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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

^lAM 



REPORT 



OF THE 



EIGHTY.FIFTH MEETING OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 




MANCHESTER: 1915 



SEPTEMBER 7—11 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1916 

Office 0/ the Association : Burlington House, London, W. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Jfficbks and Council, 1915-1916 iii 

Rules of the Beitish Association v 

Tables: Past Annual Meetings:* 

Trustees, General Officers, &c. (1831-1915) xxi 

Sectional Presidents and Secretaries (1901-1914) xxii 

Chairmen and Secretaries of Conferences of Delegates (1901-1914) xxx 

Evening Discourses (1901-1914) xxx 

Lectures to the Operative Classes and Public Lectures (1901-1914) xxxii 

Grants for Scientiiic Purposes (1901-1914) .. xxxiii 

Report of the Council to the Gbnbeal Committee, 1914-1915 ... xxxix 

General Treasurer's Account, 1914-1915 xliv 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Keceipis, and Sums paid on a.ccount of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes (1831-1915) xlvi 

Analysis of Attendances xlviii 

Manchester Meeting, 1915 : 

General Meetings 1 

Sectional Officers li 

Officers of Conference of Delegates Iii 

Research Committees liii 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso Ixv 

Resolutions referred to the Council Ixv 

Resolution by the General Committee Ixv 

Synopsis of Grants of Money Ixv 

Cairo Fund Ixvii 

Public Lectures in Manchester and Vicinity Ixviii 

* Particulars for early Meetings not furnished in the following Tables will 
be found in Volumes for 1911 and previous years. 

a2 



ii CONTENTS. 

Page 

Address by the Peesident, Professor Arthur Schuster, D.Sc, 

Sc.D., LL.U., Dr. es Sc, F.R.S 3 

Reports on the State of Science, &c ii7 

Transactions of the Sections : 

A. — Mathematical and Physical Science 357 

B. — Chemistry 368 

C— Geology 403 

D.— Zoology 487 

E.— Geography 478 

F. — Economic Science and Statistics 495 

G. — Engineering 62D 

H. — Anthropology 651 

I. — Physiology 679 

K.— Botany 701 

L.— Education 732 

M.— Agriculture 760 

Report of the Corresponding Societies Committee 781 

Ebpoet of the Conference of Delegates of Corresponding Societies 781 

Index 817 

List of Publications 837 

List of Members, &c 1-103 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plates I.-IV. — Illustrating the Report on Seismological Investigations. 

Plates V. and VI. — Illustrating the Report on the Botanical and Chemical 
Characters of the Eucalypts. 

Plates VIL and VIII.— Illustrating the Report on Atlas, Textual, and Wall 
Maps for School and University use. 

Plate IX. — Illustrating the Report on Stress Distributions in Engineering 
Materials. 

Plates X. and XI. — Illustrating the Report on Archseological Investigations 
in Malta. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1915-1916. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 



PRESIDENT. 

Professor ARTHUR SOH0STER, D.Sc, Sc.D., LL.D., Dr. fis Sc, F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of Manchester. 

The Right Hon. Lord Shuttleworth, LL.D., 
Lord-Lieutenant of Lancashire. 

The High Sheriff of Lancashire. 

The Right Hon. Viscount Morley op Black- 
burn, O.M., D.O.L., F.R.S., Chancellor of Man- 
chester University. 

His Grace the Dukb op Devonshire, G.O.V.O., 
F.R.S. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby, K.G. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Ellesmerb, M.V.O. 

The Right Hon. Viscount Bryce, D.0.L.,LL.D., 
F.R.S. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Manchester. 



The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

The High Sheriflt of Cheshire. 

The Worshipful the Mayor of Saltord. 

The Right Rev. the Bishop of Salford. 

The Right Hon. Sir H. E. RoscoE, Ph.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
The Right Hon. Sir William Mather, LL.D. 
The Vice-chancellor of the University of Man 

Chester. 
Sir Edward Donner, Bart., LL.D. 
Sir Frank Forbes Adam, O.T.E., LL.D. 
Alderman Sir T. Thornhill Shann, J.P. 
Professor Horace Lamb, D.Sc, F.B.S. 
R. NoTON Barclay, Esq. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Sir Arthur J. Evans, M.A., D.litt., LL.D., F.B.S., F.S.A. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of Newcastle. 
His Grace the Duke op Northumberland, K.G., 

F.R.S. 
The Right Hon. the Earl op Durham, K.G., 

G.C.V.O. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl op Craven. 
The Right Hon. the Marquis of Londonderry, 

M.V.O. 
The Right Hon. the Earl Grey, G.C.B.,G.0.M.G., 

G.C.V.O. 
The Right Hon. Viscount Allendale. 
The Right Hon. Lord Barnard. 
The Right Hon. Lord Ravensworth. 



The Right Hon. Lord Armstrong. 

The Right Hon. LORD JoiCBy. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Durham, D.D. 

The Right Rev, the Lord Bishop of Newcastle. 

The Right Hon. J. W. Lowther, M.P. 

Tlie Right Hon. Sir Edward Grey, Bart., K.G., 

M.P. 
The Right Hon. W. RUNCIMAN, M.P. 
The Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, K.C.B., D.O.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir Hugh Bell, Bart. 
Sir G. H. PHinrsoN, D.O.L. 
Principal W. H. Hadow, D.Mus. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor John Perry, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Professor W. A. Herdman, D.Sc, F.R.S. | Professor H. H. Turner, D.Sc, D.C.L., F.R.S, 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
0. J. R. HoWARTH, M.A., Burlington House, London, W. 

CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 
H. 0. Stbwardson, Burlington House, London, W. 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. 
E. Darnell. | J. H. B. Noble. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. 
Professor P. Phillips Bedson, D.Sc. | E. W. Eraser Smith. 



A 8 



IV 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Armstoosg, Professor H. E., P.R.S. 
Bonk, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Bbabrook, Sir Edward, C.B. 
Bragg, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
Olerk, Dr. DUGALD, F.R.S. 
UnooxK, W., B.A. 
Dkndt, Professor A., F.R.S. 
DiCKSox, Professor H. N., D.Sc. 
DiXKY, Dr. F. A., P.R.S. 
Dixfix, Professor H. B., F.R.S. 
Dyson-, Sir F. W., F.R.S. 
Griffiths, Principal E. H., F.R.S. 



Haddon, Dr. A. C, F.R.S. 
Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 
IM Thurn, Sir E. F., K.O.M.Q. 
Morris, Sir D., K.C.M.G. 
Mtres, Professor J. L., M.A. 
Rutherford, Sir E., P.R.S. 
Saun'DERS, Miss E. R. 
Starling, Professor E. H., F.R.S. 
Teall, Dr. J. J. H., F.R.S. 
Thompson, Dr. Silvaxus P., F.R.S. 
Weiss, Professor F. B., D Sc. 
Woodward, Dr. A. S.mith, F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President and Vice-Presidents for the year, the 
President and Vice-Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 

Meeting. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

The Right Hon. Lord RATI.EIOH, O.M., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S 
Major P. A. MacMahox, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R..S., F.R.A.S. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. (acting). 



PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Lord Rayleigh, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir A. Geikie, K.O.B., O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir W. Orookes, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir James Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir Norman Lockyer,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 



Arthur J. Balfour, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir E.Ray Lankester,K,G,B.,F.R.S. 
Sir Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 
Sir J. J. Thomson, CM., Pres.R.S. 
Prof. T. Q. Bonney, Sc.D., F.R.S. 



Sir W. Ramsay, K.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir E. A. Schafer, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sir Oliver Lodge, D.Sc, F.«.S. 
Prof. W. Batcson, M.A., P.R.S 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Prof. T. G. Bouuey, Sc.D., P.R.S. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir E. A. Sohiifer, LL.D., F.R.S. 



Dr. D. H. Scott, M.A., F.R.S. 
Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 



Dr. J. G. Garson. 

Major P. A. MacMahou, P.R.S. 



Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B, 



AUDITORS. 

I Sir Everard im Thurn, C.B,, K.C.M.G. 



RULES OF 
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

l^Adojited by the General Committee at Leicester, 1907, 
ivith subscqin-nt amendments.'] 



Chapter I. 
Objects and Constitution. 

1. The objects of the British Association for the Advance- Objects, 
meat of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in different parts 

of the British Empire with one another and with foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for the objects 
of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

2. The Association shall consist of Members, Associates, Constitution. 
and Honorary Corresponding Members. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall be directed by a Council and conducted by 
General Officers appointed by that Committee. 

3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or Annual 
longer, and at such other times as the General Committee Meetings. 
may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 

in advance ; and the arrangements for these meetings shall 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

Chapter II. 

The General Committee. 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the Constitution. 
following persons : — 

(i) Permanent Members — 

(«) Past and present Members of the Council, and past 
and present Presidents of the Sections. 



VI 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



(b) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furthered the advancement of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association. 

(ii) l^emporary Members — 

(a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(6) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 
sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies, 

(d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 

number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 

Admission. 2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and 

claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
General Committee shall be final. 

(i) Claims for admission as a Permanent Member must 
be lodged with the Assistant Secretary at least one 
month before the Annual Meeting, 
(ii) Claims for admission as a Temporary Member may be 
sent to the Assistant Secretary at any time before or 
during the Annual Meeting. 

MeetiBgs. 3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least during 

every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annual 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 
to summon a meeting of the General Committee. 

Functions. 4. The General Committee shall 

(i) Receive and consider the Report of the Council, 
(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations, 
(iii) Receive and consider the Report of the Committee 

of Recommendations, 
(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 

than two years in advance, 
(v) Determine the date of the next Annual Meeting, 
(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer, and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting, 
(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council, 
(viii) Appoint General Officers, 
(ix) Appoint Auditors. 

(x) Elect the Officers of the Conference of Delegates, 
(xi) Receive any notice of motion for the next Annual 
Meeting. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. Vll 



Chapter III. 
Committee of Recommendations. 

1. *The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution, 
mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 
Association, the President of each Section at the Annual 
Meeting, the President of the Conference of Delegates, the 

General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and 
the Presidents of the Association in former years. 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. Every recommendation made under Chapter IV. and Functions, 
every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 

the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Recommendations 
approve such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidered by the General Committee that is not so transmitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section or Sub- 
Section, for altering the title of a Section, or for any other 
change in the constitutional forms or fundamental rules of 
the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration and report. 

3. The Committee of Recommendations shall assemble. Procedure 
for the despatch of business, on the Monday of the Annual 
Meeting, and, if necessary, on the following day. Their 
Report must be submitted to the General Committee on the 

last day of the Annual Meeting. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Winnipeg, 1909, and 
Manchester, 1915. 



Vlll 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



frocedure. 



Constitution. 



Proposals by 

Sectional 

Committees. 



Tenure. 



Reports. 



Chapter IV. 
Research Committees. 

1. Every proposal for special research, or for a !,'rant of 
money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

In consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee, composed of Members of the Association, to 
conduct research or administer a grant in aid of research, 
and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; and the 
Committee of Recommendations may include such recom- 
mendation in their report to the General Committee. 

2. Every appointment of a Research Committee shall be 
proposed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 
at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
.settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary. 
Such Research Committee, if appointed, shall have power to 
add to their numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes 
of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall 
be forwarded by the Recorder to the Assistant Secretary- not 
later than noon on the Monday of the Annual Meeting for 
presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 

4. Research Committees are appointed for one year only. 
If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 
in that year, application may be made through a Sectional 
Committee at the ne.\t Annual Meeting for reappointment, 
with or without a grant— or a further grant — of money. 

5. Every Research Committee shall present a Report, 
whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 
that at which it was appointed or reappointed. Interim 
Reports, whether intended for publication or not, must be sub- 
mitted in writing. Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain 
whether a Report has been made by each Research Committee 
appointed on their recommendation, and shall report to the 
Committee of Recommendations on or before the Monday of 
tlie Annual Meetinsr. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



IX 



Grants. 

(a) Drawn by 

Chairman. 



(b) Expire on 
June 30. 



(c) Accounts, 
and balance 
in hanil. 



id) Addi- 
tional Grant. 



6. In each Research Committee to which a grant o£ money 
has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call 
on the General Treasurer for such portion of the sum gi'anted 
as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting 
expire on June 30 following. The General Treasurer is not 
authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants. 

The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before 
the Annual Meeting next following the appointment of 
the Research Committee, forward to the General Treasurer 
a statement of tlie sums that have been received and ex- 
pended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains un- 
expended ; pi'ovided that a Research Committee may, in the 
first year of its appointment only, apply for leave to retain 
an unexpended balance when or beFore its Report is presented, 
due reason being given for such application.* 

When application is made for a Committee to be re- 
appointed, and to retain the balance of a former grant, and 
also to receive a further grant, the amount of such further 
grant is to be estimated as being sufficient, together with 
the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 

In making grants of money to Research Committees, the (e) Caveat. 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal 
expenses to the Members. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
Committee. 

7. Members and Committees entrusted with sums of money 
for collecting specimens of any description shall include in their 
Reports particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens 
thus obtained for disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any ap- 
paratus which may have been purchased out of a grant made 
by the Association, and to state whether the apparatus is 
likely to be useful for continuing the research in question or 
for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of 
the Association, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall 
be deposited at the Ofiice of the Association. 



Disposal of 
specimens, 
apparatus, 
&c. 



Amended by tlie General Committee at Dundee, 1912. 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Chapter V. 

The Council. 

CouBtitutioD. 1. The Council shall consist of ex officio Members and of 

Ordinary Members elected annually by the General Com- 
mittee. 

(i) The ex officio Members are— the Trustees, past Presi- 
dents of the Association, the President and Vice- 
Presidents for the year, the President and "Vice- 
Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the ensuing Annual Meeting, 
(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty -five in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty shall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
previous year. 

Functions. 2. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 

on behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the aff'airs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the next 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual Report, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for election by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the 
Council at the Meeting in February, and the names selected 
shall be issued with the summonses to the Council Meeting in 
March, when the nomination shall be made from the names 
on the list. 

The Council shall have power to appoint and dismiss 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 



THE COUNCIL. X 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same Elections. 
time as that of the Officers of the Association, 

(i) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for re- 
election in the ensuing year : 
{a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

longest consecutive period, and 
{b) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 
London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 
Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
order of retirement above set forth, 
^ii) The Council shall submit to the General Committee, 
in their Annual Report, the names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council, 
(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 
Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
Members of Council, and, if only two are so proposed, 
they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two 
are so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
unless hve Members at least require it to be by ballot. 



Chapter VI. 
The President, General Officers, and Staff. 

1. The President assumes office on the first day of the The Presi- 
Annual Meeting, when he delivers a Presidential Address. 

He resigns office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. In his absence, he shall be represented 
by a Vice-President or past President of the Association. 

2. The General Officers of the Association are the General General 
Treasurer and the General Secretaries. 



Officers. 



Xll 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The Geneial 
Treasurer. 



Tlie General 
Secretaries. 



The Assistant 
Secretary. 



Assistant 
Treasurer. 



It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Association, in any matter of ui-gency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

3. The General Treasurer shall be responsible to the 
General Committee and the Council for: the financial affairs 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretaries shall control the general 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to 
the General Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general routine of the work of 
the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Assistant Secretary shall hold office during the 
pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 
of the General Secretaries, and in their absence shall I'epre- 
sent them. He shall also act on the directions which may 
be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Assistant Secretary shall be charged, subject as afore- 
said : (i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persons 
therein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 

6. The General Treasurer may depute one of the Staff, as 
Assistant Treasurer, to carry on, under his direction, the 
routine work of the duties of his office. 

The Assistant Treasurer shall be charged with the issue of 
Membersliip Tickets, the payment of Grants, and such other 
work as may be delegated to him. 



Chapter VII. 
Finance. 



Financial 
Statements. 



1. The General Treasurer, or Assistant Treasurer, shall 
receive and acknowledge all sums of money paid to the 
Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 
Council, an interim statement of his Account ; and, after 



FINANCE. XIU 

June 30 in each year, he shall prepare and submit to the 
General Committee a balance-sheet of the Funds of the 
Association. 

2. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, Audit. 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinary pay- Expenditure, 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 

Council. 

4. The General Treasurer is empowered to draw on the Investments, 
account of the Association, and to invest on its behalf, 

part or all of the balance standing at any time to the credit 
of the Association in the books of the Bank of England, 
either in Exchequer Bills or in any other temporary invest- 
ment, and to change, sell, or otherwise deal with such tem- 
porary investment as may seem to him desirable. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable, Cheques, 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 

his office, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 



Chapter VIII. 
The Annual Meetings. 

1. Local Committees shall be formed to assist the General ^o<^^^ OjE- 

. - cers ana 

Officers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and Committees. 

shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General Officers 
and the Assistant Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Ti-easurers 
shall be empowered to eni'ol Members and Associates, and to 
receive subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Committees shall under- Functions. 
take the local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 

name of the Association in all matters pei'taining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than thciwork of 
the Sections. 



X17 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The 
Sections. 



Sectional 
Officers. 



Rooms. 



Sectional 
Committees. 

Constitution. 



Privilege of 
Old Members. 



Daily 
Co-optation. 



Chapter IX. 
The Work of the Sections. 

1. The scientific work of the Association shall be trans- 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time 
to time by the General Committee. 

It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of communica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for each Annual Meet- 
ing in advance, and shall act as the Officers of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting. 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The Section Rooms and the approaches thereto shall 
not be used for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes 
than those of the Association. 

4. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following : — 

(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office. 

(ii) All past Presidents of that Section. 

(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 
any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Committee, 
thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 
meeting : 

Provided always that — 

(a) Any Member of the Association who has served on 
the Committee of any Section in any previous year, 
and who has intimated his intention of being present 
at the Annual Meeting, is eligible as a member of 
that Committee at their first meeting. 

(6) A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 
set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members. 



THE WORK OF THE SECTIONS. XV 

(c) A Sectional Committee may, at any time during the Additional 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons Jice-Presi- 
present at the meeting to be Vice-Presidents of the 
Section, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 

5. The chief executive officers of a Section shall be the Executive 
President and the Recorder. They shall have power to act on Functions 
behalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 

be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
mittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- Of President 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be absolute on all points 
of order that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- and of 
mission to the Assistant Secretary of the daily programme of I^ecoider. 
his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, of the printed returns, abstracts, reports, or papers 
appertaining to the proceedings of his Section at the Annual 
Meeting, and for the correspondence and minutes of the 
Sectional Committee. 

6. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the Organising 
close of the Annual Meeting, not more than six of its own Committee, 
members to be members of an Organising Committee, with 

the officers to be subsequently appointed by the Council, and 
past Presidents of the Section, from the close of the Annual 
Meeting until the conclusion of its meeting on the first day of 
the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

Each Organising Committee shall hold such meetings as 
are deemed necessary by its President for the organisation 
of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and shall hold a meeting 
on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting : to nominate 
members of the Sectional Committee, to confirm the Pro- 
visional Programme of the Section, and to report to the 
Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- Sectional 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt *^'°™'^i"«=®- 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be offered by a member, or may 
arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 

No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been Papers and 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted Reports. 
on its Minutes. 



XVI 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



R3Commen- 
dations. 



Publication. 



Copyright. 



Any report or paper read in any one Section may be read 
also in any other Section. 

No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the 
Annual Report of the Association u-nless the manuscript has 
been received by the Recorder of the Section before the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

It shall be within the competence of the Sectional Com- 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published iu the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, further, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the task 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully ad\anced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa- 
tion, whether by reference to local authorities, public institu- 
tions, or Departments of His Majesty's Government. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Com- 
mittee. 

7. Papers ordered to be printed in extenso shall not be 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 
to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports 
of Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere 
than in the Annual Report without the express sanction of 
the Council. 

8. The copyright of papers ordered by the General Com- 
mittee to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report shall 
be vested in the autliors ; and the copyright of the reports 
of Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
shall be vested in the Association, 



ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATESr XVll 



Chapter X. 
Admission of Members and Associates. 

1. No technical qualification shall be required on the Applications. 
part of an applicant for admission as a Member or as an 
Associate of the British Association ; but the Council is 
empowered, in the event of special circumstances arising, to 

impose suitable conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

* Every person admitted as a Member or an Associate Obligations, 
shall conform to the Rules and Regulations of the Association, 
any infringement of which on his part may render him liable 
to exclusion by the Council, who have also authority, if they 
think it necessary, to withhold from any person the privilege 
of attending any Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of 
admission already issued. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Council, on any occasion of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

2. All Members are eligible to any office in the Association. Condition 

(i) Every Life Member shall pay, on admission, the sum and Privileges 
r m -n 1 of Meniber- 

01 ien rounds. sliip. 

Life Members shall receive gratis the Annual 
Reports of the Association, 
(ii) Every Annual Member shall pay, on admission, the 
sum of Two Pounds, and in any subsequent year 
the sum of One Pound. 

Annual Members shall receive gratis the Report 
of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which tliey continue to pay, 
ivithout intermission, their annual subscription. An 
Annual Member who omits to subscribe for any 
particular year shall lose for that and all future 
years the privilege of receiving the Annual Reports 
of the Association gratis. He, however, may resume 
his other privileges as a Member at any subsequent 
Annual Meeting by paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound. 
(iii) Every Associate for a year shall pay, on admission, 
the sum of One Pound. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Dublin, 1908. 



xvm 



KULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Correspond- 
ing Members. 



Annual Sub- 
scriptions. 



The Annual 
Report. 



Associates sliall not receive the Annual Report 
gratuitously. They shall not be eligible to serve on 
any Committee, nor be qualified to hold any office in 
the Association, 
(iv) Ladies may become Members or Associates on the 
same terms as gentlemen, or can obtain a Lady's 
Ticket (transferable to ladies only) on the payment 
of One Po'-iid. 

3. Corresponding Members may be appointed by the 
General Committee, on the nomination of the Council. They 
shall be entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending the meeting may 
make payment at any time before the close of the financial 
year on June 30 of the following year. 

5. The Annual Report of the Association shall be forwarded 
gratis to individuals and institutions entitled to receive it. 

Annual Members whose subscriptions have been inter- 
mitted shall be entitled to purchase the Annual Report 
at two-thirds of the publication price ; and Associates for a 
year shall be entitled to purchase, at the same price, the 
voluioe for that year. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of 
publication can only be issued by direction of the Council. 



Affiliated 
Societies. 



Associated 
Societies. 



Chaptee XI. 

Corresponding Societies : Conference of Delegates. 

Corresponding Societies are constituted as follows : 

1. (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the British Association. 

Each Affiliated Society may appoint a Delegate, 
wl»o must be or become a Member of the Associa- 
tion and must attend the meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates. He shall be ex officio a Member of 
the General Committee, 
(ii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 
the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and numbers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the British 
Association. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES : CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES. XIX 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con- 
ference. Such Delegates must be or become either 
Members or Associates of the British Association, 
and shall have all the rights of Delegates appointed 
by the Affiliated Societies, except that of member- 
ship of the General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed Applications. 
on the list of Corresponding Societies. Such application must 

be addressed to the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of 
June preceding the Annual Meeting at which it is intended 
it should be considered, and must, in the case of Societies 
desiring to be affiliated, be accompanied by specimens of the 
publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- Coeke- 
nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the spondino 
General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves committee. 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties and of superintending the preparation of a list of the 

papers published by the Affiliated Societies. This Com- 
mittee shall make an Annual Report to the Council, and 
shall suggest such additions or changes in the list of Corre- 
sponding Societies as they may consider desirable. 

(i) Each Corresponding Society shall forward every year Procedure 
to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, on or 
before June 1, such particulars in regard to the 
Society as may be required for the information of 
the Corresponding Societies Committee. 

(ii) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the 
Association a list of the papers published by 
the Corresponding Societies during the preceding 
twelve months which contain the results of local 
scientific work conducted by them — those papers 
only being included which refer to subjects coming 
under the cognisance of one or other of the several 
Sections of the Association. 

4. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies shall consti- Confeeence 
tute a Conference, of which the President,* Vice-President,* °^ ^^^^' 

. . GATES. 

and Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated annually by 
the Council and appointed by the General Committee. The 
members of the Corresponding Societies Committee shall be 
ex officio members of the Conference. 



* Amended by the General Committee at Manchester, 1915. 



a2 



XX RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Procedure and (i) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by- 

Functions, ^jjg Secretaries to hold one or more meetings during 

each Annual Meeting of the Association, and shall 
be empowered to invite any Member or Associate 
to take part in the discussions. 
(ii) The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to 
submit Resolutions to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration, and for report 
to the General Committee, 
(iii) The Sectional Committees of the Association shall 
be requested to transmit to the Secretaries of the 
Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions to be made to the General Committee bearing 
on matters in which the co-operation of Corre- 
sponding Societies is desirable. It shall be com- 
petent for the Secretaries of the Conference of 
Delegates to invite the authors of such recom- 
mendations to attend the meetings of the Conference 
in order to give verbal explanations of their objects 
and of the precise way in which they desire these 
to be carried into effect, 
(iv) It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make 
themselves familiar with the purport of the several 
recommendations brought before the Conference, 
ill order that they may be able to bring such re- 
commendations adequately before their respective 
Societies, 
(v) The Conference may also discuss propositions 
regarding the promotion of more systematic ob- 
servation and plans of operation, and of greater 
uniformity in the method of publishing results. 



Chapter XII, 

Amendments and New Rules. 

Alterations. Any alterations in the Rules, and any amendments 

or new Rules that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee on the first day of the Annual Meeting, and referred 
forthwith to the Committee of Recommendations ; and, on the 
report of that Committee, shall be submitted f(;r approval at 
the last meeting of the General Committee. 



XXI 



TEUSTEES, GENEEAL OFFICEES. &c., 1831-1915. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. MuBCHiSON (Bart.), 

F.R.S. 
1832-62 John Tayloe, Esq., F.R.S. 
1832-39 C. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
1830-44 F. Baily, Esq., F.R.S. 
1844-58 Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
1858-82 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
1862-81 Sir P. Egeeton, Bart., F.R.S. 



1831 



GENERAL 
Jonathan Gray, Esq. 



1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



1872- f Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (after- 
191 3 I wards Lord Avebuey), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W'.SPOTTiswoODE,Esq.,Pres.R.S. 
1883- Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (afterwards Lorcf) 

Platpair, F.R.S. 
1898-1915 Prof .(Sir) A. W.RiJCKBE.F.R.S. 
1913- MajorP. A. MacMahon,F.R.S. 
; 1915- Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 

TREASURERS. 

1891-98 Prof. (Sir) A. W. RtJcKER, 

F.R.S. 
1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904- Prof. John Perry, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832 
1835 



-35 



■36 



1836-37 



Rev. W. 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. W. 

F.R.S., 



Vernon Haecourt, 

Vernon Harcourt, 
and F. Baily, Esq., 



1837 

1839 

1845- 
1850- 

1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 



-39 
-45 

50 

52 

53 
59 
61 
.02 
63 



1863-65 



1865- 
1866- 



1868-71 



Vernon Harcourt, 
and R. I. Murchison, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
R. I. Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Colonel E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. RoYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
J. F. ROYLB, Esq., F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst. F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 



1871-72 Dr.T.TH0MS0N,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1872-76 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
1876-81 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. SCLATER, F.R.S. 
1881-82 Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balfour, F.R.S. 
1882-83 Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
1883-95 Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Vernon Harcourt, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
1895-97 A. G.Vernon Harcourt, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

SCHAFER, F.R.S. 
1897- r Prof. ScHAFER, F.R.S., and Sir 
1900 1 W.C.Roberts-Austen,F.R.S. 
1900-02 Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
1902-03 Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., and 
MajorP. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
1903-13 Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Heedman, 

F.R.S. 
1913- Prof. W. A. Hebdman, F.R.S., 

and Prof . H.H.Turnbr, F.R. S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES, &c. : 1831-1904. 



1831 John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 

1832 Prof. J. D. Forbes, Acting 

Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonnby, F.R.S., 

Secretary. 
1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 

Secretary. 
1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 

Secretary. 
1890-1902 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1902-04 J. G. Gaeson, Esq., M.D. 



ASSISTANT SECRETARIES. 



1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A. 
1904-09 A. Silva White, Esq. 



1909- 



0. J. R. Howarth, Esq., M.A. 



xxii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-14). 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association, 

1901-1914. 

(The List of Sectional Officers for 1915 will be found on p. li.) 



Date and Place 




Secretaries 
(^Rec. = Recorder) 



SECTION A. 1— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1901. 
1902, 
1903. 
1904. 



Glasgow ... 

Belfast 

Southport 
Cambridge 



York. 



1905. South Africa 

1906. 

1907. 

1908 



Leicester . . . 
Dublin 



Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I. A. 
— Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S.— i?e/A 
of Astronomy and Meteor- 
ology, T)y.\^ .'^. Shaw,F.R.S. 

Prof. H. Lamb, Y.B..E.— Sub- 
Section of Astronomy and 
Cosmical Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 

Piof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Principal E. H.Griffiths.F.R.S. 



Prof. A. E. H. Love, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S 



1909. Winnipeg Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S.. 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 



Prof. E. W. Hobson, F.R.S. 



Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. .. 



Prof. H. L. Callendar, F.R.S. 



1913. Birmingham ; Dr. H. F. Baker, F.R.S. 



1914. Australia.. Prof. F. T. Trouton, F.R.S. 



H. S. Carslaw, 0. H. Lees {Rec), W. 
Stewart, Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A. R. Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees (Rec), Prof. 
W. B. Morton, A. W. Porter. 

D. E. Benson, A. K. Hinks, R. W. 
H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees 
{Rec), J. Loton, A.W. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. H. T. Hudson, 

Dr. C. H. Lees {Rec), Dr. W. J. S. 

Lockyer, A. W. Porter, W. C D. 

Whetham. 
A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough. R. T. A. 

Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. C. H. Lees 

{Rec). 
Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 

A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. W. Porter 

{Rec), H. Dennis Taylor. 

E. E. Brooks, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, 
Dr. J. A. Harker, A. R. Hinks, 
Prof. A. W. Porter {Rec). 

Dr. W. G. Duffield, Dr. L. N. G. 

Filon, B. Gold, Prof. J. A. 

McClelland, Prof. A. W. Porter 

{Rec), Prof. E. T. Whittaker. 
Prof. F. Allen, Prof. J. C. Fields, 

E. Gold, F. Horton, Prof. A. W. 

Porter {Rec), Dr. A. A. Rambaut. 
H. Bateman, A. S. Eddington, E. 

Gold, Dr. F. Horton, Dr. S. R. 

Milner, Prof. A. W. Porter {Rec). 
H. Bateman, Prof. P. V. Bevan, A. S. 

Eddington, E. Gold, Prof. A. W. 

Porter {Rec), P. A. Yapp. 
Prof. P. V. Bevan, E. Gold, Dr. H. B 

Heywood, R. Norrie, Prof. A. W. 

Porter {Rec), W. G. Robson, F. 

J. M. Stratton. 
Prof. P. V. Bevan {Rec), Prof. A. S. 

Eddington, E. Gold, Dr. H. B. 

Heywood, Dr. A. 0. Rankine, Dr. 

G. A. Shakespear. 
Prof. A. S. Eddington {Rec), 

E. Gold, Prof. T. K. Lyle, F.R.S., 

Prof. S. B. McLaren, Prof. J. A. 

Pollock, Dr. A. O. Rankine. 



' Section A was constituted under this title in 1835, when the sectional division 
was introduced. The previous division was into ' Committees of Sciences.' 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-14). xxiii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
(Rec. = Recorder) 



1901. Glasgow 

I F.R.S. 

1902, Belfast Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 



1903. Southport 
1901. Cambridge 

1905. South Africa 

1906. York 



1907. Leicester.. 



1908. Dublin . 



Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 

Prof Sydney Young, F.R.S. .. 
George T. Beilby 



1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia ... 



SECTION B.2— CEEMISTRY. 

Prof. Percy F. Frankland, W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 

W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose (See.). 
R. F. Blake, M. O. Forster, Prof. 
G. G. Henderson, Prof. W. J. Pope 
(Rec). 
Dr. M. 0. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope 
(Rec). 
Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. 0. Jones, Prof. 
W. J. Pope (Rec). 
W. A. Caldecott, Mr. M. 0. Forster, 
Prof. G. G. Henderson (Rec), C. F. 
Juritz. 

Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, Dr. E. F.Armstrong, Prof. A. W.Cross- 
F.R.S. ! ley, S. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. Pope 

I (Rec). 
Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. ...!Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 

I Cros.sley (Rec), J. H. Hawthorn, 
Dr. F. M. Parkin. 
Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S. ...iDr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. A. 

j McKenzie, Dr. F. M. Perkin, Dr. 
J. H. Pollock. 
Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S.! Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. T. 

I M. Lowry, Dr. F. M. Perkin, J. W. 
Shipley. 

J. E. Stead, F.R.S | Dr. B. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. T. 

! M. Lowry, Dr. P. M. Perkin, W. 
B. S. Turner. 
Sub-section of Agriculture— Dr. C. Crowther, J. Golding, Dr. 
A. D. Hall, F.R.S. l E. J. Russell. 

Prof. J. Walker, F.R.S Dr. B. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. 

! C. H. Desch, Dr. T. M. Lowry, 
j Dr. F. Beddow. 

Prof. A. Senier, M.D t Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. C. 

I H. Desch, Dr. A. Holt, Dr. J. K. 
I Wood. 
Prof. W. P. Wynne,F.R.S....!Dr.E.F.Armstrong(i?e(?.),Dr.C.H. 

: Desch, Dr. A. Holt, Dr. H. 
McCorabie. 

Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S ' D. Avery, Prof. C. Fawsitt, Dr. A. 

Holt (Rec), Dr. N. V. Sidgwick. 



SECTION C.3- GEOLOGY. 

1901. Glasgow ... John Home, F.R.S H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton 

(Rec). 

1902. Belfast Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton 

F.R.S. (Rec), J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. 

• Seymour. 



" ' Chemistry and Mineralogy,' 1835-1894. 
' ' Geology and Geography,' 1835-1850. 



xxiv PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-14). 



Date and Place 



1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 



190C. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909 Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
{Bee. = Recorder) 



Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., 

M.Sc. 
Aubrey Straban, F.R. S 



Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 

G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S 

Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... 

Prof. John Joly, F.R.S 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. A. P. Coleman, F.R.S... 

A. Harker, F.R.S 

Dr. R N. Peach, F.R.S 

Prof. E. J. Garwood, M.A. ... 



H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Loma.s, H. W. Monckton (Rec). 
H. L. Bowman {Rec), Rev. W. L. 

Carter, J. Lomas, H. Woods. 
H. L. Bowman (Rec.'), J. Lomas, Dr. 

Molena:raaff, Prof. A. Young, Prof. 

R. B. Young. 
H. L. Bowman (Re(^.), Rev. W. L. 

Carter, Rev. W. Johnson. J. Lomas. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Prof. T. Groom, J. Lomas (jB^'f.). 
Rev. W. L. Carter, J. Lomas (Bee), 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds, H. J. Sey- 
mour. 
W. L. Carter (Bee), Dr. A. R. D werry- 

house, R. T. Hodgson, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 
W. L. Carter (7?e<;.), Dr. A. R. Dwerry- 

house, B. Hobson, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 
Col. C. W. Bevis, W. L. Carter (Rec), 

Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Prof. S. 

H. Reynolds. 
Prof. W. B. BoultoD, A. W. R. Don, 

Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Bee), 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 
Prof. W. S. Boulton, Dr. A. R. 

Dwerryhouse (Bee), F. Raw, 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 

1914. Australia...jProf. Sir T.H.Holland, F.R.S. 1 Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Rec), E.F. 

I Pittman, Prof. S. H. Ileyiiolds, 
! Prof. K^ W. Skeats. 



sectio:n^ d.^— zoology. 

1901. Glasgow 

1902. Belfast Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. 

1 
Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S 



1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 



William Bateson, F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. J. G. Kerr (Bee), J. Rankin, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson (Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, 

A. Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson 

(ReC:). Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson (Bee), Dr. H. 

W. M. Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson (Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster. 

Oxley Grabham, Dr. H.W. M. Tims 

(Rer.). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L, Doncaster, 

E. B. Lowe, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

(Bee). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. A. Eraser, Di;. H. W. M. Tims 

(Rec). 



1905. SouthAfrica ' G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 

1906. York J. J. Lister, F.R.S 

1907. Leicester... Dr. W. E. Hoyle, M.A.... 

1908. Dublin Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S. 



* ' Zoology and Botany," 1S35-1847 ; 'Zoology and Botany, including Physiology,' 
1848-1865 ;' Biology,' 1806-1894. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-14). XXV 



Date and Place 



1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
{Rec. = Recorder) 



Dr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. ... C. A. Baragar, C. L. Boulenger, Dr. 

J. Pearson, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

{Rec). 
Prof. G. C. Bourne, F.R.S. ... Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

T. J. Evans, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

{Rec.-). 
Prof. D'Arcy W. Thompson, Dr. J. H. Ashworth, C. Foran, R. D. 
C.B. Laurie, Dr. H. W. M. Tims {Rcc). 

Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, Dr. J. H. Ashworth, R. D. Laurie, 



F.R.S. 
Dr. H. F. Gadow, F.R.S... 



Prof. A. Dendy, F.R.S. 



Miss D. L. Mackinnon, Dr. H. W. 

M. Tims {Fee.'). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, Dr. C. L. 

Boulenger, R. D. Laurie, Dr. H. 

W. M. Tims {Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, Dr. T. S. Hall, 

Prof. W. A. Haswell, R. D. Laurie, 

Prof. H. W. Marett Tims {Rue.) 



SECTION E.5— GEOGRAPHY. 



1901. 
1902. 



Glasgow ... 
Belfast 



1903. Southport.. 



1904. 
190.5. 

1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 



Cambridge 
SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester... 

Dublin 

Winnipeg... 
Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 
Dundee ... 
Birmingham 
Australia ... 



Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.G.S. .. 
Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. 



Capt. E. W. Creak, R.N., C.B., 
F.R.S. 



Douglas W. Freshfield. 



Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton, 
R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Sir George Goldie, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
George G. Chisholm, M.A. ... 

Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., 

R.E. 
Col. SirD. Johnston.K.C.M.G., 

C.B., R.E. 
Prof. A. J. Herbertson, M.A., 

Ph.D. 
Col. C. F. Close, R.E., C.M.G. 

Col. Sir C. M. W-atson, 

K.C.M.G. 
Prof. H. N. Dickson, D.So. 

Sir C. P. Lucas, K.C.B., 
K.C.M.G. 



H. N. Dickson {Rec), E. Heawood, 
G. Sandeman, A. C. Turner. 

G. G. Chisholm {Rec), E. Heawood, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. 
Lindsay. 

E. Heawood {Rec), Dr. A. J. Her- 
bertson, E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. 
Underwood. 

E. Heawood (i2<;<;.). Dr. A. J.Herbert- 
son, H. Y. Oldham, E. A. Reeves. 

A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson {Rec), H. Y. 
Oldham. 

E. Heawood {Rec), Dr. A. J. Her- 
bertson, E. A. Reeves, G. Yeld. 

B. Heawood {Rec), O. J. R. How 
arth, E. A. Reeves, T. Walker. 

W. F. Bailey, W. J. Barton, O. J. 7 
Howarth {Rec), E. A. Reeves. 

G. G. Chisholm {Rec), J. McFar- 
lane, A. Mclntyre. 

Rev. W. J. Barton {Rec), Dr. R. 
Brown, J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves. 

J. McFarlane {Rec), E. A. Reeves, 
W. P. Smith. 

Rev. W. J. Barton {Rec), J. McFar- 
lane, E. A. Reeves, D. Wylie. 

Rev. W. J. Barton {Ree), P. E. Mar- 
tineau, J. McFarlane, E. A. Beeves. 

J. A. Leach, J. McFarlane, H. Yule 
Oldham {Rec), F. Poate. 



* Section E was that of ' Anatomy and Medicine,' 1835-1840; of 'Physiology' 
(afterwards incorporated in Section D), 1841-1847. It was assigned to ' Geography 
and Ethnology,' 1851-1868 ; 'Geography,' 1869. 



XXvi PRESIDENTS' AN1> SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-14). 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
(^Rec. = Recorder) 



SECTION F.«— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. South Africa 



1906. York. 



1907. Leicester.. 



1908. Dublin. 



1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia... 



1901. Glasgow 



Sir R. Gifien, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

E. Cannan, M.A., LL.D 

E. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D 



Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D. 
D.Sc. 



A. L. Bowley, M.A 

Prof. W. J. Ashley, M.A. 
\V. M. Acworth, M.A. ... 



W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan {Ilea.), S. J. Chapman. 
A. L. Bowley (Rec), Prof. S. J. 

Chapman, Dr. A. Duffin. 
A. L. Bowley {Rec), Prof. S. J. 

Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. 

Lloyd. 
J. E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley {Rec), 

Prof. S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. 

Ginsburg. 
R. a Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley (Rec), 

Prof. H. E. S. Fremantle, H. O. 

Meredith. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman (Rrc), D. H. 

Macgregor, H. O. Meredith, B. 

S. Rowntree. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman (Rec), D. H. 

Macgregor, H. O. Meredith, T. S. 

Taylor. 
W. G. S. Adams, Prof. S. J. Chap- 
man (Rec), Prof. D. H. Macgre- 
gor, H. 0. Meredith. 
A. D. Hall, Prof. J. Percival, J. H. 

Priestley, Prof. J. Wilson. 
Prof. A. B. Clark, Dr. W. A. Mana- 

han. Dr. W. R. Scott (Rec). 
C. R. Fay, H. O. Meredith (Rec), 

Dr. W. R. Scott, R. Wilson. 
C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott (Rec), 

H. A. Stibbs. 
C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott (Rec), E. 

Tosh. 
C. R. Fay, Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy, 

Prof. H. O. Meredith, Dr. W. R. 

Scott (Rec). 
Prof. R. F. Irvine, Prof. A. W. 

Kirkaldy (Ree.), G. H. Knibbs, 

Prof. H. 0. Meredith. 



SECTION G.7— ENGINEERING. 
R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. H.Bamford,W. E. Dalby, W. A. Price 



Snh-sect!o)i of AqricuUnre — 

Rt. Hon. Sir H. Plunkett. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. ... 

Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, 

K.C.B., M.A. 
Hon. W. Pember Reeves 

Sir H. H. Cunynghame, K.C.B. 

Rev. P. H. Wicksteed, M.A. 

Prof. E. C. K. Gonner 



1902. Belfast ...! Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 

1903. Southport , C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. 

1904. Cambridge |Hon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S 

1905. SouthAfrica 



1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 



Col. Sir C. Scott-Moncrieff, 

G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.B. 
J. A. Ewing, F.R.S 

Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, 
F.R.S. 



(Rec). 

M. Barr, W. A. Price (Rec), J. Wylie. 
Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 
■ W. A. Price (Rec). 
J. B. Peace,W. T. Maccall, W. A.Price 

(Ren.). 
W. T. Maccall.W. B. Marshall (Rec), 

Prof. H. Payne, B. Williams. 
W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price (Rec), 

J. Triffit. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, A. C. Harris, 

W.A.Price (Rec), H. E.Wimperis. 



• ' Statistics,' 1835-185.5. 



' ' Mechanical Science,' 1836-1900. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-14). XXvii 



Date and Place 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield .. 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia... 



Presidents 



Dugald Clerk, F.E.S 

Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., 
F.K.S. 

Prof. W. E. Dalby, M.A., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. J. H. Biles, LL.D., 

D.Sc. 
Prof. A. Barr, D.Sc 



Prof. Gisbert Kapp, D.Eng... 
Prof. E. G. Coker, D.Sc 



Secretaries 
(Hec. = Recorder) 



Prof. E. G. Coker, Dr. W. E. Lilly, 
W. A. Price (^Bec), H. E. Wim peris. 

E. E.Brydone-Jack, Prof.E. G.Coker, 
Prof. E. W. Marchant, W. A. Price 
(Rec). 

F. Boulden, Prof. E. G. Coker (Bee), 
A. A. Eowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

H. Ashley, Prof. E. G. Coker (Bee.), 
A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

Prof. E. G. Coker (Bee), A. R. Ful- 
ton, H. Richardson, A. A. Eowse, 
H. E. Wimperi.s. 

Prof. E. G. Coker (Bee), J. Purser, 
A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 

Prof. G. W. 0. Howe (Bee.), Prof. 
H. Payne, Prof. W. M. Thornton, 
Prof. W. H. Warren. 



1901. Glasgow ... 
1903. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport... 

1904. Cambridge i 

1905. SouthAfrica' 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester ,.. 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia ... 



SECTION H.»— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Prof. D. J. Cunningham, I W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 

Gemmill, J. L. Myres (Bee). 

R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 
J. L. Myres (Bee). 

E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 
E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres (Bee). 

W. L. H. Duckworth, E. N. Fallaize, 
H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres (Bee) 

A. E. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. S. 
Hartland (Bee). 

Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize 
(Bee), H. S. Kingsford, Dr. F. C. 
Shrubsall. 
. C. J. Billson, E. N. Fallaize (Bee), 
H. S. Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrub- 
sail. 

E. N. Fallaize (Bee), H. S. Kings- 
ford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, L. E. 
Steele. 

H. S. Kingsford (Bee), Prof. C. J. 
Patten. Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize (Bee.), H. S. Kings- 
ford, Prof. C. J. Patten, Dr. F. C. 
Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize (Bee.), H. S. Kings- 
ford, E. W. Martindell, H. Eundle, 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

D. D. Craig, E. N. Fallaize (Bee.), E. 
W. Martindell, Dr. F, C. Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize (Bee), E. W. Martin- 
dell. Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. T. Yeates. 

Prof. R. J. A. Berry, Dr. B. Malin- 
owski. Dr. R. E. Marett (Bee), 
Prof. J. T. Wilson. 



F.E.S. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.E.S. . 

Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. . 

H. Balfour, M.A 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. , 

E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A., 

D.G.Hogarth, M.A 

Prof. W. Eidgeway, M.A. 

Prof. J. L. Myres, M.A. ... 
W. Crooke, B.A 

W. H. E. Elvers, M.D., F.E.S. 

Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. 

Sir Eichard Temple, Bart. ... 

Sir E. F. im Thurn, C.B., 
K.C.M.G. 



" Established 1884. 



xxviii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-14). 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
(^Bec. = Recorder) 



SECTION I.»— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 



1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 



1906. York.. 



1907. Leicester . 



1908. Dublin 



1909. Winnipeg. 



Prof .J. G. McKendrick, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. D. HaUiburton, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. 

Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

Dr. J. Scott Haldane, F.R.S. 
Prof. E. H. Starling, F.R.S... 



1910. Sheffield ...|Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S. 



1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham' 



Prof. J. S. Macdonald, B.A. 

Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

Dr. F. Gowland Hopkins, 
F.R.S. 



1914. Australia... 'Prof. B. Bloore, F.R.S 



W. B. Brodie, W. A. Osborne, Prof. 

W. H. Thompson (Zfe<'.). 
J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborno 

(ffef.). Dr. C. Shaw. 
J. Barcroft {Rec), Prof. T. G. Brodie, 

Dr. L. E. Shore. 
J. Barcroft (Rcc), Dr. Baumann, 

Dr. Mackenzie, Dr. G. W. Robert- 
son, Dr. Stanwell. 
J. Barcroft (Rcc), Dr. J. M. Hamill, 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. D. S. 

Long. 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, J. Barcroft (Bee.), 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. A. 

AVarner. 
Prof. D. J. Coffey, Dr. P. T. Herring, 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. H. E. 

Roaf (Bee). 
Dr. N. H. Alcock (Bee), Prof. P. T. 

Herring, Dr. W. Webster. 
Dr. H. G. M. Henry, Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf (Bee), Dr. J. Tait. 
Dr. J. T. Leon, Dr. Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf (Bee), Dr. J. Tait. 
Dr. Keith Lucas, W. Moodie, Dr. 

H. E. Roaf (Bee), Dr. J. Tait. 
C. L, Burt, Prof. P. T. Herring, Dr. 

T. G. Maitland, Dr. H. E. Roaf 

(Bee), Dr. J. Tait. 
Prof. P. T. Herring (Ree), Prof. 

T. H. Milroy, Prof. W. A. Osborne, 

Prof. Sir T. P. Anderson Stuart. 



SECTION K.'o— BOTANY. 



1901. Glasgow ... Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. . 

1902. Belfast ... Prof. J. R. Green, F.R.S 

1903. Southport A. C. Seward, F.R.S 

1904. Cambridge Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Subsection of Agriculture- 
Dr. W. Somerville. 

1905. SouthAfrica Harold Wager, F.R.S 

1906. York Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. . 



D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott- 
I Elliot, A. C. Seward (Bee), H. 
1 Wager. 

A. G. Tanslej', Rev. C. H. Waddell, 
i H. Wager (iJec), R. H. Yapp. 
H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, H. Wager 

(Bee), R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 
H. Wager (Bee), T. B. Wood, R. H. 
Yapp. 
'R. P. Gregory, Dr. Marloth, Prof. 
Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yapp (Bee). 
Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 
A. G. Tansley (Bee), Prof. R. H. 
Yapp. 



Established 1894. 



'» Established 1895. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OP SECTIONS (1901-14). Xxix 



Date and Place 



1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. SheiBeld ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 
191.3. Birmingham 
1914. Australia... 



Presidents 



Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. , 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S. 



Lieut.-Col. D. Prain, C.I.E., 
F.R.S. 

Sub-section of Affrioulture — 

Major P. G. Craigie, C.B. 
Prof. J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S. 



Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc 



Subsection of Agriculture- 

W. Bateson, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. F. Keeble, D.Sc 



Miss Ethel Sargant, F.L.S. 



Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 
{Rec. = Recorder) 



W. Bell, R. P. Gregory, Prof. A. G. 

Tansley {Bee), Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. H. H. Dixon, R. P. Gregory, 

A. G. Tansley {Rec), Prof. R. H. 

Tapp. 
Prof. A. H. R. BuUer, Prof. D. T. 

Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. R. H. Yapp 

{Rec). 
W. J. Black, Dr. E. J. Russell, Prof. 

J. Wilson. 

B. H. Bentley, R. P. Gregory, Prof 
D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof 
R. H. Yapp {Rec). 

C. G. Delahunt, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan, Dr. C. E. Moss, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp {Rec). 

J. Golding, H. R. Pink, Dr. E. J. 
Russell. 

J. Brebner, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan (Rec), Dr. C. E. Moss, 
D. Thoday. 

W. B. Grove, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan {Rec), Dr. G. E. Moss, 

D. Thoday. 

Prof. A. J. Ewart, Prof. T. Johnson 
{Rec), Pr«f. A. A. Lawson, Miss 

E. N. Thomas. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


1903. 


Southport .. 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg. . . 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 


1911 


Portsmouth 



Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. ... 



Prof. H. B.Armstrong, F.R.S. 



Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... 



Prof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., 

M.P. 
Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... 

Sir Philip Magnus, M.P 



Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Rev. H. B. Gray, D.D 

Principal H. A. Miers, F.R.S. 

Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, 
D.D. 



R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y. 

Howie, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 

H. L. Withers {Rec). 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

{Rec), R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. 

Kimmins, Prof. H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

{Rec), Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr. H. 

L. Snape. 
J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

W. M. Heller (i2sc.), Dr. C. W. 

Kimmins. 
A. D. Hall, Prof. Hele-Shaw, Dr. C. W. 

Kimmins {Rec), J. R. Whitton. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

{Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, Prof. R. A. Gregory 

{Rec), J. S. Laver, Hugh Rich- 
ardson. 
Prof. E. P. Culverwell, W. D. Eggar, 

George Fletcher, Prof. R. A. 

Gregory {Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, R. Fletcher, J. L. 

Holland {Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
A. J. Arnold, W. D. Eggar, J. L. 

Holland {Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, O. Freeman, J. L. 

Holland {Rec), Hugh Richardson. 



XXX PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-14). 



Date and Place 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia ... 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
{Bee. = Recorder) 



Prof. J. Adams, M.A. 



Principal E. H. Griffiths. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 



D. Berridge, Dr. J. Davidson, Prof. 
J. A. Green {Rec,), Hugh Richard- 
son. 

D. Berridge, Rev. S. Blof eld, Prof. 
J. A. Green (Rec), H. Richardson. 

P. Board, C. A. Buckmaster, Prof. 
J. A. Green (Rec), J. Smyth. 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 

1912. Dundee ... T. H. Middieton, M.A Dr. C. Crowther, J. Golding, Dr. A. 

j Lauder, Dr. E. J. Russell (Rec.'). 
1913. Birmingham' Prof. T. B. Wood, M.A Iw. E. Collinge, Dr. C. Crowther, 

! J. Golding, Dr. B. J. Russell (Rec.) 

1914. Australia... A. D. Hall, F.R.S I Prof . T. Cherry, J. Golding (Rec), 

I Dr. A. Lauder, Prof. R. D. Watt. 



CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES of the CONFERENCES OF 
DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES, 1901-14." 

(For 1915, see p. lii.) 



Date and Place 


Chairmen 


Secretaries 


1901. Glasgow ... 


F. W. Rudler, F.G.S 


Dr. J. G. Garson, A. Somerville. 


1902. Belfast 


Prof. W. W. Watts, F.G.S. ... 


E. J. Bles. 


1903. Southport.. 


W. Whitaker, F.R.S 


F. W. Rudler. 


1904. Cambridge 


Prof. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1905. London ... 


Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 


F. W. Rudler. 


1906. York 


Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B.... 


F. W. Rudler. 


1907. Leicester... 


H. J. Mackinder, M.A 


P. W. Rudler, LS.O. 


1908. Dublin 


Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1909. London ... 


Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 


Dr Tempest Anderson 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 


Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... 


1912. Dundee ... 


Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. ... 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1913. Birmingham 


Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, 
F.R.S. 


W. P. D. Stebbing. 


1914. Le Havre... 


Sir H. George Fordham 


W. Mark Webb. 



EVENING DISCOUESES, 1901-14. 

(For 1915, see General Meetings, p. 11.) 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport... 


Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 
Dr R Munro 


The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plants. 
Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Inheritance. 
Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 


Dr A Rowe 


Palasolithic Period. 
The Old Chalk Sea, and some of its 






Teachings. 



Established 1885. 



EVENING DISCOURSES. 



a^s;?^ 



Date and Place 



1904. Cambridge 

1905. South 

Africa : 
Cape Town ,,. 



Durban 

Pietermaritz- 

burg. 
Johannesburg 

Pretoria 

Bloemfontein.. 

Kimberley 



Bulawayo 
1906. York.. 




Subject of Discourse 



Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.... 
Prof. H. F. Osborn 



1907. Leicester,., 



1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 



1913. Birmingham 



1914. Australia: 
Adelaide 

Melbourne 

Sydney ... 

Brisbane I 



Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ... 

G. Vernon Boys, F.R.S 

Douglas W. Freshfield 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S.... 

H. T. Ferrar 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. 0. Arnold 

A. E. Shipley, F.R.S 

A. R. Hinks 

Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S 

Prof. J. B. Porter 

D. Randall-Maclver 

Dr. Tempest Anderson 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

W. Duddell, F.RS 

Dr. F. A. Dixey 

Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. W. M. Davis 

Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
'Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S.... 
' Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. Stirling, M.D 

D. G. Hogarth 

Dr. Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

I Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. ... 

■' Prof. W. H. Bragg, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. A. Keith, M.D 

Sir H. H. Cunynghame,K.C.B. 

I Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S..., 
I Prof. W.J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S ... 
Dr. F. W. Dyson, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. 
Sir E. Rutherford, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. W. O. Howe 

SirE. A. Schiifer, F.R.S 



Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 
Palgeontological Discoveries in the 
Rocky Mountains. 

W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South 
Africa. 

Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 

'L'he Mountains of the Old World. 

Marine Biology. 

Sleeping Sickness. 

The Cruise of the ' Discovery.' 

The Distribution of Power. 

Steel as an Igneous Rock. 

Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 
ing Sickness, &c. 

The Milky Way and the Clouds of 
Magellan. 

Diamonds. 

The Bearing of Engineering on 
Mining. 

The Ruins of Rhodesia. 

Volcanoes. 

The Electrical Signs of Life, and 
their Abolition by Chloroform. 

The Ark and the Spark in Radio- 

[ telegraphy. 

Recent Developments in the Theory 
of Mimicry. 

Halley's Comet. 

The Lessons of the Colorado Canyon. 

The Seven Styles of Crystal Archi- 
tecture. 

Our Food from the Waters. 

The Chemistry of Flame. 

The Pressure of Light. 

Types of Animal Movement.^ 

New Discoveries about the Hittites. 

The Physiology of Submarine Work. 

Links with the Past in the Plant 
World. 

Radiations Old and New. 

The Antiquity of Man. 

E-xplosions in Mines and the Means 
of Preventing Them. 

Missing Links among Extinct 
Animals, 

The Ether of Space. 
Ancient Hunters. 
Mimicry. 

Greenwich Observatory. 
Primitive Man. 
Atoms and Electrons. 
Tlie Materials of Life. 
j Wireless Telegraphy. 
'Australia and the British Associa- 
tion. 



' ' Popular Lectures,' delivered to the citizens of Winnipeg. 
* Repeated, to the public, on Wednesday, September 7. 



XXXll LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 

LECTUKES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES, 1901-11. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Lecture 


1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport... 

1904. Cambridge.. 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 


H. J. Mackinder, M.A 


The Movements of Men by Land 


Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Dr. J. S. Flett 

Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 

Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S. 

C. T. Heycock, F.R.S 

Dr. H. R. Mill 


and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent : the 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 
The Manufacture of Light. 
The Growth of a Crystal. 
The Crystallisation of "Water. 
Metallic Alloys. 
Rain. 









PUBLIC OE CITIZENS' LECTUKES, 1912-14. 

(For 1915, see p. Ixviii.) 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Lecture 


1912, Dundee ... 


Prof. B. Moore, D.Sc 


Science and National Health. 




Prof. E. C. K. Conner, M.A. 


Prices and Wages. 




Prof. A. Fowler, F.R.S 


The Sun. 


1913. Birmingham 


Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 


The Decorative Art of Savages. 




Dr. Vaughan Cornish 


The Panama Canal. 




Leonard Doncaster, M.A. ... 


Recent Work on Heredity and its 
Application to Man. 




Dr. W. Rosenhain, F.R.S. ... 


Metals under the Microscope. 




Frederick Soddy, F.R.S 


The Evolution of Matter. 


1914. Australia: 






Perth ... 


Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 


Why we Investigate the Ocean. 




Prof. A. S. Eddinglon, F.R.S. 


Stars and their Movements. 




H. Balfour, M.A 


Primitive Methods of Making Fire. 




Prof. A. D. Waller, F.R.S. ... 


Electrical Action of the Human 




- 


Heart. 


Kalgoorlie 


C. A. Buckmaster, M.A 


Mining Education in England. 


Adelaide 


Prof. E. C. K. Conner, M.A. 


Saving and Spending. 


Melbourne 


Dr. W. Rosenhain, F.R.S. ... 


Making of a Big Gun. 




Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 


Explosions. 


Sydney . . . 


Prof. B. Moore, F.R.S 


Brown Earth and Bright Sunshine. 




Prof. H. H. Turner, P.R.S. ... 


Comets. 


Brisbane 


Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 


Decorative Art in Papua. 



GBAKTS OK MONEY. 



XXXlll 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account oj 
Grants for Scientijic Purposes, 1901-1914. 



1901. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene 35 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 

boratorj-, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 
• Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegriean Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screw Gauge 45 

Resistance of Boad Vehicles 

to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone .30 

Chemistry of Bone MaiTow... 5 15 11 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 
Eabbit 5 

Fertilisation in Phteophyceie 15 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
mace» 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 



£920 9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 

1915. 



Wave-length Tables 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 

Table at the Zoological 
Station .Naples 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 

Migration of Birds 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 
Indian Ocean 

Compound Ascidians of the 
Clyde Area 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 

S mall Screw Gauge 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 

Ethnological Survey of 
Canada 

Age of Stone Circles 

Exploration in Crete 

Anthrojiometric Investigation 
of Native Egyptian Soldiers 

Excavations on the Roman 
Site at Gelligaer 

Changes in Hsemoglobin 

Work of Mammalian Heart 
under Influence of Drugs... 

Investigation of the Cyano- 
phyceae 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 
Schools 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 



£ 
5 

10 
45 



100 

15 



30 
20 



15 

30 

100 



15 
20 
10 



1: 



s. d. 









100 








50 

25 
15 








50 









15 



















£947 



1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 76 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Studyof Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Watersof North- 
west Yorkshire 40 






















XXXIV 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 

Anthropometric Investigation 5 

Anthropometry of the Todas 
and other Tribes of Southern 
India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids. 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phyceae 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee JO 

£845 13" 2 



1904. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites , 50 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 60 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the 
Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 
Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 
Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 
























































































£ s. d. 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Egyptian Troops 8 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 40 

Botanical Photographs 4 8 11 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 

Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee .... 20 

£887 18 11 



1905. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra 5 

Study of Hydro -aromatic 

Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitroamines 25 

Fauna and Flora of the British 
Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog ... 10 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics t '^ ^ 

Researches in Crete 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions of Egyptian Troops... 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 17 6 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 2 

£928 2 2 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



XXXV 



1906. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 99 12 6 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Aromatic Nitroamines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 7 8 11 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea , 15 

Freshwater Fishes of South 
Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lake and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 30 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles ... 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 20 

Research on South African 
Cycads 14 ]9 4 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£ 882 9 

1907. 

Electrical Standards 60 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 40 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 25 7 6 

Wave-length Tables of 

Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro - aromatic 

Substances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks ., 10 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of 
South- West England .... 15 



£ s. d. 

Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, &;c 10 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Sexual 

Cells 1 11 8 

Oscillations of the Land Level 
in the Mediterranean Basin 50 

Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom ... 8 19 7 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles... 10 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 65 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Research on South African 
Cycads 35 

Botanical Photographs 5 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Blarsh Vegetation.. 16 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 16 14 1 

£757 12 10 



1908. 

Seismological Observations ... 40 

Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Investigation of Upper Atmo- 
sphere by means of Kites... 25 

Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nevis 25 

Geodetic Arc in Africa 200 

Wave-lengthTables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 40 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 30 

Erratic Blocks 17 16 G 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 10 

Pre-Devonian Rocks 10 

Exact Significance of Local 

Terms 5 

Composition of Charnwood 

Rocks 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

atNaples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Hereditary Experiments 10 

Fauna of Lakes of Central 

Tasmania 40 

Investigations in the Indian 
Ocean 50 

b2 



XXX VI 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Exploration in Spitsbergen ... 

Gold Coinage in Circulation 
in the United Kingdom 

Electrical Standards 

Glastonbury Lake Village ... 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 

Age of Stone Circles 

Anthropological Notes and 
Queries 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 

The Ductless Glands 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 

Electrical Phenomena and 
Metabolism of Arum Spa- 
dices 

Marsh Vegetation 

Succession of Plant Remains 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 



£ s. d. 

30 

3 7 6 

50 

30 

15 

50 

40 

40 

13 14 8 

35 

30 



10 

15 

18 

25 



£1,157 18 8 



1909. 



Seismological Observations .. 60 

Investigation of the Upper At- 
mosphere by means of Kites 10 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 50 

Establishing a Solar Ob- 
servatory in Australia 50 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 9 16 

Study of Hydro aromatic Sub- 
stances 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 10 

Electroanalysis 30 

Fauna and Flora of British 
Trias 8 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 8 

Palseozoic Rocks of Wales and 
the West of England 9 

Igneous and Associated Sedi- 
mentary Rocks of Glensaul 1 1 

Investigations at Biskra 50 

Tableat the Zoological Station 
at Naples 100 

Heredity Experiments 10 

Feeding Habits of British 
Birds 6 

Index Animalium 75 

Investigations in the Indian 
Ocean 35 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 5 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Researches in Crete 70 



























3 


9 













































£ s. d. 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Electrical Phenomena and Me- 
tabolism of Arum Spadices 10 

Reflex Muscular Rhythm 10 

Anaesthetics 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 27 
Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Botanical Photographs 10 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity .30 

Symbiosis betv?een Tur- 

bellarian Worms and Algse 10 

Survey of Clare Island 65 

Curriculaof Secondary Schools 5 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 21 

£1.014 9 9 
1910. ^ 

Measurement of Geodetic Arc 

in South Africa 100 

Republication of Electrical 

Standards Reports 100 

Seismological Observations... GO 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 15 

Electroanalysis 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 10 

South African Strata 5 

Fossils of Midland Coalfields 25 
Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Heredity Experiments 15 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Amount and Distribution of 

Income 15 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 5 Q 

Neolithic Sites in Northern 

Greece 5 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 20 

Anesthetics 25 

Tissue Metabolism 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 18 17 
Electromotive Phenomena in 

Plants 10 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 10 
Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



XXXVll 



£ s. 

Siirvej' of Clare Island 30 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£963 17 

1911. 

Seismological Investigations 60 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

Grant to International Com- 
mission on Physical and 

Chemical Constants 30 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 25 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 15 

Electroanalys's 15 

Influence of Carbon, &c., on 

Corrosion of Steel 15 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 2 
Mammalian Fauna in Miocene 
Deposits, Bugti Hills, Balu- 
chistan 75 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 30 
Map of Prince Charles Fore; 

land .' 30 

Gaseous Explosions 90 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Artificial Islands in Highland 

Lochs 10 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Ansesthetics 20 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 25 
Electromotive Phenomena in 

Plants 10 

Dissociation of Oxy-Hfemo- 

globin 25 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 
Experimental Study of 

Heredity 45 

Survey of Clare Island 20 

Registration of Botanical 

Photographs 10 

Mental and Physical Factors 

involved in Education 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£'J22~T~ 

1912. "■"" 

Seismological Investigations 60 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 



£ s. d. 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 30 

Grant to International Com- 
mission on Physical and 
Chemical Constants 30 

Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 10 

Electroanalysis 10 

Study of Plant Enzymes 30 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Igneous and Associated Rocks 

of Glensaul, &c 15 

List of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Sutton Bone Bed 15 

Bembridge Limestone at 
Creechbarrow Hill 20 

Table at the Zoological 
Station at Naples 50 

Index Animalium 75 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 20 

Secondary Sexual Characters 
inBirds 10 

Gaseous Explosions ... 60 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Artificial Islands in High- 
land Lochs 10 

Physical Character of Ancient 

Egyptians 40 

Excavation in Easter Island 15 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Calorimetric Observations on 

Man 40 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 35 

Survey of Clare Island 20 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 15 

Overlapping between Second- 

ar3' and Higher Education 118 6 

Curricula, &c., of Industrial 

and Poor Lavsr Schools 10 

Influence of School Books 
upon Eyesight 3 9 .0 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

Collections illustrating 
Natural History of Isle of 
Wight 40 

£845 7 6 

1913. 
Seismological Investigations 60 
Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 50 

International Commission on 

Physical and Chemical 

Constants 40 



XXXVlll 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 30 

Study of Hydro -aromatic 

Substances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 20 

Study of Plant Enzymes 30 

Igneous and Associated Kocks 

of Glensaul, &c 10 

List of Cliaracteristic Fossils 5 

Exploration of the Upper Old 

Red Sandstone of Dura Den 75 

Geology of Ramsey Island ... 10 

Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 
Kiltorcan 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 50 

Ditto (Special Grant) 50 

Nomenclature Animalium 

Genera et Sub-genera 100 

BelmulletWlialing Station... 15 

Ditto (Special Grant) 10 

Gaseous Explosions 80 

Lake Villages in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Age of Stone Circles (Special 

Grant) 15 

Artificial Islands in the High- 
lands of Scotland 5 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 15 

Hausa Manuscripts 20 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Calorimetric Observations on 
Man io 

Dissociation of Oxy-Haemo- 

globin at High Altitudes... 15 

Structure and Function of 

the Mammalian Heart 20 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire i 12 i 

Vegetation of Ditcham Park, 

Hampshire "15 

Influence of School Books on 
Eyesight .. 9 4 9 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£978 17 1 



1914. 

Seismological Investigations 130 
Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

International Committee on 

Physical and Chemical 

Constants 40 

Calculation of Mathematical 

Tables 20 

Disposal of Copies of the 

' Binary Canon ' 4 9 



£ s. d. 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 
Substances 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 25 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 15 

Study of Plant Enzymes 25 

Correlation of Crystalline 
Form with Molecular Struc- 
ture 25 

Study of Solubility Pheno- 
mena 10 

List of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Geology of Ramsey Island ... 10 

Fauna and Flora of Trias of 

Western Midlands 10 

Critical Sections in Lower 

Paljeozoic Rocks 15 

Behnullet Whaling Station... 20 

Nomenclature Animalium 

Genera et Sub-genera 50 

Antarctic Whaling Industry 75 

Maps for School and Univer- 
sity Use 40 

Gaseous Explosions 50 

Stress Distributions in Engi- 
neering Materials 50 

Lake Villages in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 20 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Artificial Islands in the High- 
lands of Scotland 5 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 20 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in Cyprus 50 

Palaeolithic Site in Jersey ... 50 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Calorimetric Observations on 

Man 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 30 

Binocular Combination of 

Kinematograph Pictures ... 17 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 5 

Flora of the Peat of the 

Kennet Valley 15 

Vegetation of Ditcham Park 14 4 3 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Breeding Experiments with 

CEnotheras 19 17 4 

Mental and Physical Fac- 
tors involved in Educa- 
tion 20 

Influence of School Books on 

Eyesight 2 8 9 

Character, Work, and Main- 
tenance of Museums 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£1,086 16 4 



REPORT OF THE COtTNCIL. XXXIX 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 1914-15. 

I. Sir Arthur J. Evans, F.R.S., has been unanimously nominated 
by the Council to fill the office of President of the Association for 1916-17 
(Newcastle-on-Tyne Meeting). 

IT. Australian Meeting : The Council resolved — 

' That the Council of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science, at its first Meeting in London since the return of 
Members from Australia, desires to place on record its high 
appreciation of the generous reception given to the Members 
of the Overseas Party throughout the Commonwealth by 
representatives of the Governments of the Commonwealth 
and the States, and by other authorities and Australian citizens 
generally, on the occasion of the Meeting of the Association 
in Australia in 1914. The Council hereby expresses its 
grateful thanks for the hospitality, privileges and concessions 
extended so freely to visiting Members, and also for the 
willing and valuable collaboration of all those who undertook 
so successfully the work of organisation in Australia in con- 
nection with the Meeting.' 

III. Resolutions referred to the Council on behalf of the General 
Committee in Australia for consideration, and, if desirable, for action, 
were dealt with as follows : — 

From Sections A and C. 

' That in view of the fact that meteorites, which convey informa- 
tion of world-wide importance, are sometimes disposed of 
privately, in such a way as to deprive the public of this 
information, the Council be requested to take such steps as 
may initiate international legislation on the matter.' 

It was resolved that the Royal Society be asked to approach the 
International Association of Academies in this matter. Communications 
on this Resolution received from the South African Association for the 
Advancement of Science were transmitted to the Royal Society. 

From Section A. 

' That the British Association learns with great satisfaction 
that the State Government of Victoria has put a definite 
annual grant at the disposal of the Director of the Melbourne 
Observatory for printing the work already done at the Ob- 
servatory. It is very desirable that every effort should be 
made to publish as soon as possible the arrears accumulated 
during the past thirty years.* 



xl REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

It was resolved that the Council of the Royal Astronomical Society 
be consulted, and a letter subsequently received from the Secretary of 
the Society in supj^ort of the Resolution was forwarded to the proper 
Government Authority in Melbourne. 

From Sections C and E. 

' The Committees of the Geographical and Geological Sections 
of the British Association wish to draw attention to the high 
scientific value and practical importance of systematic glacial 
observation in New Zealand, and venture to urge upon the 
favourable consideration of the Government of the Dominion 
the great importance of continuing and extending the work 
which is now being done in this direction by Officers of the 
Government, as far as possible in conformity with the methods 
adopted by the Commission Internationale des Glaciers.' 

Following the report of a Committee appointed Ly the Council to 
consider this matter, the Council supported the resolution and ordered 
it to be forwarded to the Prime Minister of New Zealand. 

From Sections D and K. 

' It is with much pleasure that we ascertain that a Bill has been 
prepared by the present Government of South Australia for 
the establishment of a reserve of 300 square miles situated 
on the western end of Kangaroo Island for the preservation 
of the fauna and flora, which are fast being exterminated 
on the mainland, and that this reserve will be placed under 
the control of a Board nominated by the University of Adelaide 
and the Government. We trust that this Bill will become 
law at an early date.' 

The above resolution was confirmed and forwarded to the proper 
Authorities in South Australia. 

Other Resolutions were referred to the Council dealing with the estab- 
lishment of a Bureau of Weights and Measures in Australia, with the 
establishment of Bench-marks on Islands in the Coral Seas, with a Gravity 
Survey in Australia, and with the 1:1,000,000 Map of the World (Aus- 
tralian sheets). 

Committees have been appointed to consider and report upon these 
resolutions, but it was decided that it would be inappropriate to put 
forward resolutions on these subjects at the present time, and the Com- 
mittees were informed accordingly. 

The following Resolution was also received : — 

' That in view of the successful issue of the Australian Meeting 
of the Association, the Council be asked to consider the best 
means of bringing into closer relationship the British Associa- 
tion and scientific representatives from the Dominions over- 
seas.' 

It was considered inexpedient to deal with the above resolution at 
present, but the General Officers were instructed to bring forward a scheme 
for giving effect to it when circumstances should be more favourable. 



BEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xU 

IV. Manchester Meeting : — 

At the Meeting of Council in November, 1914, it was resolved : — 

•' That the Council of the British Association, realising the special 
difficulty attending the holding of a Meeting of the Associa- 
tion at the present time, offer to the citizens of Manchester 
to adopt any modification of the Meeting they may think 
desirable, even to complete postponement, unless they are 
informed that the desire in Manchester is to carry out the 
invitation.' 

The following Resolution passed by the Local Executive Committee 
in Manchester was received in December : — 

' That owing to the uncertainty of the present situation, the 
decision with regard to the holding of the Meeting of the 
British Association in Manchester be postponed until the 
middle of March, and that in the meantime the preparations 
for the Meeting be suspended.' 

At the Meeting of Council in March, 1915, the following resolution 
was received : — ■ 

' That the Council of the British Association be informed that in 
the opinion of the Manchester Executive Committee it will 
be impossible to receive the British Association this year 
in the manner that was contemplated or with the accommoda- 
tion and hospitality which Manchester has extended to the 
Association on former occasions. But the Executive Com- 
mittee desire that tlie long continuity of the yearly meetings 
should not be broken, and prefer that the meeting should 
be held although restricted to its more purely scientific 
functions, and would be glad to make preparations for 
such a meeting and could hope to offer suitable accom- 
modation for all sections and scientific discourses of the 
Association.' 

It was unanimously resolved that the Meeting be held on the lines 
indicated in the above Resolution. The Council concurred in the proposed 
alterations of date, to September 7-11 inclusive, and empowered the 
General Officers to make, or agree upon with the Manchester Executive, 
any special arrangements in connection with the Meeting in view of the 
unusual conditions under which it was to be held. 

One such arrangement was that, at the instance of the Manchester 
Executive, teachers in elementary and secondary schools and students 
of recognised institutions for higher education in Manchester and district 
should be admitted as Associates at a special fee of 10s. 

In a number of instances military duties prevented Secretaries of 
Sections and other Officers appointed by the Council from accepting 
office. 

V. The Council approved a suggestion that the Association might 
be instrumental in arranging lectures to soldiers in training or convalescent, 



Xlii EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

and correspondence passed between the General Secretaries and the War 
Office Authorities. The authorities welcomed the suggestion, but sub- 
sequently indicated that soldiers in camps would shortly be more fully 
occupied with field-training, and it was decided to be useless to proceed 
with the formation of a list of lecturers. The authorities were informed 
accordingly, with an expression of regret that the matter had not been 
taken up earlier, o\iing to the absence of the Officers of the Association 
in Australia. 

VI. CaiPvD Fund : — 

The Council has made the following grants during the year, additional 
to annual grants previously made ; — 

Committee on Gravity Observations at Sea (Section A) . £100 
Mr. F. Sargent, Bristol University, in connection with his 

astronomical work £10 

Organising Committee of Section F, in connection with its 

enquiry into Outlets for Labour after the War . . £100 

VII. Conference of Delegates and Correspondino Societies 
Committee : — 

(1) The following Nominations are made by the Council: — 

Confei-ence of Delegates. — Prof. Sir T. H. Holland (Chairman), Mr. W. 
Whitaker (Vice-Chairman), Mr. W. Mark Webb (Secretary). 

Corresponding Societies Committee. — Mr. W. Wliitaker (Chairman), 
Mr. W. Mark Webb (Secretary), Eev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward Brabrook, 
Sir H. G. Fordham, Dr. J. G. Garsou, Principal E. H. Griffiths, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. Lewis, Eev. 
T. R. R. Stebbing, and the President and General Officers of the Associa- 
tion. 

(2) The Council have resolved to propose to the General Committee 
that the titles of the Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Conference of 
Delegates be changed to President and Vice-President respectively, and 
that these titles be substituted in Rule 4, cb. xi., and that of President 
for Chairman in Rule 1, cli. iii. 

VIIL The Council have received rej)orts from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. In consequence of the early removal of the books, 
&c., from London to Australia, it was not possible to prepare the usual 
annual accounts last year. These have now been audited and are pre- 
sented to the General Committee together with the accounts for the 
current year. 

IX. The retiring members of the Council are : — 

By seniority. — Major P. G. Craigie, Mr. A. D. Hall. 
By least attendance- — Mr. Alfred Lodge, Major H. G. Lyons, Prof. R. 
Meldola, 



RBPOKT OF THE COUNCIL. xiui 

The Council nominated the following new members : — 

Prof. W. A. Bone, 
Prof. H. N. Dickson, 
Prof. T. B. Wood. 

leaving two vacancies to be filled by the General Committee without 
nomination by the Council. 

The full list of nominations of ordinary members is as follows : — 



Prof. H. E. Armstrong. 
Prof. W. A. Bone. 
Sir E. Brabrook. 
Prof. W. H. Bragg. 
Dr. Dugald Clerk. 
Mr. W. Crooke. 
Prof. A. Dendy. 
Prof. H. N. Dickson. 
Dr. F. A. Dixey. 
Prof. H. B. Dixon. 
Sir F. W. Dyson. 
Principal E. H. Griffiths. 



Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 
Sir Everard im Thuru. 
Prof. J. L. Myres. 
Sir E. Eutherford. 
Miss E. E. Saunders. 
Prof. E. H. Starling. 
Dr. J. J. H. Teall. 
Prof. S. P. Thompson. 
Prof. F. E. Weiss. 
Prof. T. B. Wood. 



X. The General Officers have been nominated by the Council 
as follows : — 

General Treasurer : Prof. J. Perry. 
General Secretaries : Prof. W. A. Herdman. 
Prof. H. H. Turner. 

XI. The following have been admitted as members of the General 
Committee : — 

Mr. E. Heron Allen. 
Prof. B. H. Barton. 
Prof. T. H. Havelock. 
Dr. W. F. Hume. 
Mr. J. B. C Kershaw. 
Mr. T. C. Lewis. 



Xliv GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER IN ACCOUNT 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 

EECEIPTS. 

& s. d. £ 1. (/. 

To Balance brought forward : On General Account 2,613 11 5 

Ze«s Overspent on 'Caird Fund ' 226 6 6 

2,387 4 11 

Life Compositions (including Transfers) 215 

Annual Subscriptions 4,516 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 366 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 298 

Sale of Publications 189 1 3 

Interest on Deposits : 

Lloj'ds Bank, Birmingham 41 17 8 

Commonwealth Bank of Australia 47 8 

Unexpended Balances of Grants returned 17 13 9 

Dividends on Investments : 

Consols, 2i per Cent 130 10 4 

India 3 per Cent 98 17 9 

Gt.IndianPeninsulaRailway 'B'Annuitj' 28 8 8 

Dividends on 'Caird Fund' Investments : 257 16 9 

India 3| per Cent. Stock 84 3 9 

London and North- Western Railway Con- 
solidated 4 per Cent. Pref. Stock 77 10 6 

London and South -Western Railway do 92 5 10 

Canada 3J per Cent. Registered Stock 80 6 

331 7 

Proceeds of Sale of £400 London and North-Western Railway 
Consolidated 4 per Cent. Preference Stock ('Caird Fund' 
Investment) 394 9 



Investments. 

Nominal Amount. 
£ s. d. 
5,701 10 5 2i per Cent. Consolidated Stock 
3,600 India 3 per Cent. Stock 
879 14 9 £43 Great Indian Peninsula Railway 
' B ' Annuity 
2,627 10 India 3i per Cent. Stock,' Caird Fund' 
2,100 London and North-Western Railway 
Consolidated 4 per Cent. Preference 
Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 
2,500 London and South-Western Railway 
Consolidated 4 per Cent. Preference 
Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 
2,500 Canada 3i per Cent. 1930-1950 Regis- 
tered Stock, 'Caird Fund' 
81 7 2 Sir Frederick Bramwell's Gift of 
2\ per Cent. Self-cumulating Con- 
solidated Stock, 



£ 19,989 13 2 £9,064 4 7 

John Perky, General Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURER S ACCOUNT. 



xlv 



WITH THE BRITISH" ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
July 1, 1914, to June 30, 1915. 

PAYMENTS. 



Cr. 



By Rent and Office Expenses 

Salaries, &c 

Printing, Binding, &c 

Expenses of Australian Meeting , 

Advances for Travelling Expenses of Invited Members 
Grants to Research Committees : — 

Seismologieal Observations 

AuiiLial Table of Constants and Numerical Data 

Calculation of Mathematical Tables 

Dynamic Isomerism 

Transformation of Aromatic Nitroamines 

Study of Plant Enzymes 

Cliemioal Investigation of Natural Plant Products 

Influence of Weather Conditions on Nitrogen Acids in Rainfall 

Non-Aromatic Diazonium Salts 

Biology of Abrolhos Islands 

Collection of Marsiipials ■. 

Survey of Stor Fjord, Spitsbergen 

Antarctic Bathymetrical Chart 

Fatigue from Economic Standpoint 

Gaseous Explosions 

Stress Distributions 

Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury 

Age of Stone Circles 

Palaeolithic Site in Jersey 

Excavations in Malta 

Gazetteer and Map of Native Tribes in Austr.alia 

Electromotive Phenomena of the Heart 

Metabolism of Phospha'eb 

Structure of Fossil Plants 

Physiology of Heredity 

Renting of Cinchona Botanic Station, Jamaica 

Influence of Percentages of Oxygen 

Australian Cycadace^ 

Sections of Australian Fossil Plants 

Influence of School Books on Eyesight 

Scholarships, &o,, held by University Students 

Character, Work, and Maintenance of Museums 

Corresponding Societies Committee 



£ 


s. 


d. 


130 








40 








25 








40 








20 








10 








60 








40 








5 








40 








100 








50 








100 








30 








50 








50 








20 








10 








80 








10 








20 








20 








20 








6 








45 








25 








50 








25 








25 








5 








3 


2 


8 


20 








25 









£ 

96 

798 10 

1,165 6 

371 14 

75 



t. (I. 

8 2 

I 

8 
7 




Grants made from ' Caird Fund ' 

Balance at Lloyds Bank, Birmingham 
(with accrued Interest) (including Sir 
James Caird's Gift, Radio-Activity Inves- 
tigation, of £1,000) 

Balance at Commonwealth Bank of Aus- 
tralia (with accrued Interest) 

Balance at Bank of England, 
Western Branch : On ' Caird 
Fund' 92 3 1 

Less General Account over- 
drawn 49 10 8 



s. if. 



1,718 9 11 
3,227 1 



42 12 5 



1,159 2 8 
410 



4.988 2 5 
£9,064 4 7 



An Accomit of approximately £1,180 is outstamding due to Messrs. SjMttisn-oode 4' Ga. 



I have examined the above Account with the Books and Vouchers of the Association, and certify the 
same to be correct. I have also verified the Balances at the Bankers, and have ascertained that the Invest- 
ments are registered in the names of the Trustees. W. B. Keen, Chartered Accountant, 
Approved — August 6, 1915. 

EVEUARD IM THURN, J ^"«"<" •'• 



xlvi 



ATTENDANCES AND KECEIPTS. 

Table showing the Attendances and Receipts 



Date of Meeting 



Where held 



1831, Sept. 27 ! York 

1832, June 19 \ Oxford 

1833, June 25 ! Cambridge 

1834, Sept. 8 . 

1835, Aug. 10 . 

1836, Aug. 22. 



Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

1837JSept. 11 i Liverpool 

1838, Aug. 10 ' Newcastle-on-TjTie., 

1839, Aug. 26 ! Birmingham 

18iO,Sept. 17 1 Glasgow 

1841, July 20 i Plymouth 

1842, June 23 Manchester 

1843, Aug. 17 Cork 

1844, Sept.26 ! York 

1845, June 19.. ~ ' 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23.. 

1848, Aug. 9 ... 

1849, Sept. 12.. 

1850, July 21 .. 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 .. 

1853, Sept. 3 .. 

1854, Sept. 20 .. 

1855, Sept. 12.. 

1856, Aug. 6 .. 

1857, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22 .. 

1859, Sept. 14 .. 

1860, June 27.. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. 1 .. 

1863, Aug. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13.. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 22.. 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19.. 

1869, Aug. 18 .. 

1870, Sept. 14.. 

1871, Aug. 2 .. 

1872, Aug. 14.. 

1873, Sept. 17.. 

1874, Aug. 19.. 

1875, Aug. 25.. 

1876, Sept. 6 .. 

1877, Aug. 15., 

1878, Aug. 14., 

1879, Aug. 20., 

1880, Aug. 25 . 

1881, Aug. 31 . 

1882, Aug. 23 . 

1883, Sept. 19 . 

1884, Aug. 27 . 

1885, Sept. 9 . 

1886, Sept. 1 . 

1887, Aug. 31 . 

1888, Sept. 5 . 

1889, Sept. 11 . 

1890, Sept. 3 . 
1&91, A.ug. 19. 
1892, Aug. 3 



Presidents 



Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Ctford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Ty ne. . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Dublin 

Sheffield 

Swansea 

York 

Southampton 

Southport 

Montreal 

Aberdeen 

Birmingham 

Manchester 

Bath 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Leeds 

Cardiff 

Edinburgh 



Old Life New Life 
Members Members 



1893, Sept. 13 1 Nottingham. 

1894, Aug. 8 1 Oxford 

1895, Sept. 11 Ipswich 

1896, Sept. 16 ' Liverpool .... 

1897, Aug. 18 1 Toronto 

1898, Sept. 7 i Bristol 

18S9, Sept. 13 Dover 

1900, Sept. 6 1 Bradford .... 



Viscount Milton, D.C.L., P.R.S 

The Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Llo.yd.LL.D., P.R.S. 
The Marquis of Lans'downe, F.R.S.... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. "W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. WheweU, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S. ... 

The Earl of Rosse, P.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S, 
Sir Roderick X.Murchison,Bart.,P.B.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquisofNorthampton,Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. 0. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S.. . . 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 

H.R.H. The Prince Consort 

The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor WiUi3,M.A.,F.R.S. 
Sir William G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.O., F.R.S 

The Duke of Bucoleuch, K.C.B.,F.R.S 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.O.L., F.R.S , 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. .., 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson. F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., P.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. AUman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. 0. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S 

Dr. 0. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Oayley, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir J. W. Dawson, O.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, O.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, C.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Salisbury,K.G.,F.R.S, 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pros. R.S. .., 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Crookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Sec.H.S. . 
Sir William Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. 



169 


66 


303 


169 


109 


28 


226 


150 


313 


36 


241 


10 


314 


18 


149 


3 


227 


12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


13 


238 1 


23 


194 1 


33 


182 


14 


236 


16 


222 


42 


184 


27 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


25 


196 


18 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


13 


239 


36 


221 


35 


173 


19 


201 


18 


184 


16 


144 


11 


272 


28 


178 


17 


203 


60 


235 


20 


225 


18 


314 


25 


428 


86 


266 


36 


277 


20 


269 


21 


189 


24 


280 


' 14 


201 


17 


327 


21 


214 


13 


330 


31 


120 


8 


281 


19 


296 


20 


267 


13 



Ladiei were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admission to Sections only. 
{Continued on p. xlviii. 



ATTENDANCES AND BECEIPTS. 



xlvii 



ai Annual Meetings of the Association. 

















Amount i 


Sums paid 






Old 
Annual 
Members 


New 
Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


t % 1 1 ■ v^ iji j-^ *j 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


on account 

of Grants 

for Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 

1831 








_ 


_ 


_ 


353 


. 
















— 


— 


— 


— 


1832 


















900 


— 


— 


1833 


















1298 


— 


£20 


1834 









, 














167 


1835 


















1360 


— 


435 U 


1836 


















1840 


— 


922 12 6 


1837 












1100» 


— 


2400 


__ 


932 2 2 


1838 







^ 




— 


34 


1438 


— 


1595 11 


1839 
















40 


1353 


— 


1546 16 4 


1840 




46 


317 





60* 


— . 


891 





1236 10 11 


1841 




75 


376 


33t 


331* 


28 


1315 


— 


1449 17 8 


1&49 




71 


185 




160 


— 


— 


— 


1565 10 2 


1*43 




45 


190 


9t 


260 


— 


— 


— 


981 12 8 


1844 




94 


22 


407 


172 


35 


1079 


— 


831 9 9 


1845 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 


857 





685 16 


1846 




197 


40 


495 


203 


53 


1320 





208 5 4 


1847 




64 


25 


376 


197 


15 


819 


£707 


275 1 8 


1848 




93 


33 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


1849 




128 


42 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 


346 18 


1850 




61 


47 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


1851 




63 


60 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


1852 




66 


57 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


1853 




121 


121 


765 


624 


10 


1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


1854 




142 


101 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


1856 




104 


48 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


1866 




156 


120 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2016 


507 15 4 


1867 




111 


91 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


1858 




125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


1869 




177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


1860 




184 


125 


1689 


791 


15 


3138 


3944 


1111 5 10 


1861 




150 


67 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


1862 




154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 


3336 


3640 


1608 3 10 


1863 




182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


1864 




215 


149 


766 


508 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


1866 




218 


105 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


1866 




193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


1867 




226 


117 


720 


682 


45t 


2004 


2042 


1940 


1868 




229 


107 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1622 


1869 




303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1572 


1870 




311 


127 


976 


754 


21 


2463 


2676 


1472 2 6 


1871 




280 


80 


937 


912 


43 


2533 


2649 


1285 


1872 




237 


99 


796 


601 


11 


1983 


2120 


1685 


1873 




232 


85 


817 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


1151 16 


1874 




307 


93 


884 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


960 


1876 




331 


185 


1266 


712 


25 


2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


1876 




238 


59 


446 


283 


11 


1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 


1877 




290 


93 


1285 


674 


17 


2678 


2615 


725 16 6 


1878 




239 


74 


529 


349 


13 


1404 


1425 


1080 11 11 


1879 




171 


41 


389 


147 


12 


915 


899 


731 7 7 


1880 




313 


176 


1230 


514 


24 


2657 


2689 


476 8 1 


1881 




253 


79 


516 


189 


21 


1253 


1286 


1126 1 11 


1882 




330 


323 


952 


841 


6 


2714 


3369 


1083 3 3 


1883 




317 


219 


826 


74 


26&60H.5 


1777 


1866 


1173 4 


1884 




332 


122 


1053 


447 


6 


2203 


2256 


1385 


1885 




428 


179 


1067 


429 


11 


2453 


2532 


995 « 


1886 




510 


244 


1985 


493 


92 


3838 


4336 


1186 18 


1887 




399 


100 


639 


509 


12 


1984 


2107 


1511 5 


1888 




412 


113 


1024 


579 


21 


2437 


2441 


1417 11 


1889 




368 


92 


680 


334 


12 


1775 


1776 


789 16 8 


1890 




341 


162 


672 


107 


36 


1497 


1664 


1029 10 


1891 




413 


141 


733 


439 


60 


2070 


2007 


864 10 


1892 




328 


57 


773 


268 


17 


1661 


1663 


907 15 6 


1893 




435 


69 


941 


451 


77 


2321 


2175 


683 15 6 


1894 




290 


31 


493 


261 


22 


1324 


1236 


977 15 5 


1895 




383 


139 


1384 


873 


41 


3181 


3228 


1101 6 1 


1896 




286 


125 


682 


100 


41 


1362 


1398 


1059 10 8 


1897 




327 


96 


1051 


639 


33 


2446 


2399 


1212 


1898 




324 


68 


548 


120 


27 


1403 


1328 


1430 14 2 


1899 




297 


45 


801 


482 


9 


1915 


1801 


1072 10 


1900 



t Including Ladies. } Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting, 

IContmued on p. xlix. 



xlviii 



ATTENDANCES AND BB0EIPT8. 

Table shoioing the Attendances and Receipts 




Where held 



Presidents 



3901, Sept. 11 Glasgow Prof. A.W. Riicker, D.Sc, SecR.S. ... 

1902,Sept.lO Belfast Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.R.S 

1903, Sept. 9 ... ! Soutbport Sir Normau Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

1904, Aug. 17 Cambridge Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.R.S. 

1905, Aug. 15... . South Africa Prof. G. H. Darwiu, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 

1906, Aug. 1 York Prof. E. Rav Lankester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

1907, July 31 Leicester Sir David Gill, K.O.B., F.R.S 

1908, Sept. 2 Dublin Dr. Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

1909, Aug. 25 Winnipeg Prof. Sir J. J. Tliomson, F.R.S 

1910,Aug.31 Sheffield Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonuey, F.R.S 

1911, Aug. 30 Portsmouth Prof. Sir W. Rimsay, K.C.B.,F.R.S. 

1912,Sept.4 Dundee Prof. B. A. Schiifer. F.R.S 

1913, Sept. 10 ..... Birmingham Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S 

1914, July-Sept.... Australia Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S 

1916, Sept. 7 1 Manchester Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S 



Old Life 


New Life 


Members 


Members 


310 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


32 


115 


40 


322 


10 1 


276 


19 1 


294 


24 


117 


13 


293 


26 


284 


21 


288 


14 1 


376 


40 


172 


13 


1 242 


19 



f Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 
JJ Grants from the Caird Fund are not included in this and subsequent sums. 



ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCES AT 
[The total attendances for the years 1832, 



Average attendance at 79 Meetings : 1858. 



Average 
Attendance 



Average attendance at 5 Meetings beginning during June, letwec/i 

1833 and 1860 1260 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during July, between 

1841 a7id 1907 1122 

Average attendance at 32 Meetings beginning during August, between 

1836 ««fZ litll 1927 

Average attendance at 37 Meetings beginning during September, 

between 1831 and 1913 1977 

Attendance at 1 Meeting held in October, Cambridge, 1862 . . . 1161 



Afeetings beginning during August. 

Average attendance at — 

4 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in ^«Y7Mrf( 1st- 7th) .. 1905 

5 „ „ „ » 2nd , ( 8th-14th) . 2130 

9 „ „ „ „ 3rd „ „ „ (15th-21st) . 1802 

14 „ „ „ „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-31st) . 1935 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 



xlix 





at Annual Meetings of 


the Association- 


—(continued). 








Old 
Annual 
Members 


New 
Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 

£2046 


Sums paid 
ou account 

of Grants 
for Scientific 

Purposes 


Year 
1901 


374 


131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


£920 9 11 




314 


86 


647 


305 


6 


1620 


1644 


947 


1902 




319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1754 


1762 


845 13 2 


1903 




449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 


887 18 11 


1904 




937f 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 


928 2 2 


1905 




356 


93 


817 


352 


22 


1972 


1811 


882 9 


1906 




339 


61 


659 


251 


42 


1647 


1661 


757 12 10 


1907 




465 


112 


1166 


222 


14 


2297 


2317 


1157 18 8 


1908 




290»» 


162 


789 


90 


7 


1468 


1623 


1014 9 9 


1909 




379 


57 


563 


123 


8 


1449 


1439 


963 17 


1910 




349 


61 


414 


81 


31 


1241 


1176 


922 


1911 




368 


95 


1292 


359 


88 


2504 


2349 


845 7 6 


1912 




480 


14D 


1287 


291 


20 


2643 


2756 


978 17 IJt 


1913 




139 


416011 


63911 


— 


21 


6014fl 


4873 


1086 16 4 


1914 


287 


116 


Gl^S* 


141 


8 


1441 


1406 


1159 2 8 


1915 



•* Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

U Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report, 1914, p. 686. Tlie numbers include 80 Members who joined in order to attend the Meeting of 
L'Association Francaise at Le Havre. 

* Including Student's Tickets, 10s. (see Report of Council, iv. p. xli). 



THE ANNUAL MEETINGS, 1831-1913. 
1835, 1843, and 1844 are ii.nknown.'] 



Meetings beginning during SeiHember. 

Average attendance at — 

Average 

Attendance 

13 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in Septcmler^ 1st- 7th) . 2131 

17 „ „ „ „ 2nd „ „ „ ( 8th-14tb). 1906 

5 ,. ., ., „ 3rd „ „ „ (15th-21st). 2206 

2 „ ,, . „ „ 4th „ „ „ (22nd-30th). 1025 

Meetings beginning during June, July, and October. 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1845, June 19) beginning during the 3rd 

week in June (15th-21st) 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during the 4th week in 

June (22nd-30th) 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1851, July 2) beginning during the 1st 

week in July (lst-7th) 

Average attendance at 2 Meetings beginning during the 3rd week in 

July (15th-21st) 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1907, July 31) beginning during the 5th 

weekin Ji/Zy (29th-31st) 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1862, October 1) beginning during the 1st 

week in Octoier (l8t-7th) 

1915. 



1079 

1306 

710 

1066 

1647 

1161 
C 



1 GENERAL MEETINGS. 

GENERAL MEETINGS AT MANCHESTER. 

On Tuesday, September 7, at 8.30 imni., in the Free Trade Hall, Pro- 
fessor W. Bateson, F.R.S., resigned the office of President to Professor 
Arthur Schuster, F.R.S. The following telegram from the Right Hon. 
Sir Henry Roscoe, F.R.S., was read : — 

My best wislies for the success of tlie Meeting. I greatly regret that I cannot 
be present to support my distinguished friend, the President. I send my love to 
Manchester. 

The following letter from the Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.E.S., 
forwarded by Sir Henry Roscoe, was also read : — 

Admiralty, Whitehall: September 2, 1915. 
My dear Sie Henky Roscoe, — I am sorry that pressure of public business 
makes it imfjossible for me to attend tlie Meeting of the British Association at 
Manchester. 

1 should have particularly \alued an opportunity of taking a share (as past 
President) in its labours: 2jartl3' because the scene of these is a city with which I 
was long and closely connected, partly because I should like to have borne testimony 
(if that be required) to the patriotic zeal with which the Royal Society, of which 
your distinguislied President is Secretary, have placed all their soientilic resources 
at the disposal of the Government for the purposes of the War. Although the 
Association meets this year in circumstances which deprive the gathering of much 
of its social charm, I am sure that its scientific labours will be not less fruitful than 
in years gone by. 

AVith every good wish for its success, 

Believe me, 

Yours sincerely, 
(Signed) Akthub J.vmes Balfour 

On taking the Chair, Professor Arthur Schuster moved, and it was 
unanimously resolved, that the following message be forwarded to His 
Majesty the King : — 

We, the members of the British Association tor the Advancement of Science, this 
day in our 85th Congress assembled, humblj' beg to express our devoted loyalty to 
Your Majesty's perscn and to Your Majesty's Government in this crisis of our national 
atfairs. Landing in Australia at the moment of the declaration of war, we witnessed 
the extraordinary manifestations of loyalty which were displayed throughout that 
great Commonwealth. During our earlier visits to Canada and South Africa a like 
spirit of loyalty and imperial fellowship found expression in tlie cordiality of the 
reception given to us. I3y these visits we have endeavoured to strengthen the bonds 
which unite all parts of Your Majesty's Empire. 

We beg leave on the present occasion to assure Your Majesty that the Associa- 
tion as a whole and every individual member thereof are whole-heartedly anxious 
to devote all their energies to assisting Your Majesty's Government in the task of 
bringing the War to a victorious conclusion. 

ScHUSTBE, President. 

Professor Schuster then delivered an Address, for which see page 3. 

On Wednesday, September 8, the following reply was received from 
His Majesty the King, and was communicated to the members assembled 
at the various sectional meetings : — 

The I'residoii of the British Association, Manchester. 
I have received with much satisfaction the message you have forwarded on 
behalf the members of the British Association testifying to their loyalty to the 
Crown and to my Government in this time of national crisis. The outbursts of 
loyalty which the members of the Association witnessed in their past visits throughout 
Australia, Canada, and South Africa have been gloriously demonstrated by those 
imperishable deeds achieved on the heights of Gallipoli, in the trenches of Flanders, 



GENERAL BIEETINGS ll 

and upon the waterless plains of German South Africa. In gratefully accepting the 
resolution that the Association one and all will do everything in their power to bring 
the War to a final victory, I recognise with deep appreciation the valuable services 
which are being rendered to this end by the men of science. 

George K. I. 

On Wednesday evening, September 8, at 8 p.m., the Rt. Hon. the Lord 
Mayor of Manchester held an Evening Reception in the Manchester 
Municipal School of Technology. 

On Thursday, September 9, at 8.30 p.m., in the Free Trade Hall, 
Mr. H. W. T. Wager, P.R.S., delivered a discourse on ' The Behaviour 
of Plants in response to Light.' 

On Friday, September 10, at 8.R0 p.m., in the Free Trade Hall, Pro- 
fessor R. A. Sampson, F.R.S., delivered a discourse on ' A Census of the 
Skies.' 

After the above discourse (the occasion being the concluding General 
Meeting), the following resolution was unanimously adopted on the 
motion of the President : — 

That the cordial thanks of the British Association be extended to the Rt. Hon. 
the Lord Mayor and Corporation of the City of Manchester for their hearty welcome, 
to the Governing Bodies of the University and other institutions which have kindly 
placed their buildings and resources at the disposal of the Association, to the firms 
which have thrown open their works to the inspection of members, and, finally, to 
the honorary local officers and their able assistants, and to the General and 
Executive Committees and individual members thereof, for the admirable arrange- 
ments made for the Meeting under exceptional and trying circumstances. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS AT THE MANCHESTER 
MEETING, 1915. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— S\t F. W. Dyson, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. Vice-Presidevts.—rvol 
H. Lamb, I.L.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. Sir E. Rutherford, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. H. H. 
Turner, D.Sc, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Frof. A. S. Eddington, M.A., M.Sc, F.R.S 
{Recorder) ; E. Gold, M.A. ; A. 0. Rankine D.Sc. ; W. Makower, M.A., D.Sc. 

SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President.— Frof. W. A.. I?one, D.Sc, F.R.S. Vice-Preside7its.—Vyol W. J. 
Pope, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Prof. W. P. Wynne, D.Sc, F.R.S. Secretaries.— 
A. Holt, D.Sc. {Recorder) ; C IL Desch, D.Sc, Ph.D. ; H. F. Coward, D.Sc. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. GrenvlUe A. J. Cole. Vice-Presidents. — Rev. Prof. T. G. 
Bonney, ScD., F.R.S.; Hon. Prof. VV. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S.; Prof. E. J. 
Garwood, F.R.S. ; Major Sir T. H. Holland, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. Secretaries.— 
W. Lower Carter, M.A. {Recorder) ; Dr. W. T. Gordon ; Dr. D. M. S. Watson • 
Dr. G. Hickling. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 

President. — Prof. E, A. Minchin, M.A., F.R.S. [in absentia). Vice-Presidents. 

Prof. A. Dendy, D.Sc, F.R.S.; H. F. Gadow, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.; Prof. S. J. 
Hickson, F.R.S. Secretaries. — J. IL Ashworth, D.Sc. {Recorder); F. Balfour 
Browne, M.A., F.R.S.E.; R. Douglas Laurie, M.A. ; J. Stuart Thomson, Ph.D. 

2 



lii OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1915. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President — Maior H. G. Lyons, D.Sc, F.R.S. {in absentia). Vice-Presidents. — 
Prof. H. N. Dickson, D.Sc. fH. Nuttall, M.P. ; G. G. Ghisliolm ; Prof. J. W. 
Gregory, F.R.S. ; H. Yule Oldham. Secretaries.— i . McFarlane, M.A. {Recorder) ; 
Prof. E.'n. Rudmose Brown, D.Sc. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— ProL W. R. Scott, M.A., Litt.D. Vice-Presidents.— SiAnej 
Arnold; R.Noton Barclay; Prof. E. C. K. Gonner ; Sir Charles Macara. 
Secretaries.— Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy,M.A., M.Com. {Recorder) ; E. J. W. Jackson ; 
B. Ellinger. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President.— R. S. Hele-Shaw, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Vrol 

E. G. Coker, M.A., D.Sc. ; Prof. Gisbert Kapp, M.Sc, D.Eng. ; Right Hon. Sir 
Wm Mather ; Dr. Edward Hopkinson ; Robert Matthews ; de Courcey Meade ; 
Prof. J. E. Petavel, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Prof. G. W. 0. Howe, D.Sc. {Re- 
corder) ; J. Frith, M.Sc. ; VV. Cramp, D.Sc. 

SECTION H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Prot C. G. Seligman, M.D. Vice-Presidents.— Proi. W. B. 
Anderson ; Prof. R. S. Conway ; Sir Laurence Gomme, F.S.A. ; Sir Everard F. im 
Thurn, C.B., K.O.M.G. ; Sir Richard Temple, Bart., CLE. Secretaries.— E. N. 
Fallaize, B.A. {Becorder) ; F. C. Shrubsall, M.A., M.D. ; .J. S. B. Stopford, 
M.B., Ch.B. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Pvot W. M. Bayliss, D.Sc, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Prof. 
Benjamin Moore, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. Stirling, M.D. Secretaries.— Pvol P. 
T. Herring, M.D. {Recorder) ; C. L. Burt (Sec. Sub-Section Psychology); J. Tait, 
M.D., D.Sc; F. W. Lamb, B.A., M.D. 

SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— Pvo?. W. H. Lang, M.B., D.Sc, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Prot 

F. 0. Bower, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Sir Daniel Morris, K.O.M.G. ; Prof. F. W. Oliver, 
F.R.S.; Miss Ethel Sargant, F.L.S. ; H. W. T. Wager, F.R.S. Secretaries.— 
0, E. Moss, D.Sc {Recorder) ; D. Thoday, M.A. ; R. S. Adamson, M. A., B.Sc 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Mrs. Henry Sidgwick. Vice-Presidents. — Principal E. H. Griffiths, 
M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. Perry, LL.D., F.R.S. Secretaries —Prof. J. A. 
Green, M.A. (Recorder); D. Berridge, M.A. ; H. Richardson, M.A. ; F. A. 
Bruton, M.A. 

SECTION M. — AGRICULTURE. 

President.— R. H. Rew, C.B. Vice-Presidents.— A. D. Hall, M.A., F.R.S.; 
T. H. Middletou, C.B. ; Prof. T. B. Wood, M.A. ; Prof. S. Coppenz (Louvaiu) ; 
Prof. W. Somerville, D.Sc; Prof. W. Bateson, F.R.S. Secretaries.— Prof. C. 
Crowther, M.A., Ph.D. {Recorder) ; A. Lauder, D.Sc ; T. J. Young, M.Sc. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 

SOCIETIES. 

Chairman.— Mai^or Sir T. H. Holland, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. Vice- Chairman.- 
W. Whitaker, F.R.S. Secretanj.—'W. Mark Webb. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



Uii 



LIST OF GRANTS: Manchester, 1915 

Research OoMMirrEES, etc., appointed by the General Committee 
AT the Manchester Meeting : September, 1915. 



1. Receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Seismological Observations. 



Annual Tables of Constants and 
Numerical Data, chemical, phy- 
sical, and technological. 

Calculation of Mathematical 
Tables. 



Clmirman. — Prof essorH. H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. J. Shaw. 

Mr. J. E. Crombie, Mr. Horace 
Darwin, Mr. C. Davison, Dr. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Professors H. 
Lamb, J. W. Judd, and C. G. 
Knott, Sir J. Larmor, Profes- 
sors A. E. H. Love, H. M. Mac 
donald, R. Meldola, J. Perry, 
and H. C. Plummer, Mr. W. E. 
Plummer, Professors R. A. Samp- 
son and A. Schuster, Dr. G. T. 
Walker, and Mr. G. W. Walker. 



Chairman.- 
Secretary.- 



-Sir W. Ramsay. 
-Dr. W.C.McC. Lewis. 



M. 



Chairman. — Professor M. J. 
Hill. 

Secretary .-?Toieasox J. W. Nichol- 
son. 

Mr. J. R. Airey, Mr. T. W. Chaundy, 
Professor Alfred Lodge, Pro- 
fessor L. N. G. Filon, Sir G. 
Greenhill, Mr. G. Kennedy, and 
Professors E.W. Hobson, A. E. H. 
Love, H. M. Macdonald, G. B. 
Mathews, and A. G. Webster. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



Dynamic Isomerism. 



The Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitroamines and allied sub- 
stances, and its relation to 
Substitution in Benzene De- 
rivatives. 



Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 

Professor Sydney Young, Dr. Desch, 
Sir J. J. Dobbie, and Dr. M. O. 
Forster. 

Chairman: — Professor F. S. Kip- 
ping. 

Secretary. — ProfessorK.J.P.Orton. 

Sir S. Ruhemann and Dr. J. T. 
Hewitt. 



Grants 



£ 
130 



t.d. 




40 



35 



20 



10 



liv 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, 



1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



The Study of Plant Enzymes, 
particularly with relation to 
Oxidation. 



Correlation of Crystalline Form 
with Molecular Structure. 



Study of Solubility Phenomena 



The Influence of Weather Con- 
ditions upon the Amounts of 
Nitrogen Acids in the Rainfall 
and the Atmosphere. 

Research on Non-Aromatic Diazo- 
nium Salts. 



To report on the Botanical and 
Chemical Characters of the 
Eucalypts and their Correla- 
tion. 



Absorption Spectra and Chemical 
Constitution of Organic Com- 
pounds. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. A. D. Hall. 

Secretary. — Dr. E. F. Armstrong. 

Professor H. E. Armstrong, Pro- 
fessor F. Keeble, and Dr. E. J. 
Kussell. 

Chairman. — Professor W. J. Pope. 

Secretary.- — Professor H. E, Arm- 
strong. 

Mr. W. Barlow and Professor 
W. P. Wynne. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. V. Eyre. 

Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Professor A. 
Findlay, Dr. T. M. Lowry, and 
Professor W. J. Pope. 

Chairman. — Professor Orme Mas- 
son. 
Secretary. — Mr. V. G. Anderson. 
Mr. D. Avery and Mr. H. A. Hunt. 

Chairman. — Dr. F. D. Chattaway. 
Secretary. — Professor G.T.Morgan. 
Mr. P. G. \V. Bayly and Dr. N. V. 
Sidgwick. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary.— Mr. H. G. Smith. 

Dr. Andrews, Mr. R. T. Baker, Pro- 
fessor F. O. Bower, Mr. K. H. 
Cambage, Professor A. J. Ewart, 
ProfessorC.B.FawsittjDr.Heber 
Green, Dr. Cuthbert Hall, Pro- 
fessors Orme Masson, Rennie, 
and Robinson, and Mr. St. John. 

Chairman. — Sir J. J. Dobbie. [ 

Secretary.— Mr. E. E. C. Baly. 
Mr. A. W. Stewart. I 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



To consider the preparation of a 
List of Characteristic Fossils. 



Chairman. — Professor P. F. Ken- 
dall. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Lower Carter. 

Professor W. S. Boulton, Professor 
G. Cole, Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, 
Professors J. W. Gregory, Sir 
T. H. Holland, G. A. Lebour, 
and S. H. Reynolds, Dr. Marie 
C. Stopes, Mr. Cosmo Johns, 
Dr. J. E. Marr, Dr. A. Vaughan, 
Professor W. W. Watts, Mr. 
H. Woods, and Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward. 



Grants 



£ 
10 



s. d. 




10 



5 



20 



8 10 



30 



10 



10 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Iv 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 
Kiltorcan, Ireland. 



To excavate Critical Sections in 
the PalsBozoic Rocks of England 
and \\'ales. 



Members of Committee 



To excavate Critical Sections in 
Old Ked Sandstone Rocks at 
Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. 



To investigate the Flora of Lower 
Carboniferous times as exem- 
plified at a newly discovered 
locality at Gullane, Hadding- 
tonshire. 



Chairman. — Professor Qrenville 

Cole. 
Secretary. — Professor T. Johnson. 
Dr. J. W. Evans, Dr. R. Kidston, 

and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 



Chairman. — Professor AV. W. 
Watts. 

Secretary. — Professor W. G. 
Fearnsides. 

Professor W. S. Boulton,Mr. E. S. 
Cobbold, Professor E. J. Gar- 
wood, Mr. V. C. lUing, Dr. Lap- 
worth, and Dr. J. E. Marr. 



Chairman.^T>r. J. Home. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. Mackie. 

Drs. J. S. Flett, W. T. Gordon. 

G. Hickling, K. Kidston, B. N. 

Peach, and D. M. S. Watson. 



Chairman. — Dr. R. Kidston. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. T. Gordon. 
Dr. J. S. Flett, Professor E. J. 

Garwood, Dr. J. Home, and Dr. 

B. N. Peach. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



To investigate the Biological | 
Problems incidental to the Bel- 
mullet Wha,ling Station. 



Chairman.— Tyr. A. E. Shipley. 

Secretary.— Yroiessor J. Stanley 
Gardiner. 

Mr. B. M. Barrington, Professor 
W. A. Herdman, Rev. W. Spots- 
wood Green, Mr. E. S. Goodrich, 
Dr. S. F. Harmer, Dr. E. W. L. 
Holt, and Professor H. W. 
Marett Tims. 



Section E.— GEOGEAPHY. 



To investigate the Conditions 
determining the Selection of 
Sites and Names for Towns, 
with special reference to Aus- 
tralia. 



Chairman.— Sir C. P. Lucas. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. Yule Oldham. 
Mr. G. G. Chisholm and Professor 
J. L. Myros. 



Grants 



£ s.d. 
7 



20 



25 



8 



25 



15 



Ivi 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Chants of Monexj — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 




Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

I £ g.d. 
I 40 



The question of Fatigue from the 
Economic Standpoint, if pos- 
sible in co-operation with Sec- 
tion I, Sub-section of Psycho- 
logy. 



Industrial Unrest. 



Eeplacement of Men by Women 
in Industry. 



The Effects of the War on Credit, 
Currency, and Finance. 



Chairman. — Professor Muirhead. 

Secretary. — Miss B. L. Hutchins. 

Miss A. M. Anderson, Professor 
F. A. Bainbridge, Mr. E. Cad- 
bury, Professor S. J. Chapman, 
Mr. P. Sargant Florence, Pro- 
fessor Stanley Kent, Miss M. C. 
Matheson, Mrs. Meredith, Dr. 
C. S. Myers, Mr. C. K. Ogden, 
Mr. J. W. Ramsbottom, and 
Dr. Jenkins Robb. 

Chairman. — Professor A. W. 
Kirkaldy. 

Secretary. — Mr. Egbert Jackson. 

Sir Hugh Bell, Professors. J. Chap- 
man, Archdeacon Cunningham, 
Mr. W. J. Davis, Mr. Alfred 
Evans, J.P., Professor E. C. K. 
Gonner, Mr. Hovyard Heaton, 
Sir C. W. Macara, and Professor 
W. R. Scott. 

Chairman. — Profes.sor W. R. Scott. 

Secretary. — Miss Enfield. 

Miss Ashley, Mr. C. W. Bower- 
man, M.P., Archdeacon Cun- 
ningham, Mrs. B. Drake, Miss 
Franklin, Professor E. C. K. 
Gonner, Mr. St. G. Heath, Pro- 
fessor Hobhouse, Mr. Egbert 
Jackson, Mrs. Pember Reeves, 
and Mr. J. A. Seddon. 

Chairman. — Professor W. R. Scott. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. E. Allen. 
Professor C. F. Bastable, Sir 
Edward Brabrook, Professor 
Dicksee, Professor F. Y. Edge- 
worth, Mr. B. Ellinger, Mr. A. 
H. Gibson, Professor E. C. K. 
Gonner, Mr. F. W. Hirst, Pro- 
fessor Kirkaldy, Mr. D. M. 
Jlason, M.P., Profesor J. S. 
Nicholson, Sir R. H. Inglis 
Palgrave, Mr. E. Sykes, and 
Mr. Sidney Webb. 

Section G.— ENGINEEEING. 



To investigate Engineering Prob- 
lems affecting the future Pros- 
perity of the Country, 



Chairman. — Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw. 
Secretary. — Professor G. W. 0. 

Howe. 
Professor E. G. Coker, Sir R. Had- 

field, Sir W. Mather, Mr. W. 

Maw, and Mr. C. E. Stromeyer. 



20 



90 



25 



10 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ivii 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



The Investigation of Gaseous Ex- 
plosions, with special reference 
to Temperature. 



To report on certain of the more 
complex Stress Distributions in 
Engineering Materials. 



Chairman. — Dr. Dugald Clert. 

SecretaTtj. — VroiessorW. E. Dalby. 

Professors W. A. Bone, F. W. Bur- 
stall, H. L. Callendar, E. G. 
Coker, and H. B. Dixon, Drs. 
R. T. Glazebrook and J. A. 
Harker, Colonel H. C. L. Holden, 
Professors B. Hopkinson and 
J. E. Petavel, Captain H. Riall 
Sankey, Professor A. Smithells, 
Professor W. Watson, Mr. D. L. 
Chapman, and Mr. H. E. 
Wimperis. 

Chairman. — Professor J. Perry. 

Secretaries. — Professors E. G. 
Coker and J. E. Petavel. 

Professor A. Barr, Dr. Chas. Chree, 
Mr. Gilbert Cook, Professor 
W. E. Dalby, Sir J. A. Ewing, 
Professor L. N. G. Filon, Messrs. 
A. K. Fulton and J. J. Guest, 
Professors J. B. Henderson and 
A. E. H. Love, Mr. W. Mason, 
Sir Andrew Noble, Messrs. P. 
Rogers .and W. A. Scoble, Dr. T. 
E. Stanton, and Mr. J. S. Wilson. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To conduct Explorations with the 
object of ascertaining the Age 
of Stone Circles. 



To investigate the Physical 
Characters of the Ancient 

Egyptians. 



To excavate a Paleolithic Site in 
Jersey. 



To conduct Archaeological Inves- 
tigations in Malta. 



Chairinajt.—Qvc C. H. Read. 

Secretary.- — Mr. H. Balfour. 

Dr. G. A. Auden, Professor W. 
Ridgeway, Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir 
A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, Pro- 
fessors Boyd Dawkinsand J. L. 
Myres, Mr. A. L. Lewis, and 
Mr. H. Peake. 

Chairman. — Professor G. Elliot 

Smith. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. F. Wood-Jones, Dr. A. Keith, 

and Dr. C. G. Seligman. 

Chairman. — Dr. R. R. Marett. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. de Gruchy. 

Dr. C. W. Andrews, Mr. H. Bal- 
four, Dr. Dunlop, Professor A. 
Keith, and Colonel Warton. 

Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. Ashby. 
Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
and Dr. R. R. Marett. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
50 



40 



2.5 



15 



25 



10 



Iviii 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money— continued. 




Members of Committee 



To report on the Distribution of 
Bronze Age Implements. 



Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Peake. 

Professor W. Ridgeway, Mr. H. 
Balfour, Sir C. H. Read, Pro- 
fessor W. Boyd Dawkins, Dr. 
R. R. Marett, and Mr. 0. G. S. 
Crawford. 



Grants 



£ 

5 



s. d. 




The Ductless Glands. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

Chairman. — Sir E. A. Schiifer. 

Secretary. — Professor Swale Vin- 
cent. 

Dr. A. T. Cameron and Professor 
A. B. Macallum. 



Further Researches on the Struc- 
ture and Function of the Mam- 
malian Heart. 



Chairman. — Professor C. S. Sher- 
rington. 

Secretary. — Professor Stanley 
Kent. 

Dr. Florence Buchanan. 



Section K. 
The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



-BOTANY. 



Experimental Studies in 
Physiology of Heredity. 



the 



The Renting of Cinchona Botanic 
Station in Jamaica. 



Chairman. — Professor F.W.Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor F. E Weiss. 

Mr. B. Newell Arber, Professor A. C. 

Seward, and Dr. D. H. Scott. 

Chairman. — Prof essorF.F. Black- 
man. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. P. Gregory. 

Professors Bateson and Keeble, 
and Miss E. R. Saunders. 

Chairman. — Prof essorF.O. Bower. 
Secirtary. —YroiessoT R. H Yapp. 
Professors R. Buller, F. W. Oliver, 
and F. E. Weiss. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To inquire into and report upon 
the methods and results of 
research into the Mental and 
Physical Factors involved in 
Education. 



Chairman. — Dr. C. S. Myers. 

Secretary Professor J. A. Green. 

Professor J. Adams, Dr. G. A. 

Auden, Sir E. Brabrook, Dr. W. 

Brown, Mr. C. Burt, Professor 

E. P. Culverwell, Mr. G. F. 
Daniell, Miss B. Foxley, Pro- 
fessor R. A. Gregory, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Professor W. 
McDougall, Professor T. P. 
Nunn, Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, Dr. 

F. C. Shrubsall, Professor H. 
Bompas Smith, Dr. C. Spearman, 
and Mr. A. E. Twentyman. 



20 



20 



2 



4r) 



12 10 



20 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



lix 



Subject for Investigation , or Purpose 



The Influence of School Books 
upon Eyesight. 



To examine, inquire into, and re- 
port on the Character, Work, 

• and Maintenance of Museums, 
with a view to their Organisa- 
tion and Development as In- 
stitutions for Education and 
Kesearch ; and especially to 
inquire into the Requirements 
of Schools. 



The Effects of the 'Free-place' 
System upon Secondary Educa- 
tion. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Dr. G. A. Auden. 
Sucrc-tary. — Mr. G. F. Daniell. 
Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. W. D. 

Eggar, Professor R. A. Gregory, 

Dr. N. Bishop Harman, Mr. 

J. L. Holland, Dr. W. E. 

Sumpner, Mr. A. P. Trotter, and 

Mr. Trevor Walsh. 

Chairman. — Professor J. A. Green. 

Secretaries. — Mr. H. Bolton and 
Dr. J. A. Clubb. 

Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. C. A. Buck- 
master, Mr. M. D. Hill, Dr. 
W. E. Hoyle, Professors E. J. 
Garwood and P. Newberry, Sir 
H. Miers, Sir Richard Temple, 
Mr, H. Hamshaw Thomas, 
Professor F. E. Weiss, Mrs. J. 
White, Rev. H. Browne, Drs. 

A. C. Haddon and H. S. Har- 
rison, Mr. Herbert R. Rathbone, 
and Dr. W. M. Tattersall. 

Chairman. — Mr. 0. A. Buckmaster. 
Secretary. —Mr. D. Berridge. 
Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Miss S. A. 
Rurstall, Miss L. J. Clarke, Miss 

B. Foxley, Dr. W. Garnett, Pro- 
fessor R A. Gregory, Mr. J. L. 
Paton, Professor H. Bompas 
Smith, Dr. H. Snape, and Miss 
Walter. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Mark Webb. 

Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Sir H. G. Fordham, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. 
T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Mr. A. L. Lewis, Rev. T. R. R. 
Stebbing, and the President 
and General Officers of the 
Association. 



Grants 



£ s. d. 
5 



15 



10 



'iV-, 







Ix 



KESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money.* 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere. Chairman.— ^ix Napiei Shaw. 

Secretary. — Captain E. Gold. 
Mr. C. J. P. Cave, Mr. W. H. Dines, Dr. 
K. T. Glazebrook, Sir J. Larmor, 
Professor J. E. Petavel, Professor A. 
Schuster, and Lieut.-Col. W.Watson. 



Kadiotelegraphic Investigations. 



To aid the work of Establishing a Solar 
Observatory in Australia. 



'Determination of Gravity at Sea. 



Chadrma?i. — Sir Oliver Lodge. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. H. Eccles. 

Mr. S. G. Brown, Dr. C. Chree, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Professor A. S. Eddington, Dr. 
Erskine-Murray, Professors J. A.Flem- 
ing, G. W. O. Howe, H. M. Macdonald, 
and J. W. Nicholson, Sir H. Norman, 
Captain H. R. Saukey, Professor A. 
Schuster, Sir N. Shaw, Professor 
S. P. Thompson, and Professor H. H. 
Turner. 

Chairman. — Professor H. H. Turner. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. G. DufEeld. 

Rev. A. L. Cortie, Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, 

Mr. F. McClean, and Professors A. 

Schuster and H. H. Turner. 

Chairman. — Professor A. E. Love. 
Secretary. — Professor W. G. Duffield. 
Mr. T. W. Chaundy, and Professors A. S. 
Eddington and H. H. Turner. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Study of Hydro- Aromatic Sub- 
stances. 



Chemical Investigation of Natural Plant 
Products of Victoria. 



Research on the Utilization of Brown 
Coal Bye-Products. 



Fuel Economy ; Utilization of Coal ; 
Smoke Prevention. 



Chairman. — Professor W. H. Perkin. 
Secretary. — Professor A. W. Crossley. 
Dr. M. 0. Forster, Dr. Le Sueur, and 
Dr. A. McKenzie. 

Chairman. — Professor Orme Masson. 

Secretary. — Dr. Heber Green. 

Mr. J. Cronin, and Mr. P. R. H. St. John, 

Chairman. — Professor Orme Masson. 
Secretary. — Mr. P. G. W. Bayly. 
Mr. D. Avery. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Bone. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. D. Simon. 

Professors P. Phillips Bedson and G. T. 
Beilb3% Mr. E. Bury, Mr. J. Cobb, Mr. 
J. B. Cohen, Professor H. B. Dixon, 
Mr. Th. Gray, Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw, 
Messrs , L. T. O'Shea, J. E. Stead, and R. 
Threlfall, and Professor W. P. Wynne 



Excepting the case of Committees receiving grants from the Oaird Fund. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ui 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose Members of Committee 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



Fauna and Flora of the Trias of the 
Western Midlands. 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



To consider the Preparation of a List 
of Stratigraphical Names, used in the 
British Isles, in connection with the 
Lexicon of Stratigraphical Names in 
course of preparation by the Inter- 
national Geological Congress. 



To consider the Nomenclature of the 
Carboniferous, Permo-Carboniferous, 
and Permian Rocks of the Southern 
Hemisphere. 



Chairman. — Mr. G. Barrow. 

Secretary. — Mr. L. J. Wills. 

Dr. J. Humphreys, Mr. W. Campbell 
Smith, Mr. D. M. S. Watson, and Pro- 
fessor W. W. Watts. 



Cliairman. — Professor E. J. Garwood. 
Secretaries. — Professors W. W. Watts and 

S. H. Reynolds. 
Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. G. Bonney, and 

Messrs. C. V. Crook, R. Kidston, A. S. 

Reid, J. J. H. Teall, R. Welch, and W. 

Whitaker. 



Chairman. — Dr. J. E. Marr. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. A. Bather. 
Professor Grenville Cole, Mr. Bernard 

Hobson, Professor Lebour, Dr. J. 

Home, Dr. A. Strahan, and Professor 

W. W. Watts. 



Chairnian. — Professor T. W. Edgeworth 
David. 

Secretary. — Professor E. W. Skeats. 

Mr. W. S. Dun, Sir T. H. Holland, Pro- 
fessor Howchin, Mr. A. E. Kitson and 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Dr. A. W. Rogers, 
Professor A. C. Seward, Dr. D. M. S. 
Watson, and Professor W. G. Wool- 
nough. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



Nomenclator Animalium Genera et 
Sub-genera. 



An investigation of the Biology of the 
Abrolhos Islands and the North-west 
Coast of Australia (north of Shark's 
Bay to Broome), with particular 
reference to the Marine Fauna. 

To obtain, as nearly as possible, a Repre- 
sentative Collection of Marsupials for 
work upon (a) the Reproductive 
Apparatus and Development, (i) the 
Brain. 



Chairman. — Dr. Chalmers Mitchell. 
Secretary.— Bev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 
Dr. M. Laurie, Professor Marett Tims, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Herdman. 
Secretary. — Professor W. J. Dakin. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth and Professor F. 0. 
Bower. 



Chairmaii. — Professor A. Dendy. 
Secretaries Professors T. Flvnn and 

G. E. Nicholls. 
Professor E B. Poulton and Professor 

H. W. Marett Tims. 



Ixii 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



*To aid competent Investigators se- 
lected by the Committee to carry on 
definite pieces of work at the Zoolo- 
gical Station at Naples. 



To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by corre- 
spondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To nominate competent Naturalists to 
perform definite pieces of work at 
tlie Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 

Zoological Bibliography and Publica- 
tion. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. H. Ash worth. 

Mr. G. P. Bidder, Professor F. O. Bower, 
Drs. W. B. Hardy and S. F. Harmer, 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Sir B. Ray 
Lankester, Professor W. C. Mclntotli, 
and Dr. A. D. Waller. 

Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. M. Tattersall. 
Professors G. C. Bourne, M. Hartog, 

W. A. Herdman, A. Dendy, and J. 

Graham Kerr, Dr. P. Chalmers 

Mitchell, and Professors E. B. Poulton 

and J, Stanley Gardiner. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Professor A. 

Dendy. 
Sir B. Ray Lankester, Professor J. P. 

Hill, and Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Chairman. — Professor B. B. Poulton. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. A. Bather. 
Drs. W. E. Hoyle and P. Chalmers 
Mitchell. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



To aid in the preparation of a Bathy- 
metrical Chart of the Southern Ocean 
between Australia and Antarctica. 



Chairman. — Professor T. W. Edgeworth 

David. 
Secretary. — Captain J. K. Davis. 
Professor J. W. Gregory, Sir C.P.Lucas, 

and Professor Orme Masson. 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



To consider and report on the Stan- 
dardization of Impact Tests. 



Chairman. — Professor W. H. Warren. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Vicars, 
Mr. G. A. Julius, Professor A. H. Gibson, 
Mr. Houghton, and Professor Payne. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To investigate the Lake Villages in the 
neighbourhood of Glastonbury in 
connection with a Committee of the 
Somerset Archseological and Natural 
History Society. 

To conduct Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the Island of Cyprus. 



To prepare and publish Miss Byrne's 
Gazetteer and Map of the Native 
Tribes of Australia. 



Chairman. — Professor Boyd Dawkins. 
Secretary. — Mr. Willoughby Gardner. 
Professor W. Ridgeway, Sir Arthur J. 

Evans, Sir C. H. Read, Mr. H. Balfour, 

and Dr. A. BuUeid. 

Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 
Secretary.~Y>x. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

Chairman. — Professor Baldwin Spencer. 
Secretary.— Dr. R. R. Marett. 
Mr. H. Balfour. 



See note on page l.\. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixiii 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Kegistration of Plioto- 
graphs of Anthropological Interest. 

To conduct Archjeological and Ethno- 
logical Researches in Crete. 



Toconduct Excavations in Easter Island. 



The Teaching of Anthropology. 



To excavate Early Sites in Macedonia. 



To investigate and ascertain the Distri- 
bution of Artificial Islands in the 
lochs of the Highlands of Scotland. 



To co-operate with Local Committees 
in Excavations on Roman Sites in 
Britain. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Sir C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — 

Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, and 
Professor J. L. Myres. 

Chairman. — Mr. D. G. Hogarth. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. W. L. H. 
Duckworth, Sir A. J. Evans, Professor 
W. Ridgeway, and Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

Chairman.— Jiv. A. C. Haddon. 

Secretary.— Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. 

Mr. R. R. Marett and Dr. C. G. Seligmau. 

Chairman. — Sir Richard Temple. 

Secretary. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 

Sir E. F. im Thurn, Mr. W. Crooke, Dr. 
C. G. Seligman, Professor G. Elliot 
Smith, Dr. R. R. Marett, Professor 
P. E. Newberry, Dr. G. A. Auden, Pro- 
fessors T. H. Bryce, A. Keith, P. 
Thompson, R. W. Reid, H. J. Fleure, 
and J. L. Myres, Sir B. C. A. Windle, 
and Professors R. J. A. Berry, Baldwin 
Spencer, Sir T. Anderson Stuart, and 
E. 0. Stirling. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 
Professors R. C. Bosanquet and J. L. 
Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor Boyd Dawkins. 
Secretary. — Prof. J. L. Myres. 
Professors T. H. Bryce and W. Ridgeway, 
Dr. A. Low, and Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 

Cluiirman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Professor R. C. Bosanquet. 
Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. Willoughby Gardner, 
and Professor J. L. Myres. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



To acquire further knowledge, Clinical 
and Experimental, concerning Antes- 
thetics— general and local — with 
special reference to Deaths by or 
during Anaesthesia, and their possible 
diminution. 

Electromotive Phenomena in Plants. 



Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — 

Dr. Blumfelil, ]\Ir. J. A. Gardner, and 
Dr. G. A. Buckmaster. 



Chairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Mrs. Waller. 
Professors J. B. Farmer, T. Johnson, and 
Veley, and Dr. F. O'B. Ellison. 



Ixiv 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money— continued.. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



To investigate the Physiological and 
Psychological Factors in the produc- 
tion of Miners' Nystagmus. 

The Significance of the Electro-motive 
Phenomena of the Heart. 

Metabolism of Phosphates. 



The Dissociation of Oxy-Hsemoglobin 
at High Altitudes. 

Colour Vision and Colour Blindness. 



Cliairman. — Professor J. H. Muirhead. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. G. Maitland. 
Dr. J. Jameson Evans and Dr. C. S. 
Myers. 

Chairman. — Professor W. D. Halliburton. 
Secretary. — Dr. Florence Buchanan. 
Professor A. D. Waller. 

Chairman. — Professor W. A. Osborne. 
Secretary. — Miss Kincaid. 
Dr. Kothera. 

Chairman. — Professor E. H. Starling. 
Secretari/. — Dr. J. Barcroft. 
Dr. W. B. Hardy. 

Chairman. — Professor E. H. Starling. 
I Secretary. — Dr. Edridge-Green. 
j Professor A. W. Porter, Dr. A. D. Waller, 
Professor C. S. Sherrington, and Dr. 
' F. W. Mott. 

Calorimetric Observations on Man in 1 Chairman. — Professor J. S. Macdonald. 
Health and in Febrile Conditions. \ Secretary. — Dr. Francis A. Duffield. 

Dr. Keith Lucas. 



The Binocular Combination of Kine- Chairman.- 
matograph Pictures of different Secretary.- 
Meaning, and its relation to the 
Binocular Combination of simpler 
Perceptions. i 

Section K.- 

To carry out a Research on the Influ- 
ence of varying percentages of Oxy- 
gen and of various Atmospheric 
Pressures upon Geotropic and Helio- , 
tropic Irritability and Curvature. 

The Collection and Investigation of 
Material of Australian Cycadacere, 
especially Bowenia from Queensland 
and Macrozaunia from West Australia. . 

To cut Sections of Australian Fossil i 
Plants, with especial reference to a 
specimen of Zygopteris from Simp- 
son's Station, Barraba, N.S.W. 

i 

The Investigation of the Vegetation of 
Ditcham Park, Hampshire. \ 



-Dr. C. S. Myers. 
-Mr. T. H. Pear. 



-BOTANY. 

Chairman.— Vcolessor F. 0. Bower. 
Secretary. — Professor A. J. Ewart. 
Professor F. F. Blackman. 



Chairman. — Professor A. A. Lawson. 
Secretary. — Professor T. G. B. Osborn. 
Professor A. C. Seward. 



Chairman. — Professor Lang. 
Secretary. — Professor T. G. B. Osborn. 
Professor T. W. E. David and Professor 
A. C. Seward. 

Chairman.— Mr. A. G. Tansley. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. S. Adamson. 

Dr. C. E. Moss and Professor R. H. Yapp. 



Section L.- 

To take notice of, and report upon 
changes in. Regulations — whether 
Legislative, Administrative, or made 
by Local Authorities — affecting 
Secondary and Higher Education. 



EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

Chairman. — Professor H. E. Armstrong. 

Secretary. — Major E. Gray. 

Miss Coignan, Principal Griffiths, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Sir Horace Plunkett, 
Mr. H. Ramage, Professor M. B.Sadler, 
and Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. IxV 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenao. 

Section ^.— Mr. G. Hardy : On Prime Numbers. 
Section 5.— Discussion on Smoke Prevention. 
Section B. — Discussion on Homogeneous Catalysis. 

Besolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable^ 

for action. 

From Section A. 

That the Committee of Section A places upon record its high appreciation of the 
assistance rendered to the investigation of the value of gravity at sea by the Directors 
of Messrs. Alfred Holt, of Liverpool, during the voj-age of the British Association to 
Australia in 1914. The Association is indebted to them for the generous installation 
of a special refrigerating chamber for the purpose of this research, and for placing 
at the disposal of the experimenter (Dr. Duffield) the whole of the resources of the 
Blue Funnel steamship Ascaniiis ; in this respect the help of Captain Chrimes, 
Chief Engineer Douglas, and Refrigerating Engineer Latham deserves particular 
mention. 

The Association regrets that the outbreak of war prevented full advantage being 
taken of the facilities so kindly made available by Messrs. Alfred Holt, but it is none 
the less grateful for their valuable and whole-hearted co-operation. 

That a copy of the above Resolution be forwarded to Messrs. Alfred Holt. 

Irom Section B. 

To recommend to the Council that the proceedings of Section B, together with 
the reports of research committees, including any reports on special branches of 
chemical science, be published separately from the Annual Volume of Reports. 



At its meeting on September 9, the General Committee mianimously 
adopted the following resolution, and ordered that it should be forwarded 
to the Prime Minister, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the Presidents 
of the Boards of Education and of Agriculture and Fisheries : — 

That the British Association for the Advancement of Science, believing that the 
higher education of the nation is of supreme importance in the present crisis of our 
history, trusts that His Majesty's Government will, by continuing its financial 
support, maintain the efficiency of teaching and research in the Universities and 
University Colleges of the United Kingdom. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated for Scientific Purposes on 
behalf of the General Oommittee at the Manchester Meeting, 
Sepitemher 1915. The Names of Members entitled to call on the 
General Treasurer for Grants are prefixed to the respective 
Committees. 

Section A. — Mathematical and Physical Science. 

£ s. d. 

*Turner, Professor H. H. — Seismological Observations 130 

*Ramsay, Sir W.— Tables of Constants 40 

*Hill, Profe.ssor M. J. M.— Mathematical Tables 35 

Carried forward £205 

* Reappointed. 
1915. d 



s. 


d. 


















































10 





































Ixvi EESEAECH COMMITTEES. 

£ 
Brought forward 205 

Section B. — Chemistry. 

* Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism 20 

*Kipping, Professor F. B. — Aromatic Nitroamines 10 

*HaU, Mr. A. D.— Plant Enzymes 10 

* Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Solubility Phenomena 5 

* Armsti'ong, Professor H. E. — Eucalypts 30 

*Masson, Professor Orme. — Influence of Weather Conditions 

on Nitrogen Acids in Rainfall and Atmosphere 20 

*Pope, Professor W. J. — Crystalline Form and Molecular 

Structure 10 

*Chattaway, Dr. F. D. — Non-aromatic Diazonium Salts 8 

Dobbie, Sir J. J. — Absorption Spectra, ic 10 

Secticm C. — Geology. 
*Cole, Professor Grenville. ~ Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 

Kiltorcan 7 

*Watts, Professor W. W. — Critical Sections in Palaeozoic 

Rocks 20 

*Kendall, Professor P. F. — List of Characteristic Fossils 10 

Home, Dr. J. — Old Red Sandstone Rocks at Rhynie 25 

Kidston, Dr. R. — Lower Carboniferous Flora at Gullane ... 8 

Section D. — Zoology. 
*Shipley, Dr. A. E.—Belmullet Whaling Station 25 

Section E. — Geography. 
*Lucas, Sir C. P. — Conditions determining Selection of Sites 

and Names for Towns 15 

Section F. — Economic Science and Statistics. 
*Muirhead, Professor J. H. — Fatigue from Economic Stand- 
point 40 

Kirkaldy, Professor A. W. — Industrial Unrest 20 

Scott, Professor W. R. — Women in Industry 90 

Scott, Professor W. R. — Effects of War on Credit, <fec 25 

Section G. — Engineering. 

*Perry, Professor J.— Complex Stress Distributions 40 

*Clerk, Dr. Dugald. — Gaseous Explosions 50 

Hele-Shaw, Dr. H. S. — Engineering Problems aflfecting 

Prosperity of the Country 10 

Section H. — Anthropology. 

*Read, Sir C. H.— Age of Stone Circles 25 

*Smith, Professor G. Elliot. — Physical Characters of Ancient 

Egyptians 15 

*Marett, Dr. R. R. - Paleolithic Site in Jersey 25 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Archaeological Investigations in 

Malta 10 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Distribution of Bronze Age Imple- 
ments 5 

Carried forward £793 10 

* Keappointed. 








































SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Ixvii 

£ s. d. 
Brought forward 793 10 

Section I. — Physiology. 

*Schafer, Sir E.— Ductless Glands 20 

♦Sherrington, Professor C. S. — Mammalian Heart 20 

Section K. — Botany. 

*Bower, Professor F. O. —Cinchona Station, Jamaica 12 10 

*01iver, Professor F. W.— Structure of Fossil Plants 2 

*Blackman, Professor F. F. — Heredity 45 

Section L. — Education. 

*Green, Professor J. A. — Museums 15 

*Auden, Dr. G. A. — School Books and Eyesight 5 

*Myers, Dr. C. S. — Mental and Physical Factors 20 

Buckmaster, Mr. C. A. — ' Free-place ' System 10 

Corresponding Societies Committee. 
*Whitaker, Mr. W. — For Preparation of Report 25 

Total i'968 

* Reappointed. 

Cairo Fund. 

An unconditional gift of 10,000^. was made to the Association at the 
Dundee Meeting, 1912, by Mr. (afterwards Sir) J. K. Caird, LL.D., of 
Dundee. 

The Council in its Report to the General Committee at the Bir- 
mingham Meeting made certain recommendations as to the administra- 
tion of this Fund. These recommendations were adopted, with the 
Report, by the General Committee at its meeting on September 10, 1913. 

The following allocations have been made from the Fund by the 
Council to September 1915 : — 

Naples Zoological Station Committee (p. Ixi). — 50^. (1912-13); lOOZ. 
(1913-14) ; 100/. annually in future, subject to the adoption of the Com- 
mittee's report. 

Seismology Committee (p. Hi). — lOOZ. (1913-14); 100/. annually in 
future, subject to the adoption of the Committee's report. 

JRadiotelegraphic Committee (p. Ix). - 500/. (1913-14). 

Magnetic Be-survey oj the British Isles (in collaboration with the 
Royal Society).— 250/. 

Committee on Determination of Gravity at Sea (p. Ix). — 100/ 
<1914-15). 

Mr. F. Sargent, Bristol University, in connection with his Astro- 
nomical Work.— 101. (1914). 

Organising Committee of Section F {Economics), toivards exj)enses of 
an Enquiry into Outlets for Labour after the War. — 100/. (1915). 

Sir J. K. Caird, on September 10, 1913, made a further gift of 1,000/. 
to the Association, to be devoted to the study of Radio-activity. 



Ixviii RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

Public or Citizens' Lectures. 

During the Meeting the following Citizens' Lectures were arranged in 
co-operation with the local branches of the Workers' Educational Asso- 
ciation in Manchester and the neighbourhood : — 

Manchester. 

September 8th at 8 p.m. in the New Islington Hall, Ancoats, Pro- 
fessor F. W. Gamble, F.E.S., on 'Evolution and War.' 

September 9th at 8 p.m. in the Central Hall, Oldham Street, Dr. 
Vaughan Cornish on ' The Strategic Geography of the War.' 

September 10th at 8 p.m. in the Albert Hall, Peter Street, Dr. 
Walter Rosenhain, F.R.S., on ' The Making of a Big Gun.' 

Salford. 

September 9th at 8 p.m. in the Royal Technical Institute, Salford, 
Dr. Walter Rosenhain, F.R.S., on ' The Making of a Big Gun.' 

September 10th at 8 p.m. in the Royal Technical Institute, Salford, 
Professor W. Stirhng on ' Curiosities and Defects of Sight.' 

Oldham. 

September 9th at 8 p.m. in the Equitable Co-operative Hall, Mr. A. 
R. Hinks, F.R.S., on the ' Daily Uses of Astronomy.' 

September 11th at 8 p.m. in the Industrial Co-operative Hall, Pro- 
fessor Benjamin Moore, F.R.S., on ' Health Conditions in the 
Modern Workshop.' 

Bolton. 

September 10th at 8 p.m. in the Victoria Hall, Rev. A. L. Cortie,. 
S.J., on ' Formation of the Sun and Stars.' 

Rochdale. 

September 6th at 8 p.m. in the Town Hall, Professor H. H. Turner^ 
F.R.S., on ' Some Lessons from Astronomy.' 




PEE SIDE NT'S ADDEBSS. 



1916. 



BY 

Professor ARTHUR SCHUSTER, D.Sc, Sc.D., LL.D., Dr. es Sc, F.k.S. 

PRESIDENT. 



The Comvion Aims of Science and Humanity. 

Under the influence of the diversity of pursuits imposed upon us 
by the conditions of modern life, different groups of the community — 
men of business, men of science, philosophers, or artists — have acquired 
detached and sometimes conflicting interests. Each group, impressed 
by the importance of its own domain in the life of the nation, and 
focussing its vision on small differences and temporary rivalries, was in 
danger of losing tlie sense of mutual dependence. But in the shadow 
of a great catastrophe it has been brought home to us that the clash 
of interests is superficial, and the slender thread of union which 
remained has grown into a solid bond. What is the fibre from which 
the bond is twined? Patriotism may express its outward manifestation, 
but its staple is the mental relationship which remains continuous and 
dominant even in normal times, when each of us may peacefully go to 
earn his living and enjoy the course of his intellectual life. 

Outwardly the community is divided into heterogeneous elements 
with mental attitudes cast in different moulds, and proceeding along 
separate roads by differing methods to different ideals. Yet as we 
eliminate the superficial, and regard only the deep-seated emotions which 
control our thoughts and actions, the differences vanish, and the unity 
of purpose and sentiment emerges more and more strongly. Mind and 
character, no doubt, group themselves into a number of types, but the 
cleavage runs across, and not along, the separating line of professions. 

Were it otherwise, the Britisli Association could not perform one of 
its most important functions — a function not, indeed, originally contem- 
plated, but resulting indirectly from the wise and democratic provisions 
in its constitution, which enabled it to adapt itself to the changing needs 
of the time. Our founders primarily considered the interests of scientific 
men; their outlook was restricted and exclusive, both as regards range 

b2 



4 president's address. 

of subject and membership. In the words of Sir David Brewster, who 
gave the first impulse to its formation, it was to be ' an Association of 
our nobility, clergy, gentry, and philosophers. ' 

The meetings were intended to promote personal intercourse, to 
organise research, to advocate reform of the laws hindering research, 
and to improve the status of scientific men. The right of membership 
was confined to those who already belonged to some learned society, 
and William Whewell, one of the principal supporters of the movement, 
even suggested that only authors of memoirs published by a learned 
society should be admitted.^ He emphasized this proposal by the 
recommendation ^ ' in some way to avoid the crowd of lay members 
whose names stand on the List of the Eoyal Society.' The reform 
of the Patent Laws and the introduction of an International Copyright 
were suggested as subjects suitable for discussion, not apparently from 
the point of view of general advantage, but merely in the interests of 
one section of the community. 

Whatever the objects of the founders of the Association may have 
been, it is obvious that questions of public importance could not be 
permanently excluded from meetings the success of which depended on 
the interest stimulated in the community. The Statistical Section, which 
owed its origin to the visit, at the first Oxford Meeting (1832), of 
Quetelet, the Belgian astronomer and economist, was the first to assert 
itself by engaging in a discussion of the Poor Laws. Whewell deeply 
resented this violation of academic neutrality : ' it was impossible, ' he 
wrote, ' to listen to the Proceedings of the Statistical Section on Friday 
vrithout perceiving that they involved exactly what it was most necessary 
and most desired to exclude from our Proceedings, ' ' and again : ' Who 
would propose (I put it to Chalmers, and he allowed the proposal to be 
intolerable) an ambulatorj- body, composed partly of men of reputation 
and partly of a miscellaneous crowd, to go round year by year from town 
to town and at each place to discuss the most inflammatory and agitating 
questions of the day ? ' * 

Fortunately for our Association, this narrow-minded attitude dia not 
prevail, and our records show that while not avoiding controversial and 
even inflammatory subjects, we have been able to exercise a powerful in- 
fluence on the progress of science. The establishment of electric units, 
universally accepted throughout the world, originated in the work of one 
of our committees ; the effort which led to the foundation of the 
National Physical Laboratory, one of the most efficient and beneficial 

' Others were allowed to join on recommendation by the General Committee. 
It was only in 1906 that this restriction, which had become obsolete, was removed. 

2 Whewdl's Writings and Letters, vol. ii. p. 128. 

" Loc. C4<.,p. 289. 

* It is much to be desired that the documents relating to the early history of the 
British Association should be published in a collected form. 



president's address. 6 

organizations in the country, received its first impulses from us ; and 
the organization of the first world service for the systematic investiga- 
tion of earth tremors was established by the late Dr. Milne, working 
through one of our Committees. 

The success of these enterprises alone is sufficient to show that 
we are not merely a body promoting social intercourse between men of 
science and the rest of the community. Nevertheless, it may be 
admitted that our efforts have been spasmodic, and the time has arrived 
to consider whether it may be possible to secure not only a greater 
continuity in our work but also its better co-ordination with that 
of other scientific organizations. The present juncture affords the 
opportunity, and the changed conditions, which in the near future 
will affect all our institutions, render it indeed incumbent upon us 
once more to adapt ourselves to the needs of the times. Proposals 
for a move in that direction have already been made, and will no 
doubt be carefully considered by the Council. In the meantime, I 
may draw your attention to the important discussions arranged for by 
our Economic Section, which alone will justify the decision of the 
Council not to suspend the Meeting this year. 

It must not be supposed that, even in the early days of the Associa- 
tion, Whewell's ideas of its functions were universally accepted. It 
is pleasant to contrast the lamentations of the omniscient Pro- 
fessor of Mineralogy with the weightier opinion of the distinguished 
mathematician who then held Newton's chair at Cambridge. At the 
concluding session of the second meeting of the Association Babbage 
expressed the hope ' that in the selection of the places at which the 
annual meetings were to be held, attention should be paid to the object 
of bringing theoretical science in contact with the practical knowledge on 
which the wealth of the country depends. ' ' I was myself, ' he said, 
' particularly anxious for this, owing as I do a debt of gratitude for the 
valuable information which I have received in many of the manufac- 
turing districts, where I have learned to appreciate still more highly 
than before the value of those speculative pursuits which we follow in 
our academical labours. I was one of those who thought at first that 
we ought to adjourn for our next meeting to some large manufacturing 
town ; but I am now satisfied that the arrangement which has been made 
will be best adapted to the present state of the Association. "When, 
however, it shall be completely consolidated I trust we may be enabled 
to cultivate with the commercial interests of the country that close 
acquaintance which I am confident will be highly advantageous to our 
more abstract pursuits. ' 

Since then, as vv^e all know, our most successful meetings have 
been held in manufacturing centres; but it should be observed that, 



6 President's address. 

wnik Babbage laid stress on the benefit which would accrue to pure 
science by being brought into contact with practical life, scientific men 
of the present day have more and more insisted on the services they, on 
their part, are able to render to the industries. The idealistic motive 
has thus given way to the materialistic purpose. Both aspects are 
perhaps equally important, but it is necessary to insist, at the present 
time, that the utilitarian drum can be beaten too loudly. There is more 
than one point of contact between different activities of the human mind, 
such as find expression in scientific pursuits or commercial enterprises, 
and it is wrong to base the advantages to be derived from their mutual 
influence solely, or even mainly, on the ground of material benefits. 

I need not press this point in a city which has given many proofs 
that a business community may be prompted by higher motives than 
those which affect their pockets. It was not for utilitarian objects 
that repeated efforts were made since the year 1640 to establish a 
University in Manchester ; it was not for reasons of material gain that 
the Eoyal Institution and Owens College were founded; nor was it 
because they increased the wealth of the district that the place of 
honour in our Town Hall has been given to Dalton and Joule. 

When we glance at the various occupations of the working parts 
of a nation, comprising the student who accumulates or extends 
knowledge, the engineer who applies that knowledge, the geo- 
logist or agriculturalist who discloses the store of wealth hidden in 
the soil, the commercial man who distributes that wealth, it seems as 
if we ought to be able to name the qualities of mtellect and tempera- 
ment which in each pursuit are most needed to carry out the work 
successfully. But on trying to define these qualities we soon discover 
the formidable nature of the task. Eeasoning power, inventive power, 
and sound balance of judgment are essential attributes in all cases, and 
the problem is reduced to the question whether there are different 
varieties of these attributes which can be assigned to the different occu- 
pations. 

Among all subjects mathematics is perhaps the one that appears 
most definitely to require a special and uncommon faculty. Yet, 
Poincar6 — himself one of the clearest thinkers and most brilliant 
exponents of the subject — almost failed when he attempted to fix the 
distinguishing intellectual quahty of the mathematician. Starting from 
the incontrovertible proposition that there is only one kind of correct 
reasoning, which is logical reasoning, he raises the question why it is 
that everybody who is capable of reasoning correctly is not also a 
mathematician, and he is led to the conclusion that the characterizing 
feature is a peculiar type of memory. It is not a better memory, for 
some mathematicians are very forgetful, and many of them cannot add 



president's address. 



a column of figures correctly ; but it is a memory which fixes the order 
in which the successive steps of reasoning follow each other without 
necessarily retaining the details of the individual steps. This Poincar6 
illustrates by contrasting the memory of a chess-player with that of a 
mathematician. ' When I play chess,' he says, ' I reason out correctly 
that if I were to make a certain move, I should expose myself to a 
certain danger. I should, therefore, consider a number of other moves, 
and, after rejecting each of them in turn, I should end by making the 
one which I first contemplated and dismissed, having forgotten in the 
meantime the ground on which I had abandoned it.' ' Why, then,' he 
continues, ' does my memory not fail me in a difficult mathematical 
reasoning in which the majority of chess-players would be entirely lost? 
It is because a mathematical demonstration is not a juxtaposition of 
syllogisms, but consists of syllogisms placed in a certain order; and 
the order in which its elements are placed is much more important 
than the elements themselves. If I have this intuition — so to speak — of 
the order, so as to perceive at one glance the whole of the reasoning, 
I need not fear to forget its elements : each of these will take its right 
place of its own accord without making any call on my memory. ' ° 

Poincar^ next discusses the nature of the intellectual gift distinguish- 
ing those who can enrich knowledge with new and fertile ideas of 
discovery. Mathematical invention, according to him, does not consist 
in forming new combinations of known mathematical entities, because 
the number of combinations one could form are infinite, and most of 
them would possess no interest whatever. Inventing consists, on the 
contrary, in excluding useless combinations, and therefore : ' To invent 
is to select — to choose.' . . . 'The expression "choose" perhaps 
requires qualifying, because it recalls a buyer to whom one 
offers a large number of samples which he examines before making his 
choice. In our case the samples would be so numerous that a life- 
time would not suffice to complete the examination. That is not the 
way things are done. The sterile combinations do not even present them- 
selves to the mind of the inventor, and those which may momentarily 
enter his consciousness, only to be rejected, partake something of the 
character of useful combinations. The inventor is therefore to be 
compared with an examiner who has only to deal with candidates who 
have already passed a previous test of competence. ' 

All those who have attempted to add something to knowledge must 
recognize that there is a profound truth in these remarks. New ideas 
may float across our consciousness, but, selecting the wrong ones for 
more detailed study, we waste our time fruitlessly. We are bewildered 
,by the multitude of roads which open out before us, and, like Poincar6 

* Science e( Methode, pp. 46 and 47. 



8 president's address. 

when he tries to play chess, lose the game because we make the wrong 
move. Do we not all remember how, after the announcement of a 
new fact or generalization, there are always many who claim to have 
had, and perhaps vaguely expressed, the same idea ? They put it down 
to bad luck that they have not pursued it, but they have failed precisely 
in what, accoi'ding to Poincar^, is the essence of inventive power. It 
may be bad luck not to have had a good idea, but to have had it and 
failed to appreciate its importance is downright incapacity. 

An objection may be raised on the ground that before a selection can 
be made the ideas themselves must appear, and that, even should they 
arrive in sufficient numbers, the right one may not be among them. It 
may even be argued that Poincar6 gives his case away by saying that 
' the sterile combinations do not even present themselves to the mind of 
the inventor, ' expressing in a negative form what may be the essence of 
the matter. Moreover, a fertile mind like that of Poincar^ would be apt 
to place too low a value on his own exceptional 'gifts. Nevei-theless, 
if Poincar^'s more detailed exposition be read attentively, and more 
especially the description of how the discoveries which made him 
famous among mathematicians originated in his mind, it will be found 
that his judgment is well considered and should not be lightly set 
aside. New ideas seldom are born out of nothing. They most fre- 
quently are based on analogies, or the recollection of a sequence of 
thoughts suggested by a different branch of the subject, or perhaps by a 
different subject altogether. It is here that the memory comes in, which 
is not a memory of detail, but a memory of premises with their con- 
clusions, detached from the particular case to which they were originally 
applied. Before we pronounce an adverse opinion on Poincar6's judg- 
ment, we must therefore investigate what constitutes novelty in a new 
idea ; but the subject is too vast to be dealt with here, nor can I attempt 
to discuss whether an essential distinction exists between mathematical 
invention and that more practical form of invention with which, for 
instance, the engineer has to deal. 

If Poincar^, by this introspective analysis of his own powers, has 
dimmed the aureole which, in the eyes of the public, surrounds the 
mathematician's head, he removes it altogether by his definition of 
mathematics. According to him, ' mathematics is the art of calling two 
different things by the same name. ' It would take me too far were I 
to try to explain the deep truth expressed in this apparently flippant 
form: physicists, at any rate, will remember the revolution created in 
the fundamental outlook of science by the application of the term 
' energy ' to the two quite distinct conceptions involved in its sub- 
divisions into potential and kinetic energy. 

Enough has been said to show that the peculiar powers necessary 



president's address. 9 

for the study of one of the most abstruse branches of knowledge may- 
be expressed in terms which bring them down to the level at which 
comparison with other subjects is possible. Applying the same 
reasoning to other occupations, the same conclusion is inevitable. The 
commercial man, the politician, and the artist must all possess the type 
of memory best suited to concentrate in the field of mental vision 
their own experiences as well as what they have learned from the 
experience of others ; and, further, they must have the power of select- 
ing out of a multitude of possible lines of action the one that leads to 
success : it is this power which Poincare calls the inventive faculty. 

The argument must not be pushed too far, as it would be absurd to 
affirm that all differences in the capability of deahng successfully with 
the peculiar problems that occur in the various professions may be 
reduced to peculiarities of memory. I do not even wish to assert that 
Poincar^'s conclusions should be accepted without qualification in the 
special case discussed by him. What is essential, to my mind, is to 
treat the question seriously, and to dismiss the vague generalities 
which, by drawing an artificial barrier between different groups of 
professions, try to cure real or imaginary defects through plausible 
though quite illusory remedies. All these recommendations are based on 
the fallacy that special gifts are associated with different occupations. 
Sometimes we are recommended to hand over the affairs of the nation 
to men of business; sometimes we are told that salvation can only 
be found in scientific methods— what is a man of business, and what is a 
scientific method ? If you define a man of business to Ibe one capable of 
managing large and complicated transactions, the inference becomes self- 
evident; but if it be asserted that only the specialized training in com- 
mercial transactions can develop the requisite faculties, the only proof of 
the claim^ that could be valid would be the one that would show that the 
great majority of successful statesmen, or political leaders, owed their 
success to their commercial experience. On the other hand, every 
method that leads to a correct result must be called a scientific method, 
and what requires substantiating is that scientific training is better than 
other training for discovering the correct method. This proof, as well as 
the other, has not been, and, I think, cannot be, given. When, there- 
fore, one man calls for the conduct of affairs ' on business lines ' and the 
other clamours for scientific methods, they either want the same thing or 
they talk nonsense. The v,'eak point of these assertions contrasting 
different classes of human efforts is that each class selects its own 
strongest men for comparison with the weakest on the other side. 
Where technical knowledge is required, the specialist should be con- 
sulted, but in questions of general policy he is seldom the best guide. 
The most fatal distinction that can be made is the one which brings 



10 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

men of theory into opposition to men of practice, without regard to the 
obvious truth that nothing of value is ever done whicli does not involve 
both theory and practice. While theory is sometimes overbearing and 
irritating, there are among those who jeer at it, at any rate, a few to 
whom Disraeli's definition applies: the practical man is the man who 
practises the errors of his forefathers. With refined cruelty Nemesis 
infects us with the disease most nearly akin to that which it pleases 
us to detect in others. It is the most dogmatic of dogmatics who tirades 
against dogma, and only the most hopeless of theorists can declare that 
a thing may be right in theory and wrong in practice. 

Why does a theory ever fail, though it may be sound in reasoning? 
It can only do so because every problem involves a much larger number 
of conditions than those which the investigator can take into account. 
He therefore rejects those which he believes to be unessential, and if 
his judgment is at fault he goes wrong. But the practical man will 
often fail for the same reason. When not supported by theoretical 
knowledge he generalizes the result of an observation or experiment, 
applying it to cases where the result is determined by an altogether 
different set of conditions. To be infallible the theorist would have 
to take account of an infinite number of circumstances, and his calcula- 
tions would become unmanageable, while the experimenter would have 
to perform an infinite number of experiments, and both would only 
be able to draw correct conclusions after an infinite lapse of time. 
They have to trust their intuition in selecting what can be omitted with 
impunity, and, if they fail, it is mainly due to the same defect of 
judgment. And so it is in all professions: failure results from the 
omission of essential considerations which change the venue of the 
problem. 

Though theory and practice can only come into opposition when one 
of them is at fault, there is undoubtedly a contrast of character and 
temperament between those who incline more towards the one and 
those who prefer the other aspect: some like a solitary life at the 
desk, while others enjoy being brought into contact with their fellows. 
There have at all times been men predestined by nature to be leaders, 
and leadership is required in all branches of knowledge — the theoretical 
as well as the more active pursuits; but we must distrust a man's 
own estimate of his power to convert his thoughts into acts. In 
the ordinary affairs of life a man who calls himself a man of action 
is frequently only one who cannot give any reasons for his actions. 
To claim that title justly a man must act deliberately, have confidence 
in his own judgment, sufficient tenacity of purpose to carry it through, 
and sufficient courage to run the unavoidable risks of possible failure. 
These risks may be trivial or they may be all-important. They mav 



^resident's address. -ll 

affect the reputation of one unit of creation or involve the whole life 
of a nation, and according to the greatness of the issue we shall honour 
the man who, having taken the risk, succeeds. But whether the scale 
be microscopic or interstellar, the essence of the faculty of blending 
theory and practice is the same, and both men of books and men of 
action are to be found in the philosopher's study and the laboratoiy, 
as well as in the workshop or on the battlefield. Modern science 
began, not at the date of this or that discovery, but on the day when 
Galileo decided t-o publish his Dialogues m the language of his nation. 
This was a deliberate act destined to change the whole aspect of science, 
which, ceasing to be the occupation of a privileged class, became the 
property of the community. Can you, therefore, deny the claim of 
being a man of action to Galileo, can you deny it to Pasteur, Kelvin, 
Lister, and a host of others? There are, no doubt, philosophers who 
cannot manage even their own affairs, and whom it would be correct 
to call pure theorists, but that proves nothing, because their defect 
makes them worse philosophers as well as worse citizens. 

In his Presidential Address, delivered to this Association in 1899, 
Sir Michael Foster summarized the essential features of the scientific 
mind. Above all other things he considered that its nature should be 
such as to vibrate in unison with what it is in search of ; further, it 
must possess alertness, and finally moral courage. Yet after enumerat- 
ing these qualities, he arrives at the same result which I have tried to 
place before you, that there are no special peculiarities inherent in the 
scientific mind, and he expresses this conclusion in the following words : 
' But, I hear some one say, these qualities are not the peculiar attri- 
butes of the man of science, they may be recognized as belonging to 
almost everyone who has commanded or deserved success, whatever 
may have been his walk in life. That is so. That is exactly what I 
would desire to insist, that the men of science have no peculiar virtues, 
no special powers. They are ordinary men, their characters are 
common, even commonplace. Science, as Huxley said, is organized 
common-sense, and men of science are common men drilled in the 
ways of common-sense.' 

This saying of Huxley's has been repeated so often that one 
almost wishes it were true, but unfortunately I cannot find a 
definition of common-sense that fits the phrase. Sometimes the word 
is used as if it were identical with uncommon sense, sometimes as if it 
were the same thing as common nonseyise. Often it means untrained 
intelligence, and in its best aspect it is, I think, that faculty which 
recognizes that the obvious solution of a problem is frequently the right 
one. "When, for instance, I see, during a total solar eclipse, red flames 
.shooting out from the edge of the sun, the obvious explanation is that 



12 president's address. 

these are real phenomena caused by masses of glowing vapours ejected 
from the sun; and when a learned friend tells me that all this is an 
optical illusion due to anomalous refraction, I object on the ground that 
the explanation violates my common-sense. He replies by giving me 
the reasons which have led liim to his conclusions, and, though I still 
believe that I am right, I have to meet him with a more substantial 
reply than an appeal to my own convictions. Against a solid argument 
common-sense has no power and must remain a useful but fallible 
guide which both leads and misleads all classes of the community 
ahke.® 

The difficulties of assigning special intellectual quahties to groups 
of men within one country are increased when we compare different 
nations with each other. Some of the so-called national, or more pro- 
perly speaking racial, characteristics are undoubtedly regulated by the 
laws of heredity, but there are many others which seem to depend 
entirely on education and training; and, if I select one as an example, 
it is because it figures so largely in public discussions at the present 
moment. I refer to that expedient for combining individual efforts 
which goes by the name of organization. An efficient organization 
requires a head that directs and a body that obeys ; it works mainly 
through discipline, which is its most essential attribute. Every in- 
stitution, every factory, every business establishment is a complicated 
organism, and no country ever came to prominence in any walk of life 
unless it possessed the ability to provide for the efficient working of such 
organisms. To say that a nation which has acquired and maintained an 
Empire, and which conducts a large trade in every part of the world, is 
deficient in organizing power is therefore an absurdity. Much of the 
current self-depreciation in this I'espect is due to confusing a true 
organization with that modification of it which to a great extent 
casts aside discipline and substitutes co-operation. Though much may 
be accomplished by co-operation, it is full of danger in an emergency, 
for it can only work if it be loyally adhered to ; otherwise it resembles 
a six-cylinder motor in which every sparking-plug is allowed to fix its 
own time of firing. Things go well so long as the plugs agree; but 
there is nearly always one among them that persists in taking an 
independent course and, when the machine stops, complains that the 
driver is inefficient. The cry for organization, justifiable as it no doubt 
often is, resolves itself, therefore, into a cry for increased discipline, 
by which I do not mean the discipline enforced at the point of the 
bayonet, but that accepted by the individual who voluntarily subor- 

^ Since writing the above, I find on reading Professor J. A. Thomson's ' Intro- 
duction to Science' a similar criticism of iHuxley's dictum. Frof. Thomson'? 
general conclusions are not, however, in agreement with those here advocated. 



president's address. 13 

dinates his personal convictions to the will of a pi-operly constituted 
authority. This discipline is not an inborn quality which belongs more 
to one nation than to another ; it is acquired by education and training. 
In an emergency it is essential to success, but if it be made the guiding 
principle of a nation's activity, it carries dangers with it which are 
greater than the benefits confeiTed by the increased facility for advance 
in some directions. 

If there be no fundamental difference in the mental qualifications 
which lead to success in our different occupations, there is also none 
in the ideals which move us in childhood, maintain us through the 
difficulties of our manhood, and give us peace in old age. I am not 
speaking now of those ideals which may simultaneously incite a whole 
nation to combined action through religious fervour or ambition of 
power, but I am speaking of those more individual ideals which make 
us choose our professions and give us pleasure in the performance of 
our duties. 

Why does a scientific man find satisfaction in studying Nature ? 

Let me once more quote Poincar^ ' : — 

' The student does not study Nature because that study is useful, 
but because it gives him pleasure, and it gives him pleasure because 
Nature is beautiful; if it were not beautiful it would not be worth 
knowing and life would not be worth living. I am not speaking, be it 
understood, of the beauty of its outward appearance ; not that I despise 
it — far from it — but it has nothing to do with science : I mean that more 
intimate beauty which depends on the harmony in the order of the 
component parts of Nature. This is the beauty which a pure intelli- 
gence can appreciate and which gives substance and form to the 
scintillating impressions that charm our senses. Without this intellec- 
tual support the beauty of the fugitive dreams inspired by sensual 
impressions could only be imperfect, because it would be indecisive 
and always vanishing. It is this intellectual and self-sufficing beauty, 
perhaps more than the future welfare of humanity, that impels the 
scientific man to condemn himself to long and tedious studies. And the 
same search for the sense of harmony in the world leads us to select 
the facts which can most suitably enhance it, just as the artist 
chooses among the features of his model those that make the 
portrait and give it character and life. There need be no fear that this 
instinctive and unconscious motive should tempt the man of scienc-6 
away from the truth, for the real world is far more beautiful than any 
vision of his dream.s. The greatest artists that ever lived — the Greeks — 
constructed a heaven ; yet how paltry that heaven is compared to ours ! 
And it is because simplicity and grandeur are beautiful that we select 

Loc. cit. p. 15. 



14 president's address. 

by preference the simplest and grandest facts, and find our highest 
pleasure, sometimes in following the gigantic orbits of the stars, some- 
times in the microscopic study of that minuteness which also is a 
grandeur, and sometimes in piercing the secrets of geological times 
which attract us because they ai'e remote. And we see that the cult of 
the beautiful guides us to the same goal as the study of the useful. ' 

' Whence comes this harmony ? Is it that things that appear to us 
as beautiful are simply those which adapt themselves best to our intelli- 
gence, and are therefore the tools which that intelligence handles most 
easily ; or is it all the play of evolution and natural selection ? In that 
case, those races only survived whose ideals best conformed with their 
interests, and while all nations pursued their ideals without regard to 
consequences, some were led to perdition and others achieved an 
empire. One is tempted to believe that such has been the course of 
history, and that the Greeks triumphed over the barbarians, and 
Europe, inheritor of Greek thought, rules the world, because the 
savages cared only for the sensual enjoyment of garish colours and the 
blatant noise of the drum, while the Greeks loved the intellectual 
beauty which is hidden beneath the visible beauty. It is that higher 
beauty which produces a clear and strong intelligence. ' If the mathe- 
matician's imagination is fired by the beauty and symmetry of his 
methods, if the moving spring of his action is identical with that of the 
artist, how much truer is this of the man of science who tries by well- 
designed experiments to reveal the hidden harmonies of Nature? Nor 
would it be difficult, I think, to trace the gratification inhei'ent in the 
successful accomplishments of other intellectual pursuits to the same 
source. 

Though Poincare was, I believe, the first to lay stress on the 
connexion between the search for the beautiful and the achievement 
of the useful, the iiesthetic value of the study of science had previously 
been pointed out, and well illustrated, by Karl Pearson in his ' Grammar 
of Science.' As expressed by him: ' it is this continual gratification 
of the aesthetic judgment which is one of the chief delights of pure 
science.' Before we advance, however, any special claim for the 
pursuit of science based on these considerations, we must pause to think 
whether they do not equally apply to other studies or occupations. For 
this purpose, the nature of the gesthetic enjoyment involved must be 
reraem-bered. We do not mean by it, the pleasure we feel in the mere 
contemplation of an impressive landscape or natural beauty, but rather 
the enjoyment experienced on looking at a picture which, independently 
of v/hat it may be trying to imitate, has a definite beauty due to 
its contrast of colours or well-balanced arrangement. We have in one 
case a number of pigments covering a space of two dimensions, and in 



president's address. 15 

the other the natural object in three dimensions made up of entirely 
different materials and showing an infinite variety of detail and appear- 
ance. By itself alone either a mere photographic reproduction, or a 
geometrical arrangement of colour and line, leaves most of us cold; 
though both have their own particular beauty, the art consists in bring- 
ing them into connexion. Bearing in mind the aesthetic value of the 
relationship of the work of our brain or hand to external facts or 
appearances, it might easily be shown that what has been said of 
science equally applies to other studies, such as history or literature. 
We may even go further, and say. that any occupation whatever, from 
which we can derive an intellectual pleasure, must possess to a greater 
or smaller degree the elements of combining the useful with the 
beautiful. 

In order to trace in detail the part played by purely emotional 
instincts in directing the course of our lives, we should have to study 
the causes which influence a cliild, free to select his future pro- 
fession. Having eliminated secondary effects, such as early associations, 
or the personal influence of an inspiring teacher, we should probably 
be brought to a standstill by the dearth of material at our disposal, or 
led into error by taking our own individual recollections as typical. 
Nevertheless it is only through the record of each man's experience 
that we may hope to arrive at a result. If every man who has reached 
a certain recognized position in his own subject — it need not be pre- 
eminence — would write down his recollections of what led him to 
make the choice of his profession, we might hope to obtain facts on 
\\hich a useful psychological study might be based. Scientific men 
as a class are not modest, but they share with other classes the re- 
luctance to speak of their early life, owing to a certain shyness to 
disclose early ambitions which have not been realized. It requires 
courage to overcome that shyness, but I think that we need feel no 
shame in revealing the dreams of our childhood and holding fast to them 
despite the bondage of our weakness, despite the strife ending so often 
in defeat, despite all the obstacles which the struggle for existence has 
placed in our path. In some form they should persist throughout our 
lives and sustain us in our old age. 

But the account of our early life should be simple, detached from 
any motives of self-depreciation or self-assertion, and free from any 
desire to push any particular moral or psychological theory. We want to 
trace the dawn of ambition, the first glimmering in the child's mind 
that there is something that he can do better than his fellows, and 
reminiscences of early likes and dislikes which, though apparently 
disconnected from maturer tendencies, may serve as indications of a 
deep-seated purpose in life. It may be difficult to resist the temptation 



16 president's address. 

of trying to justify one's reputation in the eyes of the world; but it is 
worth making the effort. The only example that I know of such an 
autobiographical sketch is that of Darwin, which is contained in his 
' Life and Letters,' published by his son. Sir Francis Darwin. 

The ambition of a child to be better, cleverer, or more beautiful 
than its fellows is in the main, I thmk, a wish to please and to be 
praised. As the child grows up, the ambition becomes more definite. 
It is not a sordid ambition for ultimate wealth or power, nor is it an 
altruistic ambition to do good for the sake of doing good. Occasionally 
it takes the form confessed to by Darwin, when he says : ' As a child 
I was much given to inventing deliberate falsehoods, and this was 
always done for the sake of causing excitement. ' This desire to be 
conspicuous was, in Darwin's case, consistent with extreme modesty, 
amounting almost to a want of confidence in himself, as appears in 
this passage : ' I remember one of my sporting friends. Turner, who 
saw me at work with my beetles, saying that I should some day be a 
Fellow of the Eoyal Society, and this notion seemed to me to be pre- 
posterous.' 

We next come to the stage where a child is attracted by one subject 
more than another, and, if his choice be free, will select it for his life's 
career. What guides him in this choice? If it be said that a boy 
gravitates towards that subject which he finds easiest, we are led to the 
further question why does he find it easiest? It is on this point that 
more information is required, but I am inclined to answer in accordance 
with Poincare's views that it is because its particular beauty appeals 
most strongly to his emotional senses. In questions of this kind every- 
one must form his own conclusions according to his personal recollec- 
tions, and these convince me that the emotional factor appears already 
at an early age. It is the strong attraction towards particular forms 
of reasoning, more perhaps even than the facility with which reasoning 
comes, that carries us over the initial difficulties and the drudgery that 
must accompany every serious study. 

I have already alluded to the different tendencies of individuals 
either to prefer solitary reflexion or to seek companionship. Almost 
in every profession we find men of both types. Darwin's autobiography 
furnishes a good example of the man who prefers to learn through 
quiet reading rather than through lectures, but to many men of science 
the spoken word is inspuing and contact with congenial minds almost a 
necessity. 

From our present point of view the most interesting passages in 
Darwin's autobiography are those indicating the aesthetic feeling which, 
like Poincare, he connects with scientific research. Referring to his 
early studies we find this passage : ' I was taught by a private tutor 



president's address. 17 

and I distinctly remember the intense satisfaction which the clear 
geometrical proofs gave me. I remember with equal distinctness the 
delight which my uncle gave me by explaining the principle of the 
vernier of a barometer. ' To a man who apparently had no pronounced 
facility of mastering mathematical difficulties this feeling of satisfaction 
is especially remarkable. The combinatioa of scientific ability with 
leanings either to music, or art, or poetry, is very common, and 
examples are to be found in almost every biography of men of science. 
It is difficult indeed to name an eminent scientific man who has not 
strong leanings towards some artistic recreation : we find the poetic vein 
in Maxwell and Sylvester, the musical talent in Helmholtz and 
Rayleigh, and the enthusiastic though amateurish pictorial efforts of 
less important men. That the similarities are to be found also in 
lemperament may be noticed on reading Arnold Bennett's article on 
' The Artist and the Public,' * where many passages will be seen to be 
applicable to students of science as well as to writers of fiction. 

If we look for distinctions between different individuals, we may 
find one in their leanings either towards the larger aspects of a question 
or the microscopic study of detail. The power of focussing simul- 
taneously the wider view and the minute observation is perhaps the 
most characteristic attribute of those who reach the highest eminence 
in any profession, but the great majority of men have a notable predilec- 
tion for the one or other side. Though it is indispensable for a scientific 
man to study the details of the particular problem he is trying to solve, 
there are many who will lose interest in it as soon as they believe they 
can see a clear way through the difficulties without following up their 
solution to its utmost limits. To them detail, as such, has no interest, 
and they will open and shut a door a hundred times a day without being 
even tempted to inquire into the inner working of the lock and latch. 

There is only one feature in the operation of the intelligence by 
means of which a sharp division may possibly be drawn between brain- 
workers showing special capabilities in different subjects. In some per- 
sons thought attaches itself mainly to language, in others to visualised 
images, and herein lies perhaps the distinction between the literary 
and scientific gift. Those who, owing to external cii'cumstances, have 
resided in different countries are sometimes asked in what language 
they think. Speaking for myself, I have always been obliged to answer 
that, so far as I can tell, thought is not connected with any language 
at all. The planning of an experiment or even the critical examina- 
tion of a theory is to me entirely a matter of mental imagery, and hence 
the experience, which I think many scientific men must have shared, 
that the conversion of thought into language, which is necessary when 

* English Review, October 1913. 
1915. c 



18 president's address. 

we wish to communicate its results to others, presents not only the 
ordinary difficulties of translation but reveals faults in the perfection 
or sequence of the images. Only when tiie logic of words finally 
coincides with the logic of images do we attain that feeling of con- 
fidence which makes us certain that our results are correct. 

A more detailed examination of the instinctive predilections of a 
child would, I think, confirm Poincar^'s conclusion that a decided pre- 
ference for one subject is in the main due to an unconscious appeal lo 
his emotions. It should be remembered, however, that the second step 
of Poincar^'s philosophy is as important as the first. The mere 
emotional impulse would die out quickly, if it were not supplemented 
by the gratification experienced on discovering that the .=iearch for 
the beautiful leads us to results which satisfy our intellect as well as 
our emotions. There may still be bifurcations in the second portion of 
the road. Some may rest content with achieving something that 
supplies the material needs of humanity, others may be inspired to 
search for the deeper meaning of our existence. 

There remains therefore some justification for the question why 
we persist in studying science apart from the mere intellectual pleasure 
it gives us. It was once a popular fallacy to assume that the laws oi 
Nature constituted an explanation of the phenomena to which they 
applied, and people then attached importance to the belief that 
we could gauge the mind of the Creator by means of the laws which 
govern the material world, just as we might trace the purpose of a 
human legislator in an Act of Parliament. As this archaic interpreta- 
tion was abandoned, philosophers went, in accordance with what 
politicians call the swing of the pendulum, to the other extreme. We 
can explain nothing, they said — in fact, we can know nothing — all we 
can do is to record facts. This modesty was impressive and it became 
popular. I know, at any rate, one scientific man who has acquired a great 
reputation for wisdom by repeating sufficiently often that he knows 
nothing, and, though his judgment may be true, this frame of mind is 
not inspiring. As a corr^tive to the older visionary claims, which centred 
round the meaning of the word ' explain,' the view that the first task 
of science is to record facts has no doubt had a good influence. 
Kirchhoff laid it down definitely that the object of science is to describe 
Nature, but he did not thereby mean that it should be confined to 
recording detached observations : this would be the dullest and most 
unscientific procedure. Description, in the sense in which Kirchhoff 
uses it, consists in forming a comprehensive statement gathering together 
what, till then, was only a disconnected jumble of facts. Thus the 
apparently quite irregular motions of the planets as observed from 
tlie earth were first collected in tabular form. This was a necessary 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 



19 



i'-reliminary but was not in liaM a scientilic investigation. Next came 
Kepler, who by means of three laws summed up the facts in their 
main outlines, and the description then took a more refined form, sub- 
stituting half a page of printing for volumes of observations. Finally, 
Newton succeeded in predicting the planetary movements on the 
assumption of a gravitational attraction 'between all elements of matter. 
According to Kirchhoff, the chief merit of this discovery would lie 
in its condensing Kepler's three laws into one hypothesis. This point 
of view is not necessarily opposed to that of Poincare, because it is 
exactly the simplicity of Newton's explanation that appeals most 
strongly to our esthetic sense, but there is an important difference 
in the manner of expression, for however beautiful an idea may be, it 
loses its effect by being placed before us in an unattractive form. 
This criticism also apphes to Mach, according to whom the object of 
science is to economize thought, just as it is the object of a machine 
to economize effort. Logically, this definition is justified, and it may 
be the best that can be given, if we prefer using a technical expression 
to confessing an emotional feeling. But why should we do so? Is it 
not better to recognize that human intelligence is affected fcy sentiment 
as much as by reason, and is it not a mistake for scientific men to 
dissociate themselves from the rest of humanity, Tay placing their 
motives on a different, and, at the best, only superficially higher, 
level? When an adventurous spirit, for instance, desires to organize 
an expedition to unknown regions of the world, we tiy to induce 
our governments to provide the necessary funds by persuading them, 
and incidentally ourselves, that we do so because important scientific 
results may be expected from the expedition. This may actually 
be the case, but we are mainly affected by the same motives as 
the rest of the community : if the tinith be told, we are as curious 
as others to know what every corner of the earth looks like, and we 
join them in wishing to encourage an enterprise requiring perseverance 
and involving danger. 

I fully I'ealise that the wish to justify one's own work in the eyes 
of the world will always lead to fresh attempts to find a formula 
expressing the objects which we desire to attain. Enough, however, 
has been said to show that the definition must take account of senti- 
ment, without insisting too much upon it ; nor can we hope, in view of 
the variety of intellectual and emotional pleasures wliich combine to 
create the charm of science, to include all points of view, but if I were 
foi'ced to make a choice I should say that the object of science is to 
predict the future. The wish to know what lies before us is one of the 
oldest and most enduring desires of human nature ; often, no doubt, it has 
degenerated and given rise to perverted and ignoble longings, but its 

c 2 



20 president's address. 

accomplishment, when it can be achieved by legitimate inquiry, is a 
source of the purest and most satisfying enjoyment that science can 
give. "We feel that enjoyment each time we repeat an old and perhaps 
hackneyed experiment. The result is known beforehand, but be it 
only that we expect the colour of a chemical precipitate to be green 
or yellow, be it only that we expect a spot of light to move to the right 
or left, there is always a little tremor of excitement at the critical 
moment and a satisfying feeling of pleasure when our expectation has 
been realized. That pleasure is, I think, enhanced when the experi- 
ment is not of our own making but takes place uncontrolled by human 
power. In one of Heine's little verses he makes light of the tears of 
a young lady who is moved by the setting sun. ' Be of good cheer,' 
the poet consoles her, ' this is only the ordinary succession of events : 
the sun sets in the evening and rises in the morning.' If Heine had 
been a man of science, he would have known that the lady's tears 
found a higher justification in the thought of the immutable and inexor- 
able regularity of the sun's rising and setting than in the fugitive 
colour impression of his descent below the horizon, and that her 
emotions ought to be intensified rather than allayed by the thought of 
his resurrection in the morning. There are in everybody's life a few 
unforgettable moments which, at quite unexpected times, vividly rise 
in his mind, and there are probably some in this Hall who have 
experienced such moments at the beginning of a total eclipse of the 
sun. They have probably travelled far, and gone through months of 
preparation, for an event which only lasts a few minutes. The time 
of first contact is approaching, in a few seconds the moon is about to 
make its first incision in the solar disc, and now the observer's 
thoughts come crowding together. What if there were a mistake in 
t)ur calculations? What if we had chosen a spot a few miles too far 
north or too far south ? What if the laws of gravitation were ever so 
little at fault? — But now at the predicted time, at the very spot so 
anxiously watched, the dark moon becomes visible, and' the feeling 
of relief experienced concentrates into one tense instant all the grati- 
tude we owe those who have given precision to the calculations of 
celestial movements and handed us the key of prediction in a simple law 
which can be written down in two lines. It is this simplicity of the law 
of gravitation, and its accuracy, which some day may show limitations, 
but has hitherto withstood all tests, that gives to Astronomy its pre- 
eminence over all sciences. 

Indeed, if we classify the different sections into which science may 
be divided, I think it may be said that their aim, in so far as it is not 
purely utilitarian, is always either historic or prophetic; and to the 
mathematician, history is only prophecy pursued in the negative direc- 



president's address. 21 

tion. It is no argument against my definition of the objects of 
science, that a large section of its subdivisions has been, and to some 
extent still is, mainly occupied with the discovery and classification of 
facts; because such classification can only be a first step, preparing the 
way for a correlation into which the element of time must enter, and 
which therefore ultimately must depend either on history or prophecy. 

Latterly men of science, and in particular physicists, have given 
increased attention to the intrinsic meaning of the concepts by means 
of which we express the facts of Nature. Everything — who can deny 
it?- -is ultimately reduced to sense impressions, and it has therefore 
been asserted that science is the study of the mind rather than of the 
outside world, the very existence of which may be denied. The 
physicist has thus invaded the realm of philosophy and metaphysics, 
and even claims that kingdom as his own. Two effects of these efforts, 
a paralyzing pessimism and an obscure vagueness of expression, if not 
of thought, seriously threatened a few years ago to retard the healthy 
progress of the study of Nature. If the outside world were only a dream, 
if we never could know what really lies behind it, the incentive which 
has moved those whose names stand out as landmarks in science is 
destroyed, and it is replaced by what? By a formula which only 
appeals to a few spirits entirely detached from the world in which they 
live. Metaphysicians and physicists will continue to look upon science 
from different points of view, and need not resent mutual criticisms of 
each other's methods or conclusions. For we must remember that 
most of the good that is done in this world is done by meddling with 
other people's affairs, and though the interference is always irritating 
and frequently futile, it proves after all that our interests converge 
towards a common centre. 

According to Poincar^, the pleasure which the study of science 
confers consists in its power of uniting the beautiful with the useful; 
but it would be wrong to adopt this formula as a definition of the object 
of science, because it applies with equal force to all human studies. 
[ go further, and say that the combination of the search for the beauti- 
ful with the achievement of the useful is the common interest of science 
and humanity. Some of us may tend more in one direction, some in 
another, but there must always remain a feeling of imperfection and 
only partial satisfaction unless we can unite the two fundamental 
desires of human nature. 

I have warned you at the beginning of this discourse not to beat 
the utilitarian drum too loudly, and I have laid stress throughout on 
the idealistic side, though the most compelling events of the moment 
seem to drive us in the other direction, and the near future will press 
the needs of material prosperity strongly upon us. I must guard 



22 president's address, 

myself, therefore, against one criticism which the trend of my remarks 
may invite. At times, when the struggle for existence keeps masses 
in permanent bondage, in a society in which a multitude of men and 
women have to face starvation, and when unfortunate, though purely 
accidental, suiTOundings in childhood drive the weak into misery, is it 
not futile to speak of jBsthetic motives? Am I not, while endeavouring 
to find a common bond between all sections of the community, in reality 
drawing a ring round a small and privileged leisured class, telling them 
these enjoyments are for you and for you alone ? Should I not have 
found a surer ground for the claims of science in its daily increasing 
necessity for the success of ouv manufactures and commerce? 

I have said nothing to indicate that I do not put the highest value 
on this important function of science, which finds its noblest task 
in surrendering the richness of its achievements to the use of humanity. 
But I must ask you to reflect whether the achievement of wealth and 
power, to the exclusion of higher aims, can lead to more than a super- 
ficial prosperity, which passes away because it carries the virus of 
its own doom within it. Do we not find in the worship of material 
success the seed of the pernicious ambition which has maddened a nation, 
and plunged Europe into war? Is this contempt for all idealistic 
purposes not responsible for the mischievous doctrine that the power 
to possess confers the right to possess, and that possession is desirable 
in itself without regard to the use which is made of it? I must 
therefore insist that if we delight in enlisting the wealth accu- 
mulated in the earth, and all the power stored in the orbs of 
heaven, or in the orbits of atomic structure, it should not be 
because we place material wealth above intellectual enjoyment, 
but rather because we experience a double pleasure if the efforts of 
the mind contribute to the welfai'e of the nation, which includes spiritual 
as well as material prosperity. When Joule taught us to utilize the 
powers at our disposal to the best advantage he did it not — and his 
whole life is a proof of it — to increase either his own wealth or that 
of the nation, but because, brought up in commercial life and deeply 
imbued with the deep insight and genius of science, he found his 
greatest delight in that very combination of aesthetic satisfaction and 
useful achievement which Poincar^ has so well described. And again, 
when another of our fellow-citizens, Henry Wilde, showed how elec- 
trical power can be accumulated until it became an efficient instrument 
for the economic transmission of work, he found his inspiration in the 
intellectual gratification it gave him, rather than in the expectation of 
material gain. I am drawing no ring round a privileged class, but 
maintain that the hunger for intellectual enjoyment is universal, and 
urge that everybody should be given the opportunitv and leisure of 



president's address. 23 

appeasing it. The duty to work, the right to Hve, and the leisure to 
think are the three prime necessities of our existence, and when one of 
them fails we only live an incomplete life. 

I should have no difficulty in illustrating by examples, drawn from 
personal experience, the power which the revelations of science can 
exert over a community steeped in the petty conflicts of ordinary life; 
but I must bring these remarks to a conclusion, and content myself 
with the account of one incident. 

An American friend, who possessed a powerful telescope, one 
night received the visit of an ardent politician. It was the time of a 
Presidential election, Bryan and Taft being the opposing candidates, 
and feeling ran high. After looking at clusters of stars and other 
celestial objects, and having received answers to his various questions, 
the visitor turned to my friend : 

' And all these stars I see,' he asked, 'what space in the heaven 
do they occupy? ' 

' About the area of the moon. ' 

' And you tell me that every one of them is a sun like our own ? ' 

•Yes.' 

' And that each of them may have a number of planets circulating 
round them like our sun ? ' 

' Yes. ' 

' And that there may be life on each of these planets? ' 
We cannot tell for certain, but it is quite possible that there may 
be life on many of them.' 

And after pondering for some time, the politician rose and said: 
' It does not matter after all whether Taft or Bryan gets in.' 

Happy were the times when it could be said with truth that the 
strife of politics counted as nothing before the silent display of the 
heavens. Mightier issues are at stake to-day : in the struggle which 
convulses the world, all intellectual pursuits are vitally affected, and 
Science gladly gives the power she wields to the service of the State. 
Sorrowfully she covers her face because that power, acquired through 
the peaceful efforts of the sons of all nations, was never meant 
for death and destruction; gladly she helps, because a war wantonly 
provoked threatens civilization, and only through victory shall we 
achieve a peace in which once more Science can hold up her head, proud 
of her strength to preserve the intellectual freedom which is worth 
more than material prosperity, to defeat the spirit of evil that destroys 
the sense of brotherhood among nations, and to spread the love of truth. 




EEPOETS 



ON THE 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The Calculation of Mathematical Tables. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill (Chairman} , 
Professor J. W. Nicttolson (Secretary), Dr. J. K. Airey, 
Mr. T. W. Chaundv, Mr. A. T. Doodson, Professor L. N. 
G. FiLON, Sir George Greenhill, Professors E. W. Hobson, 
Alfred Lodge, A. E. H. Love, a)id H. M. Macdonald, 
Mr. H. G. Savtdge, and Professor A. G. Webster. 

Op the grant of 301. given to the Committee, 251. has been expended on 
the special purposes for which it was allocated — further calculations in 
connection with the I, Y, and K Bessel functions, the particular calcula- 
tions selected being in accordance with the frequency of requests for 
these Tables received by the Secretary from workers in physical science 
and engineering. The order of calculation is being arranged in accord- 
ance with the real urgency of the Tables, and the stage is now coming 
in sight at which the Committee will bo able, as authorised already by 
the Association at the appropriate time,, to publish, under the auspices 
of the Association, a volume of fairly complete Tables of the more im- 
portant transcendental functions. 

The remaining 51. of the grant has been returned to the Association, 
but the Committee desires to make application for it again, and also 
for the continuance of the grant of SOI. for the ensuing year. The un- 
usual circumstances of the past year temporarily hindered the work, 
so that the Tables for which this particular part of the grant was estimated 
are still incomplete, but they are well in hand, and some expense has 
already been incurred in connection with them. 

The present Report contains some Tables of which Dr. Airey has 
been in charge, divided into three sections : (1) The Bessel functions 
J„{x) for various orders and arguments which will be apparent from the 
Tables themselves, their most valuable portions being the entries for 
which order and argument are approximately the same. These Tables 
indicate the characteristic tendency towards zero when the order exceeds 
the argument, as in the formulae of Nicholson and Debye, which, how- 
ever, were not employed in the numerical work. 

(2) The Neumann functions of types G and Y to a large number of 
significant figures. These are sufiicient to form the basis of a rapid calcula- 
tion of complete sets of Tables for functions of these types of any order. 

(3) Continues the calculation of the functions of type Y from (2) as 
a basis. The Committee is greatly indebted to Dr. Airey for taking 
charge of this important work. 

The functions ber x, bei x introduced by Lord Kelvin, together with 
their derivates, are of great importance in connection with alternating 
currents. In the Report for 1912, the Committee pubbshed Tables of 
these functions and their derivates, calculated by Professor Webster. 
They are now able, in Table IV. of the present Report, to give the neces- 
sary supplement to these Tables — the real and imaginary parts of Ko(x i*), 
with their derivates — the work having been kindly undertaken and 
carried through by Mr. H. G. Savidge. For a very complete and general 
account of the mathematical properties and uses of these functions, 
reference may be made to a paper by Dr. Alexander Russell (' Phil. Mag.,' 



28 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 19l5. 

April 1909; and Eussell's 'Alternating Currents,' 2nd Edn., vol. 1, 
chap. VII.). 

For the convenience of those who frequently require such Tables, 
the following summary of some other important Tables of Bessel func- 
tions and Zonal Harmonics may be useful : 

(1) Jo(a;) and Ji(a;) ; range a? = to 15-5, interval O'Ol, to 12 places 
(Gray and Mathews' Treatise). 

(2) J„(.r) from n = upwards (integral) to from 16 to 60, according 
to X ; for integral values of x between 1 and 24, to 18 places (ibid.). 

(3) J/cc) = ; first 50 roots, to 16 places (ibid.). 

(4) -Further Tables of roots of Bessel functions (Airey, ' Proc. Phys. 
Soc.,' vol. 23 (1911), p. 219). 

(5) i„{x) ; Tables for calculating phase and amplitude (A. Lodee, 
' Brit. Ass. Rep.,' 1907, pp. 94, 95 ; 1909, p. 33). 

(6) ^i{x) : range x = to 5'1, interval 0001, to ninth decimal figure, 
with first difference (Lodge, ' Brit. Ass. Rep.,' 1893, p. 229). 

(7) Io(a;) ; range, &c., as in (6) {iUd. 1896, p. 99). 

(8) I„(a;) ; range a? = to 6, interval 02, n = to 11 (integral) (' Brit. 
Ass. Rep.,' 1889, p. 29). 

(9) Yo(x), Yi(x), Go(2;), Gi(a;) ; range x = to 16, interval OL to 
7 figures approximately (Airey, ' Brit. Ass. Rep.,' 1913, p. 116). 

(10) Ko^a;) and Ki(a;) ; range a; = to 12, interval 01, to many figures 
(Aldis, ' Roy. Soc. Proc' (1898), vol. Ixiv., p. 203). 

(11) K„(j'); range .c = to 5, interval 02, to 5 figures (Isherwood, 
'Manc'i. Mem.,' vol. 48 (1904), No. 19. 

(12) ber x, bei x, ber'x, bei' x ; range a; = to 10, interval 0-1, with 
first seven dift'erences (Webster, ' Brit. Ass. Rep.,' 1912, p. 57). 

(13) Definition, properties, and tables of ber x, kcr x, &c., and allied 
functions (Russell and Savidge, ' Phil. Mag.,' April 1909 and Jan. 1910). 

(14) Exact Tables of P„(ju,) from n = 1 to w = 7, yu, = to /* = 1, 
interval 001 (Glaiaher, ' Brit. Ass. Rep.,' 1879, p. 49). 

(15) Po(At) to P7(/x) ; four-figure Tables at 1° interval (Perry, ' Phil. 
Mag.,' Dec. 1891, p. 512). 

(16) Pi(cos«)toP.a,(cos(9)., ^ = 0°to90°, interval 5°, 7 figures ^Lodge, 
' Phil. Trans.,' vol. 203 (1904), p. 100). 

The Committee has in course of preparation some sine and cosine 
Tables proceeding by fractions of radians instead of degrees. A large 
demand for these Tables has always existed, and, in particular, they will 
be of very great value for the rapid calculation of large classes of im- 
portant transcendental functions from their asymptotic series. Those 
in hand at present are the sine and cosine of angles from 001 to 1'60 
radians by intervals of 001, and from 00001 to 00100 by intervals of 
0*0001 , These Tables will be comparatively short, and the calculations 
are proceeding to 10 significant figures. 

Table I. 
The Bessel Functions, J„(a;). 
These functions have been tabulated by Meissel to eighteen places 
of decimals for integral values of x from 1 to 24. From the values of 
Jo(x) and Ji(x), the following supplementary tables have been calculated 
to six places of decimals from x = 0-2 to 6-0 by intervals of 0-2, the actual 
computation being carried to ten places, and from 6'0 to ]6"0 by intervals 
of 0-5 to ten places from results obtained to twelve places. 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



29 



Tables of the Bessel Functions J„(a;) 



J (a) 


x= 0-2 


0-4 


0-fi 


0-8 


10 


n ^ 


+0-990025 


+0-960398 


+0-912005 


+0-846287 


+0-765198 


1 


+0099501 


+0-196027 


+0-286701 


+0-368842 


+0-440051 


2 


+0-004983 


+0-019735 


+0043665 


+0-076818 


+0-114903 


3 


+0-00016(5 


+0-001320 


+0004400 


+0-010247 


+0-019563 


4 


+0-000004 


+0-000066 


+0000331 


+0-001033 


+0-002477 


5 


+0000000 


+ 0-000003 


+0-000020 


+0-000083 


+0-000250 


6 


— 


— 


+0-000001 


+0-000006 


+0-000021 


7 


— 


— 


— 





+0-000002 



J//(>b) 



1-2 



1-4 



n ^ 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

7 
8 
9 



+0-671133 

+0-498289 
+0-159349 
+0-032874 
+0-005023 
+0-000610 
+0-000062 
+0-000005 



+0-566855 
+0-541948 
+0-207356 
+0-050498 
+0-009063 
+0-001290 
+0-000152 
+0-000015 
+0000001 



1-6 

+0-455402 
+0-569896 
+0-256968 
+0-072523 
+ 0-014995 
+0-002452 
+0000332 
+0-000038 
+0-000004 



1-8 

+0-339986 

+0-581517 
+0-306144 
+0-098802 
+0-023197 
+0-004294 
+0000657 
+0-000086 
+0-000010 



+0-223891 

+0-576725 
+0-352834 
+0-128943 
+0-033996 
+0-007040 
+0-001202 
+0-000175 
+0-000022 
+0-000002 



Jn(a;) 


x^ 2-2 


2-4 


2-6 


2-8 


30 


n = 


+0-110362 


+0-002508 


-0096805 


-0-185036 


-0-260052 


1 


+0-555963 


+0-520185 


+0-470818 


+0-409709 


+0-339059 


2 


, +0-395059 


+0-430980 


+0-458973 


+0-477685 


+0-486091 


3 


i +0-162325 


+ 0-198115 


+0-235294 


+0-272699 


+0-309063 


4 


! +0-047047 


+0-064307 


+0-084013 


+ 0-106669 


+0132034 


5 


1 +0-010937 


+0016242 


+0023207 


+0-032069 


+0-043028 


6 


+0-002066 


+0-003367 


+0005246 


+0-007863 


+0-011394 


7 


+0000332 


+0000593 


+0001005 


+0-001631 


+0-002547 


8 


+0-000046 


+0-000091 


+0-000167 


+0-000294 


+0-000493 


9 


+0-000006 


+0000012 


+0-000024 


+0-000047 


+ 0-000084 


10 


+0-000001 


+0-000002 


+0-000003 


+0-000007 


+0-000013 


11 


— 


— 


1 ' 


— 


+0-000002 



J«(a;) 
» = 


x= 3-2 


3-4 


36 
-0-391769 


3-8 


4-0 


-0-320188 


-0-364296 


-0-402556 


-0-397150 


1 


^-0-261343 


+0-179226 


+0095466 


+ 0012821 


-0-066043 


2 


+0-483528 


+0-469723 


+0-444805 


+0-409304 


+0-364128 


3 


+0-343066 


+0-373389 


+0-398763 


+0-418026 


+0-430171 


4 


+0- 1597-22 


+01 89199 


+0-219199 


+0-250736 


+0-281129 


5 


+0-056238 


+0-071785 


+0-089680 


+0-109840 


+0-132087 


6 


+0-016022 


+0021934 


+0-029311 


+0038316 


+0-049088 


7 


+0003845 


+0-005630 


+0-008024 


+0-011159 


+0-015176 


8 


+0-000798 


+0-001248 


+0001894 


+0-002797 


+0-004029 


9 


+0000146 


+0-000244 


+0-000393 


+0-000616 


+0000939 


10 


+0-000024 


+0-000043 


+0000073 


+0-000121 


+0-000195 


11 


+0000004 


+0-000007 


+0-000012 


+0-000021 


+0-000037 


12 


— 


+0-000001 


+0-000002 


+0-000004 


+0-000006 



30 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 





Tables of 


the Bessel Functions 3„{x) — 


continued. 




Jn{x) 


x= 4-2 


4-4 


4-6 


4-8 


5-0 


« = 


-0-376557 


-0-342257 


-0-296138 


-0-240425 


-0-177597 


1 


-0-138647 


-0-202776 


-0-256553 


-0-298500 


-0-327579 


2 


+0-310535 


+0-250086 


+0-184593 


+0-116050 


+0-046565 


3 


+0-434394 


+0-430127 


+0-417069 


+0-395209 


+0-364831 


4 


+0-310029 


+0-336450 


+0-359409 


+0-377960 


+0-391232 


5 


+0-156136 


+0-181601 


+0-207991 


+0-234725 


+0-261141 


« 


+0-061725 


+0-076279 


+0-092745 


+0-111051 


+0-131049 


7 


+0-020220 


+0-026433 


+0-033953 


+0-042901 


+0-053376 


8 


+0-005674 


+0-007827 


+0-010591 


+0-014079 


+0-018405 


9 


+0-001395 


+0-002027 


-F 0-002885 


+0-004027 


+0-005520 


10 


+0-000306 


+0-000467 


+0-000699 


-1-0-001023 


+0-001468 


11 


+0-000060 


+0-000097 


+0-000152 


+0-000234 


+0-000351 


12 


+0-000011 


+0-000018 


+0-000030 


+0-000049 


+0-000076 


13 


+0-000002 


+0-000003 


+0-000005 


+0-000009 


+0-000015 



Jn(a;) 


a;= 5-2 


5-4 


5-6 


5-8 


60 
+0-150645 


n = 


-0-110290 


-0-041210 


+0-026971 


+0091703 


1 


-0-343223 


-0-345345 


-0-334333 


-0-311028 


-0-276684 


2 


-0021718 


-0-086695 


-0-146375 


-0-198954 


-0-242873 


3 


+0-326517 


+0-281126 


+0-229779 


+0-173818 


+0-114768 


4 


+0-398468 


+0-399058 


+0-392567 


+0-378765 


+0-357642 


5 


+0-286512 


+0-310074 


+0-331031 


+0-348617 


+0-362087 


6 


+0-152515 


+0-175147 


+0-198559 


+0-222298 


-r 0-245837 


7 


+0-065447 


+0-079145 


+0-094452 


+0-111310 


+0-129587 


8 


+0-023689 


+0-030044 


+0-037571 


+0-046382 


+0-056532 


9 


+0-007441 


+0-009873 


+0-012893 


+0-016641 


+0-021165 


10 


+0-002069 


+0-002868 


+0-003870 


+0-005261 


+0-006964 


11 


+0-000517 


+0-000747 


+0-000930 


+0-001500 


+0-002048 


12 


+0-000117 


+0-000177 


+0-000262 


+0-000380 


+0-000545 


13 


+0-000024 


+0-000037 


+0-000057 


+0-000088 


+0-000133 



J»(a;) 


x= 6-5 


7-0 


7-5 


80 


M =0 


+0-2600946056 


+0-3000792705 


+0-2663396679 


+0-1716508071 


1 


-0- 1538413014 


-0-0046828235 


+0-1352484276 


+0-2346363469 


2 


-0-3074302368 


-0-3014172201 


-0-2302734105 


-01129917204 


3 


-0-0353465366 


-0-1675555880 


-0-2580609132 


-0-2911322071 


4 


+0-2748026645 


+0-1577981447 


+0-0238246800 


-0-1053574349 


5 


+0-373565200C 


+0-3178963248 


+0-2834739052 


+0-1857747722 


6 


+0-2999130288 


+0-3391966050 


+0-3541405269 


+0-3375759001 


7 


+0-1801203909 


+0-2335835695 


+0-2831509379 


+0-32058907 SO 


8 


+0-0880385825 


+0-1279705340 


+0-1744078905 


+0-2234549864 


9 


+0-0365899659 


+0-0589205083 


+0-0889192285 


+ 0-1263208947 


10 


+0-0132874770 


+0-0235393444 


+0-0389982579 


+0-0607670268 


11 


+0-0042945787 


+0-0083347614 


+0-0150761259 


+0-0255966722 


12 


+0-0012480202 


+0-0026556200 


+0-0052250447 


+0-0096238218 


13 


-0-0003135057 


+0-0007702216 


+0-0016440171 


+0-0032747932 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



31 



Tables of the Bessel Functions J„(a;) — continued. 



Jn{x) 


X- 8-5 


9-0 


9-5 


10-0 


» = 


+0-0419392518 


-00903336112 


-0-1939287477 


-0-2459357645 


1 


+0-2731219637 


+0-2453117866 


+0-1612644308 


+0-0434727462 


2 


+0-0223247396 


+0- 1448473415 


+0-2278791542 


+0-2546303137 


3 


-0-2626162039 


-0-1809351903 


-00653153132 


+00583793793 


4 


-0-2076773541 


-0-2654708018 


-0-2691309309 


-0-2196026861 


5 


+0-0671551647 


-0-0550388557 


-0-1613212602 


-0-2340615282 


G 


+0-2866834302 


+0-2043165177 


+0-0993190781 


-0-0144588421 


7 


+0-3375743838 


+0-3274608792 


+0-2867769378 


+0-2167109177 


8 


+0-2693214373 


+0-3050670723 


+0-3232995671 


+0-3178541268 


9 


+0-1693836158 


+0-2148805825 


+0-2577275962 


+0-2918556853 


10 


+0-0893732784 


+0-1246940928 


+0-1650264047 


+0-2074861066 


11 


+0-0409064511 


+0-0622174015 


+0-0896964138 


+0-1231165280 


12 


+0-0165022421 


+0-0273928887 


+0-0426916061 


+0-0633702550 


13 


+0-0056881149 


+00108303016 


+0-0181560647 


+0-0289720839 



Jn{x) 


x= 10-5 


11-0 


11-5 


120 


M=0 


-0-2366481945 


-0-1711903004 


-0-0676539481 


+0-0476893108 


1 


-0-0788500142 


-0-1767852990 


-0-2283786207 


-0-2234471045 


2 


+0-2216291441 


+0-1390475188 


+0-0279359271 


-0-0849304949 


3 


+0-1632801644 


+0-2273480331 


+0-2380954649 


+0-1951369395 


4 


-0-1283261931 


-0-0150395007 


+0-0962877937 


+0-1824989646 


5 


-0-2610525019 


-0-2382858518 


-0-1711126519 


-0-0734709631 


6 


-0-1202952374 


-0-2015840009 


-0-2450838970 


-0-2437247672 


7 


+0-1235722307 


+0-0183760326 


-0-0846270668 


-0-1702538041 


8 


+0-2850582116 


+0-2249716788 


+0-1420596418 


+0-0450953291 


9 


+0-3108021870 


+0-3088555001 


+0-2822752641 


+0-2303809096 


10 


+0-2477455375 


+0-2804282305 


+0-2997625107 


+0-3004760353 


11 


+0-1610940750 


+0-2010140099 


+0-2390508414 


+0-2704124826 


12 


+0-0897849053 


+0-1215997893 


+0-1575521425 


+0-1952801827 


13 


+0-0441285657 


+0-0642946213 


+0-0897536298 


+0-1201478829 



Jn(x) 


x= 12-5 


130 


13-5 


140 
+0-1710734761 


re = 


+0-1468840547 


+0-2069261024 


+0-2149891659 


1 


-0-1654838046 


-0-0703180521 


+0-0380492921 


+0-1333751547 


2 


-0-1733614634 


-0-2177442642 


-0-2093522337 


-0-1520198826 


3 


+0-1100081363 


+0-0033198170 


-0-1000795836 


-0-1768094069 


4 


+0-2261653689 


+0-2192764875 


+0-1648724188 


+0-0762444225 


5 


+0-0347376998 


+0-1316195599 


+0-1977817577 


+0-2203776483 


6 


-0-1983752091 


-0-1180306721 


-00183674131 


+0-0811681834 


7 


-0-2251779005 


-0-2405709496 


-0-2141083471 


-0-1508049196 


8 


-0-0538240395 


-0-1410457351 


-0-2036710209 


-0-2319731031 


9 


+0-1562831300 


+0-0669761987 


-0-0272791962 


-0-1143071982 


10 


+0-2788717466 


+0-2337820102 


+0-1672987593 


+0-0850067054 


11 


+0-2899116646 


+0-2926884324 


+0-2761292100 


+0-2357453488 


12 


+0-2313727831 


+0-2615368754 


+0-2810599.533 


+0-2854502712 


13 


+0-1643240789 


+0-1901488760 


+0-2245329292 


+0-2535979733 



32 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



Tables of the Bessel Functions J„(a;) — continued. 



3„(x) 


x= 14-5 


15-0 


15-5 


160 


»i = 


+0-0875448680 


-0-0142244728 


-0-1092306509 


-0-1748990740 


I 


+0-1934294636 


+0-2051040386 


+0-1672131804 


+00903971757 


2 


-00608649420 


+0-0415716780 


+0-1308065451 


+0-1861987209 


3 


-0-2102197923 


-0-1940182578 


-0-1334566526 


-0-0438474954 


4 


-0-0261220608 


-0-1191789811 


-0-1824671848 


-0-2026415317 


5 


+0-1958076209 


+0-1304561340 


+0-0392800410 


-0-0574732704 





+0-1611617993 


+0-2001497375 


+0-2078091468 


+0-1667207377 


7 


-0-0624323387 


+00344630554 


+0-1216044597 


-<-0-1825138237 


8 


-0-2214412987 


-0-1739836591 


-0-0979728606 


-0-0070211420 


fl 


-0-1819166806 


-0-2200462251 


-0-2227377352 


-0-1895349657 


10 


-0-0043863048 


-0-0900718110 


-0-1606903157 


-0-2062056944 


11 


+0-1758666050 


+0-0999504771 


+0-0153953923 


-0-0682221524 


12 


+0-2712183952 


+0-2366058441 


+01825418403 


+0-1124002.349 


13 


+0-2730466008 


+0-2787148734 


+0-2672500378 


+0-2368225048 i 

t 










t 



Table II. 

The Neumann Functions 6o(a;), Gi(a;), Yo(a;), and Y|(x). 

The Neumann Functions or Logarithmic Bessel Functions, G(,{x) 
and Gi\{x), were calculated to twelve or more places of decimals for values 
of the argument 6-5 to 15-5 from their asymptotic expansions. 



Go(x) = 






ix) sin 



- ^j + Qo(a;) cos (a; — J 



X — 



and G,(x) = + a/'^ \'P\{x) cos L-''')- Q,(x) sin 

If the calculation be restricted to the convergent part of Po(a;), Qo(a;), 
&c., the value of Go(65) can be found to about seven places of decimals, 
but it is possible to transform the divergent part of any one of these 
series and express it as a fraction of the least term of the convergent part 
of the series.' The fraction or 'converging factor' is a function of x 
in descending powers of the variable, the absolute term being |. By 
this means, Gn(6'5), &c..can be calculated to about twelve or more places 
of decimals. The functions Yu(x) and Y,(a;) were then found from the 
relations Yo(x) = (log 2 - -y) ,Jo(x) — Go(x), &c. 





Tables 


of the Neumann Functions Gu(a;) and G/a;] 




X 

6-5 


Go 


a. 


X 

11-5 


Go Gi 


+0-2721285804 


+0-4305415662 


+0-3537937737 -00910159402 


7-0 


+0-0407617621 


+0-4754285799 


120 


+0.3538019433 


+00896912423 


7-5 


-0-1842752790 


+0-4070381044 


12-5 


+0-2689428043 


+0-2416485683 


8-0 


-0-3511067345 


+0-2482807927 


13-0 


+0-1228486263 


+0-3299951047 


8-5 


-0-4244371900 


+0-0411056655 


13-5 


-0-0472448553 


•.^ 0-3.361864328 


90 


-0-3925996476 


-01638.569516 


14-0 


-0-1997936195 


4 0-20176510.55 


9-5 


-0-2689370228 


-0-3191542396 


14-5 


-0-2989255117 


+ 0-1273006187 


100 


-0-0874480651 


-0-3911525137 


1.50 


-0-3227425615 


-0-0331023775 


10-5 


+0-1060764611 


-0-3671017435 


15-5 


-0-2680483997 


-0-18030.56510 


110 


+0-2652247562 ' -0-2571480569 







' Annates de I'Ecole Normale Supirieure, 1886; ArcMv der Math, und Phyaik, 
1914. 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



33 



Tables of the. Neumann Functions Y„(a;) and Y,(x). 



X 


Yo 


Yi 


X 


Yo 


Y, 


01 


-2-2943345812 


-10-1399073252 


4-1 


-0-1331722948 


+0-5921462686 


0-2 


-1-5834211860 


-5-2095168052 


4-2 


-0-1909188721 


+0-5619996237 


0-3 


-1-1547246989 


-3-5848063074 


4-3 


-0-2454213266 


+0-5273274052 


0-4 


-0-8406007621 


-2-7746616109 


4-4 


-0-2962466600 , 


+0-4885254644 


0-5 


-0-5894501822 


-2-2832968788 


4-5 


-0-3430028852 


+0-4460183107 


0-6 


-0-3788760747 


-1-9465804215 


4-0 


-0-3853417720 \ 


+0-4002554688 


0-7 


-0-1973368285 


-1-6948398823 


4-7 


-0-4229611239 


+0-3517074948 


0-8 


-0-0382373343 


-1-4937048735 


4-8 


-0-4556066658 


+0-3008618391 


0-9 


+0-1024583688 


— 1-3244416941 


4-9 


-0-4830735596 | 


+0-2482186095 


10 


+0-2273442324 


-1-1761105040 


5-0 


-0-5052074159 


+0-1942861461 


11 


+0-3381522214 


-1-0420112190 


5-1 


-0-5219048840 


+0-1395766012 


1-2 


+0-4360781497 


-0-9179113341 


5-2 


-0-5331138832 


+00846015427 


1-3 


+0-5219761866 


-0-8010938444 


5-3 


-0-5388332402 


+0-0298674819 


1-4 


+0-5964807906 


-0-6898134973 


5-4 


-0-5391120024 


-0-0241284674 


1-5 


+0-6600863177 


-0-5829704614 


5-5 


-0-5340482919 


-0-0769027972 


1-6 


+0-7132004847 


-0-4799053721 


5-6 


-0-5237877109 


-0-1279897534 


1-7 


+0-7561813379 


-0-3802657536 


5-7 


-0-5085214159 


-0-1769452265 


1-8 


+0-7893631174 


-0-2839158153 


5-8 


-0-4884837051 


-0-2233504152 


1-9 


+0-8130746390 


-0-1908735689 


6-9 


-0-4639493697 


-0-2668153484 


20 


+0-8276522282 


-0-1012655792 


6-0 


-0-4352306154 


-0-3069819855 


21 


+0-8334488985 


-0-0152936185 


6-5 


-0-2419754186 


-0-4483766215 \ 


2-2 


+0-8308405095 


+0-0667906385 


7-0 


-0-0059731175 


-0-4759714667 


2-3 


+0-8202297417 


+0-1447052444 


7-5 


+0-2151524392 


-0-3913585492 


2-4 


+0-8020483338 


+0-2181535173 


80 


+0-3710064727 


—0-2210790454 


2-5 


+0-7767578849 


+0-2868365398 


8-5 


+0-4292992711 


-0-009442222.'$ 


2-6 


+0-7448495748 


+0-3504634353 


90 


+0-3821271351 


+0-1922963188 


2-7 


+0-7068429107 


+0-4087597225 


9-5 


+0-2404545691 


+0-3378498695 


2-8 


+0-6632837280 


+0-4614743384 


10-0 


+0-0589363592 


+0-3961923750 


2-9 


+0-6147415401 


+0-5083854239 


10-5 


-0-1335114449 


+0-3579605418 


30 


+0-5618063930 


+0-5493050123 


11-0 


-0-2850711072 


+0-2366530692 


31 


+0-5050853059 


+0-5840829410 


11-5 


-0-3616369985 


+00645396606 


3-2 


+0-4451982191 


+0-6126099179 


120 


-0-3482732493 


-0-1155958038 


3-3 


+0-3827739309 


+0-6348198099 


1 12-5 


-0-2519143132 


-0-2608333566 


3-4 


: +0-3184465929 


+0-6506912753 


i 13-0 


-0-0988593697 


-0-3381471830 


3-5 


i +0-2528462007 


+0-6602488398 


1 13-5 


+0-0721688752 


-0-3317753207 


3-6 


+0-1866039774 


+0-6635633127 


! 14-0 


+0-2196264269 


-0-2463027216 


3-7 


+0-1203377889 


+0-6607516305 


14-5 


+0-3090747209 


-0-1048760479 


3-8 


+0-0546524956 


+0-6519761906 


150 


+0-3210934968 


+00568803996 


3-9 


-0-0098655002 


+0-6374437509 


15-5 


+0-2553851248 


+0-1996909285 


4-0 


-0-0726526231 


+0-6174037456 









Table III. 

The Neumann Functions Y„(a;). 

Prom the foregoing values of Yo{x) and Y,(a;) functions of higher 
order were computed by means of the recurrence formula 

Y„.i(a;) = - Y„(a;) - Y„_,(x). 

X 

The calculations were carried as far as the tenth place and verified 
by the relation 

J„.i(a^) Y„(x) - J„{x)Y„,,(x) = l. 
1915. D 



34 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1913. 





Tables 


of the Neumann Functions Y„(i'). 




Y.(x) 


x= 0-2 


0-4 


06 



-0-378876 
-1-946580 
-6-109725 


0-8 


10 

+0-227344 
-1176111 
-2-579565 
-9-142150 


w = 
1 
2 
3 


-1-583421 

-5-209517 


-0-840601 
-2-774662 


-0-038237 
-1-493705 
-3-696025 



Y„{x) 


x= 1-2 


1-4 


1-6 


1-8 


20 


» = 
1 
2 
3 
4 


+0-436078 
-0-917911 
-1-965930 
-5-635190 


+0-596481 
-0-689813 
-1-581929 
-3-829983 


+0-713200 
-0-479905 
-1-313082 
-2-802800 
-9197418 


+0-789363 
-0-283916 
-1-104825 
-2-171251 
-6-132679 


+0-827652 
-0-101266 
-0-928918 
-1-756570 
-4-340792 



Y„{x) 


x= 2-2 


2-4 


2-6 


2-8 

+0-663284 
+0-461474 
-0-333659 
-0-938130 
-1-676620 
-3-852213 


80 


n = 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


+0-830841 
+0-066791 
-0-770122 
-1-467012 
-3-230820 
-10-281425 


+0-802048 
+0-218154 
-0-620254 
-1-251910 
-2-609521 
-7-113159 


+0-744850 
+0-350463 
-0-475262 
-1-081636 
-2020821 
-5-136275 


+0-561806 
+0-549305 
-0-195603 
-0-810109 
-1-424615 
-2-988865 
-8-538267 



Yn[x) 


x= 3-2 


3-4 


3-6 


3-8 


4-0 


w = 


+0-445198 


+0-318446 


+0-186604 


+0-054652 


-0-072653 ' 


1 


+0-612610 


+0-650691 


+0-663563 


+0-651976 


+0-617404 


2 


-0062317 


+0-064314 


+0-182042 


+0-289019 


+0-381354 


3 


-0-690606 


-0-576028 


-0-461294 


-0-347745 


-0-236049 


4 


-1-232382 


-1-079069 


-0-950866 


-0-838091 


-0-735428 


5 


-2-390449 


-1-963958 


-1-651741 


-1-416657 


-1-234807 


6 


-6-237771 


-4-697278 


-3-637304 


-2-889963 


-2-351590 


7 


— 


— 


-10-472604 


-7-709510 


-5-819964 



^n{x) 


X- 4-2 


4-4 


4-6 


4-8 


5-0 
-0-505207 


m = 


-0-190919 


-0-296247 


-0-385342 


-0-455607 


1 


+0-562000 


+0-488525 


+0-400255 


+0-300862 


+0-194286 


2 


+0-458538 


+0-518304 


+0-559366 


+0-680966 


+0-682922 


3 


-0-125297 


-0-017340 


+0080150 


+0-183276 


+0-272051 


4 


-0-637533 


-0-541950 


-0-446997 


-0-361870 


-0-256460 


6 


-1-089052 


-0-968023 


-0-863535 


-0-769727 


-0-682388 


6 


-1-955449 


-1-658102 


-1-430264 


-1-261727 


-1-108315 


7 


-4-497915 


-3-654073 


-2-867562 


-2-359692 


-1-977569 


8 


— 


-9-650312 


-7-297109 


-5-630415 


-4-428878 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



35 



Tables of the Neumann Functions Y„(x) — continued. 



n = 


x= 5-2 


5-4 


5-6 
-0-523788 


5-8 


6-0 


-0-533114 


-0-539112 


-0-488484 


-0-435231 


1 


+0-084602 


-0024128 


-0-127990 


-0-223350 


-0-306982 


2 


+0-565653 


+0-530176 


+0-478077 


+0-411460 


+0-332903 


3 


+0-350516 


+0-416851 


+0-469473 


+0-507120 


+0-528918 


4 


-0-161211 


-0067008 


+0-024930 


+0-113141 


+0-196014 


5 


-0-598533 


-0-516122 


-0-433859 


-0-351064 


-0-267565 


(i 


-0-989815 


-0-888773 


-0-799678 


-0-718423 


-0-641956 


7 


-1-685654 


-1-458930 


-1-279737 


-1-135329 


-1-016347 


8 


-3-548485 


-2-893638 


-2-399665 


-2-022027 


-1-729521 


9 


-9-232761 


-7-114812 


-5-576448 


-4-442676 


-3-595708 


1 '' 


— 




— 


— 


-9057603 



Y„(a-) 


a= GO 


6-5 


70 


7-5 


8-0 


»i = 


-0-435231 


-0-241976 


-0005973 


+0-215153 


+0-371006 


1 


-0-306982 


-0-448377 


-0-475971 


-0-391359 


-0-221079 


2 


+0-332903 


+0-104013 


-0-130019 


-0-319515 


-0-426276 


3 


+0-528918 


+0-512385 


+0-401675 


+0-220951 


+0-007941 


4 


+0-196014 


+0-368957 


+0-474312 


+0-496275 


+0-432232 


5 


-0-267565 


-0-058284 


+0-140395 


+0-308410 


+0-424291 


6 


-0-641956 


-0-458624 


-0-273747 


-0-085062 


+0-098132 


7 


-1-016347 


-0-788408 


-0-609676 


-0-444510 


-0-277093 


8 


-1-729521 


-1-239484 


-0-945604 


-0-744689 


-0-583045 


9 


-3-595708 


-2-262630 


-1-551706 


-1-144160 


-0-888997 


10 


-9057603 


-5-026261 


-3-044496 


-2-001295 


-1-417198 


1 11 


— 


— 


-7-146856 


-4-192626 


-2-653998 


12 


— 


— 


— 


-10-297074 


-5-881296 


13 





■~~ 


— 


— 






Y,/x-) 


x- 8-5 
+0-429299 


90 


9-5 
+0-246455 


10-0 


10-5 


w = 


+0-382127 


+0-058936 


-0-133511 


1 


-0-009442 


+0-192296 


+0-337850 


+0-396192 


+0-357961 


2 


-0-431521 


-0-339395 


-0-175328 


+0-020302 


+0-201694 


3 


-0-193626 


-0-343138 


-0-411672 


-0-388072 


-0-281125 


4 


+0-294843 


+0-110636 


-0-084675 


-0-253145 


-0-362337 


5 


+0-471126 


+0-441481 


+0-340367 


+0-185556 


+0-005058 


6 


+0-259423 


+0-379899 


+0-442956 


+0-438701 


+0-367154 


7 


-0-104882 


+0-065051 


+0-219157 


+0-340885 


+0-414547 


8 


-0-432170 


-0-278709 


-0-119988 


+0-038539 


+ 0-185575 


9 


-0-708614 


-0-560533 


-0-421242 


-0-279223 


-0-131766 


10 


-1-068425 


-0-842358 


-0-678155 


-0-541141 


-0-411460 


11 


-1-805327 


-1-311373 


-1-006452 


-0-803058 


-0-651967 


12 


-3-604185 


-2-363220 


-1-652577 


-1-225587 


-0-954566 


13 


-8-371196 


-4-990547 


-3-168479 


-2-138350 


-1-529898 



D 2 



36 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 





Tables of the Neumann Functions Y„(a;)- 


—continued. 




Yn{x) 


a;= 11-0 


11-5 
-0-361637 


12-0 


12-5 


13-0 


w = 


-0-285071 


-0-348273 


-0-251914 


-0-098859 


1 


+0-236G53 


+0-064540 


-0-115596 


-0-260834 


-0-338147 


2 


+0-328099 


+0-372861 


+0-329007 


+0-210181 


+0-046837 


3 


-0-117344 


+0-065151 


+0-225265 


+0-328091 


+0-352558 


4 


-0-392105 


-0-338869 


-0-216375 


-0-052097 


+0-115883 


5 


-0-167823 


-0-300886 


-0-369515 


-0-361817 


-0-281246 


6 


+0-239539 


+0-077229 


-0-091554 


-0-236757 


-0-332226 


7 


+0-429138 


+0-381473 


+0-277960 


+0-134531 


-0-025424 


8 


+0-300637 


+0-387173 


+0-415842 


+ 0-387431 


+0-304846 


9 


+0-016879 


+0-157203 


+0-276495 


+0-361381 


+0-400619 


10 


-0-279016 


-0-141117 


-0-001099 


+0-132958 


+0-249857 


11 


-0-524181 


-0-402623 


-0-278327 


-0-148649 


-0-016223 


12 


-0-769347 


-0-629119 


-0-509167 


-0-394580 


-0-277312 


13 


-1-154393 


-0-910321 


-0-740007 


-0-608945 


-0-495738 



Yn{x) 


a;= 135 


140 


1-1-5 


150 


15-5 


m = 


+0-072169 


+0-219626 


+0-309075 


+0-321093 


+0-255385 


1 


-0-331775 


-0-246303 


-0-104876 


+0-056880 


+0-199691 


2 


-0-121321 


-0-254813 


-0-323540 


-0-313509 


-0-229619 


3 


+0-295828 


+0-173499 


+0015624 


-0-140483 


-0-258947 


4 


+0-252800 


+0-329169 


+0-330005 


+0-257316 


+0-129378 


5 


-0-146021 


+0-014598 


+0-166448 


+0-277718 


+0-325723 


6 


-0-360964 


-0-318742 


-0-215213 


-0-072171 


+0-080766 


7 


-0-174836 


-0-287805 


-0-344556 


-0-335455 


-0-263194 


8 


+0-179653 


+0-030937 


-0-117461 


-0-240920 


-0-318490 


9 


+0-387757 


+0-323162 


+0-214943 


+0078473 


-0065570 


10 


+0-337357 


+0-384557 


+0-384288 


+0-335088 


+0-242345 


11 


+0-112031 


+0-226205 


+0-315109 


+0-368311 


+0-378272 


12 


-0-154788 


-0-029092 


+0-093808 


+0-205101 


+0-294558 


13 


-0-387210 


-0-276077 


-0-159840 


-0-040149 


+0-077818 



Table IV. {Mr. Savidge's Table.) 

Tables of the Functions ker x, kei x, -(ker x), . (kei x), 

dx dx 

ker 2- + I kei .r = K„{x\/i). 



ker X 



+ CO 

+ 2-4204740 
+ 1-7331427 
+ 1-3372186 
+ 1-0626239 
+0-8559059 
+0-6931207 
+0-5613783 
+0-4528821 
+0-3625148 
+0-2867062 
+0-2228445 
+01689456 



kei X 



-0-7853982 
-0-7768506 
-0-7581249 
-0-7331019 
-0-7038002 
-0-6715817 
-0-6374495 
-0-6021755 
-0-5663676 
-0-5305111 
-0-4949946 
-0-4601295 
-0-4261636 



ker' X 


kei' m 


— • CO 





-9-9609593 


+ 0-1459748 


-4-9229485 


+0-2229268 


-3-2198652 


+0-2742921 


-2-3520699 


+0-3095140 


-1-8197998 


+0-3332038 


-1-4565386 


+0-3481644 


-1-1909433 


+0-3563095 


-0-9873351 


^-0-3590425 


-0-8258687 


+0-3574432 


-0-6946039 


+0-3523090 


-0-5859053 


+0-3445210 


1 -0-4946432 1 


+0-3344739 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



37 



Table IV. {Mr. Savidge's Table}^covit\nned. 



ker X 



1-3 

1-4 

1-5 

1-6 

1-7 

1-8 

1-9 

2-0 

21 

2-2 

2-3 

2-4 

2-5 

2-6 

2-7 

2-8 

2-9 

30 

31 

3-2 

3-3 

3-4 

3-5 

3-6 

3-7 

3-8 

3-9 

4-0 

41 

4-2 

4-3 

4-4 

4-5 

4-6 

4-7 

4-8 

4-9 

50 

51 

5-2 

5-3 

5-4 

5-5 

5-6 

5-7 

6-8 

5-9 

60 

61 

6-2 

6-3 

6-4 

6-5 

6-6 

6-7 

6-8 

6-9 

70 

71 



+0-1234554 

+0-0851260 

+0-0529349 

+0-0260299 

+0-0036911 

-0-0146961 

-00296614 

-00416645 

-0-0511065 

-0-0583388 

-0-0636705 

-00673735 

-0-0696880 

-0-0708257 

-00709736 

-00702963 

-0-0689390 

-0-0670292 

-0-0646786 

-0-0619848 

-0-0590329 

-0-0558966 

-0-0526393 

-0-0493156 

-0-0459717 

-0-0426469 

-0-03937361 

-003617885 

-0-03308440 

-0-03010758 

-0-02726177 

-0-02455689 

-0-02199988 

-001959503 

-0-01734441 

-0-01524819 

-0-01330490 

-0-01151173 

-0-00986474 

-0-00835911 

-0-00698928 

-0-00574913 

-0-00463216 

-0-00363156 

-0-00274038 

-0-00195158 

-0-00125812 

-0-00065304 

-000012953 

+000031905 

+ 0-00069912 

+000101683 

+0-001278080 

+0-001488446 

+0-001653215 

+0-001777354 

+0-001865512 

+0-001922022 

+0-001950901 



kei a- 



ker' X 



-0-3932918 

-0-3616648 

-0-3313950 

-0-3025655 

-0-2752288 

-0-2494171 

-0-2251422 

-0-2024001 

-0-1811726 

-0-1614307 

-0-1431357 

-0-1262415 

-0-1106961 

-0-0964429 

-00834219 

-0-0715707 

-0-0608255 

-0-0511219 

-00423955 1 

-0-0345823 I 

-0-0276197 I 

-0-0214403 ■ 

-0-0160026 

-0-0112311 

-0-0070767 

-0-0034867 

-0-00041081 

+0-00219840 

H-0-00438582 

+000619361 

+0-00766127 

+0-00882562 

+0-00972092 

+0-01037886 

+0-01082872 

+001109740 

+0-01120953 

+0-01118769 

+0-01105201 

+0-01082128 

+0-01051206 

+0-01013929 

+0-00971631 

+0-00925490 

+0-00876572 

+0-00825774 

+0-00773902 

+000721649 

+0-00669606 

+0-00618275 

+ 000568077 

+000519358 

+ 0-004723992 

+0-004274219 

+0-003845947 

+0003440398 

+0-003058385 

+0-002700365 

+0-002306486 



kei' X 



-0-4172274 

-0-3510551 

-0-2941816 

-0-2451147 

-0-2026818 

-0-1659424 

-0-1341282 

-0-1066010 

-0-0828234 

-0-0623373 

-0-0447479 

-00297123 

-0-0169298 

-0-0061358 

+0-0029043 

+0-0103990 

+0-0165342 

+0-0214762 

-1-0-0253738 

+0-0283603 

+0-0305554 

+0-0320662 

+0-0329886 

+0-0334087 

+0-0334030 

+0-0330400 

+0-03238046 

+0-03147849 

+0-03038179 

+0-02913242 

+0-02776730 

+0-02631868 

+0-02481454 

+0-02327908 

+0-02173300 

+0-02019391 

+0-01867661 

+0-01719340 

+0-01575436 

+0-01436757 

+0-01303935 

+0-01177440 

+001057633 

+0-00944717 

+000838818 

+0-00739967 

+0-00648121 

+0-00563171 

+0-00484957 

+0-00413275 

+0-00347886 

+0-00288523 

+0-002348995 

+ 0-001867130 

+ 0-001436521 

+0-001053999 

+0-000716382 

+0-000420510 

+0-000163267 



+0-3227118 

+0-3096416 

+0-2950081 

+0-2809038 

+0-2657772 

+0-2504385 

+0-2350657 

+0-2198079 

+0-2047897 

+0-1901137 

+0-1758638 

+0-1621069 

+0-1488954 

+0-1.362689 

+0-1242558 

+0-1128748 

+0-1021362 

+0-0920431 

+0-0825922 

-+0-0737752 

+0-0655794 

+0-0579881 

+0-0509821 

+0-0445394 

+0-0386364 

+0-0332480 

+0-02834832 

+0-02391062 

+0-01990804 

+0-01631367 

+0-01310084 

+0-01024331 

+0-00771543 

+0-00549226 

+000354976 

+0-00186478 

+0-00041522 

-0-00081998 

-0-00186079 

-0-00272605 

-0-00343349 

-0-00399969 

-0-00444016 

-0-00476928 

-000500041 

-000514584 

-0-00521689 

-0-00522392 

-0-00517637 

-0-00508283 

-000495105 

-0-00478803 

-0004600032 

-0-004392632 

-0-004170782 

-0-003938849 

-0-003700651 

-0-003459509 

-0003218285 



38 



REPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 





Table IV 


{Mr. Savidge's Table) — continued. 




.T 


ker X 


kei X 


ker'.r 


kei' X 


7-2 


+0-0019558C1 


+0-002056629 


-00000o8380 


-0002979421 


7-3 


+0-001940312 


+0-001770454 


-0-000247403 


-0002744978 


7-4 


+0001907373 


+0-001507429 


-0-000406628 


-0002516671 


7-5 


+0-001859888 


+0-001266868 


-0-000538787 


-0-002295904 


7-6 


+0-001800431 


+0001047959 


-0-000646478 


-0002083800 


7-7 


+0-001731326 


+0-000849790 


-0000732165 


-0-001881234 


7-8 


+0-001654654 


+0000671373 


-0-000798170 


-0-001688855 


7-9 


+0-001572275 


+0-000511664 


-0-000846677 


-0-001507120 


8-0 


+0-001485834 


+0000369584 


-0000879724 


-0-001336313 


81 


+0-001396782 


+0-000244032 


-0-000899210 


-0-001176567 


8-2 


+0-001306386 


+0-000133902 


-0-000906891 


-0-001027888 


8-3 


+0-001215743 


+0-000038090 


-0-000904388 


-0-000890168 


8-4 


+0-001125797 


-0-000044491 


-0-000893190 


-0-000763209 


8-5 


+0-001037349 


-0000114902 


-0-000874656 


-0-000646733 


8-6 


+0-000951070 


-0-000174175 


-0-000850022 


-0000540398 


8-7 


+0-000867511 


-0-000223306 


-0-000820407 


-0-000443813 


8-8 


+0-000787120 


-0-000263248 


-0-000786819 


-0000356543 


8-9 


+0-000710249 


-0000294910 


-0-000750159 


-0-000278127 


90 


+0-000637164 


-0-000319153 


-0-000711231 


-0-000208079 


91 


+0-000568055 


-0-000336788 


-0-000670745 


-0-000145903 


9-2 


+0-000603040 


-0-000348579 


-0-000629326 


-0-000091093 


9-3 


+0-000442203 


-0-000355236 


-0-000587517 


-0000043145 


9-4 


+0-000385540 


-0-000357420 


-0-000545789 


-0000001559 


9-5 


+0-000333029 


-0000355743 


-0-000504544 


+0000034158 


9-6 


+0-000284604 


-0-000350768 


-0-000464122 


+0-000064485 


9-7 


+0-000240168 


-0-000343010 


-0-000424806 


+0000089887 


9-8 


+0-000199598 


-0-000332940 


-0-000386830 


+0-000110811 


9-9 


+0-000162751 


-0-000320983 


-0000350379 


+0-000127684 


10 


+0-000129466 


-0-000307524 


-0-000315597 


+0000140914 



Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere. — Fourteenth Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Sir Napiee Shaw (Chairman), 
Mr. E. Gold (Secretary), Messrs. C. J. P. Cave and W. H. 
Dines, Dr. E. T. Glazebeook, Sir J. Laemoe, Professor 
J. E. Petavel, Dr. A. Schustee, and Dr. W. Watson. 
(Drawn up hy the Secretary.) 

The Committee has not met during the past year and no expendi- 
ture has been incurred. There is no inimediate prospect of further 
research, but it is desirable that the Committee should not lapse; a 
report on the investigations over the ocean, made in July 1914, is not 
yet completed; and further investigations ought to be made when 
arrangements can be made for them. It is therefore recommended 
that tlie Committee be reappointed with a grant of 251. Last year's 
grant of 251. has not been claimed. 



ON EADIOTELEGRAPHIC INVESTIGATIONS. 39 



Radiotelegraphic Investigations. — Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Sir Olivee Lodge (Chairman), Dr. W. H, Eccles 
(Secretary), Mr. Sidney G-. Brown, Dr. C. Chree, Pro- 
fessor A. S. Eddington, Dr. Erskine-Murray, Professors 
J. A. Fleming, GT. W. 0. Howe, H. M. Macdonald, and 
J. W. Nicholson, Sir Henry Norman, Captain H. E. 
Sankey, Professor A. Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, Professor 
S. P. Thompson, and Professor H. H. Turner. 

Effect of ihe War on the Worlc of the Committe-e. 

The war has had a very direct effect on radiotelegraphic investigations. 
About the beginning of August 1914 private wireless telegraph 
stations throughout the Empire nearly all stopped collecting statistics, 
while naval and other Government stations stopped all merely scientific 
observing. The radiotelegraphic stations in Russia, Germany, and 
neighbouring countries doubtless discontinued the filhng up of our 
forms as soon as mobilisation began. A few stations in India, 
Australia, Canada, the West Indies, and the United States are, how- 
ever, still at work. In the last-named country about 30 stations are 
making observations. 

The Committee's programme for the collection of statistics three days 
a week in all parts of the English-speaking world, and in a few other 
countries, was planned to embrace one complete round of the seasons. 
The fact that the programme has been interrupted after only tlxree 
months of work diminishes greatly the scientific value of such statistics 
as have been collected. It also implies considerable financial loss. A 
large batch of Forms was distributed to our Navy in July ; in clearing 
for action these Fonns would probably be wasted. The German edition 
was distributed in June. The Russian .edition also was probably dis- 
tributed before the outbreak of war. 

The extensive scheme of special observations projected for the 
occasion of the solar eclipse failed almost completely in the countries 
in which the eclipse was visible. A small amount of work was done in 
Norway and Sweden. All the necessary Forms had been printed, and 
some had been circulated, before the war started. The financial loss to 
the Committee in this respect exceeds a hundred pounds. 

The day-by-day statistics collected in the period April to Julj' have 
been partially analysed. The conclusions drawn from these observations 
are described below. Apart from any scientific value they possess 
they yield information which will guide the Committee, when the time 
comes, to further attacks on the problems concerned. A similar 
thought may be set down as consolation for the eclipse failure. 

Analysis of Records of Strays. 

Diurnal Variations. 

The principal and most universal fact is that the strays heard in the 
dark hours are much more numerous and louder than those heard during 



40 BEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

daylight. If curves be drawn showing the amount of disturbance to 
telegraphic work from hour to hour, two types of curve stand out : 
one in which the changes from day to night and night to day conditions 
are somewhat abrupt, and another in which the changes are much more 
gradual. The former curves might be called ' trough-shaped,' the 
latter ' U-shaped. ' The former type is met with at sea and on islands at 
a considerable distance from the mainland, the other on the mainland, 
especially in the tropics. The lowest point of the U or of the trough 
usually falls a little after midday, and the highest point of the convex 
part of the curve occui's a little after midnight, in nearly all stations 
north of the Equator. The only exception to this rule is found in some 
records from Lagos, Nigeria, where the curve showing the intensity of 
disturbance is lowest about seven in the morning and rises during the 
daylight hours. Unless local weather conditions are producing great 
disturbance, the change from night to day conditions and vice versa in 
stations north of the Equator lags behind the sunrise and the sunset. 
At some stations south of the Equator, e.g., Cocos Island, the opposite 
rule seems to be usual. These regular and universal diurnal variations 
have an average magnitude which is represented on the arbitrary scale 
used in the Forms by figures like 2 in the day and 5 at night in tropical 
latitudes, or 0"3 in the day and 3 at night in temperate latitudes. These 
figures are greatly affected by local meteorological conditions, which in 
fact frequently overwhelm all the statements set forth above. 

Periods of Excessive Disturbance. 

Occasionally the radiotelegraphic work at a station is rendered almost 
or quite impossible for a period, by strays of vigour and number greatly 
exceeding the average. These occurrences are for brevity called 
' X storms,' the term ' X ' being an alternative designation for ' stray ' 
or ' atmospheric' When an X storm happens in the day and lasts 
more than an hour or two, it may completely alter the character of the 
curve of that day's disturbances and even make the day poi'tion of the 
curve higher than the night portion. An analysis of the records has 
shown that X storms occur within the same two or three days over very 
wide areas. Occasionally X storms are reported almost simultaneously 
at places several hundred miles apart, but more usually the X storms 
occurring at such distances are separated b}'' several hours. Some of 
the European, American, and Canadian X storms have been compared 
with the meteorological records and charts for the two continents. 
The comparison has shown very plainly that periods of severe strays 
coincide with periods of low barometer, high wind velocity, rapid change 
of temperature, great rainfall, and, especially, rapid barometer fluctua- 
tions. In low latitudes the barometer fluctuations during violent X 
storms can usually be followed on any ordinary instrument. The worst 
X storm in the European records was accompanied by the rapid move- 
ment of a low-pressure system in a north-easterly direction. In 
twenty-four hours the eye of the cyclone moved from a point south-west 
of Lisbon to the North Sea, and in another twenty-four hours into 



ON RADIOTELEGRAPHIC INVESTIGATIONS. 41 

the Gulf of Bothnia. The worst X stonn in the American records was 
also accompanied by the exceptionally rapid movement eastward from 
the Pacific of a cyclonic depression with steep pressure gradients. A 
report from a Califomian station of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph 
Company of America on this latter occasion states that the barometer 
was fluctuating between 29-44 and 29-52 inches very rapidly, the varia- 
tions being accompanied by gusts of wind which attained the velocity of 
70 miles per hour. The disturbance produced in the telephones by the 
strays amounted to a roar. On this occasion, between 1 p.m. and night, 
the strays rapidly diminished as the wind fell and the barometer rose. 
These meteorological conditions are precisely those that accompany or 
precede thunder storms and line squalls; and, in fact, the records 
of the Meteorological Offices, and of the observers reporting to the Com- 
mittee, all lead to the conclusion that X storms are often associated 
with thunder storms at places not very far distant. Sometimes all the 
symptoms of thunder weather except thunder and lightning may.be 
present in a locality and a heavy X storm be recorded : e.g., Mr. P. H. 
Burns, Superintendent of Telegraphs in the Bahamas, reports thathe 
has often been experiencing an X storm when a sudden shift of wind 
to the north-west (wind velocity about twenty miles per hour) has taken 
place, and been followed by heavy rain, a calm, low temperature, 
lessened humidity, and a total disappearance of strays — all without 
thunder or lightning. To some extent these are symptoms of the 
passage of a small secondary or V depression such as might not be 
recorded on synoptic charts. 

It is well known that the unstable atmospheric conditions bringing 
thunder weather sometimes move at a relatively slow rate from place 
to place, and may have their movements traced by the ordinary 
methods of meteorology. The analysis of the radiotelegraphic records 
shows that such convective weather can be anticipated several days in 
advance. This is particularly well borne out by some of the Malta 
records when taken together with some abstracts of the meteorological 
conditions kindly supphed by Dr. T. Agius, in charge of the Observatory 
at Valetta: — 

Strays bad All Aug. 22 and 23, 1914 . Greatest rainfall of month Aug. 24. 
„ „ Nights of Sept. 22 and 23 

and day of 24 . . „ » ,, Sept. 25. 

„ „ All Oct. 6 and 7 . . „ „ „ Oct. 9. 

„ „ All day Nov. 12 . . „ „ „ Nov. 13. 

Dec. 26 and 27 . . . Greatest fall in temperature, lowest 

barometer Dec. 28. 
,, „ Jan. 20, 1915 . . . Greatest rainfall Jan. 21. 

„ „ May 27 and 28, 1915. . „ „ May 31. 

A report received from the wireless-telegraph station of the Govern- 
ment of Australia situated at Esperance states that during the day-time 
rain is preceded in at least eighty per cent, of cases by interaiittent 
disturbances. Strays of varying strengths may be heard from 6 a.m. to 



42 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

sunset for one or more consecutive days prior to rain. The following 
instances may be quoted : — 

Feb. 13, 1915 . . Strays strength 2a from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
Feb. 14, 1915 . . „ 3a from 6 a.m. to 10 a.m. and 

4a from then till 5 P.M. 
Feb. 15, 1915 . . „ 3a from 6 a.m. to 1 p.m. and 

3c from 1 p.m. to 7 p.m. 

On February 15, 16, 17 and 18, 167 points of rain were recorded, of 
which only 3 points fell on the 15th. On February 23, 1915, and 
strays were of strength 3a from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. On February 24 
129 points of rain fell. 

This conclusion is borne out in other ways by some of the records 
forwarded to the Committee. There is evidence that north-west winds 
on our Atlantic coasts, especially in the winter, are associated with 
strong strays at Irish stations and at sea. The atmosphei-ic convection 
produced by the land may be sufficient to account for this. Mr. H. 
Eicci, of the Marconi Company, who has made reports on two trips 
I'ound the world, during which he made especially careful daily observa- 
tions, states that in mid-ocean strays are, as a rule, very few and feeble 
both in the day and in the night ; but that when the edge of a 
mountainous continent is approached strong, and even continuous, 
strays are normal. In this something must depend on the direction of 
the prevailing wind relative to the land — a matter that will be inquired 
into later. 

It may be mentioned here as veiy significant that the months of 
the greatest X stonns in the Mediterranean are shown by the records to 
be September and October, the months of cyclonic weather. 

As a whole the statistics show that there appear to be two kinds 
of X storm occurring in the day-time : (1) Those produced by convec- 
tive conditions in the atmosphere within, perhaps, a hundred miles of 
the station, which may be termed local X storms ; (2) Those originating 
at a distance. Eegarding the first class, they may occur almost simul- 
taneously over a whole continent, but this is only because convective 
conditions happen to be ruling all over that area. Stations not too far 
outside the boundaiy of such a region also receive many strays, but 
apparently their distance must be hmited to within 200 miles of 
the disturbed regions. In general, we may conclude that the ob- 
servation of strays in the day-time constitutes a method of feeling the 
fringe of a region of convective weather, and so anticipating thunder 
and rain a day or two in advance. Of course, this ability to prophesy 
the advent of thunder weather is well known and is as old as wireless 
telegraphy itself ; but hitherto it has been thought that the electric dis- 
charges at a great distance were responsible for the strays heard at the 
station attempting to prophesy. The present analysis indicates, rather, 
that at any rate in the day-time the strays are frequently due to very 
local discharges, often too weak to give noticeable lightning or thunder, 
but definitely indicative of an approaching period of instability in the 
atmosphere. 

The second kind of X storm is not of strictly local origin, but is 
sometimes traceable in the stray observations made hourly at the Malta 



ON RADIOTELEGRAPHIC INVESTIGATIONS. 



43 



station of the Eastern Telegraph Company, and the Sierra Leone 
station of the African Direct Telegraph Company. There is evidence that 
on certain occasions the same cause is affecting both stations though 
they are separated by 2,500 miles, mostly across mountain and desert. 

As regards disturbances observed at night-time, these are also fre- 
quently very local and due to convective weather, but there is probably 
a greater proportion of non-local storms than appears in the day records. 
In this connection may be noted a report from Australian stations that 
the worst and most continuous type of disturbance (apart from local 
thunder storms) occurs on calm nights when the sky is blue and starry. 

As a contrast to the prevalence of strays during convective weather 
may be instanced the fact, reported by Lieut. E. R. Macpherson from 
Sierra Leone, that a very dry wind which blows periodically for several 
days on the West Coast of Africa causes an almost complete cessation of 
strays immediately it starts and allows of their resumption immediately 
it stops. On the other hand, the monsoon period on the same coast is 
one marked by great X storms. 

Correlation of Records at Distant Stations. 

The daily records of strays received at the above-mentioned stations 
in Malta and Sierra Leone have been examined carefully for the period 
August 1914 to May 1915 inclusive. This period has been treated in 
four sections of two and a half months each. It will be sufficient to 



give the following figures, which 
2 A.M., Greenwich mean time: — 



refer to the night hours 10 p.m. to 



M. indicates Malta, S. L. indicates Siena Leone. 



Mean M. . . . 

Probable error 
Mean S. L. 

Probable error 
Standard Deviation, M 

„ ,, S. L. 

Correlation Coefficient 

Probable error 




Graphic Records. 

Many observers have made for the Committee precise observations 
of individual strays by making, on lines graduated to represent time, 
marks corresponding to each stray as heard in the telephones, the zero 
of time being fixed by aid of radiotelegraphic time signals within range of 
the obsei-ver. Comparison of the records made in the British Isles has 
shown that on an average night many of tlie strong strays are heard by 
all the observers, and on days free fi'om X storms the same remark 
applies. Coincidences have also been noticed between pairs of American 
stations not too widely separated. The analysis for very distant 
stations has not yet been carried out except for a veiy few in Europe. 
For example, in the month of June 1914, coincidences have been traced 
in the strays heard at Southampton and Dresden, Gibraltar and Dresden, 



44 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

Guildford and Malta. A proper investigation of the meteorological 
conditions accompanying or determining the periods when strays are 
heard simultaneously at places very wide apart has not yet been made. 

Auroral Displays and Strays. 

By the kindness of General Geo. P. Scriven, Chief Signal 
Officer of the United States Army, the Committee have been able to 
obtain reports from Officers in the Wireless Telegraph stations of 
Alaska concerning the presence or absence of any connection between 
auroral displays and disturbances due to natural electric waves or 
atmospheric discharges. At six stations special observations have been 
made during the later months of the past winter. Various types of 
aurora were watched, but nearly all the observers reported that the 
appearance or disappearance of auroras caused no unusual disturbances. 
The best months for such observations in Alaska would, it is stated, be 
October and November. The systematic work had not then been 
started, but one telegraphist reports that during this period of more 
brilliant display the only thing noticed in the radiotelegraphic apparatus 
was a trifle more electrical disturbance than occurred when there was 
no aurora. 

The 27-day Period of Magnetic Variations. 

Such of the radiotelegraphic records as were suitable for the purpose 
have been analysed with a view to detecting a 27-day period in the 
cases : days with many strays, nights with many strays, nights with 
few strays. No trace of this period or of any nearly equal period has as 
yet been found, but the matter cannot be regarded as settled till more 
numerous and more continuous records are available. 

The Committee desire to express their coi'dial thanks for the help 
extended to them by the Government Departments, companies, and 
private individuals named below. The list refers to those whose co- 
operation has been of importance in the matters described in the preced- 
ing pages, and does not include the names of those who have helped in 
other investigations. The assistance of the latter will be duly acknow- 
ledged in future Reports. 

The British Admiralty and Post Office; the Colonial Office; the 
Governments of AustraHa, Canada, and New Zealand; the War Depart- 
ment and the Navy Department of the United States of America; and 
the Telegraph Department of the Dutch East Indies: the Marconi 
Companies in England, Canada, and the United States and the Marconi 
International Marine Communication Company; the Eastern Telegraph, 
Eastern Extension, and African Direct Telegraph Companies ; H. Bark- 
hausen, W. G. Cady, E. T. Cottingham, D. O. Davies, E. H. Dixon, 
E. D. Evens, J. P. Pennelly, A. Gorham, P. Kilbitz, J. R. Lamming, 
ti: ^■. Lomas, P. A. Love, E. R. Macpherson, T. J. Matthews, W. E. 
Nicoll, P. E. Norns, R. Ricci, D. Rintoul, C. Ross, A. Hoyt Taylor. 



ON ESTABLISHING A SOLAR OBSERVATORY IN AUSTRALIA. 45 



Establishing a Solar Observatory in Australia. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor H. H. Turner (Chair- 
man), Professor W. G. Duffield (Secretunj), Kev. A. L. 
CORTIE, Sir F. W. Dyson, and Professors A. S, Eddington, 
H. F. Newall, J. W. Nicholson, and A. Schuster, 
(Dratcn up by the Secretary.) 

The visit of the British Association to Austraha was made the occasion 
for further representations to the Commonwealth Government of the 
urgency of Austraha's co-operation in the work of solar observation. 
The previous report of the Committee contained the official announce- 
ment from the Commonwealth Government that in the scheme for the 
organisation of services in connection with the Seat of Government at 
Canberra provision had been made for the study of Solar Physics. The 
Prime Minister received a deputation of members of the Committee 
upon matters relating to the institution of this work in the Common- 
wealth. 

Professor Orme Mas son, in introducing the deputation, referred to 
the world-wide interest taken in the movement to establish a Solar 
Observatory in Australia, and to the fact that so many British 
asti'onomers had joined the party to Australia in spite of the counter- 
attractions of a total solar eclipse in another part of the world. 

The Astronomer Eoyal said that he had, with others, urged upon 
Mr. Batchelor the importance of sun work in Australia where suitable 
facilities existed for its study apart from other astronomical questions. 
Australia was most favourably situated geographically; he hoped that 
the visiting astronomers would be able to leave Australia with the 
assurance that, as soon as the war was over, the Observatory would 
be a going concern. 

Professor Turner stated that one of the prime factors in determining 
his acceptance of the Commonwealth's invitation to visit Australia 
was the prospect of assisting in founding a Solar Observatory in that 
country ; he stated that, though a promise of an observing station in 
New Zealand had been made, solar radiation could not be undertaken 
there, and, further, there was urgent need for solar physics investiga- 
tions to be made further north. They had been regarding the sun too 
long as a permanent source of light and heat ; all the tendencies of 
modern science went to show the opposite — that it presented variations, 
an inquiry into which might be of immense value to agriculture. Dis- 
cussions with his astronomical colleagues had been embarrassed by the 
war, which had made it seem doubtful whether it was the right moment 
to ask anybody for anything at all ; but while it was obvious that 
immediate action might be impossible, it seemed undesii'able to lose the 
opportunity of putting on record the views of visiting astronomers and 
tlieir enthusiasm for this great project. He hoped that the present 
observatories in Australia would not be disturbed. 



46 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1915. 

Professor Abbot said that prior to ten years ago no knowledge 
existed of the energy of the sun, or of the intensity of its radiation. 
Its variation ranged to as high as 5 and 10 per cent. Solar observa- 
tories had been established in California and Algeria, and they should be 
muhlphed in different parts of the globe. In Austraha there was a 
clear, unvarying transparency in the air which was particularly adapt- 
able. It was hoped that the work would be extended to South America, 
Africa, and India. The approximate cost of installing radiation appara- 
tus at the Australian statioii was 2,000L, and the maintenance about 
1,300L a year. 

Sir Oliver Lodge urged that if the work was to be attacked in 
Austraha it should be done thoroughly, and emphasised the desirability 
of associating laboratory work with that of solar observation. The 
British Association for the Advancement of Science had for many years 
strongly supported the institution of solar research in Australia, and it 
was a matter of great satisfaction that there was now a prospect of the 
fulfilment of the international scheme. 

Professor Duffield outlined the support already accorded by the 
Commonwealth towards the scheme for the institution of solar work in 
Australia, referring in particular to the support given by Mr. Mahon and 
Mr. Deakin, the latter of whom in 1909 offered 1,500?. per annum 
towards this institution if the equipment were forthcoming from other 
sources. The Commonwealth had subsequently accepted the telescope 
offered by Mr. Oddie, of Ballarat, and the Farnham telescope. Tire 
former had been installed at Canberra and the latter had now been 
brought to Australia, and, on receiving the assurance that the Govern- 
ment intended to proceed with the project at an early date, the instru- 
ment would be handed over to the Commonwealth. 

A sum of money amounting to upwards of 1,500Z. had been sub- 
scribed towards the purchase of other apparatus for the Solar Observa- 
tory; this had been offered to the Commonwealth, but for some reason 
had not been accepted. Should there be any disposition on the part 
of the Commonwealth to undertake to make use of this apparatus, the 
offer of it would be repeated. He did not believe that the institution of 
a Solar Observatory in New Zealand should deter the Commonwealth 
Government from undertaking this work, since both institutions were 
required. 

The Hon. Alfred Deakin (late Prime Minister of Australia) stated 
that he was in sympathy with the objects of the deputation. When 
the matter was brought before him on a previous occasion he had 
supported it, as other speakers had stated. He was not sure what the 
Prime Minister would feel should be done in view of the situation 
created by the war, but trusted that all that was possible would be 
done to further this scheme. 

Mr. Joseph Cook (the Prime Minister), in reply, said that he would 
like to accede to the wishes of the deputation at once ; it appeared to 
him that the matter was one desei-ving of attention, and if times were 
normal he would not hesitate to have a sum placed upon the Estimates 
for the establishment and upkeep of such an institution. It had been 
part of the pohcy of the Government to consider whether they could do 



ON ESTABLISHING A SOLAR OBSERVATORY IN AUSTRALIA. 47 

away with the State observatories and combine them all in one central 
observatory for Australia ; he would like to hear the reasons why that 
should not be done. Present war obligations precluded voting large 
amounts; he would see, however, how far the matter could be carried, 
and would promise that one of the last things to be set aside on the 
score of economy would be the suggestion made by the deputation. 

In addition to the speakers, Professors E. "W. Brown, A. S. Edding- 
ton, and J. W. Nicholson supported the deputation, and Mr. Baracchi, 
Government Astronomer for Victoria, wrote a letter strongly emphasis- 
ing the need for solar research in the Commonwealth, and expressing 
the opinion from personal observation that Canberra would prove a 
suitable site. 

The Secretary of the Committee was subsequently invited to discuss 
the matter with the Prime Minister, with the result that estimates were 
drawn up for making a beginning of the institution. These and the offer 
of apparatus mentioned at the deputation were the subject of discussion 
at a Cabinet meeting, the outcome of which was the following letter: — 

COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA. 

• 

Prime Minister. 
Melbourne, Aug. 20, 1914. 
Dear Sir, — With reference to our interview relative to the question 
of establishing a Solar Observatory and to the offer made by you to 
hand over immediately to the Commonwealth one Farnham 6-inch tele- 
scope — the Commonwealth paying freight and packing charges — also 
later on to present to the Commonwealth one spectroheliograph and one 
pyrheliometer, both of which have yet to be purchased with funds 
collected and in your charge, I desire to inform you that the Commons- 
wealth Government has much pleasure in accepting the instruments so 
kindly offered, and appreciates the public spirit of the donors. No 
guarantee, however, can be given when a Solar Observatory will be 
established beyond saying that when times are more favourable the 
instruments will be erected in an appropriate building and observations 
conducted. Meanwhile the instruments will be carefully housed and 
looked after. 

Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) Joseph Cook. 
Professor W. G. Duffield, D.Sc, Sydney. 

Upon receipt of this letter Professor Duffield handed over to the 
Commonwealth the Farnham telescope, which had been offered in 1908 
by the late Mr. W. E. Wilson on behalf of the trustees of the late Lord 
Farnham. The telescope has been temporarily housed at the Melbourne 
Observatory by the Commonwealth authorities. 

Subsequent to Mr. Cook's relinquishing office the present Govern- 
ment, under Mr. Fisher, has taken over the obligations entered into by 
Mr. Cook and Mr. Deakin, and has defrayed the cost of freight, package, 
and repair of the Farnham telescope, and also has made provision for 
an Evershed spectroscopic attachment, amounting in all to 1001. 

Other activities by members of the Committee were displayed by a 



48 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1915. ] 

discussion following upon the reading of tlie last Eeport of the Com- 
mittee in Melbourne, which was reported in the Australian papers ; and 
by a vigorous reply to a newspaper criticism by the Chairman. The 
Committee also wishes to draw attention to the valuable report upon the 
site of the Observatory at Canberra written by Mr. Baracchi, of which a 
brief account was read to the Association in Melbourne. 

Though the war will necessarily delay the institution of the Solar 
Observatory at Canberra, the Committee trusts that its efforts have 
met with a measure of success. 



Determination of Gravity at Sea. — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor A. E. H. Love {Chairman), 
Professor W. Gr. Duffield (Secretary), Mr. T. W. 
Chaundy, Sir F. W. Dyson, Professor A. S. Eddington, 
and Professor H. H. Turner. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

It was decided by the Committee of Section A that advantage should 
if possible be taken of the voyage to Australia for the 1914 Meeting 
of the British Association to undertake a series of observations upon 
the determination of the value of gravity over the ocean. The main 
object of the research was to test the compensation theory, or theory 
of the isostatic layer, in regard to the distribution of matter in the 
superficial portions of the earth. The Secretary to the Committee 
undertook to make an attempt to solve the problem, and upon the 
advice of the Chairman wrote to Professor Hecker, who had previously 
undertaken some important researches in this respect. 

Professor Hecker advised that six months' preparation would be 
insuflicient to enable an experimenter to accumulate the apparatus and 
become au fait with the technique of the method which he had em- 
ployed in 1901 and 1904 — i.e., the comparison of a mercurial barometer 
with a boiling-point apparatus for determining the atmospheric pres- 
sure. But after consultation with Professor Helmert he invited the 
Secretary to test a new piece of apparatus which he had had constructed 
for the determination of gravity at sea, and which he had not previously 
had the opportunity of testing. This depends upon balancing a column 
of mercury against air enclosed in a vessel and maintained at a con- 
stant temperature. The Secretary regretfully accepted Professor 
Hecker 's dictum concerning the undesirability of attempting to repeat 
the experiments by the boiling-point method, but gratefully accepted 
his offer of the opportunity to test the new piece of apparatus. A feature 
of the new method being the constancy of the temperature of the air 
reservoir, it was necessary to carry out the experiments in the refrigera- 
tor of a vessel. The Secretary was fortunate in obtaining the permis- 
sion of Messrs. Alfred Holt & Co., of the Holt Line of steamships, to 
make use of the refrigerator on board the Steamship Ascanius, which 
was sailing from Liverpool on June 22, 1914. By invitation, he in- 
spected the refrigerating chambers on a sister ship, as the Ascanius 



ON DETERMINATION OF GRAVITY AT SEA. 49 

was then in foreign parts, and Messrs. Holt, who accompanied him, 
offered very kindly to mstaU a special chamber upon the dscataus im- 
mediately upon her return to home waters, for the purpose of these 
experiments. This generous offer was accepted and a cliamber built 
which was capable of separate temperature regulation and htted with 
certain necessary conveniences for the research. Lt is not proposed, in 
the interim Keport, to describe this laboratory — that is reserved for 
the main Eeport, which, it is hoped, will be completed shortly. 

In order to gain a first-hand knowledge of the method of using 
Hecker's apparatus, it was decided that the Secretary should visit 
Professor Hecker's laboratory in Strassburg as soon as the necessary 
cahbration of thermometers and general overhauhng of the apparatus 
had been accomplished. Unfortunately this took longer than was 
expected, as four new thermometers had to be made, and Professor 
Hecker was not able to wire that all was ready until three weeks before 
the date of sailing. After five days with Professor Hecker the Secretary 
returned to England, bringing with him the barometers and ther- 
mometers and leaving five cases to be despatched direct to the Ascanius. 
The glass parts were safely conveyed by hand to Beading, and subse- 
quently to the ship in Liverpool. It was extremely unfortunate for 
the success of the experiment that there was no time for assembhng 
and testing the apparatus before the ship sailed. Although Messrs. Holt 
placed their joiner and two carpenters at the continuous disposal of the 
experimenter for three days before the ship sailed, and though Dr. 
Sadler had come from Reading to assist in this work, it was not found 
possible to get the apparatus installed and the final adjustments made 
before the ship sailed. At first the variations in the temperature of the 
special chamber afforded some trouble, but, thanks to the kind collabora- 
tion of Captain Chrimes and the chief engineer, Mr. Douglas, it was 
arranged with the refrigerating engineer, Mr. Latham, that the tempera- 
ture of the chamber should be adjusted at intervals of about twenty 
minutes during the day-time and one-hour intervals during the night. 
The results of this frequent adjustment will be shown in the final Report. 
It does credit to Mr. Latham's devoted attention. The Committee 
records its appreciation of their services to the captain and engineers of 
the Ascanius and to Messrs. Alfred Holt for having placed all then- 
resources at the disposal of the experimenter. Unfortunately, Hecker's 
apparatus did not prove satisfactory, because it was discovered late in 
the voyage that all four barometers had developed leaks. It was hoped 
at the time that these leaks had only developed during the rough 
weather which preceded their discovery, but subsequent careful ex- 
amination of the results has shown, unfortunately without any possible 
doubt, that the barometers were never air-tight. This is perhaps not 
very surprising considering that each barometer includes six metal to 
metal joints, three glass to metal joints, and one glass tap, and that the 
strains at sea are very considerable. After a consultation with some 
of the members of the British Association on the Ascanius, it 
was decided that the only hope of making successful use of Hecker's 
apparatus was to coat each barometer with a heavy layer of wax. 
During the comparatively calm weather which preceded the ship's 

1915. E 



50 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

arrival at Fremantle two of the barometers were opened and closed 
again, and sealed with all the wax which could be found on the 
ship. The remaining two were similarly treated at Fremantle with 
paraffin wax purchased at that port. Disappointed at the nugatory 
results of these experiments, the Secretary, who had previously made 
arrangements to return via Suez, now decided to abandon that route and 
to repeat the experiments on the homeward voyage round the Cape of 
Good Hope on board the Ascanius, as the captain and engineers ex- 
pressed their wiUingness to assist. Unfortunately these arrangements 
had also to be abandoned, because, with the arrival at Adelaide, came 
the news of the outbreak of war, and the ship was eventually 
requisitioned by the Government It was not possible to obtain 
permission to return with the troops and to make use of the 
refrigerator, so it became necessary to find some other means of 
returning with the apparatus. Up to the time of the British Association 
meeting in Melbourne the work had been done by Dr. Duffield upon 
his own responsibility, but, at that meeting, the Committee was formed 
of which this is the Interim Eeport. The Committee expressed its hope 
that if possible the experiments should be carried out on the return 
journey, so after numerous inquiries and interviews with shipping 
authorities the Secretary was given permission to install his apparatus 
in the refrigerator of the E.M.S. Morea. The Committee is indebted 
to the Superintendent of the P. and 0. Company in Sydney for en- 
couraging this research, and to the purser of the Morea (Mr. Owen 
Jones), but it was the goodwill and the assistance which the ship's 
butcher and his mate gave on the voyage which rendered it possible 
under very adverse conditions to take advantage of the permission which 
had been given and to make an attempt to carry out this research upon 
the homeward voyage. 

In the first place it was necessary to construct a laboratory in the 
depths of the ship's refrigerator (which was approached by three nearly 
vertical ladders). This was accomplished by the ship's carpenters 
through the courtesy of the Chief Ofiicer ; the wiring for the electric fan 
and lights was carried out by the Electrical Engineers of the ship. The 
next care was the packing up and removal of the apparatus fi-om the 
refrigerator of the Ascanius and its conveyance to the Morea. The 
breakables were carried by hand and the heavier parts by carrier. The 
whole operation lasted one week, and the transference was successfully 
accomplished. The barometers were unsealed, opened, closed, and re- 
sealed and heavily coated with wax in Sydney harbour. During the 
homeward voyage, as during the outward one, observations were made 
on an average three times a day, and the films were developed on the 
voyage. Unfortunately, the same facilities for controlling the tem- 
perature were not available on the Morea, and on some occasions the 
fluctuations were very remarkable. Another disadvantage, as far as 
this experiment was concerned, was the vibration, which threw the 
surface of the mercury into a constant state of agitation and which could 
not effectively be damped; nevertheless, observations usually of an 
hour's duration were carried out three times a day during the whole 
voyage. It was regarded as unfortunate that the experiments could not 



ON DETERMINATION OF GRAVITY AT SEA. 51 

is one of the many researches which have suffered on account of the 
favourable conditions as attended their conduct on the Ascanius. This 
is one of tlie many researches wliich liave suffered on account of the 
war. 

In addition to the main Hne of attack it was considered of interest to 
repeat a method wliich had been used in 1866, when the readings of mer- 
cui-ial and aneroid barometers were compared. Mr. Whipple, of the 
Meteorological Office, has described the aneroid which the Cambridge 
Scientific Instrument Co. kindly lent the experimenter for this occasion 
(vide ' Journal Eoyal Meteorological Society ') and the Meteorological 
Office kindly lent a dial mercurial instrument. A criticism of this 
method will appear in the main Eeport. Messrs. Cossor constructed to 
the design of the Secretary a third piece of apparatus in which, as in 
Hecker's method, a column of mercury was balanced by the pressure 
of air in a reservoir, but it was arranged that the volume of air could be 
kept constant by introducing into or removing from the vertical column 
a quantity of mercury whose volume could be measured. In spite of the 
efforts of the Secretary and of Dr. Sadler, whose assistance in installing 
the apparatus in the refrigerator laboratory is very gratefully recorded, 
it was not found possible to get this last piece of apparatus into working 
order before the ship sailed; during the voyage this was accomplished, 
but the working loose of a glass tap, though bound with an india-rubber 
band, let air into it, causing the glass to break. Experimenters with 
glass apparatus may be warned that on hoard ship the constant vibra- 
tion imposes conditions foreign to those pertaining to their laboratories 
ashore. Through the courtesy of Professor Kerr Grant, of the Adelaide 
University, the workshop of the Physical Laboratory of that institution 
was placed at the disposal of the Secretary for the repair of the 
apparatus, but in spite of the efforts of Mr. Eogers, the head of the 
workshop department, whose skill as a glassblower enabled him to 
reconstruct the apparatus, it was not found possible to get it adjusted 
before the time came to re-embark upon the homeward voyage. 

In conclusion, it is to be feared that results capable of determining 
the fluctuations of gravity over a large surface of the globe have not 
been obtained. The most that can be hoped for is that local variations, 
such as obtain when one passes from deep water into a shallow 
harbour, may have been at favourable times determined. It cannot, 
however, be doubted that the experience gained of the different kinds 
of apparatus, and of the various errors to which they are liable, will be 
of service in some attack upon the problem which it is hoped that the 
Committee will undertake in the near future. 



p. 2 



52 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



Seismological Investigations. — Twentieth Report of the Gom- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. H. Turner {Chairman), 
Professor J. Perry (Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, 
Mr. Horace Darwin, Mr. C. Davison, Sir F. W. Dyson, 
Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, Mr. M. H. Gray, Professor J. 
W. JuDD, Professor C. G. Knott, Sir J. Larmor, Professor 
E. Meldola, Mr. W. E. Plummer, Professor E. A. Sampson, 
Professor A. Schuster, Mr. J. J. Shaw, Sir Napier 
Shaw, and Dr. G. M^. Walker. 

[Plates I., II., III., IV.] 



I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 



Contents. 

General Notes, Accounts 52 

Stations {Destruction of Instruments at Cocos) .54 

Seismic Activity in 1911, 1912, 1913. (Discussion deferred) ... 55 

Distribution of Milne's Epicentres, 1899-1910 55 

Improvements of the Milne Seismograph 56 

The Milne-Shaw Seismograph 57 

The Milne-Burgess Seismograph 68 

Di^irnal Wanderings of the Traces 58 

Insect Disturbances of Seismographs 66 

~" " ~ " ~" " . . 67 

. . 73 

. 74 

. 74 

. . 74 



The Identification of S : Suggestion of a New Phenomenon Y 
Correction of Tables deferred 

Shide Bulletins 

New Method of Computation 
Standardizing a Milne-Shaw Seismograph 



I. General Notes, Stations, and Registers. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed with a grant of 60L in addition 
to the annual grant of lOOL from the Caird Fund already voted. 

The two years which have elapsed since the death of John Milne 
provide a sufficient experience for an approximate budget for carrying 
on the work he had organised, with such natural developments as are 
mentioned below and liad already been initiated by him. The accounts 
for one vear stand thxis : 



Receipts. 

(1) Brit. Assoc. Annual Grant . £60 

(2) „ „ Printing . . 70 

(3) Gray Fund 40 

(4) Royal Society . . . .200 

(5) Brit. Assoc. (Caird Fund) . 100 

Total .... £470 



Expenditure 

(A) Salaries 

(B) Printing 

(C) Rent . 

(D) Shide Station . 

(E) New machines, &c. 



£240 
80 
20 
65 
65 

£470 



On the receipts side the items are arranged in historical order. Item (1 ) 
dates practically from the appointment of the present Committee (as 
the fusion of two former Committees of the Association) in 1895 (Ipswich). 
The first grant to the Committee was 80/. Subsequent grants have 
fluctuated in amount, but tlie average annual grant in the twenty years 
1895-1914 is almost exactly 60?., which has been the uniform grant since 
1908. When observing stations had been established over the globe 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 53 

and it was desirable to print the information received from them in 
circulars for prompt distribution, the Association sanctioned additional 
expenditure on the printing of these circulars, which has in recent years 
been separately mentioned and has stood at the figure quoted — 701. 
This does not quite cover the cost of the modern bulletins. 

Item No. (3) is the annual income from a sum of ],000l. in Canadian 
Pacific 4% Stock, presented by Mr. M. H. Gray in aid of Milne's work. 

Since some years before Milne's death, the Eoyal Society have pro- 
vided, either from the Government Grant Fund or in some other way, 
an annual sum of 2001. in aid of the work. They have continued this 
grant during the past tvvo years, but are in no way committed to its 
future continuance. On Milne's death the Council of the British Associa- 
tion decided to make an additional grant of lOOL annually from the 
Caird benefaction. 

It will be seen that the available income is not only small but some- 
what precarious. It is quite insufficient to pay the salary of a competent 
Director, which would in itself amount to more than the whole sum 
available. Moreover, items (1), (2), and (4) depend on decisions made 
from year to year by bodies which are not committed for their future 
continuance. 

Assuming that continuance for the present, the work can be carried 
on as described below with voluntary superintendence. 

For completeness it should perhaps be mentioned that a sum of 
1,000^. will ultimately be available for seismological work in accordance 
with Milne's bequest. 

On the expenditure side item (A) chiefly represents the salaries of 
three people who carry on the work at Shide, viz., Mr. J. H. Burgess 
{1261. a year), who was already working under Milne's direction. He 
has a printing business in Newport which claims a portion of his time ; 
the rest he has given enthusiastically to seismology. It is practically 
owing to him that the continuity of the work remained unbroken by 
Milne's death. Mr. S. W. Pring {QOl. a year) is also in business, but spends 
his evenings at the Observatory. His interest in the work began through 
his knowledge of Russian and other languages, which made his help 
valuable in translating seismological documents, especially the important 
pamphlets in Russian ; but he has gradually made himself acquainted 
with the whole of the work, so that he can take charge of it on occasions 
when Mr. Burgess is unavoidably absent. His daughter. Miss K. Pring 
{SQL a year), gives practically all her time to the work during the day ; 
she is chiefly occupied with the large amount of clerical work involved 
in copying the records received on to the cards, arranging the cards for 
the bulletins, proof reading, &c. 

This leaves 181. out of the 240Z. entered, chiefly travelling expenses 
of the present Director, who visits Shide five or six times a year ; the 
remainder being paid to a charwoman for cleaning, &c. 

Item (B). The ' Shide Circulars,' which simply reproduced the in- 
formation received from each station, have been replaced by Bulletins 
which analyse the results. Expense has been minimised by printing 
only the results for considerable earthquakes, but even then it is difiicult 
to avoid exceeding slightly the grant definitely available for printing. 

Item (C). The rent for the Observatory was fixed by Mrs. Milne's 
trustees, after consideration of the legal aspect of the question. The 



54 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1915. 

Observatory is annexed to the house in which Mrs. Milne continues to 
reside, and the Committee has to acknowledge gratefully her kind occa- 
sional attention to Observatory matters. Th-e assistants who work 
in the Observatory all live at a distance, and arrangements are sometimes 
much facilitated by the help of some one residing on the s-[)ot. 

Items (D) and (E) are not readily separable because during the past 
two years part of the work at Shide has been to experiment with new 
instruments, as described below. Looking backward, item (E) covers 
expenditure on three or four new machines ; the first, constructed by 
Mr. Shaw at Milne's request and delivered soon after his death, was 
satisfactorily ' damped ' but had not sufficient magnification. To get 
more magnification, Mr. Shaw preferred to make a new machine rather 
than alter the former. Meanwhile, Mr. Burgess, with the kind help of 
Mr. A. E. Conrady, devised another t3'pe with optical magnification 
(instead of mechanical as in Mr. Shaw's), which is being tried side by 
side with the former. Finally, a Milne-Shaw machine has been made 
for trial at Eskdalemuir alongside the GaUtzin and Wiechert machines. 
Looking forward it is hoped that at least some such sum as item (E) may 
be available annually for replacing the existing Milne machines, which 
scarcely meet modern requirements. The conditions under which many 
of them were estabhshed will be found described in the 1898 Keport 
(Bristol), p. 179. The original Shide instruments were provided from the 
Government grant ; later an improved twin-boom Milne was provided by 
the generosity of Mr. Yarrow; the Victoria (B.C.) instrument from the 
British Association grant (Toronto, 1897), which also provided half the 
cost of the Mauritius instrument. Other machines were provided by 
various Governments, observatories, and individuals, but it seems doubt- 
ful how far their aid can be again invoked in this way, at any rate until the 
advantages and working of an improved type of instrument have been 
demonstrated by a number of good examples. 

II. Stations. — Destruction of Instruments at Cocos. 

A letter, dated April 1, 1915, from Mr. Walter Judd, Electrician- 
in-Chief of the Eastern Extension, Australasia and China Telegraph Com- 
pany, informed us that : ' the Seismograph installed at our Cocos Station 
was destroyed by the landing party from the Emden last November.' 
On April 12 a further letter "from the General Manager communicated 
the following telegram from the Company's Manager at Singapore : 
' Meteorological insts. destroyed by Emden, Singapore advised 27 March, 
Straits Government intend replace.' 

Probably the replacement must wait for more peaceful times. The 
Cocos installation dates from 1909, and is due to the generosity of the 
Company. 

Neiu Station at New'port {I. Wiyht).— In recent bulletins it will be 
noticed that besides the Shide Station, one at Newport is quoted. This 
is the station of Mr. W. H. Bullock, a builder in Newport, who did much 
work for Milne, became keenly interested in Seismology on his own account, 
and has devised an instrument of his own, with Milne suspension, smoked 
paper drum and high magnification. It shows the beginnings of the 
various phases very beautifully. At present there is no damping beyond 
the friction of the point on the smoked paper, which is effective for small 
movements, but not for large. Mr. Bullock is experimenting with electro- 



5?\fHWU5e^ 



.%,.% 



<feALH\^ 



British Associatimi, 85th Beport, Manchester, 1915.] 



[Plate I. 



cm', -40^ 







-40 



90W -U 






Earthquakes recorded by Milne, 1899-1910. 
Small Islands, which might be mistaken for dots, have been omitted. 



lUiistrating Beport on Seismological Investigations. 



ITo face page 55. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 55 

magnetic damping, and if he is successful it is proposed to order an 
instrument from liim for use at Shide. Itwill be especially useful (1) in 
showing when there has or has not been an earthquake, for guidance 
in changing the paper of the photographic machines, and (2) for showing 
to the numerous visitors to Shide the working of a seismograph without 
disturbance of the photographic machines. In both respects it will 
replace the large ' lamp-post ' machine formerly set up by Milne, but 
discontinued as too cumbersome. 

Time Signal at Shide. — On the outbreak of war, the wireless apparatus 
used for receiving the time signal from the Eiffel Tower was dismounted 
in accordance with instructions from the Post Office, and for some months 
it was difficult to obtain correct time. In December 1914 a small 
transit instrument, lent by the Royal Astronomical Society, was set 
up on a disused seismograph pillar near the south window and adjusted 
as well as possible with a view restricted to altitudes less than 45°. With 
the kind help of a few telephone exchanges from the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich, this sufficed to give clock errors until May" 1915, when the 
Post Office permitted the re-erection of the wireless apparatus. From 
May 20 this has accordingly been in use again, and has confirmed the 
accuracy of the transit determinations. On July 23 a storm blew down 
the aerial, but it was re-erected next day. 

While the apparatus was dismounted and clock error being found 
by the small transit, Mr. J. J. Shaw visited Shide for regulation of his 
seismograph, and incidentally compared the Shide clock with his watch, 
of which he knew the error and rate. To his surprise a large discrepancy 
developed between the two, and it became clear that the watch was at 
fault. The cause was traced to the suspension of the watch during the 
night, which allowed of its vibrating as a pendulum. Attention was 
drawn to this matter by Lord Kelvin many years ago, but the magnitude 
of the possible error has scarcely been realised sufficiently. Mr. Shaw 
recalled attention to the matter, which is of considerable practical im- 
portance, in a short paper to the Royal Astronomical Society (' Mon. 
Not.' Ixxv., p. 583). 

III. Seismic Activity in 1911, 1912, and 1913. 

Milne carried the list of origins to the end of 1910. From the be- 
ginning of 1914 the origins of the larger earthquakes have been specified 
in the monthly bulletins, at first adopted from the Pulkovo determina- 
tions, and later, when it became clear that these could often be profitably 
corrected," adopted from special determinations made at Shide. The 
corrections are partly due to errors of the tables, estimated approximately 
at the end of the last Report, but still under revision. It seemed desirable 
to await these corrections to the tables before undertaking the com- 
putation of origins for 1911-13 ; but these will shortly be commenced. 

IV. Distribution of Milne's Epicentre^!, 1899-1910. 

In the last Report a map of the world was given on an octahedral 
projection, the precise selection of which had been suggested by the 
study of the epicentres tabulated by Milne for the years 1899-1910. The 
work of plotting the individual epicentres on this map had not then been 
completed. When complete (as shown in the acompanying illustra- 
tion) it showed that the root-idea of the map did not fit the facts in its 



56 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

original form. The edges of the eight triangles form three great circles 
at right angles, and it was expected that the epicentres would cluster 
about these edges. But only one of these great circles, GKECA, fulfils 
this expectation. Of a second, LKFCD, it was already remarked in 
the last Report that it was not at present a conspicuous line of earthquake 
activity, but that the geographical features characterising it (the Red 
Sea, Italy, the Alps, the American Lakes, California) suggested such 
activity in the past. 

The principal change required by the hypothesis as stated in the 
last Report concerns the third great circle, which is formed by EF and 
the boundaries of the map. For this we must clearly substitute a great 
circle LFW, with ZD, which falls midway between the two now discarded. 
This makes the general hypothesis really simpler than before, substituting 
two circles, still at right angles, for the three formerly suggested, and 
retaining many of the important features of symmetry. The two circles 
retained have been indicated by a triplet of lines. (A thick line would 
have obscured some of the epicentre dots.) 

The third circle cutting both these at right angles would be along 
DF, then F to the South Pole, and South Pole to L. There is something 
to be said for including this in the system, but it does not account for 
much that is not already accounted for by the other two, so that for the 
present we may omit it. 

We could, of course, suit the great majoritv of epicentres better by 
drawing, instead of FL, some line nearer to E ; and, instead of FW, 
some line nearer to C. This means leaving the great circle and sub- 
stituting some small circle. ' Libbey's Circle,' which was drawn by 
Milne on the earthquake maps in the Reports for 1903-1909, is approxi- 
mately a small circle parallel to WFL, at about 20° from it, and would 
suit the facts very well. But the elementary simplicity of the hypo- 
thesis is then lost, and it seems preferable to retain the simple form above 
indicated for comparison with future facts ; and perhaps even with a 
revised version of the facts already used, for the determinations repre- 
sented on the diagram are of different values — in some cases well estab- 
lished, in others very uncertain. 

V. Improvements of the Milne Seismograph. 

Section IV. of the last Report is devoted to a discussion of the times 
recorded by different seismographs for the beginning of P and S. It 
is shown that while the probable error of the Milne instrument is dis- 
tinctly greater than that of modern instruments, the favourable geo- 
graphical distribution of these pioneer seismographs renders them still 
capable of giving valuable information. At the same time it is clear 
that the time has arrived when it is desirable to give the Milne seismo- 
graphs 

(a) a higher magnification ; 

(b) some form of damping. 

The former consideration is put first because seismology is at present 
very definitely concerned with the determination of the times of arrival 
of P and S. Not only do the tables for these times of arrival require 
corrections, but it seems probable that the phenomena themselves are 
not always rightly identified. It was pointed out that at distances from 






<&«>«. t«g^^ 



I 




Comianwn of thf« IjpM of E.rlli.iuJike wcanh Oliw m Shi.k, I.W., Ennln. 



WhLU on BlHCt ill 


BlrMinns 


nru ni^iive^ ol 


Ihe orijfinjil 


nriil nro r.pn 


iiii'^.i 


^ 






^ 


M 


ss 


s^s 






^g 


^M 


s 




LftBC'E vJ-^V&5,0R Max. 



^ 1 LftBC'l 



KILSE-BUdGESS 






Iftf'f 




ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 57 

the origin exceeding 90°, PR is often reckoned as P ; and it seems at 
least possible (see Section X.) that some hitherto unrecognised phenomenon 
is sometimes mistaken for S. This was foreshadowed in the last Report 
from the fact that, though the magnitude of S is usually much greater 
than that of P, so that its identification might be presumed to be much 
easier on the whole, nevertheless the probable error of the observed time 
of arrival of S is considerably greater than that of P. If some other 
phenomenon is liable to be mistaken for S, this larger probable error is 
easily explained. Briefly, the proper interpretation of the seismograph 
trace is essentially dependent on a proper identification of the times of 
arrival of P and S ; so that for the present attention may be profitably 
concentrated on this problem. It is important to increase the magnifica- 
tion considerably, because the waves of P are particularly small and 
difficult to pick up ; further, it becomes necessary to provide such magnifi- 
cation that these small movements shall not be blotted out when damped. 
The importance of damping is second only to magnification, for probably 
much of the uncertainty in reading S is due to the inability of free pen- 
dulums to record the change in character of the ground movement in this 
phase. 

As remarked above, two new forms of the Milne pendulum have been 
constructed for trial by Mr. J. J. Shaw and Mr. J. H. Burgess, and brief 
notes on the details are given in the next two sections. 

VI. The Milne- Shatv Seistnograph. 
{Note hy Mr. J. J. Shaw.) 

This is a new type of seismograph with high magnification, combined 
with absolute damping. The magnification is approximately forty 
times greater than the standard Milne. 

It is an established fact that only fully damped machines give any 
approximation to a true record of the ground movement ; moreover, 
with damping, the various phases, P, Pe, S, Sr, and Max, are much more 
readily determined ; this will be realised by comparing the undamped 
records with those of the Milne-Shaw for Nov. 24, 1914, illustrated on 
Plate II. 

The Milne-Shaw gives a record strictly comparable with that of a 
Galitzin,* but with this distinction, that the latter depends upon and gives 
a measure of the velocity, whereas the former gives a direct measure of 
the amplitude of the ground movement, and does not involve the use 
of a galvanometer. 

The general principle of the apparatus is to multiply the movements 
of a short damped boom by reflecting a beam of light by means of a pivoted 
lens of half a metre focal length. 

The boom (16 inches long) carries a mass of 1 lb., together with a 
damping vane which moves in a strong magnetic field, and brings the 
boom to rest after each excursion. 

The outer end of boom is coupled to an iridium pivoted miiTor, which 
it rotates in an agate setting ; by this means 300 midtiplications of the 
ground movements are obtained. The definition in the trace is a special 
feature in this machine. The source of light illuminates a vertical 
cylindrical lens, and the image created is reflected and refocussed by 
the pivoted reflecting lens on to a second cylindrical lens placed hori- 

* Compare illustrations Plate II. and page 70. 



58 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

zontally, whicli again refocusses the light into a small intense point. 
This point falls midway upon a slit -003 in. wide and only the middle 
portion is permitted to pass to the film, which is in immediate contact 
with this slit. Perfect definition is produced in this way, with the result 
that waves of not more than two or three seconds period are shown quite 
distinctly on paper moving only 8 mm. per minute, thereby securing 
both high efficiency and economy. 

Special calibrating and adjusting devices were necessary with such 
high magnification. This has received special attention, and tilts of 1/100 
of a second of arc can be applied and registered by a beam of light on a 
distant calibrating scale. AH such operations are performed at a distance 
from the column, the motion being transmitted by a long flexible cable, 
so that the inovements of the observer shall not enter into the amplitude 
shown in the trace. 

VII. The Milne-Burgess Seismograph. 
{Note by Mr. J. H. Burgess.) 

The Milne-Burgcss machine is a modification of the Milne horizontal 
pendulum, the chief differences being a magnifica,tion of 100, about 75 
per cent, of artificial damping, and an increased rate of travel. 

The registration is photographic. A collimator with a 2 in. objective 
and 21 in. focus is mounted to produce a real image of an illuminated 
glass rod 1 mm. tliick at a distance of 10 ft. from the object glass. The 
illuminated line is reflected by means of a piece of sextant mirror attached 
to the boom just behind the balanced weights through a hole in the wall 
on to a recording box in another room. In front of the drum a plano- 
convex cylindrical lens of J in. focus is fixed. Behind this lens is a fine 
horizontal slit, and in this way the reflected line of light is brought to a 
focus on the recording drum. The drum has a circumference of 40 in. 
by 6 in. wide, and travels at the rate of 480 mm. per hour. Accurate 
time-marks are put on the trace every minute by an electric shutter 
operated by the Observatory clock. 

The boom has balanced weights and is artificially damped by means 
of a copper plate attached to the end of the pendulum which moves between 
four magnets as shown in the sketch. The induced currents produced 
when the plate moves retards the motion, and in this way about 75 per 
9ent. of damping is introduced. By the employment of stronger magnets 
'periodicity could be obtained. 

VIII. Diurnal Wanderings of the Traces. 

The introduction of a high magnification has brought with it an 
inconvenience in the unsteadiness of the trace. The trace at Bidston, 
which with the Milne instrument was a series of smooth lines at equal 
intervals on tlie paper, became at once, with the Milne-Shaw, a series 
of rippling lines crowded in two places and wide in between, the unequal 
spacing being obviously due to tidal action, and the ripples, the period 
of which is of the order of 10 sec, being such as appear to disturb all 
highly magnified traces. At Bidston these ripples appear definitely 
to ])e due to wind ; at any rate on a windy day they are largely increased, 
as will be seen from the portion of the trace for Dec. 4, 1914, given in 
the ilhistration. The gusts on tliis day went up to eighty miles an hour. 






'"^AL H\^'^ 



British Association, S5th Beport, Manchester, 1915.] [Plate III. 



S. *■_ ._.'l . . .t . i' I.I jn . 1 .U . ».!. jl'l .... '"l I, 









'•"..*'. XiV ''^ 






Bidston. Portion of Trace of Milne-Shaw Seismograph on a Windy Day, 

December 4, 1914. 



Illustrating Beport on Seismological Investigations. 



[.To face page C9. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



59 



The diurnal wandering at Bidston is small— miicli less conspicuous 
than the tidal or semi-diurnal. At Shide, as described more fully below, 
the semi-diurnal change is scarcely noticeable, while the diurnal is large 
and is related to temperature. In view of the investigation which follows, 
inquiry was made of Mr. Plummer as to what the temperature conditions 
were. He kindly installed a thermograph and sent the trace for two 
days, July 31 and August 1, 1915, which showed that the diurnal varia- 
tion was on one day less than 1° F. and on the next about 1°.5, the 
external range on the first day being 8° and on the second 14°. If this 
may be interpreted to mean that the whole chamber is well shielded 
from the effects of external temperature, the absence of a marked diurnal 
effect is explained. 

At Shide the Milne -Shaw and Milne-Burgess instruments are side 
by side on separate piers. Their booms are in opposite directions, and 
when the lines on one are crowded together those on the other are wiclely 
separated. There is no conspicuous tidal or semi-diurnal inequality, 
but there is a very large diurnal inequality, which, though far from con- 
stant in its action, usually crowds together the M.-B. trace and expands 
the M.-S., so that it is apt to run off the drum and be lost. It will be neces- 
sary to introduce some modification to meet this disability ; and, in order 
to investigate its character and possibly to trace its cause, a number 
of corresponding traces in March 1915 were measured. The quantities 
tabulated in Table II. below are the measures corrected for the known 
travel of the drum, so as to represent displacements of the trace from 
its normal position. The reading at 11 a.m. is adopted as the zero, the 
paper usually being changed at about 10 a.m. 

The numerical sums of the displacements are given at the feet of the 
columns, as a very rough indication of the relative sensitiveness of the 
instruments. The totals are 3,338 for the Milne-Shaw and 1,268 for 
the Milne-Burgess, which are approximately in the ratio of the magnifica- 
tions, viz., 300 and 100. But we shall find that this ratio is not repro- 
duced in the systematic wanderings. 

Table II. 
Displacements of Trace, in Units of O'Ol in. 





Mar. 


10. 


Mar 


16. 


Mar 


17. 


Mar. 29. 


Mar. 


30. 


H< ur 


M.-S. 


M.-B. 


M.-S. 


M.-B. 


M.-S. 


M.-B. 


M.-S. M.-B. 


M.-S. 


M.-B. 


11 





























13 


- 54 


- 4 


- 2 


-15 


-25 


- 4 


-74+1 


- 55 


- 2 


15 


-115 


+ 3 


-25 


-32 


-54 


-14 


-128 +13 


- 80 


- 1 


17 


-135 


+ 1G 


-33 


-39 


-73 


-21 


-125 +22 


-106 


+ 2 


19 


-132 


-t-30 


-35 


-38 


-71 


-18 


- 96 +33 


-113 


+ 13 


21 


-114 


-f36 


-25 


-35 


-53 


- 9 


- 44 +37 


- 88 


+21 


23 


-100 


-f-43 


-19 


-31 


-.39 


- 1 


+ 14 +38 


- 73 


+ 26 


1 


— 92 


+48 


- 7 


-27 


-29 


+ 1 


+ 69 +33 


- 47 


+ 26 


3 


- 80 


+ .55 


+ 11 


-26 


- 9 





+ 133 +23 


+ 3 


+ 18 


5 


- 79 


-f60 


+ 29 


-32 


+ 13 


- 7 


+ 136 +16 


+ 50 


+ V 


7 


- 53 


+70 


+33 


-35 


+ 27 


-12 


+ 103 +15 


+ 44 


+ 3 


9 

Numl. 
Sum. 


- 53 


+79 


+42 


-39 


+27 


-24 


+ 56 +13 


- 3 

672 


- 1 

120 


1007 


444 


261 


349 


420 


111 


978 244 



60 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



We may now form tlie first liarmonics for these sets of twelve readings, 
which are as follows : — 

Table III. 



1 

i 


Milne-Shaw. 


Milne-Burgess. 


-Rb/Rs 


^B ~ Ob 

h. 

+ 7.4 

( + 15-3) 

(+ 7-6) 

+ 6-1 

+ 5-2 

+ 6-2 


1 

Mar. 10 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 17 
Mar. 29 
Mar. 30 

Means 


h. 
_ 44 cos (0 - 20-4) 

- 34 cos (0 - 18-9) 

- 47 cos (0 - 18-9) 
-131 cos (0- 16-6) 

- 76 cos (0 - 18-5) 


h. 
+ 30 cos (0 - 3-8) 
-f 6 cos (0 - 10-2) 
+ 6 cos (e - 2-5) 
-f 17 cos (0 - 22-7) 
-f 14 cos (0 - 23-7) 


+0-67 
+0-18 
+0-13 
+013 
+0-18 


- 66 


+ 15 


+0-26 



The coefficient for the M.-S. machine is given with reversed sign, to 
make it directly comparable with M.-B. It will be seen that the mag- 
nitude of the displacement is much less for the M.-B. machine, though 
the ratios are not very consistent. A slight correction may be required 
for error in estimating the hourly travel. This error cannot be large, 
but there may be 

(a) Error in estimating the pitch of the screw, which gives a spiral 
character to the trace. Thus for the M.-B. machine the screw was seen 
to have 17 turns in 4 inches. This estimate could not be so much as 
half-a-turn in error, and since a day uses 12 turns only, we may put the 
limit of error as less than 12 in our units of hundredths of an inch. Now 
if we form the first harmonic for the numbers 

0123456789 10 11 

we find — 4 sin 6—1 cos 0. Applying this correction with the sign appro- 
priate to making the ratios of M.-S. to M.-B. more accordant, and apply- 
ing an equal correction to M.-S., guided by the same consideration, we get 



Table IIIa. 


— Bei7ig a possible correction to Table IIJ 




Milne-Shaw 


Milne-Burgess Eb/Rs 


08-08 ! 

105" 

[266] 
74 
24 

63 

1 


+ 43 cos (0-326°) 

+ 31 cos (0-292°) 
+ 45 cos (0-304°) 
+ 127 cos (0-264°) 
+ 73 cos (9-293°) 


-26 cos (0- 71°) 0-60 

- 8 cos (9-198°) 0-26 

- 2 cos (9- 18°) 0-04 
-17 cos (0-288°) 0-13 
-13 cos (0-.35O°) 18 



It will be seen that there is no great improvement in accordance of 
the ratios, while the phases are conspicuously more discordant. 

(6) Errors may also arise from the diaim not revolving in an exact 
hour or two hours. These again are not likely to be large, and their 
general efiect would be as for case («). 

(c) Or there may be a real travel of the index during the day, owing 
to gradual change of temperature, for instance. If we treat this as a 
uniform change, its general form is still the same as case (a). 

Coming to the phases, we see that there is a difference of about 90°, 
or 6 hours. The inference appears to be that the effect is not due to 
tilt of the ground, which should aft'ect both instruments at about the 
same time, but an effect of temperature which acts promptly on the 
M.-S. instrument but much more slowly on the M.-B. The fact that 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



61 



Mr. Shaw specially designed his instrument (with a thin metal cover, 
&c.) so that it might take up the temperature quickly supports this 
view. But the magnitude of the lag in M.-B., viz. 6 hours, is somewhat 
surprising, and to test its reality the numbers of Table II. were treated 
in a different way. Subtracting each constituent from that which follows 
it, we get the movements for each two hours, and can study the corre- 
spondence. It wall be convenient to reverse M.-B. for this purpose. 





Table IV.— 


Two-hourly M 


ovements of the 


Instni 


ments. 






Mar. 1(1 


Mar. 16 ' Mar. 17 


Mai 


. 29 1 Mar. 30 




Reversed 


Reversed Reversed 


Reversed 


Reversed 


h. h. 


M.-S. M.-B. 


M.S. M.-B. 


M.-S. M.-B. 


M.-S. 


M.-B. 


M.-S. M.-B. 










11-13 


-54 + 4 


- 2 +15 


-25 + 4 


-74 


- 1 


-.55 + 2 


13-15 


-61 - 7 


-23 +17 


-29 +10 


-54 


-12 


-25 + 1 


16-17 


-20 -13 


-8+7 


-19 + 7 


+ 3 


- 9 


-26 - 3 


17-19 


+ 3 -14 


- 2 - 1 


+ 2-3 


+ 29 


-11 


- 7 -11 


19-21 


+ 18 - 6 


+ 10 - 3 


+ 18 - 9 


+52 


- 4 


+25 - 8 


21-23 


+ 14 - 7 


+ 6-4 +14 - 8 


+58 


- 1 


+ 15 - 5 


23- 1 


+ 8-5 


+ 12 - 4 +10 - 2 


+55 


+ 5 


+26 


1- 3 


+ 12 - 7 


+ 18 - 1 +20 + 1 


+64 


+ 10 


+60 + 8 


3- 5 


+ 1-5 


+ 18 + 6 


+ 22 + 7 


+ 3 


+ 7 


+37 +11 


5- 7 


+ 26 -10 


+ 4+3 


+ 14 + 5 


-33 


+ 1 


-6+4 


7- 9 


0-9 


+ 9+4 


+12 


-47 


+ 2 


-47 + 4 



Now, if we try the effect of associating the movement of M.-S., 
(a) with the contemporary movement of M.-B., 
(6) with the reading of M.-B. two hours later, 
(c) with the reading of M.-B. four hours later, 
and so on, we get, on grouping the results, the means shown in Table V. 



Table V. 



-Effect of Associating M.-S. with 31. -B. of Various 
Times Later. 





Corresponding Movement of M.-B. after time 




M.-S. 


h. 



h. 
2 


h. 
4 


h. 
6 


h. 
8 


h. 
10 


6"'— M.S./8 


-60 
-24 

- 5 

+ 4 
+ 12 
+22 
+54 


-3 

+3 
+ 2 
-8 
-3 
-3 
+ 5 


-8 
-1 

+ 1 
-8 
-1 

+ 6 


-10 

- 4 

- 1 

- 5 

- 1 
+ 3 
+ 5 


-9 
-6 
-2 


+4 
+5 


-5 
— 




+2 
+5 
+3 


-3 
-2 

+2 
+4 
+3 
+2 
+2 


-1 
-3 
-1 
-1 
-1 

+ 1 
_2 



Inspection of these figures indicates that the best correspondence 
is somewhere between 4 h. and 6 h. later, and nearer 6 h. than 4 h. But 
it was clearly desirable to have more light on the matter, and, as the 
next step, a thermograph was installed in the stable which forms the 
Observatory. It was not a very good thermograph, having been rather 
roaghly treated in some mining experiments ; i)ut it gave a pretty fair 
indication of the temperature for several weeks. The readings May 4-10 
and May 31- June 10 were selected for discussion. The traces were 



62 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



measured with care and discussed at length, but a brief summary will 
suifice here : 

May 4-10. The mean temperature first rose and then fell. But 
it will be convenient to consider first the mean diurnal inequality which 



came out in degrees Fahrenheit, 



l°-4 cos (9 



h. 

20-8) 



6 being expressed in hours. The late hour for the maximum, nearly 
9 o'clock in the evening, raises hopes that we may be able to separate 
the effects of internal and external temperature. The first harmonics 
for the two machines were 

mm. h. 

Milne-Shaw 24-2 cos (6 - 180) 
Milne-Burgess 5-6 cos (0 — 20-3) 

The former measures and coejficients were inadvertently expressed 
in units of 0-01 in. ; converted into mm., the former mean values are 
16-8 and 3-8. These are smaller than the 24-2 and .5-6 now found, but 
the ratios, 44 and 43, are very nearly the same. 

The phases, however, do not differ by nearly so large an amount. 
M.-B. follows M.-S. by 2-3 h. only instead of by 6 h. as found in Table V. 
It will be seen, moreover, that while the maximum of M. B. falls near 
that of the thermograph, M.-S. precedes the thermograph by a large 
interval — nearly 3 hours. Now, if the disturbance of the instruments 
is due to some temperature effect outside the Observatory — tilt in the 
vallev, for instance — the time of maximum would be different from that 
of the thermograph. For instance, if it depended on the Sun's altitude, 
the maximum should fall at noon. If the effect is a composite one, the 
maximum would fall somewhere between noon and 20-8 h. (internal 
maximum), as it does in fact. We have thus a presumption of a com- 
posite character. 

The presumption is strengthened by the magnitude of the coefficients ; 
—1° of temperature corresponds to 4-0 mm. for M.-B. and actually 17-7 mm. 
for M.-S. It seems unlikely that these movements, especially the 
latter, can be due directly to the 1° change in internal temperature. It 
seems much more likely that they are due to the miich larger external 
changes, of which the 1° internal change is only a fraction. 

Further evidence in this direction is afforded by the changes of the 
mean from day to day, which can be formed when the diurnal change 
is eliminated. These were formed for every available day in the two 
periods May 4-10 and May 31-June 12, and it will sufi&ce to give the 
mean results : 



No. of Days 
in Group 

4 
3 
5 
4 


Mean Observed Daily Travel of 


Calculated 


Temperature Milne-Shaw 


Milne-Burgess' Milne-Shaw Blilne-Burgess 


' mm. 

-f4-l - 5-7 

-f 1-6 - 6-5 

0-0 -16-6 

-3-2 - 7-1 


mm. 1 mm. mm. 
-F5-C -72-6 -I-16-4 
4-3-2 ' -28-3 + C-4 
-fO-7 00 0-0 
-8-6 4-56-6 -12-8 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



63 



Under the lieadin,2; ' Calculated ' are given tlie daily travels for the 
temperature change calculated with the coefficients 111 mm. and 4-0 mm. 
for 1° as found above from the diurnal inequalities. The M.-B. machine 
shows only about half the calculated travel ; the M.-S. machine no sensible 
travel at " all. It should be mentioned that the zero of the latter is 
adjusted every morning, but this does not affect the above figures, which 
are deduced (partly by estimation) from the undisturbed daily traces. 

A test experiment "was made on .July 29 as follows : 

At 10 a.m. a stove was lit in the Observatory in order to cause a 
rapid rise of temperature. 

At 12.30 p m. the stove was removed and a large block of ice was 
introduced in order to caiise a sudden fall. 



65 



60' 



55 



SCALE 
FOR MB 

MM 
100 

50 



SCALE 

FORMS 




200 



300 



NOON I5-0 140 I5'0 160 170 

Temperature Experiment at Shide, July 29, 191-5. 



The readings of the thermograph and the corresponding wanderings 
of the two machines are shown in the diagram. It will be seen : — 

(a) That neither machine responds to the rise of temperature in any- 
thing like the degree suggested by the diurnal coefficients. The total 
rise of temperature is over 10°, and we should expect deflections of 177 mm. 
and 40 mm. respectively ; instead of which we get about 19 mm. and 
11 mm. 



64 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, — 1915, 

(6) The Milne-Shaw begins to fall about 15 minutes after the thermo- 
graph, and falls pretty rapidly ; the fall had not stopped when the 
observations were closured, and it is clear that the coefficient deduced 
from the fall would be greater than that found from the rise. 

(c) The disturbance of the Milne-Burgess machine is much more 
complex. There are waves on the rise, and the main maximum which 
follows that of temperature by nearly an hour is followed by another 
1^ hour later, and again another at 4-|- hours after the temperature 
maximum. There may be others later still. A reasonable explanation 
is that the warmth reaches different parts of the instrument at different 
times, the separate parts producing separate maxima. This would fully 
account for the curious discrepancy between the former results, and the 
large range of values for the interval between M.-B. and M.-S. We have 
only to suppose that sometimes one part of the instrument is pre- 
dominantly affected and sometimes another. 

The main conclusion is that internal temperature can only be re- 
sponsible for a part, and probably only a small part, of the diurnal de- 
flections of the instruments. The main cause seems to be external, 
and is probably the daily opening and shutting of the valley to which 
Milne drew attention many years ago. 

Before leaving these deflections, a word or two may be said as to the 
tidal effects, so conspicuous on the Milne-Shaw machine at Bidston, but 
almost hidden by the temperature effects at Shide. Some trouble was 
taken to disentangle them, and it was found that the lunar tide could 
be identified by means of the progressive phase. For the Milne-Burgess 
instrument the coefficient was about 1 mm. ; but it is mixed up with 
temperature effects which may vary widely in character. The tidal 
coefficient for the Milne-Shaw instrument at Shide is not very much 
larger than 1 mm. — perhaps 2 mm. at most. But the material available 
at the time of the discussion was not large and further investigation is 
desirable. 

Finally, some particulars may be given as to the deflections at other 
stations, where the simple Milne instruments are in use. The magnifica- 
tion being small, the disturbance of the trace by either temperature or 
tide is not noticeable to a casual glance ; but if careful measures are 
made of the travel at every 2 hours (or 4 hours in some cases) through- 
out the day, the general nature of the movements can be detected. 
Such information may be of value in arranging for the setting up of 
instruments of higher magnification. 

The diurnal changes were deduced from the means for all the days 
measured ; as also the semi-diurnal changes. 

As regards the lunar tide, the simplest way of detecting it is to form 
the differences between readings for 2 days separated by any con- 
venient interval from 4 days to 11 days ; for in TJ days the lunar semi- 
diurnal tide reverses itself, maxima falling on the former minima. We 
thus get twice the effect by the subtraction. If the interval of 7 or 8 
days is not available, the factor will not be so large as 2, but is easily 
calculated from the relation 

Cos {6— a) -cos {0 + a) = 2 sin a sin 0. 
For 7* days, a = 90° ; for 4 days, a = 4 X 9077-| = 48°. 



British Association, 85th Report, Manchester, 1915.] [Plate IV. 



''-^''^M^M^Vtft^^.nMMIIfMMftft^lillf/MMlfUi' - 



.^vvvww/Ay;'s_ 



'-«~>'*vvAVllVW/"^ 






~vwvwwiiv'.v<'iV.Vi'<-w n^ -."f 



■y/^'i 



1,1'" 



'^f, 



^,\ 






Fig. a. 
St. Helena, May 21-22, 1915. 
The effect of insects on a seismograph at St. Helena. This continued for ten days. 

1915. [Opened -June 11,21, 23.] 



23 





DlSTUi 


<ti/-vr(CE DUE 


TO 


SPlDEl..a . 


BID&TOH . 


SoHVL I2.T" 


liis 


















^ 


>. 












;~ A 














y V 


(f 


,v^ 








-^ 


-W'A.y^-V 


6 


;^~^' V 
























w-^^*^ -. 


„.^- 














^.^-/^'' 










,■ - ■ 




15 














16 






— -■:' 17 




■ ^.^v 












j .... ,^ 

20 


21 


1 












J 



[Closed June 12,21, 16.] 
Fig. B. 
The work of a spider on the seismograph at Bidston. 
He continued for eight days, until removed. 

Illustrating Befort on Seismological Investigations. 

\_To face page 65, 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



65 



6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


1-9 


2 


2 


1-9 


1-7 



Hence the factors are as below : — 

Days 2 3 4 5 

Factors 8 12 15 17 

An example may make the method clearer. The actual readings of 
the Seychelles records are given in columns 2, 3, and 4 of Table VI. 
The unii is 01 in. ' 

Table VI. 







July 




Differences 




Differences 










Diurnal 


corrected 


Hour 










Terms 


for diurnal 
terms 




12 


15 


18 


15-12 1 18-15 


10 




















+3 





-3 


12 


14 


17 


25 


+ 3 


+ 8 


- 2 


+4 


+5 


+4 


14 


33 


31 


42 


- 2 


+ 11 


- 5 


+6 


+3 


+5 


16 


65 


50 


59 


-15 


+ 9 


-10 


+7 


-5 


+ 2 


18 


96 


78 


80 


-18 


+ 2 


-14 


+8 ' 


-4 


-6 


20 


120 


100 


105 


-20 


+ 5 


-17 


+9 


-3 


-4 


22 


139 


122 


130 


-17 


+ 8 


-18 


+9 


+ 1 


-1 





155 


145 


154 


-10 


+ 9 


-16 


+8 


+ 6 


+ 1 


2 


177 


166 


177 


-11 


+ 11 


-13 


+7 


+2 


+4 


4 


199 


187 


194 


-12 


+ 7 


- 8 


+6 


-4 


+ 1 


6 


228 


221 


220 


- 7 


- 1 


- 3 


+4 


-4 


-5 


8 


255 


253 


253 


— 2 





- 1 


+3 


-1 


-3 

1 



In the next two columns the simple differences between July 12 and 
15, and between July 15 and 18, are shown. These are clearly affected 
by diurnal terms, i.e., the diurnal terms differ for different days, as we 
might expect. To bring out the lunar terms more clearly we remove 
the diurnal terms, including a suitable constant. The terms found 
(by harmonic analysis) are shown in the next two columns, and finally 
the corrected differences, which show the semi-diurnal terms clearly. 
Analysing these harmonically (as we could of course have done without 
removing the diurnal terms), we find : — 

For July 15- July 12 : 

in. in. h. 

0-048 cos 2 (^-28°) =0-048 cos 2 (< - 11-9). 

For July 18- July 15 : 

0-045 cos 2 (fl-52°) = 0-045 cos 2 {t - 13.5), 

where 6 is the hour angle measured from 10 h., or t is the time in hours 
measured from h. The hour of maximum has thus advanced 1-6 h. 
in the 3 days. A purely lunar tide would advance 2-4 h. in 3 days. 
The discrepanc}' is partly accidental, partly due to a semi-diurnal tem- 
perature effect, which can only be detected or eliminated by a longer 
series of observations. T3ut we can clearly separate the lunar effect by 
its advancing phase if we have a long enough series of days. 

We proceed to give a few results for stations which had sent films to 
Shide for examination. 

The measures were made in hundredths of an inch, and the travel 
of each trace is about 0-23 in. per 2 hours. The figures below, being 
deduced from only a few days' records, must not be taken too seriously, 

1915. p 



66 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



but will serve to give an idea of the magnitude of the quantities 
involved. 



Station 


Dates of Traces 
Measured 


Diurnal and Semi-diurnal changes 


Coeffi- 
cient of 
lunar tide 






in. 


h. in. 


h. 


in. 


Ascension . 


1911, Feb. 20-28 


•014 cos (6- 


-19-5)+ -005 CCS 2 (6- 


-0-0) 


•004 


Cocos 


1911, Sept. 5-22 


•114 „ 


20-0 +-026 


11-5 


•028 


Eskdalemuir, 












E.-W. . 


1911, Feb. 1-22 


•002 „ 


22^5 +•021 


30 


•000 


Do., N.-S. 


?» 


•005 „ 


22-0 +-008 


60 


•000 


Fernando 












Noronha 


1913, Jan. 13-21 


•081 „ 


190 +^009 


6^0 


•005 


Helwan, 












E.-W. . 


1911, Feb. 1-9 


•001 „ 


7-0 +-000 


— 


•000 


Do., N.-S. 


5» 


•002 „ 


12-0 +-000 


— 


•000 


Malta 


1911, July 1-9 


•004 „ 


18-0 +-000 


— 


■000 


Seychelles 


1911, July 10-19 


•035 „ 


12-0 +^050 


4^0 


•045 


St. Helena 


1915, Feb. 18-27 


•016 „ 


17-0 +-007 


2^5 


•004 


s> 


1915, May 15-25 


•007 „ 


15^0 +-004 


3-5 


•009 



It will be seen that Eskdalemuir, Helwan, and Malta show no lunar 
tides ; Seychelles and Cocos have large tides, as well as large diurnal 
effects. 

It may be presumed that 0-001 in. = 0"'01 approximately, but in 
most cases no more precise scale value can be recovered from the records. 

IX. Insect Disturbances of Seismogra'phs. 

An inquiry from St. Helena suggests that it may be useful to other 
observers to "print a note on the disturbances caused by insects. 

Mr. J. J. Shaw has kindly drawn up the following : 

A difficulty which is frequently met with in practical seismology 
is to keep the seismograph free from the various insect interferences. 
An imprisoned moth or fly will often keep the boom in a state of unrest 
for several days at a time ; but a much more serious nuisance is the 
ubiquitous spider ; he not only makes havoc with the trace, but also 
ties up the boom, and very greatly destroys the sensitivity of the apparatus. 
It is useful to be able to decide from the trace whether the trouble is 
of the first or second order ; because if of the second it is not sufficient 
to get rid of the spider, but the web must also be removed. 

There is an advantage in making an artificial disturbance each day 
by standing for about 15 seconds on a selected spot near the side of the 
masonry column; a suitable time is just before changing the film, as 
the boom is then at rest. This will give a standard deflection which 
can be compared day by day whereby any loss in efficiency is quickly 
detected. The decrement curve at the commencement of the film is 
also useful in identifying the cause of these troubles. In instances of 
the first type the prisoner periodically sets the boom in motion, and 
occasionally leaves it to come to rest, when the trace wiU be seen to con- 
tinue in alignment with its previous position. Confirmation may be 
looked for in the unimpaired efficiency indicated in the decrement curve. 
If, however, the disturbances produce permanent displacements in the 
trace they are probably caused by a spider, or perhaps a moth, whose 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 67 

wings have been singed in the lamp, and which has fallen down the light 
aperture and become wedged between the slit plate and the floating vane 
on the boom. In either case the decrement curve and standard deflection 
will show considerable deterioration. 

A piece of glass over the light aperture is a partial remedy ; but more 
effectual is the addition of about 2 lb. of naphthalene (CioHs) well distri- 
buted throughout the cases. 

Herewith are given illustrations of first-order trouble from St. Helena 
and spider trouble from Bidston. The Bidston apparatus is a fully 
damped Milne-Shaw type and has no decrement curve, but the standard 
deflection fell from 27 mm. to 9 mm. as a result of the webbing of this 
spider. 

X. The Identification of S : Suggestion of a Neiv Phenomenon Y. 

As shown in the last Keport, there are accidental deviations of 
observation of Sfrom the times assigned l)y the tables. The mean of the 
errors discussed is (+0.73 minutes or) +44 sec. for S, and (±0.31 minutes 
or) ±19 sec. for P. This is the more remarkable since the amplitude 
of S is usually much greater than that of P, so that there ought to be 
less uncertainty in reading. The suspicion is aroused that there is some 
other phenomenon liable to be mistaken for S ; and that many of the 
errors are due to these mistakes. 

A suggestion of this kind is put forward by Dr. G. W. Walker in his 
' Modern Seismology,' but is apparently vitiated by an oversight. On 
p. 41, after considering the first reflected wave PE], he next considers 
a wave which travels as P to the point of reflection and as S subsequently ; 
he points out that there is a lower limit to the possibility of such a wave 
which he determines as A=110° or 12,000 km. ; and he proceeds : 

' Now, it has been observed that special difiiculty attaches to the 
identification of S just when A is about 12,000 km. Thus with an earth- 
quake in the northern Philippines, which are about 11,000 km. from this 
country, S usually comes out very clearly, while in the case of an earth- 
quake in the Caroline Islands, about 12,000 km. from us, S is most in- 
distinct, and the tendency is to put it rather late. The result we have 
obtained throws some light on the matter.' 

The oversight which vitiates this explanation is that Mr. Walker 
is dealing at the moment with the hypothesis of a homogeneous earth, 
which he soon shows to be quite untenable. His figures are those for 
a homogeneous earth, and are quite inapplicable to the actual earth. 
The lower limit he mentions does indeed exist, but instead of being at 
A=110° it is about A=35°. It is readily found numerically by using 
the existing tables printed on the last page of the Shide bulletins for 
1914. Thus wlien ii=40° the times given for a wave to travel 

as P for 1° and S for 39°= 15 +832 =847 
P for 2 and S for 38 = 31 +818 =849 
P for 3 and S for 37 = 47 +804 =851 
P for 4 and S for 36 = 62 +790 =852 
P for 5 and S for 35 = 77 +775 =852 
P for 6 and S for 34 = 92 +760 =852 
P for 7 and S for 33 =106 +744 =850 
P for 8 and S for 32 =121 +728 =849 
P for 9 and S for 31 =136 +711 =847 
&c. &c. 

F 2 



68 REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ^1915, 

The sum of the times increases to a maximum of 852 sec, where there 
is an accumulation which marks the trace (PiS,) and then diminishes 
again. Since the time for S to travel 40° is by the same tables 847 sec, 
this PiSi is later than S ; and it is easily found to be always lat«r. For 
instance, at 



8. 


s. 


A=90° we have S=1454 


p,s,=ir.07 


A = 100 „ S=]5o6 


P,S, = 1625 


A=110 „ S=1648 


P,S, = 1738 



But in the above calculation for ii=40° the distance travelled as 
P is only a few degrees ; and as we diminish the value of A this distance 
contracts to zero, marking the limit determined by Mr. Walker in the 
simple case of a homogeneous earth. 

The fact that P,Si is always later than S is an additional reason why 
it cannot explain the mistakes in identif)dng S, which require a pheno- 
menon sometimes preceding S, as will be seen from the examples quoted 
below. But there is scarcely need of an actual example ; on general 
principles it is pretty clear that something preceding S is more productive 
of mistakes than something which follows ; for there is a strong tendency 
to read the earliest movement in the suitable neighbourhood. 

Now, if the phenomenon is to precede S, it seems clear that it cannot 
travel partly as P and partly as S, since even P,Si is later than S. We 
cannot assign a smaller share to S than is represented by PiSi, except 
no share at all. We are thrown back on P. 

A single reflection of P is well known as PK,, and there is no difficulty 
in considering two, three, or more reflections of P. But when the appro- 
priate neighbourhoods in the trace are examined, there seem to be no 
conspicuous indications there ; certainlv nothing likely to be mistaken 
for S. 

The suggestion now put forward is that of a large inimber of reflections 
of P. When the number is large, the time of arrival tends to be inde- 
pendent of the precise number, since the times near the origin, whether 
for P or S, are sensibly proportional to the arcs. The printed tables 
give an initial velocity to P of about 1° per 15'5s. The facts collated 
below suggest that this should be altered to 1° per 14-9 s. and this will 
be adopted for use provisionally. No large departure from the printed 
tables is involved — the time at 4-0° would be 59 6 s. instead of 62 s. as 
printed ; but the times will be assumed for a moment to be accurately 
proportional to the arcs, at this rate. 

On this supposition it is clear that a total arc of 60° is described in 
the same time by 

s. s. 

15 reflections of 4° each=lo x o9"6=894 
30 „ ., 2° ,. =30x29-8=894 

60 „ „ r „ =60 X 14-9=894 

And indeed that any number of reflections greater than 15 have the same 
total time of travel according to the tables. The simultaneity is only 
limited by the accuracy of our assumption that the time near the origin 
is directly proportional to the arc. 

There is a difficulty attending this supposition of a theoretical kind. 
It is remarked by Mr. G. W. Walker on p. 45 of his ' Modern Seismology ' 
that ' it is impossible to propagate along a plane boundary . . . longi- 
tudinal waves with displacement parallel to the surface.' Now, when 



ox SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 69 

the P waves are many times reflected they must travel so close to the 
surface as to approximate to this impossible type. On the other hand, 
C. G. Knott (' Physics of Earthquake Phenomena,' chap, x.) gives, from 
theory, a total reflection of longitudinal waves at grazing incidence. 
The theoretical difliculty may disappear on scrutiny ; if not, some other 
explanation must, of course, be found. But that now offered seems to 
fit the facts mentioned below, and is therefore put forward for considera- 
tion. It amounts to suggesting waves (Y) travelling close to the spherical 
surface with practically the initial velocity of P, which we take as 14-9 s. 
per degree. The times would thus compare with those of S as below : 



A= 60° 


70° 


80° 


90° 


100° 


110° 


120° 


s. 


s. 


S. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


Y= 894 


1043 


1192 


1341 


1490 


1639 


rss 


S= 1103 


1226 


1343 


1454 


1556 


1648 


1729 


Y-S = -209 


-183 


-151 


-113 


-66 


-9 


+.59 



Mr. J. J. Shaw suggested the name ' polychord ' for the phenomenon 
considered ; and the letter Y from this term may be used to designate 
it. It will be seen that Y"" crosses S near A=110°. But in the last Report 
certain corrections were suggested to the printed tables. It is not yet 
advisable to alter the figures used, as discussion is proceeding ; but we 
may indicate in brackets the result of the corrections suggested, which 
are as below : 

A= 15° 25° 35° 45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 95° 105° 

*• s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. 

Correction P= 0.0 Q — i _3 _8 — 15 —24 

Correction S= +5 —4 —8 —11 —14 —17 —24 —35 —50 

The comparison of Y with S would, with these corrections for S, stand 
as follows : 

A= 60° 70° ^ 80° 90° 100° 110° 

Y= 894 1043 1192 1341 1490 1639 

(S)= 1090 1210 1323 1424 1514 1588 

Y-(S)=(-196) (-167) (-131) (-83) (-24) (+51) 

The point of crossing is thus shifted about 8° nearer the epicentre. 

The plan of giving corrected figures in brackets will be followed below. 
The example which first suggested this hypothesis was the Eskdalemuir 
trace for the earthquake of November 24, 1914, to which attention was 
drawn by Mr. J. J. Shaw. The lettering on the rough trace shown in 
the illustration is his. See also Milne-Shaw record Plate II. At the time 
of examination of this trace no other material was available, and a brief 
summary may first be given of the argument as it then stood. 

_ It is natural to identify a with P and y with S. The distance of the 
epicentre conesponding to 

S-P=12 h. 16 m. 55 8.-12 h. fi m. 43 s.=612 s. 

would then be A=.81-3° (84-1 corrected tables). The time for PR, 
would then be 12 h. 10 m. 16 s. (12 h. 10 m. 30 s.). But PR, can almost 
certainly be identified with yS at 12 h. 10 m. 54 s.*— much later than 
either the uncorrected or corrected time. Similarly, the time for SR, 
does not fit the trace at all. 

If, however, we identify S with S at 12 h. 17 m. 45 s. we then have 
* This is the reading published by Eskdalemuir. 



70 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — ^1915. 



S-P=662s. and A=90-8° (94-8°). The time for PR, would then be 
12 h. 10 m. 35 s. (12 h. 10 m. 56 s.). For SR, we slioiild get 12 h. 24 m. 31 s. 




W"", 15'^ 16 

/3^ /3^ 



Eskdalerauir (Galitzin) N.S. Component, November 24, 1914. 

and there is a notable disturbance on the trace here (though it has 
not been considered necessary to reproduce that part of it in the diagram). 

This argument has been much strengthened since the records of other 
stations became available. These were collated by Mr. Burgess in the 
ordinary course of the work at Shide in July 1915 without any knowledge 
of the suggestion here made. The epicentre selected by him is 21 -5° N. 
141° E. distant 97-3° from Eskdalemuir ; and the MS. sheet prepared 
for the Shide Bulletin with this epicentre shows residuals in S of over 
100 s. not only for Eskdalemuir and Dyce (Aberdeen), but for Padova, 
Paris, and other stations. It would appear that y has been taken instead 
of S at such stations, for the above epicentre, though possibly a few 
degrees in error owing to the conflicting information, suits the near stations 
(Zi-ka-wei, Batavia, and the Japanese stations), as well as Pulkovo, too 
well to be so far wrong as must be the case if y were S. 

But if 8 is S, what is y ? Taking A=(94-8°) as above, the time 
for the polychord is 94 •8x14-9 seconds=1413 s., following P by (606 s.), 
and thus affecting the trace at (12 h. 16 m. 49 s.). The Eskdalemuir 
reading for S (i.e., for y) is 12 h. 16 m. 56 s. 

The full details for this earthquake, which is not at present fully 
discussed, will be printed in the Shide Bulletin ; but the following figures 
will show approximately the nature of the results : 

Epicentre 24" N., 141° E. Time, 1914, Nov. 24, 11 h. 53 m. 16 s. 



Station. 


Inst. A 


P 


0-C 


s 


0-C 


0-CforY| 
instead of S.' 




O 


h. m. s. 


s. 


h. m. B. 


s. 


s. j 


Zi-ka-wei . 


W 18-7 


11 58 2 


( + 22) 


12 1 36 


( + 26) 


^- 


Batavia . 


W 41-9 


12 1 30 


(+ 5) 


12 7 48 


(+ 5) 


— ! 


Pulkovo . 


G 79-2 


12 5 28 


(+ 4) 


12 16 17 


(+ 8) 


+ 142) 


Dyce (Aberd.) 


Ma 93-2 


12 6 24 


(-10) 


12 16 31 


(-58) 


(+ 8) 


Eskdalemuir 


G 95-0 


12 6 43 





12 16 56 


(-50) 


(+ 6) 


Padova 


V 96-7 


12 6 51 





12 17 6 


(-55) 


(- 9) 


Bidstcn 


MS 96-7 


12 6 52 


+ 1 


12 17 6 


(-64) 


(- 10) 


Paris . 


. G 98-3 


12 6 59 





12 17 14 


(-60) 


(- 15) 



ON SEISMOLOGHCAL INVESTIGATIONS. 71 

Another example is afEorcled by the earthquake of June 25, 1914, 
details of which have already been published in the Shide Bulletin for 
June. Let us first take the following residuals : 



p 


0-C S 


0-C 

s. 
+ 10 
-58 


h. ra. s. s. h. m. s. 
Eskdalemuir . 19 21 15 +18 19 32 55 
West Bromwich . 19 21 17 +21 19 31 45 



It is clear that if Eskdalemuir is even approximately correct, the 
S for West Bromwich is sensibly in error. Now, the West Bromwich 
trace shows, following the printed S at 19 31 45, another disturbance 
about 45 s. later, say at 19 32 30, M^hich is probably the true S. The 
printed A for West Bromwich is 100-3°, for which Y— ^S) would be only 
—22 s. according to the figures above given. But the position of the 
epicentre is subject to revision. The printed distance 100 3° would 
give S— P=ll m. 45 s. (11 m. 22 s. corrected), whereas the West Bromwich 
trace suggests the smaller value 11 m. 13 s., corresponding to A=(98-3°) 
say : for which Y-(S)=(-35 s.). 

For this earthquake the S residuals for Florence, Aachen, Barcelona, 
Dyce, Honolulu, &c., all accord with a mistake of Y for S. On noticing 
the above discrepancy between Eskdalemuir and West Bromwich, inquiry 
was made of Eskdalemuir, and on April 23 Mr. Richardson kindly replied 
' the time stated (for S) in our tabulation was the correct one for a certain 
disturbance on N.-S. But on unravelHng the E.-W. trace it is seen to 
contain a disturbance about a minute earlier. Photo, prints are being 
sent to you herewith.' A rough tracing of the three records is given 
in the illustration. It will be seen that Y is small on the N.-S. component ; 
large on the E.-W. component, and quite noticeable (though S is absent 
entirely) on the vertical component. These facts seem to accord with 
a wave of P character, for the epicentre is nearly due east of Eskdalemuir, 
the azimuth (from the north point) being 82-6 if we accept the epicentre 
of the June Bulletin (4-5° S., 99° E.). A thrust from this direction would 
be 7-7 times as much to the W. as to the S. Now measurements of the 
traces give for the first three south movements in milhmetres +8-5, —12-0, 
+9-0; and for the corresponding west movements, +57, — 72*5, +65. 
Dividing the latter by 7-7 we get +7 4, —9-4, +84, which are all a little 
smaller than the former. The ratio (57+72-5+65)/(8-5+12-0+9-0)=6-6 
in fact, giving an azimuth for the epicentre of 81-5° instead of 82 6°. 
The epicentre determined at Eskdalemuir (1° S., 102° E.) gives azimuth 
78°, so that the correspondence is thus well within the limits of acci- 
dental errors of various kinds. It would be interesting to check this 
ratio from the S movements, which ought to be, and are, large in the 
upper trace where Y is small, and small in the lower trace. But, un- 
fortunately, they are masked in the lower trace by the end of the Y move- 
ments ; at any rate this is a reasonable interpretation of the trace. In 
fact, the epicentre is in a particularly favourable azimuth for separating 
Y from S, and the sentence above quoted from Mr. Richardson's letter 
takes on a new significance when this is realised. If the azimuth had 
been nearer 45° or one of the other octants, Y and S might have been 
mixed up in both traces, and the beginning of Y would probably have 
been read as the beginning of S, The possible eSect of this confusion 



72 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SriENCB. — 1915 



on tlie construction of the tables in use requires very careful considera- 
tion, and is an additional reuson for deferring the proposal of definitive 
corrections. Indeed, it seems probable that these cannot be made without 
a somewhat extensive study of the traces themselves in addition to the 
collation of the times published by the various observatories. 

There is one furthf^r point to be considered — the depth of the focus 
below the surface. If tliis be at E (see page 73) and CEc be the chord 
perpendicular to the radivis OEK, then all other chords through E are 




E-W: t= ground to E 



^ \nW^AAAi \/\A^^^^'^^'\/ 



VERTICAL t- ground up 



Eskdalemu'.r, June 25, 1914. 

longer than cC, and occur in pairs such as aEA and &EB. Waves travel- 
ling from E by either the path Ea or EB woidd on reflection travel by 
consecutive step? all equal to oA or hB. Hence, cC represents the mini- 
mum step for waves emanating from E, and is larger as E falls further 
below the surface. It seems possible that if E is too near the suiface 
(or perhaps above it) these nearly tangential reflected waves cannot 
occur, and we get no ' polychord ' or Y phenomenon. This may explain 
why it has only occasionally attracted notice. Both the epicentres. 



ON SEISMOLOniCAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



73 



above considered are out at sea. It will be interesting to note whetbor 
there is a difference between sea and land epicentres in the matter of Y ; 
but this examination has not 3ret l)een made. 

In this connection such earthquakes as that of July i, 1914, may- 
be significant. It is noted in the Shide Bulletin that 

a shock at 17 h. 46 m. 30 s. was followed some 100 seconds later by 
another at another epicentre (12° away) ; but the curious thing is 
that the nearer stations (Manila, Batavia, &c.) have recorded the 
second quake and not the first. 




B 



The suggestion now offered is that the first focus was on or even 
above the surface ; that the path of waves from it has a limiting (mini- 
mum) depth, and therefore a limiting (minimum) radius for affected 
stations, while the second focus was below the surface and was not 
restricted. If such limits do exist, their application to the possible 
formation of Y is tolerably obvious. 



XI. Coneclinv of Tables deferred. 

Provisionfil corrections to the tables for P and S were given at the 
end of the last Report and are repeated above (p. 67). But the tables 
printed on the last page of the Shide Bulletins will be used for the present, 
until a fuller discussion has been made. Meanwhile, the above pro- 
visional corrections are made use of in determining epicentres, and they 



A 


(0-C) for P. 


(0-C) for S, 


98-8° 


-6 s. 


-16 s. 


99-4° 


-8 s. 


—25 s. 



74 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

can be used in studying the residuals. Thus, in the quake of July i, 
1914, the following residuals : 

Station. Machine. 

Graz .... W 

Zagreb. ... W 

are to be considered subject to corrections +19 s. and -j-il s. approxi- 
mately (change sign of tabulated corrections, which apply to the C in 
0— C). Similarly, those for Pulkovo —9 s. and —28 s. are subject to 
corrections (A=85-2°) + 8 s. and +24 s. 

XII. Shide Bulletins. 

From Jamiary 1914 the Shide Bulletins have been arranged with 
a view to the ultimate discussion of the best material. Earthquakes 
not observed at many stations appear only on the ' chart ' as in the pre- 
vious year's records ; but for the better observed earthquakes, whereas 
for 1913 the recorded times were printed without discussion, from Janu- 
ary 1914 they have been compared with calculated times. Epicentres 
were at first adopted from the Pulkovo determination simply ; but as 
it was found that these were often sensibly in error (owing partly to the 
errors of the tables) fresh determinations of epicentre have been recently 
made at Shide. 

The preparation of these bulletins has very considerably increased 
the work at Shide ; but it is hoped that the extra work is profitable. 

XIII. New Method of Computation. 

Some of the labour has been abridged by the adoption of a new method 
for calculating the distance of a station from an epicentre. If (/■, d) be 
the longitude and latitude of a station, (L, D) those of the epicentre, 
and if we put 

a = cos I cos d b = ain I cos d c = sin rf 

A= cos L cos D B=sin L cos D C= sin D 

then the formula used is 

2 versin A = (a_A)-+(6-B)=-|-(c-C)-. 

The quantities a, i, c are constants for the stations and have been tabu- 
lated. A, B, C are readily formed for each epicentre. A table of squares 
to 4 figures is amply sufficient to give the [a — A)^, &c., and a table has 
been formed of 2 versin A which saves even the division by 2. A fuller 
description of the process and the table for 2 versin -2^ will be found in 
' Mon. Not. R.A.S.,' Ixxv. p. 530. 

XIV. Standardizing a Milne-Shaw Seismograph. 

[This section is kindly contributed by the Superintendent of the 
Meteorological Office. It was written by Mr. L. P. Richardson, of 
Eskdalemuir, and was completed on September 3.] 

This instrument (No. 3) was set up at Eskdalemuir, in July 1915, by 
Mr. J. J. Shaw. A description of it will be found in Section VI. of this 
Report. 

The pivoted mirror and the link which connects it to the boom are 
both very light, and in the first instance the instrument has been re 
garded as a simple boom connected to a massless multiplying device. 
The theory of such a boom is set out in most text-books on seismology. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 75 

The magnification of impulsive horizontal displacements of the ground 
may be found in two ways : — 

(1) The easier way is to obtain it from the period of undamped 
oscillation, together with the sensitivity to static tilt (' Modern 
Seismology,' by G. W. Walker, page 23). 

According to Mr. Shaw's advice, when observing the period, the 
damping magnets were entirely removed, not merely tied up to the pillar, 
lest their weight should bend the latter. The period came to 9-88 sees. 
for small swings, 10 08 for large ones, and 9 9 has been taken in the 
subsequent calculation. 

The arrangements provided for determining tilt are very convenient. 
The pitch of the tilting screw, the distances between the feet and the 
lengths of the path of light, were all measured, and the scale of tilt thus 
verified to ^ per cent. The sensitivity to static tilt was found to be 
e-Sgmm. on the paper per 10"^ radian. Now the magnification for 
sudden lateral displacements is 

(cms. on paper) x iv^ , • , , non 

, — - ^.,^f- ^ - , --- . -,,„, which comes to 282. 
(radians- tilt) X g X (period)^ 

(2) As a check, the same magnification was calculated independently 
from the lengths of the levers and the radius of gyration of the boom 
about its pivot. In the sketch, BR is the boom pivoted at R. CB is a 
link, CD a lever pivoted at D, and D is also the mirror. P is the photo- 
graphic paper. 

Lengths of Levers.— The small length CD was measured by a 
travelling microscope. The distance from the mirror D to the photo- 
graphic paper was diminished by ^ of the thickness of the cylindrical 
lens. The length of the equivalent mechanical pointer was taken as 

2 (DP - ^K) (BR), , ^ on A . Tr T. • n . • , 

— ^^ CD^ ^^^^ metres. Here K is the thickness 

of the cylindrical lens. 



B T R 

w 



> 



Fig. 1. 

Radius of Gyration. — To find this, the moments of inertia about 
the pivot R of the several parts were measured separately, added up, 
and divided by the total mass. 

The moment of inertia of the boom was found from the position of its 
centre of mass, together with its period of vibration, when hung up 
vertically by a short thread attached at W and set to oscillate about a 
horizontal axis through R. 

The heavy dumb-bell shaped mass was at first pivoted upon the boom, 
as in some Milne instruments ; the intention being to diminish the 
moment of inertia. The gain in this respect is less than 20 per cent, 
of the whole moment of inertia of the moving system. On the other 



76 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1915. 



hand, it was found tliat the freedom of the dumb-bell set up undamped 
oscillations of the light spot ; so Mr. Shaw clipped the mass rigidly to the 
boom. The moment of inertia of the dumb-bell about its centre of mass 
was measured by hanging up the dumb-bell by a bifilar suspension and 
observing its time of oscillation. In this way the radius of gyration I of 
the whole moving system about the point R was found to be 11 -66 cms. 

The magnification for impulses of lateral displacement is j = jy-^= 257. 

There is an unexplained discrepancy of 10 per cent, between this figure 
and 282, which might be sought for in the neglected action of the multi- 
plying lever. This was not quite perfectly balanced. In the tilting 
experiment it remains untilted. 

In drawing fig. 2 the mean of 257 and 282 has been used. 

Magnification for Long-continued Sinusoidal Waves of Lateral 
Displacement. — When the period is infinitely short, this is the same as 
the magnification for impulses. The diminution of the magnification 
with increasing period of the earth-wave is determined from the period 
of the pendulum and the degree of its damping, according to the well- 
known formula (Walker's ' Modern Seismology,' page 5). To obtain 
the damping, a piece of a soft iron nail was attached to the boom. A 
small solenoidal coil of wire was fixed on the pillar so that the iron was 
half inside the coil. By passing a momentary electric current through 
the coil the boom was set in motion. Care was taken that the applied 
force did not continue for more than a small fraction of the quarter-period 
of vibration. As the solenoid had no fixed iron core, there were no after- 
effects. As one has to measure the ratio of successive swings, this ratio 



ioo 




+ 




^^ 


+• 




zoo 

1 

si 




\^ 








V 

>» 


\ 








1 
1 


l\ 










-1 
5 






^^ 


















+ "^^ 


+ ■"' — . 













fi^riod or the Earth Wal^e in seconds 

Fig. 2. 

Milne-Shaw Seismograph, No. 3. July 26, 1915. 

The full-line curve gives the magnification for long-continued sinusoidal 

waves of lateral displacement. 

Undamped free period of pendulum 9'9 sees. 

Damping ratio of successive swings on opposite sides of zero 45 : 1. 

The crosses are from the Galitzin instrument. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 77 

must not be too large. The measurements were made on the photo- 
graphic record, and gave 45 : 1 for the ratio of successive displacements 
on opposite sides of the zero. From these data the curve in fig. (2) was 
plotted. 

Comparison of the Magnification with that of a Galitzin Instrument 
having Galvanometric Registration. — This was done by selecting a 
point of time at and near which the natural disturbance was of a 
regular sinusoidal character on the seismograms of both the Milne-Shaw 
and Galitzin instruments. The two instruments were in the same room 
(though on separate piers) and their booms were parallel to one another, 
so that we may assume that the ground motion was the same for both. 
The amplitude and period of the Galitzin chart were measured, and from 
these and from the known constants of the Galitzin instrument the 
amplitude of the ground motion was deduced. Dividing this quantity 
by the amplitude on the Milne-ShaAv record we get the magnification of 
the latter instrument. The figures so obtained have been represented by 
the crosses in fig. 2. The agreement of the crosses, with the curve 
obtained by consideration of the Milne-Shaw instrument alone, is nearly 
as good as could be expect'^d, considering the uncertainties involved in 
measuring the small amplitudes of 1 or 2 mm. on the Milne-Shaw record. 
The constants of the Galitzin instrument were obtained in May 1915 by 
the method of tapping the boom (Gahtzin's 'Lectures,' ch. vii. § 3) and 
differ only slightly from those obtained in previous years. 

Direction on the Paper. — The boom is suddenly pulled to the west. 
The light spot therefore moves as if the ground had been jerked to the 
east. This test is made on every sheet. 

Lag of Maximum. — The usual theory of lag begins by assuming that 
the ground is in a regular and constant state of sinusoidal motion. Each 
wave is by hypothesis exactly like its neighbours, and therefore it is 
impossible to distinguish one wave from another, and the lag is indeter- 
minate as to an arbitrary number of whole wave-lengths. This is the 
only arbitrariness. The theory usually ends, however, in a formula 
which gives the tangent of the angle of lag, and the angle is therefore 
unspecified as to a whole number of half wave-lengths. On going back 
and examining the sine and cosine of the angle of lag this uncertainty 
disappears, in so far as it concerns the phase relations of the quantities 
represented by the symbols in the theory. But there is still a practical 
uncertainty of half a wave-length until we have connected the symbols 
to our practice in reading records, by defining the relation of east and 
west ground-motion to up and down the record. The definition here 
adopted is that when all is at rest and the ground suddenly moves, then 
the initial displacement of the trace on the developed photographic 
record is conventionally said to be in the same direction as the initial 
motion of the ground. The actual test is made by pulling the boom 
in the opposite direction, as stated above. 

Now the equation of motion of a ' critically aperiodic ' boom is 



(i-r^--f- <'> 



where 6 is the angle turned through by the boom. 
Here x is the displacement of the ground. 

n and I are positive constants. 



78 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 'IQIO. 



For sudden motions we may neglect n in comparison with y, and we 
have left 

So that the standard relation of signs is + ^ with — x. 

For very slow motions we may neglect ~ in comparison with n, and 

OX 



we have left 



Now let — cc = sin ft. 



n^d = — icjl 



then d = — xlnP = — ^„ sin vt. 

Thus 6 lags half a wave-length behind — x. The sign of either side of 
equation (1) may be changed without affecting this result. Galitzin gives 
a numerical table for this lag (' Seismometrische Tabellen,' Tabelle VI.), 
as a function of the degree of damping and of the periods of the pendulum 
and ground. But as he gives the lag as zero for waves of very long period, 
instead of half-a-wave as found above, it is clear that he has adopted 
a different definition of the direction on the paper, and that his definition 
would give the reversed sign to sudden motions if it were applied to them, 



I 



■t- 



10 

Period of Earth Wove in seconds 



Fig. 3. 
Lag of Milne-Shaw Seismograph, No. 3. July-August 1915. 



which probably is not intended. In preparing fig. 3, the lags in Galitzin's 
Table VI. have therefore been increased by half the period of the earth- 
wave. 

In order to make an observational comparison between the lag of the 
Milne-Shaw instrument and that of the Galitzin instrument with galvano- 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



79 



metric registration, it was necessary to examine the theory of the latter, 
when the direction on the paper is defined by means of sudden motions 
from a state of rest. By analysis similar to that given above it may be 
shown that the numbers for the lag of the galvanometer behind the 
pendulum, given byGalitzin in his Table VII., are also based on a definition 
differing by half-a-period from that here taken. So that the sum of the 
lags given in Galitzin's Tables VI. and VII. — ^that is to say, the lag of the 
galvanometer behind the ground — ^is in agreement with the definition here 
taken. Of course, it is arbitrary as to a whole number of wave-lengths. 

In fig. 3 the crosses indicate the lag found for the Milne-Shaw in- 
strument, taking the lag calculated for the Galitzin instrument as correct. 



The Study of Hydroaromatic Substances. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor W. H. Perkin {Chairman) , 
Professor A. W. Crosslby (Secretary), Dr. M. 0. Forster, 
Dr. H. E. Le Sueur, and Dr. A. McKenzie. 

1. Bromoxylenols obtained from dimethyldihydroresorcin.^ The 
transformation of certain hydroaromatic substances into bromoxylenols, 
alluded to in the last Eeport,- has now been completed. 

2. Derivatives of Isopropyldihydroresorcin.' The preparation and 
properties of l-isopropylcyclohexan-3-ol and l-isopropylcyclohexan-3- 
one, briefly referred to in the last Eeport, have been described in detail. 

3. Dihydric Alcohols obtained by the reduction of substituted 
dihydroresorcins.^ It Has been shown that 1 :3-dibromo-derivatives of 
the saturated cyclohexane hydrocarbons may be used for the preparation 
of substituted cyclohexadienes.^ It would appear that a more expedi- 
tious method of preparing these substances would be from the dihydric 
alcohols, which, on theoretical grounds, should be easily obtained by the 
direct reduction of the dihydroresorcins, 



CMe^ 
H,C(^\cH, 
HO . C^vJcO 



H,C 
HO. HC 



CMe 



CH. 



CH, 
CH . OH 



but though many attempts have at vax'ious times been made to bring 
about these reactions, in some cases resulting in the isolation of small 
quantities of the desired substances, it is only comparatively recently 
that conditions have been worked out for the pi'eparation of the dihydric 
alcohols in quantity. 

Knoevenagel ® obtained small amounts of phenylcyclohexane-3 : 5- 



1 J.C.S., 1914, 105, 165. 
» J.O.S., 1915, 107, 171. 
« J.C.S., 19D8, 92, 629. 



2 Eeports, 1913, p. 135. 
* J.C.S., 1915, 107, 602. 
6 AnnaUn, 189;j, 289, 167. 



80 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1915. 

diol (I) by the reduction of phenyldihydroresorcin with sodium and 
alcohol, and the only other paper 

CHPh 




HO . HCk JCU . OH 



deahng with this subject is one by Zelinsky and Uspenski/ who also 
employed the same reducing-agent. Numerous experiments have con- 
firmed the fact that sodium and alcohol give the best results, and the 
yields are highest when the reaction is carried out energetically by 
heating in an oil bath to 110°, as stated by Zehnsky and Uspenski. 

The amounts of the dihydric alcohols produced vary considerably 
with different dihydroresorcins, as is seen from the following table: — 

Yield pfir Cent. 
Methyldihydroresorcin ...... 43 



Dimethyldihydi ore.sorcin 
Trimethyldihydioresorcin 
Isopropyldihydroresoicin 
Phenyldihydroresorcin . 



66-68 

20 

40 

47-50 



This is partly due to the nature of the dihydroresorcins themselves, 
but also to the fact that the reactions are somewhat complicated, and 
it is interesting to note that, in all cases, small quantities of the corre- 
sponding monohydric alcohols are formed. For example, 1 : 1-dimethyl- 
cyclohexan-3-ol (II) from dimethyldihydroresorcin (III). 

CMe, CMe. 

HXr ^CH^ >. B^Cf ^CH, 




HO.Ck y'CO H,CV yCH.OH 

CH CH, 

(III) (II) 

Further, owing to the unsymmetric structure of all the molecules 
except that of dimethyldihydroresorcin, isomeric forms of the diols are 
produced, the separation of which is always tedious and sometimes has 
been found impracticable. 

The dihydric alcohols are crystalline compounds, neutral to litmus, 
readily forming dibenzoyl derivatives and not absorbing bromine in 
chloroform solution. In many properties they strongly resemble 
glycols, as they possess a sweet taste, are easily soluble in water, and 
not readily soluble in ether. 

4. l:l-Dimethylcyclohexane. In a paper entitled gfe)?i-dimethyl- 
hexamethylene,* Zelinsky and Lepeschkin describe the preparation of 
1 : l-dimetliylcyclohexane from 1 :l-dimethylcyclohexan-3-one, which 
was obtained from acetylmethylheptenone.' These authors conclude that 

' Ber.. 1013. 46. 1430 « Jomn. Rhxs. PJii/s. Chem. So'-., 1913, 45. fil3. 

» Bull. Soc. Chim., 1899 (3). 21, 54(5. 



ON THE STUDY OP HYDRO AROMATIC SUBSTANCES. 81 

their hydrocarbon possesses physical properties identical with those of 
1 : 1-dimethylcyclohexane prepared from dimethyldihydroresorcin,^" but 
state that it gives on treatment with bromine in presence of aluminium 
bromide, tetrabromo-p-xylene, melting at 256°. Eecent work has shown 
that 1 : 1-dimethylcyclohexane may be prepared from acetylmethyl- 
heptenone as a starting-point. This hydrocarbon, on treatment with 
bromine in presence of aluminium bromide, does not give tetrabromo-p- 
xylene, as stated by Zelinsky and Lepescbkin. Further, 1 : 1-dimethyl- 
cyclohexane on treatment with a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids 
gives the two isomeric trinitrb-o-xylenes, melting at 72° and 115° re- 
spectively, which proves that, as in so many instances already recorded, 
the methyl group has again wandered into an ortho and not a para 
position. 



Dynamic Isomerism. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor H. E. Armstrong {Chairman) , Dr. T. M. Lowrv 
{Secretary), Professor Sydney Young, Dr. G. H. Desch, 
Sir J. J. DoBBiE, and Dr. M. 0. Forster. {Drawn up hy 
the Secretary.) 

a'-Chlorncamphor.^ 

During the past year the principle of dynamic isomerism has been 
applied in preparing, in a pure state and in considerable quantity, the 
first member of a hitherto unisolated series of halogen derivatives o' 
camphor, a-chlorocamphor, as Kipping found in 1905, becomes iso- 
dynamic with the stereoisomeric a'-chlorocamphor when alkali is pre- 
sent; when the alkali is removed the isomerism again becomes static, 
and the isomerides can be separated by ordinary methods of fractionation, 
a'-chlorocamphor presents several points of special interest : — 

First. It lies on the borderland between the more labile and the 
wholly stable forms of isomerism ; if proper precautions are taken, the 
a'- compound can be kept an indefinite time, but if carelessly handled 
[e.g., if crystallised from a medium containing traces of alkali) it may 
at any time revert to the less soluble and therefore more stable a- com- 
pound. 

Second. When brominated it gives a mixture of stereoisomeric 
oa'-bromochlorocamphors in exactly the same proportions as when 
a-chlorocamphor is brominated, i.e., the position taken up by the bromine 
is not affected in the least by the position which the chlorine atom 
occupies. This remarkable result is in agreement with Lapworth's 
view that in the bromination of ketones it is an enolic isomeride that 
is first attacked ; more generally we may conclude that at some stage 
in the bromination a and a'-chlorocamphor give rise to some identical 
intermediate product. 

Third. In complete contrast with their behaviour on bromination, 

'0 J.C.S.. 19)5. 87. 1487. 

' The experiments on a'-chlorocamphor have been made by Mr. Victor Steele, and 
are described in detail in a joint paper recently communicated to the Chemical 
Society. 

1915. Q 



82 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.- -1915. 

a and a'-cMorocamphor give on nitration the pure chloronitrocamphor 
directly derived from the clilorocamphor employed ; thus a-chloro- 
camphor gives a-chloro-a'-nitrocamphor, whilst a'-chlorocamphor gives 
an excellent yield of a'-chloro-a-nitrocamphor. The latter compound 
had already been fractionated out in small quantities from the mixture 
of stereoisomers which is obtained by chlorinating a'-nitrocamphor ; 
but, as a'-chlorocamphor can be prepared and nitrated on a large scale, 
the nitro- derivative will now be available in much larger quantities. 
This fact may be of considerable importance, since the reduction of the 
chloronitro- compound may give the long-sought but still unknown 
a-nitrocamphor. 

Fourth, a'-chlorocamphor appears to lose hydrogen chloride much 
more readily than the a- compound. If this decomposition should 
involve the removal of a hydrogen atom from the nucleus, an entirely 
new chapter in the chemistry of camphor may be begun. 

In view of the large amount of work that is waiting to be done in this 
and in other directions, the Committee asks to be reappointed with a 
grant sufficient to defray the cost of extending the experiments to the 
(i and ir derivatives of camphor. 



The Transformation of Aromatic Nitroa^nines and Allied Sub- 
stances and its Relation to Substitution in Benzene Deriva- 
tives. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
F. S. Kipping (Chairman), Professor K. J. P. Orton (Secre- 
tary), Dr. S. EuHEMANN, and Dr. J. T. Hewitt. 

Very little work has been possible in the circumstances throughout 
the year owing to preoccupation with other more pressing duties, and 
to the departure for military and othei' like services of the senior 
students, who would have carried out the experimental part of the 
investigation. The work, of which a short report follows, is therefore 
to be regarded as purely of a preliminary character. 

The Relation of the Velocity of Chlorination of Aromatic Compounds 
to Constitution. 

(With D. C. Jones.) 

The measurement of the velocity of chlorination of a number of 
acylanilides, acylchloroanilides, and acyltoluidides and acylxylidides ^ 
showed that the velocity of the reaction was highly sensitive to : 

(a) the nature of the acyl gi'oup ; 

(b) the nature of a substituting gi'oup, chlorine or alky], present in the 

substance ; 

(c) the position of the substituting group. 

It has been our intention to extend these observations by studying 
the influence of substituents other than chlorine and alkyl, for example, 
bromine and the nitro- group ; and to compare with the amino- and the 
acylamino- group, -NHAc, such other ortho-para- directing groups 
as hydroxyl, alkoxy-, and alkyl. 

' Orton and King, Eeports, 1911 ; Trans. Chem. Soc. 1911, 99, 1377. 



ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF AROMATIC NITROAMINES. 83 

Ifc is hoped that by study of a number of substances of suitable 
constitution iho lehitive activities of directing groups in chlorination 
might be expressed as numerical values. The investigation is not of 
the simplest, for direct measurement in the case of an aniline or 
phenol, and so forth, is rarely possible owing to the very great speed 
of entrance of the first and often furtlier chlorine atoms. Derivatives 
in which other gi'oups, such as the nitro- group, are present, must be 
used in order to obtain a measurable rate of chlorination. Holleman 
has, in recent years, made attempts to compare the activities of direct- 
ing groups by nitrating compounds which contain two directing groups 
and then estimating the proportion of the different nitro- derivatives 
in the product. By this means he has arrived at certain relations, which 
can be expressed numerically. Our method has the advantage of being 
simpler in manipulation, and should at least yield more direct values. 

Experimental Method. — The method of experiment ^ has now been 
thoroughly tested and has not been modified in these lat^r experiments. 

(1) The Effect of the Nitro- Group. — A nitro- group in the para 
position with respect to the directing group greatly inhibits chlorina- 
tion; the effect is still more marked when the nitro- group is in the 
ortho- position. Tn the case of phenols the nitro- group appears to 
have some definite specific action ; phenols are chlorinated with" very 
great speed, but chlorination of o- and p-nitrophenols, especially of the 
former, is very slow, o- and p-nitroaniline, on the other hand, are 
chlorinated at speeds which differ little from those observed with the 
coiTesponding monochloroanilines. Although the amino- group is a 
far more active directing group in chlorination than the hydroxy- group, 
this result would indicate that a free hydroxy- group is not present in 
0- and p-nitrophenol. 

(2) Alhoxy- Groups as Directing Groups in Chlorination. — Measure- 
ments have shown that the methoxy- and ethoxy- groups have a quite 
unexpectedly high activity in chlorination. The entrance of the first 
chlorine atom into anisole, C6H..OCH3, and into phenetole, CeHs.OC^H^, 
is 'instantaneous.' The values of the velocity-coefficients, hn, for the 
second chlorine atom, together with those of the corresponding 'phenols, 
arc given in the table. 

0-Chlorophenol ... 57 Chloroanisole ... 1-5 

;)-Chlorophenol ... 32 Chlorophenetole ... 3-0 

Acetanilide ... 40 p-Chloroacetanilide 0-2 

The alkoxy- groups are less active than the hydroxy- groups, but 
their value is brought out by a comparison with acetanilide and 
p-chloroacetanilide. For acetanilide li-„ is 40, whilst for anisole and 
phenetole it is too rapid for measurement (' instantaneous '), that is, 
over 1,000; and for p-chloroacetanilide the value is 0"2 as compared 
with 1'5 or 3"0 for the ethers. 

This high activity of the methoxy- and ethoxy- groups accounts 
for the high values observed by us ^ in the chlorination of acetoanisidide 



' Oiton and Jones, Reports, 1910 ; Oiton and King, he. cit. 
' Oiton and King, loc. cit. 



G2 



84 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

jt,j = 60) and acetoplienetidide (in =90), in each of which are two 
directing groups, alkoxy- and acetamino-. Moreover, the products of 
the chlorination should in these compounds be a mixture in which the 
chloro- compound formed under the influence of the alkoxy- group 
would largely predominate, thus : 

OAlk 



Alk 





NHAc 



NHAc 

As nothing at the time was known of the activity of the alkoxy- 
groups in directing substitution, we * took the monochlorophenetidide, 
which we isolated only by repeated crystallisation of the first product, 
to be 5-chloroacetphenetidide. The relatively greater activity of the 
ethoxy- group would indicate that the chloro- derivative in larger 
proportion is the isomeric 2-chloroacetphenetidide. Professor J. F. 
Thorpe has, moreover, recently prepared the 5-chloroacetphenetidide 
and demonstrated its constitution undoubtedly, and has further shown 
that the compound which we isolated is 2-chloroacetphenetidide. 

(3) A Comparison of the Amino- and Hydroxy- Groups. — A direct 
comparison between the amino- and hydroxy- groups in their activities 
in directing chlorination is not very easy to obtain ; the speeds of 
entrance of the first and second atoms of chlorine into aniline and 
phenol are very high; the introduction of the nitro- group, which 
lowers the speed of chlorination, is not pennissible owing to its specific 
effect, mentioned in the foregoing, on the hydroxy- group. Moreover, 
a further difficulty in obtaining an exact relation arises from the great 
difference in the activities of the two groups. The most trustworthy 
method is found in the measurement of the rate of entrance of the 
third chlorine atom into 2 : 4-dichloroaniline and 2 : 4-dichlorophenol 
respectively. The value of ^iil8.4° for the aniline is about 600, and 
that for the phenol approximately 0'16. 

Stimmary. — The amino- group far surpasses all other groups in 
activity in chlorination of aromatic compounds, and is followed by the 
groups, hydroxy-, alkoxy-, and acetamino- in the order given. 

NH2 > OH > OAlk > NHAc. 

The Committee ask for reappointment, and for a grant of 101. for 
the year 1915-16. 

* Orton and King, loc. cit. 



ON THE STUDY OP PLANT ENZYMES. 



85 



The Study of Plant Enzijmes, particularly with relation to 
Oxidation. — Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Mr. A. D. Hall {Chairman), Dr. E. F. Abmstrong 
{Secretary), Professor H. E. Armstrong, Professor F. 
Keeble, and Dr. E. J. Kussell. 

In the last communication to the Eoyal Society on Lipase, by Armstrong 
and Gosney, reference was made to experiments with the seed of Cheli- 
donium majics. Further work has been done with this seed to deter- 
mine its synthetic activity. The results are in harmony with those 
published in the interval by Bournot, who was the first to recognise 
the high lipoclastic activity of the seed. 

A good deal has been made, during the year, of a discussion by van 
Slyke and Cullen of the work done with urease, which had led Armstrong 
and Horton to conclude that the action of this catalyst was not subject 
to the ordinary mass-action law but practically linear in rate over the 
greater part of its course. Van Slyke amplifies the ordinary mass-action 
equation by a term representing the time occupied in the decomposition 
of the hydrolyte by the enzyme and claims that the results are in 
accordance with such ' mass-action equation ' ; but as the mass-action 
term is admitted to be of no practical account, the argument he develops 
practically falls to the ground, leaving the position much as it has been 
stated by E. F. and H. E. Armstrong. 

The work of the Committee has been extended in various directions 
during the year but with no very definite results, as it has been 
impossible to carry on systematic work. 



Correlation of Crystalline Form with Molecular Structure. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. J. 
Pope {Chairman), Professor H. E. Armstrong {Secretary), 
Mr. W. Barlow, and Professor W. P. Wynne. 

During the year, in addition to a limited amount of crystallographic 
work, a beginning has been made in determining the molecular volumes 
of compounds in close crystallographic relationship. The foUowinsj 
results are given as examples. It will be seen that there is a fairly 
regular relationship between the salts : — 

Molecular Volumes of Sulphonntes. 





Fe 


Co 


Ni 


Cu 


Benzenesiil phonate 
Toluene-p-8ulphonate . 
p-Chlorobenzenesulphonate . 
p-Bromobenzenesulphonate . 
p-Iodobenzenesulphonate 


300-95 
33814 
340-03 

356-32 


298-39 
334-19 
337-97 
343-47 
358-53 


294-73 
33074 

339-48 


294-84 
320-80 
317-58 



On discussing the crystallographic results in the light of these mole- 



86 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

cular volume measurements, it appears that throughout the series of 
salts the morphological alteration in the passage from the benzene- 
sulphonate to the other salts falls on the axial ratio a : b, the ratio c : b 
being scarcely altered. 

This unexpected result is being followed up. 



Plant Products of Victoria. — Interim Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor Orme Masson (Chairman), Dr. Hebeu 
Green (Secretary), Mr. J, Cronin, and Mr. P. E. H. 
St. John, charged with the Chemical Investigation of Natural 
Plant Products of Victoria. 

The work of the Committee has .so far been devoted to the study of the 
essential oils of native shnabs and trees, and has been carried out partly 
in the laboratory and paiily in the field. 

(1) An experimental still and a new pattern of condenser have been 
designed and constructed for the distillation of the essential oil from 
foliage. 

They will take a charge of over one hundredweight of leaves and 
are specially adapted for the experimental requirements in the bush. 

(2) A new pattern of standard flask has been devised and con- 
structed of fused quartz for quantitative fractional distillation of oils in 
the laboratory. 

It is proposed to investigate the applicability of electric heating in 
connection with this apparatus. 

(3) Samples (generally of several hundredweight lots) of important 
native oil-bearing plants have been collected from various parts of 
Victoria, partly by taking special trips and bringing sacks of foliage to 
Melbourne, and also by taking the still into the bush, where a camp was 
made for about a month and the oils distilled from the plants in their 
native habitat. 

In this way reliable material has been obtained for about twenty 
species, and although two research assistants engaged in the work have 
received other appointments, the investigation of these oils is being 
proceeded with in the laboratory. 

(4) Investigations have been completed with regard to two oils, 
and the results are about to be communicated to the Eoyal Society of 
Victoria for pubHcation. 

In the case of several others the results will soon be completed, 
whilst for some species more material is required. 

(5) Of the 501. granted to the Committee by the Association and 
paid over to its Chairman last year, 24Z. has been spent up to the 
present. It is proposed to expend the balance on further apparatus 
and chemicals. 

The Committee has the honour to apply for reappointment, as the 
work is being continued. 



INFLUENCE OF WEATHER ON ACIDS IN RAINFALL. 



87 



The Influence of Weather Conditions upon the Amounts of 
Nitrogen Acids in the Rainfall and Atmosphere in Australia. — 
Interim Report of the Goynmittee, consisting of Professor 
Orme Masson {Chairman), Mr. V. G. Anderson {Secretary), 
Mr. D. Avery, and Mr. H. A. Hunt, appointed for the 
Investigation thereof. 

The work undertaken by this Eesearch Committee is a continuation of 
the work commenced by Mr. V. G. Anderson, who has shown in a 
paper read before tTie Chemistry Section at Melbourne, and pubhshed 
in the ' Quarterly Journal of the Eoyal Meteorological Society ' (Vol. 
xli. , April 1915, pp. 99-116), that certain relations exist between the 





%Thunday Ishnd 




o'o s^ — ^ A 

/%Pt Darwin f j \ 


^~. 


c <? / \ 


/ 


^-<J \ 


/• Broome 


Townsville ^T^S. 


{ 

, y^Carnarron 


9 Alice Springs \ 


Woombye • 
*Hergott Springs 


\ 


Cuch } 


\ Narrogift^yy 


I 1 J f\ Bathurst y 

cKi'""" */ 

V jM Con tcr&ry 




^^ ^"K^^^^/f 









\ mWopfi" 



An Outline Map of Australia, showing approximate positions of Collecting 

Stations, 1915. 



amounts of nitric and nitrous acids in the rainfall, and the weather 
conditions prevailing at the time the rain-water is collected. Anderson's 
investigations were confined to rain-water collected near Melbourne, 
but in the present work it was thought advisable to collect samples of 
the rainfall from all parts of Australia. With this end in view this 
Committee has expended the grant entrusted to it in establishing series 



88 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

of collecting stations at suitable places in the several climatic zones of 
Australia. The voluntary services of a number of qualified and experi- 
enced observers have been secured. The number of stations at present 
established is sixteen, and these are distributed over the Continent as 
shown in the attached map (1). Samples of rain-water are now being 
collected at each station every day on which rain falls. 

A great deal will depend on the amount of care bestowed upon the 
collection of the samples of rain-water. In the choice of agents for 
collecting the samples the Committee was guided by the advice of one of 
its members, Mr. H. A. Hunt, Commonwealth Meteorologist, who was 
able in nearly every case to recommend, from personal knowledge, a 
resident observer possessing exceptional qualifications for this work. 
The Committee wishes to place on record an acknowledgment of its 
indebtedness to the following lady and gentlemen who are so ably and 
enthusiastically assisting it in carrying on this work : 

Miss J. Heinrichsen, Ballarat, Victoria. 
S. Hebbard, Esq., Technical School, Sale, Victoria. 
A. H. Bisdee, Esq., Wihareja, Steppes, Tasmania. 
W. M. Lee Bryce, Esq., The Resident Magistrate, Thursday Island, 
Queensland. 

F. Pairley, Esq., M.I.E.E., F.E.M.S., Woombye, Queensland. 

Dr. H. Priestley, Australian Institute of Tropical Medicine, Townsville, 

Queensland. 
R. Gordon Edgell, Esq., Bi'adwardine, Bathurst, New South Wales. 
E. J. Cook, Esq., P.M. Hergott Springs, South Australia. 
Simon Ockley, Esq. , Comaun, Penola, South Australia. 
W. A. Doran, Esq., P.M. Eucla, Western Australia. 

G. R. Kirkby, Esq., P.M. Carnarvon, Western Australia. 

Major G. T. Wood, The Resident Magistrate, Broome, Western Aus- 
tralia. 
G. G. Lavater, Esq., A. E.V.I. A., Narrogin, Westei'n Australia. 
Dr. Mapleston, Port Darwin, Northern Territory. 
J. McKay, Esq., P.M. Alice Springs, Northern Territory (Central). 

Each observer is provided with a glass rain-collecting gauge and a 
set of specially prepared stoppered bottles in which the samples are 
forwarded. A set of instructions has been drawn up for the guidance of 
observers in collecting the samples. A copy of these instructions, 
together with the several enclosures for the use of observers, is appended 
to this report (Appendix A). 

The samples of rain-water are being sent to Melbourne by post. The 
postal charges, which are naturally very heavy, are being defrayed by 
the Commonwealth Meteorologist, with the sanction of the Minister of 
Home Affairs. The Committee desires to express its appreciation of 
this unsolicited and valuable concession. Special packages had to be 
devised for sending the bottles through the post. After repeated trials a 
double cardboard box lined with corrugated paper was found to be 
satisfactory. Samples are being sent regularly through the post from 
stations upwards of three thousand miles distant from Melbourne, but 
up to the present time no breakages have occurred. 

In order to deal with the large number of samples to be examined, 



INFLUENCE OF WEATHER ON ACIDS IN RAINFALL. 89 

the laboratory equipment previously used by Anderson has been added 
to, provision having been made for the simultaneous evaporation of 
sixteen samples of water in a specially designed electrically heated 
water-bath. The methods employed are those used in the previous 
research, and which are described in a recent number of the ' Quarterly 
Journal of the Eoyal Meteorological Society. ' 

During the period between September 1914 and March 1915 the 
activities of the Committee were confined chiefly to organisation, includ- 
ing the establishment and equipment of collecting stations, and involving 
a considerable amount of correspondence with observers and others. 
On March 15, however, the preliminary arrangements were sufficiently 
far advanced to permit of samples being collected regularly at all 
stations, and since that date the scientific work of the Committee has 
been carried on uninterruptedly. In order that the seasonal variations 
might be studied, and that the results may be of real value, samples 
should be collected and examined from all stations until March 1916. 

During the progress of the experimental work the results, as soon 
as they are completed, will be correlated with the meteorological data. 
In this aspect of the work it will be necessary to draw largely upon the 
publications of the Meteorological Bureau, particularly in regard to the 
daily isobaric charts of Australia. The observers are provided with 
forms for the purpose of making notes of the weather conditions on 
days when rain is recorded. Sample forms, together with other forms 
used in tabulating the results, are appended (Appendix B). 

Up to the present time no work has been done by the Committee 
upon the direct determination of the amount of nitrogen peroxide in the 
atmosphere. The difficulties connected with this work are very con- 
siderable owing to the exceedingly small proportion of this gas normally 
present in air. _ However, it is thought that these difficulties may be 
overcome, and it is the intention of the Committee to proceed with this 
phase of the work as soon as possible. Additional apparatus will be 
required for this purpose. 

A list of apparatus in the possession of the Committee is appended 
(Appendix C). 

This Interim Report is submitted with the request that the Committee 
be reappointed with a further grant of 20Z., for the purpose of carrying 
on the investigation outlined in the foregoing pages. 

APPENDIX A. 

' Ithaca,' 

Victoria Avenue, 

Canterbury. Vic. : 

n c- Feb. 17, 1915. 

Dear Sir, ' 

The following are enclosed for use in connection with the work of the 
Kesearch Committee on Nitrogen Acids in Rain.-water :— 

1. A descriptive list of the apparatus supplied ; 

2. A list of general instructions ; 

3. A list of the names and addresses of the Observers who are co-operatinc with 

the Kesearch Committee; 

4. A map showing the approximate positions of the observing stations : 

5. A drawing showing the method of setting up the collecting gauge; 



90 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

6. A copy of an abstract of the paper read before the Chemistry Section of the 

British Association Meeting at Melbourne; 

7. Twelve one-penny postage stamps to be used for sending the monthly weather 

returns to the Hon. Secretary at the above address; 

8. A stamped and addressed envelope. 

I have despatched to you by parcel post parcels ^ containing apparatus as 
per descriptive list enclosed. Will you kindly let me know immediately you 
receive them the condition in which they arrive, and whether or not there are 




Map showing approximate positions of Collecting Stations. 

breakages or shortages? The stamped envelope is provided for this purpose. 
Any suggestions as to modifications to suit local conditions will be welcomed 
by the Committee. 

Will you please commence collecting the samples of water on March 15 or 
as soon after as possible ? Kindly note that parcels may only be posted without 
prepayment when they are addressed to the British Association Research Com- 
mittee, c/o Commonwealth Meteorologist, Central Weather Bureau, Melbourne. 
All communications directed to my private address must be prepaid as usual. 

I am, 

Faithfully yours, 

Hon. Secretary. 

APPARATUS AND ACCESSORIES. 
1. Rain-collecting Apparatus. 

This consists of three parts, as follows : — 

(a) A glass funnel, 7 inches in diameter; 

(b) A glass receiving bottle with a capacity of about 4i plut.s ; 

(c) A wooden stand. 

1 Five. 



INFLUENCE OF WEATHER ON ACIDS IN RAINFALL, 91 

Setting up the Collecting Ajjparatus. 

The stand should be placed in a suitable position and the spikes provided 
for the purpose driven firmly into the ground through the holes in the base 
of the stand. This method of fixing will serve in most cases, but in localities 
where wind-storms of extreme violence are not unusual it will be advisable 
to secure the stand by screwing it down to pegs of wood which have been 
driven into the earth. The pegs should be about 2 inches by 2 inches in section 
and at least 12 inches long, and sharpened at the end. The accompanying 
diagrams show the method of setting up the apparatus and the two methods 
of securing it. 

2. Sample Bottles. 

These are small glass-stoppered bottles which have been carefully washed 
out with purest distilled water, and then allow to drain. They should not 
be unstoppered until samples of rain-water are about to be placed in them, 
and then the stopper should be replaced as soon as possible. They are con- 
tained in specially designed cardboard boxes lined with corrugated strawboard, 
in which they may be sent through the post office, either singly or in batches, 
without danger of breakage. To each bottle has been attached a blank label. 
Regular supplies of sample bottles will be forwarded as required. 

3. Glass Wool. 

A plug of this filtering medium should be placed at the apex of the col- 
lecting funnel and should be renewed as often as it becomes soiled through 
exposure. 

4. Bottle Brush. 

This brush is intended for cleaning the funnel and receiving bottle, and must 
not on any account be used for other purposes. It should be hung in a con- 
venient place and be kept free from dust and other substances which would 
contaminate the collecting apparatus. 

5. Stationery and Sundries. 

(a) Printed forms for recording weather conditions on rainy days ; 
{&) 1 dozen envelopes; 

(c) 25 addressed parcel tags for returning samples ; 

[d) Wrapping cord. 

GENERAL INSTBUCTIONS. 

Observers should note that it is of prime importance to guard against the 
introduction of impurities into the rain-water. The Committee wishes to 
receive the water as nearly as possible in the condition in which it falls to 
earth. Contamination is more likely to occur before, or after, a fall than while 
the rain is actually falling. Dust and smoke particles, grass-seeds, insects, 
bird-droppings and the like, are likely to foul the funnel and receiver during 
dry spells, and if these are not completely removed before the rain falls the 
results of the chemical examination will be misleading. Much may be done 
in minimising this source of error by selecting a suitable position for the 
collecting apparatus. 

The Position of the Collecting Apparatus. 

In choosing a position for the collecting apparatus avoid proximity to 
buildings, trees, and roads. The rain should be free to fall into the funnel 
from all points of the compass. The site should, if possible, be enclosed in 
such a manner as to prevent access by domestic and other animals. An ideal 
position would be at the centre of a large enclosed grass-plot. The apparatus 
should not be very far removed from the official rain-gauge, as the measure- 
ments made in the latter will be made use of in the research, no measurements 
being made in the former. 

Preparing the Apparatus. 

Before placing the funnel and receiver in position they should be rinsed out 
with rain-water, and allowed to drain for five minutes. Rain-water collected 
during a very heavy downpour is suitable for this purpose, especially if the 



92 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 



first portions of the shower are rejected. Failing this, good tank-water will 
do, but hard mineral water, or water that is at all discoloured, should on no 
account be employed. On request a large bottle for storing a supply of pure 



Ql»is wool plug 




K 

'J ■ 



Vv* T» Attachment to wooden 'M 

poos arnrwn into ground 




PIAM 
Showing arrsngement of pegs 



7/ 






Ordinary nteih^ o/ 
setting up - Iron spikes 
driven into ^rouna 



Sca/e of /nc/ies 

IS 4 S 6 1 I t 10 



n 




rain-water will be forwarded. Washing out with water should be repeated 
each day when there is a probability of rain. When draining the glass-ware 
care should be taken not to allow any part of the funnel or the neck of the 
bottle to come into contact with the soil. 



INFLUENCE OF WEATHER ON ACIDS IN RAINFALL. 93 

Removal of the Sample. 

At nine o'clock each morning the rain-water (if any) in the receiver should 
be mixed thoroughly by swirling. A sample bottle should then be filled to 
■within one-half inch of the stopper. The remainder of the water maj now be 
emptied out or, if the amount is large, it may be stored for rinsing purposes. 
If there is not sufficient rain-water in the receiver to fill the sample bottle send 
the whole of it. The label on the bottle should now be marked for identifica- 
tion purposes with : 

1. The name of the observing station; 

2. The date; 

3. The rainfall, as measured in the official rain-gauge. 

In replacing the stopper of the sample bottle impart to it a screwing motion, 
with a slight pressure inwards, until it grips firmly. This will prevent leakage 
during transit. 

Recording. 
On each day when rain has fallen observations of the weather conditions 
iluring the jnevious twenty-four hours shoiild be recorded on one of the forms 
provided for this purpose. At the end of the month the form should be for- 
warded to the Hon. Secretary of the Committee. When no rain has occurred 
during any month the form should be marked ' No rainfall recorded ' and be 
forwarded as usual. Observers are invited by the Committee to note and place 
on record any special features of the weather immediately preceding or 
accompanying falls of rain. When compared with the composition of the rain- 
water these observations may lead to important conclusions. 

Packing and Forwarding. 
The bottle containing the sample should be replaced in its box, a printed 
return tag attached, and the package posted at the first opportunity- Each 
forwarding tag should be marked with : 

1. The name of the collecting station ; 

2. The date of posting. 

Should six samples have accumulated before the departure of the next mail they 
may be placed together in a large box and sent as a single package. The 
Committee is indebted to the Commonwealth Meteorologist for arranging to 
have all postal charges in connection with this research paid at Melbourne. 

Na})ies and Addresses of the Observers who are co-operating with the 
Research Committee of the British Association engaged in investigating the 
Influence of Weather Conditions upon the Amounts of Nitrogen Acids in Rain- 
water in Australia: 

Queensland. 

W. M. Lee Bryce, Esq., The Residency, Thursday Island, 

F. Fairley, Esq., M.I.E.E., F.R.M.S., Woombye. 

Dr. Henry Priestley, Australian Institute of Tropical Medicine, Towns- 
ville. 
New South Wales. 

R. Gordon Edgell, Esq., Bradwardine, Bathurst. 
Victcr'd. 

Miss Jean Heinrichsen, Ballarat. 

S. Hebbard, Esq., Technical School, Sale. 
Tasmania. 

Athol H. Bisdee, Esq., Wihareja, Steppes. 
South Australia. 

E. J. Cook, Esq., P.M. Hergott Springs. 

Simon Ockley, Esq., Comaun, Penola. 
Western Anstrnlia. 

W. A. Doran, Esq., P.M, Eucla. 

G. R. Kirkbv. Esq., P.M. Carnarvon. 
Major G. T.' Wood, The Residency, Broome. 
G. G. Lavater, Esq., A.R.V.I.A., Narrogin. 

Northern Territory. 

Dr. !Mapleston, Darwin. 

J. McKay, Esq., P.M. Alice Springs. 



94 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

APPENDIX B. 



Collecting Station at_ 



^Veathel■ Conditions (on days when rain was recorded) during the 

month of — ^^^ 

Summary of Weather Conditions during 24 houis ending at 9 a.m. on the day 

the rain was collected. 



Wind 



Date Rainfall 



Direction 






Velocity 



Temperature 



Max. 



Min. 



Pressure 



Same 
Day 

A.M. 



Previous 
Day 

9 A.M 



General 
Remarks 



Collecting Station 


at 




Month of 


191 




Rainfall 

(inches) 


Nitropen 


Ratio 

N(ic) 
N(ous) 




Date 


Milligrams 

per 
100 Litres 


Product 


Pounds 

per 

1000 acres 


Remarks 



Collecting Station at_ 



Month of 



Date 



Rainfall 
(inches) 



Nitric 
Nitrogen 






)i -^ o 
3 S^ 



„., Total 

Nitrous ! Oxidised 
Nitrogen , Nitrogen 



S £ 



Saxjlhoo).-' ya 



g<li hog J 

oa o 



3h S 



Ratio 

N(ic) 
N(ous) 



191 



Weather Type 



APPENDIX C. 

List of Apparatus purchased by the Research Committee on Weather Con- 
ditions and Nitrogen Acids in Rainfall, and used in carrying on the work of 
the Committee. 

26 doz. 4-oz. stoppered bottles ; 

24-doz. double, lined, cardboard boxes (2^ inches by 2-1 inches by 6 inches) ; 

4 doz. cardboard boxes (5^ inches by 6 inches by 7^ inches) ; 
16 rain-collecting gauges, complete with wooden stand, iron spikes, funnel, 
glass container, bottle brush, and ^ oz. of glass wool ; 
1 sixteen-hole, electrically heated wafer-bath of copper, complete with 
wooden stand and attachments ; 

1 distilling apparatus, consisting of ^-gallon retort of Jena glass, Davies 

condenser, Liebig's condenser, two retort stands, two clamps and boss- 
heads, and three yards of |-inch I.R. tubing; 
2^ doz. glass basins (3^ inches diameter) ; 
6 doz. Erlenmeyer flasks, of Bohemian glass, 100 c.c. capacity ; 

2 doz. watch-glasses (I5 inch diameter) ; 

4 Nessler tubes (70 c.c), graduated in cubic centimetres; 

2 wooden trays (18 inches by 20 inches) ; 

3 wooden trays (ISg inches by 14 inches). 



ON RESEARCH ON NON-AROMATIC DIAZONIUM SALTS. 95 



Researcli on Non-aromatic Diazonium Salts. — Interim Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Dr. F. D. Chattaway 
{Chairman), Professor G. Morgan {Secretary), Mr. P. G. 
W. Bayly, and Dr. N. V. Sidgwick. 

2-Aminothiazole, produced by the condensation of thiocarbamide and 
chloro-acetaldehyde alcoholate, is a non-aromatic base exhibiting a 
certain degree of diazotisability. It was formerly known that in con- 
centrated hydrochloric or hydrobromic acid the base reacted with nitrous 
acid to yield a very unstable diazo- derivative, not hitherto isolated from 
solution. This unstable product speedily lost its diazo-nitrogen, giving 
rise to 2-chlorothiazole or 2-bromothiazole. In feebly acid solution 
the diazotisation of 2-aminothiazole was known to yield an ill-defined 
sparingly soluble thiazole-2-diazohydroxide. 

[With G. V. Monow, Ph.D., \E.C.Sc.I.] 
The foregoing observations on the instability of the diazo- derivatives 
of 2-aminothiazole in the presence of halogen hydrides were confirmed. 
It was found that 2-aminothiazole is more readily diazotisable without 
by-products in the presence of oxy- acids. In 20-per-cent. perchloric 
acid 2-aminothiazole readily dissolves, and the addition to the solution 
of ethyl nitrite determines the production of thiazole-2-diazonium 
perchlorate. This salt was not isolated, as it explodes even in dilute 
ice-cold solutions. The diazotisation of 2-aminothiazole proceeds less 
readily in dilute nitric acid owing to the sparing solubility of the nitrate 
of this base. Diazotisation proceeds smoothly in dilute sulphuric acid, 
the solution remaining colourless and free from decomposition products. 
On adding sodium aurichloride the orange-yellow crystalline thiazole-2- 
diazonium aurichloride was precipitated. 



CH-SU 

II >C • N., 



Au Cli. 



This salt, which is readily hydrolysed to the unstable diazo-hydroxide 
by water, is stable when dry at the ordinary temperature. 

The foregoing thiazole-2-diazonium salts couple with phenols and 
reactive aromatic bases, such as y8-naphthylamine. They also condense 
with the ;8-diketones yielding non-aromatic yellow azo- derivatives. 

Thiazole-2-azo-acetyIacetone 

y\ 
CH.C H 
CH-S II : 

II >C-N:N- C O 

CH-N^ \^^ 

CH3 

separates in golden-yellow leaflets decomposed on prolonged boiling in 
alcoholic solution. 



96 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1915, 

[With J. Eeiliy, M.A., M.Sc, and W. Caldwell, M.A.] 

The diazotisation of 5-amino-l : 2 : 4-triazole and its homologues 
has been further investigated. This base is diazotisable to stable dia- 
zonium salts in aqueous solutions of the oxy- acids, although in pre- 
sence of hydrochloric acid 5-chloro-l : 2 : d-triazole is the product 
actually isolated. In aqueous solutions the diazonium oxy- salt slowly 
deposits an ill-defined substance which, although containing its diazo- 
nitrogen, no longer couples with alcoholic or alkaline /i-naphthol. This 
product is, however, re-converted into a coupling diazonium salt by 
dissolving in moderately concentrated nitric or sulphuric acid. On 
adding auric chloride hydrochloride to the solution of these diazonium 
oxy- salts, a sparingly soluble crystalline a'uric chloride derivative is 
precipitated. 



[ 



HC-N. -■ 



Similar results have. been obtained with 5-amino-3-methyl-l :2 :4- 
triazole. This base gives a stable diazo- solution in the presence of 
nitric or sulphuric acid. The auric chloride derivative and the non- 
coupling iso-diazo- derivative have been isolated, and are being further 
investigated. 

A comparative study is being made of 5-amino-3-phenyl-l : 2 : 4- 
triazole. The diazonium oxy- salts of the bases of the triazole series 
couple with phenols and the more reactive aromatic bases such as 
yS-naphthyl-amine yielding azo- derivatives soluble in aqueous alkali 
hydroxides, this property indicating the acidic character of the triazole 
ring, the imino-hydrogeu 

/ \ 

EC — Nv ^ 

II ^CN,- 

nnr/ 

NHj 

being replaceable by metallic radicals. 




•OTANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERg OP EUCALYPTS. 97 



The Botanical and Chemical Characters of the Eucalypts and 
their Correlation. — First Report of the Committee, consist- 
ing 0/ Professor H. E. Armstrong (Chairman), Mr. H. G. 
Smith {Secretary), Mr. E. C. Andrews, Mr. R. T. Baker, 
Professor F. O. Bower, Mr. R. H. Cambage, Professors 
A. J. EwART and C. E. Fawsitt, Dr. Heber Green, Dr. 
CuTHBERT Hall, Professors Orme Masson, E. H. Rennie, 
and R. Robinson, and Mr. P. R. H. St. John. 

[Plates V. and VI.] 

The Committee was appointed at the Australian Meeting in 1914; 
during the year, Mr. J. H. Maiden has resigned and Professor A. J. 
Evvart has been made a member; three meetings have been held in 
Sydney. 

The Eucalypts cannot be completely classified according to any one 
(botanical) character and, at present, the chemical and the botanical 
characters cannot all be taken into account with sufi&cient precision to 
warrant the submission of a classification of the species in the order 
of their evolution. 

The Committee only feel justified in drawing attention to the follow- 
ing conclusions on specific points which may be considered to be well 
established : — 

(1) Three types of venation are met with in the mature lanceolate 
leaves of the Eucalypts ; each of these types appears to be 
characterised by a definite type of anther in the flower, by special 
oils in the leaves and by specific substances in the kino from the 
tree. 

(2) The amount of inorganic material present in the wood of the 
Eucalypts is exti'emely small in the case of the species which 
grow to the greatest size. 

(3) The evolution of the Eucalypts has been accompanied by a 
marked evolution in the Cotyledons. 

(4) Chemical as well as botanical evidence shows that the Eucalypts 
are closely related to the Angophoras. 

The Botanical and Chemical Characters of the Eucalypts and their 
Correlation. By R. T. Bakeb and H. G. Smith. 

The genus Eucalyptus is of great importance in Australia, as it 
embraces perhaps about two-thirds of the vegetation of the continent; 
whilst the characteristic botanical features are representative of the 
whole genus, there are distinct minor differences which justify pro- 
nounced differentiation in not a few directions. During recent years 
the botanical and chemical characters of many species have been deter- 
mined. It appears that, not only are certain botanical features peculiar 

1915. ■ H 



98 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1915. ^ ; ' 

to the genus but that there are conesponding chemical characters 
which are just as pronounced and sometimes even more constant than 
the botanical. There is also reason to believe that such botanical and 
chemical features have been evolved coincidently, in a more or less 
uniform manner. 

Eucalyptus trees take many forms of growth and their botanical 
features and chemical characters are often most diverse. They are 
roughly divided vernacularly into groups and sub-groups ; the names 
that are given are largely indicative of certain physical features. 
Incidentally, it may be mentioned that scientific study has shown that 
these vernacular groupings hold good in a remarkable manner; thus 
the terms 'Bloodwood,' 'Peppermint,' 'Ironbark,' ' Stringybark,' 
'Ash,' 'Box,' 'Gum,' representative, more or less, of groups, ai-e 
applied to species having similar and comparatively constant features 
throughout the whole area of disti'ibution. Other common names, 
however, are representative only of particular species, e.g., 'Tallow- 
wood,' 'Spotted Gum,' 'Blue Gum,' 'Red Gum,' &c. Although 
intended to be distinctive, these are often only so over very restricted 
areas ; the ' Blue Gum ' of Tasmania, for instance, is quite distinct from 
the ' Blue Gum ' of Sydney and the ' Eed Gum ' of one locality is often 
a species different from that called ' Red Gum ' in another district. As 
an illustration of the way in which the main groups are arranged into 
sub-groups, the ' Box ' group may be mentioned, which is divided 
vernacularly into ' Red Box,' ' Grey Box,' ' Yellow Box,' &c. ; similarly 
the ' Stringybark ' group is subdivided intoi ' Red Stringybark,' ' White 
Stringybark,' &c. , the 'Ironbark' group into 'White Ironbark,' 
' Broad-leaved Ironbark. ' It will be obvious that the features of the 
several species must be of a fairly constant nature, otherwise local 
nomenclature would be of little use for industrial purposes. 

The value of well-marked physical features as an aid to a general 
classification becomes evident on studying the botanical features of the 
several species and groups; it is then seen that there is a striking 
similarity between the several species of the more well-defined groups, 
the seedling leaves, the anthers, the leaf -venation, all agreeing closely 
within each group. None the less, although these are often distinctive, 
thei'e is no well-marked line of separation dividing one group from 
another ; it would seem that there has been uniform development from 
one species to another throughout the genus, although gaps in the order 
of agreement naturally occur here and there. It is suggested that the 
more obvious botanical changes have been mainly due to slow evo- 
lutionarj' development under the influence of environment, soil and 
climate. Altitude, climate and soil seem to be the chief controlling 
factors governing the geographical range of most of the species (1). The 
adaptation of the various species is traceable, largely, to influences of 
chemical constituents, which under natural conditions, where the 
struggle for existence is exerted to the fullest, govern the establishment 
of a species in its earliest stages. It does not seem possible for certain 
species to grow satisfactonly in soil not congenial to their requirements. 
Eucalyptus trees vary considerably in size, from the small shrubby 
forms known as ' Mallees ' to those representing some of the largest 
trees in the world (-). 



BOTANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTKRS OF EUCALYPTS. 99 

Directing Influences of Inorganic Chemical Constituents. 

The V617 large Eucalyptus trees of Australia belong to groups the 
species of which have much in common, both in botanical features and 
chemical characters. Four of the trees of largest dimensions, gix>wing in 
Eastern Austi-alia, are E. regnans, E. Delegatensis, E. obliqua' and E. 
pilularis ; the first three are common both to Australia and Tasmania. 
The bark of all these is more or less of a ' stringy ' nature in cases in 
which it persists but the trees are mostly ' half-barked, ' the upper 
portions being smooth, hence in some respects they appear to be 
associated with the true ' Stringy barks,' E. eugenioides, E. macror- 
rhyncha, &c., as well as with the class known as ' Gums.' The 
anthers of these big trees are kidney-shaped (Renantherse) ; they all 
have the leaf-venation indicative of phellandrene, which constituent they 
all contain in smaller or greater amount ; the cotyledons of the seedlings 
are all similar in shape. The large ti'ees mostly grow in soil com- 
paratively poor in mineral constituents, the soil being of a siliceous 
nature. The apparent difficulty of trees so placed is overcome, as they 
have the peculiarity of only storing minute quantities of mineral con- 
stituents in their timber (3) ; this appears to be one of the chief reasons 
why such trees are able to continue growing until they reach very great 
dimensions: E. regnans, for instance, sometimes exceeds 70 feet in 
circumfei'ence and reaches a height of over 300 feet. If species grow- 
ing in highly siliceous country stored mineral matter in the woody 
portions as freely as do the Eucalypts which grow on less siliceous or 
on basic soils, this available mineral material would soon be exhausted 
and the growth of the tree would cease ; but some of the largest trees of 
these species must be many hundreds of years old. 

The mineral matter stored in the timber of the four above-named 
species, calculated on the anhydrous timber, is as follows (3): — • 

E. regnans 0'054 per cent. 

E. Delegatensis 0038 

E. obliqua 0025 

E. pilulaiis 0-052 

These values are obtained from tunbers collected from five widely 
distributed localities. 

Although the amount of ash constituents in the woody portions of 
the species referred to is so small, a much larger quantity is found in 
their leaves, those of E. regnans giving 2.85 per cent, of ash, those of 
E. pilularis 2.91 percent. 

The buds, petioles, seed-cases and seeds also contain a considerable 
amount of mineral matter; thus in the case of E. pilularis: — 

Buds with petioles .... 3'79 per cent. 

vSeed-cases (fruits) 2*89 „ 

Seeds 104 

The mineral matter in these portions of the tree, like that of tlie 
leaves, would obviously be available for repeated use. 

A striking peculiarity of several groups of Eucalypts is the compara- 
tive constancy of the amount of manganese in the ash of the timber 
of a given species from trees grown over the whole range covered by 



100 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1915. 

the species; thus the amount found in E. pilularis from five widely 
distributed localities ranged between 0"2 and 0'26 per cent. ; E. regnans 
gave 0'27 per cent. ; E. Delegatensis 0"3 per cent. ; E. ohliqua 0'22 per 
cent. 

The mean results obtained in the case of these four species show 
that the manganese present in their timber represents only one part in 
about one million parts of anhydrous wood ; in five species of ' Iron- 
barks,' it is one paii in 60,000 parts (3). Again in the case of this 
group, whatever the variation in the percentage amount of ash in the 
timber of the several species of the group, the ratio of Mn to the other 
inorganic constituents is remarkably uniform ; the following are results 
obtained with the five principal ' Ironbarks ' : — • 

Per cent, of ash. Per cent, of Mn in ash. 

E. paniculata 0-47 140 

E. siderophloia 0-17 1'25 

E. melanopMoia .... 0-172 1-50 

E. sideroxylon 0-072 1-15 

E. crebra 006 1-50 

The indications these ash results afford is that E. crebra and to a 
.esser extent E. sideroxylon would be found growing naturally on soils 
more siliceous than that consonant with the other species of ' Iron- 
barks ' : this is fairly borne out by results. [The exudations or kinos 
of the big Australian Eucalypts, previously mentioned, are all similar, 
their tannins giving a violet colouration with ferric chloride. They all 
gelatinise readily under suitable conditions and contain neither Aroma- 
dendrin nor Eudesmin nor any other crystallisable substance.] 

There are considerable differences in the general character of other 
mineral constituents of the several groups of Eucalypts as well as in 
the amount of mineral matter stored but there is an approximate 
relative constancy in the amounts of certain elements required by the 
members of the several groups. Magnesium is a pronounced constituent 
in the ashes of species belonging to some groups, whilst calcium pre- 
dominates in those of others. Eepresentative species of the three large 
groups, the ' Boxes,' the ' Ironbarks ' and the ' Ashes,' show this fact 
somewhat clearly ; the results in each case with members of the same 
groups agree closely. 

' Boxes.' E. hemiphloia and E. cdbens : — 

Mean percentage in ash. 
CaO 51-31 
MgO 213 

' Ironbarks.' E. siderophloia and E. paniculata : — 

Mean percentage in ash. 
CaO 29-63 
MgO 6-92 

' Ashes.' E. Delegatensis and E. regnans : — 

Mean percentage in ash. 
CaO 1611 
MgO 21-76 

In a large number of the species in which calcium is the pronounced 
mineral constituent, oxalic acid is a characteristic piX)duct of metabolism; 




L m3^-' 



British Association, 85th Report, Manchester, 1915. 



[Plate V. 




Types of Eucalyptus Leaf-Venation (leaves used as negatives). 
1. E. conjmhosa. 2. E. Smithii. 3. E. amygdalina. 



Ilhistrating the Beport on the Botanical and Chemical Characters of 
the Eucalypts and their Correlation. 

\_To face page 101. 



BOTANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERS OP EUCALYPTS. 101 

in some Eucalypts, this is formed in such quantity that at times as 
much as one-sixth of the air-dried bark consists of crystallised calcium 
oxalate (4), showing plentifully a fomi of twinning in geniculate crystals. 
The tannin stored in the barks of these oxalic acid forming species is 
of good quality for tanning purposes and affords a very good tanning 
extract; it might be profitable, therefore, to work some of these barks 
for this material — oxalic acid could then be obtained in quantity, as a 
by-product, from the residues. E. salubris, of Western Australia, is a 
species which might be so worked. The chemistry and botanical 
features of E. sahibris show it to be closely associated with the class 
of Eucalypts known as ' Mallees,' trees which form the short stunted 
vegetation or ' Mallee Scrub ' extending over much of Australia. In 
these ' Mallee ' species lime is a dominant mineral constituent and 
they all form oxalic acid in abundance, the one factor, perhaps, being 
the corollary of the other. It is hardly to be expected that species which 
produce oxalic acid in abundance would live long enough to form very 
large trees, so that the tendency to develop a shrub form may have been 
brought about through adverse chemical influences operating in these 
groups; and it is interesting to find magnesium in such quantity in 
the ashes of Eucalyptus which reach a very large size, particularly as 
such trees only store mineral matter in their timbers to the extent of 
about one pound to 2,000 pounds of anhydrous wood. It is thus seen 
that the amount of any element is small, the CaO representing in 
E. regnans about one 15,000th part of the weight of the moisture-free 
timber and the MgO about one 10,000th part. 

Essential Oils. — The essential oils of the numerous Eucalyptus 
species vary in composition in a striking degree but the variation is of 
a remarkably uniform character (5) and apparently has been contem- 
poraneous with distinctive botanical changes; this is strongly brought 
out by the progressive alteration in the veins of the mature lanceolate 
leaves (6), starting from the featherlike venation of the members of 
the Corymbosce group, through the intermediate form representative 
of the members of the cineol-pinene group, to the looping or butterfly- 
wing venation of the leaves of the ' Peppermints ' and the 'Ashes,' a 
form indicative of the presence of the terpene phellandrene. These 
three types of leaves are shown in the accompanying Plate V. : — 

The varying thicknesses of the midribs : the disposition of the 
marginal veins ; the second vein in No. 3 ; and the varying amount of oil- 
glands in these pictures should all be noted. 

The first type is represented by the Angophoras and by certain 
Eucalypts, between which there is general chemical agreement. The 
terpene in the oils of the species of Eucalyptus characterised by this 
venation and also in the Angophoras is pinene ; phellandrene does not 
occur in them and cineol is either absent or only present in small 
amount, whilst the yield of oil is always small. The second type of 
venation is characteristic of the species which yield oils consisting of 
pinene and cineol ; the oils richest in cineol are obtained from leaves 
having this venation; it is well shown in sucTi species as E. globulus, 
E. Bridgesiana, E. goniocalyx, E. Smithii, &c. Oils derived from 
species with this venation do not contain phellandrene; as the lateral 



102 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1915. 

veins are farther apart than are tRose of the first group, more room for 
oil-glands is available, so that, as a rule, a greater yield of oil is obtained 
from the members of the second group than from those of the first. 
Although only a comparatively few species of the second group are 
utilised commercially on account of their oil, for various reasons — such 
as yield, quantity available, accessibility, &c. — many other species 
besides those woi'ked contain oils equal in value to the most pronounced 
cineol-bearing species made use of. It must be apparent that even a 
slight decrease in yield would be sufficient to exclude a species from 
commercial exploitation, although the constituents might be identical 
with those of the more prolific-yielding varieties. It is a fact woiiihy of 
notice that the yield of oil from each particular species, wherever found, 
is comparatively constant, although ranging from about 4i per cent, 
to practically nothing. This naturally is a factor of some commeixial 
importance, as well as of scientific interest as proof of the comparative 
constancy in the quantity of oil formed. 

The third group contains the species which yield oils in which the 
terpene phellandrene is an important constituent. This group now 
supplies most of the oil used so largely in the separation of metallic 
sulphides by the flotation process. 

Although the phellandrene-bearing oils are not at present in favour 
for pharmaceutical purposes, some species which contain much 
phellandrene are also rich in cineol. This is the case particularly with 
the oils of E. linearis and E. Risdoni (7), species allied to the ' Pepper- 
mint ' group. The question of the therapeutic values of the several 
types of Eucalyptus oils is still an open one ; it does not follow that the 
cineol-pinene oils are necessarily of more value in this direction than 
are the cineol-phellandrene oils (8), particularly as the other con- 
stituents differ considerably in the two classes and it is known that the 
first Eucalyptus oil distilled by Dr. White in 1788 (9), of the medicinal 
value of which he speaks so highly, was obtained from the leaves of a 
member of the cineol-phellandrene gi'oup in which the venation 
corresponds to that of No. 3 in the photograph. 

Such Eucalyptus oils as those derived from E. polyhracfea and from 
E. cneorifolia contain a phenol different from that found in the oils of 
the ' Peppermint ' group (10), together with an aldehyde of high boiling- 
point (either cumin aldehyde or aromadendral*) and a minimum pro- 
portion of esters. In the richer cineol-phellandrene oils, the ester 
butylic-butyrate occurs in some quantity (11) and the phenol (Tasmanol) 
they contain is not identical with that found in the oils of the other 
group, wliilst the ketone (piperitone) takes the place of the aldehyde 
aromadendral and a larger proportion of ester is usually present. Euca- 
lyptus oils so diverse in chemical constituents cannot have equal thera- 
peutic value. 

The question of the pur"ification of the crude oils required for medi- 

* Although Messrs. Schimmel and Co. assert that cumin aldehyde is the aldehyde 
of this class occurring in Eucalyptus oil, the high laevorotation shown by this aldehyde 
extracted from the oils of some species is alone sufficient to show that Aromadendral 
and cumin aldehyde cannot be identical substances. As the latter aldehyde does not 
contain an asymmetric carbon atom, it does not show optical activity. 



BOTANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF EUCALYPTS, 103 

cinal purposes thus becomes of some importance and it might be worthy 
of consideration whether mechanical or chemical means might not be 
more advantageously used than the ordinary method of distillation. 
The two largest groups will always supply the Eucalyptus oils to be 
used for phaiTnaceutical purposes ; as the botanical and chemical 
peculiarities of individual species are uniform to a remarkable degree, 
constancy in results can be assured. 

The data that have been collected in Australia regarding oils of 
undoubted species show that the product of a pai'ticular species, grow- 
ing under natural confUtions, is remarkably uniform in character and 
even when commercially distilled should show physical and chemical 
results within a stipulated range. 

The herbarium material of the two species E. Maculata and E. citrio- 
dora show close morphological resemblances, j^et the oils differ entii'ely, 
that from the latter species consisting almost -whoriy of the aldehyde 
citronellal, which is not present in that from the former. This is not an 
accidental circumstance due to location, because the uniformity in con- 
stituents with both is well shown. The causes responsible for this 
result are not evident from a morphological study but lie deeper and 
may eventually be traced to chemical influences acting along special 
lines. This is one o£ the few instances met with among the Eucalypts 
in which close botanical resemblances are not associated with a corre- 
sponding similarity in the chemical composition of their oils. 

The oil from E. Macarthmi consists vei'y largely of geranylacetate 
and geraniiol (12), the ester content often exceeding 70 per cent., so 
that this species also appears to 'be a departure. The ester geranyl- 
acetate had its origin apparently in the Angophoras (13) or even perhaps 
in an older genus ; it is found in small emount in the oils of many 
Eucalyptus species having general botanical features allied to those of 
Angophora but the passage forms to E. MaOa/rthuri appear to be 
wanting. 

Another instance is the citral-limonene bearing oil of E. Staigeriana, 
in which case again the connecting species haive not been found. These 
instances ai'e, however, few in a genus so rich in the number of species. 

The rule appears to be that each chemical constituent in the 
Eucalypts increases in amount through a range of species until it reaches 
a maximum in one of them, so that in the case of these apparently 
anomalous species an explanation is forthcoming; they certainly show 
a maximum in the characteristic constituents their oils contain. The 
pinenes, cineol, phellandrene, particular esters, oxalic acid, Eudesmin, 
Armadendrin, the various tannins, as well as other chemical consti- 
tuents, all appear to follow this rule ; as corresponding botanical features 
are also shown, an evolutionary theory for the formation of the species 
of the whole genus is strongly suppoi-ted both by 'botanical and by 
chemical evidence. 

Kinos or Aslrinqent Exudaiions. — It has been stated already that 
the essential oils of particular species of Eucalyptus show a remark- 
able uniformity in constituents as well as in general physical characters ; 
advantage has been taken of this chemical constancy in the dii'ection of 
assisting botanical studies in the- genus, so that more correct values 



104 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

might be attached to particular botanical features peculiar to u«rtain 
species or groups. 

A corresponding comparative constancy in chemical characters is 
also evident in the case of the kinos or exudations of the several species ; 
these, in most instances, show a grouping parallel with that of particular 
constituents of the essential oils and are therefore in conformity with 
certain characteristic botanical features of the species. In fact, this 
botanical and chemical agreement appears to be represented by practi- 
cally all the members of the genus. 

The suggested evolutionaiy development of the Eucalypts receives 
considerable support from the study of these exudations, as there is as 
much diversity in the chemical composition of the kinos as has been 
found to be the case in their oils (14). 

The exudations of the Eucalypts do not contain gum but are all 
astringent and contain tannins. These tannins, however, differ con- 
siderably from one end of the genus to the other; both in relative 
astringency and in rapidity of gelatinisation they are widely separated, 
and this variation is also obvious in the case of the other constituents of 
the exudations, both crystalline and amorphous. 

Some of the members of the genus Angophora show a veiy close 
affinity, both botanically and chemically, with those members of the 
genus Eucalyptus which are included under what is generally known as 
the ' Bloodwood ' group. This relationship is indicated by the general 
appearance of the tree, by the venations of the lancellate leaves, by the 
composition of the essential oils, by the presence of caoutchouc cover- 
ing the very young leaves, and by the composition of the kinos or 
exudations. The kinos of most of the Angophoras and of some Euca- 
lypts having a similar leaf -venation, E. calopliyUa for instance, con- 
tain the crystalline substance Aromadendrin, the other crystalline body 
found in some Eucalyptus kinos (Eudesmin) being absent (15). The 
terpene in the leaf-oils is pinene but neither phellandrene nor cineol is 
present, except in small amount ; the leaf-venations resemble the general 
markings of a feather. The anthers of this group are parallel antherse ; 
the cotyledons of the seedlings are large and broad. As the leaf-vena- 
tion in the Eucalypts changes into the peculiar arrangement charac- 
teristic of species yielding cineol-bearing oils, Eudesmin is found in their 
kinos and this substance increases in amount by easy stages through 
the several species until, in the kinos of the typical boxes — E. hemi- 
phloia, for instance — about 10 per cent., is present. Aromadendrin also 
occurs in these ; no Eucalyptus kino so far tested in which Eudesmin is 
found has been without Aromadendrin. The anthers in this large group 
are not all parallel but show variations ; the cotyledons of the seedlings 
also vary much in size and shape. As the leaf-venation changes into the 
peculiar structure indicative of the phellandrene-bearing oils the con- 
stitution of the kinos also changes ; both Eudesmin and Aromadendrin 
are absent from all the typical kinos of this gi'oup ; the colour given by 
the tannins with ferric chloride differs considerably from that shown 
by the kinos of the members of the other groups. The anthers of the 
species belonging to this group are kidney-shaped (Eenantherse). The 
rapidity with which the kinos of this group gelatinise in tinctures is 



BOTANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERS OP EUCALYPTS. 105 

also a distinguishing feature ; the test is carried out by adding formal- 
dehyde to the solution (16). Although to the taste and by their 
behaviour on oxidation with potassium permanganate, the kinos of this 
group appear to be the most astringent, the affinity of their tannins for 
hide substance is very slight and the barks of these Eucalypts are of 
little use for leather manufacture. Eucalyptus species the barks of 
which can be used commercially for tanning purposes, the ' Mallee,' 
E. occidentalis, for instance, yield kinos in which Eudesmin and Aroma- 
dendrin both occur; the tannins of this group have great affinity for 
hide substance and are rapidly absorbed by it. The kinos of the ' Iron- 
barks ' and of a few other species are not soluble in alcohol, though 
readily so in water; they consist largely of a peculiar tannin glucoside 
which on hydrolysis forms a deep purplish-brown powder having con- 
siderable dyeing power (17). When these kinos are dissolved in water 
and alcohol is added in quantity insufficient to cause precipitation, they 
gelatinise readily when treated "with formaldehyde ; they have little 
affinity for hide substance and, although plentifully distributed through- 
out the barks of some species, E. crebra and E. sideroxylon for instance, 
have little present commercial value. 

A tincture of official strength, made with the kino of E. calophylla, 
is the best possible of all similar substances for pharmaceutical purposes, 
because it does not gelatinise in tinctures no matter how long the 
tincture may be kept, whilst the tannin it contains is highly astringent ; 
the material can be obtained in very large quantities. E. microcorys 
would also make an excellent tincture but the kino is difficult to collect. 
The kino of the ' Eed Gum,' E. rostrata, although official, is not so 
well suited for the manufacture of tinctures as those already mentioned 
but may, nevertheless, be considered of fair quality for the purpose; 
it is also obtainable in some quantity but it is deficient in astringency 
and is not so resistent to gelatinisation. The exudations of the 
Eucalypts thus contain substances showing very great variability and no 
general considerations can be made to fit all the facts. Chemical con- 
stituents found in the exudations of the members of one group, such 
as the ' Boxes ' for instance, are not found in those of some other 
groups. Tannins characteristic of the kinos at one end of the genus 
have disappeared at the other, astringent bodies of a different nature 
taking their place. Yet, with all these differences, there is considerable 
uniformity in progressive alteration, which is in accord with the varying 
botanical characters exhibited by the members of this large genus. 
The kinos in which Eudesmin occurs consist largely of catechol tannins 
and Eudesmin itself is a catechol derivative containing four methoxy- 
groups in two veratrol nuclei. 

Other Chemical Constituents. — There are a few chemical con- 
stituents in the Eucalypts which at present do not appear to be closely 
associated with corresponding botanical distinctive features, as already 
shown in many specific instances. Perhaps, however, the reason is 
that sufficient work has not yet been undertaken in the direction of 
attempting to decide this point. Myrticolorin, the quercetin gluco- 
side (18), found in such large quantity in the leaves of E. macrorrhyn- 
cha, is a case in point, as the leaves of some other members of the 
' Stringybark ' group do not contain this substance. 



106 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

- A few constituents of the oils have apparently no distinctive 
botanical support; such is the (solid) paraffin (19) which has already 
been isolated from such diverse species as E. acervula and E. Smithii. 
This paraffin appears to be a constant constituent in the oil of the latter 
species; when purified it melts at 64° C. but that isolated from 
E. acervula melts at 55° C Further research, however, may show 
distinctive characters here also. 

Eudesmol, the chief stearoptene of Eucalyptus oils, occurs in those 
derived from different groups but is found in greatest abundance in 
species yielding phellandrene in quantity, although it also occurs in 
the oil of E. Macarthuri from which phellandrene is absent. 

It is necessary that these rarer chemical constituents should be 
more fully investigated and isolated from the species containing them ; 
it might then be possible to establish definite rules, both botanical and 
chemical, to account for their occuiTeiice and so bring them into 
conformity with those other botanical and chemical chai'acteristics the 
co-ordination of which has now been fairly well established. 

The Development of the Genus Eucalyptus. By E. H. Cambage. 

The earliest evidence we have of the existence of the genus Eucalyp- 
tus in Australia is that furnished by the fossil leaves and what are 
regarded as authentic specimens have been found as far back as in the 
Miocene period. The Mornington Beds of Victoria, from which 
Eucalyptus fossils have been obtained, are doubtfully referred to the 
Eocene period (20). In early Miocene times our present mountain 
system had: not been developed and the climate was mild to warm (21). 
Eastern Australia^ was then fairly level and was largely composed of 
siliceous soils, much of the silica being in a free state and the soils 
sandy. Subsequent lava-flows and deposits of volcanic tuffs gave rise 
to a more basic soil ; the final uplift, parallel to the east coast, towards 
the close of the Tertiary, produced elevations which have a cold climate. 

The effect of geological formation upon the distribution of the 
Eucalypts, though distinctly evident in many localities, is to some 
extent of a local nature, being dominated by the influence of climate. 
Broadly speaking, Eucalynts are distributed between two extreme types 
of geological formations, the siliceous and the basic ; there are numerous 
examples of different species approaching each other up to a common 
boundary without intenningling — some growing on a siliceous granite or 
sandstone formation, in which there is an abundance of free silica, 
others on a basalt or other basic rock, giving rise to a clay soil (1). 
Many of the Eucalypts, including those which are now regarded as the 
oldest living types, require a soil derived from rocks containing upwards 
of 70 per cent, silica. 

The final uplift throughout Eastern Australia had considerable effect 
upon the Eucalypts of that area. The resultant Main Divide separated 
the original uniform climate into tliree ; with its fairly steep eastern face 
presented to the ocean, it created tnoister conditions over the coastal 
area, cooler conditions on the mountains, whilst upon the lower portions 
of the western side the effect was to produce a drier as well as a hotter 
summer and colder winter climate. The Eucalypts, towards the 



BOTANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERS OP EUCALYPTS. 107 

interior, west of the Main Divide, in I'esponse to this change, have 
gradually been adapted to the new conditions, the result being that they 
differ considerably from many of the coastal species and most of 
all from those on the higher mountains. None of the Eiicalypts of the 
interior occur in Tasmania. 

The Eucalypts belong to a family whose leaves are normally opposite 
and hoi'izontal; they are also closely allied to the genus Angophora. 
The ' Bloodwood ' group of Eucalypts show the greatest resemblance to 
the Angophoras, both as regards leaves and oil contents; they may, 
therefore, be regarded as representing the type of the oldest Eucalypts 
now living. They grow in sandy soil and avoid the cold. Apparently, 
the early Eucalypts flourished in a sandy soil with a warm climate, 
probably in Northern Australia. The bark was scaly to rough ; the 
leaves were opposite and horizontal and often covered with stellate 
hairs (22) or coated with caoutchouc ; the leaf-venation was transverse, 
the numerous lateral veins forming an angle of upwards of about 65° 
with the midrib ; the flowers were generally large as compared with 
those of the genus at the present day and possessed, anthers which 
opened longitudinally in parallel slits (Parallelantherse) ; the fruits were 
generally larger than those of the more recent species of to-day ; the 
chief constituent of the essential oils contained in the leaves was 
pinene (5). Following some alteration in environment, partly climatic 
and partly through the advent of more basic soils resulting from volcanic 
outpourings, a new development took place in the genus and species 
were evolved with various kinds of bark (hard-furrowed, fibrous, or 
smooth barks). The mature leaves, which now showed a more oblique 
or diagonal venation and were alternate, had gradually developed 
petioles, which allowed them to hang vertically, so as to present the 
least possible surface to tlie sun and thus minimise transpiration, whilst 
those which remained sessile became protected with a glaucous powdery 
wax or a thickened epidermis. Some species of this new type — the 
' Box ' trees amongst others, many of which flourish on the more basic 
soils — possessed anthers which opened in terminal pores (porantherse), 
and cineol now became an important constituent of the essential oils. 
As the genus encountered colder conditions, partly through spreading 
southwards and partly through ascending the mountains which were 
uplifted in Eastern Australia towards the close of the Tertiary period, a 
fui'ther group was evolved having leaves with almost parallel venation 
or with the now much reduced number of lateral veins at an angle of 
less than about 25 degrees with the midrib, kidney-shaped anthers with 
the cells divergent at the base and confluent at the summit (Renan- 
therse) ; the essential oils in the leaves contained much phellandrene 
and little, if any, pinene. This group is largely represented by the 
' Peppemiint ' trees. On comparing seedling and adult foliage, 
evidence of transition in leaf form is found in nearly all species ; in 
the cooler country types, such as E. coriacea and E. stellulata, the 
lateral veins of the seedling foliage are arranged at angles up to 50 
degrees with the midrib, whilst in, mature leaves the angles are less than 
10 degrees and in most cases the veins ai'e practically parallel with 
the midrib. 



108 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

This appears to be the newest group of Eucalypts ; they have been 
evolved in the southern or cool and moist regions. Owing to the final 
uplift which formed the Main Divide, north and south, and perhaps 
assisted by the Pleistocene glaciation period, this type has been able 
to migrate northwards along the higher portions of the range to the 
borders of Queensland (1). 

Eucalyptus leaves with transverse venation are absent from 
Tasmania and are confined to a very small portion of north-eastern 
Victoria. They are feund practically below the 3,000-feet level in New 
South Wales but are common on siliceous soils in Northern Australia, 
thus showing a preference for the warmer climate. Eucalyptus trees 
possessing leaves with parallel venation occur in Tasmania, Victoria 
and Eastern New South Wales, whilst in Northern New South Wales 
their home is above the 3,000-feet level; they are absent from Northern 
and Western Australia but are found at the highest level at which any 
Eucalyptus grows in Australia, viz. 6,500 feet, thus showing a pre- 
ference for cold and moist conditions. 

Briefly, then, we have the early Eucalypts growing in a sandy soil 
with a warm climate, with leaves containing pinene and characterised 
by a transverse venation, the anthers belonging to the section Parallel- 
antherse. 

Secondly — partly as a result of alteration in climate and partly from 
the presence of more basic soils, perhaps also the influence of other 
causes — a new type was evolved in which cineol became an important 
constituent of the oil, the leaves having a more oblique venation, the 
anthers opening in parallel slits or terminal pores. 

Thirdly — chiefly as a I'esult of the Eucalypts migrating to southern 
cooler latitudes and climbing up the newly uplifted mountains — a 
further type was evolved ; many of the species contained much phellan- 
drene, pinene being either absent or reduced to a trace; in this type 
the leaves commonly have parallel venation and the anthers usually 
belong to the section Renantherse. 

The Correlation between Specific Characters of the Tasmanian and 
Australian Eucalypts. By E. T. B.-vker and H. G. Smith. 

• In a letter which the late Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker wrote to us 
he expressed a wish to see a research undertaken to investigate what 
affinities, if any, there were between the Gum-ti'ees of the mainland 
and those of Tasmania; being particularly interested in the subject, 
having desci-ibed and collected species from the higher altitudes of that 
island, he regretted he had not been able to collect material at 
corresponding heights of Australia for the purpose of comparison. 

This investigation has been undertaken by us and the results are 
of more than passing scientific interest, as it is found that when a 
species occurs both in Tasmania and on the opposite mainland it has not 
only identical morphological but also similar chemical characters ; some 
species and even groups of wide geogi'aphical range on the mainland 
are found, however, to be absent from the daughter island (23). 

The absence or presence of these species seems to be accounted 
for on tracing out the evolution of the Genus. In our work on the 



BOTANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF EUCALYPTS. 109 

Eucalypts, published in 1902, the ' Bloodwoods ' are placed as the oldest 
section of the whole genus ; trees having the venation of the ' Blood- 
woods ' occur more plentifully in West Australia and sweep right round 
the north of the continent to one or two outliers in the south-eastern 
corner of New South Wales ; all have red timber. 

Following the evolution along this geographical line, the different 
groups are met with in succession and it is apparent that in Victoria 
white timbers predominate to the almost entire exclusion of redwoods. 
On crossing to Tasmania, this distinction is more pronounced, not a 
single redwood Eucalypt occurring there. In Tasmania again not a 
single representative of the important group known commonly as ihe 
' Boxes ' is to be found. 

The venation is also correlative and so are the essential oils and the 
kinos. Thus the greatest affinity of Tasmania Eucalypts is with those 
of Victoria and, along with those of Victoria and New South Wales, 
they are the more recent of the genus. 

The two species, E. Gunnii and E. Perriniana, of" the highest 
altitudes of Tasmania and Victoria, show specifically remarkable simi- 
larities in botanical and chemical characters, although growing so far 
apart, the sea also intervening. 

The oil constituents of these two species vary considerably in both 
localities but are practically constant in a given species, whether it gi'ow 
in the higher portions of New South Wales or in Tasmania. The 
somewhat large amount of the ester butylic-butyrate in the oil of E. 
Perriniana, together with an increased amount of cineol and a com- 
parative absence of phellandrene, seem to be distinguishing chemical 
features in the case of these two closely agreeing species, which, judging 
both from botanical and chemical evidence, cannot be identical. 

As this land separation has now existed through a long period of 
time, some of the species common to both localities show a slight 
variation or departure from the type. E. amygdalina of Tasmania 
differs from the mainland variety in its larger leaves and fruits and in 
chemical constituents; also, E. acervida is most probably a changing 
form of E. paludosa, E. phlebophylla a divergence from E. coriacea 
and E. virgata from E. Sieberiana. 

The majority of the Eucalyptus species of Tasmania, therefore, 
show a marked correlation with those of South-Eastern Australia ; this 
correlation is pronounced in the case of species growing at the lower 
as well as the higher levels. 

It is generally recognised that trees descend to lower levels as the 
climate changes to colder conditions ; the Eucalypts are no exception 
to this rule. E. regnans is found in Victoria growing at fairly high 
elevations, whilst in Tasmania it flourishes almost at the sea-level; 
E. Delegatensis is rarely found below 4,000 feet in Victoria and New 
South Wales, yet grows between 2,000 and 3,000 feet in Tasmania. 

The Cotyledons and Seedling Leaves of the Eucalypts. 
By CuTHBERT Hall. 

The study which I have recently published (24) disclosed, as the 
result of a comparative consideration of a large number of species, that 



110 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

the cotyledons are of great importance in the differentiation of species. 
Tlie form and size are constant in each species and do not varj% except 
within narrow hmits which may rather be termed fluctuations. 
Lubbock says that the cotyledons of most species are entire. In the 
Eucalypts the emarginate form is the more common. Hence we get 
two great classes, the entire and the emarginate. the fomier being the 
more primitive type. In the size of the cotyledons, the species differ 
greatly, at one end of the scale being the exceedingly large ones of 
E. calophylla, E.Br, and about 25 cm. broad, at the other the very 
small ones of E. acacia for mis, 0'2 cm. broad. The original Eucalypts, 
represented now by those of the E. corymbosa class, had large entire 
reniform cotyledons ; these are practically identical with those of the 
nearly related genus Angophora. The evidence of the seedlings thus 
bears out the chemical and morphological evidence as to the near 
relationship of the two genera. The group of ' Stringybarks,' repre- 
sented in E. obJiqua and its allies, also have seedlings with entire 
reniform cotyledons ; these are usually much smaller than those of the 
preceding group. But the interesting fact is to be noted that whilst 
the members of the corj'mbosa group elaborate an oil of e. simpler com- 
position, resembling the oil found in the Angophoras, its principal 
constituent being pineue, in the case of the ' Stringybarks ' some species, 
such as E. IcBVopinea and E. dextropinea. afford a pinene oil, whilst 
E. eugenioides yields a pinene-ciueol oil, E. macrorrhyncha, E. 
capitellata and E. nigra a pinene-cineol-phellandrene oil and E. obliqua 
a phellandrene-aromadendral oil. It will thus be seen that whilst the 
bark, anthers (all these have reniform anthers as compared with the 
parallel anthers of the corymbosae) and cotyledons have remained stable, 
a great evolutionary change has occurred in the oils. Whether hybridisa- 
tion has played a part in this we cannot as yet saJ^ 

Among the entire cotyledons, there is yet another small group 
consisting of species with small circular or reniform cotyledons. These 
are probably derived from an ancestor in which emargination was 
present but in the process of reduction in size this has been lost. The 
fact that they all give a cineol oil also points to such a conclusion. 

Of great interest is the important class of Eucalypts with emarginate 
cotyledons. Whether we have any of the species in which this 
emargination first appeared, it is hard to say ; but this much is probable, 
that, until it appeared, the Eucalypts were unable to migrate from the 
warm moist coastal ai'eas to the dry interior, to grow on any but a 
sandstone formation or to elaborate any but a simple oil not containing 
cineol. One of the first steps in the evolutionary development of the 
Eucalypts, whereby they became adapted to all the vicissitudes of 
Australian physical conditions, has been the development and improve- 
ment of the emarginate cotyledons. It is probable that the change first 
took place in some such species as E. marginata, Sm., of Western 
Australia; this has a large cotyledon with well-marked emargination 
but the oil is of the simpler pinene type. This group is not large and 
evidently the large emarginate cotyledon type could not exist away 
from the moist coastal region any more than the large entire cotyledon 
type. I am not aware of the character of the soil in which the members 



BOTANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF EUCALYPTS. Ill 

of this gi-oup — viz. E. inaryinata, E. TodUana, E. megacarpa, and 
E. santalijoUa—preiev to grow but it would be interesting to find out. 
The group commonly known as the ' Peppermints, ' comprising 
E. piperita and its allies, has a, very characteristic type of cotyledon; 
it is usually of medium size, more or less quadrilateral, with rounded 
lobes and the emargination is slight or almost absent. The stem and 
under-surface of cotyledons and primary leaves are characterised by 
a deep purplish colouration. It may be that the origin of this group 
is 'through E. Planchoniana or a near relation thereof. This species 
has a large cotyledon, emarginate and cuneate at base; it is the one 
exception in the group in having parallel anthers instead of reniform. 
As is well known, it occurs along the eastern coast in Northern New 
South Wales and Queensland. It is interesting to note that, in this 
group, the cotyledons diminish in size in the species growing at the 
highest altitudes. 

There remain now the emarginate cotyledon Eucalypts with cotyle- 
dons of medium or small size and emargination slight or very extreme. 
Under this heading come about half the species of Eucalypts and the 
majority of interior or dry country species. Some of them, with larger 
divergent-lobed cotyledons, such as E. globulus and its allies, prefer a 
cool moist mountain climate; many, however, have either very small 
cotyledons with little or no emargination or else Y-shaped cotyledons in 
which the lobes of the laminse are almost linear and the emargination 
so extreme as to make the cotyledon of the shape of the letter Y. The 
species with such cotyledons, or very small cotyledons, are mainly dry 
country species. Practically all these Eucalypts contain cineol in fair 
amount; most of them contain pinene, some of them aromadendral, a 
few phellandrene but none of them contain pipentone in their oils. 
The Y-shaped cotyledon Eucalypts probably originated in Western 
Australia, possibly from E. cornuta or its allies; they then spread east 
along the Great Australian Bight but they do not seem to have crossed 
the Dividing Eange, except in one instance, E. squamosa being found 
in the neighbourhood of Sydney on the Hawkesbury Sandstone. As it 
is also found at Eylstone on the Western slopes of the Divide, it has 
probably reached the eastern coast from the west. This species 
appear only just to maintain a precarious existence, as the moist coastal 
conditions do not suit it well. Concurrently witli the alteration of the 
size and shape of the cotyledon leaves there has been an alteration in 
the size and shape of the fruits. In the Corymbosa group the urn- 
shaped fruit, with its narrower neck and everted rim, is the most 
characteristic; there is one fertile seed in each cell, with its longest 
diameter vertical and closely packed round with sterile seeds. In some 
species a membraneous prolongation of the testa is found to promote 
wind dissemination but this must have prevented ready exit of the seed 
from the fruit; this winged membrane is absent from the higher forms. 
With the introduction of emargination, the vertical diameter of the seed 
became greatly lessened, the seed broader and enlarged at one end, that 
in which the expanded lobes of the cotyledon lay ; the folding of the 
halves of the cotyledons was vertical instead of transverse. This has 
been followed by a corresponding alteration of the fruits ; the everted 



J 12 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1915. 

rim has been done away with, though it sometimes recurs as an atavism, 
e.g., in E. urmgera; the fruit is hemispherical or even broad and 
flat ; this has led to the ovary rising higher and higher, so that in some 
species the valves when open in the dry state are very exserted. This 
has all tended to allow the ready and quick escape of the seeds from 
the fruit. These points are emphasised because I have found that in 
closely allied species, in which the fruits are -very alike, we may also 
expect the cotyledons to be very much alike, not to exhibit marked 
specific difference, though slight ones can often be detected. In a 
many-species genus like that of Eucalyptus we are sure to find some 
factors, such as fruit, bark, &c., almost identically reduplicated; in 
such a case we certainly should consider all the factors such as buds, 
anthers, cotyledons, leaves, essential oils, &c., in the determination of 
the species. 

Primary Leaves. — Almost all the Eucalypts possess the two types 
of foliage, the primary or juvenile and the secondary or adult. The 
term ' sucker leaves ' should be entirely discarded. Study of the 
seedlings shows that the early leaves tend almost from the first pair 
to assume the form of the primary type; this type is always constant 
for the species. After a period of growth varying greatly in different 
species and even to some extent in individuals, the secondary type is 
adopted. The peltate form of leaf is generally the true primary type in 
the Corymbosa group. We see a persistence of this even in adult 
leaves in E. peltata, just as we see a similar occurrence in E. cordata 
and E. pulverulenta. The peltate leaves, as a rule, soon give place to 
the secondary type and so the fact of their occurrence has not been 
adequately recognised. The sessile or petiolate forms of the primary 
leaves are always constant and hence may be of importance in differen- 
tiating between two closely allied species ; thus the petiolate leaves of 
E. Andrewsi distinguish it from the sessile ovate and cordate primary 
leaves of E. dives. The presence or absence of stellate hairs on the 
stem and primary leaves may also be of use in differentiation, as also the 
number and distribution of the oil-glands. This is interestingly borne 
out in the case of E. fastigala and E. regnans, which have been thought 
to be con-specific; but the seedlings ai-e very noticeably different, that 
of E. fasiigata having much smaller cotyledons, narrower lanceolate 
leaves of a finer texture and almost devoid of hairs ; the oil-glands, even 
in the early leaves, are fairly plentiful, whilst they are almost absent 
from those of E. regnans. The cotyledons and primary leaves show 
that E. regnans belongs really to the ' Stringybark ' group, as the 
cotyledons are entire and reniform and the primary leaves covered with 
stellate hairs. E. fastigata retains the stringy bark which E. regnans 
has lost more or less. 

To sum up, Eucalypts defy all attempts to classify them according 
to any one character. A grouping according to barks does not agree 
with that according to essential oils, nor either of these with that 
according to cotyledons. Yet each is helpful in its own way in guiding 
us to a better idea of the true phylogeny of the genus. Both the 
cotyledons and primary leaves should be considered in differentiating 
species, as either may give valuable infonnation. In the evolutionary 



British Association, 85th Beport, Manchester, 1915. 



[Plate VI. 







X y, V, 



22 V iS >| 2* \/ 25 



V 



■^^mm- 



la. 

lb. 

2. 

3. 
4. 

5. 

0. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 



Angophoia lanceolata. 

Eucalyptus calophylla. 

E. (.'itriodoia. 

E. corymbosa. 

E. leevopinea. 

E. dumo.sa. 

E. maiginata. 

E. Planchoniana. 

E. aomenoides. 

E. piperita. 

E. Luehmanniana. 

E. amygdalina. 



13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 



E. resinifera. 

E. Stuartiana. 

E. affinis. 

E. lubida. 

E. coiynoc-alyx. 

E. elseophoia. 

E. «p. nov. 

E. gomphocephala. 

E. eornuta. 

E. calycogona. 

E. pendula. 

E. salubris. 

E. squamosa. 



/■. radicle ; 



E. microcorys. 

A. Diagrammatic transverse section of seed of E. conjmhom : t. testa ; 

C'C^ cotyledons. . ^,^., , , r *. i 

B. Diagrammatic transverse section of seed of E. globulus : &C' halves of one cotyle- 

don ; C^C^ halves of the other. 
C Diagrammatic transverse section of seed of E. squamosa. 
D Diagram of reduction. The whole represents a cotyledon of h. corymbosa. 

Remove a for E. Planchoniana. Remove a and 6 for E. daopltora. Remove 

a, b. f, d. and e. for E. squamosa. 

Illustrating the Beport on the Botanical and Chemical Characters 
of the Eucalvpts and their Correlation. 

■' ^ I'fo face page 113. 



BOTANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERS OP EUCALYPTS, 113 

development of the genus there has been a reduction in size of the 
cotyledons, so that the tender germinating seedhng may better cope 
with the dry conditions of Austraha. This has taken place in some 
species by a simple reduction in size, in others by a reduction in size 
and the introduction of emargination. As the alteration in the cotyle- 
dons has taken place, a more or less corresponding change in the size 
and shape of the fruits has been effected. Lastly, the morphological 
characters of the cotyledons and primary leaves are constant in each 
species. The variation that takes place is more of the nature of a 
deviation or fluctuating variation. 

The accompanying Plate VI. gives examples of Eucalyptus 
cotyledons — natural size. 

Notes on the Evolution of the Oenns Eucalyptus. By E. C. Andrews. 

Risume. — Eucalyptus is a highly specialised or secondary form 
of the pi'imary or fleshy-fruited Myrtaceae. The primary types are 
luxuriant and occur throughout the fertile tropics, whilst Eucalyptus 
and its allied genera are adaptations, in the main, to the more barren 
sandy and extra-tropical areas in Australia. Eucalyptus developed 
in warmer Australia and has never wandered beyond the neighbouring 
islands of tliat continent, except as a colonist. 

Deane suggests (25) that the capsular-fruited Myrtacese originated 
in Northern or North-Eastern Australia ; that these types attained their 
maximum development in Western Australia and gave rise to the 
fleshy-fruited Myrtacese, which spread later to Asia and Europe as 
differentiations of the primitive capsular type. Deane's idea 
apparently arose from the belief that capsular fruits had been developed 
before the fleshy forms. Even, however, if it be agreed that the 
capsular preceded the first baccate or drupaceous form of fruit, it does 
not at all follow that the capsular must precede the fleshy fruits in any 
particular family, especially such a relatively young one as the 
Myrtacese. 

In connection with the position of the subject genus in its family 
it may be pointed out, in the first place, that the' family Myrtaceae 
consists of about 3,100 species, of which 2,500, approximately, occur 
in the fertile tropics or subtropics of the whole world. These include 
the vast genera Eugenia (1,325 species), Myrtus (200 species) and 
Myrcia (320 species) ; they are all of luxuriant habit, including some 
of the finest trees in the jungle. Eugenia and Myrtus are rich in 
species in America, Asia, Africa but occur more sparingly in Australia. 
All possess fleshy fruits, whereas Eucalyptus is a capsular form. Again, 
these fertile tropical types all possess leaves which are opposite and 
penniveined, dense, glossy and luxuriant in appearance. The anthers 
of all, moreover, are versatile, the cells parallel and opening longi- 
tudinally. 

On the other hand, Eucalyptus possesses various forms of anthers ; 
nevertheless, those of the section Corymbosae or the ' Bloodwoods ' 
exhibit the generalised type which is found in the tribe of the Myrtse 
or the fleshy-fruited forms of the familv. Moreover, it is just the 

1015. ■ ; 



114: REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

' Bloodwood ' group which has been indicated as containing the earlier 
forms of Eucalyptus by reason of their oil-contents (7) by I'eason of the 
antheral classification of the genus by Bentham (26) and by their 
general appearance also, as shown by Oambage (1) and the writer (27). 
In the second place, the genus Eucalyptus has all the biological 
signs of youth. It is vigorous and aggressive; it is rich in species; 
and it is the dominant vegetation of the continent of Australia. It 
occurs in every geographical situation; it swarms on the great sub-arid 
plains of the interior ; it forms thickets on the barren sandstone ; it 
survives the desolating winds of the colder plateaus ; it flourishes in 
the I'a vines of the plateau margins ; it grows in the swamps ; and it 
advances almost to the very intersection of the planes of sea and land. 
As opportunity offers in other continents, it quickly establishes itself 
therein. Only in the jungle has it failed to establish itself. Were it 
a genus which had once been cosmopolitan, as asserted by Ettings- 
hausen (28), now decadent, it would be represented by monotypic 
and oligotypic genera scattered in various isolated localities with wide 
stretches of intervening areas containing no representatives of the 
genus. On the other hand, it is not only overwhelmingly rich both 
in species and individuals in Australia but it is also excessively 
tenacious of life and adaptable to its environment. This suggests that 
it is a specialised form peculiar toi Australia, much as the vast genus 
Myrcia is to tropical and subtropical America. 

In the third place, the earlier life history of Eucalyptus suggests 
that it is a specialised form of the fleshy-fruited Myi'tacete. Only in 
the juvenile forms of the genus are the leaves consistently opposite 
and penniveined, as in the fleshy pantropical forms. In many species 
of the genus these generalised leaf types are obstinately persistent as 
in E. cinerea, E. cordaia, and E. pulver-ulenta. The obstinate per- 
sistence- also of juvenile cordate, sessile, and horizontal leaves in the 
genus indicates that such leaf-types had been strongly established for 
a very long period in the family before the evolution of the genus 
Eucalyptus ; and that the latter, typical Eucalyptus leaf, with twisted 
stalk, is an adaptation to a harsher climate and one which would tend 
to become extinct, in favour of the old persistent type, under certain 
favourable climatic conditions. 

In the fourth place, the genus Eucalyptus appears to be a modifica- 
tion of a warmth -loving plant to meet varying conditions of dryness 
and coldness; as such it indicates a more youthful origin than that of 
the luxuriant and megathermic Myrtse. 

In the fifth place, the vast genera Eugenia and Myrtus have been 
enabled to occupy all the fertile tropics even in lands so widely isolated 
as Tropical America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The morphology and 
habits of these luxuriant types suggest a former land connection 
between the great tropical lands. But these land bridges, if existent, 
do not appear to have been used by tihe genus Eucalyptus, and the 
only explanation possible, in view of the great vigour and tenacity of 
the genus, is that Eucalyptus was developed only after the separation 
of the great tropical lands from one another, whilst the Myrtse were 
developed prior to such separation. 



BOTANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF EUCALYPTS. 115 

In the sixth place, it appears that tlie geogi'apliy of Australia has 
changed considerably since the Cretaceous period. At that time 
Australia appears to have been occupied in part by a great central 
sea, surrounded by wide expanses of low-lying plains, mainly sandy 
in nature, the climate of the continent being mild and moist. That 
condition has now passed, the central sea has been drained, the old 
eastern plain has been uplifted to form high plateaus ; these plateaus 
in turn have been covered in places with dense lava floods ; the plateaus 
themselves have been worn away, in part, by streams and the material 
so worn has been distributed by the inland-flowing streams to form 
great alluvial plains, whilst the old moist and genial climate has been 
highly differentiat-ed coincidently with these changes of topography. 
This suggests that the vegetation of Australia has been called upon 
to adapt itself to harsher conditions since the isolation of Australia. 
On the other hand, the great similarity to each other of the tropical 
Myrtffi suggests that Eugenia, Myrtus, and Myrcia developed under 
uniform and mild climatic conditions. 

A consideration of these principles suggests that Eucalyptus was 
developed from the fleshy-fruited Myrtace^ after the sepai'ation of the 
great tropical lands ; that it was developed in warmer Australia, pos- 
sibly the Northern or the more North-Eastem portion ; that it was 
an adaptation in the first instance to the warmer sandstone areas and 
later either to drier climate or to heavier soils or to the colder localities. 

BlBLIOGEAPHY. 

(1) R. H. Cambage, Presidential Address, Roy. Soc. New South Wales. 1913. 

(2) F. v. MuELLEB, ' Eucalyptographia.' Art. E. amygdalina. 

(3) H. G. Smith, Presidential Address, Roy. Soc., New South Wales. 1914. 

(4) H. G. Smith, ' On the Occurrence of Calcium Oxalate in the Barks of the Eucalypts. * 

Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1905. 

(5) R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith, ' Research on the Eucalypts,' Sydney. 1902. 

(6) R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith, ' On the Relation of Leaf- Venation and the presence 

of certain chemical constituents in the Oils of the Eucalypts,' Proc. Roy Soc, 
N.S.W., 1901. 

(7) R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith, ' Research on the Eucalypts of Tasmania,' Proc. 

Roy. Soc, Tasmania, 1912. 

(8) Cuthbert Hall, ' On Eucalyptus Oils, especially in relation to their Bactericidal 

Power,' M.D. Thesis, published privately. 

(9) White's ' Voyages to New South Wales,' 1790. 

(10) R. Robinson and H. G. Smith, 'A Note on the Phenols occurring in some 

Eucalyptus Oils.' Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1914. 

(11) H. G. Smith, ' On the Butyl Ester of Butyric Acid occurring in some Eucalyptus 

Oils." Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1914. 

(12) H. G. Smith, ' On a Eucalyptus Oil containing 60 per cent. Geranyl-acetatc' 

Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1900. 

(13) H. G. Smith, ' On the Essential Oils of the Angophoras,' Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 

1913. 

(14) H. G. Smith, 'On the Kinos or Astringent Exudations of 100 species of 

Eucalyptus.' Aust. Ass. Adv. Sc, Melbourne, 1913. 

(15) R. Robinson and H. G. Smith, ' Eudesmin and its Derivatives,' Part I. Proc. 

Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1914. 

(16) H. G. Smith, ' On Eucalyptus Kinos, their value for Tinctures and the non- 

gelatinisation of the products of certain species.' Proc Roy. Soc.,N.S.W., 1904. 

(17) H. G. Smith, ' On the absence of Gum, and the presence of a new diglucoside in 

the kinos of the Eucalypts.' Proc Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1904. 

(18) H. G. Smith, ' On Myrticolorin.' Trans. Chem. Soc, London, 1898. 

I 2 



116 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

(19) H. G. Smith, ' Note on the Paraffins of Eucalyptus Oils.' Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 

1913. 

(20) H. Deane, Records, Geological Survey, Victoria, 1902, p. 20. 

(21) E. C. Andrews, 'Geographical Unity of Eastern Australia' Proc. Roy. Soc, 

N.S.W., 1910. 

(22) J. H. Maiden, ' Critical Revision of the Eucalypts,' Part VIII. 

(23) R. T. Baker, ' A Census of Victorian Eucalypts and their Economics.' Aust. Ass. 

Adv. Sc, Melbourne, 1913. 

(24) Cuthbert Hall, ' The Evolution of the Eucalypts in relation to the Cotyledons 

and Seedling Leaves.' Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1914. 

(25) H. Deane, ' Observations on the Tertiary Flora of Australia.' Proc. Linn. Soc, 

N.S.W., 1900, p. 463-475. 

(26) Bentham and Mueller, ' Flora Australiensis,' Vol. III. 

(27) E. C. Andrews, ' Development of the Natural Order Myrtacese.' Proc Linn. Soc, 

N.S.W., 1913. 

(28) Ettingshausen, ' Cosmopolitan Flora of Tertiary Australia.' Mem. Geol. Soc. 

N.S.W., 1888. 

' Die Tertiarflora,' von Haring, Wien. Abhandl., 1855. 



The Preparation of a List of Characteristic Fossils. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor P. F. Kendall 
(Chairman), Mr. W. Lower Carter (Secretary), Mr. H. A. 
Allen, Professor W. S. Boulton, Professor G. A. J. Cole, 
Dr. A. E. Dwerryhousb, Professors J. W. Gregory, Sir 
T. H. Holland, G. A. Lebour, and S. H. Eeynolds, Mr, 
Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. Marr, Dr. Marie C. Stopes, Dr. 
A. Vaughan, Professor W. W. Watts, Mr. H. Woods, and 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward, appointed for the consideration 
thereof. 

During the year the Chairman has carefully considered the various 
suggestions sent in as the result of the preliminary list circulated by 
the Secretary. He has analysed the criticisms and suggestions and 
embodied them in a tabular form, which was submitted to the Com- 
mittee. This showed that of 624 species included in the printed list 
375 were accepted without any dissent. Of the 242 species challenged, 
192 were objected to by only one or two critics. Of the 221 additional 
species proposed, 157 had the support of only one critic. Thus the 
general result seemed liighly encouraging, and the Chairman recom- 
mended the appointment of a small sub-committee to deal with the lists 
and submit their contents to specialists, believing that in this way a list 
might be compiled that would meet with general acceptance. 

The Committee met at Manchester on September 7 and received and 
adopted the Chairman's report. They modified this recommendation 
by appointing two Sub-Committees : (1) Northern — Prof. J. "W. 
Gregory, Prof. P. F. Kendall, Prof. G. Lebour, and Dr. G. Hickling 
(convener); (2) Soidhern — Prof. W. S. Boulton, Dr. A. Vaughan, 
Mr. H. Woods, and Dr. W. T. Gordon (convener). 

The Committee ask for reappointment with a grant of lOZ. for print- 
ing in lieu of the same amount voted but not expended last year. 



On the old Rfit) SANDStONfi ROCKS OF KILTORCAN, IRELAND. Il7 

^he Old Red Sandstone Rocks of Kiltorcan, Ireland. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professor Grenville Cole 
(Chairman), Professor T. Johnson {Secretary), Dr. J. W. 
Evans, Dr. E. Kidston, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

The Committee has spent the sum of five pounds from the unexpended 
balance of the grant made in 1913, and has returned the remaining 
balance to the General Treasurer. The grant of lOZ. made in 1914 
was not called on, since the work for which it was specially intended, 
excavation at Tallow Bridge, proved impracticable, owing to local 
difficulties. The regular working of the Kiltorcan quarry^ however, 
makes it desirable to secure good specimens as they are turned out, 
since the owner is the local contractor for roads, and the stone and 
plant-remains become alike used in making the Kilkenny highways. 
Short of actual purchase and preservation of the historic site, the 
alternative is to pay the owner to watch the work as it goes on and 
to set aside the more interesting material. He has shown a ready 
appreciation of the requirements of the Committee. 

Hence the Committee asks for its continuance and a grant of ten 
pounds for the excavation-work at Kiltorcan, and for specimens obtain- 
able in 1915-1916. 

The Committee would be glad to be allowed to send, carriage 
forward, duplicate material of Archceopteris , Bothrodendron, Archano- 
don, &c., to the botanical and geological sections of universities, 
colleges, and museums in the British Empire, where it is found that 
such specimens would be welcome. Such gifts would, of course, be 
accompanied by a statement as to the auspices under which the material 
was obtained. 



The Lower Pala>ozoic Rocks of England and Wales. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. W. Watts 
(Chairman), Professor W. G. Fearnsides {Secretary), Pro- 
fessors W. S. BouLTON and G. Lapworth, Mr. E. S. 
CoBBOLD, Mr. V. C. Illing, and Dr. J. E. Mark, aqypointed 
to excavate Critical Sections therein. 
Owing to the early departure of the Association for Australia in 1914 
it wa? not possible to report on the work of the preceding year in Shrop- 
shire. The annexed report gives an account of Mr. Cobbold's excavations 
in that and the previous year. 

The war has rendered it impossible to carry out any excavations 
during 1915. 

The Committee asks for reappointment, with a grant of 15L — this 
year's unexpended grant. 

^ixth Refort on Excavations among the Cambrian Rocks of Comley, 
. Shropshire (1912, 1913, 1914). By E. S. Cobbold, F.G.S. 

A portioi> of the grant made to the Committee on its reconstitution 
at the Birmingham Meetiijg was entrusted to the writer for the continua- 
tion of his excavatioiis in the Gonaley area. 

In the previous year, when no grant was available, certain sections 



118 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

were opened out in tLe subsidiary area called the Cwms (about two miles 
south-west of Comley itself) with funds from another source, and a sum- 
mary of the results appeared in the Keport of the Birmingham Meeting.^ 
Additional work has now been done at these sections with the help 
of the grant made in 1913, and full details are incorporated in the present 
Eeport. 

A. Excavations in the Cwms. 
Excavation No. 53. — The Road Quarry. 

This little quarry had been cleared of debris and was subsequently deepened at 
certain points. The complete section thus exposed was as follows in descending 
order : — 

North-East End of the Section. 

d. ' The Greenish-grey Sandstone.' ft. in. 

di. Hard quartzose sandstone 16 

dj. Do., do., with large ovoid and elongate cavities and masses of rotten- 
stone up to 10 cm. in diameter ; these are almost certainly of organic 
origin, but their nature has not as yet been determined ... 1 3 
Hyolithellus sp. 

Hyolithus cf. H. primcevus, Groom, 
Oholdla ? groomii, Matlej', 
Micromitra spp., 
and another brachiopod allied to both Miclcwitzia and Kutorgina. 

d.2. Hard quartzose sandstone 3 

d,. Well-bedded sandstones, rather soft and less quartzose than d., . 15 
c. Shale with thin bands of quartzite 2 

Fatdt. 
b. ' The Mottled Beds ' (about 4 feet seen). 

63. Conglomeratic quartz grit, with well-rounded grains and pebbles 
of quartz, a small amount of glauconite, and a few pebbles of felsitic 

rocks 14 

62. Yellowish quartz sandstone, mottled with brown streaks and patches 

of dark rotten-stone and having a thin layer of quartzite at the base 1 
6,. Conglomerate with many sub-angular pebbles of mudstone, pink 
and buff-coloured felsitic rocks, and brown quartzite; also con- 
taining rounded or elongate masses of rotten-stone, suggestive of 

the former presence of calcareous organism.s 14 

Fossils from the two beds 6, and 63. 
Hyolithdlus, sp. 
Hyolithus sp. 
Obolella groomii, Matley. 
Micromitra spp., 

and two other brachiopods, allied to both Miclcwitzia and Kvlorgina. 
a. ' Wrekin Quartzite,' about 16 feet seen. 

«8. Yellowish quartzose sandstone, nearly a quartzite .... 1 6 
a,. Pale blue compact quartzite, with occasional pink grains of felsite 2 - 
ttg. Yellowish quartzite, with well-marked compact blue and impure 

yellow bands 2 

a^. Impure yellowish quartzite, much fractured 8 

04. Compact blue quartzite 8 

a,. Compact blue quartzite 10 

O2. Mottled blue and yellow compact quartzite 4 

a,. Compact quartzite, bedding disturbed 4 

Broken blocks of quartzite, occupying a distance equivalent to a further 

thickness of about 6 

Probable Fault. 

South-West End of the Section. 

The dip of the beds throughout remains fairly constant at about 80° N., 70° E. 

' Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1913, Birmingham (1914), p. 486. 



ON THE LOWER PALEOZOIC ROCKS OK ENC4LAND AND WALES. 110 

The broken condition of the quartzite at the southern end of the 
section is probably due to the proximity of a strong longitudinal (N.B. 
and S.W.) fault (' The Koad Fault,' Lapworth), which separates the 
Uriconian of Caradoc Hill from the Cambrian and Ordovician rocks of 
the Cwms. 

The fault in the section itself is one of the minor fractures, transverse 
to the major faults which determine the orographic features of the district. 

The fossils from the Mottled beds and Greenish-grey sandstone are of 
considerable interest as representing the oldest-known fauna of the dis- 
trict, and may be compared with those collected by Dr. Groom from the 
Quartzite and Hollybush Sandstone of the Malvern area. 

The gradation, by intercalation, from quartzite below to sandstone 
above, and the occurrence of the conglomeratic beds, confii-m and supple- 
ment the observations made on Excavation No. 4 ^ at the north spur of 
Little Caradoc, Comley. 

Excavation No. 54. — The Middle Ridge in the Cwms, about 150 yards 

South of No. 53. 

A trench was cut across a knoll where some hard grit protruded, and 
a short summary of the section obtained was published in the report of 
the Birmingham Meeting. The section confirms and supplements those 
of the Quarry Ridge at Comley.^ The complete section is as follows : — 

Eastern End of the Section. 

Middle Cambrian. 
e. Shale, with bands of hard glauconitic grit. Gj. The Quariy Ridge Shale. 

63. Clay with fragments of shale. ft. in. 

e-i. Band of hard, ringing, glauconitic grit 16 

e,. Brownish shale crushed and fractured 2 

d. Hard, ringing, glauconitic grit in beds from 3 to 24 inches thick. Cj. The 

Quarry Ridge Grit 28 

c. Conglomerate, c/. The Quarry Ridge Conglomerate. 

Cj. Brown pebbly somewhat incoherent grit, with small felsitic and 
quartz pebbles, and a few rounded fragments of Lower Cambrian 
Limestones • ^ ^ 

C3. Coarse conglomerate, incoherent and usually dark in colour, with 
many subangular blocks of Lower Cambrian Limestones, among 
which are fragments of the granular portion of the Black Limestone. 

c^. Dark rotten -stone, chiefly consisting of grains of quartz and glauconite 1 
Acrothele sp., Acrothyra sp., HyolithdlMS and many fragments of 
Trilobites. 

c,. Black skin of phosphatic material, partly adherent to the next bed 

below and partly invading the grit above, thickness variable up to 2 

Lower Cambrian. 
h. Black, Grey, and OleneUus Limestones. 

65. Black Limestone, granular and phosphatic . . . ... 04 

64. Black Limestone, compact and crowded with fragments of Trilobites. 

Protolenus sp., Callavia sp .00 

6j. Dark purple compact Limestone, weathering to a yellowish clay ; 

trilobite fragments plentiful .06 

b... Dark purple compact sandy Limestone with abundant minute mica 

flakes 10 

Callavia callavci Lapworth (?), Anomocare pusiidatum Cobbold, 
Microdiscus attleborensis S. & F., Obolella, Micromitra labradorica, 
M. sp. and Ostracoda. 

2 Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1908, Dublin (1909), p. 238. 
' Rtp. Brit. Assoc. 1908, Dublin (1909). Excavations Nos. 1 and 2, pp. 234, 236, 



120 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

h,. Red, sandy and micaceous Limestone in nodules ; trilobite frag- ft. in. 

ments very plentiful 10 

a. Ijower Comley Sandstone. 

a,. Mottled red and green micaceous sandstone, soft and somewhat 

fissile above, harder and more compact below 4 

a.,. Green micaceous sandstone with rusty spots, and one specimen of 

Hyolithellus 6 

a,. Green micaceous sandstone ; base not seen 60 

Western End of the Section. 

The dip of the beds throughout is 80°, N.75° E. 

This section is now filled in. It repeats in all its main features tie 
sequence shown in the Quarry Ridge ■* of Comley, which is aboxit one 
and a half miles away. It is noteworthy that the dividing line between 
the Taconian and Paradoxidian (=the plane of erosion) lies at exactly 
the same horizon (the top of the Black Limestone) in the two places, 
though at Robin's Tump, which is about half-way between them, the 
Taconian strata are seen to have been eroded to a much lower level.* 
In a few particulars the section now being dealt with supplements the 
information given by Excavations Nos. 1 and 2. 

(i) The Conglomerate (r-) has here a distinctly sandy bed at the top [c^] 
and another at the base {c.2), indicating that it is complete and not affected 
by the strike faulting, so prevalent in the Quarry Ridge of Comley. 

(ii) This Conglomerate contains many angular blocks of Black Lime- 
stone of both the granular and the compact varieties (beds h^ and h^ of 
the section) which had not been noted from the Conglomerate at Comley. 
There are also, as at Comley, numerous blocks of the Grey and Olenellus 
Limestones. It is now clear that all the Limestone bands were subject 
to erosion at the time when the Conglomerate was formed. 

(iii) The black skin (c, ) at the base of the Conglomerate has its counter- 
part at Comley in a similar black deposit, which contains Paradoxides, 
Dorypyge, and a species referred to Acroihyra. The same species of 
Acrothyra is found in the sandy bed c^, but the Trilobites in that bed 
have not been identified. 

(iv) In the Cwms section the compact or lower portion (64) of the 
Black Limestone is crowded with fragments of Trilobites, many of which 
have the reticulate surface characters of Olenellus or some other genus 
of the Mesonacidse. This necessitated a further study of Excavation 
No. 2 at Comley (see following page). 

Excavation No. 55, — The Cwms Brooh. 

The Lower and Middle Cambrian rocks are naturally exposed in the 
bed of this stream for about 300 yards to the southward. The section 
across the junction was opened out and the contact was proved to be 
a faulted one, the whole of the Limestones of the lower series being cut 
out at this point. 

Excavation No. 56. — The Lower Ridge in the Cwms. 

A few small trials were made where the Qaartzite composing the ridge 
outcrops, but no continuous section could be observed, without undue 
disturbance of the cultivated ground. The presence of greenish-grey 
and mottled sandstone lying above the quartzite was noted. 

' O-p. jam cit. 

• Bep. Brit. Assoc. 1911, Portsmouth, 1912, pp. 112, 113, and figs. 1, 2, and 3, 



ON THE LOWER PALEOZOIC ROCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 12. 

B. Excavations in the Comley Area. 

Excavation No. 2.— 200 Yards South of Comley Quarry, Reo'pened. 

The discovery of fragments of Olenellus, sensu lata in the Black Lime- 
stone of the Cwms (see above), rendered additional work advisable at the 
same horizon in the Quarry Kidge at Comley, the full section of which 
is given {op. cit.) in the report to the Dublin Meeting. 

The Black Limestone was uncovered and some highly fossiliferous 
blocks obtained ; these yielded at least two species of trilotiites referable 
to the MesonacidcB ; fragments provisionally referred to Oryctocephalus, 
which is a genus found in both Middle and Lower Cambrian of America ; 
a species of Microdiscus that appears to be undescribed ; and a number of 
specimens of HyoUthidce. All of these require critical study before they 
can be specifically determined. 

Excavation No. 4. — North sfiir of Little Caradoc, 200 yards 
west-south-west of the Comley Quarry, reopened.^ 

The old trench was considerably widened and deepened at the site 
of the beds marked «2 in tbe Dublin Report, to which the Mottled Beds 
(b) of the section of the Road Quarry (see above) bear a strong lithological 
resemblance. The grits with rounded quartz grains were found to con- 
tain pebbles of pre-existing rocks and also fragments of Brachiopoda, 
some of which are referred to Obolella (?) groomii and a species of Micro- 
mitra. 

Excavatimi No. 5. — Hill House Ridge. Nwth End.'' 

Here further work in quarrying rough stone for walling had been 
done by the occupier of the land, and from the material of the Hill House 
Grits thus exposed a single cranidium of Paradoxides intermedins Cobbold 
was obtained. Fossils that can be identified are very scarce in these beds* 

P. intermedins occurs typically in the Comley Breccia Bed.^ The 
Hill House Grits may therefore be regarded as belonging to the same 
faunal horizon as the Breccia Bed, which has been proved to be equivalent 
to some part of the Swedish P. tessini zone. 

Excavation No. 57. — Caradoc Dingle. 

In a little wooded hollow called Caradoc Dingle about half-way be- 
tween the Comley Quarry and Robin's Tump soft shales are exposed 
at one or two places in the bed of the brook. At one point a rib of rock 
some eight or ten yards long projects through the soil, and from it in 1901 
a few brachiopods were found on the occasion of an excursion of the 
Liverpool Geological Society. A trench was cut across this ril> and the; 
following section was exposed : 

Wiist End of the Scclion. 
h... Bluish shale, much crushed and fractured, about .3 feet seen. (Brachio- 
poda were obtained from this bed by Prof. Lapworth and Mr. Rhodea 
in 1892 or earlier.) ft. in. 

Interval where no rock is seen of about 12 

6|. Shale rather harder but much crushed 8 

ttj. Band of pyritous grit 2 

" Rey. Brit. Assoc. 1908, Dublin, 1909, p. 238. 
' Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1908, Dublin, 1909, p. 240. 

» Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1912, Dundee, 1913, pp. 139, 140, and Q.J.O.^. vol. Ixix. 1913, 
pp. 27-44. - . 



122 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

BiUingsella lindstrcemi var. salopiensis Matleji very plentiful, Acrothele 
cortacea Linnarsson, Acrotreta, of. sagittalis Salter, A. Schmalense'ei 

Walcott, Obolus (?) sp. index Linnarsson (1876). ft. in. 

n,. Shale with sandy bands 3 

a,. Hard, micaceous, and siUceous grit 6 

«._,. Flaggy, micaceous shale 2 

a^. Hard, flaggy, siliceous and micaceous grit 10 

Shaly material 3 

East End of the Section. 

The shale and bands of grit of this section have a very strong resem- 
blance to those of Excavation No. 21, the lower section on the Shoot 
Kough Road, and the BiUingsella occurs in the same state of preservation 
and in the same profusion. The only differences observed in the section 
are : (1) the comparative thinness of this bed, and (2) the absence of rotten- 
stone bands (representing calcareous bands) above the BiUingsella grit 
in this new section in Caradoc Dingle. 

The shales, b, are consequently regarded as equivalent to the Shoot 
Rough Road shales (the Orusia lenticularis horizon) and the flaggy beds, 
a, as equivalent to the upper portion of the Shoot Rough Road Flags. All 
the fossils identified from the Billingsella-lo&nd aj are found in Scandinavia 
in the Paradoxides forchammei'i zone. 

Excavation No. 58. — South-west Slope of Little Caradoc. 
In the hope of finding sections comparable with those of Excavations 
Nos. 4 and 53, some preliminary trial-holes (3 feet or more long and about 
the same depth) were made where the Quartzite crops out in the little 
gully between the Caer Caradoc Hill and Little Caradoc. These showed 
that the ground here is intensely faulted and that no continuous section is 
to be hoped for. Quartzite, flaggy beds, and green sandstones occur in 
the various trial-holes without any orderly arrangement being apparent. 
The surfaces of the flaggy beds in one place showed tracks of organisms, 
similar to those found in Excavation No. 41, south-west of Hill House,^ 
but there was no evidence to show whether the beds should be regarded 
as within the Quartzite sequence or as belonging to the Lower Comley 
Sandstone. 

Excavation No. 59. — In Comley Brook about 50 Yards North 
of the Shoot Rough Road. 

A rib of mudstone crossing the bed of the Comley Brook, from which 
fossils were collected by Mr. Manson, of H.M. Geological Survey, during 
the summer of 1914, has been laid bare by excavation, and the following 
forms obtained : — 

Orusia lenticularis Wahlenberg sp. 

Acrothele ? fragments. 

Trilobite fragments. 

The mudstone occurs as a band about 12 inches thick in shales re- 
ferred provisionally to the Shoot Rough Road shales. The strike is 
approximately north-east and south-west, and the dip vertical. The 
Trilobite fragments are not sufficiently complete for exact determination, 
but may be said to be reminiscent of Olenus, sensu lato. A block or nodule 
of similar rock, with the Orusia very well preserved, was found some 

'■' Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1911, Portsmouth (1912), p. 113. 



ON THR LOWEK tAL.?50Z01C ROCKS OF ENOLAND AND WALES. 123 

years a^o on the surface of the shale '" in the old roadway near Excava- 
tion No. 24, some 250 yards to the east of the present exposure. 

Siimviary of Results. 

The Excavations detailed in this Report have proved : — 

(1) The existence of a section in the Cwms (No. 54), which is entirely 

confirmatory of those of the Quarry Ridge (Nos. 1 and 2). 

(2) The presence of Olenellus, sensu lato, in the Black Limestone, which 

bed may now be definitely assigned to the Lower Cambrian. 

(3) The presence iu the lowest known portion of the Lower Cambrian 

Sandstone (the Mottled and Greenish-grey sandstones) of a fauna 
comparable with that of the Hollybush Sandstone of Malvern. 

(4) The presence in the Hill House Grits of Paradoxides intermedius 

Cobbold as well as that of Phjchoparia (Liostracus), sp. ci. lata Cobbold, 
previously known, which two species are found together in the Comley 
Breccia bed. 

The inference from (4) is that the two deposits denominated the 
Breccia bed and the Hill House Grit are of the same age, though one of 
them (the Breccia bed) rests directly upon the Lower Comley Sandstone, 
while the other (the Hill House Grit) is separated from that Formation 
by about 300 feet of Shales, Grits, and Conglomerate (the Quarry Ridge 
Shale and Grit of the Dublin and subsequent Reports). 

The principal Results of previous ob.servations were summarised in 
the Report to the Dundee Meeting." 

The writer desires to take this opportunity of acknowledging very 
gratefully the assistance he has received from the Association in enabling 
him to explore the Comley Section so much more fully than would have 
been possible without excavation, and thus to establish a considerable 
number of life zones in the Shropshire Cambrian Rocks. He is also 
greatly indebted to Professor Lapworth for advice and other help 
throughout the whole course of this investigation, and to Dr. Matley, Mr. 
Philip Lake, Professor Groom and others for aid with the Palseontology. 



Stratigraphical Names. — Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. J. E. Mark {Chairman), Dr. F. A. Bather 
{Secretary), Professor Grenville Cole, Mr. Bernard 
HoBSON, Dr. J. HoRNE, Professor Lebour, Dr. A. 
Strahan, ami Professor W. W. Watts, appointed to con- 
sider the preparation of a List of Stratigraphical Names 
used in the British Isles, in connection ivith the Lexicon of 
Stratigraphical Names in course of preparation hy the 
International Geological Congress. 

In consequence of the war, it has not been possible for the Secretary 
of this Committee to communicate further with the Secretary of the 
Committee appointed by the International Geological Congress. It is, 
therefore, impossible for the present to draw up a plan of operations. 
The same reason rendered it inappropriate to act on the suggestion 

'" Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1909, Winnipeg (1910), p. 186, and footnote. 
" Bep. Brit. Assoc. 1912, Dundee (1913), p. 142. 



124 iREPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

made in the last Report of the Commitlee that a similar committee 
should be appointed for Australasia. 

In order that it may be in a position to resume operations when 
international relations are restored to the normal, your Committee asks 
for its reappointment, but for the present without a grant. 



Belniullet Whaling Station. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Dr. A. E. Shipley (Chairman), Professor J. Stanley 
G-ABDiNER (Secretary), Professor W. A. Herdman, Eev. W. 
Spotswood Green, Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Professor H. W. 
Marett Tims, and Mr. E. M. Barrington, appointed to 
investigate the Biological Problems incidental to the 
Belmullet Whaling Station. 

The Committee arranged with Mr. J. Erik Hamilton for the further 
prosecution of their researches in 1914. He proceeded to Belmullet on 
May 24, but received mobilisation orders early in August. The Com- 
mittee sympathise with Mr. Hamilton in that owing to ill-health he was 
subsequently discharged as medically unfit. Mr. Hamilton's report 
lis appended. 

The Committee regret that both of the Belmullet fisheries, Blacksod 
Bay and Inishkea, are at present suspended. Inquiries were made as 
ito other northern fisheries, as the Committee proposed to ask permission 
of the Council to send Mr. Hamilton, who is anxious to continue his 
work, to one of these. They too are closed. The grant for the 
present year has consequently lapsed. The Committee ask that it shall be 
regranted for 1916, and that they shall be empowered to substitute 
another station iu the North Atlantic in 1916 if the Belmullet stations 
are still closed. 

Report by J. Erik Hamilton, M.Sc. 
I. Inirodiiction. 

On May 23, 1914, I proceeded to Blacksod Bay to continue the 
investigations on whaling in which I had been engaged the previous year. 

The 1914 season was successful, in spite of the fact that the use 
of three steamers instead of two, as in former years, made it necessary 
for financial success to secure a cori'espondingly larger number of 
whales. Eighty-six whales were taken, which yielded over three 
thousand barrels of oil. 

The whaling station formerly at Inishkea did not open in 1914. The 
plant has been removed to the Spanish coast of the Mediterranean for 
winter fishing. It is expected that Fin Whales will foi'm the bulk of the 
catch. 

During this season I had an opportunity of tasting the flesh of B. 
borealis, which is to my mind inferior to that of B. miisculus (Blue 
Whale), although the Norwegians consider it to be the more palatable. 
'The Scandinavian hands at the station salted down a great part of 
•,the flesh of the solitary example of this whale which I saw. One 
:specimen of B. physalus (Finner) was lactating very freely, and as it 
Nwas recently killed I tasted the milk, which is in colour dead-white, 



ON BKLMULLET WHALING STATION. 



125 



and appears to be very rich in fat. The flavour resembles that of rich 
cream, the oily taste which it possesses not being very noticeable. 

On board one of the steamers I found a harpoon which differed 
considerably from those which I had seen before. This projectile has a 
rigid shaft, being devoid of the link joint which is present in the ordinary 
harpoon. There are no barbs. At the anterior end the shaft swells 
gradually from its normal diameter to a thickness corresponding to 
the diameter of the base of the cast-iron explosive point. There are 
the usual arrangements for fitting on the point and for attaching the 
time fuse. This instrument is called a 'killer,' and is used for giving 
the coup de grdce to wounded whales when the stock of ordinary 
harpoons on board the steamer is becoming exhausted. 

Since there are no barbs, the killer may be readily withdrawn from 




MH 



mmmiAtiiimttmmimMm 




-rr-T\iM§m 




B 



Fig. 1.— A. Ordinary Harpoon. B. ' Killer.' 
I. Wrought-iron shaft, with slot, not visible in A, for wire ring to which the rope 
is attached. 2. Steel head, with four hinged barbs. 3. Cast-iron explosive 
point. 4. Wire ring. 

the body of the animal into which it has been fired, after the point has 
exploded. When a new point has been fixed the harpoon may be again 
used for a similar purpose. 

The accompanying sketch shows the two forms of harpoon in use 
(Fig. 1). 

I wish very heartily to thank the British Association's Committee 
for again giving me an opportunity of working on this interesting 
subject. 

To my friends Mr. D. Bingham and Captain Lorens Brunn my best 
thanks are due for ever willing assistance and information. I am also 
much indebted to Professor W. A. Herdman, F.E.S., and Professor 
J. Stanley Gardiner, F.E.S., for much kind advice and aid, and to 
Mr. D. G. Lillie for his communication on the nomenclature of the 
"Whalebone Whales. 

I have pleasure in again recording the willing help given to me on 
many occasions by all hands at the station, both Scandinavian and 
Irish. 

The work of examining the material in detail was carried out in the 
Zoological Laboratory of King's College, London. 



120 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1915. 

II. Nomenclature. 

1 am indebted to Mr. D. G. Lillie for drawing my attention to the 
claims for precedence of the nomenchiture which True has worked out. 
The latter has published his authority for its use in the ' Proceedings 
of the United States Natural History Museum. ' ^ 

The following extract from True was made by Mr. Lillie : 

' BalcBva musculus. 

' Linnaeus' description vague. He refers to two other authors who 
refer to Sibbald's description of what is pretty certainly .the "Blue 
Whale. ' ' Hence Linnaeus must ha,ve meant Balcsyia musculus to denote 
the " Blue Whale. " Hence (the Blue Whale is) Balcenoftera musculus 
Linn. 
' Balcena pliysalus. 

' Linnaeus' description vague. But he refers to Martins, whose 
account pretty certainly refers to the Common Rorqual. Hence 
Balanoptera pMjsalus for this whale. 

' Balczna hoops. 

' Lmn^us refers to Sibbald's description of what is very evidently 
an immature specimen of the Common Eorqual and (this name) is 
hence synonymous with Balcena pliysalus. 
' Megaptera nodosa Bonnaterre. 

' The American Humpbacks were named before the European ones, 
so the names Balcena hoops Fabricius, 1780, and Balcsna nodosa Bonna- 
terre take precedence of Bal(sna longimana Rudolphi, 1829. 

' But Balcena hoops has been used by Linnaeus as a synonym for 
Balcena physalus, therefore Megaptera nodosa should hold the field 
on priority grounds.' 

In accordance with the above, I have adopted True's nomenclature 
throughout this Eeport. I therefore append a table giving this nomen- 
clature with the synonyms which have been used by BurfieW and 
myself^ in previous reports: 

B.A. Reports 1912 and 1914. True. 

Balcenoptera musculus L. = Bcdmnoptera physalus L. 

Common Rorqual, Fin Whale. 
BalcBnoptera sibbaldii Gray = Balmnoptera musculus L. 

Blue Whale. 
Megaptera longimana Rudolphi = Megaptera nodosa Bonnaterre. 
Humpback. 

III. Nmnhers and Species taken in 1914. 
The total number of whales captured in 1914 was eighty-six, and 
included four species. The relative numbers were as follow : 

Fin Whales (B. physalus L.) 67 

Blue Whales (B. musculus L.) 13 

Sejhvals (B. horealis Lesson) 2 

Sperm Whales (Ph. macrocephalus L.) 4 

Total 86 

' ' On the Nomenclature of the Whalebone Whales of the 10th ed. Linn. 
Syst. Nat.; op. cit. vol. xxi. p. 617, 1898. 

" British Association Report 1912, ' Report on Belmullet Whaling htation. 
' British Association Report 1914, ' Eeport on Belmullet Whaling Station.' 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 127 

Of tile above I had the ojiportimity of exaiaining thirty-six speci- 
mens — Fin Whales 31, Blue Whales 4, Sejhval 1. 

A mass of ambergris of fifteen pounds' weight was obtained from one 
of the Sperm Whales. 

IV. Measurements and Proportions. 
(See Tables at end of this Eeport.) 

The series of measurements used last year ^ was retained, and in 
addition one other dimension was added. I have used the name 
' falcation of dorsal fin ' for this measurement. If a line be taken 
from the tip of the dorsal fin to the line of the back, and at right angles 
to the long axis of the animal, the maximum distance from this hne 
to the posterior margin ol the dorsal fin is the ' falcation of the dorsal 
fin.' 

It indicates the depth of the notch in the posterior margin of the 
dorsal fin, and is very varied. The maximum is 11 in. =4'1 per cent., 
and the minimum 4 in. ='49 per cent. So far as can be seen from 



— ^ B 

Fig. 2. — Dorsal fin. B. physalus, showing new measurement, indicated by line C. 

so small a number of specimens (27) the variation is not dependent 
on sex. In fig. 2 the line indicates new measurement. 

In No. 22, a Fin Whale, one fluke had not been completely severed, 
and I was therefore able to measure it. The distance between the tip of 
the fluke and the notch between the flukes, measured along the posterior 
margin, was 7 ft. 4 in. , giving a spread of 14 ft. 8 in. for the flukes.^ 

• Total Length. 
The accompanying tables give the averages of total length of the 
species seen and a more detailed analysis of the total length of the 
Finners. 

Finners (B. physalus L.). 

"Pi in 

Average length of all Fiimers (31) 59 11* 

.» ,. „ females (16) 63 5 

>, „ males (15) 56 2 

>, „ „ adult females (13) 66 2 

,, " " " .. males (9) 60 la 

Maximum for females 70 9 

Minimum „ „ .' .' 49 4 

Maximum „ males 64 10 

Minimum „ „ ! ! 44 6 

* British Association Report 1914, p. 128. 

■' Of. British Association Report 1914, p. 129. 



128 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

Comparing these results with those of 1913 : 

1913.« 1914. 

Ft. in. Ft. in. 

Average for all specimens (37) 
,, ,, females (17) 

„ ,, males (20) 

„ for adult females (12) 
„ males (10) 
Maximum for females 
Minimum „ „ 
Maximum ,, males . 
Minimum ,, ..... 



59 


3 


(31) 59 


11 


60 


7 


a6) 63 


5 


59 





(15) 56 


2 


64 





(13) 66 


2 


60 


8 


(9) 60 


Of 


69 


8 


70 


9 


66 





64 


10 


48 


7 


49 


4 


46 


7 


44 


6 



It is worthy of note that not only is the general average for 1914 
slightly greater than that for the preceding year, but the average size of 
all females and of adult females is markedly larger than the correspond- 
ing dimensions for 1913. 

With regard to the males, the average for all males, the maximum 
and the minimum are all markedly less, while the average for adult 
males, although less, does not fall very far below the measurement 
for 1913. 

In 1914 the percentage of adult females was 81.25 (13 : 16), and 
in 1913 it was much lower, 70-59 (12: 17), while in 1911 it was 
95-24 (20 : 21). Although the earliest figure (1911) is also the largest, 
the fact that the latest figure is larger than that preceding it emphasises 
the importance of having a good series of figures before a reliable 
statement can be made on the subject of extermination. 

In regard to the males, the averages for all males and for adult 
males are less for 1914 than for 1913. The percentages are 1914, 60 
(9:15); 1913, 80 (16:20), showing a consistent diminution, since the 
percentage for 1911 is 92 (23 : 22). 

Blue Whales (B. musculus L.). 

Of the thirteen Blue Whales of the 1914 season I examined four (see 
Table II. at end of this Eeport). 

The other Blue Whales were taken between July 1 and July 14, 
during my absence in Liverpool, and also after I left Blacksod on 
August 2. 

Comparing with the figures for 1913 : 



Average for all females (4) . 
Maximum for „ 
Minimum for ,, 



1913. 




1914. 


Ft. 


in. 




Ft. 


in. 


71 


3A 


(4) 


66 


8i 


78 


2 




73 


1 


68 







61 


9 



A diminution in average size and also in individual measurements 
is noticeable. None were pregnant. 

Sejhval {B. borealis Lesson). 
Only one specimen of this whale was brought in during my stay. 

Ft. in. 
Female 39 

' Brlthh Association Feport 1914, p. 129. 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 129 

Sperm WJiales (P. macrocephalns L.). 
The four examples brought in this year were all taken after I had 
left Blacksod. 

V. General Observations. 
(1) B. physalus L. 

(a) Coloration. — I managed to obtain some idea of the colour 
distribution on the dorsal surface. I believe that the general pattern, 
if it may so be termed, is not the result of individual peculiarity, but 
characteristic of the species. It is only in the most recently killed 
specimens that any accurate observations can be made, as exposure to 
light and decomposition blacken the dorsal surface. The latter agent 
also destroys the skin by the formation beneath it of bubbles, which 
generally contain fluid much discoloured by blood. 

Figure 3 is from a sketch made partly from a photogi-aph and partly 




Fig. 3. — B. fhysalus. Dorsal surface, showing colour markings, j 
1 inch = 12 feet approximately. 

from sketches made on the flensing plane. The actual tint of the 
pigmented parts of the whales is a -pale leaden grey, not nearly approach- 
ing black, which varies in depth in the manner shown. It is note- 
worthy that the pale area of the upper surface of the rostrum is asym- 
metrical. It extends, behind the blowholes, almost to the middle line 
from the right, whereas on the left it falls short of doing so by a notice- 
able distance. The pale area behind the eye extends some distance 
down the pectoral fin, and the somewhat lighter, narrow line which 
divides it from the darker colour of the dorsal surface is continued 
across the limb to the anterior margin of the same. 

(b) Scars. — As has been noticed in other years, scars of various sorts 
are not infrequently observed. Some of these take the form of long 
scratches which might be caused by the whale cutting itself on rocks 
when diving in shallow water. On whale 14 $ , there was an unhealed 
wound on the right side of the tail, about 20 in. from the anterior 
margin of the fluke. It was oval in shape, and about 2| in. long by 
about If in. broad. The right flipper of whale No. 19 had been broken 
off at some time during the animal's hfe. The stump was only 3 ft. 8 in. 
long, and partly healed over. 

I was informed by one of the Norwegians that he had frequently 
seen whales which had a flipper damaged in this manner. 

1915. re 



130 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915, 

(c) Flukes. — The flukes of the Fin Whale frequently overlap in 
the middle line. The posterior margin of each fluke forms a rounded 
lobe as it approaches the middle line, and to the presence of these lobes 
the formation of the caudal notch is due. Tn some cases the notch is 
open, i.e., the flukes do not overlap, and in any case the lobes never 
fuse. 

From the examination of eighteen whales the following result was 
obtained : 

Notch open 6 

Left fluke uppermost 8 

Right „ „ 4 

In the Blue "Whales numbers 1 and 3, and in the Sejhval the notch 
was open. 

(2) Sejhval (B. borealis Lesson). 
As in 1914, the only specimen seen was a female. A number oJ 
white patches, which appeared to be healed cuts, were observed on the 
right side of this animal. They were about 2i in. long and f in. wide. 
There were 306 plates of baleen on the left side of the mouth. 

VI. Food. 

In only one case was any trace of food other than ' Krill ' found m 
the stomach of any species. The exception was No. 28, a Finner, in 
the rectum of which a number of small fish otoliths were found; they 
were about ^ in. long. The presence of these can scarcely be regarded 
as evidence that the whale had been feeding on fish, since small fish 
might very easily have been taken in if they were mingled with the 
'Krill.' 

VII. Notes on Miscellaneous Specimens Preserved. 

(a) Under this heading a cyst was described in the Report for 1913.' 
During the 1914 season similar objects were met with, but as they 
appear to be precisely similar it is not necessary to describe them. 

(b) On the exterior of the stomach of No. 28 Finner, $ , four 
spherical, soft bodies were found. They were loosely attached to the 
wall of the organ, and are about 1| in. in diameter. In section a fairly 
thick fibrous capsule is visible, while bands or sheets of the same 
material run through the mass of the specimen. The considerable inter- 
vening spaces are partly empty in the preserved specimen and partly 
filled with material of a uniform consistency. This appears to have been 
partly cellular, and in it here and there small rounded objects are visible. 
They stain uniformly with borax carmine, or the stainable material 
takes the form of a collection of minute dots of varying size. 

It may be suggested that these darkly staining masses denote 
the presence of some Protozoan parasite. But I find on reference to 
my diary that Whale No. 28 is described as ' very rotten. ' It is there- 
fore obvious that no histological detail can be made out with any 
certainty. 

' British Association Report, p. 138 (a), 1914. 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 131 

In the fresh condition the cysts were white on the exterior, but 
had dark-red contents. 

(c) In No. 11, Finner, female, I found in the uterus a vesicle 
If in. in diameter and filled with a clear yellowish fluid. This was 
presei-ved in the hope that it might be an early embryonic stage, but 
on examination no trace of an embryo could be discerned. 

In section the walls of one vesicle show uterine glands, and blood- 
vessels, in connective tissue. I believe this to be one of the ' ovulte 
Nabothi ' of the human anatomists. These are visible to the naked eye 
in the human uterus, and it seems not unreasonable to expect that in 
an animal so much larger, such as a whale, the ' ovulse ' would be of 
correspondingly greater size. This was the largest vesicle seen, but 
a number of smaller vesicles were observed. A number of small 
roundish objects about J in. long, and which pi'oved to be masses of 
cells, were found in the same uterus. They may have been wandering 
leucocytes, which had passed through the uterine wall into the lumen 
of the organ. 

VIII. Parasites. 

1. External. 

(a) Balcenophiliis unisetits (Aurivillius). — There is nothing new to 
report on this form. 

(b) Penella (Kov. and Dan.). — A few specimens were found, all 
females. No males were observed on them. One, seen on June '27, had 
egg-sacs of great length. 

2. Internal. 

(a) Monostomum plicatum (Creplin) was found in the intestines of 
fourteen of the Fin Whales examined. One specimen of exceptional 
size was taken. It is 1'7 cm. in length (in a somewhat compressed 
condition). 

(b) Cestodes. — (i) In the intestine of Finner No. 9 a number of 
cestodes were found. They were plentiful, nine being taken from about 
a yard of gut. These parasites are of small size, about 8 in. long. The 
scolex is dilated and has four well-marked suckers, but there appears 
to be no armed rostellum. The proglottides at the larger (free) 
extremity of the specimens have the uterus filled with ova, and are 
therefore fairly ripe. One cestode exhibiting this condition of the 
posterior proglottides is 71 in. in length. This form appears to be 
related to Tcenia. 

(ii) A number of large cestodes occurred in the intestine of Blue 
Whale No. 3. They are devoid of acetabula. The scolex has the 
form of a soft pear-shaped head about 1 cm. long in a large specimen. 
At the base of this is a flattened discoid collar, having a diameter of 
3 mm. The pyriform mass is embedded in the intestinal mucosa, while 
the collar appears to have the function of preventing it from penetrating 
too far. The proglottides are very short and wide, while the line of 
demarcation between tliem is not very clearly marked. One of these 
cestodes has a length of 27 in. Neither of the above has as yet been 
identified.. 

K 2 



132 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 



(c) Acanthocephali. — Mem'bers of this group were found parasitic in 
the intestines of all three species. 

The following species have been identified : 



B. physalus 
B. muscidus 
B. horealis 



Echiiwrliynclius hrevicollis. 
E. porrigens. 
E. turbinella. 



None of these are new records.* 

(d) Nematodes.— In the Eeport for 1913 " an account was given of an 
apparently pathological structure found in the upper part of the renal 
circulation, and containing nematode ova. During the 1914 season 
further observations wexe made on this region, and on the kidney 
itself. A few specimens of the digitate structure were found; but, in 
addition, in the urinary vessels of twenty-one of the Finners, as well 
as in one Blue Whale and the Sejhval, nematode worms of some size 
were observed. 

The followin,g statements are the result of examination of specimens 
from B. physalus : 

They have a very small diameter relative to their length, being 
perhaps tV in. thick, while the length of one incomplete specimen was 
2 ft. 9 in. In the fresh state they are sometimes tinged with a reddish 
colour owing to the hue of the fluid with which the body cavity is filled. 

The main ureter traverses the kidney for a great part of its length 
and is entered by numerous branches, which ramify in the mass of 
the kidney, where they terminate at the calyces of the lobules. 

The worms are found partly in the urinary tube system, partly in 
the interlobular tissue. One extremity lies in the main vessels, while 
the other is to be found in the interlobular tissue. The point at which 
the worm passes into the urinary system is usually, if not always, 
situated in the wall of a calyx. The extralobular part of the parasite 
is embedded in a mass of connective tissue, in which it has a very 
tortuous course. It is probable that the presence of the nematode is 
responsible for the growth of the tissue in the regions where it occurs, 
since the connective tissue masses may be taken as indicative of the 
presence of the parasites which they invariably contain. 

In one of these parasites ova were found which in appearance exactly 
resemble the free ova described last year. Those contained in the parent 
were, however, slightly larger than the ova in the digitate growth. 
The measurements are as follow : 



Average length 
Maximum „ 
Minimum „ 
Average width 
Maximum „ 
Minimum „ 



Ova in nematode section (6) 
•0595 mm. 
•0613 mm. 
•0590 mm. 
•0413 mm. 
•0432 mm. 
•0400 mm. 



In digit section (9) 
•0505 mm. 
•0527 mm. 
•0463 mm. 
•0362 mm. 
•0400 mm. 
•0336 mm. 



• Vide A. E. Shipley, Archives de Parasitologie, ii. No. 2, p. 
British Association Report 1912, p. 180; Ibid. 1914, p. 141. 

• British Association Eeport 1914, p. 141. 



262, 1899; 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 



133 



In tlial part ot the Term Nova Report^" which deals with ' Para- 
sitic Worms,' an account is given of Crassicavda crasskauda, Leiper 
and Atkinson, a nematode, probably a Filarian, which was recorded 
first by Creplin from a Northern Eorqual, and was also taken by 
Mr. D. G. Lillie from the renal tubules of Megaptera during the 
Terra Nova Expedition. Through the kindness of Mr. Bayliss of the 
British Museum (Natural History), I have been enabled to inspect 
specimens of this form, and, although I was not able to make detailed 
examination of them, it is my opinion that the nematodes taken from 
the kidney of various species of Balssnoptera at Blacksod are veiy 
closely allied to C. crassicauda, if they are not identical with it. 

IX. Foehises. 

(1) B. physalus. — Unfortunately no success rewai'ded my efforts to 
obtain stages sufficiently young to be of value for embryological research. 
The smallest fcetus which I saw was that from Whale No. 15, and is 
1 ft. 10* in. long. This specimen has not the slightest trace of external 
hind limbs, the flukes being well developed, and it still retains a well- 
marked cervical flexure. 

(2) B. muscuhis and B. borealis. No fcetus of either of these species 
was seen. 

X. Breeding Season. 

In my Report for 1913 " I suggested a method of calculating possible 
ages of the foetuses from their size. Pursuing the same method with 
the six specimens observed in 1914, we have the following results : 



June 



easurement. 


Size. 


Probable pairing ti 




Ft. in. 




1 . 


3 54 


April (beginning). 


6 . . 


6 4 


March (beginning). 


20 . 


1 lOi 


May (end). 


26 . 


8 2 


February (end). 


30 . 


4 3 


April (end); 


30 . 


6 8.1 


March (end). 



In accordance with the above-mentioned method of calculating the 
ages of the foetuses, and in consequence the probable pairing times of 




Fia. 4. — B. physalus. 



Diagram to show frequency of occurrence of pairing 
during the breeding season. 



B. pliysalus, I have constructed a figure showing the distribution of 
the pairing times over those months in which it is suggested that they 
occur. The number of cases (20) is unfortunately small, but, notwith- 
standing this, it seems probable that the paii'ing occurs with greatest 

^^ Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist., British National Antarctic (_' Terra Nova') 
Expedition 1910, Natural History Report, 'Zoology,' vol. ii., No. 3, p. 29. 
" British Association Report 1914, p. 143. 



134 



REPOHTiS ON TllE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



frequency daring the three months March, April, and May; and I 
suggest that, when a sufficient quantity of data has been accumulated, 
the maximum may be found to occur in April (see fig. 4). All the 
foetuses of 1911, 1913, and 1914 are included in the above figures. 

Table I. — B. physalus. List of Specimens. 






Table 11.— B. 


muscultis 


L. List of Specimens. 




Number 
of Whale 


Date when q 
Measured '^^^ 


Total 
Length i 


, Number 
^of Whale 


Date when 
Measured 


Sex 


Total 
Length 


1 
2 


June 27 ? 
July 20 ? 


ft. in. j 
68 9 
63 3 \ 


I 3 
1 4 
1 


July 31 
„ 31 




ft. in. 
73 1 
61 9 



Table III.- 

Date when 
Measured 

June 24 



-B. borealis Lesson. 
Sex 



One Specimen. 

Total 

Length 

Ft. in. 

39 



Table IV. — Foetuses. B. physalus. 


No. of 


Date when 


Sex 


Total 


Parent 


Measured 


Length 








ft. in. 


8 


June 1 


3 


3 5f 


10 


6 


3 


6 4 


15 


„ 20 


? 


1 lOJ 


18 


„ 26 


? 


8 2 


22 


„ 30 


?(?) 


4 3 


23 


,, 30 


<? 


6 8i 



ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 



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136 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



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144 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



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ON BELMULLET WHALING STATION. 



145 



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1915. 



146 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 







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Tip of snout to spiracle . 
Tip of snout to posterior insertion of pec 
Tip of snout to posterior insertion of do 
Tip of snout to centre of eye . 
Symphysis of jaw to centre of eye . 
Centre of eye to anterior end of ear ape 
Notch of flukes to posterior margin of a 
Notch of flukes to anterior margin of u 


Length of pectoral fin, tip to anterior ii 
Length of pectoral fin, tip to posterior i 
Median length of pectoral fin . 
Pectoral fin, greatest breadth . 
Dorsal fin, length .... 
Dorsal fin, vertical height . 
Dorsal fin, falcation .... 
Width of flukes, tip to tip 


easurements of pectoral fin — 
p to anterior insertion . 
p to posterior insertion . 
edian length . . . . . 
reatest breadth 




;S!g 


ShhScj 



NOMENCLATOR ANIMALIUM GENERA ET SUB-OENERA. 147 

Nomenclator AnimaUuni Genera et Sub-Genera. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Chalmers Mitchell 
(Chairman), Eev. T. E. E. Stebbing (Secretary), Dr. M. 
Laurie, Professor Marett Tims, and Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward. 

The war with Germany precluded the Committee from remitting any 
money to Berlin, and we have no recent knowledge as to the progress 
of the compilation. Accordingly we have not applied to the Treasurer 
for payment of the grant, which, by the rules of the Association, now 
lapses. 

The Committee asks for reappointment without a grant. Tlie 
' Nomenclator ' was so far advanced, and promised to be so useful 
to systematic zoologists, that the Committee desires to be in a position, 
when peace comes, to inquire into and report on what has happened 
to the work, and to consider if any useful steps could be taken in this 
country. 



Marsupials. — Report of the Covimittee, consisting of Professor 
A. Dendy (Chairman), Professors T. Flynn and G. E. 
Nicholls (Secretaries), and Professors E. B. Poulton and 
H. W. Marett Tims, appointed to obtain, as nearly as 
possible, a representative Collection of Marsupials for work 
upon (a) the Reproductive Apparatus and Development, 
(b) the Brain. 

The sum of 1001. granted to this Committee was placed in the hands 
of Professor Masson, of Melbourne. 501. of this was paid over to 
Professor Flynn in September last, and Professor Masson kindly under- 
took to make aiTangements for further payments as required. The 
Chaimian has received information to the following effect from Pro- 
fessor Flynn : — 

It has not been possible to do more than just commence the work 
of the Committee, and on that account we ask that the unexpended 
balance of the grant may be retained. 

It is necessary to point out that if the grant is to be economically 
used, it should be spent principally during the breeding season of 
Marsupials, since only at that time can material be got which fulfils 
both objects of the grant. The main bi'eeding season of Marsupials in 
Tasmania is during late June and July, and for Monotremes in Sep- 
tember and October. In other woi'ds, as regards Marsupials, the first 
breeding season since the receipt of the grant is only now commencing, 
and, in the case of the Monotremes (for any organised attempt on 
which the grant arrived too late last year), the breeding season does not 
occur for another three months. 

It has, however, been necessary to obtain reproductive organs in 
the resting stage, and, in accordance with this, collections of the follow- 
ing genera have been made:— Das yurus, Sarcophilus, Bettongia, 

V L 2 



148 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

Poiorous, Bromkia, Perameles, Hahnalurus, Pseiidocltirus, Vulpecula, 
Phascolojiiys, niUhorhyncJnis , and Echidna. 

The total expenditure to date is 21L 17s. 6d. An endeavour has 
been made to keep skins and skulls of as many animals as possible, and 
it is confidently expected that the value of these will be equal to a con- 
siderable amount of the grant. 

The Committee desires to retain the balance of the grant, and 
applies for reappointment. 



Biology of the Ahrolhos Islands. — Interim Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor W. A. Herdman (Chairman), 
Professor W. J. Dakin (Secretary), Dr. J. H. Ashworth, 
and Professor F. 0. Bower, appointed for the investigation 
of the Biology of the Ahrolhos Islands and the North-West 
Coast of Australia (North of Shark's Bay to Broome), with 
particular reference to the Marine Fauna. 

Owing to the war and several other unforeseen circumstances, the 
departure of the expedition for the Ahrolhos Islands has had to be 
delayed. Owing to delays in the mail it was near the end of May 
before intimation was received from the Government Grant Committee 
of the Eoyal Society that a grant for the purposes of the Ahrolhos in- 
vestigation had been passed. Without this the full programme could 
not have been carried out. Everything has now been arranged, and, 
unless some extraordinary developments take place through the war, 
the expedition will leave Perth on November 1. Equipment has been 
ordered to the amount of 34L out of the British Association grant of 
4:01., but no accounts are to hand, and nothing has yet been paid out. 

The Committee asks for reappointment for the coming year without 
further grant. 



Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. S. Goodrich 
(Chairman), Dr. J. H. Ashwoeth (Secretary), Mr. G. P. 
Bidder, Professor F. 0. Bower, Dr. W. B. Hardy, Dr. S. 
F. Harmer, Professor S. J. Hickson, Sir E. Bay Lan- 
kester, Professor W. C. McIntosh, and Dr. A. D. Waller. 

The British Association table at Naples has not been occupied during 
the current financial year. In April 1914, Mr. J. Mangan, of the 
Government School of Medicine, Cairo (now Professor of Zoology in 
Galway), applied for the use of the table from Sept. 12 onwards for 
four or five weeks, and he was appointed to the table for that 
period. On Sept. 4, however, lie wrote from Cairo as follows : ' As 
all leave has been stopped in the Government service here, I have had 
to cancel my plans for working during September and October at the 
British Association table at Naples. . . . Will you please convey to 



OCCUPATION OF A TABLE AT THE ZOOLOOICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 149 

the Committee my tbanks for the facihties so kindly offered to me, and 
my regret that I cannot avail myself of them? ' 

Mrs. Pixell-Goodinch has pubhahed ('Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci.,' 
vol. 61, pp. 81-104, pi. viii., 1915) an acconnt of the researches on 
' The Life-history of the Sporozoa of Spatangoids ' which she carried 
out in part while occupying the British Association table at Naples 
in the spi'ing of 1914. 



Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. — Report oj the Committee, con- 
sisting o/ Professor A. Dendy {Chairman and Secretary), Sir 
E. Kay Lankester, Mr. E. S. Goodrich, and Professor 
J. P. Hill, appointed to nominate competent Naturalists to 
perform definite pieces of work at the Marine Laboratory, 
Plymouth. 

Mr. J. S. DuNKERLT, to whom the use of the table was granted for 
one month in 1914, reports as follows : 

' At Plymouth last summer I was collecting material from fishes' 
gall-bladders for the study of Myxosporidian life-histories. I obtained 
some very good material, especially of Ceratomyxa drepanopsett<2, 
which supports, so far as I have examined it, the theory of Myxo- 
sporidian Cytology put forward in a paper at present printing in ' ' Edin- 
burgh Proc. E.S.," entitled " Agarella gracilis, a new species of 
Myxosporidian from Lepidosiren paradoxa." Unfortunately the w^ar 
has intervened and I am unable at present to continue my research 
work, but I hope to continue my investigation of the material, and to 
publish the results thereof after the war.' 

Since the last meeting only one application for the use of the table 
has been received. This application was granted, but the applicant 
subsequently withdrew owing to his employment on munition work. 



The Natural History of the Isle of Man.— Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor W. A. Herdman {Chairman), 
Mr. P. M. C. Kermode (Secretary), Dr. W. T. Calman, 
Eev. J. Davidson, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, Professor E. W. 
MacBride, and Lord Eaglan, appointed to make a Survey 
thereof. 

The Committee regret to report that under the conditions caused by the 
war they find it impossible now to carry on their proposed investigation 
of the Natural History of the Isle of Man, and, as they see no prospect 
of so doing for some considerable time, they think it better that they 
should not be reappointed at the forthcoming meeting of the British 
Association. 



150 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



Atlas, Textual, and Wall Maps for SoJtoul and University use. — 
Report of the Co77imittee, consisting of Professor J. L. 
Myres {Chairman), Kev. W. J. Barton (Secretary), Pro- 
fessor R. L. Archer, Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown, Mr. 
G. G. Chisholm, Colonel C. P. Close,* Mr. G. P. Daniell, 
Professor H. N. Dickson, Mr. A. R. Hinks, Mr. 0. J. R. 
Howarth, Colonel Sir D. A. Johnston, and Mr. E. A. 
Reeves, appointed to inquire into the Choice and Style 
thereof. 

[Plates VII. and VIII.] 
Part 1. 

The Committee was appointed at the Dundee Meeting of the Asso- 
ciation, and presented an interim Eeport at the Birmingham Meeting, 
dealing mainly with the contents and arrangement of a School Atlas 
for senior and for junior students, and suggesting a number of points 
on which an expression of teachers' opinions was desired. Copies of 
this interim Eeport have been distributed widely among school teachers, 
as well as to members of the Geographical Association, and some 
interesting criticisms and suggestions have been received, for which 
the Committee desires to express its thanks. The Secretary and other 
members of the Committee have taken various opportunities of meeting 
geographers and teachers informally at meetings in London and in 
the provinces, and of learning their views at first hand. Many 
suggestions gathered in this way are embodied in the Committee's 
Beport. 

The paragraphs which follow, dealing with the choice and arrange- 
ment of maps in an Atlas, or in a systematic series of wall maps, are 
reproduced with modification from the interim Eeport. Those, on the 
otlaer hand, which deal with problems of style and draughtsmanship 
are new, and represent the principal task of the Committee in the 
last two years. The grant made by the Association for experimental 
cartography has been of the greatest value, and the thanks of the 
Committee are due to the Eoyal Geographical Society for facilities for 
the preparation of specimen sheets, the most important of which are 
reproduced here. 

Contents and Arrangement of a School Atlas. 

While not desiring in any way to stereotype the contents of a School 
Atlas, the Committee submits its syllabus of maps as a concrete 
example of what may fairly be included in such a publication. 

The needs of junior and senior students differ widely, and it was 
found necessary from the outset to deal with them separately. But 
throughout the inquiry it has been the object of the Committee to 
provide as far as possible for a Senior and a Junior Atlas which should 
be consistent in their general plan and execution. 

* Retired from Committee at the outbreak of war. 



sh Associate 



[Plate VII. 



rM iV^USe^y: ,. 




STYLE AND SIZE OF TYPE FOR A 
JUNIOR SCHOOL ATLAS. 

NOTE— Type of Iha smallest size shown 
on this map should not be used 
for a Junior School Atlas. 







Si 



Bnluh Aitodalwi. BGth Heporl, Manchester. 1B16.] 



[PWTE VIII. 



STYLE AND SIXE OF TYPE FOK A 
SENIOR SCHOOL ATLAS 



NOTE. — Type of the smallest siie shewn 
on this map should not be used 

for a School Atlas. 




ATLAS, TEXTUAL, AND WALL MAPS. 151 

Senior School Atlas. 

' Royal ' paper (25 x 20 in.) will give a map lOJ x 8^ in. on the 
single page. Double-page maps would, of course, be best mounted 
on guards; but this arrangement is too costly for a School Atlas, and 
the practical difficulty is best overcome by printing such maps as 
two single pages with an overlap, and binding them as usual. It is 
essential that all the maps should be readily comparable. In particular, 
all world maps should be on the same projection. As few scales should 
be employed as possible. All the Continents should be shown on the 
same scale; unless, as below, a double scale is used for Europe. For 
larger-scale maps simple multiples of this scale are recommended, as 
will be seen from a comparison of the lists which follow. For questions 
of scale, projection, lettering, and other points of style and draughts- 
manship reference should be made to the second half of this Eeport. 

In maps of climate the annual distributions are less useful for 
teaching than the seasonal, and it would be a great gain if the summer 
and winter conditions were represented on maps of the North and South 
Hemispheres. It will be noted in the appended hst that the double- 
page maps of the Continents each shows for two insets ; for India 
three seasons should be represented. Maps representing the distribu- 
tion of population have high value; geological and vegetation maps 
should be included if possible, but are not essential. Historical and 
economic maps belong to special atlases or to text-books, and should 
be excluded from the School Atlas. It will be enough to indicate the 
busier regions, industrial and agricultural, if these do not emerge 
sufficiently clearly fi'om the population map. 

It has been suggested that world distribution maps would be better 
placed at the end than at the beginning of an Atlas. 

List of Maps. 
World Maps. 

(1) Maps of a selected region, to exhibit scales, methods of showing 

relief, &c. 

(2) Hemispheres, heights, depths : section along 45° N. 

(3) Hemispheres, political : inset Eiver Basins. 

(4) Hemispheres, population, density : Eaces inset. 

(5) Polar Eegions : Land and Sea Hemispheres. 

(6) Vegetation : Ocean Currents. 

(7) Commercial Highways and Development. 

(8) Temperature : January, July, Annual Eange. 

(0) Pressure and Winds, two or four months. Eainfall : seasonal. 

Europe. 

(10) Europe (20 millions), physical. Inset (40 millions); tempera- 

ture : January. July. 

(11) Europe (20 millions), political. Inset (40 milHons); rainfall, 

seasonal. 

(12) (a) Population, density; languages, (h) Minerals and manu- 

facturing regions. 



152 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

Map la. 




The European areas to be shown are enclosed by broken lines (Maps 13 and 17a) 
and continuous lines (Maps 14, 15, 17b, and 18). 

(13) Mediterranean (10 millions). 

(14) Central Europe (5 millions'). 

(15) Italy and Balkans (5 millions). 

(16) Alps. 

(17) (a) N.W. Europe (10 millions), (b) Spain (5 mOlions). 

(18) (a) France (5 millions). ([') British Isles (5 millions). 

(19) Large-scale maps; e.g., position of Vienna. 

America. 

(20) (a) North America (40 millions'), phj-sical. Inset (80 millions) ; 

temperature: January, Julj*. 
(b) North America (40 millions), political. Inset (80 millions); 
rainfall, seasonal. 



ATLAS, TEXTUAL, AND WALL MAPS. 153 

(21) (a) U.S.A. (20 millions), (b) Atlantic Coast (10 millions). 

(22) Canada (20 millions), and Special Areas. 

(23) South America (40 millions), political. South America 

[40 millions), physical. 

Asia. 

(24) Asia (40 millions), physical. Inset (80 millions); temperature: 

January, July. 

(25) Asia (40 millions), political. Inset (80 millions); rainfall, 

seasonal. 

(26) Southern Asia (20 millions). 

(27) China and Japan (20 millions) ; Palestine. 

(28) India, political (large scale); climate. 

Australasia. 

(29) (a) Oceania, including East Indies (40 millions), political. 
(b) Austraha (20 millions), physical. 

(30) (a) East Australia, (b) New Zealand, larger scale. 

Africa. 

(31) Africa, physical (40 millions). Political (40 millions). 

(32) South Africa (20 or 12 millions). Insets, West Africa, Egypt, 

temperature, rainfall. 

British Isles. 

England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, physical and political 
(2 millions). 

Special regions, A, B, G, D. E, 1: 500,000. 

Special regions, a, b, c, 1: 200,000. 

It appears from our inquiries that there is a real demand for large- 
scale maps of special regions in the British Isles, which could best be 
met by special editions for different populous areas. 

Junior School Atlas. 

In a Junior School Atlas for each Continent one map (physical, 
with political boundaries shown in red) would meet all needs. Maps 
4 and 5 would be combined ; also 8 and 9 (temperature and rainfall 
only). For 26 and 27, India, China, and Japan (20 miUions) might 
be substituted, and the following maps omitted, viz., 12, 15, 16, 17, 19, 
21b, 22, 29a, and 30a, together with 18a if France were shown on 
Map 14. 

The Committee is unable to make any recommendation with reference 
to an Atlas for University use, feeling that a University student should 
have access to and familiarity with a wider variety of maps than could 
be included in one volume. 

Part II. 

Style and Dratightsmausliip. 

The chief criticisms of existing School Atlases are directed against 
excess of names, impurity of colour, and indistinctness of lettering. 



154 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 1915. 

Map lb. 




A, B, C, D, E are areas, some of ■whicli might be shown by cLmblc page maps on a 
large scale (e.g., 1 : 500,000) ; a, h, c, single-page maps of holiday areas on a still 
larger scale (say 1 : 200 000), 



ATLAS, TEXTUAL, AND WALL MAPS. l55 

Most Atlases still err on the side of excess of names, though in some 
quarters there has been great improvement of late. The Atlas 
should be provided with a place index, giving latitude and longitude of 
important sites not named on the plates. This would enable the student 
to add the names which he requires for his own purposes, on a blank 
outline. The use of such blank maps has increased greatly in recent 
years, and it is desirable that a School Atlas should be so published that 
its maps may be obtained also singly, both fully coloured and also in 
outline. 

Where both orographical and political maps of one region are pro- 
vided, no names but those of physical features should appear on the 
orographical map. The maps should have as little as possible in 
common beyond the outline, rivers, and railways. 

Colour. 

The ' layer-system ' is almost universally used for the expression 
of relief in School Atlases. Intermediate heights may be shown by 
conventionalised hachuring. Contours on such maps can give but little 
idea of form, and are not recommended except when required in print- 
ing, as to bound the colour bands. In nearly all the Atlases examined 
the colours were found to be too deep. The Committee confidently 
recommends that the colour-scheme adopted for the International Map 
1 : 1,000,000 and based on the teaching of physiological optics be 
followed as closely as possible for all physical ma_ps. 

For the sea, deepening shades of blue should be used, not white, the 
depths being indicated in feet rather than in fathoms; for lakes, the 
same blue as for the shallowest sea. Elvers and river names should 
be in blue. Eed hnes which stand out well from the background can 
be used to show political frontiers on an orographical map. Colour 
indicating relief should not be interrupted at the frontiers but carried 
to the margin of the map . 

Eeference should be made to an article on ' Eelief in Cartography ' 
('Geographical Journal,' March and April, 1914) by Captain (now 
Major) H. G. Lyons, D.Sc, P.E.S., to whom the Committee is 
indebted for much help and advice. 

Gloss. 

It is important that no glossy inks or super-calendered paper should 
be used for a School Atlas. The reflections from a glossy surface are 
apt to injure eyesight, partly by interfering with binocular vision. 
Maps, coloured or uncoloured, can be produced without extra expense 
on paper from which the specular reflection at 45 degrees does not 
exceed the diffuse reflection (see Section L, reports on ' The Influence 
of School Books upon Eyesight,' 1913 and 1915). 

Lettering. 

Four styles of lettering are used on the Maps II. and III. printed 
in this report : (a) The North-west quarter is entirely sans-serif except 



156 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

for the names of States; (b) the South-west quarter is the ordinary 
Eoman and itahc with strong serif ; (c) the North-east quarter is entirely 
Eoman with the exception of water-names and the names of physical 
features (the principal point of comparison between (b) and (c) lies 
in the smallest town names, which in (b) are italic and in (c) Eoman) ; 
(d) the South-east quarter is like (a) but entirely sans-serif. There are 
more names and the letters are smaller. With reference to size, Map II. 
shows letterings generally suitable for a Junior School Atlas, Map III. 
letterings generally suitable for a Senior School Atlas. The smallest 
type (in the South-east quarter) is in each case too small for use in the 
appropriate Atlas. With reference to style, for the larger sizes the best 
style is one approaching sans-serif. The italic when used for the larger 
sizes, or with too frequent distribution in any size, is apt to produce a 
dazzling effect. On the other hand, italic by its obliquity gives a larger 
letter for a given height, and this increase of size is particularly advan- 
tageous with smaller names ; it also affords a useful model for students 
to copy in manuscript. A sparing use of italic for small names is there- 
fore recommended, together with a sans-serif style for all permissible 
sizes. 

Note. — The maps are published for purposes of illustration only. 
They are in no respect models, nor has the Committee dealt with the 
orthography of names. 

Projections. 

Few varieties of projection should be employed in a School Atlas. 
For Hemispheres, Clark's Minimum Error Projection is best; the 
Globular Projection is to be avoided. For Continents and for the larger 
countries. Zenithal Equal Area; for the smaller countries a simple 
conical development. The excessive distortion of Mollweide's Homolo- 
graphic Projection makes it unsuitable for school use. From the 
body of the Atlas, Mercator's Projection should be excluded; it can, 
however, be effectively employed as an Index Sheet. It is an excellent 
lesson in distortion to plot carefully on a Mercator's Projection the 
areas covered by the individual maps of the Atlas. We consider that 
Hemisphere maps should be much more freely employed, since they 
are the most accurate representations (except the globe) of the Earth's 
surface. Where practicable, they should be used to exhibit world dis- 
tributions of all kinds. It has been stated already that the scales 
employed should be few and as a rule simple multiples one of another. 
On each map the scale should be clearly stated. In the margin should 
be indicated other towns in the same latitude and also (on maps of 
wide extent) the area of a quadrilateral of the network. 

It will be noted that the projection in Maps II. and III. has been 
divided into two halves. The Western half shows a map bounded by 
meridians and parallels. Its advantages are evident, and it is suggested 
that the map of Europe should be bounded in this way, to serve as a 
warning that a vertical line on the map does not necessarily run North 
and South. The utility of carefully designed insets occupying the 
margin far outweighs any distraction which they may cause to the eye. 



ATLAS, TEXTUAL, AND WALL MAPS. 157 

Conventional Signs. 

In general , conventional signs should not be multiplied or created 
ad hoc. The few recognised signs are sufficient, unless to indicate any 
new feature, such as a first-class wii'eless telegraphy station, or the 
employment of river water for power or irrigation. The limit of 
navigation on a river may well be shown by an anchor. The solid black 
dot for town sites has advantages over the fine open circle, as better 
revealing concentration of urban population. Larger towns require a 
lai'ger dot or a dot within a circle. Eailways and canals should be 
shown by single lines of a distinctive character; a fine single black line 
should be avoided. On large-scale maps a symbol is required for roads 
also, since motor traffic has restored their significance. 

Words or conventional signs indicating the distribution of economic 
production are strongly deprecated. If economic factors must be ex- 
hibited on a general map, solid colour or shading should be used to show 
the concentration of industrial population, or the locality of high pro- 
duction of two or three commodities of first importance. 

Black and white maps in school books (textual maps) should not 
attempt to supersede Atlas maps, but should be confined to their function 
of illustrating statements in the text. Mechanical shading is often either 
too coarse or too light. The use of large areas of solid black should 
be cautiously exercised. White letters on a black ground, and black 
letters on a shaded area, too often tend to print obscurely. The size of 
type, if intended to be read, should be as carefully considered as in the 
Atlas, and additional allowance should be made for imperfection in 
reproduction. Over-reduction in the camera from the original drawing 
is one of the commonest faults in block-maps, and owing to limitations 
imposed by the size of the page, the fault lies usually in the drawing. 
In general a textual map must be simple and not attempt to show high 
detail, and features tending to mutual obscuration should not be shown 
on the same map. Thus the same phenomenon for different seasons 
or associated phenomena (e.g., isotherms for January and July, or 
isotherms and isohyets) should not be shown on the same map — the 
particular examples cited apply equally to coloured maps. But this rule 
is not rigid. It is sometimes difficult to compare the phenomena shown 
on two maps (e.g., the climatic and the form divisions of a large 
country) when the two might have been exhibited on the same map 
without obscurity. 

Wall Maps. 

The recommendations of the Committee in regard to the style of a 
School Atlas apply almost without modification to wall maps. 

The scales employed should be as few as possible, and should be 
simple multiples of each other. This is more easily arranged in a set 
of wall maps than in an Atlas, because there is here no necessity that 
the maps should be of uniform size, or that the amount of margin should 
be uniform throughout the series. For the same reason, it is far less 
necessary that the map area should be foursquare, especially in maps 
of continents and oceans, where every effort should be made to 
emphasise the fact that the objects represented lie upon a spheroidal 
surface. Awkward blank areas in the margin, which would be dis- 



158 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — -1915. 

tressing in an Atlas-page, are invaluable for supplementary letterpress 
in a wall map ; though they should never be so far filled up as to prevent 
the map itself from standing out boldly on the sheet. 

The far larger scale of a wall map is no excuse for the introduction 
of minute detail or a crowd of names. A wall map is essentially a 
diagram. The use of wall maps without names, or with only a few 
names or initials appended to town-dots or the mouths of rivers, is 
greatly to be encouraged. Some French wall maps are printed in 
duplicate, back to back, with the names on one side, and the physical 
features and town-dots, unnamed, on the other. 

Even more than in the Atlas, colour shows relief better than con- 
tours. Inclined illumination from the North-west gives, in skilful 
hands, an almost pictorial effect. The colours of a wall map should not, 
however, be too bright or deep, with the single exception of the scarlet 
which is appropriately used for all kinds of arbitrary lines. 

Wall maps are o^ften too elaborate and costly. The paper must, how- 
ever, be good enough to stand occasional cleaning with breadcrumb or 
soft indiarubber. The use of inferior paper has led to the current 
23ractice of varnisliing the surface. Varnish has fatal effects upon a 
map. The reflected light from the surface makes the map useless to a 
large class in a well-lighted room and actually diminishes the amount of 
light from the printed and coloured surface below. There are very few 
kinds of varnish in use which do not turn brown or yellow with age. 

It should always be remembered that the wall map is intended to 
supplement, but not to replace, the Atlas. Most wall maps fail by 
attempting too much. 



Gaseous Explosions. — Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. DuGALD Clerk {Chairman) , Professor Dalby 
(Secretary), and Professors W. A. Bone, F. W. Burstall, 
H. L. Callendar, E. G. Coker, and H. B. Dixon, Drs. 
R. T. Glazebrook and J. A. Harkeb, Colonel H. C. L. 
HoLDEN, Professors B. Hopkinson ayid J. E. Petavel, 
Captain H. Riall Sankey, Professors A. Smithells and W. 
Watson, Mr. D. L. Chapman, and Mr. H. E. Wimperis. 
Owing to the war, the completion of the equipment of the new 
laboratories of the Imperial College of Science and Technology, already 
referred to in the previous report, has been seriously delayed, and the 
investigation of many problems of importance has had to be post- 
poned. Also, many of the members have been engaged on work for the 
Government, so that researches on questions under consideration have 
been either prevented or interrupted. It is not possible, therefore, to 
present a report to the Association this year. The general work of the 
Committee, however, has gone on ; and during the session three meet- 
ings were held at the City and Guilds (Engineering) College, at which 
the following Notes were presented and discussed: — 

Note 36, by Dr. Harker, on ' A Method for the Determination of 
the Specific Heat of the Working Fluid of a Gas Engine at High 
Temperatures.' . • ■ 



ON GASEOUS EXPLOSIONS. 159 

Note 37, by Mr. E. Griffiths and Dr. J. A. Harker, on ' A Method 

for the Determination of the Specific Heat of Gases at High 

Temperatures.' 
Note 38, l)y Dr. Watson, on ' The Variation of the Mean Temperatui-e 

of the Cyhnder Contents with the Change of Fuel-Air Eatio for 

an Engine using Petrol, Benzol, and Alcohol.' 

Note 36. — At the first meeting of the Committee this session there 
was some discussion on the problem of the determination of the specific 
heat at high temperatures of the working fluid of the gas engine by 
some more direct and, if possible, more continuous method than those 
hitherto employed by members of the Committee, and the object of the 
Note was to suggest a method which might fulfil these requirements. 

Note 37 deals with this problem also, and describes a method which 
has been roughly tested by the authors and which appears to have 
important possibilities. 

Note 38 is an account of an investigation on temperatures reached in 
the cylinder of a small high-speed four-cycle engine using different 
fuels, accompanied by a figure giving the results of the experiments. 

The Committee recommend that they be again reappointed, and ask 
that a sum of 50/. be granted to them for the ensuing session. 



Stress Distributions in Engineering Materials. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professor J. Perky (Chairman), 
Professors E. G. Coker and J. E. Petavel (Secretaries), 
Professor A. Bare, Dr. C. Chree, Mr. Gilbert Cook, Pro- 
fessor W. E. Dalby, Sir J. A. Ewing, Professor L. N. G. 
FiLON, Messrs. A. E. Fulton and J. J, Guest, Professors 
J. B. Henderson, F. C. Lea, and A. E. H. Love, Mr. W. 
Mason, Sir Andrew Noble, Dr. F. Rogers, Mr. W. A. 
ScoBLE, Dr. T. E. Stanton, Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, and Mr. 
J. S. Wilson, to report on certain of the more Complex 
Stress Distributions in Engineering Materials. 

The Eeport presented at the Australian Meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation called attention to the desirability of obtaining complete and 
systematic data with regard to three definite materials — namely, a mild 
steel, an axle steel (carbon 0"3 per cent.), and a nickel steel alloy. The 
Committee obtained a stock of one ton of mild steel early in 1914, but 
owing to the outbreak of war further supplies of the other materials 
are not yet available. The physical properties of the mild steel now in 
the possession of the Committee have laeen the subject of several in- 
vestigations, and a chemical analysis made at the National Physical 
Laboratory has been furnished by Dr. Stanton as follows : 

C=0132 per cent. 
Si = 0-028 „ 
S=0-017 „ 
P=0028 „ 
Mn= 0-300 „ 



160 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 



The material, which is from a single melting, shows the influence 
of the subsequent roHing as may be observed from some prehminary 
tensile tests furnished by Mr. Cook, Table I. 

Tensile Tests oj B.A. Mild Steel as received from the makers. 

Table I. 



Nominal diameter of bars, inches 


A 


i^ 


Its 


li^if 


Actual diameters of bars, inches 


-385 
machined 


•811 


1-068 


1-324 


Yield stress in tons per square inch. 


23-95 


19-35 


15-80 


13-40 


Maximum stress in tons per square inch 


26-40 


24-40 


23-40 


22-40 


Percentage elongation on 8 inches . 


22-2 
on 6 in. 


33-5 


33-7 


37-6 


Percentage elongation on 2 inches . 


27-5 


550 


58-5 


66-5 


Percentage contraction of fracture . 


69-8 


698 


65-6 


66-2 



Professor Dalby has also investigated the properties of a specimen 
of this steel, cut from a rod liV in. diameter, with an appai'atus^ in 
which the load and extension are recorded automatically upon a photo- 
graphic plate. The diagram so obtained is shown in fig. 1, together 
with the numerical results of the test. 

Table of Data. 

Original diameter of specimen . . 0-564 in. Area = 0-25 sq. in. 
Diameter at fracture .... 0-324 in. Area=0-0825 „ 

Stress at yield point =18 tons per sq. in. 

Ultimate stress reckoned on original section . . =248 ,, 

Actual stress of fracture =53-8 ,, 

Percentage reduction of area =67-4 

Distance between gauge points =5-00 in. 

Extension on length of 5 in =1-53 in. 

Elongation on length of 5 in =30-6 per cent. 

Corresponding elongation for a standaid length of 

10 diameters = 5-64 in =29-7 per cent. 

Young's Modulus (E) in pound and inch units. . =30-3x10'^ 

Photomicrographs made by Professor Dalby and Dr. B. P. Haigh 
show that the structure is of a usual type for steel of this composition. 
The experiments prove that the influence of rolling is considei'able and 
that comparable results cannot be obtained without annealing by some 
standard method which will bring the material to a uniform molecular 
structure for all sizes of bars. 

It has been suggested that the bars should be heated at a tempera- 
ture of 900° C, and cooled in the air. Mr. W. A. Scoble has made an 
investigation of one of the sizes of bars after heating to 900° C. in an 
electric furnace, and allowing them to cool in position. An account 
of his results is given in Appendix A. 

An investigation of the effects of alternating stress has also been 
made by Dr. B. P. Haigh and is described in Appendix B. 

> An optical load-extension indicator, together with some diagrams obtained 
therewith. Proc. B. S. 1912. Lead-extension diagrams taken with the optical 
load-extension indicator. Proc. B. S. 1913. 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERULS. 



161 



Dr. F. C. Lea and Mr. C. E. Stromeyer have joined the Com- 
mittee during the year. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, with a grant of lOOL 

Appendix A. 

Report on Static Tests of a Mild Steel received from the British 
Association Stress Committee. 

By Mr. W. A. Scoble. 

The preliminary tensile tests made by Mr. Cook showed that the 
yield stress varied from 23'95 tons per square inch for the -ft- bar 

Fig. 1. 



a 
o 



ns 
o 




44 



i' r 

Extension in inches, 

to 13*40 tons per square inch for the liV-inch bar. To compare the 
results of static tests on the different bars it was clear they should be 
brought to a uniform condition, or the advantage of having them of the 
same steel would be neutralised. At this time the question of annealing 
had not been raised, but the specimens for which the test results are 
given below were all subjected to the following treatment. The 
specimens were cut from a -M-inch round bar, placed in an electric 
furnace and heated with the furnace to a temperature of about 900° C. 
The bars were allowed to cool inside the furnace. 

Tension Test. — The specimen had screwed ends and was turned 
down to 0'499-inch diameter. There was a very slight indication that 
the strain increased more rapidly than the stress. The extensometer 
used was of special design, and the measurement of elongation was 
certainly correct to within 0'5 per cent. 

Yield stress 10'04 tons per sq. inch. 

Maximum stress 20-89 ,, „ „ 

Elongation on 5 inches (10 diameters) . 36 per cent. 
Reduction in area at fracture . . . 69-6 percent. 
' E ' 28,800,000 lbs. or 12,850 tons per sq. inch. 
1915. U 



162 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 



Bending Test. — The specimen was turned to 0'4365-inch diameter 
and subjected to a uniform bending moment. The deflection was 
measured on a length of 4 inches by a sensitive piece of apparatus 
supported on the specimen. 



r Bending moment at first yield . 

\ Maximum stress „ ,, . . 
Final bending moment 
Stress, assumed uniform over section 
" E " from straight portion of curve 



168 lbs. -inches. 

9-18 tons per sq. inch. 

260 lbs. -inches. 

8-37 tons per sq. inch. 

30,400,000 lbs. per sq. inch. 

13,900 tons per sq. inch. 



Torsion Tests. — The diameter of the test piece was 0'4367 inch, 
and the twist was measured on a length of 4*47 inches. A torque-twist 




Fia. 2. 

curve is given in fig. 2. The cui've deviates from the straight line 
at a torque of about 120 lbs. -inches (3"27 tons per square inch) and 
complete yield takes place at 240 lbs. -inches (5"31 tons per square inch 
on the assumption of uniform stress distribution). 

This result was considered to be unsatisfactory, and another torsion 
test was made on the specimen which had already yielded slightly by 
bending. There appeared to be no straight line portion to the torque- 
twist curve, a time effect was measured at 110 lbs. -inches (3'0 tons per 
square inch), and final yield took place at 210 lbs. -inches (4"65 tons per 
square inch on the assumption of uniform stress distribution). 

These results present certain difficulties. The tension test was 
satisfactory and the data obtained are what would be expected from 
the grade of steel and from the tests made by Mr. Cook. The 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 163 

elastic limit and yield point appeared to coincide at a stress of 
10 tons per square inch. Judged by the first yield the steel is weaker 
under a bending load (9*18 tons per square inch), but the point is 
clearly defined on a carefully plotted load-deflection diagram. There 
was a considerable creep when the skin stress would be 12 tons per 
square inch, assuming Hooke's Law to hold. The final stress was 
evidently between 14-2 (Hooke's Law) and 8-37 tons per square inch 
(uniform distribution), and it appears that 9-2 tons per square inch is 
very approximately correct for the yield point stress by bending. 
The torsion results deserve special notice. The first yield apparently 
took place at 3'27 tons per square inch skin shear stress, and the test 
piece gave way and was twisting slowly but continuously when the 
skin stress was between 6'54 (Hooke's Law) and 5'31 tons per square 
inch (uniform distribution). The stress difference at first yield appears 
to be much less in torsion than under bending or tension, but the 
flow stress difference for torsion is greater than for tension, and probably 
also greater than for bending. It appeared probable that the point on 
the torque-twist curve where the straight portion ends was not the 
point at which yield occurs, possibly because strain was not propor- 
tional to stress even when the material was elastic, but such an 
assumption is confused by the fact that strain was never proportional 
to stress in the second torsion test. In the latter case it is im- 
possible to locate a yield point, but the final flow shear stress was 
between 5"71 (Hooke's Law) and 4"65 tons per square inch (uniform 
distribution), a result which gives a stress difference in good agreement 
with that from the tension test. 

Appendix B. 

Report on Alternating Stress Tests of a Sample of Mild Steel received 
from the British Association Stress Committee. 

By Dr. B. P. Haigh. 
The material supplied was in the form of -ft-inch rolled bar, and 
was described as ' dead-mild ' : its tensile strength was approximately 
26 tons per square inch, with an elongation of about 21 per cent, on an 
8-inch specimen, f inch in diameter. The results of two tensile tests 
are given below, column A giving the figures obtained in a preliminary 
test made by Mr. Cook, and column B those in a very slow test, lasting 
over 30 minutes, made at Greenwich: — 



Diameter of specimen (turned) 

Yield stress, tons'sq. in. ... 

Maximum stress, ditto .... 

Elongation, per cent 

Reduction of area at fracture, per cent. 



A 

0-385 
23-95 
26-4 

22-2 on 6 in. 
69-8 



B 

0-374 
21-0 
25-2 

20-5 on 8 in. 
71-4 



A Brinell test, in which a standard 10 mm. ball was pressed upon a 
longitudinal section of the bar, with the standard load of 3,000 kg. gave 
an impression having a diameter of 5'78 mm., indicating a ' hardness 
number ' of 104 kg./sq. mm., equivalent to 66 tons per square inch. The 

M 2 



164 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915, 

ratio between the maximum stress of the tensile test and the hardness 
is 0"40 to 0'38, according to the value taken for the tensile test. The 
specimens used in the tests which are now described were not annealed, 
but were tested in the condition in which the metal was received. 

Alternating stress tests were carried out in a machine of the type 
described at the Dundee Meeting of the Association, 1912.^ In this 
machine the alternating stress applied to the specimen is obtained by 
combining two pulsating forces (derived from two-phase magnets) 
acting upon opposite sides of a single armature to which one end of the 
specimen is rigidly coupled. The inertia force required for the oscilla- 
tory acceleration of the armature is cancelled by the force of de- 
flection of a spring which is adjusted to suit the frequency of the 
test. The load applied to the specimen is determined by measuring 
the voltage induced in a fine wire secondary coil, wound close to the 
pole faces of the magnets. To standardise the machine, a phosphor- 
bronze specimen, fitted with an extensometer, and previously tested 
under steady stress, is inserted in the machine and stressed by the 
application of an assigned voltage at the desired frequency. The range 
of extension measured under alternating stress may be used as the basis 
of measurement, or, alternatively, the alternating stress may be con- 
verted to a steady stress by reversing the pull of one of the two mag- 
nets. Stroboscopic observations showed that the stress applied to the 
specimen varies very approximately in a sine wave, and it is estimated 
that the load range of stress can be determined with an accuracy within 
1 per cent. Combinations of alternating and steady stress are obtained 
by extending or compressing the spring used for compensating the 
inertia of the armature. The stiffness of this spring having been 
measured, the magnitude of the steady stress is determined by measure- 
ment of the deflection of the spring. 

The form of the specimens used in the alternating stress tests is 
shown in Pig. 3. The maximum stress is developed in the central 
cylindrical portion of the piece, about i inch in length, which is joined 
to the conical ends by gradual transition curves. The ends of the 
specimens are screwed, and the necessary precautions are taken to 
ensure that the test-pieces are free from initial stresses, either torsion 
or bending, due to the tightening of the grips. 

The tests may be arranged in seven series, and are summarised m 
the table given below. In the first series the stress alternated between 
equal intensities of tension and compression. In three series, II. to 
IV., steady stresses of tension were applied in combination with the 
alternating stress, and in the final three series, V. to VII., steady 
stresses of compression were combined with the alternating stress. The 
frequency of stress employed was the same in all series — viz., 2,000 
per minute. The duration of the tests followed by fracture varied from a 
very few cycles up to 8 million. Other tests were continued beyond 
this number, in one instance to seventeen million cycles, without 
fracture. 

In Fig. 3 the range of stress is plotted on a base representing the 

" See also Engdneering, November 22, 1912. 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 



165 



o 



1^ 



m 




<5 



CO 



_\<N) 



a 

a 

'3 
OS 



o 



166 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



Series 


steady component 


Range of stress 


Millions of cycles 


Tons/sq. in. 


Tons/sq. in. 


to fracture 


I. 


Nil 


57-2 


Approx. Nil 






51-2 


Specimens became 






48-2 


very hot 






39-3 


0-003 






32-7 


0-08 






31-3 


0-056 






31-3 


0-16 






29-9 


0-19 






29-9 


0-80 






28-8 


0-41 






28-7 


1-01 






27-5 


1-37 






27-5 


2-18 






26-4 


1-66 






26-4 


5-9 






25-4 


unbroken after 7*2 


11. 


4-95 


27-9 


0-24 






26-8 


0-64 






25-8 


0-66 






25-8 


1-20 






25-7 


1-22 






24-7 


unbroken after 8-1 






23-7 


do. do. 17-0 


III. 


9-87 


28-9 


Approx. Nil. 






25-8 


do. 






25-3 


do. 






23-7 


0-67 






22-7 


0-89 






22-3 


0-96 






21-7 


0-91 






21-2 


unbroken after 4-6 






20-7 


do. do. 51 


IV. 


12-8 


21-7 


0-11 






18-1 


2-08 






17-3 


unbroken after 8 '62 






16-5 


do. do. 141 


V. 


-5-21 


30-0 


Nil 






26-8 


013 






25-8 


0-96 






24-8 


1-06 






23-7 


314 






23-7 


unbroken after 8'4 






22-7 


do. do. 8-0 


VI. 


-9-35 


23-7 


019 






22-7 


4-60 






21-8 


8-66 


VII. 


-12-2 


20-8 


1-81 






19-8 


2-69 






19-0 


unbroken after 8-36 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 



167 



numbers of cycles endured. It is clear that each series of experiments 
indicates a limiting range of stress below which the endurance increases 
with very great rapidity. It may be doubted whether even the longest 
tests indicate an absolute fatigue limit, but the asymptotes are at least 
sufficiently clear to indicate a fairly definite value. These values are 
summarised for the several series in the following table : 



Series 


Steady stress 
Tons per sq. in. 


Limiting range of 

alternating stress 

Tons per sq. in. 


I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VT. 

VII. 


Nil 

4-95 

9-87 

12-80 

-5-21 

-9-35 

-12-20 


26-0 
24-5 
21-5 
17-5 
23-5 
21-5 
19-5 



In Fig. 4, curve F, the limiting range of stress is plotted as a 
function of the steady stress applied to the specimen. It is interesting 
to note that, especially for the tension side of the diagram, the form of 




10 

Compression < — 



Tfns/on 



Fia. 4. 



the curve is approximately in accordance with the hypothesis expressed 
by ' Gerber's parabola.' ' Thus the results of the tests with combined 
alternating and steady stresses may be expressed by the formula 

fm«=A/2 + v/P^df or 

f^, =f2-7tAf 

' See Unwin's Testing of Materials of Construction, p. 388, 3rd edition. 



168 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



where 



and 



fmai is the maximum permissible combined stress 
tg being the steady component of stress and 
A being the range of variation. 
f is the ultimate strength of the metal 
n the ratio between f and A (= approximately unity for this 
metal), the stresses being in tons per sq. in. 



On the left hand side of the diagram, Fig. 4, representing the 
results obtained with combinations of alternating and compressive 
stresses, the curve deviates noticeably from the parabolic form. The 




Fig. 6. 



British Association, Q5th Beport, Manchester, 1915.] 



[Plate IX. 



Specimen A. Specimen B. 




Fig. 5. 

A. — ^Fractured after 672,000 cycles. Eange of stress 23"7 tons per square 
inch combinecl with steady tension of 9"87 tons per square inch. 

B. — ^Extended immediately with the same stress of steady tension when 
range of stress reached 29'0 tons per square inch. 



Illustrating Beport on Stress Distributions in Engineering Materials. 



[To/acep. 16D 



ON STRESS BISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 169 

discrepancy is greatest with moderate loads and disappears when the 
magnitude of the steady stress is increased. At this stage, however, 
the metal is liable to yield in a ductile manner owing to the intensity of 
the steady stress, so that it is hardly practicable (or profitable) to 
continue the investigation with higher stresses. 

Fig. 4 shows also, by the curve D, a limiting range of stress beyond 
which ductile failure occurs instead of the characteristic fatigue failure. 
The exact position of the curve is difficult of determination, as the range 
of stress necessary to produce ductile extension depends on the rate of 
increase of stress in somewhat the same manner as the form of the 
stress-strain diagram depends on the rate of application of load. Thus 
fatigue appears to play a part in ductile extension as well as in brittle 
fracture, accelerating the development of strain. 

The two specimens shown in Fig. 5 clearly illustrate the two 
manners of failure. Thus specimen A fractured after 672,000 repeti- 
tions of a cycle of stress in which an alternating stress having a range 
of 23 '7 tons per square inch was combined with a steady stress of 
9'87 tons per square inch. Specimen B, loaded with the same component 
of steady stress, extended immediately with reduction of cross sectional 
area, when the range of alternating stress reached the value of 29 tons 
per square inch. Ductile failures occurred at lower ranges than this when 
time was given for the phenomenon to develop, thus the curve D is 
drawn through the ordinate at 252 tons per square inch range, no cases 
of ductile extension having been met with below this Umit. On the com- 
pression side of the diagram the curve D falls so low that it intersects 
the curve F. Thus in the series of experiments made with a compres- 
sive stress of 12"2 tons per square inch, all the specimens failed in a 
ductile manner, some showing signs of cracks wliile others simplv settled 
down suddenly without visible cracks. Tt is remarkable that the zone 
between the two curves F and D is no wider than is shown in the 
diagram. 

In Fig. 6 the maximum and minimum values of the stresses 
producing fatigue fracture are plotted on a base representing the 
steady component of the stress-producing- fatigue. The elastic limit, 
yield stress, and maximum strength of the metal are represented by 
the points E, Y. and M on the line OM. passing through the origin 
and inclined at 45° to the axes. The full lines show the loci of the 
maximum and minimum stresses for the B.A. mild steel, while the 
dotted lines indicate, for the sake of comparison only, the corresponding 
results obtained with a sample of Naval Brass. (A dotted line in 
Fig. 4 likewise indicates the same results for Nnval Brass.) The strik- 
ing difference between the forms of the loci indicates that a great deal 
of experimental work with different metals is still required before any 
general theory can be evolved. 

As indicated in the table which follows, the ratio between the 
semi-range of the limiting fatigue stress (with eoual intensities of 
tension and compression) and the maximum strength of the metal is 
approximately O'Sl. In other mild steels tested by the writer, the 
value of this ratio has varied between 0'5 and 0-6, the lower value being 
met with in annealed metal and the higher in cold-strained specimens. 



170 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

In structural steels containing higher percentages of carbon and posses- 
sing higher ultimate strengths, the value of the ratio falls to about 0'40. 

Elastic limit =18-3 0-726 

Yield stress =21-0 0-833 

Maximum stress =25-2 = umty 

Semi-range of limiting alternating fatigue stress =13-0 0-515 

Range of limiting pulsating fatigue stress, tension =21-0 0-833 

Brinell hardness =66-0 2-62 



The Lake Villages in the Neighbourhood of Glastonbury. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins (Ghairman), Mr. Willoughby G-ardner (Secre- 
tary), Professor W. Eidgeway, Sir Arthur J. Evans, Sir 
C. Hercules Ebad, Mr. H. Balfour, and Mr. A. Bulleid, 
appointed to investigate the Lake Villages in the Neighbour- 
hood of Glastonbury in connection with a Committee of the 
Somersetshire Archceological and Natural Llistory Society. 
(Drawn up by Mr. Arthur Bulleid and Mr. H. St. George 
Gray, the Directors of the Excavations.) 

The second part of the fifth season's exploration of the Meare Lake 
Village by the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History- 
Society began on September 21, 1914, and continued until October 3. 
The ground excavated was situated in the same field and was con- 
tinuous with the work of previous years. The entire area occupied 
by the dwelhng-sites in Field IV. has now been explored, with the 
exception of the ground covered by the shed and a space of three feet 
around it. When work is resumed it is proposed to move the shed 
into Field V. and complete Field IV. at the same time as the explora- 
tion of Field V. is proceeding. 

The digging of last autumn included the examination of portions 
of Mounds IX. and XII., and of the whole of Mounds XVI. and 
XX. Nothing of marked importance structurally was found in or 
about Mounds XII., XVI., and XX., but the under-mentioned points 
of interest were discovered in Mound IX. The upper part of the mound 
was denuded, and when looked at in section the clay floors appeared 
arranged in layers, rainbow-fashion. The summit of the arch down 
to the depth of the sixth floor was missing, and looked as if it had 
been washed or cut across horizontally before the flood-soil had been 
deposited. This mound contained, amongst other things, a very 
remarkable and complete series of superimposed hearths, nineteen in 
all, and a nearly complete circle of flat split oak wall-posts accom- 
panied by wattle-work. 

During the examination sectional and other plans, as well as 
photographs, were made of the most interesting and important features, 
as is customary. 

In May, after the last Eeport was sent in, the excavation of 
Dwelling- m.ounds XVIII. and XIX. was completed, but nothing of 
structural importance was noted. 



THE LAKE VILLAGES IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF GLASTONBURY. 171 

The Relics. 

Amber. — About one-quarter of a large orange-coloured clouded 
amber ring (A 3), which, when perfect, was 40 mm. in diameter. 

Bone Objects. — Perhaps the most interesting objects of bone 
found in the last excavations at Meaxe are the thi^ee pieces of worked 
scapulce (B 81, 86 and 87). The heads and longitudinal spines have 
been cut down considerably, and little remains of the flat parts of the 
bone which have been intentionally removed. Two of these objects 
are perforated at the head. All of them are ornamented on the upper 
surfaces, (a) with two long rows of large dots and circles ; (b) with 
transverse incised lines; and (c) with rows of circular depressions 
3 mm. in diameter. A scapula of sheep, perforated at the head, was 
also found. 

Among the other specimens is a long needle (B 90), with a lop-sided 
eye countersunk on one side ; a smooth and tooled rib-bone (B 82), 
rounded off at one end, and having two perforations at the other; 
another perforated rib-bone (B 84) ; a polished metacarpus of ox (B 88) ; 
an awl in fine condition (B 80); a perforated radius of sheep (B 85); 
and some miscellaneous and, for the most part, incomplete implements 
connected with weaving. 

Crucibles. — Two fragments of the usual type. 

Baked Clay. — Ball of clay with a hole which does not penetrate 
through. A few sling-bullets and fragments of loom-weights. 

White Metal. — A wheel-shaped disc, or amulet (Y 2), of white 
metal ;^ external diameter 25"7 mm.; weight 53 grains. This open- 
work object consists of a ring, or wheel, with four curved spokes (each 
pair forming an ogee curve) ; it is ribbed all over on both sides. D6che- 
lette, in ' Manuel d'Arch^ologie Pr^historique Celtique et Gallo-Eo- 
maine,' 1914, figures very similar rings (rouelles) having diameters of 
from 25 to 50 mm. They are common in the La Tfene stations ; some of 
the ' wheels ' have straight spokes (sometimes only four in number) ; and 
some of them are ornamented round the outer edge by cogged notches. 
They have been found in Marne and Bohemia attached to fibulse — 
either fixed to the back of the brooch by means of a small chain, or 
merely looped on to the bow (see D^chelette, illustration, p. 1298). 
He has figured similar pendants belonging to the Bronze Age. 

Bronze. — The two fibulae found last September are of considerable 
interest, one being of the earliest type, the other of the latest type 
found in the Lake Villages. 

(EE 9). Fibula of La Tene I. type - — one of some forty examples 
of this type so far recorded as having been found in Britain. The 
specimen is 54'5 mm. in length from the head of the bow to the nose, 
but the brooch is not complete and the coil is broken. It resembles 
in outline the longest brooch of this type (86 mm.) found in Britain — 
viz., that discovered on Ham Hill, Somerset, in 1912 (Taunton 
Museum).^ The Meare specimen is of a somewhat attenuated form, 

' At first it was thought to be of silver, but has since been tested. This is 
the only specimen of white metal found in the Lake Villages. 

' Two brooches of La Tene II. type were found at Glastonbury, but no 
specimen of La Tene I. 

» Figured in Proc. Som. Arch. Soc, LVIII. i. 121. 



172 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

the vertical depth from the top of the bow to the bottom of the catch- 
plate being only 13 mm. The bow is ornamented with three parallel 
grooves arranged lengthwise which terminates in two slight transverse 
incisions at the catch-end. The tip of the retroflected end almost 
touches the front of the bow, at a point where there is a decided hollow 
in the bow. The up-turned end has two flat, circular enlargements ; 
all the other parts of the catch-plate and nose are ornamented with 
transverse ribbing. This brooch was found on the W. margin of the 
superimposed hearths in Mound IX., depth 3'5 ft. below the surface. 

(EE 10). Fibula of the first century a.d., showing a blending of 
Late-Celfcic with Koman art, and having a hinge-pin; length 47 mm. 
The tapering bow and nose make an ogee curve. As in EE 9, two 
trpjisverse grooves occur at the point where, in brooches of earlier type, 
the retroflected end was attached to the bow. This specimen was 
found in Mound XII., on the top floor, 1"2 ft. below the surface. A 
similar fibula was found on Ham Hill (Taunton Museum) and has 
been figured.* 

Last September Meare also produced an ornamented finger-ring of 
flat bronze {Vj 74) ; half a wire ring — not for finger (E 72) ; and a circular 
ring (E 73), external diameter 49 mm., the ends connected by means 
of a rivet (rivet missing, hole remaining). The greater part of this solid 
ring is ' lobed ' the whole way round the surfaces of the material. It 
belongs, perhaps, to the earliest La Tfene period. 

Iron. — The iron objects found this season were few, and included 
the greater part of a sickle (I 52), pieces of rings, and a large ferrule 
of flat iron (I 53). 

Lead and Tin. — A rough leaden ring (L 10), and a lump of galena 
(L9). 

Glass Beads. — Fifty beads have already been found at Meare — twice 
as many as were collected in the whole of the excavations at Glaston- 
bury. Twelve were found last September, and they include a new 
type in black paste (G 50), ornamented with a row of large dots and 
circles in relief (the circles overlap one another). There are four small 
ring-beads of a yellow paste, a blue bead (G 39), a globular blue bead 
inlaid with yellow spirals (G 46), three of clear glass with yellow spirals, 
and two of clear glass with yellow wave-pattern. One of the latter 
(G 41) is drilled transversely from one side, but this hole does not meet 
the main hole of the bead. This new feature occurs also in the blue 
and yellow bead, the sides of which have two fairly deep circular 
depressions and traces of a third just begun. 

Kimmeridge Shale. — Parts of eleven armlets (K 35 to K 45), the 
material varying in thickness from 6 mm. to 19'5 mm. The greater 
part of the plain armlets K 37 and K 43 were found. Two pieces orna- 
mented with double oblique grooves, from Mound IX., may belong to 
the same bracelet. K 39 represents rather more than one-quarter of 
a large stout armlet (not lathe-turned), composed of shale measuring 
19"5 mm. by 14 mm. Its moulded edges are ornamented, one with a 
zigzag/ pattern, the other with transverse hatching. 

* Proc. Som. Arch. Soc, LVI. ii. plate facing p. 55, fig. 7. 



THE LAKE VILLAGES IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF GLASTONBURY . 173 

Weaving-combs of Antler. — The ten combs found last September 
'bring the Meare collection up to fifty-six. The new specimens, HH 47 
to HH 56, are for the most part in good condition, and three of them 
are perfect. Only five examples of what was then regarded as a rare 
type, viz., Type 2,* those with oval or rounded enlargements at the 
handle-end, were found at Glastonbury. Of the ten specimens now 
found at Meare, no less than seven are of this type (the longest 
measuring 7 inches in length; two of these are perforated through the 
enlargement. One is of Type 1, another of Type 4; the remaining one 
is broken at the handle-end. One of those of Type 2 (HH 56) has the 
enlargement ornamented with two large concentric circles with a central 
dot; both margins of the handle are engraved with a row of eight large 
semicircles, each of which encloses the usual dot. 

Other Antler. — We have only nine specimens to record from the 
recent excavations, and these include two unworked tines of roe-deer 
(H 106 and H 107). Perhaps the most interesting object is the 
pohshed red-deer tine (H 105) into which an iron peg (projecting 
5'5 mm.) has been driven 2f inches from the tip of the tine, causing the 
tine to split for a distance of 1| inch. An attempt had been made to 
drive the peg in nearer the tip. H 111 is part of a highly polished 
' cheek-piece.' A small ferrule (H 110) with smooth convex sides was 
also found. A neat piece of work is half an antler ring (external 
diameter 34 mm.) carved into a twisted rope-pattern design (H 108). 

Spindle-whorls. — Meare has already produced seventy-nine spindle- 
whorls, of which fourteen were found last September. The most 
interesting is the grey stone specimen (W 78) grooved round the sides 
and having radiating notches at the mouth of the hole on both surfaces 
(similar to a whorl from Glastonbury). The others are on the whole 
rather rude specimens, and were formed from lias and other stone 
and baked clay. 

Flint. — Two well-worked scrapers, and part of a small chipped and 
partly polished celt (F 56). Flint was also represented by a large 
number of flakes, a few burnt flakes and scrapers, and two nodules 
(one of chert). 

Querns. — Sixty-four saddle and rotary querns have now been found 
at Meare, besides several fragments unnumbered. Fifteen of the 
specimens were found in September 1914, all, or nearly all of them, 
saddle querns. The rotary quern is comparatively rare afc Meare. 

Other Stone Objects. — Of the fifty-three whetstones found in 
Mound IX. last year, one (S 50) showed much wear from sharpening; 
another piece (S 49) was deeply grooved by tools in two places ; and the 
butt-end of a shapely specimen (S 57) was perforated for suspension, 
and the hole countersunk very neatly on both surfaces. Some of the 
hammer-stones discovered were well shaped (especially S 52, 53, and 
55). Two hundred and ninety-three sling-stones (S 54) were found scat- 
tered over a small area in Mound IX. ; the same dwelling produced 
111 sling-stones in addition. Several small discoidal stones — perhaps 
intended for the manufacture of spindle-whorls — were found; also a 
few small smooth pebbles. 

Pottery. — Late-Celtic pottery has been no less plentiful than in 

* The types are described in Glastonbury Lake Village, i. 270, et sen. 



174 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915, 

former seasons, and includes a large number of ornamented fragments. 
Little of it has, however, been repaired or classified yet. A small 
unornamented pot (P 48), almost perfect, was found in Mound IX., 
and from the same dwelling we obtained a large black pottery vessel 
(P 50) — now restored from many fragments. It is hand-made, and in 
its original condition it must have been far from symmetrical. It is 
12} inches in height. At an inch and a half below the rim the pot is 
encircled by a cordon, and below this the ornamentation takes the form 
of a bold wave-pattern also in relief and covering a width of two inches. 
The same pattern, not in relief but grooved, occurred at Glastonbury. 

P 51 from the top floor of Mound IX. is an interesting piece — a 
high foot-ring or hollow base of a vessel with a round hole or omphalos 
of a late and debased character, probably dating from near the end of 
the second century b.c. and similar to a few others found at Glaston- 
bury and Wookey Hole. Its nearest parallel is probably the late type 
from Hengistbury Head, figured in the Eeport on those excavations, 
1915, plate xvii. fig. 14. 

Human Remains.- — Fragmentary human remains from Meare 
number only ten; none were found in 1914. 

Tusks. — Several boars' tusks were found, including two perforated 
specimens (T 16 and T 17). 

Animal Remains. — Plentiful, including several bird-bones and an 
otter's skull. Knife-cut and gnawed bones were frequently met with, 
and in Mound IX. saw-marks were observed on eight horn-cores. 

The Committee are desirous tliat they should be authorised to act 
for the ensuing year on the part of the British Association, and that 
a grant of 20L should be made in aid of the exploration so that the 
work may be resumed as soon as the war is ended. The exploration 
is mostly paid for by local effort, and will be discontinued during the 
war. 



The Age of Stone Circles. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Sir C. H. Bead (Chairman) , Mr. H. Balfour (Secretary), 
Dr. Gr. A. AuDEN, Professor W. Eidgeway, Dr. J. G. 
Garson, Sir A. J. Evans, Dr. R. Munro, Professors Boyd 
Dawkins and J. L. Myres, Mr. A. L. Lewis, and Mr. H. 
Peake, appointed to conduct Explorations with the object 
of ascertaining the Age of Stone Circles. (Drawn up by the 
Secretary.) 
Owing to the necessarily late date of the excavations at Avebury Stone 
Circle in 1914, it was not possible to present a full report of the work 
carried out at the meeting in Australia. An interim report was sub- 
mitted, but was not printed, and it was considered advisable to postpone 
the presentation of a complete Eeport for 1914 until it could be com- 
bined with that for 1915. During the 1914 excavations at Avebury, 
the object of the Committee was (1) to conduct excavations in the 
fosse immediately to the east of the entrance-causeway leading from 
Kennet Avenue, and to reach the original bottom of the fosse at this 



ON THE AGE OP STOKE CIRCLES. 175 

point, with a view to exploring the lowest layers of silting and exposing 
the original surfaces of the fosse and causeway; (2) to cut through the 
vallum so as to lay bare the old surface line. Mr. H. St. G. Gray 
was again employed to carry out the work under the general direction 
of the Committee. Careful survey-plans were made of this portion 
of the monument and of the portions excavated, and a number of 
photographs were taken. These were submitted together with the 
interim report. Mr. Gray's report upon the work which he carried 
out is appended, and takes the place of the abridged account presented 
to the Australian meeting. 

The finds, although not as numerous as could have been desired, 
have so far borne out the impressions derived by the Committee from 
previous excavations both at Avebury and elsewhere (Arbor Low in 
Derbyshire and The Stripple Stones on Bodmin Moor, Cornwall). No 
trace of metal was discovered in the lowest layers of silting in the fosse, 
nor on the old turf line below the vallum, and the probability of the 
earthworks and stone circle at Avebury being referable to the Late 
Neolithic period is sustained by the recent evidence. At the same time, 
it is most desirable that the exploration of the original bottom-surface 
of the fosse should be prosecuted further, with a view to laying bare 
a lai'ger extent of this surface and increasing the number of finds 
thei-efrom. The most reliable evidence as to the date of the monument 
is to be derived from the lowest layers of the silt in this gigantic 
ditch. In the hopes that further excavation work would be able to be 
undertaken, the trenches akeady cut were not filled up, but were left 
open, a fencing having been erected round this part to protect cattle 
and horses. The immense original depth of the fosse can thu3 be 
seen, as also the conformation of the east side of the entrance-causeway. 
This should prove of much interest to archoeologists. 

Application was made at the Australian meeting for a further grant 
to enable this work to be carried out during 1915, and a sum of 20L 
was allotted. Owing, however, to the effects of the war, it was found 
that it would be impossible to secure the labour necessary for the work 
contemplated, and the Committee felt obliged to abandon the proposed 
plan of operations. It was recognised, moreover, that the continuance 
of the war rendered such work inoppoi'tune. Nevertheless, a very 
useful and important piece of work was carried through during the 
spring of this year. The very careful survey of the Avebury Circle, 
on a scale of 40 feet to the inch, which had been from time to time 
plotted out by Mr. Gray during the excavations in previous years, was 
completed, and has since been carefully mounted by Messrs. Stanford. 
This will prove to be by far the most reliable and complete plan of the 
monument, and the portions excavated are accurately indicated upon 
it, and can thenceforth be located with certainty. A small sum was 
drawn for this purpose from the British Association grant. 

In view of the unavoidable postponement of the important excava- 
tion work on account of the dearth of labour and on account of the 
serious troubles in which the country has been involved, the Committee 
ask that the unexpended balance o"f the grant made in 1914 may be 
credited to them, and that this may be increased to 40Z. in all, so that 



176 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1915. 

the proposed work may, if national circumstances permit, be efficiently 
carried out in the spring of 1916. Permission is also asked for, as 
previously, to apply for financial support from outside sources. This 
id rendered necessary on account of the very extensive excavations 
which are necessary before the lower strata can be reached. The results 
so far obtained amply warrant a renewed application for funds for the 
further exploration of this most important archseological site. In any 
case, a sum of not less than 151. will be required for filling in and 
making good the excavated areas at present remaining exposed, but it 
is hoped that means may be available to enable the inevitable filling 
in to be effected concurrently with fresh exploration. 

The Committee wish to express their thanks to Major L. D. C. 
Jenner, the owner, and to Mr. E. A. Parsons, the tenant, for their 
permission to conduct excavations upon the selected portion of the 
monument, and to the former for the loan of materials. Thanks are 
also due to Dr. W. Wright, Mr. 0. Eeid, and Mr. E. T. Newton for 
their kindness in examining and diagnosing some of the finds. 

The Avebury Excavations, 1914. By H. St. Geoege Gray. 
I. Introductory Remarks. 
The following account of the work of excavation carried out at Ave- 
bury in 1914, under the general direction of the Committee, is a report 
upon two large cuttings, which, owing to their extent and the great depth 
of the fosse, could not be completed in the time at my disposal, although 
the digging was in progress from April 11 to May 6 (exclusive of the 
time occupied in filling-in that part of the vallum-cutting so far com- 
pleted). The writer is therefore placed at considerable disadvantage 
in arriving at any general conclusions, especially as very little of the 
lower silting has yet been removed from the comparatively large area 
of fosse which was under examination. For these reasons, this report 
will comprise a description of the excavations and the finds generally, 
the question of date and the comparison of this with previous work 
being deferred until the two cuttings, or at any rate the important 
fosse excavation, have been completely examined. 

A maximum number of sixteen men was employed, but we were generally 
working with from twelve to fourteen ; one half of them had had previous 
experience at the Avebury excavations either for one or more seasons. The 
weather was remarkably fine except during the last day or two, but only an 
hour was lost owing to heavy rain. 

Sectional diagrams of the fosse and vallum were made as the work pro- 
ceeded, the position of the more important objects being clearly indicated. 
Twenty-three satisfactory photographs (half-plate) were taken during the 
season, and these, added to those taken between 1908 and 1913 (which number 
86), not only show the progress and chief features of the excavations, but also 
include general views, together forming a somewhat complete photographic 
survey of Avebury. 

The reports already published ' on the excavations at Avebury deal 

chiefly with the investigations which were carried out in 1908, 1909, 

and 1911 ' in the S.S.W. fosse on Lord Avebury 's property. 

1 Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1908, pp. 400-413; 1909, pp. 271-284; and 1911, 
pp. 141-152. 

^ The work of 1912 was confined to making the greater part of a survey-plan 
of Avebury, which will be completed this year (scale 40 ft. to the inch). 



ON THE AGE OP STONE CIRCLES. 177 

In 1909, as the termination of the S.S.W. portion of the fosse was 
not located at Cutting III. (close up to the road-hedge), its exact position 
evidently occurring under the present road into Avebury from Devizes 
and Marlborough, small trial-cuttings (Nos. IV., V., VI., and VII.) 
were made on the east side of the road and in proximity to the two 
large standing stones of the great outer circle. This led to the discovery 
of the southern entrance-causeway, the line of which is now repre- 
sented by the small plantation of beech-trees on Major Jenner's pro- 
perty and a small part of the grass-field on Lord Avebury 's land 
between the beech-trees and the two large stones (the portals of the 
entrance- way into the central area). 

This causeway has already been described in the 1911 Report, but 
it will be desirable to repeat the chief features then revealed. As far 
as the solid causeway could be examined (and the trees were a hindrance 
to investigation), its ancient surface of solid chalk was reached at an 
average depth of 17 ft. below the present surface, and found to be 
about 24 ft. wide.' 

On the east side of the causeway the level of the solid chalk was 
found to recede gradually as if sloping off to join the upper margin of 
the end-wall of the S.S.E. fosse, and taking the form of rough, slight 
ledges not very clearly defined. On the west side such obstacles as 
the wooden fence, the bank and hedge, and the modern road itself 
prevented any exact determination of the manner in which the S.S.W. 
fosse finished and the causeway began. 

' The vallum now remaining nearest the causeway would appear 
to have obstructed the entrance-way from the Kennet Avenue, but 
this is not really so, for allowance must be made for the silting-down of 
the material composing the vallum at its end, forming a talus, and 
for the fact that other beech-trees have been planted in this position, 
caused obstruction, and gathered round them a certain amount of 
decayed vegetable matter ' (Report, 1909). 

The work of 1914 was confined to a very large excavation (Cutting 
IX.) into the silting of the fosse on the east side and against the solid 
chalk causeway, and a cutting (No. X.) through the greater part of the 
S.S.E. vallum. The crest of the vallum in the position of the east 
end of Cutting IX. is about 31'5 ft. higher than the surface of the 
silting of the fosse, and the latter is 14 ft. below the central area (outer 
circle). There is a decided berme between the fosse and vallum in 
the position of the 1914 excavations.* 

II. General Observations on Cutting IX., through the S.S.E. 

Fosse, 1914. 
The fosse excavation marked out for examination measured 44 ft. 
in length, and the width was regulated by the line taken by the escarp 

' 24 ft. is the distance which exists between the two remaining standing- 
stones of the great outer circle at the entrance to the central area. 

* This berme was noticed by the Eev. A. C. Smith in Guide to the Anti- 
quities of the North Wiltshire Downs, 1st edit., 1884: 'The rampart for a 
considerable portion of its circuit shows an apparent terrace or "berme " half- 
way up its side, though this is in reality only the original level of the ground 
upon which the excavated earth from the fosse was thrown up.' 

1915. N 



178 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

and counterscarp of the fosse. This part of the ditch being near the 
road had been used as a receptacle for all manner of rubbish and 
pots and pans, all of which had in the first place to be cleared, together 
with the stumps of many bushes. Then, with the owner's permission, 
fom- young trees of some fifteen years' growth were- removed from 
this position and transplanted. Afterwards in the removal of the 
silting, even at considerable depths, the work was much impeded not 
only by the roots of the bushes and young trees, but also by those 
of many of the larger trees growing on the causeway. 

The first week was devoted to the removal of comparatively recent 
silting at the end of the fosse and along the eastern margin of the 
causeway down to the level of the surface of the silting at the east end 
of the cutting. On the completion of this work the true and enormous 
dimensions of the upper margin of the fosse and its termination against 
the side of the causeway was revealed. 

From the summit of the ancient entrance (eastern margin) to the 
brink of the true fosse — a distance of about 18 ft. — the solid chalk was 
found to fall gradually, with slight ledges cut at intervals as previously 
m.entioned. From the brink, the solid chalk profile of the fosse — in 
other words the eastern face of the causeway — dipped downwards at 
an angle of 61°, its upper margin being nearly straight (and square 
with the line of the fosse), with a slight concavity towards the west. 
Following the brink of the fosse in this part it was found that its 
upper margin had a maximum width of 45 ft. From the true margin of 
the fosse at the west end a depth of 6'5 ft. of silting had to be removed 
before the level of the surface of the silting at the east end of the cutting 
was reached. 

In re-excavating the successive strata the same arrangement of 
concave seams of silting were met with as in the fosse cuttings described 
in the former reports. Almost needless to say, there was found to be 
a greater depth of mould and mixed silting at the west end than at the 
east end of the cutting, but an average section of the fosse showing 
the nature of the silting cannot be delineated until the remaining layers 
of silting have ultimately been removed.* It is estimated that about 
fiye-eighths of the silting in this large cutting were cleared out at the 
close of the season's work. 

After an infinite amount of patient labour a length of 4-25 ft. of 
the original floor of the fosse, at the west end and against the face of the 
solid causeway, was uncovered at the enormous depth of 29-5 ft. below 
the brink of the fosse, vertically measured, that is 35 ft. below the 
top of the ancient causeway and approximately 54-5 ft. below the 
present crest of the vallum. Even with these dimensions it is difficult 
to realise the magnitude of this part of the re-excavated fosse without 
visiting the site. 

The bottom of the fosse in the part already uncovered was found 
to be fairly level, the width on the line of the causeway being 13 ft. 
The lower 7 ft. of the end-wall was inclined at an angle of about 71°. 

= In the lower chalk-rubble silting in Cutting IX. there were occasional 
seams of mixed silting (fine chalk with some mould) which was much com- 
pressed and difficult to break up. There were more narrow seams of mould in 
the chalk-rubble m this cutting than in the others previously excavated 



ON THE AGE OP STONE CIRCLES. 179 

In the N.W. and S.W. corners of the re-excavated fosse were two 
shallow channels, or ' shutes,' which appeared to be artificial and cut 
for a special purpose in the chalk wall ; or they may be due to an 
unsuccessful attempt to square or round the corners uniformly. The 
channel on the N.W. extended from top to bottom of the fosse (tailing 
out at the bottom). That on the S.W. stopped about 12 ft. below the 
brink of the fosse, and was crossed by two or three slight ledges in the 
lower half. 

III. Human Remains found in the Silting of tlie Fosse. 

At a distance of 17 ft. from the east end and in the middle of the 
cutting, a contracted human skeleton (No. 214), fully adult but of 
small size, was uncovered at a depth of 5"8 ft. below the surface of the 
silting. The unexpected discovery was made in mould with very little 
admixture of chalk, at a time, unfortunately, when the surrounding 
ground owing to a drizzling rain was sticky and slippery. My absence 
at breakfast was also unfortunate, and on my return several of the 
bones had been removed and the skull had evidently been trampled 
upon before any part of it was actually seen by the workmen engaged 
at this spot. Some of the bones had been thrown back ; these, how- 
ever, were collected, the picks were set aside, and the clearing of the 
interment and the surroundings was then carried out by Mrs. Gray and 
myself, with the assistance of one man. It was seen at once that the 
skeleton, although the bones were in sequence, was in a decidedly bad 
state of preservation, and the bones had considerably decayed in many 
instances. The flexed knees touched a large sarsen stone and the head 
was to south. The long-bones were much decayed, with the exception 
of the right tibia,* which, however, was fractured; it was carefully 
measured in the ground, the length being 286 mm. (11 J in.), which, 
adopting Topinard and Rollet's formuliB and taking the mean, gives a 
stature of only 4 ft. 3 'SB in. for a female. She must therefore be 
classed as a dwarf. ^ 

The skeleton was surrounded by twenty-three sarsen stones 
(measuring from 6 in. to 24 in. in length), not arranged in symmetrical 
order, but covering a roughly oval area about 7 ft. by 4 ft. One of 
the stones appeared to be half a ring-stone.* 

• The tibia is not platycnemic, the latitudinal index being 731. 

' Dwarf skeleton from Dog Holes, Warton Crag, Lanes. — Four bones of this 
individual are sufficiently perfect for measurement, and these are a left tibia 
(length 305 mm.), a left fibula (length 292 mm.), a left radius (length 226 mm.), 
and a right humerus (length 258 mm.). In all probability the Dog Holes 
femora were about 365 mm. in length when perfect. Adopting Eollet and 
Topinard's formulae for calculating the height, we get an average height from 
the four bones for the dwarf of 4 ft. 4| in. The epiphyses are united, showing 
that growth was complete. Age about twenty-five years. There is apparently 
an absence of pathological conditions {Trans. Lanes, and Cheshire Antiq. Soc. 
XXX.. 1913, 113-114). 

• In the Roman stratum above, in various places but more or less over the 
position of the skeleton, lumps of sarsen had been met with ; two pieces measured 
18 in. in length each; another 27 in. by 18 in. by 7 in. ; and another 21 in. by 
18 in. by 7 in. Further west a large sarsen slab was found in the surface mould, 
length 47 in., max. width 24 in., max. thickness 11 in. (thin on all sides). The 
latter was probably split off one of the stones of the outer circle and shot over 
into the fosse, 

N 2 



180 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

The calvaria of the skull was repaired as far as possible and has 
been examined by the kindness of Professor W. Wright, F.S.A., who 
reports as follows : ' The cranium was evidently of oval shape and of 
considerable but not extreme length. The frontal bone was in two 
pieces owing to the persistence of the metopic suture. The other 
sutures of the calvaria were only beginning to be obliterated.^ The 
skull bones are remarkable for their thickness. It is interesting to 
note in the fragment of the occipital region the thick character ceases 
at the superior curved line. From a small piece of the frontal bone 
one gathers that the supraciliary eminence was not well marked._ The 
mastoid processes are small. The remains also includes a portioii of 
the right side of the body of the mandible. The lateral incisor, canine, 
and ffrst and second bicuspid teeth are all considerably worn, particu- 
larly the first two and the second bicuspid. The first molar must have 
been lost during life as its socket is entirely closed. The skull belonged 
to an individual probably over thirty years of age and of the female 
sex.' 

Three human mandibles were found near the skeleton and at a 
slightly greater depth, and another in the N.W. part of the cutting. 
Between these remains and the human skeleton (No. 214) the chin 
regions of the mandibles permit of comparison. Professor "Wright 
reports that ' they suggest a close relationship between the individuals, 
for they bear a close resemblance to each other. The chins, moreover, 
are strong and firm. The shape of the cranium (No. 214) in bein? long 
is in order, but it was probably not as long as the very long ones found 
in the chambered long-barrows.' 

It will be convenient to give the details of the mandibles here : 

191. Symphysial part of the mandible of a man (height at symphysis 
30 mm.); no teeth remaining; in a weathered condition. 'Its chief feature is 
the breadth and strength of the chin ' (W. Wright). 

Found in the lower part of the mixed silting (loamy chalk silt) and above 
the chalk-rubble in the N.W. part of the cutting. 

212. The left half and the region of the angle of the right half of the 
mandible of a man ; somewhat weathered, like the other fragments of lower 
jaws, Nos. 191 . 217, and 222, as if they had been exposed upon the surface at 
some time. ' There is nothing noteworthy about this mandible unless it be that 
the aee of the individual was probably from thirty-five to forty-five years of 
age ' (W. Wright). 

Found in the mixed silting near the human skeleton (No. 214), at a depth 
of 6"2 ft. below the surface of the silting. 

(Part of a lower jaw, No. SO. was found at a depth of 8-3 ft. in the chalk- 
rubble in Cutting I., Fosse, 1908.) 

217. Part of a small mandible consisting of the chin and part of the riaht 
side, with the sockets of the bicuspid teeth remaining; weathered. ' It nrobably 
belonged to a female, and the chin, making allowances for the sexual differences, 
has the same conformations as that of specimens Nos. 191 and 214 ' (W. 
Wright). 

Found near No. 212, in the mixed silting, at a depth of 68 ft. below the 
surface of the silting. 

222. Part of the right side of the body of a mandible, the ascending ramus 
missing ; of the teeth only the first and third molars remain. ' The last molar 
is onlv slightly, if at all, worn, and therefore probably the specimen came from 
an individual whose age was something in the early twenties' (W Wright). 

Found in the mixed silting near the skeleton (No. 214), at a depth of 6'3 ft. 
below tTie surface of the silting. 



ON THE AGK OF STOKE CIRCLES. 181 

Associated with the human skeleton, the following antiquities were 
found (all bearing the same No. 214, except the saw. No. 211, and 
two fragments of pottery, No. 210) : 

(«) Ball of solid chalk, rudely shaped and having an average diameter of 
36-5 mm. {1-,^ in.).» 

{b) Large Hint core; all the surfaces are white. 

(c) Several flint flakes, one of which is burnt. 

(d) Metacarpus of sheep. 

(e) Nineteen fragments of prehistoric pottery, hand-made and of soft paste. 
There is no trace of ornament. Some of the pieces are black all through ; some 
black inside and reddish-brown outside. They represent fragments of more 
than one pot and vary in thickness from 6 mm. to 14 mm. Most of the pieces 
contain a small admixture of quartz grains, but for the most part they are very 
small. 

210. Two fragments of prehistoric pottery, hand-made and badly baked, of 
a very soft paste and containing occasional grains of quartz and other sub- 
stances. This pottery is reddish-brown on the outer face and black inside. One 
of the specimens is a straight rim piece somewhat bevelled on the outer side. 

Found at a depth of S'? ft. below the surface of the silting, 4 ft. N.W. of 
the pelvis of the human skeleton. 

211. Saw formed from a white flint, length 64 mm., having a dorsal ridge 
(giving a triangular cross-section). The longest edge, which is concave, is 
worked with fine serrations throughout its length. 

Found in the mixed silting under the skeleton (No. 214), and at a depth of 
6'5 ft. below the surface of the silting. 

IV. Deposits of Burnt Material from the Fosse. 

At a distance of 0"5 ft. below the skeleton a patch of dark material 
was reached, consisting for the most part of burnt mould. This was 
found to extend to a depth of 7"5 ft. below the surface of the silting. 
The deposit was more or less in the shape of a mound of about 3 ft. 
in diameter, and it was evident that a fire had been kindled on the 
spot. The dark area was divided by a seam of 0'2 ft. of mixed mould 
and fine chalk at about 0'75 ft. from the top of the dark patch. Below 
the dark material yellowish-brown mould occurred, followed at a greater 
depth by chalk rubble. 

In this dark material the following objects were found (marked 
No. 247): 

{a) Part of a large flint hammer-stone. 

(6) A large quantity of burnt animal bone, mostly split up into small pieces. 
(Samples preserved.) 

(c) A human incisor tooth. 

{d) Astragalus of small ox. 

(e) Points of four tines of red-deer, much weathered. 

(/) Metatarsus of red-deer (not sufficiently complete for measurement). 

(g) A number of flint flakes, of which about one-half are burnt. 
_ (h) Some charcoal (identified by Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S., as beech). It 
might be noted here that beech charcoal was also found in this cutting in the 
mixed silting against the south wall of the fosse, and also in the chalk-rubble 
at a depth of 12 ft. below the surface. 

V. Other Finds from the Fosse, Cutting IX. (excluding Picks). 

From the Roman and later strata. — (The Eoman stratum was 
reached at a maximum depth of 4'5 ft.) 

A similar ball, not quite spherical, about 2 in. in diameter, was found at 
the Grime's Graves in 1914 (see Grime's Graves Report, 1915, p. 210). 



182 REPORTS ON THE STATE Of SCIEJfCE. — 1915. 

180. Ring of bronze, of bright-green colour due to patination. It consists 
of wire of circular section, 2 mm. in diameter ; it is split transversely in one 
place, where the ends appear to have been notched. In external diameter the 
ring varies from 195 mm. to 20'5 mm. Probably Romano-British. 

Found on the S. margin of the cutting on the top of the solid chalk wall a 
little below the surface mould. 

192. Fragment of coarse black pottery containing a large number of sinall 
grains of quartz ; apparently Romano-British. 

Found in the Roman stratum on the south side of the cutting. 

193. Three fragments of Romano-British pottery of no special interest. 
Found as No. 192. 

197. Whetstone consisting of an oblong piece of reddish-brown sandstone, 
measuring 87 by 76 by 21 mm., very smooth on one surface and artificially 
grooved obliquely. 

Found in the Roman stratum, depth 37 ft. below the surface. 

201. Rim piece of a Norman or mediaeval pot, ornamented on the inner 
surface by a wave pattern common in the period. 

Found at the east end of the cutting, depth 1*5 ft. 

205. Greater part of a bronze bracelet of bright-green colour, consisting of 
two strands of wire twisted, and tapering in size towards the ends. Of a 
conunon Roman type, which appears to have had a hook-and-eye fastening. 

Found in the middle of the cutting in the Roman stratum, at a depth of 
4*25 ft. below the surface of the silting. 

From the Mixed Silting. 

177. Chipped flint knife, length 39'5 mm., maximum width 175 mm., of 
Neolithic type ; leaf-shaped outline ; slightly concave and unworked on one face ; 
convex on the other face and finely chipped along both edges, the flaking 
covering most of this surface ; white over the whole surface. 

Found in the fine mixed silting close against the S.W. face of the fosse near 
the causeway, about 5 ft. below the brink. 

183. Point of a tine of red-deer showing transverse cuts at the larger end. 

Foimd in the mixed silting close to the chalk ' wall ' in the N.W. corner 
of the cutting. 

187. Flake of dark bluish-grey flint, of irregular form, but having a consider- 
able amount of secondary chipping. 

Found on the side of the fosse at the N.W., near the top of the mixed 
silting. 

213. Three points of tines of red-deer, somewhat weathered; two of them 
have indications of cutting near the tips. 

Found in the middle of the cutting in the mixed silting (which consisted 
mostly of earth in this part), depth 7 ft. below the surface of the silting. 

231. Two fragments of prehistoric pottery, hand-made and of coarse type. 
The larger fragment (12-5 mm. in thickness) is brick-red on the outside and 
black inside, and contains some very large rounded quartz-grains and splinters 
of flint, up to 6 mm. in lengtli. ' The chalk flint looks as if it had been 
intentionally crushed and added to the paste for stiffening. The quartz-grains 
probably came from Tertiary deposits. Samples of clay as coarse as this can 
often be found over the chalk downs. It may have been baked by piling brush- 
wood over the inverted pot. I see no sign of chalk or charcoal having been 
used in this paste ' (Clement Reid). 

The smaller piece is black except for the outer crust, which is yellowish- 
brown. ' It contains no crushed flint, and is apparently very slightly baked ' 
(C. Reid). 

Found in the middle of the cutting at the bottom of the burnt material 
previously described, and above the chalk-rubble ; depth 77 ft. below the surface 
of the silting. 

No pottery was found in the fosse in 1914 at a greater depth than these 

fragments. 

252. Rim piece of prehistoric pottery, hand-made and of coarse type (nearly 
as rude as the larger piece in No. 231). ' Soft paste stiffened with fragments 
ot old pots and some grit. I cannot suggest origin without material to crush. 



ON THE AGE OF STONE CIRCLES. 183 

Woll burnt outside to rim ; bl.ack and slacker bak«d inside, suggesting tliat the 
pot was inverted and fire could only reach outside ' (C. Reid). 

Found quite at the bottom of the burnt material, at a depth of 7'5 ft. below 
the surface of the silting. 

From the Chalk Rubble. — (Bone Objects). 

223. Implement formed from a rib-bone of ox (or horse?), measuring 
335 mm. (13^ in.) in length on the outer curve. It is cut to a rounded and 
somewhat bevelled termination at one end, and the surfaces are rather 
smoother in this part than elsewhere. At the butt-end it is also slightly 
polished. 

Found against the solid chalk wall at the west end of the fosse near the 
bottom, and at a depth of 24'5 ft. below the brink. 

225. Implement formed from part of a rib-bone of ox or horse ; what remains 
measures 221 mm. (8| in.) in length, but it is obviously broken at the butt-end. 
It is cut to a rounded termination at the complete end, but more pointed than 
in the case of No. 223, which it closely resembles. 

Found in a similar position to No. 223, at a depth of 25 ft. below the brink. 

Two similarly-worked ribbones were found in Cutting VIII., in 1911, on 
the bottom of the fosse. (Report, 1911, Nos. 171 and 176.) 

240. Small, slender, animal bone, broken off at both ends, but quite smooth; 
probably the shaft of a pin. 

Found on the bottom of the fosse at the west end of the cutting. 

VI. Picks and other Remains of Red-Deer Antler, found in the Fosse 

(Cutting IX.). 

As in former seasons, picks of red-deer antler were found in some 
numbers in the chalk-rubble, and especially near and on the floor of 
the fosse. Picks of this type have also been found in Britain in con- 
siderable numbers at the Grime's Graves,^" Cissbury, and Maumbury 
Rings, and in smaller quantities at many other places, generally with 
prehistoric remains, but occasionally on Eoman sites. ^^ Portions of 
antler picks — one piece being smoothed and charred at the handle-end — - 
have recently been found in the great artificial mound at Marlborough 
College. Two very large antler picks found in the excavations at 
Avebury in 1894 '^ were disposed of in April 1915 at the Meux sale at 
Dauntsey House, near Swindon, and were acquired by the Wiltshire 
Archaeological Society for Devizes Museum. 

Twenty numbered specimens were found in the fosse in 1914, as 
follows : 

188. Parts apparently of two antlers (nr if parts of the same antler thev do 
not joinV One consists of the greater part of the beam, part of the remaining 
tine reduced to a stump. The other part consists of the crown of an antler of 
three points, the lower one of which is considerably bevelled and worn at the 
tip. 

Found in the mixed siltinor in the N.W. part of the cutting, and 7-3 ft. deep 
below the brink of the fosse E. of the causeway. 

189. Pick, well worn, consisting of the beam and burr of a shed antler, 
having only a verv slightly developed indication of a bez-tine. The trez-tine 
has been reduced to a stump (more projecting than in the majority of the 

" 244 antler picks were found in the excavations at the Grime's Graves in 
1914. 147 of the specimens had also been used as hammers. 

" Records of such finds have been brought together bv Mr. Horace Sanders 
in ArcJifPoIofjla, Ixii. 101. and by Mr. W. G. Clarke in the Tteport on the. 
Excavnfions at Grime's Graves. 1914 (published 1915), p. 142, in which, 
however, no mention of the Aveburv specimens is to be found. 

" Brit. Assoc. Report, 1908, p. 404. 



184 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

picks). The brow-tine has become much worn and broken. The _ implement 
has been smoothed at the handle-end. The most pronounced indication of wear 
is seen at the back of the beam caused by hammering, w-hich has reduced 
the thickness of the antler considerably in this position, and removed the burr. 
Total length 470 mm. (ISi in.). 

Found in the mixed silting close to the causeway in the N.W. part of the 
cutting, depth 8'3 ft. below the brink of the fosse. 

196. Part of a pick formed from a shed antler. The bez-tine remains as a 
fairly long stump ; the brow-tine is broken but still bears traces of human 
work. The back of the head of the pick and the burr bear clear evidence of 
hammering. Length 344 mm. (13^ in.). 

Found in the mixed silting and rubble in the W. part of the cutting, depth 
9'8 ft. below the brink of the fosse on the E. side of the causeway. 

208. Pick damaged at the handle-end, having the bez- and trez-tines reduced 
to stumps, and the brow-tine broken off. This pick was formed from a large 
antler of a slain deer. Its most interesting feature is the large cavity at the 
back of the beam and head, the result of considerable wear from hammering. 
Length 394 mm. (15^ in.). 

Found near the W. end of the cutting in the chalk-rubble, depth 12'8 ft. 
below the brink of the fosse on the E. side of the causeway. 

209. Base of a large antler of a slain deer, with pedicle 3 in. in length. The 
burr is much worn down and the bez-tine is indicated merely by a stump. A 
good part of the brow-tine remains, but it has been broken. 

Found in the N. half of the cutting in the chalk-rubble, depth 17 ft. below 
the brink of the fosse on the E. side of the causeway. 

215. Shed antler, with the brow-, bez-, and trez-tines complete ; the crown of 
the antler is missing. It bears no signs of human work. 

Found in the middle of the cutting in the lower part of the mixed silting 
(yellowish-brown mould and chalk), depth 8*7 ft. below the surface of the 
silting. 

216. Part of a pick consisting of the beam of an antler, the trez-tine 
i-educed to a stump. The burr, brow-, and bez-tines broken off. At the back 
of the beam there are traces of a depression, the result of hammering. 

Found in the chalk-rubble in the N.W. quarter of the cutting close to the 
end-wall of the fosse, at a depth of 22 ft. below the brink. 

218. Crown of an antler, one of the three points missing, the other two 
somewhat worn down and broken at the tips. It has the appearance of having 
been used as a rake. 

Found in the chalk-rubble in the N. half of the cutting, depth 18 ft. below 
the brink of the fosse on the E. side of the causeway. 

219. Pick, almost complete, formed from a small shed antler having two tines, 
the upper one reduced to a stump and bearing slight traces of fire. The brow- 
tine has been considerably worn down by picking. The back of the burr has 
been broken off. Length 489 mm. (19^ in.). 

Found in the chalk-rubble in the S. half of the cutting, depth 24-5 ft. below 
the brink of the W. end of the fosse. 

224. Part of a pick consisting of the beam with the trez-tine remaining as a 
stump. The back of the beam is much worn by hammering. 

Found in the chalk-rubble in the S. half of the cutting, depth 25 ft. below 
the brink at the W. end of the fosse. 

226. Pick, much damaged, consisting of a shed antler with brow-tine broken 
off ; the bez- and trez-tines reduced to stumps, the latter bearing indications of 
fire. The back of the beam and head of the pick bear distinct evidence of its 
use also as a hammer. 

Found in the chalk-rubble at the W. end of the cutting, 25 ft. below the 
brink. 

227. Pick, almost complete (shed antler), the brow-tine reduced in length 
by wea" and fracture ; the bez- and trez-tines reduced to stumps ; the latter and 
the handle-end are blackened in parts by the action of fire. There is evidence 
at the back of the head that the implement was also used as a hammer. Length 
500 mm. (19f in.); circumference of the beam 159 mm. 

Found in the N. half of the cutting on the bottom of the fosse, against 
the end-'wall and 29-5 ft. below the brink. 



ON THE AGK OF STONE CIRCLES. 185 

228. Pick, almost complete (shed antler), the brow-tine bearing indications 
of considerable wear; the bez- and trez-tines reduced to stumps. There is 
clear evidence of this implement having also been used as a hammer, like 
No. 227. Length 474 mm. (18| in.). 

Found in the N.W. corner of the cutting on the bottom of the fosse, against 
the end-wall and 29'5 ft. below the brink. 

229. Greater part of a much-worn pick formed from a shed antler. The 
brow-tine is much shortened by wear and fracture ; the bez- and trez-tines 
reduced to stumps. This implement was largely used as a hammer and there 
is a deep cavity at the back of the beam penetrating one-half of its diameter ; 
the burr has also been broken away by hard wear. Length 350 mm. (13f in.). 

Found at the W. end of the cutting against the end-wall, on the bottom of 
the fosse, depth 29"3 ft. below the brink. 

230. Pick formed from a large antler of a slain deer with pedicle, the burr 
much worn down at the back. The large brow-tine has been reduced in length 
by wear and the ' tip ' is now quite blunt ; the bez- and trez-tines have been 
.shortened in the usual manner. Indications of fire are noticeable near the 
burr, at the base of the bez-tine, and at the handle-end. Length 521 mm. 
(20^ in.) ; minimum circumference of the beam 165 mm. 

Found at the W. end of the cutting against the end-wall, on the bottom of 
the fosse, 29 ft. below the brink. 

234. Part of a pick formed from a shed antler, the handle-end missing. 
The greater part of the brow-tine remains and bears indications of wear ; the 
bez- and trez-tines reduced to stumps. The condition of the back of the beam 
and burr indicates that the pick, as in most other instances, was also used as a 
hammer. 

Found in the chalk-rubble in the N. half of the cutting, depth 20"5 ft. below 
the brink. 

235. Pick, much damaged and in a very fragile condition, not preserved. 
Found close to No. 234, and at the same depth. 

236. The greater part of the beam of an antler, bearing traces of fire, and 
perhaps part of a pick. 

Found at the W. end of the cutting, depth 25-5 ft. below the brink. 

237. Pick formed from a large shed antler having the burr partly removed. 
The brow-tine is nearly complete, the tip in places being smooth from wear ; 
the bez- and trez- tines reduced to stumps. Length 467 mm. (18| in.) ; circum- 
ference of the beam between bez- and trez-tines 170 mm. (6| in.). 

Found in the chalk-rubble in the S. half of the cutting, 16"5 ft. below 
the brink. 

239. Shed antler, not worked, with short undeveloped bez-tine and only two 
points at the crown. Total length 672 mm. (26f in.). 

Found on the bottom of the fosse at the W. end of the cutting, average 
depth 29 ft. below the brink. 

In addition to the above four much broken and decayed antler picks (or 
parts) were found in the chalk-rubble, at an average depth of 12 ft. below the 
surface of the silting ; and a piece of the beam of an antler was found on the 
bottom of the fosse against the N. wall. 

VII. General Observations on Cutting X., across the Vallum, 1914. 

This cutting, measuring 15 ft. in width, was made on the S.S.E. 
and within easy distance of the fosse-digging — so that the two excava- 
tions could be watched simultaneously. At this point the vertical 
height from the surface of the silting of the fosse to the crest of the 
vallum was 32-65 ft., and from the middle of the berme to the top, 
14*4 ft. About one-half of the berme was included in the excavation 
which extended southwards as far as the summit of the vallum, the 
length examined being 50 ft. The outer part of the vallum, comprising 
a length of 30 ft., remains to be excavated. 

The whole of the body of the rampart was found to consist of chalk- 



188 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

rubble with very little admixture of mould (in the form of seams). 
The old turf, or surface, line (humus), and the dark brown material 
immediately below it were found to be very clearly defined, and 
measured on an average 3"5 in. in thickness throughout the cutting. 
It ran almost level, and was reached at a depth of 14 ft. below the crest 
of the vallum. 

Upon this ancient material Mr. Clement Eeid, F.E.S., who has 
examined a dried lump, has kindly reported as follows : ' Brown silty 
clay, with small splinters of flint and minute fragments of charcoal. 
The matrix is mainly an insoluble residue from the chalk, with the 
usual dark stain of mixed oxides of iron and manganese. It contains 
also some very fine quartz-sand, probably derived from Tertiary 
deposits. It is scarcely a soil, though it shows small roots; it is a 
subsoil into which some charcoal has been kneaded. It corresponds 
with the " clay-with-flints. " ' 

Samples of charcoal found in considerable quantity on the old 
surface line were also sent to Mr. Eeid to be examined, and, like the 
pieces from the fosse, proved to be beech. 

VIII. Relics found in the Vallum (Cutting X.). 

We were fortunate in selecting a favourable position, for a number 
of relics were discovered on the ancient surface and elsewhere. Several 
of the fragments of pottery, mostly very small, were recovered from 
the old surface by breaking the mould up in the hands and sifting. 
Flint flakes were very plentiful; metals were conspicuous by their 
absence. One of the most interesting specimens is the finely-worked 
bone pin. No. 186. A fourpenny-bit of William IV., 1836 (No. 178), 
was found near the foot of the interior slope of the vallum in the turf 
mould, depth 0'4 ft. 

The following is a detailed catalogue of the objects found in the 
vallum cutting. All the depths are given vertically — below the turf 
immediately above. O.T.L. = Old turf line. 

Flint Im.flements . 

190. Thin, sharp flake ; white. 

Found in the chalk-rubble, depth 6"5 ft. 

198. Scraper of comparatively rough workman.^ihip ; grey flint with a white 
outer crust on the greater part of the convex surface. 

Found on the O.T.L., near the foot of the interior slope. 

199. Scraper of an elongated horse-shoe shape, length 37 mm., the crescentic 
edge finely worked ; colour white, and pale grey in places. 

Found on the O.T.L., near No. 198. 

200. Saw of light-grey flint, with finely-worked serrated edge almost straight 
(length 47'5 mm.). 

Found on the O.T.L., near Nos. 198 and 199. 

204. Saw of light-grey colour, calcined; the serrated edge (length 28'5 mm.) 
is not so finely worked as in the specimens, No. 200 (vallum) and No. 211 
(fosse). 

Found on the O.T.L., a little to the south of No. 200. 

206. Scraper of greyish-white flint of a long narrow form, length 41 mm. 
The flake from which the implement was formed has a dorsal ridge giving a 
triangular cross-section. The crescentic edge (width 24 mm.) is bevelled and 
neatly chipped. 

Found on the O.T.L., near No. 200. 



ON THE AGE OF STONE CIKCLES. 187 

207. Part of a neatly-chipped implement of white flint of which the base is 
missing. The business-end is considerably bevelled and worked on the convex 
side. Flaked on both surfaces. 

Found on the O.T.L., near No. 206. 

221. Scraper ( ?) of white flint, thin, and of an irregular oval outline, 
43 mm. by 46 mm. ; it is bevelled and cliipped on all sides but the base. 

Found on the O.T.L., at the N. end of the cutting under the berme 
(dividing the vallum from the fosse). 

241. Long, narrow flake (length 61 mm.), of light-grey flint, the crust of 
which extends along one side of the back. At the junction of the flat side of 
the flake with the crust the specimen is slightly jagged, but this saw-like edge 
does not appear to be the result of secondary chipping. 

Found on the O.T.L., 4 ft. N. of the crest of the vallum, depth 137 ft. 

242. Scraper of pale-grey colour ; horse-shoe form, with a prominent bulb of 
percussion ; length 425 mm. ; the crescentic edge is roughly bevelled and worked. 

Found on the O.T.L., a little south of the foot of the interior slope. 

245. Saw of white flint formed from a long flake with a dorsal ridge; the 
serrated edge (length 555 mm.) is somewhat irregular, and not so well worked 
as Nos. 200 and 211. 

Found on the O.T.L., under the body of the vallum and in the middle of 
the cutting. 

255. Pointed flake of greyish-white colour with saw-like secondary chipping 
along one edge. 

Found on the O.T.L. 

Flint Flakes. 

There were also collected from the old turf line sixty-four flakes of light 
grey-and-white flint, four of which are calcined. 

Antlers, including a Pick. 

181. Crown of a small antler consisting of two points ; red-brown colour. 
Found in the chalk-rubble in the body of the vallum, depth 3 ft. below the 

surface. 

184. Greater part of a small shed antler, red-brown colour. There is no 
positive evidence that this specimen was a pick, as the brow-tine is broken and 
the other tine some way up the beam has not been shortened ; but the end of 
the beam nearest the crown has been burnt in a similar manner to some of the 
handle-ends of more definite picks. 

Found in the chalk-rubble in the body of the vallum, depth 4 ft. below the 
surface. 

232. Part of a small pick formed from a shed antler having a rudimentary 
bez-tine ; the brow-tine was badly fractured at the time of its discovery, but 
the point is worked and very smooth. 

Found in a slight ' mound ' of mould (probably decayed turf), 0-2 ft. above 
the old surface under the crest of the vallum. 

253. Complete tine of red-deer antler, smooth at the point. 

Found in the chalk-rubble in the body of the vallum. 

Bone Objects. 

182. Small, flat piece of bone (length 33-7 mm.), rounded at the complete end, 
and of similar workmanship to the larger worked rib-bones, Nos. 223 and 225, 
found at the bottom of the fosse. 

Found in the body of the vallum, depth 6 ft. 

186. Finely- worked pin, slightly curved, with faintly tooled and polished 
surface; length 86 mm. (3| in.), the shaft of oblong section, maximum dimen- 
sions 2"5 mm. by 4'5 mm. One end is finely worked to a sharp point of round 
section ; the other end is cut off slightly oblique to the line of the pin, and is 
bevelled on both the flat faces of the implement. 

Found in chalk-rubble in the body of the vallum, 3 ft. N. of the crest, 
depth 55 ft. 

The writer has not yet come across a similar pin found with prehistoric 
remains in Britain. 



188 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915 

Pottery. 

194. Two fragments of fairly well-baked black pottery, containing a good 
proportion of small grains of quartz-sand and some larger pieces measuring up 
to 45 mm. in length. 

Found on the O.T.L., near the foot of the interior slope. 

195. Fragment of badly baked pottery, black on the inside and reddish- 
brown on the outside ; it contains a small admixture of small quartz-grains. 

Found close to No. 194. 

202. Fragment of black pottery similar to No. 194, and perhaps part of the 
same vessel. 

Found on the O.T.L., near Nos. 194 and 195. 

203. Eight small bits of pottery, and a fragment of iron pyrites. The pieces 
belong to more than one vessel ; three of the fragments appear to be parts of 
one pot only, 5'5 mm. thick. This ware is of a very coarse kind, some of the 
pieces containing grains of quartz up to 6 mm. in length. 

Found on the O.T.L., near Nos. 194, 195, and 202. 

220. Twenty-two fragments of pottery of various degrees of coarseness — all 
undoubtedly prehistoric (perhaps Neolithic), and belonging to vessels varying 
in thickness from 4'5 mm. to 10'5 mm. They range in colour from a light 
reddish-brown to black. Some of this ware consists of very soft paste with only 
a small admixture of quartz-grains, but most of it is roughly made with large 
grains projecting from the weathered surfaces of the ware; the largest grain of 
quartz observable measures 4 mm. by 6 mm. 

They include one small piece of rim and two ornamented fragments belonging 
apparently to the same pot, which had an encircling shoulder or ridge with a 
hollow moulding probably below the shoulder, and similar in these features to 
the pottery. No. 167, found in Cutting VIII., Fosse, 1911; the type is described 
at some length in the writer's 1911 Eeport." As far as can be traced, the two 
fragments are ornamented with oblique and parallel bands of punch-marks con- 
sisting of lozenge-shaped clusters of four impressed oval dots. 

Mr. C. Reid, who has seen one of the coarsest unornamented fragments, 
writes : ' Thin well-burnt pottery, not local ; the grit is all vein-quartz, and 
suggests Bristol Coal-field.' 

Found on the O.T.L., at the N. end of the cutting under the berme (dividing 
the vallum from the fossej. 

243. Six fragments of pottery, two being of thin reddish-brown ware and of 
comparatively fine texture. The other pieces, which are thick — black on one 
side and brown on the other^are very rude and of the coarsest possible 
description, and contain an admixture of large quartz-grains; in one fragment 
there are two pieces of quartz, measuring 4'3 mm. by 7'3 mm. and 4'2 mm. by 
42 mm., which actually touch each other. 

The last described fragment has been seen by Mr. Clement Reid, who 
writes : ' Not local ; paste black, and sandy, and full of splinters of grit, with 
some large quartz-grains. The splinters look like Carl .nif erous Limestone chert, 
rather than chalk-flint, but there is not enough material to make certain. 
Perhaps from the Mendips.' 

Found in a similar position to No. 220, but a Utile nearer the interior slope 
of the vallum. 

244. Two fragments of pottery, one of which is black on the inside and 
brick-red on the outside, of fairly hard paste ami containing quartz-grains of 
no grea,t size. The other fragment is of dark grey colour, fairly hard, and 
containing small quartz-grains with a small admixture of larger grains. 

Found on the O.T.L., under the body of the vallum, 10-5 ft. N. of the 
crest, depth 11"8 ft. 

251. A few small fragments of badly baked pottery similar to No. 195, but 
apparently containing very little quartz-sand. 

Found on the O.T.L. 

IX. Animal Remains. 
Only the more interesting specimens were preserved. Those found 
" Brit. Assoc. Eeport, 1911, pp. 147, 150. 



'ON^THE AGE OF STONE CIRCLES. 189 

near the surface and others in a very fragmentary condition were 
reburied. Some of the specimens have been kindly examined by Mr. 
E. T. Newton, P.E.S. 

Cutting IX., Fosse. 

238. One side of lower jaw of dog, and a number of teeth belonging to the 
other side also. The animal was about the size of a retriever. 

Found on the bottom of the fosse in the N. half of the cutting, and near the 
end-wall against the causeway. 

Near No. 238, also on the bottom of the fosse, several teeth of dog of similar 
size were found. 

246. Occipital portion of skull of red-deer ; height from the bastion to 
supra-occipital crest 89 mm. 

Found in the chalk-rubble, depth 11 ft. below the surface of the silting. 

248. Metacarpus of red-deer, length 274 mm. ; least circumference 78 mm. 
Found in the Roman stratum. 

249. Part of metacarpus of red-deer. 

Found at a depth of 6-5 ft. below the surface of the silting. 

250. Metatarsus of red-deer, length 315 mm. (12^ in.) ; least circumference 
81 mm. 

Found at a depth of 8 ft. below the surface of the silting. 

A red-deer at the Royal College of Sureeons, having a metatarsus 10^ in. 
in length, stands 44^ in. at the withers. The Avebury stag, therefore, stood 
about 50 in. at the withers. 

''54. Lower end of femur of large ox. 

Found on the bottom of the fosse. 

Cutting X., Vallum. 
179. Part of radius and other remains of ox (rather small). 
Found in chalk-rubble in the body of the vallum, depth 4 ft. 
185. Greater part of tibia of young ox ; the shaft is split obliquely — perhaps 
for the extraction of marrow. 

Found in chalk-rubble in the body of the vallum, depth 425 ft. 

232. Shaft of tibia of ox, the heads broken ofT at both ends as if for the 
extraction of marrow. 

Found close to the O.T.L., with the small antler-pick also marked No. 232. 

233. One end of femur of young ox. 
Found on the O.T.L., near No. 232. 

Four teeth of pig were also found on the O.T.L. 



Physical Characters of the Ancient Egyptians. — Report of the 
Committee, consisting 0/ Prof essor G. Elliot Smith (Chair- 
man), Dr. F. C. Shrubs.4,ll (Secretary), Professor A. 
Keith, Dr. F. Wood Jones, afid Professor C. G. Seligman. 

Professor Elliot Smith's Report. 
In last year's Report of the Committee I referred to the fact that 
material of great historical importance^ was being found by Professor 
Reisner at Kerma, near the Third Cataract, and that some of the 
skeletons had been sent to me in Manchester for examination. Since 
then a very large collection of human remains from the sam_e site has 

1 ReiDort of British Association, p. 228, B., ' The Human Remams from the 
Kerma Basin,' &c. 



o 



190 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

been received from Dr. Eeisner; and, although most of this material 
has now been photographed and measured, the investigation of it is not 
yet sufficiently advanced to permit me to submit a final Report upon it. 
It is of sufficient importance, however, to justify an interim Eeport. 

In the Bulletin of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, April 1914, 
Professor Eeisner has published a very interesting and fully-illustrated 
account of his excavations at Kerma, with a description of the circum- 
stances under which the human remains were found and the nature 
of the remarkable series of objects found with them. 

In this report the human remains are described as those of ' a 
garrison which held the Northern Sudan in the Hyksos Period, about 
1700 B.C.' To appreciate more fully the nature of the material with 
which I have to deal 1 may be permitted to quote Dr. Eeisner's own 
account of the problem he puts to me to solve for him. 

' By 2600 B.C. the Egyptian had already begun his exploitation of 
the Upper Nile, and had been led in military force as far as the province 
of Dongola, the richest area between the Assuan border of Egypt and 
the tropical Sudan. Gold he certainly brought away and cattle ; ivory, 
ostrich feathers and eggs, ebony, skins, resins, spices and incense — all 
came through the province in trade if they were not produced here.' 
Traces of the Old Empire fort and alabaster vessels bearing the name 
of Pepy I. were found at Kerma. ' During the period of depression in 
Egypt which followed the reign of Pepy II., it is probable that the 
Nubian tribe went their own way undisturbed. In the Middle Empire, 
however, the exploitation of Nubia by Egypt was resumed and placed 
on a more secure footing. Sesostris III. set up a boundary-stone at 
Kummeh, south of Haifa [Second Cataract] , forbidding any negro to 
pass northwards by land or water except traders and official messengers. 
This stone marked the southern border of Egypt, but, as a matter of 
course, not the limits of Egyptian activity.' [Inscriptions with the 
names of Sesostris I., Amenemhat I. and Amenemhat III., together 
with fragments of perhaps twenty-five Middle Empire royal statuettes, 
make it] ' quite clear that Kerma was held by the kings of Egypt 
during the Middle Empire. 

' Thus we come to the Hyksos Period itself. Much has been written 
about this period in Egypt, but our real knowledge is small. An un- 
identified race came in, apparently from Asia, conquered and held Egypt 
for perhaps a hundred years. But we do not know how far south they 
held it . . . [at Kerma] in the Hyksos period [there have come to light 
the remains of] a colony of men, not negro, and yet not using 
Egyptian furniture nor Egyptian burial customs. They razed 
*ihe buildings of the Egyptians of the Middle Empire; they 
smashed the statues of Egyptian kings of the XII. Dynasty; 
and they made their graves in the debris of an ancient mud- 
brick structure. They were apparently a fierce and capable race. 
Their pottery, manifestly made locally, is the finest and most beautiful 
ever made in the Nile Valley. . . . Their burial customs are revolting 
in their barbarity. On a carved bed in the middle of a big circular pit 
the chief personage lies on his right side with his head east. Under 
his head is a wooden pillow; between his legs a sword or dagger; beside 



THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 19 J 

his feet cowhide sandals and an ostrich feather fan. At his feet is 
buried a ram, with ivory knobs on the tips of its horns to prevent goring. 
Around the bed he a varying number of bodies, male and female, all 
contracted on the right side, head east. Among them are the pots and 
pans, the cosmetic jars, the stools, and other objects. Over the whole 
is spread a great ox-hide. It is clear they were all buried at once. The 
men and women round about must have been sacrificed so that their 
spirits might accompany the chief to the other world. ... I could not 
escape the belief that they had been buried alive. Who are these people? 
There are, it is true, a few negroes among the women; but the chief 
men are all broad-headed and straight-haired. If they are Egyptian, 
whence comes the strange pottery and the awful burial custom ? It 
is hoped to submit the bones to Prof. Elliot Smith, who will without 
doubt be able to say whether the men were Egyptians or not. If 
they are neither Egyptians nor negroes, then there are many possi- 
bilities — Arabs, Libyans, a mixed band of adventurers from the north, 
or even Hyksos. The name of Sheshy, supposed to be a Hyksos king, 
is found on several of the seal-impi-essions. But it is not possible at 
present to reach any safe conclusion on the race of the men of Kerma. ' 

These free quotations from Professor Eeisner's report admirably 
and most lucidly explain the nature of the problems I am asked to solve. 
There is one possibihty, not mentioned by Dr. Eeisner, that at once 
suggests itself, especially when one examines the excellent photographs 
that illustrate the report. Seeing that this very spot had been occupied 
by an Egyptian town and fortress nine centuries earlier, and then again 
later on for several centuries before the time of the people whose 
identity is under consideration, obviously the first explanation which 
suggests itself is that we may have to deal with the descendants of the 
old colony of Pepy's time reinforced with fresh Egyptian blood by 
new immigrations ranging from the time of Sesostris I. to Amenemhat 
III. at least. 

For the statement that these people were ' not using Egyptian 
furniture nor Egyptian burial customs ' is apt to be misleading. The 
furniture and the burial customs, it is true, are not exactly identical 
with those of Egypt at any period : but no one who studies the burial 
customs and funerary equipment of other peoples can hesitate for one 
moment in deciding that these things and the Egyptian customs and 
furniture must be assimilated into the same generic group. My meaning 
will be made clear if we examine the archfeological evidence. Burial 
upon a bed of the type found in these graves was not an Egyptian 
custom in 1700 B.C.; but it was so at the time when the first Egyptian 
settlement occurred at Kerma, perhaps a millennium previously ; and 
the legs of the chairs and beds are characteristically Egyptian in 
design (see Eeisner's fig. 20) ; so are the head-rests and the sandals, 
and the Egyptian military decoration (' order of the fly '). The 
exquisite black-topped, red-polished pottery is equally characteristically 
a proto-Egyptian ware, but carried to a much higher pitch of perfection 
by eighteen centuries of practice after the Egyptians themselves had 
been using their most expert craftsmen for other purposes. The 
barbarous addition to the burial customs of the Egyptians is the well- 



192 REPOKTS ON THE STATE Oi'^SCIENCE. — 1915. 

known negro practice of slaughtering the wives and retainers of the 
deceased. - 

In the hght of such considerations the hypothesis that should first 
be tested is that an Egyptian colony, settled in Kerma in proto-Dynastic 
times, continued to cultivate its original Egyptian cultural heritage, 
which was modified on the one hand by the taint of negro barbarism 
and the influence of a succession of later Egyptian immigrants. 

I have put forward this tentative explanation of the archaeological 
evidence advisedly, not merely because it naturally suggests itself as the 
most probable interpretation of the state of affairs found by Dr. Eeisner, 
but also because the anthropological data, so far as I have investigated 
them, seem to favour this view. 

Amongst the human remains there is a considerable number of 
individuals conforming in every respect to the proto-Egyptian type, 
such as is found in pre- and proto-Dynastic cemeteries in Upper Egypt. 
These might well represent the descendants of the original Egyptian 
colony which was planted in Kerma during the Old Empire. There 
are also many representatives of that modification of the proto- 
Egyptian racial type for which I coined the distinctive expression 
' Middle Nubian ' (the people whose culture Dr. Reisner classified as 
his ' C-group '). These were the people who constituted the normal 
population of Lower Nubia during the time from the Middle Empire 
until the country was overrun by Egypt in the New Empire : in other 
words, they were the distinctive inhabitants of Nubia during the time 
of the Kerma burials; and it would have been very surprising 
if they had not been well represented. Even in Lower Nubia 
they exhibited definite traces of some negro admixture; and in 
this respect the Kerma material agrees with the more northern 
remains of the same age. But in the Kerma material there is 
perhaps a greater variety of slightly negroid types than in Lower 
Nubia — a state of affairs that is not surprising considering that it is 
nearer the negro domain. In fact it is remarkable that strongly marked 
negro traits are so infrequent as they are shown to be in material from 
such a southerly site. 

The most interesting remains that this cemetery has yielded are a 
minority conforming in evein^ essential respect to the type from Lower 
Egypt which I illustrated in last year's Eeport (p. 219, figs. 1, 2, and 
3). It represents a type of mankind which made itself apparent in 
Lower Egypt in proto-Dynastic times and spread up the river very 
gradually, until by the time of the Middle Empire the aristocratic 
population throughout Egypt was more or less permeated by the 
influence of admixture with such people. It is in the highest degree 
unlikely that the effects of such admixture could have become apparent 
at the Third Cataract before the Middle Empire. That it did so soon 
afterwards suggests — as, indeed, might have been expected — that the 
expeditions to the Sudan at that time were commanded by people of 
this aristocratic type. This is further confirmed by the results of 

2 See my article ' On the Geographical Distribution of the Practice of Mummifl 
cation, &c.,' Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 1915, p. 56. 



THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERS OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 193 



the examination of the human remains, because the people who con- 
formed to the type in question were those buried in the most sumptuous 
graves and were obviously the most important people interred on this 
site. 
' In my final Report I shall set forth the data in detail and return 
to the discussion of these questions. All that I have attempted to do 
at present is to indicate what seems to me to be the natural explanation 
of the facts and to state the prima Jacie case in support of it. 



Anthropometric Investigations in the Island of Cyprus. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor J. L. Myres 
(Chairman) , Dr. F. C. Shrubsall (Secretary), and Dr. A. C. 
Haddon. 

The Committee has received a report from Mr. L .H. D. Buxton, who 
has been carrying out investigations on its behalf. Owing to the 
outbreak of the European war no field work has been possible in 1914, 
and Mr. Buxton has been with his regiment. He has forwarded a 
preliminary report on further investigation of material obtained in the 
autumn of 1913. 

Osseous Material. 

From a Bronze Age site at Lapethos were secured a number of 
skulls and skeletons, among which two types — a long head with well- 
developed glabella and retreating forehead (index 73), and the ordinary 
short high Cypriote type (index 77 and upwards), have persisted 
from the Bronze Age to the present day. 

Measurements of the Living. 

A large number of measurements of villagers have been obtained, 
which will be analysed in full in later reports. The following table 
shows the means of over fifty individuals in each group : 

Absolute Measurement. 





Villages 


Hagios 










Sergios 


Levkoniko 


Lapethos 


Karabas 




Limnea 








Head Length . 


179-6 


178-9 


182-7 


183-8 


Head Breadth . 


148-5 


149-2 


150-4 


1470 


Bizygomatic Breadth . 


13G1 


137-0 


139-0 


136-9 


Bigonial Breadth . 


108-6 


106-3 


110-6 


109-8 


Nasal Breadth 


33-8 


35-7 


34-6 


34-2 


Nasal Length . 


51-6 


51-4 


60-2 


49-7 


Upper Facial Height 


67-4 


69-2 


67-8 


65-4 




Indices. 






Cephalic .... 


82-9 


83-4 


82-0 


80-3 


Bigonial .... 


79-7 


77-5 


79-6 


80-1 


Facial .... 


49-5 


50-5 


48-7 


48-1 


Nasal .... 


65-5 


69-4 


68-8 


68-8 



1915. 



194: REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

The stature is very uniform — l"66ra. in all the villages. 
A complete list of the materials available for the anthropological 
history of Cyprus has been made. 



Exploration of the Palcdolithic Site known as La Cotte de St. 
Brelade, Jersey. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. E. E. Marett (Chairman), Mr. G, F. B. de Gruchy 
(Secretary), Dr. A. Keith, Dr. C. Andrews, Dr. A. 
DuNLOP, Colonel E. Gardner Warton, and Mr. H. 
Balfour. 

Report of Work done in July 1915. 

The following must be regarded purely as an interim report. It covers 
only what was accomplished in July, whereas funds are available for 
carrying on the work during at least another month. When Section H 
meets in session, a supplementaiy report in MS. will be presented. 

This year there have naturally occurred many obstacles in the way 
of archaeological research, and indeed it proved impossible to resume 
operations at Easter, as had been originally intended. At the close of 
the potato season, however, when the demand for labour temporarily 
slackens in Jersey, there was at length forthcoming the required amount 
of assistance of a manual kind, Mr. Ernest Daghorn being the contractor 
as before. Nor, again, in the matter of skilled investigation, was it 
easy to arrange for the sufficiently continuous attendance of a body of 
helpers. Yet, despite the paramount claims of war-service, a staff was 
enlisted who made up for any deficiency there might be in their 
numbers by devotion and sheer staying-power. 

In 1911 excavation proceeded along the western side-wall of the 
cave so as to bring to light a strip of palaeolithic floor extending some 
25 feet inwards.^ It was decided this year to push still further back 
along this line, and, if possible, to reach the hitherto undetermined 
back of the cave. This is known as Working A. Further, in 1914 a 
trench was carried right across from the western to the eastern 
side-wall, a distance of about 40 feet. The portion of floor 
thus opened up lay eight feet from the entrance, and when work ceased 
last year, was flanked by precipitous walls of talus, that on the inner 
side being about 45 feet high, while the outer one averaged 25 feet. It 
was resolved, therefore, in regard to excavation in this direction, to 
undertake first the relatively easy and safe task of demolishing the talus 
on the outer side, and so clearing the cave along its whole breadth to 
the entrance. This was termed Working B. Lastly, it was thought 
desirable to attempt something on the inner side of the clearing, and 
to push back cautiously along the eastern wall, at any rate so far as an 
overhanging shelf of the live rock afforded some protection from the 

1 See Archceologia, Ixiii. 204, where plaats are given. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF A PALEOLITHIC SITE IN JERSEY. 195 

ever-threatening downfall of debris. This was distinguished as 
Working 0. 

To consider, then, these three sets of operations in succession. 
Working A has not progressed very far, but will receive' more attention 
shortly. An additional 5 feet of penetration has been accomplished with 
a breadth of 6-8 feet, bringing up the total distance cleared from the 
entrance to 30 feet. Some very heavy quarrying has been necessary 
here which has involved the use of dynamite, the upper portion of 
the debris consisting of large blocks wedged tightly against a rather 
shaky roof ; so that it is necessary to proceed with great circumspection. 
Worked flints occur sparsely at about 2-4 feet above the bench-mark 
from which floor-level is measured; there is very little bone to be met 
with. Working B has been highly successful, and the cave is now clear 
across its entire front. The central part of the talus which has just 
been removed proved to be almost sterile, but a richly implementiferous 
bed reaching from near floor-level to a height of 14 feet was found to 
exist under the ledge projecting some 1 2 feet outwards along the eastern 
side-wall. The spoil collected here in the shape of worked flints, together 
with cores and hammer-stones, must amount at least to a hundred- 
weight. There was found also a good deal of bone in fair condition, rang- 
ing in size from the minute remains of lemmings to a huge knuckle-bone 
belonging probably to a rhinoceros. It is noticeable that a specially 
fine set of implements occurred near the very top of this bed, the form 
of these tending towards that elongated leaf -shaped pattern which has 
been termed ' hemi-solutrian.' Thus it would almost seem as if \ve 
had to do here with a later and more evolved product of Mousterian art 
than is to be found in the lower deposits of this cave ; though it is true 
that in other places where the implementiferous bed is much thinner, 
extending at most to a foot or two, there was no apparent correlation 
between quality of workmanship and stratigraphical position. Working 
has also proved very fertile so far as it has been pushed under the 
projecting shelf of the eastern wall, namely a distance of 27 feet from 
the entrance. Here the presence of a former hearth was indicated by 
a quantity of burnt bone. Flint was plentiful, but tended to be of 
coarse pattern. So too along the opposite side-wall the quality of the 
worked flint would seem to deteriorate as we penetrate into the depths 
of the cave. A sufficient explanation is probably to be found in the 
fact that the finer work needed the better light. Further, at the angle 
situated about the centre of the cave where Working C passes into 
Working A, the removal of a large block weighing some eight tons 
revealed the clearest indication hitherto encountered of the way in which 
the intrusive cave-filling is related to the ancient floor of occupation. 
At this spot a definite line can now be traced, of irregular height, but 
averaging 6-8 feet over bench-mark. Below this line everything is 
cemented together into a compact breccia, whereas above it the rock- 
rubbish is quite loose. At the top of the solid mass occurs a sandy 
deposit about 1 foot in thickness which is finely laminated and has in 
places almost the consistency of sandstone. This is apparently quite 
destitute of bone-refuse or flint-chippings, though they occur again in 
the looser rubbish above it. Thus it would seem as if the ancient floor 

o 2 



196 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

must have remained open to the winds of heaven for a long period after 
one Mousterian occupation, so that much dust was able to accumulate 
here before the cave was gradually sealed up by the stony shower from 
above. 

At the present stage of operations, before the determinable bones 
have been identified, and the flint implements sorted into types, there 
can be nothing more to report. Enough, however, has been said to 
show that results have so far fully come up to expectation. Approxi- 
mately 1,000 square feet of floor have now in all been cleared. Mean- 
while, the sheer mass of the finds, not to speak of their excellent quality, 
wellnigh beggars description. This has turned out to be one of the 
richest paleolithic sites in Europe. It only remains to add that the 
Chairman and the Secretary, who have throughout been in charge of 
the work, could have effected little of themselves seeing how every 
trowel-full of cave-earth must be minutely searched through, without 
the intelligent co-operation of many volunteer assistants. Noteworthy 
among these are Mr. R. de J. Fleming-Struthers, M.A., B.Sc, of 
Exeter College, Oxford, who has all along sojourned by himself in the 
little cabin overlooking the site which the Committee has hired as a 
storehouse of its treasures — a storehouse that needs a faithful warden ; 
and the Eev. E. O. James, Cert. Phys. Anthrop., of Exeter College, 
who laboured indefatigably during the fortnight he was able to spare 
for the work. Among local helpers Mr. G. le Bas, B.Sc, Mr. H. J. 
Baal, President of the Archaeological Section of the Soci6t6 Jersiaise, 
Mr. E. F. Guiton, to whose skill in photography the explorers of this 
cave owe so much, and Mrs. Symons have perhaps taken the most 
active part in the work so far, but many others have lent a hand as 
their other duties permitted. Some of the older workers, it is to 
be feared, have been kept away from the cave itself by the nature of 
the approach thereto which has of late assumed a somewhat Alpine 
character; though not even the present system of break-neck ladders 
could deter Dr. Dunlop from visiting us, while the rest have rendered 
manifold aid from a distance. Finally, the quarrymen have toiled with 
a will and have, with the rest of the party, braved danger freely ; for 
in these trenches too there are risks to be faced, the d6bris having 
already scored one direct hit (resulting in a slashed wrist) and brought 
home several ricochets. Considering the conditions, however, all has 
gone very well, and the experience of several years' siege of this 
Mousterian stronghold ought to enable us to carry through our present 
instalment of work without any serious accident such as might mar an 
otherwise complete triumph. 

The Committee is aware that this is not the most favourable moment 
at which to apply for a further grant. Moreover, it may prove at the 
end of the present excavation that the most profitable portions of the 
cave have been worked out. Nevertheless, if the funds be forthcoming, 
there remains plenty of useful work on which they may be spent, 
since the inmost depths of the cave are quite untouched. For the rest, it 
would be in any case well for the British Association to maintain the 
Committee in being, so that it may carry the work to a finish whenever 
opportunity serves. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OP A PALAEOLITHIC SITE IN JERSEY. 197 

Report of Work done in August 1915. 

Shortly after the despatch of the Eeport for July a crisis occurred 
in the history of this undertaking. It became exceedingly doubtful 
whether operations must not be suspended altogether, owing to the 
dangerous condition of the roof. This is some forty-five feet high for the 
most part. Besides, it largely consists, not of live rock, but of detached 
blocks of granite of any weight up to ten or twelve tons, which are 
held in place simply by the clay that has been forced down between the 
fissures. A discharge of dynamite, however, cleared away everything 
that was not relatively stable on the side overhanging Working A. 
From within the breach thus effected our experienced quarrymen were 
then able to carry on the attack across the back of the cave, precipitat- 
ing avalanches of stones by means of long crowbars and grappling- 
tools. As a result our workings were smothered with mountains of 
debris, which it has cost at least a fortnight's labour to remove. The 
roof, meanwhile, may be declared to be, for the time being, reasonably 
safe; and excavation has henceforth proceeded as merrily as before 
along the level of the implementiferous floor. It remains to take stock 
briefly of the progress of the three workings distinguished in the 
previous Eeport. 

Working A, after being cleared for another six feet along the western 
side-wall, i.e., up to thirty-six feet from the entrance, was barred by a 
projecting shelf of live rock. The upper part of this shelf coming first 
into view seemed to mark the inner limit of the cave. Nearer the floor, 
however, it turned out to be undercut by a cavity penetrating onwards at 
an angle of some forty-five degrees. How much further back this 
fresh extension of the cave may lead is at present a matter of pure 
speculation, the utmost probings having hitherto reached but ten or 
twelve feet, though without coming on any signs of the end. Appetite 
for further advance in this direction has been whetted by the discovery 
of implements, including one of the most perfect examples of the 
Mousterian ' point ' hitherto obtained, in the heart of the breccia with 
which this annexe of the cave is packed. 

Working B, which was carried across the entrance of the cave from 
the western to the eastern wall, was almost completed by the end of 
July. Up to the limit corresponding to the line of the roof overarching 
the entrance it has proved remarkably rich in relics of human 
occupation. Beyond this line, however, virtually nothing is to be 
found. It would seem, therefore, that the present roof marks the 
frontier of the ancient shelter, and that the theory of an original cave 
stretching from side to side of that gaping cleft in the cliffs into which 
La Cotte gives from the south must be given up. The only other 
possibility, and that a faint one, is that the floor descends sharply at 
this point ; in which case remains of Man might yet be discoverable at 
a lower level than that which has been so far attained. 

Working C has not been pushed much further back along the 
eastern sidewall; but, by way of compensation, the d6bris forming a 
salient between Workings and A has been steadily reduced, so that 
there is now clear floor throughout from the entrance to a depth of about 
thirty feet. Work in this direction has revealed the encouraging fact 



198 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ^1915. 

that the detritus is almost as rich in flint and bone at the centre as 
along the sides. Indeed, the sheer mass of the finds is well nigh over- 
whelming. The bone, moreover, is in fairly good condition; so that, 
for instance, a magnificent tooth of a prehistoric elephant has been 
rescued virtually intact. The flint implements found in the depths of 
the cave are on the whole of a relatively coarse and massive type, but 
some finer specimens occur amongst them ; so that it would be 
dangerous to assume that this is an earlier industry which was covered 
up by falls of debris during Mousterian times, a shallow cave sufficing 
for the later generations. The simpler hypothesis is that the best pieces 
occur in the best-lighted parts of the workshop. 

It remains to acknowledge the assistance of a staff of volunteer 
searchers too numerous to allow of individual mention. Mr. P. H. 
Brodie, however, Ehodes Scholar of Worcester College, Oxford, 
deserves special thanks for having contributed an unbroken month of 
most useful work. In addition to the helpers referred to by name in the 
previous Eeport, Mr. Nicolle, Hon. Secretary of the Soci6t6 Jersiaise, 
and Mr. Voisin have rendered yeoman service. 

The funds provided by the British Association have been ere now 
expended, but with the aid of the supplementary grant furnished by 
the Eoyal Society work will be continued, it is hoped, until the latter 
part of September. By that time a great part of the task will have 
been accomplished, but not all. 

Appendix to Supplementary Report. 

The Supplementary Eeport described operations up to August 31. 
Their end came with dramatic suddenness at 2.30 p.m. on September 3, 
when the roof of the cave collapsed. The recess newly discovered at 
the back of Working A had been opened up as regards its upper portions 
(which proved to be implementiferous) to a depth of fifty feet from 
the entrance. It was fully realised that this was a dangerous thing to 
do, since the roof from about twenty feet inwards from the mouth 
appeared to consist of loose material. Indeed, on the assumption that 
the cave-filling had descended through a more or less vertical funnel, 
the attempt was made last year to locate the top of this funnel on the 
north side of the cliff at a spot some seventy feet above the floor-level 
of the cave ; and a tentative excavation at this point found loose material 
similar to that which seemingly composed the cave roof. It was 
thought extremely likely, therefore, that by undercutting to an extent 
of some thirty feet a column of heavy rock-rubbish at least twenty or 
thirty feet thick, tliere must eventually ensue a complete dibdcle; and of 
late an anxious watch had been kept on the roof for signs of ' creep- 
ing. ' The first two days of September had proved remarkably prolific 
in the matter of finds, and even on the morning of September 3 about 
forty implements and some very fine pieces of bone were unearthed ; so 
that it was well worth while to try to carry on to the last. Suddenly 
dust and small stones began to drop from the roof on all sides, and it 
was obvious that collapse was a matter of minutes. There was just 
time to remove tools and other belongings when an avalanche of some 
fivo hundred tons of rock and clay descended with an overwhelming 



ON THE EXPLORATION OP A PALAEOLITHIC SITE IN JERSEY. 199 

roar, the nine persons who happened to be then at work in the cave 
taking to their heels with such good will that no one was hurt. "When 
these ventured to return it was to see the sun shining down through a 
cavfty some twenty feet in diameter on a vast pile of debris, completely 
obliterating the former workings. 

As further falls are to be expected, work has been closed for the 
year. When winter weather has done its worst with the exposed sides 
of the chimney it will be possible to decide on the wisest course of 
action in regard to this as yet unexhausted site. A view from the top 
of the chimney makes it clear that another fifty feet or so of pene- 
tration would have reached the north side of the cliff ; so that it might 
seem the soundest policy to break in from this side, thus immediately 
tapping what was formerlv the back part of the cave, and avoiding the 
task of dealing with the debris now encumbering the thousand square 
feet of floor already cleared. In the meantime there is such a mass of 
finds awaiting determination that those who have been working here 
remain as busy as ever. 



The Distribution of Bronze Age Implements. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor J. L. Myres (Chairman), 
Mr. Harold J. E. Peakb (Secretary), the Hon. John 
Abbrcromby, Mr. E. C. E. Armstrong, Dr. G. A. Auden, 
Mr. Henry Balfour, Dr. George Coffey, Mr. O. G. S. 
Crawford, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Dr. H. S. Harrison, 
Mr. E. Thurlow Leeds, Dr. E. E. Marett, Sir Charles 
Hercules Eead, and Professor W. Eidgeway. 

No meeting of the Committee was held during the year, but the Secre- 
tary attended the meeting of the Association Francaise. held at Le 
Havre in July, 1914, and through the courtesy of Dr. F. Gidon, its 
President, was enabled to bring the objects of the Committee before 
the Section of Anthropologie. The idea was received very cordially 
by those present, especially by M. A. de Mortillet, and many offers of 
assistance were received. The order for the mobilisation of the French 
army, which was issued the following day, has prevented any further 
communication with our allies on this subject. 

Owing to the war it has been impossible to proceed with the forma- 
tion of the card index ; nevertheless a considerable number of sketches 
and notes have been furnished by Miss Morev, Miss Minns, Lieut. 
0. G. S. Crawford f9th Batt. the Eoyal Berkshire Regt.l. and 2nd 
Lieut. G. A. Curnock f4th Batt. the Eifle BriffadeV while further 
information is expected shortly from Mr. W. Dale, F.S.A., and Mr. 
E. Thurlow Leeds. These notes refer to specimens in the museums 
of Newbury, Southampton, and Carisbrooke, as well as to those in 
several small private collections. 

Cards for the index, a box in which to store them, callipers, and 
scales are now needed, and the Committee seeks reappointment with a 
grant of 101. 



200 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915< 



Excavations on Roman Sites in Britain. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor Eidgeway (Chairman) , Pro- 
fessor E. C. BosANQUET (Secretary), Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. 
WiLLOUGHBY GARDNER, and Professor J. L. Myres, ap- 
pointed to co-operate with Local Committees in Excavations 
on Roman Sites in Britain. 

The Committee was reappointed in September, 1913, with a grant of 
20L This sum was divided in equal shares between (1) the Committee 
of the Abergele Antiquarian Association, which in conjunction with 
the Cambrian Archaeological Association is exploring the hill-fort in 
Parc-y-meirch Wood, Denbighshire; and (2) the Committee represent- 
ing the Society of Antiquaries and the Shropshire Archseological Society, 
which is excavating the Roman town of Uriconium (Wroxeter). 

Owing to the early date fixed for the delivery of reports in 1914 it 
was not possible for the excavators to present the results of work done 
that summer in time for the Australian Meeting, and the Committee 
therefore submitted an interim statement, explaining that fuller 
accounts of the results obtained on both sites would be presented in 
1915. These are appended to the present Report. 

(1) Dinorhen. Previous discoveries on the Denbighshire site were 
described by the excavator, Mr. "Willoughby Gardner, in papers laid 
before the British Association in 1912 and 1913. The work of 1914 
threw further light on the extent and character of the fourth-century 
occupation, but was chiefly directed to tracing the growth of the 
fortifications and endeavouring to correlate the successive entrances, 
ramparts, and ditches. It is now clear that the main south-east gate, 
with its successive roadways and guard -houses, was not the original 
entrance; an earlier gate, destroyed by fire, has been found embedded in 
the stone rampart a few yards to the east, and the road belonging to it 
has also been laid bare. An early rampart, corresponding with this 
gateway in its mixed stone-and-timber construction and showing 
still plainer evidence of a great conflagration, has been traced 
under the guard-houses and main rampart on the west of the south-east 
entrance. The dissection of the enormous main rampart has been 
continued and the finding of revetment-walls gives a clue to two, if 
not three, periods of construction. The ditches which Mr. Gardner in 
his previous Report explained as perhaps constructed in the first 
century of our era, when native forts were hastily strengthened in 
view of Roman attacks, have been further explored ; wherever examined 
they show the same phenomenon, a filling of freshly quarried stone, 
the unmistakable ddhris of a stone rampart overthrown soon after its 
erection. Owing to the dearth of pottery and other characteristic finds, 
Mr. Gardner does not at present assign dates to the successive stages 
in the history of the stronghold. He has shown much ingenuity and 
patience in surmounting the natural obstacles presented by this 
exceptionally difficult site, and his plans, sections, photographs, and 
records of levels are full and accurate. The Committee hopes that he 
may be enabled to continue this very promising investigation. 



ON EXCAVATIONS ON ROMAN SITES IN BRITAIN. 201 

(2) Uriconmv% (Wroxeter). The scheme for the systematic excava- 
tion of this Eoman town was laid before the Association at the Birming- 
ham Meeting. The direction of the work is in the hands of Mr. J. P. 
Bushe-Fox, who had previously worked with distinction at Corbridge 
and at Hengistbury Head. Two detailed and well-illustrated Eeports 
on the work of 1912 and 1913 have been issued by the Society of 
Antiquaries, and that for 1914 is in the press ; the appended statement 
gives an interesting summary of the results gained during these three 
seasons in an undertaking that may fairly be described as of national 
importance. The Committee notes with satisfaction the rapid progress 
that is being made in determining the sequence and dating of Eomano- 
British pottery, thanks to the careful records of stratification kept in 
recent years at Corbridge, Wroxeter, and other sites. 

The Committee asks for reappointment and for a renewal of its 
grant. 

Reports to the Committee. 

I. 

Further Excavatio'us in Dinorhen, the ancient Hill Fort in Parc-y- 
meirch Wood, Kinmel Park, Abergele, North Wales, during 1914. 

By WiLLOUGHBT GARDNER, F.S.A. 

The excavations in this h!ll-fort by the Abergele Antiquarian 
Association and the Cambrian Archaeological Association, recorded 
in Reports of the British Association, 1912, pp. 611-12, and 
1913, pp. 231-36, were continued during the summer of 1914. The 
excavators were again greatly assisted by a Research Committee of 
Section H of the British Association, whose Secretary, Professor R. C. 
Bosanquet, spent two days upon the site, and by the Association's grant 
towards the cost. Work occupied about six weeks ; ten labourers and a 
foreman were employed, as before, and much help was given by 
amateur assistants. To Colonel Hughes, the owner of the site, warm 
thanks are again due for continued interest and assistance in numerous 
ways. 

Operations were first directed to the massive dry masonry wall 
discovered in 1913, running crosswise in the thickness of the main 
rampart, 18 feet to the E. of the S.E. entrance. As the rampart 
stood 9 feet high and was 28 feet thick at this point from facing wall 
in front to casing wall at back, and both these walls were buried 
behind a further thickness of debris, the work was laborious. The 
bulk of the rampart consisted of rubble-stone, but approaching the 
ground-level many large slabs and roughly squared stones were 
encountered near the cross-wall. In places, especially towards 
the inner side of the rampart, quantities of burnt stone and 
calcined lime were also found, with fragments of charcoal here and 
there. At the foot of the wall a well-gravelled surface was uncovered, 
trodden hard like a road. The cross-wall was laid bare to its foundation, 
standing 8 feet high for a straight length of 16 feet. At its outer end 
this massive wall was found to be cut at right angles by the later built 
facing wall of the rampart, continuous with the side wall of the pre- 



202 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

viously excavated S.E. entrance; at its inner end it turned off sharply 
2 feet to the right and then curved round in its first direction for several 
feet further, forming a shallow recess. There was a groove from top to 
bottom of the wall at 11 feet from its outer end, 1 foot 6 inches wide 
and 1 foot deep, and at the foot of this groove there was a hole in the 
ground stiffened by stone slabs ; this groove and hole were evidently 
for a wooden post built in at the time of construction. At the corner 
where the wall turned off 2 feet there was a similar post-hole in the 
ground, 1 foot 6 inches wide, apparently constructed of stones placed 
within a larger excavated hole. But both these post-holes were difficult 
of examination owing to the dangerous way in which the wall bulged 
over them. Opposite to these two post-holes, at a distance of 9 feet 
from the wall, two other large holes, cut out of the rocky ground, were 
subsequently unearthed; both contained many flat stones, either set 
upright or fallen within them, as if for post-holes; there were small 
pieces of charred wood, possibly remnants of a post, at the bottom of 
the N.W. hole. 

The gravelled road lying between these four holes was traced in an 
outward direction running beneath and beyond the later facing wall of 
the rampart ; in an inward direction it also continued beneath the back 
walls of the previously excavated guard-houses and two inner casing- 
walls of the rampart. It had a width of about 9 feet throughout its 
course. Curiously, no side wall was found on the W. side of this road- 
way; one big upright slab embedded alongside the outer post-hole 
here seemed to be the only stone of such a wall hi situ. But apparently 
many of the stones of a former wall were those which were found lying 
upon the roadway; others had probably been quarried for later con- 
structions. 

It seems clear, therefore, that the excavations have brought to light 
a ruined entrance of still earlier date than the successive entrances 
unearthed 18 feet W. in 1912 and 1913. This earlier entrance seems 
to have suffered forcible destruction by the throwing down of its western 
wall into the passage. Moreover, the quantities of burnt stones and 
burnt lime, with some charcoal, found in the lower strata of its ruins, 
point to a conflagration at the same time. 

It was noted that the burnt lime layer above the roadway extended 
beneath the foundations of the two successive guard-houses on this side 
belonging to the previously excavated S.E. entrances. The only relics 
found in this early entrance were pieces of broken bone of Bos trodden 
into the roadway, some charcoal, a broken ' pot boiler,' and a small bone 
' scraper * — none of which are datable. 

This discovery under the rampart on the E. side of the first-found 
S.E. entrance made it desirable to examine the rampart on its W. side ; 
and this more particularly because ditches 1 and 2 here were found, 
upon excavation last year, to curve inwards and to end at some distance 
before reaching the entrance. The rampart at this point is unfor- 
tunately very large and four big trees were growing upon it ; these were 
felled and removed ; but as the excavation of such a mass of material 
by barrow and plank in a difficult position would have been very 
laborious, it was decided to employ a ropeway carrier of the ' Mond ' 



ON EXCAVATIONS ON ROMAN SITES IN BRITAIN. 203 

type (so successfully used in Egyptian excavations), modified to suit 
the present site. This only came to hand towards the close of our 
time and did not work upon the steep slope, necessitating a return of 
portions to the makers for alteration. 

Meanwhile a beginning was made upon this rampart from the back, 
some 25 feet from the S.E. entrance. Here, in the interior area of the 
hill-foi-t and up the slope to the present crest of the rampart, fragments 
of black and red pottery were unearthed, at a depth of about a foot, 
similar to that found on the same horizon elsewhere. Then burnt 
lime began to appear, like that discovered in the earher entrance to the 
E. ; and, finally, a mass of burnt stones and lime was cut through, some 
5 feet thick against the rampart and tapering to nothing at a distance 
of 15 feet towards the interior area of the fort. Near the bottom of this 
mass and just above original ground level, a quantity of clay, burned 
red and hard almost like brick, was revealed, and mixed with and 
under this a great deal of charred wood ; some of the wood was as large 
as if the remains of considerable timbers. Here again, therefore, there 
would appear to be traces of some great conflagration, apparently 
belonging to the same period as the lesser traces of fire found in the 
early entrance. On following up these deposits of burnt lime towards 
the E., they were found to run beneath the foundations of the guard- 
houses on this side belonging to the entrances excavated in 1912 and 
1913 ; again, therefore, marking an episode at some distinctly earlier 
date. Further explorations beneath this great rampart by aid of the 
rope carrier are looked fonvard to with interest. 

Turning again to the main rampart N.E. of the S.E. entrance, a 
cutting was made through it at a point 105 feet distant from the 
entrance. Its dry masonry outer facing wall, still standing 3 feet high, 
was discovered beneath fallen dibris in 1912 ; its inner face was now 
found to be marked by a line of big stones with some pitching above, 
showing a rampart 23 feet thick. The core was of mixed construction 
and material, and apparently contained an earlier rampart, 15 feet 
thick, revetted also on its inner side with a stone wall 3 feet high. 

Before leaving the neighbourhood of the S.E. entrance excavated in 
1912 and 1913, the gravel roads leading therefrom were further investi- 
gated. It will be remembered that three superincumbent roads were 
found in the entrance passage. The upper one, proved by relics to be in 
use in the fourth century, ran down the slope towards the E.S.E. ; at a 
distance of 45 feet from its outermost post-holes it crossed over the end 
of ditch 1, the whole length of which had been filled and hidden from 
sight by stony debris at some earlier date. The second road could not 
be distinguished far beyond the entrance passage, and may have been a 
local reparation only. The lowest of the three roads, however, was 
found to run S.S.E. till it was crossed and covered by the end of 
rampart 3. This lowest road was from 12 to 15 feet wide and was made 
of small blue gravel laid, 6 inches thick at its centre, upon the original 
ground surface. Neither of these roads outside the entrance had any 
' pitctiing ' below or any curbstones at their sides. "We thus obtain 
relative ages for ditch 1 on the E. side and rampart 3 on the W. side of 
the S.E. entrance. Noteworthy relics unearthed in these investigations 



204: REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

were a bronze hook and eye bracelet, with dot and ring ornament, 
found 1 foot deep, and a small bronze crozier-shaped object, possibly 
the handle of a key, from about the same depth. 

Attention was next directed to the N. end of the stronghold, in 
continuation of the work previously done there. The buried entrance 
at the N.E. was further investigated. The position of this entrance was 
marked down in 1912 by the discovery of a stone-lined post-hole, and 
was further proved in 1913 by the excavation of a rock causeway 
leading up to it between the ends of two ditches. The ramparts here- 
abouts proved to be very ruinous, consisting of little more than rubble- 
core, with their facing-stones and much of their bulk thrown down into, 
filling and completely covering up, the ditches in front. When the 
dihris which choked this entrance 5 feet deep was removed, it was 
found to be a passage about 10 feet long and 10 feet wide at right 
angles through the rampart. No side walls were found; presumably 
they had been removed when the entrance was destroyed; 
but four post-holes were unearthed, one pair at either eoid of the 
passage. Of these, the one at the right hand on entering was 2 feet 
deep and stone-lined, and the one on the left was cut in the rock 
and shallower; at the inner end of the passage, the one on the left was 
2 feet deep cut in the rock, and the one on the opposite side shallower; 
in the deeper one charred wood was found. The roadway ascending 
steeply through this entrance passage was of rock, the interstices of 
which were filled in with small blue gravel. 

At some date subsequent to the destruction and choking up of this 
entrance, another and a smaller one seems to have been cut through the 
dibris. This was 10 feet long and only 4^ feet wide; portions of its 
side walls of dry masonry remained standing ; two pairs of small shallow 
post-holes were found cut in the rock, one pair at its entrance and one 
pair half-way through its length. The roadway through this entrance 
appeared to be made of large rough gravel, overlaid several inches 
thick upon the rocky floor of the earlier entrance. At the inner end of 
this later entrance, the side wall turned at right angles to the left and 
was traced as a casing wall to the iiiner side of the rampart for some 
12 feet ; at this point it was crossed by another curving-wall built at a 
higher level. The only relics found upon the floors of these two 
entrances were many broken bones of animals consumed for food, some 
* pot boilers,' and some charcoal, in this as in other respects corre- 
sponding with the lower floors of the S.E. entrance. At heights vary- 
ing from 2 to 3 feet above the lower floor, however, or 2 to 2| feet deep 
in the loose debris blocking the ruined entrance, fragments of Eoman 
pottery, iron nails, Eoman glass beads, and two coins of Constantine, 
all relics of the fourth century occupation of the stronghold, were 
unearthed. At a little above the same level, some foundations of a wall- 
facing ran across the outer end of the passage, showing that at this 
period there was no entrance here. 

Following up the roadway into the hill-fort, some 60 square yards 
of the interior area were next explored by careful riddling. Considerable 
quantities of Eomano-British relics, including several coins, all similar 
to those found close by in 1913, were unearthed. These relics were 



ON EXCAVATIONS ON ROMAN SITES IN BRITAIN. 205 

again very near to the present surface; they were for the most part 
covered by a foot of humus only. 

The main rampart at the S.W. side of the hill-fort was then investi- 
gated, together with some 55 square yards of the interior area adjacent 
— the whole of the latter with the riddle. Here, what had come to be 
known as our ' relic bed ' was again encountered, between 1 and 1^ feet 
below the present surface. The bed extended from the level interior 
area almost up to the crest of the rampart, although objects upon the 
flat were far more abundant than upon the slope of the rampart. The 
relics found were practically a repetition of those already recorded 
from a similar level elsewhere in the hill-fort, with certain additions. 
These additions included part of a bronze penannular brooch, an 
interesting bronze gilt ornament (possibly a plate brooch), several 
earrings and other articles of coiled bronze wire, a bone toggle, a very 
small iron sickle, part of a horseshoe, a good flint scraper, and, among 
pottery, fragments of a red incense bowl with fringed rim, fragments 
of painted white mortaria with hammer-head rim, fragments and a 
rim of ' calcite ' or ' vesicular ' ware and several portions of black bowls 
mended with iron rivets ; the latter would seem to show that even the 
common pottery used here was imported from a distance, or it would 
hardly have been worth the trouble of repair by riveting. 

The rampart here was then cut through from back to front; there 
was no facing- wall, only a few stones in line which may have been the 
remnant of one. Some 30 feet behind these stones a low wall appa- 
rently marked the back of the rampart. The core was again found to 
be of mixed material, mostly dry rubble-stone with thick layers of clay 
in places ; its construction 'seemed to show a later and a larger rampart 
covering an earlier and a smaller one. At a point 5 feet in front of the 
present crest and 4 feet below it, the top of a parallel dry stone wall 
was encountered ; this was excavated and found to stand 5 feet high ; it 
was probably the back wall of the earlier rampart. Further, at 11 feet 
behind this wall and 10 feet below the present crest, the top course of 
yet another parallel wall was discovered on the closing day of our work ; 
this would seem to belong to a still earlier structure. We regretted 
the necessity of postponing its exploration, which will require the 
removal of a great weight of material in order to reach it. 

Many fresh cuttings were also made at various points in front of the 
rampart, in further investigation of visible ditches and ramparts and in 
search for other ditches suspected but hidden from view by dibris. Two 
long cuttings approximately W.S.W. (on which side of the hill-fort 
it will be remembered that the main rampart is entirely thrown down) 
revealed three parallel ditches cut in the rock ; two of these had been 
hidden from sight by fallen debris. These three ditches, like others 
previously excavated, were filled, the first completely and the second 
and third less so, according to the slope of the hill-side, with clean 
dry rubble mixed with some larger wall-facing stones. These stones lay 
upon the rocky bottoms of the ditches with hardly any silting below 
them, again showing that the main rampart must have been thrown 
down soon after these ditches were cut. 

Part of the rocky berm excavated between the site of the main 



206 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

rampart and the first ditch revealed an unexpected layer of clay and 
gravel beneath the superincumbent stones; this was dug through, 2 feet 
thick, and beneath it, in each section, another and an earlier ditch 
cut in the rock, 5 feet deep and 7 feet wide, was brought to light. 
This ditch again was filled nearly to its brim with dry rubble stones, 
beneath which there was 1 to 3 inches of silting on the bottom of the 
ditch. These rubble stones must represent the ruins of a former 
rampart above of corresponding age; and the probable foundations of 
such a rampart were seen in the westernmost cutting. 

In one of the cuttings made in 1913 to the S.S.E., which had 
revealed previously hidden first and second ditches cut in the earth, 
some curious features were then noted beneath the second rampart; 
these called for further investigation when timber could be obtained to 
make the deep excavation safe. This year the cutting was dug deeper, 
with the result that below the artificially laid clay of the second rampart 
another and an older wide ditch, partly cut in rock, was here also 
brought to light ; this ditch was likewise found to be half filled with dry 
fallen rubble mixed with a few larger wall-facing stones, again showing 
the existence and the destruction of a stone rampart behind it of 
approximately similar age. Unfortunately, no datable relics were 
found in any of these earlier ditches or in connection with the earlier 
wall-facings. 

To sum up the work done in 1914. In addition to the finding of 
many relics and the gaining of further information about the occupation 
of the stronghold in the fourth century a.d., many important fresh 
discoveries have been made, which give glimpses of the structure of 
a previously destroyed hill-fort or hill-forts. To follow up these dis- 
coveries under huge masses of difficult and shifting stony debris, and to 
link up the facts already obtained to one another, much labour will 
have to be incurred. But the investigators are looking forward to 
continuing the work after the cessation of the War. Detailed records 
of excavations made in 1914 have been preserved, as before, in the 
form of plans, sections, and photographs. 

II. 

Excavations at Wroxeter, on the Site of the Roman town of Uriconium, 
1912-1914. By J. P. Bushe-Fox, F.S.A. 

The Society of Antiquaries, in conjunction with the Shropshire 
Archaeological Society, carried on extensive excavations at Wroxeter 
during the years 1912, 1913, and 1914. 

Wroxeter, the ancient Viroconium or Uriconium, is situated on the 
east bank of the Severn, between five and six miles south-east of 
Shrewsbury. The lines of its walls can still be traced enclosing an area 
of about 170 acres, and the town must have been an important centre 
in Eoman-Britain, as it stood at the junction of two of the main roads, 
viz., the Watling Street from London and the south-east and the road 
from the legionary fortress of Caerleon in South Wales. There were 
also other roads running from it into Wales and to Chester. The 
town is referred to by the Eavenna geographer as Viroconium Corno- 



ON EXCAVATIONS ON ROMAN SITES IN BRITAIN. 207 

viorum, and was probably the chief town of that tribe which inhabited 
a district including both Wroxeter and Chester. 

That the site was inhabited soon after the invasion under Claudius 
in 43 A.D. is evident. Coins and other objects of pre-Flavian date have 
been met with in some quantities, and there are tombstones of soldiers 
of the XIV. legion from the cemetery. This legion came over with 
Claudius and left Britain for good in the year 70 a.d. Wroxeter, situated 
on the edge of the Welsh hills and protected from attack on that side 
by the Eiver Severn, would have formed an admirable base for opera- 
tions against the turbulent tribes of Wales, and it is more than likely 
that it was used as such in the campaigns undertaken by Ostorius 
Scapula in 50 a.d. and by Suetonius Paulinus in 60 a.d. 

The Welsh tribes v/ere finally subdued before the end of the reign of 
Vespasian, and, the country becoming more settled, Wroxeter appears 
to have ceased to be a military centre and to have grown into a- large 
and prosperous town. It is in this period, namely the last quarter of 
the first century a.d., that the occupation began on the part of the 
site recently excavated. Very little of the earlier buildings remained, as 
they all appear to have been built of wood and wattle-and-daub. In 
the second century more substantial houses were erected, and in the 
course of the excavations the following buildings were uncovered. 
In 1912 four long shops with rooms at the back and open fronts 
with porticos on the street. In 1913 a temple which must 
have been of some architectural pretensions and contained life- 
size statues, of which several fragments were discovered. In 
1914 a large dwelhng-house consisting of a number of rooms 
with a large portico on the street and a small bath-house at the 
south side. The porticos of all these buildings formed a continuous 
colonnade by the side of the street. At the back of the large dwelling- 
house another structure was discovered. Unfortunately, it could not 
be entirely explored, as its west part was beyond the reserved area. 
It consisted of two parallel walls, 13 feet apart, which enclosed, an 
oblong space with rounded corners, 144 feet wide and 188 feet long, 
to the furthest point excavated. No other building of this form appears 
to have been found elsewhere, and it is difficult to say for what purpose 
it was used, especially as part of it is still unexcavated. It is possible, 
however, that it may have been a place of amusement for games, bull- 
baiting, &c., and that the two parallel walls held tiers of wooden seats. 

The buildings tha.t faced the street had been altered and rebuilt 
several times, the mixed soil being as deep as 8 feet to 10 feet in places, 
making the work of excavation very slow and laborious. For instance, 
in 1914 there was evidence of at least four different periods of buildings* 
on the same site. In the early period there were wood and wattle- 
and-daub houses. Over the remains of these in the first half of the 
second century three long buildings with open fronts or porticos 
similar to those found in 1912 were erected. About the middle of the 
second century these three buildings were incorporated in one large 
house with corridors, two courtyards, many rooms, some with 
mosaic floors, and others fitted with hypocausts. A bath-house with 
cold baths and hot rooms was situated at the south-west corner. At a 



208 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

later period this dwelling was considerably altered, several of the 
rooms were swept away, and the central part of the building turned 
into one large courtyard with corridors on three sides. Two new 
hypocausts were inserted and extra rooms and a long corridor or 
verandah built at the back. Water was supplied to the houses by a 
water-main at the side of the road. By shutting sluice-gates 
it was possible to divert the water into side-channels, which ran 
through the houses flushing their drains, and discharged at the back 
into the river. Eleven wells were found during the excavations, vary- 
ing from 10 feet to 12 feet deep and stone-lined. 

A number of crucibles and some unfinished bronze castings, &c., 
have been met with, showing that metal- working was carried on on the 
site. There was also evidence of other industrial processes, such as 
enamelling and working in bone. A very large number of small objects 
have -been discovered during the excavations, such as cameos, en- 
graved gems — some still set in finger-rings — many brooches of different 
metals, enamelled ornaments, and a quantity of interesting articles in 
different metals, bone, glass, &c. 

The great quantity of pottery found may be judged by the fact 
that upwards of 900 potters' stamps on Samian ware have been 
recorded. The coins number between 1,200 and 1,300, among them 
being a few British varieties. No coins later than the end of the fourth 
century have as yet been met with, and the town does not appear 
to have been inhabited after that date. What was the cause of its 
destruction or desertion is as yet uncertain, but it is hoped that future 
excavations will solve the problem. 

Detailed accounts of the excavations are printed in Eeports of the 
Eesearch Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London, Nos. 1, 
2, and 4. 



ArchcBological Investigations in Malta. — Report of the Com,' 
mittee, consisting of Professor J. L. Myres (Chairman), Dr. 
T. AsHBY (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
and Dr. E. E. Marett. 

DuBiNQ the year excavations have been carried out by Dr. Ashby in the 
ruins at Xrobb il Ghargin, and by Dr. G. Despott at Tal Herba and the 
Burmeghez Fissures. Eeports on these excavations are appended. 
The whole of the grant has been expended on this work. The Com- 
mittee ask to be reappointed with a further grant of 10/. for the purpose 
of carrying on the investigation of other important sites in the island. 

I. 

Xrobb il Ghargin. By Dr. T. Ashby. 

The ruins of Xrobb il Ghargin are as beautifully situated as any in 
Malta. The building which they represent was undoubtedly a temple 
or sacred edifice of the eneolithic period, and its site is an exceptional 
one, on the edge of the cliffs near the extreme S.E. point of the island. 



British Association, 85th Beport, Manchester, 1915.] [Plate X. 




Coast Site of Building. 




[Room A, looking North-west. 



Ilhistrating Beport on ArchcBological Investigations in Malta. 

[Tofnci'pagi'iOS. 



ON ARCH^OLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MALTA. 



209 



To the N.E. runs a line of exceptionally white cliffs, which terminate 
in the treacherous reef of the Munshiar (saw); to the S. is a much 
smaller point of softer and yellower rock running eastward, in the upper 
strata (the harder white strata begin to dip), and followed to the S.E. by 
a flatter bit of coast, guarded by a disused redoubt and tower. Thea 
the deep indentations begin again, and continue until Delimara Point, 




T'TORBA FLOOR 
U.S. -LOOSE STONES 
- ms> ^STANDING STONES 

Plan of Neolithic Remains at Xrobb-il-Ghagin on the East Coast of Malta, 

surveyed in May 1915. 

with its lighthouse, is reached. In the bay between the Munshiar 
and the redoubt, about 150 feet above the sea, is the building which 
forms the subject of the present paper. All the rock of this part of 
the island is soft, and the indentations are continually becoming 
deeper, while the cliffs are much undercut. A considerable portion of 
the edifice has thus fallen into the sea, and the collapse of the rest 
may not be very far distant, as it is deeply undermined. The existence 
of the ruins was discovered by Mr. Carmelo Eizzo, P. A. A., who 
1915. P 



210 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

noticed the presence of a considerable deptii of red soil upon the light- 
yellow rock. 

Excavations were undertaken in December 1914 by Captain Laferla 
of the King's Own Malta Militia, who uncovered the most important 
portion oi tlie building. The plan was not completed, however, owing 
to lack of time, and supplementary work proved necessary. This ex- 
tended over ten days in May 1915, under my supervision. 

The remains ol the structure need, as they stand, a comparatively 
brief description. We have, it seems, before us a sacred building of 
the eneolithic period — contemporary, that is, with Hagiar Kim, Mnai- 
dra, the Gigantia, and the other megalithic edifices of the Maltese 
islands Owing to its situation it does not altogether conform to the 
normal plan, as far as we can judge from the existing remains; 
though the fact that much of it has fallen into the sea must always 
be taken into account. 

We seem, then, to have before us a central portion, consisting of 
(1) a semicircular chamber with a torba floor, with a shrine facing 
S.E. at its N.W. extremity; (2) a passage paved with large slabs of 
stone, which are on the level of the top of the low niche of the shrine, 
and are indirectly reached from the chamber A by a flight of steps 
leading into the chamber D on the S.W. side of this passage; (3) a 
chamber at the N.W. end of this passage; (_4) another chamber beyond 
D again. Mr. E. V. Galea has noticed that in this building only of 
the megalithic monuments of Malta the main chambers are semi- 
circular and not elliptical. On the N.E. side we have only the 
beginnings of walls, from which we cannot do more than infer the 
existei'ce of other chambers here. But from the examination of the 
rest, it seems almost as if we might recognise in the central portion 
an arrangement identical with that which is familiar to us in the 
larger Maltese sanctuaries — two elliptical chambers joined together by 
a passage across their shorter axes, with a niche at the end of this 
passage, in a straight line with the main entrance. 

The portion of the building to the S.E. of A is constructed on a 
fairly steep slope, and traces of steps connecting its different portions 
may be seen at various points. For the rest, however, it is much 
ruined, and the same is the case on the N. 

We may now proceed to describe the building in somewhat greater 
detail, beginning at the S.E. boundary-wall. This wall follows an 
irregular curve, and is built of rough stones of no great size. A con- 
siderable amount of pottery and some good flints were found just 
outside it (some in a burnt earth layer 1-00 down) as though they had 
been thrown out here from the interior of the building, the flints more 
especially at its extreme south point, where it turns to run south-west. 
Somewhat scanty remains of two flights of steps ascending through it 
to the interior of the building may be seen at two different points. 
They both served as means of communication with the upper part of 
the building, and apparently led to a passage which ran outside the 
lower (S.E.) wall of A. 

There are a good many standing stones in this portion of the 
building, none of them being preserved to any great height, so that 






•%4HI8T^ 



British Association, 85th Report, Manchester, 1915.] [Plate XI. 




Boom A aud Steps to D, looking North. 




Niche in A. 



Illiistratmg Beport on Archceological Investigations in Malta. 

ITo face page 211. 



ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MALTA. 211 

the arrangement of this part is not very certain. But there was no 
doubt a massive terrace wall below Eoom A with vertical slabs once 
preserved to some height, and forming a facade ; and here, as elsewhere, 
there were, besides, tie-slabs at right angles to the direction of the 
fa9ade. This fa9ade had, as is usual, footing blocks, which may be 
seen at a, where they are 0"65 m. wide. Behind it was a space filled 
with loose stones, and then came the inner wall of A. The total thick- 
ness of this wall, without the footing blocks, was thus not less than 
2-95 m. 

The most important part of the building is, as we have said, Eoom 
A. It is a semicircular room some 10 m. in diameter; the inner wall, 
the lowest stones of which are preserved, was about 0'65 m. thick. 
On the S.W. side there is a line of low slabs 0'55 m. wide along its 
inner side, which possibly served as a seat, as they are 0"28 m. above 
the floor. 1 The I'oom has a torba floor O'lOm. thick; under it are 
stones and earth. In the earth a considerable amount of pottery was 
found, which is naturally of considerable importance for the determina- 
tion of the date of its construction. The rock-bottom is 0'67 to I'OO m. 
down. 

The chord of the semicircle is occupied by the shrine, a dolmenic 
niche resting upon small pillars, and only 0'30 m. in height. It faces 
35° E. of S. The covering stone measures 1'91 m. in length by 0"81 m. 
in depth, and 0"28m. in thickness; and the vertical front, which 
is slightly convex as regards its length, is finely pitted with round 
holes. The niche itself is curved, and measures I'OO in width and 
075 m. in depth; the wall is built of small stones, the joints of which 
are formed of clay, which is still well preserved. 

In the niche was formed a large circular ball of stone, 0"39 m. in 
diameter, one side being slightly flattened. 

In front of the niche is a low threshold stone, broken into three 
pieces, and measuring 2"50 m. in length, 0'90 in maximum width, and 
0'20 in thickness. The front edge of it slopes away slightly towards 
the torba floor. In the centre of this stone is a rectangular base 
measuring 0'47 m. long, 0"24 m. wide, and O'OB m. high. The vertical 
front of it shows signs of pitting, and it has no doubt been a pedestal 
to carry some sacred object which was revered at this shrine. On each 
side of the shrine the threshold is continued by another block, that on 
the west having an incised line along the top of the vertical face. The 
total length is thus 4'19m. Behind and beside these blocks are 
standing stones. To the S.W. of the shrine is a flight of three steps 
1'58 m. wide, with a raised threshold block between the second and 
third step leading up between vertical slabs (and therefore probably 
roofed), to Eoom D, which is paved with torba," the rock being about 
0'47m. down. The Hntel block of the shrine has the upper surface 
smoothed; in it are two very shallow depressions 0"13m. apart and 
0"035 m. in diameter, which obviously bear some analogy to the pairs 
of holes connected by a small tunnel, which are frequently met with 
in the thresholds of the megalithic buildings of Malta. Beyond 

> 15° E. of S. is a foundation of stones projecting 0-90 and 1-25 wide. 
2 In it was a layer 0-04 m, thick of burnt earth, with a few small pieces of wood. 

p 2 



212 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. - 

this is another slab, and then a raised threshold block, exactly like that 
at c in Corradino South. Then comes a threshold divided into three 
parts, at each end of which are small, slightly raised areas' upon 
which wooden door posts may have rested ; and then comes a smaller 
slab. So far, at least, vertical slabs are preserved on the N.E. side 
of this slab pavement, and their presence may perhaps be supposed 
on the N.W. The original height cannot be determined, as 
those on the N.E. are truncated; but it would seem clear that there 
was originally one upper dolmenic niche above the shrine as it is 
preserved. Beyond this point there is a recess on the N.E. side 
measuring 0"82 x 0'46 (the floor block of it is 0'21 thick and lies above 
the slab pavement of the passage, and a burnt earth layer was found 
upon it). 

Behind and beyond it is the torba floor of another room, the greater 
part of which has fallen down the cliff, on the level of the main slab 
pavement; and here is a strongly marked burnt layer with charred wood 
in it, while on the S.W. the torba floor of D must originally have come 
up to the slab pavement of the central passage. This is here composed 
of two large slabs 022 m. thick, running S.E. and N.W. Under 
them is a torba floor (scanty traces) 0'53 m. below the bottom of the 
block. 

After a space filled with broken stones, we reach two low steps. 
Between it and the upper block is a space 0"12 m. high, closed by 
small stones; then comes the upper block. There is a vertical slab 
on each side. The passage then narrows considerably, still having 
vertical slabs on each side. At the point where it does so, the paving 
block of the passage has a raised area 0"77 m. long, 0'36 m. wide, 
and 0"06 m. high, which, no doubt, served as a base for a statue 
or baetylus. 

Beyond it is a smoothed block with a fine small edging round it, 
and a smoothed vertical face on the N.W. which must, however, have 
mainly been covered by torba. This narrow passage leads into another 
room with a torba floor. The side walls are of vertical slabs, but do 
not go down within 0.30 m. of the floor-level, being supported by a base 
of stones and earth. The block b is in situ, and in the recess on the 
S.W. of it a round slab of stone 0"45m. in diameter and 0'05 thick 
was found lying on the torba floor. The block c, on the other hand, 
has fallen from the side wall. 

The exploration of the mound behind (1) led to no definite result; 
and it is probable that the building did not extend further in this 
direction, that the mound was piled up to support the back of (1), and 
that the stones to the W. of (1) have simply fallen. 

A little pottery was found about six feet down on an irregular 
sloping block of stone, which is probably a part of the rock. The soil 
has apparently been washed down the slope in the course of centuries. 
At the lower extremity of it is a straight wall of small stones, no doubt 
a field-wall, certainly having no connection with the megalithic build- 
ing. To the S.W. of the room is an area paved with torba, which rests 

' 38 X 24 c.m. on S.W. 45 x 17 on N.E, 



ON^ARCH^OLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MALTA. 213 

directly on the rock, which is O'lS below its upper surface. It is 
confined on the N.W. by a curving wall, but its limits towards the 
S.W. cannot be fixed. 

To the S. of the building is a well. Lower down the slope are some 
very uncertain traces of walls of which nothing definite could be made. 

II. 

Tal Herba and Burmeghez Fissures. By Dr. G. Despott. 

Tal Herba Quarry. This quarry, which is known to the people of 
the locality as ' II Barrira tal Herba ' or ' II Barrira tal Guzzu,' is 
situated on the right side of the road which leads from Luca to Micabiba 
or Mkabba, and is only about 200 yards away from the first houses of 
this last village. At present it is no longer a quarry, but has been 
filled with red earth and is being used as a field where crops are regu- 
larly grown. The fissures in this quany are two, which we will call 
Fissure 1 and Fissur^ 2. 

Fissure 1. — This fissure was dug by me, assisted by my friend Mr. 
Carmelo Eizzo, the Engineer to the Public Health Department. A.s 
could be judged from a section of it which still remained when we first 
saw it, it was bell-shaped, very like the surface fissures at Burmeghez, 
which place is only at a short distance to the N.W. of this; human 
bones having been found in these fissures we naturally expected to find 
the same in the present one too. The original opening to this fissure 
was also similar to those of Burmeghez, being at the top, and had a 
diameter of two or two and a half feet. (When I say at the top, I 
mean in a vertical and not in a slanting position, like many of the 
openings to the other fissures.) The depth was a little over six feet, 
and its greatest width eight feet. At a distance which varied from two 
to three feet from the opening it was filled with the usual red earth, 
this being of a lighter colour at the surface. 

On our arrival at the place the workmen at the quarry presented to 
us some loose bones which looked very like heads of the limb-bones 
of an elephant. As these, however, were not found by us in situ, we 
decided to discard them, knowing, moreover, that such bones could be 
secured from a locality near Mkabba, known as Gaudia fissure. The 
first piece of bone we found in our digging was the right part of a 
mandible of a pig (Sus scrofa). A few inches further down the remains 
of a stag {Cervus elaphus var. barbarus) were found, and these con- 
tinued till a depth of about a foot; together with these was also found 
a part of a marine bivalve {Tapes decussata). 

At this place, i.e., at about one foot from the surface, a plastron 
from a carapace of a tortoise, probably a fresh-water species, was 
found, and to a depth of more than two feet these remains continued; 
amongst them we could identify six humeri of the same side, showing 
thus that the remains belonged to at least six individuals, and these 
must have varied in size from six to say eight inches. Some of the 
plastrons were still adhering together, but as they were so very friable 
and the earth of a rather hard consistency, it was very difficult to 
extract them whole. With the tortoises we found also the remains of 



214 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

birds which varied from the size of a pigeon to that of a common fowl ; 
to what species these belonged I could not make out, so I have sent 
them to Dr. Smith Woodward, of the British Museum of Natural 
History, for identification. In the remaining part, which varied in 
depth from one inch to about one foot (the bottom of the fissure being 
sloping), we found a part of the right tibia of the swan (Cygnus 
Falconerii) and more cervine remains, amongst which a good part of a 
shed antler, whose thickness at the base was one inch. 

All the animal remains at the bottom were in a much more frag- 
mentary state than those found further up. The only parts found in a 
good state of preservation were the above-mentioned antler and some 
cervine teeth; amongst these were found two human ones, belonging to 
the upper jaw. 

I am not aware that in Malta human remains have been previously 
found associated with the above-mentioned animal remains. The dis- 
covery is thus one of great importance. 

The fissure just described leads to another further down; in this, 
however, no animal remains were found. 

Fissure 2. — The original opening to this fissure, which is not more 
than eight yards apart from Fissure 1, is a crevice of the slanting type, 
and the fissure is quite different from Fissure 1, too; in fact, it is a 
straight crevice in the rock, which widens as it goes down ; its direction 
is N.W. to S.E. The present entrance, which is a section of it, faces 
the S.E. ; its greatest height just permitted one to stand up straight. 
The digging here was conducted by Dr. T. Ashby, who was assisted by 
Captam F. H. S. Stone, of the P. & 0. s.s. Isis. The earth in this 
fissure, which was of the same quality as that in Fissure 1, was mixed 
almost to the bottom with the white dust of the Globigerina stone of the 
quarry. The animal remains which I could identify belonged to the stag 
(C. elaphus var. harbarus), a dormouse (Myoxus meltensis), two species 
of swan (Cygnus Falconerii), and several species of birds which have not 
yet been identified; together with these were also found parts of the 
carapace of the tortoise which must have been not much smaller than the 
gigantic tortoise found at Corradino two years ago, and about which a 
full report by Professor N. Tagliaferro was published in the Bulletin 
of the Malta Historical and Scientific Society. All the doubtful bones 
from this fissure have been also sent for identification to the British 
Museum. 

Herba Fissure No. 2. 

Prof. Zammit and Mr. Eizzo did some more digging in Fissure No. 2, 
which extends still further in. The earth here continued to be of the 
usual red quality, and in it the animal remains belong to the stag, 
tortoise, swan, and birds which vary from the size of a pigeon to that 
of a duck or small goose. No remains of the Myoxus were met with 
during this period of excavations. 

Some of the bones are in a very good state of preservation ; others, 
however, are so very friable as to make it almost impossible to extract ; 
others are in such a fragmentary state as to leave no hopes for 
identification. 

The remains of the smaller birds are identical with those sent to 



ON ARCH^OLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MALTA. 



215 



Dr. Woodward to be identified. I may also state that there is yefc no 
sign of the end of this fissure. 

Herba Fissure No. 3. 

This fissure, which is only a few feet apart (to the N.W.) from the 
spot where Fissure No. 1 stood, promises to extend much more than 
any of the other two, so a trench about six or seven feet deep and 
about four or five feet square has been cut in it. For a couple of feet 
from the surface the earth is of the usual red type, mingled with stones 
and large pieces of stalactitic formations. In this layer the remains of 
stag in a most fragmentary state, and those of the same small tortoise 
met with in Fissure 1, are found in abundance, and, though the earth 
here is rather loose, the bones crumble to pieces as soon as touched. 

The remaining four or five feet of earth are also of the red quality, 
but mingled with a greyish clay which increases as it goes further 
down, thus giving a hard consistency, which towards the bottom in- 
creases to such a degree as to make the work rather difficult, and the 





Types of Slanting Fissures. 

animal remains almost impossible to extract. The bones here belong 
to the swan, stag, and probably a gigantic tortoise; remains of small 
birds are also met with. 

I have assisted in the digging myself and can state that the bones 
have been deposited in fragments, and many of them in such a bad 
state as to render identification quite impossible. In the last two feet 
of earth stalagmitic formations are also found in abundance, thus 



216 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, — 1915. 



rendering the work even more dfficult ; these, however, must have been 
carried into the fissure together with the bones. All the bones are 
found lying in such confusion that there is no doubt they have been 
carried into the fissure by some inrush of water. 

The shape of the fissure cannot at present be imagined, for, as 
already stated, it seems to extend considerably in all directions, and 
what has often been thought to be the bottom of it was only some 
large stone which has been also introduced there. 

The smaller specimens of avian remains belong to the species 
whose identification will also be due to the speciahsts of the South 
Kensington Museum. 

Burmeghez Quarries. — These extensive quarries, known as ' II 
Barrieri ta Burmeghez,' are situated at a short distance from the Herba 






^(^(K 



"'K'^ 




^'>MiL 



Section of ' Herba Fissure 1.' 

1. Sus scrofa (pig). 

2. Gervus daphus var. iarbarus (stag). 

3. ditto ditto + Tapes decussata. 

4. Tortoise and avian remains. 

5. Swan, more cervian remains, and human teeth. 

quarry, and can be also reached from the road which leads from the 
Marsa to Mkabba. Several of these quarries have been already con- 
verted into cultivated fields, but many are still worked, and in these 
fissures are continually met with. 

The Fissures. — These, which have been also dug by Dr. T. Ashby, 
are all situated at a great depth from the surface (perhaps fifty feet or 
more), and they are all of the slanting crevices type. The animal 
remains found in them, and which Dr. Ashby consigned to me for ex- 
amination, consist of the remains of the stag which must have been so 
common in those localities, and which Prof. Tagliaferro describes as a 



ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MALTA. 217 

email variety of the Cervus elaphus var. barbarus, some equine teeth, 
a humerus of a tortoise of the same species as those found in Herba 
Fissure 1, and some limb-bones of small mammals. 



The Ductless Glands. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor Sir Edward Schafer (Chairman) , Professor Swale 
Vincent (Secretary), Professor A. B. Macallum, Dr. L. E. 
Shore, and Mrs. W. H. Thompson. (Drawn up hy the 
Secretary.) 

The Secretary has been engaged upon several problems connected with 
internal secretion. In conjunction with Mr. Wheeler, he has investi- 
gated the effects of extirpation of the medulla of the adrenal bodies, 
leaving (as far as possible) the cortex undamaged. Account has also 
been taken, in some of these experiments, of the abdominal chromaphil 
body. The results obtained so far indicate that it is the cortex and not 
the medulla which is essential to the life of the animal. It seems likely 
that the adrenin function of the chromaphil tissues is only called into 
requisition in emergencies (as in certain emotional conditions 
[Cannon] ). 

Incidentally an inquiry into the action of hormones on the vaso- 
motor reflexes has led to a study of certain general aspects of such 
reflexes. The results are published in the Quarterly Journal of Experi- 
mental Physiology, vol. ix. 

The Secretary is reinvestigating the relation of the islets of Langer^ 
hans to the zymogenous tissues of the pancreas. No definite con- 
clusions have yet been reached. 

Some points in the structure of the pituitary have also received 
attention (s.v., Practitioner, Jan. 1915, p. 16). 

Mr. A. T. Cameron has continued his investigations on the distribu- 
tion of iodine in plant and animal tissues. His new results confirm 
those previously published (J. Biol. Chem., 1914, 18, 335-80). The 
results below are for dry tissue. He finds that iodine is an invariable 
constituent of ascidian tests, the amount varying from a trace up to 
about 0'3 per cent. The endostyle contains no detectable quantity, 
and therefore, as regards iodine function, appears to differ from thyroid. 
The other tissues contain traces, which increase with increasing amounts 
in the test. The outer layer of the foot of the horse -clam and of the 
cockle contains iodine of the order 0*2 per cent. Iodine is an invariable 
constituent of the tubes of annelid worms, the amount (in absence of 
sand and calcium carbonate) varying in different species from 0*1 to 
0"7 per cent. The worms themselves contain amounts varying from 
O'Ol to 0"1 per cent. One species of diatom showed no detectable 
quantity of iodine, indicating that diatoms may not be a link in the 
cycle of iodine in sea-life. Some fresh thyroid material has been 
examined. The thyroid of the dog-fish, Squalus sucklii, contains 
approximately 0'2 per cent, iodine and the amount does not appear 
to vary appreciably at different seasons of the year. A case of goitre 



218 BEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

in this species has been reported on (Cameron and Vincent, J. Med. 
Res., May 1915), which is the first observed in salt-water fislies. The 
thyroid of the rat-fish {Hydrolagus collicii, a holocephaloid) contains 
quantities of iodine varying from 0"5 to 0'75 per cent, (different 
samples). Several species of sea-birds have been examined. The 
thyroids of the surf scoter (2 specimens) contain 1"1 per cent., of the 
pigeon guillemot 0'4 per cent., and of the marble murrelet 0'3 per cent. 
The thyroids of crows {Corvus corvinus), feeding largely on clams, 
contain 0'75 per cent, iodine. These are all high values. The 
increasing ratio, previously shown to exist between the weight of the 
dried thyroid and the weight of the animal, with increased development, 
is confirmed. For Squalus sucklii it is about 6 mg. per kg., for 
Hydrolagus collicii about 12 mg. per kg., and for the birds examined 
the average figure is 25 mg. per kg. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of 35Z. 



Electromotive Phenomena in Plants. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. A. D. Wallee (Chairman) , Mrs. Waller 
(Secretary), Professors J. B. Farmer, T. Johnson, and 
Veley, and Dr. F. O'B. Ellison. 

The Electrical Measurement of the Vitality of Vegetable Tissues. 

Plumule V. Radicle. 

By A. D. Wallee, M.D., F.R.S., and A. M. Waller. 
In pursuance of experiments described in a previous Report to the 
Association (Birmingham, 1913, p. 241) we have endeavoured to, 
estimate the relative vitality of the stems and roots of seedlings by 
measuring the voltage of the blaze-currents excited by single induction 
shocks.* We took for this purpose the seedlings of barley — Hordeum 
vulgare — applying the test to the separated plumule and radicle 
respectively on the fourth and on the sixth day of germination on 
moist blotting-paper at a temperature of 18° to 20°C. As in pi'evious 
experiments, we used two galvanometers in circuit in order to read upon 
one or other of their two scales values of first responses, whether these 
happened to be of low or high voltage, but we give our results reduced 
to one of the two scales, that, namely, in which 001 volt through 
I'lO' ohms give a deflection of 12 degrees. The distance between the 
unpolarisable electrodes upon which the plant is laid was kept as nearly 
as possible constant as 5 mm. The galvanometer connections (see 
fig. 1) were taken such that the injury-current in the plant from the 
cut end B to the tip A was positive, so that the first response to an 
induction shock in the same or in the opposite direction was directed 
from A to B (in the plant), i.e., in the negative direction. [We observe 

* The Report in question is itself a continuation of work first described 
in 1900. Waller, ' An Attempt to Estimate the Vitality of Seeds by an' 
Electrical Method,' Proc. Boy. Soc., vol. 68, p. 79, 1901. Also Waller, ' Signs 
of Life from their Electrical Aspect,' John Murray, London, 1903. 



ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANTS. 



219 



the convention of reading deflections from left to right as ' positive,' 
from right to left as ' negative. '] 

The plant was excited by a single-break induction shock first in the 
positive then in the negative direction, weak then strong, from a Berne 
induction coil with two Leclanche cells (=2'9 volts) in .the primary 
circuit ; for ' weak ' and ' strong ' shocks the secondary coil was set 
at 1,000 and 10,000 units of the scale. As will be seen from the pro- 
tocols of experiment, the results of individual trials vary considerably in 
magnitude, a weak shock to one plant may produce a larger effect than 
that produced on another plant by a strong shock, and as a rule the 
effect of a second strong shock is considerably smaller than that of a 
previous strong shock. We have, therefore, taken average results of 
first trials, and have not taken into comparison the results of second 




INDUCTION COIL 



Fig 1.— Diagram of Cikcuit fok Testing Seeds. 



trials, especially when strong excitation has been employed. Such 
average values show clearly enough that the effects of strong excita- 
tion exceed those of weak excitation, and, as regards the particular 
question we set ourselves to answer by these experiments, the electrical 
response of a plumule (Hordeum vidgare is so far the only seedling we 
have examined) is of considerable higher voltage than that of a radicle 
— e.g., the former is considerably above O'Ol volt, the latter consider- 
ably below. 

In consequence of excitation the electrical resistance of the plant is 
diminished; the diminution is attributable to the chemical dissociation 
which has given rise to the blaze-current ; it is greater after strong than 
after weak excitation, and the increased conductivity appears to be in 
relation with the magnitude of the previous blaze-current. Thus we 
find for a plumule a diminution of resistance of 30 per cent, after a 
blaze-current of 004 volt, and for a radicle a diminution of less than 
10 per cent, after a blaze-current of below 001 volt. But the point 
requires further investigation ; we have not yet found means to dis- 
tinguish the possible effect of water-transport from that of dissociation 



220 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1915. 

in the increase of conductivity caused by electrical excitation. The 
value of such increase is expressed in the last column of the protocols 
as the numerical ratio between the deflections by 001 volt before and 
after excitation. Thus, e.g., in Observation IV., the deflections as 
given in columns 2 and 12 are 60 and 80 respectively, and the increase 
of conductivity is therefore expressed by the fraction fg or 1'33. 

We give below the detailed protocols of typical observations, each 
consisting of ten tests, and a summary of other observations, each of 
which also comprised ten tests. 

Column 1 gives the E.M.F. of the accidental current or current of 
injury of the plant, measured by compensation. The prefixed 
sign + signifies that its direction in the plant is from B to A. 
In Observation II. its high value is due to the fact that B 
is a transverse section, i.e., the seat of known injury. The 
magnitude of such injury-current is in itself to some extent 
an indication of the degree of vitality. The blaze-currents 
(columns 5, 7, 9, and 11) are of opposite direction to the injury- 
current. 

Column 2 gives in scale degrees the observed magnitude of the 
galvanometric deflection by 001 volt. Comparison of this 
deflection with the deflection by 001 volt through 1,000,000 
ohms indicates the resistance in circuit. 

Columns 3 and 13 give in ohms x 1,000 the resistance in circuit 
before and after excitation. 

Columns 4 and 6 give in scale degrees the observed magnitudes of 
the blaze deflections in response to weak-break induction shocks 
in the + and — directions. 

Columns 5 and 7 give the calculated values of the E.M.F. indicated 
by the observed deflections of columns 4 and 6. 

Columns 8 and 10 give in scale degrees the observed magnitudes 
of the blaze deflections in response to strong-break induction 
shocks in the + and — directions. 

Columns 9 and 11 give the calculated values of the E.M.F. indi- 
cated by the observed deflections of columns 8 and 10. 

Column 14 gives the relation of the conductivity after excitation to 
that before excitation taken = 100. Thus the number 133 signi- 
fies that the conductivity has been increased 33 per 100. 



ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANTS. 



221 



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222 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



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ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANTS. 



223 





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oSBJSAy 



224 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



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ON ELECTROMOTIVE PHENOMENA IN PLANTS. 



225 







Hordeuvi vvlffare.- 


—Summartj. 








I. 


Radicle 4 days . 


R 
X 1,000 
. 430 


Wpak 

Exc. 

00037 


Strong 

Exc. 

0-0074 


R 

X 1,000 

400 


Cond 
(100) 
107-5 


II. 


Plumule 6 days . 


404 


0-0380 


0-0470 


283 


139 


III. 


Radicle 6 days . 


. 370 


00030 


0-0069 


344 


107-5 



IV. Plumule 6 days 



396 00159 



0-0479 



286 



138 



Alterations of temperature give rise to considerable alterations of 
magnitude of blaze-curi^ents and of electrical conductivity ; it is not 
permissible, e.g., to compare effects observed at 15° and 25°; the 
observations reported above were taken within the range of 18° to 20°. 

Influence of Temperature. — During the years 1898-1900, when one 
of us was occupied with the examination of the physiological character 
of the blaze-current and of the physical conditions by which it is 
modified, systematic observations and records were taken of the in- 
fluence of temperature which at that time were not written up, and 
from which a repi'esentative experiment is now given in order to show 
the range of the temperature modification. 



Time. 


Temp. 


Cond. 


Bl. C. 
Corrected for Cond. 


min. 


18° 


1-0 


0-0163 volt. 


3 „ 


18 


10 


0-0138 „ 


, 6 „ 


18 


10 


0-0130 „ 


9 „ 


22 


1-3 


00193 „ 


' 12 „ 


27 


1-8 


0-0192 „ 


15 „ 


33 


2 1 


00095 „ 


1 18 „ 


37 


2-6 


0-0023 „ 


\ 21 „ 


40 


3-0 


00010 „ 


I 24 „ 


42 


30 





27 „ 


44 


3-0 





30 „ 


40 


2-8 


0-0005 „ 


33 „ 


36 


2-4 


00048 „ 


36 „ 


32 


20 


00062^ „ 



Our work during the last year, 1915, has been directed towards 
determining whether Waller's blaze-currents can be used as a practical 
test of the germination value of seeds. 

Our experiments have been carried on in collaboration with Mr. 
D. Finlayson, who sends us samples from his Seed-Testing Labora- 
tories. Wood Green, London, N. Our reports on seeds tested by 
Dr. Waller's electrical method have corresponded exactly with Mr. 
Finlayson 's reports by his seed-germination method. 

1915. 9 



226 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 



The seeds must be soaked a certain number of hours before they 
ripen sufficiently to give off their full blaze-current; dried peas require 
at least twelve hours' soaking. 

An average blaze-current of '03 or '04 volt indicates a high-class pea 



Blaze 

002 VOLT 



'0163 



001 



000 



•0138 



•01; 



40,, 



•0193 •019 



V 1 \J\ V 



'iS J 8 IS 

L 




J . 



30 MINUTES 



Fig. 2. 



of which 97 per cent, would germinate; individual peas out of the 
series tested would give '07 or '09 volt ; others only '01 or '02 volt. 

The electrical test is much quicker than the germination test. If 
we find we can work rapidly enough, the method may be of use to the 
seed merchant who needs to know as quickly as possible the value 
of seeds in the market. 

We are still engaged in making a long series of tests on different 
varieties of seeds. 



The Structure and Function of the Mammalian Heart. — Report 
of the Committee, conMsting of Professor C. S. Sherring- 
ton (Chairman), Professor Stanley Kent (Secretary), and 
Dr. Florence Buchanan, appointed to make further Re- 
searches thereon. (Drawn up hy the Secretary.) 

The original Committee consisted of Professor Francis Gotch, Chair- 
man, and Professor Stanley Kent, Secretary. This Committee was 
deprived of its Chairman by the death of Professor Gotch. Professor 
Sherrington was appointed to take his place. Dr. Florence Buchanan 
was added to the Committee at the annual meeting of the Association 
in 1914. 

The following Report consists of two parts. The first part deals 
with the work of the Committee for the year 1913-14. This was 
delayed last year owing to the fact that the Association met in Australia. 



ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE MAMMALIAN HEART. 227 

The second part deals with the work of the Committee for the year 
1914--L5. 

Pakt T. 

The work of the Committee since the date of the last Report ' has 
been concerned (a) with investigations undertaken in order to confirm 
the existence of conducting paths between the auricle and ventricle other 
than the auriculo-ventricular bundle, and (b) with an examination of the 
functions of such paths. 

With regard to the former, viz. the existence of conducting paths 
between the auricle and the ventricle other than the aui'iculo-ventricular 
bundle, it has been established that there exists on the right side of the 
heart a bundle of muscular tissue which forms a path of conduction 
between the auricle and ventricle, and which is capable of conducting 
impulses between these chambers in the absence of the auriculo- 
ventricular bundle. The evidence upon which this assertion is based 
is partly histological and partly experimental. By histological examina- 
tion it has been possible to establish the following facts. Serial sections 
cut through the auriculo-ventricular junction at a certain point show 
ventricular muscle fibres approaching the junction from three direc- 
tions. These fibres are connected with fibres of auricular origin through 
a mass of modified tissue presenting characters similar to those seen 
in the sino-auricular and auriculo-ventricular nodes. 

The mass of modified tissue is well defined. It is usually of olive 
shape, and consists of a central mass in which the modification is well 
marked, with a peripheral portion which more nearly approaches normal 
muscle in structure. With the peripheral portion on one side the ventri- 
cular muscle is connected, whilst auricular muscle is connected with 
the peripheral portion on the opposite side. 

On account of the character of the tissue and its resemblance to 
nodal tissue in other parts of the heart, it is called a ' node. ' From 
its position it is called for purposes of identification the ' right lateral 
node. ' This structure is so placed that impulses passing down the 
auricular wall would traverse the node before reaching the ventricle. 
If, as suggested many years ago," impulses are conducted at a slower 
rate over the modified tissue of the heart than over ordinary cardiac 
muscle, there may be here, as in the case of the auriculo-ventricular 
bundle, an explanation of the pause which occurs between the auricular 
and the ventricular beat. It may be pointed out too that the sectional 
area of the path is at one point extremely small, and there is evidence 
in the work of Bomanes, Gaskell, and others to prove that in such 
circumstances the rate of transmission is slow. The pause may, there- 
fore, be regarded as being due partly to transmission through modified 
tissue, and partly to transmission along a muscular path of narrow 
cross -section. 

The experimental evidence of the existence of a path of conduction 
between the auricle and ventricle in this situation is of the following 
kind. It has been stated by many that auricular contractions fail to 

' Annuol Tteport, 1913, p. 258. 
' Journal of Physiolotjih xiv. No. 1. and xiv. Nos. 4 and 5. 

Q 2 



228 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

pass over the auriculo-ventricular groove to the ventricle as soon as 
a physiological section has been made through the septal connection 
(auriculo-ventricular bundle). I have found it to be the case, however, 
that the pulsations continue to be transmitted to the ventricle, in spite 
of the severance both of the septal connection and of the greater portion 
of the outer walls of the chambers, in those cases where the part 
remaining unsevered includes the particular tract of the heart already- 
referred to as showing histologically the presence of the right lateral 
connection. Indeed, it has been possible to reduce this tract to very 
narrow limits, and I have found the following experiment to be uni- 
formly successful, provided the part remaining is situated at the exact 
spot described. 

An animal having been anassthetised and the thorax opened, a thin 
sharp pointed knife is passed through the heart at the level of the 
auriculo-ventricular junction, about half an inch from the right side, 
the edge of the knife being towards the left. The knife is at once carried 
across the heart towards the left, severing in its course the major part 
of the junctional tissues between the right auricle and the right ventricle, 
the septal connections, including the auriculo-ventricular bundle, and 
the whole of the connections between the left auricle and the left 
ventricle. Tn such circumstances the heart still continues to beat, 
and the two sets of chambers, the auricles and ventricles, maintain 
their co-ordination. 

By careful dissection it is possible to reduce the width of the 
bridge of tissue connecting the auricles and ventricles until it is no 
more than a couple of millimetres across, without in any way inter- 
fering with the co-ordinated action of the two sets of chambers. 

Sections made subsequently have shown that muscular fibres are 
present throughout the entire length of this bridge, and that they form 
a continuous tract of conducting tissue, connected above with the 
auricle and below with the ventricle. 

Any considerable narrowing of the bridge beyond this point — or a 
complete rupture of it — results in a cessation of the co-ordinated action, 
and a like result is obtained unless the situation of the bridge is very 
carefully selected. If, after a narrowing of the bridge to about two 
millimetres, the heart is allowed to remain until the automatic beats 
originating in the auricle cease and all the chambers are quiescent, it is 
still possible to excite beats artificially in either auricle or ventricle by 
appropriate stimuli, and it is found under these conditions that contrac- 
tions excited in the auricle pass through to the ventricle, whilst beats 
excited artificially in the ventricle pass through to the auricle and give 
rise to auricular contractions. 

The conclusions which may be drawn from the facts stated appear 
to be as follows: — The widely accepted statement that the auriculo- 
ventricular bundle constitutes the only path of conduction between 
the auricle and ventricle can no longer be upheld. Both histological 
and experimental evidence go to prove that an alternative path exists 
in the situation described. 

This alternative path can function and can preserve co-ordination 
between the auricles and ventricles aft^r the septal connections (auri- 



ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE MAMMALIAN HEART. 229 

culo-ventricular bundle) and the whole of the rest of the tissues 
connecting the auricles to the ventricles have been severed. 

Impulses are capable of passing over the newly described path either 
in the normal direction (auricle to ventricle), or in the reverse direction 
(ventricle to auricle). The connection of auricle to ventricle being 
through the tissue of the right lateral node, which presumably conducts 
impulses at a slower rate than ordinary cardiac tissue, the pause may 
reasonably be explained as being due to this circumstance. The pre- 
sence of such an alternative path has to be reckoned with in putting 
forward possible explanations of various anomalies of cardiac action. 

References. 

' Observations on the Auriculo-ventricalar Junction in the Mammalian 
Heart,' Quart. Jour. Experimenial Physiology, vii. 2. 193. 

' The Structure of the Cardiac Tissues at the Auriculo-ventricular 
Junction,' Proc. Pliijs. Soc. Nov. 1913. Jour. Pliys. xlvii. 4 and 5. 

" Sur le Systeme excitateur et conducteur du Owur,' Arch, des Mala- 
dies du Cceiir. Paris. Jan. 1914. 

* The Right Lateral Auriculo-ventricular Junction of the Heart,' Proc. 
Phys. Soc. March 1914. Jo2ir. Phys. xlviii. 2 and 3. 

' Some Problems in Cardiac Physiology,' B.M.J. July 18, 1914. 

' Illustrations of the Eight Lateral Auriculo-ventricular Junction in the 
Heart,' Proc. Phys. Soc. June 1914. Jour. Phys. xlviii. .5. 

' A Conducting Path between the Eight Auricle and the External Wall 
of the Right Ventricle in the Heart of the Mammal,' Proc. Phys. 
Soc. June 1914. Jour. Phys. xlviii. 5. 

Part II. 

During the past year attention has been directed principally to the 
working out of detail, and a considerable amount of material is 
practically ready for publication. The most important new fact put on 
record is perhaps that of the existence of considerable masses of muscle 
in the auriculo-ventricular valves. This will necessitate a review of the 
usual conception of the action of these structures. 

References. 

' On the Mechanism of the Cardiac Valves,' Proc. Royal Soc. B. 

vol. 88, 1915. 
' Illustrations of Muscular Tissue in the Auriculo-ventricular Valves of 

the Mammal's Heart,' Proc. Phys. Soc. July 3, 1915. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, with a grant of 50?. 



The Renting of Cinchorw Botanic Station in Jamaica. — Report 
of Committee, consisting of Professor F. 0. Bower (Chair- 
man), Professor E. H. Yapp (Secretary), and Professors 
E. BuLLER, P. W. Oliver, and F. E. Weiss. 

'The Committee for ' The Eenting of Cinchona Botanic Station in 
• Jamaica ' report that since the last meeting of the British Association 



230 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

the agreement with the Jamaican Government has been signed, pro- 
viding for the annual tenancy of the station, at a rent payable to the 
Jamaican Government of 25Z. per annum, the tenancy to date from 
October 1, 1914. The grant of 25L has been drawn from the Treasurer 
of the Association, and has been paid as the first year's rent. 

Owing to the state of war, no application has been received for the 
use of the station by any British subject. But an application for its 
use having been made from Mr. J. Arthur Harris and Mr. Lawrence, 
of the staff of the Cold Spring Harbour Station for Experimental 
Evolution, and Mr. William Harris, P.L.S., Superintendent of the 
Jamaica Gardens, having supported it, the Committee agreed to grant 
the application. One reason for this was that during the tenure of the 
Cinchona Station by the New York Botanic Garden, Professor Bower 
and Mr. Drummond had both been hospitably given the use of the 
station. 

In view of the fact that the war has extended over the first year 
of tenancy for which the full rent has been paid, and that consequently 
no British applicant for use of the station had appeared, the Jamaican 
Government were asked if they could see their v.'ay to taking this into 
account in favour of the Committee. Further, the stringency of money 
during war may make a renewal of the grant by the British Association 
a matter of difficultv — or, at least, of the full amount of the grant. The 
Jamaican Government were invited to say what they might be willing 
to do in the circumstances. The Colonial Secretary has replied in 
the following terms: — ■ 

Colonial Secretary's Office, 
In case of reply please Jamaica, June 22, 1915. 

quote the date of this 
letter and the following 

Nos. : 7999, 7552. 

Sir, — In continuation of the letter from this Office, No. 7087/7552, dated the 
1st instant, I am directed to inform you that the Governor has given considera- 
tion to the suggestion in your letter of May 2 on the matter of the remission of 
part of the rent for Cinchona Station, and that he would be glad to meet your 
wishes as far as possible. 

2. His Excellency is informed by the Director of Agriculture that certain 
Botanists of the United States of America have sought to secure the use of the 
station. It may be possible to make the place available to them for the period 
in which it is not required by the British Association. If, therefore, a par- 
ticular time could be stated when your Association will not require the place 
it would facilitate consideration of the matter of adjusting the payment of rent 
to suit all concerned. 

3. I am to add that as your Association will not make use of the station 
during the current year His Excellency is disposed to remit a moiety of one 
year's rent, but before passing definite orders on the point would be glad to 
hear from you on the subject of the preceding paragraph. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) R. W. Johnstone, 

Ag. Colonial Secretary. 
Professor F. 0. Bower, 
Department of Botany, University of Glasgow, 
1 St. John's Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow. 

The Committee gratefully acknowledge the generosity of the 
Jamaican Government in thus proposing to remit the moiety of one 



ON THE RKNTING OF CINCHONA BOTANIC STATION IN JAMAICA, 231 

year's rent. They think that the tenns of the letter of the Colonial 
Secretary of June 22, 1915, should be accepted. They therefore ask 
that they be reappointed for the coming year, and that a grant of 
121. 10s. be made to cover the rent at the reduced rate. They also 
report that an application for the use of the station by a British 
botanist for the summer of 1916 is in view, but naturally, as the 
applicant is of military age, it must be contingent upon the state of v^ar. 



Sections of Australian Fossil Plants. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor W. H. Lang (Chairman), Professor 
T. G. B. OsBORN (Secretary), Professor T. W. E. David, 
and Professor A. C. Seward, appointed to cut Sections of 
Australian Fossil Plants, with special reference to a specimen 
of Zygopteris from Simpson's Station, Barraha, New South 
Wales. 

The Committee report that after some delay occasioned^ by the disturb- 
ance of communication between Australia and the United Kingdom the 
specimen was sent to England for cutting. Extensive series of sections 
have been prepared involving a portion of the block, and have shown 
the specimen to be of unique interest. A preliminary account of its 
structure is presented by Mrs. Osborn to this meeting. The Committee 
ask for reappointment for another year without further grant, but with 
permission to carry forward the unexpended balance to allow the work 
to be completed. 



The Influence of varying Percentages of Oxygen and of various 
Atmospheric Pressures upon Geotropic and Heliotropic Irrit- 
ability and. Curvature. — Report of the Committee, consisting 
of Professor F. O. Bower (Chairman), Professor A. J. 
Ewart (Secretary), and Professor P. F. Placeman, 
appointed to carry out a Research thereon. 

The grant allocated at the meeting in Australia was drawn locally, 
and an account of its expenditure, and of the progress of the work, 
is contained in the following letter from Professor Ewart : 

The University of Melbourne. 

June 14, 1915. 
Dear Prof. Bower, — T enclose herewith statement of expenditure 
from British Association Eesearch Grant, practically the whole of 
which has been expended. It took so long, however, to obtain all the 
apparatus required, that most of the work done has been of a prelimin- 
ary nature, such as determining the range of variation with different 
material, and material in various stages of development, the distinction 
between direct and indirect effects of altered pressure, the maximum 
pressures to arrest growth, and the minimum pressure to accelerate 
it. We have a basis to determine the influence of altered pressure 



232 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

on geotropic perception and response, and seem likely in time bo ofitain 
fruitful results. The work is slow because many precautions are 
necessary for safety and accuracy, and only one observation can be 
made at a time. 

We have now all the large apparatus needed, and as I have nearly 
2L in hand, this will cover any minor expenses needed to complete 
the work, such as chemicals, repairs to valves, &c. 
With kind regards, I am. 

Very faithfully yours, 

Alfred J. Ewart. 

Pending the completion of the work, the Committee ask that they 
be reappointed, but do not apply for any further grant. 



Australian Cijcadacece. — Report of the Committee, consist- 
imj of Professor A. A. Lawson {Chairman), Professor 
T. G. B. OsBORN (Secretary), and Professor A. C. Seward, 
appointed Jor the Collection and Investigatioti of Material of 
Australian Cijcadacece, especially Bowenia from Queensland 
and Macrozamia from West Australia. 

The Committee beg to report that progress is being made with the work, 
which, however, is impeded by the distances involved. It is requested 
that the Committee be reappointed for another year without additional 
grant, but with permission to carry over the unexpended balance. 



The Vegetation of Ditcham Park, Hampshire. — Beport of the 
Committee, consisting of Mr. A. G. Tansley {Chairman), 
Mr. E. S. Adamson {Secretary), Dr. C. E. Moss, and 
Professor R. H. Yapp, appointed for the Investigation 
thereof. 

Field work was carried on during the summer of 1914. The various 
lines of inquiry mentioned in the last report were continued: experi- 
ments were performed with evaporimeters and wet and dry hulb 
thermometers, the soil studies were continued, and soil temperatures 
investigated further. 

Special studies were made on the following points: — 

(1) Chalk grasslands. — A somewhat detailed analysis was made of 
selected areas of chalk grassland on various parts of the estate. 
Parts of the sun-ounding country were also studied for comparison. 
Several quadrats were laid down and charted. Special attention 

, was paid to the relationships of the subterranean parts of the 
plants, both to one another and to varying depths of soil. 

(2) Coppices on clay soil. — ^These received special attention, and a 

detailed floristic analysis was made of the various types. Quadrats 
have been charted for the detailed study of the coppice successional 
changes. The distribution of M ercurialis perennis and of Pteridium 
aquUinum is being worked out in detail. 



ON THE VEGETATION OF DITCHAM PARK, HAMPSHIRE. 233 

(3) Light relations. — These have been specially studied so far in the 
beech- woods. A first series of experiments has been carried out 
during the season, which give interesting and striking results. 

The enclosed areas have been charted in detail, and also photographic 
records have been taken from marked {wsitions. 

During the present season (1915) it has not been found possible to 
carry out field experiments. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed, without a grant. 



Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity. — Report 
of the Committee , consisting of Professor F. F. Blackman 
{Chairman), Mr. E. P. GtREGORY (Secretary), Professor W. 
Bateson, and Professor F. Keeblb. 

Experimental work has been satisfactorily carried on during the past 
year, and a summary of the results is given below. It is hoped that 
it will be found possible to renew the grant, and thereby enable the 
results to be carried further. 

Summary. 
Experiments by E. P. Gregory and H. B. Killby. 

The investigations into the genetics and cytology of the tetraploid 
races of Primula sinensis have been continued, and considerable progress 
has been made in the recognition and testing of the three different 
heterozygous types, AAAa, AAaa, and Aaaa. In cases where a single 
dose of the factor is sufficient for the perfect development of the 
character, these types can only be identified by the study of their 
progeny; in self-fertilisation, the type AAAa gives no recessives among 
its immediate progeny, but some of its offspring give recessives in the 
next generation; the type AAaa gives the ratio 151) : IE ; while the type 
Aaaa gives the familiar ratio 3:1. All these types have now been 
identified experimentally. In the case of other factors the dominance 
is not complete, and among these cases there are some, notably in 
factors determining the shape of the leaf, the form of the corolla, and 
certain colour-characters, in which the tetraploid races produce 
heterozygous types unlike any types in the diploid races. The factorial 
constitution of these peculiar types is being studied, and very satis- 
factory progress has been made, especially in unravelling the complex of 
factors which, between them, determine the coloration of the flower. 

It was hoped that a report on this part of the work would have been 
ready for publication this summer, but circumstances connected with 
the war have rendered delay unavoidable. 

The phenomena of coupling and repulsion have been studied further, 
both in the diploid and in the tetraploid races. This work promises 
most_ interesting results, "but has not yet progressed far enough to 
permit of any definite statement as to new ground gained. 



234 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

Experiments by H. B. Killby. 
The experiments on Beans (Phaseolus) and Marrows, begun three 
years ago, have been carried further. Interesting points have arisen in 
both cases, but further work is necessary for their elucidation. 

Experiments hy A. E. Gaibdnee. 
Work on Wallflowers and on Tropseolum has been continued; the 
work on the Wallflower is approaching completion. 

Experiments by E. E. Saunders. 

Further work has been carried out during the year on Foxgloves 
and Stocks. In the case of Foxgloves progress is necessarily slow, as 
two years are required for each generation. The further work has 
given indication that in respect of one of the characters investigated 
the species is eversporting, but a fuller analysis of the behaviour of 
individuals is necessary before a full statement can be made. Inci- 
dentally it has been found in the course of cross-fertilisation of heptan- 
drons with peloric plants that these two abnormal conditions are 
inherited independently. 

From the results obtained with Stocks it is hoped that it may be 
possible to show how an eversporting type may be synthesised from a 
true-breeding individual. Further pi'ogress has been made in the study 
of the inheritance of the half -hoary character, and in the identification 
of types required by theory but not met with in commercial material. 
With regard to the occurrence of doubles, the results obtained show 
that the excessive percentage of doubles sometimes obtained by growers 
and quoted in their catalogues is probably due to unconscious selection, 
and that the actual output of doubles is not in excess of the theoretical 
estimate. 

PUBLICATIONS DURING THE YEAR. 
R. P. Gregory : ' Inheritance in certain Giant Races of Primula sinensis.' 

Rep. Brit. Assoc. Australia, Section K, 1914. 
'On Variegation in Primula sinensis.' 

Journal of Genetics, Vol. 4, 191.5. 
' Note on Inheritance of Heterostylism in Primula acaulis.' 
Ibid. 
E. R. Saunders : 'The Double Stock, its History and Behaviour.' 

Journal Boyal Horticultural Society, 1915. 



School-books and Eyesight. — Further Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. G. A. Auden (Chairman), Mr. G-. F. 
Daniell (Secretary), Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. W. D. 
Eggar, Professor E. A. Gregory, Mr. N. Bishop Harman, 
Mr. J. L. Holland, Dr. W. E. Sumpner, Mr. A. P. 
Trotter, and Mr. W. T. H. Walsh, appointed to inquire 
into the Influence of SchooJ-hooks upon Eyesight. 

Since presenting its report at Bii'mingham in 1913 the Committee 
has had correspondence with education authorities, school medical 
officers, t-eachers, publishers, and authors, and is pleased to report that 



onJschool-books and eyesight. 235 

widespread efforts are being made to secure the fulfilment of the Com- 
mittee's recommendations, at least so far as books for young children 
are concerned. The Committee hopes that further progress will be 
made in regard to books for boys and girls over fourteen years of age. A 
diminution in the power of accommodation of the eye continues during 
this period of life, whereas at the same age there is good educational 
reason for an increased extent of reading and for the use of books 
containing a considerable amount of information. Hence visual defects 
frequently become evident at about the age of sixteen. The recom- 
mendations in the Committee's typographical table issued in 1913 were 
based on a balanced consideration, of the above facts, and it is important 
that the standard proposed for readers o-\er twelve years should be 
insisted upon. 

Investigations have been made during the last two years in order 
to dbtain an objective measurement of the gloss of paper, and the 
Committee is indebted to Mr. A. P. Trotter for designing a new form 
of gloss-tester, and for carrying out tests with books and writing-papers 
used in schools. 

The Committee observes : — 

(1) That glossiness of paper depends mainly on specular reflection, 

i.e., reflection as from polished metals; such reflection is apt to 
interfere with binocular vision. The ideal surface for books 
would exhibit no specular reflection ; all the reflected light 
would be scattered or diffuse reflection, equal in all directions 
and independent of thf direction of the incident beam. Such 
absence of gloss is real sable in any fine white powder, such as 
magnesia, but not in pi mting papers. No harm to eyesight is, 
however, likely to accrue if the specular reflection is not exces- 
sive ; hence the proportion of specular to diffuse reflection 
affords a suitable index of the glossiness of paper. 

(2) That a large proportion of school-books and writing-papers are 

satisfactorily free from glare at angles of incidence not exceed- 
ing 45 degrees. In most of these satisfactory books the 
specular reflection does not exceed the diffuse reflection when 
the hght is incident at 45 degrees, the paper being viewed from 
the direction of the corresponding specularly reflected rays. 

(3) That when the specular reflection exceeds 56 per cent, (the 

diffuse reflection being then less than 44 per cent.), there is 
likely to be injurious glare. The risk is greater if the book is 
read in artificial light. 
The Committee therefore hopes that publishers will select for school- 
books papers from which the specular reflection at 45 degrees does not 
exceed the diffuse reflection. Books in which the specular reflection 
exceeds 56 per cent, of the total reflection (specular plus diffuse) must 
be regarded as potentially injurious to eyesight. 

Writing-paper for school use should not give more than 54 per cent, 
specular reflection at 45 degrees, since young writers often look 
obliquely at the paper. 

The Committee finds that coloured maps can be produced without 
extra expense or difficulty on paper conforming with the above rules. 



236 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

In some instances the effect of using suitable paper has been spoiled 
by the use of glaze in the colours or inks. The glossiness of paper is 
greatly influenced by the extent and particular method of calendering, 
and it is suggested that careful control of calendering will assist in 
obtaining the desired hardness and the even surface required, without 
introducing pernicious gloss. 

Mr. Trotter's description of his gloss-tester is subjoined at the 
request of the Committee, since the recommendations in this Report 
require that some standardising instrument should be available. 

4n Instrument for Testing the Gloss on Paper and other Materials. 

The principle of the method is to illuminate a specimen of the 
paper or other material by light falling on it at an angle of, say, 45 
degrees. The observer can examine the brightness of the specimen 
from a direction making an equal and opposite angle of 45 degrees. 
The effect of the gloss is then a maximum. He can also observe it 
from a direction nearly parallel with the incident light. The effect of 
the gloss is then a minimum. The instrument provides means for 
making these two brightnesses equal, and for comparing them. 

The instrument consists of a box 15 inches (300 mm.) long, 8 inches 
(203 mm.) wide, and of about the same height. In the bottom there 
is an opening 3| inches (85 mm.) by If inches (44 mm.). The box may 
be laid on the page of an open book, and the part of the paper seen 
through the opening becomes the specimen to be tested. 

A small electric lamp carrying a pointer can be moved on a slide 
between two mirrors A and B. The lower part of the box is divided by 
a thin partition. Half of the specimen is illuminated from one mirror 
and half from the other. Two eye-tubes are arranged at a and b for 
observing the specimen, the view being obtained alongside the edge of 
a mirror. In each eye-tube there are a pair of acute-angled prisms 
edge to edge, by which the view of the thin partition may be cut out 
of view. 

Let 100 be the total brightness, d the diffused brightness, and s the 
specular brightness. 100 = rf + s. The pointer attached to the lamp 
moves over a scale graduated from the formula 

a;=(10-yiOO-s)L/2(10+ v/100^) 

where rr is a length on the scale measured from the middle point, s the 
specular brightness at 45° expressed as a percentage of the total bright- 
ness, and L the total length from the middle point of the opening 
through which the specimen is seen, to one mirror, across to the other 
mirror, and back to the middle point of the opening. 

The whole instrument is bilaterally symmetrical, and, when the 
nriirrors are properly adjusted, observations made from either end should 
give readings equidistant from the middle of the scale. 

When a flattened layer of fine white powder, such as ordinary 
whiting, is tested, it is found practically free from gloss. In other 
words, the reflection ir, wholly diffusive, and there is no specular reflec- 
tion. The brightness of the two halves is identical when the illumina- 
tion is identical. The pointer is at the middle of the scale when the 



ON SCHOOL-BOOKS AND EYESIGHT. 237 

specimen is viewed from either end, and indicates s-=o, the total 
brightness consisting only of diffused brightness d. 

If a sheet of paper is tested in this way, and is observed through 
eye-tube a, the brightness of the half illuminated by reflection from the 
mirror B will be due to the sum of the diffused brightness d and of the 
partial specular brightness y. The brightness of the half illuminated 
by reflection from the mirror A is due to diffused brightness only. The 




a\ 



/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 
/ 

\ , '^ Specimen under Test 




Ooub/e 
Prism 



^ -y^ ^ 



, , I Z 3 4- 

t- —I Ooubte Prism in P/an srA/f t= i i i — I incn£S 

Gloss Testing. 

lamp must therefore be brought nearer the nairror A to make the 
brightness of the two halves equal. If, when a balance has been 
obtained, the pointer stands at 66' 6, this means that the bright- 
ness viewed from a direction nearly parallel to the direction of observa- 
tion consists of brightness s due to specular reflection, which is twice 
the brightness d due to diffused reflection, and, therefore, 66-6 per 
cent, of the total brightness. As a check, an observation may be made 
through the other eye-tube. 

When the specular brightness is more than 70 per cent, of the total 
brightness an imperfect image of the source of light begins to be formed. 
A bright glistening patch appears on one half of the specimen, and it 
becomes difficult to match this accurately with the brightness of pure 
diffused reflection. For this reason the method in its present form is 
not applicable to materials having a pronounced gloss. 

In adjusting the instrument it is laid on a mirror. The lamp is 
seen by reflection on one side of the partition, and when the lam.p 
is moved it ought to appear to approach to or to recede from the eye in 
a straight line. The instrument should be used in a darkened room. 
The constancy of the candle-power of the lamp is immaterial ; but it is 
advisable to use an evenly frosted bulb, as otherwise the asymmetry of 
the filament may introduce errors. The surface undergoing test shoultj 
be quite flat. 



238 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

A millimetre scale may be substituted for the percentage scale. The 
percentage of specular brightness at 45°, when the pointer is 
X millimetres from the middle of the scale, is then given by 

s=200La;/(iL+a;)^ 



Report of the Coinmittee, consisting of Sir Henry Miers (Chair- 
man), Professor Marcus Hartog (Secretary), Miss Lilian J. 
Clarke, Miss B. Foxlby, Professor H. Bompas Smith, and 
Principal Griffiths, appointed to inquire into and report 
on the number, distribution, and respective values of 
Scholarships, Exhibitions, and Bursaries held by University 
students during their undergraduate course, and on funds 
private and open available for their augmentation. 

The Committee has limited its work during the present year to the 
application for information to those institutions that had not sent 
answers to the questionary last year, and to obtaining revision of the 
compilation they had made from last year's answers from those 
who had then replied. The complete set of answers thus obtained are 
now to be found in Appendix I. Appendix II. is reprinted. 

As the Board of Education is now engaged on a wide inquiry which 
covers the ground of your Committee, we have not thought it desirable 
to extend our inquiries further. 

The information now obtained shows very clearly that the amounts 
allowed for scholarships can, in the immense majority of cases, be 
adequate for their beneficiaries to reap the full advantages of academic 
education only when they have friends or relations to assist them. 
This is most clearly shown by the reports from Oxford and Cambridge, 
where, thanks to the tutorial system, the authorities are in closer 
touch with the students than at newer institutions. A glance at the 
figures is enough to demonstrate this. 

In Great Britain the figures are somewhat inadequate; for many 
of the students enjoy benefits either from the Carnegie Fund or from 
local scholarships of which no account is taken by the colleges. In 
the colleges of the National University of Ireland there is a hard-and- 
fast rule that the county or municipal scholarships are not tenable 
with full college ones. We feel that there exists a need for greater 
elasticity in this respect, notably in the cases of exceptional merit, 
where it is especially desirable that the student should gain all that is 
to be gained from University life. 

We realise that while scholarships have one great function, that 
of enlarging the social area from which the supply of the learned pro- 
fessions is drawn, it would be well if funds were provided for private 
administration by the head of a college to meet the cases of brilliant 
students in need of further help. This might be from special funds or 
from the private liberality of patrons : both provisions exist at the 
older Universities, the patrons in the latter case being old members 
of the college. In our newer Universities, we venture to think that 
wealthy citizens, proud of their own local college, might he willing 



i 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 239 

to play the same part. We would recall the fact that the governors 
of Dissenting and Jewish Theological Seminaries act very generally as 
sponsors to the students; and urge that the heads of our provincial 
Universities and colleges should set forth this mode of benevolence as 
one worthy of emulation everywhere, that the seat of a University 
college would honour itself by making the best provision for the 
worthiest of its students. 

"We would recommend for general adoption the practice existing in 
some Colleges of inviting in advance confidential declarations from 
candidates that if elected they will not draw the emoluments, as a 
most desirable factor for enlarging the possibilities of scholarship funds. 

We consider that it is undesirable to supplement scholarships by loan 
funds which may cripple the recipient for the best years of his life, 
or turn him away from academic pursuits to more remunerative occupa- 
tion in order to attain liberty from pecuniary obligations. In this way 
the noblest aim of scholarships — to open the highest careers to the 
very best men, independent of lack of personal means — w^ould evidently 
be hampered or defeated. 

The Committee desire again to express their warmest thanks to 
those who by their willing answers have enabled them to collect so 
much valuable information. 

APPENDIX I. 
QUESTIONARY AND ANSWERS. 

University College, Cork : March 11, 1913. 



Dear 



me 



On behalf of the above Committee I writ^ to ask if you will very kindly furnish 
with information in regard to the following questions : — 

I. The number, duration and respective values of Scholarships, Exhibitions 

and Bursaries in your College ? 
II. Whether two or more such benefactions are tenable together ? 

III. Whether any limit is imposed on the maximum annual income derived 

from endowments of all kinds by a single beneficiary ? 

IV. Have you at j'our disposal any funds (a) of permanent endowment ; or 

(b) of private benefaction to supplement Scholarships, &c., for' the 

complete maintenance of students of exceptional promise ? 

V. (a) Have cases occurred in which successful candidates have been obliged 

to decline Scholarships, &c., on the ground of inadequate personal 

means ? 

(6) Have any deserving beneficiaries retired during their course through 

lack of adequate means ? ~ 

(c) Have such resignations been met by help from or through the College • 
and if so in what way ? ' 

\'I. Will you very kindly add any further suggestions or information bearing 
on this matter ? 

I am, dear 

Faithfully yours, 

Marcus Haetog 
(Secretary to the Committee). 
ANSWERS RECEIVED. 
All Sotti.s' College, Oxford. 

I. Four Bible Clerkships, value consisting in lodging, tuition, and allowances 
fully covering board during academical terms, tenable for three vears ' 

II. No. ^ 

III. No. 

IV. A sum of 1501. per annum in aid of non-Collegiate students in cases of need 
on the recommendation of the Censov. ' 

V. (a) and (6) No cases. 



240 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

Balliol College, Oxford. 

I. Annual open, 4 minor Exhibitions of 40Z. ; 3 Exhibitions of 701. ; 7 Scholarships 
of 801. Annual close, 1 Exhibition of 180Z. ; 1 Scholarship of 60/. Every fourth 
year, I close Exhibition of 401. ; 1 Scottish Exhibition of 120Z. 

The above are generally tenable for the full Undergraduate course (four years). 
Annual ; 1 Exhibition of 1001. for Senior Undergraduate? of the College for two years. 

II. No ; except last Exhibition of lOOL, a minor Exhibition of 407. is also tenable 
with close Scholarship of 601. when the candidate has taken a high place in the Open 
Scholarship Examination. 

III. No limit. Most scholars and some commoners hold subventions from School, 
County Council or City Companies, and a few gain University Scholarships. 

IV. A fund of 1501. per annum charged on College revenues, supplemented by 
private benefactions, amounting to an average of 330Z. for the last ten years. This 
is used to help commoners as well as scholars who need a supplement. Exceptional' 
promise would be an additional inducement for grants, not a necessary condition. 

V. (a) and (6) Not aware of such refusals for the last twenty years, but they 
may have occurred earlier. After the death of two predecessors it became known 
that they had helped privately. 

(c) The fund under (IV. ) would be applicable. Cases where a man has for family 
reasons to emigrate or begin earning money without completing his University career 
cannot of course be met. 

VI. ' Given a man of health and abiUty sufficient to be successful in open com- 
petition, and of sufficient previous education, I believe that there is nothing to deter 
a poor man from a successful Oxford career. If there is any obstacle it must be 
found on the " lower rungs of the ladder." I am told that opportunities differ con- 
siderably in different parts of the country.' 

Form sent to the father or guardian of scholars elect at Balliol College, Oxford: — 

Deak Sm, Balliol College, Oxford. 

Under a system by which Scholarships and Exhibitions are filled by open 
competition, it will inevitably happen that they are sometimes gained by those who 
are not in need of the emoluments attached to them. You will have seen that this 
possibihty is anticipated in the notice relating to Scholarships and the conditions of 
their tenure issued before the Scholarship Examination. 

If this is the case with Mr. who has been elected to a 

at this College and you think it proper that he should surrender the whole or any 
part of the emoluments to which he is entitled while retaining the status and other 
privileges of a ,1 have to inform you that effect will be given by the College 

to your wishes as to the application of such emoluments. Should you express no 
such wishes as to the application, any money which he may surrender now, or which 
at any future time he may feel himself to be in a position to surrender or repay, will 
be paid into a Fund established in the College for the assistance of those who require- 
assistance to avail themselves of the advantages of a University education. Any 
such renunciation of emoluments will be treated by the College as confidential, and 
those receiving the help you give will only know that it comes to them through a 
College Fund. 

I enclose a memorandum which will inform you as to College expenses. 

Will you kindly let me know what are your wishes in this matter ? 

I am, Sir. 

Yours faithfully, 

Master of Balliol College. 

Brasenose College, Oxford. 

I. (a) Open : — Scholarships of lOOZ. ; number variable, about 16 of 801. ; un- 
fixed number of Exhibitions of 70Z. (6) Restricted : — 3 Scholarships of 80/. ; variable 
number of Scholarships of 101. ; 2 Exhibitions of 851. ; 3 Exhibitions of 40/. 

II. Blank. 

III. No limit. 

IV. No funds specific 8 lly set aside, but men whose College emoluments are 
supplemented by grants from school funds, &c., can sometimes support themselves^ 
completely during their career. 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 241 

V. (o) and (b) No. 
(c) 

VI. Scholarship Regulations contain proviso : ' The holder of any Scholarship to 
which no pecuniary restriction is attached will be allowed to retain the status of a 
scholar without receiving the emoluments, should he express a wish to that effect.' 

Chbist Church, Oxford. 

I. Open : 6 Scholarships of 801. ; 3 Exhibitions of about 851. (money and 
allowances). Close : 3 Scholarships of SOI. All tenable for two years and renewable 
for two more by the Governing Body, and ultimately for a fifth in satisfactory 
circumstances. 

II. No. 

III. No limit for Scholarsliips. Candidates for Exhibitions must satisfy the 
Dean that they are incapable of coming to the University without financial assistance. 

IV. (a) Grants may be made from College Funds, not amounting in aU to over 
400Z. in any one year, to scholars or commoners who need assistance. Such grants 
are in practice made for one year only, but are renewable. 

(6) There is a Poor Scholars' Fund which depends almost entirely on private 
benefactions administered by the Dean. 

V. (a) and (6) I know of none. 

(c) Financial difficulties have been met under IV. 

VI. The statutes make a similar provision to Brasenose College. 

Exeter College, Oxford. 

I. 11 Scholarships, open, of not more than 801. and 1 of lOOL ; 8 close of not less 
than 601. and 1 or more of not more than 1001. (all of which may be opened in default 
of the preferred class of qualified candidates) ; 2 Scholarsliips of 801. for persons 
intending to take Holy Orders and needing assistance at the University. Various 
Exhibitions (mostly close), all limited to those needing assistance at the University. 

III. None by Statute, but by College policy. 

IV. No permanent endowment ; but a deserving scholar who is poor can be 
helped by a grant from general College Funds or a special fund. 

VI. (a) Only Scholarships of less than 801. 
(6) None. 

Hertford College, Oxford. 

I. Majority Scholarships, open to Churchmen only, 30 of 100^ for five years ; 
10, varying from 401. to 801., for four years, besides a number of Exhibitions. 

II. Not from College sources. 

III. No limit. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) Exhibitions only. 

Jesus College, Oxford. 

I. Open Scholarships, 12 ; close Scholarships, 19 of 801. to 1002. Exhibitions, 
several open and several close, of 301. to QOl. All granted for two years and renewable 
on satisfactory industry and good conduct for two more. 

II. No, but a grant from the Exhibition fund may be made to a scholar or 
exhibitioner. 

III. No statutable limit, but no grant is made out of the Exhibition Fund except 
to the really necessitous. 

IV. (a) The Exhibition Fund. 

V. (a) Only one case in forty years unable to come up on 601. per annum. 
(6) No. 

(c) In extreme cases exceptionally large grants have been made from the Exliibi- 
tion Fund. 

Keble College, Oxford. 

I. Scholarships of 801., Exhibitions of 501. primarily for two years, though capable 
of being extended for two more. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. I have 2002. a year of permanent endowment that I can use in this way. 

V. (a) and (6) No cases. 

1915. R 



242 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP(.SCIENCE. — 1915. 

Lincoln College, Oxpord. 

I. Scholarships, about 17 of 80Z. or GOl. ; Exhibitions, about 10 of 401., or more 
usually 301. 

II. No ; but the value of a Scholarship may be increased, or an exhibitioner 
elected to a Scholarship. 

III. No limit ; the College is not always aware what other benefactions are held. 

IV. (a) There is a smaU fund apphcable. 

(6) Occasionally private benefactions are forthcoming, or the College may grant 
remission of fees or other charges to deserving students. 

V. (a) Yes, occasionally. 

(6) and (c) I cannot recall such cases. 

VI. A similar provision to that of Brasenose College. 

Magdalen College, Oxford. 

I. 30 Scholarships and Exhibitions in variable numbers, according to needs and 
merits of candidate : tenable for not exceeding four years as a rule, in many cases 
for only three, never exceeding five. 

II. No ; except in so far as additional grants are made from the Exhibition Fund, 
independently or in addition to Scholarships. 

III. No limit ; but we take maximum annual income into account in awarding 
Exhibitions or grants. There are a certain number of Scholarships and Exhibitions 
given by the County Councils and by the City Companies, sometimes on the results 
of examinations, sometimes on recommendation, which are of very material assistance 
to students. 

IV. (a) The Exhibition Fund, which could in theory be used for complete main- 
tenance of students of exceptional promise. But practically speaking, it is not so 
used, as we always expect that the student should enjoy some other benefaction, or 
that friends should come to his aid. 

V. (a) I have known of no case. 
(6) Very seldom. 

(c) As a rule assistance has been given from the Exhibition Fund, supplemented 
by donations from private friends. 

VI. It not infrequently occurs that successful candidates decline to accept Scholar- 
ships in whole or in part because they do not need the whole assistance. I am in- 
clined to think that money given in Scholarships is at present too diffused, and that 
it is better for County Councils and others to concentrate their resources on a few 
candidates of marked ability rather than to spread them over a number of weaker 
candidates who often are not able greatly to profit by an University education. 

Merton College, Oxford. 

I. 20 Scholarships of 80/. ; 4 Exhibitions of 80Z., plus a limited number (about 2 
a year) of 60/., restricted to candidates in need of assistance at the University. All 
tenable at the outset for two years, renewable for two years if the holder has given 
satisfaction. A fifth is sometimes sanctioned for special reasons. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. An Exhibition Fund, including an annual subsidy not exceeding 400/. from 
the College, and the emoluments of vacant Scholarships and dividends from two 
bequests of about 60/. a year. 

V. (a) No resignations. The College gives help from the Exhibition Fund to 
very poor students who cannot live on their Scholarships. Only lately the holder 
of an Exhibition of 80/. received an addition of 50/. on the grounds of poverty and 
exceptional promise. But so large a grant is unusual. 

New College, Oxford. 

I. 10 or II Scholarships of 80/. in each year, tenable for two years, renewable for 
two years, and in exceptional circumstances, for a fifth ; 6 Scholarships are restricted 
in the first instance, but, if the limited candidates do not show sufficient merit, may be 
thrown open for that competition. About 2 or 3 Exhibitions of 50/., tenable for two 
or three years, confined to those in need of assistance, not tenable with Scholarships. 

II. Tenable with outside Exhibitions (School, County Council, &c.). We 1 
several private Exhibitions, usually of the value of 30/. a year, given to those men 
who may be in need of assistance, tenable with a Scholarship. 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 243 

IV'. (ft) Tilt' Exhibition I'und : a loan fuml. 

{b) A small private benefaction. 

V. {a) I can scarcely remember any such case. 

(6) I can scarcely remember any deserving candidates who have had to retire 
during their course for lack of means, though a man who is not succeeding well might 
be allowed to retire. 

^ 

Pembroke College, Oxford. 

I. About 30 Scholarships and 2 or more Exhibition.^, tenable for four years. Most 
of the Scholarships are of the value of 80/., 3 of 100/., and about 4 of 60/. 

II. No. 
HI. No. 

IV. There is a College Exhibition Fund expressly intended for this purpose. 

V. (a) and (b) No. 

VI. In nearl}' every instance the emolument granted by the College is necessary 
to enable the student to como to the University. 

Queen's College, Oxford. 

I. 4 open and 1 close (wliich in defect of qualified candidates, is thrown open). 
Scholarships of 80/. awarded annually, tenable primarily for two years, and renew- 
able, if holders are satisfactory, for two years ; for special reasons, may be continued 
for a fifth. 

Two Bible Clerkships conferred, as vacancies occur, on deserving persons in 
need of assistance at the University, of 80/. (or 90/. if resident in College), on same 
tenure as Scholarships. 

1 J. O. F. Scholarship of 90?. every fourth year, restricted to Churchmen, and 4 
J. N. F. Scholarships of 100/. for five years, awarded as they fall vacant, restricted to 
Churchmen. Cact. par. a candidate who stands in need of pecuniary assistance is 
to be prefiirred. 

Exhibitions, all close, 4 or 5 of 100/. ; 1 of 100/. for two years, which mav be 
extended to a third and to a fourth year ; I of 421. ; 2 of 68/. ; 2 of 251. ; 1 of 43/. ; 
1 of 6/. ; 1 of 5/. 5s. ; 1 of 9/. Most of these are restiicted to poor and deserving 
students. All may be thrown open on defect of qualified candidates. Close, of 70/. 
for seven years ; 2, 40/. for four years ; 1, 33/. for four years ; 2, 60/. for four years ; 
1, 6:2/. for students of the College in their twelfth term (theological) for one year, 
which may be extended to a second ; 1 of 50/. a year, and a benefaction of 10/. 

II. No. 

III. No. A large proportion of our scholars and exhibitioners receive supple- 
mentary Scholarships from their Schools or County Councils or from the City Com- 
panies. A good many are completely maintained. 

IV. A small Exhibition Fund might very occasionally be available, but it cannot 
be advertised. 

V. (a) No. 
(6) No. 

(c) Difficulties have frccjuently been met J>v aid from the Exhibition Fund. 

St. John's College, Oxford. 

I. Open Scholarships, 13 of 80/. ; close Scholarships, 22 of 100/. (besides 4 open 
to members of the College of 4 terms standing of 80/., and only tenable for one or two 
years). All open Scholarships and 7 of the close, tenable for four years, which may 
be increased to five ; 15 close Scholarships, tenable for five years, variable number 
(2 at present) of 80/., restricted to undergraduates of 4 terms. 

At present, 7 open Exhibitions of 4U/. to 70/., tenable as open Scholarships ; 5 
close Exhibitions of 40/. to 80/., tenable as open Scholarsliips. Variable number 
(5 at present) restricted to undergraduates of 4 terms, of 20/. to 60/. 

II. Scholarships and Exhibitions not tenable together. 

III. No limit. 

IV. (a) The Exhibition Fund of not less than GOO/, per annum. It is not usual to 
grant more than 60/. in one year to an individual. 

(6) A small fund of about 40/. in the hands of the President, sometimes augmented 
by private gifts to 70/., is usually distributed in gifts of about 10/. to deserving and 
needy undergraduates, not necessarily scholars or exhibitioners. 

r 3 



244 REPORTS ON THE STATE 01' SCIENCE. — 1915. 

V. (a) I cannot recall any. 
(6) I think not. 

(c) If such resignations were threatened, the College would certainly intervene 
in the case of a proinising and deserving undergraduate. 

VI. I have only to add that this College has for many years past done its best 
to keep and encourage poor men. 

Trinity College, Oxford. 

I. (a) 18 Scholarships of SOL ; 8 Exhibitions of &01. to 701. ; 4 or more close 
Studentships of .55/. Scholarships and Studentships tenable for four years ; Ex- 
hibitions for three or four years. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. An Exhibition Fund from which payments can be made to members of the 
College who need assistance to complete their University course ; private benefactions 
from t^me to time. 

V. {a) Very rarety, as candidates usually know the probable expenditure required 
for a University course. 

(d) I remember none. 

(c) The College has not infrequently supplemented Scholarships by grants from 
the Exhibition Fund and by loans. 

VI. A considerable number of members of the University, including many of those 
who hold College Scholarships, have been awarded University Exhibitions by the 
Education Authority of the district to which they belong. 

Wadham College, Oxford. 

I. 14 Scholarships, 1 of 86^ ; 13 of 80Z., tenable, as a rule, for four years ; 14 Ex- 
hibitions of 231. to 60^, tenable for four years. 

II. No, with four special exceptions. 

III. No. 

IV. (a) A fund of about 361. in the Warden's hands to assist deserving students. 
(6) Frequentl}' some assistance from private benefaction. 

V. (a) and (fc) I have never known of such cases. Sometimes deserving students 
get their Scholarships or Exhibitions supplemented by private benefaction. 

VI. Our scholars almost always come from homes where some help is needed for 
a boy to come to the University. During my thirty years' experience I cannot recall 
a single case of a scholar or exhibitioner to whom the money was immaterial, and 
may also mention that in case of special need or desert help is given for residence 
during a fifth year. Each such case is decided on its merits. 

Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. 

I. 3 Scholarships of dOl. to 3ol. awarded annually, all tenable for three years with 
possible extension to a fourth. 

II. and III. No. 

IV. There is a Loan Fund common to all women students in Oxford. 

V. (a) Yes, occasionally. 

SOMERVILLE COLLEGE, OXFORD. 

I. Awarded annually 1 Scholarship of 501. for three years. Awarded triennially 
2 Scholarships of QOl. for three years, 2 Scholarships of 501. for three years (with 
possible extension for a fourth), and one of -iOl. for three years. A few Exhibitions 
(1 to 3) of 201. to 30/. for three years (with possible extension to a fourth). 

Another Scholarship of 501. is awarded without examination annually, usually 
to extend a three-years' Scholarship to a fourth year. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. (a) No permanent endowment. 

(6) Friends of the College have occasionally supplemented Scholarships privately. 
There is the Loan Fund (see Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford). 

V. (a) I don't remember such a case. 

(6) One case. The scholar was (aheady) a graduate of another University, and 
the College thought it best in the scholar's own interest that she should accept a good 
teaching post offered her and resign the Scholarship. 

VI. A scholar or exhibitioner may, for the benefit of others who need assistance, 
reUnquish the whole or part of the emolument, while retaining the title. 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 245 

St. Hugh's College, Oxford. 

I. Annually, 1 Scholarship of 251. ; biennially, 2 of 301., 2 of 40Z., all tenable for 
three years and renewable for a fourth. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. None. 

V. (a) No. 

(6) and (c) Retirements would have occurred but for help through the College 
(private Loan Fund) or from the Loan Fund of the Association for the Education 
of Women in Oxford. 

St. Hilda's Hall, Oxford. 

I. (rt) Awarded annually 2 open Scholarships, tenable for three years (occasionally 
with extension to a fourth), 50^., 301. (or 2 of 401.). 

(b) In 1914 and every three years. 

Dorothea Beale Scholarship of 50^ for pupils of the Ladies' College, Cheltenham, 
tenable for three years. 

[Two other Scholarships (non-competitive) are awarded at Cheltenham to pupils 
of the Ladies' College, formerly, but now not always, every year, to be held at St. 
Hilda's Hall: viz., the Hay Scholarship of from 251. to 451. per annum for three years, 
and the S. Hilda's College Scholarship, of varying amount, same duration.] 

(c) Exhibitions are occasional only. One of 301. is now held for three years by a 
student who was third in the open competition. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. (a) None, except above Hay Scholarship, which is under the control of the 
Ladies' College, Cheltenham. 

(b) None except a small fund once given but now exhausted. None for complete 
maintenance of students. Some are assisted (to the maximum of 501.) by an old 
Students' Loan Fund, and they share with other women students in the benefits of 
the A.E.W. Central Loan and Grant Fund. 

V. (a) Candidates have stated that they could only accept the larger of the two 
open Scholarships in about 5 cases, but I do not think they proved the successful 
ones. If successful they have sometimes managed to get loans from their own friends 
or Scholarship grants from the London or other County Councils, and their acceptance 
of a Scholarship has been contingent on this. 

(6) Not actually. 

(c) In one or two cases of difficulty the Hall has met them by rooms at reduced 
rate. Reduced fees were frequent until 1904, when competitive Scholarships were 
established ; since then rare. Friends of the College have occasionally assisted in- 
dividual students to remain at College. 

VI. More Scholarships are badly needed, as many candidates of Scholarship or 
Exhibition standard cannot enter the Hall as commoners, and either go elsewhere as 
scholars to non-Oxford Colleges, or relinquish the idea of a University course. The 
paucity of Scholarships greatly increases the strain on girls who sit for several Scholar- 
ship examinations at different Universities in the same year. 

Christ's College, Cambridge. 

I. Average number of scholars and exhibitioners in residence, 40. Nominal 
value, 20^ to 801. ; but additional grants or reduction of fees, amounting to at most 
201., are sometimes allowed privately in cases of f)overty. Except there be dis- 
tinct evidence of idleness, the Scholarship is retained normally to end of third year, 
sometimes continued to fourth, and occasionally to fifth year. The total average 
annual amount of the last six years is 1,800L 

II. No two open Scholarships or Exhibitions tenable together, but the value of a 
Scholarship may be increased. A close Scholarship, connected with a particular 
School, may be held with an open Scholarship. 

III. No. The amount of a student's income from endowments of all kinds is, 
however, a factor in fixing the amount of his Scholarship, except in the case of those 
elected before coming into residence. 

IV. No. 

V. Candidates for Scholarships awarded before residence has commenced are 
asked to state the minimum value they are prepared to accept, and if they do not 



246 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

come up to the necessary standard for that vahie they are not elected. In very rare 
cases such a candidate has written to say he finds he cannot come into residence 
on account of his Scholarship not being adequate. 

VI. The fund for these benefactions arises partly from trust funds, liable to con- 
siderable fluctuations, but chiefly out of the corporate income, the amount pa3-able 
out of this to the fund being one-quarter of the sum paid in the same year to the 
Master and Fellows ; and this sum again has of later years been supplemented 
by grants from the Society. Our system has the great advantage of elasticity; the 
amount and duration of the Scholarship is within certain limits fixed by ourselves 
to meet the requirements of the special case. 

The present system works well. No rich men hold Scholarships, and in 
nearly every instance the benefaction is necessary to enable the student to come to 
the University. The cases in which an intellectually deserving candidate fails to 
obtain a Scholarship are rare indeed ; they hardly exist. It is most undesirable to 
attract by emolument poor men of ordinary ability. . . . The College badly wants 
funds for advanced students in speciahsed subjects. 

Clare College, Cambridge. 

I. There are offered annually 9 Scholarships at entrance values from 80Z. to iOl. ; 
also Exhibitions of 301. In the first instance tenable for two j^ears, but they are 
extended except in cases of idleness and want of progress. 

II. Certain close Exhibitions and special trusts can be held with a Scholarship. 

III. No. 

IV. A small fund is available. Research grants are also given. 

V. (a) Sometimes, but in such cases the emolument may be increased from the 
fund mentioned in the answer to ' IV.' 

(6) Practically never. 

(c) In deserving cases help has rarely failed to be forthcoming. 

Downing College, Cambridge. 

I. Six Foundation Scholarsliips at least tenable till graduation standing of 50/. to 
80/. ; a varying number of minor Scholarships and Exhibitions, tenable for one vear, 
of 201. to 501. 

II. No ; but may be tenable with benefactions outside the College. 

III. No. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) I can recall no case. 

(6) and (c) Additional aid from the College has prevented any actual retirement. 

Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 

I. The Foundation Scholarships : 4 Scholarships of 80/. per annum ; 10 of 60/. 
per annum ; and 22 of 40/. per annum. 

(a) The Scholarships annually offered for competition before undergraduates 
come into residence are tenable for two years, and at the end of that time, subject 
to a favourable report upon the Scholarship and conduct of the holders, they may be 
continued or increased tUl the candidate has taken an examination qualifying him for 
the B.A. degree. The tenure is sometimes prolonged, but rarely beyond the fourth 
year, Students continuing study longer being provided for by Studentships mentioned 
below. Scholarships are awarded to other undergraduates also, if they distinguish 
themselves in the Annual College Examinations. 

(6) 3 Exhibitions of 30/. are offered every year for open competition, and others 
awarded upon the results of the Annual College Examination in the same way as 
Scholarships. 

(c) 2 Subsizarships also awarded every year to candidates who are in need of 
assistance, this need having to be satisfactorily proved by a statement of the parent's 
income and an authentication by some person of standing who knows the parents. 
For these there is no restriction of age, and subject to a satisfactory report of their 
conduct and progress, the holders proceed to a full sizarship at the end of their first 
year. The Sizarships, subject to the same conditions, are tenable for two years, and 
are worth 45/. a year. 

(d) An Exhibition of 40/. to a Student Teacher upon the results of the examination 
held in conjunction with various colleges by the Drapers' Company, and if a number 
of good candidates present themselves, we generally award a second Exhibition of 30/. 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 247 

t ^l) J^-T^^^^ ^^^^^ emoluments which are open to general competition, there arc a 
A T. , J^'?,"® attached to particular schools, namely, Uppingham, Oakham, Derbv, 
Ashby-cIe-la-Zouche, and Market Bosworth. But all with the exception of the Ash 
Exhibitions open to Ashby and Derby, are of small value. The Ash Exhibitions are 
worth Hvl. a year. 

II. The only case is that of the small close Exhibitions already mentioned which 
may be held with an open Scholarship. 

,^^\: ^P- P^^^ Scholarships a limit of 801. is imposed by Act of Parliament • no 
other limit is imposed, but it is very rarely that this amount is exceeded, though a 
candidate may have endowments from other sources. 

IV. The Tutors have at their disposal a small fund to assist deserving students 
and recently a former scholar has established a small fund to assist Scholars and 
i-xhibitioners who may have difficulties in completing their course without assistance 
beyond what they receive from Scholarships. 

V. (a) The only case known to me was that of an exhibitioner who announced 
from the beginning that he could come to CoUege only if he was successful in obtaining 
help from his County Council, and this he failed to obtain. 

(6) I have known of no case of a deserving beneficiary retiring during his course 
through lack of adequate means. 

*v ^l' '^^^ 1°'\°/ * P"""" ™*" ^^^ '^"^ * ''®**^'" opportunity of entering Cambridge 
than he has had for many centuries past. In many small schools there seem to be 
now adequate means of preparation in mathematics and in some branches of Natural 
bciences, but in such schools, if I may judge from my own experience, the literary 
education not infrequently leaves much to be desired, and on this side a good deal 
njinains to be done in order to give satisfactory encouragement to those sons of poor 
men who have literary interests. In the circular regarding open Scholarships which 
is issued by the group of six Colleges to which Emmanuel belongs, attention is pro- 
minently called to the possibility of successful candidates being appointed to Honorary 
Scholarships without emolument, if they so desire. Applicants for Honorary Scholai - 
ships are, however, very rare. As the great majority of candidates are the sons of 
professional men, no doubt most parents cannot afford to relinquish the emolument. 

GONVILLE AND CaIUS COLLEGE. 

I. Scholarships offered annually : 3 of 80^., 4 of 60/., 4 of 40/., 3 or more Exhibi- 
tions. These are tenable normally for three years, but may be, and frequently are 
extended to four years. In addition to the above there is a Salomon's Scholarship 
for Engineering for 80/. which is offered triennially, and a special Scholarship in Music 
value 00/. There are also Scholarships .for post-graduate research ; these vary ii 
number and value according to varying needs. At present there are • 1 of 150/ 

1 of 120/., I of 110/., 2 of 100/., 6 of 50/. ' ' 

Bursaries vary according to special needs. There are at present • 1 of 50/ 3 of 
40/. (choral), 2 of 30/., 1 of 25/. ' 

II. Two benefactions are very rarely held together. 

III. Yes. 180/. ^ ^ 6 

IV. So far as I understand the question, we have no funds for the complete main- 
tenance of students of exceptional promise. But the College habitually does privately 
help deserving students in need of pecuniary assistance. 

V. (a), (6), (c) No. 

Jesus College, Cambridge. 

I. Entrance Scholarships are limited by Act of Parliament to 80/., and tenable 
tor two years, but are ordinarily renewed and frequently increased in value Scholar 
ships (eoccept some close Scholarships) are never less than 40/. and seldom exceed 80/ 

II. Irust and open Scholarships may in general be held together, but the total 
amount of benefaction received by any individual seldom exceeds 80/ 

III. No hmit is imposed. I do not see how it would be possible to do so Bu^- 
in determining the value of any Scholarship regard is paid to the total income of the 
scholar and his parents means. Generally, this is only possible in the case of scholars 
already in residence. 

IV. No ; but privately many scholars (and undergraduates who are not scholars) 
receive assistance from the CoUege or the Tutor. ai-noiars; 

V. (a) No, by the conditions : ' Candidates are required to state the value (usually 



248 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

minimum) which they are prepared to accept, and are bound to accept any offer 
of the value they state.' 

(6) Whether any scholars have ever retired for this reason I do not know ; there 
has been no recent instance. 

(c) The College sometimes gives assistance to scholars and others. 

King's College, Cambeidge. 

I. At the present moment the following grades of emoluments are held by students : 
(a) Foundation Scholarships (48 : 24 Eton, 24 open) awarded at entrance, some 

after (as Undergraduate Scholarships). The Laurence Saunders Scholarship also 
ranks as a Foundation Scholarship. 

Of these 42 are now held in the College, of which 29 are of the annual value of 
801. ; 5 raised by allowances to 128Z. ; 1 raised by allowances to 104?. ; 1 reduced 
on prolongation to 40Z. ; 6 honorary. 21 of the scholars are B.A.s, 21 undergraduates. 

{b) Minor Scholarships varying in number. Ten are now held : 9 of the normal 
value of 60/., 1 raised by allowances to 84/. 

(c) Exhibitions of various classes : 

i. Entrance Exhibitions restricted to candidates in need of pecuniary assistance 
in order to obtain a University education, normal value 40/., capable of augmentation 
up to 70/. 

ii. Exhibitions specially endowed of various values, viz.. Price Exhibition (2) of 
40/., capable of augmentation ; Vintner Exhibition (Natural Science) of 70/. ; Fielder 
(for Greek), tenable with another Exhibition, 32/. ; Phillpotts, for son of a clergyman, 
40/. ; Morton, for a candidate for Holy Orders, 75/. ; Soley, for candidate nominated 
by Drapers' Company, 70/. 

iii. An Exhibition awarded annually to a member of the Cambridge Training 
College for Teachers, 30/. 

iv. Ordinary Exhibitions awarded to undergraduates, of varying values. Of 
these, 22 are now held : 8 of the normal value of 40/. ; 2 with the Fielder of 72/. ; 
6 augmented to 70/. ; 1 augmented to 50/. ; 1 Fielder held alone, 32/. ; 4 30/. 

(d) One Studentship (Augustus Austen Leigh), tenable with a Scholarship, 75/. 
(c) Choral Scholarships varying in number : 4 are now held, of 80/. plus certain 
allowances, say 104/. 

Tenure. — The normal tenure of entrance Scholarships is two years ; prolongable 
for two years more in all. Tenure of undergraduate Scholarships : until the holder 
is of about four and a half years' standing from entrance ; prolongable for two years 
more in all. Tenure of Exhibitions : (a) Entrance : two years, prolongable for a 
third ; (b) Fielder, Soley, Phillpotts, Morton : three years ; (c) others : One year, 
prolongable. Tenure of Choral Scholarships : usually three years. 

II. The Fielder Exhibition is tenable with another Exhibition. 

III. No ; but in considering augmentation of Exhibitions account is taken of 
emoluments from other public sources held by the Exhibitioner. 

IV. There is a fund, privately contributed and privately administered, for the 
assistance (not the complete maintenance) of needy students, not confined to Scholars 
or Exhibitioners. 

V. (a) No such case is known to me. 
(6) No. 

Magdalene CoiLUGE, CAMBniDGiB. 

I. Number variable of Scholarships and Exhibitions. At present 24 in residence, 
besides 6 Sizars and 4 Subsizars. Scholarships are of 40/. to 80/. ; Exhibitions gene- 
rally of 30/. ; tenure of both for two years, after which they may be prolonged and 
increased if the holders prove of sufficient merit. Sizarships are wqrtjh about 34/. 
and Subsizarships consist in the reduction of certain fixed charges, and admission to 
certain privileges at a given fixed charge. 

II. A Scholarship or Exhibition is tenable with a Sizarship or Subsizarship, or 
with a ' private Exhibition ' of 25/. (see IV.). 

III. No. 

IV. (1) Trusts amounting to about 120/. per annum from which small benefac- 
tions are made annually to poor and deserving students. 

(2) Ordinands Fund of 50/. from which grants of 10/. are made to candidates for 
ordination requiring assistance. 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 249 

(3) A private Exhibition Fund, providing 12 Exhibitions a year of 251. ; but 
in no cuse do we provide for the complete maintenance of students. 

V. (ft) Occasionally ; but it seldom, if ever, happens that a candidate of real 
ability is obliged to decline an emolument on such grounds, as they are generally 
able to get additional help by means of School, or County Council, or City Company 
Exhibitions. 

(b) No, not to my knowledge. 

Pembroke College, Cambridge. 

I. Annually offered, 2 Scholarships of 80?. ; 4 of 601. ; 4 of 50Z. ; and Exhibitions of 
301., all tenable for three years and renewable for a fourth. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. A small fund is availa4)le. 

V. (ft) No. 

(6) Only when sudden financial disaster has overtaken the parents. 

(c) Private liberality has never failed. 

Peterhouse, Cambridge. 

I. See University Calendar. Number annually offered varies. 

II. No ; but grants in aid may be made from a fund for deserving students, 
but no grant would be made to an 80/. Scholar. 

IV. Two private funds for deserving students administered by the Tutor with 
the cognisance of the Master ; and a fund for the encouragement of research from 
which grants are made to students after graduation. No funds for complete main- 
tenance of a student of exceptional promise. 

V. (ft) Cases may have occurred. 
(6) I cannot remember any case. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. 

I. Our emoluments are divided into two groups : ( 1 ) those awarded before 
residence is begun ; (2) tho.se awarded to residents. 

(1) A number, at present twelve, entrance Scholarships are awarded each December. 
Their value is 801. a year, and they are tenable for two years of residence unless the 
holder is elected to a Senior Scholarship. Entrance Scholarships may be prolonged 
for a third year. 

At present, ten Exhibitions of 40/. are also awarded annually before residence. 

Both entrance Scholarships and Exhibitions may be increased by allowances in 
remission of fees to 100/. a year in cases of pecuniary need. Other regulations about 
them will be seen by the circular enclosed. 

A certain number, at present twenty, subsizarships, tenable for three years, 
and worth about 35/. per annum in remission of fees. 

(2) Emoluments awarded to residents. 

The College maintains at least eighty Senior Scholarships. Their value is 100/. 
a year before graduation and 80/. afterwards. They are tenable till five and a half 
years from commencement of residence. 

An unspecified number of Exhibitions of 40/. a year tenable till graduation. 

II. Subsizarships are tenable with Exhibitions and with entrance, but not with 
eenior Scholarships. Exhibitions are not tenable with Scholarships, except in the 
case of fourth year (post-graduate) emoluments. 

III. No limit is placed on the total emoluments ; men often hold school or County 
Council Scholarships with our own. 

IV. We do not undertake the complete maintenance of students. But the tutors 
have a gift and loan fund from which private gifts or loans can be made to meet 
temporary cases of need. 

V. (a) Those awarded entrance Scholarships or Exhibitions never decline them. 
Sometimes Subsizarships are declined, but there the standard is lower. 

(6) Retirement during the course is very rare or unknown. Help is constantly 
given from the Tutors' Funds. 

(c) Answered above. Tutors' funds for gifts and loans. 

Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 

I. About 300/. is awarded every year in Scholarships varying from 80/. to 40/. 
and Exhibitions of 30/. 



250 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. (6) A Fund bringing in a small annual income for supplementing Scholarships 
and giving assistance in such cases as are referred to in V. (a) (6) (c). 

Selwy;n College, Cambridge. 

II. The endowed Scholarships may be supplemented from the Exhibition Fund 
if the scholar is regarded as reaching a higher standard, but two benefactions cannot 
be held together. 

III. No hmit. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) ' Yes, from time to time. Now and then it has been possible to interest 
private individuals to come to the rescue before or after the candidate comes into 
residence ; but the College has no means at its disposal for the purpose.' 

VI. ' I should suggest that local authorities should be prepared to subsist all 
candidates from their area who have reached the requisite standard in an open 
competition, instead of making their support dependent on a further competition 
for a limited number of local Exhibitions.' 

GiBTON College, Cambridge. 

I. Foundation Scholarships : 1 of 801. for four years, 1 of 44?., 3 of 401., 1 of at 
least 301., 1 of about 161. 

City Companies' Scholarships : 3 of 601. ; Clothworkers' Company (one awarded 
annually) ; (Skinners' Company), one of 50Z. 

One Gilchrist Scholarship of 501. awarded annually, tenable here or at Newnham 
College. 

Exhibitions : 1 of 301. from Queen's College, Chester ; 1 of 20?. from St. Leonard's 
School, St. Andrew's. 

All the above, except the first, are tenable for three years ; and except the Cloth- 
workers and Gilchrist are awarded only every three years. Besides these, the College 
awards College Scholarships and Exhibitions each year. 

II. Students are not allowed to hold more than one Scholarship awarded by the 
College. No regulations are laid down with regard to Leaving or County Council 
Scholarships, which a student may hold apart from the College. 

IV. Scholarships or Exhibitions have sometimes been augmented privately, 
and also in some cases the Council has granted augmentation from College Funds. 

V. I do not know of any. 

Newnham College, Cambridge. 

I. 5 Scholarships of SOL for three years and 2 of 351., tenable for three years ; 
1 of 501., tenable for two or three years, and another of 501., tenable here or at 
Girton College for three years ; 1 of 1001. for first year's students, tenable for three 
years ; 1 of 401. for one year for third-year students. A number of small grants, 
generally of 151., tenable with or without Scholarships ; 5 grants of 51. for books to 
students. AH but one of above Scholarships are awarded annually. 

II. Only as stated above. 
IIL No hmit. 

IV. A Loan Fund, from which as much as 30Z. a year may be borrowed for three 
years. No other permanent endowment, though help may be given as stated above 
by means of the grants and Loan Fund and from private sources. 

V. (a) No such cases. 
(6) I beheve not. 

(c) Such resignations would be met by help from the grants and Loan Fund. 
By means of these a student holding the smallest of our Scholarships, one of 351., 
could make it up to 80Z. (our fees are 90?.) with 15?. grant and 36?. loan. As a rule, 
however, we find that the students most in need of help have school Scholarships, 
and that their families are able to give them a little help. 

University College, London. 

I. 44 Scholarships, varying from 10?. to 150?. ; tenure varying from one to three 
years — ■' in two cases this may be raised to five.' Two Exhibitions of 57?. 15s., tenable 
for three years ; 2 Bursaries of about 16?., tenable for two years. 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 25 1 

II. Permission q^st be obtained to hold two College Scholarships at the same 
time, and in the case of the A. entrance Scholarships, the following Regulation obtains : 

No student is permitted to hold an A. Scholarshij) concurrently with any other 
College Scholarship when the joint annual value of such Scholarships exceeds 501., 
except upon the special recommendation of the Professorial Board. 

III. No. 

IV. I have small sums placed at my disposal by friends of the College and mem- 
bers of the College Committee from time to time to help poor students, who are now 
greatly helped by County Scholaiships. 

V. (o) I have only kno\^'u of one since my tenure of office here for the last nine 
years. 

(6) In two cases during my tenure of office. 

VI. I think it would be a good plan if all Scholarships, Exhibitions, and Bursaries 
were given practically as loans with the understanding that if and when a student, 
who had benefited fiom holding a Scholarship, found himself financially able to do 
so, he should return at least the sum that he had received. It has been done in one 
or two cases, but it should become a general policy and tradition. 

King's College, London. 

I. Studentships, 2 of lOOL ; Scholarships (1 entrance), 1 of 30?. for one year (in 
alternate years) ; 2 of 251. for two years ; 2 of 30Z. for three years ; 2 of 251. for 
four years ; 2 (to Students of the College), 1 of 20Z. for two years ; 2 of 201. for one 
year (first and second year's medical respectively) ; 1 of 201. for five years (training 
of medical missionaries). Exhibitions, 2 of 251. for two years (1 entrance). 

Theological, 6 Exhibitions of 501., 5 Exliibitions of 201., and a few Bursaries at the 
discretion of the Dean. 

II. Most of the above are entrance Scholarships, and not more than one can be 
held. The Regulations for the other benefactions make it impossible for more than 
one to be held at a time. 

III. No hmit. 

IV. No regular fund, but Scholarships are sometimes supplemented by private 
benefactors. 

V. (a) Yes, but not often. 
(6) Yes, but not often. 

(c) On rare occasions from general College funds. 

King's College for Women, London. 

I. 2 Scholarships of 40?. for three years, each awarded once in three years ; 1 of 
30?. for one year (to second year Arts Students not necessarily of the College) in entrance 
Scholarships in Classics of 25?. for two years. Exhibitions of the value of 60?. for 
three years are open. Five Bursaries in Theology, covering fees for one session, are 
given to members of the Church reading for Certificate or Diploma, and who show 
that they are in need of financial help. 

II. Two Scholarships may and at present are held by a single beneficiary. 

III. No. 

IV. None. 

V. (a) No. 

(6) No. Had such a case arisen, I think that the College would undoubtedly 
have assisted. 

Goldsmiths' College. 

I. None, except when the London County Council award a free place. They are 
entitled to award 15 in consideration of their annual grant towards the maintenance 
of the College. 

II. . 

III. Not by the College Authorities. 

IV. None. 

V. (a) Application for free places is made to the County Council. I am not, 
therefore, in a position to answer. 

(6) Not that I know of. 



252 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

Royal Holloway College. 

I. Scholarships, 4 of 601., 7 or 8 of 50Z. at entrance, tenable f»r three years. Bur- 
saries not more than 6 of 30Z., tenable for three years. After not less than three 
terms' residence, 3 at least of 30Z. for three years, and 1 of 60Z. for three years. 

II. If two (entrance and other) are held together, a reduction of 15/. is made. 

III. No Umit. 

IV. None. 

V. (a) No successful candidate has declined a Scholarship, but there have been 
several cases where a successful candidate would not have been able to take up a 
Scholarahip without the help she received, either fiom her school, or fiom a Count}' 
Council or otlicr awarding body. In the case of the smaller Scholarsliips, namely, 
Bursaries, it has happened in several cases that these benefactions have been de- 
clined as a candidate was unable to furnish the remaining amount required for the 
fees. 

{b) and (c) So far as I know, no deserving beneficiary has been allowed to retire 
from her course through lack of means ; but there have been cases where this retire- 
ment would have been necessary if the students had not received help from a Loan 
Fund which has been estabhshed in connection with the College. 

VI. I think that there is great room for increase in the help given by local edu- 
cation authorities to promising girls in order to enable them to go to College. Where 
an examination for Scholarships is strictly competitive, as in the case of our own 
entrance Scholarship Examinations, and, I believe, the entrance Examinations 
of all other Colleges, and where the funds are strictly limited, only a small number 
can be helped by the College to take up their career. I feel sure that the British 
Association Educational Section could do much to educate public opinion in this 
very important matter. 

Bedford College foe Women. 

I. Entrance Scholarships, 1 of 60Z. ; 4 of 30Z. ; 4 of 50/. tenable for three years ; 
1 Scholarship, 60/. for three years ; 1 Fellowship ( ? post-graduate), 50/. for two years. 
Residence Bursaries, which reduce the fees of residence by 14 guineas, are given to 
students who are unable to pay the full fees. 

II. No two College Scholarships may be held together, but a College Entrance 
Scholarship may be held with a Scholarship or Exhibition from another source by 
special permission of the Council. Residence Bursaries are sometimes awarded to 
Scholars. 

III. The question has not arisen. 

IV. (o) No. There is a small ' College Fund ' supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions, from which grants are made to needy students, but these grants are not as a 
rule made to scholars. 

(b) Scholarships are occasionally supplemented privately', but in no case does 
this provide for a complete maintenance of the student. 

V. (a) and (b) Not during the last six years. 

Westfield College. 

I. 5 to 7 Scholarsliips annually of 35/. to 50/. for three years (last year 7 were 
awarded, each of 50/.) ; 1 permanent endowed Scholarship of 60/. for three years, 
offered every third year. 

II. No. 

III. No. 

IV. Private help is in many cases given to supplement Scholarships, and also 
to help students who do not hold Scholarships. I have arranged for this privately. 

V. (a) I beheve that in some cases a Scholarship or Bursarj' has been declined 
where the winner has failed to gain another Scholarship elsewhere to supplement 
the one offered by the CoUege. 

(6) I think not. Help has been arranged in case of need. 

(c) I have arranged privately for help by gifts or loans, and have received some 
gifts for this purpose from members of Council, old students, and friends of the College. 

VI. In the award of Scholarships the written examination h not the only test, 
although it is necessarily the chief one. 

University of Durham (Durham Division). 

I. At entrance (annually), 5 open Scholarships (to men and women) of 70/. ; 1 of 
401. ; 3 of 30/. ; 3 of 20/. for one year, renewable for a second and third year ; 1 of 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC , HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 253 

70^., 1 of 30Z., and I of 20Z., for women only ; an Exhibition of 201. for students of 
limited means ; 3 second year Scholarships of 30^., one restricted to those who do not 
hold any Scholarship or Exhibition, and 3 Exhibitions of 40Z. and of 30Z., given on 
the results of the Final Examinations in Theology ; also 1 of 401. restricted to candi- 
dates for Honours in Theology. A number of close Scholarships and Exhibitions, 
ranging from 50/. to St., all for one year (except two for thi'ec years). 

II., III. No holder of a Foundation Scholarship can hold together with it any otlier 
Scholarships or Exhibitions (except two University and two close Scholarships for. 
Graduates) which will with it amount to as much as 100/. a year. 

V. (a) Occasionallj', if awarded a Minor Scholarship. 

Armstrong College, Newcastle (in the University of Durh.ui). 

I. (a) At entrance, Exhibitions, 3 of 15/., 1 of 20/., each tenable for one year and 
renewable for a second year, subject to satisfactory conduct and progress ; 20 New- 
castle Corporation Exhibitions of free admission to Degree course for two years, 
renewable for a third under same conditions, and in very exceptional cases for a fourth 
year ; with these may be provided Bursaries for successful candidates who, without 
such aid, would not be able to accept the Exhibitions ; 2 Gateshead Corporation 
Exhibitions, giving free admission to Degree course (same conditions). County 
Council Scholarships and Exhibitions (restricted locally), 2 of 60/. ; 2 of 50/. ; 2 of 40/., 
plus tuition fees, tenable for two years only ; 3 yearly Scholarships of 50/. each in 
Marine Engineering, each tenable for three j'ears, restricted to candidates who can 
produce satisfactory evidence that the amount will enable them to pursue their day 
courses, and that they would be unable to do so without this aid ; 3 yearly Scholar- 
ships of 50/. each in Naval Architecture under same conditions. 

(6) At close of first year, a Scholarsliip of 30/. or under for one year, plus remission 
of two-tliirds of the class fees ; 1 of 20/., with similar remission for tliree years ; 1 
Scholarship of 15/. for one year ; 1 of 13/. 10s. for one year (renewable under condi- 
tions for a second). 

(c) At close of second year, 2 Scholarships of 40/. each for one year (with remission 
of fees), and other money rewards and prizes. 

II. The second year's Scholarships and Exhibitions are not tenable with any 
other. 

The Victoria University, Manchester. 

About 24 Foundation Scholarships, awarded by the University. A large number 
of entrance Scholarships, awarded by other bodies, varying from 25/. upwards ; 12 
Exhibitions of 15/. upwards ; numerous prizes of books and money. 

II. ' No . . . Scholarship or Exhibition awarded by the University shall be held 
together with any other . . . Scholarship awarded by the University or with any 
County Council School, without the express permission of the Senate. In the case of 
students who hold other . . . Scholarships or Exhibitions of any kind the Senate 
shall have power to withhold, either in whole or in part, payment of any . . . Scholar- 
ship or Exhibition awarded by the University. In the case of . . . Scholarships, 
Exhibitions, and Bursaries awarded by a Hall of Residence no such permission is 
necessary (University Scholarships are frequently held with County Council Scholar- 
ships up to a maximum of 75/. by special permission of the Senate).' 

III. The Regulation stated above limits concurrent tenure, but there is no fixed 
maximum limit as to the amount a single beneficiary may hold laid down by the 
Regulations. 

IV. Not at present. A small sum is set aside for assistance to deserving students 
to enable them to complete their course in case of special need arising. 

V. (a) Yes, but not frequently. 
(6) I cannot recollect such a case. 

(c) Under very special circumstances a supplemental grant has been made from 
the Scholarship Suspense Account, or private loans have been given. 

University of Birmingham. 

I. (a) On entrance, 15 of remission of fees plus maintenance not exceeding 30/. 
for four years (city residents) ; 2 of 25/. for one year ; 1 of 24/. for two or three years 
(Wolverhampton students) ; 1 of 50/. and 1 of 40/. for three years (Faculty of Com- 
merce) ; 2 Bursaries of 45/. for three years (parents' income not exceeding 150/.) ; 
and one of 13/. (residents of Smethwick) for one year, renewable. 

(6) Second and later years in Science, Arts, and Commerce, awarded mostly on In- 
termediate Examination, 1 Scholarsliip of remission of fees for thiee years (pupils of 



254 REPORTS OX THE STATE OF SCEBXCE. — 1915. 

Technical School) ; 1 of 40?. for three years ; 1 of 251. for two years, and 1 of 36^. for 
1 year (limited to pupils from King Edward's Schools) ; 1 of .507. and 1 of 40?. for three 
years (Commerce) ; I of 371. for one year (Science and Metallurgy) ; 4 Exhibitions of 
30?. for one year. 

(c) Medicine, 1 of 21?. for 2 years ; 1 of 14?. for one year (orphans of medical men); 
4 of 10?. lOs. for one year on results of second, third, fourth, and final examinations. 

II. Xo. 

IV. We have no funds at our disposal of a permanent kind to supplement Scholar- 
ships for the complete maintenance of students of exceptional merit. We provide, 
however, out of ordinary revenue for maintenance up to 30?. per annum, in respect of 
60 University Entrance Scholarships, tenable by candidates resident in the city. 

(a) The amount to be expended in any year on Scholarships and Bursaries 
respectively in any year is in the discretion of the Committee, and is determined by 
the apphcations received. Bursaries may provide for complete maintenance ; their 
amount depends on the circumstances of the applicant and of his parents or guardians. 

(6) No. 

V. I do not remember any instances of (a) or (6). 

The Uni\'ersity of Leeds. 

I. Entrance Scholarships, 2 of 20?. and 1 of 217. for two years ; 3 of 407. for two 
years for a third ; 2 of 257. and 1 of 357. renewable ; and a number of Scholarships 
on the award of pubUc bodies. The Leeds City Entrance Scholarship Fund is now 
utUised ' for the purpose of extending the courses of deserving and necessitous Leeds 
students attending at the University.' 

II., III. ' Power is reserved to declare a Scholarship vacant or reduce its value on 
the ground that the Scholar has previously or subsequently to his election acquired 
another Scholarship. In cases where students hold Scholarships the aggregate 
amount of which amounts to more than 757., the Senate reserves power to reduce them 
to this sum.' 

IV. I am not quite clear as to the intention of this question. We have no fund 
which is necessarily used as a means of supplementing Scholarships, but some of the 
Scholarships and other awards may be given to students already- holding some other 
Scholarship. Special grants have also been given by the University to Scholarship 
holders. 

V. (o) (6) and (c) The information available is not sufficiently definite for a replj' 
to be given to these questions. If such cases have occurred, they have been verj' 
rare. Special grants have been made to Scholarship holders by the University, and 
private help has sometimes been forthcoming. 

U:sivERSiTr of Sheffield. 

I. Scholarships and Exhibitions : 

1 every year, tenable during whole iledical degree Course, 1227. total value. 
8 every year, tenable for three years, 507. a year. 

2 „ „ „ 307. a year. 

j 157. first year, pltt.s fees remitted. 
12 „ „ „ \ 207. second year 

I 257. third year „ 

I 107. first year, ,, 

6 (annual) „ „ i 127. 10s. second year ,, 

I 157. third year ,, 

I 207. first year, „ 

2 „ „ „ -| 257. second year 

I 307. third year 

4 every year „ „ 507. a year „ 

1 (triennial), tenable for three years, 507. a year. 

1 „ „ „ 217. a year. 

4 (annual), „ ,, Fees of Degree Course remitted. 

1 ,, tenable for one 3-ear, Fees in Engineering or Metallurgy remitted. 

1 „ „ ., 207. 

1 „ „ ,. 227. 

6 „ ,, ,, 507. plus fees remitted. 

In addition, the Surveyors' Institute offer 1 Scholarship of 607. and 5 of 507. for 
three years, tenable in this University. 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 255 

University of Bristol. 

I. Post-graduate Scholarships, 3 of 30^. to 341. for one year ; 1 of 251. , for not 
exceeding three years ; 1 of 20^. for one year ; ' City Scholarships ' consisting of the 
payment of all fees (varying in number and amount according to the applications 
and qualifications of candidates, and the Faculties they wish to enter), for one year 
renewable ; ' City Bursaries,' under same conditions, for maintenance, purchases of 
books or apparatus. 

3,000Z. a year (approximately) devoted to ' City ' Scholarships and Bursaries. 
In the Faculty of Engineering, 4 entrance Scholarships carrying free tuition for at 
least three years ; 1 research Scholarship, value 501. for one year, with free tuition ; 
3 entrance Scholarships from endowed Schools in the City (2 tenable only in the 
Faculty of Engineering), SOL for one year renewable. Several Exhibitions carrying 
free tuition in the Faculty of Engineering. 

II. ' Not as a rule.' 

III. No. 

IV. No, except as above. 

V. No. 

University College, Nottingham. 

I. 3 entrance Scholarships, each SOL per annum, tenable for three years; a 
limited number of entrance Studentships, 12i!. to 20L, tenable for three years, for those 
whose means are limited ; 1 Scholarship of 12L for one year, and College Studentships 
(16 during 1912-13) of lOL to 18^. awarded on results of Terminal and Sessional 
Examinations to College students who are in need of pecuniary assistance, tenable 
for one year, renewable. City Education Bursaries of 10/., with remission of College 
fees, averaging 18L 

II. Under exceptional circumstances the College Council might sanction a Student- 
ship being held together with Scholarship. It is possible for holders of College 
Scholarships and Studentships to hold Scholarships awarded by another body during 
the same period. 

III. No. In awarding Scholarships, however, the pecuniary circumstancea are 
in some cases taken into consideration. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) Very few such cases have occurred. 

(b) The College Studentships are designed to meet such cases. 

University College, Reading. 

I. Scholarships and Exhibitions : Major open Scholarships, 2 of 69/., 1 of 65/., 
tenable for two years, renewable for a third. Two minor open Scholarships of 20/. 
to 24?. [i.e., remission of tuition fees) under same tenure. Scholarships given by Halls 
of Residence, ordinarily of 40/., under same tenure (see IV. below). Two minor 
Scholarships of 20/. to 24/. (i.e., remission of tuition fees), ordinarily for three years, 
for candidates educated in Reading. One Scholarship of 60/. for three years, for 
candidates from Reading School. Two open Scholarships in Fine Art, of 30/., for 
two years. Open Scholarships in Music, of 26/., about 2 awarded per annum, ordin- 
arily for three years. Exhibitions for the Secondary Education Course for women 
(complete or partial remission of the tuition fee of 20/., for one year), one or two per 
armum. Certain other Exhibitions and Bursaries of less value. 

Note. — In cases where Entrance Scholarships are held for three years, the holders 
are sometimes enabled to stay for a fourth year by means of a Secondary Education 
Exhibition or special assistance from a Hall of Residence (see IV. below). 

II. Not two College benefactions in ordinary circumstances. Comparatively 
small Exhibitions, however, may be awarded to students holding other Scholar- 
ships or Exhibitions. The Committee governing our Halls of Residence also occa- 
sionally make small supplementary grants to students who ah-eady may be holding 
Scholarships or Exhibitions, if the cases seem to make such a course desirable. 

III. We have no definite rule. ... In this institution, during many years, I 
have only known one case in which it could fairly be said that perhaps the candidate 
was receiving too much money. In that case, he was not receiving Scholarships 
from the College at all, but derived them from other quarters. 

IV. Our chief Hall of Residence for men has an endowment, the object of which 
is — provided that the working expenses of the Hall have been first defrayed 
■ — to enable Scholarships and Bursaries to be granted to students in residence 



256 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

at the Hall. The full scheme is not yet in operation, but ultimately there shouiu oe, 
in a Hall of 77 students, about 6 scholars in receipt of about 40Z. a year each, 
and possibly more holders of Exhibitions and Bursaries of smaller sums. We shall 
also be in possession quite shortly of an endowment to provide a Scholarship of 60^ 
a year, tenable by a candidate from R. School. Apart from these instances, we have 
occasionally given Scholarships temporarily out of our College income, or they have 
been provided by special gifts. I am not aware that we have ever given a Scholarship 
which involves ' complete maintenance.' In our opinion, such a course would be 
rarely desirable. 

V. I do not remember a case of (a) or (6). The College has frequently, on 
the other hand, assisted students who could not comj)lete their College course without 
some special assistance in addition to that which they might already be receiving 
irom other sources. 

VI. It is not quite clear to me what the precise purport of these inquiries is. 
Consequently, I am afraid that the information I have given may not be of much use. 
The most important observation, based on experience, that I can offer on the subject 
of Scholarships would be this : that while entrance Scholarships serve a certain 
obvious purpose, far too much stress has been laid upon the importance of having a 
large supply of them, without giving sufficient importance to their duration. That 
is to say, it is of very little use for a local education authority or other body to give a 
Scholarship for two years unless it has quite clearly made up its mind that — except 
the candidate fails in conduct or progress — the Scholarship will be extended, not only for 
a third year, but for a fourth. Extraordinary difficulty is experienced in persuading 
local authorities to extend any Scholarship for a fourth year, and yet it is precisely 
that fourth year which, in the case of University students, is the most important of all. 
Over and over again at this CoUege our students have been placed in a difficulty in 
the final year of their course. The difficulty arises in any kind of University course, 
but I will give an instance of which I have had two recent examples. Two women 
students, holding Scholarships from local authorities, successfully obtained their 
degree after probably in each case three years' work, not more, and possibly less. 
These students wish to become teachers in secondary schools. Consequently, they 
wish to remain at the College for another year in order to go through a course of 
secondary training and get a certificate. Unless they do this, they will stand very 
little chance of getting posts for which trained candidates are in competition, and yet 
in both cases — the cases of the two Education Committees — opposition is shown 
to the extension of the Scholarships for these purposes. In one case, the Education 
Secretary writes to say that the course of secondary training appears to him to be 
similar to a course of preparation for a civil service examination, and, in his opinion, 
not a course for which a Scholarship should be continued. The same Secretary, I 
beUeve, puts into his advertisements for vacancies in the staffs of his county secondary 
schools that only trained candidates need apply. At this College we have recognised 
that the most imperative need of aU is for Scholarships that would take effect during 
the third and fourth and even fifth years of a student's stay with us. We consider 
that these are more important than entrance Scholarships, and that nothing would 
benefit a University institution more than for it to be known that, notwithstanding 
a comparatively small supply of entrance Scholarships, there is a probability that any 
hardworking and promising student will be enabled to complete a long course of 
study, including probably a period of post-graduate study. We have already decided 
that such funds as we possess available for such purposes wiU be used in accordance 
with these principles when the College becomes a University in two or three years' 
time. 

Univeesity College, Aberystwith. 

I. 37 Scholarships and Exhibitions, I of 54Z. ; 3 of 401. ; 1 of 351. ; 1 of 271. ; 
4 of 30Z. ; 1 of 201. ; 2 of 151. ; 14 of lOl. ; 1 of &. Of these, 1 is tenable for four 
years, 18 for three years, 12 for two years, 6 for one year. 

II. No two of these are tenable together, but students may hold them together 
with Scholarships from other sources outside the College. 

III. No limit is imposed on the annual income derived from emoluments of all 
kinds by a single beneficiary. 

IV. There is no benefaction for the complete maintenance of students of excep- 
tional promise. 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 257 

V. (a) Cases have occurred. ' Occasionally the College can be of assistance by 
obtaining private aid, but as a rule this is not possible.' 

(b) ' Cases have also occurred of deserving beneficiaries retiring during their course 
through lack of adequate means ; but in most cases they have taken posts in schools 
or otherwise, and have subsequently returned to College to complete their course.' 

(c) ' The Principal and Registrar have at their disposal a small loan fund from 
■which they make periodical grants to deserving students, free of interest.' 

University College, Bangoe. 

I. Entrance Scholarships, 1 of iOl. ; 1 of 301. ; Exhibitions, 1 of 20/. ; 4 of lOl., 
tenable in the first instance for thiee years, but may be extended for a fourth ; and 
a number of limited Scholarships and Exhibitions, the highest of 30/., the longest 
tenure three years. 

II. ' No two CoUege benefactions can be held together.' 

III. No limit has hitherto been imposed. 

IV. We have no permanent endowment or benefaction for this purpose. There 
is, however, a ' Loan Fund ' from which advances (repayable without interest) are 
made to students who are unable without such assistance to complete their courses. 

V. (a) We do not know of any case . . . great sacrifices are often made by the 
parents of students in order to enable their children to come to College, and in many 
cases friends in the locahty from which a student comes render assistance. 

University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff. 

I. 59 Scholarships and Exhibitions : 6 of lO;., 1 of 15/., 12 of 111. Is., 18 of 20?., 
11 of 251., 2 of 211., 3 of 351., 2 of iOL, 3 of 501., and 1 of 101. Of these 23 are tenable 
for one year (of which 14 are renewable), 2 for two years, 34 for three years. There 
are also 72 County Free Studentships (60 tenable for three years, and 12 for one year), 
covering fees at the CoUege, to which maintenance allowances are attached by the 
counties concerned. These College Scholarships, Exhibitions, and Free Student- 
ships do not represent the annual awards to students at entrance, but the total number 
which may be held by all students in one session, and some of them are awarded for 
post-graduate work. 

II. and III. (1) Students may hold College Scholarships together with Scholar- 
ships from sources outside the College. 

(2) By order of the Council, no student may receive more than 501. from the 
College in any one year. An Exhibition is reckoned as lOl. out of this sum. The 
above Scholarship of 101. is a Special Scholarship not coming within the terms of this 
order. 

IV. There is no benefaction for the complete maintenance of students of ex- 
ceptional promise. 

V. No case has come to our knowledge. There is a Loan Fund for assisting 
meritorious students which has been provided by subscriptions. Grants, free of 
interest, are made from this Loan Fund by the Principal and the Registrar. 

For the Bursaries, etc., at the Scottish Universities, see Parliamentary Paper 411, 
11 Dec. 1912. 

The Carnegie Trustees grant assistance to students solely in respect of payment 
of class fees. 

University of St. Andrews. 

I. The value of Bursaries on entrance, as given in the Parliamentary Paper, varies 
from 61. 10s. to 501. per annum, and their tenure varies from three to eight years. 
In addition to these, 7 Bursaries in the second year of 161. 5s. to 301., tenable for 
two or three years, and 2 in the fourth year of 201. and 45/. respectively, arc 
awarded. 

An additional entrance Scholarship of 30Z. for four years has been founded for 
women students. As a rule, the Bru-saries on entrance run only for three years, in 
a few cases for four ; and 6 Scholarships of 80/. for one year, 4 of 50/. for two years, 
and 1 of 50/. for one year, and 4 of 801., tenable at Oxford or Cambridge for four 
years, are not included in the White Paper (some are post-graduate). 

II. Not as a general rule ; but in the case of second-year Bursaries, they may 
be awarded to a student, notwithstanding he already holds a Bursary gained at en- 
trance. 

1915. s 



258 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

III. No general rule imposing a limit. The rule just quoted to some extent 
secures that there will be no undue accumulation of Bursaries in one person. As 
regards outside Bursaries over which the University has no control, the case is pro- 
vided for by a rule that no one shall be entitled to hold a Bursary in the University 
with any outside Bursary yielding an annual income greater than 201., and tenable 
during a period of three years. The University authorities may at any time alter 
this regulation. 

IV. There is a small fund raised some years ago to enable Foundation Bursaries 
to be supplemented. Two other funds left to the University without any reservation 
may be devoted to the augmentation of existing Bursaries. 

I do not remember any case, however, where money from any of these sources 
has been drawn upon for the complete maintenance of any student. Of course, in 
Scotland, the existence of the Carnegie Fund Trust for the Universities of Scotland, 
which up till recently practically paid the class fees due by a student qualified to 
obtain that benefit, forms a considerable supplement to the Bursary Fund. Students 
may have their fees paid and hold a Bursary of from 151. to 40Z. a year, in which case 
the latter source of income provides for their maintenance. 

V. (a) and (6) I do not recollect such a case within my experience. Of course, 
the cases are numerous in which candidates who were relying on assistance from the 
Bursary Funds have been obliged, owing to their failure to obtain a Bursary or to some 
other financial casualty, to defer entering the University, or to leave the University 
midway in their career. No statistics and no definite note has been kept of such 
cases. I do not think that in the case of a student of exceptional abihty it could 
easily occur. 

(c) The University is enabled, out of a fund made up of the income from Bursaries 
which from various causes have lapsed, to provide for the encouragement of students 
of smaU means where they are known to have merit ; and that more particularly 
where, having struggled on through the curriculum for an ordinary degree, the student 
desires to obtain honours. The University Court have provided, to meet that ease, 
for grants being made to students of the foiirth and fifth year of study. As a rule, the 
ordinary Bursary or University Scholarship at entrance runs only for three years, in a 
iiw cases for four. 

University College, DtmsTDEE. 

I. Bursaries, entrance, 12 of 151. ; second year, 4 of 20?., 2 of 151. Third, fourth, 
and fifth years each one of 201., all tenable for one year only. Other Scholarships 
and Bursaries in the gift of other bodies or patrons tenable, held mostly at this College, 
are one of 60Z. for two years ; 2 of 251. for three years ; 1 of 25?. to 30?. for three 
years ; 5 of 40Z. for three years. 

II. As a rule not ; but exceptions are allowed in special deserving cases. 

III. This question is answered in the negative in reference to Answer II. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) and (6) No. 

VI. A Committee of the College Education Board is at the present moment in- 
vestigating the whole question of the awarding and tenure of Bursaries concerning 
the College, whose Report is expected before the close of the current academical year. 

Univeesity of Glasgow. 

I. Reference only to Parhamentary Paper. For undergraduates are provided a 
large number of Bursaries of which few are over 40?. a year, 60?. being the highest ; 
tenable mostly for three or four years (the longest tenure is seven years). Exhibitions 
and Scholarships are aU post-graduate. 

University of Aberdeen. 

I. Reference to Parhamentary Paper. Maximum value, 38?. ; tenure one, two, 
or three years, mostly four years ; in addition to post-graduate Scholarships there are 
280 Bursaries of the total annual value of 5,750?. A fund of 322?. is awarded each year 
in four sums to students who are in special need of pecuniary assistance to prosecute 
their studies at the University. 

II. No ; but a student may hold a Bursary of the University along with such a 
Scholarship as the Ferguson, which is open to all Scottish Universities. 

III. No. 

IV. No. 

V. (a) and (&) Not that I am aware of. 



259 

University of Edinbuegh. 

I. Scholarships, d:c. The total annual value of the University Fellowships. 
Scholarships, Bursaries and Prizes amounts to about 19,790/., viz., in the Faculty of 
Arts, 10,300/. ; in the Faculty of Science, 1,190Z. ; in the Faculty of Divinity, 2,010Z. ; 
in the Faculty of Law, 940/. ; in the Faculty of Medicine, 5,230/. ; and in the Faculty 
of Music, 120/. 

The Fellowships and Scholarships (chiefly for advanced students or graduates) 
number about 105. 

The years of tenure range from one to three or four, in one case (the Shaw Philo- 
sophical Fellowship) reaching five. 

The Bursaries, about 307, with very few exceptions, are tenable only by under- 
graduates in the respective Faculties : Faculty of Arts, 220 (several being tenable also 
in other Faculties) ; Faculty of Divinity, 40 ; Faculty of Law, 9 ; Faculty of Medicine, 
38. Total 307. 

The annual values range from 10/. to 50/., the greater number being from 20/. to 
30/. 

The period of tenure, in most instances, three or four years. 

II. Save in a few exceptional cases, it is not permitted to hold, at the same time, 
more than one University Scholarship or Bursary. 

III. No ; although in a few instances eligibility for a Scholarship or Bursary is 
conditional upon total income not exceeding a specified sum. 

IV. (a) No. 

(b) The Carnegie Trust gives annual allowances towards payment of class fees, to 
students (irrespective of other benefactions being received) who fulfil certain condi- 
tions as to age, nationality, preliminary education, &c. The allowances in the various 
Faculties are as follows : — In Arts (ordinary), 9/. a year, for three years, or (honours) 
9/. a year, for four years ; in Science, 12/. a year, for three years ; in Medicine, 15/. 
a year, for five years ; in Law, Divinity and Music, 6/. a year, for three years. 

V. This question seems hardly applicable to the conditions of the Scottish Uni- 
versities. 

Teinity College, Dublin, and University of Dublin. 

I. 2 Studentships of 100/. a year each, tenable for five years. 70 Foundation 
Scholarships given at various stages, and tenable till M.A. standing, value 18/. 9.9. 4d. 
yearly, with exemption from Arts Fees (16/. 16s.), free Commons, say 30/., and half 
rent for rooms in College, say 51., yearly. Non-Foundation Scholarships for women, 
at present 14, value 30/. yearly, under same tenure. In no case are these Scholar- 
ships to exceed five years. Senior Moderator Scholars, at present 30 of 10/. yearly. 
Twelve Senior Exhibitions of 20/. and 4 of 15/. yearly, tenable for two years. 12 
Junior Exhibitions of 20/. and 4 of 15/. a year, tenable for two years. 12 Roll Keepers, 
Markers, etc., from 7/. to 20/. yearly, and Provost's Marker, 45/. yearly. 30 Sizar- 
ships for men and women,' 5 Reid Sizarships, and at present 6 Sizarship Exhibitions, 
and numerous other Exhibitions varying from 51. to 60/. yearly. 

II. Yes. 

IIL No limit. 

IV. None for complete maintenance. 

V. (a) and (6) No. 

University College, Cork. 

I. Entrance Scholarships, CoUege 12 (3 of 40/., 6 of 30/., 3 of 20/.) for one year ; 

3 Honan (for those whose financial position is such that it would be impossible to 
obtain a course of instruction for a University degree without this aid) ; 3 of 50/., 
renewable up to a fifth year. 

Later years. Faculties other than Medicine and Engineering, 2 of 40/. ; 2 of 30/. ; 

4 of 201. for second year, renewable for third year. Engineering, 1 of 30/. for second 
year ; 1 of 30/. for third year. Medicine, 3 of 30/. for second year ; 3 of 30/. for third 
year, 3 of 30/. for fourth year, renewable for fifth. Law, 1 of 10/., awarded at end of 
first year. Exhibitions may be awarded in every case to students of merit who have 
failed to obtain Scholarships. 

' Students of limited means, exempt from Arts Fees; men having Commons 
free of expense, and women an allowance of 30/. in lieu of Commons. 

s 2 



260 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

County Council Scholarships, tenable in the College : — 

Cork : 10 of 24Z., tenable for three years and renewable for a fourth or fifth ; in- 
creasable from the Reserve Fund up to 50Z. in such cases as may seem advisable ; lOOL 
per annum, rising in the third year, to be allocated to Bursaries of lesser value to 
promising students, not worthy of Scholarships. 

Kerry : 2 of 50L ; 3 of 30L (restricted in respect of calling and means of parents) 
for one year, renewable for a second to a third year. 

Water ford : 3 of 50L and 1 of 30^ for three years (may be extended to fourth and 
fifth year). 

Other Scholarships are offered by the County Councils of Limerick and of 
Tipperarij (North and South Ridings). 

II. No. But there are practically no outside ones that could be tenable with 
ours, except possibly from Trinity College, Dublin. 

IV. (a) Only in the case of the County Cork scholars, who may be helped from the 
' Reserve Fund ' ' where necessary ' in the judgment of the President of the College. 

(6) No regular stream. 

V. (a) and (6) Yes. 

(c) In some cases by private beneficence. 

VI. It is desirable that there should be at the disposal of the College a fund ear- 
marked to supplement Scholarships, &c., for the complete maintenance of students of 
exceptional merit. 

The Queen's Univeesity, Belfast. 

I. (a) Foundation Scholarships, junior, 40 of 401., tenable for one year ; 3 of 40/., 
6 of 30Z., 4 of 20Z., 3 of 151. in the Faculty of Medicine ; 3 of 201. in the Faculty of 
Law, and G of 201. in the Faculty of Commerce. Extra Scholarships may, in special 
circumstances, be offered for competition among Art(s?) Students entering upon 
their second or third year. 

(6) Private endowment, 1 of 201., on entrance, for one year, renewable for a second 
and a third year ; 3 SuUivan Scholarships of about 401., for throe years, on entrance, 
restricted to national teachers or assistant teachers ; 2 of 20Z. for one year ; 1 (Megaw) 
of about 40Z. for one year (restricted to Christians) ; 1 of about 40Z., payable in three 
annual instalments ; 1 of lOZ. and 1 of 51. in Commerce, tenable for two years ; 1 of 
about 27Z. for women, payable in three annual instalments ; 1 Exhibition of 27/. 
for Undergraduates in Arts ; 2 entrance Exhibitions (Drennan and Tennent) of 
51. each at entrance. 

(c) In addition to these the City and County Borough of Belfast offers annually 
4 Scholarships of 40Z. annually for three years (which may be extended to a fourth 
or fifth, in the case of exceptional merit or excellence), tenable by matriculated 
students of the University. Candidates must show that they are in need of assistance. 

(d) The following County Scholarships and Bursaries are also tenable at any Uni- 
versity in Ireland, all for three years, in the University of Belfast, Antrim, 2 of 40/. ; 
Donegal, 2 of 45/. ; Kildare, 4 of 50/. (Cathohcs excluded) ; Monaghan, 3 Scholarships 
of 50Z. and 3 Bursaries of 25/. (Catholics excluded) ; Westmeath (only tenable in the 
University of BeKast and the National University), 3 of 50/. ; Wexford, 3 of 50/., and 
3 Bursaries of 25/. (Catholics excluded). 

II. ' Except where otherwise specified, no Scholarship can be held in conjunction 
with Scholarships or Exhibitions.' A Sullivan or Megaw Scholarship, or a Drennan or 
Tennent Exhibition may be held with a Foundation Entrance Scholarship. 

V. (a) and (6) Not to our knowledge. 



SCHOLARSHIPS, ETC., HELD BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. 



261 



APPENDIX II. 

LIST OF TOTAL EMOLUMENTS HELD ON ENTRANCE BY STUDENTS 
IN THE UNIVERSITIES OF OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE. 

(Arranged in Order of Values.) ' 





A. Oxford. 




B. Cambridge. 


No Emoluments Accepted 


1 


£20 . . . 


. 2 


£20 . 




2 


25 . . . 


. 3 


21 




1 


30 . . . 


. 19 


30 . 




7 


32 . . . 


1 


33 . 




1 


33 . . . 


1 


40 . 




. 10 


35 . . . 


5 


50 




. 10 


40 . . . 


. 21 


60 . 




. 10 


50 . . . 


7 


70 . 




. 2 


57 . . . 


1 


75 




1 


60 . . . 


. 14 


80 




. 45 


65 . . . 


. . . 2 


82 lOi. 




1 


67 . . . 


1 


89 




4 


70 . . . 


5 


90 . 




. 11 


74 . . . 


. . . 1 


100 . 




. 19 


75 . . . 


. . . 3 


105 . 




4 


80 . . . 


. 15 


106 . 




. 3 


85 . . . 


. . . 3 


110 . 




. 7 


90 . . . 


. 11 


115 . 




1 


91 . . . 


. 2 


117 14s. 




1 


93 . . . 


. . . I 


120 . 




. 15 


95 . . . 


1 


121 . 




1 


100 .. . 


. 16 


125 




. 4 


105 .. . 


. 2 


126 Is. 


Qd 


1 


110 .. . 


9 


130 . 




. 17 


Ill . . . 


. . I 


133 16s. 


M. . . . 


1 


112 .. . 


. . . 1 


135 . 




. 3 


115 .. . 


« 


136 . 




1 


120 .. . 


8 


140 . 




. 10 


125 .. . 


. . . 3 


143 . 




1 


130 .. . 


8 


145 . 




1 


135 .. . 


. 6 


150 . 




. 12 


138 .. . 


1 


151 . 




1 


140 .. . 


. . . 7 


152 . 




1 


145 .. . 


. 3 


155 . 




. 2 


150 .. . 


. . . 13 


160 . 




5 


154 .. . 


1 


170 . 




. 6 


155 .. . 


. . . 2 


180 . 




. 5 


160 .. . 


5 


185 . 




1 


164 .. . 


. 1 


230 . 




. 2 


170 .. . 


. . . 1 






— 


175 .. . 


1 


Total 


. 231 


178 .. . 


. . . 1 








180 .. . 


. 3 








188 .. . 


1 








190 .. . 


3 








300 .. . 


I 



Total 



221 



' Compiled from the detailed tables supplied on behalf of the Universities 
* Minutes of Evidence ' to the Royal Commission on the Civil Service, Jan. 9-24. 



262 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 



Museums. — Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor J. A. Green (Chairman), Mr. H. Bolton and 
Dr. J. A. Clubb (Secretaries), Dr. Bather, Mr. C. 
BucKMASTBR, Mr. E. Gray, Professor S. F. Harmer, 
Mr. M. D. Hill, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, Professors E. J. 
Garwood and P. Newberry, Sir Eichard Temple, Mr. 
H. H. Thomas, Professor F. E. Weiss, Dr. Jessie White, 
Kev. H. Browne, Drs. A. C. Haddon and H. S. Harrison, 
Mr. Herbert R. Rathbone, and Dr. W. M. Tattersall, 
appoi)ited to examine the Character, Work, and Main- 
tenance of Museums. 

The Committee reports that during the year it has carried out extensive 
inquiries upon various aspects of museums in relation to Education. 
Sectional Reports upon the museum needs of school children, students, 
and the general pubUc have been drawn up by sub-committees, and 
afterwards issued to all the members. 

Dr. F. A. Bather and Mr. H. H. Thomas attended the meetings of 
the Congres de 1' Association Francaise at Havre, and conferred with 
French representatives upon subjects covered by the terms of reference 
of the Committee. Dr. Bather also communicated a paper upon the 
' Commission de 1 'Association Britannique sur les Musees.' 

Mr. H. Bolton and Dr. W. M. Tattersall visited the chief Australian 
and American museums during the course of their overseas journey to 
and from Australia last year. In every instance they received a warm 
welcome from their colleagues and all possible assistance in pursuing 
their inquiries. The American museums proved especially profitable, 
as in numerous cases a thorough co-operation has existed for years 
between the museums and every grade and kind of educational effort. 

A lengthy questionnaire was prepared by the Committee in the 
hope of its adoption by the House of Lords for departmental issue to 
all museums. Owing to the war, this was not possible, and the question- 
naire was therefore issued bythe Committee on its own responsibility to 
all provincial museums in the British Isles. About one hundred and 
forty replies have been received, and are now under consideration. 

A special questionnaire upon classical education in relation to 
museums has also been issued. 

A joint conference between the Committee and the Museums Associa- 
tion was held at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, on July 9, 
when Professor J. A. Green introduced the question of the museum in 
relation to schools. Attention is also being directed to the question of 
the relation of museums to universities. 

The Committee hopes to complete its labours during the course 
of the coming year, and asks to be reappointed with a grant of 15^. , 
and -with the addition to its number of Sir Henry Miers, F.R.S. 



CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 263 



'Nomenclature of tlie Carboniferous, Permo-Carboniferous, and 
Permian Rocks of the Southern Hemisphere : — The Com- 
mittee consisting of Professor T. W. Edgbworth 
David (Chairman), Professor E. W. Skeats (Secretary), 
Mr. W. S. Dun, Sir T. H. Holland, Mr. W. Howchin, 
Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, and Professor W. G. Woolnough, 
appointed to consider the above. 

Eepoet of THE Australian Members of the Committee. 



A TABLE (II.) of a suggested cx)rj?elation of these rocks and also the 
following points were presented for discussion and report by the Hono- 
rary Secretary, Professor E. W. Skeats, The University, Melbourne: 

1. Is a single name desirable for all Australian Permo-Carboniferous 

rocks? i.e., should we abandon local terms such as Bowen, 
Gympie, Bacchus Marsh, &c. ? 

2. If so, or if a comprehensive name in addition to local names is 

desirable, should the name be a general one, i.e., Permo-Carboni- 
ferous, Carbo-Permian, or Permian? 

3. If a local name be preferred, which name is most suitable? It has 

been suggested that since the Glacial series was first discovered by 
Selwyn in the Inman Valley in South Australia they might be 
called ' the Inman series ' or that a suitable aboriginal name from 
that district might be chosen. If the latter, what is a suitable 
name? 

4. Can we be certain that the prominent Glacial Conglomerate is 

always on the same geological horizon, i.e., is it everywhere con- 
temporaneous ? The presence of two or more Glacial Conglomer- 
ates in Victoria and New South Wales suggests a repetition of 
Glacial conditions not necessarily with the same time-interval 
between them, since at Bacchus Marsh in Victoria several con- 
glomerates are intercalated among the shales and sandstones of 
the one series, while in New South Wales the Lower Marine 
prominent Glacial horizon is followed by the Greta series, and 
then Glacial boulders recur in the Upper Marine series. In other 
areas in Victoria, New South Wales, South Austraha, &c., where 
a Glacial bed rests unconformably on older rocks and is not con- 
formably overlain by fossiliferous rocks, we have no stratigraphical 
or palseontological guide and commonly assume, and are unable to 
demonstrate, that these widely separated occurrences are on the 
same horizon as those of Bacchus Marsh in Victoria and the 
Hunter Eiver in New South Wales. Are we safe in making this 
assumption? 



264 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, — 1915. 



II. 



Correlation-Table of Permian, Permo- Carboniferous, and 
By Professor E. W. Skeats, D.Sc, A.R.C.Sc, 



Hoiizou 


New Soutb Wales 


Yictoria 


Queensland 


West A.astralia 


South Australia 

and Northern 

Territory 


Permian 


> 


k 


Schizoneura 

Sandstones 

of Bacchus 

Marsh ? 


Upper Bowen 
Series ? 






Permo- 
Carboniferous 


Newcastle 
Series with 
Glossopteris 


Collie River 
Coal Series 

with 
Glossopteris 


Dempsey 

Series 









East Maitland 

or Tomago 

Series 






Upper Marine 

Series with 

Glacial 

Boulders 




Bowen 

awson 

Series 






Greta Series 
with Ganga- 
mopteris 


Gangamopteris 

Sandstone 

of Bacchus 

Marsh 


Lower 
and D 
Coal 


Gascoyne 

Worramel 

and Minilya 

Series 

with Lyons 

Conglomerate 

at base 


Victoria River 
and Arnhem 
Land Series 

(N. Terr.) with 
Glossopteris ? 

Tillites, (fee, 

ofHallett'sCove, 

Inman Valley, 

d-c. 


Lower Marine 

Series with 

Glacial 

Conglomerate 


Tillites, Ac, 

of Bacchus 

Marsh 

Derrinal, &c. 


Gympie Series 

with 
Gangamopteris 


Carboniferous 


Rhacopteris- 
bearing Series 


Avon River, 
Mansfield, and 

Grampian 

Sandstones ? 

with 

Lepidodendron 

australe 


Star Series 

with 

Lepidodendron 

australe 

i 


Kimberley 

Series with 

Lepidodendron? 




Lepidodendrum 

volkheimianum- 

bearing Series 




Upper 
• Devonian ? 


Mt. Lambie 
Series 


Iguana Creek 

Beds? with 

Cordaites 











Note. — Junctions between Devonian 

Junctions between Carboniferous and Permo-Carboniferous are conformable in South part 

Junctions between Permo-Carboniferous (Permian ?) and Mesozoic are conformable 



CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 265 



Carboniferous Rocks of the Southern Hemisphere and of India, 
F.G.S. (Secretary of Committee). 



Tasmania 



New Zealand 



South Africa 



Knooklofty Wairoa Series? 



Series with 

Vertebraria 

indica ? 



(Park), Kaihiki 
Series (Park)? 



Lower Beaufort 

Series with 

Pareiasaurus 

and 
Glossopteris 



Aorangi Series 
(Park) ? 



South America 



Schizodus 

Series of 

Brazil with 

Mesosaurus 



t 



Antarctica 



Beacon 
Sandstone ? 

I 



Sandy Bay 
Series 



Mersey Series 



Glacial Series 

of Wynyard, 

£aglehawk 

Neck, Ac. 



I 



Maitai: 
Series?: 
(inpart) 
(Park) 



I 



t 



Ecca and 

Kimberley 

Series 

with 

Mesosaurus 



I 



Tillites, Ac, of 
Dwyka Series 



t 



Witteberg 
Series 



Santa Catharina 
Series of Brazil 
and Argentine 

with 

Orleans Glacial 

Conglomerate 

at base 



i 



Bokkeveld 
Series ? 



Beacon 
Sandstone ? 



India 



Panchet 
Series ? 



Damuda 
Series ? 



Talchir Series 
with Glacial 
Conglomerate 
! at base 



I 



and Carboniferous are conformable. 

of South Africa, discordant in North part of South Africa, and in New South Wales. 

in South Africa, India, and New South Wales (slightly discordant in places). 



266 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

5. Is the correlation usually made with other areas in the Southern 

Hemisphere and with India surely and definitely established? 
For instance, is the correlation suggested in the included table 
agreed to by members of the Committee? Reasons for agree- 
ment or disagreement are requested. 

6. Are the relations between Devonian and Carboniferous rocks in 

the Southern Hemisphere everywhere conformable ? If not, where 
do discordances occur? 

7. Further statements as to regions of discordance and of accordance 

of the junction between Carboniferous and Permo-Carboniferous 
rocks in Southern Hemisphere are requested. 

8. In New South Wales (in places), in South Africa and in India, the 

Permo-Carboniferous merges into the Mesozoic apparently without 
break. This may also occur at Bacchus Marsh. This raises the 
question as to defining the upper limit of Permo-Carboniferous and 
its distinction from Permian. 



III. 

Discussion of the above Notes and Table by Professor T. W. Edge- 
worth David, C.M.G., D.Sc, F.R.S., &c. {Chairman of Committee). 

Question 1. Local terms such as Bowen (system name), Gympie 
(series name), Bacchus Marsh (stage or series name), might with ad- 
vantage be retained, as they are useful for describing local developments 
of rocks which while not necessarily synchronous {e.g., 'Bowen' 
probably takes in far more than 'Bacchus Marsh ') are to be grouped 
within the general term Permo-Carbonifei*ous A single name to take 
in all local divisions (' Bowen,' &c.) is desirable. 

Question 2. Permo-Carboniferous had better be retained for the 
present. It was suggested by E. Etheridge, Jun., in 1880 (see ' Proc. 
Eoy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh,' 1880, vol. v. p. 319), where E. Ethe- 
ridge 's report is recorded on the first collection of fossils sent to 
him by Dr. E. L. Jack. Unfortunately specimens from the Star beds 
(typically Carboniferous [T. W. E. D.]) were mixed up with Gympie 
and other typical Permo-Carboniferous fossils in this collection. Dr. 
Jack at this time thought the Star beds to be newer than the Gympie, 
but this view has now been given up, and the Star beds are considered 
older than the Gympie. But although the true Carboniferous (Star 
beds) are now eliminated from E. Etheridge's original Permo-Carboni- 
ferous system, he considers that there is still a sufficiency of Carboni- 
ferous types in other true Permo-Carboniferous areas in Queensland to 
justify the retention of the term for all formations within the Common- 
wealth from the basal Glacial beds up to the topmost beds which contain 
any trace of the Glossopteris Flora. 

The recent discovery in the Seaham district of New South Wales of 
Glacial beds at the base of the Lower Marine series passing downwards 
into Rhacopteris {Aneimites)-hea.rmg shales, with in one case a frag- 
ment of Aneim,ites in the shales associated with the lowest Glacial bed. 



OARBONIFEROU.S ROCKS OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 267 

seems now further to justify the retention of the term Permo- 
Oarboniferous. 

Question 3. If a general local name is to be given, the name ' Hun- 
terian ' (from the type-area of the Hunter Eiver) has a prior claim, and 
probably a stronger claim than any other, as (a) It was suggested for 
this application by the late Professor Ralph Tate (' Eeport Australian 
Association for the Advancement of Science for 1900,' published 1901, 
p. 63 of his Presidential Address), and (b) The Hunter area is the first 
type-area in Australia (that is an area where the whole system from 
basal Glacial beds to top of the Newcastle series are developed) to be 
described. This description has been given by the Eev. W. B. Clarke 
(' Sedimentary Formations of New South Wales,' &c.). 

As regards the term ' Inman Series,' if it is intended to restrict it 
entirely to the Glacial stage of the Permo-Carboniferous system there 
are no serious objections to its use, but it seems to me that — 

(a) in view of the fact that no fossils whatever have as yet been 
found in these beds, and 

(5) that the former Government Geologist of South Australia 
(H. Y. L. Brown) was of opinion that the beds were of 
Mesozoic age, and that the present Government Geologist 
(L. K. Ward) still questions their age as being Permo-Carboni- 
ferous {v. his Geological Map in ' Handbook of South Aus- 
tralia ' prepared for the B.A.A.S. visit in 1914) and in view- 
also of the fact that 

(c) there is more than one Glacial horizon in the Permo-Car- 
boniferous system 

— it would be distinctly preferable to use the terms ' Inman, ' ' Bacchus 
Marsh,' ' Wynyard ' stages or series, "' Lochinvar ' stages or series, 
' Lyons Conglomerate ' stage, etc. , for local developments of the basal 
Glacial beds. (Personally my opinion is that the Hallett's Cove and 
Inman Valley beds ai'e undoubtedly to be correlated with those of 
Bacchus Marsh.) 

Question 4. In regai'd to the contemporaneity of the Permo-Car- 
boniferous Glacial beds in various parts of the Commonwealth, 
there can, in my opinion, be no question that the Bacchus Marsh and 
Wjmyard Glacial beds were absolutely contemporaneous. They both 
conformably underlie Gangamopteris beds, respectively at Bacchus 
Marsh Gangamopteris Sandstone Quarry, and between Wynyard and 
Preolenna (in North- Western Tasmania). Even individual tillite beds 
can, I think, be correlated with one another, in the cases of Bacchus 
Marsh and Wynyard. The Inman and Hallett's Cove Glacial beds, in 
spite of the absence of fossils, can, I think, be quite safely considered 
as contemporaneous with those of Bacchus Marsh and Wynyard. The 
Lochinvar stage or series of New South Wales, like those of Bacchus 
Marsh and Wynyard, underlies Gangamopteris-hearing strata and 
graduates downwards conformably, at Seaham and the Paterson area 
in the Lower Hunter District of New South Wales, into the tuffaceous 
shales containing Aneimites (Rhacopteris). In fact C. A. Siissmilch 



IV. 

C or relatioji- Table of the Permian, Permo-Carboniferous, and 

By Professor T. W. E. David, 



Horizon 


Tasmania 


^*<=to- Au's^a 


Western 
Australia 


New South Wales Queensland 




Southport 
Coal Measures 




Collie Creek 












Goal Measures Xewcastle 










1 Series Clermont 








I and 




Mt. Oygnet and 






Tolmie's 


Neo-Permian 


Adventure Bay 






1 Coal Measures 




Goal Measures 


j 
Schizoneura 




Dempsey 

Series 








Beds 




Tomago | j 






Bacchus Marsh | 




Series 






Upper Marine 






Upper Marine Series 


Marine Beds of 




Series of 






with a well-marked 


Clermont and 




Preolenna, elc. 


i 
1 

* 

! 




Glacial Horizon 
1,500 ft. above its 
base and a marine 
boulder bed over 
2,000 ft. above the 
base of the Series 


Capella. 
Glossopteris 
Beds of Oakey 

Cr. and 

St. Mary's ou 

MackenzieHiver 

Marine Beds of 

Oakey Cr. and 

St. Mary's 


Gangamopteris 


Gangamopteris 




Greta and Ashford 


Dawson River 




Bed^, Mersey 


Beds, Bacclius i 




Coal Measures with 


Anthracites 




and Fingal 


Marsh | 




Gangam ipteris 




Palseo-Penniau 
or 












Lower Marine 






Lower Marine Series 


Gympie Series 


Permo- 


Series of 


i 




with Eurydesma 


with marine 


Carboniferous 


Preolenna, 
Pachydomus 

and Eury- 
desma Beds of 
Maria Island, 






cordatum 


fossils 




etc. 






~'61 






Wynyard 


Glacial Series ■ Glacial Series 


Lyons Con- 


acial Beds of 


Boulder Beds (?) 




Glacial Beds 


of Inman, 


glomerate and 


Loohinvar and 


of Windah on 






Bacchus Marsh Hallett's 


Irwin River 


Seaham. 


MackenzieHiver 






Coimodai, etc. Cove, etc. 


Boulder Bed 


[Note : Aneimites 
(Rhacopteris) occurs 
in basal part of these 








1 




Beds at Seaham.] 




'^ 


Avon Blver 




"~§~ 


/ Aneimites 


Star Series with 






Sandstones j 




^•2 


(Rhacopteris) 


Phillipsia, 






with 1 


Lepidodendron 


^■S 


Beds or Series 


Aneimites, 






Lepidodendron 


Beds of 


la 


with Cala- 


Lepidodendron 






australe. 


Kimberley, 


o o 

^5' 


mites. 


australe, and 






Mansfield 


Limestones of 


Very massive 


Rhynchonella 






Fish Beds. 


Mt. Marmion 


Ciai- 


pleurodon. 






Grampian 


Kimberley 




glomerates. 


(Possibly the 






Sandstones, 




^a 


Arkose, Tuffs 


L. australe and 






etc. 




!d 


>and Rhyolites. 


B. pleurodon 


Oarboniferone 








^Lepidodendron 


Beds are 
Upper 










m 


volkman- 










§ 


nianum Series 


Devonian) 










*? 


with L. velt- 












c 


heimianum 












o 

1^ 


Ulodendron, 












etc. 




Lithoscrotion 










0} 


and Syringo- 












t 


pora Lime- 












Hi 


stones with 
Syringothyris 








i 












Iguana Creek 


Kimberley 




' Burdekin 1 






Beds and 


Series 


1 Limestone 


Deronien 




Tabberabbera 
Shales (?) ! 




'(Mid.Dsvonian) 

1 

1 



Carboniferous Rocks of the Southern Hemisphere and India. 
C.M.G., D.Sc, P.R.S., etc. 



' NiTttieru 
Territory 



New Zealaud 



ladia 



Possibly some 

of the lower 

non-fossilifer- 

ous beds of the 

Maitai Group 

belong here 

(Maitai Group 

is mostly 

Trias-Jura) 



U3 




3 












o 






T3 a 




P s 


-S a> 






O.J 




■-a 


is 








~i-> 






O-a 




p 


iV 



043 



Marine Beds 
at Port Keats 



Thin coaly 

lamina with 

Qlossopterisand 

Gangamoptcris 

Port Keats 



m , 
Ǥ 



C3 CO 



Bauiganj 
Coalfield 



Ironstones 
Shales 



Barakar 

Sub-stage 



Middle 
Beaufort with 
Dicynodon (?) 

Lower 

Beaufort with 

Glossopteris and 

Sehizoneura 

and numerous 

Reptiles. 

EccaBeds and 

Glossopteris, 

Gangamopteris 

Sehizoneura 

and 

Lepidodendron 

pedroanum. 

Upper Dwyka 

Shales with 

Mesosaurus 



Lower Prodactus 

Limestone of 

Salt Range 



Karharbari Coal 
Measures with 
Gangamopteris 



Salt Range Marine 
Beds with 
Kurydesma 



Boulder Beds of 
Salt Range and 
Talchir Boulder 

Beds with 
Gangamopteris 



Lower part of 'Po 

Series ' with Oulm 

Flora, Aneimites, 

(to., and Spiti 

Plant Beds 



South Africa 



South 
America 

Passa dois 
Scries with 
Lycopodiopsis 
ilerbjii and 
Mesosaurus 



Rio Bonito 

Shales with 

Glossopteris, 

Gangamopteris 

and 

Lepidodendron 

pedroauum 



Falkland 
Islands 



Glossopteris 
and 

Phyllotheca 
Beds of Speeii- 
well Islands, &c. 



Antarctica 

Beacon Sand- 
stone (in p.irt) 

i.e. the Coal 

Measures with 

Glossopteris 

Beardmore 

Glacier, 
Granite Har- 
bour, &c. of 
Ross Region 
Antarctica 



Gangamopteris 
obovata Beds 



EurydesmaBeds 
(E. globosum) 

of 
S. W. Africa 



Dwyka 

Conglomerates | 

(Glacial Series) 

Gangamopteris 

is associated 

with tiUite 



Orleans 
Conglomerates 
and Rio Nero 
Boulder Beds 

in Marine 
Shales. Sandy 

Tillites on 3 

horizons. Total 

thickness 

2.300 ft. 



Spiti Shales with 

Phillipsia and 

Syringothyris 

caspidata 



Mutb Quartzitea 

and Limestones. 

Padaukpin 

Limestones. 

Wetwin Shales 



Witteberg 
Series 



Glacial Beds 

underlying 

Glossopteris 

Strata 



Devonian 
Marine Series 

of Lower 
Amazon Valley 



Marine 

Quartzites 

with Spirifers 



Beacon S'stooes 

of Granite 

Harbour with 

Mi idle 

Devonian 

Fish Remains 



270 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

has quite recently discovered a fragment of an Aneimites leaflet in a bed 
of shale actually in, but close to the base of, the Seaham Glacial series. 

Now, Aneimites is of true Carboniferous age, and may even belong 
to a Lower Carboniferous (Culm) horizon. At all events it cannot 
probably be newer than Upper Carboniferous, if as new. While the 
Gangamopteris horizon of the Lower Hunter links up the Lochinvar 
stage with that of Bacchus Marsh and Wynyard the occurrence of 
Aneimites in the base of the Glacial beds at Seaham in New South 
"Wales suggests either: — (a) that in New South Wales the basal part 
of the beds is of true Carboniferous, possibly Middle or even Lower 
Carboniferous age, or (b) that Aneimites in Australia survived into later 
geological time than it did in Europe. The fact that on the whole it is 
distinctly above the Lepidodendron veltkermianum, , L. volkmannianmn, 
Ulodendron, and Syringothyris horizons, as well as much above the 
Lithostrotion and Syringopora limestones of the Lower division of 
Carboniferous rocks in the New England District of New South Wales, 
suggests that it is perhaps Post-Culm in age in New South Wales. 
The Glacial beds described by Professor Woolnough (' Proc. Roy. Soc. 
N.S.W.,' vol. xiv. 1911, pp. 159-168) were certainly formed contem- 
poraneously with those of the Lochinvar-Seaham areas. 

In Western Australia the Lyons Conglomerate of the Gascoyne- 
Minilya-Wooramel areas and the Glacial beds of the Irwin River area 
are surely contemporaneous with one another. On the Wyndham 
River in the Gascoyne District thin boulder beds occur with marine 
Permo-Carboniferous fossils in the matrix and underlie limestones 
containing AuJosteges, Productus semireticulatus, Cleiothyris (Athyris) 
macleayana, &c. (the last in particular is a true Carboniferous 
type), as recorded by R. Etheridge, jun. PliilUpsia grandis is also 
recorded (c/. P. Chapman, 'Australasian Fossils,' p. 232) from the 
Permo-Carboniferous rocks of the Gascoyne district, but its exact 
horizon in regai*d to the Glacial beds is not defined. Again, at the 
Irwin River Glacial horizon, the Glacial beds (in that case 430 feet 
thick) underlie conformably limestones and ferruginous bluish shales 
containing Productus semireticulatus, Aulosteges, Spirifer musakhey- 
lensis, &c., — marine forms which suggest a Glacial horizon consider- 
ably below that of the Greta Coal Measures (essentially Gangamopteris 
Coal Measures). The Western Australian Permo-Carboniferous Glacial 
horizon may, therefore, be provisionally correlated with that of Bacchus 
Marsh, Inman, Wynyard, and Lochinvar. 

In Queensland, B. Dunstan has recorded slates of Gympie (Lower 
Permo-Carboniferous age) at Windah, on the Mackenzie River, to the 
west of Rockhampton ('Queensland Government Mining Journal,' 
April 15, 1901).' For these boulder beds he suggests a Glacial origin. 

W. H. Rands has also recorded small boulders which he considered 
to be probably of Glacial origin in the Gympie beds at Gympie. _ (Quoted 
in 'Geology and Palseontology of Queensland and New Guinea,' by 
R. L. Jack and R. Etheridge, Jun., p. 77.) 

These boulders, mostly not more than one foot in diameter and 
enclosed in fine shale, may or may not have been transported by ice. 
The Windah beds are more suggestive of the action of floating ice and 



CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 271 

may be tentatively referred to the Lochinvar Glacial horizon of New 
South Wales. R. L. Jack's discoveiy of boulders, about two feet 
in diameter, near the base of the Middle Bowen formation {op. cit., pp. 
150-151) does not make it clear whether these supposed ice-rafted 
boulders occur below the Middle Bowen or are intercalated in them. 
They are stated to be associated with portions of trunks of coniferous 
trees, and, as Jack suggests, may have been dropped in heaps from the 
floating stumps of trees. Probably their horizon is equivalent to that 
of the Branxton beds of the Upper Marine series of New South "Wales. 

If this correlation is correct the Bowen boulders are on a higher 
horizon than that of Bacchus Marsh, &c. Certainly at Branxton and 
West Maitland in New South Wales large boulders, in some cases from 
one to three tons in weight and occasionally well glaciated, are found 
on a horizon about six thousand feet above that of the Lochinvar Glacial 
horizon; and in this thickness of 6,000 feet of strata, chiefly marine, are 
intercalated the Greta Coal Measures containing in the aggregate from 
20 to 40 feet of coal. 

Obviously, therefore, in the Lower Hunter area there are two 
distinct Glacial horizons, the Upper about a third of the way up above 
the base of the Upper Marine series and the Lower at the very base of 
the Lower Marine series. With the exception, however, of this case at 
Branxton and of the Irwin Eiver, and of, perhaps, the Middle Bowen 
boulders, all the main Permo-Carboniferous horizons in Australia and 
Tasmania appear to lie at the very base of the Permo-Carboniferous 
system and can be safely correlated with one another. 

Question 5. In regard to the vast question raised in the Table 
of Correlation of the Permian, Permo-Carboniferous, and Carboni- 
ferous Rocks, of the Southern Hemisphere, the following notes are 
suggested : — 

Under table for New South Wales re ' Rhacopteris-hearing series, ' 
as Arber now refers Rhacopteris to Aneimites this series might be 
termed: Aneimiies (Rhacopteris)-heaTmg series. 

I am inclined to the expression Palmo-Permian, not as an exact 
synonym for Permo-Garhonijerous , but as meaning something older 
than the Neo-Dyas (Zechstein) horizon, and not only as old as the 
Paleeo-Dyas (Rothliegendes) but taking in some infra-Rothliegendes 
rocks which at the same time are newer than the Pennsylvanian of the 
Upper Carboniferous of North America. 

The term Permo-Carboniferous, on the other hand, while it takes in 
infra-Rothliegendes rocks should include some rocks which would be 
considered to be of Upper Carboniferous age. Provisionally it seems 
to me that we may adopt the following conclusions: — 

(1) That if we may interpret the phenomena of Palaeozoic glacia- 
tions by those of Pleistocene, the glaciations of the Northern and 
Southern Hemispheres were so nearly, if not absolutely, synckronous, 
that they may be referred to the same series of rocks in either hemi- 
sphere. 

(2) If this be admitted, then the Squantum tillite (admitted by 
Professor Coleman, W. M. Davis, &c., to be undoubtedly a tillite) 



272 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915* 

and which is apparently statigraphically just above the Narragansett 
Bay Coalfields, is homotaxial with the Bacchus Marsh and Wynyard 
Glacial beds. 

(3) The Narragansett Bay Coalfields are of Pennsylvanian age, 
which extends to about the top of Carboniferous time. 

(4) Though unfortunately tTie stratigraphy of the Squantum 
tillite is yet somewhat in doubt, it is very improbable that it can belong 
to the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous). The number (288 species) 
of Sharks, and their geographical distribution, as well as the geo- 
graphical range of the reef-forming coral isotherms show that a warm 
climate prevailed universally at that time. The sharks are still numer- 
ous (65 species) in Pennsylvanian (Middle and Upper Carboniferous 
time) and the great size and abundance of insects in the Pennsylvanian 
Coalfields confirms the evidence of the sharks as to the Upper Carboni- 
ferous climate in North America having been mild. 

(5) The minerals found in rocks of Zechstein age at Stassfurt such 
as Langbeinite, Loweite, Vantho£&te, Kieserite and Sylvine also 
imply a warm or at least a mild climate for the Neo-Permian,^ the 
evidence of reef -forming corals being also in accord. 

(6) Unless the Squantum tillite is of Cambrian or Pre-Cambrian 
age (an unlikely hypothesis), it must, as it is certainly not newer than 
Paleeozoic, belong probably to a cold epoch intervening between the 
close of Pennsylvanian time and the commencement of Zechstein time. 

(7) According to Amalitzky, the whole of the Dwina system of 
Eussia, which contains an abundance of Glossopteris and Gangamo- 
pteris, is wholly of Zechstein age, marine strata with Schizodus and 
Bakewellia underlying the whole system, so that even Gangamopteris 
in Russia ascends into the Upper Permian, but no higher as far as is 
known, for these GZossopieris-Gan^amopferfs beds are capped by marine 
strata containing the characteristic Zechstein fossils, Syncladia and 
Acanthocladia. Thus in Eussia Gangamopteris, so much associated 
m the Southern Hemisphere with the Greta Coal Measures, is by no 
means associated with a European Carboniferous marine fauna, but on 
the other hand with an Upper Permian fauna. (Time, of course, must 
be allowed for the migration of the Glossopteris-Gangamopteris flora 
north-westwards from India to where the Dwina system is developed 
in the Muscovian area of Eussia, but a whole period of geological time 
would scarcely be needed for such a migration.) 

(8) "While unfortunately no development of the so-called Permo- 
CarBoniferous Glacial horizon has been found beneath the Dwina 
system, it has been stated that in Westphalia the upper surface of the 
Westphalian Coal-measure rocks is striated and capped by a typical 
ground-moraine. Van Waterschoot Van der Gracht has republished 
G. Muller's original figures of some of these striated pebbles, which 
he states cannot be confounded with pebbles showing pseudo-striae due 

1 Neuea Jahr. 5 Feb. 1910, fiir Min. Qeol. und Pal. XXIX. Beilage Band, Eistes 
Heft. E. Philippi, Veber eine palaeoMimatische Prolleme. 



I 



CABBONIPEROUS ROCKS OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 273 

to tectonic movements. At the same time the Government Geologist 
of the Netherlands admits that the scene of this discovery is in a much- 
faulted region, so that the evidence cannot be considered conclusive. 

(9) "While the above considerations suggest a wholly post-Pennsyl- 
vanian and therefore Post-Carboniferous age for all our Australasian 
strata from the base of the Bacchus Marsh beds to the topmost of our 
Giossopteris flora beds, the survival in the West-Australian Permo- 
Carboniferous beds of Productus semireticulatus, Cleiothyris maclea- 
yana, Ac, and the occurrence at Seaham in New South Wales of 
Aneimites in the basal portion of the Lochinvar Glacial series suggests 
an age as old at least as Upper Carboniferous, but in this regard the 
words of Diener are worth quoting.^ 

On p. 144, Diener says : ' Bearing in mind the gradual passage 
from an Upper Carboniferous to a Permian fauna through the inter- 
mediate group of rocks, the question to be answered is which con- 
sideration is of the greater importance in defining the boundary 
between the two systems, the appearance of a new group of cephalopods 
which become of an unparalleled stratigraphical value in Mesozoic 
times, or the presence of a belated fauna composed of forms which 
are generally not well adapted for the characterisation of narrowly 
limited horizons? ' 

In my opinion, all the strata from the base of the Bacchus Marsh 
beds to the top of the Newcastle series of New South Wales will yet 
prove to be post-Pennsylvanian, and therefore post-Carboniferous in 
the European use of the term Carboniferous, and yet the lower part of 
the Southern Hemisphere Permo-Carboniferous strata may be infra- 
Eothliegendes. 

Nevertheless, the term Permo-Carboniferous had better be retained 
for the present. 

Question 7. Discordance of junction between Carboniferous and 
Permo-Carboniferous in Southern Hemisphere. 

(A) Discordance. 

(1) At Ashford, near Inverell, in New South Wales, there is an 
immense unconformity (almost a right angle between the directions of 
bedding) between the Gangamopteris (Greta) Coal Measures and the 
Productus semireticulatus limestone series. 

(2) At Pokolbin, near Cessnock, in the Maitland district of New 
South Wales, there is a marked unconformity with strong overlap 
of the Lower Marine series on to the Aneimites series. 

(3) In the Nandewar Eanges, New South Wales, there is a strong 
unconformity between the Giossopteris Coal Measures of Newcastle (?) 
age and the Carboniferous strata. 

* Amer. J own. of Sci. vol. xxii. Aug. 1906, 'The Russian Carboniferous and 
Permian compared with those of India and America : a Review and Discussion,' by 
Charles Schuchert. 

1915. T 



274 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.^1915. 

(B) Accordance. 
At Seaham, in the valley of the "Williams River above Eaymond 
Terrace in New South Wales, there appears to be a complete accord- 
ance between the Aneimites beds and the Lochinvar beds of the Lower 
Marine Permo-Carboniferous series. Mr. "W. N. Benson records a 
similar accordance at Bm^indi in the New England district, New South 
Wales. 

V. 

Remarks on the Hon. Secretary's Communication by Mr. Walter 
HowcHiN, F.G.S., University of Adelaide. 

1. Where beds, in different localities, exhibit a close resemblance 
in their lithological and faunal features, suggesting contemporaneity, 
I think a common name is desirable. Local names, such as ' Bowen ' 
and ' Gympie, ' could be used simply in a geographical sense subordinate 
to some common term. (See under par. 3.) I should make an ex- 
ception, however, where, in the same geological system, beds of strongly 
contrasted features arising from differences of origin occur — as, for 
example, in a series laid down under conditions of land ice. 

2. It seems desirable that a comprehensive name should be used 
to indicate homotaxial affinities. The homotaxy may be, to some 
extent, imperfect, as might be expected in the case of areas widely 
separated — but the advantage of having a term that conveys the idea 
of chronological position is very great, especially to students in other 
countries. I prefer Permo-Carboniferous to Carbo-Permian, in that it 
is already in common use. Whether ' Permo-Carboniferous ' or ' Per- 
mian ' should be adopted must be determined, I think, on the palseon- 
tological evidence. 

3. Where a geological system includes very distinct, and even con- 
trasted, features in relation to the origin and modes of deposition of 
its several members, it seems the proper thing to use separate terms 
to distinguish the respective sections. It will be, of course, the type 
district that supplies the name in each case. Thus, in the Permo- 
Carboniferous (or Permian) system of Australia we have two entirely 
distinct sets of beds, a marine and lacustrine series, which has its 
greatest development in New South Wales; and, in addition, a thick 
series that has resulted from land glaciation in South Australia and 
Victoria. These are so distinctive that, I think, they should be 
separately recognised in the classification — for example, 

T, r\ I. j: i. r The Hunterian series. 

Permo-Carbomlerous system. <( 

•' I Ihe Inman series. 

Some of the members of the British Association who visited the 
Permo-Carboniferous Glacial fields in South Australia suggested that 
some distinctive name for these beds should be adopted in Australia, 
as had been done in South Africa (Dwyka) and in India (Talchir). 
Professor W. M. Davis also wrote to me to the same effect after he 



CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 275 

had left Adelaide, and suggested that as it was in the Inman that the 
first evidences of glaciation were recognised in Australia, perhaps some 
native name appropriate to the locality could be selected for this purpose. 
With the assistance of Dr. Stirling I have paid some attention to the 
matter in examining the native vocabularies of the district. The tribe 
which occupied the valley of the Inman and adjacent coast was the 
Ramin'yere (accent on second syllable, and the following four letters 
in two syllables = ye-re). The name Inman is euphonious, and was used 
by Selwyn, and has the advantage of being on the map. Which of 
these two names should be selected for the purpose is a question that 
the Committee might consider. 

4. The glacial beds of South Australia, now under consideration, 
can only be placed in chronological relationship with other glacial beds 
of Australia by inference. The grounds of such a reference are as 
follows : — 

(a) Stratigraphical evidence. — In all cases, and they are very 
numerous, where the base of the glacial beds come under observation 
they rest on a Cambi'ian floor ; and in several localities where the upper 
limits of these beds can be seen, they exhibit an eroded surface covered 
with the lowest members of the marine Tertiary. The stratigraphical 
limits are therefox'e post-Cambrian and pre-Tertiary. 

(b) Lithological evidence. — The general aspect of the beds, their 
degree of induration, as well as other stratigraphical features, show a 
close likeness to the Bacchus Marsh series. 

(c) Evidence by exclusion. — There is no known Glacial period that 
occurred in Australia that these beds can be reasonably correlated with 
other than the Permo-Carboniferous. It is scarcely likely that a glacia- 
tion on so large a scale as occurred in the Inman Valley district should 
leave in Australia but one surviving evidence. Yet, although the 
circumstantial evidence is very strong, it cannot be regarded as demon- 
strated. 

With respect to the remaining questions, I have not had sufficient 
experience to warrant my expressing an opinion. 

VI. 

Remarks on the Hon. Secretary's Communication by Professor W. 
G. WooLNOUGH, D.Sc, University of Western Australia. 

Questions 1, 2, 3. I prefer a general Australian name for the 
whole formation, with locally named subdivisions. For the general 
name, I think Hunterian is to be chosen, (i) because of priority of use, 
(ii) because of the extent and perfection of development of the beds 
in that district, (Hi) because the relationships of the different members 
have been more completely studied and determined there than else- 
where. I oppose strenuously the use of any such general term as 
Permo-Carboniferous, Carbo-Permian, or Permian, because I am by 
no means convinced that the beds in question are strictly homotaxial, 
even, with beds of those names in different parts of the world. The 

I 2 



276 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 



VII. 

Modifications by 
On the Correlation-Table (II.) of Permian, Pervio-Carboniferous, and 



Horizon 



Permian 



Permo- 
Carboniferous 



Carboniferous 



Upper 
Devonian ? 



New South Wales 



Newcastle 
Series with 
Glossopteris 



Dempsey 
Series 



East Maitland 

or Tomago 

Series 



Upper Marine 

Series with 

Glacial 

Boulders 



Greta Series 

with 

Gangamopteris 



Lower Marine 

Series with 

Glacial 

Conglomerate 

{See below f) 



Khacopteris- 
bearing Series 



Lepidodendrum 

volkheimianum- 

bearing 

Series 



Mt. Lambie 
Series 



Victoria 



Schizoneura 

Sandstones 

of Bacchus 

Marsh ? 



Gangamopteris 

Sandstone of 

Bacchus 

Marsh 



Tillites, Ac, 
of Bacchus 

Marsh 
Derrinal, <frc. 



Avon River 

Mansfield 

and Grampian 

Sandstones ? 

with 

Lepidodendron 

australe 



Iguana Creek 

Beds? 
with Cordaites 



Qneensland 



Upper Bowen 
Series ? 



^ 



Lower Bowen 
and Dawson 
Coal Series 



Gympie Series 

with 
Gangamopteris 



Star Series 

with 

Lepidodendron 

austiale 



I 



West Australia 



? Miningenew 
Marine Beds 



Collie River 
Coal Series 
with 
Gangamopteris 
In Irwin R. 
the Glacials 
Marine Beds 
and Coal 
Measures form 
a continuous 
ascending series 
In sandstones 
immediately 
overlying a coal 
seam are numer- 
ous glacially 
' dumped ' 
boulders. 
The base of the 
series is not 
seen 



Gascoyne 
Worramel and 
Minilya Series 

with 

Lyons Conglom. 

at base 



Kimberley 

Series with 

Lepidodendron ? 



South Australia 

aud Northern 

Territory 



Victoria River 

and 
Arnhem Land 
Series (N. Terr.) 

with 
Glossopteris ? 



Tillites, &c., of 

Hallett's Cove, 

Inman Valley, 

Ac. 



Lepidodendron 

Beds of 
MacArthur R. ? 



Elvire R. 
Beds? 



Note.— In Irwin River district of Western Australia there appears to be a lateritized land-surface 

f Sub-glacial Beds with a Gympie 



li, 



CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS OP THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 277 



Professor W. G. Woolnough. 

Carboniferotu Bocks of the Southern Hemisphere and of India by Professor E. W. Skeats. 



Tasmania 



Knocklofty 

Series with 

Vertebraria 

indica ? 



Sandy Bay 
Series 



Mersey 
Series 



Glacial Series 
of Wynyard, 
Eaglehawk 
Neck, &c. 



New Zealand 



Wairoa Series 
(Park) ? 

Eaihiki Series 
(Park) ? 



Aorangi Series 
(Park) ? 



f 



Maitai 
Series ? 
(in part) 



i 



I 



Lower Beaufort 

with 

Pareiasaurus 

and 
Glossopteris 



South Africa 



I 



Ecca and 

Kijnberley 

Series 

with 

Mesosaurus 



^^ 



Tillites, &c., 

of 
Dwyka Series 



I 

Witteberg 
Series 



i 



Bokkeveld 
Series ? 



South America 



Schizodus 

Series of Brazil 

with 

Mesosaurus 



i 



Santa 

Catharina 

Series of 

Brazil 

and 

Argentine 

with 

Orleans 

Glacial 

Conglomerate 

at base 



Antarctica 



Beacon 
Sandstone ? 



Beacon 
Sandstone ? 



India 



Panehet 
Series ? 



I 



Damuda 

Series 



Talchir 

Series with 

Glacial 

Conglomerate 

at base 



separating Coal Measures from Mesozoic. There is a slight, but decided unconformity. (W.G.W. 
fades occur on the Macleay Biver. 



278 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

adoption of any distinctive age-term, at the present time, is undesir- 
able, as future investigations may lead to more than one readjustment 
of our ideas, with the consequent inconvenience of alteration of nomen- 
clature. All these difficulties can be overcome by the agnostic attitude 
implied by the employment of a local name. I do not think all palseon- 
tologists "have taken into account, to a sufficient extent, our great 
distance from other parts of the world, and the absolute certainty of 
mingling of different streams of biological migration, which here bring 
together apparently contradictory assemblages of organisms. 

4. I am inclined to believe that the main epoch of glaciation was 
that represented by the Lochinvar Glacials of the Hunter River. I 
think that cold conditions continued throughout the period, with locally 
extended distribution from time to time, probably governed very largely 
by geographic accidents. On the Irwin River, for instance, we have 
distinct evidences of floating ice in the sandstones immediately above 
the coal seam, i.e., probably in the equivalents of the Greta series. 
The vast bulk and apparent continuity of the Glacial beds in South 
Australia and Victoria, I suggest, is due to the fact that these were 
essentially land areas at the period, and continued to be glaciated even 
at those times when local retreat of the ice cap prevented the wide 
distribution of glacial materials by floating ice. Local glaciers, which 
suffered from shrinkage to a less extent than others, may account for 
the apparent differences in age of the minor Glacial beds in different 
States. The recognition that on the Manning and Macleay Rivers of 
New South Wales the main glaciation is Lower Marine extends the 
geographical limits of the ice-action of that particular phase in Eastern 
Australia, while the beautiful sections of the Irwin River district in 
Western Australia are, at least, not unfavourable to the assumption of 
absolute contemporaneity. I am therefore inclined to answer yes to 
question 4. 

Question 5. With the slight modifications suggested on the accom- 
panying table (VII.), I agree with the correlation. 1 am of opinion that 
for the reasons stated in my answer to 1, 2, 3 — namely, the mingling 
of migration streams — biological comparisons are less trustworthy than 
are the features of a great climatic revolution, in the correlation of beds 
in widely separated regions. 

Question 6. I am unable to answer definitely. 

Question 7. My paper, ' Preliminary Note on the Geology of the 
Kempsey District ' (' Journ. and Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W.,' vol. xiv. 
1911, pp. 159-168), indicates the strong probability of conformable 
passage from Carboniferous to Permo-Carboniferous in the central 
coastal area of New South Wales. 

Question 8. I cannot express a very definite opinion. In August 
next I hope to examine the Irwin River area again with some care. 
I shall bear this question in mind then. 



CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 279 

VIII. 

Discussion by the Hon. Secretary, Professor Skeats, of the 
■ points raised by him, after reading the replies of Professor David, 
Professor Woolnough, and Mr. Howchin. 

1. A single common name with local names used in a purely geo- 
graphical sense is advisable. For example, in Victoria, among rocks 
grouped as Permo-Carboniferous, are the Bacchus Marsh series, the 
Knowsley series, the Loddon Valley series, the Coleraine series, &c. 
Only at Bacchus Marsh is there definite palasontological and strati- 
graphical evidence of the age of the rocks, and it therefore is probably 
inadvisable to include them all under one local name and thereby tacitly 
assert contemporaneity between them, although all are probably Permo- 
Carboniferous. Professor David is, I think, incorrect in claiming that 
the Bowen series of Queensland includes more than the Bacchus Marsh 
series. The latter series appears to range continuously and conformably 
from the basal Glacial series through Gangamopferis-hearing sand- 
stones up to beds, probablv of Triassic affinities, containing Schizoneura 
and Taniopteris Sweeti (McCoy). 

2. The term Permo-Carboniferous is already firmly established, and 
I know no good reasons for changing it, especially as Carboniferous 
marine types in "Western Ausitralia and Carboniferous land plants 
(Aneimites or Rhacopteris) at Seaham, in New South Wales, are 
included in the series which otherwise, on the bulk of the palseonto- 
logical evidence, might apparently have been called Permian. 

3. It seems inadvisable to apply a single local name to all the 
Australian occuri-ences of presumably Permo-Carboniferous rocks. 
Hunterian is a suitable name for the very complete marine and lacus- 
trine development in New South Wales. The Victorian sequence is, 
however, very distinct, being at Bacchus Marsh mainly fluvio-glacial, 
with several included tillites derived from land ice, while in other 
Victorian localities the tillite is alone represented or is predominant. 
In South Australia the Tnman series, as it might suitably be called, 
consists largely of tillite. As there are two or more glacial episodes 
known in New South Wales and Vfctoria, and as in South Australia we 
have no definite stratigraphical and palaeont-ological evidence of the age 
of the tillite, the giving of a single local name to the tillite (comparable 
with the term Dwyka, in South Africa) seems premature. 

4. It cannot yet be proved that the prominent Glacial horizon at 
the base of the series is everywhere in Australia contemporaneous. In 
New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, and Western Australia Glacial 
conditions recur higher in the series. In South Australia, as has been 
stated, no definite evidence of the age of the Glacial series has been 
obtained. _ Nevertheless, on the grounds put forward by Mr. Howchin, 
the prominent Glacial till is probably everywhere on approximately 
the same horizon. 

5. It is believed that the correlation suggested (by E. W. Skeats) 
broadly expresses the facts of the relationships of the rocks considered 



280 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. 

in the Southern Hemisphere. Professor David's more detailed corre- 
lation is, however, accepted apart from minor points. Carboniferous 
types of fossils have been recorded from part of the Maitai series of 
New Zealand. The Schizoneura beds of Bacchus Marsh apparently 
range up into the Trias, and conformably down into the Gangamopteris 
sandstones. It is questionable whether the term Permian in the original 
correlation and Neo- and Palaeo-Permian in Professor David's corre- 
lation are required. If we define the upper limit of the Permo-Carboni- 
ferous series as limited by the occurrence of Glossopteris, most of the 
rocks included in the Neo-Permian of Professor David's correlation are 
Permo-Carboniferous. Professor Woolnough's additions to the corre- 
lation are agreed to. Owing to wide geographical separation, as Pro- 
fessor Woolnough claims, differences in the assemblage of fossils in 
beds of the same age are to be expected, and the evidence of a climatic 
revolution, such as a Glacial episode, probably provides a better basis 
for correlation. "We require to be certain, however, that over a wide 
area similar conditions as to height above sea-level and relations of land 
and sea obtained, and that no slow progressive shift in the areas of 
maximum glaciation occurred. We have not yet such complete 
evidence. Where, however, as in some areas, the facts of palaeontology 
and of climatic revolution are associated together, the probabilities of 
the several occurrences in different areas being contemporaneous is 
greatly increased. 

6. Conformable sequence in Victoria and South Africa. Other 
areas, relations are not known. 

7. Conformable in south of South Africa, unconformable in north 
part of South Africa and in parts of New South Wales. The relations 
are unknown in Victoria, as the two series have not been observed in 
contact. 

8. Permo-Carboniferous must be taken to include the whole of the 
Permian, and its upper limit in the Southern Hemisphere is the upper 
limit of the Glosxopteris flora. At Bacchus Marsh the sandstones with 
Schizoneura and TfBniopterix sweeti (McCoy) sue?est a conformable 
passage up into the Trias. This appears also to hold in South Africa, 
in India, and in parts of New South Wales. In other parts of New 
South Wales a slight discordance occurs. 

IX. 

S-ummary of Views of the Australian Members of Committee. By the 
Hon. Secretary, Professor E. W. Ske.\ts. 

1. There is general agreement that a single name for all the Aus- 
tralian Permo-Carboniferous rocks should be adopted while retaining 
local names already in use, in a geographical sense. 

2 and 3. With respect to the questions as to whether the single 
name should be general or local. Professor David gives reasons for the 
retention of the term Permo-Carboniferous as the general name, while 
claiming that if a single local name be adopted the term Hunterian should 
be used on the grounds of prioritv and the complete development of the 
series in that part of New South Wales. Mr. Howchin prefers the term 



CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE. 281 

Permo-Carboniferous to Carbo-Permian, but suggests that the term 
Hunterian series might be used for all the marine and lacustrine develop- 
ments in Australia, and that the term Inman series should be used for 
the products of land glaciation, while, if an aboriginal name for the 
latter series be thought desirable, the term Eamin'yere is appropriate. 
Professor Woolnough objects to the use of the term Permo-Carboni- 
ferous on the grounds of lack of proof of homotaxial relations with 
similar rocks in other parts of the world. He prefers a general Austra- 
lian name, and says Hunterian should be chosen for reasons stated above 
by Professor David. Professor Sheats maintains that Permo-Carboni- 
ferous is an appropriate general name already in wide use and expressing 
the admixture of certain Carboniferous types with a Permian fauna and 
flora. He does not agree to the use of a single Australian name, as 
the special developments vary in different areas — in New South Wales 
being mainly marine and lacustrine, in Victoria mainly fluvio-glacial 
with several tillites, and in South Australia tillite, the product of land 
glaciation, is largely represented. He thinks it is premature to suggest 
a local Australian name (comparable with Dwyka in South Africa) to 
indicate the dominant tillite horizon, since in some States two or more 
horizons are known, and in South Australia the horizon is inferred and 
not proved. 

4. In respect to the question whether the prominent glacial con- 
glomerate is always on the same geological horizon in Australia, there 
is general agreement that the probabilities are in favour of this view, 
while it can in most cases not be proved but only inferred. Professor 
David points out that the Glacial series of Wynyard in Tasmania, 
of Bacchus Marsh in Victoria, and of Lochinvar in New South Wales, 
can be correlated; that in Western Australia the Glacials contain 
Permo-Carboniferous fossils and underlie rocks containing some Car- 
boniferous types. Mr. Howchin maintains the inference that the South 
Australian Glacial series are of the same age as elsewhere in Australia. 
on lithological similarities, and because there is no other known Glacial 
horizon with which they can be correlated. Professor Woolnough 
believes that the lower main Glacial phase is probably everywhere on 
the same geological horizon, and that where differences of age are 
indicated in Glacial beds in higher parts of the series they may be 
the effects of local glaciations. Professor Skeafs believes that the 
lower prominent Glacial series is probably everywhere contempo- 
raneous, though in several areas this cannot be proved, but may be 
inferred for the reasons suggested by Mr. Howchin. 

5. In respect to the question as to whether the correlation of Permo- 
Carboniferous rocks in different parts of the world suggested in the 
correlation prepared by Professor Skeats is probably correct. Professor 
David agrees generally with the correlation, but amplifies it. He 
quotes evidence given by Amalitzky that in Eussia the Gavgamopteris 
flora is associated with marine Permian types, while the Squantum 
tillite of America appears to be, but has not yet been proved to be, post- 
Upper Carboniferous in age. Mr. Howchin has not discussed this or 
the later questions of correlation. Professor Woolnough agrees gener- 



282 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

ally with the correlation, suggests a few additions, and claims that 
correlation by evidence of a climatic revolution is probably safer than 
by evidence of fossils where widely separated areas ai«e concerned. 
Professor Skeats accepts Professor David's and Professor Woolnough's 
additions and modifications to the correlation with certain minor reser- 
vations as to the probable horizon of the lower part of the Maitai series 
in New Zealand, and of the upper part of the Bacchus Marsh series 
as expressed in Professor David's table. He agrees with Professor 
Woolnough's remarks about correlation by evidence of a climatic revo- 
lution, provided that in the case of the formation of a Glacial series 
no marked inequalities of land level, or of the relations of land and sea, 
or evidence of slow migration of the areas of maximum glaciation, are 
involved. Where palseontological and lithological evidence of Glacial 
deposits are combined, the probabilities of the series in different areas 
being contemporaneous are much increased. 

6. Are relations between Devonian and Carboniferous rocks in the 
Southern Hemisphere everywhere conformable ? No replies have been 
received. Professor Skeats maintains the existence of a conformable 
sequence in Victoria and in South Africa, but does not know the rela- 
tions in other areas. 

7. In respect to the question as to the areas of accordance and of 
discordance between Carboniferous and Permo-Carboniferous rocks, 
Professor David points to discordance at Ashford and Pokolbin in New 
South Wales, and at the Nandewar Eanges (between the Newcastle 
series and the Carboniferous) ; to accordance at Seaham and Burindi 
in New South Wales. Professor Woolnough refers to accordance in 
the central coastal areas of New South Wales, while Professor Skeats 
refers to accordance in the south of South Africa and discordance in 
the northern parts of South Africa and in parts of New South Wales. 
In Victoria the two series do not come in contact with each other 
60 far as is known. 

8. In respect to the question as to the upper limit of the Permo- 
Carboniferous and its separation, if any, from the Permian, Professor 
David and Professor Skeats agree that the upper limit is the upper hmit 
of the Glossopteris flora, ^ while Professor Skeats claims that since 
rocks with the Glossopteris flora usually pass gradually into Mesozoic 
rocks, the Permo-Carboniferous series must be taken to include the 
whole of the Permian series. 

Note. — While Mr. W. S. Dun has not directly contributed to this 
discussion, it is understood that he consulted with Professor David and 
agrees generally with his conclusions. 

3 This view ia expressed with reference to the Southern Hemisphere only, since 
Glossopteris has been recorded from the Rhaetic series in Tonkin, &)uth China, and 
Mexico. 



THE QUESTION OF FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 283 



The Question of Fatigue from the Economic Standpoint. — 
Interim Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
J. H. MuiEHEAD {Chairman), Miss B. L. Hutchins (Secre- 
tary), Mr. P. Sargant Florence (Organising Secretary), 
Miss A. M. Anderson, Professor Bainbridge, Mr. E. 
Cadbury, Professor S. J. Chapman, Professor Stanley Kent, 
Dr. Maitland, Miss M. C. Matheson, Mrs. Meredith, 
Dr. C. S. Myers, Mr. C. K Ogden, Mr. J. W. Eamsbottom, 
and Dr. J. Jenkins Eobb. 

The following Report has been drawn up by Mr. P. Sargant Florence. 
Besides this and in a measure incorporated in it are memoranda pre- 
sented to the Committee by Mr. J. W. Eamsbottom, Dr. Brown, Mi. 
A. Greenwood, Professor Bainbridge, and Miss B. L. Hutchins, and a 
subsidiary psychological investigation by Mr. C. K. Ogden. The latter 
includes a translation of Max Weber's ' Zur Psychophysik der indus- 
triellen Arbeit ' (see Index D8) and a complete bibliography of the 
Psychology of Fatigue. 

CONTENTS. 

SECTION PAGE 

I. The Nature and Causes of Fatigue 284 

I.A. The Nature of the Work 286 

I.E. Conditions of Factory Hygiene .... 292 
IL The Tests of Fatigue to be adopted. Output and Accident Time- 
Distribution 295 

III. How far do these Tests vary with Fatigue ? 299 

IV. How far do these Tests vary onhj with Fatigue ? 302 

V. Chaiacteristics of the Actual Time-Distribution 305 

A. General 305 

B. Particular. 1, For different conditions of factory hygiene . 313 

2, For different workers 314 

3, For different kinds of work .... 315 

4, For different factory organisatior.s . . 320 
VI. Statistical Tables and Diagrams 323 



Table 





Output Tables. 


Accident Tables. 


Diagrams of Accident, 


! I. 


Days of the week 


IX. U.K. Reports 


I. Manufacture 


11. 


At Cadbury's 


X. Iron and Steel 


II. Metals 


III. 


Tin -soldering 


XI. Massachusetts 


III. Textiles 


IV. 


Machine-sewing 


XII. Ohio 


IV. Building 


V. 


At Peek, Frean's 


XIII. Illinois 


V. Mining 


VI. 


Tin-labelling 


XIV. Belgium 


VI. Lumbering 


VII. 


Cotton 


XV. France. Germany, 




VIII. 


U.S.A. Reports 


Austria 
XVI. By Hours Worked 








XVII.-XXIV. Single Fac 








tories 





VII. Index of Documents and Books Quoted (Numbered and in Sections A,B, C,D). 



284 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

Section 1. — The Nature and Causes of Fatigue. 

If we define fatigue in general as a ' diminution of the capacity for 
work which follows excess of work or lack of rest, and which is 
recognised on the subjective side by a characteristic malaise,' we at 
one and the same time put forward its most familiar symptom and its 
main external cause. 

This ' subjective sensation of malaise ' is found, according to Dr. 
McDougall's address to the British Association in 1908, as a local sen- 
Bation of fatigue particularly in the muscles, as a general feeling of 
tiredness or limpness, and also as the experience of sleepiness. But 
such sensations are no more than symptoms of the diminution of work- 
ing-capacity and not always even that. As Dr. Eivers has stated: 
' A distinction must be made between the sense of fatigue — the sensa- 
tions which supervene during the performance of work, and the lowered 
capacity for work executed. These conditions, which may be spoken 
of as subjective and objective fatigue respectively, do not always run 
parallel courses. In the performance of mental work especially, decided 
sensations of fatigue may be experienced when the objective record 
shows that increasing and not decreasing amounts of work are being 
done; and there may be complete absence of any sensations of fatigue 
when the objective record shows that the work is falling off in quantity, 
or quality, or in both. ' This insistence on the distinction between sub- 
jective and objective fatigue, however, does not imply that the one has 
no influence on the other. As Weber points out (see Index of Docu- 
ments D8), ' This psychically conditioned fatigue is by no means without 
its influence on working capacity . . . and in the long run it can 
undoubtedly cause an unfavourable general disposition which will ulti- 
mately find a physical expression. ' 

If excess of work or lack of rest figures in our definition as the 
antecedent to fatigue it must not make us overlook the physiological 
modus operandi of fatigue as distinguished from those quite external 
causes. During the last twenty years it has been found, in fact, that 
muscular fatigue is caused by the accumulation of the poisonous pro- 
ducts of activity and the exhaustion or diminished supply of the sub- 
stances necessary for the continuance of activity, ' and,' wrote Pro- 
fessor Lee in 1910, * there is every reason to believe that the main 
principles of muscular fatigue are demonstrable in the other tissues and 
organs of the body — that in them also fatigue is characterised, physi- 
cally, by a diminution of working power and, chemically, by both the 
destruction of energy-yielding substances and the appearance of toxic 
metabolic products. ' But, as Dr. Rivers has pointed out, * however 
satisfactory these (physiological) definitions may be ideally, their appli- 
cation is wholly impracticable in the present state of our knowledge, 
even in the present case of the fatigue of isolated muscle and still more 
so in the case of general bodily fatigue or of mental fatigue. ' 

In studying fatigue from the economic standpoint it is of course 
the objective diminution of working capacity and the external causes 
found in industry that will be the prime consideration. Subjective 
fatigue will be of importance just so far as it influences objective fatigue. 
Physiological or ' internal ' phenomena will gain importance as inter- 



THE QUESTION OP FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 285 

mediate stages between external economic causes and external economic 
effects. Viewing the subject, then, objectively and externally, work 
and rest may be regarded as two forces affecting the organism oppo- 
sitely, and alternately producing by excess of one or other fatigue and 
recovery. If work or lack of rest should so far gain a permanent 
supremacy as to preclude all chance of recovery, then we may speak 
of chronic or accumulated fatigue, but in general we shall regard simple 
' fatigue ' as the result of the work that preceded it and dating since the 
last rest, daily, weekly, or yearly. 

It is this ' duration of work ' previous to any point of time that 
will in our conclusion be the main factor correlated to the degree of 
fatigue at that given time. 

As a preliminary to that, however, we must observe that there are 
many other factors influencing the degree to which fatigue may occur in 
any particular case. A strong individual on easy work and in pleasant 
surroundings may after five hours' work be much less fatigued than is a 
weakling after three hours on hard work and in noxious surroundings. 

From the economic standpoint and with the definition of fatigue 
we have adopted, however, these other factors will appear rather as 
' predisposing conditions ' enabling excess of work or lack of rest to 
take effect to different degrees than as ' active ' determining causes. 
Attempts to enumerate all the conditions that are thus likely to influence 
fatigue have been made by Max Weber, Emil Roth, and other psysio- 
logists, and below we have classified their combined inventories, though 
it is only the particular influences that seemed both determinant and 
determinable that have been separately studied in Section V (B). 

1. The Nature of the WorTc. 

See Section I. a. 

2. The Surroundings or Environment of the Worlc. 

(a) Conditions of Factory Hygiene. See Section I.B. 

Temperature 1 Ventilation. 

Humidity J 

Light (Suitability and Cheerfulness). 

Eoom. 

Noise (Amount and Regularity). 

Smell. 

(b) Factory Organisation. 

A. The ' Incentive' to Speed or Quality. 

1. Type of Payment: 

By a Profit (a ' Surplus '). 

By a Fixed Wage : Rate or Boiiua. 

Time Basis. 

Piece Basis. 

2. Honour, Sporting Instincts, &c. 

3. Interest in the Work itself. 



286 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

B. Grouping and Subdivision of Labour. 

(c) Economic Organisation. (Weber — Index D8.) 
Cycles of Prosperity. 
Eelationship to Work (Cash nexus, Hobby, &c.). 

3. The Nature of the Worker. 

Age. 

Sex. 

Skill and Training. 

Opinions (Weber). 

4. The Habits of the Worker. 

1. Sleep: length and times. 

2. Nutrition: nature and times. Drinking of Alcohol. 

3. Clothing (e.g., its tightness — Eoth Index CI). 

4. Sexual Eelations (Weber). 

5. Eecreation — especially Sundays. 

6. By-occupations. 

7. Getting to and from home. 

The chain of causation can of course be followed further back. 
Light and temperature are determined by the time of day or night, 
temperature and humidity hy the season, the climate, and the weather 
during which the work is proceeding; the opinions, skill and habits 
of the worker by his social environment, the religion, militarism, trade- 
unionism around him and the education, especially technical, through 
which he has passed. But these meteorological and social conditions 
form the background and need not be more than suggested. 

Section I. a. The Nature of the Work. 
The factor of ' nature of work ' would in any case require detailed 
study where fatigue is being viewed from the economic standpoint ; 
but such a study is particularly necessary owing to the confusion of 
thought and the inconvenience of the terms used of the various charac- 
teristics of work affecting the worker. To give only one instance: 
' monotonous ' is sometimes applied to some objective quality in the 
work itself, sometimes to the feeling evoked in the worker. Indeed, 
we shall have to keep separated in our minds three distinct sets of 
notions : the state and feelings of the worker ; certain definite chax'ac- 
teristics of the work that alone or together evoke such affections ; and 
the sort of occupations in which such characteristics are usually found. 
Now the work of most people can be analysed more or less into a 
series of separate but similar operations, each resulting in some 
' output ' or service ; and each separate operation may in turn be more 
or less analysed, as Efficiency Engineers have done in ' Motion Studies, ' 
into the different actions (movements and postures, muscular or ner- 
vous) that it involves. With this conception in mind we shall be 
able to estimate more exactly the important ' evocative ' characteristics 
of different sorts of occupations, hy putting to each the following 
questions : 

(a) What doe>^ the operation consist in ? what are the separate actions 
involved ? 



THE QUESTION OF FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 287 

(b) How do the actions fit together into the whole operation, i.e., how 

' complex ' is the operation ? 

(c) How far are the acts similar in each recurrence of the whole 

operation, i.e., how uniform is the occupation? 

(d) How frequently does each operation recur? (The frequency is 

measurable by the average output per hour or per day.) 

(e) How periodic or regular is the frequency of recurrence of each 

operation? (The regularity is measurable by the mean devia- 
tion from the average output per hour or day.) 

According to the characteristics elicited by the above questionnaire 
may be classified the different occupations or crafts involved in in- 
dustry and some estimate formed of what affections are evoked in the 
workman by each of such classes of crafts. We shall of course 
concentrate particularly on such as may be presumed to involve or 
lead to fatigue. 

(a) The actions (movements and postures, mental states, &c.) 
involved in different processes affect the psycho-physique either mus- 
cularly or nervously. 

* Finicky ' work like tying or wrapping up packets or assembling 
small parts tires the muscles of the hand; packing biilky goods into 
cases or lifting and carrying heavy weights and standing up to work 
generally tire the central muscles, and illustrations of such muscular 
overstrain were given by Miss Anderson, the principal Lady Inspector 
of Factories before the Departmental Committee on Physical Deteriora- 
tion, 1904, ' where enormously heavy weights were carried by young 
persons and by women in food-preserving works, bleach and dye works, 
glass, earthenware and china works, and various metal trades.' 

These examples of muscular work become a ' strain ' generally 
because the tax they impose on the body is concentrated or ' focussed ' 
on one particular part; a part whose structure was evolved only to 
meet the calls of every-day life. This characteristic of ' concentrative- 
ness ' is also obviously involved in all activities calling upon the 
central nervous system. 

Now, such activities of the central nervous system as attending, 
controlling the muscles, making judgments, remembeiing and per- 
ceiving (sensing and reacting) are activities often exercised in modern 
industry. Soldering, mending, and most skilled trades, for instance, 
exercise a judgment of ' quality ' in the sense of a comparison with a 
standard kept in memory. Pasting on labels or cutting articles accur- 
ately to shape involves not merely * sensitivity ' of the eyes, but the 
'judgment of distance' and a control over muscles, and inserting 
articles in revolving slots like the paper in a rotary litho machine 
involves a 'judgment of time.' There is also perhaps a 'sense or 
judgment of amounts ' which is involved where, as in the Stogey In- 
dustry (Butler, ' Women and the Trades,' page 85), ' emphasis is placed 
on close cutting,' and to avoid wasting an unnecessary amount of leaf 
the rate of pay is more the more cigars are got out of the raw 
material. Piecing up the threads of cotton in spinning, and all 
machine-minding, whether it be the work of the machine or the 



288 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1915. 



machine itself that requires attendance, involve the activity of attention 
for a 'cue ' difficult to perceive, and a quick reaction to the cue when 
it occurs. 

Certain portions of a whole operation often do not consist in action 
so much as in passive rests, ' waiting for the material to set ' perhaps. 
This ' non-persistence ' is a characteristic here conditioned by the very 
nature of the work, and in so far unavoidable even by the most 

* efficient ' of Efficiency Engineers. For different departments of the 
iron and steel making process figures were collected in the U.S. 
Eeport of the Conditions of Employment in the Iron and Steel Industry 
(Senate Doc. 110, 62nd Congress, 1st Session, vol. iii., page 345) 
to show ' the percentage of active work to idle; the actual time being 
measured by stop-watch to the one-tenth of a minute for an average 
of four or five days.' It is explained that ' active ' means essentially 

* that the employee was engaged during the time shown in actually 
performing some particular function and not simply waiting for the 
completion of some process or for his fellow-worker to finish some 
particular job. Such time as this if it lasted more than a minute or 
two would be included under the head of idle. ' 

Since we give in full the daily distribution of Iron and Steel 
Accidents (Table X.) and of the output of Bessemer Converters 
(Table VIII.) we will reproduce here as an example this table of active 
time and its percentage of the whole time, which must to a large 
extent have conditioned the two ' daily distributions,' cautioning the 
reader to the effect that these are American conditions differing very 
much from English. Americans generally work a longer day, but use 
more machinery. (See notes at foot of Tables.) 



Blast Furnace. 



Hours in Worker 

Factory 

12 Furnace Keeper 
12 First Helper 
12 Second Helper 
12 Cinder Snapper 
12 Lorry Man . 
12 Hoist Man . 

12 Hot Blast Man 



Active Time 
h. m. 
. 9 29 



Remarks": 
Kind of Work % 



% Hard Mod. Light 

79 77-4 5-1 17-5 

9 56 83 67-4 32-1 105 

9 15 77 66-9 6-6 26-5 

9 17 77 640 17-9 18 

7 39 64 I Manipulating 

7 28 62/ ControUers. 

8 05 67 38-2 2-5 47-2 



Tap 

the 

furnace. 



frills. 



Signalled. 



Open Hearth. 



12 Charging Machine Operator . 5 06 

12 First Helper . . . . 3 16 

12 Second Helper . . . . 6 31 

12 Third Helper . . . . 4 26 

12 Ladle Craneman . . . 6 12 

12 Steel Pourers . . . . 3 36 

12 Brakeman Engineer . . . 5 58 

12 Stripper Craneman . . . 4 25 



% 

43 Quick. Many levers. 

27 

46 

37 

52 Ladle takes iron to hearth, 

30 

50 

37 



Note from Report in 1902 to British I.T. Ass. Com. : — There is no pig-lifting, no 
hand-shovelling of stock. No hauling of charging barrows. All the tedious clay 
work around the hearth and incessant changing of tuyeres is done away w ith. 



THE QUESTION OP FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 289 



Boiling MiUa. 



Hours in 

Factory 










Ist Plant 


2nd Plant 


Nature of Work Time Active and 

h. m. 7^ 


% of whole time 
h. m. 7. 


12 


Pit Craneman . . . . 7 07 


59 


8 31 


71 


12 


Bottom Makers 








3 17 


27 


7 28 


62 


12 


Rollers . 








10 03 


84 


8 36 


72 


12 


Roughera 








7 10 


60 


7 20 


61 


12 


Shearman 








9 54 


83 


7 31 


63 


12 


Conveyor Men 








9 54 


83 


7 08 


59 


12 


Cranemen 








9 54 


83 


7 20 


61 


12 


Scale Wheelers 








10 18 


87 


6 48* 


68 


12 


Chargers . 








5 00 


42 


10 27 


87 


12 


Slab Car Operator 








10 30 


88 


8 34 


71 


12 


Greasers . 








10 30 


88 


10 40 


89 


12 


Table Men . 








10 15 


85 


10 45 


90 


12 


Screw down . 








10 30 


88 


11 16 


94 


12 


Rotary Shearmen 








10 50 


90 


10 55 


91 




♦ 10-hour day. 










Bessemer Converter. 








Hours in 

Factory 


Ist Plant 


2nd Plant 


Nature of Work Time Active and 

h. m. 7. 


% of whole time 
h. m. °/ 


12 


Mixermen 10 24 


87 


7 34 


63 


12 


First Regulator 








. 11 04 


93 


9 37 


80 


12 


Vessel Scraper 








. 6 18 


53 


6 24 


53 


8 


Vessel Men . 








. 3 27 . 


45 


4 37 


38 


12 


Bottom Makers 








. 9 30 


79 


9 17 


77 


8 


Steel Pourers . 








. 6 33 


82 


6 54 


68 


12 


Stripper Men 








. 8 00 


67 


7 45 


65 


12 


Ladle-liners . 








. 9 10 - 


76 


8 30 


71 


10 


Stopper Makers 








, 8 00 


80 


8 50 


74 


12 


N.G. Engineers 








. 9 20 


78 


6 24 


53 



(b) On the results of combining several movements in one operation 
much light is thrown by the articles of Max "Weber, translated for this 
Committee by Mr. 0. K. Ogden, of Magdalene College, Cambridge 
(Index D8). ' Complex operations,' like the stamping of tin sheets into 
boxes or the filling of such boxes by a machine whose movements are 
regulated at the will of the operative, are of extreme frequency in 
women's industries to-day and involve in all cases: (1) the feeding of 
the machine or generally the placing of the materials in position; 
(2) the moving of a handle or pedal ; (3) the taking out of the finished 
article, all of which movements — often engaging different limbs — have 
to be timed in succession. 

It should also be noted that a large proportion of the work in con- 
nexion with iron and steel making involves complexity of action. 
Thus all the ' Cranemen,' * Hoistmen,' ' Operators,' cited on the pre- 
ceding tables, have as their work the pulling of various foot-levers and 
handles which are to move the cranes, hoists, and charging machines 
exactly at the right moment and exactly to the right place; and, indeed, 
where, as is now particularly the case, machinery is being introduced 
extensively to transport the material about the factory — generally hung 
from cars on overhead runners — there the work of the ' carmen ' will 
much increase the proportion of complex work performed in industry as 
a whole. 

The importance of this question is shown by Weber, who quotes 

1915. u 



290 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1915. 

Vogt as holding that ' operations involving will, memory, and associa- 
tion have a marked disturbing influence when they enter into combi- 
nation with other operations, ' and also that ' operations which are par- 
ticularly closely related as regards the psycho-physical parts that they 
employ disturb one another in a particularly high degree ' ; further that, 
though ' after a certain period of habituation several combined pro- 
cesses can be made without any disturbing influence whatever,' there 
will naturally be a corresponding increase in fatigue. 

(c) In the industrial world to-day there is the widest variation in 
the uniformity of any one worker's occupation — i.e., in the similarity 
of the different actions in each recurrence of the whole operation. 
Machine-tending, for instance, involves constant nervous attention 
perhaps, but the muscular action varies continually according to what 
it is that goes wrong with the machine. In agriculture also a man's 
occupation is not uniform, nor yet in lumbering and transport — for soil 
and roads, plants, animals, and goods are always varying. Similarly 
in all organising and policing work the people dealt with vary. In 
building, ' navvying, ' mining and stevedoring, repairing and washing, 
also, work is not altogether uniform, for there is a continual adaptation 
to different situations. In all assembling or fitting together by hand, 
too, there are generally certain slight dissimilarities in the parts which 
must alter the workers' actions in each recurrence of the operation. 
Soldering tins by hand is a further case of non-uniformity, due here 
to the necessity of reaching a certain standard even at the expense of 
added vigilance and added movements, and this applies all the stronger 
to the work of pure inspection. 

But wherever the conditions of place are the same and the material 
used homogeneous, as in working with a machine on machine products, 
there will be found the quahty of uniformity in the occupation. 

(d) In studying here the frequency of the recurrence of any ' unit ' 
operation we must concentrate on the frequency due to the simplicity 
of the work or to the (most economical) speed of the machine rather 
than any addition to such frequency induced by special systems of pay- 
ment. These would be studied under Incentive (Factory Organisation). 

It has been one of the results, if not the aim, of the industrial Divi- 
sion of Labour to simplify or ' specialise ' the task of every individual 
so that he may become an adept by its frequent repetition. While in 
the old days the housewife boiled her jam but once a year, there are 
now factory hands that boil and boil day after day ; while in work on a 
machine that must repeat its motions every minute or so, such as a 
metal-stamping press, the frequency can be reckoned in ' output per 
hour.' There are still processes, however, that have remained of small 
' frequency. ' The iron blast-furnaces are only tapped every four hours 
according to Mr. Parrell (Pres. of the U.S. Steel Corporation), and 
there is only one furnace to be tapped by each gang. In the open- 
hearth and Bessemer steel-making processes a gang goes from one 
hearth or converter to another, but the actual operation occupies con- 
siderable time in each case. Other infrequently recurring processes are 
found in tanning and in most ' finishing ' trades where much time 
must be spent in bringing the article up to the desired pitch of 
perfection. 



THE QUESTION OF FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 291 

(e) The intervals of recurrence of the whole operation is veiy 
irregular in the piecing up of the spinner and all machine-tending; 
but it is particularly irregular in dealing with people, as the tram- 
conductor, policeman, and telephone operator have to do. For the 
telephone operator, for instance, there is a ' curve of work ' which 
depends mainly on the demands of the business and social world, and 
is of a shape well known to all telephone-company managers. In New 
York City, for instance, demand is at its maximum between 10 and 
12 in the morning, and has a lesser maximum in the middle of the 
afternoon. 

Recurrence is fairly regular in iron and steel smelting and very 
regular in all machine-feeding operations, such as stamping and pressing 
where the machine is continually running independent of the operator's 
will. 

The whole question of the affections evoked by different kinds of 
work, apart from the particular actions involved, may be summed up in 
tabular form in three columns, the first showing the relevant conditions 
of material, machinery, and organisation, the second the evocative 
characteristics of the work produced by such conditions, namely : 

Great or little Complexity (C & c), 
Great or little Uniformity (U & u). 
Great or little Frequency (F & f). 
Great or little Regularity (R & r), 

and the third, the affections (states or feelings) of the worker evoked 
by these characteristics, that may be supposed to lead ultimately to 
general fatigue. 





Relevant 




Material Condition 


qualities often 
produced 


Worl era' Affections ( 


Material : 






A. Natural 


ur 




B. Machine-made 


. UR 


Lack of Interest. 


C. Human 


ur 


Worry (Interest). 


Machine : 






Machine acting at will of worker 


. UFC 


Worry. Monotony 


Machine continually running : 




dom). 


(a) Insertion of material 


or 




' feeding ' by the worker . 


FR 


' Drivenness.' 


(6) Attendance by worker only 


r fru 
• [ Fru 


Interest. 
Attentive Care. 


Industrial Organisation : 






Great Specialisation 


UF 


Monotony. 


Efficient ' Routing ' 


R 


' Drivenness.' 



(Bore- 



Monotony in the worker would thus seem to be caused by a com- 
bination of great uniformity and great frequency of recurrence in the 
work; Worry by complexity of actions in combination with great 
frequency and little regularity of recurrence ; Care (or strain of atten- 
tion) by a combination of great frequency and little uniformity; the 
helpless feeling of being driven by a combination of great frequency 
and great regularity of recurrence; and Lack of Interest by that com- 
bination of great uniformity and gi'eat regularity usually coupled with 

u 2 



292 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1915. 

a complete absence, due to factory or economic organisation, of intelli- 
gibility or purposiveness in the work. 

These unpleasant and ultimately fatiguing affections vary for 
different people, and some can be overcome by certain adaptations. 
Thus the sense of being driven can be overcome if the worker can fall 
into the rhythm of the machine (cf. Biicher, ' Arbeit und Ehythmus,' 
and Max Weber's ' Psychophysik ' (Index D8). Again, seemingly 
uniform and frequently recurring work is pleasant to some workers, 
though it would cause monotonous feelings to others, according vo 
Miinsterberg (' Fatigue and Efficiency,' pp. 190 ff.), and nearly all indi- 
viduals can to a certain extent automatise uniform and frequently 
recurring action, and by thus enabling themselves to keep their minds 
off their work can prevent monotonous feelings. This at any rate 
is the case with such proficient knitters as the Hausfrau, who can 
work and read simultaneously, and girls in the factory who can work 
and talk. How far so-called monotonous work will really evoke feelings 
of monotony — i.e., of ' boredom '• — would seem to depend very largely 
on individual tastes and individual powers, and at the same time it may 
be observed that uniformity prevents all anxiety, responsibility, or 
worry on the part of the worker, since there are never any new decisions 
to make or old decisions to regret. The question whether uniformity 
tends, therefore, to ' build character ' or the reverse is, unfortunately, 
outside our scope. 

Section I.b. — Ventilation, Humidity and Temperature, and other 
' Conditions of Factory Hygiene.' 

The latest research has resolved different ' degrees of Ventilation ' as 
simply different degrees of Heat and Moisture combined. To quote 
Professor Lee : ^ 

' Much experimentation has shown that the evil results of confine- 
ment in improperly ventilated rooms are caused not by the presence 
of toxic products of respiration, but by the heat and the humidity 
combined. Paul found that with human beings enclosed in a hot and 
humid experimental chamber, the unpleasant symptoms began to appear 
within a few minutes, and before there was time for the accumulation 
of supposed poisonous gases. When the air of the chamber was put 
into motion the temperature of the skin fell, the unpleasant symptoms 
disappeared very quickly, and the subject felt as if fresh air had been 
supplied. When the subject had been confined for a considerable time, 
and the symptoms had become well developed, the breathing of pure 
air through a tube passing from the subject's face through the wall of 
the chamber to the outside brought no relief. When, on the other 
hand, an outsider with his body surrounded by fresh air breathed from 
a tube the vitiated air of the chamber, no unpleasant symptoms 
appeared. Such facts make it clear that the symptoms are due to the 
action of the vitiated air, not on the lungs but in the skin.' 

We may therefore concentrate our attention on the effect of tem- 
perature and humidity. Prof. Lee thus summarises the effect of 

* Journal of Iniustrial cind LJngineering Cherrkistry, vol. 6, 1914, p. 245, 



THE QUESTION OP FATIGUE PROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 293 

damp and warm conditions in a disinclination or actual inability to 
perform active muscular work : ^ 

' Beginning as a mere inertness, accompanied by sleepiness, wliich 
may readily be resisted for a time, it may pass into a genuine condition 
of fatigue, and ultimately into the exhaustion of heat-stroke. Haldane 
says of the Cornish miners of tin and copper : ' ' They do not .... 
seem to be able to do more than a limited amount of work. The 
leisureliness of all work in the mine is in very striking contrast to 
what may be observed in any ordinary English colliery of about the 
same depth." Pembrey, after studying the effects of warm moist 
temperatures upon himself, medical students, and soldiers, concludes: 
" The results show definitely that a man is much less efficient in a 
warm moist atmosphere. ... A man can do far more work with less 
fatigue at a low wet-bulb temperature than at a high one." 
Pembrey and CoUis, in speaking of the physiological effects of the 
warm moist atmosphere of cotton weaving, say: "The natural ten- 
dency is for the nervous system to become less active, and for 
muscular work to be diminished. In a weaving-shed, however, the 
machine sets the pace, and the worker must neglect the dictates of his 
sensations, which are the natural guardians of his health and well- 
being. ... It is not surprising, therefore, that at the end of a day's 
work, many of the weavers complain that they have no energy left, 
have no great desire for food, and need only drink and rest." Boycott 
says of mining in hot moist air : " My observations on miners . . . 
lead me to conclude that their power of doing work under these cir- 
cumstances is quite small." Mr. Cadman, Professor of Mining in 
Birmingham University and late H.M. Inspector of Mines, gives more 
detailed observations to the effect that from about 25° C. (77° F.) 
wet-bulb reading, exertion begins to be accompanied by depression, and 
disinclination to work increases rapidly with an increasing wet-bulb 
temperature. At 27-80 C. (82° F.) " if clothes be removed and maxi- 
mum body surface exposed, work can be done providing current of air is 
available." At 29-4° 0. (85° P.) " only light work is possible " ; and 
at 35° C. (95° F.) " work becomes impossible." Stapff observed in the 
construction of the St. Gothard tunnel that the labourers, working in 
an atmosphere often completely saturated with moisture, and with a 
temperature rising at times beyond 30° C. (86° F.) as measured by the 
dry-bulb thermometer, experienced not only great discomfort, but in- 
difference, enervation, weariness, and exhaustion.' 

As regards different temperatures separately from humidity, a 
chance of noting their result on working capacity is given by changes 
of season and weather. In ' Harper's Monthly ' for January 1915, 
under the heading ' Work and Weather,' Prof. Huntingdon traces 
the variations in manual and mental work as the year proceeds. 

Combining various workers' piece-earnings for the same weeks in 
the four years 1911-1914 in two Connecticut factories (one in 1911, the 
other in 1912-1914), Prof. Huntingdon found that the ' lowest wages 
are earned during January, then there is a rather steady increase 

* American Journal of Pvblic Health, vol. ii. p. 8C6 S. 



294 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1915. 

through February, March, Apjil, May, and the first half of June. A 
little after the nr-iddle of June the amount of work begins to fall off and 
continues to do so for the next two or three weeks. Then, through 
July and August, the curve remains at a lower level than in June, 
but much higher than during the winter, a somewhat surprising fact. 
About the end of August people once more begin to work fast, and 
they go on at an increasing rate until the middle of November. Then 
the rate begins to fall, but recovers somewhat in December, and finally 
at the end of that month drops off very rapidly. ' Testing the course of 
mental work by the marks awarded students at West Point and 
Annapolis U.S. Military and Naval Academies, 'approximately the 
same results ' were found. 

Prof. Huntingdon therefore suggests that ' the only satisfactory ex- 
planation of this seems to be that people's energy varies 10 or 15 per 
cent, from season to season,' and accordingly he correlates his yearly 
output curve with the variations in light, open-air life, and temperature 
that different seasons involve. But temperature he considers has far 
the greatest influence : 

' It certainly looks as if there were a close relationship between 
temperature and work, but curiously enough the relationship is in part 
the reverse of what most people would expect. Low temperature seems 
much more harmful, and high temperature less harmful than is com- 
monly supposed.' 

Prof. Huntingdon then compares the output curve in the summer of 
each single year with the weekly mean temperature then prevailing, 
and finds that in general the summers of southern New England are less 
debilitating than the winters. It requires extreme summers, such as 
are experienced only once or twice in a century, to produce effects as 
harmful as those of an ordinary winter. Then, ' determining how fast 
people work on days having various temperatures, no matter in what 
month they come,' Prof. Huntingdon finds that ' at very low tempera- 
tures both mental and physical work are depressed. On days with 
higher temperatures activity of both kinds increases, the increase being 
slight at first. Mental work reaches its highest point at a temperature 
of 48° F., while physical work reaches a maximum at 59° P. for men 
and 60° P. for girls. 

Turning back to his yearly output curve, Prof. Huntingdon sums up 
that during the part of the year when the temperature passes beyond 
45 and 70 degrees ' people's work falls off sharply, and when the 
temperature approaches these limits work increases.' 

One other feature of the curve is noted, however : ' between the 
limits (45° and 70° P.) (work) does not vary as one would expect, but 
tends to keep on rising all the time,' an4 suggesting that this is because 
the temperature keeps changing, and change is a stimulus. Prof. 
Huntingdon compares the work done in single days with the degree 
of temperature by which they differed from the pi-eceding day; he finds 
that when the temperature drops, provided the drop is not excessive, 
' human activity is decidedly stimulated. ' 

A further chance of comparing the result on working capacity of 



THE QUESTION OF FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 295 



different temperatures is afforded by the alternations of day and night, 
though in this case many other factory conditions are introduced as 
factors, such as the difference of sun and artificial light and differences 
in noise and room. There may also be important differences of habits 
and skill between night and day workers. From the economic stand- 
point, however, it is well worth while recording some researches on the 
comparative effect of day and night — firstly on accidents, then on 
output. 

Eef erring to the work of Dr. Walter Abelsdorf 's ' Die Unfallhau- 
figkeit in den gewerblichen Betrieben wahrend der Nachtschicht ' 
(Leipzig, Vogel, 1910) the Chief Factory Inspector's Report for 1910 
says : ' It has been found in Germany that the industrial accident rate 
(calculated in proportion to the ascertained numbers at work) is less 
by night than by day. In explanation of this it is suggested that at 
night there are relatively fewer untrained workers, less crowding and 
interruption, less transport of material, and more leisurely and careful 
work, with correspondingly reduced output. Exceptions were met 
with, however: thus, there was a higher accident rate by night than 
by day in the machine-making industry in the Diisseldorf and Potsdam 
districts, and in chemical works in the former district, but not in the 
latter. ' 

These findings are not supported, however, by the experience of a 
large American iron- and steel-making plant published and exhibited 
at the San Francisco Exhibition, 1915, by the U.S. Department of 
Labour. In each department the accident-frequency rate was as 
follows : 

Department 

Blast Furnace 

Steel Works 

Rolling Mills 

Mechanical 

Yards 

Other Departments 

For Total Plant 

It is important to bear in mind, however, as will be pointed out in 
Section IV., that bad lighting may have a direct effect in causing 
accidents without affecting working capacity ; so that the conflict in the 
conclusions of students may well be attributable to differences in the 
standard of lighting in the factories where they investigated. 

As regards the output of night and day compared, the Curtis Pub- 
lishing Co., of Philadelphia, very kindly presented records of the hours 
spent by a single worker on pressing ten thousand ' good impressions 
of the Saturday Evening Post. The average hours thus spent by fifty- 
three day men was 5'04 per man ; by forty-six night men 4'78 per man. 
According to this, therefore, working capacity would seem slightly 
higher at night than during the day. 

Section II. — The Tests of Fatigue. 

To measure the results of fatigue accurately the ' test ' chosen should 
(1) vary as the fatigue varies (e.g., be a result of fatigue), and (2) vary 
with the fatigue only {e.g., not be a result of other factors). 



Accident Rate 


Day 


Night 


204 


229 


218 


224 


150 


160 


122 


389 


139 


399 


69 


227 


142 


214 



296 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1915. ' 

The tests here used particularly are : (1) The output of work, (2) 
the accidents occurring in the course of work. 

In addition to the main tests of output of work and accidents, 
scientific use has been made of some other tests, which fall into three 
groups : 

(1) Tests allied to the output of work test, such as the output of elec- 

trical or other power during working time, and the labour costs 
of the factory. 

(2) Tests allied to the accident test, such as the proportion of mistakes 

or spoilt goods in the product. 

(3) Medical tests of the after-effects of work, such as the prevalence 

of sickness and particularly nervous disorders attributable to 
overwork, and the comparison of blood-pressure and breathing 
(cp. Eoth) and of cutaneous discrimination (cp. Griesbach) before 
and after spells of work. 

This enumeration almost completes the non-laboratory tests of 
fatigue capable of statistical treatment. They are non-laboratorial in 
the sense that they are records (tests 1 and 2) of facts or of the results 
of facts (test 3) occurring in ordinary life. In the laboratory, on the 
other hand, either the fatigue itself is artificially produced or the tests 
specially invented, and thus certain circumstances of ordinary life are 
removed and the factors to be studied isolated ; but though the 
' analysis ' or explanation of results may thus be facilitated, yet different 
factors besides fatigue are introduced such as a high average tension 
and suggestibility in the ' subject,' and these may make the conclusions 
inapplicable to industry. 

All the non-laboratorial tests enumerated are capable of statistical 
treatment in that their discoveries can be stated numerically as certain 
quantities of one statistical unit. On the other hand, opinions of 
managers and foremen or inspectors or doctors in answer to * question- 
naires ' as asked by Eisner, Bloch, Levenstein, and others, though they 
may suggest what statistics to collect, can hardly themselves be treated 
statistically. 

The collection of these non-laboratorial statistics must always wait 
on the c