whether turned, filed, or ground, had a marked etiect. The 
polished and the ground specimens showed an increased resistance over the 
turned ones of 45 per cent, to 50 per cent. See also No. 23. 

An attempt is made in a second paper (Int. Cong, for Testing Materials, 
1912) to find the stresses in the above experiments by observation of the 
strains (beyond the elastic limit) and stresses in static bending tests, and of 
the strains and stresses in a tensile test of the same material. 

52 Lenoble, E. 1900 Permanent Deformation of Metallic Wire (Hysteresis 

Loop). ' Journ. de Physique,' 9, Oct, 1900. ' Sci. 
Abs.,' 1901, No. 7. 
A hysteresis loop was obtained for a wire which was gradually loaded 
and unloaded. 

53 Lilly, W. E. 1910 A New Torsion-testing Machine. ' Proc. Inst, C.E. 

of Ireland,' Nov. 2, 1910. 
A machine for direct and reverse torsion worked by hand ; stress strain 
diagram automatically drawn. 

54 Do. 1911 The Elastic Limits and Strength of Materials. 'Proc. 

Inst. C.E. of Ireland,' Dec. 6, 1911. 
An account of some experiments on the machine of No. 53. The results 
are believed by the author to confirm Bauschinger's theory. 

55 McCaustland, 1906 Effect of Low Temperature on the Recovery of Steel 

E. J. from Overstrain. ' Am. Soc. Min. Eng. Bull,' 9, 

May 1906. 'Sci. Abs.,' 1906, No. 1176. 
The results are similar to those of No. 17. 

56 Memmler, K., 1910 Temperature Measurements during Repetition of Stress ; 

and experiments with Pipes. ' Kgl. Material-Priifungs- 

Sohob, A. amt. Mitt.,' 28, 6, pp. 307-33. ' Sci. Abs.,' A, 

1910, 1382, 
See Report, Appendix I, 

57 Milton, J. T. 1905 Instit. of Naval Architecture, July 1905. Milton 

mentions cases of failure of plates by fatigue. Also 
' Engineering,' Aug. 4 and 11, 1905. 

58 Pearson, Karl 1905 On Torsional Vibrations in Axles and Shafts. 'Drapers' 

Company Memoirs,' Technical Series IV. 
It is suggested that there may have been much higher stresses than those 
calculated in Wohler's tests with ± alternate stresses, because the loadings 
were repeated before the stress-waves sot up by the previous loadings had 
ceased to be of importance. Thus the real maximum stresses would be 
the sum of eifects due to several successive loadings. Since L. Bairstow 
(No. 4) has obtained results corresponding quantitatively to Wohler's (about 
60 per minute), with a rate of loading of only two per minute, it seems probable 
that stress accumulation can only have been a very minor factor in Wohler's 
results. Supposing a small number of successive peaks of stress to occur, 
the duration of the peak stresses would be very short and unlikely to give 
appreciable non-elastic strain (see No. 43) ; and moreover, though such 
non-elastic strain (cleavage slipping) may be produced, yet, unless the stresses 
producing these strains are many times repeated, cracking in the crystals 
would not be produced (No. 82). The fact of possible stress accumulation 



208 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

cannot be ignored, and it is likely that some of the anomalous results of 
fatigue tests may be due to it. It is remarkable that Stanton's repeated 
shock tests (No. 83) should give results at least as consistent as those of 
tests in which the stresses are not (or are intended not to be) impulsive. 

59 Reynolds, 0., 1902 On a Throw Testing Machine for Reversals of Stress. 

and 'Phil. Trans.,' A, 199, 1902. ' Sci. Abs.,' 1903, 

Smith, J. H. No. 1302. 

Two of the chief conclusions have been contradicted by subsequent 
work. These are : — 

That under a given range of stress the number of reversals before rupture 
diminishes as the frequency of reversals increases. That ' hard ' steels 
wUl not sustain more "reversals with the same range of stress than mild steels 
when the frequency is high. 

Some vibration of machine or specimen is supposed to be responsible 
for the above results. See remarks by Messrs. Stanton and Pannell, No. 84, 
pages 10 and II. 

60 Ritchie, J. B. 1910- Dissipation of Energy in Torsionally Oscillating Wires ; 

II Effects Produced by Change of Temperature. ' Proc. 
Roy. Soc, Ed.,' 31, 1910-11. 'Sci. Abs.,' I9I1, 
No. I3I0. 

61 Do. 1910- Apparatus for Inducing Fatigue by Repeated Exten- 

II sional and Rotational Strains. ' Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Edinburgh,' 31, 1910-11. ' Sci. Abs.,' 1911, No. I3II. 
For Nos. 60 and 61, see Report, Appendix I. 

62 Rogers, P. 1905 Heat Treatment and Fatigue of Steel. ' Journ. Iron 

and Steel Instit.' 1905. ' Sci. Abs.,' 1905, No. 1805. 
Tests on rotating cantilever (Wohler pattern) machine, 400 r.p.m. Three 
grades of steel tested. 

See Report, note on ' Heat Treatment.' 

63 Rogers, F. 1906 Microscopic Effects produced by the Action of Stresses 

on Metals. ' Soc. d'Encouragement Rev. de Metal- 

lurgie Mem.,' 3, Oct. I, 1906. 
Fiu'ther details, with micrographs of the work of No. 62. Suggested 
reasons why slip lines in iron and steel should be ' broken.' 
See Report, Note on Heat Treatment. 

63a Rogers, F. 1913 So-called CrystalUsation through Fatigue. Read before 

Iron and Steel Institute, September 1913. 

64 Roos, J. 0. 1912 On Endurance Tests of Machine Steel. Intern. Assoc. 

Testing Materials. Paper V. 2a, I9I2. 

65 Do. 1912 Some Static and Dynamic Endurance Tests. Intern. 

Assoc. Testing Materials. Paper V. 2b, I9I2. 
Two series of tests made on same material : — 

(1) With rotating-bar machine of Wohler type. Speeds, 1,200 and 2,400 
r.p.m. 

(2) In a machine of author's design. Blows were given by hammers 
striking a specimen alternately on either side. The maximum stresses 
were calculated from the height of fall of hammer, on the assumption that 
the whole energy of blow was taken up as elastic energy of the piece. 

Material, steels of 010, 0-40, 0-65 per cent, of carbon, on which tests were 
made after ' annealing ' and also after oil-tempering. 

In (1) the endurance was rather higher with the higher sjjccd. 

In (1) and (2) the oil-tempered sijecimens had much greater endurance. 

The ' /, n curves ' for (1) and (2) corresponded very closely, confirming 

Stanton's (No. 83) result, that '^- may be taken as a measure of the re- 

2A 
sistance to repeated shock, / being the ' real ' (natural) elastic limit. 

66 Rosenhain, W. 1911 Two Lectures on Steel. ' Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.,' 

Pt. II., pp. 280-83. 
Remarks on resistance of steel to alternating stress. 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERIXC} MATERIALS. 200 

67 Sankey, H. R. 1905 Vibratory Testing Machine. ' Mech. Eng.,' Nov. 11, 
1905. 

08 Do. 1907 Hand Bending Test. ' Engineering,' Dec. 20, 1907. 

' Engineering,' Feb. 15, 1907. 
See No. 10. 

09 Schuchart, A. 1908 Resistance of Wire to Repeated Bending. ' Stahl und 

(Sen.) Eisen,' July 1 and 8, 1908. 

Tests of wire, gripped in jaws with curved faces, over which the wire 
was bent backwards and forwards into contact with the faces. 

70 1908 Olsen Vibrating Testing Machine. ' Elect. Rev., 

April 17, 1908. 

71 1909 Landgraf-Turner Alternating Impact Machine. ' Iron 

and Steel Times,' June 24, 1909. 
See No. 61. 

72 Smith, J. H. 1905 Testing Machine for Reversals of Stress. ' Engineer- 

ing,' March 10, 1905. 

73 Do. 1909 Fatigue Testing Machine. ' Engineering,' July 23, 

1909. 
For direct stresses of any required range with any required mean stress 
of range. The specimen is motionless. The machine has been (or is being) 
used for various speeds of alternation. 

74 Do. 1910 Experiments on Fatigue of Metals. ' Journ. Iron and 

Steel Instit.,' 2, 1910. ' Sci. Abs.,' 1911, No. 568. 

Tests with machine of No. 73. Speed of repetitions, 1,000 per minute ; 
various values, both + and — , of the mean stress being used. An extenso- 
meter was kept in position during the tests. A range of steels, of from 0-13 
to 0-79 per cent, carbon content was tested ; also some nickel steels. Most 
of the specimens were without heat treatment ; a few were tested both in 
the untreated state and also after annealing. 

The author proposes a new and very quick method of finding the Wohler 
safe ranges. The validity of the method depends entirely on the experi- 
mental agreement between the Wohler safe ranges, determined by the 
endurance test, and what the author calls ' yield ranges.' A description 
of the method of finding the latter is given in the paper. Very briefly, the 
' yield range ' is reached when the specimen first shows, by the extenso- 
meter indication, a small change of length, which appears to be similar to 
that found by Mr. L. Bairstow (No. 4), and called by him ' permanent ex- 
tension.' It is shown, however, m No. 4, that the.se ' permanent extensions ' 
may occur even if the range is a safe one. If Bauschinger's theory be accepted 
it is difficult to see why these ' yield ranges ' should be the same as the 
Wohler limiting (or safe) ranges. In Dr. Smith's method the successive 
changes of mean stress from + to — will give little opportunity for the 
adjustment of the elastic limits to the ujjper and lower limits of the range ; 
whereas it is established that (Nos. 4, 7, and 82) such adjustment does take 
place when the range is in the neighbourhood of the safe range, and the mean 
stress is constant. 

It would appear that before the method can be generally relied upon 
the experiments should be repeated, preferably on a machine of another 
type. The correspondence between the quickly determined ' yield ranges ' 
and the Wohler limiting range promises, however, to fulfil the need for a 
commercial substitute for the tedious Wohler fatigue test. 

75 Sondericker, J. 1899 Repeated Stresses. ' Massachusetts Inst, of Tech- 

nology Quarterly Journ.,' 1899. (Description of 

machine, 1892, ditto.) 
Machine of rotating-bar type, with constant bending moment over a short 
length. The materials tested were wrought iron and steels of carbon con- 
tent 0-08 to 0-50 per cent., and the speeds 350 to 500 r.p.m. Two pointers were 
clamped to the part under uniform bending moment, and the extreme fibre 
strains measured ; sucli measurements were taken at intervals during each 
test. The fibre stresses were high, often considerably above the observed 

191^. P 



:10 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913, 

elastic limits in tension ; but the latter appear to ha\Q liad an unusually 
low ratio to the tensile strength. Thus : — 



Specimen of Wrouglit Iron Specimen of Steel 



Range of stress ± 28,000 lb. sq. in. ± 42,000 | 

Rest (to fracture) 2-5x10" (not broken) 3-31 X 10« [ 

Tensile E. limit, 23,400 lb. sq. in. 38,300 lb. square inch I 

' Tensile strength, 50,510 lb. sq. in. 78,010 lb. square inch | 

It is stated that the ' set ' observed ' did not appear to have a notable 
influence in causing fracture until it reached -001 inch or -002 inch in a 
length of 10 inches.' Rest was found to decrease the ' set.' It was noticed 
that the specimens were always perceptibly warmer in the middle than 
near the ends. The temperature increased with the amount of the ' set.' 
Thi-ee specimens reached a blue heat (about 300° C.) ; the break occurred 
where the shaft was coolest. 

The effects of a V groove and of a square shoulder were investigated. 
Some tests were made of flanged couplings, in which cracks commenced in 
the keyways. 

70 Spangenberg 1874 Ueber das Verhalten der Metalle bei wiederholten 

Anstrengungen. See ' Handbook of Testing,' A. 
Martens, or Unwin's ' Testing of Materials.' 

77 Stanton, T. E. 1905 Alternating Stress-testmg Machine at the National 

Physical Laboratory. ' Engineering,' Feb. 17, 1905. 

' Sci. Abs.,' 1905, No. 670. 
An investigation concerning the effect upon the calculated stresses of 
the friction of the author's direct-stress reciprocating machine, and of the 
fluctuation of angular acceleration of the shaft. 

78 Do. 1906 Repeated Impact-testing Machine. ' Engineering,' 

82, July 13, 1906. ' Sci. Abs.,' 1906, No. 1520. 
The specimen is J inch diameter, with V notch turned 040 inch diameter 
at bottom of V. It is placed on knife-edges 4^ inches apart, and receives 
blows over the notch from a tup, and it is given a half -revolution between 
each blow. Maximum speed, 100 blows per minute. 

79 Do. 1907 A Factor in the Design of Machine Details. ' Engineer- 

ing,' April 19, 1907. 
On the effect of sudden changes of section in machine members, with 
estimates of the reduction of resistance to alternating stress. 

SO Do. 1908 New Fatigue Test for Steel. ' Journ. Iron and Steel 

Inst.,' 76, 1908. 
Test in simultaneous abrasion and fatigue. No speed effect was found 
for speeds between 200 and 2,200 cycles per minute. 

81 Do. 1912 Recent Researches made at the National Physical 

Laboratory on the Resistance of Metals to Alternating 
Stress. Intern. Congress for Testing Materials. 
Paper V. 1, 1912. 

82 Stanton and 1905 On the Resistance of Iron and Steel to Reversals of 

Bairstow Direct Stress. ' Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng.,' clxvi. 

' Sci. Abs.,' 1907, No. 373. 
Tests made on commercial materials of iron and steel, ufsing Stanton's 
direct-stress machine (No. 77) ; cycles 800 per minute, the ratio 
maximum tensile stress of cycle 
maximum conij). stress of cycle 
being from 1-4 to 0-72. 
Results : — 

No reduction in endurance was found at 800 per minute as compared 
with 60 per minute, thus agreeing with Nos. 23, 43, 65 and 80. 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 211 

High carbon steela have superior endurance, thus agreein" with Nos. 23 
48, 62, 90, 93. 

The effect of ' rate of change ' of section of test pieces demonstrated, 
and the endurance of various forms (screwed, &c.) compared. See Nos 
23, 74, 75 and 93. 

Strong evidence was found that the primitive elastic limits are fre- 
quently unstable under alternating stress ; also evidence concerning the 
coincidence of the Wohler limiting range and the ' natural ' elastic ranges. 
See also, notably, No. 4. 

Fracture occurs by cracking in one of the localities where slip bands are 
massed together. Fracture goes through ferrite crystals, not only in iron 
(No. 27), but also in medium carbon steels. This is in accordance with 
Nos. 62 and 63. See also No. 66. 

The mode of fracture is the same whether the stress is applied directly 
or by means of bending (Nos. 62, 63). 

83 Stanton and 1908 The Resistance of Materials to Impact. ' Proc. Inst. 

Bairstow Mech. Eng.,' No. 4, 1908. 

A macliine for giving alternating direct impact is described. The blow s 
of a tup put the specimen into alternate tension and compression. One of 
the chief objects of the research was to determine the limiting resistance 
of the materials for which the resistance to alternating stress had already 
been found. The important conclusion is reached that, if / is the ' real ' 
elastic limit derived from the Wohler test, then the measure of the 

f- 
resistance to repeated small ± equal impacts is ^-^ . This result is con- 
firmed by Roos (No. 65). See also No. 51. 

84 Stanton and 1911 Experiments on the Strength and Fatigue Properties 

Pannell of Welded Joints in Iron and Steel. ' Proc. Inst. 

Civ. Eng.,' vol. clxxxviii., 1911. 

85 Stead and 1903 Sorbitic Steel Rails. ' Iron and Steel Inst. Journ.,' 
Richards 1903, II., p. 141. 

Mentions rotating-bar (Wohler type) tests on rails specially heat-treated. 

86 Do. 1903 Restoration of Dangerously Crystallised Steel by Heat 

Treatment. Ibid., p. 119. 
Rotatiiig-bar tests and heat treatment. 

87 Do. 1905 Overheated Steel. Heat Treatment ; tests in Wohler 

machine, and also in severe bending. 

88 Thearle, S. J. P. 1913 Note on some Cases of Fatigue in the Steel Material 

of Steamers. Inst. Naval Arch., June 1913. Also 
' Engineering,' June 27, 1913. 

89 Tobusch, H. 1908 Elastic and Magnetic Hysteresis. ' Ann. de Physik.,' 

26, 3. ' Sci. Abs.,' A, 1908, No. 1482. 
See Report, Appendix I. 

90 Turner, L. B. 1911 The Strength of Steel in Compound Stress and En- 

durance under Repetition of Stress. ' Engineering,' 
July 28 to Sept. 8, 1911. ' Sci. Abs.,' 1911, No. 1315. 

Bending Tests on cantilever specimens ; one end fixed, the free end 
being made to describe a circle of constant small radius. 

Torsion Tests. — One end fixed, the other end twisted to and fro through 
a constant small angle. 

Speed, 250 cycles per minute. 

Materials. — Tube steel (annealed and untreated), luild steel, tool steel, 
and nickel steel (annealed and untreated). 

The main object of the research was to determine how far the shear- 
stress criterion of elastic failure applies to alternating-stress tests. The 
tests gave an affirmative result for tube steel and mild steel for both tension 
and torsion, and a negative result for tool steel and nickel steel. 

91 Unwin, W. C. 1905 Experiments on Rotating Bars at Different Tempera- 

tures. 'Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng.,' clxvi. 'Sci. Abs.,' 
1907, No. 373. 



212 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Rotating cantilever tests in which mild steel appeared to have slightly 
greater endurance at 400° to 500° F. than at ordinary temperatures. J. E. 
Howard (No. 48) finds that the number of rotations for fracture was very 
much increased at temperatures of 400° F. to 600° F. This is partly a 
metallurgical question, as the condition of the steel previous to the warming 
may affect the result. Further, it is known that the elongation in tensile 
tests of the steels dealt with would be slightly improved at the temperatures 
named, which is broadly in agreement with these authors' results. 

92 Unwin, W. C. General Considerations on Safe Working Limits of 

Stress. ' Testing of Materials of Construction,' Art. 
255, 1910 edition. 

93 Wohler, A. 1871 Ueber die Festigkeitsversuche mit Eisen und Stahl. 

See ' Engineering,' vol. II., or Unwin's ' Testing 
of Materials.' 

94 (Various writers) 1910 Enquete sur la fatigue des Metaux. ' La Technique 

Moderne,' 1910, vol. 2, pp. 19-21, 83-84, 151-4, 
210^, 280-4, 345-7. 

Discussion of these questions, proposed by the Editors : — 

1. Is it established that metals undergo, in time, fatigue which noticeably altera 
their endurance ? 

2. Are the circumstances of this known and can they be avoided ? 

3. Are there means of recognising the symptoms of this state, and hence avoiding 
disasters resulting from it ? 

4. What inferences can be drawn from the existence of these phenomena from 
the point of view of determining the safety of metallic machines and structures ? 

The replies received are generally of the utmosb vagueness, or are quite platitudes 
to all concerned materially in the subject, or are of little practical bearing (e.gr., most 
of Retjo's theory). 

A. Mesnager quotes Le Chaielier (Internat. Congr. for Testing Materials, 1900, 
p. 90) that an alteration of the decrement would be produced by alteration of the 
material, and seems to suggest this as an indication of the progress of fatigue in a 
piece. [Evidently this would rarely be applicable. — F. R.] 

P. Breuil refers to the fact that the vastly greater part of the work on the subject 
is British, both combined stress and alternatmg. Eighty per cent, of the failures 
are due to ignorance on the part of the designer (as to stress which will actually come 
upon the piece). It is not known whether any stress, however small, will produce a 
permanent deformation, or, if so, whether this deformation is local only. The micro- 
scope is the best instrument at present available in this respect. It is necessary to 
do fatigue tests above the elastic limit, and desirable to register deformation at each 
alternation of the same stress, or to register each load necessary to give equal alter- 
nating deflections. Importance of hysteresis. Importance of annealing to restore 
from the effects of fatigue ; but this is not always practicable. 

F. Schtde. — Microscope has not given a satisfactory answer to (2). 

Do. — Suggests electric conductivity should be tried as a test for progress of fatigue 
for (3). 

(This is of very little use. — F. R.) 

4. Suggests scrapping after a certain life ; i.e. ' life ' factor of safety. 

A. Retjo. — Treats the subject mathematically, following Van der Waals and 



L. Grenel. — It is not fully evident that annealing will restore fatigued material. 

(Of course not. Qualification is necessary. See comment below. — ^F. R.) 

In design, so far as possible, it should be endeavoured to calculate the shock 
absorbable ; in general, he recognises the importance of resilience ; he suggests par- 
ticularly tests of the .safe limit of repeated shock, accompanied by the use of a large 
factor of safety. 

Cellerier and Breuil. — Report on a broken rail. Failure ascribed to fatigue of 
the intensely cold-worked (in service) surface layer. 

L. Ouillet. — Troubles are usually due to bad treatment of metals. His answer to 
(3) and (4) is ' Prudence,' 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 213 

Comments by F. Rogers. 

It is worUi noting at the outset that, rather ditTorcntly from us, the Jb'rcueh often 
mean by 'fatigue' what we would eall simple oveistraui ; c.^., such as occurs in a 
tensile test piece strained beyond the elastic limit. Li this particular series of 
articles, however, this use of the term has not occurred considerably. Further, 
there seems to be no reference to any question of an ' ageing ' efiect in metals, either 
utuler steady stress or in the absence of stress. 

Most writers, as is to be expected, agree explicitly or implicitly in answering (1) in 
the affirmative. 

There is no agreement as to unconditional scrapping after a specified life (measured 
in time, or else number of stressings). This is as one would expect, since in most cases 
the aim is to design for permanent use, except where unavoidable wear is concerned. 
Railway cranks and axles are, however, used for a definite mileage only. 

I consider that the suggestions made by Grenet are the crux of the problem, 
although they are not individually novel. There is room for more research on resilience 
from this point of view, particularly the values of elastic modulus in relation to en- 
diirance of repeated stress and repeated shock, and the safe limit of repeated shock. 

I have shown (No. 62) the increase of elastic modulus with brittleness due to 
overheating of steel. 

Periodical annealing during the useful life is only applicable to certain materials 
and to certain forms. No large pieces, such as shafts, can be so dealt with, on account 
of distortion and scaling. Small iron articles, such as chains, are annealed. I have 
shown that at a certain stage amiealing is in any event incapable of restoring a mate- 
rial. The original heat treatment of steels is often such that their properties would 
l)e hopelessl}' ruined by any process which could fall under the vague term ' annealing.' 
Springs are, however, sometimes annealed and re-tempered ; it is questionable whether 
any advantage is gained. 

The microscope is a valuable aid to research, but it is only in exceptional cases 
that it is of assistance in finding hair-cracks in existing structures. In my experience 
the hair-crack period is of short duration, and tests to destruction are the most reliable 
index of the state of the material ; but in certain cases it would be worth while to keep 
vital points polished ready for periodical exammation (and varnished), and approach- 
ing fatigue could then be satisfactorily detected at a considerably earlier stage than 
the appearance of hair-cracks. 

In regard to Guillet's dictum that the original treatment of the metal is usually to 
blame when metals fail under alternating stress, I do not think it is possible to arrive 
at a general conclusion ; that is to say, each of the following three main classes contain 
the usual sources of trouble, and many cases in practice have been traced to eacn of 
these causes : — 

(ffi) Flaivs, including pipe, fissures, blow-holes, impurity, and non-metallic en- 
closures. 
(6) Faulty original heat-treatment of pure metal. This includes, as a special case, 

strains set up in manufacture, and overwork in the working processes, 
(c) Under -estimation of stresses to be expected on the part of the designer. This 
includes, as a special case, insufficient allowance for the effect of repetition 
of a stress which would be harmless if applied once or steadily maintained. 

SPECIAL PROBLEMS. 

The Resistance of Tubes to Collapse. By Gilbert Cook, M.Sc. 

(The small figures in the text refer to the bibliography.) 

When a tMn cylindrical tube is subjected to a gradually increasing 
external pressure, a point is reacted at which the equiUbrium becomes 
unstable, any further increase in the pressure resulting in the collapse of the 
tube. This pressure is known as the collapsing pressure. The subject of its 
determination is one which has, from time to time, received considerable 
attention both from mathematicians and engineers. Yet, in spite of tlie 



214: REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

practical importauce of the subject, defiuite aucl exact knowledge is 
lacking. A universal formula lias not yet been found by whicb the 
strength of a tube of given dimensions and material may be estimated. 
It is perhaps safe to say that it is impossible to devise such a formula 
which will be sufficiently simple to be of any practical value. This will 
at once be evident when the number of factors which enter into the 
problem, and the lack of knowledge with regard to each, irrespective of 
their mutual relations, are considered. These factors may be divided into 
two main classes : («) those relating to dimensions and geometrical 
form ; (b) those relating to the physical properties of the material. The 
first of these may be subdivided as follows : — 

(1) Lateral dimensions; i.e., diameter and thickness. 

(2) Length. 

(3) The boundary conditions at the end of the tube. 

The statical condition of the tube at the moment of collapse being one 
of unstable equihbrium, the influence of sUght variations from the circular 
form or uniform thickness which are invariably found in practice must 
also be considered. 

It is proposed in the course of this report to consider separately the 
influence of the above factors. 

Laleral Dimensions. 

Although the influence of length will be dealt witli later, it may be 
stated here that it is foimd both from experiment and theory that, as the 
length increases, the strength of a tube of given lateral dimensions tends to 
a minimum constant value, which appears to be attained, for practical 
purposes, when the length is greater than six times the diameter.^' ^^ It 
is therefore proposed to consider here only the case of a tube of infinite 
length. The strength of such a tube is dependent upon its diameter and 
thickness, and it appears to be established, both from theoretical con- 
siderations and from the experimental data available, that the collapsing 

pressure is some function of the ratio of the thickness to the diameter f ,|. 

A complication is at once introduced by the fact that the form of that 

function depends upon the value of the ratio . 

The problem is, in man}' respects, analogous to that of a column under 

a direct compressive load, in which the conditions determining failure 

depend on the ratio of k, the least radius of gyration of the cro.ss-section, to /, 

k 
the length. In the failure of a column, two ranges of values of maybe 

distinguished. 

(1) When is very small, failure occurs by pure buckling, Avithout 

any departure from perfect elasticity, and it can be deduced mathemati- 
cally that the stress at failure is 

where a depends only on Young's modulus and the end conditions. 

(2) When =■ exceeds a certain fairly definite value, failure is caused by 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 215 

the elastic breakdown of tlie material in some part of the cohimn. If the 
ratio is not too great, buckhng results from irregularities thus produced, and 
the problem is not amenable to rigorous mathematical treatment owing 
to the fact that such inequalities are largely the result of initial irregularities 

in the form of the column.* When, however,- becomes large, bucklins 

I '^ " 

does not occur, and failure takes the form of uniform lateral expansion. 

There is an analogy in the collapse of tubes to each of these cases. 

(1) When the ratio ^ is very small, collapse will occur without over- 
strain in any part of the material. As in the case of long columns, this is 
the only case for which a complete mathematical solution has been found. 
The problem was first investigated by Bryan,* and the theory subse- 
quently improved by Basset ^ and Love,'^ and more recently by South- 
well. '^' '^ The pressure at which the equihbrium becomes unstable is 
given by 



f = c 



&)' >^> 



where c is a constant depending only on the elastic properties of the 
material, and is equal to 

2 E 

\—m- 

where E is Young's modulus, and m Poisson's ratio. 

Very elaborate and accurate experimental work carried out during 
recent years by Carman^ and Stewart'^ has shown that the relation (1) 

holds very nearly in the case of tubes in which the ratio - is less than -025. 

a 
The value of the constant c is, however, found to be considerably less than 
the theoretical value. The discrepancy has been attributed by Slocum^^ 
to imperfections in the geometrical form of the tube, and by Southwell to 
the fact that in the comparison of the theoretical and experimental results, 

values of -^ were included which were great enough to allow elastic break- 
down to precede instability. 

(2) When the ratio exceeds '025, it is found by experiment that the 

relation (1) no longer holds. It is evident that no tube can withstand, 
without permanent deformation, a pressure greater than that which would 
cause any part of the material to exceed the elastic limit. By Lame's 
theory the maximum compressive stress occurs at the inner surface of the 
tube, and, assuming that there is no longitudinal constraint, is given by 

/= ' 






* It is possible to give a mathematical explanation of the form of the curve showing 
the relation of load to " even in this case. See paper by P>. V. Soiitlnvell, 'The 
Strength of Stmts,' Engineering, Aug. 23, 1912. 



216 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 

and tlierefore the maximum pressure which could be appHed to the tube 
without permanent deformation is theoretically 

where /i = direct compressive stress at yield. How far the strength of the 
material in compression does actually enter into the problem does not 
appear to have been satisfactorily determined. It is probable that for a 

certain range of the ratio , upwards from -025 the tube does not fail either 

by simple buckling or by direct crushing, but by a combination of both. 
It is found that the results of tests on tubes of this form may be con- 
veniently expressed by the relation 

where a and b are constants depending on the material.^- ^^ The upper 

limit of the ratio - for which this relation holds has not been determined, 
a 

but its maximum value in the tests upon which it is based was about -07. 
A question of some interest is the value of for which collapse in the 

form of buckling ceases to occur. Recent experiments by Bridgman ^ 
have shown that the effect of the application of high hydrostatic pressure 
to tubes of ductile materials in which the ratio of thickness to external 
diameter is greater than 0*27 is to close up the hole in a uniform manner, 
without any departure from the circular form. 

Length. 

Very little experimental data are available in regard to the influence of 
the length upon the strength of a tube to resist collapse. Indeed, the 
attention paid to this point has not been in any degree commensurate with 
its importance. 

Recent experimental work has shown that when the length is suffi- 
ciently great it ceases to have any appreciable effect upon the strength. 
An attempt has been made to define the length below which the strength is 
materially increased, and the term ' critical length ' has been apphed to 
this quantity by Love and Carman. Such a term suggests a point of dis- 
continuity, the existence of which, in the above sense, is hardly conceivable. 
An investigation by Love,^^ based partly on analysis, and partly on analogy 
to simpler problems, leads to the result that, for thin tubes of different 
lateral dimensions, the influence of the length becomes neghgible to the 
same order when it is greater than some multiple of the mean proportional 
of the diameter and thickness ; i.e., when 

I > aJJt (2) 

where a is a constant. 

An important contribution to the theory of this subject recently made 
by Southwell '^' '** has pointed to the desirability of a modification in the 
meaning attached to the term ' critical length.' It is a well-known fact 
that the number of lobes into which a tube collapses is dependent upon the 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 217 

length of the tube ; the shorter the tube, the greater is the number of lobes. 
Unwin ^'^ was the first to appreciate the importance of this fact, and he 
used it in an attempt to set on a more rational basis the results of the 
classical experiments of Fairbairn.* Southwell has shown, however, that 

the collapsing pressure of any tube in which the ratio , is very small may 

be expressed by 

_ tr z fZ^ 1 K^-i t-i 

^=^^ d Lk^(/<2_1) Ji "^ 3 (1 -m^y d'-j 

where k is the number of lobes in the collapsed cross-section and Z is a 
constant depending on the type of the end constraints. If, for a tube of 
given thickness and diameter, the value of p be plotted against I for values 
of K equal to 2, 3, 4 .... a series of curves is obtained ; and Southwell has 
pointed out that, from an inspection of these curves, it will be seen that long 
tubes will always tend to collapse into the two-lobed form, since the curve 
for K = 2 then gives the least value for the collapsing pressure, but that at 
a length corresponding to the point at which this curve intersects the curve 
for /c = 3, the three-lobed form becomes natural to the tube, and for 
shorter lengths still, for which the point of intersection of the curves for 
K = S and /c = 4 gives the upper limit, the four-lobed form requires least 
pressure for its maintenance. Thiis the true curve connecting pressure and 
length is a discontinuous one, and therefore the collapsing pressure is not a 
continuous function of the length. 

It may be suggested therefore that the term ' critical length ' be applied 
to the points of discontinuity; that is, the points of intersection of the curves 
for K = n and k = m + 1, these points being rightly described as ' critical ' 
in the sense that the tube may collapse into either nor n -\- 1 lobes at these 
points. With this meaning a tube will have a number of critical lengths 
corresponding to the configuration of the collapsed cross-section, and it may 
be shown that for different tubes the length corresponding to the critical 
points is proportional to 

'^' (3) 



VT 



Southwell has pointed out that the above expression is also the factor 
determining the value of the critical length in the sense in which that term 
has been generally used, e.g., by Love and Carman. Prof. Love has 
accepted the above result as superseding the expression (2) given above. 

It would appear from (3) that a thin tube may collapse into a greater 
number of lobes than a thicker tube of the same length and diameter. 
This has been verified in experiments carried out by the writer, but beyond 
this no definite experimental confirmation of the above results has yet been 
made, although work in this direction is in progress. It has usually been 
assumed — and the assumption appears to be sufficiently justified by the 
experimental work of Carman and Stewart — that, for practical purposes, 
the influence of the length vanishes when it exceeds about six diameters, 
and that below this value the strength of the tube may roughly be taken 
as proportional to the reciprocal of the length, although the experimental 
evidence in regard to the latter cannot be regarded as conclusive. 



218 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

End Conditions. 

In dealing with the question of length no assertion was made in regard 
to the statical conditions at the ends of the tube. In the experimental 
work the ends were rigidly fixed to a true circular form of invariable 
diameter, and were also held rigidly in a longitudinal direction. Southwell 
has shown ^' that any variation in these conditions in the case of a short tube 
will considerably aSect the resistance to collapse. It is reasonable to sup- 
pose that where the ends are more or less flexible in any direction, the 
strength will not be as great as when the tube is rigidly held parallel and 
circular. It is, however, hardly to be expected, when the knowledge of the 
general effect of length is so vague, that the effect of the end conditions 
coiild be expressed in more exact terms. 

Variations from True Geometrical Form. 

The ideal conditions assumed in the derivation of the rational formula 
are never realised in practice. The phenomenon of collapse is, however, 
due to imperfections in form and material, and, in the mathematical 
analysis of the ideal case, the collapsing pressure is that which would 
produce a state of neutral equilibrium in the shell, although actual collapse 
would only occur if some slight unsymmetrical deformation were caused. 
It is evident that slight initial deviations from the perfect form must affect 
the value of the collapsing pressure to a considerable extent. The earlier 
experimental work in this subject by Fairbairn ^ was carried out on tubes 
which were lap-riveted and in which therefore the variation from the true 
circular form was at least equal to the thickness of the plate. Although 
serving the purpose for which they were intended at the time, the results 
have little application to modern tubes, which are either soUd drawn or 
welded, and are much more perfect in form. The slight variations, how- 
ever, which still occur are probably responsible in a large measure for 
a considerable departure from the theoretical strength. Experiments 
carried out within recent years on modern tubes have shown that the 
relation 

where <, and d^ are the average thickness and diameter, holds when the 
average of a large number of tests is taken, but the constant is smaller than 
the theoretical constant by about 30 per cent. Further, wide differences 
in the collapsing pressure of tubes of the same average dimensions have 
frequently been found. A theoretical formula for the calculation of the 
effect of inequalities in diameter and thickness is hardly to be looked for, 
even if it were possible or convenient to measure the latter, for any given 
tube. Such a problem is, moreover, complicated by the fact that the 
positions of greatest and least thickness may have any relation to those of 
greatest and least diameters, with a corresponding variation in the com- 
bined influence. 

A series of tests was carried out by Stewart -" some six years ago on 
steel tubes 10 inches in diameter in order to determine the effect of distor- 
tion on the collapsing pressure. It was found that the results could be 
expressed by the formula 



,, = 0-0926 |^-_^j,.„ + 47.55 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENOINEERINO MATERIALS. 210 

where fi — collapsing pressure of uormully round f:u1)e (in ll)s. per sq. in ). 

j),^ =z^ collapsing pressure of distorted tube. 

M = ratio of maximum to minimum diameter. 

The utility of this formula is, however, somewhat doubtful, and 
cannot in any case be taken as indicating the effect of initial deviations 
from the true circular form, since f^ is the experimentally determined 
collapsing pressure of what is described as ' a normally round tube,' whicli 
in this case was merely a commercial tube of average quality. 

It has since been proposed by Slocum^^ that the rational formula 
may be made applicable to the practical determination of the collapsing 
pressure by introducing a correction factor, C, so that 



1 — in- \d,n„,cJ 



where <, is now the average thickness and (Z„,,, the maximum diameter. 
The assumption that the strength varies as the cube of the ratio of the 
average tliickness to the maximum diameter is irot entirely valid, but it 
has been found that the above formula gives a fairly close approximation, 
and that C is nearly constant for any one class of tubes. Its value has been 
found for the following cases, the tubes in each instance being of average 
quahty : — 

1. Lap -welded steel tubes = -69. 

2. Solid-drawn weldless steel tubes = -76. 

3. SoHd-drawn brass tubes = -78. 

The values of E and m are known for most materials, and the maxi- 
mum diameter and average thickness are the dimensional quantities 
most readily and conveniently obtainable for a given tube. It is, however, 
somewhat doubtful whether variations from true geometrical form would 
account altogether for the reduction of 25 per cent, to 30 per cent, indicated 

above. Southwell considers that too wide a range of values of - were 

used in the comparison, and that in the thicker tubes the elastic limit of 
the material was reached before the equilibrium became unstable, thus 
producing a lower value of the collapsing pressure.* 

Physical Properties of the Material. 

It is evident, from statical considerations, that the whole of the 
material composing a tube of circular form is in a state of compression in 
a circumferential direction. The physical properties which it is natural to 
suggest as determining the strength are Young's modulus, the elastic limit, 
and, for thick tubes, the ultimate strength, all in compression. The two 
latter quantities are difficult to determine, and the ultimate strength, in 
materials usually employed in tubes, is a somewhat indefinite quantity. 
The value of Young's modulus is known to be approximately the same in 
compression and tension, and is easily determined. For thin, long tubes it 
appears to be the only physical property influencing the resistance to 
collapse. The custom of specifying, as in the case of boiler flues, the 
ultimate tensile strength cannot therefore have any reference to the actual 
collapsing pressure, but serves merely as a guarantee of the quality of the 

* This question is fully discussed by Mr. Southwell in a paper which is to appear in 
the Philosophical Magazine for September 1913. 



220 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

material employed. The elastic limit in compressioa enters into the 
problem when the thickness is considerable, and also when the length is 
short. The precise influence of the ultimate strength is not known, and 
the uncertainty in regard to its value would render futile any attempt to 
introduce it. 

In conclusion, it may not be out of place to make a few general remarks 
in regard to the practical side of the question. Few problems in engineer- 
ing have given rise to a larger number or greater variety of formulae, and 
it is not surprising that in actual practice the design of tubes to withstand 
external pressure is based upon previous experience obtained from failures 
of tubes of the same material and dimensions rather than upon theory or 
even systematic general experimental work. In the case of boiler flues, 
the rules formulated by the Board of Trade ^^ and Lloyds' ^^ differ, but are 
based upon the same tests carried out upon flues of the same form as those 
to which they are intended to be apphed, and are admittedly inapphcable 
beyond the range of these tests. In these formulae, which stipulate the 
safe working pressure, and not the collapsing pressure, allowance is made 
for effects such as corrosion, associated with the particular purpose for 
t^hich the tubes are used. 

The case of long, thin, plain tubes, such as are employed for smoke tubes 
in locomotive boilers, appears to be the only one for which it is possible 
to propose a general and useful formula. The most convenient appears to 
be that obtained by introducing into the rational formula a constant 
depending only upon the material and mode of manufacture, and not on 
the absolute size. It has been suggested by Slocum^^ ^^i^^t the most useful 
purpose Hkely to be served by further experimental work is the determina- 
tion of the factor for different kinds of tubes. This was proposed some 
four years ago, but the difficulty and expense of systematic experimental 
work of this character has limited the investigation to three classes of 
tubes only. 

Bibliography. 

1 Basset, A. B. 1892 On the Difficulties of Constructing a Theory of the 

Collapse of Boiler Flues. 'Phil. Mag.,' 1892, vol. 
200, p. 221. 

2 Belpaire, T. 1879 Note on the Resistance of Tubes to External Pressure. 

' Annales du Genie Civil,' March 1879. 
The formula 

f = 3,427,152 f, - 56,892,400/' 
la Id- 

is given as representing the results of Fairbairn's tests. 

3 Bridgman, P. W. 1912 The Collapse of Thick Cylinders under High Hydrostatic 

Pressure. ' Physical Review,' vol. xsxiv., No. 1. 
Jan. 1912. ' Sci. Abs.,' 1912, No. 427. 

4 Bryan, G. H. 1888 Application of Energy Test to Collapse of Long, Thin Pipe 

under External Pressure. ' Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc.,' 
vol. vi., p. 287. 1888. 
Gives the derivation of rational formula 

^ 2E t' 
^ ~ 1 - «t^ ■ d' 

5 Carman, A. P. 1906 Resistance of Tubes to Collapse. ' Physical Review,' 

vol. 21, Dec. 1905, pp. 381-387. 'Sci. Abs.,' 1906, 
No. 239. 
Describes a series of tests on small brass tubes, diameters ranging from 



COMPLEX STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 221 

•891 to 1-78 cm. ; thickness from -041 to -135 cm. Length from 8 mm. to 
210 mm. Results seemed to indicate that when length > 6 diameters, 
strength practically constant. Below that length, strength appeared to be 
inversely proportional to length, though it is stated that experiments are not 
suificient to determine definitely the relation. 
Carman, A. P., 1906 Resistance of Tubes to Collapse. ' Univ. of 111. Bull.,' 
and Carr, M. L. vol. 3, No. 17, June 1906. ' Sci. Aba.,' 1906, No. 1986. 

Describes tests carried out on a number of lap-welded steel tubes, seam- 
less cold-drawn steel tubes and brass tubes. 

Following formulae are given : — 

(a) When ' le.ss than -025 
d 

■p = 25, 1 50,000 (^^y for brass tubes. 

1) = 50,200,000( - ) for seamless steel tubes. 

(6) When [ > 003 
d 

p = 93,365 ^ — 2,474 for brass tubes. 
d 

p = 95,520 — 2,090 for seamless cold-drawn steel. 
d 

p = 83,270 l - 1,025 for lap- welded ateel. 
a 

The last formula in each series agrees well with those obtained by Stewart. 

Clark, D. K. Strength of Boiler Flues. ' Engineering,' vol. 46, p. 280. 

From reports of Manchester Steam Users' Assoc, of six boUer-flues actually 
collapsed, gives formula 

, = .^(^jL00_500) 

8 Fairbairn, W. 1858 Resistance of Tubes to Collapse. ' Phil. Trans.,' 1858, 

p. 389. ' Brit. Assoc. Report,' 1857, p. 215. 
Tests carried out on 32 wrought-iron tubes, lap-riveted, varying in 
diameter from 4 to 12 inches and in length from 1 foot 3 inches to 5 feet. 
Uniform thickness except in five cases, -043 inch. Results of tests repre- 
sented by formula 

p = 9,675,600 "'A" 
l.d 

ip in lbs. square inch, t,l.,dm inches). 

9 Grashof, F. 1859 W. Fairbaim's 'Versuche iiber den Widerstand von 

Rohren gegen Zusammendruckung.' 'Zeitschr. des 
Vereines deutscher Ingenieure,' 1859, p. 234. Tod- 
hunter and Pearson, ' History of Elasticity,' vol. ii. 
p. 1 ; i., p. 666. 
From Fairbairn's tests, deduces formulae 

(a) p= 1,033,620 jT^^-^^gior thin tubes. 

(6) p- 24,481,000 '■■^^'' for thick tubes. 

Ld^"^'"* 

Also considers a tube of slightly elliptical cross-section, and, using a 
method previously suggested by Bresse, obtains the formula 



p: 



p= 



2C ' 
a 



■. ,3e d 

2 t 



222 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Where Co = compressive strength, 
e = ellipticitj', 
d = diameter of circular tube of same circumforeuce as ellipse. 

10 Lilly, W. E. 1910 The Collapsing Pressure of Circular Tubes. 'Proc. Inst. 

Civ. Eng. of Ireland,' Feb. 2, 1910. 
The analogy of the problem of tube collapse to failure of columns is dis- 
cussed, and a formula similar to the Rankine-Gordon formula is derived, 
viz. 

2/ 
« = i — 

t mE ■ f 

Avhere / = strength to comj)ression, and n is a constant to be determined 
experimentally. 

The investigation is also extended to corrugated flues. 

11 Lorenz, R. 1911 Buckling of Thin- walled Cylinders. ' Phys. Zeitschr.' n. 

12, pp. 241-260. April 1911. ' Sci. Abs.,' 1911, 
No. 978. 

12 Love, A. E. H. ' Mathematical Theory of Elasticity,' p. 530. 

The theoretical formula 

^ 2E «' 
^' 1 - m"- d' 

is given, and it is shown that when the pressure exceeds this limit, any flue 
will collapse if its length exceeds a certain multiple of the mean proportional 
between the diameter and thickness. 

13 Luve, G. H. 1859 Sur la resistance des conduits interieurs a fumee dans 

les chaudieres a vapeur. ' Memoires et Comptes 
Rendus,' 1859, pp. 471-500. Todhunter and Pearson, 
' Historj' of Elasticit}',' vol. ii.,pt. 1, p. 667. 
The formula 

p= 5,358,150^^ + 41,9064" + 1,323- 
Id a d 

is given as representing the results of Fairbairn's experiments. 

14 Nystrom, J. W. ' Treatise on Steam Engineering,' p. IOC. 

Derives the formula 

2) = 692,000 ^'--, 

as representing results of Fairbairn's tests. 

15 Roelker, C. R. 1881 Experimental Investigation of Resistance of Flues to 

Collapse. ' Van Nostrand's Magazine,' vol. 24, p. 
208. 

16 Slocum, S. E. 1909 Collapse of Tubes under External Pressure. ' Engineer- 

ing,' Jan. 8, 1909, vol. 87, p. 35. 
A discussion of Carman's and Stewart's experiments. Suggests that 
discrepancy between theoretical formula and exj)erimental results due 
to imperfections in geometrical form. Proposes the introduction of a 
' correction factor ' C in the formula, thus : 



r< 2E / t y 



Following values of C are given : 
Lap-welded steel tubes C = •69. 
Solid-drawn weldless steel tubes C = -76. 
Solid-drawn brass tubes C = -78. 

17 Southwell, R. V. 1913 On the General Theory of Elastic Stabihty. 'Phil. 
Trans.' (A), vol. 213 (1913), pp. 187-244. 
Discusses the boilei'-flue problem as an example to illustrate a proposed 



COMPLEX STKESS DISTRIBUTIONS IM ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 223 

Uew method of rigorous iuvustigatiou for stability problems in general. It 
obtains the general formula 

d\_ k\k-- I) 10 ^ 3 1 - m- (V A 
where k = number of lobes in collapsed cross-section and is proportional to 

the length of the flue, the ratio depending on the terminal conditions. It is 
shown that the above formula leads to a result differing from that of Prof. 
Love (see No. 12) for the rate of decay oi end efiects. 

18 Southwell, E. V. 1913 On the Collapse of Tubes by External Pressure. 'Phil. 

Mag.,' May 1913. 
An attempt to meet the difficulties suggested by A. B. Basset. (See 
No. 1.) An investigation of the strength of short tubes is also given leading 
to the formula given in No. 17. 

19 Stewart, R. T. 1905-6 CoUapsmg Pressures of Bessemer Steel Lap-welded 

Tubes 3 to 10 inches in diameter. ' Trans. Am. Soc. 
Mech. Eng.,' 1905-6, vol. 27, pp. 730-822. 
Over 500 tests canied out on lap-welded steel tubes. It was found that 
the length of tube between transverse joints tending to hold it to circular 
form has practically no influence on collapsing pressure so long as length not 
less than about six diameters. 
The formula 



J) = 1,000 (l - ^1- 1'600 jj\ 



for values of p less than 581 lb. and values of ' less than -023, and v 

d 

= 86,670 ~ — 1,386 for values of f and - greater than the above, are given. 

d d 

It is also pointed out that the formula 



J) = 50,210,000 C^ y 



represents very nearly the results of the tests on tubes in which L is less 

d 
than -023. A series of curves is also given, showing the inapplicability of the 
older formulae of Fairbairn, Nyf3trom, Grashof, Unwin, Belpaire, Wehage, 
Clark, &e., to modern tubes. 

20 Stewart, R. T. 1907 Collapsing Pressures of Lap-welded Steel Tubes. ' Trans. 

Amer. Soc. Mech. Eng.,' 1907, vol. 29, pp. 123-130. 
The eft'ects of the distortion due to successive re-tests on the collapsing 
pressures of 10-inch lap-welded steel tubes. The following formula is given : 

^ „^„„ Pi - 47-55 
p, = 0-0926^j^j' -^^jj,..,, + 47-55 

where jh = collajisiing pressure of normally round tube, 
'p, = that of distorted tube, 
M = ratio of max. to min. diameter. 

21 Stewart, R. T. 1911 Stresses in Tubes. ' Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.,' 1911, 

vol. 33, pp. 305-312. 
An investigation showing that the stresses in the wall of a tube exposed 
to an external fluid -pressure are of the same character as those in a column 
having fixed ends. 

-22 Unwin, W. C. 1875 Resistance of Flues to Collapse. ' Proc. Inst. Civ. En", 
vol. 46, p. 225, 1875. 
Showed, from shape of collapsed tube, that when length exceeded a 
certain value, strength would become constant. Deduced the formula 
E M- 1^ 

from analogy to struts. 



224 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Where n = No. of arcs into which tube divides in collapsing. 
E = Young's Modulus. 

By comparison with Fairbairn's experiments, proposed the formula 

2)= 115,000,000 --1 

provided that I is less than 6-7 d- 

and greater than 4,469 ^^ 

2.3 Westphal, M. 1909 Tubes under External Fluid Pressure. ' Zeitsehr. 
Vereines D. Ing.,' 53, pp. 1188-1191, 1909. ' Sci. 
Abs.,' 1909, No. 664. 

24 Wilson, R., and 1876 'Engineering,' vol. 21, 1876, pp. .392, 410, 441, 458, 

others. 483, 512; vol. 22, pp. 9, 30, 36, 75. 

A discussion of Fairbairn's formula. 

25 Board of Trade Rules for Survey of Passenger Steamships, 1913. §149, 'Circular 

Furnaces.' 

26 Lloyd's Rules for Survey and Construction of Engines and Boilers of Steam 

Vessels. Section 16, ' Circular Furnaces.' 



The Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury . — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. Munrg (Chairman) , 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins (Secretary), Professor W. 
EiDGBWAY, Sir Arthur J. Evans, Sir C. Hercules Ebad, 
Mr. H. Balfour, and Mr. A. Bulleid, appointed to investi- 
gate the Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury 
in connection with a Committee of the Somersetshire Archceo- 
logical and Natural History Society. (Drawn up by Mr. 
Arthur Bulleid and Mr. H. St. George Gray, the Directors 
of the Excavations.) 

The fourth season's exploration of the Meare Lake Village by the 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society began on 
May 15, 1913, and was continued until June 7. The ground excavated 
was situated in the same field and was continuous with the work of 
1910 and 1912. The digging included the examination of Mounds III. 
and IV., the S. quarter of Mound V., the N.E. part of Mound XIII. 
(remaining from last year's exploration), and portions of Mounds XV., 
XVII., and XVIII. 

Structurally the excavations proved to be of considerable interest 
and the number and importance of the relics discovered this season 
were greater than those of the previous year. 

"With reference to the construction of the mounds the attention of 
the directors was centred in the examination of Mound XIII., which 
revealed many features of exceptional interest. This mound consisted 
of four clay floors having a total thickness of 6 ft. 8 in. The lower- 
most floor was subdivided into a number of thin layers of clay of 
various colours, each having a baked clay or stoned hearth in the 



THE LAKE VILLAGES IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF GLASTONBURY. 225 

centre. In all there were fourteen superimposed hearths. The hearths 
belonging to Floors i., ii., and iii. were not superimposed, and \\ere 
situated several feet to the N.E. of those belonging to Floor iv. 

The substructure underlying the clay was of an average depth of 
two feet in thickness, consisting of timber and brushwood, amongst 
which were several well-preserved wattled hurdles, pieces of worked 
wood, mortised beams, and squared planks of oak. The largest plank of 
split oak measured 18 in. in width. Near the N.W. margin of 
Hearths xi. and xii., belonging to Floor iv., two superimposed planks 
of oak of nearly similar shape and size were discovered, separated by 
a layer of clay 2 in. in thickness. Each plank was perforated with 
three circular holes arranged in line, the holes of the upper plank 
being placed immediately over the corresponding perforations of the 
lower. Each pair of holes was filled by a pile driven vertically into 
the substructure below. The corresponding edge in both planks was 
cut semicircularly, resembhng somewhat the arms of a settle. 

Among other points of interest may be mentioned the central post 
of the dwelling erected over Floor iv., which was situated near the 
E. margin of the hearths, and a large area of lias stone discovered near 
the N. margin of the mound having the appearance of a landing-place. 
Near the S.W. margin of the lias stone was a silty layer of clay con- 
taining water-worn pebbles, grit, and a number of flint flakes. This 
layer was at the level of Floor iv. 

The structural details of Dwelling-mounds III. and IV. were of 
less importance. The substructure, however, was noteworthy on 
account of the absence of timber. Besides a little brushwood the 
foundation had been increased by a layer of cut peat placed on the sur- 
face of the bog. It was noticed that the substructure under the N.E. 
half of Mound XIII. had been covered wdth a thick layer of peat, 
amongst which were patches of compressed bracken and rush. 

Small portions of Mounds XV., XVII., and XVIII., adjoining 
Mound XIII., were examined, but a description of the structural 
details discovered is reserved, and will be incorporated in a future 
report when these dwellings have been fully explored. 

The following is a summary of the objects found this year: — 

Bone. — Two socketed tools with rivet-holes; a needle; an awl; two 
tibiae of horse, sawn and perforated ; pieces of cut rib-bone, one having 
two perforations ; parts of four worked scapulae (similar to several 
others previously found); several perforated tarsal bones of sheep or 
goat (? bobbins). Fifteen tarsal and carpal bones of sheep, not worked, 
were found laid out in rows in Mound XIII. in black earth belonging 
to Floor iv. — evidently a collection made for the purpose of converting 
them into tools. 

Antler. — Eight weaving-combs, some incomplete, some ornamented ; 
two ' cheek-pieces ' for horse harness ; roe-deer antler knife-handle ; 
several cut pieces of red and roe deer antler. 

Beads. — Finely preserved amber bead (the second found at Meare) ; 
two glass beads (one with spirals) ; and a baked clay bead. 

Bronze. — Pair of tweezers; two finger-rings; flat ring; rivets; and 
a few fragmentary objects. Also a solid bronze figure, perhaps 

1913. Q 



226 EEPORTS OK THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

intended to represent a boar with long ears — unfortunately the facial 
portion has been broken, but it is seen that there was a perforation 
through the forehead. Along the back there is a groove in which a 
thin bronze crest was inserted, traces of which remain. In length the 
figure is about 2h in. ; height over fore-legs about 1^ in. It is similar 
in character to the series of bronze figures — three boars and two 
nondescript animals — found at Hounslow,^ and another boar found at 
Guilden Morden, Cambs. 

Crucibles. — Two fragments. 

Lead and Tin. — Two lumps of lead ore, and a flat, wide ring, 
perhaps containing a large percentage of tin. 

Iron. — The iron objects for the greater part are much corroded and 
included a fragmentary ring encased in thin bronze, part of a file, a 
punch or narrow chisel, and a large pointed bar, of square section, 
which may have been an earth-anvil. 

Kimmeridge Shale. — An earring; part of a vessel, or cup; a knife- 
cut armlet (split); and parts of lathe-turned armlets. 

Pottery. — Mound XIII. produced a large amount of pottery, the 
thicker and ruder wares being found chiefly in the substructure. The 
proportion of ornamented pottery was again large, but there is a great 
amount of restoration work to do before the designs can be fully 
described. One ornamented bowl was revealed in six pieces, which, 
when joined, will make the vessel practically complete. The greater 
part of a plain pot was discovered on the fourth floor of Mound XIII. 
Ornamented bases of pots were also found this season. 

Flint. — Chipped and polished celt, of Neolithic type, length 4J in. 
(the second stone axe from Meare) ; an arrowhead and part of another ; 
a hammerstone ; a dozen scrapers ; two cores ; and a large number of 
flakes, some of which were burnt. Of the flint flakes, 154 were col- 
lected from Mound XIII. and 16 from Mound III. 

Sling-stones. — Two hundred and seventeen were collected this 
season, including 89 from Mound III. and 75 from Mound XIII. 
Thirteen baked clay sling-bullets and four unbaked ones were also 
found. Ninety-one whetstones were collected, including 57 from 
Mound XIII. 

Querns. — Several quern fragments were found, but only one com- 
plete saddle quern. 

Spindle -whorls. — Seven specimens, all of stone, were found this 
year in various stages of manufacture. 

Human Remains. — Humerus found in the fourth floor of 
Mound XIII. 

Animal Remains. — Plentiful, including several bird-bones. In the 
foundation of Mound XIII. a skeleton of roach (Leuciscus rutilus) was 
uncovered. 

1 Proc. Soc. Antiq., 2nd ser., iii., 90 ; Early Iron Age Guide, Brit. Mus,, 1903, 
p. 135. 



ON THE AGE OF STONE CIRCLES. 227 

The Age of Stone Circles. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Sir C. Hercules Ebad (Chairman), Mr. H. Balfour 
(Secretary), Dr. G. A. Auden, Professor W. Eidgeway, Dr. 
J. G. Garson, Sir A. J. Evans, Dr. E. Munro, Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. A. L. Lewis, appointed to conduct 
Explorations with the object of ascertaining the Age of Stone 
Circles. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

Owing to the smallness of the balance in hand, which only amounted 
to two guineas, it has not been possible to carry out any work at 
Avebury during the present year. It was hoped that this sum might 
be available for re-levelling the inequalities in the ground caused by 
shrinkage of soil disturbed during previous excavations; but as the 
levelling will have to be done under skilled supervision, the small 
amount would only suffice if a responsible person were on the spot, 
and as there was no grant for excavation work there was no suitable 
expert available. As soon as excavation work can be resumed at 
Avebury the levelling and repairs can be conducted concurrently with 
the more important operations and at trifling expense. In view of 
the scientific results already obtained from the excavations in former 
years, and as a means of adding to their value in determining the 
period to which the Avebury stone circle should be assigned, it is 
most important that fresh explorations should be made in another 
portion of the earthwork. It is especially desirable that a portion of 
the fosse to the east of the causeway leading from Kennet Avenue 
should be excavated down to its original bottom. This is on the 
opposite side of the causeway to the site of the previous excava- 
tions. This important piece of work should either confirm or correct 
the impressions derived from the sections cut through the fosse on 
former occasions, and may be expected to lead to definite results pro- 
vided that a sufficiently large area can be explored. With this object 
in view, the Committee apply for re-election and for a grant of 50L, 
together with the small balance in hand, which would still be allotted 
to the repairing of damage caused by previous excavations. The 
Committee also wish to apply for leave to invite subscriptions from 
other sources, in order to acquire a sum sufficient for moderately 
extensive investigation. Owing to the great depth of the silting in 
the fosse, the cost of excavation is relatively high, and the grant 
applied for would by itself only be sufficient for a very limited explora- 
tion of the fosse; but if the grant is allotted, a further sum will be 
available from private sources, enabling the work to be conducted on 
a more substantial scale, with every prospect of valuable results. It 
is important that excavations should be renewed at Avebury next 
spring if possible, and not be delayed for another year, as there would 
'be a better chance of enlisting the services of labourers who have 
already been employed in this work and have learned something of 
the requirements. 

The Committee desire to express their deep regret at the death 
of Lord Avebury, who had not only sei-ved upon the Committee for 
several years, but had also freely given permission for excavations 



228 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

to be made in those portions of Avebury stone circle and earthworks 
which were his own property. He was deeply interested in the work, 
a.nd was anxious that it should be carried out in a thorough manner, 
so as to yield results which might solve finally the problem of the 
age of this splendid monument. 



The Production of Certified Copies of Hausa Manuscripts. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. S. Hartland 
(Chairman), Professor J. L. Myres (Secretary), Mr. W, 
Crooke, and Major A. J. N. Tremearne. 

Afteb careful consideration of the question in all its bearings the 
Committee decided to accept the proposal of Messrs. Bale, Sons, & 
Danielsson, Limited, to print the Hausa manuscript tales, collected 
by Major Tremearne, as a companion volume to that already in pre- 
paration for him, and to provide twenty copies for the purposes of 
the Committee, in consideration of a grant of 201. towards the expense 
of printing. Major Tremearne has undertaken to certify the accuracy 
of these twenty copies, after comparison with his manuscript, and 
to adopt an approved system of transliteration in preparing the tales 
for the press. The printing is already in hand, and the volume of 
tales should be ready for publication early in the autumn of 1913. 



Artificial Islands in the Lochs of the Highlands of Scotland. — 
Third Beport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. Munro 
(Chairman), Mr. A. J. B. Wage (Secretary), and Professors 
W. Boyd Dawkins, J. L. Myres, and W. Eidgeway, on the 
distribution thereof. 

The Committee have received the following report from Dom Odo 
Blundell, of Port Augustus, in continuation of the two previous reports 
of the Committee. Much fresh information has been collected, and 
a. grant has been made by the Carnegie Trust to Dr. Munro for the 
excavation of the island in Loch Kinellan, which it is hoped to under- 
take at the first opportunity. In view of the proposed excavation, 
the Committee ask to be reappointed with the balance of last year's 
grant and a fresh grant of 101. 

APPENDIX. 

Report from Dom Odo Blundell, O.S.B. 

Since the report of last year several islands have been visited, 
and an application has been made for means to excavate the 
island in Loch Kinellan. By request of the shooting tenant, no work 
was to be done in this island till after the end of June, so that up 
to the date of writing it has not been possible to investigate this 
example further. 

Loch Tay. — ^Mr. Hugh Mitchell has continued his examination of 
the examples in this loch, which he thus summarises in a recent letter : 



ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OF HIGHLANDS OF SCOTLAND. 229 

' The aiiificial islands in Loch Tay, so far as I can ascei-tain, are 
as follows : — 

' 1. The Priory Island, or " Y," of Loch Tay. 

' 2. Cuigeal Mairi, or Mary's Distaff, about 200 yards west from 
Ihe Priory Island, which is submerged when the loch is at its normal 
height, but it is marked with a pole. 

' 3. Island in Fernan Bay, which can be seen at low water, and 
which is marked by a pole to prevent the steamer or boats striking it. 

' 4. Eilean nan Brebean, which is quite complete, is in the bay 
east of Morenish. It is almost wholly formed of stones of from 
10 lb. to 40 lb. in weight. 

' 6. In Finlarig Bay, to the west of Killin Pier. This island is 
marked by a tree. 

' 6. There is also a small island in good preservation on the west 
side of Acharn Bay. It has no name. ' 

Loch Achnacloich. — At the invitation of Major Cuthbert, Factor 
for Mr. Perrins, of Ardross Castle, I visited this loch on February 25. 
Major Cuthbert was absent for the day, but his senior clerk, Mr. 
Macdonald, motored me to the loch, about two miles distant. We 
easily found the cairn at the east end of the loch and about 80 yards 
distant from the shore. The top was covered by a few inches of water, 
but we could see that it exactly resembled the islands in Loch Moy 
and Loch Garry, which have been fully described elsewhere during 
the present survey. At the outer edge of the rubble building the 
depth of the water was from 8 to 10 feet, and the diameter of what 
may be judged to have been the top of the island is about 50 feet. 
With the boat-hook we could feel the wood that formed the founda- 
tion of the island, and could bring up chips from the logs, but did 
not succeed in dislodging one of these. The chips of wood showed 
that the logs were of oak. 

Loch Lomond. — Mr. Walter Macdermott, who has forty years' 
experience of fishing on the loch, of which he knows every bay and 
inlet, stated that there is a large cairn of stones in tlie loch just south 
of Doune and another opposite Eowchoish — the one investigated by 
Mr. Eobertson, Inversnaid. The Mill Cairn, in Boss Bay, he is sure 
is artificial. On the west side of the loch Mr. Macdermott mentions 
a large cairn in Luss Bay, just north of the pier, and another between 
the two points of Straddan Bay, with a third just south of this last. 
Mr. Henry Lamont, Secretary of the Loch Lomond Fishing Associa- 
tion, confirms all the above suggestions, and repeated his assurance 
that Insh Galbraith would be found to be artificial. Mr. Macdermott 
suggested further examples, such as the cairn in Eossdhu Bay, and 
another south of this and midway between AuchintulHch House and 
the bum. He agrees with Mr. Lynn in suggesting the cairn opposite 
Auchinheglish, and also the one opposite Cameron Point; while he 
well remembers the occasion when Dr. Robert Munro and Mr. David 
MacRitchie examined the island opposite Strathcashel Point. Dr. 
Munro, the author of several well-known works on artificial islands 
and the greatest living authority on the subject, informs me that it 



230 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1913. 

was in 1901 that he visited this island. As the water was low at 
the time, they were able to stand on the woodwork of which the island 
is partly composed. It then measured about 15 feet by 20 feet, and 
is distant 25 yards from the shore. 

Another resident in the Loch Lomond district, Mr. MacGregor, 
farmer, Garabel, reported seeing a large cairn of stones or small island 
at the mouth of the Eiver Falloch on the north or Ardleish side. This 
he hoped to investigate more fully during the coming summer. From 
the above information there is every reason to hope that this loch 
will prove of great interest, for even if some of the islands suggested 
prove to be natural, the fact that one has already been certified as 
artificial by so competent observers as Dr. Munro and Mr. MacEitchie 
leads one to suspect that others will be in the same category. 

Additional Note. 
By Mr. Hugh Muneo, C.E., Kilmarnock. 

Description of a supposed Artificial Island in a small Loch near 
Loch Ranza, Arran. 

The loch with the island is situated about a mile up the valley 
from Loch Ranza Pier and about 500 yards to the south of the public 
road. It lies at the base of a steep hill, and a small bum flows from 
the north-west end to the river. The bottom of the loch is gravelly, 
and it does not appear to be of great depth. The island lies towards 
the north shore, and is probably 40 feet long by 10 feet wide, and 
covered with bushes (a species of willow). In one place there was 
an almost continuous line of peaty matter from the island to the shore, 
and I reached the island by laying ladders on this peat, which was 
otherwise too soft to bear my weight. The island had a thick growth 
of grass, and felt quite solid underfoot. Deer had formed a path around 
it, and I learned afterwards that in dry summers children could wade 
to it. I had no implements for digging, and so could not examine the 
structure of the place, but quite close to the solid part I could push 
a pole six or eight feet through soft mud. There is no evidence to 
show that the island is artificial; my reason for supposing it to be so 
is that the island appeared out of place in the geological configuration 
of the neighbourhood of the loch. 



The Organisation of Anthropometric Investigation in the British 
Isles. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. 
Thomson (Chairman), Dr. F. C. Shrubsall (Secretary), Dr. 
G. A. AuDEN, Dr. Duckworth, Professor A. Keith, and 
Professor G. Elliot Smith. 

The Committee fully considered the lines of possible future work, and 
concluded that the most useful and pressing subject would be the corre- 
lation and co-ordination of the records of physique now being accumu- 
lated by the medical officers of the various education authorities. This 
subject would, however, require a large part of the time of anyone who 



ON ANTHROPOMETRIC INVESTIGATION IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 231 

undertook to be Secretary of the Committee, if, indeed, it did not demand 
his undivided attention. It would be difficult to find anyone who 
could spare the time and energy devoted to this Committee by the late 
Secretary, Mr. J. Gray. The Committee have therefore reluctantly 
come to the conclusion that they could not undertake the task, but 
recommend that if any suitable investigator becomes available the Section 
should consider favourably the formation of a new Committee to render 
assistance to the project. The work of the former Anthropometric 
Committee of the Association has become so well known that it would 
materially aid any future inquiry to be conducted under the aegis of the 
Association. 



Excavations on Roman Sites iri Britain. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor Kidgeway (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor E. C. BosANQUET (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. 
WiLLOUGHBY GARDNER, and Professor J. L. Myres, ap- 
pointed to co-operate with Local Committees in Excavations 
on Roman Sites in Britain. 

This Committee was reappointed in September 1912, to co-operate 
with the Abergele Antiquarian Association in the exploration of the 
hill-fort in Parc-y-meirch Wood, Kinmel Park, Denbighshire. 

In recent years several hill-forts in North Wales have been investi- 
gated: (1) Tre'r Ceiri in Carnarvonshire, where sixty-four huts were 
excavated in 1903 and 1906 by the Cambrian Archaeological Associa- 
tion. (2) Pen-y-gaer, near Llanbedr-y-cenin, Carnarvonshire, ex- 
amined by the Nant Conwy Antiquarian Society in 1905. (3) Pen- 
y-corddyn Mawr, near Llanddulas, Denbighshire, examined by the 
Abergele Antiquarian Association in 1905-9. (4) Braich-y-ddinas on 
Penmaenmawr Mountain, Carnarvonshire, where a survey, accom- 
panied by excavation, is being made for the Cambrian Archaeological 
Association. 

Eeports on (1), (2), and (4), by Mr. Harold Hughes and others, and 
on (2) and (3) by Mr. Willoughby Gardner, have appeared in ' Archaeo- 
logia Cambrensis,' ^ and have furnished data for comparing the methods 
of construction used in these forts and determining the periods during 
which they were occupied. The fact which directly concerns this 
Committee is that three of them yielded Eoman pottery: Tre'r Ceiri 
and Braich-y-ddinas, which are village-sites with numerous hut-circles, 
producing much more than Pen-y-corddyn, which was rather a refuge 
fort, bearing marks of hasty construction and demolition. 

Similar evidence of occupation in Eoman times was recorded in 
1850 by Mr. W. Wynne Foulkes for three of the native forts which 
crown the heights of the Clwyd range on the borders of Flint and 

' Sixth Series. (1) Tre'r Ceiri, iv. 1 and vii. 38. (2) Pen-y-gaer, vi. 241. 
(3) Pen-y-corddyn. x. 79 (4) Braich-y-ddinas, xii. 169 and xiii. 353. The 
work at Tre'r Ceiri was done by the Eev. S. Baring Gould and Mr. E. Burnard 
in 1903, by Professor Boyd Dawliins, Col. L. W. Morgan, and Mr. Harold 
Hughes in 1906. 



232 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Denbigh. The inference drawn at that time was that these sites had 
been occupied ' by the Eomans. ' It has become increasingly plain in 
recent years that ' Eoman ' pottery, both Continental ' Samian ' and 
coarser home-made wares, was used by the natives throughout the 
province of Britain, and in some cases also outside its limits ; and, as 
much of this pottery can be dated, it may be expected to furnish a 
useful index of the distribution of the native population at various 
stages of the Eoman occupation. The excavations carried out in 
recent years by Mr. E. Neil Baynes at Din Lligwy, on the north-east 
coast of Anglesey, furnish an admirable example of the amount of 
information as to native culture under Eoman influence which may be 
recovered from a fortified village-site.^ 

From this point of view, the fort of Parc-y-meirch presents a most 
promising field of inquiry. The excavation begun in 1912 by the 
Abergele Antiquarian Association was originally suggested by the 
Cambrian Archaeological Association, through its President, Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, and has received generous support both from the 
national society and from subscribers in the district. But the excep- 
tional size of the fortifications — the main rampart rises fifty feet ver- 
tically above the bottom of its encircling ditch — and the complexity of 
the stratification, due to more than one destruction and rebuilding, 
make it a very costly site to dig. The grant of 151. allotted to this 
Committee has been spent in wages, supplementing the funds raised 
from other sources, and has made possible a more extended examina- 
tion of the ditches and gates. The work has been superintended by 
Mr. Willoughby Gardner, whose account of this season's work is 
printed as an appendix to this report. A full record has been made 
in the form of plans, sections, and photographs. Professor Arthur 
Keith has kindly undertaken to describe the human remains found 
at more than one point in the rock-cut ditch. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed and applies for a renewal 
of its grant. 

APPENDIX TO COMMITTEE'S EEPOET. 

Further Excavations in the Ancient Hill Fort in Parc-y-meirch Wood, 
Kinmel Park, Abegele, North Wales, during 1913. By 
Willoughby Gardneb, F.L.S. 

At the Dundee Meeting last September an account was given of some 
excavations made, by kind permission of the owner, Colonel Hughes, 
in this native hill fort by the Abergele Antiquarian Society and the 
Cambrian Archaeological Association, as printed in abstract in the 
' Eeport of the British Association,' 1912, pages 611-12. This year 
further work has been done by the same societies during six weeks 
upon this extensive site, by help of ten labourers and several amateur 
assistants, and aided by Colonel Hughes in very many material ways. 
Indeed, exploration of this wooded hill would have been impossible had 
not Colonel Hughes most generously allowed trees to be cut down 
whenever necessary and himself lent tackle for the work. This 

' Arch. Camb., VI., viii. 183. 



ON EXCAVATIONS ON ROMAN SITES IN BRITAIN. 233 

season's excavation work has been much stimulated by the invahiable 
co-operation of one of the Eesearch Committees of Section H of the 
British Association, as well as helped by a grant of 151. from the same 
source. Professor E. 0. Bosanquet, the Secretary of this Committee, 
spent five days with us upon the site. 

Attention was first directed to the interior area at the north end, 
and to the artificial defences and an entrance near that end; subse- 
quently the defences to the south and south-east were investigated, 
and finally further examination was made of the south-east entrance. 
Last year evidence was obtained of three occupations of the hill fort 
in a section of three superincumbent roadways in this entrance. It 
was shown by relics unearthed upon the topmost roadway that the 
latest of these occupations was during the fourth century a.d. Many 
similar relics (of which photographs were exhibited) were found 
also in the interior area of the stronghold, proving that portions of the 
hilltop at any rate were inhabited by a primitive-living native resident 
population at that time. 

During the present summer excavations have revealed relics, in 
the form of pottery, coins, &c., belonging to the same period at the 
northern end of the hill fort and elsewhere. It was thought at first 
that the fourth-century occupation of the hill-top might have been 
partial only, but identical remains have now been found within the 
stronghold at the south-east, the south, the south-west, and the 
north, proving an occupation of practically the entire site by a large 
number of people, who, besides possessing implements and utensils 
of home manufacture, used Eoman pottery and a Eoman currency. 
All these foui"th-oentury relics were foimd very near to the present 
surface, being covered by one to one and a half feet only of vegetable 
humus. 

Last year a plan showed the fourth-century roadway in the south- 
east entrance as far as excavated. It was a passage with roughly 
built side walls in dry masonry, thirty-eight feet long, cut through 
wide-spreading ruins ; it has since been found that it was closed by 
four gates set up at intervals within its course, of which the 
holes for the wooden gate-posts, and some charred wood fragments 
found in a few of them alone survive. Photographs exhibited showed 
that portions of the side walls of this passage were built upon previous 
ruins. Further excavations this season have revealed two guardhouses 
here, one on each side within the entrance; these also are constructed 
amid ruins, their sites being dug out of the fallen dSbris of earlier 
guardhouses. 

Work during 1912 showed that the inner ditch at the south side 
of the stronghold was filled with the ruin of a wall which previously 
stood on the rampart above. This year's investigations have shown 
that apparently the whole lengt.h of this ditch was so filled as well as 
a similar one at the north end. Cuttings were made across the second 
ditch on the south-east, south, and south-west sides, and it also was 
found to be more or less filled with stony clihris in the neighbourhood 
of the entrance and on the south-west side. It was further discovered 
this year that sometimes the first and sometimes the second of these 



284 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

ditches had been in part re-excavated at a later date. This was appa- 
rently the work of the fourfh-century inhabitants of the stronghold. 

The accumulated results of the two seasons' work now show that 
during the fourth century, or earlier, the natives of the district re- 
occupied the hill fort after its previous destruction at some unknown 
time ; that they entrenched themselves behind ramparts roughly 
constructed upon ruins and defended by shallow ditches re-excavated 
in deeper ones previously filled up ; and that they cut a fresh entrance 
to the south-east through the debris of an older one. 

A closer date for this return to the hill-topis apparently obtained by 
further finds, made this year, of Eoman ' third ' and ' small brass ' coins. 
The total number found during the two seasons amounts to thirty-seven 
from sixteen different sites; they are as follows: — One Trajan, very 
worn; one Julia Mamaea, worn; four Gallienus, more or less worn; 
one Claudius Gothicus. fair condition ; three Tetricus, cut and worn ; 
two Carausius, in good condition; one Crispus, corroded; four Con- 
stantinus Magnus (minted about a.d. 335), in fine condition; one 
Constantinus II., in fine condition; one Constantius II., in good con- 
dition ; ten Constans, in corroded to fine condition ; three Magnentius, 
in corroded to good condition; one Valens, in good condition; one 
Gratianus, in good condition; one illegible. It is to be noted that 
though careful watch was kept for the ' minimi 'of the fifth century, 
none were discovered. Most of the coins found were struck in 
Gaul; the majority were minted a.d. 835 to a.d. 353, and the latest 
about A.D. 380. On the numismatic evidence therefore this would 
seem to point to a reoccupation of the site somewhere about a.d. 340, 
and either to a final abandonment, or else to a cutting off of traffic with 
the Eoman world, soon after a.d. 380. It is suggested that the return 
of the natives to the ruined foi-t on the hill-top may have been caused by 
raids of Irish or other sea pirates who boldly infested the coast after the 
withdrawal of the Eoman troops from this district some time prior to 
A.D. 340. 

But, as has been previously pointed out, the above is a mere 
episode in the story of this hill fort, which is of far earlier origin. 
This summer's excavations have thrown further light upon its earlier 
constructions. The plan of the more ancient entrance at the south- 
east, also found to have two guardhouses, has been in part recovered 
from the ruins. This entrance had a good gravelled roadway and side 
walls in dry masonry better built than those of the later superin- 
cumbent entrance ; it had apparently post-holes for a single gate only. 
In many ways it resembles one of the three entrances excavated by the 
Abergele Antiquarian Association some years ago in the ancient hill- 
fortress on Pen-y-corddyn, three miles distant. 

Eighteen cuttings made at various points in front of the ramparts 
have revealed the courses of ditches for the most part previously hidden 
from sight by di.hrh. At the north end there was a single ditch across 
the spur of the hill below the main rampart, and this ditch was con- 
tinued along the north-east side. It was V-shaped, and was cut, from 
five to seven feet deep, and from seven to nine feet wide across its 
top, out of solid rock. Opposite to a point where an entrance had 



ON EXCAVATIONS ON ROMAN SITES IN BRITAIN. 235 

been previouBly located at the north-east of the hill fort, this ditch 
vva3 found to curve slightly inwards, shallowing to less than two feet; a 
similar ditch further on was found to curve slightly outwards, without 
shallowing, so as to form an overlap on either side of the rock cause- 
way which leads up to the entrance. This ditch was found to be 
filled to the brim with limestone rubble and wall facing stones from 
the ramparts above. That these stones had not fallen merely from 
the natural decay of the wall, but rather that the ramparts had been 
deliberately thrown down into the ditch, was shown by the rubble being 
frequently clean and free from soil throughout. And that this throw- 
ing down took place not long after the ditch was cut was made plain 
by the fact of there being practically no silting upon the solid rock 
below the stones. At the south side of the hill-fort this year's 
excavations showed three more or less parallel ditches across 
the level neck of land below the great main rampart; the inner 
one was V-shaped and the others nearly so. The dimensions of the 
inner one approximated to that of the ditch at the north end, but the 
outer ones were generally wider and sometimes deeper. Here also 
the inner ditch was found to be filled with the ruins of a dry masonry 
wall which formerly existed upon the top of the main rampart. The 
stones and rubble showed similar features to those described at the 
north end, again proving that the wall had not merely fallen from 
decay, but had been deliberately thrown down into the ditch not long 
after the latter was cut. At the south-east side only two parallel 
ditches were found on excavation, the first entirely, and the second 
at the end near the entrance, being filled with debris in a similar way. 

The ramparts also showed marks of destruction in many places. All 
along the main south rampart the whole of the v/all just mentioned was 
thrown down the slope with the exception of a few foundation stones 
here and there. To the south-west not only the wall at the top, but the 
entire rampart, had been deliberately destroyed — shovelled down the 
slopes into the ditches below. At the north end the facing wall of 
the rampart had been removed to its foundation stones. At well-nigh 
every point where investigations have hitherto been made — in the south- 
east entrance, in the ramparts, in the ditches to the north, the north- 
east, the south-east, the south, and the south-west — destruction is 
everywhere apparent; and, further, there are traces of a great con- 
flagration at some early period in the large quantities of burned 
limestone found in several places, e.g., below the floors and walls of 
the guard-chambers in the south-east entrance. A few human remains 
and some fragments of Eoman pottery have been found deep in the 
ditches and upon the second road in the south-east entrance ; but relics 
hitherto unearthed in definite strata of the ruins of the earher forti- 
fications are disappointingly few, and do not include anything that has 
yet been accurately dated. 

Up to the present, therefore, no certain evidence of the time of 
this destruction of the hill fort is forthcoming, except that it vvas 
during an early period of its existence. But it is difficult to conceive 
of its having been the result either of local tribal warfare or of piratical 
raids, and it is suggested that it shows the work of the Eoman armies. 



236 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 

perhaps during one of their expeditions into the district in the first 
century a.d. 

The section of the three roadways in the south-east entrance, of 
which a photograph was shown last year, pointed to three occupations 
of the hill fort — the fourth century one and two of earlier date. 
This year's investigations afford similar evidence from other directions, 
but it is not yet possible to apportion the superincumbent roadways 
found to the various constructions and destructions of entrances, of 
ramparts, and of ditches that have since been unearthed ; in particular, 
a massive wall which suggests a still earlier entrance than that con- 
taining the three superincumbent roadways has been brought to light, 
eighteen feet to the east of the latter. It is hoped that this apportion- 
ment may be accomplished by future excavations. 

Although this year's work has advanced our knowledge of this 
extensive site by several steps, the explorers feel that they are only 
on the threshold of an investigation which promises much information 
about a dark period in the early history of Wales. 



Prehistoric Site at Bishop's Stortford. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor W. Eidgbway (Chairman), Dr. 
W. L. H. Duckworth (Secretary), Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, Dr. A. C. Haddon, and Dr. W. H. Marett Tims, 
appointed to co-operate with a Local Committee in the excava- 
tion thereon. 

On Wednesday, May 7, Dr. Haddon and the Secretary visited Bishop's 
Stortford at the invitation of the Eev. Dr. Irving, B.A., and with him 
they made an inspection of the site on which the ' fossil horse ' was 
found about three and a half years ago. 

The site is at the western side of a meadow about half a mile west 
of the town and at a considerable height above the Stort valley. The 
actual excavation in which the skeleton was found is now a lily-pond. 
A wire fence separates the meadow from the property occupied by Dr. 
Dockray. A small trial trench in the meadow below the pond was 
found to be filled with water. On the actual site there is at present 
no exposure, trench, or section of any kind, further than that furnished 
by the lily-pond itself, so that Dr. Haddon and the Secretary can give 
only a bare statement of its position as described to them, and for 
details must refer to reports already pubhshed. It would appear that 
Dr. Dockray may possibly become interested in the meadow adjoining 
his land, and in that event he may carry out extensive levelling or 
scarping. Should this surmise be realised, the interest of the skeleton 
already found calls for the maintenance of as close an inspection as 
possible. 

While regretting that there is little to report to the Committee in 
connection with the special object with which it was originally 
appointed, beyond what was reported by Dr. Irving in 1911 at the 
Portsmouth Meeting, Dr. Haddon and the Secretary desire to express 



PREHISTORIC SITE AT BISHOP's STORTFORD. 237 

their appreciation of Dr. Irving 's efforts to elucidate the difficult local 
probleTns in geology and archaeology, and to record their satisfaction 
with the valuable work he has accomplished and continues to carry 
out in keeping definite records of local discoveries. Dr. Irving 'b 
publications will show the nature and scope of his activities, but in 
this Eeport it is advisable to mention that he gave a general demonstra- 
tion (of the local geological conditions) to Dr. Haddon and the Secre- 
tary. In particular the gravel pit known as Frere's pit was visited, 
and after the main exposure had been viewed, attention was directed 
to a trench in the Boulder-clay (above the gravel) in which prehistoric 
sherds and other objects were found in 3912 by Dr. Irving and his 
sons. A visit was paid subsequently to Gilbey's gravel pit, and the 
remarkable fact was demonstrated that the Boulder-clay so conspicuous 
in Frere's pit is absent from Gilbey's, though the two are at most 
some two hundred yards apart, a ' river-drift ' deposit occupying the 
horizon of the Boulder-clay. Dr. Haddon and the Secretary were thus 
enabled to gain a good idea of two tvpical exposures of the locality. 

In terminating this report Dr. Haddon and the Secretary have to 
express their opinion that under the present circumstances it does not 
appear to them necessary that the special committee to investigate 
the prehistoric site at Bishop's Stortford should be reappointed. 



Palceolithic Sites in the West of England. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor W. Boyd Dawkins (Chair- 
m,an), Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth (Secretary), and Professor 
A. Keith, appointed to report thereon. 

The members of the Committee visited various caves in the West of 
England during the early part of the present year (1913). 

Inasmuch as they have not been able to meet for the purpose of 
combining the results of their observations, the members of the Com- 
mittee ask to be reappointed without a grant. 



AncBsthetics. — Fifth Interim Eeport of the Committee, consist- 
ing of Dr. A. D. Waller (Chairman) , Sir Frederic Hewitt 
(Secretary), Dr. Blumfeld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, and Dr. 
G-. A. Buckmaster, appointed to acquire further knowledge. 
Clinical and Experimental, concerning AncBsthetics — espe- 
cially Chloroform, Ether, and Alcohol — with special refer- 
ence to Deaths hy or during Ancesthesia, and their possible 
diminution. 

During the past year we have acquired further experience of the use 
of the chloroform-balance in the hospital and in the laboratory. Our 
opinion has been confirmed that this apparatus affords the safest pos- 
sible and the most convenient fixed means of inducing and maintaining 



238 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 

ansestHesia upon man and animals. As a laboratory fixture, so far 
from requiring a greater expenditure o! time and attention, its routine 
use has proved to be economical in both these respects ; the smaller 
animals, such as dogs, cats, rabbits, and mice, are most conveniently 
prepared and kept ready for operation in a bell- jar or other confined 
space by means of a continuous stream of chloroform and air at per- 
centages rising from to 2 per cent., and subsequently falling from 
1 to 0.6 per cent. 

Our attention has been directed to the action of local anaesthetics — 
cocaine, stovaine, * novocaine,' ' eucaine, ' &c., and we have undertaken 
observations of their relative toxicities as measured by their effects 
upon isolated tissues. But upon the present occasion we desire to 
lay particular stress upon the practical dangers involved in the use of 
these powerful poisons by unqualified persons, more especially in con- 
nection with cheap dentistry. 

This matter has been closely investigated by our Honorary Secre- 
tary, Sir Frederic Hewitt, and we consider that the facts brought to 
light in that investigation are of such gravity as to require the most 
serious consideration of the British Association. The detailed report 
of Sir F. Hewitt and a formal resolution arising out of that report have 
been discussed at length in Section I, and the unanimous opinion of 
the Section, after listening to the opinions expressed by several inde- 
pendent authorities — Professor Barling, Dr. Saundby, Dr. McOardie, 
Dr. George Foy, Mr. Vernon Harcourt, Mr. Leonard Hill, Mr. 
Joscelyne, and Mr. Pearce — is to the effect that it is desirable at this 
juncture that the Committee of Section I should consider, and if judged 
proper forward to the Council of the Association, the following resolu- 
tion : — 

' That in view of th'e fact that numerous deaths continue to take 
place from anaesthetics administered by unregistered persons, the Com- 
mittee of the Section of Physiology of the British Association appeals 
to the Council of the Association to represent to the Home Office and 
to the Privy Council the urgent need of legislation.' 

The Committee asks to be reappointed, and that its original reference 
should be extended to include the study of ' local anassthetics, such as 
cocaine and stovaine.' 

APPENDIX. 

An Account of Three Fatal Cases of Poisonmg hy Cocaine administered 
hy Unqualified Persons. Bi/ Sir Frederic Hewitt. 

As Honorary Secretary of the Committee, and as one of those who 
have for some time past urged the need of legislation to prohibit 
the administration of anaesthetics by unqualified persons, I venture to 
draw the attention of the Committee to three coroners' inquests which 
have taken place within the past few months upon members of the 
working-classes to whom cocaine or some derivative thereof has been 
administered for tooth-extraction by unregistered dentists. 

The evidence given at the first of the three inquests went to show 
that the deceased was a woman forty-five j^ears of age, the wife of a 



ON ANAESTHETICS. 239 

labourer earning 16s. a week. She consulted a wholly unqualified and 
unregistered ' practitioner of dentistry,' agreeing to pay him four 
guineas for preliminary tooth extraction and subsequent artificial teeth. 
The ' practitioner of dentistry ' admitted that whilst the law permitted 
him to use this title he could not call himself a ' dental practitioner. ' 
Before the extraction he injected a solution of cocaine and adrenalin, 
disregarding the fact that the gums were very unhealthy. He also 
ignored the warning on the label of the bottle containing the analgesic 
eolution : ' The contents of this package are only to be used in accord- 
ance with the prescription of a medical practitioner. ' Some hours after 
the operation the patient became semi-delirious and retched. Next 
morning she became unconscious and convulsed. She died early on the 
following morning. The ' practitioner of dentistry ' stated in evidence 
that he had only injected J gr. cocaine. At the post-mortem the guma 
were found to be lacerated and the heart and kidneys to be diseased, but 
the cause of death, in the opinion of the two medical men called in, was 
cocaine poisoning. The jury returned a verdict of death by misadven- 
ture, but ' asked the coroner to severely censure Mr. for admin- 
istering such large quantities of cocaine without having the necessary 
qualification. ' 

At the second inquest the evidence showed that the patient had been 
a perfectly healthy woman, aged twenty-nine, the wife of a bricklayer. 
Suffering from toothache she consulted a so-called ' dental operator," 
who injected cocaine and then extracted a decayed tooth. There was 
considerable inflammation around the tooth — a state which is now 
generally regarded as strongly contra-indicating injection. The patient on 
her return home lay ' in a dizzy condition. ' A week after the operation 
a medical man was called in who found the patient to be ' suffering 
from some narcotic poison. ' She was in a ' collapsed condition. ' Next 
day the narcotic symptoms passed off and the mouth was found to be 
septic. The patient died four days later. At the post-mortem a condi- 
tion of pyaemia was found originating in disease of the jaw around the 
tooth socket. In his remarks to the jury the coroner said ' he thought 
the position was certainly a very unsatisfactory one that people without 
any qualification of having been apprenticed — in what he might call a 
legal way — to a dentist should be allowed to operate by injecting cocaine 
or any derivative of cocaine, or any other drug of that kind.' Owing, 
no doubt, to the fact that the ' dental operator ' exercised his right to 
answer no incriminating questions, the hands of the jury were to a 
great extent tied, and after much difficulty they returned a verdict 
' that the deceased died from blood-poisoning, but that there was not 
sufficient evidence to show how it was produced. ' Fortunately, further 
light was thrown upon this lamentable case some two months after the 
inquest, when the husband of the deceased woman sued the so-called 
' dental operator ' for damages in respect of his wife's death and 
obtained judgment for 70Z. At the civil proceedings it was shown that 
the defendant ' advertised painless extractions with no after-effects.' 
The prosecution stated that ' the negligence complained of was that the 
defendant wrongly injected a solution of cocaine into an abscess which 



240 REPORTS ON THE STATE OE SCIENCE. — 1913. 

he ought to have known to exist, thereby causing blood-poisoning and 
death. ' In the course of the proceedings the defendant admitted that on 
one occasion he had paid 21. compensation to a patient upon whom he 
had performed an injection, and that in two other cases he had been 
obliged to pay for medical advice required by patients after his opera- 
tions. The judge found that the deceased ' was negligently treated by 
the defendant — ignorantly of course, but negligently. This negligence 
was the cause of the illness with which she was seized, and that illness 
caused her death. ' 

The third inquest was held upon the body of a young married 
woman twenty-three years of age, whose occupation had been that of 
shirt-making. Though quite able to do her work her general health had 
not been very good. She had suffered from toothache. The evidence 
showed that she had obtained the services of a ' dental operating 
mechanic,' who, having come to the house, injected cocaine as a pre- 
liminary to tooth extraction. Very shortly after the injection the 
patient complained of curious sensations in her hands and feet, and 
rapidly became unconscious. ' Her lips, face and hands were blue, and 
she was breathing heavily.' She died very shortly afterwards. The 
post-mortem examination showed that the deceased was ' well-nour- 
ished and sound. ' In summing up the coroner said ' he thought 
that, in view of the fact that there was so much of this injecting going 
on by unqualified persons, the sooner something was done to prevent 
it the better it would be for the public' The jury returned a ' verdict 
that death was due to misadventure, but added a recommendation that 
the law should be so ainended as to prohibit the use of anaesthetics 
except by fully qualified practitioners. ' The coroner said ' he cordially 
agreed with the recommendation and would communicate it to the 
Home Office.' 

There have been several similar inquests in recent years. At one 
of these, held in Ireland, upon a young woman of nineteen, to whom 
cocaine had been administered, but whose death was more probably due 
to haemorrhage, the jury strongly condemned the action of unqualified 
persons going about the country performing dental operations. The 
unqualified dentist was committed for manslaughter, and, in summing 
up at the trial the judge said: ' So far as the citizens were concerned 
he thought it was a highly dangerous thing that these young men should 
be let out to try their apprentice hand — for it was nothing else — upon 
patients. ' The prisoner was found guilty, but recommended to mercy 
on the grounds of his ignorance, the judge considering the dental firm, 
whose employe the prisoner was, more culpable. 

It is highly important, in this connection, to bear in mind the 
following facts with regard to cocaine and its derivatives : (1) The risk 
attendant upon the injection of cocaine and similar analgesics is quite as 
great from the septic as from tlie purely toxic side. It hence happens 
that apart from the numerous cases of cocaine poisoning which occur, 
a few of which terminate in inquests, there are a large number of 
others which escape attention, the victims either suffering from pro- 
longed impairment of health or dying from sequelae rarely traced to 



ON ANESTHETICS, 241 

their true causes. (2) The injection of cocaine or its derivatives may 
lead to dangerous or fatal symptoms by (a) direct toxicity ; {b) the 
introduction of septic organisms into the circulation through improper 
sterilisation of injecting appliances ; (c) lacerating and reducing the 
vitality and power of recovery of inflamed tissues into which the anal- 
gesic solution may have been forced, with the result that sloughing or 
necrosis follows; and (d) ' the injected fluid, not only driving out the 
blood and lymph, but also dispersing pathogenic organisms into the 
tissues and even into the general circulation ' (Gibbs). (3) It is hence 
clear that without proper medical or dental education and training the 
risks to the public of such injections are very great. 



Electromotive Phenomena in Plants. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. A. D. Wallee (Chairman), Mrs. Waller 
(Secretary), Professors J. B. Farmer and Veley, and Dr. 
F. O'B. Ellison. (Drawn up by the Chairman.) 

In previous reports we have stated that the presence of a ' blaze- 
current ' is a sign that a given vegetable tissue is alive and also how 
much it is alive, i.e., that it is a quantitative as well as a qualitative test 
of the living state. 

In a recent number of the ' Annals of Botany ' ^ W. Laurence 
Balls, after a laborious attempt to estimate the vitality of cotton 
plants by means of this test, comes to the conclusion that the method, 
although holding good as a ' death-test,' does not seem to be a ' vitality- 
test ' in a quantitative sense, and that it failed of its object with regard 
to the testing of root samples, because the small roots give the most 
insignificant results. 

Mr. Balls has very courageously attacked a new and difficult 
problem with very inadequate resources, i.e., with a galvanometer of 
22 ohms resistance, with induction currents of excessive strength, and 
with a circuit of such intricacy as to make it difficult to verify direction 
of excitation and response, and impossible to obtain systematic data. 
I think it is very much to Mr. Balls 's credit, and incidentally a very 
encouraging sign of the applicability of the blaze-test, that it should 
have been possible to obtain any result whatever under such conditions. 
And I venture to forecast that the tenacity of pm'pose that has enabled 
Mr. Balls to discover by his apparatus that the blaze-test is a death-test 
will, if he pursues the inquiry under more favourable conditions, enable 
him to discover further that the t«st can be employed as a ' measure of 
vitality ' in particular cases more or less difficult. We have hitherto 
applied the test quantitatively only in cases selected as being the most 
easy and best adapted to the acquisition of comparable numbers by the 
fewest number of trials, e.g., to seeds fresh and old, to parts of plants 
presumably more or less active, or of which the activity has been 

' 'Apparent Fallacies of Electrical Response in Cotton Plants,' by W. 
Laurence Balls, M.A., Annnh of Botany, January 1913, p. 103. 

1913. B 



242 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

more or less reduced by means of anaesthetics. We have not been 
sanguine enough to attempt to measure the vitahty of a given set of 
plants by applying the test to its roots; we have not even ventured 
to attack preliminary questions, such as the comparative vitality of roots 
and stems or of their different parts. In spite of the fact that we are 
able to work under favourable conditions as regards apparatus and 
method, we are only too familiar with the difficulty of securing uni- 
formity of experimental conditions during the uninterrupted periods of 
time required for the systematic recording of a sufficient number of 
data. We have, therefore, refrained from enibarking upon difficult 
problems such as that proposed to himself by Mr. Balls, although we 
are by no means convinced that it is incapable of solution after its 
necessary preliminaries have been mastered, and provided the observer 
can then devote to it the necessary time and attention. But as a 
practical proposition it certainly cannot be solved by sporadic or sum- 
mary experiments such as are sufficient to establish the validity of its 
principle. 

Hitherto our reports have been directed to the establishment of the 
method in principle, and in this respect we believe ourselves to have 
been successful; we have shown, e.g., that the voltage of blaze-currents 
and the vitality of seeds decline -pari passu with their age. 

Our present report contains a detailed account of individual observa- 
tions carried out during the months of July and August to serve as an 
indication and sample of the procedure we think necessary to follow in 
working out the test as a practical method of measuring the vitality of 
seedlings. 

A repetition of the description of method, precautions, results, &c., 
is not possible now; we must refer for such description to previous 
publications, more especially to an article in the Journal of the Linnean 
Society, Vol. XXXVII., on the blaze-currents of vegetable tissues, 
and to my lectures on ' Signs of Life ' published by John Murray, 
1903. 

It is, however, necessary to say in preface to the following detailed 
protocols : 

1. That excitation by a single induction shock must be of given 
constant strength, not too weak when little or no response is obtained, 
nor too strong when after a large response the subsequent excitability is 
impaired. 

2. That it is convenient to have in circuit two galvanometers of 
different sensitiveness, so that small responses are read upon the more 
sensitive, large responses upon the less sensitive galvanometer. In the 
protocols Gj is a less sensitive galvanometer of 5,000 ohms, Gj is a 
more sensitive galvanometer of 70,000 ohms. 

3. The voltage of response and the resistance in circuit are to be 
calculated from the deflections through the plant and through a megohm 
of a known fraction (one-hundredth) of a volt. 



ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANTS. 



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244 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913 





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OJ I 



ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANTS. 



245 



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246 



fttePORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 








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S. M 



ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANTS. 



247 



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248 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



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2\ 



ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANTS. 



249 



3«. 


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250 



REPORTS ON THK STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 



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voltage 


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ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANT8. 



251 



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252 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 





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ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANTS. 



253 



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254 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 



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ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANTS. 



255 



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256 



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ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANTS. 



2D7 



1913. 



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258 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 

The foregoing data, scanty and imperfect as they are, indicate 3 
general relation between plant-vitality and voltage of blaze-current. 
But our principal object has been to indicate in detail the systematic 
lines along which further observations are required from which — 
multiplied a hundredfold — it can become legitimate to infer in given 
instances how much the blaze-current actually varies with varying 
degrees of plant-activity and (?) plant-health under given conditions. 



2'he Structure and Function of the Mammalian Heart. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor Francis Gotch 
(Chairman) and Professor Stanley Kent (Secretanj), 
appointed to make further researches thereon. 

The investigation forms a portion of work which has been in 
progress for some years. 

The particular problem attacked this year has been the question: — 

' Is the conducting path between am'icle and ventricle in the 
mammalian heart single, or is it multiple? ' 

The problem has been attacked both from the histological and from 
the experimental side. 

The histological results have shown the existence of an alternative 
anatomical path, whilst the experimental findings are most easily 
explained on the supposition that this alternative path becomes 
functional under certain conditions. 

The results are of interest theoretically, and also from the point of 
view of the clinician, who has found it impossible to explain — on the 
supposition of a single path — conditions which occur not infrequently 
in cases of cardiac disease. 

Some of the results are being published in the Proceedings of 
the Eoyal Society, but more work is necessary before the full details 
can be available. For this further work a new grant is being sought. 



Colour Vision and Colour Blindness. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor E. H. Starling (Chairman) , Dr. F. W. 
Edridge-GtREBn (Secretary) , Professor Leonard Hill, Pro- 
fessor A. W. Porter, and Professor A. D. Waller. (Drawn 
up hy the Secretary.) 

A CONSIDERABLE amount of work in colour vision has been done by 
individual members of the Committee. The inadequacy of the wool 
test even with additional colours as an efficient test for colour blindness 
is now established. On April 1 of this year the Board of Trade 
adopted a lantern test for colour blindness in addition to the wool test. 
The total number of men examined by the Board in colour vision from 
April 1 to May 31 was 1,689, and of these 105, or 6'22 per cent., 
failed. Of the 105 failures, 55 failed in both the wool test and lantern 
test, and 50 in the lantern only. None failed in the wool test only. 



ON COLOUR VISION AND COLOUR BLINDNESS.' 259 

The four chief colour names (red, yellow, green, and blue) musfe 
be used in any test for colour blindness, and if a daylight test be 
required, the bead test of Edridge-Green is preferable. The chief 
difficulty from a practical point of view is the line at which rejection 
should take place, as there is every grade of transition between 
total colour blindness and the normal colour sense. If a large 
number of persons be examined with the Edridge-Green lantern 
about 25 per cent, show defects of colour perception. In the 
majority of cases these defects are slight, therefore it is necessary 
to know the nearest distance at which a coloured light must be 
recognised — i.e., the exact degree of colour weakness which is per- 
missible^ — and that the hne of rejection should be fixed accordingly. It 
is obvious that any man having even a slight defect of colour perception 
is not quite as efficient as one not possessing this defect; this particu- 
larly applies to the shortening of the red end of the spectrum, which 
prevents the recognition of red light at the normal distance, particu- 
larly when obscured by fog. 

The Committee recommends that it be reappointed. 



The Ductless Glands. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Sir E. A. ScHAFER (Chairman), Professor Swale Vincent 
(Secretary), Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. Shore, 
and Mrs. W. H. Thompson. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

The Secretary has been continuing his investigations 'upon various 
points connected with the physiology and the comparative anatomy 
of the ductless glands. 

A study of the distribution and the detailed histology of the accessory 
cortical adrenal bodies has been commenced, but as this involves a 
large amount of serial section cutting, the work has not progressed 
very far, and there are no new facts to report at this stage. 

An investigation into the histological changes in the thyroids and 
parathyroids (along with some of the other ductless glands) under 
varying physiological and pathological conditions (different diets, 
starvation, poisons, &c.) has been undertaken, and a large amount of 
material for examination has been collected. 

Mr. Cameron has been testing Hunter's method of iodine estima- 
tion in organic substances.^ It is satisfactory for moderate amounts, 
such as are found in the sheep's thyroid. It is not satisfactory for 
very slight traces. Comparison tests are being made with this method 
and some more recent modifications of it in the hope of finding a 
rigid test for traces of iodine (one part in 500,000). 

An initial attempt has been made to correlate other tissues with 
the thyroid as regards iodine content. No definite results have yet 
been obtained, but traces (of a second lower order of magnitude) appear 
to be present in other organs of the series of ductless glands (e.g., 
testes, ovary, adrenal, thymus). 

» J. Biol Chem., 1910. 

S3? 



200 REronxs on titk state of rotencr. — 19ir5. 

The presence of iodine in the thyroid of frogs, fishes, and reptiles 
is under investigation, and it is hoped to have some pubhshable data 
shortly. This comparative work is being carried out with the assist- 
ance of Mrs. Thompson. 

This chemical work is preliminary to a thorough investigation (by 
means of metabolism experiments) of the r6le of iodine in the animal 
economy. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, with a grant of 40Z. 



The Dissociation of Oxy-Hcemoglohin at High Altitudes. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor E. H. Stabling 
(Chairman), Mr. J. Baeceoft (Secretary), and Mr. W. B. 
Hardy. 

In this report the blood will be termed ' mesectic ' when the balance 
of ions in it is such that the dissociation curve of the individual is in 
its normal position, ' pleonectic ' ^ when the curve is so shifted that 
at any given pressure of oxygen the hfp.moglobin takes up more oxygen 
than under nomial circumstances, and ' meionectic ' when it takes less 
than its usual quantity of oxygen. 

The curves in this report are calculated from the formula suggested 
by Hill 

y _ Krn 

rso ~ r+^Ka;' 

where y = the percentage saturation of haemoglobin with oxygen, 
re = oxygen pressure in mm., K and « are constants for each curve. 
In human blood n remains 2'5, therefore practically K is the only 
variable. 

The immediate effect of exercise, if sufficiently severe, is to shift 
the curve in the direction of greater acidity ; this may take place even 
though the carbonic acid tension is reduced. 

For instance, the constants of Eoberts' mesectic curve are n = 2"5, 
K = "0003.3, logK = 4"5785, his normal alveolar CO, pressure is 40 mm. 
Some points on liis curve would be as follov/s : — 

Percentage saturation . 9-4 22 37 51 62 85-5 95 
Pressure of oxygen .10 15 20 25 30 50 80 

After climbing 1,000 feet from sea level in 20 minutes up Carlingford 
mountain, his curve became meionectic, 

n = 2-5, K--0001805, log Iv = 4-2565, 00^-35 mm. 

Percentage .saturation .6 U 24 35 47 76 91 
Pressure of oxygen. . 10 15 20 25 30 50 80 

At slow rates of climbing, 1,000 feet in 45 minutes, Barcroft's blood 
remained mesectic. 

' irXeovtKTiKSi, disposed to take^more than one's share. From irAsoveJia, a dispn] 
sition to take more than one's share (Liddell and Scott). We are_indebted to ]")r 
W. M. Fletcher and Mr. Harrison for this nomenclature. 



THE DISSOCIATION OF 0XY-HA;MOGLomN AT HIGH ALTITUDES. 2G1 

Till.' invL'sLigaliou was utiderfcaken for the imrpose of coutroUiDg 
the results of shnilar cUinbs at high altitudes. The comparison is 
us follows: — 

1. Altitude up to 15,000 feet produces a lowering in the carbonic 
acid pressure, nevertheless the blood remains mesectic in the resting 
subject. 

For instance, at the Capanna Margherita* on Monte Rosa the day 
after arrival Eoberts' alveolar carbonic acid pressure was 26 mm. 
The following points determined at these pressures fall on his mesectic 
curve (see previous paper). 

Percentage saturation .33 77 calculated from mesectic curve 
Percentage saturation . 34 73 (observed) 
Oxj'gen pressure . . .19 41 

2. A given degree of meionexy is produced by a lesser degree of 
activity at high altitudes. Thus at Col d'Olen, climbing 1,000 feet, 
from an altitude of 9,000 feet to 10,000 in 38 minutes, Roberts' 
curve became as follows: — 

11 = 2-5, K = -000161, log K = 4-2068, 00^ = 36 mm. 

The degree of meionexy is almost identical with that produced at 
Carlingford when climbing the same height in 20 minutes. 

3. A greater degree of meionexy is produced by a given amount 
of exei'cise at high altitu'Ses. Thus Barcrolt, climbing from 9,000 
feet to 10,000 feet in 45 minutes at Col d'Olen, moved the constants 
of his curve as follows: — 



Mesectic curve . n = 2-5, K = -000292, 


log K = 4-4654 




Meionectic curve n = 2-5, K = -000191, 


log K = 4-2810, 


COj = 33 mm. 


Corresponding points would be 






Percentage saturation 9 20 34 
Percentage saturation 6 14 26 
Oxygen pressure .10 15 20 


48 58 84 
37 48 77 
25 30 50 


94 mesectic 
92 meionectic 
80 



Climbing from sea level to 1,000 feet at Carlingford also in 45 
minutes no certain degree of meionexy could be ascertained. The 
following points were observed: — 

COj pressure 38 mm. 

Perosntage saturation 58 calculated from mesectic curve. 
Percentage saturation 56 per cent. — 55 per cent, observed. 
Oxygen pressure 30 mm. 



The Effect of Low Temperatures on Cold-blooded Animals. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Swale 
Vincent (Chairman) and Mr. A. T. Cameron (Secretary). 
(Drawn up hy the Secretary.) 

Messes. Cameron and Brownlee have carried out a number of 
experiments on frogs (R. pipiens) obtained from the neighbourhood 

' For the amounts of acid added see Brit. Assoc. Report, 1911, p. 153. 



262 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913i 

of Chicago. They freeze at a temperature of 0"4:4°-O'02° 0., in a 
manner very similar to that of solutions isotonic with their body-fluids. 
They will survive a temperature of — 1° 0. They will not survive a 
temperatm'e of - 1*8° 0. 

The heart-tissue, whether exsected or in vivo, of these frogs survives 
a temperature of - 2"5°, but is killed by a temperature of — 3'0° C. 
Other observers have shown that frog's muscular tissue will survive a 
temperature of — 2"9° C, while the peripheral nerves are not killed by 
much lower temperatures. Hence it appears probable that the cause 
of death is connected with a specific temperature effect on the brain 
or cord. 

Full details of these results 'will appear shortly elsewhere. It seems 
desirable to continue these experiments with the same species obtained 
at different seasons, and with some tropical species. 

The Committee tlierefore request to be reappointed, with a grant 
of lOZ. 



Calorimetric Observations on Man. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor J. S. Macdonald {Chairman), Dr. 
F. A. DuFFiELD {Secretary), and Dr. Keith Lucas, appointed 
to make Calorimetric Observations on Man in Health and in 
Febrile Conditions. 

Continuing the work reported on last year a large number of experi- 
ments have been performed, in which the total heat-production has 
been measured and contrasted with the mechanical work done. A 
statement dealing with the results of these experiments has been 
accepted for publication in the Proceedings of the Eoyal Society. In 
each of these experiments a subject enclosed in the calorimeter cycled 
against the known resistance of a definite brake at a uniform revolution- 
rate for a period of two hours. Again, as in last year's experiments, 
there was a noticeable difference between the measm-ed heat-production 
of the first and second hour respectively in each experiment. To test 
the meaning of this apparent difference between the events of the first 
and second hour arrangements were made early in this year's work to 
add to the measurements formerly made some means of determining 
the carbon-dioxide production, and it is upon the progress made in this 
direction that I have now to make some report. 

It wUl be remembered that in the original Atwater and Benedict 
calorimeter, from which the details of construction of the body of this 
instrument in Sheffield have been lai'gely copied, apparatus of a very 
perfect kind is arranged to deal with the gaseous exchange of the subject. 
In that instrument the air-steam from the calorimeter is pumped 
through a system of absorption vessels, and thus freed from carbon- 
dioxide, and water is pumped back into the calorimeter with the addition 
of just so much oxygen as suf&ces to maintain the normal barometric 
pressure of the enclosed atmosphere. Prom the altered weight of the 
absorption vessels and of the oxygen-cylinder exact data are obtained 
as to the output of carbon-dioxide and aqueous vapour and the intake of 



ON CALORIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS ON MAN. 263 

oxygen. Largely from reasons of economy no attempt has been made 
to copy this procedure and apparatus. In place of the closed circuit of 
tubes through which air is led away from and back to the calori- 
meter we have an open system. By a length of suitably wide tubing 
the air-entrance is cari'ied to a point at some little distance from the 
calorimeter, and therefore some distance from the air disturbed by the 
presence of the observers. A powerful fan driving a large current of air 
across the path of this tube further secures this separation. Similarly 
by a length of tubing the air-exit is carried into another room, in which 
the pump and gas meter are situated. The entrance and exit are thus 
widely separated. 

The tubes carrying the ' entering ' and the ' leaving ' air have each, 
at a certain point, been subdivided into three separate paths, and suit- 
able arrangements made so that sampling-bottles may be inserted or 
removed from one of these short subdivisions of the air-path. Thus a 
definite fraction of the air-stream traverses each sampling-bottle, and 
is always allowed to traverse it for a time sufficient to ensure the com- 
plete replacement of its original contents by air similar to that traversing 
the remaining fraction of the air-path. 

In twenty of the expernnents in which Professor Macdonald has 
collected tlie data of heat-production I have analysed samples of the 
' leaving air ' obtained in this way. In the earlier cases the ' entering 
air ' was also sampled and analysed, but I found its content of carbon- 
dioxide so relatively constant that I abandoned dealing with it for the 
present. In thirteen of these experiments the ' leaving air ' was dealt 
with as follows : — The sample-bottles were of large size (7 to 8 litres), to 
the large volume of air contained in them baryta solution was added, 
shaken up and allowed to stand, and then titrated with a known strength 
of oxalic acid. In the application of this ' Pettenkofer method ' I owe 
much to the assistance of Mr. W. J. Jarrard, B.Sc. The results 
obtained by this method were consistent in the different experiments, 
and in each experiment provided results giving, when plotted out, 
comparatively smooth curves, which showed the' output of carbon- 
dioxide from the calorimeter as gradually increasing towards a level 
reached somewhere before the end of the first hour of cycling and then 
sustained for the second hour. 

In the remaining seven of these experiments I have replaced this 
method by a volumetric method, using the apparatus devised by 
Dr. ,T. S. Haldane (large laboratory type), substituting smaller sampling 
vessels of approximately 70 c.c. capacity as now sufficient. Up to the 
present the plotted curves of results obtained by this method have not 
been as smooth as those originally obtained, but this will be improved 
upon when the air-stream has been diminished so as to enable me to 
deal with larger percentage values. The quantity of air traversing the 
system has varied from .800-410 cubic feet per hour, and will next year 
be substantially diminished in the interests of these gas-analyses, and 
peculiarly so because of oxygen determinations, which Will then be 
instituted. This desire to deal later with the oxygen values explains 
a preference for the Haldane method. 

Adding to the results of such experimental determinations of the 



204 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SOTENOR. — 1913. 

carbon-dioxide output, corrections for the amount of carbon -dioxide 
stored within the large space of the calorimeter (175 cubic feet approx. ; 
see below), the plotted curves are practically converted into lines parallel 
to the abscissa — that is to say, the difference apparently existing between 
the first and second hours of cycling disappears. It would seem then, 
as far as these experiments go, that the total transformation of energy 
is the same in the two cases, varying with the amount of mechanical 
work performed alone, and not with the length of time during which 
this performance has been continued. The bearing of this conclusion 
upon the still continuing differences in the measurements of apparent 
total heat-production in the first and second hour has been dealt with by 
Professor Macdonald in the communication already referred to. 

A large number of special experiments (25) have been performed 
to obtain an experimentally-derived method for estimating the precise 
value of these corrections for internal storage of carbon-dioxide, in which 
the experimental subject has been replaced by a measurable source of 
carbon-dioxide production. Such experiments are still in progress, and 
will be described better at a later period ; tlieir i-esulls are such, how- 
ever, as to promise considerable security in dealing with the storage 
coiTections. 

Incidentally the internal volume of the calorimeter has been 
measured, carbon-dioxide gas being injected until a certain definite per- 
centage composition was attained in the well-mixed atmosphere within 
the calorimeter, and the total quantity present then measured as it was 
withdrawn in the air-current. The figure obtained by this method, 
176 cubic feet, closely coincides with that obtained from measurements 
of the average dimensions of the chamber (174 cubic feet). This coin- 
cidence in the two sets of measurements is naturally accepted as evidence 
of accuracy of the means used for measuring the carbon-dioxide outpiit 
fmm the calorimeter. 



The Investigation of the Jurassic Flora of Yorhshire. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor A. C Seward 
(Chairman), Mr. H. Hamsh.\w Thomas (Secretary), Mr. 
Harold Wager, and Professor F. E. ^YRISS. 

The work of the year has been very satisfactory. The rich plant-beds 
exposed on and near Eoseberry Topping have been carefully examined 
and have yielded a large number of interesting forms, several of which 
are new to Yorkshii'e. These plant-bearing strata are at the base of 
the Estuarine series, and may be probably regarded as Liassic in age 
and older than any of the previously known plant-beds. Among the 
specimens found are many beautifully preserved examples of two 
species of Thinnfeldia, a species of Ptilozamites, a species of 
Hausviannia, and a new conifer. A brief sketch of the flora has been 
given by the Secretary of the Committee in the ' Naturalist ' (p. 198, 
19] 3). The occun-ence of the plant-beds in the locality has been studied 
and proves to be very local. Some plant remains have been found 



ON TUF, TNVRSTIflATION OF TUF JURAftSTO FLORA OP YORKSTTIRF. 2Ct~) 

in the Middle Estiiarine beds of Eslon Hill, one of the northern outliers 
of the Cleveland Hills. 

The Gristhorpe bed continues to provide interesting forms. The 
excavations which have been carried on this year in Cayton and 
Gristhorpe Bays have resulted in the discovery of several new species. 
Among them is a new type of GinkgoaHan leaf, which has been 
described as Eretmophyllum pubescens, gen. et sp. nov.,^ and this 
type has also been recognised at Whitby. A female flower of the 
Williamfionia type, new to England and probably allied to the 
Wieldandiella angiisti folia of Nathorst, has been found, also a new 
fern and some seeds and cones of new types. Many specimens of the 
rare species Beania gracilis, Carr., Baiera Lindleyana, Schimp., and 
Cladothera undans, L. and H., have been found, also some interesting 
foiTus of Gzehavoivslcia. Material has also been obtained for the study 
of the cuticular structure of the Jurassic Cycadophyta, the results of 
which will be published shortly. 

The experience of the last few years has justified the opinion that 
many new forms might be found by systematic search, even in the 
oldest and most worked localities. During the last three years the 
Secretary of the Committee, aided materially by grants made by the 
Association, has succeeded in obtaining about twenty-two species new 
to the Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire, which will be desciibed in due 
course. 



Tlir Flora of Lhe Peat of the Kennct Valley. — Interim Report of 
the Committee , consisting 0/ Professor F. Keeble (Chairman), 
Miss M. C. Rayner (Secretary), Professor F. W. Oliver, and 
Professor F. E. Weiss, appointed for the investiejation thereof. 

TiiERK are extensive deposits of peat in the Valley of the Kennet and 
evidence of old peat workings in the neighbourhood of Newbury. 

The peat occurs from four to five feet below the surface and may be 
as much as eight feet below the present dry-wealher level of the river. 
It varies in thickness from a few inches to about ten feet. 

The present investigation was undertaken to map the distribution of 
some of these peat deposits and to investigate and report on the plant 
and animal remains which they contain. 

The following data have been obtained: — 

(1) A coarse flint gravel underlies the peat in all the completed 
sections, at depths varying from six feet to fifteen feet. 

This gravel may mark an early type of infilling of the valley, but is 
more probably part of a gravel terrace formed during Palfeolithic times 
which has since been buried beneath the rising flood plain. There is at 
present no certain clue as to its age. 

(2) The peat is of the 'valley' type, i.e., it includes varying 
amounts of fine silt and contains land and fresh-water shells. Tt is 

* Proceedings Cnmbridge Philosophical Society, 1913, p. 2t>CK 



266 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 

mixed and sometimes interstratified with a loose calcareous tufa which 
seems to be of concretionary origin, the calcareous matter having 
surrounded the decaying vegetation in a way suggestive of the action of 
a ' petrifying ' spring. 

This tufa is not associated with any special abundance of shells, but 
seems to occur at a level in the peat to which saturation may rise in 
winter, but below which it falls in dry weather. In one section the tufa 
occurs mainly in a layer about two feet thick, separating the peat into 
two distinct layers, which are slightly different in character and give 
some indication of containing remains of a different fauna and flora. 

(3) The following remains have been collected from the peat and 
identified : — 

Bones of wild boar, red deer, and beaver ; shells of numerous species 
of land and fresh-water Gasteropods. 

The remains of beaver were found in the lowest layer of peat, 
twelve feet below the surface, and are of .some interest as suggesting 
that beaver dams may have been a factor in the formation of local 
deposits of peat. 

Plant remains are abundant Init badly preserved. Tlie following 
have been identified: — 

Trunks and roots of Alnus and Betula; rhizomes of Phragmiles 
and Eqidsetum sp. (locally very abundant); seeds of Menyanthes 
trifoliata; Carex sp. ; Poientilla sp. 

Many more borings and sections are requii-ed in order to map the 
distribution, and to determine with certainty whether there were any 
marked changes of flora during the formation of the peat. Owing to 
the occurrence of the peat below the present river level and the w^et 
winter and spring of 1912-1913, field work was impossible during the 
greater part of this year. 

The Committee therefore ask for reappointment for another year, 
with a renewal of the grant of 15L made last year. 



The Vegetation of Ditcliam Pari', Hampshire. — Interim Pieport 
of the Committee, consisting of Mr. A. G. Tansley (Chair- 
man), Mr. R. S. Adamson (Secretary), Dr. C. E. Moss, and 
Professor R. H. Yapp, appointed for the investigation thereof. 

Considerable progress has been made with the investigations. A 
general survey has been made of the area, which consists of chalk, 
partly covered with clays, in parti calcareous and in part leached. The 
principal plant communities have been mapped. The following are the 
most noticeable ones on the area : — 

(i) On chalk. — Beech wood with and without Taxus. All stages 
between heech wood and chalk scrub, passing through Taxus wood and 
ash wood. The chalk scrub is partly retrogressive and partly progres- 
sive. Chalk grassland, with transitions to scrub, either retrogressive or 
progressive. 



ON THE VEGETATION OF DITCHAM PARK, HAMPSHIRE. ^^267 

Calcareous coppice, both with standards of beech and ash and 
without. 

(ii) On clays. — Coppiced woods, showing transition stages from cal- 
careous coppice where the soil is thin to coppiced woods with good oak 
standards and hazel or ash coppice, and many non-calcareous elements 
in the vegetation, such as Pteridium and Holcus mollis. 

Grassland on clay with local patches of heath grassland, and to a 
very Hmited extent of heath. 

Special attention has been paid to natural regeneration of beech 
woods. Large quantities of fruit were produced in 1912, and the fate 
of the seedlings is being watched and investigated. 

Two areas where beech wood and chalk scrub adjoin chalk grassland 
have been fenced in to exclude rabbits and are receiving special attention. 
Very considerable differences are observable on the two sides of the 
fence ; the most striking being the height of the pasture plants. Outside 
the turf is cropped like a lawn, while inside, in June, there was a 
luxuriant growth averaging 12 to 18 inches in height. 

Of more experimental work special attention has been paid so far 
to evaporation. A large series of evaporimeters has been established 
in selected parts of the woods and readings taken regularly. Tempera- 
ture and humidity (by wet and dry bulb thermometer) are also being 
recorded along with the evaporation. Very considerable differences 
of evaporation, accompanied by changes in the ground vegetation, have 
been noted in beech woods at different levels of the chalk escarpment 
and on the tops of the hills. 

Prehminary investigations have also been carried out on the light 
intensity and on the different soils, which will be pursued in more 
detail in the immediate future. 



Botanical Photographs. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor F. W. Oliver (Chairman) , Professor F. E. Weiss 
(Secretary), Dr. W. G. Smith, Mr. A. G. Tansley, Dr. 
T. W. WooDHEAD, and Professor E. H. Yapp, for the Registra- 
tion of Negatives of Photographs of Botanical Interest. 

Owing to the small demand made for the loan of negatives of 
botanical interest, due, no doubt, to the large number of photographs 
and lantern slides available from various dealers, the Committee con- 
siders that it is unnecessary now to continue its labours. It recom- 
mends that all prints of ecological interest should be handed to the 
newly founded Ecological Society, and that all other prints should be 
housed in the Botanical Department of the University of Manchester, 
where they will continue to be available for further reference. It 
considers, however, that the Committee might now be dissolved. 



^Oy KEPORIS UN THE STATE OE SCIENCE. — igij. 



Report ^ of tlic Committee, consisting of — 

Dr. G. A. AuDEN {Chairman), Mr. G. F. Daniell 
[Secretary), Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. W. D. 
Eggar, Professor R.A.Gregory, Mr. N. Bishop 
Harman, Mr. J. L. Holland, Professor Priest- 
ley Smith, and Mr. W. T. H. Walsh, appointed 
to Inquire into the Inflnence of School-books upon 
Eyesight. 

The Committee was appointed at Portsmouth in 
igii, and from the beginning of its investigations 
has had the advantage of the assistance of Dr. H. 
Eason, Professor H. R. Kenwood, Mr. R. B. 
Lattimer, Miss Brown Smith, and Dr. Louisa 
Woodcock. 

In view of the fact that Local Education 
Authorities are able greatly to influence the selec- 
tion of school-books, the Committee made an 
inquiry, on which is based the section of this report 
headed ' Present Practice of Local Education 
Authorities.' At the request of the Committee 
Dr. H. Eason, Mr. Bishop Harman, and Professor 
Priestley Smith drew up the ' Oculist Sub-Com- 
mittee's Report.' The typographical section of 
the report has been revised since its original 
presentation at Dundee, and to this portion 
oculists, school medical officers, directors of 
education, teachers, publishers, printers, and type- 
founders have contributed. The Committee desires 
to record its sense of obligation to the pioneer 
work of J aval. 

1 This report is a revision (involving substantial alterations) of tliat 
presented by the Committee in 1912, and is printed from the type in 
which the report of 1912 was set up, at the request 01 the Committee, 
subsequently to its issue in the ordinary type used for the Annual Report 
of the Association. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 2^19 

The Present Practice of Local Education Authorities 
in England and Wales. 

In a Circular (No. 596) issued by the Board of 
Education in 1908 the functions of the School 
Medical Officer are defined. Under the heading 
of ' Arrangements for attending to the health and 
physical condition of school children ' it is stated 
that he will advise the Local Education Authority 
with reference to improvements of the school 
arrangements. It is further stated in the Circular 
that ' As regards cases of defective eyesight he will 
indicate such measures as can be taken to remed}^ 
or mitigate the defects by altering the position of 
the children in the class, or improving the lighting 
of the school in amount or direction ; and he will 
call attention to the strain imposed on eyesight by 
the use of too small type in text-books, the teaching 
of very fine sewing, &c.' There can be no doubt 
that this suggested advice has in many cases led 
to an improvement where certain school arrange- 
ments have been prejudicial to vision ; but hitherto 
it has not been possible to deal efiectively with the 
provision of satisfactory school text-books. 

A circular letter was sent to the Education 
Authority of each county and county borough 
stating the objects of the Committee, and asking 
for information on the following points : — 

(i) Whether the eyesight of the children in 
the schools of the Authority is tested at 
regular intervals ; 

(2) Whether advice on the care of the children's 

eyesight is given to school teachers ; 

(3) Whether the teachers instruct the children 

in the general care of eyesight ; 

(4) W^hat regulations (if any) have been adopted 

for the selection of school-books and 



270 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

atlases (including limits of price, size of 
type, character of illustrations, weight, &c.), 
wall maps, charts, and diagrams ; 
(5) Whether any definite principles or rules 
have been laid down by or for those who 
select school-books for the Authority, 
Replies were received from sixty Authorities, to 
whom and their officers the Committee is much 
indebted for the information supplied. 

Under the system of medical inspection now 
general in public elementary schools, in accordance 
with the day-school code, the eyesight of children 
of school age is tested at least twice during their 
school life, the test being made, with few excep- 
tions, by means of the well known test-cards. A 
few Authorities in both counties and county 
boroughs go further, and employ a competent 
oculist, either part or full time, his duty being to 
examine special cases and prescribe spectacles or 
recommend that medical or operative treatment 
be obtained. Some Authorities have arrangements 
under which spectacles according to the prescription 
of their oculist are supplied to the children at cost 
price, which is comparatively low by reason of 
special contracts. Arrangements are also made 
for free provision of spectacles in case of need, 
frequently with the aid of voluntary associations. 

The school medical officers and ophthalmic 
surgeons on the occasion of their visits give advice 
to the teachers concerning the treatment of children 
with defective sight. With one or two important 
exceptions, however, it would seem that instruction 
concerning proper and improper use of the eyes in 
school-work has not been given to teachers. The 
Committee is pleased to report that, under the 
new regulations for the training of teachers, 
hygiene, including testing of eyesight, is now a 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 27I 

compulsory subject for the Board of Education 
examination of training-college students. 

We learn that it is not customary for teachers 
to give the children special instruction concerning 
the care of their eyes. It is stated in several 
instances that teaching of this kind is given 
incidentally in the course of the lessons on hygiene 
which form part of the school curriculum ; but 
nothing more is done, and what is done amounts 
to very little. 

Speaking generally, no definite principles or 
rules as to printing and other conditions of legibility 
have been adopted in the selection of school-books, 
atlases, diagrams, &c. Two or three Authorities, 
when drawing up their book-lists, have given 
considerable attention to their possible effects on 
eyesight, but without formulating any definite 
rules. Several state that the committee or officers 
responsible for the supervision of the book-supply 
pay attention to the type, paper, &c. ; several, on 
the other hand, inform us that the selection of 
books, &c., is left to the teachers. 

Summarising the evidence generally, it may 
be said that whilst effective arrangements for 
the detection of existing defects in the eyesight 
of elementary school children are general and 
arrangements for the supply of proper spectacles 
at cheap rates are not uncommon, practically no 
systematic attention is given to the influence of 
school-books upon eyesight. 

The replies lead us to believe that the report 
of the Committee will have attention from Local 
Education Authorities. 

Report of the Oculist Siib-Coininittcc. 

The eye of the child is a growing eye. It is 
immature both in structure and in function. At 



272 REPORTS ON THE STATE OE SCIENCE. — I9I3. 

birth the eye has a volume equal to about half 
that of the full-grown eye ; the materials of v/hich 
it is built are comparatively soft and yielding ; the 
functional power of the visual apparatus is merely 
a perception of light. By growth and develop- 
ment, rapid at first, slower later on, the eye tends 
progressively to acquire the dimensions and the 
powers of the normal completed organ. 

Nutrition by healthy blood, and the natural 
stimulus of voluntary use, are essential to this 
process. We know by experience that in early 
infancy disease may arrest the growth of the eye, 
and that suspension of use, as when a serious 
ophthalmia prevents an infant for many weeks from 
attempting to use its eyes, may check functional 
development to an extent which cannot after- 
wards be made good. On the other hand, exces- 
sive efforts, due to unnatural demands on the 
eyesight, are apt to be injurious in the opposite 
direction. Unfortunately there is evidence to show 
that the demand made on the eyesight of school 
children is not infrequently excessive. 

At the age when school life begins the visual 
apparatus is still immature. The orbits, the eyes 
themselves, and the muscles and nerves which move 
them, have still to increase considerably in size.. 
The various brain-structures concerned in vision 
have not only to grow but to become more complex. 
The intricate co-ordinating mechanism which 
later will enable the eyes, brain, and hand to work 
together with minute precision is awaiting develop- 
ment by training. The refraction of the eyes is 
not yet fixed. It is usually more or less hyper- 
metropic, with a tendency to change in the direction 
of normal sight ; in other words, it has not reached 
the ideal condition in which the eyes see distant 
objects without accommodative effort, but is tend- 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 273 

ing towards it. In short, the whole visual apparatus 
is still unfinished, and is therefore more liable than 
at a later age to injury by over-use. 

Over-use of the eyes is chiefly to be feared in 
such occupations as reading, writing, and sewing, 
not in viewing distant objects. During near work 
the head is usually bent forward, and the blood- 
vessels of the eyes tend to become fuller ; the 
focus of the eyes is shortened by a muscular effort 
which alters the form of the crystalline lens ; the 
visual axes, which in distant vision are nearlv 
parallel, are held in a position of convergence, 
and if the work be reading, they are also moved 
continuously from side to side. It is near work, 
therefore, that makes the greatest demand upon 
the eyes, and the nearer the work the greater the 
strain. Moreover it is chiefly in near work that 
continuous mental effort is required. 

Children who do too much close eye-work 
suffer in various ways. Some simply from fatigue^ 
showing itself by inattention, mental weariness, 
temporary dimness of sight, or aching of the eyes 
and head. Some from congestion of the eyes, as 
shown by redness, watering, and frequent blinking. 
A certain number, in circumstances which pre- 
dispose them to the disorder, develop strabismus, or 
squint. Some others — and these cases are perhaps 
the most important of all — develop progressive 
myopia. 

Myopia, or short sight, commonly depends on 
undue elongation of the eyeball. It is never, or 
hardly ever, present at birth. It is rare at five 
years of age. It usually begins during school life, 
and increases more or less from year to year during 
the period of growth. It sometimes continues to 
increase after growth is completed. It is not 
necessarily, or always, associated with over-use of 

191J. 1 



274 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — igi3. 

the eyes, either in school or elsewhere, for we see 
it arise after illness, we meet with it in illiterates, 
and we know that the predisposition to it is strongly 
hereditary. But it is everywhere most frequent 
among the most studious, and there is a mass of 
evidence to show that it depends very largely, 
both in its origin and in its progress, on over-use 
of the eyes in near work. 

A moderate myopia which does not increase 
may be regarded as an innocent, though somewhat 
inconvenient, over-development of the eye. A 
high myopia usually involves serious stretching 
and thinning of the coats of the eye, and a liability 
to further trouble. A high myopia in a child is a 
very grave condition, for further deterioration 
always follows. In connection with myopia alone, 
to say nothing of other eye defects, the question of 
school-work in relation to eyesight deserves more 
attention than it has hitherto received. 

The subject has many sides : the lighting of 
school-rooms, the arrangement of the desks, the 
design and proportion of individual desks, the 
attitudes of the scholars, the amount of work 
required, are all factors of importance ; but they 
cannot be considered here. Our present effort is 
directed to the standardising of school-books, a 
very important step in the desired direction. 

Small print leads the young scholar to look too 
closely at his book. He is not yet familiar with 
the forms of the words, and ]his attention is not 
easily secured unless he has retinal images larger 
than those which satisfy the trained reader. To 
obtain these larger images he brings the book too 
near to his eyes, or his eyes too near the book, and 
this, for the reasons already given, is apt to be 
injurious. Hence the importance of establishing 
certain standards of legibility for school-books. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 275 

having regard to the ages of the scholars who are 
required to use them, and of employing only such 
books as reach these standards. 

The importance of the matter becomes still 
more evident when we remember that, according to 
recent medical inspection, at least lo per cent, of 
the children in our elementary schools have serious 
defects of vision, and about 20 per cent, errors of 
refraction, and see less easily and clearly, even 
when provided with proper glasses, than do normal- 
sighted children. 

At what age should children begin to read from 
books ? From the hygienic point of view the later 
the better, and there is reason to believe that little, 
if anything, is lost educationally by postponing the 
use of books in school until the age of seven at 
earliest. Beginners may learn to read from wall- 
charts ; and in the general instruction of young 
children, teaching by word of mouth, with the help of 
black-boards, large-printed wall-sheets, pictures, and 
other objects which are easily seen at a distance, is 
preferable from the medical standpoint, for it has the 
great advantage of involving no strain on the eyes. 

Hygienic Requiremetits with which School-books should 
conform. 

The Committee desires to acknowledge the 
helpful advice received from Mr. J. H. Mason, Mr. 
R. J. Davies, Mr. F. J. Hall, Mr. H. Fitzhenry, and 
Mr. F. Killick in connection with the technical and 
trade aspects of this section of its report ; also to 
thank Messrs. Caslon & Co., the Chiswick Press, 
John Haddon & Co., the Imprint Publishing Co., 
Miller & Richard, Shanks & Sons, Stephenson, 
Blake & Co., R. H. Stevens & Co., for the loan 
of specimen books, types, and printing papers. 

T 2 



276 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — I0T3- 

The factors which have been taken into con- 
sideration are : (i) The nature of the psychological 
process involved in reading ; (2) the quality of the 
workmanship employed in book-production ; (3) the 
quality of the paper on which text and illustrations 
are printed ; (3a) the mode of binding books ; 
(4) the character of the illustrations and the pro- 
cess employed for their reproduction ; (5) the colour 
and quality of the ink used in printing the text ; 
(6) the mode of printing ; (7) the character of the 
type ; (8) the size of the type faces and their 
vertical and horizontal separation ; (9) the length 
of the lines ; (10 to 18) particular requirements 
of special subjects. 

1. The psychology of the reading process. — The 
special consideration to be here noted is that the 
printing should be such as will facilitate the main 
aim of reading — viz. the getting of the meaning of 
what is read. The trained reader generally recog- 
nises whole words and phrases at a glance. It is 
therefore important that the process of beginners 
should be made as easy as possible towards the re- 
cognition of word-wholes and phrase-wholes by the 
use of type suitable in character and judiciousl)- 
spaced. The best type for isolated letters is not 
necessarily the best for word-wholes, and attention 
must be given to the comparative legibility of 
letters as seen in context. 

2. Workmanship. — It frequently happens that 
much of the good effect of well-selected type, paper, 
&c., is neutralised by inefficient workmanship. In 
all the recommendations which follow, good work- 
manship will be assumed. 

3. Paper. — The paper should be without gloss. 
Glazed paper is trying to the eyes by reason of 
reflections which are apt to interfere with binocular 



ON THE IfJFLUENCE Of SCHOOL-BOOKS LTPON EYESIGHT. 277 

Vision. Pure white paper gives the greatest con- 
trast with the ink, and therefore a paper which is 
white or slightly toned towards cream-colour is to 
be preferred under average conditions of class-room 
illumination. A hard-wearing paper of suitable 
quality should be used, as a soft paper has two 
defects — (i) it is readily soiled, (2) the surface is 
easily rubbed off and the detritus is injurious. 
The surface should be fairly smooth, because a 
rough-surfaced paper necessitates a heavy im- 
pression in order that the unbroken surface of 
each letter may appear, which impression is liable 
to cause a still rougher surface on the other side 
of the sheet. The print of one side must not 
show through from the other, and the printing 
must not affect the evenness of the surface of the 
other side. These rules also apply to illustrations, 
which afford a good test of the opacity of the 
paper. Books are occasionally bound and pressed 
before the ink is dried, and a faint impression of 
the opposite sheets causes a haze. Copies with 
this defect should be rejected. 

3a. Mode of binding books. — Books should be 
stitched with thread. Books should open flat and 
should not require the restraint of the hand to keep 
them so ; stabbing or clipping should therefore 
be avoided. If not flat, the convex surface of 
the page gives rise to eye-strain. On recent tests 
of a large number of school-books Mr. Bishop 
Harman reports that certain small books with very 
good paper and type could not be passed as 
satisfactory because they were clipped from side to 
side with wire staples. The books could not be 
opened flat ; the back margin was lost and some- 
times even the print near the back. The excessive 
handling needed to keep such books open would 
soon cause the pages to be soiled. Even in the 



278 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

better samples of wire-stabbed and thread-stabbed 
work the margin was reduced. 

4. Illustrations include (i) pictures for young 
readers, (2) diagrams and sketches, and (3) photo- 
graphic reproductions involving considerable 
elaboration of detail. For (i) it is important to 
recollect that children are only confused by elabo- 
rate or complex pictures. Bold, firm treatment 
of a few objects is appropriate alike to their 
visual powers and to their understanding. From 
this point of view line blocks from pen-and-ink 
drawings are preferable to half-tone blocks from 
photographs or from wash-drawings. The pictures 
should be of a good size, and the printed text 
should not extend in narrow lines at the side. In 
the case of (2) diagrams, it is important that the 
lettering should not be too small to be easily read. 
(3) For the older scholars it is sometimes necessary 
to provide illustrations exhibiting details with the 
precision most readily obtainable by photography. 
For the sake of obtaining effective illustrations by 
the half-tone method, use is frequently made of 
highly glazed paper. Whenever this is done it is 
important that such paper should be used for illus- 
trations only, and not for the text. By the use of 
recent methods it is possible to secure half-tone 
prints with good rendering of detail on matt paper. 
Blurred photographs not only fail to instruct; 
they tend to injure eyesight. 

5. Ink. — The ink should be a good black, and 
it is important to secure a proper, sufficient, and 
even distribution of it over the whole page. The 
use of coloured inks for reading matter is strongly 
to be deprecated, especially the use of more than 
one colour on a page. 

6. Mode of printing. — It is important that types 
should be in true alignment along the base line. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 279 

The practice of printing from stereos produces 
quite satisfactory results, provided that the stereo 
is carefully made from new or little-worn type. A 
slight thickening of all the lines results from stereo- 
typing, but this in no way detracts from legibility. 
Stereos should not be used when they begin to show 
signs of wear. The ordinary text of school-books 
which are intended for continuous reading should 
not be printed in double columns, 

7. Character of type.^ — The type should be 
clean-cut and well-defined. Condensed or com- 
pressed type should not be used, as breadth is even 
more important than height. The contrast between 
the finer and the heavier strokes should not be great, 
for hair-strokes are difficult to see. On the other 
hand, a very heavy-faced type suffers in legibility 
through diminution of the white inter-spaces, as, for 
example, when the space in the upper half of the e 
is reduced to a white dot. In an ideal type the 
whites and blacks are well balanced in each letter, 
and it is eas)^ to discriminate between e, c, and o^ 
between /and /, and between h and j5r; and to recog- 
nise m, nn, nu^ nv, w, in. The general form of the 
letters should be broad and square rather than 
elongated vertically ; thus the letter o should 
approach the circular shape. Legibility is not in- 
creased by adding to the height of a letter without 
adding to its width. There should be a lateral 
shoulder on every type so that each letter is distinct. 
Long serifs should be avoided, and any extension 
sideways which forms or suggests a continuous line 
along the top or bottom is detrimental. 

The upper half of a word or letter is usually 
more important for perception than is the lower 
half, because the upper half of most letters has a 
more distinctive shape than the lower. In some 

' For explanation of technical terms, see Appendix. 



2^0 REPORTS ON TfIR STATE OF SCIENCE. — I9I3. 

recent type-faces the designers have accordingly 
shortened the letters below the line, and lengthened 
those above— thus the p is shortened and the h 
lengthened, at the same time the upper parts of 
the r have been raised. It is too early to pass 
judgment on the results, and more experiment is 
desirable. 

With reference to the question of ' modern- 
face ' versus ' old-face ' design for type, the 
Committee is not prepared to advise the use of 
either to the exclusion of the other, good and bad 
varieties of both styles being at present in use. 
Great contrast between the thick and thin strokes 
is a serious defect which often appears in ' modern 
face.' It is claimed for the * modern face ' that the 
letters are more legible, and it may be conceded that 
failure to provide the minimum height of the short 
letters is more frequent in ' old face.' Hence the 
letters of the ' modern face ' are sometimes more 
legible in the case of sizes below twelve-point. 
The advocates of the ' old face ' contend that the 
' modern face ' letters remain isolated, whereas the 
letters of the ' old face ' flow more naturally into 
words ; thus the form of the word and its meaning 
are apprehended smoothly. It is also claimed 
that the basic design of the ' old face ' is of higher 
aesthetic merit. The Committee insists on the 
importance of the minimum height and breadth 
for the small letters {vide columns 2 and 3 of the 
table), and if this be secured leaves the decision 
between the ' modern face ' and ' old face ' to 
individual judgment helped by the criteria provided 
in various paragraphs of this report. 

Italics, being less easy to read than ordinary 
type of the same size, should be used sparingl5\ 

8. The size of type-faces and their vertical and 
horizontal separation. — The size of the type-face is 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 281 



the most important factor in the influence of 
books upon vision. LegibiHty depends mainly on 
the height and breadth of the short letters, for the 
larger the type the further from the eyes can it be 
read with ease, and it is of the first importance to 
induce the yoang reader to keep a sufficient 
distance between eyes and book. Children under 
seven years old should be able to lean back in 
their seats and read from the book propped up on 
the far side of the desk. (As a rule books should 
not be too large or heavy to be held in the hand.) 
The appended typographical table shows the 
minimum requirements, in the opinion of the 
Committee, for the various ages given ; the 
dimensions are given in a form which can be 
understood and utilised by readers unacquainted 
with the technical terms used by printers. 

The sizes and spacing of the type suggested 
for age eight to nine years may be adopted for 
older readers. 

The column giving the minimum length of the 
alphabet of the small letters {i.e., not capitals) 





Standard Typographical 


Table. 




Age of 
Reader 


Minimum 

Height of 

Face of Short 

Letters 


Minimum 

Length of 

Alphabet of 

Small Letters 


Minimum 

Interlinear 

Space 


Maximum 

No. of Lines 

per Vertical 

100 mm. 

or 4 inches 


Maximum 

Length 

or Measure of 

Line 


Under 7 yrs. 

7 to 8 yrs. . 

8 to 9 yrs. . 

9 to 12 yrs. . 
Over 12 yrs. 


35 mm. 

25 mm. 

20 mm. 

r-S mm. 

1-58 mm. 
or ^ inch. 


96 mm. 
72 mm. 
55 mm. 
50 mm. 
47 mm. 


6-5 mm. 
4-0 mm. 
2-9 mm. 
24 mm. 
2*2 mm. 


10 

15 
20 

24 


100 mm. 
or 4 in, 

93 mm. 
or 3§ in. 

93 mm. 
or 35 in. 

93 mm. 
or 3g in. 



I inch = 25.4 mm. 
Specimens of printed matter conforming with the above 
table will be found in a Supplement. 



282 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

affords a measure of the breadth of the types. 
Strictly speaking, this cannot be measured b}^ the 
reader of a book. A sufficiently good estimate 
can be made when it is recollected that there are 
twenty-six letters in the alphabet, and accordingly 
a word of thirteen letters should not fall short, to 
a material extent, of half the lengths stated in the 
third column. A rough rule may be given thus : 
The number of letters per running inch or 25 mm. 
should not on the average exceed — 

6 or 7 letters for readers under 7 years. 

8 or 9 ,, ,, from 7 to 8 ,, 

II or 12 ,, ,, ,, 8 to 9 ,, 

13 .. » ,. 9 to 12 „ 

13 or 14 „ „ over 12 „ 

By ' interlinear space ' is meant the vertical 
distance between the bottom of a short letter and 
the top of a short letter in the next line below. 
This space between the lines should vary in 
proportion to the size of the type. Too little 
space is a source of fatigue in reading, for it 
involves difficulty in passing from the end of a line 
to the beginning of the line below. Very wide space, 
on the other hand, has no advantage as regards 
legibility, and involves waste of paper and unde- 
sirable increase in the size of the book. Columns 
4 and 5 of the table indicate a suitable proportion. 

9. The length of the line is important in a school- 
book intended for continuous reading. Other 
things being equal, the longer the line the greater 
the excursions of the eyes and the greater the 
difficulty in passing from one line to the next. 
Very short lines, on the other hand, demand too 
frequent a change of direction in the movement of 
the eyes. The use of lines longer than the 
maxima given in the last column of the table is 
sure to cause fatigue to a considerable proportion 
of readers. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 283 

Approximate uniformity in length is desirable ; 
but not absolute uniformity. It is doubtful 
whether the power of fairly rapid intelligent reading 
can be attained without the unconscious perform- 
ance of the swing from near the end of each line 
to near the beginning of the next. This swing 
may be compared with the motion of an oarsman's 
body between the strokes. An occasional slight 
indentation in the lines helps the reader ; but large 
ones, if frequent, hinder the acquisition of a good 
habit of swing. Children of eight years old should 
not have their reading confined to very short 
paragraphs, as the habit of swing has been found 
well established in good readers of between nine 
and eleven years of age. In other words, these 
readers made the necessary eye-movements with- 
out conscious effort and with great regularity. 

Unusual separation of letters should be 
avoided. For beginners, lines should not end in 
the middle of a word ; the whole word should be 
carried to the next line and not be hyphened. 
The admission in the table of a four-inch line for 
the large type is a concession intended to meet the 
difficulty of securing an even set of the letters in a 
line of shorter measure. 

Good margins are restful to the eye, and are 
well worth their slight cost. As a rule the margin 
at the top or ' head ' of a page should be less than 
that at the bottom or ' tail ' ; less on the inner 
side or 'back' than on the outer or 'fore-edge.' 
So many influences, including optical illusions, 
have to be considered in determining the proportion 
of margin that it is not thought desirable to propose 
formulae for the purpose. It should be considered 
a defect in a school-book if the width of fore-edge 
is less than half an inch, or of back-edge less than 
three-eighths of an inch, at any page of the book. 



284 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Particular Requirements of special Subjects : 

10. Bibles, Prayer-books, and Hymn-books. — It is 
to be regretted that these books are so frequently- 
printed in type which is injurious on account of its 
small size. It is desirable that the standard given in 
the table should not be lowered with respect to these 
important books, which are frequently used under 
poor conditions as regards illumination. The fact 
must be faced that the Bible contains more matter 
than can be squeezed into a volume of a size 
which can be handled by children. It is desirable 
that one or more volumes should be issued, con- 
taining those parts of the Bible which are used in 
schools. When it is considered desirable to place 
the complete Bible in the hands of older pupils, this 
should be in parts or fascicules. The public 
demand for handy Prayer-books has led to the use 
of compressed type and of thin paper which is 
liable to show the print through. Children should 
not read bijou editions of Bible, Prayer-book, or 
Hymn-book. 

loa. Poetry. — As it is occasionally impossible 
to set poetry satisfactorily in type of the size given 
for under seven years, except on a large page, a height 
of face not less than 3 mm., with length of alphabet 
not less than 84 mm. may be allowed in these cases. 

11. Books for Evening Work. — The unfavourable 
conditions resulting from artificial illumination and 
fatigue of the learners make it highly desirable 
that the rules ' from age twelve ' should be main- 
tained for books to be used for home-work or for 
evening continuation classes. 

12. Exercises^ Sets of Examples, and Questions. — 
These are important parts of a school-book, 
and the rules for the printing of them should on 
no account be less stringent than those applied to 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 285 

the rest of the book. The same rules should be 
applied to test-cards. The use of hektographing 
or other multiplying processes is increasing in 
schools. Care should be taken to secure clear and 
legible copies. 

13. The Types for Mathematical Symbols, includ- 
ing those used for Algebra, should correspond 
with, or be larger than, the sizes of type recom- 
mended for the various ages. It is important that 
the smaller symbols should not be too fine. For 
children under twelve years no fractions should be 
employed less than 4 mm. in height of face; thus 
in I the distance from the top of the 3 to the 
bottom of the 4 should not be less than 4 mm. 
For pupils over twelve the minimum face height 
for fractions should be 3*5 mm. There should be 
a clear interval between the figures and the 
separating line. It should be easy to discriminate 
between the numerals 3, 6, 8 and g. 

14. Squared Paper. — Use of squared paper 
should be restricted to work for which it is really 
required. If this be done, and paper with rulings 
not less than one-tenth inch apart be used, there 
will be little danger to vision. The use of milli- 
metre paper should be restricted to students over 
fourteen, and it should only be used by them in a 
good light — on exceptional occasions. 

15. Atlases. — It does not appear possible to 
avoid some use in atlases of type which is below 
the desirable standard of size, and the care which 
should be exercised by teachers in regard to the 
children's eyesight needs to be specially emphasised 
in this connection. Their use should be avoided 
when the illumination is below normal — the less they 
are used for home-work the better. Location by 
reference lines should be taught from the besfin- 



286 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — I9I3. 

ning, and children should not be allowed to hunt 
for a name in an undirected fashion, as they may 
thus have to read fifty names in finding the one 
sought. Atlases intended for use by children under 
nine should have no type smaller than ten-point, 
with minimum height of i'6 mm. or one sixteenth 
inch for the short letters. No school atlas should 
be printed with type smaller than eight-point, with 
minimum height of i"2 mm. for the short letters. 
The type should be extended ; italics should not 
be used more than is necessary, and should not 
have fine hair-lines. 

It is not necessary that every map should be 
coloured. (It has already been pointed out that 
colour decreases legibility.) In the case of 
beginners, the colour helps the appreciation of area ; 
but for this purpose the colouring should be pale, 
and few names inserted. For the pourtrayal of 
relief, the practice of block-shading the contours is 
better than heavy black hill-shading by hachures. 
Maps should be duplicated where it is necessary 
{e.g., Switzerland) to exhibit great variation of 
contour together with several place-names. In 
general it is better to multiply maps than to put 
much detail into one. 

If a system of inserting the names of every 
town of a certain population be adopted, the 
result is certain to be overcrowding of those 
portions of the maps which represent highly- 
populated countries. It would be better to avoid 
this overcrowding, even at some sacrifice of system- 
atic uniformity. Modern methods in the teaching 
of geography are reducing the hunting for place- 
names, and thereby diminishing eye-strain. This 
advantage will be more general when the supply 
of orographical maps to public elementary schools 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 287 

is increased. The reading of Ordnance Survey 
sheets by the older pupils is not objected to, 
provided they are used in good daylight. 

16. Music. — For the tonic sol-fa notation the 
minimum height of the short letters should be 
(a) for music, 2 mm. ; (6) for words, 1-5 mm. Stafl 
music is often produced by lithography, in which 
all gradations of size and shape are possible. Care 
in printing is needed, so as to secure well-defined 
stave-lines and tails. Advantage should be taken 
of the elasticity in the length assigned to different 
bars in the lithographed music, so as to avoid 
compression of complicated passages. For begin- 
ners music of the size of the ' Giant Note ' is 
recommended. For others, the stave-lines should 
not be less than 175 mm. apart, or the four spaces 
should measure not less than 7 mm. The ruled 
paper for music-writing should have lines not less 
than 2 mm. apart. 

17. Greek. — Greek type is troublesome to 
beginners by reason of its unfamiliarity and of the 
difficulty of synthetising accents and letters into 
word-wholes. Type which has a line of uniform 
thickness affords easy discrimination of individual 
letters, and is legible in mathematical formulae, 
even when small sizes are used. The variety of 
Greek type which employs fine hair-lines should 
be entirely abandoned. For reading, it is recom- 
mended that no type smaller than twelve-point be 
used for beginners, or eleven-point for experienced 
readers. 

18. German. — The older styles of German type 
are not easily legible, partly on account of the ill- 
placed hair-lines at the top of the letters. Recent 
forms of the black letter used in German books 
are improved in this respect ; but since Roman 



288 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — I9I3. 

type is being used largely even for literary works in 
Germany, the use of the less legible German types 
may be reduced in our schools with some gain to 
the security of eyesight. 

Conclusion. 

The Committee observes in conclusion that : — 
(i) The existence of a very serious amount of 
visual defect among children of school age is 
established as a result of official inspection. Some 
portion of this defect is preventable by greater care 
in the selection of books. 

(2) It is desirable that a standard of book- 
production should be established, and that the 
publication of books below standard should cease. 

(3) It appears possible that the adoption by 
local education authorities of a common standard 
would render unprofitable the publication of books 
which failed to reach such standard. 

(4) It is hoped that this report may assist the 
responsible authorities in the work of determining 
the standard of book-production requisite for the 
protection of the eyesight of children so far as it is 
influenced by the books which the children are 
compelled to read in school. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT, 289 

APPENDIX. 

Notes on Technical Terms used in this Report. 

Type-body, type-face, lateral shoulder, large-face. — 
The letters are cast on a ' type-body ' ; the part of 
the type which actually leaves its impress is the 
' face.' When the face is nearly as large as the 
body will carry, the type is ' large face.' The 
space on the upper surface of the body on each side 
of the face is the lateral ' shoulder.' x\ll one reads 
is the impress of the faces of the type. 

Sei'if. — A type in which each letter had only its 
bare necessary features would be 'without serif,' 
the serifs being the terminals of the letters. If of 
proper design, the serifs guide the eye from letter 
to letter and give a balanced effect. In some styles 
the serifs take the form of purposeless ornament, 
which is undesirable in books which are intended 
for continuous reading. 

In condensed or compressed type the bodies are 
narrow, so that the letters are narrow and close 
together. Column 3 of the typographical table 
excludes such type. 

Old face and modern face refer to styles of type. 
In the specimens in the Supplement the faults of 
the more extreme varieties of each have been 
avoided. 

Heavy type, heavy fractions refer to type of which 
the lines are thick. 

Point is a unit of measurement. Unfortunately 
manufacturers do not agree precisely as to the size 
of ' point ' which they use. Approximately one 
point=i/72 of an inch. Thus an eighteen-point 
type has a body one- quarter inch high. The face 
may be of any size smaller than the body. 

i'Jill. u 



290 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Solid and leaded. — If the types of consecutive 
lines are set with no vertical interval between the 
bodies, the type is * solid.' When there is a vertical 
interval, say of a thirty-sixth of an inch, the type is 
' two-point leaded.' A large face type of ten-point 
body with two-point leading will produce about the 
same vertical space between the short letters as a 
small-face type of twelve-point body printed solid. 

An indentation occurs in a line where the print 
does not extend to the same length as in neigh- 
bouring lines, e.g., the first line of this paragraph. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 29I 



SUPPLEMENT 



SPECIMENS OF TYPE. 

The Committee draws attention to the fact that 
there is considerable variation in the size of the 
faces of the various types coming under the same 
rating in point body, or bearing the same trade 
description. The following specimens are inserted 
for the purpose of illustrating the dimensional rules 
proposed by the Committee in the Standard Table 
(p. 281). The Committee does not undertake to 
recommend these or other individual designs of type. 

For the purpose of testing books reference 
should be made to the Standard Table, as in several 
instances the specimens exceed the minimum 
requirements. 

v2 



292 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — IQTJ. 



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ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESlGHr. 293 



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29t REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — I9I3. 



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ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT, 295 



NO. 4. AGE SEVEN TO EIGHT 

This type may be used for books 
to be read by children from seven 
to eight years old. The letters are 
larger than the minimum given in 
the typographical table. Printed 
from Eighteen Point Old Style 
Antique. 



No. 5. AGE SEVEN TO EIGHT 

This type may be used for books 
to be read by children from seven 
to eight years old. The letters are 
larger than the minimum given 
in a typographical table. Printed 
from Eighteen Point Old Style, 
with 2 point Leading. 



296 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



No. 6.^ AGE SEVEN TO EIGHT 

This type may be used for books to be 
read by children from seven to eight 
years old. The letters are slightly larger 
than the minimum given in the typo- 
graphical table. Printed from Old Style 
Great Primer with 3 point Leading. 



No. 7.* AGE EIGHT TO NINE 

This type is suitable in size for books to be 
read by children from eight to nine years 
old. The size of the letters is slightly larger 
than the smallest given in the typographical 
table. Printed from Fourteen Point Old Style 
with 2 point Leading. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 2()'] 



No. 8. AGE EIGHT TO NINE. 

This type is suitable in size for books to be 
read by children from eight to nine years 
old. The size of the letters is slightly larger 
than the smallest given in the typographical 
table. Printed from Twelve Point Modern, 
with 2 point Leading. 



No. 8.* AGE EIGHT TO NINE. 

This type is suitable in size for books to be 
read by children from eight to nine years old. 
The size of the letters is slightly larger than 
the smallest given in the typographical table. 
Printed from Twelve Point Antique Old Style 
with 3 point Leading. 



No. 9. AGE EIGHT TO NINE. 

This type is suitable in size for books to 
be read by children from eight to nine years 
old. The size of the letters is slightly 
larger than the smallest given in the 
typographical table. Printed from Twelve 
Point Old Style Antique, No. 7, with 2 point 
Leading. 



298 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 



No. 10. AGE NINE TO TWELVE. 

This type is suitable in size for books intended 
for readers over nine years old. The size of the 
letters is slightly larger than the smallest given 
in the typographical table. Printed from Eleven 
Point Modern, with 2 point Leading. 



No. 11. AGE NINE TO TWELVE. 

This type is suitable in size for books Intended for 
readers over nine years old. The size of the 
letters is equal to the minimum g-Iven in the typo- 
graphical table. Printed from 12 Point Old Style, 
with I Point leading. 



No. 12. AGE NINE TO TWELVE. 

This type is suitable in size for books intended for 
readers over nine years old. The size of the letters 
is equal to the minimum given in the typographical 
table. Printed from 12 Point Old, with 1 Point 
leading. 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BOOKS UPON EYESIGHT. 299 

No. 13. OVER TWELVE. 

This type is suitable in size for books intended for 
practised readers over twelve years old. The size of 
the letters is in conformity with the smallest dimen- 
sions given in the typographical table. Printed from 
Ten Point Modern, with 2 point Leading. 



No. 14. OVER TWELVE. 

This type is suitable in size for books intended for 
practised readers over twelve years old. The size of 
the letters is in conformity with the dimensions 
given in the typographical table. Printed from ii 
Point Old Style, with i Point leading. 



No. 15.* OVER TWELVE, 

This type is suitable in size for books intended for 
practised readers over twelve years old. The size of 
the letters is in conformity with the smallest dimen- 
sions given in the typographical table. Printed from 
Ten point Antique Old Style, with 2 point Leading. 



No. 16.* OVER TWELVE. 

This type is suitable in size for books intended for 
practised readers over twelve years old. The size of 
the letters is in agreement with the requirements 
specified in the typographical table. Printed from 
Ten Point Old Style Antique, No. 7, with 2 Point 
Leading." 



300 UliPOKTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — lylj. 



12 POINT CREEK. 

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OunANISATION OL^ INlJlTSTRTAL AND POOR-LAW SCHOOLS, 301 

The Curricula and Educational Organisation of Industrial and 
Poor-Law Schools.— Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. W. D. Eggae (Chairman), Mrs. W. N. Shaw (Secre- 
tary), Professor E. A. Gregoey, Mr. J. L. Holland, Dr. 
C. W. KiMMiNS, and Mr. J. G. Legge, appointed to inquire 
thereinto, with special reference to Day Industrial Schools. 

In furtherance of the Committee's recommendation copies of their 
Report of 1912 were sent (by order of the Sectional Committee) to the 
Board of Education, the Home Office, and the Local Government Board. 
Tlie Committee were reappointed to watch for provision being made for 
' adequate reports upon all educational work and training either to 
central or local authorities.' In the event of no such provision bein" 
made the Committee were authorised to arrange for a discussion to 
elicit public opinion on the matter. 

In a speech in the House of Commons on July 22 (reported in ' The 
Times, ' -July 2.3) the President of the Board of Education asked : ' Would 
the Iloiise believe him when ho said that it was not possible for him, 
as Minister of Education, to say how many Secondary Schools there 
were in this country, or what they were doing? There might be 10,000 
or 15,000; he could not say hecmLse he had not the right to aslc' The 
President might have included in this question Elementary as well as 
Secondary Schools. 

He went on : ' They told him that in the County of Middlesex there 
were perhaps several hundreds of schools outside the purview of the 
Board of Education altogether.' The British Association Report of 
last year shows that this is undoubtedly true of many institutional 
schools throughout the country. To quote the President further, ' The 
State, having made education compulsory, ought, however, to be in a 
position to give parents some guarantee that the education which their 
children received was not positively harmful to their minds or bodies.' 
To meet this state of things the Government would propose next 
session ' that there should be power to make a comprehensive sun^ey of 
educational institutions of every kind.' 'The Board of Education 
would take power to decide what was and what was not education. ' 

Any survey of schools presupposes a knowledge of the existence 
of the schools. It would not appear possible to obtain this knowledge 
without the co-operation of the schools themselves. There are at 
present no lists of schools which are complete for either elementally or 
secondary education. What is required is power to obtain complete 
lists. 

The Committee have therefore airanged for a discussion on the 
' compulsory registration of all schools, public or private, and of all 
institutions giving instruction, technical or general, with the qualifica- 
tions of the teachers.' 

The Committee have considered the question of registration with a 
local or central authority. The Board of Education appears to be in the 
first_ instance the appropriate authoi-ity. As a Government department 
dealing expressly with educational organisation and requirements for 
the whole country it would appear that the primaiy need of such a 



302 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

department is complete knowledge of existing educational facilities, and 
the Committee therefore desire to ascertain the views of representatives 
of various classes of schools on the question. 

In the discussion it is expected that papers will be read by the Eight 
Eeverend Bishop Welldon, Dean of Manchester, the Eight Eeverend 
Bishop Mclntyre, Eoman Catholic Bishop of Binningham, and Mrs. 
Sophie Bryant, D.Sc. 

The discussion will be continued by speakers representing girls' 
private boarding-schools, waifs and strays schools, and others. 



Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor J. J. Findlay (Chair- 
man), Professor J. A. Green (Secretary), Professor J. 
Adams, Dr. G. A. Auden, Sir Edward Brabrook, Dr. W. 
Brown, Professor E. P. Culverwell, Mr. G. F. Daniell, 
Miss B. FoxLEY, Professor E. A. Gregory, Dr. C. W. 
KiMMiNS, Professor McDougall, Drs. C. S. Myers, T. P. 
NuKN, W. H. E. EivERS, and F. C. Shrubsall, Mr. H. 
Bompas Smith, Professor C. Spearman, Mr. A. E. Twenty- 
man, and Dr. F. Warner, appointed to inquire into and report 
upon the methods and results of research into the Mental and 
Physical Factors involved in Education. 

The Committee has been concerned with the problem of the 
Psychology of Spelling with a view to the establishment of sound 
methods of teaching. In pursuit of this end researches were instituted 
under the guidance of Dr. Myei-s at Cambridge and Professor Findlay 
at Manchester. The reports of these researches are given below. The 
conclusions they embody have not, however, been accepted by the 
Committee. They are submitted for discussion with the further hope 
of stimulating additional research. 

The thanks of the Committee are due to Miss Fairhurst and Miss 
Suddards for the work they so kindly undertook. The Committee 
desires to be reappointed. 

1. Psychological Analysis and Educational Mclhod in Spelling. 
By Miss Susie S. Fairhurst. 

Spelling, as the reproduction of the constituent parts of a word- 
whole, in speech or writing, involves a mechanism somewhat different 
from that of reading, which is recognition of the word- whole. The 
desideratum of teaching method is that it should involve the least 
possible expenditure of time and energy in the production of efficiency 
in spelling. A study of the actual processes involved, in children and 
adults, is obviously of first importance. 

In the total word-complex there are the visual and writing-motor 
elements forming the written symbol, and the auditory and speech- 
motor elements of the spoken symbol. The visual and auditory 



MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 303 

elements may be either perception or imagery; the motor elements 
either actual movement or imageiy. The writing-motor adjustment is 
less highly specialised, more artificial, and more lately acquired than 
the motor processes of speech. It is probable that its imagery does 
not pass over so readily or so definitely into actual movement. The 
impulse to image or actually to experience the writing movement on 
hearing a word is much more controllable than the tendency to articu- 
late on seeing it. The visual form of each letter carries a qualification 
due to the tactual and muscular experiences of writing it; but those 
experiences are not nearly so important for the comprehension of the 
visual form of a new word as are the speech-motor elements. They 
are probably more important with children than with adults. Writing 
movements do not appear to act as an independent medium of memory, 
as the speech movements may do; they rarely enter as a conscious 
factor into recall, and, when present, are so as a qualification of the 
visual memory. The intrinsic value of the writing memory appears 
greater than it strictly is by virtue of the extra aids it affords to 
visualism, to attention, and to the fusion of the visual and auditory 
elements. 

Articulation of syllables is usually introduced into any method of 
learning. The visual form does not become a ' word ' until it is pro- 
nounced, either aloud or internally. The tendency to pronounce on 
seeing the word is almost universally irresistible and essential to learn- 
ing, whatever the imaginal type of the observer. Anthropological con- 
siderations throw some light on this tact — spoken language precedes 
written. 

The unit of spelling is usually the syllable — the syllable finds direct 
expression as one whole, even in spelling by speech. And the syllable 
is primarily a speech-unit; the letters are gi'ouped by sound-synthesis, 
the visual form often showing syllabic grouping in correspondence. 
There is visual synthesis of the general form of the word, as a visual 
picture, apart from its sound-value, but the synthesis of syllabic group- 
ing is determined by and follows on articulation. With a perfectly 
familiar word, the articulatory syllable simply ' is ' the visual form — 
the fusion is complete. As regards the correspondence of visual and 
auditory constituents, the English language is in a peculiar position. 
The visual word- whole contains its parts, the letters unchanged. The 
auditory-motor whole is a very different thing from the sum-total of 
the sound values of the letters (apart from letter-names) ; some of 
them are not represented at all, and many are quite changed in value. 
The auditory constituents of a word are strictly not the letters, but 
phonetic units. A complicated and highly variable system of corre- 
spondences between the spoken and written letters thus occurs. This 
increases the strain on mechanical memoiy — a separate memory for 
almost eveiy word being necessaiy. 

Articulation of the letters Is thus no direct aid to the spelling 
memory and a wasteful method of learning. Drill of some forai is, 
however, essential to spelling efiiciency, since the spelling process is in 
the nature of a habit, and efiiciency means a habit so fixed as to be 
almost unconscious. Articulation of the syllables simultaneously with 



304 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

the wriluig of the word is probably the best method of learning — it 
introduces every essential element, visual, auditory, and motor; by 
producing the visual elements in succession it aids the exact analysis 
of the speech-whole, it helps the synthesis of the visual elements in 
accordance with the articulatory units, and therefore the fusion of the 
written and spoken symbols. 

The experiments on wliicii these conclusions are based will be 
described at the meeting. 

2. An Invesligaiion into Spelling at the Fielden Demonstraiion ScJiOol. 
By Miss Ida Suddaeds (in collaboration with other members of 
the staff, Miss Mitchell and Miss Matthias). 

Pakt I. — Tlie Problem. 
(a) Spelling is the reproduction from memory of certain aixauge- 
ments of symbols to which convention has attached definite meaning 
for the common purpose of written intercourse. The good speller 
normally achieves success tlu'ough constant pi'actice in reading and 
\\riting, whereby correct mental images, visual, auditory, and motor, 
are obtained largely on the margin of attention. Practice in the correct 
writing of words implies : 

(1) Imitation, by means of which certain memory images develop 
and the required habit is gradually formed; 

(2) Picproduction by means of these memory images — notably motor 
images. 

The scholar reaches the end in view when the written symbol is 
produced automatically in the conventional spelling. 

(5) It is only necessary to be able to spell such words as we need 
to write. The smaller the vocabulary the smaller the chances of bad 
spelling. Many schools, especially some elementary schools, pro- 
duce a great number of people who never spell badly because they use 
so few words. The sacrifice of ideas to formalism necessarily restricts 
growth of vocabulary, and scholars passing through such schools spell 
correctly because of the limited number of \^•ords they have the oppor- 
tunity of spelling incorrectly; but these are badly educated people. 
Modern culture implies a wide experience in reading and writing; 
hence it f oUow s that scholars must be allowed scope for reading and 
writing freely. 

(c) But here is the crucial point — the greater the opportunities for 
enlai'gement of experience the more pronounced the spelling difficulty 
becomes. Of the child's three vocabularies, (1) speaking, (2) reading, 
(3) writing, the growth of (1) and (2) far outstrips (3), and in the 
attevipt at a wider and 7nore complete expression the habit of bad 
spelling is formed. It is this differentiation of rate in the acquirevient 
of the three vocabularies which is at bottom the cause of bad spelling. 

(d) To meet this difficulty some schools place undue emphasis on 
spelling. The scholars spend time and effort on spelling lists and 
rules as a separate branch of study. Any such attempt at basing 
spelling on conscious processes fails in thnt it fixes attention on the 



MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 305 

mechanism of expression rather than on the thought to be expressed; 
to have to think how to spell a word hinders expression. The problem 
then is to insure the same standard of accuracy, but by means which 
will not hinder development or waste time. 

Part II. — Inve>siigation of tlus Frublem with Scholars ages 8 to 10. 

(a) By the tests referred to in the paper the following points were 
noted: — 

1. The highest standard of accuracy was reached by the eight year 
olds in Class II. who have no free written composition. The subject 
matter of then- writing is given orally by the scholars, written on the 
blackboard by the teacher and copied by the scholars into their books. 
They see and write only the correct forms of words, and their written 
vocabulary is thus under the control of the teacher. 

2. Class III. (nine year olds) gave a higher percentage of error. 
In this class free composition is first begun, the teacher loses control 
of the written vocabulary, and the spelling disease begins to show 
itself. 

3. In Class IV. the speaking and reading vocabularies increase still 
more rapidly, the teacher has still less control than in Class III., and 
inaccurate spelling was shown to be on the increase. 

(b) As a result of this diagnosis the following reforms are being 
instituted: — 

1. It is clearly better to spend time in the forming of accurate 
spelling habits at the beginning than in the correction of wrong habits 
later. In the early stages scholars may be prevented from spelling 
incorrectly by never giving them the opportunity of doing so ; hence we 
now delay ' free ' written composition so as to keep the scholars' 
written vocabulary within the control of the teacher. 

2. The transition to free written composition is made gradually with 
strict oversight from the teacher. The scholars use small dictionaries 
and are constantly reminded of the need for correct spelling in any 
' free ' writing which they undertake. 

3. In spite of these precautions some errors still occur. From the 
result of a recent investigation by Mr. Stanley Wyatt at the F.D.S. 
into methods of treating errors, the following procedure has been 
adopted for the correcting of these : — 

The misspelt words are to be actually obliterated and practice give a 
in the writing of the correct symbols — i.e., the right form is brought to 
the focus of attention. Each scholar keeps his own note book, where 
such words are entered. 

(c) In every class there are one or two scholars for whom the , 
ordinary class teaching is not sufficient. For these spelling is made 
more of an independent study, and special methods are devised to meet 
the needs of individual cases, taking time from other pursuits. Such 
cases, however, are not permitted to stop the normal progress of the 
class as a whole. 



1913. 



306 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1913. 



B:e2)ort of the Committee, consisting of Sir Henry Mibrs (Chair- 
man), Professor Marcus Hartog (Secretary), Miss L. J. 
Clarke, Miss B. Foxley, Professor H. Bompas Smith, and 
Principal Griffiths, appointed to inquire into and report 
on the number, distribution, and respective values of 
Scholarships, Exhibitions, and Bursaries held by University 
Students during their undergraduate course, and on funds 
jmvate and open available for their augmentation. 

YouE Committee sent out early in the spring a Questionary to the Heads 
of all the Universities and University Colleges in the British Isles 
(omitting professional and technical schools). Their answers, arranged 
and somewhat abridged, will be found in Appendix I. We have omitted 
much valuable information dealing with benefactions for post-graduate 
and research study, and limited om'selves to answers dealing with the 
courses for the primary degree. Appendix II., modified from the 
evidence before the Eoyal Commission on the Civil Service, shows 
in order of value of total emoluments the number of beneficiaries 
entering the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge respectively. 

The Committee desire to express their warm thanks to those who 
by their walling answers have enabled them to present so much 
valuable information to the British Association, and suggest the desira- 
bility of their reappointment. 

APPENDIX I. 

QUESTIONARY AND ANSWERS. 

University College, Cork : March 11, 1913. 

Dear 

On behalf of the above Committee I write to ask if you will very kindly furnish 
me with information in regard to the following questions : — • 

I. The number, duration and respective values of Scholarships, Exhibitions, 

and Bursaries in your College ? 
II. Whether two or more such benefactions are tenable together ? 

III. Whether any limit is imposed on the maximum armual income dei-ived 

from endowments of all kinds by a single beneficiary ? 

IV. Have you at j'our disposal any funds (a) of jiermanent endowment ; or 

(b) of private benefaction to supplement Scholarships, &c., for the 

complete maintenance of students of exceptional promise ? 

V. (o) Have cases occurred in which successful candidates have been obliged 

to decline Scholarships, &c., on the ground of inadequate personal 

means ? 

{h) Have any deserving beneficiaries retired during their course through 

lack of adequate means ? 
(c) Have such resignations been met by help from or through the College; 
and if so in what way ? 
^'I. AVUl you very kindly add any further suggestions or information bearing 
on this matter ? 

I am, dear 

Faithfully yoms, 

Marcus Haetog 

(Secretary to the Committee). 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 307 

ANSWERS RECEIVED. 

lUi.LioL College, Oxford. 

I. Annual open, 4 minor Exhibitions o£ 40/. ; 3 Exlubitions of 70/. ; 7 Scholarships 
of 80/. Annual close, 1 Exlxibition of 180/. ; 1 Scholarship of 60/. Every fourth 
year, 1 close Exhibition of 40/. ; 1 Scottish Exliibition of 120/. 

The above are generally tenable for the full Undergraduate course (four years). 
Annual ; 1 Exliibition of 100/. for Senior Undergraduates of the College for two years. 

II. No ; except last Exhibition of 100/., and a minor Exhibition of 40/. is tenable 
with close Exhibition of 60/. when the candidate has taken a high place in the Open 
School Examination. 

III. No limit. Most scholars and some commoners hold subventions from School, 
County Council or City Companies, and a few gain University Scholarships. 

IV. A fund of 150/. per annum charged on College revenues, supplemented by 
private benefactions, amounting to an average of 330/. for the last ten years. This 
is used to help commoners as well as scholars who need a supplement. Exceptional 
promise would be an additional inducement for grants, not a necessary condition. 

V. (a) and (6) Not aware of such refusals for the last twenty years, but they 
may have occurred earher. After the death of two predecessors it became known 
that they had helped privately. 

(c) The fund under {IV. ) would be appHcable. Cases where a man has for family 
reasons to emigrate or begin earning money without completing his University career 
cannot of course be met. 

VI. ' Given a man of health and abihty sufficient to be successful in open com- 
petition, and of sufficient previous education, I beUeve that there is nothing to deter 
a poor man from a successful Oxford career. If there is any obstacle it must be 
found on the " lower rungs of the ladder." I am told that opportunities differ con- 
siderably in different parts of the country.' 

Form sent to the father or guardian of scholars elect at BaUiol College, Oxford : — 

Dear Sir, BaUiol College, Oxford. 

Under a system by which Scholarships and Exhibitions are filled by open 
competition, it will inevitably happen that they are sometimes gained by those who 
are not in need of the emoluments attached to them. You will have seen that this 
possibility is anticipated in the notice relating to Scholarships and the conditions of 
their tenure issued before the Scholarship Examination. 

If this is the case with Mr. who has been elected to a 

at this College and you think it proper that he should surrender the whole or any 
part of the emoluments to which he is entitled while retaining the status and other 
privileges of a ,1 have to inform you that effect wiU be given by the College 

to your wishes as to the application of such emoluments. Should you express no 
such wishes as to the application, any money which he may surrender now, or which 
at any future time he may feel himself to be in a position to surrender or repay, will 
be paid into a Fund established in the College for the assistance of those who require 
ass.stance to avail themselves of the advantages of a University education. Any 
such renunciation of emoluments wiU be treated by the College as confidential, and 
those receiving the help you give will only know that it comes to them through a 
College Fund. 

I enclose a memorandum which will inform you as to College expenses. 

Will you kindly let me know what are your wishes in this matter ? 

I am. Sir. 

Yours faithfully, 

blaster of BaUiol College. 

Brasenose College, Oxford. 

I. (a) Open :— 13 Scholarships of 100/. ; 4 (usually, number variable) of 80/. ; un- 
fixed number of Exhibitions of 70/. (6) Restricted :— 4 Scholarships of 80?. ; variat Ic 
number of Scholarships of 70/. ; 2 Exhibitions of 80/. ; 3 Exhibitions of 40/. 

II. Blank. 

III. No Umit. 

IV. No funda specifically set aside, but men whose College emoluments are 

X 2 



308 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SOTENCE. — 1913. 

supplemented by grants from sohool funds, &c., can sometimes support themselves 
completely during their career. 

V. (a) and (6) No. 

(c) 

VT. Scholarship Regulations contain proviso : ' The holder of any Scholarship to 
which no pecuniary restriction is attached will be allowed to retain the status of a 
scholar without receiving the emoluments, should he exjjress a wish to that effect.' 

Christ Chuech, Oxford. 

I. Open : 6 Scholarships of 80?. ; 3 Exhibitions of about 851. (money and 
allowances). Close : 3 Scholarships of 801. All tenable for two years and renewable 
for two more by the Governing Body, and ultimately for a fifth in satisfactory 
circumstances. 

II. No. 

III. No limit for Scholarships. Candidates for Exhibitions must satisfy the 
Dean that they are incapable of coming to the University without financial assistance. 

IV. (a) Grants may be made from College Funds, not amounting in all to over 
4001. in any one year, to scholars or commoners who need assistance. Such grants 
are in practice made for one year only, but are renewable. 

(6) There is a Poor Scholars' Fund which depends almost entirely on private 
benefactions administered by the Dean. 

V. (a) and (6) I know of none. 

(c) Financial difficulties have been met under IV. 

VI. The statutes make a similar provision to Brasenose College. 

Exeter College, Oxford. 

I. 11 Scholarships, open, of not more than 80/. and 1 of 100/. ; 8 close of not less 
than 60/. and 1 or more of not more than 100/. (all of which may be opened in default 
of the preferred class of qualified candidates) ; 2 Scholarships of 80/. for persons 
intending to take Holy Orders and needing assistance at the University. Various 
Exhibitions (mostly close), all limited to those needing assistance at the University. 

III. None by Statute, but by College policy. 

IV. No permanent endowment ; but a deserving scholar who is poor can be 
helped by a grant from general College Funds or a special fund. 

VI. {a) Only ScholarshiiM of less than 80Z. 
(b) None. 

Hertford College, Oxford. 

I. Majority Scholarships, open to Churchmen only, 30 of 100/. for five years ; 
10, varying from 40/. to 80/., for four years, besides a number of Exhibitions. 

II. Not from College sources. 

III. No limit. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) Exhibitions only. 

Jesus College, Oxford. 

I. Open Scholarships, 12 ; close Scholarships, 22 of 80/. to 100/. Exliibitions, 
several open and several close, of 30/. to 60Z. All granted for two years and renewable 
on satisfactory industry and good conduct for two more. 

II. No, but a grant from the Exhibition fund may be made to a scholar or 
exhibitioner. 

III. No statutable limit, but no grant is made out of the Exhibition Fund except 
to the really necessitous. 

IV. («) The Exhibition Fund. 

V. (a) Only one case in forty years unable to come up on 60/. per annum. 

(b) No. 

(c) In extreme eases exceptionally large grants have been made from the Exhibi- 
tion Fund. 

Lincoln College, Oxford. 

I. Scholarships, about 17 of 80/. or 60/. ; Exhibitions, about 10 of 40/., or more 
usually 30Z. 

II. No ; but the value of a Scholarship may be increased, or an exhibitioner 
elected to a Scholarship. 

III. No limit ; the College is not always aware what other benefactions are held. 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 309 

IV. {a) There is a small fund applicable. 

(6) Occasionally private benefactions are forthcoming, or the College may grant 
remission of fees or other charges to deserving students. 

V. (a) Yes, occasionally. 

{b) and (c) I cannot recall such cases. 

VI. A similar provision to that of Brasenose College." 

Magdalen College, Oxford. 

I. 30 Scholarships and Exhibitions in variable numbers, according to needs and 
merits of candidate : tenable for not exceeding four years as a rule, in many cases 
for only three, never exceeding five. 

II. No ; except in so far as additional grants are made from the Exhibition Fund, 
independently or in addition to Scholarships. 

III. No limit ; but -we take maximum annual income into account in awarding 
Exhibitions or grants. There are a certain number of Scholarships and Exhibitions 
given by the County Councils and by the City Companies, sometimes on the results 
of examinations, sometimes on recommendation, which are of very material assistance 
to students. 

IV. (a) The Exhibition Fund, which could in theory be used for complete main- 
tenance of students of exceptional promise. But practically speaking, it is not so 
used, as we always expect that the student should enjoy some other benefaction, or 
that friends should come to his aid. 

V. (a) I have known of no case. 
(6) Very seldom. 

(c) As a rule assistance has been given from the Exhibition Fund, supplemented 
by donations from private friends. 

VI. It not infrequently occurs that successful candidates decline to accept Scholar- 
ships in whole or in part because they do not need the whole assistance. I am in- 
clined to think that money given in Scholarships is at present too diffused, and that 
it is better for County Councils and others to concentrate their resources on a few 
candidates of marked ability rather than to spread them over a number of weaker 
candidates who often are not able greatly to profit by an University education. 

New College, Oxford. 

I. 10 or 11 Scholarships of 501. in each year, tenable for two years, renewable for 
two years, and in exceptional circumstances, for a fifth ; 6 Scholarships are restricted 
in the first instance, but, if the limited candidates do not show sufficient merit, may be 
thrown open for that competition. About 2 or 3 Exhibitions of 501., tenable for two 
or three years, confined to those in need of assistance, not tenable with Scholarships. 

II. Tenable with outside Exhibitions (School, County Council, &c.). We have 
a private Exhibition, usually of the value of 301. a year, given to those men who may 
be in need of assistance, tenable with a Scholarship. 

IV. (a) The Exhibition Fund ; a loan fund. 
{b) A small private benefaction. 

V. (a) I can scarcely remember any such case. 

(6) I can scarcely remember any deserving candidates who have had to retire 
during their course for lack of means, though a man who is not succeeding well might 
be allowed to retire. 

Pembroke College, Oxford. 

I. 34 ranging from lOOZ. downward, chiefly 801., mostly restricted to schools or 
localities, tenable during residence for four years. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) and (6) Not during my Mastership. 

St. John's College, Oxford. 

I. Open Scholarships, 13 of 801. ; close Scholarships, 22 of 100?. (besides 4 open 
to members of the College of 4 terms standing of 80Z., and only tenable for one or two 
years). All oj)en Scholarships and 7 of the close, tenable for four years, which may 
be increased to five ; 15 close Scholarships, tenable for five years. 

At present, 7 open Exliibitions of 401. to 70?., tenable as open Scholarships ; 5 
close Exhibitions of 40/. to 80Z., tenable as open Scholarships. Variable number 
(o at present) restricted to undergraduates of 4 terms, of 20?. to 60?. 

II. Scholarships and Exhibitions not tenable together. 



310 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, — 1913. 

III. No limit. 

IV. (a) The Exhibition Fund of not less than 600Z. per annum. It is not usual to 
grant more than 601. in one year to an individual. 

(b) A small fund of about 40Z. in the hands of the President, sometimes augmented 
by private gifts to 701., is usually distributed in gifts of about 101. to deserving and 
needy undergraduates, not necessarily scholars or exhibitioners. 

V. (a) I cannot recall any. 

(b) I think not. 

(c) If such resignations were threatened, the College would certainly intervene 
in the case of a promising and deserving undergraduate. 

VI. I have only to add that this College has for many years past done its best 
to keep and encourage poor men. 

Meeton College, Oxford. 

I. 20 Scholarships of 80^ ; 4 Exhibitions of 80Z., plus a limited number (about 2 
a year) of 60?., restricted to candidates in need of assistance at the University. All 
tenable at the outset for two j'ears, renewable for two years if the holder has given 
satisfaction. A fifth is sometimes sanctioned for special reasons. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. An Exhibition Fund, including an annual subsidy not exceeding 4001. from 
the College, and the emoluments of vacant Scholarships and dividends from two 
bequests of about 601. a year. 

V. {a) No resignations. The College gives help from the Exhibition Fund to 
very poor students who cannot Uve on their Scholarships. Only latterly the holder 
of an Exhibition of 801. received an addition of 501. on the grounds of poverty and 
exceptional promise. But so large a grant is unusual. 

WADH.iM College, Oxford. 

I. 14 Scholarships, I of 86Z. ; 13 of 80Z., tenable, as a rule, for four years ; 14 Ex- 
hibitions of 231. to 60Z., tenable for four years. 

II. No, with foiu: special exceptions. 

III. No. 

IV. (a) A fund of about 50Z. in the Warden's hands to assist deserving students. 
(6) Frequently some assistance from private benefaction. 

V. (a) and (6) I have never known of such cases. Sometimes deserving students 
get their Scholarships or Exhibitions supplemented by private benefaction. 

VI. Our scholars almost always come from homes where some help is needed for 
a boy to come to the University. During my thirty years' experience I cannot recall 
a single case of a scholar or exhibitioner to whom the money was immaterial, and 
may also mention that in case of special need or desert help is given for residence 
during a fifth year. Each such case is decided on its merits. 

All Souls' College, Oxpokd. 

I. 4 Bible Clerkships, value consisting in lodging, tuition, and allowances, fully 
covering board during academical terms, tenable for three years. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. A sum of 150Z. per annum in aid of non-Collegiate students in cases of need, 
on the recommendation of the Censor. 

V. (a) and (6) No cases. 

Queen's College, Oxford. 

I. 4 open and 1 close (which in defect of qualified candidates, is thrown open). 
Scholarships of 80Z. awarded annually, tenable i^rimarily for two years, and renew- 
able, if holders are satisfactory, for two years ; for special reasons, may be continued 
for a fifth. 

Two Bible Clerkships conferred, as vacancies occur, on deserving persons in 
need of assistance at the University, of 80Z. (or 90Z. if resident in College), on same 
tenure as Scholarships. 

1 J. 0. F. Scholarship of 90Z. every fourth year, restrict«d to C'hui'chmen, and 4 
J. N. P. Scholarships of lOOZ. for five years, awarded as they fall vacant, restricted to 
Churchmen. Cuet. 'par. a candidate who stands in need of pecuniary assistance is 
to be preferred. 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 311 

Exliibitions, all close, 4 or 5 of lOOZ. ; 1 of 100^ for two years, which mav be 
extended to a tliird and to a fourth year ; 1 of 4:21. ; 2 of 68Z. ; 2 of 25?. ; 1 of 43/. ; 
1 of 6/. ; 1 of 51. 5s. ; 1 of 9/. Most of these are restricted to poor and deserving 
students. All may be tlirown open on defect of qualified candidates. Close, of 70/. 
for seven years ; 2, 40/. for four years ; 1, 33/. for four years ; 2, 60/. for four years ; 
1, 62/. for students of the College in their twelfth term (theological) for one year, 
wliich may be extended to a second ; 1 of 50/. a year, and a benefaction of 10/. 

II. No. 

III. No. A large proportion of our scholars and exhibitioners receive supple- 
mentary Scholarships from their Schools or County Councils or from the City Com- 
panies. A good many are completely maintained. 

IV. A small Exhibition Fund might very occasionally be available, but it cannot 
be advertised. 

V. in) No. 

(b) No. 

(c) Difficulties have frequently been met by aid from the Exhibition Fund. 

Trinity College, Oxford. 

I. (a) 18 Scholarships of 80/. ; 8 Exhibitions of 60/. to 70/. ; 4 or more close 
Studentsliips of 55/. Scholarships and Studentships tenable for four years ; Ex- 
hibitions for three or four years. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. An Exhibition Fund from which payments can be made to members of the 
fiollege who need assistance to complete their University course j private benefactions 
from time to time. 

V. (a) Very rarely, as candidates usually know the probable expenditure required 
for a University course. 

(d) I remember none. 

(f) The College has not infrequently supplemented Scholarships by grants from 
the Exhibition Fund and by loans. 

VI. A considerable number of members of the University, including many of those 
who hold College Scholarships, have been awarded University Exhibitions by the 
Education Authority of the district to which they belong. 

Keble College, Oxford. 

I. Scholarships of 80/.. Exliibitions of .50/. primarily for two years, though capable 
of being extended for two more. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. I have 200/. a year of permanent endowment that I can use in tliis way. 

V. (a) and (&) No cases. 

L.iDY Margaret Hall, Oxford. 

IV. There is a Loan Fund common to all women students in Oxford. 

V. (a) Yes, occasionally. 

SOMERVILLB COLLEGE, OXFORD. 

I. Awarded annually, 2 Scholarships of 60/. for three j^ears ; 1 of 50/. for three 
years (which may be extended for a fourth). Awarded triennially, 2 Scholarsliips of 
50/. for three years (with possible extension for a fourth), and one of 40/. for three 
years. A few Exhibitions (1 to 3) of 20/. to 30/. for three years (with possible exten- 
sion to a fourth). 

Another Scholarship of 50/. is awarded without examination annually, usually 
to extend a three-years' Scholarship to a fourth year. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. (a) No permanent endowment. 

(6) Friends of the CoUege have occasionally supplemented Scholarships privately. 
There is the Loan Fund (see Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford). 

V. (a) I don't remember such a case. 

(6) One case. The scholar was (already) a graduate of another University, and 
the CoUege thought it best in the scholar's own interest that she should accept a good 
teaching post offered her and resign the Scholarship. 



312 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SOIENf^E. — IV)] 3. 

VI. A scholar or exliibitioner may, for the benefit of others who need assislanne, 
relinquish the whole or part of the emolument, while retaining the title. 
Sr. Hugh's College, Oxford. 

I. Annually, 1 Scholarship of 251. ; biennially, 2 of 30Z., 2 of 40/., all tenable for 
three years and renewable for a fourth. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. None. 

V. (a) No. 

(6) and (c) Retirements would have occurred but for help through the College 
(private Loan Fund) or from the Loan Fund of the Association for the Education 
of Women in Oxford. 

Christ's College, Cambridge. 

I. Average number of scholars and exhibitioners in residence, 40. Nominal 
value, 20/. to 80/. ; but additional grants or reduction of fees, amounting to at most 
20/., are sometimes allowed privately in cases of poverty. Except there be dis- 
tinct evidence of idleness, the Scholarship is retained normally to end of third year, 
sometimes continued to fourth, and occasionally to fifth year. The total average 
annual amount of the last six years is 1,800/. 

II. No two open Scholarships or Exhibitions tenable together, but the value of a 
Scholarship may be increased. A dose Scholarship, connected with a particular 
School, may be held with an open Scholarship. 

III. No. The amount of a student's income from endowments of all kinds is, 
however, a factor in fixing the amount of his Scholarship, except in the case of those 
elected before coming into residence. 

IV. No. 

V. Candidates for Scholarships awarded before residence has commenced are 
asked to state the minimum value they are prepared to accept, and if they do not 
come up to the necessary standard for that value they are not elected. In very rare 
cases such a candidate has written to say he finds he cannot come into residence 
on account of his Scholarship not being adequate. 

VI. The fund for these benefactions arises partly from trust funds, liable to con- 
siderable fluctuations, but chiefly out of the corporate income, the amount payable 
out of this to the fund being one-quarter of the sum paid in the same year to the 
Master and Fellows ; and this sum again has of later years been supplemented 
by grants from the Society. Our system has the great advantage of elasticity ; the 
amount and duration of the Scholarship is within certain limits fixed by oiu'selves 
to meet the requirements of the special case. 

The present system works well. No rich men hold Scholarships, and in 
nearly every instance the benefaction is necessary to enable the student to come to 
the IJniversity. The cases in which an intellectually deserving candidate fails to 
obtain a Scholarship are rare indeed ; they hardly exist. It is most undesirable lo 
attract by emolument poor men of ordinary ability. . . . The College badly wants 
funds for advanced students in specialised subjects. 

Downing College, Cambridge. 

I. 6 Foundation Scholarships at least tenable till graduation standing of 50Z. to 
80/. ; a varying number of minor Scholarships and Exhibitions, tenable for one year, 
of 20/. to 50/. 

II. No ; but may be tenable with benefactions outside the College. 

III. No. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) I can recall no case. 

(6) and (c) Additional aid from the College has prevented any actual retirement. 
Jesus College, Cambridge. 

I. Entrance Scholarships are limited by Act of Parhament to 80/., and tenable 
for two years, but are ordinarily renewed and frequently increased in value. Scholar- 
ships (except some close Scholarships) are never less than 40/. and seldom exceed 80/. 

II. Trust and open Scholarships may in general be held together, but the total 
amount of benefaction received by any individual seldom exceeds 80/. 

III. No hmit is imposed. I do not see how it would be possible to do so. But 
in determining the value of any Scholarship regard is paid to the total income of the 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETO., HEIJ) BY UNIVERSTTY STUDENTS. P>]?> 

scholar and his parents' means. Cenerally, (his is only possible in (he ease of seholars 
already in residence. 

IV. No ; but privately many scholars (and undergraduates who are not .scholars) 
receive assistance from the College or the Tutor. 

V. (a) No, by the conditions : 'Candidates are required to state the value (usually 
minimum) which they are prepared to accept, and are bound to accept any offer 
of the value they state.' 

(b) Whether any scholars have ever retired for this reason I do not know ; there 
has been no recent instance. 

(c) The College sometimes gives assistance to scholars and others. 

Magdalene College, Cambridge. 

I. Number variable of Scholarships and Exhibitions. At present 24 in residence, 
besides C Sizars and 4 Subsizars. Scholarships are of 40/. to 801. ; Exhibitions gene- 
rally of 301. ; tenure of both for two years, after which they may be prolonged and 
increased if the holders prove of sufficient merit. Sizarships are worth about 34/. 
and Subsizarships consist in the reduction of certain fixed charges, and admission to 
certain privileges at a given fixed charge. 

II. A Scholarship or Exhibition is tenable with a Sizarship or Subsizarship, or 
with a ' private Exhibition ' of 2.^il. (.see IV.). 

III. No. 

IV. (1) Trusts amounting to about 120/. per annum from which small benefac- 
tions are made annually to poor and deserving students. 

(2) Ordinands Fund of 50/. from which grants of 10/. are made to candidates for 
ordination requiring assi.stance. 

(3) A private Exhibition Fund, providing 12 Exhibitions a year of 2.')/. ; but 
in no case do we provide for the complete maintenance of students. 

V. (a) Occasionally ; but it seldom, if ever, happens that a candidate of real 
abihty is obliged to decline an emolument on such grounds, as they are generally 
able to get additional help by means of School, or County Council, or City Company 
Exhibitions. 

(6) No, not to my knowledge. 

Pembroke College, Cambridge. 

I. Annuallyoffered, 2 Scholarships of 80/. ; 4 of 60/. ; 4 of .W/. ; and Exliibitions of 
30/., all tenable for three years and renewable for a fourth. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. A small fund is available. 

V. (a) No. 

(b) Only when .sudden financial disaster has overtaken the parents. 
((•) Private liberality has never failed. 

St. Peter's College, Cambridge. 

II. No; but grants in aid may be made from a fund for deserving s(iiden(s, 
liut no grant would be made to an 80/. Scholar. 

IV. Two private funds for deserving students administered by the Tutor wilh 
(he cognisance of the Master ; and a fund for the encouragement of research from 
which grants are made to students after graduation. No funds for complete main- 
tenance of a student of exceptional promise. 

V. (rt) Cases may have occurred. 
(b) I cannot remember any case. 

Selwyn College, Cambridge. 

II. The endowed Scholarships may be supplemented from (he Exhibition Fund 
if the .scholar is regarded as reaching a higher standard, but two benefactions cannot 
be held together. 

III. No hTuit. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) ' Yes, from time to time. Now and then it has been j)ossible to interest 
private individuals to come to the rescue before or after the candidate comes into 
residence ; but the College has no means at its disjiosal for the purpose.' 

VI. ' I should suggest that local authorities should be prepared to subsist all 
candidates from their area which have reached the requisite standard in an open 
competition, instead of making their support dependent on a further competition 
for a limited number of local Exhibitions.' 



314 REPORTS ON THE STATE 01' SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Newnham College, Cambridge. 

I. 5 Scholarships of 501. for three years and 2 of 351., tenable for three years ; 
1 of 501., tenable for two or three years, and another of 50Z., tenable here or at 
Girton College for three years ; 1 of 1001. for first year's students, tenable for three 
years ; 1 of 40L for one year for third-year students. A number of small grants, 
generally of 16Z., tenable with or without Scholarships ; 5 grants of 51. for books to 
students. All but one of above Scholarships are awarded annuaUy. 

II. Only as stated above. 

III. No limit. 

IV. A Loan Fund, from which as much as SOL a year may be borrowed for three 
years. No other permanent endowment, though help may be given as stated above 
by means of the grants and Loan Fund and from private sources. 

V. (a) No such cases. 
(6) I beheve not. 

(c) Such resignations would be met by help from the grants and Loan Fund. 
By means of these a student holding the smallest of our Scholarships, one of .3.5/., 
could make it up to 80?. (our fees are 901.) with 15/. grant and .36/. loan. As a rule, 
however, we find that the students most in need of help have school Scholarships, 
and that their families are able to give them a little help. 

Univeesity College, London. 

I. 44 Scholarships, varying from 10/. to 150/. ; tenure varying from one to three 
years — ' in two cases tliis may be raised to five.' Two Exhibitions of 57/. 15s., tenable 
for three years ; 2 Bursaries of about 16/., tenable for two years. 

II. Permission must be obtained to hold two CoUege Scholarships at the same 
time, and in the case of the A. entrance Scliolarships, the following Regulation obtains : 

No student is permitted to hold an A. Scholarship concurrently with any other 
College Scholarship when the joint annual value of such Scholarships exceeds 50/., 
except upon the special recommendation of the Professorial Board. 

III. No. 

IV. I have small sums placed at my disposal by friends of the College and mem- 
bers of the College Committee from time to time to help poor students, who are now 
greatly helped by County Scholarships. 

V. (a) I have only known of one since my tenure of ofifice here for the last nine 
years. 

(6) In two cases during my tenure of office. 

VI. I think it would be a good plan if all Scholarships, Exhibitions, and Bursaries 
were given practically as loans with the understanding that if and when a student, 
who had benefited from holding a Scholarship, found himself financially able to do 
so, he should return at least the sum that he had received. It has been done in one 
or two cases, but it should become a general policy and tradition. 

King's College, London. 

I. Scholarships (1 entrance), 1 of 30/. for one year (in alternate years) ; 2 of 25/. 
for two years ; 2 of 30/. for three years ; 2 of 25/. for four years ; 2 (to Students of 
the College), 1 of 20/. for two years ; 2 of 20/. for one year (first and second year's 
medical respectively) ; 1 of 20/. for five years (training of medical missionaries). 
Exhibitions, 2 of 25/. for two years (1 entrance). 

Theological, 6 Exhibitions of 60/., 5 Exhibitions of 20/., and a few Bursaries at the 
discretion of the Dean. 

II. Most of the above are entrance Scholarships, and not more than one can be 
held. The Regulations for the other benefactions make it impossible for more than 
one to be held at a time. 

III. No Umit. 

IV. No regular fund, but Scholarships are sometimes supplemented by private 
benefactors. 

V. (a) Yes, but not often. 
(6) Yes, but not often. 

(c) On rare occasions from general College funds. 

King's College fob Women, London. 

I. 2 Scholarships of 40/. for three years, each awarded once in three years ; 1 of 
30/. for one year (to second year Arts Students not necessarily of the College) in entrance 
Scholarships in Classics of 25/. for two years. Exhibitions of the value of 60/. for 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 315 

three yeara are open. Five Bursaries in Theology, covering fees for one session, are 
given to members of the Church reading for Certificate or Diploma, and who show 
that they are in need of financial help. 

II. Two Scholarsliips may and at present are held by a single beneficiary. 

III. No. 

IV. None. 

V. (a) No. 

(6) No. Had such a case arisen, I think that the College would undoubtedly 
have assisted. 

Goldsmiths' College. 

I. None, except when the London County Council award a free place. They ai-e 
entitled to award 15 in consideration of their annual grant towards the maintenance 
of the College. 

II. . 

III. Not by the College Authorities. 

IV. None. 

V. (a) Application for free places is made to the County Council. I am not, 
therefore, in a position to answer. 

(6) Not thit I know of. 

lloYAL Hollo WAY College. 

I. Scholarships, 4 of 60L, 7 or 8 of 501. at entrance, tenable for three years. Bur- 
saries not more than 6 of 30Z., tenable for three years. After not less than three 
terms' residence, 3 at least of 301. for three years, and 1 of 60?. for three years. 

II. If two (entrance and other) are held together, a reduction of 151. is made. 

III. No limit. 

IV. None. 

V. (a) No successful candidate has declined a Scholarship, but there have been 
several cases where a successful candidate would not have been able to take up a 
Scholarship without the help she received, either from her school, or from a County 
Council or other awarding body. In the case of the smaller Scholarships, namely, 
Bursaries, it has happened in several cases that these benefactions have been de- 
clined as a candidate was unable to furnish the remaining amount required for the 
fees. 

(b) and (c) So far as I know, no deserving beneficiary has been allowed to retire 
from her course through lack of means ; but there have been cases where this retire- 
ment would have been necessary if the students had not received help from a Loan 
Fund which has been estabUshed in connection with the College. 

VI. I think that there is great room for increase in the help given by local edu- 
cation authorities to promising girls in order to enable them to go to College. Where 
an examination for Scholarships is strictly competitive, as in the case of our own 
entrance Scholarship Examinations, and, I believe, the entrance Examinations 
of all other Colleges, and where the funds are strictly limited, only a small number 
can be helped by the College to take up their career. I feel sure that the British 
Association Educational Section could do much to educate public opinion in this 
very important matter. 

Bedeokd College fok Women. 

I. Entrance Scholarships, 1 of 601. ; 4 of 301. ; 4 of 50Z. tenable for three years ; 
1 Scholarship, 601. for two years; 1 Fellowship (? post-graduate), 501. for two years. 
Residence Bursaries, which reduce the fees of residence by 14 guineas, are given to 
students who are unable to pay the full fees. 

II. No two College Scholarships may be held together, but a College Entrance 
Scholarship may be held with a Scholarship or Exhibition from another source by 
special permission of the Council. Residence Bursaries are sometimes awarded to 
Scholars. 

III. The question has not arisen. 

IV. (a) No. There is a small ' College Fund ' supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions, from which grants are made to needy students, but these grants are not as a 
rule made to scholars. 

(6) Scholarships are occasionally supplemented privately, but in no case does 
this provide for a complete maintenance of the student. 

V. (a) and (*>) Not during the last six years. 



316 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

Westfield College. 

I. 5 to 7 Scholarships annually of 35Z. to 50Z. for three years (last year 7 were 
awarded, each of 501. ) ; 1 permanent endowed Scholarship of 501. for three years, 
offered every third year. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. Private help is in many cases given to supplement Scholarships, and also 
to help students who do not hold Scholarships. I have arranged for this privately. 

V. (a) I believe that in some cases a Scholarship or Bursary has been declined 
where the winner has failed to gain another Scholarship elsewhere to supplement 
the one offered by the College. 

(6) I think not. Help has been arranged in case of need. 

(c) I have arranged inivately for help by gifts or loans, and have received some 
gifts for this purpose from members of Council, old students, and friends of the College. 

VI. Examinations are not as a rule a full test of merit, and the help and most 
value are given to desirable students who have passed a standard, Andwhen the person- 
ality and circumstances are taken into consideration. 

University oe Durham. 

I. At entrance, 5 open Scholarships (to men and women) of 101. ; 1 of 40i. ; 3 of 
301., for one year, renewable for a second and third year ; 1 of 101., for women only ; 
an Exhibition of 301. for students of hmited means ; 3 second year's Scholarships of 
301., one restricted to those who do not hold any Scholarship or Exhibition, and two 
Exhibitions of 401. restricted to candidates for the B.A. in Theology. A number of 
close Scholarships and Exhibitions, ranging from 50?. to 81., all for one year (except 
two for three years). 

II. No holder of a Foundation Scholarship can hold together with it any other 
Scholarships or Exhibitions (except two University and two close Scholarships for 
Graduates) which will with it amount to as much as 1001. a year. 

Abmstrong College, Newcastle. 

I. (a) At entrance, Exhibitions, 2 of 151. ; 1 of 201. for one year, tenable and re- 
newable for a second year, subject to satisfactory conduct and progress ; 20 Exhibi- 
tions of free admission to the courses for two years, renewable for a third under same 
conditions ; with these may be provided Bursaries for successful candidates who, 
without such aid, would not be able to accept the Exhibitions ; 2 close Exhibitions, 
giving free admission to Degree course (same conditions). County Council Scholar- 
ships and Exhibitions (restricted locally), 2 of 601. ; 2 of 501. ; 2 of 401., plus tuition 
fees, tenable for two years only ; 1 yearly of 50^ in Marine Engineering, for three 
years, restricted to candidates who can produce satisfactory evidence that the amount 
will enable him to pursue his day courses, and that he would be unable to do so with- 
out this aid ; 3 Scholarships in Naval Architecture of 501. under same conditions. 

(6) At close of first year, a Scholarship of 30Z. or under for one year, plus remission 
of two-thirds of the class fees ; 1 of 201., with similar remission for three years ; 1 
Scholarship of 151. for one year ; 1 of 13/. 10s. for one year (renewable under condi- 
tions for a second). 

(c) At close of second year, 2 Scholarships of 40/. (with remission of laboratory 
fees), and other money rewards and prizes. 

II. The second year's Scholarships and Exhibitions are not tenable with any 
other. 

The Victoria University, Manchester. 

About 24 Foundation Scholarships, awarded by the University. A large number 
of entrance Scholarships, awarded by other bodies, varying from 25/. upwards ; 12 
Exhibitions of 15/. upwards ; numerous prizes of books and money. 

II. ' No . . . Scholarship or Exhibition awarded by the University shall be held 
together with any other . . . Scholarsliip awarded by the University or with any 
County Council School, without the express permission of the Senate. In the case of 
students who hold other . . . Scholarships or Exhibitions of any kind the Senate 
shall have power to withhold, either in whole or in part, payment of any . . . Scholar- 
ship or Exhibition awarded by the University. In the case of . . . ScholarshiiJS, 
Exhibitions, and Bursaries awarded by a Hall of Residence no such permission is 
necessary (University Scholarships are fi-equently held with County Council Scholar- 
ships up to a maximum of 75/. by special permission of the Senate).' 



SrnOLARSHTPS, ETC., }]K1.0 BV UNIVKRSTTY STITDIONTS. 317 

III. 1'lie Regulation stated above limits concurrent tenure, but tbeie is no fixed 
maximum limit as to the amount a single beneficiary may hold laid down by the 
Regulations. 

IV. Not at present. A small sum is set aside for assistance to deserving students 
to enable them to complete their course in case of special need arising. 

V. (a) Yes, but not frequently. 

(b) I cannot recollect such a case. 

(c) Under very special circumstances a supplemental grant has been made from 
the Scholarship Suspense Account, or private loans have been given. 
University op Birmingham. 

I. (a) On entrance, 15 of remission of fees plus maintenance not exceeding 30/. 
for four years (city residents) ; 2 of 25Z. for one year ; 1 of 241. for two or three years 
(Wolverhampton students) ; 1 of 501. and 1 of 401. for three years (Faculty of Com- 
merce) ; 2 Bursaries of 4ol. for three years (parents' income not exceeding 150/.) ; 
and one of 13/. (residents of Smethwick) for one year, renewable. 

(6) Second and later years in Science, Arts, and Commerce, awarded mostly on In- 
termediate Examination, 1 Scholarship of remission of fees for three years (pupils of 
Technical School) ; 1 of 40/. for three years ; 1 of 25/. for two years, and 1 of 36/. for 
1 year (limited to pujiils from King Edward's Schools) ; 1 of 50/. and 1 of 40/. for three 
years (Commerce) ; 1 of 37/. for one year (Science and Metallurgy) ; 4 Exhibitions of 
30/. for one year. 

{h) Medicine, 1 of 21/. for 2 years ; 1 of 14/. for one year (orplians of medical men) ; 
4 of 10/. 10s. for one year on results of second, third, fourth, and final examinations. 

II. No. 

IV. We have no funds at our disposal of a permanent kind to supplement Sc^holar- 
ships for the complete maintenance of students of exceptional merit. We provide, 
however, out of ordinary revenue for maintenance up to 30Z. per annum, in respect of 
60 University Entrance Scholarships, tenable by candidates resident in the city. 

(a) The amount to be expended in any year on Scholarships and Bursaries 
respectively in any year is in the discretion of the Committee, and is determined by 
the applications received. Bursaries may provide for complete maintenance ; their 
amount depends on the circumstances of the applicant and of his parents or guardians. 

(6) No. 

V. I do not remember any instances of (a) or (6). 

The Univeesity of Leed.s. 

I. Entrance Scholarships, 2 of 20/. and 1 of 21/. for two years ; 3 of 40/. for I wo 
years for a third ; 2 of 25/. and 1 of 35/. renewable ; and a number of Scholarshii)S 
on the award of pubhc bodies. The Leeds City Entrance Scholarship Fund is now 
utilised ' for the purpose of extending the courses of deserving and necessitous Leed.s 
students attending at the L^niversity.' 

II., III. ' Power is reserved to declare a Scholarship vacant or reduce its value on 
the ground that the Scholar has previously or subsequently to his election acquired 
another Scholarship. In cases where students hold Scholarships the aggregate 
amount of which amounts to more than 75/., the Senate reserves power to reduce them 
to this sum.' 

IV. I am not quite clear as to the intention of this question. We have no fund 
which is nece.ssarily used as a means of supplementing Scholarships, but some of the 
Scholarships and other awards may be given to students already holding some other 
Scholarship. Special grants have also been given by the University to Scholarship 
holders. 

V. (a) (h) and (c) The information available is not sufficiently definite for a reply 
to be given to these questions. If such cases have occurred, they have been very 
rare. Special grants have been made to Scholarship holders by the University, anfl 
private help has sometimes been forthcoming. 

University of Bristol. 

I. Scholarships, 3 of 30/. to 34/. for one year ; 1 of 26/., for not exceeding three 
years ; 1 of 20/. for one year ; ' City Scholarships ' (variable, dependent on applica- 
tions and qualifications of students, remission of fees) for one year renewable ; ' City 
Bursaries,' under same conditions, for maintenance, purchases of books or apparatus, 

II. ' Not as a rule,' 
IIL No. 

V. No. 



318 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 

University of Sheffield. 

I. Scholarships and Exhibitions : 

1 every year, tenable during whole degree Course, 122/. a year. 
8 every year, tenable for three years, 50/. a year. 

2 „ „ ,, 30/. a year. 

r 15/. first year, plus fees remitted. 
11 „ „ „ 20/. second year 

[ 25/. third year ,, 

2 ,, ,, ,, 50/. a year ,, 

1 (triennial), tenable for three years, 50/. a year. 
1 „ ,, „ 21/. a year. 

4 (annual), tenable for one year, Fees of Degree Course remitted. 
1 „ „ ,. Fees in Engineering or Metalhngy remitted. 

1 „ „ ., 20/. 

Medicine. 
1 ,, ,, one year 20/. 

4 „ ,, ,, 50/. plus fees remitted. 

In addition, the Surveyors' Institute oSer 1 Scholarship of CO/, and 1 of 50/. for 
three years, tenable in this University. 

II. Only with the special permission of the Council and Senate of the University. 

III. Not specifically ; but the regulation cited in answer to II. provides a check 
against any student receiving too large a sum in Scholarships. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) Not to my knowledge. I think I should be justified in saying No. 
(6) No. 

University College, Nottingham. 

I. Scholarships, 1 of 12/. for one year, renewable at the discretion of the Council 
College Studentships (16 during 1912-13) of 10/. to 18/. awarded on results of Terminal 
and Sessional Examinations to College students who are in need of pecuniary assist- 
ance, tenable for one year, renewable. City Education Bursaries of 10/., with re- 
mission of College fees, averaging 18/. 

II. Under exceptional circumstances the College Council might sanction a Student- 
ship being held together with one of the above-named Scholarships. It is possible 
for holders of College Scholarships and Studentships to hold Scholarships awarded 
by another body during the same period. 

III. No. In awarding Scholarships, however, the pecuniary circumstances are 
in some cases taken into consideration. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) Very few such cases have occurred. 

(6) The College Studentships are designed to meet such cases. 
University College, Reading. 

I. Scholarships and Exhibitions releasing the holder from payment of College 
fees whoUy, or in part ; or contributing towards the cost of his or her maintenance 
while at the College. Major Scholarships, 2 of 69/., 1 of 65/., at entrance, tenable for 
two years, renewable for a thijrd. Two minor Scholarships of about 20/. (i.e. re- 
mission of tuition fees) under same tenure. Exhibitions, several, of which only 
the Gallia (10/.), awarded to Matriculated Students in French, is available for ordinary 
undergraduate students. 

II. Not two College benefactions in ordinary circumstances. Comparatively 
small Exhibitions, however, may be awarded to students holding other Scholar- 
ships or Exhibi