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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

REPORT 



OF THE 



EIGHTY^SIXTH MEETING OF THE 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 




NEWCASTLE.ON.TYNE : 1916 

SEPTEMBER 5—9 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 
1917 ■ 

Office oj the Association : Burliiig/oii House, London, IV. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Officees and Council, 1916-1917 ni 

Rules of the British Association v 

Tables : Past Annual Meetings : * 

Trustees, General Officers, &c. (1831-1916) xxi 

Sectional Presidents and Secretaries (1901-1915) xxii 

Evening Discourses (1901-1915) , xxx 

Lectures to the Operative Classes and Public Lectures (1901-1915) xxxii 

Chairmen and Secretaries of Conferences of Delegates (1901-1915) xxxiii 

Grants for Scientific Purposes (1901-1915) xxxiv 

Report of the Council to the General Committee, 1915-1916 ... xliv 

General Treasurer's Account, 1915-1916 xlviii 

Annual Meetings : Places and Dates, Presidents, Attendances, 
Receipts, and Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes (1831-1916) 1 

Analysis of Attendances Hi 

Newcastle Meeting, 1916 : 

General Meetings xli 

Sectional Officers xli 

Officers of Conference of Delegates xliii 

Research Committees liv 

Communication ordered to be printed in extenso Ix vii 

Resolutions referred to the Council Ixvii 

Synopsis of Grants of Money Ixvii 

Caird Fund Ixviii 

Public Lectures in Newcastle and Vicinity Ixix 

♦ Particulars for early Meetings not furnished in the following Tables will 
be found in Volumes for 1911 and previous years. 

a2 



il CONTENTS. 

Page 

Addbess by the Peesident, Sir AKXHtrR Evans, D.Litt., LL.D., 

P.S.A., F.E.S 3 

Reports on the State of Science, &c 27 

Transactions of the Sections : 

A. — Mathematical and Physical Science 355 

B.— Chemistry 366 

C— Geology 378 

D.— Zoology , 403 

E.— Geography 421 

F. — Economic Science and Statistics 435 

G. — Engineering 448 

H. — Antliropology 458 

I.— Physiology 470 

. K.— Botany 477 

L.— Education 512 

M. — Agriculture 528 

Report on the Determination of Gravity at Sea 549 

Report op the Corresponding Societies Committee and of the 

Conference OF Delegates of Corresponding Societies 666 

Index 609 

List of Publications 625 

List of Members, &c 103 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Plate I. — Illustrating the Report on Seismological Investigations. 

Plate II. — Illustrating the Report on the Botanical and Chemical Characters 
of the Eucalypts and their Correlation. 

Plate III. — Illustrating the Report on Stress Distributions in Engineering 

Materials. 

Plate IV. — Illustrating Mr. W. VVickham King's Paper on a Plexographic 
Model of the Thick Coal of South Staffordshire. 

Plates V. and VI. — Illustrating Mr. E. A. Reeves's Address to the Geographical 
Section. 

Plates VII.-XVQI. — Illustrating the Report on the Determination of Gravity 
at Sea. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1916-1917. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 



PRESIDENT. 

Sir ARTHUR EVANS, D.Litt., LL.D., Pres.S.A., F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of Newcastle. 
His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G., 

F.R.S. 
The Rieht Hou. the Marquis of Londonderry, 

M.V.O. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Durham, E.G., 

G.O.V.O. 
The Right Hon. the Earl op Graven-. 
The Right Hon. the Earl Grey, G.C.B., G.O.M.G., 

G.O.V.O. 
The Right Hon. Viscount Allendale. 
The Right Hon. Viscount Ghey, K.G. 
The Right Hon. Lord Barnard. 



The Right Hon. Lord Ravensworth. 

The Right Hou. Lord Abmstroko. 

The Right Hon. Lord Joicey. 

The Riglit Rev. the Lord Bishop of Durham, D.D. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop op Newcastle, 

D.D. 
The Right Hon. J. W. Lowther, M.P. 
The Right Hon. W. Runciman, M.P. 
Sir Hugh Bell, Bart. 
The Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, K.O.B., D.O.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir George H. Philipsox, M.D., D.O.L. 
Principal W. H. Hadow, D.Mus. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
The Hon. Sir Charles A. Parsons, K.C.B., Sc.D., F.R.S. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor John Perry, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., Burlington House, London, W. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Professor W. A. Hbrdman, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. | Professor H. H. Turner, D.Sc, D.O.L., F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
0. J. R. HowARTH, M.A., BurUngton House, London, W. 



CHIEF CLERK AND ASSISTANT TREASURER. 
H. 0. Stewardson, Burlington House, London, W. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Bone, Professor W. A., F.R.S. 
Brabrook, Sir Edward, C.B. 
Bragg, Professor W. H., F.R.S. 
Olerk, Dr. Dugald, F.R.S. 
Dendt, Professor A., F.R.S. 
Dickson, Professor H. N., D.Sc. 
DixET, Dr. P. A., F.R.S. 
Dixon, Professor H. B., F.R.S. 
Dyson, Sir P. W., F.R.S. 
Gregory, Professor R. A. 
Griffiths, Principal K. H., F.R.S. 
Haddon, Dr. A. C, F.R.S. 



Halliburton, Professor W. D., F.R.S. 
Harmhr, Dr. S. P., F.R.S. 
IM Thubn, Sir E. F., K.O.M.G. 
Morris, Sir D., K.O.M.G. 
Russell, Dr. E. J. 
Rutherford, Sir E., F.R.S. 
Saunders, Miss E. R. 
Scott, Professor W. R. 
Starling, Professor E. H., F.R.S. 
Strahan, Dr. A., F.R.S. 
Weiss, Professor F. E., D.Sc. 
Woodward, Dr. A. S.mith, F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, past Presidents of the Association, the President and Vice-Presidents for the year, the 
PresidcDt and Vice-Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers and General Secretaries, past 
Assistant General Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local Secretaries for the ensuing Annual 

Meeting, 

A3 



IV 



OFFIOEES AND COUNCIL. 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

The Right Hon. Lord Ratleiqh, O.M., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
Dr. Q. Carey Foster, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Lord Ravleigh, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir A. Geikie,K.O.B., O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir W. Crookes, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir James Dewar, F.R.S. 



Arthur J. Balfour, O.M., F.R.S. 
Sir B.Ray Lankester,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 
Sir Francis Darwin, F.R.S. 
Sir J. J. Thomson, O.M., Pres.R.S. 



Sir NormanLockyer,K.O.B.,F.R.S. ' Professor T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. 



Sir E. A. Sohafer, F.R.S. 
Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. 
Professor W. Bateson, F.R.S. 
Professor A. Schuster, F.R.S. 



PAST GENERAL OFFICERS OP THE ASSOCIATION. 



Professor T. G. Bonney, F.R.S. 
Dr. A. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 



Sir E. A. Schiifer, F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. 
I Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 



[ Dr. J. G. Garson. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 



Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B. 



AUDITORS. 

I Sir Everard im Thurn, C.B., K.C.M.G. 



RULES OF 
THE BEITISH ASSOCIATION. 

\_Adoj)ted hy the Geiieral Committee at Leicester, 1907, 
with subsequent amendments. 1 

Chapter I. 
Objects and Constitution. 

1. The objects of the British Association for the Advance- Objects, 
ment of Science are : To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in different parts 

of the British Empire with one another and with foreign 
philosophers ; to obtain more general attention for the objects 
of Science and the removal of any disadvantages of a public 
kind which impede its progress. 

The Association contemplates no invasion of the ground 
occupied by other Institutions. 

2. The Association shall consist of Members, Associates, Constitution. 
and Honorary Corresponding Members. 

The governing body of the Association shall be a General 
Committee, constituted as hereinafter set forth ; and its 
affairs shall be directed by a Council and conducted by 
General Officers appointed by that Committee. 

3. The Association shall meet annually, for one week or Annual 
longer, and at such other times as the General Committee Meetings, 
may appoint. The place of each Annual Meeting shall be 
determined by the General Committee not less than two years 

in advance ; and the arrangements for these meetings shall 
be entrusted to the Officers of the Association. 

Chapter II. 

The General Committee. 

1. The General Committee shall be constituted of the Constitution. 
following persons : — 

(i) Permanent Members — 

(a) Past and present Members of the Council, and past 
and present Presidents of the Sections. 



VI 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Admission. 



Meetifigs. 



Functions. 



(b) Members who, by the publication of works or 
papers, have furthered the advancement of know- 
ledge in any of those departments which are 
assigned to the Sections of the Association, 

(ii) Temporary Members — 

(a) Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections. 

(6) Honorary Corresponding Members, foreign repre- 
sentatives, and other persons specially invited 
or nominated by the Council or General Officers. 

(c) Delegates nominated by the Affiliated Societies. 

(d) Delegates — not exceeding altogether three in 

number — from Scientific Institutions established 
at the place of meeting. 

2. The decision of the Council on the qualifications and 
claims of any Member of the Association to be placed on the 
General Committee shall be final. 

(i) Claims for admission as a Permanent Member must 

be lodged with the Assistant Secretary at least one 

month before the Annual Meeting, 
(ii) Claims for admission as a Temporary Member may be 

sent to the Assistant Secretary at any time before or 

during the Annual Meeting. 

3. The General Committee shall meet twice at least during 
every Annual Meeting. In the interval between two Annual 
Meetings, it shall be competent for the Council at any time 
to summon a meeting of the General Committee. 

4. The General Committee shall 

(i) Receive and consider the Report of the Council. 

(ii) Elect a Committee of Recommendations. 

(iii) Receive and consider the Report of the Committee 
of Recommendations. 

(iv) Determine the place of the Annual Meeting not less 
than two years in advance. 

(v) Determine the date of the next Annual Meeting. 

(vi) Elect the President and Vice-Presidents, Local Trea- 
surer, and Local Secretaries for the next Annual 
Meeting. 

(vii) Elect Ordinary Members of Council, 
(viii) Appoint General Officers. 

(ix) Appoint Auditors, 
(x) Elect the Officers of the Conference of Delegates. 

(xi) Receive any notice of motion for the next Annual 
Meeting. 



COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. Vll 

Chapter III. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

1. * The ex officio Members of the Committee of Recom- Constitution, 
mendations are the President and Vice-Presidents of the 
Association, the President of each Section at the Annual 
Meeting, the President of the Conference of Delegates, the 

General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and 
the Presidents of the Association in former years. 

An Ordinary Member of the Committee for each Section 
shall be nominated by the Committee of that Section. 

If the President of a Section be unable to attend a meeting 
of the Committee of Recommendations, the Sectional Com- 
mittee may appoint a Vice-President, or some other member 
of the Committee, to attend in his place, due notice of such 
appointment being sent to the Assistant Secretary. 

2. Every recommendation made under Chapter IV. and Functions 
every resolution on a scientific subject, which may be sub- 
mitted to the Association by any Sectional Committee, or by 

the Conference of Delegates, or otherwise than by the Council 
of the Association, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations. If the Committee of Recommendations 
approve such recommendation, they shall transmit it to the 
General Committee ; and no recommendation shall be con- 
sidered by the General Committee that is not so transmitted. 

Every recommendation adopted by the General Committee 
shall, if it involve action on the part of the Association, be 
transmitted to the Council ; and the Council shall take such 
action as may be needful to give effect to it, and shall report 
to the General Committee not later than the next Annual 
Meeting. 

Every proposal for establishing a new Section or Sub- 
Section, for altering the title of a Section, or for any other 
change in the constitutional forms or fundamental rules of 
the Association, shall be referred to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration and report. 

3. The Committee of Recommendations shall assemble. Procedure, 
for the despatch of business, on the Monday of the Annual 
Meeting, and, if necessary, on the following day. Their 

Report must be submitted to the General Committee on the 
last day of the Annual Meeting. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Winnipeg, 1909, and 
Manchester, 1915. 



VIU 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION, 



Chapter IV. 

Research Committees. 

Procedure. !• Every proposal for special research, or for a grant of 

money in aid of special research, which is made in any 
Section, shall be considered by the Committee of that Section ; 
and, if such proposal be approved, it shall be referred to the 
Committee of Recommendations. 

In consequence of any such proposal, a Sectional Com- 
mittee may recommend the appointment of a Research 
Committee to conduct research or administer a grant in aid of 
research, and in any case to report thereon to the Association ; 
and the Committee of Recommendations may include such 
recommendation in their report to the General Committee. 

Such Research Committee shall be composed of Members 
of the Association, provided that the Council shall have 
power to consider, and in its discretion to approve any re- 
commendation to include in such Committee any person, not 
being a Member of the Association, whose assistance may be 
regarded as of special importance to the research undertaken.* 

Constitution. 2. Every appointment of a Research Committee shall be 

proposed at a meeting of the Sectional Committee and adopted 
at a subsequent meeting. The Sectional Committee shall 
settle the terms of reference and suitable Members to serve 
on it, which must be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working ; and shall nominate a Chairman and a Secretary. 
Such Research Committee, if appointed, shall have power to 
add to their numbers. 

3. The Sectional Committee shall state in their recommen- 
dation whether a grant of money be desired for the purposes 
of any Research Committee, and shall estimate the amount 
required. 

All proposals sanctioned by a Sectional Committee shall 
be forwarded by the Recorder to the Assistant Secretary not 
later than noon on the Monday of the Annual Meeting for 
presentation to the Committee of Recommendations. 

Tenure. 4. Research Committees are appointed for one year only. 

If the work of a Research Committee cannot be completed 
ill that year, application may be made through a Sectional 
Committee at the next Annual Meeting for reappointment, 
with or without a grant — or a further grant — of money. 

Reports. 5. Every Research Committee shall present a Report, 

whether interim or final, at the Annual Meeting next after 

that at which it was appointed or reappointed, and may in the 

* Amended by the General Committee at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1916. 



Proposals by 

Sectional 

Committees. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. IX 

meantime present a Report through a Sectional Organising 
Committee to the Council.* Interim Reports, whether in- 
tended for publication or not, must be submitted in writing. 
Each Sectional Committee shall ascertain whether a Report 
has been made by each Research Committee appointed on their 
recommendation, and shall report to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations on or before the Monday of the Annual Meeting. 

6. In each Research Committee to which a grant of money Grants. 
has been made, the Chairman is the only person entitled to call OO Drawn by 
on the General Treasurer for such portion of the sum granted 

as from time to time may be required. 

Grants of money sanctioned at the Annual Meeting (*) Expire on 
expire on June 30 following. The General Treasurer is not "^^^ 
authorised, after that date, to allow any claims on account of 
such grants. 

The Chairman of a Research Committee must, before (c) Accounts, 
the Annual Meeting next following the appointment of ?nd balance 
the Research Committee, forward to the General Treasurer 
a statement of the sums that have been received and ex- 
pended, together with vouchers. The Chairman must then 
return the balance of the grant, if any, which remains un- 
expended ; provided that a Research Committee may, in the 
first year of its appointment only, apply for leave to retain 
an unexpended balance when or before its Report is presented, 
due reason being given for such application.f 

When application is made for a Committee to be re- {d) Addi- 
appointed, and to retain the balance of a former grant, and '°°* ^^° ' 
also to receive a further grant, the amount of such further 
grant is to be estimated as being sufficient, together with 
the balance proposed to be retained, to make up the amount 
desired. 

In making grants of money to Research Committees, the (e) Caveat. 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal 
expenses to the Members. 

A Research Committee, whether or not in receipt of a 
grant, shall not raise money, in the name or under the auspices 
of the Association, without special permission from the General 
Committee. 

7. Members and Committees entrusted with sums of money Disposal of 

for collecting specimens of any description shall include in their specimens, 
T. -1 f 1 ^ ^^ apparatus, 

Reports particulars thereof, and shall reserve the specimens &c. 

thus obtained for disposal, as the Council may direct. 

Committees are required to furnish a list of any ap- 
paratus which may have been purchased out of a grant made 

* Amended by the General Committee at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1916. 
t Amended by the General Committee at Dundee, 1912. 



X RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

by the Association, and to state whether the apparatus is 
likely to be useful for continuing the research in question or 
for other specific purposes. 

All instruments, drawings, papers, and other property of 
the Association, when not in actual use by a Committee, shall 
be deposited at the Office of the Association. 



Chapter V. 

The Council. 

1. The Council shall consist of ex officio Members and of 
Ordinary Members elected annually by the General Com- 
mittee. 

(i) The ex officio Members are — the Trustees, past Presi- 
dents of the Association, the President and Vice- 
Presidents for the year, the President and Vice- 
Presidents Elect, past and present General Treasurers 
and General Secretaries, past Assistant General 
Secretaries, and the Local Treasurers and Local 
Secretaries for the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

(ii) The Ordinary Members shall not exceed twenty- five in 
number. Of these, not more than twenty shall have 
served on the Council as Ordinary Members in the 
previous year. 

2. The Council shall have authority to act, in the name and 
on behalf of the Association, in all matters which do not con- 
flict with the functions of the General Committee. 

In the interval between two Annual Meetings, the Council 
shall manage the aflfairs of the Association and may fill up 
vacancies among the General and other Officers, until the next 
Annual Meeting. 

The Council shall hold such meetings as they may think 
fit, and shall in any case meet on the first day of the Annual 
Meeting, in order to complete and adopt the Annual Report, 
and to consider other matters to be brought before the General 
Committee. 

The Council shall nominate for election by the General 
Committee, at each Annual Meeting, a President and General 
Officers of the Association. 

Suggestions for the Presidency shall be considered by the 
Council at the Meeting in February, and the names selected 
shall be issued with the summonses to the Council Meeting in 
March, when the nomination shall be made from the names 
on the list. 



THE COUNCIL. XI 

The Council shall have power to appoint and dismiss Elections. 
such paid officers as may be necessary to carry on the work 
of the Association, on such terms as they may from time to 
time determine. 

3. Election to the Council shall take place at the same 
time as that of the Officei-s of the Association, 

(i) At each Annual Election, the following Ordinary 
Members of the Council shall be ineligible for re- 
election in the ensuing year : 

(a) Three of the Members who have served for the 

longest consecutive period, and 

(b) Two of the Members who, being resident in or near 

London, have attended the least number of meet- 
ings during the past year. 
Nevertheless, it shall be competent for the Council, by 
an unanimous vote, to reverse the proportion in the 
order of I'etirement above set forth, 
(ii) The Council shall submit to the General Committee, 
in their Annual Report, the names of twenty-three 
Members of the Association whom they recommend for 
election as Members of Council, 
(iii) Two Members shall be elected by the General Com- 
mittee, without nomination by the Council ; and this 
election shall be at the same meeting as that at which the 
election of the other Members of the Council takes place. 
Any member of the General Committee may propose 
another member thereof for election as one of these two 
Members of Council, and, if only two are so proposed, 
they shall be declared elected ; but, if more than two 
are so proposed, the election shall be by show of hands, 
unless five Members at least require it to be by ballot. 



Chapter VI. 

The President, General Officers, and Staff. 

1. The President assumes office on the first day of the The Presi- 
Annual Meeting, when he delivers a Presidential Address, dent. 
He resigns office at the next Annual Meeting, when he 
inducts his successor into the Chair. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the Associa- 
tion or of its Council and Committees which he attends in his 
capacity as President. In his absence, he shall be represented 
by a Vice-President or past President of the Association. 



xu 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



General 
Officers. 



The General 
Treasurer. 



The General 
Secretaries. 



The Assistant 
Secretary. 



Assistant 
Treasurer. 



2. The General Officers of the Association are the General 
Treasurer and the General Secretaries. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Association, in any matter of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

3. The General Treasurer shall be responsible to the 
General Committee and the Council for the financial affairs 
of the Association. 

4. The General Secretaries shall control the general 
organisation and administration, and shall be responsible to 
the General Committee and the Council for conducting the 
correspondence and for the general routine of the work of 
the Association, excepting that which relates to Finance. 

5. The Assistant Secretary shall hold office during the 
pleasure of the Council. He shall act under the direction 
of the General Secretaries, and in their absence shall repre- 
sent them. He shall also act on the directions which may 
be given him by the General Treasurer in that part of his 
duties which relates to the finances of the Association. 

The Assistant Secretary shall be charged, subject as afore- 
said : (i) with the general organising and editorial work, and 
with the administrative business of the Association ; (ii) with 
the control and direction of the Office and of all persons 
therein employed ; and (iii) with the execution of Standing 
Orders or of the directions given him by the General Officers 
and Council. He shall act as Secretary, and take Minutes, at 
the meetings of the Council, and at all meetings of Com- 
mittees of the Council, of the Committee of Recommendations, 
and of the General Committee. 

6. The General Treasurer may depute one of the Staff, as 
Assistant Treasurer, to carry on, under his direction, the 
routine work of the duties of his office. 

The Assistant Treasurer shall be charged with the issue of 
Membership Tickets, the payment of Grants, and such other 
work as may be delegated to him. 



Financial 
Statements. 



Chapter VII. 

Finance. 

1. The General Treasurer, or Assistant Treasurer, shall 

receive and acknowledge all sums of money paid to the 

Association. He shall submit, at each meeting of the 



FINANCE. Xlll 

Council, an interim statement of his Account ; and, after 
June 30 in each year, he shall prepare and submit to the 
General Committee a balance-sheet of the Funds of the 
Association. 

2. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited, Audit, 
annually, by Auditors appointed by the General Committee. 

3. The General Treasurer shall make all ordinary pay- Expenditure. 
ments authorised by the General Committee or by the 

Council. 

4. The Genei'al Treasurer is empowered to draw on the Investments. 
account of the Association, and to invest on its behalf, 

part or all of the balance standing at any time to the credit 
of the Association in the books of the Bank of England, 
either in Exchequer Bills or in any other temporary invest- 
ment, and to change, sell, or otherwise deal with such tem- 
porary investment as may seem to him desirable. 

5. In the event of the General Treasurer being unable. Cheques, 
from illness or any other cause, to exercise the functions of 

his office, the President of the Association for the time being 
and one of the General Secretaries shall be jointly empowered 
to sign cheques on behalf of the Association. 



Chapter VIII. 
The Annual Meetings. 

1. Local Committees shall be formed to assist the General Local Offi- 
Officers in making arrangements for the Annual Meeting, and c^'^^^l^tees 
shall have power to add to their number. 

2. The General Committee shall appoint, on the recom- 
mendation of the Local Reception or Executive Committee for 
the ensuing Annual Meeting, a Local Treasurer or Treasurers 
and two or more Local Secretaries, who shall rank as officers 
of the Association, and shall consult with the General Officers 
and the Assistant Secretary as to the local arrangements 
necessary for the conduct of the meeting. The Local Treasurers 
shall be empowered to enrol Members and Associates, and to 
receive subscriptions. 

3. The Local Committees and Sub-Committees shall under- Functions. 
take the local organisation, and shall have power to act in the 

name of the Association in all matters pertaining to the local 
arrangements for the Annual Meeting other than the work of 
the Sections. 



XIV 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



The 
Sections. 



Sectional 
Officers. 



Rooms. 



Sectional 
Committees. 



Constitution. 



Chaptek IX. 

The Work of the Sections. 

1. The scientific work of the Association shall be trans- 
acted under such Sections as shall be constituted from time 
to time by the General Committee. 

It shall be competent for any Section, if authorised by the 
Council for the time being, to form a Sub-Section for the 
purpose of dealing separately with any group of communica- 
tions addressed to that Section. 

2. There shall be in each Section a President, two or 
more Vice-Presidents, and two or more Secretaries. They 
shall be appointed by the Council, for each Annual Meet- 
ing in advance, and shall act as the Ofiicers of the Section 
from the date of their appointment until the appoint- 
ment of their successors in office for the ensuing Annual 
Meeting. 

Of the Secretaries, one shall act as Recorder of the Section, 
and one shall be resident in the locality where the Annual 
Meeting is held. 

3. The Section Rooms and the approaches thereto shall 
not be used for any notices, exhibitions, or other purposes 
than those of the Association. 

4. The work of each Section shall be conducted by a 
Sectional Committee, which shall consist of the following : — 

(i) The Officers of the Section during their term of office. 

(ii) All past Presidents of that Section. 

(iii) Such other Members of the Association, present at 
any Annual Meeting, as the Sectional Committee, 
thus constituted, may co-opt for the period of the 
meeting : 



Privilege of 
Old Members. 



Daily 
Co-optation. 



Provided always that — 

(a) Any Member of the Association who has served on 
the Committee of any Section in any previous year, 
and who has intimated his intention of being present 
at the Annual Meeting, is eligible as a member of 
that Committee at their first meeting. 

(6) A Sectional Committee may co-opt members, as above 
set forth, at any time during the Annual Meeting, 
and shall publish daily a revised list of the members. 



THE WORK OF THE SECTIONS. XV 

(c) A Sectional Committee may, at any time during the Additional 
Annual Meeting, appoint not more than three persons ^^^j^ ^^^*' 
present at the meeting to be Vice-Presidents of the 
Section, in addition to those previously appointed 
by the Council. 

5. The chief executive oificers of a Section shall be the Executive 
President and the Recorder. They shall have power to act on unctions 
behalf of the Section in any matter of urgency which cannot 

be brought before the consideration of the Sectional Com- 
mittee ; and they shall report such action to the Sectional 
Committee at its next meeting. 

The President (or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presi- Of President 
dents) shall preside at all meetings of the Sectional Committee 
or of the Section. His ruling shall be absolute on all points 
of oi'der that may arise. 

The Recorder shall be responsible for the punctual trans- and of 
mission to the Assistant Secretary of the daily programme of 
his Section, of the recommendations adopted by the Sectional 
Committee, of the printed returns, abstracts, reports, or papers 
appertaining to the proceedings of his Section at the Annual 
Meeting, and for the correspondence and minutes of the 
Sectional Committee. 

6. The Sectional Committee shall nominate, before the Organising 
close of the Annual Meeting, not more than six of its own o™'^^ ®^- 
members to be members of an Organising Committee, with 

the officers to be subsequently appointed by the Council, and 
past Presidents of the Section, from the close of the Annual 
Meeting until the conclusion of its meeting on the first day of 
the ensuing Annual Meeting. 

Each Organising Committee shall hold such meetings as 
are deemed necessary by its President for the organisation 
of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and may at any such 
meeting resolve to present a report to the Council upon any 
matter of interest to the Section,* and shall hold a meeting 
on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting : to nominate 
members of the Sectional Committee, to confirm the Pro- 
visional Programme of the Section, and to report to the 
Sectional Committee. 

Each Sectional Committee shall meet daily, unless other- Sectional 
wise determined, during the Annual Meeting : to co-opt t^'omnnttee. 
members, to complete the arrangements for the next day, and 
to take into consideration any suggestion for the advance- 
ment of Science that may be offered by a member, or may 
arise out of the proceedings of the Section. 
* Amended by the General Committee at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 191G. 



XVI 



RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Papers and 
Keports. 



Escommen- 
dations. 



Publication. 



Copyright. 



No paper shall be read in any Section until it has been 
accepted by the Sectional Committee and entered as accepted 
on its Minutes. 

Any report or paper read in any one Section may be read 
also in any other Section. 

No paper or abstract of a paper shall be printed in the 
Annual Report of the Association unless the manuscript has 
been received by the Recorder of the Section before the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

T^ shall be within the competence of the Sectional Com- 
mittee to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Annual Meetings, as published in the Annual Reports of the 
Association, and the communications made to the Section at 
its current meetings, for the purpose of selecting definite 
objects of research, in the promotion of which individual or 
concerted action may be usefully employed ; and, further, to 
take into consideration those branches or aspects of knowledge 
on the state and progress of which reports are required : to 
make recommendations and nominate individuals or Research 
Committees to whom the preparation of such reports, or the task 
of research, may be entrusted, discriminating as to whether, 
and in what respects, these objects may be usefully advanced 
by the appropriation of money from the funds of the Associa- 
tion, whether by reference to local authorities, public institu- 
tions, or Departments of His Majesty's Government. The 
appointment of such Research Committees shall be made in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter IV. 

No proposal arising out of the proceedings of any Section 
shall be referred to the Committee of Recommendations unless 
it shall have received the sanction of the Sectional Com- 
mittee. 

7. Papers ordered to be printed in extenso shall not be 
included in the Annual Report, if published elsewhere prior 
to the issue of the Annual Report in volume form. Reports 
of Research Committees shall not be published elsewhere 
than in the Annual Report without the express sanction of 
the Council. 

8. The copyright of papers ordered by the General Com- 
mittee to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report shall 
be vested in the authors ; and the copyright of the reports 
of Research Committees appointed by the General Committee 
shall be vested in the Association, 



ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 



Chapter X. 
Admission of Members and Associates. 

1. No technical qualification shall be required on the Applications. 
part of an applicant for admission as a Member or as an 
Associate of the British Association ; but the Council is 
empowered, in the event of special circumstances arising, to 

impose suitable conditions and restrictions in this respect. 

* Every person admitted as a Member or an Associate Obligations. 
shall conform to the Rules and Regulations of the Association, 
any infringement of which on his part may render him liable 
to exclusion by the Council, who have also authority, if they 
think it necessary, to withhold from any person the privilege 
of attending any Annual Meeting or to cancel a ticket of 
admission already issued. 

It shall be competent for the General Officers to act, in 
the name of the Council, on any occasion of urgency which 
cannot be brought under the consideration of the Council ; 
and they shall report such action to the Council at the next 
meeting. 

2. All Members are eligible to any office in the Association. Conditions 
(i) Every Life Member shall pay, on admission, the sum andPrivileges 

of Ten Pounds. gjjjp 

Life Members shall receive gratis the Annual 
Reports of the Association, 
(ii) Every Annual Member shall pay, on admission, the 
sum of Two Pounds, and in any subsequent year 
the sum of One Pound. 

Annual Members shall receive gratis the Report 
of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay, 
without intermission, their annual subscription. An 
Annual Member who omits to subscribe for any 
particular year shall lose for that and all future 
years the privilege of receiving the Annual Reports 
of the Association gratis. He, however, may resume 
his other privileges as a Member at any subsequent 
Annual Meeting by paying on each such occasion 
the sum of One Pound, 
(iii) Every Associate for a year shall pay, on admission, 
the sum of One Pound. 

* Amended by the General Committee at Dublin, 1908. 



xyiu 



KTJLES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



Correspond- 
ing Members. 



Annual Sub- 
scriptions. 



The Annua! 
Report. 



Associates shall not receive the Annual Report 
gratuitously. They shall not be eligible to serve on 
any Committee, nor be qualified to hold any office in 
the Association, 
(iv) Ladies may become Members or Associates on the 
same terms as gentlemen, or can obtain a Lady's 
Ticket (transferable to ladies only) on the payment 
of One Pound. 

3. Corresponding Members may be appointed by the 
General Committee, on the nomination of the Council. They 
shall be entitled to all the privileges of Membership. 

4. Subscriptions are payable at or before the Annual 
Meeting. Annual Members not attending the meeting may 
make payment at any time before the close of the financial 
year on June 30 of the following year. 

5. The Annual Report of the Association shall be forwarded 
gratis to individuals and institutions entitled to receive it. 

Annual Members whose subscriptions have been inter- 
mitted shall be entitled to purchase the Annual Report 
at two-thirds of the publication price ; and Associates for a 
year shall be entitled to purchase, at the same price, the 
volume for that year. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of 
publication can only be issued by direction of the Council. 



Affiliated 
Societies. 



Associated 
Societies. 



Chapter XL 

Corresponding Societies : Conference of Delegates. 

Corresponding Societies are constituted as follows : 

1. (i) Any Society which undertakes local scientific inves- 
tigation and publishes the results may become a 
Society affiliated to the British Association. 

Each Affiliated Society may appoint a Delegate, 
who must be or become a Member of the Associa- 
tion and must attend the meetings of the Conference 
of Delegates. He shall be ex officio a Member of 
the General Committee, 
(ii) Any Society formed for the purpose of encouraging 
the study of Science, which has existed for three 
years and numbers not fewer than fifty members, 
may become a Society associated with the British 
Association. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES : CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES. XIX 

Each Associated Society shall have the right 
to appoint a Delegate to attend the Annual Con- 
ference. Such Delegates must be or become either 
Members or Associates of the British Association, 
and shall have all the rights of Delegates appointed 
by the Affiliated Societies, except that of member 
ship of the General Committee. 

2. Application may be made by any Society to be placed Applications. 
on the list of Corresponding Societies. Such application must 

be addressed to the Assistant Secretary on or before the 1st of 
June preceding the Annual Meeting at which it is intended 
it should be considered, and must, in the case of Societies 
desiring to be affiliated, be accompanied by specimens of the 
publications of the results of local scientific investigations 
recently undertaken by the Society. 

3. A Corresponding Societies Committee shall be an- Coeke- 
nually nominated by the Council and appointed by the sponding 
General Committee, for the purpose of keeping themselves committee 
generally informed of the work of the Corresponding Socie- 
ties and of superintending the preparation of a list of the 

papers published by the Affiliated Societies. This Com- 
mittee shall make an Annual Report to the Council, and 
shall suggest such additions or changes in the list of Corre- 
sponding Societies as they may consider desirable. 

(i) Each Corresponding Society shall forward every year Procedure. 
to the Assistant Secretary of the Association, on or 
before June 1, such particulars in regard to the 
Society as may be required for the information of 
the Corresponding Societies Committee, 
(ii) There shall be inserted in the Annual Report of the 
Association a list of the papers published by 
the Corresponding Societies during the preceding 
twelve months which contain the results of local 
scientific work conducted by them — those papers 
only being included which refer to subjects coming 
under the cognisance of one or other of the several 
Sections of the Association. 

4. The Delegates of Corresponding Societies shall consti- Conference 
tute a Conference, of which the President,* Vice-President,* Q^J^g^*^" 
and Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated annuallv by 

the Council and appointed by the General Committee. The 
members of the Corresponding Societies Committee shall be 
ex officio members of the Conference. 



* Amended by the General Committee at Manchester, 1915. 



a 2 



XX RULES OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Procedure and (i) The Conference of Delegates shall be summoned by 

Functions. the Secretaries to hold one or more meetings during 

each Annual Meeting of the Association, and shall 
be empowered to invite any Member or Associate 
to take part in the discussions, 
(ii) The Conference of Delegates shall be empowered to 
submit Resolutions to the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for their consideration, and for report 
to the General Committee, 
(iii) The Sectional Committees of the Association shall 
be requested to transmit to the Secretaries of the 
Conference of Delegates copies of any recommenda- 
tions to be made to the General Committee bearing 
on matters in which the co-operation of Corre- 
sponding Societies is desirable. It shall be com- 
petent for the Secretaries of the Conference of 
Delegates to invite the authors of such recom- 
mendations to attend the meetings of the Conference 
in order to give verbal explanations of their objects 
and of the precise way in which they desire these 
to be carried into effect, 
(iv) It shall be the duty of the Delegates to make 
themselves familiar with the purport of the several 
recommendations brought before the Conference, 
in order that they may be able to bring such re- 
commendations adequately before their respective 
Societies, 
(v) The Conference may also discuss propositions 
regarding the promotion of more systematic ob- 
servation and plans of operation, and of greater 
uniformity in the method of publishing results. 



Chapter XII. 

Amendments and New Rules. 

Alterations. Any alterations in the Rules, and any amendments 

or new Rules that may be proposed by the Council or 
individual Members, shall be notified to the General Com- 
mittee on the first day of the Annual Meeting, and referred 
forthwith to the Committee of Recommendations ; and, on the 
report of that Committee, shall be submitted for approval at 
the last meeting of the General Committee. 



TEUSTEES, GENERAL OFFICEES, &c., 1831-1916. 



TRUSTEES. 



1832-70 (Sir) R. I. MuECHiSON (Bart.), 
F.R.S. 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
0. Babbage, Esq., F.R.S. 
F. BAILY, Esq., F.R.S. 
Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
Sir P. Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. 



1832-62 
1832-39 
1839-44 

1844-58 
1858-82 
1862-81 



GENERAL 
1831 Jonathan Gray, Esq. 
1832-62 John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 
1862-74 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 
1874-91 Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 



1872- f Sir J. Lubbock, Bart, (after- 
1913 i wards Lord Avebury), F.R.S. 
1881-83 W.SP0TTisw00DE,Esq.,Pres.R.S. 
1883- Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 
1883-98 Sir Lyon (afterwards Lord) 

Playpair, F.R.S. 
1898-1915 Prof.(Sir) A. W.RiJCKEE.F.R.S. 
1913- Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
1915- Dr. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S. 

TREASURERS. 

1891-98 Prof. (Sir) A. W. Ruckee, 

F.R.S. 
1898-1904 Prof. G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 
1904- Prof. John Perry, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



1832 
1835 

1836. 

1837- 

1839- 

1845- 
1850- 

1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 

1863- 

1865- 
1866- 

1868- 



-35 Rev. W. Vernon Haecourt, 

F.R.S. 
-36 Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, 

F.R.S., and F. Baily, Esq., 

F.R.S. 
-37 Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, 

F.R.S., and R. I. Murchison, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
-39 R. I. Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., 

and Rev. G. Peacock, F.R.S. 
-45 Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S., 

and Major E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
-50 Lieut.-Colonel E.Sabine.F.R.S. 
-52 General E. Sabine, F.R.S., and 

J. F. ROYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
-53 J. F. RoYLE, Esq., F.R.S. 
-59 General E. Sabine, F.R.S. 
-61 Prof. R. Walker, F.R.S. 
-62 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
-63 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Prof. J. Phillips, F.R.S. 
65 W. Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S., and 

P. Galton, Esq., F.R.S, 
-66 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
68 F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S., and 

Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S. 
71 Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.R.S., and Dr. 

T. Thomson, F.R.S. 



1871-72 

1872-76 

1876-81 

1881-82 

1882-83 
1883-95 

1895-97 



1897- f 

1900 1 

1900-02 



1902-03 
1903-13 

1913- 



Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. Michael Foster, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Dr. P. L. SCLATER, F.R.S. 
Capt. D. Galton, F.R.S., and 

Prof. F. M. Balfour, F.R.S. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, F.R.S., 

and A. G. Vernon Harcourt, 

Esq., F.R.S. 
A. G.Vernon Harcourt, Esq., 

F.R.S., and Prof. E. A. 

Schafer, F.R.S. 
Prof. Schafer, F.R.S., and Sir 

W.C.Roberts- Austen,F.R.S. 
Sir W. C. Roberts-Austen, 

F.R.S., and Dr. D. H. Scott, 

F.R.S. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., and 

Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S., 

and Prof. W. A. Heedman, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., 

and Prof. H.H.Turner, F.R.S. 



ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARIES, &c. : 1831-1904. 



1831 
1832 



1881-85 Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.R.S., 
Secretary. 

1885-90 A. T. Atchison, Esq., M.A., 
Secretary. 

1890 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 
Secretary. 

1890-1902 G, Griffith, Esq., M.A. 

1902-04 J. G. Garson, Esq., M.D. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARIES. 
1878-80 J. E. H. Gordon, Esq., B.A. I 1909- 0. J. R. Howaeth. Esq., M.A. 
1904-09 A. Silva White, Esq. | 



John Phillips, Esq., Secretary. 
Prof. J. D. Forbes, Acting 
Secretary. 
1832-62 Prof. John Phillips, F.R.S. 
1862-78 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A. 
1881 G. Griffith, Esq., M.A., Acting 
Secretary. 



Xxii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETABIES OF SECTIONS (1901-15). 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association , 
1901-1915. 

(The List of Sectional Officers for 1916 will be found on p. xli.) 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
(Rec. = Recorder) 



SECTION A. 1— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 


1908. 


Dublin 



1909. Winnipeg 



Major P. A. MacMahon, F.R.S. 
— Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Purser,LL.D,,M.R.I.A. 
— Dep. of Astronomy, Prof. 
A. Schuster, F.R.S. 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S.— Dej?. 
of Astro7iomy and Meteor- 
ology, Dv.^^ .'iH. Shaw,F.R.S. 

Prof. H. Lamb, F.R.S.— 5^mJ- 
Section of Astronomy and 
Cosmical Physics, Sir J. 
Eliot, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. R. Forsyth, M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Principal E. H.Griffiths.F.R.S. 



Prof. A. E. H. Love, M.A. 
F.R.S. 

Dr. W. N. Shaw, F.R.S 



Prof. E. Rutherford, F.R.S... 
Sheffield ...' Prof. E. W. Hobson, F.R.S... 
Portsmouth Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. .. 



1910. 
1911. 
1912. Dundee .. 



Prof. H. L. Callendar, F.R.S. 



1913. Birmingham Dr. H. F. Baker, F.R.S. 



1914. Australia. 



1915. Manchester 



Prof. F. T. Trouton, F R.S. 



Sir F. W. Dyson, F.R.S. 



H. S. Carslaw, C. H.Lees {Rec), W. 
Stewart, Prof. L. R. Wilberforce. 

H. S. Carslaw, A, R. Hinks, A. 
Larmor, C. H. Lees (Rec), Prof. 
W. B. Morton, A. W. Porter. 

D. E. Benson, A. R. Hinks, R. W. 
H. T. Hudson, Dr. C. H. Lees 
(Rec), J. Loton, A. W. Porter. 

A. R. Hinks, R. W. H. T. Hudson, 

Dr. C. H. Lees (Rec), Dr. W. J. S. 

Lockyer, A. W. Porter, W. C, D. 

Whetham. 
A. R. Hinks, S. S. Hough, R. T. A. 

Innes, J. H. Jeans, Dr. C. H. Lees 

(Rec). 
Dr. L. N. G. Filon, Dr. J. A. Harker, 

A. R. Hinks, Prof. A. W. Porter 

(Rec.}, H. Dennis Taylor. 

E. E. Brooks, Dr. L. N. G. Filon, 
Dr. J. A. Harker, A. R. Hinks, 
Prof. A. W. Porter (Rcc). 

Dr. W. G. Duffield, Dr. L. N. G. 

Filon, E. Gold, Prof. J. A. 

McClelland, Prof. A. W. Porter 

{Rec), Prof. E. T. Whittaker. 
Prof. F. Allen, Prof. J. C. Fields, 

E. Gold, F. Horton, Prof. A. W. 

Porter {Rec), Dr. A. A. Rambaut. 
H. Bateman, A. S. Eddington, E. 

Gold, Dr. F. Horton, Dr. S. R. 

Milner, Prof. A. W. Porter {Rec). 
H. Bateman, Prof. P. V. Bevan, A. S. 

Eddington, E. Gold, Prof. A. W. 

Porter {Rec), P. A. Yapp. 
Prof. P. V. Bevan, E. Gold, Dr. H. B 

Heywood, R. Norrie, Prof. A. W. 

Porter (^ec), W. G. Robson, F. 

J. M. St ration. 
Prof. P. V. Bevan (Rec), Prof. A. S. 

Eddington, E. Gold, Dr. H. B. 

Heywood, Dr. A. O. Rankine, Dr. 

G. A. Shakespear. 
Prof. A. S. Eddington {Rec,) 
' E. Gold, Prof. T. R. Lyle, F.R.S.. 

Prof. S. B. McLaren, Prof. J. A, 

Pollock, Dr. A. 0. Rankine. 
Prof. A. S. Eddington, F.R.S. 

{Rec), E. Gold, Dr. Makower, 

Dr. A. 0. Rankine. 



' Section A was constituted under this title in 1835, when the sectional division 
was introduced. The previous division was into ' Committees of Sciences.' 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-15). xxiii 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
(Rec. = Recorder) 



SECTION B.2— CBEMISTRY. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1903. 


Belfast 


1903. 


Southport 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


190R 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg... 


1910. 


Sheffield ... 



1911. 

1912, 

1913, 

1914. 
1915. 



Portsmouth 

Dundee .. 

Birmingham 

Australia .. 
Manchester 



Prof. Percy F. Frankland, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Divers, F.R.S 



Prof. W. N. Hartley, D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. Sydney Young.F.R.S.... 
George T. Beilby 



Prof. Wyndham R. Dunstan, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. F. S. Kipping, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. H. E. Armstrong, F.R.S 
J. E. Stead, F.R.S 



Suh-section of Agriculture— 

A. D. Hall, F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Walker, F.R.S 



Prof. A. Senier, M.D 

Prof. W. P. Wynne, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. W. J. Pope, F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Bone, F.R.S. .. 



W. C. Anderson, G. G. Henderson, 

W. J. Pope, T. K. Rose (Rec). 
R. F. Blake, M. 0. Forster, Prof. 

G. G. Henderson, Prof. W. J. Pope 

{Ree.y 
Dr. M. 0. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, J. Ohm, Prof. W. J. Pope 

{ReG.\ 
Dr. M. O. Forster, Prof. G. G. Hen- 
derson, Dr. H. 0. Jones, Prof. 

W. J. Pope (^Rec). 
W. A. Caldecott, Mr. M. O. Forster, 

Prof. G. G. Henderson {Rec), C. F. 

■Juritz. 
Dr. E. F.Armstrong, Prof. A.W. Cross- 
ley, S. H. Davies, Prof. W. J. Pope 

(RecX 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong, Prof. A. W. 

Crossley {Rec.}, J. H. Hawthorn, 

Dr. F. M. Parkin. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. A. 

McKenzie, Dr. F. M. Perkin, Dr. 

J. H. Pollock. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. T. 

M. Lowry, Dr. F. M. Perkin, J. W. 

Shipley. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. T. 

M. Lowry, Dr. F. M. Perkin, W. 

E. S. Turner. 
Dr. C. Crowther, J. Golding, Dr. 

E. J. Russell. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. 

C. H. Desch, Dr. T. M. Lowry, 

Dr. F. Beddow. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. C. 

H. Desch, Dr. A. Holt, Dr. J. K. 

Wood. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong (Rec), Dr. C. 

H. Desch, Dr. A. Holt, Dr. H. 

McCombie. 
D. Avery, Prof. C. Fawsitt, Dr. A. 

Holt (Rec), Dr. N. V. SiJgwick. 
Dr. H. F. Coward, Dr. C. H. Desch, 

Dr. A. Holt {Rec)- 



SECTION C.3- GEOLOGY. 

1901. Glasgow ...John Home, F.R.S H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton 

j (Rec). 

1902. Belfast Lieut.-Gen. C. A. McMahon, H. L. Bowman, H. W. Monckton 

F,R.S. (Rec), J. St. J. Phillips, H. J. 

I Seymour. 



'Chemistry and Mineralogy,' 1835-189J. 
' Geology and Geograph}',' 1835-1850. 



Xxiv PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-15). 



Date and Place 



1903. Southport 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 



1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia ... 

1915. Manchester 



Presidents 



Prof. W. W. Watts, M.A., 

M.Sc. 
Aubrey Strahan, F.E.S 

Prof. H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 

G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S 

Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... 

Prof. John Joly, F.R.S 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. A. P. Coleman, F.R.S... 

A. Harker, F.R.S 

Dr. B. N. Peach, F.R.S 

Prof. B. J. Garwood, M.A. ... 
Prof. Sir T. H. Holland, F.R.S. 
Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole ... 



Secretaries 
(.H<'c. = Recorder) 



H. L. Bowman, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

J. Lomas, H. W. Monckton (Rec). 
H. L. Bowman (Rec), Rev. W. L. 

Carter, J. Lomas, H. Woods. 
H. L. Bowman (Rec), J. Lomas, Dr. 

MolengraafiE, Prof. A. Young, Prof. 

R. B. Young. 
H. L. Bowman (Rec), Rev. W. L. 

Carter, Rev. W. Johnson, J. Lomas. 
Dr. F. W. Bennett, Rev. W. L. Carter, 

Prof. T. Groom, J. "Lomas (Rec). 
Rev. W. L. Carter, J. Lomas (Rec), 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds, H. J. Sey- 
mour. 
W. L. Carter (^ec), Dr. A. R. Dwerry- 

house, R. T. Hodgson, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 
W. L. Carter (7?ec.), Dr. A. R. Dwerry- 

house, B. Hobson, Prof. S. H. 

Reynolds. 
Col. C. W. Bevis, W. L. Carter (Rec), 

Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse, Prof. S. 

H. Reynolds. 
Prof. W. B. Boulton, A. W. R. Don, 

Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Rec), 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 
Prof. W. S. Boulton, Dr. A. R. 

Dwerryhouse (Rec), F. Raw, 

Prof. S. H. Reynolds. 
Dr. A. R. Dwerryhouse (Rec), E. F. 

Pittman, Prof. S. H. Reynolds, 

Prof. E. W. Skeats. 
W. Lower Carter (Rec), Dr. W. T. 

Gordon, Dr. G. Hickling, Dr. D. 

M. S. Watson. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast 


1903. 


Southport 



1904. Cambridge 



1905. 
1906. 



SouthAfrica 
York 



1907. Leicester . 



SECTION ©."—ZOOLOGY 

Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S. 

Prof. G. B. Howes, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. ... 



William Bateson, F.R.S. 

G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 
J. J. Lister, F.R.S 

Dr. W. E. Hoyle, M.A..., 



J. G. Kerr (Rec), J. Rankin, J. Y. 

Simpson. 
Prof. J. G. Kerr, R. Patterson, J. Y. 

Simpson (Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, J. Barcroft, 

A. Quayle, Dr. J. Y. Simpson 

(Rea.), Dr. H. W. M. Tims. 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. J. Y. Simpson (Rec), Dr. H. 

W. M. Tims. 
Dr. Pakes, Dr. Purcell, Dr. H. W. M. 

Tims, Prof. J. Y. Simpson (Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Oxley Grabham, Dr. H.W. M. Tims 

(Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L, Doncaster, 

E. E. Lowe, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

(Rec). 



' ' Zoology and Botany,' 1835-1847 ; 'Zoology and Botany, including Physiology,' 
1848-1865 ; ' Biology,' 1866-1894. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-15). 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia... 

1915. Manchester 



Dr. S. F. Harmer, F.R.S 

Dr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. G. C. Bourne, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. D'Arcy W. Thompson, 

C.B. 
Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell, 

F.R.S. 

Dr. H. F. Gadow, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Dendy, F.R.S 

Prof. E. A. Minchin, F.R.S. 



Secretaries 
(.ffec. = Recorder) 



Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

Prof. A. Fraser, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

(Rcc). 
C. A. Baragar, C. L. Boulenger, Dr 

J. Pearson, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

(Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, L. Doncaster, 

T. J. Evans, Dr. H. W. M. Tims 

(Hec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, C. Foran, R. D. 

Laurie, Dr. H. W. M. Tims (Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, R. D. Laurie, 

Miss D. L. Mackinnon, Dr. H. W, 

M. Tims {Reo.). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, Dr. C. L. 

Boulenger, R. D. Laurie, Dr. H. 

W. M. Tims (Rec). 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth, Dr. T. S. Hal), 

Prof. W. A. Has well, R. D. Laurie, 

Prof. H. W. Marett Tims (_Rec.) 
Dr. J. H. Ashworth (Rec), F. 

Balfour Browne, R. D. Laurie, 

Dr. J. Stuart Thomson. 



SECTION E.5— GEOGRAPHY. 



1901. 
1902. 



Glasgow .. 
Belfast 



1903. Southport. 



1904. 
1905. 

1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 



Cambridge 
SouthAfrica 



York 

Leicester ... 

Dublin 

Winnipeg... 
Sheffield ... 
Portsmouth 
Dundee ... 



Dr. H. R. Mill, F.R.G.S 

Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ... 



Capt. E. W. Creak, R.N., C.B., 
F.R.S. 



Douglas W. Freshfield. 



Adm. Sir W. J. L. Wharton, 
R.N., K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Sir George Goldie, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
George G. Chisholm, M.A. ... 

Major E. H. Hills, C.M.G., 

Col.SirD.Johnston.K.C.M.G., 

C.B., R.E. 
Prof. A. J. Herbertson, M.A., 

Ph.D. 
Col. C. F. Close, R.E., C.M.G. 

Col. Sir C M. Watson, 
K.C.M.G. 



H. N. Dickson {Rec), E. Heawood, 
G. Sandeman, A. C. Turner. 

G. G. Chisholm {Rec), E. Heawood, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson, Dr. J. A. 
Lindsay. 

E. Heawood {Rec), Dr. A. J. Her- 
bertson, E. A. Reeves, Capt. J. C. 
Underwood. 

E. Heawood (.H/jc), Dr. A. J.Herbert- 
son, H. T. Oldham, E. A. Reeves. 

A. H. Cornish-Bowden, F. Flowers, 
Dr. A. J. Herbertson {Rec), H. Y. 
Oldham. 

E. Heawood {Rec), Dr. A. J. Her- 
bertson, E. A. Reeves, G. Yeld. 

E. Heawood {Rec), 0. J. R. How- 
arth, E. A. Reeves, T. Walker. 

W. F. Bailey, W. J. Barton, O. J. P. 
Howarth {Rec), E. A. Reeves. 

G. G. Chisholm {Rec), J. McFar- 
lane, A. Mclntyre. 

Rev. W. J. Barton {Rec), Dr. R. 
Brown, J. McFarlane, E. A. Reeves. 

J. McFarlane {Rec), E. A. Reeves, 
W. P. Smith. 

Rev. W. J. Barton {Rec), J. McFar- 

, lane, E. A. Reeves, D. Wylie. 



' Section B was that of ' Anatomy and Medicine,' 1835-1840; of 'Physiology' 
(afterwards incorporated in Section D), 1841-1847. It was assigned to ' Geography 
and Ethnology,' 1851-1868 ; 'Geography,' 186r7. 



KXv'l PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-15). 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
(Rec. = Recorder) 



1913. Birmingham Prof. H. N. Dickson, D.Sc. Rev. W. J. Barton (Bee), P. E. Mar- 

I tinean, J. McFarlane, E . A. Reeves. 

1914. Australia... Sir C. P. Lucas, K.C.B., J. A. Leach, J. McFarlane, H. Yule 

j K.C.M.G. Oldham (Bee), F. Poate. 

1915. Manchester i Major H. G. Lyons, F.R.S.... Dr. R. N. Rudmose Browne, J. 

McFarlane {Rec). 

SECTION F.6— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


1903. 


Southport \ 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg... 


1910 


Sheffield ... 


1911. 


Portsmouth 


1912 


Dundee ... 


1913. 


Birmingham 

1 


1914. 


Australia... 


1915. 


Manchester 



Sir R. GifEen, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

E. Carman, M.A., LL.D 

B. W. Brabrook, C.B 

Prof. Wm. Smart, LL.D 

Rev. W. Cunningham, D.D., 
D.Sc. 

A. L. Bowley, M.A 

Prof. W.J. Ashley, M.A 

W. M. Acworth, M.A 

Sub-section of Agriculture — 

Et. Hon. Sir H, Plunkett. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman, M.A. ... 

Sir H. Llewellyn Smith, 

K.C.B., M.A. 
Hon. W. Pember Reeves 

Sir H.H. Cunynghame, K.C.B. 

Rev. P. H. Wicksteed, M.A. 



Prof. B. C. K. Gonner . 



Prof. W. R. Scott 



W. W. Blackie, A. L. Bowley, E. 

Cannan (Bee), S. J. Chapman. 
A. L. Bowley (Rec), Prof. S. J. 

Chapman, Dr. A. Duffin. 
A. L. Bowley (Rec), Prof. S. J. 

Chapman, Dr. B. W. Ginsburg, G. 

Lloyd. 
J, E. Bidwell, A. L. Bowley (Bee), 

Prof. S. J. Chapman, Dr. B. W. 

Ginsburg. 
R. k Ababrelton, A. L. Bowley (Bee), 

Prof. H. E. S. Fremantle, H. O. 

Meredith. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman (Rec), D. H. 

Macgregor, H. O. Meredith, B. 

S. Rowntree. 
Prof. S. J. Chapman (Bee), D. H. 

Macgregor, H. 0. Meredith, T. S. 

Taylor. 
W. G. S. Adams, Prof. S. J. Chap- 
man (Bee), Prof. D. H. Macgre- 
gor, H. 6. Meredith. 

A. D. Hall, Prof. J. Percival, J. H. 
Priestley, Prof. J. Wilson. 

Prof. A. b". Clark, Dr. W. A. Mana- 

han. Dr. W. R. Scott (Bee). 
C. R. Fay, H. O. Meredith (Bee), 

Dr. W. R. Scott, R. Wilson. 
C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott (Bee), 

H. A. Stibbs. 
C. R. Fay, Dr. W. R. Scott (Bee), E. 

Tosh. 
C. R. Fay, Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy, 

Prof. H. O. Meredith, Dr. W. R. 

Scott (Bee). 
Prof. R. F. Irvine, Prof. A. W. 

Kirkaldy (Bee), G. H. Knibbs, 

Prof. H. 0. Meredith. 

B. Ellinger, E. J. W. Jackson, 
Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy (Ree). 



1901. Glasgow .. 

1902. Belfast .. 

1903. Southport 



SECTION G. 7— ENGINEERING. 

R. E. Crompton, M.Inst.C.E. H.Bamford.W. E. Dalby, W.A.Price 
(Ree). 

Prof. J. Perry,F.R.S M. Barr, W. A. Price (^e<(.), J. Wylie. 

C. Hawksley, M.Inst.C.E. ...|Prof. W. E. Dalby, W. T. Maccall, 
I W. A. Price (Bee). 



' Statistics,' 1835-185.5. 



' Mechanical Science,' 1836-1900. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-15). XXvii 



Date and Place 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester... 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg... 


1910. 


Sheffield .. 


1911. 


Portsmouth 


1912. 


Dundee ... 


1913. 


Birmingham 


1914. 


Australia... 


1915 


Manchester 



Presidents 



Hon. C. A. Parsons, F.R.S. ... 

Col. Sir C. Scott-Moncrieflf, 

G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., R.B. 
J. A. Ewing, F.R.S 

Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, 

F.R.S. 
Dugald Clerk, F.R.S 

Sir W. H. White, K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. W. E. Dalby, M.A., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof. J. H. Biles, LL.D., 

D.Sc. 
Prof. A. Barr, D.Sc 



Secretaries 
(Hec. = Recorder) 



Prof. Gisbert Kapp, D.Eng. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, D.Sc 



Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw, F.R S, 



J. B. Peace, W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price 

(Rec). 
W. T. Maccall.W. B. Marshall (i?ec.), 

Prof. H. Payne, E. Williams. 
W. T. Maccall, W. A. Price (_Rec.), 

J. Triffit. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, A. C. Harris, 

W.A.Price (i2ec.\ H. E.Wimperis. 
Prof. E. G. Coker, Dr. W. E. Lilly, 

W. A. Price (Rec), H. E. Wimperis. 
E. E. Brydone- Jack, Prof. E. G.Coker, 

Prof. E. W. Marchant. W. A. Price 

(RecO- 
V. Boulden, Prof. E. G. Coker (Rec), 

A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 
H. Ashley, Prof. E. G. Coker (Rec), 

A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis. 
Prof. E. G. Coker (Rec), A. R. Ful- 
ton, H. Richardson, A. A. Rowse, 

H. E. Wimperis. 
Prof. E. G. Coker (Rec), J. Purser, 

A. A. Rowse, H. E. Wimperis, 
Prof. G. W. 0. Howe (Rec), Prof. 

H. Payne, Prof. W. M. Thornton, 

Prof. W. H. Warren. 
Dr. W. Cramp, J. Frith, Prof. G. 

W. 0. Howe (Bee). 



SECTION H.«— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



1901. 


Glasgow ... 


1902. 


Belfast ... 


1903. 


Southport... 


1904. 


Cambridge 


1905. 


SouthAfrica 


1906. 


York 


1907. 


Leicester .. 


1908. 


Dublin 


1909. 


Winnipeg... 


1910 


Sheffield ... 



Prof. D. J. Cunningliam, 
Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. J. Symington, F.R.S. ... 

H. Balfour, M.A 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 
E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A.... 

D. G. Hogarth, M.A 

Prof. W. Ridgeway, M.A. .., 

Prof. J. L. Myres, M.A 

W. Crooke, B.A 



W. Crooke, Prof. A. F. Dixon, J. F. 
Gemmill, J. L. Myres (Rec). 

R. Campbell, Prof. A. F. Dixon, 
J. L. Myres (Rec). 

E. N. Fallaize, H. S. Kingsford, 
E. M. Littler, J. L. Myres (Rec). 

W. L. H. Duckworth, E. N. Fallaize, 
H. S. Kingsford, J. L. Myres (Rec) 

A. R. Brown, A. von Dessauer, E. S. 
Hartland (Rec). 

Dr. G. A. Auden, E. N. Fallaize 
(Rec), H. S. Kingsford, Dr. F. C. 
Shrubsall. 

C. J. BiUson, E. N. Fallaize (Rec), 
H. S. Kingsford, Dr. F. C. Shrub- 
sail. 

E. N. Fallaize (Rec), H. S. Kings- 
ford, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, L. E. 
Steele. 

H. S. Kingsford (Rec), Prof. C. J. 
Patten, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize (Rec), H. S. Kings- 
ford, Prof. C. J. Patten, Dr. F. C. 
Shrubsall. 



« Established 1884. 



XXviii PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-15). 



Date and Place 



1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia ... 

1916. Manchester 



Presidents 



W. H. R. Rivers, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Elliot Smith, T.R.S. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart. ... 

Sir E. F. im Thurn, C.B., 
K.C.M.G. 



Prof. C. G. Seligman. 



Secretaries 
(Sec. = Recorder) 



E. N. Fallaize (Bee), H. S. Kings- 
ford, E. W. Martindell, H. Rundle, 
Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 

D. D. Craig, E. N. Fallaize (Rec), E. 
W. Martindell, Dr. F, C. Shrubsall. 

E. N. Fallaize (Rec.), E. W. Martin- 
dell, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, T. Yeates. 

Prof. R. J. A. Berry, Dr. B. Malin- 
owski. Dr. R. R. Marett (Bee), 
Prof. J. T. Wilson. 
E. N. Fallaize (Bee), Dr. F. C. 
Shrubsall, J. S. B. Stopford. 



SECTION 1.9— PHYSIOLOGY (including Experimental 
Pathology and Experimental Psychology). 



1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 



1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia... 

1915. Manchester 



I Prof. J. G. McKendrick, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. D. HaUiburton, 

F.R.S. 
Prof. C. S. Sherrington, F.R.S. 

Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. ... 



Prof. F. Gotch, F.R.S 

Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S 

Dr. J. Scott Haldane, F.R.S. 

Prof. E. H. Starling, F.R.S.... 

Prof. A. B. Macallum, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, B.A. 

Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

Dr. F. Gowland Hopkins, 
F.R.S. 

Prof. B. Moore, F.R.S 

Prof. W. M. Bayliss, F.R.S. 



W. B. Brodie, W. A, Osborne. Prof. 

W. H. Thompson (^c). 
J. Barcroft, Dr. W. A. Osborne 

(Rec), Dr. C. Shaw. 
J. Barcroft (Bee.), Prof. T. G. Brodie, 

Dr. L. B. Shore. 
J. Barcroft (Rec.), Dr. Baumann, 

Dr. Mackenzie, Dr. G. W. Robert- 
son, Dr. Stanwell. 
J. Barcroft (Rec), Dr. J. M. Hamill, 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. D. S. 

Long. 
Dr. N. H. Alcock, J. Barcroft (Rec), 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. A. 

Warner. 
Prof. D. J. Coffey, Dr. P. T. Herring, 

Prof. J. S. Macdonald, Dr. H. E. 

Roaf (Rec). 
Dr. N. H. Alcock (Rec), Prof. P. T. 

Herring, Dr. W. Webster. 
Dr. H. G. M. Henry, Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf (Rec), Dr. J. Tait. 
Dr. J. T. Leon, Dr. Keith Lucas, 

Dr. H. E. Roaf (Rec), Dr. J. Tait. 
Dr. Keith Lucas, W. Moodie, Dr. 

H. E. Roaf (Rec), Dr. J. Tait. 
C. L. Burt, Prof. P. T. Herring, Dr. 

T. G. Maitland, Dr. H. E. Roaf 

(Bee), Dr. J. Tait. 
Prof. P. T. Herring (Bee), Prof. 

T. H. Milroy, Prof. W. A. Osborne, 

Prof. Sir T. P. Anderson Stuart. 
C. L. Burt, Prof. P. T. Herring 

(Rec), Dr. F. W. Lamb, Dr. J. 

Tait. 



Established 1894. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-15). Xxix 



Date and Place 



Presidents 



Secretaries 
(Bfo. = Recorder) 



SECTION KJ«— BOTANY. 



1901. Glasgow ... 



Prof. I. B. Balfour, F.R.S. .. 



1902. Belfast ... Prof. J. R. Green, F.R S 

1903. Sou thport A. C. Seward, F.R.S 

1904. Cambridge Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

\Sub-section of Agriculture — 

Dr. W. Somerville. 
Harold Wager, F.R.S 



1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York 



1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. Winnipeg... 



1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia... 

1915. Manchester 



Prof. F. W. Oliver, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S. ... 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, F.R.S.... 



Lieut.-Col. D. Prain, CLE. 
F.R.S. 

Sub-section of Agriculture— 

Major P. G. Craigie, C.B. 
Prof. J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S. 



Prof. F. E. Weiss, D.Sc. ... 



Sub-section of Agriculture- 

W. Bateson, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. F. Keeble, D.Sc 



Miss Ethel Sargant, F.L.S..., 
Prof. F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. W. H Lang, F.R.S ... 



D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan, G. F. Scott- 
Elliot, A. C. Seward {Rec.), H. 
Wager. 

A. G. Tansley, Rev. C. H. Waddell, 
H. Wager (iJee.), R. H. Yapp. 

H. Ball, A. G. Tansley, H. Wager 

{Reo.'), R. H. Yapp. 
Dr. F. F. Blackman, A. G. Tansley, 

H. Wager (Rec), T. B. Wood, R. H. 

Yapp. 
R. P. Gregory, Dr. Marloth, Prof. 

Pearson, Prof. R. H. Yapp (^Rec). 
Dr. A. Burtt, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 

A. G. Tansley {Rec), Prof. R. H. 

Yapp. 
W. Bell, R. P. Gregory, Prof. A. G. 

Tansley {Rec), Prof. R. H. Yapp. 
Prof. H. H. Dixon, R. P. Gregory, 

A. G. Tansley {Rec.), Prof. R. H. 

Yapp. 
Prof. A. H. R. Buller, Prof. D. T. 

Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. R. H.Yapp 

{Rec.-). 
W. J. Black, Dr. E. J. Russell, Prof. 

J. Wilson. 

B. H. Bentley, R. P. Gregory, Prof. 
D. T. Gwynne-Yaughan, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp {Rec). 

C. G. Delahunt, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan, Dr. C. E. Moss, Prof. 
R. H. Yapp {Rec). 

J. Golding, H. R. Pink, Dr. E. J. 
Russell. 

J. Brebner, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan {Rec), Dr. C. E. Moss, 
D. Thoday. 

W. B. Grove, Prof. D. T. Gwynne- 
Vaughan {Rec), Dr. C. E. Moss, 

D. Thoday. 

Prof. A. J. Ewart, Prof. T. Johnson 
{Rec), Prof. A. A. Lawson, Miss 

E. N. Thomas. 

R. S. Adamson, Dr. C. E. Moss 
{Bee), D. Thoday. 



SECTION L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



1901. Glasgow 



1902. Belfast 



1903. Southport .. 



Sir John E. Gorst, F.R.S. 



Prof. H. E.Armstrong, F.R.S. 



Sir W. de W. Abney, K.C.B. 
F.R.S. 

'• Established 1895. 



R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller, R. Y, 

Hovne, C. W. Kimmins, Prof. 

H. L. Withers {Rec). 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

{Rec), R. M. Jones, Dr. C. W. 

Kimmins, Prof. H. L. Withers. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

{Bee.), Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Dr.H. 

L. Snape. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF SECTIONS (1901-15), 



Date and Place 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. SouthAfrica 

1906. York 

1907. Leicester... 



1908. Dublin , 



1909. Winnipeg... 

1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia ... 

1915. Manchester 



Presidents 



Bishop of Hereford, D.D. ... 

Prof. Sir R. C. Jebb, D.C.L., 

M.P. 
Prof. M. E. Sadler, LL.D. ... 

Sir Philip Magnus, M.P 

Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Rev. H. B. Gray, D.D 

Principal H. A. Miers, F.R.S. 

Rt. Rev. J. E. C. Welldon, 

D.D. 
Prof. J. Adams, M.A 



Principal B. H. Griffiths. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S 



Mrs. Henry Sidgwick 



Secretaries 
(^Rec. = Recorder) 



J. H. Flather, Prof. R. A. Gregory, 

W. M. Heller (^flc), Dr. C. W. 

Eimmins. 
A. D.Hall, Prof. Hele-Shaw, Dr.C.W. 

Kimmins (Bee.'), J. R. Whitton. 
Prof. R. A. Gregory, W. M. Heller 

{Eec), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, Prof. R. A. Gregory 

(Rec), J. S. Laver, Hugh Rich- 
ardson. 
Prof. E. P. Culverwell, W. D. Eggar, 

George Fletcher, Prof. R. A. 

Gregory (Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, R. Fletcher, J. L. 

Holland (Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
A. J. Arnold, W. D. Eggar, J. L. 

Holland (Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
W. D. Eggar, O. Freeman, J. L. 

Holland (Rec), Hugh Richardson. 
D. Berridge, Dr. J. Davidson, Prof. 

J. A. Green (Hec), Hugh Richard- 
son. 
D. Berridge, Rev. S. Blofeld, Prof. 

J. A. Green (Rec), H. Richardson. 
P. Board, C. A. Buckmaster, Prof. 

J. A. Green (Rec), J. Smyth, 
D. Berridge, F. A. Bruton, Prof. 

J. A. Green (Rec), H. Richardson. 



SECTION M.— AGRICULTURE. 



1912. Dundee .,. T. H. MiddJeton, M.A. 



1913. Birmingham 

1914. Australia ... 



Prof. T. B. Wood, M.A. 
A. D. Hall, F.R.S 



1915. Manchester R. H. Rew, C.B. 



Dr. C. Crowther, J. Golding, Dr. A. 

Lauder, Dr. E. J. Russell (Rec). 
W. E. Collinge, Dr. C. Crowther, 

J. Golding, Dr. B. J. Russell (i?ec.). 
Prof. T. Cherry, J. Golding (Rec), 

Dr. A. Lauder, Prof. R. D. Watt. 
Prof. C. Crowther (Rec), Dr. A. 

Lauder, T. J. Young. 



EVENINa DISCOURSES. 1901-15. 

(For 1916, see General Meetings, p. xli.) 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Discourse 


1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast ... 

1903. Southport... 


Prof. W. Ramsay, F.R.S 

Francis Darwin, F.R.S 

Prof. J. J. Thomson, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. 


The Inert Constituents of the 

Atmosphere. 
The Movements of Plants. 
Becquerel Rays and Radio-activity. 
Inheritance. 
Man as Artist and Sportsman in the 

Palaeolithic Period. 
The Old Chalk Sea and some of its 


Dr. A. Rowe 


1904. Cambridge 


Prof.G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.... 
Prof. H. F. Osborn 


Teachings. 
Ripple- Marks and Sand-Dunes. 
Palaeontological Discoveries in the 

Rocky Mountains. 







EVENING DISCOURSES. 



Date and Place 



1905. S. Africa: 
Cape Town 



Durban 

Pietermaritz- 

burg. 
Johannesburg 

Pretoria 

Bloemfontein.. 

Kimberley 



Bulawayo 
1906. York.. 




Subject of Discourse 



Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S..., 

C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S 

Douglas W. Freshfield 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S 
Col. D. Bruce, C.B., F.R.S. 



1907. Leicester 



W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in Soutli 
Africa. 

Some Surface Actions of Fluids. 

The Mountains of the Old World. 

Marine Biology. 

Sleeping Sickness. 

H. T. Ferrar The Cruise of the 'Discovery.' 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton, F.RS The Distribution of Power. 

Prof. J. O. Arnold |Steel as an Igneous Rock. 

A. E. Shipley, F.R.S Fly-borne Diseases : Malaria, Sleep- 

1 ing Sickness, &c. 
A. R. Hinks The Milky Way and the Clouds of 

j Magellan. 

Sir Wm. Crookes, F.R.S | Diamonds. 

Prof. J. B. Porter The Bearing of Engineering on 

j Mining. 

D. Randall-Maclver jThe Ruins of Rhodesia. 

Dr. Tempest Anderson Volcanoes 



Dr. A. D. Waller, F.R.S. 
W. Duddell, F.R.S. 



Dr. F. A. Dbcey. 



1908. Dublin , 



1909. Winnipeg. 



1910. Sheffield ... 

1911. Portsmouth 



1912. Dundee 



1913. Birmingham 



1914. Australia: 
Adelaide 



Melbourne 



Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. W. M. Davis 

Dr. A. E. H. Tutton, F.R.S.... 

Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 
'Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S.... 
' Prof. J. H. Poynting, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. Stirling, M.D 

D. G. Hogarth 

Dr. Leonard Hill, F.R.S 

Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. W. H. Bragg, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. A. Keith, M.D 

Sir H. H. Cunynghame,K.C.B. 



Dr. A. 

F.R.S. 



Smith Woodward, 



Sydney .. 
Brisbane 



1915. Manchester 



Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S.... 
Prof. W.J. Sollas, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S ... 
Dr. F. W. Dyson, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S. 
Sir E. Rutherford, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. H.E.Armstrong, F.R.S. 
Prof. G. W. 0. Howe Wireless Telegraphy. 



The Electrical Signs of Life, and 
their Abolition by Chloroform. 

The Ark and the Spark in Radio- 
telegraphy. 

Recent Developments in the Theory 
of Mimicry. 

Halley's Comet. 

The Lessons of the Colorado Canyon. 

The Seven Styles of Crystal Archi- 
tecture. 

Our Food from the Waters. 

The Chemistry of Flame. 

The Pressure of Light. 

Types of Animal Movement.^ 

New Discoveries about the Hittites. 

The Physiology of Submarine Work. 

Links with the Past in the Plant 
World. 

Radiations, Old and New 

The Antiquity of Man. 

Explosions in Mines and the Means 
of Preventing Them, 

Missing Links among Extinct 
Animals. 

The Ether of Space. 

Ancient Hunters. 

Mimicry. 

Greenwich Observatory. 

Primitive Man. 

Atoms and Electrons. 

The Materials of Life. 



Sir E. A. Schafer, F.R.S 

H. W. T. Wager, F.R.S 

Prof. R. A. Sampson, F.R.S. 



Australia and the British Assocla- 
j tion 
The Behaviour of Plants in Re- 
sponse to Light. 
A Census of the Skies. 



' ' Popular Lectures,' delivered to the citizens of Winnipeg. 
'' Repeated, to the public, on Wednesday, September 7. 



XXxii LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES. 

LECTURES TO THE OPERATIVE CLASSES, 1901-11. 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Lecture 


1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 

1903. Southpoit... 

1904. Cambridge. 
1906. York 




The Movements of Men by 

and Sea. 
Gnats and Mosquitoes. 
Martinique and St. Vincent 

Eruptions of 1902. 
The Forms of Mountains. 
The Manufacture of Light. 
The Growth of a Crystal. 
The Crystallisation of Water. 
Metallic Alloys. 
Rain. 


Land 


Prof. L. C. Miall, F.R.S 

Dr. J. S. Flett 


the 


Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S 

Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S. 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 

Dr. A. B. H. Tutton, F.R.S. 

C. T. Heycock, F.R.S 

Dr H. R. Mill 




1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin...... 

1910. Sheffield ... 
1911 Portsmouth 











PUBLIC OE CITIZENS' LECTUKES, 1912-15. 

(For 1916, seep. Ixix.) 



Date and Place 


Lecturer 


Subject of Lecture 


1912. 


Dundee ... 


Prof. B. Moore, D.Sc 


Science and National Health. 






Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 


Prices and Wages. 






Prof. A. Fowler, F.R.S 


The Sun. 


1913. 


Birmingham 


Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 


The Decorative Art of Savages. 






Dr. Vaughan Cornish 


The Panama Canal. 




Leonard Doncaster, M.A. ... 


Recent Work on Heredity and its 








Application to Man. 






Dr. W. Rosenhain, F.R.S. ... 


Metals under the Microscope. 






Frederick Soddy, F.R.S 


The Evolution of Matter. 


1914. 


Australia : 








Perth ... 


Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S. 


Why we Investigate the Ocean. 






Prof. A, S. Eddington, F.R.S. 


Stars and their Movements. 






H. Balfour, M.A 


Primitive Methods of Making Fire. 






Prof. A. D. Waller, F.R.S. ... 


Electrical Action of the Human 
Heart. 




Kalgoorlie 


C. A. Buckmaster, M.A 


Mining Education in England. 




Adelaide 


Prof. E. C. K. Gonner, M.A. 


Saving and Spending. 




Melbourne 


Dr. W. Rosenhain, F.R.S. ... 


Making of a Big Gun. 






Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. ... 


Explosions. 




Sydney ... 


Prof. B. Moore, F.R.S 


Brown Earth and Bright Sunshine. 






Prof. H. H. Turner, P.R.S. ... 


Comets. 




Brisbane 


Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 


Decorative Art in Papua. 


1915 


Manchester 


Prof. F. W. Gamble, F.R.S. 


Evolution and War. 




and Neigh- 


Dr. Vaughan Cornish 


Strategic Geography of the War. 
Making of a Big Gun. 




bourhood 


Dr. W. Rosenhain, F.R.S. ... 






Prof. W. Stirling 


Curiosities and Defects of Sight. 
Daily Uses of Astronomy. 






A. R. Hinks, F.R.S 






Prof. B. Moore, F.R.S 


Health Conditions in the Modern 
Workshop. 






Rev. A. L. Cortie 


Formation of the Sun and Stars. 




Prof. H. H. Turner, F.R.S. ... 


Some Lessons from Astronomy. 



CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES OF CONFERENCES OF DELEGATES. XXXUX 

CHAIRMEN AND SECRETARIES of the CONFERENCES OF 

DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES, 1901-15.' 

(For 1916, see p. xliii.) 



Date and Place 


Chairmen 


Secretaries 


1901. Glasgow ... 

1902. Belfast 

1903. Southport.. 

1904. Cambridge 

1905. London ... 

1906 York 


F. W. Rudler, F.G.S 

Prof. W. VV. Watts, F.G.S. ... 

W, Whitaker, F.R.S 

Prof. E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 

F.R.S. 
Sir Edward Brabrook, C.B..,. 

H. J. Mackinder, M.A 

Prof. H. A. Miers, F.R.S 

Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S. ... 
Dr. Tempest Anderson 


Dr. J. G. Garson, A. Somerville 

E. J. Bles. 

F. W. Rudler. 
F. W. Rudler. 
F. W. Rudler. 

F. W. Rudler. 


1907. Leicester... 

1908. Dublin 

1909. London ... 
1910 Sheffield ... 


F. W. Rudler, I.S.O. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 
W. P. D. Stebbing. 

W. Mark Webb. 
W. Mark Webb. 


1911. Portsmouth 

1912. Dundee ... 

1913. Birmingham 

1914. Le Havre... 

1915. Manchester 


Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S.... 
Prof . F. 0. Bower, F.R.S. ... 
Dr. P. Chalmers Mitcliell, 

F.R.S. 
Sir H. George Fordham 
SirT. H. Holland, F.R.S. ... 



Established 1885. 



1916. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on account of 
Grants for Scientific Purposes, 1901-1915. 



1901. 

£ g. d. 

Electrical Standards 45 

Seismological Observations... 75 

Wave-length Tables 4 14 

Isomorphous Sulphonic De- 
rivatives of Benzene .S5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 20 

Underground Water of North- 
west Yorkshire 50 

Exploration of Irish Caves... 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Table at the Biological La- 

boratorj-, Plymouth 20 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Migration of Birds 10 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 5 

Changes of Land-level in the 

Phlegrasan Fields 50 

Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 15 

Small Screv? Gauge 45 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 75 

Silchester Excavation 10 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 30 

Anthropological Teaching ... 5 

Exploration in Crete 145 

Physiological Effects of Pep- 
tone 30 

Chemistry of Bone Marrow... 5 15 11 

Suprarenal Capsules in the 

Rabbit 5 

Fertilisation in Phjeophycese 15 

Morphology, Ecology, and 
Taxonomy of Podoste- 
macBffi 20 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee. 15 



£920 9 11 



1902. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations... 35 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 80 

Relation between Absorption 
Spectra and Organic Sub- 
stances 20 



£ 

Wave-length Tables 5 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 45 
Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Migration of Birds 15 

Structure of Coral Reefs of 

Indian Ocean 50 

Compound Ascidians of the 

Clyde Area 25 

Terrestrial Surface Waves ... 15 
Legislation regulating Wo- 
men's Labour 30 

Small Screw Gauge 20 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 

to Traction 50 

Ethnological Survey of 

Canada 15 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Exploration in Crete 100 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Native Egyptian Soldiers 1 5 
Excavations on the Roman 

Site at Gelligaer 5 

Changes in Hemoglobin 15 

Work of Mammalian Heart 

under Influence of Drugs... 20 
Investigation of the Cyano- 

phycese 10 

Reciprocal Influence of Uni- 
versities and Schools 5 

Conditions of Health essen- 
tial to carrying on Work in 

Schools 2 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 15 



X. 


d. 













































































































































£947 



1903. 

Electrical Standards 35 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 75 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 40 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Exploration of Irish Caves ... 40 

Underground Watersof North- 
west Yorkshire 40 



GRAI^TS OF MONEY. 



XXXV 



£ s. d. 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 5 

Geological Photographs 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Generam et Specierum 

Animalium 100 

Tidal Bore, Sea Waves, and 

Beaches 15 

Scottish National Antarctic 

Expedition 50 

Legislation affecting Women's 

Labour 25 

Researches in Crete 100 

Age of Stone Circles 3 13 2 

Anthropometriclnvestigation 5 

Anthropometry of the Todas 
and other Tribes of Southern 
India 50 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Investigation of the Cyano- 

phj'cese 25 

Respiration of Plants 12 

Conditions of Health essential 

for School Instruction 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£845 13 2 



190i. 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 50 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 60 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Life-zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 35 

Fauna and Flora of the 
Trias 10 

Investigation of Fossiliferous 
Drifts 50 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 
Animalium 60 

Development in the Frog 15 

Researches on the Higher 
Crustacea 15 

British and Foreign Statistics 
of International Trade 25 

Resistance of Road Vehicles 
to Traction 90 

Researches in Crete 100 

Researches in Glastonbury 
Lake Village 25 
































































































£ s. d. 

Anthropometric Investigation 

of Egyptian Troops 8 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 25 

The State of Solution of Pro- 

teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 40 

Botanical Photographs 4 8 11 

Respiration of Plants 15 

Experimental Studies in 

Heredity 35 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 2 

£887 18 11 







1905. 

Electrical Standards 40 

Seismological Observations ... 40 

Investigation of the Upper 
Atmosphere by means of 
Kites 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth .50 

Wave-length Tables of Spec- 
tra 5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Aromatic Nitroamines 25 

Faunaand Flora of the British 
Trias 10 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Generum et Specierum 

Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog ... 10 

Investigations in the Indian 

Ocean 150 

Trade Statistics 4 4 8 

Researches in Crete 75 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions of Egyptian Troops... 10 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 10 

Anthropometriclnvestigations 10 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

The State of Solution of Pro- 
teids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 30 

Ductless Glands 40 

Botanical Photographs 3 17 6 

Physiology of Heredity 35 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 50 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee , 2 

£928 2 2 

b2 



XXXVl 



GENERAL STATEMENT, 



1906. 

£ s. d. 

Electrical Standards 25 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at Fal- 
mouth 50 

Magnetic Survey of South 

Africa 99 12 6 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra ,5 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Aromatic Nitroamines 10 

Fauna and Flora of the British 

Trias 7 8 11 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 30 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion, Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Development of the Frog 10 

Higher Crustacea 15 

Freshwater Fishes of South 
Africa 50 

Rainfall and Lake and River 

Discharge 10 

Excavations in Crete 100 

Lake Village at Glastonbury 40 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 30 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles ... 30 

State of Solution of Proteids 20 

Metabolism of Individual 
Tissues 20 

Effect of Climate upon Health 
and Disease 20 

Research on South African 
Cycads 14 19 4 

Peat Moss Deposits 25 

Studies suitable for Elemen- 
tary Schools 5 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

J882 9 

1907. " ' 

Electrical Standards 50 

Seismological Observations... 40 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 40 

JIagnetic Survey of South 
Africa 25 7 6 

Wave - length Tables of 

Spectra 10 

Study of Hj'dro - aromatic 

Substances 30 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Life Zones in British Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Fauna and Flora of British 
Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone of 
South- West England 15 



£ s. d. 

Correlation and Age of South 

African Strata, &c 10 

Table at the Zoological 

Station, Naples 100 

Index AnimaliutQ 75 

Development of the Sexual 

Cells 1 11 8 

Oscillations of the Land Level 
in the Mediterranean Basin 50 

Gold Coinage in Circulation 
in the United Kingdom ... 8 19 7 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the British Isles... 10 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 45 

The Ductless Glands 25 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 55 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Research on South African 
Cycads 35 

Botanical Photographs 5 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Marsh Vegetation 15 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 16 14 1 

£757 12 10 



1908. 

Seismological Observations ... 40 
Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Investigation of Upper Atmo- 
sphere by means of Kites. . . 25 
Meteorological Observations 

on Ben Nc^is 25 

Geodetic Arc in Africa 200 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 10 
Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 30 

Dynamiclsomerism 40 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 30 

Erratic Blocks 17 

Fauna and Flora of British 

Trias 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 10 

Pre-Devonian Rocks 10 

Exact Significance of Local 

Terms 5 

Composition of Charnwood 

Rocks 10 

Table at the Zoological Station 

at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Hereditary Experiments 10 

Fauna of Lakes of Central 

Tasmania 40 

Investigations in the Indian 
Ocean 60 






















































G 


6 


6 


















































GRANTS or MONEY, 



xxxvii 



Exploration in Spitsbergen ... 
Gold Coinage in Circulation 

in the United Kingdom 

Electrical Standards 

Glastonbury Lake Village ... 
Excavations on Koman Sites 

in Britain 

Age of Stone Circles 

Anthropological Notes and 

Queries 

Metabolism of Individual 

Tissues 

The Ductless Glands 

Effect of Climate upon Health 

and Disease 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 
Electrical Phenomena and 

Metabolism of Arum Spa- 



Marsh Vegetation 

Succession of Plant Remains 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 



£ 


s. 


d. 


30 








3 


7 


6 


50 








30 








15 








50 








40 








40 








13 


14 


8 


35 








30 








10 








15 








18 













£1,157 18 8 



1909. 
Seismological Observations... 
Investigation of the Upper At- 
mosphere by means of Kites 

Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 

Establishing a Solar Ob- 
servatory in Australia 

Wave-length Tables of Spectra 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 

Dynamic Isomerism 

Transformation of Aromatic 
Nitroamines 

Electroanalysis 

Fauna and Flora of British 
Trias 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 
British Isles 

Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales and 
the West of England 

Igneous and Associated Sedi- 
mentary Rocks of Glensaul 

Investigations at Biskra 

Table at the Zoological Station 
at Naples 

Heredity Experiment s 

Feeding Habits of British 
Birds 

Index Animalium 

Investigations in the Indian 
Ocean 

Gaseous Explosions 

Excavations on Roman Sites 
in Britain 

Age of Stone Circles 

Researches in Crete 



CO 








10 








50 








50 








9 


16 





15 








35 








10 








30 









8 

8 

9 

11 13 9 

50 

100 

10 

5 

75 

35 

75 

5 

30 

70 



The Ductless Glands 35 

Electrical Phenomena and Me- 
tabolism of Arum S/mdiees 10 

Reflex Muscvxlar Rhythm 10 

An£8sthetics 25 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 27 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 5 

Botanical Photographs 10 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 30 

Symbiosis between Tur- 

bellarian Worms and Algte 10 

Survey of Clare Island 65 

Curricula of Secondary Schools 5 
Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 21 



s. 


d. 





















































;ei,014 9 9 



1910. 
Measurement of Geodetic Arc 

in South Africa 100 

Republication of Electrical 

Standards Reports 100 

Seismological Observations... GO 
Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 25 

Dynamic Isomerism 35 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 15 

Electroanalysis 10 

Faunal Succession in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone in the 

British Isles 10 

South African S trata 5 

Fossils of Midland Coalfields 25 
Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Heredity Experiments 15 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Amount and Distribution of 

Income !•'' 

Gaseous Explosions 75 

Lake Villages in the neigli- 

bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 
Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 5 

Neolithic Sites in Northern 

Greece 5 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Body Metabolism in Cancer... 20 

Anesthetics 25 

Tissue Metabolism 25 

Mentaland Muscular Fatigue 18 
Electromotive Plienomena in 

Plants 10 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 10 
Experimental Study of 
Heredity 30 

















































































7 






















XXXVlll 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



£ s. d. 

Survey of Clare Island 30 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£963 17 

1911. 

Seismological Investigations 60 

Magnetic Observations at 

Falmouth 25 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

International Commission on 
Physical and Chemical 
Constants 30 

Study of Hydro-aromatic Sub- 
stances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 25 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 15 

Electroanalysis 15 

Influence of Carbon, &c., on 

Corrosion of Steel 15 

Crystalline Rocks of Anglesey 2 

Mammalian Fauna in Miocene 
Deposits, Bugti Hills, Balu- 
chistan 75 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 100 

Index Animalium 75 

Feeding Habits of British 

Birds 5 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 30 

Map of Prince Charles Fore- 
land 30 

Gaseous Explosions 90 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Age of Stone Circles 30 

Artificial Islands in Highland 

Lochs 10 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Anaesthetics 20 

Mental and Muscular Fatigue 25 

Electromotive Phenomena in 
Plants 10 

Dissociation of Oxy-Htemo- 
globin 25 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 45 

Survey of Clare Island 20 

Kegistration of Botanical 

Photographs 10 

Mental and Physical Factors 

involved in Education 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 20 

£922 
1912. 
Seismological Investigations 60 
Magnetic Observations at 
Falmouth 25 



£ s. d. 

Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 30 

International Commission on 
Physical and Chemical 
Constants 30 

Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 15 

Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances 20 

Dj-namic Isomerism 30 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 10 

Electroanalysis 10 

Study of Plant Enzymes 30 

Erratic Blocks 5 

Igneous and Associated Rocks 

of Glensaul, &:c 15 

I;ist of Characteristic Fossils 5 

Sutton Bone Bed 15 

Bembridge Limestone at 
Creechbarrow Hill 20 

Table at the Zoological 

Station at Naples 50 

Index Animalium 75 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 20 

Secondary Sexual Characters 
inBirds 10 

Gaseous Explosions 60 

Lake Villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 

Artificial Islands in High- 
land Lochs 10 

Physical Character of Ancient 

Egyptians 40 

Excavation in Easter Island 15 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Calorimetric Observations on 

Man 40 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 

Experimental Study of 

Heredity 35 

Survey of Clare Island 20 

Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 15 

Overlapping betvreen Second- 
ary and Higher Education 118 6 

Curricula, k.c., of Industrial 

and Poor Law Schools 10 

Influence of School Books 

upon Eyesight 3 9 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

Collections illustrating 
Natural History of Isle of 
Wight 40 

£845 7 6 

1913. ' 

Seismological Investigations 60 
Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 50 

International Commission on 

Physical and Chemical 

Constants 40 



GRANTS OF MONEY. 



£ s. d. 
Further Tabulation of Bessel 

Functions 30 

Study of Hydro- aromatic 

Substances 20 

Dynamic Isomerism 30 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 20 

Study of Plant Enzymes 30 

Igneous and Associated Rocks 

of Glensaul, &c 10 

List of Characteristic Fossils 5 
Exploration of the Upper Old 

Red Sandstone of Dura Den 75 
Geology of Ramsey Island ... 10 
Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 

Kiltorcan 15 

Table at the Zoological Sta- 
tion at Naples 50 

Ditto (Special Grant) 50 

Nomenclator Animaliura 

Generum et Sub-generum 100 
UelmuUetWlialing Station... 15 

Ditto (Special Grant) 10 

Gaseous Explosions 80 

Lake Villages in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 5 
Age of Stone Circles (Special 

Grant) 15 

Artificial Islands in the High- 
lands of Scotland 5 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 15 

Hausa Manuscripts 20 

The Ductless Glands 40 

Calorimetric Observations on 

Man 45 

Dissociation of Oxy-Hffimo- 

globin at High Altitudes... 15 
Structure and Function of 

the Mammalian Heart 20 

Structure of Fossil Plants ... 15 
Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 4 12 4 
Vegetation of Ditcham Park, 

Hampshire 45 

Influence of School Books on 

Eyesight 9 4 9 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 



£978 17 1 




























25 



1914. 

Seismological Investigations 130 
Investigation of the Upper 

Atmosphere 25 

International Commission on 

Physical and Chemical 

Constants 40 

Calculation of Mathematical 

Tables 20 

Disposal of Copies of the 

' Binary Canon ' 4 9 



50 

75 











£ s. d. 
Study of Hydro-aromatic 

Substances , 15 

Dynamic Isomerism 25 

Transformation of Aromatic 

Nitroamines 15 

Study of Plant Enzymes 25 

Correlation of Crystalline 
Form with Molecular Struc 

ture 

Study of Solubility Pheno- 
mena 10 

List of Characteristic Fossils 5 
Geology of Ramsey Island ... 10 
Fauna and Flora of Trias of 

Western Midlands 10 

Critical Sections in Lower 

Palfeozoic Rocks 15 

Belmullet Whaling Station... 20 
Nomenclator Animalium 
Generum et Sub-generum 
Antarctic Whaling Industry 
Maps for School and Univer- 
sity Use 40 

Gaseous Explosions 50 

Stress Distributions in Engi- 
neering Materials 50 

Lake Villages in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Glastonbury... 20 

Age of Stone Circles 20 

Artificial Islands in the High- 
lands of Scotland 5 

Excavations on Roman Sites 

in Britain 20 

Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in Cyprus 50 

Palfeolithic Site in Jersey ... 50 

The Ductless Glands 35 

Calorimetric Observations on 

Man 40 

Structure and Function of the 

Mammalian Heart 30 

Binocular Combination of 
Kinematograph Pictures ... 
Structure of Fossil Plants ... 
Jurassic Flora of Yorkshire 
Flora of the Peat of the 

Keunet Valley 15 

Vegetation of Ditcham Park 

Physiology of Heredity 30 

Breeding Experiments with 

(Enotheras 19 17 

Mental and Physical Fac- 
tors involved in Educa- 
tion 20 

Influence of School Books on 

Eyesight 

Character, Work, and Main- 
tenance of Museums 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 






































17 





15 





5 





15 





14 4 


3 


30 










2 8 9 








£1,086 16 4 



xl 



GEANTS OF MONEY. 



1915. 

£ s. d. 

Seismological Investigations 130 

Tables of Constants 40 

Mathematical Tables 35 

Dynamiclsomerism 20 

Non-Aromatic Diazonium 

Salts 8 10 

Old Ked Sandstone Rock of 

Kiltorcan 7 

Old Ked Sandstone Eock of 

Rbynie 25 

Belmullet Whaling Station ... 25 
Fatigue from Economic Stand- 
point 20 

Industrial Unrest 20 

AVomen in Industry 90 

Effect of War on Credit 25 

Stress Distributions 40 

Engineering Problems affect- 
ing the Prosperity of the 

Country '. 10 



£ s. d. 

Physical Characters of Ancient 

Egyptians 12 8 1 

Paleolithic Site in Jersey ... 25 

Distribution of Bronze Age 

Implements 3 5 9 

Ductless Glands (1914) 35 

„ (1915) 14 

Physiology of Heredity 46 

Renting of Cinchona Station 12 10 

Mental and Physical Factors 

involved in Education 20 

School Books and Eyesight... 3 5 

Museums 15 

Free Place System 10 

Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee 25 

£715 18 10 



GENERAL MEETINGS. 



xli 



GENERAL MEETINGS AT NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 
On Tuesday, September 5, at 8.80 p.m., in the Town Hall, Professor 
Arthur Schuster, F.R.S., resigned the office of President to Sir Arthur 
Evans, F.R.S. Before vacating the chair, Professor Schuster referred to 
eminent members of the Association who had died since the previous 
meeting. These included the following : — 

The Right Hon. Sir Henry E. Roscoe, F.R.S., President, 1887. 

Sir Arthur W. Riicker, F.R.S., President, 1901 ; Trustee, 1898-1915 ; 
General Treasurer, 1891-98. 

Sir William Turner, K.C.B., F.R.S., President, 1900. 

Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S., President, 1911. 

Sir Andrew Noble, Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S., President of Section G, 
1890. 

Professor R, Meldola, F.R.S., President of Section B, 1895. 

Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, F.R.S., President of Section G, 
1907. 

Professor E. A. Minchin, F.R.S. , President of Section D, 1915. 

Sir Arthur Evans then delivered an Address, for which see page 3. 

On Wednesday evening, September 6, at 8 p.m., an informal con- 
versazione was held at the Laing Art Gallery. 

On Thursday, September 7, at 8.30 p.m., in the Town Hall, Professor 
W. A. Bone, F.R.S., delivered a discourse on 'Flame and Flameless 
Combustion.' 

On Friday, September 8, at 8.30 p.m., in the Town Hall, Dr. P. 
Chalmers Mitchell, F.R.S., delivered a discourse on ' Evolution and the 
War.' 

After the above discourse (the occasion being the concluding General 
Meeting), the following resolution was unanimously adopted on the 
motion of the President : — ■ 

That the cordial thanks of the British Association be extended to the Right Hon. 
the Lord Mayor and Corporation and the Citizens of the City of Newcastle for their 
hearty welcome, to the Presidents and Councils of the University of Durham College 
of Medicine and of the Armstrong College, and to the North-East Coast Institution of 
Engineers and Ship-builders and other Institutions which have kindly placed their 
buildings and resources at the disposal of the Association, to the Directors of the 
North-Eastern Railway Company, and, finally, to the Honorary Local Officers and 
their able assistants, and to the General and Executive Committees and individual 
members thereof, for tlie admirable arrangements made for the Meeting under 
exceptional and trying circumstances. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS AT THE NEWCASTLE 
MEETING, 1916. 

SECTION A. — MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 
President.— Proi. A. N. Whitehead, Sc.D., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents. —Sir 
F. W. Dyson, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Prof. T. H. Havelock, M.A., F.R.S. ; Prof. 
Sir E. Rutherford, D.Sc, F.R.S. Secretaries.— VroL A. S. Eddmgton, M.A., 
M.Sc, F.R.S. (Recorder) ; H. R. Hasse ; A. O. Rankine, D.Sc. ; W. Makower, 
M.A., D.Sc. ; G. M. Caunt, M.A., M.Sc. 



Xlii OFFIOEES OF SECTIONS, 1916. 



SECTION B. — CHEMISTRY. 



President.— VtoI G. G. Henderson, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— 
Prof. W. A.. Bone, D.Sc, F.R.S. ; J. T. Dunn, D.Sc; J. E. Stead, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— A. Holt, D.Sc. {Recorder); C. H. Desch, D.Sc, Ph.D.; Prof. R. 
Robinson, D.Sc. ; J. A. Smvtlie, Ph.D., D.Sc. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 



President. — Prof. W. S. Boulton, D.Sc. Vice-Presidents. — J. W. Evans, 
D.Sc. ; Prof. G. A. Labour, D.Sc. ; Prof. P. F. Kendall, M.Sc ; J. W. Flett, D.Sc. 
Secretaries. — W. Lower Carter, M.A. {Recorder) ; W. T. Gordon, D.Sc. ; 
G. Hickling, D.Sc. ; D. Woolacott, D.Sc. 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY. 



President.— Vvoi. E. W. MacBride, D.Sc, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Dr. F. A. 
Dixey, F.R.S.; Prof. A. Meek, D.Sc Secretaries.— J . H. Ashwortb, D.Sc 
{Recorder) ; R. Douglas Laurie, M.A. ; R. A. H. Gray, M.A., M.Sc. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY. 

President. — Edward A. Reeves, F.R.G.S. Vice-Presidents — Rev. \V. J. 
Barton; Prof. M. R. Wright; Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.B. ; Sir Thomas Oliver; 
Dr. W. S. Bruce. Secretaries.— J. McFarlane, M.A. (Recorder); Dr. R. N. 
Rudmose Brown ; B. C. Wallis ; Herbert Shaw. 

SECTION P. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Prof. A. W. Kirkaldy, M.A., M.Com. Vice-Presidents.— Sir Hugh 
Bell, Bart.; Principal Hadow, M.A. ; Dr. G. B. Hunter; Prof. W. R. Scott, 
M.A. ; Miss E. Stevenson. Secretaries. — Miss Ashley, M.A. {Recorder); C. R. 
Fay, M.A. ; E. J. W. Jackson, B.A. ; Prof. H. M. Hallsworth ; J. Gunnison. 

SECTION G. — ENGINEERING. 

President.— Q. G. Stoney, B.A., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— H. S. Hele-Shaw, 
D.Sc, F.R.S. ; Summers Hunter ; Prof. H. Louis, D.Sc ; C. H. Merz, M.Inst.G.E. : 
E. L. Orde ; H. Rowell ; Prof. R. L. Weighton, D.Sc. ; Col. R. Saxton White. 
Secretaries. — Prof. G. VV. 0. Howe, D.Sc. {Recorder) ; Prof. E. W. Marcbant, 
D.Sc. ; Prof. W. M. Thointon, D.Sc 

SECTION H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President— R. R. Marett, D.Sc. Vice-Presidents.— Prof. A. Keith, M.D., 
F.R.S.; F. B. Jevons, D.Litt. ; Prof. C. G. Seligman, M.D.; Prof. R. Howden, 
M.D. ; R. H. Forster, M.A., LL.B. Secretaries.— F. C. Shrubsall, M.A., M.D, 
{Recorder) ; Rev. E. 0. James, B.Litt. ; E. P. Stibbe, L.R.O.P., M.R.C.S. 

SECTION I. — PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Trot. A. R. Cushny, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— 
D. Drummond, M.D. ; Prof. W. D. Plalliburton, M.D., F.R.S. ; Prof. T. Loveday ; 
Prof. Sir T. Oliver, M.D. ; Prof. A. Robinson; Prof. Sir Edward A. Schiifer, 
M.D., F.R.S. ; Prof. E. H. Starling, M.D., F.R.S. ; Prof. A. D. Waller, M.D., 
F.R.S. Secretaries.— TroL P. T. Herring, M.D. {Recorder) ; C. L. Burt, M.A. ; 
Prof. J. A. Menzies, M.A., M.D. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONS, 1916. 



xliii 



SECTION K. — BOTANY. 

President.— A. B. Rendle, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. Vice-Presidents.— Trot. F. 0. 
Bower, F.R.S. ; Prof. W. H. Lang, M.B., F.R.S. ; Prof. M. C. Potter, M.A. ; 
Prof. A. 0. Seward, F.R.S. ; H. W. T. Wager, F.R.S. ; Prof. R. II. Yapp, M.A. 
Secretaries.— D. Thoday, M.A. (Recorder) ; R. 0. Davie, M.A. ; Miss E. N. 
Thomas, D.Sc. ; J. Small. 

SECTION L. — EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Rev. W. Temple, M.A. Vice-Presidents. — Principal W. H. 
Hadow, M.A. ; Mrs. H. Sidgwick. Secretaries. — Prof. J. A. Green, M.A. (Re- 
corder); D. Berridge, M.A. ; Dr. E. H. Tripp ; Percival Sharp, B.Sc. 

SECTION M. — AGRICULTURE. 

President. — E. J. Russell, D.Sc. Vice-Presidents. — Sir Sydney Olivier 
K.O.M.G. ; T. H. Middleton, C.B. ; Prof. T. B. AVood, M.A. ; Prof. D. A. 
Gilchrist, Ph.D. ; Sir R. H. Rew, K.C.B. ; Prof. W. Somerville, D.Sc. Secre- 
taries. — Prof 0. Crowther, M.A., Ph.D. {Recorder) ; A. Lauder, D.Sc. ; S. Hoare 
Collins, M.Sc. 



CONFERENCE OF DELEGATES OF CORRESPONDING 
SOCIETIES. 

President— Prof. G. A. Lebour, M.A., D.Sc, F.G.S. Vice-President.- 
Thomas Sheppard, M.Sc, F.G.S. Secretary.— WiKred Mark Webb, F.L.S. 



xliv REPORT OP THE COUNCIL. 



EEPOET OF THE COUNCIL, 1915-16. 

I. The Council during the past year have had to deplore the death of 
Sir A. W. PiucEER (ex-President, ex- General Treasurer, and a Trustee of 
the Association), Sir Henry Hoscoe, Sir William Turner, and Sir 
William Eamsay (ex-Presidents), and Sir J. K. Caird, a benefactor of 
the Association. 

II. The Hon. Sir C. A. Parsons has been unanimously nominated 
by the Council to fill the office of President of the Association for 1917-18 
(Bournemouth Meeting). 

III. Eesolutions received by the General Committee at Manchester, 
and referred to the Council for consideration and, if desirable, for action, 
were dealt with as follows : — 

From Section A, 

' That the Council places upon record its high appreciation of the 
assistance rendered to the investigation of the value of gravity 
at sea by the directors of Messrs. Alfred Holt of Liverpool 
during the voyage of the British Association to Australia in 
1914. The Association is indebted to them for the generous 
installation of a special refrigerating chamber for the purpose 
of this research and for placing at the disposal of the 
experimenter (Dr. Duffield) the whole of the resources of the 
Blue Funnel steamship " Ascanius " : in this respect the help 
of Captain Chrimes, Chief Engineer Douglas, and Eefrige- 
rating Engineer Latham deserves particular mention. The 
Association regrets that the outbreak of war prevented full 
advantage being taken of the facilities so kindly made avail- 
able by Messrs. Alfred Holt, but it is none the less grateful 
for their valuable and whole-hearted co-operation. 

' That a copy of the above resolution be forwarded to Messrs. 
Alfred Holt.' 

It was unanimously resolved that the above resolution be adopted and 
that a copy be forwarded to Messrs. Alfred Holt. 

From Section B. 

' To recommend to the Council that the proceedings of Section B, 
together with the reports of Eesearch Committees, including 
any reports on special branches of chemical science, be 
published separately from the annual volume of Eeports.' 

In the course of a general inquiry into the possibilities of economy 
in printing at the present time, the Council decided that it would be 
inexpedient under existing conditions to give effect to the above resolution. 

IV. A proposal for the constitution of a committee on organisation 
in relation to problems arising out of the war was brought before the 
Council. The following committee was appointed to consider and report 
upon this proposal : — 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xlv 

The President and General Officers, the President-Elect, Sir E. 
Brabrook, Mr. A. D. Hall, Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw, Professor K. Meldola, 
and Professor 0. S. Sherrington. 

This Committee presented the following Report :— 
The Committee recommends : — 

(a) That the Organising Committees of Sections should have power to 
report direct to the Council at any time when the Association is not in 
Session at its Annual Meeting. 

(b) That a Eesearch Committee should have power to send reports at 
any time, through the Organising Committee of its Section, to the Council. 

The Committee recommends the Council to give immediate effect to this 
arrangement, and to inform all members of Organising Sectional Committees 
accordingly, and to call upon those Committees to meet in order to consider: — 

(a) What problems, if any, arise in their special departments of science 
which call for investigation in the present connexion {i.e., in connexion with 
the future effects of the war upon the national and imperial welfare). 

(b) The proper methods of investigation of such problems. 

The Committee recommends that it be reappointed, with additional members, 
and with power to initiate questions to be submitted to the Organising Sectional 
Committees, and to receive reports from them and transmit such reports to the 
Council. 

The Council resolved that the Committee be reappointed with the 
addition of Prof. W. A. Bone, Dr. Dugald Clerk, Major Lyons, and 
Dr. A. Strahan. The Committee was empowered to consult the Organ- 
ising Committees on the questions indicated in the Report, and it was 
further resolved : — 

(a) That Organising Committees of Sections should have power to 
report direct to the Council at any time when the Association 
is not in annual session, and that it be recommended to the 
General Committee that the Rule, chap, ix., 6 (second para- 
graph), be amended to read as follows : — 

'Each Organising Committee shall hold . . . meetings . . . 
for the organisation of the ensuing Sectional proceedings, and 
may at any such meeting resolve to present a report to the 
Council upon any matter of interest to the Section, and shall 
hold . . . etc' 
{b) That Research Committees should have power to report through 
Organising Committees to the Council at any time when the 
Association is not in annual session, and that it be recom- 
mended to the General Committee that the Rule, chap, iv., 5, 
be amended to read as follows :— 

' Every Research Committee shall present a report ... at the 
Annual Meeting next after that at which it was appointed or 
reappointed, and may in the meantime present a report 
through a Sectional Organising Committee to the Council.' 

A number of valuable proposals, received by the Committee from the 
Organising Sectional Committees, have been transmitted to the Council, 
and action arising out of several of these is proceeding. 



Xlvi REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

V. With a view to facilitating the work of Research Committees, the 
Council have resolved to recommend to the General Committee that 
the Rule, chap, iv., 1, be amended by the oviission of the words italicised 
below : — 

A Sectional Committee may recommend the appointment of a 
Research Committee, composed of Members of the Association 
to conduct research . . . and the Committee of Recommenda- 
tion may include such recommendation in their Report to the 
General Committee. 

and by the addition, after the above clause, of the following : — 

Such Research Committee shall be composed of Members of the 
Association, provided that the Council shall have power to 
consider, and in its discretion to approve, any recommendation 
to include in such Committee any person, not being a Member 
of the Association, whose assistance may be regarded as of 
special importance to the research undertaken. 

VI. Professors J. Perry and W. A. Herdman were appointed to 
represent the Association at a Conference called by the Royal Society 
to discuss a proposal for a Conjoint Board of Scientific Societies. 

Professors J. Perry and H. H. Turner were appointed to represent 
the Association at a Meeting called by the Committee on the Neglect of 
Science. 

VII. It was unanimously resolved that the renewed invitation to hold 
the Annual Meeting in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1916 be accepted with 
pleasure. 

VIII. The Council have received reports from the General Treasurer 
during the past year. The accounts have been audited and are presented 
to the General Committee. 

The General Treasurer has reported that Mr. M. Deshumbert pro- 
posed to leave a legacy of about £5,000 to the Association, subject to the 
condition that his wife and her sister should receive the interest during 
their lifetime. 

It was resolved that the thanks of the Council be conveyed to 
Mr. Deshumbert. 

IX. Caird Fund. — The Council has made the following grants from 
the income of the fund during the year : — 

For aid in transplanting the private observatory of the £ 

Rev. T. E. R. Phillips 20 

To Committee on Fuel Economy 25 

X. Conference of Delegates and Corresponding Societies 
Committee : — 

The following nominations are made by the Council : — 

Conference of Delegates. — Professor G. A. Lebour {President), Mr. T. 
Sheppard (Vice-President), Mr. W. Mark Webb {Secretary). 



EBPORT OF THE COUNCIL xlvii 

Corresponding Societies Committee.— Mv. W. Wbitaker {Chairman), 
Mr. W. Mark Webb {Secretary), Rev. J. 0. Bevan, Sir Edward Brabrook, 
SirH. G. Fordbam, Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. Griffitbs, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, Mr. T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, Mr. A. L. Lewis, Rev. 
T. R. R.' Stebbing, and the President and General Officers of the Associa- 
tion. 

XI. The retiring members of the Council are : — 
Bij seniority.— 'Prol H. E. Armstrong, Prof. J. L. Myres, Sir J. J. H. 
Teall. 

By resignation.— Mr. W. Crooke, Prof. T. B. Wood. 

The Council has nominated the following new members : — 

Prof. R. A. Gregory, 
Dr. S. F. Harmer, 
Dr. A. Strahan, 

leaving two vacancies to be filled by the General Committee without 
nomination by the Council. 

The full list of nominations of ordinary members is as follows : — 

Prof. W. A. Bone. 

Sir E. Brabrook. 

Prof. W. H. Bragg. 

Dr. Dugald Clerk. 

Prof. A. Dendy. 

Prof. H. N. Dickson. 

Dr. F. A. Dixey. 

Prof. H. B. Dixon. 

Sir F. W. Dyson. Dr. A. Strahan. 

Prof. E. A. Gregory. | Prof. F. E. Weiss. 

Principal E. H. Griffiths. ' Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

XII. Dr. G. Carey Foster, who has acted as a Trustee of the 
Association in the room of the late Sir A. W. Riicker during the past 
year, has been nominated for appointment to that office. 

XIII. The General Officers ha,ve been nominated by the Council 
as follows : — . 

General Treasurer : Prof. J. Perry. 
General Secretaries : Prof. W. A. Herdman. 
Prof. H. H. Turner. 

XIV. Dr. J. A. Smythe has been admitted a member of the General 
Committee. 

XV. Dr. G. E. Hale and Dr. W. H. Welch have been elected 
Honorary Corresponding Members. 

XVI. Professors J. Perry and W. A. Herdman have been appointed 
to represent the Association on the Conjoint Board of Scientific Societies. 



Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Prof. W. D. Halliburton. 
Dr. S. F. Harmer. 
Sir Everard im Thurn. 
Sir D. Morris. 
Sir E. Rutherford. 
Miss E. E. Saunders. 
Prof. E. H. Starling. 



Xlviii GBNBBAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

Dr. THE GENERAL TREASURER IN ACCOUNT 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, 

RECEIPTS. 

£, s. d. £ ». d. £ J. d. 
To Balance brought forward : — 

Lloyils Bank, Birmingbam 1,718 9 11 

Commonwealth Bank of Australia 3,227 1 

Bank of England — Western Branch : — 

On ' Caird Fund ' 92 3 1 

if ss General Account overdrawn 49 10 8 

42 12 5 

4,988 2 5 

Life Composition (including Transfers) 257 

Annual Subscriptions 613 

New Annual Members' Subscriptions 252 

Sale of Associates' Tickets 551 

Sale of Ladies' Tickets 141 

Sale of Publications 258 13 1 

Donation 10 

Interest on Deposit, Lloyds Bank, Birmingham 5i 3 1 

„ „ Commonwealth Bank of Australia 24 7 2 

„ „ Williams Deacons Bank, Manchester 27 7 5 

102 17 8 

Unexpended Balances of Grants returned 43 12 1 

Dividends on Investments: — 

Consols 2i per Cent 110 6 8 

India 3 per Gent 91 16 

Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity 26 14 5 

War Loan 4J per Cent 77 17 

306 14 1 

Dividends on 'Caird Fund' Investments: — 

India 3^ per Ceut 78 3 

London & North Western Railway Consolidated 4 per Cent. Pref. Stock 72 16 
London & South Western Railway Consolidated 4 per Cent. Pref. Stock 86 13 4 

Canada 3J per Cent. Registered Stock 74 7 6 

311 19 9 

Income Tax returned 115 9 11 

Grant retm'ued — ' Caird Fund,' Zoological Station at Naples 100 

Investments. 
Nominal Amount. 



5 Consolidated 2J per Cent. Stock 

India 3 per Cent. Stock 

9 £43 Great Indian Peninsula Railway ' B ' Annuity 
10 India U per Ceut. Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 

London and North Western Railway Consolidated 
4 per Cent. Preference Stock, 'Caird Fund' 

Canada 3J (1930-50) Registered Stock, ' Caird Fund ' 

London and South Western Railway Consolidated 
4 per Cent. Preference Stock, ' Caird Fund' 

Sir Frederick Brannvell's Gift of 2J per Cent. Self 
Cumulating Consolidated Stock 

War Loan 4J per Ceut. 1925/45 

„ „ „ „ (resulting from 
conversion of £1,050 2J per Cent. Consols) 
1,000 Lloyds Bank, Birmingham— Deposit Account in- 
cluded in Balance at Bank, Sir J. Caird's Gift 
for Radio-Activity Investigation 



£5,701 10 5 


£ 


s. 


ess Converted into 






War Loan 4J per 






Cent. Stock— 






1,050 








4,651 


10 




3,600 


(1 




879 


4 




2,627 







2,100 


U 




2,500 







2,500 







84 


12 




1,450 







70U 






£22,092 8 £8,051 9 



John Pbkev, General Treasurer. 



GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. xlix 



WITH THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE Cr. 

July 1, 1915, to June 30, 1916. 

PAYMENTS. 

£ s. (I. 

By Rent and Office Expenses IJ^ 15 11 

Salaries,&c 'Jl I I 

Printing, Binding, &c l.-jso ° ' 

Expenses of Manchester Meeting l*^ 1-' ^ 

Grants to Research Oommittees ; — „ , 

£ s. d. 

Seismological Investigations 130 

Tables of Constants 40 

Mathematical Tables 35 

Dynamic Isomerism 20 

Non-Aromatie Diazoninni Salts 8 10 

Old Red Sandstone Rook of Kiltoroan 7 

Old Red Sandstone Rook of Rhynie 25 o 

Belmullet Whaling Station ^? ? n 

Fatigue from Economic Standpoint 20 

Industrial Unrest ot n n 

Women in Industry „ „ n 

Effect of War on Credit 25 

Stress Distributions ....••• •■•• fO 

Engineering Problems affecting the Prosperity of the Country 10 

Physical Characters of Ancient Egyptians 12 8 1 

PaliEolithic Site in Jersey ^o ^ n 

Distribution of Bronze Age Implements 3 5 9 

Ductless Glands (1914) °^ ? " 

„ (1915) 14 

Physiology of Heredity 45 U 

Renting of Cinchona Station 12 10 o 

Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education 20 

School Books and Eyesight 3 5 

Museums ;„ n 1. 

Free Place System 10 

Corresponding Societies Committee 25^0^ -15 18 10 

Grants made from ' Caird Fund ' 270 

Purchase of £1,450 War Loan 44 per Cent. 1925/45 ir**' •* ' 

Balance at Lloyds Bank, Birmingham (with accrued Interest) in- 
cluding Sir James Oaird's Gift, Radio -Activity Investigation, ot 

£1,00" and accrued Interest thereon £72 15s. Od 1,769 13 

Balance at Williams Deacon's Bank (with Interest accrued) 1,145 18 5 

Balance at Bank of England— Western Br.inch :— 

On 'Caird Fund' .. 290 7 10 

On General Account 66 1 l 

6-io O 11 

3,262 4 



£8,051 9 



I have examined the above Account with the Books and Vouchers of the ^^^0= ation, and ^erti^v the 
same to be correct. I have also verified the Balances at the Bankers, and have ^fff'^fed that the Invest- 
ments are registered in the names of the Trustees, except £50 Investment in the War Loan 4* pei Uent. 
Stock which stands in the name of the Treasurer. ^ ^ ^^^^^ Charlered Accounta,,!. 

APPR0^™- ■ August i2,m6. 

Edw.\rd Brabrook, I . ,,,,,■,„,.. 

EVKIIARD III ThURN,; '*"'""" *• 

1916. ^ 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 







Table showing the Attenda 


nces and 


Receipt 


? 


Date o{ Meeting 


Where held 


Presidents 


Old Life 
Members 


New Life 
Members 




1831, Sept. 27 

1832, June 19 

1833, June 25 

1834, Sept. 8 

1835, Aug. 10 

1836, Aug. 22 

1837, Sept. 11 

1838, Aug. 10 

1839, Aug. 26 

1840, Sept. 17 

1841, July 20 

1842, June 23 

1843, Aug. 17 

1844, Sept. 26 

1845, June 19 

1846, Sept. 10 

1847, June 23 

1848, Aug. 9 

1819, Sept. 12 

1850, July 21 

1851, July 2 


York 


Viscount Milton, D.O.L., P.R.S 

The Rev.W. Buckland, F.R.S 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 
The Rev. Provost Lloyd,LL.D., F.R.S 
The Marquis of Lansdowne, F.R.S.... 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S 

The Duke of Northumberland, F.R.S. 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Breadalbane, F.R.S. 

The Rev. W. WheweU, F.R.S 

The Lord Francis Egerton, F.G.S. ... 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir John F. W.Hersohel, Bart., F.R.S. 
Sir Roderick I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., F.R.S. ... 
TheMarquisofNorthampton,Pres.R.S. 
The Rev. T. R.Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

The Earl of Harrowbv, F.R.S 

The Duke of Argyll. F.R.S 

Prof. 0. G. B.Daubeuy, M.D., F.R.S... . 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., F.R.S 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.O.L., F.R.S.... 
H.R.H. The Prince Consort 


— 

169 

303 

109 

226 

313 

241 

314 

149 

227 

235 

172 

164 

141 

238 

194 

182 

236 

222 

184 

286 

321 

239 

203 

287 

292 

207 

167 

196 

204 

314 

246 

245 

212 

162 

239 

221 

173 

201 

184 , 

144 

272 

178 

203 

235 

225 

314 

428 

266 

277 

259 

189 

280 

201 

327 

214 

330 

120 1 

281 

296 ' 

267 ; 


6.5 
169 
28 
150 
36 
10 
18 

3 
12 

9 

8 
10 
13 
23 
33 
14 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 
28 
36 
27 
13 
36 
35 
19 
18 
16 
11 
28 
17 
60 
20 
18 
25 
86 
36 
20 
21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 
31 

8 
19 
20 
13 




Oxford 












Dublin 




Bristol 








Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 
















Cork 




York 












Oxford 




















1852, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 

1854, Sept. 20 

1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 

1858, Sept. 22 

1859, Sept. 14 

1860, June 27 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 

1863, AU2. 26 

1864, Sept. 13 

1865, Sept. 6 

1866, Aug. 22 

1867, Sept. 4 

1868, Aug. 19 

1869, Aug. 18 

1870, Sept. 14 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 

1873, Sept. 17 

1874, Aug. 19 

1875, Aug. 25 

1876, Sept. 6 

1877, Aug. 15 

1878, Aug. 14 

1879, Aug. 20 

1880, Aug. 25 

1881, Aug. 31 

1882, Aug. 23 

1883, Sept. 19 

1884, Aug. 27 

1885, Sept. 9 . .. 

1886, Sept. 1 

1887, Aug. 31 .... 

1888, Sept. 5 

1889, Sept. 11 

1890, Sept. 3 

1891, Aug. 19 

1892, Aug. 3 

1893, Sept. 13 

1894, Aug. 8 

1895, Sept. 11 

1896, Sept. 16 

1897, Aug. 18 

1898, Sept. 7 

1899, Sept. 13 

1900, Sept. 5 . . 






Hull 
















Dublin 












Oxford 


The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 

The Rev. Professor Willis,M.A.,F.R.S. 
SirWUliam G. Armstrong.O.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles LyeU, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S 

The Duke of Bucoleuch, K.O.B.,F.R.S. 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S 

Prof. A. W. Williamson. F.R.S 

Prof . J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S 

Sir John Hawkshaw, PJl.S 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. A. Thomson. M.D., F.R.S 

W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. G. J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S 

A. 0. Ramsav, LL.D., FJl.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 

Dr. 0. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Cayley, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. 

Sir Lyon Playfair, K.C.B., F.R.S.... 

Sir J. W. Dawson, O.M.G., F.R.S 

Sir H. E. Roscoe, D.O.L., F.R.S 

Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S 

Prof. W. H. Flower, O.B., F.R.S 

Sir F. A. Abel, O.B., F.R.S 

Dr. W. Huggins, F.R.S 

Sir A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S 

Prof. J. S. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S. 
The Marquis of Sahsbury,K.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., r.R,S. ... 
Sir Joseph Lister, Bart., Pres. R.S. .. 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S 

Sir W. Orookes, F.R.S 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., Seo.R.S.... 
Sir William Turner, D.O.L., F.R.S. ... 












Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 
Bath 








































Belfast 




Bristol . 












Dublin 




Sheffield 








York 




























Bath 




Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 




Cardiff 












Oxford 
















Bristol 

















Ladies were not admitted by purchased tickets until 1843. 



t Tickets of Admis.sion to Sections only. 
^Continued on p. lii. 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 



at Arvnual Meetings of the Association. 



Old 
Annual 
Members 



54 
93 
128 
61 
63 
66 
121 
142 
104 
166 
111 
126 
177 
184 
160 
154 
182 
216 
218 
193 
226 
229 
303 
311 
280 
237 
232 
307 
331 
238 
290 
239 
171 
313 
253 
330 
317 
332 
428 
610 
399 
412 
368 
341 
413 
328 
436 
290 
383 
286 
327 
324 
297 



New 
Annual 
Members 



317 
376 
185 
190 
22 
39 
40 
25 
33 
42 
47 
60 
57 
121 
101 
48 
120 
91 
179 
59 
125 
57 
209 
103 
149 
105 
118 
117 
107 
195 
127 



74 

41 

176 

79 

323 

219 

122 

179 

244 

100 

113 

92 

162 

141 

57 

69 

31 

139 

126 

96 



33t 

~9t 
407 

270 
496 
376 
447 
510 
244 
510 
367 
765 

1094 
412 
900 
710 

1206 
636 

1589 
433 

1704 

1119 
768 
960 

1163 
720 
678 

1103 
976 
937 
706 
817 
884 

1266 
446 

1285 
529 
389 

1230 

516 

952 

826 

1053 

1067 

1985 

639 

1024 

680 

672 

733 

773 

941 

493 

1384 

682 

1051 

548 

801 



60* 
331* 
160 
260 
172 
196 
203 
197 
237 
273 
141 
292 
236 
524 
543 
346 
569 
509 
821 
463 
791 
242 
1004 
1058 
508 
771 
771 
682 
600 
910 
754 
912 
601 
630 
672 
712 
283 
674 
349 
147 
514 
189 
841 
74 
447 
429 
493 
509 
679 
334 
107 
439 
268 
451 
261 
873 
100 
639 
120 



Foreigners 



7 
46t 
17 
14 
21 
43 
11 
12 
17 
25 
11 
17 
13 
12 
24 
21 

5 
26&60H.§ 

6 
11 
92 
12 
21 
12 
35 
50 
17 
77 
22 
41 
41 

33 

27 

9 



900 
1298 

1360 
1840 
2400 
1438 
1353 
891 
1316 



1079 
857 
1320 
819 
1071 
1241 
710 
1108 
876 
1802 
2133 
1115 
2022 
1698 
2564 
1689 
3138 
1161 
3335 
2802 
1997 
2303 
2444 
2004 
1856 
2878 
2463 
2533 
1983 
1961 
2248 
2774 
1229 
2578 
1404 
916 
2657 
1253 
2714 
1777 
2203 
2453 
3838 
1984 
2437 
1775 
1497 
2070 
1661 
2321 
1324 
3181 
1362 
2446 
1403 
1915 



Amount 
received 
during the 
Meeting 



Sams paid 
on account 
of Grants 
for Scientific 
Purposes 



£707 

963 

1085 

620 

1085 

903 

1882 

2311 



1098 
2016 
1931 



2782 

1604 

3944 

1089 

3640 

2965 

2227 

2469 

2613 



2042 
1931 



3096 
2575 



2649 








2120 








1979 








2397 








3023 








1268 








2615 





u 


1426 








899 








2689 








1286 





u 


3369 








1856 








2256 








2532 








4336 








2107 








2441 








1776 








1664 








2007 








1653 








2175 








1236 


u 





3228 








1398 








2399 








1328 








1801 









£20 

167 

435 

922 12 6 

932 2 2 

1596 11 

1546 16 4 
1235 10 11 

1449 17 8 

1566 10 2 

981 12 8 

831 9 9 

686 16 

208 5 4 

275 1 8 

159 19 6 

346 18 

391 9 7 

304 6 7 

205 

380 19 7 

480 16 4 

734 13 9 

507 15 4 

618 18 2 

684 11 1 

766 19 6 

nil 6 10 

1293 16 6 

1608 3 10 

1289 15 8 

1591 7 10 

1750 13 4 

1739 4 

1940 

1622 

1572 

1472 2 6 

1285 

1685 

1151 16 

960 
1092 4 2 
1128 9 7 
725 16 6 

1080 11 11 



7 

1 

1 11 

3 3 



731 

476 

1126 

1083 

1173 4 

1385 

995 6 

1186 18 

1511 6 

1417 11 

789 16 8 

1029 10 

864 10 

907 15 6 

583 16 6 

977 16 5 

1101 6 1 

1059 10 8 

1212 C 

1430 14 2 

1072 10 fl 



% Including Ladies. § Fellows of the American Association were admitted as Hon. Members for this Meeting. 

Continued on p. liii. 
c2 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS, 

Table showing the Attendances and Beceipts 



Date of Meeting 



1901, Sept. 11 Glasgow 

1902, Sept. 10 Belfast 

1903, Sept. 9 Southport 

1904, Aug. 17 Cambridge 

1905, Aug. 15 .. . South Africa .... 

1906, Aug. 1 York 

1907, July 31 Leicester 

1908, Sept. 2 ; Dublin 

1909, Aug. 25 ' Winnipeg 

1910, Aug. 31 1 Sheffield 

1911, Aug. 30 i Portsmouth 

1912, Sept. 4 i Dundee 

1913, Sept. 10 ...,..! Birmingham .... 

1914, July-Sept....! Australia \ 

1915, Sept. 7 1 Manchester 

1916, Sept. 5 Newcastle-on-Tyne...j 



Prof. A.W. Eucker, D.Sc, SecJl.S. 

Prof. J. Dewar, LL.D., F.E.S 

Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.B.S, 
Et. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., F.E.S. 
Prof. G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.E.S. .. 
Prof. E. Bay Lankester, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Sir David Gill, K.G.B., F.E.S 

Dr. Francis Darwin, F.E.S 

Prof . Sir J. J. Thomson, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, F.E.S 

Prof. Sir \V. Eimsay, K.C.B., F.E.S. 

Prof. E. A. Schafer. F.E.S , 

Sir Oliver J. Lodge, F.E.S 

Prof. W. Bateson, F.E.S 

Prof. A. Schuster, F.E.S 

Sir Arthur Evans, F.E.S , 



Old Life 


1 
New Life 


Members 
310 


Members 


37 


243 


21 


250 


21 


419 


33 


115 


40 


322 


10 


276 


19 


294 


24 


117 


13 


293 


26 


284 


21 


288 


14 


376 


40 


172 


13 


242 


19 


164 


12 



S Including 848 Members of the South African Association. 

XX Grants from the Caird Fund are not included in this and subsequent sums. 



ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCES AT 

[The total attendances for the years 1832, 

Average attendance at 79 Meetings : 1858. 



Attendance 
Average attendance at 5 Meetings beginning during Juiie, between 

1833 mid 1860 1260 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during J^^ly, between 

1841 and 1907 1122 

Average attendance at 32 Meetings beginning during August, between 

1836 aw<^ 1911 1927 

Average attendance at 37 Meetings beginning during September, 

between 1831 and 1913 1977 

Attendance at 1 Meeting held in October, Cambridge, 1862 . . . 1161 



Ateetings beginning during August. 

Average attendance at — 

4 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in AvgvstC 1st- 7th) . 1905 

5 „ „ ,, 2nd „ „ „ ( 8th-14th) . 2130 
9 , „ „ „ 3rd „ ,. „ (15th-21sc) . 1802 

14 ,', „ „ .. 4th „ „ „ (22nd-31st) . 1935 



ATTENDANCES AND RECEIPTS. 



liii 



at Annual Meetings of the Association — (continued). 





Old 
Annual 
Members 

374 


New 
Annual 
Members 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


Foreigners 


Total 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting 


Sums paid 
on account 

of Grants 
tor Scientific 

Purposes 

£920 9 11 


Year 

1901 




131 


794 


246 


20 


1912 


£2046 




314 


86 


647 


305 


6 


1620 


1644 


947 


1902 




319 


90 


688 


365 


21 


1764 


1762 


845 13 2 


1903 




449 


113 


1338 


317 


121 


2789 


2650 


887 18 11 


1904 




937f 
356 


411 


430 


181 


16 


2130 


2422 


928 2 2 


1905 




93 


817 


352 


22 


1972 


1811 


882 9 


1906 




339 


61 


659 


251 


42 


1647 


1661 


767 12 10 


1907 




465 


112 


1166 


222 


14 


2297 


2317 


1167 18 8 


1908 




290»» 


162 


789 


90 


7 


1468 


1623 


1014 9 9 


1909 




379 


57 


563 


123 


8 


1449 


1439 


963 17 


1910 




349 


61 


414 


81 


31 


1241 


1176 


922 


1911 




368 


95 


1293 


369 


88 


2504 


2349 


845 7 6 


1912 




480 


149 


1287 


291 


20 


2643 


2756 


978 17 Ut 


1913 




139 


416011 


63911 




21 


504411 


4873 


1086 16 4 


1914 




287 


116 


628* 


141 


8 


1441 


1406 


1159 2 8 






250 


76 


251» 


73 


— 


826 


821 


715 18 10 


1916 



•* Including 137 Members of the American Association. 

II Special arrangements were made for Members and Associates joining locally in Australia, see 
Report, 1914, p. 686. The numbers include 80 Members who joined in order to attend the Meeting of 
L'Association Fran(;aise at Le Havre. 

» Including Student's Tickets, 10s. 



THE ANNUAL MEETINGS, 1831-1913. 
1835, 1813, and 1844 are unknown.] 

Meetings beginning during September. 

Average attendance at — 

'^ Average 

Attendance 

1.3 Meetings beginning during the 1st week in So2>tember( 1st- 7lh) . 21.31 

17 e. => q^j ^^ ^_ ^ 8th-14th). 1906 

i " " " " 3rd ' , „ (I5th-2lst). 2206 

2 '!, ',', ,',' .'-' Ith „ „ „ (2-'nd-30th) . 1025 

Meetings beginning during June, July, and October. 
Attendance at 1 Meeting (1845, June 19) beginning during the 3rd 

week in ,/»«« (15th-21st) , /x. ' , • " 

Average attendance at 4 Meetings beginning during the 4th week in 

June (22nd-30th) .•..•.;,: 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1851, July 2) beginning during the 1st 

week in J?<Zy (lst-7th) . . . • •. ■ -^ •, .• ^^" 
Average attendance at 2 Meetings beginning during the 3rd week in 

./mZ»/ (15th-21st) \ ■• .u" K.u 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1907, July 31) beginning during the 5th 

week in J!% (29th-3l8t) .• .u , : 

Attendance at 1 Meeting (1862, October 1) beginning during the 1st 

week in October QsXr-7th) l^**^ 

c 3 



liv 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 



LIST OF GRANTS: Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1916. 



Research Committees, etc., appointed by the General Committee 
AT the Newcastle Meeting : September, 1916. 

(Note, — The jjersonnel of Committees is subject to amendment.) 
1. Receiving Grants of Money, 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Seismological Observations. 



Annual Tables of Constants and 
Numerical Data, chemical, phy- 
sical, and technological. 

Calculation of Mathematical 
Tables. 



Determination of Gravity at Sea. 



Chairman. — Prof essorH. H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. J. Shave. 

Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. 
Crombie, Mr. Horace Darwin, 
Dr. C. Davison, Sir F.W. Dyson, 
Dr. E. T. Glazebrook, Professors 
C. G. Knott and H. Lamb, Sir J. 
Larmor, Professors A. E. H. 
Love, H. M. Macdonald, J. Perry, 
and H. C. Plummer, Mr, W. E. 
Plummer, Professors E. A. 
Sampson and A. Schuster, Sir 
Napier Shaw, Dr. G. T. Walker, 
and Mr. G. W. Walker. 

Chairman. — Sir B. Rutherford. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. C. McC. Lewis. 



Chairman. — Professor M. J. M. 
Hill. 

Secretory .-Professor J. W. Nichol- 
son. 

Mr. J. E. Airey, Mr. T. W. Chaundy, 
Professor L. N. G. Filon, Sir G. 
Greenhill, Professor E. W. 
Hobson, Mr. G. Kennedy, and 
Professors Alfred Lodge, A.E.H. 
Love, H. M. Macdonald, G. D. 
Matthews, G. N. Watson, and 
A. G. Webster. 

Chairman. — Professor A. E. Love. 
Secretary.—Froiessoi W. G. Duf- 

field. 
Mr. T. W. Chaundy and Professors 

A. S. Eddington, A. Schuster, 

and H. H. Turner. 



£ 

100 



s.d. 




40 



20 



10 



RESEAECH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Members of Committee 



Grants 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 

Dynamic Isomerism. Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 

strong. 
Secretarij. — Dr. T. M. Lowry. 
Dr. Desch, Sir J. J. Dobbie, Dr. 
M. O. Forster, and Professor 
Sydney Young. 



To report on the Botanical and 
Cliemical Characters of the 
Eucalypts and their Correla- 
tion. 



Absorption Spectra and Chemical 
Constitution of Organic Com- 
pounds. 



Chairman. — Professor H. E. Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary.— Mr. H. G. Smith. 

Dr. Andrews, Mr. R. T. Baker, Pro- 
fessor F. O. Bower, Mr. R. H. 
Cambage, Professor A. J. Ewart, 
Professor C.E.Fawsitt, Dr.Heber 
Green, Dr. Cuthbert Hall, Pro- 
fessors Orme Masson, Rennie, 
and Robinson, and Mr. St. John. 

Chairman. — Sir J. J. Dobbie. 
Secretary.— Mr. E. E. C. Baly. 
Mr. A. W. Stewart. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 



The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of 
Kiltorcan, Ireland. 



To excavate Critical Sections in 
the Palseozoic Rocks of England 
and Wales. 



Chairman. — Professor Grenville 

Cole. 
Secretary. — Professor T. Johnson. 
Dr. J. W. Evans, Dr. R. Kidston, 

and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 



Chairman. — Professor W. W. 
Watts. 

Secretary. — Professor W. G. 
Fearnsides. 

Professor W. S. Boulton.Mr. E. S. 
Cobbold, Professor E. J. Gar- 
wood, Mr. v. C. Illing, Dr. Lap- 
worth, and Dr. J. B. Marr. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY. 



An investigation of the Biology of 
the Abrolhos Islands and the 
North-west Coast of Australia 
(north of Shark's Bay to 
Broome), with particular refer- 
ence to the Marine Fauna. 

Experiments in Inheritance in 
Silkworms. 



Chairman. — ProfessorW.A. Herd- 
man. 

Secretary. — Professor W. J. Dakin. 

Dr. J. H. Ash worth and Professor 
F. O. Bower. 



Chairman. — Professor W. Bateson. 
Secretary. — Mrs. Merritt Hawkes. 
Dr. F. A. Dixey and Dr. L. Don- 
caster. 



Ivi 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES, 
1. Beceiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Section R— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



The question of Fatigue from the 
Economic Standpoint, if pos- 
sible in co-operation with Sec- 
tion I, Sub-section of Psycho- 
logy. 



Replacement of Men by Women 
in Industry. 



The Effects of the War on Credit, 
Currency, and Finance. 



Chairman. — Professor Muirhead. 

Secretary.— 'Miss B, L. Hutching. 

Miss A. M. Anderson, Mr. Cyril 
Burt, Mr. B. Cadbury, Dr. E. L. 
CoUis, Mr. P. Sargant Flor- 
ence, Captain Greenwood, Pro- 
fessors Stanley Kent and Love- 
day, Miss M. C. Matheson, Dr, 
C. S. Myers, Mr. C. K. Ogden, 
Miss M. Smith, and Dr. Vernon. 

Chairman. — Professor W. E. Scott. 

Secretary. — 

Miss Ashley, Ven. Archdeacon 
Cunningham, Professors E.G. K. 
Gonner and Hallsworth, Pro- 
fessor J. C. Kydd, Mr. J. E. 
Highton, Professor A. W. 
Kirkaldy, Miss Mellor, and 
Miss Stephens. 

Chairman. — Professor W. R. Scott. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. E. Allen. 

Professor C. F. Bastable, Sir E. 
Brabrook, Professor Dicksee, 
Mr. B. Ellinger, Mr. A. H. 
Gibson, Professor E. C. K. 
Gonner, Mr. F. W. Hirst, Pro- 
fessor A. W. Kirkaldy, Mr. D. M. 
Mason, Sir R. H. Inglis 
Palgrave, and Mr. E. Sykes. 



Section G.— ENGINEEEING. 



To report on certain of the more 
complex Stress Distributions in 
Engineering Materials. 



Chairman. — Professor J, Perry. 

Secretaries. — Professors E. G. 
Coker and J. B. Petavel. 

Professor A. Barr, Dr. Chas. Chree, 
Mr. Gilbert Cook, Professor 
W. E. Dalby, Sir J. A. Ewing, 
Professor L. N. G. J'ilon, Messrs. 
A. R. Fulton and J. J. Guest, 
Professors J. B. Henderson, F. 
C. Lea, and A. E. H. Love, Dr. 
W. Mason, Dr. P. Rogers, Mr. 
W. A. Scoble, Dr. T. E. Stanton, 
Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, and Mr. 
J. S. Wilson. 



s. d. 




20 



10 



40 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



Ivii 



To investigate 
Characters of 
Egyptians. 



the 
the 



Physical 
Ancient 



To excavate a Palasolithic Site in 
Jersey. 



To conduct Archaeological Inves- 
tigations in Malta. 



To report on the Distribution of 
Bronze Age Implements. 



To investigate and ascertain the 
Distribution of Artificial Islands 
in the lochs of the Highlands 
of Scotland. 



Chairman. — Professor G. Elliot 

Smith. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. F. Wood-Jones, Professor A. 

Keith, and Dr. C. G. Seligman. 

Chairman. — Dr. K. R. Marett. 

Secretary. — Mr. G. de Gruchy. 

Dr. C. W. Andrews, Mr. H. Bal- 
four, Professor A. Keith, and 
Colonel Warton. 

<77iffiirwaM.— Professor J. L. Myres. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. Ashby. 
Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
and Dr. R. R. Marett. 

Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Secretary. — Mr. H. Peake. 

Professor W. Ridgeway, Mr. H. 
Balfour, Sir C. H. Read, Pro- 
fessor W. Boyd Dawkins, Dr. 
R. R. Marett, and Mr. 0. G. S. 
Crawford. 

Chairman. — Professor Boyd Daw- 
kins. 

Secretary. — Prof. J. L. Myres. 

Professors T. H. Bryce and W. 
Ridgeway, Mr. H. Fraser, Dr. A. 
Low, and Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



The Ductless Glands. 



Psychological War-research. — (i) 
Mental Tests of Industrial 
Fatigue; (ii) Mental Factors 
in Alcoholism ; (iii) Evidence 
and Rumour; (iv) Efficacy 
of Thrift Posters; (v) Other 
Problems. 



Chairman. — Sir E. A. Schafer. 

Secretary. — Professor Swale Vin- 
cent. 

Dr. A. T. Cameron and Professor 
A. B. Macallum. 

Chairmati. — 

Secretary.— Mr. Cyril Burt. 
Dr. Jessie Murray and Miss May 
Smith. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 



Experimental Studies in the 
Physiology of Heredity. 



Chairman.— FroiessoT F. F. Black- 
man. 

Secretary. — Mr. R. P. Gregory. 

Professors Bateson and Keeble 
and Miss E. R. Saunders. 



£ s. d. 
2 11 11 



30 



20 



1 U 3 



5 



15 



10 



45 



Iviii 



RESEAECH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Members of Committee 



To consider the possibilities of 
investigation of the Ecology of 
Fungi, and assist Mr. J. Rams- 
bottom in his initial efforts in 
this direction. 



Chairman.— Mr. H. W. T. Wager. 

Secretary. — Mr. J. Ramsbottom. 

Mr. W. "b. Brierley, Mr. F. T. 
Brooks, Mr. W. Cheesman, Pro- 
fessor T. Johnson, Dr. C. E. 
Moss, Professor M. C. Potter, 
Mr. L. Carlton Rea, Miss A. 
Lorrain Smith, and Mr. Svran- 
stone. 



Section L.— EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE. 



To inquire into and report upon 
the methods and results of 
research into the Mental and 
Physical Factors involved in 
Education. 



The Influence of School Books 
upon Eyesight. 



To examine, inquire into, and re- 
port on the Character, Work, 
and Maintenance of Museums, 
with a view to their Organisa- 
tion and Development as In- 
stitutions for Education and 
Research ; and especially to 
inquire into the Requirements 
of Schools. 



Chairman. — Dr. C. S. Myere. 
Secretary. — Professor J. A. Green. 
Professor J. Adams, Dr. G. A. 

Auden, Sir E. Brabrook, Dr. W. 

Brown, Mr. C. Burt, Professor 

E. P. Culverwell, Mr. G. F. 
Daniel], Miss B. Foxley, Pro- 
fessor R. A. Gregory, Dr. 
C. W. Kimmins, Professor W. 
McDougall, Professor T. P. 
Nunn, Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, Dr. 

F. C. Shrubsall, Professor H. 
Bompas Smith, Dr. V.. Spearman, 
and Mr. A. E. Twentyman. 



Chairman. — Dr. G. A. Auden. 
Secretary.— Mi. G. F. Daniell. 
Mr. C. H. Bothamley, Mr. W. D. 

Eggar, Professor R. A. Gregory, 

Dr. N. Bishop Harman, Mr. 

J. L. Holland, Dr. W. E. 

Sumpner, Mr. A. P. Trotter, and 

Mr. Trevor Walsh. 



Chairman. — Professor J. A. Green. 

Secretaries.— Mi. H. Bolton and 
Dr. J. A. Clubb. 

Dr. F. A. Bather, Mr. C. A. Buck- 
master, Mr. M. D. Hill, Dr. 
W. E. Hoyle, Professors E. J. 
Garwood and P. Newberry, Sir 
H. Miers, Sir Richard Temple, 
Mr. H. Hamshaw Thomas, 
Professor F. E. Weiss, Mrs. J. 
White, Rev. H. Browne, Drs. 
A. C. H addon and H. S. Har- 
rison, Mr. Herbert R. Rathbone, 
and Dr. W. M. Tattersall. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
1. Receiving GranU of Money— corAimxedi. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



The Effects of the 'Free-place' 
System upon Secondary Educa- 
tion. 



To consider and report upon the 
method and substance of 
Science Teaching in Secondary 
Schools, with particular refer- 
ence to its essential place in 
general Education. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Mr. C. A. Buckmaster. 

Secretary. —Mr. D. Berridge. 

Mr. C. H. Bothamlej% Miss L. J. 
Clarke, Miss B. Foxley, Dr. W. 
Garnett, Professor R. A. 
Gregory, Mr. J. L. Baton, 
Professor H. Bompas Smith, 
Dr. H. Lloyd Snape, and Miss 
Walter. 

Chairman. — Professor R. A, Gre- 
gory. 

Secretary Dr. E. H. Tripp. 

Mr. D. Berridge, Mr. C. A. Buck- 
master, Miss L. J. Clarke, Mr. 
G. F. Daniell, Mr. Gary Gilson, 
Miss C. L. Laurie, Professor 
T. P. Nunn, and Professor A. M. 
Worthington. 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 



Corresponding Societies Com- 
mittee for the preparation of 
their Report. 



Chairman. — Mr. W. Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. Mark Webb. 

Rev. J. O. Bevan, Sir Edward 
Brabrook, Sir H. G. Fordham, 
Dr. J. G. Garson, Principal E. H. 
Griffiths, Dr. A. C. Haddon, Mr. 
T. V. Holmes, Mr. J. Hopkinson, 
Mr. A. L. Lewis, Mr. T. Shep- 
pard. Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 
and the President and General 
Officers of the Association. 



lix 



Grants 



s. d. 




10 



25 



Ix 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money. 



Subject for Investigatioii, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



Section A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere. 



Radiotelegraphic Investigations. 



To aid the work of Establishing a Solar 
Observatory in Australia. 



To discuss the present needs of Geodesy, 
including its relation to other 
branches of Geophysics, and to report 
to the next meeting of the British 
Association, with power to present 
an interim report to the Council if 
any question of urgency should 
arise. t 



Chairman. — Sir Napier Shaw. 

Secretary. — 

Mr. C. j". P. Cave, Mr. W. H. Dines, Dr. 
R. T. Glazebrook, Sir J. Larmor, 
Professors J. E. Petavel and A. 
Schuster, and Dr. W.Watson. 

Chairma7i. — Sir Oliver Lodge. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. H. Eccles. 

Mr. S. G. Brown, Dr. C. Chree, Sir F. W, 
Dyson, Professor A. S. Eddington, Dr, 
Erskine-Murray, Professors J. A.Flem 
ing, G. W. 0. Howe, H. M. Macdonald 
and J. W. Nicholson, Sir H. Norman 
Captain H. R. Sankey, Professor A 
Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, and Pro 
feasor H. H. Turner. 

Chairman. — Professor H. H. Turner. 

Secretary.— Di. W. G. Duffield. 

Rev. A. L. Cortie, Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer, 

Mr. F. McClean, and Professor A. 

Schuster. 

Chairman. — Colonel C. F. Close. 

Secretary. — Colonel E. H. Hills. 

Sir S. G. Burrard, Dr. W. G. Dulfield, 
Sir F. W. Dyson, Mr. A. R. Hinks, 
Sir T. H. Holdich, Professor A. E. H. 
Love, Colonel H. G. Lyons, Mr. R. D. 
Oldham, Professor A. Schuster, Sir 
Napier Shaw, and Dr. G. W. Walker. 



Section B.— CHEMISTRY. 



The Transformation of Aromatic Nitro- 
amines and allied substances, and its 
relation to Substitution in Benzene 
Derivatives. 

The Study of Plant Enzymes, particu- 
larly with relation to Oxidation. 



Research on Non-Aromatic Diazonium 
Salts. 



Chemical Investigation of Natural Plant 
Products of Victoria. 



Chairman. — Professor F. S. Kipping. 
Secretary. — Professor K. J. P. Orton. 
Dr. J. T. Hewitt and Dr. S. Ruhemann. 



Chairman. — Mr. A. D. Hall. 
Secretary. — Dr. E. F. Armstrong. 
Professor H. E. Armstrong, Professor F. 
Keeble, and Dr. E. J. Russell, 

Chairman. — Dr. F. D. Chattaway. 
Secretai-y. — Professor G. T. Morgan. 
Mr. P. G. W. Bayly and Dr. N. V. Sidg- 
wick. 

Chairman. — Professor Orme Masson. 

Secretary. — Dr. Heber Green. 

Mr. J. Cronin and Mr. P. R. H. St. John. 



* Excepting the case of Committees receiving grants from the Caird Fund, 
t Joint Committee with Section E, 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of JVow^y— continued. 



ki 



Subject tor Investigation, or Purpose 



Fuel Economy ; Utilization of Coal ; 
Smoke Prevention. 



Members of Committee 



Capillary Chemistry and its Industrial 
Application. 



Section C- 

To consider the preparation of a List 
of Characteristic Fossils. 



To investigate the Flora of Lower Car- 
boniferous times as exemplified at a 
newly discovered locality at Gullane, 
Haddingtonshire. 

To excavate Critical Sections in Old 
Red Sandstone Rocks at Rhynie, 
Aberdeenshire. 



Chairman. — Professor W. A. Bone. 

Secretary. — Mr. E. D. Simon. 

The Rt. Hon. Lord AUerton, Mr. Robert 
Armitage, Professor J. O. Arnold, Mr. 
J. A. F. Aspinall, Mr. A. H. Barker, 
Professor P. P. Bedson, Sur G. T. 
Beilby, Sir Hugh Bell, Professor W. S. 
Boulton, Mr. E. Bury, Dr. Charles 
Carpenter, Dr. Dugald Clerk, Pro- 
fessor H. B. Dixon, Dr. J. T. Dunn, 
Mr. S. Z. de Ferranti, Dr. William 
Galloway, Professors W. W. Haldane 
Gee and Thos. Gray, Mr. T. Y. 
Greener, Sir Robert Hadfield, Dr. H. S. 
Hele-Shaw, Dr. D. H. Helps, Dr. G. 
Hickling, Mr. Grevil Jones, Mr. W. W. 
Lackie, Mr. Michael Longridge, Dr. 
J. W. Mellor, Mr. C. H. Merz, Mr. 
Robert Mond, Mr. Bernard Moore, 
Hod. Sir Charles Parsons, Sir Richard 
Redmayne, Professors Ripper and 
L. T. 6'Shea, Mr. R. P. Sloan, Dr. 
J. E. Stead, Dr. A. Strahan, Mr. C. E. 
Stromeyer, Mr. Benjamin Talboi, 
Professor R. Threlfall, Mr. G. Blake 
Walker, Dr. R. V. Wheeler, Mr. B. W. 
Winder, Mr. W. B. Woodhouse, Pro- 
fessor W. P. Wjnne, and Mr. H. James 
lates. 

C/iaw-«(a«.— Professor F. G. Donnan. 
Secretary.— Trofessor W. C. McC. Lewis. 
Dr. E. F. Armstrong and Dr. S. A. 
Shorter. 



■GEOLOGY. 

f/(am«a«.— Professor P. F. Kendall. 

Secretary.— Mi. W. Lower Carter. 

Professor W. S. Boulton, Professor G. 
Cole, Dr. A. R.Dwerryhouse, Professors 
J. W. Gregory, Sir T. H. Holland, G. A. 
Lebour, and S. H. Reynolds, Dr. Marie 

C. Stopes, Mr. Cosmo Johns, Dr. J. E. 
Marr, Professor W. W. Watts, Mr. H. 
Woods, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Chairvian. — Dr. R. Kidston. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. T. Gordon. 
Dr. J. S. Flett, Professor E. J. Garwood, 
Dr. J. Home, and Dr. B. N. Peach. 

Chairman. — Dr. J. Home. 
'' Secretary.— Dr. W. Mackie. 
i Drs. J. S. Flett, W. T. Gordon, G. Hick- 
ling, R. Kidston, B. N. Peach, and 

D. M. S. Watson. 



Ixii 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Members of Committee 



The Collection, Preservation, and Sys- 
tematic Registration of Photographs 
of Geological Interest. 



To consider the Nomenclature of the 
Carboniferous, Permo-carboniferous, 
and Permian Eocks of the Southern 
Hemisphere. 



To investigate the Geology of Coal- 
seams. 



Section D.- 
To investigate the Biological Problems 
incidental to the Belmullet Whaling 
Station. 



Nomenclator Animalium Genera et 
Sub-genera. 



To obtain, as nearly as possible, a Repre- 
sentative Collection of Marsupials 
for work upon (a) the Reproductive 
Apparatus and Development, (fc) the 
Brain. 

*To aid competent Investigators se- 
lected by the Committee to carry on 
definite pieces of work at the Zoolo- 
gical Station at Naples. 



Cliairvian. — Professor E. J. Garwood. 
Secretary. — Professor S. H. Reynolds. 
Mr. G. Bingley, Dr. T. G. Bonney, Messrs. 

C. V. Crook, R. Kidston, and A. S. Reid, 

Professor W. W. Watts, Messrs. R. 

Welch and W. Whitaker, and Sir 

J. J. H. Teall. 

Cliairnum. — Professor T. W. Edgeworth 
David. 

Secretary. — Professor E. W. Skeats. 

Mr. J. W. S. Dun, Sir T. H. Holland, Pro- 
fessors J. W. Gregory and Howchin, 
Mr. A. E. Kitson, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, 
Dr. A. W. Rogers, Professor A. C. 
Seward, Dr. D. M. S. Watson, and 
Professor W. G. Woolnough. 

Chairman. — Professor W. S. Boulton. 

Secretary. — Dr. W. T. Gordon. 

Mr. G. Barrow, Professors Cadman, Gran- 
ville Cole, and W. G. Fearnsides, Dr. 
J. S. Flett, Dr. Walcot Gibson, Pro- 
fessors J. W. Gregory and P. F. Ken- 
dall, Dr. R. Kidston, Professors G. A. 
Lebour and T. F. Sibly, Dr. A. Strahan, 
and Mr. J. R. R. Wilson. 

-ZOOLOGY, 

Chairman. — Dr. A. E. Shipley. 

Secretary. — Professor J. Stanley Gar- 
diner. 

Mr. R. M. Barrington, Professor W. A. 
Herdman, Rev. W. Spotswood Green, 
Mr. E. S. Goodrich, Dr. S. F. Harmer, 
Dr. E. W. L. Holt, and Professor H. W. 
Marett Tims. 

Chairman. — Dr. P. (Chalmers Mitchell. 
Secretary. — Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing. 
Dr. M. Laurie, Professor Marett Tims, 
and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor A. Dendy. 
Secretaries Professors T. Flynn and 

G. E. Nicholls. 
Professor E. B. Poulton and Professor 

H. W. Marett Tims. 

Chairman. — Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Secretary. — Dr. J. H. Ash worth. 

Mr. G. P. Bidder, Professor F. 0. Bower, 
Drs. W. Bv Hardy and S. F. Harmer, 
Professor S. J. Hickson, Sir E. Eay 
Lankester, Professor W. C. Mcintosh, 
and Dr. A. D. Waller. 



See note on page Ix. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixiii 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



To summon meetings in London or else- 
where for the consideration of mat- 
ters affecting the interests of Zoology 
or Zoologists, and to obtain by corre- 
spondence the opinion of Zoologists 
on matters of a similar kind, with 
power to raise by subscription from 
each Zoologist a sum of money for 
defraying current expenses of the 
Organisation. 

To nominate competent Naturalists to 
perform definite pieces of work at 
the Marine Laboratory, Plymouth. 



Zoological Bibliography and Publica- 
tion. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman. — Professor S. J. Hickson. 
Secretary. — Dr. W. M. Tattersall. 
Professors G. C. Bourne, A. Dendy, 

M. Hartog, W. A. Herdman, and J. 

Graham Kerr, Dr. P. Chalmers 

Mitchell, and Professors B. B. Poalton 

and J. Stanley Gardiner. 



Chairman and Secretary. — Professor A. 

Dendy. 
Sir B. Ray Lankester, Professor J. P. 

Hill, and Mr. E. S. Goodrich. 

Chairman. — Professor E. B. Poulton. 
Secretary. — Dr. F. A. Bather. 
Mr. B. Heron-Allen, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, 
and Dr. P. Chalmers Mitchell. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY. 



To aid in the preparation of a Bathy- 
metrical Chart of the Southern Ocean 
between Australia and Antarctica. 



Chairman. — Professor T. W. Edgeworth 

David. 
Secretary. — Captain J. K. Davis. 
Professor J. W. Gregory, Sir C. P. Lucas, 

and Professor Orme Masson. 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



Industrial Unrest. 



Chairman. — Professor A. W. Kirkaldy. 

Secretary. — 

Sir H. Bell, Rt. Hon. C. W. Bowerman, 

Professors S. J. Chapman and E. C. K. 

Gonner, Mr. H. Gosling, Mr. G. Pickup 

Holden, Dr. G. B. Hunter, Sir C. W. 

Macara, and Professor W. R. Scott. 



Section G.— ENGINEERING. 



To investigate Engineering Problems 
affecting the future Prosperity of the 
Country. 



To consider and report on the Stan- 
dardization of Impact Tests. 



Chairman. — Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw. 
Secretary. — Professor G. W. 0. Howe. 
Professor E. G. Coker, Sir R. Hadfield, 

Rt. Hon. Sir W. Mather, Mr. W. Maw, 

and Mr. C. E. Stromeyer. 

Chairman. — Professor W. H. Warren. 
Secretary. — Mr. J. Vicars. 
Mr. G. A. Julius, Professor A. H. Gibson, 
Mr. Houghton, and Professor Payne. 



Ixiv 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigatiion, or Purpose 



The Investigation of Gaseous Explo- 
sions, with special reference to Tem- 
perature. 



Merabers of CommittGe 



Chairman. — Dr. Dugald Clerk. 
Secretary.— ViofessoT W. E. Dalby. 
Professors W. A. Bone, F. W. Burstall, 

H. L. Callendar, B. G, Coker, and H. B. 

Dixon, Drs. R. T. Glazebrook and J. A. 

Harker, Colonel Sir H. C. L. Holden, 

Professors B. Hopkinson and J. E. 

Petavel, Captain H. Riall Sankey, 

Professor A. Smithells, Professor W. 

Watson, Mr. D. L. Chapman, and Mr. 

H. E. Wimperis. 



Section H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 



To consider the Collation of Ethno- 
logical Literature on Oceania and 
Africa. 



To investigate the Lake Villages in the 
neighbourhood of Glastonbury in 
connection with a Committee of the 
Somerset Archaeological and Natural 
History Society. 



To conduct Anthropometric Investiga- 
tions in the Island of Cyprus. 



To conduct Explorations with the object 
of ascertaining the Age of Stone 
Circles. 



To prepare and publish Miss Byrne's 
Gazetteer and Map of the Native 
Tribes of Australia. 



The Collection, Preservation, and 
Systematic Registration of Photo- 
graphs of Anthropological Interest. 



To conduct Archseological and Ethno- 
logical Researches in Crete. 



Chairmayi. — Dr. A. C. Haddon. 
Secretary. — Dr. C. G. Seligman. 
Dr. H. Forbes and Dr. R. R. Marett. 



Chairman. — Professor Boj'd Dawkins. 
Secretary. — Mr. Willoughby Gardner. 
Professor W. Ridgeway, Sir Arthur Evans, 

Sir C. H. Read, Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. 

Bulleid, and Mr. H. Peake. 



Chairman. — Professor J. L. Myres, 
Secretary.— Dr. F. C. Shrubsall. 
Dr. A. C. Haddon. 



Chairman. — Sir C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Mr. H. Balfour. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Professor W. Ridgeway, 

Dr. J. G. Garson, Sir Arthur Evans, Dr. 

R. Munro, Professors Boyd Dawkins 

and J. L. Myres, Mr. A. L. Lewis, and 

Mr. H. Peake. 



Chairman. — Professor Baldwin Spencer. 
Secretary.— Dr. R. R. Marett. 
Mr. H. Balfour. 



Chairman. — Sir C. H. Read. 
Secretary. — Dr. Harrison. 
Dr. G. A. Auden, Mr. E. Heawood, and 
Professor J. L. Myres. 



Chairman.— Mt. D. G. Hogarth. 

Secretary. — Professor J. L. Myres. 

Professor R. C. Bosanquet, Dr. W. L. H. 
Duckworth, Sir Arthur Evans, Pro- 
fessor W. Ridgeway, and Dr. F. C. 
Shrubsall. 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. JVbt receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Ixv 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Members of Committee 



The Teaching of Anthropology. 



To excavate Early Sites in Macedonia. 



To co-operate with Local Committees 
in Excavations on Eoman Sites in 
Britain. 



Chairman. — Sir Kichard Temple. 

Secretary.— Di. A. C. Haddon. 

Sir E. F. im Thurn, Mr. W. Crooke, Dr. 
C. G. Seligman, Professor G. Elliot 
Smith, Dr. R. R. Marett, Professor 
P. E. Nevrberry, Dr. G. A. Auden, Pro- 
fessors T. H. Bryce, A. Keith, P. 
Thompson, R. W. Reid, H. J. Fleure, 
and J. L. Myres, Sir B. C. A. Windie, 
and Professors R. J. A. Berry, Baldwin 
Spencer, Sir T. Anderson Stuart, and 
E. C. Stirling. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 
Professors R. C. Bosanquet and J. L. 
Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Professor R. C. Bosanquet. 
Dr. T. Ashby, Mr. Willoughby Gardner, 
and Professor J. L. Myres. 



Section I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 



To acquire further knowledge, Clinical 
and Experimental, concerning Anses- 
thetics — general and local — with 
special reference to Deaths by or 
during Anesthesia, and their possible 
diminution. 

Electromotive Phenomena in Plants. 



To investigate the Physiological and 
Psychological Factors in the produc- 
tion of Miners' Nystagmus. 



Colour Vision and Colour Blindness. 



The Binocular Combination of Kine- 
matograph Pictures of different 
Meaning, and its relation to the 
Binocular Combination of simpler 
Perceptions. 



Cliairvian. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — 

Dr. Blumfeld, Mr. J. A. Gardner, and 
Dr. G. A. Buckmaster. 



Cliairman. — Dr. A. D. Waller. 
Secretary. — Mrs. Waller. 
Professors J. B. Farmer, T. Johnson, and 
Veley, and Dr. F. O'B. Ellison. 

Chairman. — Professor J. H. Muirhead. 
Secretary. — Dr. T. G. Maitland. 
Dr. J. Jameson Evans and Dr. C. S. 
Myers. 

Chairmam. — Professor E. H. Starling. 
Secretary. — Dr. Edridge-Green. 
Professor A. W. Porter, Dr. A. D. Waller, 

Professor C. S. Sherrington, and Dr. 

F, W. Mott. 



Chairman.- 
Secretary. - 



-Dr. C. S. Myers. 
-Mr. T. H. Pear. 



Ixvi 



RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 
2. Not Receiving Grants of Money — continued. 



Subject for Investigation, or Purpose 



Further Researches on the Structure 
and Function of the Mammalian 
Heart. 

Physiological Standards of Food and 
Work. 



Members of Committee 



Chairman.— FrofesaoT C. S. Sherrington. 
Secretary. — Professor Stanley Kent. 
Dr. Florence Buchanan. 

Chairman and Secretary. — Dr. A. D. 

Waller. 
Professors W. D. Halliburton and V/. H 

Thompson. 



Section K.— BOTANY. 

To carry out a Research on the Influ- 
ence of varying percentages of Oxy- 
gen and of various Atmospheric 
Pressures upon Geotropic and Helio- 
tropic Irritability and Curvature. 



CA«irwaK.— Professor F. O. Bower. 
Secretary. — Professor A. J. Ewart. 
Professor F. F. Blackman. 



The Collection and Investigation of 
Material of Australian Cycadacese, 
especially Bowrenia from Queensland 
and Macrozamia from West Australia. 

To cut Sections of Australian Fossil 
Plants, with especial reference to a 
specimen of Zygopteris from Simp- 
son's Station, Barraba, N.S.W. 

The Investigation of the Vegetation of 
Ditcham Park, Hampshire. 



The Renting of Cinchona Botanic 
Station in Jamaica. 



The Structure of Fossil Plants. 



To consider how to bring into closer 
contact those carrying out Scientific 
Breeding Experiments and those 
commercially interested in the 
results of such experiments.* 

To consider and report upon the neces- 
sity for further provision for the 
Organisation of Research in Plant 
Pathology in the British Empire. 



Chairvian. — Professor A. A. Lawson. 
Secretary .—^Totessot T. G. B. Osborn, 
Professor A. C. Seward. 



Chairman. — Professor Lang. 
Secretary. — Professor T. G. B. Osborn. 
Professors T. W. Edgeworth David and 
A. C. Seward. 

Chairman. — Mr. A. G. Tansley. 
Secretary. — Mr. R. S. Adamson. 
Dr. C. E. Moss and Professor R. H. Yapp. 

Chairman. — Professor F. O. Bower. 
Secretary. — Professor R. H Yapp 
Professors R. Buller, F. W. Oliver, and 
F. E. Weiss. 

Chairman. — Professor F. W. Oliver. 
Secretary. — Professor F. E. Weiss. 
Mr. B. Newell Arber, Professor A. C. 
Seward, and Dr. D. H. Scott. 

Chairman. — Professor W. Bateson. 

Secretary. — Miss E. R. Saunders. 

Mr. S. S. Beaven, Mr. L. Doncaster, Mr. 

R. P. Gregory, Mr. R. D. Laurie, and 

Dr. F. Keeble. 

Chairman. — Professor M. C. Potter. 

Secretary. — Mr. W. B. Brierley. 

Mr. F. T. Brooks, Professor T. Johnson, 
Mr. J. Ramsbottom, Mr. E. S. Salmon, 
Dr. E. N. Thomas, and Mr. H. W. T. 
Wager. 



Joint Committee with Sections D and M. 



RESEARCH COJIMITTEES. IXVU 

Communication ordered to he printed in extenso. 
Section E. — Sir T. H. Holdich on ' Political Boundaries.' 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration, and, if desirable, 

for action. 

From Sections D and E. 

That it be recommended to tlie Council that a grant of £100 from the Caird 
Fund be made to Dr. W. S. Bruce for the upkeep of the Scottish Oceanographical 
Laboratory. 

From Section K. 

That the Council be recommended to ask the Government to make Section K a 
grant of 500 reprints of a list of economic plant products which has been prepared 
by Sir David Prain and is shortly to be published in the Kew Bulletin. 

From Section L. 

The Committee of Section L has evidence that the separate issue of the sectional 
transactions has been of considerable utility both during and after the Meetings, 
and it regrets their discontinuance. While recognising that there are special diffi- 
culties as regards printing and paper at the present time, the Committee hopes that 
the Council will resume next year the publication of the sectional transactions 
containing the President's Address, Reports of Committees, and Abstracts of 
Papers. 



Sytiopsis of Grants of Money app-opiated for Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Neivcastle Meeting, September 1916. 
Tlie Names of Members entitled to call on the General Treasurer 
for Gh'ants are prefixed to the respective Committees. 

Section A.— Mathematical and Physical Science. 

£ 

*Tumer, Professor H. H. — Seismological Observations 100 

*Rutherforcl, Sir E.— Tables of Constants 40 

♦Hill, Professor M.J. M.— Mathematical Tables 20 

*Love, Professor A. E. H. — Gravity at Sea 10 

Section B. — Chemistry. 

* Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Dynamic Isomerism 15 

* Armstrong, Professor H. E. — Eucalypts 30 

*Dobbie, Sir J. J. — Absorption Spectra, &c 10 

Section C. — Geology. 

*Cole, Professor Grenville. — Old Red Sandstone Rooks of 

Kiltorcan 4 

*Watts, Professor W. W. — Critical Sections in Palteozoic 

Rocks 20 

'•' Reappointed. 



s. 


d. 













































Ixviii SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OP MONEY. 

Section D. — Zoology. £ s, d. 

*Herdman, Professor W. A. — Abrolhos Islands 6 

Bateson, Professor W. — Inheritance in Silkworms 20 

Section F. — Economic Science and Statistics. 
*Muirhead, Professor J. H. — Fatigue from Economic Stand- 
point 40 

*Scott, Professor W. R.— Women in Industry 20 

*Scott, Professor W. R.— Effects of War on Credit, cfec 10 

Section G. — Engineering. 
*Perry, Professor J.— Complex Stress Distributions 40 

Section H. — Anthropology. 

*Smith, Professor G. Elliot. — Physical Characters of Ancient 

Egyptians 2 11 11 

*Marett, Dr. R. E.— Pateolithic Site in Jersey 30 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Archaeological Investigations in 

Malta 20 

*Myres, Professor J. L. — Distribution of Bronze Age Imple- 
ments 1 14 3 

*Dawkins, Professor Boyd. — Artificial Islands in Highland 

Lochs 5 

Section I. — Physiology. 

*Schafer, Sir E.— Ductless Glands 15 

Carr, Dr. Willdon.- — Psychological War- Research 10 

Section K. — Botany. 

*Blackman, Professor F. F.— Heredity 45 

Wager, Mr. H. W. T.— Ecology of Fungi 8 

Section L. — Education. 

*Myers, Dr. C. S.— Mental and Physical Factors 10 

*Auden, Dr. G. A. — School Books and Eyesight 5 

*Green, Professor J. A. — Museums 15 

*Buckmaster, Mr. C. A.—' Free-place ' System 15 

Gregory, Professor R. A. — Science Teaching in Secondary 

Schools ' 10 

Corresj)onding Societies Committee. 
*Whitaker, Mr. W.— For Preparation of Report 25 



Total £602 6 2 



Cairo Fund. 

An unconditional gift of 10,000^. was made to the Association at the 
Dundee Meeting, 1912, by Mr. (afterwards Sir) J. K. Cau'd, LL.D., of 
Dundee. 

* Reappointed. 



CAIRD FUND. Ixix 

The Council in its Report to the Genf ral Committee at the Bir- 
mingliam Meeting made certain recommendations as to the administra- 
tion of this Fund. These recommendations were adopted, with the 
Report, by the General Committee at its meeting on September 10, 1913. 

The following allocations luivo been made from the Fund by the 
Council to September 1916 : — 

Naples Zoological Station Committee (p. Ixii).— 50^. (1912-13); 100^. 
(1913-14) ; 100^. annually in future, subject to the adoption of the Com- 
mittee's report. 

Seismology Committee (p. liv).— 100^. (1913-14); 100^. annually in 
future, subject to the adoption of the Committee's report. 

Badiotelegraphic Committee (p. Ix). 500^. (1913-14). 

Magnetic Ee-stcrvei/ oj the British Isles (in collaboration with the 
Royal Society).— 250Z.' 

Committee on Determination of Gravity at Sea (p. liv). — lOOZ. 
(1914-15). 

Mr. F. Sargent, Bristol University, in connection tcith his Astro- 
nomical Work.— 101. (1914). 

Organising Committee of Section F {Economics), towards expenses of 
an Enquiry into Outlets for Labour after the War. — 100/. (1915). 

Bav. T. E. B. Phillies, for aid in transplanting his private observa- 
tory.— 201. (1915). 

Committee on Fiiel Economy. — 251. (1915-16). 

Sir J. K. Caird, on September 10, 1913, made a further gift of 1,000/. 
to the Association, to be devoted to the study of Radio-activity. 



Public or Citizens' Lectures. 

During the Meeting the following Citizens' Lectures were arranged, in 
co-operation with the local branch of the Workers' Educational Associa- 
tion, in Newcastle and the neighbourhood : — 

Newcastle. 

September 4th at 7.30 p.m. in the Town Hall, Dr. Dugald Clerk, 
F.R.S., on 'Gas, Oil, and Petrol Engines.' 

September 6th at 7.30 p.m. in the Town Hall, Mr. A. L. Smith, 
M.A., Master of Balliol College, Oxford, on ' Education after the 
War.' 

Sunderland. 

September 8th at 7.30 p.m. in the Victoria Hall, Dr. F. A. Dixey, 
F.R.S., on ' Warfare in Nature.' 

Durham. 

September 5th at 7.45 p.m. in the Miners' Hall, Red Hill, Professor 
J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., on ' The Evolution of Geography.' 

ASHINGTON. 

September 7th at 7.15 p.m. in the Philharmonic Hall, Professor 
A. W. Kirkaldy, M.A., on ' The Economic Outlook after the War.' 

d 



r* 




PEBSIDENT'S ADDEESS. 



1916 



ADDEESS 

BY 

SIR ARTHUR EVANS, D.Litt., LL.D., P.S.A., F.R.S., 

EXTBAOEDINARY PbOFEBSOR OF PbeHISTOBIC ARCHEOLOGY, OxFORD, 
CORRESPONDANT DE l'InSTITDT DE FrANCE, ETC., 

PRESIDENT. 



New Archceological lights on the Origins of Civilisation in Eiirope: its 
Magdalenian forermmers in the South-West and Mgean Cradle. 



El quasi cursores vital lampada tradunt. 

When I was asked on behalf of the Council of the British Association 
to occupy the responsible post of President at the Meeting in this great 
city — the third that has taken place here — I was certainly taken by 
surprise; the more so as my own subject of research seemed somewhat 
removed from what may be described as the central interests of your 
body. The turn of Archaeology, however, I was told, had come round 
again on the rota of the sciences represented ; nor could I be indifferent 
to the fact that the last Presidential Address on this theme had been 
delivered by my father at the Toronto Meeting of 1897. 

Still, it was not till after considerable hesitation that I accepted 
the honour. Engaged as I have been through a series of years in the 
work of excavation in Crete — a work which involved not only the 
quarrying but the building up of wholly new materials and has entailed 
the endeavour to classify the successive phases of a long, continuous 
story — absorbed and fascinated by my own investigations — I am 
oppressed with the consciousness of having been less able to keep pace 
with the progress of fellow explorers in other departments or to do 
sufficient justice to their results. I will not dwell, indeed, on those 
disabilities that result to myself from present calls and the grave pre- 
occupations of the hour, that to a greater or less extent must affect 
us all. 

But Archaeology — the research of ancient civilisations — when the 
very foundations of our own are threatened by the New Barbarism ! 
The investigation of the ruins of the Past — at a time when Hell seems 
to have been let loose to strew our Continent with havoc beyond the 
dreams of Attila ! ' The Science of the Spade ' — at a moment when 

B 2 



4 president's address. 

that Science confronts us at every hour with another and a sterner 
significance ! The very suggestion of such a subject of discourse might 
seem replete with cruel irony. 

And yet, especially as regards the prehistoric side of Archaeology, 
something may be said for a theme which, in the midst of Armageddon, 
draws our minds from present anxieties to that still, passionless domain 
of the Past which lies behind the limits even of historic controversies. 
The Science of Antiquity as there seen in its purest form depends, 
indeed, on evidence and rests on principles indistinguishable from those 
of the sister Science of Geology. Its methods are stratigraphic. As 
in that case the successive deposits and their characteristic contents — 
often of the most fragmentary kind — enable the geologist to recon- 
struct the fauna and flora, the climate and physical conditions, of the 
past ages of the world, and to follow out their gradual transitions or 
dislocations, so it is with the archaeologist in dealing with unwritten 
history. 

In recent years — not to speak of the revelations of Late Quaternary 
culture, on which I shall presently have occasion to dwell — in Egypt, 
in Babylonia, in Ancient Persia, in the Central Asian deserts, or, 
coming nearer home, in the iEgean lands, the patient exploration of 
early sites, in many cases of huge stratified mounds, the unearthing of 
buried buildings, the opening of tombs, and the research of minor relics, 
has reconstituted the successive stages of whole fabrics of former 
civilisation, the very existence of which was formerly unsuspected. 
Even in later periods. Archaeology, as a dispassionate witness, has been 
continually checking, supplementing, and illustrating written history. 
It has called back to our upper air, as with a magician's wand, shapes 
and conditions that seemed to have been irrevocably lost in the night 
of Time. 

Thus evoked, moreover, the Past is often seen to hold a mirror to 
the Future — correcting wrong impressions — the result of some tem- 
porary revolution in the whirligig of Time — by the more permanent 
standard of abiding conditions, and affording in the solid evidence of 
past well-being the ' substance of things hoped for.' Nowhere, indeed, 
has this been more in evidence than in that vexed region between the 
Danube and the Adriatic, to-day the home of the Serbian race, to the 
antiquarian exploration of which many of the earlier years of my 
own life were devoted. 

What visions, indeed, do those investigations not recall! Imperial 
cities, once the seats of wide administration and of prolific mints, sunk 
to neglected villages, vestiges of great engineering works, bridges, 
aqueducts, or here a main line of ancient highway hardly traceable even 
as a track across the wilderness ! Or, again, the signs of medieval 
revival above the Eoman ruins — ^I'emains of once populous mining 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 5 

centres scattered along the lone hillside, the shells of stately churches 
with the effigies, bullet-starred now, of royal founders, once champions 
of Christendom against the Paynim — nay, the actual relics of great 
rulers, lawgivers, national heroes, still secreted in half-ruined monastic 
retreats ! 

Sunt lacrimce rerum et mentern mortalia tangunt : 
Even the archaeologist incurs more human debts, and the evocation 
of the Past carries with it living responsibihties ! 

It will be found, moreover, that such investigations have at times 
a very practical bearing on future developments. In connexion with 
the traces of Eoman occupation I have recently, indeed, had occasion 
to point out ^ that the section of the great Roman road that connected 
the Valleys of the Po and Save across the lowest pass of the Julians, 
and formed part of the main avenue of communication between the 
Western and the Eastern provinces of the Empire, has only to be 
restored in railway shape to link together a system of not less value 
to ourselves and our Alhes. For we should thus secure, via the 
Simplon and Northern Italy, a new and shorter Overland Route to 
the East, in friendly occupation throughout, which is to-day diverted 
by unnatural conditions past Vienna and Budapest. At a time when 
Europe is parcelled out by less cosmopolitan interests the evidence of 
Antiquity here restores the true geographical perspective. 

Whole provinces of ancient history would lie beyond our ken — often 
through the mere loss of the works of classical authors — were it not 
for the results of archseological i-esearch. At other times again it has 
redressed the balance where certain aspects of the Ancient World 
have been brought into unequal prominence, it may be, by mere acci- 
dents of literary style. Even if we take the Greek World, generally 
so rich in its literary sources, how comparatively little should we know 
of its brilliant civiHsation as illustrated by the great civic foundations 
of Magna Graecia and Sicily if we had to depend on its written sources 
alone. But the noble monuments of those regions, the results of 
excavation, the magnificent coinage — a sum of evidence illustrative in 
turn of pubhc and private hfe, of Art and Religion, of politics and of 
economic conditions — have gone far to supply the lacuna. 

Look, too, at the history of the Roman Empire — how defective and 
misleading in many departments are the literary records ! It has been 
by methodical researches into evidence such as the above — notably in 
the epigraphic field — that the most trustworthy results have been 
worked out. 

Take the case of Roman Britain. Had the lost books of Ammianus 

* ' The Adriatic Slavs and the Overland Route to Constantinople.' 
Geographical Journal, 1916, p. 241 aeqq. 



6 president's address. 

relating to Britain been preserved we might have had, in his rugged 
style, some partial sketch of the Province as it existed in the age of 
its most complete Eomanisation. As it is, so far as historians are 
concerned, we are left in almost complete darkness. Here, again, it 
is through archeeological research that light has penetrated, and thanks 
to the thoroughness and persistence of our own investigators, town 
sites such as Silchester in Eoman Britain have been more completely 
uncovered than those of any other Province.* Nor has any part of 
Britain supplied more important contributions in this field than the 
region of the Eoman Wall, that great limitary work between the Solway 
and the mouth of the Tyne that once marked the Northernmost 
European barrier of civilised dominion. 

Speaking here, on the site of Hadrian's bridge-head station that 
formed its Eastern key, it would be impossible for me not to pay a 
passing tribute, however inadequate, to the continuous work of explora- 
tion and research carried out by the Society of Antiquaries of New- 
castle, now for over a hundred years in existence, worthily seconded 
by its sister Society on the Cumbrian side, and of which the volumes of 
the respective Proceedings and Transactions, Archceologia Mliana, and 
last but not least the Lapidarium Sepientrionale, are abiding records. 
The basis of methodical study was here the Survey of the Wall carried 
out, together with that of its main military approach, the Wathng 
Street, by MacLauchlan, under the auspices of Algernon, fourth Duke 
of Northumberland. And who, however lightly touching on such a 
theme, can overlook the services of the late Dr. CoUingwood Bruce, 
the Grand Old Man, not only of the Wall itself, but of all pertaining to 
Border Antiquities, distinguished as an investigator for his scholarship 
and learning, whose lifelong devotion to his subject and contagious 
enthusiasm made the Eoman Wall, as it had never been before, a 
household word? 

New points of view have arisen, a stricter method and a greater 
subdivision of labour have become imperative in this as in other depart- 
ments of research. We must, therefore, rejoice thet local explorers 
have more and more availed themselves of the co-operation, and 
welcomed the guidance of those equipped with comparative knowledge 
drawn from other spheres. The British Vallum, it is now reahsed, 
must be looked at with perpetual reference to other frontier lines, such 
as the Germanic or the Ehaetian limes ; local remains of every kind 
have to be correlated with similar discoveries throughout the length 
and breadth of the Eoman Empire. 

This attitude in the investigation of the remains of Eoman Britain — 
the promotion of which owes so much to the energy and experience of 
Professor Haverfield — has in recent years conducted excavation to 
' See Haverfield : Roman Britain in 1913, p. 86. 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 7 

specially valuable results. The work at Corbridge, the ancient 
Corstopitum, begun in 1906, and continued down to the autumn of 
1914, has already uncovered throughout a great part of its area the 
largest urban centre — civil as well as military in character — on the line 
of the Wall, and the principal store-base of its stations. Here, together 
with well-built granaries, workshops, and barracks, and such records of 
civic life as are supplied by sculptured stones and inscriptions, and the 
double discovery of hoards of gold coins, has come to light a spacious 
and massively constructed stone building, apparently a military store- 
house, worthy to rank beside the bridge-piers of the North Tyne, among 
the most imposing monuments of Eoman Britain. There is much 
here, indeed, to carry our thoughts far beyond our insular limits. On 
this, as on so many other sites along the Wall, the inscriptions and 
reliefs take us very far afield. We mark the grave-stone of a man of 
Palmyra, an altar ol the Tyrian Hercules — its Phcenician Baal — a 
dedication to a pantheistic goddess of Syrian religion and the rayed 
effigy of the Persian Mithra. So, too, in the neighbourhood of New- 
castle itself, as elsewhere on the Wall, there was found an altar 
of Jupiter Dolichenus, the old Anatolian God of the Double Axe, the 
male form of the divinity once worshipped in the prehistoric Labyrinth 
of Crete. Nowhere are we more struck than in this remote extremity 
of the Empire with the heterogeneous religious elements, often drawn 
from its far Eastern borders, that before the days of the final advent of 
Christianity, Eoman dominion had been instrumental in diffusing. The 
Orontes may be said to have flowed into the Tyne as well as the Tiber. 

I have no pretension to follow up the various affluents merged in the 
later course of Greco-Eoman civilisation, as illustrated by these and 
similar discoveries throughout the Eoman Woi'ld. My own recent 
researches have been particularly concerned with the much more ancient 
cultural stage — that of prehistoric Crete — which leads up to the Greco- 
Eoman, and which might seem to present the problem of origins at any 
rate in a less complex shape. The marvellous Minoan civilisation that 
has there come to light shows that Crete of four thousand years ago 
must unquestionably be regarded as the birth-place of our European 
civilisation in its higher form. 

But are we, even then, appreciably nearer to the fountain-head? 

A new and far more remote vista has opened out in recent years, 
and it is not too much to say that a wholly new standpoint has been 
gained from which to survey the early history of the human race. The 
investigations of a brilliant band of prehistoric archaeologists, with the 
aid of representatives of the sister sciences of Geology and Palagon- 
tology, have brought together such a mass of striking materials as to 
place the evolution of human art and appliances in the last Quaternary 
Period on a far higher level than had even been suspected previously. 



8 president's address. 

Following in the footsteps of Lartet and after him Eivi^re and Piette, 
Professors Cartailhac, Capitan, and Boule, the Abb6 Breuil, Dr. 
Obermeier and their fellow investigators have revolutionised our know- 
ledge of a phase of human culture which goes so far back beyond the 
limits of any continuous story that it may well 'be said to belong to an 
older World. 

To the engraved and sculptured works of Man in the ' Reindeer 
Period ' we have now to add not only such new specialities as are 
exemplified by the moulded clay figures of life-size bisons in the 
Tuc d'Audoubert Cave, or the similar high reliefs of a procession of 
six horses cut on the overhanging limestone brow of Cap Blanc, 
but whole galleries of painted designs on the walls of caverns and rock 
shelters. 

So astonishing was this last discovery, made first by the Spanish 
investigator Senor de Sautuola — or rather his little daughter — as long 
ago as 1878, that it was not till after it had been corroborated by 
repeated finds on the French side of the Pyrenees — not, indeed, till the 
beginning of the present century — that the Palaeolithic Age of these 
rock paintings was generally recognised. In their most developed 
stage, as illustrated by the bulk of the figures in the Cave of Altamira 
itself, and in those of Marsoulas in the Haute Garonne, and of Font de 
Gaume in the Dordogne, these primeval frescoes display not only a 
consummate mastery of natural design but an extraordinary technical 
resource. Apart from the charcoal used in certain outlines, the chief 
colouring matter was red and yellow ochre, mortars and palettes for the 
preparation of which have come to light. In single animals the tints 
are varied from black to dark and ruddy brown or brilliant orange, and 
so, by fine gi'adations, to paler nuances, obtained by scraping and wash- 
ing. Outlines and details are brought out by white incised lines, and 
the artists availed themselves with great skill of the reliefs afforded 
by convexities of the rock surface. But the greatest marvel of all is 
that such polychrome masterpieces as the bisons, standing and 
couchant, or with limbs huddled together, of the Altamira Cave, were 
executed on the ceilings of inner vaults and galleries where the light 
of day has never penetrated. Nowhere is there any trace of smoke, 
and it is clear that great progress in the art of artificial illumination had 
already been made. We now know that stone lamps, decorated in one 
case with the engraved head of an ibex, were already in existence. 

Such was the level of artistic attainment in South-Western Europe, 
at a modest estimate some ten thousand years earlier than the most 
ancient monuments of Egypt or Chaldaea ! Nor is this an isolated 
phenomenon. One by one, characteristics, both spiritual and material, 
that had been formerly thought to be the special marks of later ages 
of mankind have been shown to go back to that earlier World. I 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 9 

myself can never forget the impression produced on me as a privileged 
spectator of a freshly uncovered interment in one of the Balzi Eossi 
Caves — an impression subsequently confirmed by other experiences of 
similar discoveries in these caves, which together first supplied the 
concordant testimony of an elaborate cult of the dead on the part of 
Aurignacian Man. Tall skeletons of the highly -developed Cro-Magnon 
type lay beside or above their hearths, and protected by great stones 
from roving beasts. Flint knives and bone javehns had been placed 
within reach of their hands, chaplets and necklaces of sea-shells, fish- 
vertebrse, and studs of carved bone had decked their persons. With 
these had been set lumps of iron peroxide, the red stains of which 
appeared on skulls and bones, so that they might make a fitting show 
in the Under- world. 

' Colours, too, to paint his body, 
Place within his hand. 
That he glisten, bright and ruddy, 
In the Spirit-Land ! ' ^ 
Nor is it only in this cult of the departed that we trace the dawn 
of religious practices in that older World. At Cogul we may now survey 
the ritual dance of nine skirted women round a male Satyr-like figure 
of short stature, while at Alpera a gowned sister ministrant holds up 
ivhat has all the appearance of being a small idol. It can hardly be 
doubted that the small female images of ivory, steatite, and crystalhne 
talc from the same Aurignacian stratum as that of the Balzi Eossi 
interments, in which great prominence is given to the organs of 
maternity, had some fetichistic intention. So, too, many of the figures 
of animals engraved and painted on the inmost vaults of the caves may 
well have been due, as M. Salomon Eeinach has suggested, to the 
magical ideas prompted by the desire to obtain a hold on the quarries 
of the chase that supplied the means of livelihood. 

In a similar religious connexion may be taken the growth of a 
whole family of signs, in some cases obviously derivatives of fuller 
pictorial originals, but not infrequently simplified to such a degree that 
they resemble or actually reproduce letters of the alphabet. Often they 
occur in groups like regular inscriptions, and it is not surprising that 
in some quarters they should have been regarded as evidence that the 
art of writing had already been evolved by the men of the Eeindeer 
Age. A symbolic value certainly is to be attributed to these signs, and 
it must at least be admitted that by the close of the late Quaternary 
Age considerable advance had been made in hieroglyphic expression. 

The evidences of more or less continuous civilised development 
reaching its apogee about the close of the Magdalenian Period have been 

' Schiller, Nadowessier's Todtenlied. 



10 president's address. 

constantly emerging from recent discoveries. The recurring ' tecti- 
form ' sign had already clearly pointed to the existence of huts or 
wigwams; the ' scutiform ' and other types record appliances yet to 
be elucidated, and another sign well illustrated on a bone pendant from 
the Cave of St. Marcel has an unmistakable resemblance to a sledge.* 
But the most astonishing revelation of the cultural level already reached 
by primeval man has been supplied by the more recently discovered 
rock paintings of Spain. The area of discovery has now been extended 
there from the Province of Santander, where Altamira itself is 
situated, to the Valley of the Ebro, the Central Sierras, and to the 
extreme South-Eastern region, including the Provinces of Albacete, 
Murcia, and Almeria, and even to within the borders of Granada. 

One after another, features that had been reckoned as the exclusive 
property of Neolithic or later Ages are thus seen to have been shared 
by Palgeohthic Man in the final stage of his evolution. For the first 
time, moreover, we find the productions of his art rich in human sub- 
jects. At Cogul the sacral dance is performed by women clad from 
the waist downwards in well-cut gowns, while in a rock-shelter of 
Alpera,^ where we meet with the same skirted ladies, their dress is 
supplemented by flying sashes. On the rock painting of the Cueva 
de la Vieja, near the same place, women are seen with still longer 
gowns rising to their bosoms. We are already a long way from Eve ! 

It is this great Alpera fresco which, among all those discovered, 
has afforded most new elements. Here are depicted whole scenes of 
the chase in which bow-men — up to the time of these last discoveries 
unknown among Palaeolithic representations — take a leading part, 
though they had not as yet the use of quivers. Some are dancing in 
the attitude of the Australian Corroborees. Several wear plumed head- 
dresses, and the attitudes at times are extraordinarily animated. "What 
is specially remarkable is that some of the groups of these Spanish 
rock paintings show dogs or jackals accompanying the hunters, so that 
the process of domesticating animals had already begun. Hafted axes 
are depicted as well as cunningly-shaped throwing sticks. In one case 
at least we see two opposed bands of archers — marking at any rate a 
stage in social development in which organised warfare was possible — 
the beginnings, it is to be feared, of ' kultur ' as well as of culture ! 

Nor can there be any question as to the age of these scenes and 
figures, by themselves so suggestive of a much later phase of human 
history. They are inseparable from other elements of the same group, 

* This interpretation suggested by me after inspecting the object in 1902 
ha/s been approved by the Abbe Breuil {Anthropologie, XIII., p. 152) and by 
Prof. Sollas, Ancient Hunters,^ 1915, p. 480. 

" That of Carasoles del Bosque; Breuil, Anthrofologie, XXVI., 1915, 
p. 329 geqq. 



PRESroENT'S ADDRESS. 11 

the animal and symbolic representations of which are shared by the 
contemporary school of rock-painting north of the Pyrenees. Some 
are overlaid by palimpsests, themselves of Palaeolithic character. 
Among the animals actually depicted, moreover, the elk and bison 
distinctly belong to the Late Quaternary fauna of both regions, and 
are unknown there to the Neolithic deposits. 

In its broader aspects this field of human culture, to which, on the 
European side, the name of Eeindeer Age may still on the whole be 
applied, is now seen to have been very widespread. In Europe itself 
it permeates a large area — defined by the boundaries of glaciation — • 
from Poland, and even a large Eussian tract, to Bohemia, the upper 
course of the Danube and of the Ehine, to South- Western Britain and 
South-Eastern Spain. Beyond the Mediterranean, moreover, it fits on 
under varying conditions to a parallel form of culture, the remains of 
which are by no means confined to the Cis-Saharan zone, where incised 
figures occur of animals like the long-horned buffalo (Bubalus antiquus) 
and others long extinct in that region. This Southern branch may 
eventually be found to have a large extension. The nearest parallels to 
the finer class of rock-carvings as seen in the Dordogne are, in fact, to 
be found among the more ancient specimens of similar work in South 
Africa, while the rock-paintings of Spain find their best analogies among 
the Bushmen. 

Glancing at this Late Quaternary culture as a whole, in view of 
the materials supplied on the European side, it will not be superfluous 
for me to call attention to two important points which some observers 
have shown a tendency to pass over. 

Its successive phases, the Aurignacian, the Solutrean, and the 
Magdalenian, with its decadent Azilian offshoot — ^the order of which 
may now be regarded as stratigraphically established — represent on the 
whole a continuous story. 

I will not here discuss the question as to how far the disappearance 
of Neanderthal Man and the close of the Moustierian epoch represents 
a ' fault ' or gap. But the view that there was any real break in the 
course of the cultural history of the Eeindeer Age itself does not seem to 
have sufficient warrant. 

It is true that new elements came in from more than one direction. 
On the old Aurignacian area, which had a trans-Mediterranean exten- 
sion from Syria to Morocco, there intruded on the European side — 
apparently from the East — the Solutrean type of culture, with its per- 
fected flint-working and exquisite laurel-leaf points. Magdalenian 
Man, on the other hand, great as the proficiency that he attained in 
tha carving of horn and bone, was much behind in his flint-knapping. 
That there were dislocations and temporary set-backs is evident. But 
on every side we still note transitions and reminiscences. When, 



12 president's address. 

moreover, we turn to the most striking features of this whole cultural 
phase, the primeval arts of sculpture, engraving, and painting, we see 
a gradual upgrowth and unbroken tradition. From mere outline figures 
and simple two-legged profiles of animals we are led on step by step to 
the full freedom of the Magdalenian artists. From isolated or discon- 
nected subjects we watch the advance to large compositions, such as 
the hunting scenes of the Spanish rock-paintings. In the culminating 
phase of this art we even find impressionist works. A brilliant illus- 
tration of such is seen in the galloping herds of horses, lightly sketched 
by the engraver on the stone slab from the Chaumont Grotto, depicting 
the leader in each case in front of his troop, and its serried line — 
straight as that of a well-drilled battalion — in perspective rendering. 
The whole must be taken to be a faithful memory sketch of an exciting 
episode of prairie life. 

The other characteristic feature of the culture of the Eeindeer Age 
that seems to deserve special emphasis, and is almost the corollary of 
the foregoing, is that it cannot be regarded as the property of a single 
race. It is true that the finely built Cro-Magnon race seems to have 
predominated, and must be regarded as an element of continuity 
throughout, but the evidence of the co-existence of other human types 
is clear. Of the physical characteristics of these it is not my province 
to speak. Here it will be sufficient to point out that their interments, 
as well as their general associations, conclusively show that they shared, 
even in its details, the common culture of the Age, followed the same 
fashions, plied the same arts, and were imbued with the same beliefs 
as the Cro-Magnon folk. The negroid skeletons intercalated in the 
aiteresting succession of hearths end interments of the Grotte des 
Enfants at Grimaldi had been buried with the same rites, decked with 
the same shell ornaments, and were supplied with the same red 
colouring matter for use in the Spirit World, as we find in the other 
sepultures of these caves belonging to the Cro-Magnon race. Similar 
burial rites were associated in this country with the ' Eed Lady of 
Paviland,' the contemporary Aurignacian date of which is now well 
estabhshed. A like identity of funeral custom recurred again in the 
sepulture of a man of the ' Briinn ' race on the Eastern boundary of this 
field of culture. 

In other words, the conditions prevailing were analogous to 
those of modern Europe. Cultural features of the same general 
character had imposed themselves on a heterogeneous population. That 
there was a considerable amount of circulation, indeed — if not of primi- 
tive commerce — among the peoples of the Eeindeer Age is shown by 
the diffusion of shell or fossil ornaments derived from the Atlantic, 
the Mediterranean, or from inland geological strata. Art itself is less the 
property of one or another race than has sometimes been imagined — 



president's address. 13 

indeed, if we compare those products of the modern cai'ver's art that 
have most analogy with the horn and bone carvings of the Cave 
Men and rise at times to great excellence — as we see them, for instance, 
in Switzerland or Norway — they are often the work of races of very 
different physical types. The negroid contributions, at least in the 
Southern zone of this Late Quaternary field, must not be under- 
estimated. The early steatopygous images — such as some of these 
of the Balzi Eossi caves — may safely be regarded as due to this ethnic 
type, which is also pictorially represented in some of the Spanish rock- 
paintings. 

The nascent flame of primeval culture was thus already kindled 
in that Older World, and, so far as our present knowledge goes, it was 
in the South- Western part of our Continent, on either side of the 
Pyrenees, that it shone its brightest. After the great strides in humap 
progress already made at that remote epoch, it is hard, indeed, to under 
stand what it was that still delayed the rise of European civilisation in 
its higher shape. Yet it had to wait for its fulfilment through many 
millennia. The gathering shadows thickened and the darkness of a 
long night fell not on that favoured region alone, but throughout the 
wide area where Eeindeer Man had ranged. Still the question rises — 
as yet imperfectly answered — were there no relay runners to pass on 
elsewhere the lighted torch. ? 

Something, indeed, has been recently done towards bridging over the 
' hiatus ' that formerly separated the Neolithic from the Palaeolithic 
Age — the yawning gulf between two Worlds of human existence. The 
Azilian — a later decadent outgrowth of the preceding culture — which 
is now seen partially to fill the lacuna, seems to be in some respects 
an impoverished survival of the Aurignacian.* The existence of this 
phase was first established by the long and patient investigations of 
Piette in the stratified deposits of the Cave of Mas d'Azil in the Ariege, 
from which it derives its name, and it has been proved by recent dis- 
coveries to have had a wide extension. It affords evidence of a milder 
and moister climate — well illustrated by the abundance of the little wood 
snail (helix nemoralis) and the increasing tendency of the Eeindeer to die 
out in the Southern parts of the area, so that in the fabric of the 
characteristic harpoons deer-horns are used as substitutes. Artistic 
designs now fail us, but the polychrome technique of the preceding Age 
still survives in certain schematic and geometric figures, and in curious 
coloured signs on pebbles. These last first came to light in the Cave of 
Mas d'Azil, but they have now been found to recur much further afield 
in a similar association in grottoes from the neighbourhood of Basel to 
that of Salamanca. So like letters are some of these signs that the lively 

"Breuil, Congr. Prelnst. Geneva, 1912, p. 216 



14 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

imagination of Piette saw in them the actual characters of a primeval 
alphabet ! 

The little flakes with a worked edge often known as ' pygmy flints,' 
which were most of them designed for insertion into bone or horn har- 
poons, like some Neohthic examples, are very characteristic of this 
stratum, which is widely diffused in France and elsewhere under the 
misleading name of ' Tardenoisian. ' At Ofnet, in Bavaria, it is 
associated with a ceremonial skull burial showing the coexistence at that 
spot of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic types, both of a new 
character. In Britain, as we know, this Azilian, or a closely allied 
phase, is traceable as far North as the Oban Oaves. 

"What, however, is of special interest is the existence of a northern 
parallel to this cultural phase, first ascertained by the Danish investi- 
gator. Dr. Sarauw, in the Lake station of Maglemose, near the "West 
coast of Zealand. Here bone harpoons of the Azilian type occur, with 
bone and horn implements showing geometrical and rude animal en- 
gi'avings of a character divergent from the Magdalenian tradition. The 
settlement took place when what is now the Baltic was still the gi'eat 
' Ancylus Lake,' and the waters of the North Sea had not yet burst 
into it. It belongs to the period of the Danish pine and birch woods, 
and is shown to be anterior to the earliest shell mounds of the Kitchen- 
midden People, when the pine and the birch had given place to the oak. 
Similar deposits extend to Sweden and Norway, and to the Baltic 
Provinces as far as the Gulf of Finland. The parallel relationship of 
this culture is clear, and its remains are often accompanied with the 
characteristic ' pygmy' flints. Breuil, however,' while admitting the 
late Palaeolithic character of this northern branch, would bring it into 
relation with a vast Siberian and Altaic province, distinguished by the 
•widespread existence of rock-carvings of animals. It is interesting 
to note that a rock-engraving of a reindeer, very well stylised, from 
the Trondhjem Fjoi"d, which has been refeiTed to the Maglemosian 
phase, preserves the simple profile rendering — two legs only being 
visible — of Early Aurignacian tradition. 

It is worth noting that an art affiliated to that of the petroglyphs 
of the old Altaic region long survived in the figures of the Lapp troll- 
drums, and still occasionally lingers, as I have myself had occasion 
to observe, on the reindeer-horn spoons of the Finnish and Eussian 
Lapps, whose ethnic relationship, moreover, points east of the Ural. 
The existence of a Late Palaeolithic Province on the Eussian side is 
in any case now well recognised and itself supports the idea 
of a later shifting North and North-East, just as at a former period 

' ' Ees subdivisions du paleolithique siiperieur et leur signification.' — Congres 
intern. d'Anthrop. et d'Arcfieol. ■prihist., XlVme Sess., Geneve, 1912, 
pp. 165, 238. 



president's address. 15 

it had oscillated in a South-Western direction. All this must be regarded 
as corroborating the view long ago expressed by Boyd Dawkins ' that 
some part of the old Cave race may still be represented by the modern 
Eskimos. Testut's comparison of the short-statured Magdalenian skele- 
ton from the rock shelter of Chancelade in the Dordogne with that 
of an Eskimo certainly confirms this conclusion. 

On the other hand, the evidence, already referred to, of an exten- 
sion of the Late Palaeolithic culture to a North African zone, including 
rock-sculptures depicting a series of animals extinct there in the later 
Age, may be taken to favour the idea of a partial continuation on that 
side. Some of the early rock-sculptures in the south of the continent, 
such as the figure of a walking elephant reproduced by Dr. Peringuey, 
afford the cleai'est existing parallels to the best Magdalenian examples. 
There is much, indeed, to be said for the view, of which Sollas is an 
exponent, that the Bushmen, who at a more recent date entered that 
region from the North, and whose rock-painting attained such a high 
level of naturalist art, may themselves be taken as later representatives 
of the same tradition. In their human figures the resemblances 
descend even to conventional details, such as we meet with at Cogul 
and Alpera. Once more, we must never lose sight of the fact that from 
the Early Aurignacian Period onwards a negroid element in the broadest 
sense of the word shared in this artistic culture as seen on both sides 
of the Pyrenees. 

At least we now know that Cave Man did not suffer any sudden 
extinction, though on the European side, partly, perhaps, owing to 
the new climatic conditions, this culture underwent a marked degenera- 
tion. It may well be that, as the osteological evidence seems to imply, 
some outgrowth of the old Cro-Magnon type actually perpetuated 
itself in the Dordogne. We have certainly lengthened our knowledge 
of the Palaeolithic. But in the present state of the evidence it seems 
better to subscribe to Cartailhac's view that its junction with the 
Neolithic has not yet been reached. There does not seem to be any 
real continuity between the culture revealed at Maglemose and that of 
the immediately superposed Early Neolithic stratum of the shell- 
mounds, which, moreover, as has been already said, evidence a change 
both in climatic and geological conditions, implying a considerable 
interval of time. 

It is a commonplace of Archaeology that the culture of the Neolithic 
peoples throughout a large part of Central, Northern, and Western 
Europe — like the newly domesticated species possessed by them — is 
Eurasiatic in type. So, too, in Southern Greece and the iEgean 
World we meet with a form of Neolithic culture which must be essen- 
tially regarded as a prolongation of that of Asia Minor. 

' Early Man in Urllnin, 1880, p. 233 seqq. 



16 president's address. 

It is clear that it is on this Neolithic foundation that our later 
civilisation immediately stands. But in the constant chain of actions 
and reactions by which the history of mankind is bound together — 
short of the extinction of all concerned, a hypothesis in this case 
excluded— it is equally certain that no great human achievement is 
without its continuous effect. The more we realise the substantial 
amount of progress of the men of the Late Quaternary Age in arts and 
crafts and ideas, the more difficult it is to avoid the conclusion that 
somewhere ' at the back of behind ' — it may be by more than one route 
and on more than one continent, in Asia as well as Africa — actual links 
of connexion may eventually come to light. 

Of the origins of our complex European culture this much at 
least can be confidently stated : the earliest extraneous sources on 
which it drew lay respectively in two directions — in the Valley of the 
Nile on one side and in that of the Euphrates on the other. 

Of the high early culture in the lower Euphrates Valley our first 
real knowledge has been due to the excavations of De Sarzec in the 
Mounds of Tello, the ancient Lagash. It is now seen that the civili- 
sation that we call Babylonian, and which was hitherto known under 
its Semitic guise, was really in its main features an inheritance from 
the earlier Sumerian race — culture in this case once more dominating 
nationality. Even the laws which Hammurabi traditionally received 
from the Babylonian Sun God were largely modelled on the reforms 
enacted a thousand years earlier by his predecessor, Urukagina, and 
ascribed by him to the inspiration of the City God of Lagash.' It 
is hardly necessary to insist on the later indebtedness of our civilisation 
to this culture in its Semitised shape, as passed on, together with other 
more purely Semitic elements, to the Mediterranean "World through 
Syria, Canaan, and Phoenicia, or by way of Assyria, and by means of 
the increasing hold gained on the old Hittite region of Anatolia. 

Even beyond the ancient Mesopotamian region which was the focus 
of these influences, the researches of De Morgan, Gautier, and Lampre, 
of the French ' Delegation en Perse,' have opened up another inde- 
pendent field, revealing a nascent civilisation equally ancient, of which 
Elam — the later Susiana — was the centre. Still further afield, more- 
over — some three hundred miles east of the Caspian— the interesting 
investigations of the Pumpelly Expedition in the mounds of Anau, 
near Ashkabad in Southern Turkestan, have brought to light a parallel 
and related culture. The painted Neolithic sherds of Anau, with their 
geometrical decoration, similar to contemporary ware of Elam, have 
suggested wide comparisons with the painted pottery of somewhat later 
date found in Cappadocia and other parts of Anatolia, as well as in 
the North Syrian regions. It has, moreover, been reasonably asked 
' See L. W. King, History of Sumer and Akkad, p. 184. 



president's address. 17 

whether another class of painted Neohthic fabrics, the traces of which 
extend across the Steppes of Southern Russia, and, by way of that 
ancient zone of migration, to the lower Danube and Northern Greece, 
may not stand in some original relation to the same ancient Province. 
The new discoveries, however, in the mounds of Elam and Anau 
have at most a bearing on the primitive phase of culture in parts 
of South-E astern Europe that preceded the age when metal was 
generally in use. 

Turning to the Nile Valley wie are again confronted with an extra- 
ordinary revolution in the whole point of view effected during recent 
years. Thanks mainly to the methodical researches initiated by 
Flinders Petrie, we are able to look back beyond the Dynasties to the 
very beginnings of Egyptian civilisation. Already by the closing phase 
of the Neolithic and by the days of the first incipient use of metals 
the indigenous population had attained an extraordinarily high level. 
If on the one hand it displays Libyan connexions, on the other we 
already note the evidences of commercial intercourse with the Eed 
Sea; and the constant appearance of large rowing vessels in the 
figured designs shows that the Nile itself was extensively used for 
navigation. Flint-working was carried to unrivalled perfection, and 
special artistic refinement was displayed in the manufacture of vessels 
of variegated breccia and other stones. The antecedent stages of many 
Egyptian hieroglyphs are already traceable, and the cult of Egyptian 
divinities, like Min, was already practised. Whatever ethnic changes 
may have marked the establishment of Pharaonic rule, here, too, the 
salient features of the old indigenous culture were taken over by the 
new rdgime. This early Dynastic period itself has also received 
entirely new illustration from the same researches, and the freshness 
and force of its artistic works in many respects outshine anything pro- 
duced in the later course of Egyptian history. 

The continuity of human tradition as a whole in areas geographically 
connected like Eurafrica on the one side and Eurasia on the other has 
been here postulated. Since, as we have seen, the Late Palaeolithic 
culture was not violently extinguished but shows signs of survival 
both North and South, we are entitled to trace elements of direct deriva- 
tion from this source among the inherited acquirements that finally 
led up to the higher forms of ancient civilisation that arose on the Nile 
and the Euphrates. In many directions, we may believe, the flaming 
torch had been carried on by the relay runners. 

But what, it niay ibe asked, of Greece itself, where human culture 
reached its highest pinnacle in the Ancient World and to which we 
look as the principal source of our own civilisation? 

Till within recent years it seemed almost a point of honour for 
classical scholars to regard Hellenic civilisation as a Wonder-Child, 

1916 c 



18 president's address. 

sprung, like Athena herself, fully panoplied from the head of Zeus. The 
indebtedness to Oriental sources was either regarded as comparatively 
late or confined to such definite borrowings as the alphabet or certain 
weights and measures. Egypt, on the other hand, at least till Alex- 
andrine times, was looked on as something apart, and it must be said 
that Egyptologists on their side were only too anxious to preserve 
their sanctum from profane contact. 

A truer perspective has now been opened out. It has been made 
abundantly clear that the rise of Hellenic civilisation was itself part of 
a wider economy and can be no longer regarded as an isolated pheno- 
menon. Indirectly, its relation to the greater World and to the 
ancient centres to the South and East has been now established 
by its affiliation to the civilisation of prehistoric Crete and by the 
revelation of the extraordinarily high degree of proficiency that was 
there attained in almost all departments of human art and industry. 
That Crete itself — the ' Mid-Sea land,' a kind of halfway house between 
three continents — should have been the cradle of our European civilisa- 
tion was, in fact, a logical consequence of its geographical position. 
An outher of Mainland Greece, almost opposite the mouths of the 
Nile, primitive intercourse between Crete and the further shores of 
the Libyan Sea was still further facilitated by favourable winds and 
currents. In the Eastern direction, on the other hand, island stepping- 
stones brought it into easy communication with the coast of Asia Minor, 
with which it was actually connected in late geological times. 

But the extraneous influences that were here operative from a 
remote period encountered on the island itself a primitive indigenous 
culture that had grown up there from immemorial time. In view of 
some recent geological calculations, such as those of Baron De Geer, 
who by counting the number of layers of mud in Lake Eagunda has 
reduced the ice-free period in Sweden to 7,000 years, it will not be 
superfluous to emphasise the extreme antiquity that seems to be indi- 
cated for even the later Neolithic in Crete. The Hill of Knossos, upon 
which the remains of the brilliant Minoan civilisation have found their 
most striking revelation, itself resembles in a large part of its com- 
position a great mound or Tell — like those of Mesopotamia or Egypt — 
formed of layer after layer of human deposits. But the remains of the 
whole of the later Ages represented down to the earliest Minoan period 
(which itself goes back to a time contemporary with the early Dynasties 
of Egypt — at a moderate estimate to 3400 B.C.) occupy considerably 
less than a half — 19 feet, that is, out of a total of over 45. Such 
calculations can have only a relative value, but, even if we assume 
a more rapid accumulation of debris for the Neolithic strata and deduct 
a third from our calculation, they would still occupy a space of over 
3,400 years, giving a total antiquity of some 9,000 years from the present 



president's address. 19 

time.'" No Neolithic section in Europe can compare in extent with 
that of Knossos, which itself can be divided by the character of its 
contents into an Early, Middle, and Late phase. But its earliest 
stratum already shows the culture in an advanced stage, with carefully 
ground and polished axes and finely burnished pottery. The beginnings 
of Cretan Neolithic must go back to a still more remote antiquity. 

The continuous history of the Neolithic Age is carried back at 
Knossos to an earUer epoch .than is represented in the deposits of its 
geographically related areas on the Greek and Anatolian side. But 
sufficient materials for comparison exist to show that the Cretan branch 
belongs to a vast Province of primitive culture that extended from 
Southern Greece and the ^gean islands throughout a wide region of 
Asia Minor and probably still further afield. 

An interesting characteristic is the appearance in the Knossian 
deposits of clay images of squatting female figures of a pronouncedly 
steatopygous conformation and with hands on the breasts. These in 
turn fit on to a large family of similar images which recur throughout 
the above area, though elsewhere they are generally known in their 
somewhat developed stage, showing a tendency to be ti'anslated into 
stone, and finally — perhaps under extraneous influences both from the 
North and East — taking a more extended attitude. These clearly 
stand in a parallel relationship to a whole family of figures with the 
organs of maternity strongly developed that characterise the Semitic 
lands and which seem to have spread from there to Sumeria and to the 
seats of the Anau culture. 

At the same time this steatopygous family, which in other parts of 
the Mediterranean basin ranges from prehistoric Egypt and Malta to 
the North of Mainland Greece, calls up suggestive reminiscences of the 
similar images of Aurignacian Man. It is especially interesting to 
note that in Crete, as in the AnatoHan region where these primitive 
images occur, the worship of a Mother Goddess predominated in later 
times, generally associated with a divine Child — a worship which later 
survived in a classical guise and influenced all later religion. Another 
interesting evidence of the underlying reUgious community between 
Crete and Asia Minor is the diffusion in both areas of the cult of the 
Double Axe. This divine symbol, indeed, or 'Labrys,' became the 
special emblem of the Palace sanctuary of Knossos itself, which owes 
to it its traditional name of Labyrinth. I have already called attention 
to the fact that the absorptive and disseminating power of the Roman 
Empire brought the cult of a male form of the divinity of the Double 
Axe to the Roman Wall and to the actual site on which Newcastle 
stands. 

The fact sfiould never be left out of sight that the gifted indigenous 

" For a fuller statement I must refer to my forthcoming work. The Nine 
Minoan Periods (Macmillans), Vol. T. : Neolithic Section. 

c 2 



20 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

stock which in Crete eventually took to itself on one hand and the other 
so many elements of exotic culture was still deep-rooted in its own. 
It had, moreover, the advantages of an insular people in taking what 
it wanted and no more. Thus it was stimulated by foreign influences 
but never dominated by them, and there is nothing here of the servility 
of Phoenician art. Much as it assimilated, it never lost its independent 
tradition. 

It is interesting to note that the first quickening impulse came to 
Crete from the Egyptian and not from the Oriental side — the Eastern 
factor, indeed, is of comparatively late appearance. My own researches 
have led me to the definite conclusion that cultural influences were 
already reaching Crete from beyond the Libyan Sea before the beginning 
of the Egyptian Dynasties. These primitive influences are attested, 
amongst other evidences, by the forms of stone vessels, by the same 
aesthetic tradition in the selection of materials distinguished by their 
polychromy, by the appearance of certain symbolic signs, and the sub- 
jects of shapes and seels which go back to prototypes in use among 
the ' Old Race ' of the Nile Valley. The impression of a very active 
agency indeed is so strong that the possibility of some actual 
immigration into the island of the older Egyptian element, due to the 
conquests of the first Pharaohs, cannot be excluded. 

The continuous influence of Dynastic Egypt from its earliest period 
onwards is attested both by objects of import and their indigenous 
imitations, and an actual monument of a Middle Empire Egyptian 
was found in the Palace Court at Knossos. More surprising still are 
the cumulative proofs of the reaction of this early Cretan civilisation 
on Egypt itself, as seen not only in the introduction there of such 
beautiful Minoan fabrics as the elegant polychrome vases, but in the 
actual impress observable on Egyptian Art even on its religious side. 
The Egyptian griffin is fitted with Minoan wings. So, too, on the 
other side we see the symbols of Egyptian religion impressed into the 
service of the Cretan Nature Goddess, who in certain i-espects was 
partly assimilated with Hathor, the Egyptian Cow-Goddess of the 
Underworld. 

My own most recent investigations have more and more brought 
home to me the all-pervading community between Minoan Crete and 
the land of the Pharaohs. When we realise the great indebtedness 
of the succeeding classical culture of Greece to its Minoan predecessor 
the full significance of this conclusion will be understood. Ancient 
Egypt itself can no longer be regarded as something apart from general 
human history. Its influences are seen to lie about the veiy cradle 
of our own civilisation. 

The high early culture, the equal rival of that of Egypt and Baby- 
lonia, which thus began to take its rise in Crete in the tenth millennium 



president's address. 21 

before our era, flourished for some two thousand years, eventually 
dominating the ^gean and a large part of the Mediterranean basin. 
To the civilisation as a whole I ventured, from the name of the legendary 
King and law-giver of Crete, to apply the name of ' Minoan,' which has 
received general acceptance ; and it has been possible now to divide its 
course into three Ages— Early, Middle, and Late, answering roughly to 
the successive Egyptian Kingdoms, and each in turn with a triple sub- 
division. 

It is difficult indeed in a few words to do adequate justice to this 
earliest of European civilisations. Its achievements are too manifold. 
The many-storeyed palaces of the Minoan priest-kings in their great 
days, by their ingenious planning, their successful combination of the 
useful with the beautiful and stately, and, last but not least, by their 
scientific sanitary arrangements, far outdid the similar works, on 
however vast a scale, of Egyptian or Babylonian builders. What is 
more, the same skilful and commodious construction recurs in a whole 
series of private mansions and smaller dwellings throughout the island. 
Outside ' broad Knossos ' itself, flourishing towns sprang up far and 
wide on the country sides. New and refined crafts were developed, 
some of them, like that of the inlaid metal-work, unsurpassed in any 
age or country. Artistic skill, of course, reached its acme in the 
great palaces themselves, the corridors, landings, and porticoes of 
which were decked with wall paintings and high reliefs, showing in the 
treatment of animal life not only an extraordinary grasp of Nature, 
but a grandiose power of composition such as the world had never seen 
before. Such were the great bull-grappling reliefs of the Sea Gate at 
Knossos and the agonistic scenes of the great Palace hall. 

The modernness of much of the Hfe here revealed to us is astonish- 
ing. The elaboration of the domestic arrangements, the staircases 
storey above storey, the front places given to the ladies at shows, their 
fashionable flounced robes and jackets, the gloves sometimes seen on 
their hands or hanging from their folding chairs, their very mannerisms 
as seen on the frescoes, pointing their conversation with animated 
gestures— how strangely out of place would it all appear in a classical 
design! Nowhere, not even at Pompeii, have more living pictures 
of ancient life been called up for us than in the Minoan Palace 
of Knossos. The touches supplied by its closing scene are singularly 
'dramatic— the little bath-room opening out of the Queen's parlour, 
with its painted clay bath, the royal draught-board flung down in the 
court, the vessels for anointing and the oil-jar for their filling ready 
to hand by the throne of the Priest-King, with the benches of his 
Consistory round and the sacral griffins on either side. Eeligion, 
indeed, entered in at every turn. The palaces were also temples, the 
tomb a shrine of the Great Mother. It was perhaps owing to the 



22 fEESlDENT's ADDRESS. 

religious control of art that among all the Minoan representations — 
now to be numbered by thousands — no single example of indecency 
has come to light. 

A remarkable feature of this Minoan civilisation cannot be passed 
over. I remember that at the Liverpool Meeting of this Association in 
1896 — just before the first results of the new discoveries in Crete were 
known — a distinguished archaeologist took as the subject of an evening 
lecture ' Man before Writing,' and, as a striking example of a high cul- 
ture attained by ' Analfabeti,' singled out that of Mycenae — a late off- 
shoot, as we know now, from Minoan Crete. To such a conclusion, 
based on negative evidence, I confess I could never subscribe — for had 
not even the people of the Eeindeer Age attained to a considerable profi- 
ciency in expression by means of symbolic signs ? To-day we are able 
to trace the gradual evolution on Cretan soil of a complete system of 
writing from its earliest pictographic shape, through a conventionalised 
hieroglyphic to a linear stage of great perfection. In addition to inscribed 
sealings and other records some two thousand clay tablets have now 
come to light, mostly inventories or contracts; for though the script 
itself is still undeciphered the pictorial figures that often appear on 
these documents supply a valuable clue to their contents. The numera- 
tion also is clear, with figures representing sums up to 10,000. The 
inscribed sealings, signed, counter -marked, and counter-signed by con- 
trolling officials, give a high idea of the elaborate machinery of Govern- 
ment and Administration under the Minoan rulers. 

The minutely organised legal conditions to which this points con- 
firm the later traditions of Minos, the great law-giver of prehistoric 
Crete, who, like Hammurabi and Moses, was said to have received the 
law from the God of the Sacred Mountain. The clay tablets them- 
selves were certainly due to Oriental influences, which make themselves 
perceptible in Crete at the beginning of the Late Minoan Age, and may 
have been partly resultant from the reflex action of Minoan colonisation 
in Cyprus. From this time onwards Eastern elements are more and 
more traceable in Cretan culture, and are evidenced by such phenomena 
as the introduction of chariots — themselves perhaps more remotely of 
Aryan-Iranian derivation — and by the occasional use of cylinder seals. 

Simultaneously with its Eastern expansion, which affected the coast 
of Phoenicia and Palestine as well as Cyprus, Minoan civilisation now 
took firm hold of Mainland Greece, while traces of its direct influence 
are found in the West Mediterranean basin — in Sicily, the Balearic 
Islands, and Spain. At the time of the actual Conquest and during 
the immediately succeeding period the civilisation that appears at 
Mycenge and Tiryns, at Thebes and Orchomenos, and at other centres 
of Mainland Greece, though it seems to have brought with it some 
already assimilated Anatolian elements, is still in the broadest sense 



president's address. 23 

Minoan. It is only at a later stage that a more provincial offshoot 
came into being to which the name Mycenaean can be properly applied. 
But it is clear that some vanguard at least of the Aryan Greek immi- 
grants came into contact with this high Minoan culture at a tim^e 
when it was still in its most flourishing condition. The evidence of Homer 
itself is conclusive. Arms and armour described in the poems are 
those of the Minoan prime, the fabled shield of Achilles, like that of 
Herakles described by Hesiod, with its elaborate scenes and variegated 
metal- work, reflects the masterpieces of Minoan craftsmen in the full 
vigour of their art ; the very episodes of epic combat receive their best 
illustration on the signets of the great days of Mycenae. Even the 
lyre to which the minstrel sang was a Minoan invention. Or, if we 
turn to the side of religion, the Greek temple seems to have sprung 
from a Minoan hall, its earliest pediment schemes are adaptations from 
the Minoan tympanum— such as we see in the Lions' Gate — ^the most 
archaic figures of the Hellenic Goddesses, like the Spartan Orthia, 
have the attributes and" attendant animals of the great Minoan Mother. 

Some elements of the old culture were taken over on the soil of 
Hellas. Others which had been crushed out in their old centres sur- 
vived in the more Eastern shores and islands formerly dominated by 
Minoan civilisation, and were carried back by Phoenician or Ionian 
intermediaries to their old homes. In spite of the overthrow which 
about the twelfth century before our era fell on the old Minoan 
dominion and the onrush of the new conquerors from the North, much 
of the old tradition still survived to form the base for the fabric of the 
later civilisation of Greece. Once more, through the darkness, the 
lighted torch was earned on, the first glimmering flame of which had 
been painfully kindled by the old Cave dwellers in that earlier Palfeo- 
lithic World. 

The Eoman Empire, which in turn appropriated the heritege that 
Greece had received from Minoan Crete, placed civilisation on a broader 
basis by welding together heterogeneous ingredients and promoting 
a cosmopolitan ideal. If even the primeval culture of the Eeindeer Age 
embraced more than one race and absorbed extraneous elements from 
many sides, how much more is that the case with our own which grew 
out of the Greco-Eoman ! Civilisation in its higher form to-day, though 
highly complex, forms essentially a unitary mass. It has no longer 
to be sought out in separate luminous centres, shining like planets 
through the suiTOunding night. Still less is it the property of one 
privileged country or people. Many as are the tongues of mortal men, 
its votaries, like the Immortals, speak a single language. Throughout 
the whole vast area illumined by its quickening rays, its workers 
are interdependent, and pledged to a common cause. 

We, indeed, who are met here to-day to promote in a special way 



24 president's address. 

the Cause of Truth and Knowledge, have never had a more austere 
duty set before us. I know that our ranks are thinned. How many 
of those who would otherwise be engaged in progressive research have 
been called away for their country's service! How many who could 
least be spared were called to return no more ! Scientific intercourse 
is broken, and its cosmopolitan character is obscured by the death 
struggle in which whole Continents are locked. The concentration, 
moreover, of the Nation and of its Government on immediate ends has 
distracted it from the urgent reforms called for by the very evils that 
are the root cause of many of the greatest difficulties it has had to 
overcome. It is a lamentable fact that beyond any nation of the West 
the bulk of our people remains sunk not in comparative ignorance 
only — for that is less difficult to overcome — but in intellectual apathy. 
The dull incuria of the parents is reflected in the children, and the 
desire for the acquirement of knowledge in our schools and colleges 
is appreciably less than elsewhere. So, too, with the scientific side of 
education, it is not so much the actual amount of Science taught that 
is in question — insufficient as that is — as the instillation of the scientific 
spirit itself — the perception of method, the sacred thirst for investiga- 
tion. 

But can we yet despair of the educational future of a people that 
has risen to the full height of the great emergency with which they 
were confronted? Can we doubt that, out of the crucible of fiery trial, 
a New England is already in the moulding ? 

We must ell bow before the hard necessity of the moment. Of 
much we cannot judge. Great patience is demanded. But let us, who 
still have the opportunity of doing so, at least prepare for the even 
more serious struggle that must ensue against the enemy in our midst, 
that gnaws our vitals. We have to deal with ignorance, apathy, the 
non-scientific mental attitude, the absorption of popular interest in 
sports and amusements. 

And what, meanwhile, is the attitude of those in power — of our 
Govei'nment, still more of our permanent officials ? A cheap epigram is 
worn threadbare in order to justify the ingrained distrust of expert., in 
other words of scientific, advice on the part of our public offices. We 
hear, indeed, of 'Commissions' and 'Enquiries,' but the inveterate 
attitude of our rulers towards the higher interests that we are here to 
promote is too clearly shown by a single episode. It is those higher 
interests that are the first to be thrown to the wolves. All are agreed that 
special treasures should be stored in positions of safety, but at a time 
when it might have been thought desirable to keep open every avenue 
of popular instruction and of intelligent diversion, the galleries of our 
National Museum at Bloomsbury were entirely closed for the sake of the 
paltriest saving — ^three minutes, it was calculated — of the cost of the 



president's address. 25 

War to the British Treasury ! That some, indeed, were left open else- 
where was not so much due to the enlightened sympathy of our politi- 
cians, as to their alarmed interests in view of the volume of intelligent 
protest. Our friends and neighbours across the Channel, under incom- 
parably greater stress, have acted in a very different spirit. 

It will be a hard straggle for the friends of Science and Education, 
and the air is thick with mephitic vapours. Perhaps the worst 
economy to which we are to-day reduced by our former lack of pre- 
paredness is the economy of Truth. Heaven knows ! — it may be a 
necessary penalty. But its results are evil. Vital facts that concern 
our national well-being, others that even affect the cause of a lasting 
Peace, are constantly suppressed by official action. The negative 
character of the process at work which conceals its operation from the 
masses makes it the more insidious. We live in a murky atmosphere 
amidst the suggestion of the false, and there seems to be a real danger 
that the recognition of Truth as itself a Tower of Strength may suffer 
an eclipse. 

It is at such a time and under these adverse conditions that we, 
whose object it is to promote the Advancement of Science, are called 
upon to act. It is for us to see to it that the lighted torch handed 
down to us from the Ages shall be passed on with a still brighter flame. 
Let us champion the cause of Education, in the best sense of the word, 
as having regard to its spiritual as well as its scientific side. Let us 
go forward with our own tasks, unflinchingly seeking for the Truth, 
confident that, in the eternal dispensation, each successive generation 
of seekers may approach nearer to the goal. 

MAGNA EST VERITAS, ET PR^VALEBIT. 




EBPOETS 



STATE OF SCIENCE. 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Seismological Investigations. — Twenty-first Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor H. H. Tubnee (Chairman), 
Mr. J. J. Shaw (Secretary), Mr. C. Vernon Boys, Dr. J. E. 
Crombib, Mr. Horace Darwin, Mr. C. Davison, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Dr. K. T. Glazebrook, Professor C. G. Knott, 
Professor H. Lamb, Sir J. Larmor, Professor A. E. H. Love, 
Dr. H. M. Macdonald, Professor J. Perry, Mr. W. E. 
Plummbr, Professor H. C. Plummer, Dr. E. A. Sampson, 
Professor A. Schuster, Sir N.\pier Shaw, Dr. G. T. 
Walker, and Dr. G. W. Walker. 

[Plate I.— Fig. 5.] 

CONTENTS. PAGE 

I. Personal 29 

II. General Notes and Bulletins 30 

III. Diurnal Wanderings of the Trace . 30 

IV. Suggested Device for Avoiding Loss of Traces 32 

V. A Simple Device for the Better Timing of Seismograms . . . .33 

VI. Ledgers for each Station .... 33 

VII. The Stereographic Method of Finding an Epicentre 35 

VIII. Dr. Klotz's Tables 38 

IX. Tables for P and S at Distaiices exceeding 110° — Suggestion of Essential 

Change in Tables near Epicentre 39 

X. General Preliminary Discussion of the 1914 Results 53 

I. Personal. 

The Committee has to lament the loss by death of Mr. M. H. Gray, 
Professor J. W. Judd, and Professor R. Meldola. The former was on 
many occasions a generous supporter of Professor Milne's pioneer work; 
the extension of the Milne Earthquake Observatory at Shide was ren- 
dered possible by his aid; and his gift of 1,000Z. founded the Gray 
Fund. Professor Judd was Chairman of the Committee from 1899 to 
1906 (Fourth to Eleventh Eeports). It is impossible to open this Eeport 
without a brief reference to the great loss to Seismology in the recent 
death of Prince Galitzin. Had circumstances been more propitious, he 
was to have been in England this summer as Halley Lecturer at 
Oxford. But the war threw a great deal of responsible work upon 
him : indeed, it seems probable that the strain may have been too great. 
His invaluable services to Seismology are too well known to need 
comment. 

At the last meeting of the Committee (Manchester, September 8, 
1915) Professor J. Perry resigned the office of Secretary, which he had 
kindly filled temporarily, on the emergency caused by the death of 
Professor Milne. Mr. J. J. Shaw was elected Secretary. He has 
during the past year shared with the Chairman the visits of superin- 



30 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

tendence to Shide, and has been unsparing in his devotion to the work 
of improving the Milne machines and the instrumental equipment 
generally. 

II. General Notes and Bulletins. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed with a grant of 60Z. , in 
addition to the annual grant of lOOL from the Caird Fund already voted, 
and VOL for printing expenses. The annual budget was given in the 
last Report and has remained essentially the same. The Government 
Grant Fund administered by the Royal Society has voted a subsidy of 
200Z. for 1916 as in recent years. 

Mr. Burgess is still in direct charge of the work at Shide, though he 
has met various difficulties during the year. His time is divided in 
about equal parts between Seismology and his business as a printer. 
The departure of his printing staff for the war made it uncertain whether 
he would be able to continue this arrangement. Fortunately he has 
found a means of doing so, at any rate for the present ; and what 
threatened to be a critical situation has thus been tided over. Mr. Pring 
continues his work without change; but Miss Pring has been called 
away to other work in London. Her place has been taken by Miss 
Caws. 

The Shide Bulletins were printed and distributed up to December 
1914 ; but on the outbreak of war the material which came to hand 
became so scanty that it seemed doubtful whether the immediate con- 
tinuation would be profitable. It seemed possible that further informa- 
tion might come in later, and these hopes have now been partly realised, 
especially as regards Russian stations. Meantime attention was turned 
to the discussion of the records for 1913. which had been printed in 
the earlier bulletins without discussion of epicentre, though collected 
under the separate earthquakes (instead of, as in the Shide ' Circulars,' 
under the observing stations). The greater part of this work is now 
done, and a compendious form of printing is being devised. The print- 
ing has naturally been also delayed by the interruption to Mr. Burgess's 
business above mentioned. 

The time signals at Shide have suffei^ed some interruptions, partly 
from causes not fully understood, partly from instrumental breakages, 
especially in the gales of the winter. The small transit instrument 
kindly lent by the Royal Astronomical Society has been used occasion- 
ally for check ; but it received some accidental displacement which 
resulted in uncertain records. The source of the trouble was detected 
by Mr. Shaw on his visit in June last ; the instrument was restored to 
its proper position and firmly fixed. 

III. Diurnal Wanderings of the Traces. 

In the last Report it was remarked that the introduction of a higher 
magnification into the Milne-Shaw and Milne-Burgess machines had 
brought with it inconveniences in the unsteadiness of the trace, partly 
in short-period ripples as at Bidston, probably due to wind in some 
way ; partly diurnal wanderings as at Shide. The behaviour of the two- 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



31 



instruments at Shide, placed close together on separate piers, was given 
in some detail, and its connection with internal or external temperature 
was discussed. The Milne-Shaw machine (M-S) was liable to wander 
much more than the Milne-Burgess (M-B), and the diHerence was 
provisionally set down to the difference in instrumental construction, 
seeing that the piers and situations were so closely similar. But the 
occasion of necessary small repairs to the instruments was taken as an 
opportunity to interchange their piers; and as a result the M-B now 
began to wander more than the M-S. To illustrate what happened it 
will perhaps suffice to give the first harmonics of the daily wanderings, 
the earlier of which are quoted from the last Eeport: — 



Date 


Milne-Shaw 


Milne-Burgess 


Phase 
diff. 


Harmonic 


Sensi- 
tivity 


Harmonic 


Sensi- 
tivity 


1915 
Mar. 20 
May 7 
July 31 
Aug. 28 

Oct. 15 


mm. h. 
-16-8 cos (9-18-5) 
-24-2 cos (9-18-0) 

- 5-5 cos (9^15-8) 

- 7-4 cos (9-15-1) 

I 

- 1-6 cos (9- 6-5) 


mm. 
42-0 
18-6 
18-6 
18-6 

nterchang 
18-0 


mm. h. 
+ 3-8 cos (9- 1-2) 
+ 5-6 cos (9-20-3) 
+ 1-6 cos (9-20-5) 
+ 3-6 cos (9-19-4) 

e of Piers 

+ 2-6 cos (9-16-3) 


mm. 
14-2 
14-2 
14-2 
14-2 

180 


h. 
+ 6-7 
+ 2-3 
+ 4-9 
+ 4-3 

+ 9-8 



Each result is deduced from the mean of several consecutive, or 
nearly consecutive, days, for which complete readings are available for 
both machines. There are some curious points about the behaviour, 
especially the considerable change of phase in both instruments after 
the interchange of piers. The changes of sensitiveness * clearly explain 
a part (even a large part) of the diminution of the coefficient for M-S. 
But the facts (1) that the M-B coefficient exceeded the M-S after the 
interchange, and (2) that the difference of phase changed sensibly, seem 
to show that the difference of behaviour is due as much to the piers as 
the instruments; and this was specially suggested by a severe rain- 
storm on September 24-5, which caused, the M-S trace to wander 
wildly, while leaving the M-B comparatively undisturbed. It is very 
remarkable that two piers close together in the same building, erected 
with the intention of being closely similar, should behave in such 
different ways. After the rainstorm Mr. Bullock carefully examined 
the foundations of the piers, but without finding anything to explain 
the difference of behaviour. 

The figures given above show that several points require further 
investigation before final conclusions can be drawn; but provisionally 
it would appear: — 

(a) That since two similar piers close together may be disturbed in 
sensibly, and even seriously, different ways, a locality cannot be 
judged on the evidence of one test pier alone. If the fauFt lies in the 
workmanship of one of the Shide piers, there may be an equally 

♦ Allowing for the sensitivity, the ratios of M-S to M-B are 1-5, 8-2. 2-8, and 
1*5 : then 0-6, after change of piers. 



32 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

obscure fault in the workmanship of any test pier. If the piers (as 
the available evidence suggests) are really similar, then there is 
apparently a serious difference in foundations only a few feet apart; 
so that if one site is found unsteady, another not very far away may be 
quite steady ; the whole observatory need not necessarily be removed 
to a distant locality. 

(b) The suspicion of disability or disadvantage in the M-S machine, 
indicated in the last Eeport, is now removed. The sentences referring 
to it are as follows (p. 9) : — 

Coming to the phases, we see that there is a difference of about 
90°, or six hours. The inference appears to be that the effect is 
not due to tilt of the ground, which should affect both instruments 
at about the same time, but an effect of temperature which acts 
promptly on the M-S instrument, but much more slowly on the 
M-B. The fact that Mr. Shaw specially designed his instrument 
(with a thin metal cover, &c.) so that it might take up the tempera- 
ture quickly, supports this view. 

We now see that, in spite of prima facie improbability, the differ- 
ence in phase may be in great part in the ground or the piers, and not 
in the instruments. As a matter of fact, the thin metal covers to the 
M-S machine have been given up as unnecessary ; and further, it need 
scarcely be remarked that if the design carries with it no unforeseen 
disability of the kind formerly suspected (but now shown to be wrongly 
suspected), it is a positive advantage, as was intended. The Milne- 
Shaw machine has by this time been thoroughly well tested with very 
satisfactory results ; and wherever an expenditure of 501. can be afforded 
it should replace the simple Milne machine. This recommendation has 
already been made to some individual observatories, and it is now made 
generally and definitely. That the simple Milne machine is capable of 
doing good work is undoubted; but its limitations, as well as its 
excellencies, are brought out in the Edinburgh results quoted in the 
Section 'Ledgers for each Station,' below; and it is an unprofitable 
expenditure of time and labour to continue to use it when a much 
more useful instrument is now available for the small expenditure of 
50L Mr. Shaw is making several instruments at present, but the war 
has brought difficulties in obtaining some essential parts. It is sub- 
mitted that the viost important work of the Committee for the present 
lies in replacing the Milne m,achines, either (where possible) by Galitzin 
machines or (where the expense of Galitzin machines, both capital and 
working expenses, is judged too great) by M-S machines. 

IV. Suggested Device for Avoiding Loss of Trace. 

It may be well to put on record here a suggestion of a possible 
device for avoiding the loss of a trace by the spot of light running off 
the drum. If instead of one spot of light there are two, A and B, 
formed, let us say, by two pin-holes close together near the lamp, then 
if the interval between is small enough we should get two precisely 
similar records on the drum side by side. But if this interval were 
arranged to be just less than the length of the drum, then when one 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 33 

spot (A) fell in the middle of the drum, the other (B) would be quite 
off the drum; but if A fell close to one end, B would be close to the 
other ; and when A ran off, B would come on. It will be clear that we 
really want a third spot (C) to replace A when it runs off at the other 
end ; indeed, we might have a regular series if the wandering is liable 
to be large. There would undoubtedly be risk of confusion of record ; 
but that is better than loss of record, for with patience the confusion 
could be unravelled, while the loss is irretrievable. 

Another instrumental device may be noted here, as follows : — 

V. A Simple Device for the Better Timing of Seismograms. [J. J. S.] 

The essential feature of a seismogram is the precision with which its 
phases are timed ; but unfortunately many instruments get a time-mark 
only every complete hour; and though this signal may be satisfactory 
in itself, no account is taken of any inequality in the revolution of the 
recording drum during each interval. 

For this reason it is important that a time-mark be made every 
minute; but where the signals are given by the Observatory standard 
clock they are usually hourly, and it may be often neither convenient 
nor expedient to make any alteration in the standard clock. 

In such circumstances an easy method of providing minute signals 
can be obtained by using an ordinary time-piece (costing about 2s. 6d.) 
to which an electric contact can be fitted; and so arranged in the 
timing circuit that a time-mark is made both by the standard clock and 
this auxiliary movement. 

Only moderate precision in the small clock is required, as the inter- 
spersal of the hourly signal will give its variation during each hour; 
whence, by interpolation, the eri'or of any particular minute signal may 
be determined. 

The necessary additions to the small clock may consist of a few 
millimetres of thin platinum wire soldered to the second hand, or one 
of the arms of the minute wheel, which is arranged to wipe past a strip 
of platinum foil (about 20 mm. long by 3 mm. wide). 

The incoming copper wire, to which the platinum foil is soldered, 
may be insulated from the movement by binding it to a strip of wood 
wedged between the plates of the movement ; while the flexibility of the 
wire is made use of in adjusting the duration of the contact. 

The out-going wire may be connected to any convenient part of the 
movement. 

VI. Ledgers for each Station. 

The completion of a year's records (1914) on the plan of the Shide 
Bulletins made it possible to collect the information for the various 
observatories in ledger form, showing date, adopted epicentre, and 
residuals for observed P and S. It was especially interesting to see the 
performance of the Milne machines ; some of them, especially at out- 
lying stations, are of no great value; but others, such as Honolulu and 
Edinburgh, show very fair results. The Edinburgh results are given 
below in full as an example of what the Milne machine can do, especially 

1916 n 



34 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



when there is a first-rate clock-error available. There are thirty-four 
cases of good or fair records of either P or S, including three cases 
where an obvious S was recorded at the Observatory as P, but is easily 
transferred : and there are only eight cases of some error at present 
unclassed. The mean of the P errors is ±17^"1 and of the S errors 
is +21«"3, part of which are undoubtedly due to errors in the tables. 
If we omit errors, over 50* as in Table II. which follows, these become 
+ 17^"1 and ± 14:^'6. Now, this is very fair observing so far as it goes ; 
but the important fact is that in one case only are both P and S success- 
fully recorded (70'3, January 20). In seventeen cases P is recorded 
and in seventeen cases S (the equality of the partition is remarkable), 
but records of this kind which give no S-P are clearly not up to modern 
requirements. 

Table I. 
Records of Milne Seismograph at Edinburgh, 1914. 



A 


P 


S 


Date 


A 


P 


S 


Date 


o 

14-5 




+ 55" 


June 


19 


o 

74-5 




+ 45 


Feb. 


7 


23-4 


( + 249) = 


- 3 


Nov. 


27 


75-5 


— 


+- 3 


Mar. 


28 


25-2 


- 6 


— 


Oct. 


17 


75-8 


+ 16 


— 


Apr. 


20 


25-5 


— 


+ 47 


Oct. 


17 


75-9 


+ 7 


— 


Mar. 


30 


30-0 


+ 4 


— 


Oct. 


3 


79-8 


-12 


— 


Mar. 


14 


30-8 


— 


-13 


May 


28 


79-9 





+ 30 


Aug. 


8 


530 


— 


+ 5 


Feb. 


6 


81-4 





-51 


Oct. 


11 


55-3 


( + 451) = 


- 5 


Nov. 


4 


84-5 


+ 38 


— 


Nov. 


18 


56-9 


- 1 


— 


Oct. 


9 


85-8 


( + 636) = 





Nov. 


8 


59-3 


+ 26 


— 


Aug. 


4 


86-6 


+ 47 





Feb. 


26 


60-6 


+ 18 


— 


Oct. 


3 


87-3 


— 


+ 52 


July 


6 


68-8 


— 


-29 


July 


21 


92-4 


+ 1 


— 


Feb. 


26 


69-5 


— 


- 8 


Mar. 


18 


94-5 


- 7 


— 


Nov. 


24 


70-0 


— 


- 1 


Mar. 


6 


100-5 


+ 21 


— 


June 


6 


70-3 


+ 6 


+ 7 


Jan. 


20 


101-6 


+ 11 


— 


July 


4 


72-9 


— 


+ 8 


May 


28 


108-2 


-23 


— 


Oct. 


23 


73-5 


+ 49 


— 


Jan. 


30 


116-5 


+ 15 


— 


May 


26 



In addition to these good or fair records there are the following, 
some of which may be identified with other phases : — 



A 


P 


S 


Date 


A 


P 


S 


Date 


600 
700 

76-3 
102-3 


+ 98 
+ 556 


+ 362 
+ 106 


Feb. 28 
Mar. 28 
July 17 
July 14 


117-9 
122-1 
139-4 
139-5 


- 96 

+ 461 


+ 103 
-hl279 


July 5 
May 18 
Dec. 20 
Apr. 11 



The following figures for some other stations will show how different 
instruments compare in the present state of the tables : but it was soon 
reahsed that the comparison is misleading, for many of the larger errors 
are probably due to the tables, as the discussion in Section IX. indi- 
cates. A more adequate discussion will therefore be given later. As 
a rough method of treating the material at present, all residuals greater 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



36 



than ±50' were excluded. This is far from a satisfactory procedure, 
but it has been applied uniformly to all stations in Table II. All 
observations for A> 120° have been omitted. 

Table II. 









No. Obsns. 


No. Obsns 


. omitted | 
















Observatory 


Mckn. 




used 


A< 


120° 


A> 


120° 


P 1 


S 


P ! S 


P 

1 


S 


P 


S 


Aachen .... 


W 


s. 
12-5 


B. 

12-6 


15 


15 


2 


4 


1 


Adelaide . . . 


M 


19-3 


12-6 


9 


7 


4 


2 


2 





Baku .... 


G 


17-6 


21-1 


31 


25 


4 


7 


6 


4 


Barcelona . . . 


Ma 


11-7 


21-4 


11 


16 


6 


2 


3 


1 


Batavia . . . 


W 


13-8 


280 


24 


12 


7 


4 








Breslau. . . . 


W 


9-2 


16-6 


14 


10 


4 


3 


1 





Budapest . . . 


W 


111 


13-2 


16 


19 


3 


2 


, 3 





Czernowitz . . 


Ma 


10-2 


1.5-7 


19 


17 


1 


6 


3 


1 


Edinburgli . . 


M 


16-8 


15-9 


18 


15 


2 


7 


2 


1 


Ekaterinburg . . 


Q 


10-4 


8-7 


20 


19 


1 


4 


2 


1 


Eskdalemuir . . 


G 


7-8 


13-7 


37 


38 


2 


9 


5 


3 


Graz .... 


W 


9-8 


14-5 


24 


22 


3 


5 


' 2 


2 


Harvard . . . 


BO 


120 


191 


13 


13 


2 


5 


6 


6 


Zi-ka-wei . . . 


W 


190 


20-7 


24 


21 


3 


8 


2 


2 



VII. The Stereographic Method of Finding an Epicentre. 

If a large and accurate globe is available, distances between epicentre 
(E) and observing station (S) can be read from it with considerable 
accuracy ; and the quickest way of finding an epicentre (approximately) 
is to describe arcs with centres at two or three stations for which A is 
known (the radii being the known values of A ), and to note the common 
point, or small area, of intersection. It may be worth remarking that 
ibefore attempting to draw such arcs it is well to examine which stations 
give consistent records, as shown by the time at origin. 

Thus for the quake on 1914 May 28'^ ll'i'S we have: — 



p 


S 


S-P 


A 


P-O 







h. m. s. 


h. m. s. 


s. 


o 


s. 


h. m. s. 


Tiflis 


11 29 13 


11 30 54 


101 


8-5 


129 


11 27 4 


Czernowitz 


11 30 5 


11 32 6 


121 


10-2 


154 


11 27 31 


Graz 


11 31 20 


11 34 39 


199 


17-6 


252 


11 27 8 


Budapest 


11 30 52 


11 33 57 


185 


16-2 


235 


11 26 57 


Barcelona 


11 32 40 


11 39 6 


386 


42-3 


493 


11 24 27 


Zagreb 


11 31 8 


11 34 8 


180 


15-7 


228 


11 27 20 


Padova . 


11 31 49 


11 38 58 


429 


49-5 


543 


11 22 46 



From the observed differences S — P the distances A from the epi- 
centre can be inferred, and hence the whole time of transmission of P. 
Applying this to the observed P we get the time at epicentre O. From 
these figures for 0, which can thus be written down from the tables 
alone, it is clear that the Barcelona and Padova results will not in this 

D 2 



36 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



case help the determination of epicentre, and we need not draw these 
arcs. The others will clearly not give arcs meeting in a point, but 
may be drawn for trial. If the globe is of such material that pencil- 
marks can be made and rubbed out, the arcs can be drawn on the 
globe. Or a small piece of thin paper may be attached temporarily 
to the globe in the neighbourhood of the epicentre — a plan which 
allows the diagram of the arcs to be preserved for reference. 

It may further be worth remarking that the time at origin can be 
found without using any tables at all, owing to the fact that the times 
for S ai'e to those for P very nearly in the ratio of 180 to 100, which 
happens to be the ratio of the Fahrenheit and Centigrade thermometer 
scales, and is thus readily retained in the memory. Hence the value 
of may be calculated thus: — 







Tiflis 




Z 


agreb 




h. 


m. 


s. 


h. 


m. s. 


s . 


. 11 


30 


54 


11 


34 8 


p . 


. 11 


29 


13 


11 


31 8 


S-P . 




1 


41 




3 


Add A . 






25 




45 


Sum 




2 


6 




3 45 


. 


'. 11 


27 


7 


11 


27 23 



The final is got by subtracting from P the sum of S— P and its 
fourth part. 

But there are certain inconveniences in using a globe, and, indeed, 
no large enough globe may be available. The stereographic method of 
projection has been in such cases found very convenient. (It was 
apparently proposed for this purpose in 1911 by Dr. Otto Klotz, as 




Fig. 1. 



noted below ; possibly also by others, as the device is well known.) It 
is a property of this projection that all circles on the globe project into 
circles, though they_ are generally excentric to the projection of the 
centre. Thus the circle on the globe with centre N (the observing 
station) and radius A will be represented on the flat projection by a 



f ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 37 

circle, but the projected point n will not be the centre. Let P repre- 
sent the North Pole (Fig. 1), and be the centre of the projection. Then 
if the arc PN on the sphere be A. , tihe distance Pn on the fiat will be 
tan \ /2. Let S and E be the points where the circle with radius A 
cuts the meridian PS, so thatPS=X-A, and PE=X+A: then the 
corresponding points s and r are given by 

Ps = tan PS/2 Pr = tan PR/2 

= tan (A - A)/2 = tan (\ + A)/2. 

The circle on the globe projects into a circle with centre on Psr, 
passing through the points s and r. Hence its centre is at c, where 



„ 1 / X— A , A+A\ 



cos A + COS A 

and its radius will be 



»(' 



A + A . A — A\ Sin A 



J( tan —tan , 

2 2 / cos A + cos A 

The circle can thus be drawn after a very little computation, which 
may be conducted either by use of 

tan (A + A)/2 and tan (A-A)/2, 
or of the expressions 

sin A i sin A 

cos A + cos A ^ cos A + cos A 

In this way an epicentre can be very conveniently determined on a piece 
of white paper. 

Sometimes the circle is very large and its centre may fall off the 
paper in use. In this case it has been suggested by Mr. J. E. Pearson 



Fio. 2. 

(whose volunteer aid in thus determining epicentres is gratefully acknow- 
ledged) that a very little numerical work will give the part of the circle 
we want. Thus in Fig. 2 let N be the North Pole and let A and B 
be the extremities of the diameter of the circle to be drawn. Let 
NA = 6 inches and NB = 28 inches, so that B is quite off the paper, and 
it is inconvenient to draw the circle. Nevertheless, we can quickly find 



38 REPOKTS ON Tllfi S'TAtE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

a point P upon it in the neighbourhood required. Taking AM:=1 inch, 
then PM^' = AM x MB = 1 x 21. 

If next we take AM ^2 inches, then PM2=2x20. One or two 
points may suffice. 

VIII. Dr. Klotz's Tables. 
In some convenient tables recently published (' Pub. Dominion 
Observatory, Ottawa,' vol. iii.. No. 2), Dr. Klotz, who, as above 
remarked, proposed this method in 1911, has tabulated the values of 
the above expressions under a slightly different form. "We have written 
X for the polar distance of the observing station, so that if <^ be the 
latitude \ = 90° - <^. Dr. Klotz has tabulated 

d= . ^°^» and r= . "° ^ 
sin <p + cos A sin <j> + cos A 

for a large number of stations (not, however, including Shide, Bidston, 
Edinburgh, and several other British stations !). He has also given 
expanded tables for the times of travel of P and S, differing from those 
used in the Shide Bulletins by the following quantities: — 

A = 10° 20° 30° 40° 50^ 60° 70" 80° 90° 100° 110° 

S. S. S. S. S. S. S. 8. 8. S. S. 

CorrectionP= -5 -4 -1 -5 -4 -3 -8 -13 -14 -17 -12 
Correction S = -5 -4 -2 -5 -3 -3 -9 -13 -15 -17 -14 

It will be seen that the proposed corrections to the tables in use at 
Shide (which are the original Zoppritz tables) are small, and are the 
same for S and P, so that S— P remains unaltered- It is doubtful 
whether we have as yet sufficient information to be sure of these small 
quantities. 

Dr. Klotz has very conveniently added tables for PRi, PR2, SEi, and 
SE2 ; but his table and diagram for PS are apparently erroneous. He 
seems to have calculated this time by adding times for equal arcs for 
P and S. 

Thus for A=10,000 km. he gives 

PS - P = lO" 36% P = 13°> 2', .-.PS = 23" 38'. 

Now P for 5,000 km.=8°' 28s S for 5,000 km. = 15" 10^ 

Sum of these last = 23°- 38'. 

By this method he shows PS in his diagram as arriving always 
before S, whereas it always follows S when properly computed as the 
maximum time for a combination of P and S. For A = 10,000 km. the 
correct or maximum time for the combination PS is given (by Klotz's 
tables) as about 24"" 57", thus: — 

m. s. 111. s. m. s. 
P tor 2,200 km. and S for 7,800 km. = 4 35 + 20 20 = 24 55 
P for 2,300 km. and S for 7,700 km. = 4 46 + 20 10 = 24 56 
P for 2,400 km. and S for 7,600 km. = 4 57 + 20 = 24 57 
P for 2,500 km. and S for 7,500 km. = 5 7 + 19 50 = 24 57 
P for 2,600 km. and S for 7,400 km. = 5 18 + 19 39 = 24 57 
P for 2,700 km. and S for 7,300 km. = 5 28 + 19 28 = 24 56 
P for 2,800 km. and S for 7,200 km. = 5 38 + 19 17 = 24 55 

This method of adding the two times together and finding the 
maximum or minimum is a simple and convenient practical way of 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 59 

investigating possible combinations of waves when tables are available; 
but it is, of course, nothing more or less than the investigation of the 
angles of emergence as sketched in Walker's * Seismology,' p. 54. 
Attention is called to the matter here, firstly because it seems possi- 
ble that the publication of Dr. Klotz's table for PS may lead to some 
erroneous identifications, and secondly because the question is raised 
below whether we can have more than one reflected P wave at the same 
point. 

Fig. 3 will show what is involved in this query. From the epi- 
centre E, let EA and EB be two neighbouring paths for the wave P. 




Fig. 3. 

Then by regular reflection PR will be received at R, equidistant with 
E on the opposite side of the little reflecting portion AB. The con- 
dition may be written either 

time along EA+AR = time along EB+BR 
or angle of emergence at AB= angle of reflection. 

Now, can both these conditions be also fulfilled, still for P waves 
only, at another point S? Reasons are given below for believing that 
they can — i.e. that we can have 

time along EA + AS = time along EB + BS 

while as regards the second condition it is only necessary that the path 
AS should touch the path AR at A, the curvature being clearly 
different; and similarly BS touch BR at B. We proceed to examine 
this evidence, which is based on the study of records at stations distant 
more than 100° from the epicentre. 

IX. Tables for P and S at Distances exceeding 110°. 

At distances from the epicentre greater than 110°, the times 
recorded for the arrival of P and S are such as cannot be reconciled 
with adopted tables by any reasonable extrapolation, and to explain 
the anomalies various hypotheses of discontinuity in the interior of 
the Earth have been suggested. It is believed that these are unneces- 
sary, and that the hypothesis outlined below will fit the facts. It calls 
for a modification of existing tables between the origin and 40° dis- 
tance; and, until it is disposed of in one way or the other, the improve- 
ment of these adopted tables cannot be satisfactorily undertaken. 

For the present attention will for simplicity be confined to P, 
though S is subject to similar treatment. 

The nature of the anomalies will be seen by consideration of the 
following earthquake, where the recorded arrivals of P have been 
divided into two groups. One group can be identified with PR, but 
the other clearly cannot. For the times of PR. the times for half the 
arc according to adopted tables have been simply doubled. There is 



40 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



a systematic run about the residuals for PR, which suggests a modifi- 
cation of the tables in the neighbourhood of 60°-66° (the mid-points 
of the arcs), but we shall not at present follow this thread. 

Earthquake of 1913 May 30^ ll'' 46'" 46«. 
Adopted Epicentre 5°-0 S., 154O-0 E. 

Table III. 
PEj recorded as P. 











Time 


Time Calc*. 


O-C 


Station 


Machine 


o 

1160 


Azim. 


Observed 


PRi 


Esara 


Ma 


o 

305 


s. 
1194 


s. 
1198 


s. 
- 4 


Czernowitz 






Ma 


118-2 


324 


1184 


1212 


-28 


Lemberg . 






BO 


118-8 


325 


1222 


1216 


+ 6 


Budapest . 






W 


122-7 


825 


1235 


1242 


- 7 


Gottingen 









124-7 


334 


1272 


1254 


+ 18 


Eskdalemuir 






G 


126-5 


344 


1292 


1267 


+ 25 


Triest 






W 


126-7 


326 


1292 


1268 


+ 24 


Aachen . 






W 


127-9 


335 


1286 


1276 


+ 10 



Table IV. 
PX recorded as P. 



Station 



Konigsberg 

Breslau . 

Hamburg 

Vienna 

Graz 

Sarajevo 

Zagreb 

Laibach 

Innsbruck 

Heidelberg 

Padova . 



Machine 


A 


Azim. 1 


o 





W 


117-7 


332 


W 


121-7 


330 


— 


123-3 


335 


W 


123-7 


327 


w 


124-9 


327 


w 


125-0 


322 


w 


125-5 


325 


G 


126-0 


326 


Ma 


1270 


329 


— 


127-0 


333 


V 


127-9 


327 



Time 
Observed 



1142 
1169 
1164 
1158 
1163 
1158 
1162 
1162 
1169 
1196 
1163 



Time Gale"*. 
PEi 


O-C 


s. 


s. 


1208 


- 66 


1235 


- 66 


1246 


- 82 


1249 


- 91 


1256 


- 93 


1257 


- 99 


1260 


- 98 


1264 


-102 


1270 


-101 


1270 


- 74 


1276 


-113 



The first group of stations have presumably recorded PE^ as P; 
but the second group have recorded something else, which comes from 
one to two minutes earlier. The records are so consistent as to suggest 
a real phenomenon, which we may call PX for the present. More- 
over, other earthquakes give similar results; and we may adopt, pro- 
visionally, without giving further details here, 

s. 
Time for PX at 120° = 1150 
130=- = 1180 
140°= 1190 

It is, however, probable that the adopted time at epicentre is in 
en-or, in which case these are subject to a constant correction. 

Now, for reasons which need not be given here, it seemed possible 
that PX might be an anomalous reflection of P by two very unequal 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



41 



arcs. In order that this may be possible the angles of incidence and 
reflection must be equal, and these angles depend essentially on SP, 
the difference of time for (say) 1°; so that SP must have the same 
value for a large arc as for a small one. "With the adopted tables this 
does not occur. The values of 5P steadily diminish, as may be seen 
by the following figures: — 



A= 0° 10° 

s. s. 

5P = 15-5 15 



20° 

s. 
12 



30° 

s. 
10 



40° 



50° 

s. 

7 



60° 70° 80^ 90° 
s. s. s. s. 

7 6 6 5-5 



100° 

s. 
5 



If these figures are correct we cannot explain PX in the way 
suggested. It is now proposed to challenge the correctness of the 
figures between 0° and 45°, leaving those > 45° practically unaltered. 
The nature of the proposed change is best seen in diagrammatic form 



\ \ 
\ \ 
\ \ 




















\ \ 
\ \ 








Value of SP, the increment of time of 




\\ 






transmission of P wave, for 1° of A. 












Seconds of time on left. 
Degrees of A at foot. 




1 


v 










\A 




Continuous Curve gives figures of Tables 
at present adopted. 






V \^ 






Broken Curve gives figures now provision- 






1 '\ * 
1 \ ^ 

1 t \ 


\ 
\ 
\ 

f-A 

\ \ 
\ \ 
\ \ 

\ N 


a 


ly propose 


d. 










2 


9° 4 


0° 6 


0° e 


0' IC 


0" L 


20" l< 


N 

10" n 


\ 

N 
N 
N 
N 

S 

30' li 


V 


Fig. 4. 


(see Fig. 4). It is suggested that there is a sharp -double turn in the 


curve (shown by the broken line), and that the present tables have 


substituted a compromise which cuts across these features. Trans- 


latec 


. into fig 


ares, the 


suggestec 


[ new tat 


les woul( 


ibe 









42 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Table Y. 



A New 


Old 


N-O 


A 


New 


Old 


N-O 


A 


New 


Old 


N-O 


° s. 


s. 


B. 


o 


s. 


8. 


8. 


o 


s. 


s. 


s. 


1 15 


15 





18 


274 


257 


+ 17 


35 


420 


433 


-13 


2 31 


31 





19 


286 


269 


+ 17 


36 


431 


442 


-11 


3 47 


47 





20 


298 


281 


+ 17 


37 


442 


450 


- 8 


4 62 


62 





21 


308 


293 


+ 15 


38 


452 


458 


- 6 


5 • 78 


77 


+ 1 


22 


315 


305 


+ 10 


39 


461 


466 


- 5 


6 93 


92 


+ 1 


23 


320 


317 


+ 3 


40 


470 


475 


- 5 


7 109 


106 


+ 3 


24 


324 


328 


- 4 


41 


479 


483 


- 4 


8 124 


121 


+ 3 


25 


328 


338 


-10 


42 


488 


491 


- 3 


9 140 


136 


+ 4 


26 


333 


348 


-15 


43 


496 


498 


- 2 


10 155 


150 


+ 5 


27 


339 


358 


-19 


44 


504 


506 


- 2 


11 170 


164 


+ 6 


28 


346 


868 


-22 


45 


512 


513 


- 1 


12 186 


179 


+ 7 


29 


355 


378 


-23 


46 


520 


520 





13 201 


193 


+ 8 


30 


365 


388 


-23 


47 


527 


527 





14 216 


206 


+ 10 


31 


375 


398 


-23 


48 


534 


534 





15 231 


219 


+ 12 


32 


386 


407 


-21 


49 


540 


540 





16 246 


232 


+ 14 


33 


398 


416 


-18 


50 


547 


547 





17 260 


245 


+ 15 


34 


409 


425 


-16 











It will 'be seen that the main feature of the proposed change in the 
tables is a positive correction greatest about 20°, followed by a negative 
correction greatest about 30°. Now, this should be shown by the 
recoi-ds, and apparently it is. The following examples will perhaps 
suffice for the present ; a complete discussion would not only be unsuit- 
able for this report, but requires an expenditure of time which has not 
yet been found possible, for the reason that records for stations near 
the epicentre are themselves liable to be used for determining the 
epicentre, so that errors of the tables may be partly compensated by 
adjusting the epicentre to destroy them. 

If we are fortunate enough to have two stations, equipped with 
good instruments and time-determinations, one 20° from the epicentre 
and the other 30°, and in the same aziviuth, then the relative errors of 
P above indicated could not be masked. We might alter the absolute 
errors in the same direction, but the difference would be unchanged. 
Unfortunately such cases are comparatively rare, and for the present 
the evidence can only be partially stated. Selected examples are as 
follows : — 

Table VI. 
1914 March 14" 20^^ 0" 6^ : 39°-2 N. 139°-8 E. Determined by PulJcovo. 



station 


Machine 


A 


Azim. 


0-C 


Suggested 
Correction 


0-C 

Corr*. 


Epicentre 
Corr". 


Final 






o 





s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


Osaka 





5-8 


219 


+ 28 


- 1 


+ 27 


-30 


- 3 


Zi-ka-wei . 


w 


17-0 


247 


+ 1 


-15 


-14 


-25 


-39 


Irkutsk 


G 


27-6 


310 


-12 


+ 20 


+ 8 


- 7 


+ 1 


Manila 


W 


29-6 


219 


- 8 


+ 23 


+ 15 


-20 


+ 5 


Tashkent . 


G 


52-3 


297 


- 4 





- 4 


- 7 


-11 


Ekaterinburg . 


G 


52-5 


317 


- 5 





- 5 


- 2 


- 7 


Pulkovo . 


G 


65-4 


329 

















Eskdalemuir 


G 


80-4 


340 


- 2 





- 2 


+ 2 






ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



43 



Table VI. — continued, 
1914 March W 6^ 17™ 86' : 54° N. 156° E. {Pulkovo). 



station 


Machine 


A 


Azim. 


0-C 


Suggested 
Correction 


0-C 

Corr<i. 


Epicentre 
Corr". 


Final 






o 





s. 


s. 


s. 


8. 


s. 


Osaka 





241 


225 


+ 31 


+ 5 


+ 36 


-40 


- 4 


Irkutsk 


G 


30-4 


289 


+ 2 


+ 23 


+ 25 


-27 


- 2 


Zi-ka-wei . 


W 


33 6 


241 


-53 


+ 17 


-36 


-35 


-71 


Manila 


W 


48-0 


228 


+ 33 





+ 33 


-26 


+ 7 


Tashkent . 


G 


56-5 


296 


+ 11 





+ 11 


-15 


- 4 


Pulkovo . 


G 


58-2 


331 

















Baku 


G 


67-0 


308 


- 2 





- 2 


-11 


-13 



In these two cases it looks as though the time-determinatioa at 
Zi-ka-wei were faulty. [Fuller particulars are given in the Shide 
Bulletin for March.] Let us omit Zi-ka-wei from consideration for 
the moment. The 0-C in the fifth column is that given in the Shide 
Bulletins. The suggested corrections in the next column are from 
the above table. Wlien these are appUed, it is seen that the stations 
near the origin agree better among themselves, but still differ systemati- 
cally from those further away, especially Pulkovo; but at the same 
time it may be seen that the azimuth of the nearer stations is quite 
different. We can displace the epicentres at right angles to the 
direction of Pulkovo without disturbing its A or error. The effect 
of thus moving the epicentre 2O'0 in the first case and 4°'0 in the 
second is shown in the column ' epicentre correction. ' It will be seen 
that all are brought into fair accord, with the above-noted exception 
of Zi-ka-wei; further, that the suggested corrections to the tables are 
in the case of Zi-ka-wei - 15' and + 17^ in opposite directions in the 
two earthquakes, and both tending to assimilate the en'ors for this 
station to an error in time-determination. 

In the following example the suggested correction has the appear- 
ance of being in the right direction, but excessive in amount. Osaka 
and Batavia especially, which differed by -1-8^ before correction, now 
differ by — 23'. This mny be due to error in epicentre ; if again we accept 
Pulkovo as correct in distance, but wrong in azimuth, and accordingly 
move the epicentre 1°'2 in the direction at right angles to Pulkovo, 
we get the ' epicentre corrections ' shown in the 8th column. 

Table VII. 
1914 July 6^ &^ QT^ 24* : 24°-0 N. 121°-5 E. {Shide Determination). 



Station 


Machine 


A 


Azim. 


0-C 


Suggested 
Correction 


Cor- 
rected 


Epicentre 
Corr°. 


Final 

S. 






o 


o 


s 


S. 


3. 


s. 


Taihoku . 





10 





+ 7 





+ 7 


+ 7 


+ 14 


Zi-ka-wei . 


W 


7-2 


359 


+ 2 


- 3 


- 1 


+ 7 


+ 6 


Manila 


W 


9-4 


183 


+ 5 


- 4 


+ 1 


- 8 


- 7 


Osaka 





161 


45 





-14 


-14 


+ 13 


- 1 


Batavia . 


w 


33-4 


207 


-8 


+ 17 


+ 9 


- 8 


+ 1 


Pulkovo . 


G 


70-0 


328 


















44 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



The ' final ' corrections could be improved by a slight change in the 
distance from Pulkovo. In the next example (May 8): — 

Table VIII. 
1914 May 8^ ISi" 2'° 0« : 37°-7 N. 15°-0 E. {Shide Determination). 



Statiou 


Machine 


A 
o 


Azim. 


0-C 


Suggested 
Correction 


Cor- 
rected 


Epicentre 
Corr». 


Final 






o 


S- 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


Ten stations 


Various 


<10-0 


350 ± 


-17 


- 4 


-21 


-13 


-34 


Lemberg . 


BO 


13-4 


26 


-11 


- 9 


-20 


- 4 


-24 


Breslau . 


W 


13-5 


5 


-37 


- 9 


-46 


- 9 


-55 


Granada . 


C 


14-7 


270 


- 6 


-12 


-18 


-12 


-30 


Konigsberg 


w 


17-5 


11 


+ 11 


-16 


- 5 


- 8 


-13 


Tiflis 


G 


23-2 


70 


-43 


- 2 


-45 


+ 7 


-38 


Baku 


G 


27-1 


73 


-52 


+ 20 


-32 


+ 7 


-25 


Ekaterinburg . 


G 


35-4 


42 


+ 40 


+ 12 


( + 52) 





( + 52) 



[Ekaterinburg is probably PRi, which arrives 72' after P.] 

the difference between Konigsberg and Baku is only partly com- 
pensated by om* corrections, which may be fairly set against the 
apparent over-compensation of the example preceding. A change of 
epicentre 1°"2 in the azimuth SIC^ (which is the best that a rough 
investigation suggests) cannot even now bring Konigsberg and Beku 
quite together. 

These examples (out of a number which have been already examined) 
will suffice to show how elaborate an investigation will probably be 
required to decide the point fully ; moreover, it must be remembered 

(a) That the precise form of the curve of correction is still to be 
determined, that above given being purely tentative. 

(b) That the observations of S must also be taken into account. 
If the SP curve has an oscillation of the kind indicated, the cause must 
be sought in the arrangement of density layers as we descend into the 
earth; and this will affect S also. The chord of an arc of 30° lies 
within 150 miles of the surface of the Earth, and of an arc of 15° 
within 40 miles, so that the anomalies lie at no gi-eat depth, and may 
reasonably be placed at the limit of the Earth's ' crust.' 

Without claiming more than that a case has been made out for 
further inquiry (which will be conducted as opportunity offers), let us 
now return to the phenomenon which suggested the hypothesis and 
see how the figures given provisionally will fit the facts. We adopt 
for time of P up to A = 45° the New Values of Table V., and from 
A =45° onwards the figures of the table printed in the Shide Bulletins. 
Let us now add together the times for arcs of 20°, 21°, 22°, &c., to 
arcs of 120°, 119°, 118°, &c. : — 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

Table IX. 
Suggested Anomalous Reflection of P. 



45 





- 




Combined time starting at 




120° 


110= 


100° 


60° 

S. B. 


o 




s. s. 


S. 8. 


s. s. 


20 


298 


+ 942 = 1240 


+ 897 = 1195 


+ 851 = 1149 


+ 612 = 910 


21 


308 


938 1246 


893 1201 


845 1153 


605 913 


22 


315 


934 1249 


888 lii03 


840 1155 


599 914 


23 


320 


929 1249 


884 1204 


834 1154 


592 912 


24 


324 


925 1249 


879 1203 


829 1158 


586 910 


25 


328 


920 1248 


874 1202 


823 1151 


579 907 


1 2G 


333 


916 1249 


870 1203 


878 1151 


573 906 


1 27 


339 


911 1250 


865 1204 


812 1151 


566 905 


; 28 


346 


907 1253 


860 1206 


807 1153 


560 906 


29 


355 


902 1257 


855 1210 


801 1156 


553 908 


30 


365 


+ 897 = 1262 


+ 851 = 1216 


+ 796 = 1161 


+ 547 = 912 



and again the same arcs of 20°, 21°, &c., to arcs of 110°, 109°, &c., 
as in Table IX. We start with 20° + 120°, which gives a combined arc 
of 140° : succeeding cases give combined arcs of 130°, 120°, and 80°, 
and let us look first at the last column. The time for the combined 
arc of 80° runs up at first from 910^ to a maximum at 914^ ; then down 
to a minimum at 905% and then pursues its original course upwards. 
There must be a slight pause at the maximum and the minimum, though 
our coarse tabulation to 1^ only and to 1° of arc does not put it in 
evidence. These pauses make two anomalous reflections : but the 
pauses being slight, the reflected waves are probably not noticeable on 
the records. Look now at the first column, showing the results for 
140°. The maximum and minimum have run together to make one 
long pause at about 1248^ or 1249^ : hence we get a single anomalous 
reflection, but much stronger; the two waves formerly separated com- 
bining to reinforce one another. This combination is beginning to dis- 
appear in favour of separation at 100°+20° = 120°, and the separation 
is pronounced at 60°+20° = 80°. About 120° therefore this anomalous 
reflection will die down : the precise distance at which it separates into 
two clearly depends upon a precise adjustment of the tables, which is 
scarcely yet attained. (The study of this anomalous reflection may 
possibly give effective help in attaining that precision.) 

It is thus fairly easy to see why these reflected waves should be 
mistaken for the direct P at distances greater than 110°._ Firstly, it 
must be remembered that the direct P is becoming fainter as we 
increase A beyond 110°; secondly, the two anomalous reflections begin 
to coalesce and reinforce one another; and thirdly, it must be remem- 
bered that an anomalous reflection of this kind has an advantage over 
the direct P, and even over a regular reflection, in that it has two 
alternative paths by which to travel, viz., arcs of 20° -I- 120° and of 
120° -t- 20°: it may make either the short or the big jump first. For 
regular reflection there are only the two equal jumps. 

As regards the actual times of transmission, it will be seen that they 
accord fairly well at first with the observed times deduced for PX on 
p. 48. 



4« 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Table X. 



A 


Observed 


Calculated 


0-Ci 


0-C, 


o 


s. 


s. 


s. 


s. 


110 


— 


(1096) 


— 


— 


120 


1150 


1152 


- 2 


+ 6 


130 


1180 


1203 


-23 


+ 1 


140 


1190 


1249 


-5» 


-19 



But at the same time the differences for 130° and 140° are too large 
to be passed over. It has been remarked in the last two Reports that 
the tables for P and S seem to require sensible corrections at a distance 
from the epicentre. For A = 105° the correction to time for P is given 
as — 24', and is rapidly increasing : a correction of — 40' at A = 115° 
is not out of the question ; and since the ' calculated ' result for 140° 
depends on times for 25° + 115° the above large value of — C may 
be chiefly due to the errors of adopted tables. In the column — C2 
corrections to the tables have been applied. Here again we may get 
help in coi'recting the tables by study of the reflected phenomena, 
though direct observations of P are rare. 

As one more check let us turn to the record of the earthquake of 
1913, March 14, which was very cai'efully worked up at the I.S.A. 
Central Bureau by S. Szirtes (' Mitteilungen,' p. 117). His interpreta- 
tion of the observations is shown by his diagram, here reproduced 
(Fig. 5) with the addition of a rough network of lines and some larger 
figures, those in the original being so small as to be scarcely legible. 
A scale of degrees has further been substituted for that of kilometres. 
(Is it not rather unfortunate that kilometres have been used so much? 
There are many advantages in working with degrees.) For the present 
we confine attention to the P curve. 

First of all let us see how the suggested new tables fit the observa- 
tions near the origin. For this we turn to the figures given in the accom- 



Table XL 
1913 March U^ 8^ 44™ 34». 3-5° N. 125-50 E. (Szirtes). 



Manila 

Batavia 

Taihoku 

Zi-ka-wei 

Osaka . 

Tsingtau 

Tokyo . 

Mizusawa 

Sydney 



Observed P 



120 
210 
220 
28.0 
32-4 
330 
34-8 
38-4 
446 



184 
332 
346 
364 
410 
409 
437 
456 
527 



O-Ci 


O-C2 


O-C3 


B. 


s. 


s. 


+ 5 


- 2 


-17 


+ 39 


+ 24 


+ 9 


+ 41 


+ 31 


+ 16 


- 4 


+ 18 


+ 3 


- 1 


+ 19 


+ 4 


- 7 


+ 11 


- 4 


+ 6 


+ 19 


+ 4 


- 5 


+ 1 


-14 


+ 17 


+ 17 


+ 2 



panying text of Szirtes' paper and extract the following particulars. 
The errors — Ci are with the tables in use; — Cj are with the 
new tables above proposed. It will be seen that the new tables remove 
a great part of the anomaly shown by Batavia and Taihoku, and that a 



Britisli Association, 8Gth Eejwrt, Ncivcastlc, lOKi. 



[Plate I. 



iiicnilon Kntfoi-niingeu die Lanfzcitkiivveii GuUijrkcit liabon. IMcnitis tUirf nur ilcr 
fine SchluC geto^cn wi-nleu. d:\G ninn bei licr Utjstiiunmn:: (1^)^ I'.pi/.cntnniis sicli 






§ 
^1^ 



% 




0, 



<Ci ^ 1-5 \ _-V, vi 

C . ^- ., V5-7 A;^ S-iS 



il:i* ganze uiikmseismischc Jlaleriiil vcit;CKcn\vii«i!,'<'u lulil? iiml nul' lirim.l i-iiicr 
viTgleifliCiiiliu rrllfiinj.' ili-r Angabcii nur Oicji'niKcn nnswiihlcn dtiif. vehhc \n\wv 
lialli iler iiilltii.'kcitfi.'rfnze ilnr l.aiifzuitkiirvo liocr-n. i, 



Fig. 5. 



Ilhistrating the Report on Seismological Investigations. 



I'fo face page 46. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTlGATtONS. 



4? 



correction of about 15^ to the time at origin is supported by these near 
stations which would also (as will be shown in a moment) bring more 
distant stations into better accord. The obsei'ved times being in excess, 
the moment at origin must be altered from 8"^ 44"" 34^ to 8^^ 44°^ 49^ ; and 
with this time at epicentre we get the column — Ca. It is clear that 
Manila and Mizusawa cannot be brought into accord with the rest by 
any change of epicentre, for the latter lies in nearly the same azimuth 
as Tokyo and Osaka, while Manila is in nearly the same as Tsingtau 
and Zi-ka-wei. 

Turning now to the results for stations more than 90° from the 
epicentre, the Szirtes' curve as drawn suggests a curious phenomenon. 
The slope has been nearly steady between 30° and 90° ; it then decreases, 
especially between 100° and 150°, and finally increases ; the final slope 
being at the rate of five minutes in 24° (or 12^'5 per degree, the same 
as that at about A =18°. Hence if this were the correct cm've, we 
should still have the phenomenon of anomalous reflection, though in a 
different way. Two arcs, one of 18° and the other anything greater 
than 108°, would combine to give a total path of 126° and upwards, 
not because the value of 8P falls to 4* per degree at about 22° from 
the epicentre, thus matching the small values at A = 100° onwards, 
but because the value of 8P rises at 12^"5 at distances > 106°, thus 
matching the large value at A =18°. But the correctness of this 
interpretation is here challenged. Surely the rate SP diminishes to 
zero at A = 180° ? It seems difficult to avoid the conception of a path 
diametrically through the earth for A = 180° ; and paths lying near 
this must be so nearly similar in all respects that the time to neigh- 
bouring points must be nearly the same. Hence near A = 180° the 
value of SP must tend to zero, as suggested in fig. 4; and if the 
graph of SP rises in the manner indicated by Szirtes it will have 
ultimately to come down again all the more. 

The interpretation now put upon the records at distances greater 
than 105° from the epicentre is as follows: — 

(a) Pour or five are regular P waves, viz. : — 
Table XXL 



station 


A 


Observed 


0-C, 


O-C2 


O-C3 




o 


h. m. s. 


s. 


8. 


s. 


Uccle . 


106-2 


8 59 24 


+ 10 


+ 35 


+ 20 


Pare St. Maur 


108-2 


59 45 


+ 22 


+ 49 


+ 34 


Puy de Dome 


109-3 


59 47 


+ 19 


+ 47 


+ 32 


Carta] a 


117-7 


9 5 


- 2 


+ 40 


+ 25 


ChacaritoB . 


148-7 


5 13 


( + 63) 


( + 53) 


( + 38) 



The column — Ci is sensibly the same as Szirtes' results, and is got 
with his time at origin and the Shide tables. In O-C2 the corrections 
to Shide tables given in the last two reports are used, viz. : — 

A = 55° 65° 75° 85° 95° 105° 115° 



Corr" to P 



3 -( 



-15 -24 (-40) 
The correction at 115° (not given before) is estimated from Table X. 



48 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Table XIII. 
(b) The following stations apparently record PR, as P : 



Station 


A 


Observed 0-Ci 


O-C2 


O-C3 


Bidston 

Marseilles . 
St. Louis 


o 
108-8 
108-8 
126-5 


h. m. 8. 

9 4 24 +51 
9 3 46 +1 
9 5 58 +17 


+ 51 
+ 1 
+ 17 


+ 36 
-14 
+ 2 



The tables require no correction at the mid-points of these arcs, 
so that O — C2 is the same as 0— Ci. 

(c) All the remaining stations at distances exceeding 108° record 
PX, as follows, taking the tabular results from Table X. : — 

Table XIV. 



station 


A 


Observed 


0-Ci 


0-C, 


-C3 







h. m. s. 








Algiers . 


113-1 


9 3 31 


+ 23 


+ 35 


+ 20 


San Fernando 


119-9 


9 4 30 


+ 46 


+ 61 


+ 46 


Ottawa 


126-6 


9 4 25 


+ 6 


+ 26 


+ 11 


Tacubaya 


130-5 


9 4 6 


-32 


- 8 


-23 


Harvard 


131-8 


9 4 19 


-26 


+ 4 


-11 



We may now assemble the results in a brief summary, including 
those for intermediate stations ; individual details are omitted to save 
space, and it need only be remarked that three records (Simla, Apia, 
and Hohenheim) have been omitted as discordant, and that all the 
others have been given equal weight. This summary procedure is 
doubtless faulty, but it will suffice for present requirements. 

Table XV. 
1913 March U^ &" U"" (54^). 3° 5 N. 125°-5 E. (Szirtes). 
Becords of P, PE, and PX. 



No. of 
Stations 


Limits of A 


0-Ci 


0-C, 


O-C3 







s. 


s. 


s. 


9 


10- 45 


+ 10 


+ 15 





4 


45- 65 


+ 13 


+ 13 


- 2 


5 


75- 95 


+ 3 


+ 14 


- 1 


6 


95-100 


+ 9 


+ 27 


+ 12 


13 


100-104 


+ 3 


+ 25 


+ 10 


9 


104-105 


+ 8 


+ 30 


+ 15 


4 


106 -118(a) 


+ 10 


+ 42 


+ 27 


3 


108-127(6) 


+ 23 


+ 23 


+ 7 


5 


113 -132(c) 


+ 3 


+ 21 


+ 9 



The first three groups are in good accord, showing that the distance 
of the epicentre from European stations is pretty well determined. The 
azimuth is checked by the individual stations in the first group, already 
given in detail; and these records support the new tables. The 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 49 

validity of the corrections to tables at distances 75°-95° is supported 
by the third group. After 95° the positive residuals in — C3 indicate 
that the suggested cori-ections to P tables are perhaps excessive ; but 
we cannot be guided by a single earthquake alone. Moreover, these 
corrections are still under consideration and have not been adopted. 
One necessary preliminary was the settlement of the anomalous records 
here discussed ; and if these can be now regarded as due to anomalous 
i-eflections the direct P records can be re-examined with greater con- 
fidence. There is one further point which may account for part of 
the discordance between 0°-95° and stations beyond 95° in the above 
table. Several stations give two readings for P ; one marked e and the 
other marked i. Thus: — 



Baku 


. 76-8 


8 


56 


36e 


8 


56 


42i, i-e= 6 


Pulkovo . 


. 89-6 


8 


57 


45e 


8 


57 


57i, i-e = 12 


Vienna 


. 1000 


8 


58 


36e 


8 


58 


43i, i-e= 7 



The first record has been taken in all cases. It seems possible 
that e might be recorded more frequently at nearer stations, but be too 
faint at more distant stations. But this is little more than a con- 
jecture. 

The hypothesis of an oscillation in the graph of ^P shown in fig. 4 
means that there is an oscillation of similar kind in the increase of 
density of the earth as we travel downwards. The inteipretation 
suggested is that just below the ' crust ' there is a layer of unexpectedly 
high density, in which P travels unusually quickly, followed by a 
return to a density which is either actually less than that of the dense 
layer above it, or perhaps ceases to increase at the same rate. No 
theoretical examination of such a possible change of density has yet 
been made ; but it is perhaps worth noting as a speculation * that this 
notable oscillation might be followed by one or more smaller ones, the 
effects of which on the times of P (and S) might be so small as to 
have been hitherto completely masked by accidental errors. 

Hitherto attention has been confined to P for simplicity. But the 
earthquake just discussed now enables us to test the behaviour of S 
with facility ; for the epicentre is apparently well determined, and we 
have found a satisfactory coiTection to the time at epicentre. Obser- 
vations of S will thus give us at once the proper corrections to the 
S tables. Before examining the observations, however, let us see what 
we can infer about S from P. The ratio of the times for S and P is 
very nearly constant (1-80) for all distances from the epicentre. With 
the adopted (Shide) tables it is 



A= 10 


20 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


Batio = 1-79 


1-79 


1-79 


1-78 


1-79 


1-80 


1-81 


1-82 


1-83 


1-83 



thus showing a slight rise in value. But corrections to these tables 
have been proposed, and they tend to reduce the higher values. From 
what has already been said of the possible changes in the tables required 

* These words were written before the evidence of a second oscillation given 
below had been detected ; in fact, before the S records had been examined at all. 

1916 K 



50 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



between 0° and 45°, we confine attention to the following suggested 
corrections given at the end of the 1914 Eeport : — 



A =55° 

s. 

Correction P 

Correction S — 11 

New Eatio 1-78 



65° 75° 85° 



- 1 

-14 
1-79 



- 3 

-17 
1-80 



-24 
1-81 



95° 
s. 
-15 
-35 
1-82 



105° 

s. 
-24 
-50 
1-83 



The corrections are only tentative, and definitive ones may reduce 
the higher values still further. The ratio S/P seems to be closely 
1-80 throughout; and this, at any rate, will suffice to suggest corrections 
to the S tables con-esponding to those for P given in Table XV. _ They 
have been formed by direct use of this factor and need not be given in 
detail. 

The S records therefore stand as below: — • 

Table XVI. 
1913 March U^ 8^ 49"^ (49^). 3-50 N. 125-5° E. 



station 


A 


Obs.S 


O-Ci 


Corr. 


O-Co 


O-Y 


Manila .... 


o 
120 


s. 
234 


B. 

- 85 


s. 
-13 






Taihoku . 






220 


415 


-130 


-18 


— 


— 


Zi-ka-wei 






28-0 


618 


- 41 


4 39 


- 2 


— 


Osaka 






32-4 


689 


- 45 


+ 36 


- 9 


— 


Tsingtau 






830 


709 


- 35 


+ 32 


- 3 


— 


Tokyo . 
Mizusawa 






34-8 


622 


-150 


+ 26 


— 


— 






38-4 


786 


- 38 


+ 11 


-27 


— 


Sydney . 
Irkutsk . 






44-4 


921 


+ 14 


+ 3 


+ 17 


— 






57-9 


1018 


+ 15 


4 10 


+ 25 


— 


Baku 






76-8 


1236 


- 71 


419 


— 


— 


Ksara 






86-5 


1390 


- 25 


+ 26 


+ 1 


— 


Pulkovo . 






89-6 


1388e 


- 62 


^ 29 


-33? 


+ 53 








}f 


1405i 


- 45 


+ 29 


-16 


— 


Czernowitz 






93-8 


1393 


-101 


— 


— 


- 5 










1458i 


- 36 


+ 34 


- 2 




Lemberg 






94-7 


1485 


- 18 


+ 35 


4 17 




Konigsberg 






95-7 


1421 


- 92 


— 


— 


- 4 


Upsala . 






95-8 


1442 


- 72 


-- 


— 


+ 15 


Budapest 






98-4 


1465 


- 75 


— 


— 


- 1 


Breslau . 






98-8 


1469 


- 75 


— 


— 


- 3 


Sarajevo . 






99-8 


1458 


- 96 


— 


— 


-14 


Vienna . 






100-0 


1470i 


- 86 


— 


— 


-20 








jj 


1524i 


- 32 


+ 42 


+ 10 


— 


Potsdam . 






100-6 


14696 


— 


— 


— 


-30 










1517W 


- 45 


+ 43 


- 2 


■ — ■ 


Graz 






100-9 


1522 


- 42 


+ 43 


+ 1 


— 


Zagreb . 






100-9 


1473 


— 


— ■ 


— 


-28 










1571 


+ 7 


+ 43 


450? 


— 


Leipzig . 






101-4 


1551 


- 18 


+ 44 


+ 26 


— 


Laibach . 






101-8 


1475 


— 


— 


— 


-42 


Hamburg 






101-9 


1463 


— 


— 


— 


-55 








^ 


1595i 


+ 21 


+ 45 


+ 66? 


— 


Jena 






102-0 


1541 


- 34 


+ 45 


+ 11 


— 


Triest . 






102-4 


1479 


— 


— 


— 


-47 


Pola 






102-6 


1477 


— 


— 


— 


-51 


Gottingen 






102-7 


1480 


— 


— 


— 


-50 








„ 


1537 


- 44 


+ 45 


+ 1 


— 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



61 



Table XVI. — contimied. 



Station 


A 


Obs. S 


0-Ci 


Corr. 


O-C2 


O-Y 


Munich .... 




1030 


s. 
1488 


s. 


s. 




-47 


Pompeii . 




103-4 


1475 


— 


— 


— 


-66 


Catania . 




103-8 


1487 


— 


— 


— 


-60 


Jugenheim 




104-2 


1489 


— 


— 


— 


-63 


Hohenheim . 




104-2 


1489 


— 


— 


— 


-63 


Heidelberg 




104-3 


1506 


— 


— 




-48 


Eocca di Papa 




104-4 


1491 


— 


— 


— 


-65 


Zurich . 




I05-2 


1488 


— 


— 


— 


-79 


Strassburg 




105-2 


1522 


— 


— 


— 


-46 


Aachen . 




105-3 


1564e 


- 41 


+ 50 


+ 9 


— 






jj 


1574i 


- 31 


+ 50 


+ 19? 


— 


Uccle 




106-2 


1469e 


— 


— 


— 


? 






,, 


1494i 


— 


— 


— 


-98 


Besancjon 




106-8 


1498 


— 


— 


— 


-93 


Pare St. Maur 




108-2 


1508 


— 


— 


— 


-104 


Puy de Dome 




109 3 


1521 


— 


— 


— 


-107 


Algiers . 




113-1 


152(; 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Cartuja . 




117-7 


1669 


- 43 


4 90? 


+ 47? 


— 


Victoria, B.C. 




121-8 


1751 


— 


— 


— 


-67 


St. Louis 




126-5 


1870 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Ottawa . 




126-6 


1871 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Tambaya 




130-5 


1891 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Chacaritos 




148-7 


1793 


-- 117 


— — 


— 



The observed S (i.e., the interval by which it follows 8^ 44™ 49') is 
given in the third column, and it is compared with the adopted (Shide) 
tables in the next column — Ci; except that in the latter part of the 
table this comparison has been omitted when it obviously fails. The 
corrections, taken for A>45° from the last two Eeports, and for 
A< 45° by use of the factor 1"80 on the corrections for P in Table V., 
are given in the column ' Corr.,' and applied in the column O — Ca. 
When A > 90° a large number of records will not fit S at all, but at 
first agree with the phenomenon Y or polychord suggested in the last 
Eeport. A comparison with the times suggested for Y is therefore 
given in the last column O-Y. We now take in order certain matters 
brought out by this table. 

(a) There are three records near the epicentre for which no explana- 
tion has as yet suggested itself, viz. Manila, Taihoku, and Tokyo. 
They may, of course, be mistakes, but there is a systematic character 
about them which seems opposed to the idea of mistakes. The average 
velocities are 19^"5, 18^'9, and 17*'9 per degree of A, intermediate 
between those of P and S, and it may ultimately be found possible to 
assign some combination of P with S which shall explain the records; 
but up to the present no success has been attained in this direction. 

(j8) With these three exceptions all the records for stations up to 
A =95° are brought into fair accord by the suggested corrections. 
Particularly noteworthy are the records for Zi-ke-wei, Osaka, and 
Tsingtau near A ==30°, where the correction is near one of its maxima 

K 2 



52 



KEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



and is justified. The maximum in the other direction near A =20° 
is only represented by the exceptional Taihoku record from which no 
conclusion can be drawn. 

(y) Czernowitz, Vienna, Potsdam, and Gottingen all show a double 
record near S, one member of which can be reasonably identified with 
S and the other with the phenomenon Y mentioned in the last Eeport. 
These four cases of double record ai'e specially valuable as a guide to 
the others which only give one constituent, and it is easy to under- 
stand why this should generally be the earlier one. But it must be 
admitted at once that the explanation of Y given in the last Eeport 
breaks down. It cannot be a ' polychord,' at any rate not always. 
The growth of negative residuals in the column 0-Y is too obvious 
and too serious to allow of the idea of a uniform arcual velocity. As 
remarked in the last Eeport, such a velocity would make Y cross S, 
preceding it up to about 105° and following it after that. The recoi-ds 
discussed in the last Eeport were all in the neighbourhood of 95°-100°, 
where the residuals — Y are seen to be comparatively small; the later 
ones are inconsistent with the crossing of S. Apparently Y'' (we may 
perhaps still retain this letter for the phenomenon, whatever it is) 
always precedes S [and incidentally it may be remarked that this fact 
really increases the chances of its being mistaken for S and so causing 
the apparently greater uncertainty in identification of S which is so 
curious, seeing that on any given record S is better marked than P] . 
Its time of transmission may be put as follows: — 



A = 95 100 

s. s. 

Y = 1420 1470 



105 

8. 

1490 



110 

8. 

1520 



Is it some combination of P and S ? If we add together the times 
forP and S as given by the Shide tables so as to obtain these figures 
we get 



A 


P 


S 


Sum 


95 
100 
105 
110 


55-8 
58-6 
65-2 
70-5 


o 

39-2 
41-4 
39-8 
39-5 


585 + 835 = 1420 
603 + 867 - 1470 
646 + 844 = 1490 
680 + 840=1520 



But, of course, as the tables stand, the values of 8P and SS for 
such arcs are quite unequal, so that no effective combination is possible. 
If, however, we further modify the curve of 8P shown in fig. 4, so 
that the max. near 30° is followed by a minimum near 40°, and this 
again by a maximum near 60°, then possibly we can get the values 
of 5P and 8S equal. Assuming S to be throughout in the ratio 1-79 
to P, the values of SP near 40° and 60° must be in this ratio. Thus 
if SP falls again to 4 at 40°, it must rise to 7 at 60°, which is far from 
unreasonable. A provisional set of tables has been framed on these 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



53 



lines and tried with fair success; but it would lead to confusion to 
multiply provisional sets of tables, and it is preferable to wait until 
they have been thoroughly tested and corrected. But the impression 
given by the work hitherto done is that these oscillations in the curve 
for SP ax-e real and will explain many apparent anomaHes and diffi- 
culties; and it is hoped that in the next Report satisfactory evidence 
of these facts may be presented. 

X. — General Preliminary Discussion of the 1914 Results. 

It will be seen that the above discussion was conducted by the 
study of a few particular earthquakes; not from all those given in the 
bulletins for 1914. 

Some hesitation was felt about the form in which any discussion of 
the 1914 residuals should take, i.e. how much provisional correction of 
tables and epicentres should be attempted first. The tables were 
apparently capable of improvement, and this would involve a readjust- 
ment of some epicentres. Ultimately it was decided to try collecting 
the results simply as they are printed, but limiting the selection to the 
better stations: 34 observatories were included, and 15 were omitted, 
the selection not being difficult when the mean errors had been formed. 
The residuals for P and S were grouped for every 5° of A , except that 
the first group extended from the epicentre to 10°. The result was 
more definite and satisfactory than had been expected. 

It was feared that it would be difficult to draw the line between large 
errors and definite mistakes, but when the residuals were tabulated in 
this form there were found to be very few cases of doubt, and their effect 
on the means was almost neghgible. The means were taken in a variety 
of ways (one of which was to select the median or the middle residual) 
with inclusion or exclusion of doubtful cases ; but the various alterna- 
tives were so closely accordant that the simple arithmetic mean was 
ultimately adopted throughout. The mean eiTors thus found were as 
in Table XVII. 



Table XVII. 



A 


P 


S 


A 


P 


S 


A 


P 


S 


o 


8. 


• 
s. 


o o 


s. 


8. 


o o 


S; 


a. 


0—10 


- 3 


+ 2 


36—40 


-11 


-19 


66—70 


+ 7 


+ 5 


11—15 


+ 12 


+ 23 


41—45 


- 3 


-13 


71—76 


-3 


+ 4 


16—20 





+ 4 


46—50 


+ 8 


+ 1 


76—80 


-1 


- 1 


21—25 


- 9 


-10 


51—55 


+ 3 


- 3 


81—85 


-4 


-10 


26—30 


-11 


-10 


66—60 


+ 3 


+ 5 


86—90 





-14 


31—35 


+ 1 


-13 


61—65 


+ 5 


+ 3 


91—95 
96—100 


-5 
-5 


-38 
-57 



It will be seen that both P and S show clearly the change from a 
sensibly positive error at 110-15° to a negative error at 210-25° and 
afterwards. This drop occurs earlier than is suggested tentatively in 
Table V., but gives substantially the same phenomenon as was to be 















Table XVIII 










Rejected 
P+ 48 
P- 15 
S+ 54 
S- 23 


8. 

75 


— ( 
5 
2 
6 
3 


R. 

35 


6 

4 

10 

2 


s. 
55 


s. 
— 45 — 
13 16 
12 24 
9 21 
11 27 


s. 
35 


35 
23 
38 
44 


s. 
25 


50 
42 
57 
61 


S. 3. 

15 — 5 

iio-i 

120 • 
124' 
101 ; 


Sums +102 
Sums— 38 




10 
5 








147 










341-1 
324; 



54 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1916. 

explained. We will return to this point in a moment ; but first, as the 
above means are, except in a few cases, comparatively small, it is 
desirable to give some information about their probable errors. The 
residuals in each group were arranged in detail in order of size, and it 
was soon seen that those exceeding ih 65^ from the mean were pretty 
clearly mistakes. It would be tedious and expensive to print all the 
detail : the following summaries will probably suffice. First, the total 
numbers of residuals for groups of 10^*° (middle group 11^*°) were as 
in Table XVIII. 



_ 
232 

167 
399 



liooking first at the column 'rejected,' we see that the number of 
positive residuals is much greater than the number of negative. This 
is only to be expected if these are actual mistakes of one phenomenon 
for something else which would generally follow the intended reading. 
In the case of P there is less opportunity for reading anything which 
precedes than in the case of S, and accoi^dingly the ratio of excess 
of + to — is greater. But even for P a wind-tremor or other acci- 
dental tremor may precede P by something like a minute, and be read 
in error. Now we see that there is no trace of this excess of positive 
residuals in the residuals between 55^ — 46^; and in the column 45' — 36' 
the excess is in the negative residuals. It is reasonable to conclude 
that the residuals up to about 55' are chiefly accidental errors, while 
above that they begin to make mistakes. To make fairly sure, however, 
of including all real observations one more column (65' — 56') has been 
included in taking the arithmetical mean, while the column 75' — 66' 
has been rejected, and the numbers are included in the rejected totals. 

Coming to the individual gi'oups in A, it seems unnecessary to give 
even so much detail as for these totals. The gums at the foot show 
that the numbers of errors 6® to 25®, on each side are rather less than 
the middle group - .5* to + 5' : and the numbers in the next four 
columns 26' — 65' are less than half these. To follow the behaviour of 
the groups in A it will perhaps suffice to give the corresponding figures 
as in Table XIX. 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 



55 



Table XIX. 
Residuals {from the mean) for P arranged according to A. 







s. 


8. 


8. 


8. 


8. 






Total 




Re- 


-65 


-25 


-5 


+ 6 


+ 26 


Re- 


Mean 


Observr- 


A 


jected 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


jected 


Value 


tions 




— 


—26 


—6 


+ 5 


+ 25 


+ 65 


+ 




used 


0-10 


1 


5 


6 


7 


4 


6 


2 


s. 
- 3 


28 


11-15 





3 


8 


1 


6 


5 


2 


+ 12 


23 


16-20 








7 


17 


5 


1 








30 


21-25 


1 


6 


4 


13 


13 


3 


2 


- 9 


39 


26-30 





3 


8 


6 


14 


3 





-11 


34 


31-35 


3 


5 


6 


7 


4 


7 


2 


+ 1 


29 


36-40 





1 


10 


5 


10 





4 


-11 


26 


41-45 





1 


8 


4 


10 


4 


2 


- 3 


27 


46-50 


1 


1 


6 


7 


8 


1 


4 


+ 8 


23 


51-55 





3 


7 


6 


6 


2 


1 


+ 3 


24 


56-60 





3 


6 


14 


12 





3 


+ 3 


35 


61-65 


1 


1 


10 


5 


7 


1 


1 


+ 5 


24 


66-70 


1 


3 


21 


18 


3 


6 


1 


+ 7 


51 


71-75 





12 


6 


28 


21 


7 


1 


- 3 


74 


76-80 


3 


2 


12 


31 


12 


3 


4 


- 1 


60 


81-85 


1 


6 


13 


39 


11 


8 


1 


- 4 


77 


86-90 


3 


2 


15 


15 


3 


8 


3 





43 


91-95 





5 


6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


- 5 


28 


96-100 





1 


3 


3 


5 





9 


- 5 


12 


Totals . 


15 


63 


162 


232 


160 


70 


48 




687 



Table XX. 
Residuals (from the mean) for S arranged according to A. 







8. 


s. 


8. 


8 


8. 






Total 




Re- 


-65 


—25 


-5 


+ 6 


+ 26 


Re- 


Mean 


Observa- 




jected 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


jected 


Value 


tions 




— 


-26 


—6 


+ 5 


+ 5 


+ 65 


+ 




used 


0-10 





4 


5 


2 


3 


5 





8. 

+ 2 


19 


11-15 


1 


4 


4 


2 


7 


4 


1 


+ 23 


21 


16-20 





1 


9 


14 


4 


3 


1 


+ 4 


31 


21-25 





4 


5 


11 


9 


4 


5 


-10 


33 


26-30 


1 


5 


8 


9 


8 


4 


1 


-10 


34 


31-35 


4 


3 


5 


4 


6 


3 


5 


-13 


21 


36-40 





2 


8 


5 


5 


3 


2 


-19 


23 


41-45 


1 


2 


5 


5 


4 


2 


5 


-13 


18 


46-50 





1 


6 


2 


5 


1 


5 


+ 1 


15 


51-55 


1 


4 


4 


7 


9 


1 


2 


- 3 


25 


56-60 





1 


6 


10 


12 


1 


5 


+ 5 


30 


61-65 


2 


4 


5 


6 


6 


3 





+ 3 


24 


66-70 





6 


12 


15 


14 


4 


1 


+ 5 


51 


71-75 


1 


9 


21 


25 


13 


13 


1 


+ 4 


81 


76-80 


3 


5 


17 


20 


14 


5 


4 


- 1 


61 


81-85 


4 


9 


20 


10 


28 


7 


4 


-10 


74 


86-90 


2 


6 


11 


15 


17 


4 


2 


-14 


53 


91-95 


1 


6 


8 


3 


13 


6 


2 


-38 


36 


96-100 


2 


8 


3 


2 


4 


5 


8 


-57 


22 


Totals . 


23 


84 


162 


167 


181 


78 


54 




672 



56 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

We now return to the mean values, which exhibit the following 
distinct features: — 

(a) A large positive error at about =13°. The values for P and S 
correspond in almost exactly the ratio TSO, and thus confirm one 
another. The observations rejected are : 

For P +144^ and +81^. There is no question as regards the 
former. If the latter be retained the mean is increased to + 15^. As 
this group is very important, the errors may be given in full. They 
are: — 



+ 144 


+ 41 


+ 25 


+ 1 


-11 


+ 81 


+ 38 


+ 23 





-13 


+ 72 


+ 37 


+ 22 


_2 


-24 


+ 49 


+ 30 


+ 7 


-6 


-37 


+ 49 


+ 26 


+ 2 


-6 


-39 


For S + 131« 
ows : 


and -102^ 


have been 


rejected. 


The 


8. 


8. 


8. 


s. 


8. 


+ 131 


+45 


+ 29 





- 32 


+ 69 


+42 


+ 21 


- 2 


-102 


+ 59 


+ 39 


+ 19 


- 9 




+ 55 


+ 34 


+ 15 


-17 




+ 46 


+ 30 


+ 12 


-29 





The whole set is as 



It seems clear that the means cannot be far from the values assigned 
on any reasonable supposition. And it is also clear that the excessive 
scattering is due to the abrupt rise and fall of tha error, which is small 
in adjoining groups. It must rise to sensibly more than the mean 
values. The use of the erroneous tables to fix the epicentres will also 
have tended to diminish these errors by compromise ; so that a maximum 
error for P of + 17^ and for S or + 30^ would not be an unreasonable 
interpretation of the figures. 

(b) The rapid fall to a negative error at about A =23° continuing 
to A =40°. A rise again at 33° is shown by P but not by S, and for 
the present we will disregard it. 

(c) A positive error from about 46° to 70°. This is more marked 
in P than in S ; but it seems possible that S is already affected by the 
negative error [d), which reduces the positive excess. 

(d) A negative error which develops rapidly in S after 80°, and may 
have commenced earlier as remarked in (c). It was this error which 
chiefly attracted attention in the two former Repoi'ts, in which tentative 
corrections for it were given with some success as regards S. But the 
corrections suggested for P wei'e apparently too large. 

This correction appears to have an important significance. The 
ratio of times for S to times for P is nearly constant, but with the 
adopted tables tends to rise in value for large values of A. "When, 
however, the corrections now found are applied, which diminish the 
values of S (when A >80°) much more than those of P, the rise in 
value of the ratio disappears, and it seems possible that it Is definitely 
consta:it and of value 1'800. At any rate, the departures from this 



ON SEISMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 57 

value have all the appearance of accidental errors. They are as follows 
in units of '001 : — 

Table XXI. 
Differences from the ratio 1"800 for ratio S/P in units of "OOl. 



A 


Diff. 


A 


Diff. 


A 


DifiF. 


A DifiF. 


A 


DifiF. 


13° 


- 9 


33° 


-47 


53° 


-20 


73° +27 


93° 


- 7 


18 


+ 6 


38 


-12 


58 





78 +17 


98 


-29 


23 


+ 1 


43 


-32 


63 


- 4 


83 +18 






28 


+ 18 


48 


-38 


68 





88+6 







Of the largest residuals that at A = 33° is due to the sudden rise of the 
P residual to + 1* between two values of — 11^ ; a rise not confirmed by 
S and probably spurious. The rise of P to +8^ at 48° also bears the 
mark of accident. At 98° the correction of -57* to the S tables is 
probably too large. Looking at the residuals in Table XX. we see that 
they are probably made up of two groups, separated by an interval of at 
least 65-\ One group, probably the true S, would have a mean cor- 
rection of -57^ + 30*= -27« say, and the other of -57«-305= -879 
say. This latter is probably the Y phenomenon beginning to declare 
itself. With this interpretation the — 29 residual would become + 7. 

Hence it may be that we should do well to adopt a constant ratio 
I'SOO, thus strengthening the determinations of both P and S by 
the tie. 

Let us now examine very briefly the values of either P or S near the 
epicentre. They are clearly affected much in the same way, and one 
of them will suffice ; say P. We may, however, use the values of S, 
reduced in the ratio 1"80, to strengthen the detemiination of P. Thus 
we have : 

A =8° 13° 18° 23° 28° 23° 

Corrected P 118 205 257 308 357 417 
From S 122 203 257 308 361 407 



Mean 120 204 257 308 359 411 

Mean 5? 150 IBS 106 10-2 102 10-4 

It seems difficult to avoid a sensible rise of the average 8P up 
to A =10°. The 16"8 is only an average value, and the maximum 
must be greater still. This rise in value cannot be explained by any 
reasonable supposition as to the depth of the focus : for though this 
provides an initial rise in value, the rise is very slight. We are driven 
to suppose some important change in density just within the surface 
of the Earth. We can avoid this supposition in two ways only: — 

(a) By discrediting the observations. On this head nothing more 
need be said : the evidence is before us. 

(b) By adding a constant to the whole tables both for P and S. 

If we add (say) 20^°, then the mean SP for the first 8° would 
be 140/8 = 17s-5, greater than the 16«-8 which follows. Even then the 



58 REPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

S observations would show a rise : to get rid of the rise in them we 
should have to add 30^°. There are recorded cases of the stoppage of 
clocks near the epicentre which would be inconsistent with such large 
corrections to the time at origin. 

On the whole, the case for the rise being real seems fairly strong. 
And now we have to consider how to draw a smooth curve so that these 
values shall be the means of groups. 

Suppose first we join the points by straight lines and let us further 
omit the point for 13° and join 8° to 1S° by a straight line. The value 
indicated for 13° would be J-(120s + 257s) = 189«. Now the observed 
mean value 204^ lies 15= above this: and this is only the C.G. of the 
triangle formed by the proper values for 8°, 13°, and 18°. The proper 
value for the apex of the triangle would be at tlu'ee times the height; i.e., 
30' above the C.G. Thus the proper value for 13°, interpolated 
between 8° and 18° so as to make a triangle with C.G. at 204% would 
be 234^. The points would then be 

8° 13° 18° 
120 234 257 

Mean 5P 22'8 4-6 

"We see at once the necessity for a small value of SP following the 
peak. Now doubtless the peak is not sharp but is rounded off; but 
note that if we round it off we must at some point either increase the 
large 2P = 22s-8 or decrease the small 8P = 4''"6; perhaps both. For 
any process of rounding off the peak means that we must go outside the 
triangle to make up the area lost from the peak. 

There is thus no difficulty at all about a small value of S P between 
13° and 18°; indeed, it is almost a necessity. And hence the PX 
phenomenon can probably be explained. The small value of SP 
comes earlier than was suggest-ed in Table V. : but it seems probable 
that by some little adjustment the phenomena may be all brought 
into line. The reason why the sudden drop was assumed to come later 
was the avoidance of the rise in SP near the epicentre. It seemed 
theoretically probable that the velocity near the epicentre was nearly 
constant, and thus, in order to accumulate a fund of positive errors 
before the drop, SP had to be carried on at the highest available value 
for some distance. Once the possibiHty of a rise in SP near the 
epicentre is admitted and the drop may come earlier. But the initial 
rise in SP is distinctly surprising, though the observations seem to 
leave no room for doubt. 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 59 



The Calculation of Mathematical Tables. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor M. J. M. Hill (Chairman), 
Professor J. W. Nicholson (Secretary), Dr. J. E. Airey, 
Mr. T. W. Chaundy, Mr. A. T. Doodson, Professor L. N. 
G. Filon, Mr. G. Kennedy, Sir George Greenhill, 
Professors E. W. Hobson, Alfred Lodge, A. E. H. Love, 
H. M. Macdonald, and G. B. Mathews, Mr. H. 
G. Savidge, and Professor A. G. Webster. 

Introductory. 

The grant of 35Z. — including 51. returned as the unexpended part of the 
previous grant — has been utilised completely during the present year, 
and the Committee is able to put forward several completed Tables 
for which there has been a considerable demand among physicists, as 
evidenced by written requests to the Secretary. Some other Tables, not 
at present complete, are still in hand, and it is proposed during the 
coming year to devote more attention to the roots of Bessel functions 
which are needed for the solution of physical problems. The Committee 
desires to ask for a renewal of the grant of 30/., especially in view of the 
fact that their expenditure has exceeded the former grant, on account of 
the simultaneous completion of several different Tables. The Report 
may be divided into five Parts. In Part I. there are three Tables of sines 
and cosines of angles expressed in circular measure. The main purpose 
of such Tables is to facilitate the rapid calculation of transcendental 
functions from their asymptotic expansions. They have been the subject 
of special approval by the Association. Tables I. and II. have been under 
the care of Dr. Airey, and Table III. of Mr. Doodson. 

Part II. deals with the Bessel and Neumann functions whose order and 
argument are nearly equal. Dr. Airey, to whom they are due, has 
recently extended the formulfe of Nicholson and Debye relating to these 
functions, which are now somewhat prominent in physical work. 

In Part III. Mr. Doodson continues his Tables of Bessel functions of 
half-integral order, and some of their derived functions. These Tables 
are a continuation of those in the Report for 1914. 

Part IV. continues the work of Mr. Savidge on Tables of the ber and 
bei functions and their derivates. 

Part V. contains some valuable Tables of the logarithmic Gamma 
function and its derivate, together with the integral of the function. 
These have been calculated and kindly offered to the Association by Prof. 
G. N. Watson. In recording their appreciation, the Committee desires 
to suggest that Prof. Watson should be added to their number. 

Paet I. 

Sines and Cosines of Angles in Circular Measure. 

The trigonometrical functions, especially the sines and cosines of angles 
expressed in radians, are of frequent occurrence in the asymptotic expan- 
sions of transcendental functions. The only tables hitherto published are 



6P REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 

those of Burran^ to six places, and those of Becker and Van Orstrand^ to 
five places of decimals from f^=0 001 to 1-600 radians. 

The following tables to ten places of decimals were calculated to 
thirteen places, first for the sixteen values 0"1 to 1*6, then from O'Ol 
to 1"60, and finally from O'OOl to 1-600. From the values of the sine and 
cosine of 0-1 to 1-6, intermediate values were obtained by employing the 
sum and difference formulsB of these functions : the results were taken 
from Q-GO to 0-05 and from Q-IO to 0*05 and thus furnished a check upon 
the calculations. A similar procedure was followed in calculating the 
sines and cosines when 6 is given to three places of decimals. In order 
to ensure greater accuracy in the tenth place, the next figure is also 
given. In very few cases will the error reach a unit in. the eleventh 
place. The subsidiary table of sines and cosines of 6 from 6=0-00001 
to 9=000100 can be employed in conjunction with the first table. 



Table I. 
Tables of Sines and Cosines {6 in radians). 






Sin 6 


Cose 


0-000 


00000 00000 





l^OOOOO 00000 


0001 


00099 99998 


3 


■99999 95000 


0002 


00199 99986 


7 


•99999 80000 


0003 


00299 99955 





•99999 55000 


0004 


00399 99893 


3 


•99999 20000 1 


005 


00499 99791 


7 


•99998 75000 2 


0-006 


00599 99640 





•99998 20000 5 


0-007 


00699 99428 


3 


•99997 55001 


0-008 


00799 99146 


7 


•99996 80001 7 


0-009 ! 


00899 98785 





•99995 95002 7 


0010 


00999 98333 


3 


•99995 00004 2 


0-011 1 


01099 97781 


7 


•99993 95006 1 


0-012 


01199 97120 





•99992 80008 6 


0013 


01299 96338 


4 


•99991 55011 9 


0014 


01399 95426 


7 


•99990 20016 


0-015 


01499 94375 


1 


•99988 75021 1 


0-016 


01599 93173 


4 


•99987 20027 3 


0-017 


01699 91811 


8 


•99985 55034 8 


0018 


01799 90280 


2 


•99983 80043 7 


0-019 


01899 88568 


5 


•99981 95054 3 


0-020 


01999 86666 


9 


•99980 00066 7 


0-021 


02099 84565 


3 


•99977 95081 


0-022 


02199 82253 


8 


•99975 80097 6 


0023 


02299 79722 


2 


•99973 55116 6 


0024 


02399 76960 


7 


•99971 20138 2 


0-025 


02499 73959 


2 


-99968 75162 7 


0-026 


•02599 70707 


7 


•99966 20190 4 


0-027 


02699 67196 


2 


•99963 55221 4 


0-028 


•02799 63414 


8 


•99960 80256 1 


0-029 


•02899 59353 


4 


■99957 95294 7 


0-030 


•02999 55002 





•99955 00337 5 


0-031 


•03099 50350 


7 


•99951 95384 8 


0-032 


•03199 45389 


5 


•99948 80436 9 


0033 


•03299 40108 


3 


•99945 55494 1 


0034 


03399 34497 


1 


•99942 20556 8 



' Burrau, Tafeln der Funktionen Cosimis vnd Sinvs, 1907. 
-' Becker and Van Orstrand, Smithsonian Mathematical Tables, Hyperbolic 
Functions, pp. 171-223. 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



61 



Tables of Shies atid Cosines (9 in radians) — continued. 



e 


Sine 


Cos e 


0035 


•03499 28546 





99938 75625 


2 


0036 


•03599 22245 





99935 20699 


8 


0037 


•03699 15584 


1 


99931 55780 


9 


0038 


•03799 08553 


3 


99927 80868 


8 


0039 


•03899 01142 


5 


99923 95963 


9 


0040 


•03998 93341 


9 


99920 01066 


6 


0041 


•04098 85141 


3 


99915 96177 


3 


0042 


•04198 76530 


9 


99911 81296 


5 


0043 


•04298 67500 


6 


99907 56424 


4 


0-044 


-04398 58040 


4 


99903 21561 


6 


0045 


-04498 48140 


4 


99898 76708 


5 


0046 


•04598 37790 


5 


99894 21865 


5 


0047 


•04698 26980 


8 


99889 57033 





0048 


•04798 15701 


2 


99884 82211 


7 


0049 


•04898 03941 


9 


99879 97401 


8 


0050 


•04997 91692 


7 


99875 02604 





0051 


•05097 78943 


8 


99869 97818 


6 


0052 


•05197 65685 





99864 83046 


2 


0053 


•05297 51906 


5 


99859 58287 


4 


0-054 


•05397 37598 


3 


99854 23542 


6 


0055 


•05497 22750 


3 


99848 78812 


4 


0-056 


•05597 07352 


6 


99843 24097 


3 


0057 


•05696 91395 


1 


99837 59397 


9 


0-058 


•05796 74868 





99831 84714 


7 


0-059 


•05896 57761 


2 


99826 00048 


3 


0060 


•05996 40064 


8 


99820 05399 


4 


0061 


•06096 21768 


7 


99814 00768 


4 


0-062 


•06196 02863 





99807 86156 





0-063 


•06295 83337 


7 


99801 61562 


9 


0064 


•06395 63182 


8 


99795 26989 


5 


0-065 


•06495 42388 


3 


99788 82436 


7 


0066 


•06595 20944 


3 


99782 27905 





0-067 


•06694 98840 


8 


99775 6.3395 





0-068 


•06794 76067 


8 


99768 88907 


5 


0-069 


•06894 52G15 


3 


99762 04443 


1 


0070 


•06994 28473 


4 


99755 10002 


5 


0071 


•07094 03632 





99748 05586 


4 


0-072 


•07193 78081 


2 


99740 91195 


5 


0-073 


•07293 51811 


1 


99733 66830 


5 


0-074 


•07393 24811 


6 


99726 32492 


1 


0-075 


•07492 97072 


7 


99718 88181 


1 


0-076 


•07592 68584 


6 


99711 33898 


2 


0077 


•07692 39337 


2 


99703 69644 


2 


0-078 


•07792 09320 


6 


99695 95419 


8 


0-079 


•07891 78524 


7 


99688 11225 


8 


0-080 


•07991 46939 


7 


99680 17063 





0-081 


•08091 14555 


5 


99672 12932 


2 


0082 


•08190 81362 


2 


99663 98834 


2 


0083 


•08290 47349 


9 


99655 74769 


8 


0084 


•08390 12508 


5 


99647 40739 


8 


0-085 


•08489 76828 





99638 96745 





0-086 


•08589 40298 


6 


99630 42786 


4 


0-087 


•08689 02910 


3 


99621 78864 


7 


0-088 


•08788 64653 





99613 04980 


9 


0089 


•08888 25516 


9 


99604 21135 


7 


0-090 


•08987 85492 





99595 27330 


1 


0091 


•09087 44568 


3 


99586 23565 





0-092 


09187 02735 


8 


99577 09841 


3 



62 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. 1916. 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (6 in radiaiis)- 


-continued. 




e 


Sin e 


Cos 8 




0-093 


09286 59984 6 


99567 86159 


8 


0-094 


09386 16304 8 


99558 52521 


6 


0-095 


09485 71686 3 


99549 08927 


5 


0-096 


09585 26119 3 


99539 55378 


6 


0-097 


09684 79593 8 


99529 91875 


6 


0-098 ! 


09784 32099 8 


99520 18419 


7 


0-099 


09883 83627 3 


99510 35011 


8 


0-100 


09983 34166 5 


99500 41652 


8 


0-101 


10082 83707 3 


99490 38343 


8 


0-102 


10182 32239 8 


99480 25085 


7 


0-103 i 


-10281 79754 2 


99470 01879 


6 


0-104 


10381 26240 3 


99459 68726 


5 


0-105 i 


10480 71688 3 


99449 25627 


5 


0-106 


10580 16088 2 


99438 72583 


5 


0-107 


10679 59430 1 


99428 09595 


7 


0-108 


10779 01704 1 


99417 36665 





0-109 


10878 42900 2 


99406 53792 


6 


0-110 


10977 83008 4 


99395 60979 


6 


0-111 


11077 22018 8 


99384 58227 





0-112 


11176 59921 5 


99373 45535 


9 


0-113 


11275 96706 6 


99362 22907 


5 


0-114 


11375 32364 


99350 90342 


9 


0-115 


11474 66883 9 


99339 47843 


1 


0-116 


11574 00256 4 


99327 96409 


5 


0117 i 


11673 32471 4 


99316 33043 





0-118 


11772 63519 2 


99304 60744 


9 


0-119 1 


11871 93389 6 


99292 78516 


4 


0120 


11971 22072 9 


99280 86358 


5 


0-121 


12070 49559 


99268 84272 


6 


0-122 


12169 75838 1 


99256 72259 


8 


0123 


12269 00900 2 


99244 50321 


3 


0-124 


12368 21735 5 


99232 18458 


4 


0-125 


12467 47333 9 


99219 76672 


3 


0-126 


12566 68685 5 


99207 24964 


2 


0-127 


12665 88780 5 


99194 63335 


3 


0128 


12765 07608 9 


99181 91787 





0-129 


12864 25160 7 


99169 10320 


5 


0-130 


12963 41426 2 


99156 18937 


1 


0-131 


13062 56395 3 


99143 17638 


1 


0-132 


13161 70058 2 


99130 06424 


8 


0-133 


13260 82404 9 


99116 85298 


4 


0-134 


13359 93425 5 


99103 54260 


4 


0-135 


13459 03110 1 


99090 13312 





0-136 


13558 11448 8 


99076 62454 


6 


0137 


13657 18431 7 


99063 01689 


6 


0138 


13756 24048 9 


99049 31018 


2 


0-139 


13855 28290 4 


99035 50442 





0-140 


13954 31146 4 


99021 59962 


1 


0-141 


14053 32607 


99007 59580 


1 


0142 


14152 32662 3 


98993 49297 


4 


0-143 


14251 31302 3 


98979 29115 


3 


0-144 


•14350 28517 2 


-98964 99035 


2 


0-145 


14449 24297 1 


98950 59058 


7 


0-146 


14548 18632 1 


98936 09187 


1 


0-147 


14647 11512 2 


98921 49421 


9 


0-148 


14746 02927 6 


98906 79764 


6 


0-149 


14844 92868 4 


98892 00216 


6 


0-150 


14943 81324 7 


98877 10779 


4 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



63 



Tables of Sines atid Cosines (6 in radians) — continued. 



e 


Sin e 




Cos e 


0151 


•15042 68286 


7 


•98862 11464 4 


0-152 


•15141 53744 


3 


•98847 02243 3 


0153 


•15240 37687 


9 


-98831 83147 4 


0-154 


•15339 20107 


3 


-98816 54168 4 


0-155 


•15438 00992 


9 


•98801 15307 7 


0156 


•15536 80334 


7 


•98785 66566 9 


0157 


•15635 58122 


7 


■98770 07947 6 


0158 


•15734 34347 


3 


-98754 39451 2 


0159 


•15833 08998 


4 


-98738 61079 4 


0-160 


•15931 82066 


1 


•98722 72833 8 


0-161 


•16030 53540 


7 


-98706 74715 8 


0162 


•16129 23412 


3 


■98690 66727 2 


0163 


•16227 91670 


9 


■98674 48869 6 


0-164 


•16326 58306 


7 


■98658 21144 4 


0-165 


•16425 23309 


9 


-98641 83553 5 


0-166 


•16523 86670 


6 


-98625 36098 3 


0-167 


•16622 48378 


8 


-98608 78780 7 


0-168 


•16721 08424 


8 


-98592 11602 1 


0169 


•16819 66798 


7 


-98575 34564 4 


0-170 


•16918 23490 


7 


-98558 47669 1 


0171 


•17016 78490 


8 


•98541 50918 


0-172 


•17115 31789 


2 


•98524 44312 7 


0-173 


•17213 83376 


1 


-98507 27855 


0174 


•17312 33241 


6 


•98490 01546 5 


0-175 


•17410 81375 


9 


■98472 65389 


0-176 


•17509 27769 


1 


•98455 19384 3 


0-177 


•17607 72411 


4 


-98437 63534 1 


0-178 


•17706 15292 


9 


-98419 97840 1 


0-179 


•17804 56403 


8 


-98402 22304 1 


0-180 


•17902 95734 


3 


-98384 36927 9 


0181 


•18001 33274 


4 


•98366 41713 2 


0-182 


•18099 69014 


4 


-98348 36661 9 


0-183 


•18198 02944 


4 


-98330 21775 8 


01 84 


•18296 35054 


7 


-98311 97056 6 


0-185 


•18394 65335 


3 


•98293 62506 3 


0-186 


-18492 93776 


4 


-98275 18126 6 


0-187 


•18591 20368 


3 


-98256 63919 4 


0-188 


■18689 45101 





-98237 99886 5 


0-189 


•18787 67964 


8 


-98219 26029 8 


0-190 


•18885 88949 


8 


•E82(J0 42351 2 


0-191 


•18984 08046 


2 


-98181 48852 5 


0-192 


•19082 25244 


2 


-98162 45535 7 


0-193 


•19180 40534 





■98143 32402 7 


0-194 


•19278 53905 


7 


•98124 09455 3 


0-195 


•19376 65349 


6 


-98104 76695 5 


0-196 


•19474 74855 


9 


-98085 34125 2 


0-197 


•19572 82414 


6 


-98065 81746 4 


0-198 


•19670 88016 


1 


-98046 19561 1 


0-199 


•19768 91650 


5 


-98026 47571 1 


0-200 


•19866 93307 


9 


-98006 65778 4 


0-201 


•19964 92978 


7 


•97986 74185 1 


0-202 


•20062 90653 


1 


•97966 72793 1 


0-203 


•20160 86321 


1 


•97946 61604 5 


0-204 


•20258 79973 





-97926 40621 1 


0-205 


•20356 71599 





•97906 09845 2 


0-206 


•20454 61189 


4 


•97885 69278 6 


0-207 


•20552 48734 


3 


•97865 18923 5 


0-208 


•20650 34224 





•97844 58781 8 



64) 



REPOETS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (6 in radians) — continued. 



d 


Sine 


Cose 


0-209 


•20748 17648 


6 


•97823 88855 7 


0-210 


20845 98998 


5 


•97803 09147 2 


0-211 


20943 78263 


7 


•97782 19658 4 


0-212 


21041 55434 


5 


•97761 20391 4 


0-213 


21139 30501 


2 


•97740 11348 3 


0-214 


21237 03454 





•97718 92531 1 


0-215 


21334 74283 





•97697 63942 1 


0-216 


21432 42978 


6 


•97676 25583 3 


0-217 


21530 09530 


9 


•97654 77466 8 


0-218 


21627 73930 


2 


•97633 19564 9 


0-219 


•21725 36166 


8 


■97611 51909 7 


0-220 


21822 96230 


8 


•97589 74493 3 


0-221 


21920 54112 


5 


•97567 87318 


0-222 


•22018 09802 


2 


•97545 90385 8 


0-223 


•22115 63290 





•97523 83699 1 


0-224 


•22213 14566 


3 


•97501 67260 


0-225 


•22310 63621 


3 


•97479 41070 7 


0-226 


•22408 10445 


2 


•97457 05133 5 


0-227 


•22505 55028 


3 


•97434 59450 5 


0-228 


•22602 97360 


9 


•97412 04024 2 


0-229 


•22700 37433 


1 


•97389 38856 6 


0-230 


22797 75235 


4 


•97366 63950 1 


0-231 


22895 10757 


8 


•97343 79306 9 


0-232 


•22992 43990 


7 


-97320 84929 3 


0-233 


23089 74924 


4 


•97297 80819 6 


0-234 


23187 03549 


1 


•97274 66980 2 


0-235 


23284 29855 


1 


-97251 43413 3 


0-236 


23381 53832 


7 


•97228 10121 3 


0-237 


23478 75472 


1 


•97204 67106 4 


0-238 


23575 94763 


7 


•97181 14371 1 


0-239 


23673 11697 


6 


•97157 51917 7 


0-240 


23770 26264 


3 


•97133 79748 5 


0-241 


23867 38453 


9 


•97109 97866 


0-242 


23964 48256 


8 


•97086 06272 4 


0-243 


24061 55663 


2 


•97062 04970 2 


0-244 


24158 60663 


5 


•97037 93961 9 


0-245 


24255 63247 


9 


•97013 73249 7 


0-246 


24352 63406 


7 


•96989 42836 2 


0-247 


24449 61130 


3 


•96965 02723 7 


0-248 


24546 56408 


9 


•96940 52914 7 


0-249 


24643 49232 


9 


•96915 93411 7 


0-250 


24740 39592 


5 


•96891 24217 1 


0-251 


24837 27478 


1 


•96866 45333 4 


0-252 


24934 12880 





•96841 66763 


0-253 


25030 95788 


4 


•96816 68508 4 


0-254 


25127 76193 


8 


•96791 50572 2 


0-255 


25224 54086 


3 


•96766 32956 9 


0-256 


25321 29456 


5 


•96741 05664 9 


0-257 


25418 02294 


4 


•96715 68698 8 


0-258 


25514 72590 


6 


•96690 22061 2 


0-259 


25611 40335 


3 


•96664 65754 5 


0-260 


25708 05518 


9 


•96638 99781 3 


0-261 


25804 68131 


7 


•96613 24144 3 


0-262 


25901 28164 





•96687 38845 9 


0-263 


25997 85606 


2 


•96561 43888 8 


0-264 


26094 40448 


5 


•96535 39275 6 


0-265 


26190 92681 


5 


•96509 25008 8 


0-266 


26287 42295 


3 


•96483 01091 1 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



65 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (6 in radians) — continued. 



6 


Sin B 


Cos 9 





267 


26383 89280 


5 


96456 67525 1 





268 


26480 33627 


2 


96430 24313 4 





269 


26576 75325 


9 


96403 71458 7 





270 


26673 14366 


9 


96377 08963 7 





271 


26769 50740 


6 


96350 36830 9 





272 


26865 84437 


3 


96323 55063 1 





273 


26962 15447 


5 


96296 63662 9 





274 


27058 43761 


5 


96269 62633 1 





275 


27154 69369 


6 


96242 51976 3 





276 


27250 92262 


2 


96215 31695 2 





277 


27347 12429 


7 


96188 01792 7 





278 


27443 29862 


6 


96160 62271 3 





279 


27539 44551 


1 


96133 13133 9 





280 


27635 56485 


6 


96105 54383 1 





281 


27731 65656 


6 


96077 86021 8 





282 


27827 72054 


5 


96050 08052 7 





283 


27923 75669 


5 


96022 20478 6 





284 


28019 76492 


2 


95994 23302 3 





285 


28115 74512 


9 


95966 16526 6 





286 


28211 69722 


1 


95938 00154 2 





287 


28307 62110 


1 


95909 74188 1 





288 


28403 51667 


3 


95881 38630 9 





289 


28499 38384 


1 


95852 93485 7 





290 


28595 22251 





95824 38755 1 





291 


28691 03258 


4 


95795 74442 I 





292 


28786 81396 


7 


95767 00549 6 





293 


28882 56656 


3 


95738 17080 3 





294 


28978 29027 


7 


95709 24037 2 





295 


29073 98501 


2 


95680 21423 2 





296 


29169 65067 


4 


95651 09241 2 





297 


29265 28716 


5 


95621 87494 





298 


29360 89439 


2 


95592 56184 7 





299 


29456 47225 


7 


95563 15316 1 





300 


29552 02066 


6 


95533 64891 3 





301 


29647 53952 


3 


95504 04913 





302 


29743 02873 


3 


95474 35384 3 





303 


29838 48819 


9 


95444 56308 2 





304 


29933 91782 


7 


95414 67687 7 





305 


30029 31752 


1 


95384 69525 7 





306 


30124 68718 


6 


95354 61825 2 





307 


30220 02672 


6 


95324 44589 2 





308 


30315 33604 


6 


95294 17820 9 





309 


30410 61505 





95263 81523 





310 


30605 86364 


4 


95233 35698 9 





311 


30601 08173 


3 


95202 80351 3 





312 


30696 26922 





95172 15483 5 





313 


30791 42601 





95141 41098 5 





314 


30886 55201 





95110 57199 3 





315 


30981 64712 


3 


95079 63789 1 





316 


31076 71125 


4 


95048 60871 





317 


31171 74430 


8 


95017 48447 9 





318 


31266 74619 


1 


94986 26523 1 





319 


31361 71680 


7 


94954 95099 7 





320 


31456 65606 


2 


94923 54180 8 





321 


31551 56385 


9 


94892 03769 6 





322 


31646 44010 


5 


94860 43869 1 





323 


31741 28470 


5 


94828 74482 6 


0-324 1 


31836 09756 


3 


94796 95613 2 


191 


6 






P 



ee 



REPOETS ON TSE state OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (9 in radians) — continued. 



e 


Sine 


Cose 


0-325 


-31930 87858 


6 


•94765 07264 


1 


0-326 


-32025 62767 


7 


■94733 09438 


6 


0-327 


-32120 34474 


3 


■94701 02139 


7 


0-328 


■32215 02968 


8 


■94668 85370 


7 


0-329 


-32309 68241 


9 


■94636 59134 


8 


0-330 


-32404 30283 


9 


■94604 23435 


3 


0-331 


-32498 89085 


6 


■94571 78275 


3 


0-332 


•32593 44637 


3 


■94539 23658 


2 


0-333 


-32687 96929 


8 


■94506 59587 


1 


0-334 


■32782 45953 


4 


■94473 86065 


4 


0-335 


-32876 91698 


7 


■94441 03096 


3 


0-336 


-32971 34156 


4 


■94408 10683 


1 


0-337 


•33065 73317 





■94375 08829 


1 


0-338 


•33160 09170 


9 


■94341 97537 


6 


0-339 


•33254 41708 


9 


■94308 76811 


9 


0-340 


■33348 70921 


4 


•94275 46655 


3 


0-341 


■33442 96799 


1 


•94242 07071 


1 


0-342 


■33537 19332 


4 


•94208 58062 


8 


0-343 


•33631 38512 





•94174 99633 


6 


0-344 


•33725 54328 


5 


•94141 31786 


9 


0-345 


•33819 66772 


5 


■94107 64526 


1 


0-346 


•33913 75834 


4 


■94073 67854 


5 


0-347 


•34007 81505 





■94039 71775 


5 


0-348 


•34101 83774 


9 


■94005 66292 


6 


0-349 


•34195 82634 


5 


■93971 51409 


1 


0-350 


•34289 78074 


6 


•93937 27128 


5 


0-351 


•34383 70085 


6 


•93902 93454 


1 


0-352 


•34477 58658 


3 


•93868 50389 


4 


0-353 


•34571 43783 


3 


•93833 97937 


9 


0-354 


•34665 25451 


1 


•93799 36103 





0-355 


•34759 03652 


3 


•93764 64888 


2 


0-356 


•34852 78377 


7 


•93729 84296 


9 


0-357 


•34946 49617 


8 


•93694 94332 


6 


0-358 


•35040 17363 


3 


•93659 94998 


8 


0-359 


•35133 81604 


7 


•93624 86299 





0-360 


•35227 42332 


7 


•93589 68236 


8 


0-361 


•35320 99538 


1 


■93554 40815 


5 


0-362 


■35414 53211 


3 


■93519 04038 


9 


0-363 


•35508 03343 





■93483 57910 


3 


0-364 


•35601 49924 





•93448 02433 


4 


0-365 


•35694 92944 


8 


•93412 37611 


6 


0-366 


•35788 32396 


1 


•93376 63448 


7 


0-367 


•35881 68268 


5 


•93340 79948 





0-368 


•35975 00552 


9 


•93304 87113 


3 


0-369 


•36068 29239 


7 


•93268 84948 


1 


0-370 


•36161 54319 


6 


•93232 73456 


1 


0-371 


■36254 75783 


5 


•93196 52640 


7 


0-372 


■36347 93621 


8 


■93160 22505 


7 


0-373 


■36441 07825 


4 


■93123 83054 


7 


0-374 


•36534 18384 


8 


■93087 34291 


3 


0-375 


•36627 25290 


9 


■93050 76219 


1 


0-376 


•36720 28534 


2 


•93014 08841 


9 


0-377 


•36813 28105 


4 


•92977 32163 


3 


0-378 


•36906 23995 


4 


•92940 46186 


9 


0-379 


•36999 16194 


7 


•92903 50916 


6 


0-380 


•37092 04694 


1 


■92866 46355 


8 


0-381 


■37184 89484 


3 


•92829 32508 


4 


0-382 


•37277 70556 





•92792 09378 






ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



67 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (9 in radians)— continued. 



e 


Slue 


Cos e 


0-383 


•37370 47900 


•92754 76968 5 


0-384 


-37463 21506 9 


•92717 35283 5 


0-385 


•37555 91367 5 


•92679 84326 7 


0-386 


•37648 57472 5 


•92642 24102 


0-387 


•37741 19812 6 


•92604 54613 


0-388 


•37833 78378 6 


•92566 75863 6 


0-389 


•37926 33161 2 


•92528 87857 5 


0-390 


•38018 84151 2 


•92490 90598 6 


0-391 


•38111 31339 3 


•92452 84090 5 


0-392 


•38203 74710 3 


•92414 68337 2 


0-393 


-38296 14272 9 


•92376 43342 4 


0-394 


•38388 49999 9 


-92338 09109 9 


0-395 


•38480 81888 1 


-92299 65643 6 


0-396 


•38573 09928 1 


-92261 12947 4 


0-397 


•38665 34110 9 


•92222 51025 1 


0-398 


•38767 54427 1 


-92183 79880 5 


0-399 


•38849 70867 6 


-92144 99517 5 


0-400 


•38941 83423 1 


■92106 09940 


0-401 


•39033 92084 4 


■92067 11152 


0-402 


•39125 96842 3 


■92028 03157 2 


0-403 


-39217 97687 6 


•91988 85959 6 


0-404 


•39309 94611 2 


•91949 59563 1 


0-405 


•39401 87603 7 


■91910 23971 7 


0-406 


•39493 76656 


•91870 79189 2 


0-407 


•39585 61759 


■91831 25219 7 


0-408 


•39677 42903 4 


■91791 62067 


0-409 


•39769 20080 1 


•91751 89735 2 


0-410 


•39860 93279 8 


•91712 08228 2 


0-411 


■39952 62493 5 


•91672 17549 9 


0-412 


■40044 27711 9 


•91632 17704 5 


0-413 


•40135 88925 8 


•91592 08695 9 


0-414 


•40227 46126 2 


•91551 90528 


0-415 


•40318 99303 8 


•91511 63204 9 


0-416 


•40410 48449 6 


•91471 26730 7 


0-417 


•40501 93554 3 


-91430 81109 4 


0-418 


•40593 34608 8 


-91390 26345 


0-419 


•40684 71603 9 


-91349 62441 5 


0-420 


•40776 04530 


•91308 89403 1 


0-421 


•40867 33379 7 


•91268 07233 8 


0-422 


•40958 58142 


•91227 15937 7 


0-423 


•41049 78808 5 


•91186 15518 9 


0-424 


•41140 95370 


■91145 05981 5 


0-425 


•41232 07817 4 


•91103 87329 5 


0-426 


•41323 16141 6 


■91062 59567 2 


0-427 


•41414 20333 5 


■91021 22098 6 


0-428 


-41505 20384 


■90979 76727 9 


0-429 


•41596 16284 


■90938 21659 3 


0-430 


•41687 08024 3 


■90896 57496 8 


0-431 


•41777 95595 9 


■90854 84244 6 


0-432 


-41868 78989 7 


■90813 01907 


0-433 


•41959 58196 7 


■90771 10488 


0-434 


•42050 33207 7 


■90729 09992 


0-435 


•42141 04013 7 


•90687 00423 


0-436 


•42231 70605 5 


■90644 81785 3 


0-437 


•42322 32974 2 


■90602 54083 2 


0-438 


•42412 91110 7 


•90560 17320 8 


0-439 


•42503 45005 8 


■90517 71502 4 


0-440 


•42593 94650 7 


■90475 16632 2 



r 2 



68 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (6 in radians)— continued. 



6 


Sine 


Cos e 


0-441 


•42684 40036 


1 


90432 52714 5 


0-442 


•42774 81153 


1 


90389 79763 6 


0-443 


•42865 17992 


6 


90346 97763 6 


0-444 


•42955 50545 


6 


90304 06719 


0-445 


•43045 78803 





90261 06654 


0-446 


•43136 02755 


9 


90217 97562 8 


0-447 


•43226 22395 


1 


90174 79449 9 


0-448 


•43316 37711 


8 


90131 52319 5 


0-449 


•43406 48696 


8 


90088 16175 9 


0-450 


•43496 55341 


1 


90044 71023 5 


0-451 


•43586 57635 


8 


90001 16866 7 


0-452 


•43676 55571 


8 


89957 53709 7 


0-453 


•43766 49140 


2 


89913 81557 


0-454 


•43856 38332 





89870 00412 9 


0-455 


•43946 23138 





89826 10281 8 


0-456 


•44036 03549 


5 


89782 11168 1 


0-457 


•44125 79557 


4 


89738 03076 2 


0-458 


•44215 51152 


7 


89693 86010 4 


0-459 


•44305 18326 


4 


89649 59975 3 


0-460 


-44394 81069 


7 


89605 24975 3 


0-461 


•44484 39373 


4 


89560 81014 7 


0-462 


•44573 93228 


7 


89516 28098 


0-463 


•44663 42626 


6 


89471 66229 7 


0-464 


•44752 87558 


2 


89426 95414 2 


0-465 


•44842 28014 


5 


89382 15656 1 


0-466 


•44931 63986 


5 


89337 26959 7 


0-467 


-45020 95465 


4 


89292 29329 6 


0-468 


-45110 22442 


2 


89247 22770 3 


0-469 


-45199 44908 





89202 07286 2 


0-470 


-45288 62853 


8 


89166 82882 


0-471 


•45377 76270 


8 


89111 49562 


0-472 


•45466 85149 


9 


89066 07330 9 


0-473 


•45555 89482 


5 


89020 56193 2 


0-474 


•45644 89269 


4 


88974 96153 5 


0-475 


•45733 84471 


8 


88929 27216 2 


0-476 


•45822 76110 


8 


88883 49386 


0-477 


-46911 61167 


6 


88837 62667 5 


0-478 


-46000 42633 


2 


88791 67065 2 


0-479 


-46089 19498 


8 


88745 62683 8 


0-480 


-46177 91755 


4 


88699 49227 8 


0-481 


•46266 59394 


3 


88663 27001 8 


0-482 


•46355 22406 


5 


88606 96910 5 


0-483 


•46443 80783 


1 


88660 56958 6 


0-484 


-46532 34515 


4 


88614 07160 5 


0-485 


•46620 83594 


5 


88467 49491 1 


0-486 


•46709 28011 


5 


88420 82984 9 


0-487 


•46797 67757 


5 


88374 07636 6 


0-488 . 


•46886 02823 


8 


88327 23450 9 


0-489 


•46974 33201 


5 


88280 30432 5 


0-490 


•47062 58881 


7 


88233 28586 1 


0-491 


•47150 79865 


7 


88186 17916 3 


0-492 


•47238 96114 


6 


88138 98428 


0-493 


•47327 07649 


6 


88091 70125 7 


0-494 


•47415 14451 


9 


88044 33014 2 


0-495 


•47503 16612 


7 


87996 87098 4 


0-496 


47691 13823 


2 


87949 32382 8 


0-497 


•47679 06374 


5 


87901 68872 3 


0'498 


-47766 94158 





87853 96571 6 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



69 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (fl in radians) — continued. 



e 


Sine 


Cos e 


0-499 


•47854 77164 8 


•87806 15485 6 


0-500 


•47942 55386 


■87758 25618 9 


0-501 


•48030 28813 1 


87710 26976 4 


0-502 


•48117 97437 1 


■87662 19562 9 


0-503 


•48205 61249 3 


■87614 03383 1 


0-504 


•48293 20240 9 


•87565 78442 


0-505 


■48380 74403 2 


•87517 44744 3 


0-506 


■48468 23727 5 


•87469 02294 8 


0-507 


■48555 68204 9 


•87420 51098 4 


0-508 


■48643 07826 8 


•87371 91160 


0-509 


■48730 42584 3 


•87323 22484 4 


0-510 


■48817 72468 8 


•87274 45076 5 


0-511 


•48904 97471 6 


•87225 58941 1 


0-512 


•48992 17583 8 


■87176 64083 1 


0-513 


•49079 32796 8 


•87127 60507 5 


0-514 


•49166 43101 9 


■87078 48219 2 


0-515 


•49253 48490 4 


•87029 27223 


0-516 


•49340 48953 5 


•86979 97523 8 


0-517 


•49427 44482 5 


■86930 59126 7 


0-518 


•49514 35068 8 


■86881 12036 5 


0-519 


•49601 20703 7 


■86831 56258 2 


0-520 


•49688 01378 4 


■86781 91796 8 


0-521 


■49774 77084 4 


■86732 18657 1 


0-522 


■49861 47812 9 


■86682 36844 3 


0-523 


■49948 13555 2 


■86632 46363 2 


0-524 


•50034 74302 7 


•86582 47218 8 


0-525 


•50121 30046 7 


•86532 39416 2 


0-526 


■50207 80778 6 


•86482 22960 4 


0-527 


■50294 26489 8 


•86431 97856 3 


0-528 


•50380 67171 5 


•86381 64109 1 


0-529 


•50467 02815 1 


•86331 21723 7 


0-530 


•50553 33412 


■86280 70705 1 


0-531 


•50639 58953 6 


•86230 11058 5 


0-532 


•50725 79431 3 


•86179 42788 9 


0-533 


•50811 94836 4 


86128 65901 4 


0-534 


•50898 05160 2 


86077 80400 9 


0-535 


•50984 10394 3 


86026 86292 7 


0-536 


•51070 10529 9 


85975 83581 9 


0-537 


•51156 05558 6 


85924 72273 4 


0-538 


•51241 95471 6 


85873 52372 4 


0-539 


•51327 80260 5 


85822 23884 2 


0-540 


■51413 59916 5 


85770 86813 6 


0-541 


■51499 34431 2 


85719 41166 


0-542 


•51585 03796 


85667 86946 5 


0-543 


•51670 68002 3 


85616 24160 2 


0-544 


•61756 27041 5 


85564 52812 2 


0-545 


•51841 80905 


85512 72907 8 


0-546 


•51927 29584 4 


85460 84452 1 


0-547 


•52012 73071 1 


85408 87450 4 


0-548 


•52098 11356 5 


85356 81907 7 


0-549 


•52183 44432 1 


85304 67829 4 


0-550 


•52268 72289 3 


85252 45220 6 


0-551 


■52353 94919 7 


85200 14086 6 


0-552 


■52439 12314 6 


85147 74432 5 


0-553 


■52524 24465 7 


85095 26263 7 


0-554 


■52609 31364 3 


85042 69585 3 


0-555 


■52694 33002 


84990 04402 7 


0-556 


■52779 29370 3 


84937 30721 1 



70 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Tables of Sines aud Cosines (9 in radians) — continued. 



. 6 


Sin 9 


Cos 9 


0-557 


52864 204G0 


6 


84884 48545 


7 


0-558 


52949 06264 


6 


84831 57881 


9 


0-559 


53033 86773 


6 


84778 58735 





0-560 


53118 61979 


2 


84725 51110 


1 


0-561 


53203 31873 





84672 35012 


8 


0-562 


53287 96446 


4 


84619 10448 


2 


0-563 


53372 55691 





84565 77421 


6 


0-564 1 


53457 09598 


4 


84512 35938 


6 


0-565 } 


53541 58160 


1 


84458 86004 


2 


0-566 1 


53626 01367 


6 


84405 27624 





0-567 


53710 39212 


5 


84351 60803 


3 


0-568 


53794 71686 


4 


84297 86647 


4 


0-569 


53878 98780 


8 


84244 01861 


7 


0-570 


53963 20487 


3 


84190 09761 


6 


0-571 


54047 36797 


5 


84136 09222 


5 


0-572 


54131 47703 





84082 00279 


8 


0-573 


54215 53195 


3 


84027 82928 


9 


0-574 


54299 53266 





83973 57175 


2 


0-575 1 


54383 47906 


8 


83919 23024 


2 


0-576 j 


54467 37109 


3 


83864 80481 


2 


0-577 


-54551 20865 





83810 29661 


8 


0-578 


54634 99165 


6 


83755 70241 


3 


0-579 


54718 72002 


7 


83701 02555 


3 


0-580 


54802 39367 


9 


83646 26499 


2 


0-581 


54886 01252 


9 


83691 42078 


4 


0-582 


54969 57649 


3 


83536 49298 


5 


0-583 


55053 08548 


7 


83481 48164 


9 


0-584 


55136 53942 


8 


83426 38683 


2 


0-585 


55219 93823 


3 


83371 20858 


9 


0-586 


55303 28181 


8 


83315 94697 


4 


0-587 


55386 57009 


9 


83260 60204 


3 


0-588 


55469 80299 


4 


83205 17385 


2 


0-589 


55552 98041 


9 


83149 66245 


6 


0-590 


55636 10229 


1 


83094 06791 





0-591 


55719 16852 


7 


83038 39027 





0-592 


55802 17904 


4 


82982 62959 


2 


0-593 


55885 13375 


9 


82926 78593 





0-594 


55968 03258 


8 


82870 85934 


3 


0-595 


56060 87545 





82814 84988 


4 


0-596 


50133 66226 





82758 75761 





0-597 


56216 39293 


7 


82702 58257 


8 


0-598 


56299 06739 


8 


82646 32484 


3 


0-599 


56381 68556 





82589 98446 


2 


0-600 


56464 24733 


9 


82533 66149 


1 


0-601 


-66546 75266 


5 


82477 05698 


6 


0-602 


•56629 20142 


4 


82420 46800 


4 


0-603 


66711 59356 


4 


82363 79760 


2 


0-604 


•56793 92899 


2 


82307 04483 


6 


0-605 


•56876 20762 


6 


82250 20976 


3 


0-606 


•56958 42938 


4 


82193 29244 





0-607 


•57040 59418 


3 


82136 29292 


3 


0-608 


•57122 70194 


2 


82079 21127 


1 


0-609 


•57204 75267 


9 


82022 04753 


9 


0-610 


-57286 74601 





81964 80178 


5 


0-611 


-67368 68215 


5 


81907 47406 


6 


0-612 


57460 56093 


1 


81850 06443 


9 


0-613 


67532 38225 


6 


81792 57296 


3 


0-614 


57614 14604 


9 


81734 99969 


4 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



71 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (9 in radians) — continued. 



e 


Sine 


Cose 


OGlo 


-57695 85222 


8 


•81677 34469 





0-616 


-57777 50071 


2 


-81619 60800 


9 


0-617 


-57859 09141 


7 


•81561 78970 


8 


0-618 


-57940 62426 


4 


•81503 88984 


5 


0-619 


-58022 09917 





•81445 90847 


9 


0-620 


-.58103 51605 


4 


•81387 84666 


6 


0-621 


-58184 87483 


4 


•81329 70146 


6 


0-622 


-58266 17543 





•81271 47693 


6 


0-623 


-58347 41775 


9 


•81213 16913 


6 


0-624 


-58428 60174 


1 


•81154 78112 





0-625 


-58509 72729 


4 


-81096 31195 





0-626 


-58590 79433 


8 


•81037 76168 


5 


0-627 


-58671 80279 





•80979 13038 


1 


0-628 


•58752 76257 


1 


•80920 41809 


9 


0-629 


-58833 64360 





■80861 62489 


6 


0-6.S0 


-58914 47579 


4 


•80802 75083 


1 


0-631 


-68995 24907 


4 


•80743 79596 


4 


0-632 


-59075 96335 


9 


•80684 76035 


3 


0-633 


-59156 61856 


8 


•80625 64405 


7 


0-634 


•59237 21462 





•80566 44713 


5 


0-635 


-59317 75143 


6 


•80507 16964 


7 


0-636 


59398 22893 


3 


•80447 81165 


2 


0-637 


59478 64703 


2 


•80388 37320 


9 


0-6.38 


59559 00565 


3 


•80328 85437 


8 


0-639 


59639 .30471 


4 


•80269 25521 


8 


0-040 


59719 54413 


6 


•80209 57578 


8 


0-641 


69799 72383 


9 


•80149 81614 


9 


0-642 


.59879 84374 


2 


•80089 97636 


1 


0-643 


.59959 90,376 


5 


•80030 05648 


2 


0-644 


60039 90382 


8 


•79970 066.57 


3 


0-645 


60119 84385 


1 


•79909 97669 


4 


0-646 


60199 72375 


5 


-79849 81690 


5 


0-647 


60279 54345 


9 


-79789 57726 


7 


0-648 


60359 30288 


3 


-79729 25783 


9 


0-649 


60439 00194 


8 


-79668 85868 


1 


0-650 


60518 64057 


4 


-79608 37985 


5 


0-651 


60598 21868 


1 


-79547 82142 





0-652 


60677 73619 





-79487 183-13 


8 


0-653 


60757 19302 


1 


-79426 46596 


8 


0-654 


60836 68909 


5 


-79365 66907 


2 


0-655 


60915 92433 


3 


•79304 79281 





0-656 


60996 19865 


6 


-79243 83724 


4 


0-657 


61074 41198 


1 


•79182 80243 


3 


0-658 


61153 56423 


3 


•79121 68844 





0-659 


61232 65533 


1 


•79060 49532 


5 


0-660 


61311 68519 


7 


•78999 22315 





0-661 


61390 65375 


1 


•78937 87197 


5 


0-662 


61469 56091 


6 


•78876 44186 


3 


0-663 


61548 40660 


9 


•78814 93287 


4 


0-664 


01627 19075 


4 


-78753 .34507 





0-665 


61705 91327 


3 


•78691 67861 


3 


0-666 


61784 57408 


5 


•78629 93326 


4 


0-667 


61863 17311 


3 


•78568 10938 


5 


0-668 


61941 71027 


8 


•78606 20693 


8 


0-669 


62020 185.50 


1 


•78444 22598 


5 


0-670 


62098 59870 


4 


-78382 16658 


8 


0-671 


62176 94980 


8 


-78320 02880 


9 


0-672 


62255 23873 


6 


-78257 81270 


9 



72 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (fl in radians) —contimied. 



6 


Sin e 


Cos e 


0-673 


•62333 46540 


7 


•78195 51835 2 


0-674 


•62411 62974 


6 


•78133 14579 9 


0-675 


•62489 73167 


3 


•78070 69511 3 


0-67G 


•62567 77111 





•78008 16635 7 


0-677 


•62645 74797 


9 


•77945 55959 2 


0-678 


•62723 66220 


3 


•77882 87488 2 


0-679 


•62801 51370 


3 


•77820 11228 8 


0-680 


•62879 30240 


2 


•77757 27187 5 


0-681 


•62957 02822 


1 


•77694 35370 5 


0-682 


•63034 69108 


3 


•77631 35784 


0-683 


•63112 29091 


1 


•77568 28434 3 


0-684 


•63189 82762 


6 


•77505 13327 9 


0-685 


•63267 30115 


2 


•77441 90470 9 


0-686 


•63344 71141 





•77378 59869 8 


0-687 


•63422 05832 


3 


•77315 21530 7 


0-688 


•63499 34181 


5 


•77251 75460 2 


0-689 


•63576 56180 


7 


•77188 21664 5 


0-690 


•63653 71822 


2 


•77124 60150 


0-691 


•63730 81098 


4 


•77060 90923 


0-692 


•63807 84001 


5 


•76997 13989 9 


0-693 


•63884 80523 


8 


•76933 29357 1 


0-694 


•63961 70657 


6 


-76869 37031 


0-695 


•64038 54395 


3 


•76805 37017 9 


0-696 


•64115 31729 


1 


•76741 29324 3 


0-697 


•64192 02651 


4 


•76677 13956 6 


0-698 


•64268 67154 


5 


•76612 90921 2 


0-699 


•64345 25230 


7 


•76548 60224 4 


0-700 


•64421 76872 


4 


•76484 21872 8 


0-701 


•64498 22071 


9 


•76419 75872 8 


0-702 


•64574 60821 





•76356 22230 9 


0-703 


•64650 93113 


8 


•76290 60953 3 


0-704 


•64727 18940 


9 


•76225 92046 8 


0-705 


•64803 38295 


3 


■76161 15517 6 


0-706 


•64879 51169 


4 


■76096 31372 3 


0-707 


•64955 57555 


6 


•76031 39617 4 


0-708 


•65031 57446 


1 


•75966 40259 4 


0-709 


•65107 50833 


5 


•75901 33304 7 


0-710 


•65183 37710 


2 


•75836 18759 9 


0-711 


•65259 18068 


5 


•75770 96631 5 


0-712 


•65334 91900 


9 


•75705 66925 9 


0-713 


•65410 59199 


9 


-75640 29649 8 


0-714 


•65486 19957 


7 


•75574 84809 7 


0-715 


•65561 74167 





•75509 32412 1 


0-716 


•65637 21820 





•75443 72463 6 


0-717 


•65712 62909 


4 


■75378 04970 7 


0-718 


•65787 97427 


5 


•75312 29939 9 


0-719 


•65863 25366 


7 


•75246 47378 


0-720 


•65938 46719 


7 


•75180 57291 4 


0-721 


•66013 61478 


8 


•75114 69686 8 


0-722 


•66088 69636 


6 


•75048 54570 7 


0-723 


•66163 71185 


5 


-74982 41949 7 


0-724 


•66238 66118 





•74916 21830 5 


0-725 


•66313 54426 


6 


•74849 94219 7 


0-726 


•66388 36103 


9 


•74783 59123 8 


0-727 


•66463 11142 


4 


■74717 16549 7 


0-728 


•66537 79534 


5 


•74650 66603 8 


0-729 


•666] 2 41272 


9 


•74584 08992 8 


0-730 


•66686 96350 





•74517 44023 4 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



73 



Tables of Sines and Cosmes (9 in radians) — continued. 



6 


Sin 


Cos e 


0-731 


•66761 44758 


5 


-74450 71602 3 


0-732 


•66835 86490 


8 


•74383 91736 2 


0-733 


•66910 21539 


5 


•74317 04431 6 


0-734 


•66984 49897 


1 


•74250 09695 3 


0-735 


•67058 71556 


4 


•74183 07534 


0-736 


•07132 86509 


7 


•74115 97954 4 


0-737 


•67206 91749 


8 


•74048 80963 2 


0-738 


•67280 96269 


2 


•73981 56567 2 


0-739 


•67354 91060 


5 


•73914 24772 9 


0-740 


•67428 79116 


3 


•73846 85587 3 


0-741 


•67502 60429 


2 


•73779 39017 


0-742 


•67576 34991 


9 


•73711 85068 7 


0-743 


•67650 02796 


9 


•73644 23749 2 


0-744 


•67723 63836 


9 


•73576 55065 3 


0-745 


•67797 18104 


5 


•73508 79023 8 


0-746 


•67870 65592 


5 


•73440 95031 4 


0-747 


•67944 06293 


4 


-73373 04894 9 


0-748 


•68017 40199 


8 


-73305 06821 1 


0-749 


•68090 67304 


6 


-73237 01416 8 


0-750 


•68163 87600 


2 


-73168 88688 7 


0-751 


•68237 01079 


5 


-73100 68643 8 


0-752 


•68310 07735 


1 


•73032 41288 9 


0-753 


•68383 07559 


7 


•72964 06630 6 


0-754 


•68456 00545 


9 


-72895 64676 


0-755 


•68528 86686 


6 


•72827 15431 8 


0-756 


•68601 65974 


3 


•72758 58904 9 


0-757 


•68674 38402 





•72689 95102 2 


0-758 


•68747 03962 


1 


•72621 24030 4 


0-759 


•68819 62647 


6 


•72552 45696 5 


0-760 


•68892 14451 


1 


•72483 60107 4 


0-761 


•68964 59365 


4 


•72414 67269 9 


0-762 


•69036 97383 


2 


•72345 67191 


0-763 


•69109 28497 


4 


•72276 59877 5 


0-764 


•69181 52700 


6 


•72207 45336 3 


0-765 


•69253 69985 


6 


•72138 23574 4 


0-766 


•69325 80345 


3 


•72068 94598 6 


0-767 


•69397 83772 


4 


•71999 58416 


0-768 


•69469 80259 


8 


•719,30 15033 4 


0-769 


•69541 69800 


1 


•71860 64457 8 


0-770 


•69613 62386 


3 


•71791 06096 1 


0-771 


•69685 28011 


1 


•71721 417.55 3 


0-772 


•69756 96667 


4 


•71651 69642 4 


0-773 


•69828 58348 





•71581 90364 3 


0-774 


•69900 13045 


7 


•71512 03928 


0-775 


•69971 60753 


5 


•71442 10340 6 


0-776 


•70043 01464 





•71372 09608 9 


0-777 


•70114 35170 


3 


•71302 01740 


0-778 


•70185 61865 


1 


•71231 80740 9 


0-779 


•70256 81541 


4 


•71161 64618 6 


0-780 


•70327 94192 





•71091 35380 1 


0-781 


•70398 99809 


8 


•71020 99032 5 


0-782 


•70469 98387 


7 


•70950 55582 8 


0-783 


•70540 89918 


6 


•70880 05038 1 


0-784 


•70611 74395 


4 


•70809 47405 4 


0-785 


•70682 51811 





•70738 82091 7 


0-786 


•70753 22158 


4 


•70668 10904 1 


0-787 


•70823 85430 


5 


•70597 32049 7 


0-788 


•70894 41620 


2 


•70526 46135 6 



74 



REPOETS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Tables of Sines and Cosines {6 iu radians) — continued. 



e 


Sine 


Cose 


0-789 


70964 90720 


4 


70465 53168 


8 


0-790 


71035 32724 


2 


70384 53156 


6 


0-791 


71105 67624 


4 


70313 46105 


8 


0-792 


71175 95414 





70242 32023 


6 


0-793 


71246 16086 


1 


70171 10917 


3 


0-794 


•71316 29633 


5 


70099 82793 


8 


0-795 


71386 36049 


3 


70028 47660 


4 


0-796 


71456 35326 


5 


69967 05524 


1 


0-797 


71526 27458 


1 


69885 66392 


1 


0-798 


71596 12437 





69814 00271 


6 


0-799 


71665 90256 


3 


69742 37169 


7 


0-800 


71735 60909 





69670 67093 


5 


0-801 


71805 24388 


1 


69698 90050 


2 


0-802 


71874 80686 


8 


69527 06047 


1 


0-803 


71944 29797 


9 


69455 15091 


2 


0-804 


72013 71714 


6 


69383 17189 


9 


0-805 


72083 06430 





69311 12350 


2 


0-806 


72152 33937 





69239 00579 


4 


0-807 


72221 54228 


8 


69166 81884 


7 


0-808 


72290 67298 


6 


69094 56273 


4 


0-809 


72359 73139 


1 


69022 23762 


6 


0-810 


72428 71743 


7 


68949 84329 


5 


0-811 


72497 63105 


4 


68877 38011 


6 


0-812 


72666 47217 


4 


68804 84805 


7 


0-813 


72635 24072 


8 


68732 24719 


5 


0-814 


72703 93664 


6 


•68669 57760 





0-816 


72772 55986 





68586 83934 


6 


0-816 


72841 11030 


2 


68514 03250 


4 


0-817 


72909 58790 


2 


68441 15714 


9 


0-818 


72977 99259 


3 


68368 21335 


3 


0-819 


73046 32430 


6 


68295 20118 


8 


0-820 


73114 58297 


3 


68222 12072 


9 


0-821 


73182 76852 


5 


68148 97204 


7 


0-822 


73250 88089 


4 


68076 75521 


6 


0-823 


73318 92001 


2 


68002 47031 





0-824 


73386 88581 


2 


67929 11740 





0-825 


73454 77822 


5 


67865 69656 


2 


0-826 


73522 59718 


2 


67782 20786 


8 


0-827 


73590 34261 


8 


67708 65139 


2 


0-828 


73658 01446 


3 


67636 02720 


8 


0-829 


73725 61265 





67561 33538 


8 


0-830 


73793 13711 


1 


67487 57600 


7 


0-831 


73860 58777 


9 


67413 74913 


9 


0-832 


73927 96458 


7 


67339 85485 


6 


0-833 


73995 26746 


6 


67265 89323 


4 


0-834 


74062 49635 


1 


67191 86434 


6 


0-835 


74129 65117 


3 


67117 76826 


6 


0-836 


74196 73186 


5 


67043 60506 


8 


0-837 


74263 73836 


1 


66969 37482 


7 


0-838 


74330 67059 


2 


66895 07761 


6 


0-839 


74397 52849 


3 


66820 71351 


1 


0-840 


74464 31199 


7 


06746 28258 


4 


0-841 


74531 02103 


6 


66671 78491 


1 


0-842 


74597 65554 


5 


66597 22056 


7 


0-843 


74664 21545 


5 


66522 58962 


5 


0-84* 


74730 70070 


2 


66447 89216 


1 


0-845 


74797 11121 


7 


66373 12824 


9 


0-846 


74863 44693 


6 


66298 29796 


3 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



75 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (9 in radians)— continued. 



0-847 

0-848 

0-849 

0-850 

0-851 

0-852 

0-853 

0-854 

0-855 

0-856 

0-857 

0-858 

0-859 

0-860 

0-861 

0-862 

0-863 

0-864 

0-865 

0-866 

0-867 

0-868 

0-869 

0-870 

0-871 

0-872 

0-873 

0-874 

0-875 

0-876 

0-877 

0-878 

0-879 

0-880 

0-881 

0-882 

0-883 

0-884 

0-885 

0-886 

0-887 

0-888 

0-889 

0-890 

0-891 

0-892 

0-893 

0-894 

0-895 

0-896 

0-897 

0-898 

0-899 

0-900 

0-901 

0-902 

0-903 

0-904 



Sin 6 


Cose 


•74929 70779 1 


•66223 40138 


•74995 89371 7 


•66148 43857 3 


•75062 00464 


•66073 40961 7 


■75128 04051 4 


-65998 31458 8 


■75194 00125 4 


•65923 16356 1 


•75259 88679 9 


•65847 92661 1 


•75325 69708 5 


•65772 63381 3 


•75391 43204 5 


•65697 27524 2 


•75457 09161 3 


•65621 85097 4 


•75522 67572 5 


•66546 36108 4 


•75588 18431 4 


•65470 80564 8 


•75653 61731 4 


•65395 18474 


•75718 97466 1 


■65319 49843 8 


•75784 25629 


•65243 74681 6 


•75849 46213 3 


-65167 92995 1 


•75914 59212 8 


-65092 04791 7 


•75979 64620 7 


-65016 10079 2 


•76044 62430 8 


•64940 08865 


•76109 52636 3 


•64864 01156 9 


•76174 35230 9 


•64787 86962 3 


•76239 10208 1 


•64711 66288 9 


•76303 77561 3 


•64635 39144 4 


•76368 37284 2 


•64559 05536 4 


•76432 89370 3 


•64482 65472 4 


•76497 33813 


•64406 18960 2 


•76561 70606 


•64329 66007 3 


•76625 99742 9 


•64263 06621 5 


•76690 21217 1 


•64176 40810 4 


•76754 35022 4 


•64099 68681 6 


•76818 41162 2 


•64022 89942 9 


•76882 39600 1 


•63946 04901 9 


•76946 30359 8 


•63869 13466 3 


•77010 13424 9 


•63792 15643 7 


•77073 88789 


•63715 11442 


•77137 56446 7 


•63638 00868 7 


•77201 16388 6 


•63560 83931 7 


•77264 68611 4 


•63483 60638 5 


■77328 13107 8 


•63406 30997 


•77391 49871 3 


•63328 96014 9 


•77454 78895 7 


•63251 52699 9 


•77518 00174 6 


•63174 04059 7 


•77581 13701 7 


•63096 49102 1 


■77644 19470 7 


•63018 87834 9 


■77707 17475 3 


•62941 20265 7 


•77770 07709 1 


•62863 46402 5 


•77832 90166 


•62785 66252 9 


•77895 64839 5 


•62707 79824 8 


•77958 31723 5 


•62629 87125 8 


•78020 90811 7 


•62551 88163 9 


•78083 42097 8 


•62473 82946 8 


•78145 85575 5 


•62395 71482 3 


•78208 21238 7 


•62317 53778 3 


•78270 49081 


•62239 29842 4 


•78332 69096 3 


•62160 99682 7 


■78394 81278 3 


•62082 63306 9 


•78456 85620 8 


•62004 20722 8 


•78518 82117 7 


•61925 71938 2 


•78580 70762 


•61847 16961 1 



76 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (d in radians) —continued. 



e 


Sine 


Cose 


0'905 


78642 51549 


5 


•61768 55799 3 


0-906 


78704 24472 


2 


-61689 88460 7 


0-907 


78765 89524 


4 


■61611 14953 


0-908 


78827 46700 





■61532 35284 2 


0-909 


78888 95992 


9 


-61453 49462 2 


0-910 


78950 37396 


9 


-61374 57494 9 


0-911 


79011 70905 


9 


■61295 59390 1 


0-912 


79072 96513 


6 


■61216 55155 7 


0-913 


79134 14214 


1 


■61137 44799 7 


0-914 


79195 24001 


2 


-61058 28329 9 


0-915 


79256 25868 


7 


-60979 05754 3 


0-916 


79317 19810 


7 


■60899 77080 8 


0-917 


79378 05820 


9 


■60820 42317 3 


0-918 


79438 83893 


3 


■60741 01471 8 


0-919 


79499 54021 


8 


•60661 54552 2 


0-920 


79560 16200 


4 


■60582 01566 4 


0-921 


79620 70422 


9 


■60502 42522 5 


0-922 


79681 16683 


4 


■60422 77428 2 


0-923 


79741 54975 


8 


•60343 06291 7 


0-924 


79801 85294 





■60263 29120 9 


0-925 


79862 07632 





■60183 45923 8 


0-926 


79922 21983 


8 


■60103 56708 3 


0-927 


79982 28343 


4 


•60023 61482 5 


0-928 


80042 26704 


8 


•59943 60254 3 


0-929 


80102 17061 


9 


■59863 53031 8 


0-930 


80161 99408 


8 


■59783 39822 9 


0-931 


80221 73739 


6 


■59703 20635 6 


0-932 


80281 40048 


1 


■59622 95478 1 


0-933 


80340 98328 


5 


■59542 64358 2 


0-934 


80400 48574 


8 


■59462 27284 1 


0-935 


80459 90781 


1 


•59381 84263 7 


0-936 


80519 24941 


4 


•59301 35305 2 


0-937 


80578 51049 


8 


■59220 80416 5 


0-938 


80637 09100 


3 


■59140 19605 8 


0-939 


80696 79087 





•59059 52881 


0-940 


80755 81004 


1 


•68978 80250 3 


0-941 


80814 74845 


5 


•58898 01721 7 


0-942 


80873 60605 


5 


•58817 17303 3 


0-943 


80932 38278 


2 


•58736 27003 2 


0-944 


80991 07857 


6 


-58655 30829 4 


0-945 


81049 69337 


9 


-58574 28790 2 


0-946 


81108 22713 


2 


-58493 20893 5 


0-947 


81166 67977 


7 


-58412 07147 5 


0-948 


81225 05125 


6 


-58330 87560 2 


0-949 


•81283 34150 


9 


-58249 62139 9 


0-950 


-81341 55047 


9 


-68168 30894 6 


0-951 


■81399 67810 


7 


-58086 93832 5 


0-952 


-81457 72433 


6 


•58005 50961 7 


0-953 


-81515 68910 


7 


■67924 02290 4 


0-954 


-81573 57236 


3 


•57842 47826 6 


0-955 


•8;i631 37404 


5 


•57760 87578 6 


0-956 


-81689 09409 


5 


•57679 21554 5 


0-957 


-81746 73245 


6 


•67597 49762 5 


0-958 


-81804 28907 


1 


•67615 72210 8 


0-959 


•81861 76388 


1 


•57433 88907 4 


0-960 


■81919 15683 





•57351 99860 7 


0-961 


•81976 46786 





•57270 05078 8 


0-962 1 


■820.33 69691 


3 


-57188 04569 9 | 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



77 



I'ahles of Sines and Cosines {9 in radians) — continued. 



e 


Sine 


Cos e 


0-963 


•82090 84393 


2 


■57105 98342 2 


0-961 


•82147 90886 





•57023 86403 8 


0-965 


•82204 89164 


1 


•56941 68763 1 


0-906 


•82261 79221 


7 


•56859 45428 2 


0-967 


•82318 61053 


1 


•56777 16407 4 


0-968 


•82375 34652 


6 


•56694 81708 9 


0-969 


•82432 00014 


6 


■56612 41340 9 


0-970 


•82488 57133 


4 


•56529 95311 6 


0-971 


•82545 06003 


3 


•56447 43629 3 


0-972 


■82601 46618 


8 


•56364 86302 3 


0-973 


•82657 78974 





•56282 23338 9 


0-974 


•82714 03063 


6 


■56199 54747 2 


0-975 


•82770 18881 


7 


•66116 80535 5 


0-976 


•82826 26422 


8 


■56034 00712 1 


0-977 


•82882 25681 


2 


•55951 15285 4 


0-978 


•82938 16651 


5 


•56868 24263 5 


0-979 


•82993 99327 


9 


■56785 27664 9 


0-980 


■83049 73704 


9 


■65702 25467 7 


0-981 


•83105 39777 





■55619 17710 2 


0-982 


•83160 97538 


5 


■65636 04390 9 


0-983 


•83216 46983 


9 


■65462 86517 9 


0-984 


•83271 88107 


7 


•56369 61099 7 


0-985 


•83327 20904 


2 


•56286 31144 5 


0-986 


•83382 45368 


1 


•56202 95660 7 


0-987 


•83437 61493 


7 


•65119 54666 5 


0-988 


•83492 69275 


6 


•56036 08140 4 


0-989 


■83547 68708 


2 


•54962 56120 8 


0-990 


•83602 59786 





•64868 98605 8 


0-991 


•83657 42503 


6 


•54785 35604 


0-992 


•83712 16855 


4 


•54701 67123 6 


0-993 


•83766 82836 





•64617 93173 


0-994 


■83821 40439 


9 


•64534 13760 7 


0-995 


■83875 89661 


7 


•64450 28895 


0-996 


•83930 30495 


9 


•54366 38584 2 


0-997 


•83984 62937 





■64282 42836 8 


0-998 


•84038 86979 


8 


•54198 41661 1 


0-999 


•84093 02618 


6 


•54114 36065 6 


1-000 


•84147 09848 


1 


•54030 23058 7 


1-001 


•84201 08662 


9 


•63946 05648 7 


1-002 


•84254 99057 


6 


•53861 82844 2 


1-003 


•84308 81026 


8 


•53777 54663 4 


1-004 


•84362 64565 


1 


•53693 21084 9 


1-005 


•84416 19667 


1 


•53608 82147 1 


1-006 


■84469 76327 


6 


•53524 37848 4 


1-007 


■84523 24541 


1 


•53439 88197 3 


1-008 


■84576 64302 


2 


•53365 33202 1 


1009 


•84629 95605 


7 


•53270 72871 5 


1-010 


•84683 18446 


2 


•53186 07213 7 


1011 


■84736 32818 


3 


•53101 36237 4 


1-012 


■84789 38716 


9 


•53016 59950 9 


1-013 


■84842 36136 


5 


•62931 78362 8 


1-014 


■84895 25071 


8 


•62846 91481 5 


1015 


•84948 05517 


7 


•52761 99315 6 


1-016 


■85000 77408 


7 


■52077 01873 3 


1-017 


■85053 40919 


7 


■52591 99163 4 


1-018 


•85105 95805 


3 


•52506 91194 3 


1-019 


■85158 42300 


3 


•52421 77974 5 


1020 


■85210 80219 


5 


•52330 59512 6 



78 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Tables of Sines and Cosines [6 in radians)— continued. 






Sin 6 1 


Cos e 


1021 


85263 09617 


6 


52251 35816 


9 


1022 


85315 30489 


4 


52166 06896 


1 


1-023 1 


86367 42829 


6 


52080 72768 


8 


1024 I 


85419 46633 


2 


51995 33413 


3 


1025 ] 


85471 41894 


7 


51909 88868 


3 


1-026 


85523 28609 


2 


51824 39132 


4 


1-027 


85575 06771 


3 


51738 84214 





1-028 


85626 76375 


9 


51653 24121 


7 


1-029 


85678 37417 


8 


51567 68864 


1 


1-030 


85729 89891 


9 


61481 88449 


7 


1-031 


85781 33793 





61396 12887 


1 


1-032 


85832 69115 


9 


51310 32185 





1-033 


85883 95855 


6 


51224 46351 


8 


1-034 


85935 14006 


9 


51138 55396 


1 


1-035 


85986 23564 


7 


61052 69326 


6 


1-036 


86037 24523 


9 


50966 58151 


9 


1-037 


86088 16879 


3 


50880 51880 


4 


1-0.S8 


86139 00626 





50794 40521 





1-039 


86189 75758 


7 


50708 24082 


1 


1-040 


86240 42272 


4 


50622 02572 


3 


1-041 


86291 00162 


1 


60535 76000 


4 


1-042 


86341 49422 


7 


50449 44374 


9 


1-043 


86391 90049 


2 


50363 07704 


4 


1-044 


86442 22036 


5 


50276 65997 


7 


1-045 


86492 45379 


5 


50190 19263 


2 


1-046 


86542 60073 


3 


50103 67609 


8 


1-047 


86592 66112 


9 


60017 10746 





1048 


86642 63493 


2 


49930 48980 


4 


1-049 


86692 52209 


2 


49843 82221 


9 


1-050 


86742 32255 


9 


49757 10478 


9 


1-051 


86792 03628 


5 


49670 33760 


3 


1-052 


86841 66321 


8 


49583 52074 


6 


1-053 


86891 20331 





49496 65430 


5 


1054 


86940 65651 





49409 73836 


8 


1-055 


86990 02277 





49322 77302 


1 


1-056 


87039 30204 





49235 75835 


1 


1-057 


87088 49427 





49148 69444 


6 


1-058 


87137 59941 


2 


49061 58139 


2 


1-059 


87186 61741 


7 


48974 41927 


6 


1-060 


87235 54823 


4 


48887 20818 


6 


1-061 


87284 39181 


7 


48799 94820 


9 


1-062 


87333 14811 


5 


48712 63943 


1 


1-063 


87381 81707 


9 


48625 28194 


2 


1-064 


87430 39866 


2 


48637 87682 


6 


1-065 


87478 89281 


5 


48460 42117 


3 


1-066 


87527 29948 


8 


48362 91807 





1-007 


87575 61863 


5 


48275 36660 


4 


1-068 


87623 85020 


6 


48187 76686 


2 


1-069 


87671 99415 


3 


48100 11893 


2 


1-070 


87720 05042 


7 


48012 42290 


3 


1-071 


87768 01898 


2 


47924 67886 


1 


1-072 


87815 89976 


9 


47836 88689 


4 


1-073 


87863 69274 





47749 04709 


1 


1-074 


87911 39784 


7 


47661 15953 


8 


1075 


87959 01504 


3 


47573 22432 


4 


1-076 


88006 54428 





47485 24163 


7 


1-077 


88053 98551 


1 


47397 21126 


5 


1-078 


88L01 33868 


7 


47309 13359 


6. 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



79 



Tables of Sines and Cosines {8 in radians) — continued. 



6 


Sin 




Cose 


1-079 


-88148 60376 


2 


•47221 00801 7 


1-080 


•88195 780C8 


8 


•47132 83641 7 


1-081 


-88242 86941 


9 


•47044 61708 5 


1-082 


-88289 86990 


7 


-46956 35070 8 


1083 


•88336 78210 


5 


-46868 03737 5 


1-084 


-88383 60596 


6 


•46779 67717 3 


1-085 


-88430 34144 


4 


•46691 27019 2 


1-086 


•88476 98849 


1 


•46602 81652 


1-087 


•88523 54706 


1 


•46514 31624 5 


1-088 


•88570 01710 


8 


■46425 76945 5 


1-089 


•88616 39858 


5 


•46337 17624 


1-090 


•88662 69144 


5 


•46248 53668 8 


1-091 


•88708 89564 


3 


•46159 85088 7 


1-092 


•88755 01113 


1 


•46071 11892 6 


1-093 


•88801 03786 


6 


•45982 34089 4 


1094 


•88846 97579 


8 


•45893 51688 


1-095 


•88892 82488 


3 


•45804 64697 2 


1-096 


•88938 58507 


6 


•45715 73126 


1-097 


•88984 25633 


1 


•45626 76983 1 


1-098 


•89029 83860 


1 


•45537 76277 7 


1-099 


•89075 33184 


1 


•45448 71018 4 


1-100 


•89120 73600 


6 


•45359 61214 3 


1-101 


-89166 05105 





•45270 46874 2 


1102 


-89211 27692 


9 


•45181 28007 


1103 


-89256 41359 


5 


•45092 04621 7 


1-104 


•89301 46100 


6 


•45002 76727 3 


1-105 


•89346 41911 


5 


•44913 44332 5 


1-106 


•89391 28787 


8 


•44824 07446 4 


1-107 


•89436 06724 


9 


•44734 66077 9 


1-108 


•89480 75718 


4 


•44645 20236 


1-109 


•89525 35763 


9 


■44565 69929 5 


1-110 


•89569 86856 


8 


•44466 15167 4 


1111 


•89614 28992 


7 


•44376 55958 7 


1-112 


•89658 62167 


2 


•44286 92312 4 


1113 


•89702 86375 


9 


•44197 24237 4 


1-114 


•89747 01614 


2 


•44107 51742 7 


1-115 


•89791 07877 


9 


•44017 74837 2 


1-116 


•89835 05162 


4 


•43927 93529 9 


1-117 


•89878 93463 


5 


•43838 07829 8 


1-118 


•89922 72776 


6 


•43748 17746 


1-119 


•89966 43097 


5 


•43658 23287 3 


1-120 


•90010 04421 


8 


•43568 24462 8 


1-121 


•90053 56745 





•43478 21281 4 


1-122 


•90097 00062 


9 


•43388 13752 3 


1-123 


•90140 34371 


1 


•43298 01884 3 


1-124 


■90183 59665 


2 


•43207 85686 6 


1125 


•90226 75941 





•43117 65168 


1-126 


-90269 83194 


1 


•43027 40337 7 


1-127 


-90312 81420 


2 


•42937 11204 6 


1-128 


•90355 70615 


1 


•42846 77777 8 


1129 


•90398 50774 


4 


•42756 40066 4 


1-130 


-90441 21893 


8 


•42665 98079 3 


1-131 


•90483 839G9 


1 


•42575 51825 6 


1-132 


-90526 36996 





•42485 01314 4 


1-133 


•90568 80970 


3 


•42394 46554 6 


1-134 


•90611 15887 


7 


•42303 87555 5 


1-135 


•90653 41744 





•42213 24325 9 


1-136 


•90695 58535 





•42122 56875 



80 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Tables of Sines and Cosines {0 in radians)— continued. 



e 


Sin e 


Cose 


1137 


90737 66256 4 


42031 85211 8 


1138 


90779 64904 


41941 09345 5 


1139 


90821 54473 6 


41850 29285 1 


1-140 


90863 34961 2 


41759 45039 6 


1141 


90905 06362 3 


41668 56618 2 


1-142 


90946 68673 


41577 64029 9 


1-143 


90988 21889 


41486 67283 8 


1-144 


91029 66006 2 


41395 66389 1 


1-145 


91071 01020 4 


41304 61354 9 


1-146 


91112 26927 5 


41213 52190 1 


1147 


91153 43723 4 


41122 38904 1 


1-148 


91194 51404 


41031 21505 7 


1-149 


91235 49965 1 


40940 00004 3 


1-150 


91276 39402 6 


40848 74408 8 


1151 


91317 19712 5 


40757 44728 5 


1-152 


91357 90890 7 


40666 10972 5 


1-153 


91398 52933 1 


40574 73149 8 


11.54 


91439 05835 6 


40483 31269 6 


1-155 


91479 49594 3 


40391 85341 2 


1-156 


91519 84205 


40300 35373 5 


1-157 


91560 09663 7 


•40208 81375 8 


1-158 


91600 25966 4 


•40117 23357 2 


1-159 


91640 33109 T 


•40025 61326 9 


1-160 


91680 31087 7 


•39933 95294 1 


1-161 


91720 19898 3 


•39842 25267 8 


1-162 


91759 99536 9 


39750 51257 3 


1-163 


91799 69999 5 


39658 73271 8 


1-164 


91839 31282 1 


39566 91320 4 


1165 


91878 83380 8 


39475 05412 3 


1-166 


91918 26291 6 


39383 15556 7 


1-167 


91957 60010 6 


39291 21762 8 


1-168 


91996 84533 9 


39199 24039 7 


1-169 


92035 99857 4 


39107 22396 8 


1-170 


92075 05977 4 


39015 16843 1 


1-171 


92114 02889 8 


38923 07387 9 


1172 


92152 90590 8 


38830 94040 4 


1-173 


92191 69076 6 


38738 76809 8 


1-174 


92230 38343 2 


38646 5.5705 3 


1-175 


92268 98386 7 


38554 30736 2 


1-176 


92307 49203 3 


38462 01911 6 


1-177 


92345 90789 2 


38369 69240 8 


1-178 


92384 23140 6 


38277 32733 1 


1-179 


92422 46253 4 


38184 92397 6 


1-180 


92460 60124 1 


38092 48243 7 


1181 


92498 64748 7 


38000 00280 5 


1-182 


92536 60123 4 


37907 48517 3 


1-183 


92574 46244 4 


37814 92963 3 


1-184 


92612 23108 


37722 33627 8 


1-185 


92649 90710 4 


37629 70520 2 


1-186 


92687 49047 8 


37537 03649 5 


1-187 


92724 98116 5 


37444 33025 2 


1-188 


92762 37912 6 


37351 58656 4 


1-189 


92799 68432 5 


37258 80552 4 


1-190 


92836 89672 5 


37165 98722 6 


1-191 


92874 01628 7 


37073 13176 2 


1-192 


92911 04297 6 


36980 23922 4 


1-193 


92947 97675 4 


36887 30970 7 


1-194 


92984 81758 3 


36794 34330 2 | 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



81 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (9 in radians) — continued. 



e 


Slue 


Cos e 


1195 


•93021 56542 8 


•36701 34010 3 


1196 


•93058 22025 1 


•36608 30020 2 


1197 


•93094 78201 6 


•36515 22369 3 


1-198 


•93131 25068 6 


•36422 11066 9 


1-199 


•93167 62622 5 


•36328 96122 3 


1-200 


•93203 90859 7 


-36235 77544 8 


1-201 


•93240 09776 4 


-36142 55343 7 


1-202 


•93276 19369 2 


•36049 29528 3 


1-203 


•93312 19634 3 


•35956 00108 


1-204 


-93348 10568 2 


•35862 67092 2 


1-205 


•93383 92167 3 


•35769 30490 


1-206 


•93419 64428 


-35675 90310 9 


1-207 


•93455 27346 7 


•35582 46564 3 


1-208 


•93490 80919 9 


•35488 99259 4 


1-209 


•93526 25144 


•35395 48405 6 


1-210 


•93561 60015 5 


-35301 94012 2 


1-211 


•93596 85530 9 


•35208 36088 6 


1-212 


•93632 01686 5 


•35114 74644 3 


1-213 


•93667 08479 


•35021 09688 4 


1-214 


•93702 05904 7 


•34927 41230 4 


1-215 


•93736 93960 3 


•34833 69279 7 


1-216 


•93771 72642 1 


■34739 93845 6 


1-217 


•93806 41946 8 


•34646 14937 5 


1-218 


•93841 01870 9 


•34552 32564 9 


1-219 


•93875 52410 8 


•34458 46736 9 


1-220 


•93909 93563 2 


•34364 57463 2 


1-221 


•93944 25324 6 


•34270 64752 9 


1-222 


•93978 47691 5 


•34176 68615 6 


1-223 


•94012 60660 7 


•34082 69060 7 


1-224 


•94046 64228 5 


•33988 66097 5 


1-225 


•94080 58391 7 


•33894 59735 4 


1-226 


•94114 43146 9 


•33800 49983 8 


1-227 


•94148 18490 6 


-33706 36852 2 


1-228 


•94181 84419 5 


-33612 20350 


1-229 


•94215 40930 2 


-33518 00486 5 


1-230 


•94248 88019 3 


-33423 77271 2 


1-231 


-94282 25683 6 


-33329 50713 6 


1-232 


-94315 53919 6 


-33235 20823 


1-233 


•94348 72724 1 


-33140 87608 9 


1-234 


•94381 82093 7 


•33046 51080 7 


1-235 


•94414 82025 2 


■32952 11247 9 


1-236 


•94447 72515 1 


-32857 68119 8 


1-237 


•94480 53560 3 


•32763 21706 


1-238 


•94513 25157 5 


•32668 72015 8 


1-239 


•94545 87303 3 


•32574 19058 8 


1-240 


•94578 39994 5 


•32479 62844 4 


1-241 


•94610 83227 9 


•32385 03382 


1-242 


•94643 17000 2 


•32290 40681 1 


1-243 


■94675 41308 2 


•32195 74751 1 


1-244 


•94707 56148 6 


•32101 05601 6 


1-245 


•94739 61518 3 


■32006 33242 


1-246 


•94771 57414 


•31911 57681 7 


1-247 


•94803 43832 6 


•31816 78930 3 


1-248 


•94835 20770 8 


•31721 96997 2 


1-249 


•94866 88225 5 


•31627 11892 


1-250 


•94898 46193 6 


•31532 23624 


1-251 


•94929 94671 7 


•31437 32202 7 


1-252 


•94961 33056 9 


•31342 37637 8 



1916 



32 



REPORTS OK THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (0 in radians) — continued. 



e 


Sine 


Cos e 




1-253 


94992 63146 





31247 39938 


6 


1-254 


95023 83135 


7 


31152 39114 


6 


1-255 


95054 93623 


1 


31057 35175 


5 


1-256 


95085 94605 


1 


30962 28130 


6 


1-257 


95116 86078 


4 


30867 17989 


4 


1-258 


95147 68040 





30772 04761 


6 


1-259 


95178 40486 


9 


30676 88456 


5 


1-260 


95209 03415 


9 


30581 69083 


8 


1-261 


95239 56824 





30486 46652 


9 


1-262 


95270 00708 


2 


30391 21173 


3 


1-263 


95300 35065 


4 


30295 92654 


6 


1-264 


95330 59892 


5 


30200 61106 


4 


1-265 


95360 75186 


6 


30105 26538 





1-266 


95390 80944 


6 


30009 88959 


2 


1-267 


95420 77163 


5 


29914 48379 


3 


1-268 


95450 63840 


3 


29819 04808 





1-269 


95480 40972 


1 


29723 58254 


8 


1-270 


95510 08555 


8 


29628 08729 


3 


1-271 


95539 66588 


6 


29532 56240 


9 


1-272 


95569 15067 


3 


29437 00799 


3 


1-273 


95598 53989 


2 


29341 42413 


9 


1-274 


95627 83351 


2 


29245 81094 


5 


1-275 


95657 03150 


4 


29150 16850 


4 


1-276 


95686 13383 


9 


29054 49691 


4 


1-277 


95715 14048 


8 


28958 79626 


8 


1-278 


95744 05142 


2 


28863 06666 


5 


1-279 


95772 86661 


2 


28767 30819 


8 


1-280 


95801 58602 


9 


28671 52096 


3 


1-281 


95830 20964 


4 


28575 70505 


7 


1-282 


95858 73742 


9 


28479 86057 


6 


1-283 


95887 16935 


6 


28383 98761 


4 


1-284 


95915 50539 


5 


28288 08626 


9 


1-285 


95943 74551 


9 


28192 15663 


6 


1-286 


95971 88969 


9 


28096 19881 





1-287 


95999 93790 


7 


28000 21288 


8 


1-288 


96027 89011 


6 


27904 19896 


6 


1-289 


96055 74629 


6 


27808 15714 





1-290 


96083 50642 


1 


27712 08750 


6 


1-291 


96111 17046 


2 


27615 99015 


9 


1-292 


96138 73839 


2 


27519 86519 


7 


1-293 


96166 21018 


3 


27423 71271 


4 


1-294 


96193 58580 


8 


27327 53280 


8 


1-295 


96220 86523 


9 


27231 32557 


5 


1-296 


96248 04845 





27135 09111 





1-297 


96275 13541 


3 


27038 82951 





1-298 


96302 12610 





26942 54087 


1 


1-299 


96329 02048 


5 


26846 22529 





1-300 


96355 81854 


2 


26749 88286 


2 


1-301 


96382 52024 


2 


26653 51368 


5 


1-302 


96409 12556 





26557 11785 


4 


1-303 


96435 63446 


9 


26460 69546 


6 


1-304 


96462 04694 


2 


26364 24661 


7 


1-305 


96488 36295 


3 


26267 77140 


4 


1-306 


96514 58247 


6 


26171 26992 


4 


1-307 


96540 70548 


5 


26074 74227 


2 


1-308 


96566 73195 


2 


25978 18854 


5 


1-309 


96592 66185 


3 


25881 60884 





1-310 


96618 49516 


1 


25785 00325 


3 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



83 



Tables of Sines and Cosines (0 in radians) — continued. 






Sinfl 


t 
i 


C 


OS e 




rsii 


-96644 


23185 


1 


•25688 


37188 


2 


r3i2 


-96669 


87189 


6 


•25591 


71482 


2 


r3i3 


-96695 


41527 


2 


•25495 


03217 





1314 


•96720 


86195 


2 


•25398 


32402 


3 


1315 


•96746 


21191 


2 


•25301 


59047 


8 


1316 


•96771 


46512 


5 


•25204 


83163 


2 


1^317 


•96796 


62156 


6 ! 


•25108 


04758 





1318 


•96821 


68121 


2 i 


•25011 


23842 


1 


1319 


•96846 


64403 


5 


•24914 


40425 





1-320 


•96871 


51001 


2 1 


•24817 


54516 


5 


1-321 


•96896 


27911 


7 ; 


•24720 


66126 


3 


1-322 


•96920 


95132 


i 


•24623 


75263 


9 


1-323 


•96945 


52661 


4 


-24520 


81939 


2 


1-324 


•96970 


00495 


7 


-24429 


86161 


8 


1-325 


•96994 


38632 


9 


-24332 


87941 


5 


1-326 


•97018 


67070 


7 


•24235 


87287 


8 


1-327 


•97042 


85800 


7 


•24138 


84210 


6 


1-328 


•97066 


94838 


4 


•24041 


78719 


4 


1-329 


•97090 


94103 


3 


•23944 


70824 


1 


1-330 


•97114 


83779 


2 


•23847 


60534 


3 


1-331 


•97138 


03083 





•23750 


47859 


8 


1-332 


•97162 


33874 


1 


•23053 


32810 


2 


1-333 


•97185 


94348 


4 


•23550 


15395 


3 


1-334 


•97209 


45104 


1 


•23458 


95624 


8 


1-335 


-97232 


80138 


9 


•23361 


73508 


3 


1-336 


-97256 


17450 


4 


•23204 


49055 


7 


1-337 


-97279 


39030 


2 


•23167 


22276 


7 


1-338 


■97302 


50894 


2 


•23069 


93180 


9 


1-339 


-97325 


53021 


8 


•22972 


61778 


1 


1-340 


•97348 


45416 


9 


•22875 


28078 


1 


1-341 


•97371 


28077 


2 


-22777 


92090 


5 


1-342 


•97394 


01000 


4 


•22080 


53825 


2 


1-343 


•97416 


04184 


1 


•22583 


13291 


8 


1-344 


•97439 


17626 


2 


•22485 


70500 


1 


1-345 


•97461 


61324 


4 


•22388 


25459 


8 


1-340 


•97483 


95276 


4 


•22290 


78180 


7 


1-347 


•97506 


19480 





•22193 


28672 


5 


1-348 


•97528 


33933 





•22095 


70944 


9 


1-349 


•97550 


38633 


1 


•21998 


23007 


8 


1-3.50 


•97572 


33578 


3 


•21900 


66870 


9 


1-351 


•97594 


18766 


2 


•21803 


08543 


9 


1-352 


•97615 


94194 


6 


•21705 


48036 


7 


1-353 


•97637 


59861 


6 


•21607 


85358 


8 


1-354 


•97659 


15764 


6 


•21510 


20520 


2 


1-355 


•97680 


61901 


8 


•21412 


53530 


5 


1-356 


•97701 


98271 





•21314 


84399 


6 


1-357 


•97723 


24869 


9 


•21217 


13137 


2 


1-358 


•97744 


41690 


5 


•21119 


39753 


2 


1-359 


•97765 


48748 


7 


•21021 


64257 


1 


1-360 


•97786 


46024 


4 


•20923 


86658 


9 


1-361 


-97807 


33521 


3 


•20826 


06968 


3 


1-362 


-97828 


11237 


6 


•20728 


25195 


1 


1-363 


-97848 


79171 





•20630 


41349 


1 


1-364 


-97869 


37319 


6 


•20532 


55440 


1 


1-365 


•97889 


85681 


2 


•20434 


67477 


7 


1-366 


•97910 


24253 


9 


•20336 


77472 





1-367 


•97930 


53035 


5 


•20238 


85432 


5 


1-368 


•97950 


72024 


1 


•20140 


91369 


1 



84 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 





Tablet of Sines and Cosines (fl in radians)— 


-continued. 




1 


Sine 


Cos0 


1-369 1 


97970 81217 6 


20042 95291 


7 




370 


97990 80614 


19944 97210 







371 


98010 70211 3 


19846 97133 


7 




372 


98030 50007 6 


19748 95072 


8 




373 


98050 20000 8 


19650 91037 







374 


98069 80189 


19552 85036 


1 




375 


98089 30570 2 


19454 77079 


9 




376 


98108 71142 


19356 67178 


2 




377 


98128 01903 9 


19258 55340 


9 




378 


98147 22852 6 


19160 41577 


7 




379 


98166 33986 5 


19062 25898 


4 




380 


98185 35303 7 


18964 08313 







381 


98204 26802 5 


18865 88831 


1 




382 


98223 08480 8 


18767 67462 


6 




383 


98241 80336 7 


18669 44217 


4 




384 


98260 42368 6 


18571 19105 


2 




385 


98278 94574 3 


18472 92136 







386 


98297 36952 2 


18374 63319 


4 




387 


98315 69500 4 


18276 32665 


3 




388 


98333 92216 9 


18178 00183 


6 




389 


98352 05100 1 


18079 65884 


2 




390 


98370 08148 1 


17981 29776 


7 




391 


98388 01359 1 


17882 91871 


2 




392 


98405 84731 3 


17784 52177 


3 




393 


98423 58262 8 i 


17686 10705 







394 


98441 21952 1 


17587 67464 







395 


98458 75797 2 


17489 22464 


3 




396 


98476 19796 4 


17390 75715 


7 




397 


98493 53948 ! 


17292 27228 







398 


98510 78250 3 


17193 77011 


1 




399 


98527 92701 5 


17095 25074 


8 




400 


98544 97299 9 


16996 71429 







401 


98561 92043 8 


16898 16083 


5 




402 


98578 76931 5 


16799 59048 


2 




403 


98595 51961 3 


16701 00332 


9 




404 


98612 17131 6 


16602 39947 


6 




405 


98628 72440 6 


16503 77902 







406 


98645 17886 8 


16405 14206 







407 


98661 53468 5 


16306 48869 


5 




408 


98677 79184 


16207 81902 


3 




409 


98693 95031 8 


16109 13314 


4 




410 


98710 01010 1 


16010 43115 


5 




411 


98725 97117 5 


15911 71315 


7 




412 


98741 83352 2 


15812 97924 


6 




413 


98757 59712 8 


15714 22952 


2 




414 


98773 26197 6 


15615 46408 


5 




415 


98788 82805 1 i 


15516 68303 


1 




416 


98804 29533 7 


15417 88646 


2 




417 


98819 66381 9 


15319 07447 


4 




418 


98834 93348 1 


15220 24716 


7 




419 


98850 10430 8 


15121 40464 







420 


98865 17628 5 


15022 54699 


1 




421 


98880 14939 7 


14923 67432 







422 


98895 02362 9 


14824 78672 


5 




423 


98909 79896 6 


14725 88430 


6 




424 


98924 47539 2 


14626 96716 







425 


98939 05289 5 


14528 03538 


8 




126 


98953 53145 8 


14429 08908 


8 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



85 



Tables of Sines and Cosines {6 in radians)— continued. 



e 


siu e 


1-427 


98967 91106 8 




428 


98982 19171 




429 


98996 37337 




430 


99010 45603 4 




431 


99024 43968 7 




432 


99038 32431 5 




433 


99052 10990 6 




434 


99065 79644 4 




435 


99079 38391 6 




436 


99092 87230 9 




437 


99106 26160 9 




438 


99119 55180 3 




439 


99132 74287 7 




440 


99145 83481 9 




441 


99158 82761 5 




442 


99171 72125 2 




443 


99184 51571 7 




444 


99197 21099 8 




445 


99209 80708 1 




446 


99222 30395 5 




447 


99234 70160 7 




448 


99247 00002 3 




449 


99259 19919 3 




450 


99271 29910 4 




451 


99283 29974 3 




452 


99295 20109 9 




453 


99307 00316 




454 


99318 70591 4 




455 


99330 30934 9 




456 


99341 81345 3 




457 


99353 21821 6 




458 


99364 52362 6 




459 


99375 72967 2 




460 


99386 83634 1 




461 


99397 84362 4 




462 


99408 75150 9 




463 


99419 55998 5 




464 


99430 26904 1 




465 


99440 87866 8 




466 


99451 38885 3 




467 


99461 79958 7 




468 


99472 11086 




469 


99482 32266 




470 


99492 43497 8 




471 


99502 44780 3 




472 


99512 36112 6 




473 


99522 17493 7 




474 


99531 88922 5 




475 


99541 50398 2 




476 


99551 01919 7 




477 


99560 43486 1 




478 


99569 75096 6 




479 


99578 96749 9 




480 


99588 08445 4 




481 


99597 10182 1 




482 


99606 01959 




483 


99614 83775 4 


1 


484 


99623 55630 3 



Cos e 



•14330 
•14231 
•14132 
•14033 
•13934 
•13835 
•13736 
•13637 
■13537 
•13438 
•13339 
•13240 
•13141 
•13042 
•12943 
•12844 
•12744 
•12645 
•12546 
•12447 
•12348 
•12248 
•12149 
•12050 
•11950 
•11851 
•11752 
•11653 
•11553 
•11454 
•11355 
•11255 
•11156 
•11056 
•10957 
•10858 
•10758 
•10659 
•10559 
•10460 
•10361 
•10261 
•10162 
•10062 
•09963 
•09863 
•09764 
•09664 
•09564 
•09465 
•09365 
•09266 
•09166 
•09067 
•08967 
•08867 
■08768 
•08668 



12835 
15329 
16400 
16058 
14312 
11173 
06651 
00755 
93495 
84881 
74924 
63632 
51017 
37087 
21853 
05325 
87512 
68425 
48073 
26467 
03616 
79530 
54219 
27693 
99962 
71037 
40926 
09639 
77188 
43581 
08828 
72940 
35927 
97798 
58563 
18232 
76816 
34324 
90765 
46151 
00491 
63795 
06072 
57333 
07588 
56847 
05120 
52415 
98745 
44118 
88544 
32034 
74598 
16244 
56984 
96827 
35783 
73863 



86 



REPORTS ON THR STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1916. 



Tahles of Sines and Cosines {6 in radians) — continued. 



9 


Sine 


Cos 


1-485 


-99632 17522 


9 


-08569 11076 





1-486 


-99640 69452 


2 


-08469 47431 


6 


1-487 


-99649 11417 


4 


-08369 82940 


4 


1-488 


•99657 43417 


8 


-08270 17612 


1 


1-489 


•99665 65452 


4 


•08170 61456 


9 


1-490 


•99673 77520 


4 


•08070 84484 


5 


1-491 


•99681 79621 


1 


•07971 16705 


1 


1-492 


-99689 71753 


6 


-07871 48128 


6 


1-493 


-99697 53917 


1 


•07771 78765 





1-494 


-99705 26110 


8 


-07672 08624 


1 


1-495 


•99712 88334 


1 


-07572 37716 


1 


1-496 


•99720 40586 





•07472 66050 


8 


1-497 


•99727 82865 


9 


•07372 93638 


2 


1-498 


•99735 15173 


1 


•07273 20488 


4 


1-499 


-99742 37506 


7 


•07173 46611 


2 


1-500 


•99749 49866 





•07073 72016 


7 


1-501 


•99756 52250 


5 


•06973 96714 


8 


1-502 


■99763 44659 


2 


•06874 20715 


5 


1-503 


-99770 27091 


7 


•06774 44028 


8 


1-504 


•99776 99547 


1 


-06674 66664 


6 


1-505 


•99783 62024 


8 


-06574 88633 





1-506 


•99790 14524 


1 


-06475 09943 


9 


1-507 


•99796 57044 


4 


-06375 30607 


3 


1-508 


•99802 89585 


1 


•06275 50633 


2 


1-509 


•99809 12145 


5 


-06175 70031 


5 


1-510 


•99815 24725 





•06075 88812 


2 


1-511 


•99821 27322 


9 


•05976 06985 


3 


1-512 


•99827 19938 


7 


•05876 24560 


9 


1-513 


•99833 02571 


8 


•05776 41548 


8 


1-514 


•99838 75221 


6 


•05676 57959 


1 


1-515 


•99844 37887 


6 


•05576 73801 


7 ■ 


1-516 


•99849 90569 


1 


■05476 89086 


6 


1-517 


•99855 33265 


6 


•05377 03823 


9 


1-518 


•99860 65976 


5 


•05277 18023 


4 


1-519 


•99865 88701 


4 


•05177 31695 


2 


1-620 


•99871 01439 


8 


•05077 44849 


3 


1-521 


•99876 04191 





•04977 57495 


7 


1-522 


•99880 96954 


6 


•04877 69644 


3 


1-523 


•99885 79730 


1 


•04777 81305 


1 


1-524 


-99890 .52517 





•04677 92488 


2 


1-525 


■99895 15314 


9 


•04578 03203 


4 


1-526 


-99899 68123 


3 


■04478 13460 


9 


1-527 


•99904 10941 


7 


■04378 23270 


5 


1-528 


•99908 43769 


7 


•04278 32642 


3 


1-529 


■99912 66606 


8 


■04178 41586 


3 


1-530 


-99916 79452 


7 


■04078 50112 


4 


1-531 


•99920 82306 


9 


■03978 58230 


7 


1-532 


-99924 75169 





■03878 65961 


1 


1-533 


•99928 58038 


7 


■03778 73283 


7 


1-534 


•99932 30915 


5 


■03678 80238 


4 


1-535 


•99935 93799 





■03578 86825 


2 


1-536 


•99939 46689 





■03478 93054 


1 


1-537 


•99942 89585 





■03378 98935 


1 


1-538 


•99946 22486 


8 


■03279 04478 


3 


1-539 


•99949 45393 


9 


■03179 09693 


5 


1-540 


•99952 58306 


1 


■03079 14590 


8 


1-541 


•99955 61223 





■02979 19180 


2 


1-542 


•99958 54144 


3 


■02879 23471 


7 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



87 



Tables of Sines and Cosines {0 in radians) — continued. 






Sine 


Cose 


1-543 


-99961 37069 


8 


•02779 27475 3 




544 


-99964 09999 


2 


•02679 31200 9 




545 


•99966 72932 


1 


•02579 34658 6 




546 


•99969 25868 


4 


■02479 37858 4 




547 


-99971 68807 


8 


■02379 40810 2 




548 


-99974 01749 


9 


■02279 43524 1 




549 


•99976 24694 


7 


•02179 46010 




550 


•99978 37641 


9 


•02079 48278 




551 


•99980 40591 


2 


•01979 50338 1 




552 


•99982 33542 


5 


■01879 52200 2 




553 


•99984 16495 


5 


•01779 53874 3 




554 


•99985 89450 


2 


•01679 55370 5 




555 


•99987 52406 


2 


•01579 56698 8 




556 


•99989 05363 


5 


•01479 57869 




557 


•99990 48321 


9 


•01379 58891 4 




558 


•99991 81281 


3 


•01279 59775 7 




559 


•99993 04241 


4 


•01179 60532 1 




560 


•99994 17202 


3 


•01079 61170 6 




561 


•99995 20163 


7 


■00979 61701 1 




562 


•99996 13125 


7 


•00879 62133 6 




563 


•99996 96088 





•00779 62478 1 




564 


•99997 69050 


6 


•00679 62744 7 




565 


•99998 32013 


4 


•00579 62943 4 




566 


•99998 84976 


5 


•00479 63084 




567 


•99999 27939 


6 


•00379 63176 8 




568 


•99999 60902 


8 


•00279 63231 5 




569 


•99999 83866 


1 


■00179 63258 3 




570 


•99999 96829 


3 


■00079 63267 1 




571 


•99999 99792 


6 


-00020 36732 




572 


•99999 92755 


9 


-00120 36729 1 




573 


•99999 75719 


1 


-•00220 36714 2 




574 


•99999 48682 


4 


-•00320 36677 2 




575 


•99999 11645 


8 


-•00420 36608 2 




576 


•99998 64609 


2 


-•00520 36497 2 




577 


•99998 07572 


8 


-00620 36334 1 




578 


•99997 40536 


6 


-•00720 36109 




579 


•99996 63500 


6 


-00820 35811 9 




580 


•99995 76465 





-00920 35432 7 




581 


•99994 79429 


8 


-01020 34961 5 




582 


•99993 72395 


1 


-01120 34388 2 




583 


•90992 55361 





-01220 33702 9 




-584 


•99991 28327 


7 


-01320 32895 6 




-585 


■99989 91295 


3 


-01420 31956 3 




-586 


•99988 44263 


9 


-01520 30874 9 




-587 


•99986 87233 


6 


-01620 29641 4 




-588 


•99985 20204 


6 


-01720 28246 




-589 


•99983 43177 


2 


-•01820 26678 5 




-590 


•99981 56151 


3 


-01920 24929 




-591 


•99979 59127 


4 


-02020 22987 5 




■592 


•99977 52105 


4 


-02120 20843 9 




•593 


•99975 35085 


7 


- -02220 18488 4 




-594 


■99973 08068 


5 


-02320 15910 8 




•595 


•99970 71054 





-02420 13101 2 




596 


•99968 24042 


4 


-02520 10049 6 




597 


•99965 67034 





-02620 06745 9 




598 


■99963 00029 





-02720 03180 3 




599 


•99960 23027 


7 


-02819 99342 7 


1-600 


•99957 36030 


4 


-02919 95223 



88 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Table II. 

Subsidiary Table of O-slnB and l-cosd from 6 = -00001 radian, to -00100 radian. 



e 


e - sin 9 


1 — cos B 


1st Difference 


■00001 


•090 


■060000 5 


■0801 5 


02 





0002 


02 5 


03 





0004 5 


03 5 


04 





0008 


04 5 


05 





0012 5 


05 5 


06 





0018 


06 5 


07 





0024 5 


07 5 


08 





0032 


08 5 


09 





0040 5 


09 5 


10 





0050 


10 5 


11 





0060 5 


11 5 


12 





0072 


12 5 


13 





0084 5 


13 5 


14 





0098 


14 5 


15 





0112 5 


15 5 


16 





0128 


16 5 


17 





0144 5 


17 5 


18 





0162 


18 5 


19 





0180 5 


19 5 


20 





0200 


20 5 


21 





0220 5 


21 5 


22 





0242 


22 5 


23 





0264 5 


23 5 


24 





0288 


24 5 


25 





0312 5 


25 5 


26 





0338 


26 5 


27 





0364 5 


27 5 


28 





0392 


28 5 


29 





0420 5 


29 5 


30 





0450 


30 5 


31 





0480 5 


31 5 


32 


1 


0512 


32 5 


33 


1 


0544 5 


33 5 


34 


1 


0578 


34 5 


35 


1 


0612 5 


35 5 


36 


1 


0648 


36 5 


37 


1 


0684 5 


37 5 


38 


1 


0722 


38 5 


39 


1 


0760 5 


39 5 


40 


1 


0800 


40 5 


41 


1 


0840 5 


41 5 


42 


1 


0882 


42 5 


43 


1 


0924 5 


43 5 


44 


1 


0968 


44 5 


45 


2 


1012 5 


45 5 


46 


2 


1058 


46 5 


47 


2 


1104 5 


47 5 


48 


2 


1152 


48 5 


49 


2 


1200 5 


49 5 


50 


2 


1250 


50 5 


61 


2 


1300 5 


51 5 


52 


2 


1352 


62 5 


53 


2 


1404 5 


63 5 


54 


3 


1458 


54 5 


55 


3 


1512 5 


55 5 


56 


3 


1568 


56 5 


57 


3 


1624 5 


57 5 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



89 



Subsidiary Table of 6 -sin 6 and l-cosQ from 6 = -00001 radian to 00100 radian- 

continued. 






e — sin 6 


1 - cos 9 


1st Eiifference 


•00058 


•090 3 


•061682 


•0858 5 


69 


3 


1740 5 


59 5 


60 


4 


1800 


60 5 


61 


4 


1860 5 


61 5 


62 


4 


1922 


62 5 


63 


4 


1984 5 


63 5 


64 


4 


2048 


64 5 


65 


5 


2112 5 


65 5 


66 


5 


2178 


66 5 


67 


5 


2244 5 


67 5 


68 


5 


2312 


68 5 


69 


5 


2380 5 


69 5 


70 


6 


2450 


70 5 


71 


6 


2520 5 


71 5 


72 


6 


2592 


72 5 


73 


6 


2664 5 


73 5 


74 


7 


2738 


74 5 


75 


7 


2812 5 


75 5 


76 


7 


2888 


76 5 


77 


8 


2964 5 


77 5 


78 


8 


3042 


78 5 


79 


8 


3120 5 


79 5 


80 


9 


3200 


80 5 


81 


9 


3280 5 


81 5 


82 


9 


3362 


82 5 


83 


1 


3444 5 


83 5 


84 


1 


3528 


84 5 


85 


1 


3612 5 


85 5 


86 


1 1 


3698 


86 5 


87 


1 1 


3784 5 


87 5 


88 


1 I 


3872 


88 5 


89 


1 2 


3900 5 


89 5 


90 


1 2 


4050 


90 5 


91 


1 3 


4140 5 


91 5 


92 


1 3 


4232 


92 5 


93 


1 3 


4324 5 


93 5 


94 


1 4 


4418 


94 5 


95 


1 4 


4612 5 


95 5 


96 


1 5 


4608 


96 5 


97 


1 5 


4704 5 


97 5 


98 


1 6 


4802 


98 5 


99 


1 6 


4900 5 


99 5 


100 


1 7 


5000 


— 



90 



REPOETS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Table III. 




•1 


Siu 6 


Cos e 


+009983 


34166 


46828 


+ 0-99500 


41652 


78026 


•2 


+0-19866 


93307 


95061 


+ 0-98006 


65778 


41242 


•3 


+0-29552 


02066 


61340 


+0-95533 


64891 


25606 


•4 


+0-38941 


83423 


08650 


+0-92106 


09940 


02885 


•5 


+0-47942 


55386 


04203 


+0-87758 


25618 


90373 


•6 


+0-56464 


24733 


95035 


+0-82533 


56149 


09678 


•7 


+0-64421 


76872 


37691 


+ 0-76484 


21872 


84488 


•8 


+0-71735 


60908 


99523 


+ 0-69670 


67093 


47165 


•9 


+ 0-78332 


69096 


27483 


+0-62160 


99682 


70664 


10 


+0-84147 


09848 


07897 


+0-54030 


23058 


68140 


11 


+0-89120 


73600 


61435 


+0-45359 


61214 


25577 


1-2 


+0-93203 


90859 


67226 


+0-36235 


77544 


76674 


1-3 


+0-96355 


81854 


17193 


+0-26749 


88286 


24587 


1-4 


+ 0-98544 


97299 


88460 


+0-16996 


71429 


00241 


1-5 


+0-99749 


49866 


04054 


+0-07073 


72016 


67703 


1-6 


+0-99957 


36030 


41505 


-0-02919 


95223 


01289 


1-7 


+0-99166 


48104 


52469 


-0-12884 


44942 


95525 


1-8 


+0-97384 


76308 


78195 


-0-22720 


20946 


93087 


1-9 


+ 0-94630 


00876 


87414 


-0-32328 


95668 


63503 


20 


+ 0-90929 


74268 


25682 


-0-41614 


68365 


47142 


21 


+0-86320 


93666 


48874 


-0-50484 


61045 


99857 


2-2 


+0-80849 


64038 


19590 


-0-58850 


11172 


55346 


2-3 


+ 0-74570 


52121 


76720 


-0-66627 


60212 


79824 


2-4 


+0-67546 


31805 


51151 


-0-73739 


37155 


41246 


2-5 


+ 0-59847 


21441 


03956 


-0-80114 


36155 


46934 


2-6 


+0-51550 


13718 


21464 


-0-85688 


87533 


68947 


2-7 


+0-42737 


98802 


33830 


-0-90407 


21420 


17061 


2-8 


+0-33498 


81501 


55905 


-0-94222 


23406 


68658 


2-9 


+0-23924 


93292 


13982 


-0-97095 


81651 


49591 


30 


+ 0-14112 


00080 


59867 


-0-98999 


24966 


00445 


31 


+0-04158 


06624 


33291 


-0-99913 


51502 


73279 


3-2 


-0-05837 


41434 


27580 


-0-99829 


47757 


94753 


3-3 


-0-15774 


56941 


43248 


-0-98747 


97699 


08865 


3-4 


-0-25554 


11020 


26831 


-0-96679 


81925 


79461 


3-5 


-0-35078 


32276 


89620 


-0-93645 


66872 


90796 


3-6 


-0-44252 


04432 


94852 


-0-89675 


84163 


34147 


3-7 


-0-52983 


61409 


08493 


-0-84810 


00317 


10408 


3-8 


-0-61185 


78909 


42719 


-0-79096 


77119 


14417 


3-9 


-0-68776 


61591 


83974 


-0-72593 


23042 


00140 


4-0 


-0-75680 


24953 


07928 


-0-65364 


36208 


63612 


41 


-0-81827 


71110 


64411 


-0-57482 


39465 


33269 


4-2 


-0-87157 


57724 


13588 


-0-49026 


08213 


40700 


4-3 


-0-91616 


59367 


49455 


-0-40079 


91720 


79975 


4-4 


-0-95160 


20738 


89516 


-0-30733 


28699 


78420 


4-5 


-0-97753 


01176 


65097 


-0-21079 


57994 


30780 


4-6 


-0-99369 


10036 


33464 


-0-11215 


25269 


35054 


4-7 


-0-99992 


32575 


64101 


-0-01238 


86634 


62891 


4-8 


-0-99616 


46088 


35841 


• +0-08749 


89834 


39447 


4-9 


-0-98245 


26126 


24333 


+ 0-18651 


23694 


22575 


50 


-0-95892 


42746 


63138 


+ 0-28366 


21854 


63226 


51 


-0-92581 


46823 


27732 


+0-37797 


77427 


12981 


5-2 


-0-88345 


46557 


20153 


+0-46851 


66713 


00377 


5-3 


-0-83226 


74422 


23901 


+ 0-55437 


43361 


79161 


5-4 


-0-77276 


44875 


55987 


+0-63469 


28759 


42634 


5-5 


-0-70554 


03255 


70392 


+0-70866 


97742 


91260 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



91 



9 

5-6 




Sill e 






Cos 




-0-63126 


66378 


72321 


+0-77656 


58785 


10250 


5-7 


-0-55068 


55425 


97638 


+0-83471 


27848 


39160 


5-8 


-0-46460 


21794 


13757 


+0-88551 


95169 


41319 


5-9 


-0-37387 


66648 


30236 


+ 0-92747 


84307 


44036 


60 


-0-27941 


54981 


98926 


+0-96017 


02866 


50366 


6-1 


-0-18216 


25042 


72096 


+ 0-98326 


84384 


42585 


6-2 


-0-08308 


94028 


17497 


+0-99654 


20970 


23217 


6-3 


+0-01681 


39004 


84350 


+0-99985 


86363 


83415 


6-4 


+0-11654 


92048 


50493 


+0-99318 


49187 


58193 


6-5 


+0-21511 


99880 


87816 


+0-97658 


76257 


28023 


6-6 


+ 0-31154 


13635 


13378 


+0-95023 


25919 


58529 


6-7 


+0-40484 


99206 


16598 


+0-91438 


31482 


35319 


6-8 


+0-49411 


33511 


38608 


+0-86939 


74903 


49825 


6-9 


+0-57843 


97643 


88200 


+ 0-81572 


51001 


25357 


7-0 


+0-65698 


65987 


18789 


+0-75390 


22543 


43305 


71 


+0-72896 


904O1 


25876 


+ 0-68454 


66664 


42806 


7-2 


+0-79366 


78638 


49153 


+0-60835 


13145 


32255 


7-3 


+0-85043 


66206 


28564 


+0-52607 


75173 


81105 


7-4 


+0-89870 


80958 


11627 


+0-43854 


73275 


74391 


7-5 


+0-93799 


99767 


74739 


+0-34663 


53178 


35026 


7-6 


+0-96791 


96720 


31486 


+0-25125 


98425 


82255 


7-7 


+0-98816 


82338 


77000 


+0-15337 


38620 


37865 


7-8 


+0-99854 


33453 


74605 


+0-05395 


54205 


62650 


7-9 


+0-99894 


13418 


39772 


-0-04600 


21256 


39537 


80 


+0-98935 


82466 


23382 


-0-14550 


00338 


08614 


81 


+0-96988 


98108 


45086 


-0-24354 


41537 


35791 


8-2 


+0-94073 


05566 


79773 


-0-33915 


48609 


83835 


8-3 


+0-90217 


18337 


56294 


-0-43137 


68449 


70620 


8-4 


+0-85459 


89080 


88281 


-0-51928 


86541 


16685 


8-5 


+0-79848 


71126 


23490 


-0-60201 


19026 


84824 


8-6 


+0-73439 


70978 


74113 


-0-67872 


00473 


20013 


8-7 


+0-66296 


92300 


82183 


-0-74864 


66455 


97399 


8-8 


+0-58491 


71928 


91762 


-0-81109 


30140 


61656 


8-9 


+0-50102 


08564 


57885 


-0-86543 


52092 


41112 


90 


+0-41211 


84852 


41757 


-0-91113 


02618 


84677 


91 


+0-31909 


83623 


49353 


-0-94772 


16021 


31112 


9-2 


+0-22288 


99141 


00247 


-0-97484 


36214 


04164 


9-3 


+0-12445 


44235 


07062 


-0-99222 


53254 


52603 


9-4 


+0-02477 


54254 


53358 


-0-99969 


30420 


35206 


9-5 


-0-07515 


11204 


61809 


-0-99717 


21561 


96378 


9-6 


-0-17432 


67812 


22980 


-0-98468 


78557 


94127 


9-7 


-0-27176 


06264 


10943 


-0-96236 


48798 


31310 


9-8 


-0-36647 


91292 


51928 


i -0-93042 


62721 


04754 


9-9 


-0-45753 


58937 


75321 


-0-88919 


11526 


25361 


100 


-0-54402 


11108 


89370 


-0-83907 


15290 


76452 



92 REPOKTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Part II. 
Bessel and Neumann Functions of Eqical Order and Argument. 

A small number of values of J„(a), J„_i(a), &c., are given in Meissel's 
Tables^ of the J„(a) functions and the Committee's Tables of the G^{x) 
and Y^{x) functions, viz. J„(a) from a = 1 to a = 24 and G„(a), &c., from 
a = 1 to a = 13. The following tables have been calculated from the 
formula- : — 

^■w=.v.3[©M^io(!Ni)-8xVo©M8) 

8100 \a/ V3/ 113400 Va/ V3/ 74844000 W \B/ J 
For the G functions, 

-"(«)=UO^K^io©Mi)-^(!)MB) 

182300 \a/ \3) J 

«--(")=l[(!)M^e)MI)-s^©Mi)-.io©M|) 

8100\,a/ W 113400Va/ \3/ 74844000 \a/ \3j J 

The Y functions ^ are given by Y„(a;) = (log 2 — y)J^{x)—G^{x). 
The numerical values occurring in the above formula are : — 
log r(^) = 0-42796 27493 1426 : log r(f)-=0-13165 64916 8402. 

r(^)=2-67893 85347 077 : r(|) = l-35411 79394 264. 

The results were checked by means of the formula 

J»(«) Y„ . i(a;) - J„ . i(a;) ¥„(«) = -. 

A partial check was also obtained by the use of the Kapteyn Series 

»=- J^gs) _ --J^_i(2s^-1) ^1 
f^, s-^ t, (2s-lp^ 2- 

The values of other functions of higher or lower orders are easily 

2n 
calculated from the recurrence formula Z„_i(a;) Z„{x) + Z„^i{x) 

= 0, where Z„(a;) stands for Jn{x), G„(a;) or Y„{x). 

' and ^ Graj' and Mathews, Bessel Functions, pp. 266-279, p. 14. 
^ Phil. Mag. June 1916. 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



93 



5 

T 

1 


<N003fOOcDr-t^i:^l-t^r^ir-r^lr^t^t^t^tO':OCD«co«DiOiOiOiO"0»OiO^-* 
lN^^rt(N(Ne^'^^M<^^<^^c■^<^^l^^l^^|^^<Nl^^<N(^^lN(^^(.-^WN 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

1 + 


3 

1 


t~(M— icOOO-HOOOO-t^IOCSOOt^'nm'+MINlM'-OOCnOiOOOOt^Ir^t^O^ 

■^oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

+ 


2 

7 


■*COt^C5(^-*0'-lr~OCO«<M«OCO®C<500-(00-^-H050000':0©t-OJM 

CDf-iC50500lOOS^OOWtOCOTti(MOIr^lOCC(N-HO©^<M«ilCt^O«CCOO>0 
0000'-ilO"05CO^TrC<5rta3lr^lOCO-^OOCCTt<S^]©00'S>-*iMOOOO"OCCrHOQO 

006000066000060006000066666600000 
1 + 


3 


(N(NM(NCOlCl-OlO-*050000ClC^CO-Hf00500Tt<0--'-iOOr^CO<MCOt:^i-<lOl:^CO 

-H00OO'n'*t^C5-*-H--)<00lr^T-l'ri-H'*Tf-H-(.(MTt<OCSIM00t^00rtt^Tll«|Tj( 

t^OslOoOiMOCOOOlOlOt^rtt^incOMM-^COOOrt'^OO— 'COOOOCD-Ht^MOi 
(MCO^tO-Hi:^C<5000COTtimrt00500r^':01CTjiTt<iM(M(Nt-i^OOO>050000t^ 

•-166666666666666666666666666666666 
+ 


2 


OOIC^— l«<lt-t^05t-C000Mt-00©^10MM<M«00>a>O00C0Mr--MOr-10cD 
05C^10sr^C'5000500COmM-HC<50:'*Tt<0'0<MCDcMIr~OOCOt^-H5>)0005MOOlO(N 

— it-o-<c-io-Hioooo-*TtiioiO'*C30"OiOQr. in-fco-Hr-tocor-oioor-io 

lOCDCOO-HiMOSOlOi— I00'-<OOCC05'*OOCOOO'*0«DC005COM000 10C<5000 

ot^oocc05«MiM©05oor^com^coco<NC<i«'-i-H©oo5050;a5ooooooQOt- 

666666666666666666666666666666666 

+ 


5 


f^-4<S<505-^t^-*'0-HCO-*003t~«DMOOOOOOCi5—itO(MOOMt^<M'-<OM-*t- 
lOC0«O(M-*M00"O00Q0— iQ0rJH.-iO'0OM00M<OSO'0^-^"C0t:^00I:^C»5t^t:^C0 

OOOO^h^hOOO'^OO-^O'M'— 'lOCO-^OOn^t^O^fMOOiOO^NOOCCOO'^ 
0'>3 0^H^-lOCCCO-^t^^^iOOlO-H|--oOOt^'^C'lC5t:^'0(>100it^OCCC^OOi 
-^lOOoOO-tc^'M-HOOCJOiOOQOI—t^t^OOCDlOlOmiOlOTji-.^-ii-^TXTtOT 

■*^oeO(^^(^^c^^c^lMCl(^^c^^rt-Hr-Hr-^,--.-^-H-H-H— (-Hrt.-H--<-^-^ 
666666666666666666666666666666666 


s 


fH(MC<5'*lOCOI>0005O'^IMM-<*lOCOI:~00C5O-HNM->*U5®l~-00O5O'-ie<lM 



94 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 







CDr-<-HCO»005lO(M(M-^COC»5-*M05-^000 


i-<CDS-)001:^OCO-*(Moi:^l:~l:^CD 








M 00 lO -»< CC 


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(MevKNlMe^NNe^llNINIMtMOJC^INININC^IIMlMcMINM 


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t^OCOC10C5005Clt^Clt^C:OOC1S5C3-*<ML-:rtr!<I--0'^OOr~-^-LOQCCOLOCO 

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- ' -^ 1-^ ^^ rr% rr^ r-i r-j r-i r-j rM r^j rr-i r:vj ^:^J r^i i— i i-H i-^ ' j i j i > i i _- _- _- _- -_ __ __ _, 

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THLOCOt^OOOSO — ClCOTfltSCDt-QOCRQiaplOOLOOinOlOOOOOOOC 
COCOCOeOCOCO-*-*TtlT}<Tf-*-*-*-*-*»0>OCDCDt^C-OOOOOJ050i-iCieO-*»05D 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



95 



-.*C0r->-i(MinMf-it^l>m«0'-HI>(N0510M(NC010OiM0500OIM'tWmOO 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



^ ' C<IOI:--C0OQ0l0OTrTt<C0Q0O«5OO^O5^;*'-;OJ~-(Nr-st-^'0>000r^ 
^ ^HOOCiOOOOOr^t^r-^^OlOtC'^-^COCOCC'MfMC-ltMi-Hr-.r-tOOOOOT 

1 I (^lC^^(^^FH~<rt.-^l-HF-^T-Hn-l^-Hf-Hf-^rt^--^r-Hr-^,-^r-^rt 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



OlMCOlMr^r^Ot^t^OSCOOOCD-^t^lOOOi.OiOOOeOOOOIM'^fOtD'— iW'^S 

r^r^r-I^Hl-ll— l-Hi— I.— If— ll-Hr-HrtrHr-lpHl— Ir^l— lrtrtr-(r-|r-(.-lrt^»--l>— lOOO 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



(M (N IN 

006 



^r^c<5i>ioioto«DOOi— iMior-©-HfOt~coe<305QOOc2cooot;-*r-; 
005coi:^c^05iMcor-iMir-MfOco02C20-*05r~-*oC5 0jcjooO'-;ig 

r— ilO00C0OI:^C3MOO^00C0l0(Nrt<O0>O-*Olr-50C0>0»CC;C2O 

oortioo'^rtt-^— lOOOoocooo-^ot^Mi-iooofOrtr-Tfr-ioocg^^ 

OOC30CX)OOt^I:^t^«OCOiOiOr)<-^^C»5eoeC(MCJ(NC>f-lr-Hf-HOOO 

(N<N7^r^r-Hl-^.-<r-.r-Hf-H,-Hr-ir-HF-Hrtr-Hrtrtrt,-,r-HF-<rt 

00000000000000000000000000000 



O0pHtO>«(M®TCirO<NI— T)HIN-*«DN«0>0<Mt^>acDOQOt-T)*©0'*C»<NCDeO 
eO(M»Oe<IO>0'-i(MTt<C»500CDlOTtl-*»OC:05<33Ir~C5-*OOIN-*MOOea(N<00-* 

OO'— iTfMiO'HOCSr— i-^osiONccooot^oiCi— iC5i>-t— r^oO'— ir-'^iMiMci 

-i<(MOOOm<MOI>>0^!N00500"n<MOOOt^lOTt<<Mr-.OC2COI:->0'*«5Ii-- 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooocppoppo 

00000000000000000000000000000000 



_ _ rHOQ0O»0'^(N^HO00';0"^CQ'-H<^O3IJUi:^*iJ'iJ'^6^.' „ 

oooooooooooooooppooopoppppooopvp 
ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooOo 



©ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

lr-00050<MfCDOOO<MTt«COOOOlOOlOOlOOOO'OOWOOOOOOO 
_MrtC^C^<M(M(MC<5MCCC<5fO-*-^lf5lO««l>r^0000050JO-HC<le<3-*lOO 



96 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



>-lO-<i*l0-*00OO-*O00(M5q0500(Mt^CCC0lr^lMO-Hl--(M-*O(N00(MOS>O 
C<5O5CDC^i-Ht-.00t-O5lOCXl(MT)Hi— icD«00-*C»5<NO'OCD(N-*Q005r-COC005CO 

gt^OlOOJlO'-HOOCOTjHOr^iOCOr-iOOOt^-COW'tCClMlNrtQO'XiCOO'*'*'-! 

pppoppooppooooooooooooopooooooop 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOSOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



0(N— ir^000005Mt~OOOt^-*i-i05<N(MMT*<COMOC-<iHTjlt-|:^0550(NO'-H 
Moot— t^THC»Tj(05r-C<5<NO>n'-i000005O'*-*0tip— il0<»<N-»J<0>C0(MO00l0 
cot— 0'<*HOOt~l>.M>0'-Hr-<05(MOOC<500lOOO<M(NeC-*CCC3(X>'<iH05D^COCO 

r--iCM"c-)ioocoM©ooM<ooocOTj<Mo05(»t— om'^cciNCst— ■^1— iio-^r^ 

O5O5O5O3Q000t— t— t— CD«D«OlO»0>OlOiO'*-*-*-*-^'*-*-^MCOMeON^i— I 

ppppppppppppppppopppppoppooopppp 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



00'-li-icCO(NCOO>OtOMTj((MOOOO:)lOOOOl00505l— I— M0005'-i-hO00 

i-<oo^'*050oiNi— ix)<oocoira(Mi— cD<MMt-oeocooeC'-<'^Oc^'— lO'Xiio 

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2^p05«i05lO(N05t— C<5O00"0'*(N^050Ct— OlOrJ<Tl(c<5000Tti(MlOlOS-l 

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pppppppppooooooooooooooooooooppp 
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S22So©©©©©o©©©oo©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 
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I:^00^05^©^tC©*OOlO©©©©©©©©©0©©©©©©©©©©©©© 
rHrtrti-li-li-li-Hi-li-irt(N(NC<5->«<lOOO® 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 97 



Pakt III. 
Bessel Functions of Half-Integral Order. 

Some progress has been made with the calculation of the functions 
S„(a;), C„(x), &c., tables of which for integral values of x from 1 to 10 
appear in the Keport for 1914. 

The tables now presented continue the work for a;=l*l, . . . , 1'9. 
It is hoped that the Tables for a;=0-l .... 0*9 will be presented in the 
next Eeport. In addition the initial functions So(a;)=sinx, Co(a;)=cos x 
have been calculated to 15 decimal places for x=0'l, 02, . . . , 10 in the 
preceding table (Table III.). 

The functions S„(x), G„{x) are solutions of the differential equation 



rf/^ 



{,_«J±^},,=0, 



These have been calculated with S'„(a;), C'„(*). t^^eir derivatives with 
respect to x, and also the important functions |E„(a5)P, \'^'nix)\^ where 

E„(x) =C„(a;) -iQ„{x) 
E',Xx) = C'n{x)-i3'„{x). 

The logarithms of the functions tabulated are given for the whole range 
of n — in the previous tables it was not possible to do this for all values 
of n. As before |E„(x)|2 and \E'„{x)\^ are given until {S„(a;)} ^ and 
{S'„(a^)} ^ become negligible. 

Several misprints occur in the tables published in the Report for 
1914. The most serious are |E, 3(9)12 and 1E,4(9)|S which should be 
respectively 334-4745 and 2189-467. The following are correct:— 
S'6(3) = -0253461, C'o(9) = --4121185, C, (9) = --9456727. The 
logarithms of the following functions should have negative charac- 
teristics : — 



S'„(3)|,«=6 


1C'„(9)|. 


w=4 


S'„(8)|,TO=5, 12 


|S„(10)|, 


n=2, 11, 16 


S'„(9)l,«=4, 5, 6, 7, 15, 16 


|S'„(10)| 


, n=13. 


C„(9)|, n=S 







The functions Q„{x), C„(a;) are connected with Bessel Functions oi 
Half- Integral Order as follows : — 

S„(x)=v/i^J«+i(a') 

C„(a;)=(-l)Vi'^J— i(*)- 

They are not really ' Bessel Functions of Half -Integral Order,' and it is 
suggested that a more appropriate name for them is that of ' Riccati- 
Bessel Functions.' 



1916 



98 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Table IV. 
Bessel Functions of Half-Integral Order. 



n 


S„(l-1) 


c„(ri) 


|E„(1-1)I» 


n 





•8912074 


•4535961 


1-000000 





1 


•3565924 


r303567 


1-826446 


1 


2 


■0813173 


3^101588 


9-626460 


2 


3 


•0130319 


12-79456 


163-7009 


3 


4 


•0016127 


78-31833 




4 


5 


•0001627 


627-9918 




5 


6 


•0000138 


6201-600 




6 


7 


•0000010 


72663-64 




7 


8 


•0000001 


984666-3 




8 



n 


3»'{1-1) 


C„'{1-1 


|E„'(1-1)P 


M 





•4535961 


--8912074 


1-0000000 





1 


•5670325 


-•7314652 


0-8565672 


1 


2 


•2087427 


-4-335683 


18-84172 


2 


3 


•0457759 


-31-79266 


1010-776 


3 


4 


•0071676 


-271-9994 




4 


5 


•0008733 


-2776-190 




5 


6 


•0000871 


-33198-92 




6 


7 


•0000074 


-456203-4 




7 


8 


•0000005 


-7088545- 




8 



n 


log |S„(1-1)| 


log|C„(l-l)| 


log|E„(M)|' 


n 





1-9499788 


i-6566693 


0-0000000 





1 


1-5521721 


01151335 


0-2616069 


1 


2 


2-9101831 


©•4915841 


0-9834666 


2 


3 


2^1150063 


M070253 


2-2140511 


3 


4 


3-2075434 


1-8938634 




4 


5 


42112570 


2-4434492 




5 


6 


5-1414226 


4-5211239 




C 


7 


6-0087975 


5-6591585 




7 


8 


8-8213762 


6-8505571 




8 



n 


log|S„'(l-l)| 


log|C„'(l-l)| 


log|E„'{l-l)P 


n 






i-6566693 


1-9499788 


0-0000000 


1 


1-7536079 


1-8641937 


1-9327614 


1 


2 


1-3196113 


0-6370575 


1-2751206 


2 


3 


2-6606370 


1-5023269 


3-0046548 


3 


4 


3-8553756 


2-4345679 




4 


5 


4-9411828 


3-4434492 




5 


6 


5-9400699 


3-7925037 




6 


7 


6-8865989 


4-8613172 




7 


8 


7-7311326 


5-9932891 




8 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



99 



Bessel Functions of Half-Integral Order — continued. 



n 


S„(l-2) 


C„(1^2) 


|E„(r2)|» 


n 






•9320391 


•3623678 


1-000000 


1 


•4143415 


1-234004 


1-694444 


1 


2 


•1038146 


2-722652 


7-423611 


2 


3 


•0182194 


10-11038 


102-2201 


3 


4 


•0024655 


56-25456 




4 


5 


•0002717 


411-7988 




5 


6 


•0000253 


3718-568 




6 


7 


•0000020 


39872-69 




7 


8 


•0000001 


4946900 




8 



n 


S„'(l-2) 


C„'(l-2) 


|E„'(1-2)P 


n 






•3623578 


--9320391 


1-0000000 


1 


•5867545 


-•6659788 


0-7878086 


1 


2 


•2413171 


-3-303749 


10-97299 


2 


3 


•0582660 


-22-55330 


508-6546 


3 


4 


•0100012 


-177-4048 




4 


5 


•0013333 


-1659-574 




5 


i 6 


•0001454 


-18181-04 




6 


7 


-0000134 


-228872-1 




7 


8 


-0000011 


-325806r 




8 



n 


log|S„(l-2)| 


log|C„(l-2)| 


log |E„(1-2)|> 


n 





1-9694341 


i-5591376 


00000000 





1 


1-6173584 


0-0913165 


0-2290273 


1 


2 


1-0162585 


0-4349921 


0-8706152 


2 


3 


2-2605352 


1-0047674 


2-0095363 


3 


4 


3-3919031 


1-7501577 




4 


5 


4-4341202 


2-6146851 




5 


6 


5-4025955 


3-5703757 




6 


7 


6-3081560 


4-6006755 




7 


8 


7-1588359 


5-6943332 




8 



n 




log |S„'(1-2)| 


log |C„'(1-2)| 


log |E„'(1-2)|» 


n 


1-5591376 


1-9694341 


0-0000000 





1 


1-7684564 


1-8234604 


1-8964207 


1 


2 


1-3825881 


0-5190071 


1-0403251 


2 


3 


2-7654152 


1-3532100 


2-7064229 


3 


4 


2-0000500 


2-2489654 




4 


5 


3- 1249364 


3-2199966 




5 


6 


4^1 624806 


4-2596187 




6 


7 


51274209 


5-3595929 




7 


8 


60302111 1 


6-5129592 




8 



H 2 



100 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Bessel Functions of Half-Integral Order — continued. 



n 


S„(l-3) 


C„(l-3) 


iE„(l-3)P 


n 





•9635582 


•2674988 


1-000000 





1 


•4736998 


M69327 


1-591716 


1 


2 


•1295951 


2-430947 


5-926298 


2 


3 


•0247431 


8-180470 


66-92069 


3 


4 


•0036368 


4r61774 




4 


5 


•0004350 


279-9423 




5 


6 


•0000439 


2327-125 




6 


7 


•0000038 


22991-31 




7 


8 


•0000003 


262957-2 




8 



n 


S„'{l-3) 


C„'(l-3) 


|E„'(1-8)|» 


n 





•2674988 


--9635582 


10000000 





1 


•5991737 


-•6319831 


0-7584118 


1 


2 


•2743226 


-2-570592 


6683196 


2 


3 


•0724957 


-16-44706 


2705110 


3 


4 


•0135528 


-119-8741 




4 


5 


•0019638 


-1035-083 




5 


6 


•0002325 


-10460-63 




6 


7 


-0000233 


-121472-2 




7 


8 


•0000020 


-1595207- 




8 



n 


log|S„(1^3)| 


log|C„l-3)| 


log |E„(f3)P 


n 





1-9838779 


r4273219 


0-0000000 





1 


1-6755032 


0-0679358 


0-2018656 


1 


2 


1-1125887 


0-3857755 


0-7727835 


2 


3 


2-3934538 


0-9127782 


1-8255604 


3 


4 


3-5607234 


1-6192784 




4 


5 


4-6384829 


2-4470686 




5 


6 


5-6422886 


3-3668197 




6 


7 


6-5830439 


4-3615637 




7 


8 


7-4688264 


5-4198850 




8 ■ 



n 


log |S„'(1-3)| 


Iog|C„'(l-S)| 


log |E„'(1-3)P 


n 





1-4273219 


1-9838779 


0-0000000 





1 


1-7775528 


1-8007055 


1-8799051 


1 


2 


1-4382616 


0-4100331 


0-8249842 


2 


3 


2-8603124 


1-2160883 


2-4321850 


3 


4 


2-1320299 


2-0787254 




4 


5 


3-2930930 


30149754 




5 


6 


4-3663487 


4-0195580 




6 


7 


5-3667311 


50844770 




7 


8 


6-3047935 


6-2028170 




8 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



101 



Bessel Functions of Half-Integral Order— continued. 



n 


S„(l-4) 


C„(l-4) 


|E"(l-4,f 


n 





•9854497 


•1699671 


1000000 





1 


•5339255 


1-106855 


1-510204 


1 


2 


•1586764 


2-201865 


4-873386 


2 


3 


•0327759 


6-756947 


45-65741 


3 


4 


•0052029 


31-58287 


997-4779 


4 


5 


•0006715 


196-2758 




5 


6 


•0000731 


1510-584 




6 


7 


•0000069 


13830-58 




7 


8 


•0000006 


146674-2 




8 



n 


S„'(l-4) 


C„'(l-4) 


|E„'(1-4)P 


n 





•1699671 


-•9854497 


1-0000000 





1 


•6040744 


-•6206435 


0-7501041 


1 


2 


•3072450 


-2^038666 


4-250559 


2 


3 


•0884424 


-12-27731 


150-7401 


3 


4 


•0179104 


-83-47983 


6968^883 


4 


5 


•0028048 


-669-4021 




5 


6 


•0003584 


-6277-656 




6 


7 


•0000387 


-67642-30 




7 


8 


•0000036 


-824307-5 




8 



n 


log |s„(r4)| 


log |C„(1-4)| 


log |E„(l-4)|s 


n 





r-9936345 


1-2303650 


0-0000000 





1 


1-7274807 


0-0440907 


01790356 


1 


2 


1-2005123 


0-3427906 


0-6878308 


2 


3 


25155541 


0-8297505 


1-6595113 


3 


4 


3-7162472 


1-4994516 


2-9989033 


4 


5 


4-8270381 


2-2928668 




5 


6 


5-8636444 


3-1791449 




6 


7 


6-8370529 


4-1408403 




7 


8 


7-7553885 


5-1663536 




8 



n 


log |S„'(1-4)| 


log |C„'(1-4)| 


log |E„'(1-4)|2 


n 





1-2303650 


19936345 


0-0000000 





1 


1-7810904 


1-7928422 


1-8751216 


1 


2 


1-4874848 


0-3093461 


0-6284460 


2 


3 


2-9466605 


1-0891032 


2^1782289 


3 


4 


2-2531046 


1-9215816 


3-8431631 


4 


5 


3-4478942 


2-8256871 




5 


6 


4-5543666 


3-7977975 




G 


7 


5-5876714 


4-8302184 




7 


8 


6-6584714 


5-9160893 




8 



102 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Bessel Functions of Half-Integral Order — continued. 



n 


S„(l-B) 


C„{l-5) 


|E„(rB)|' 


n 





■9974950 


•0707372 


roooooo 





1 


•5942595 


1044653 


1-444444 


1 


2 


■1910239 


2-018569 


4-111111 


2 


3 


•0424870 


5683910 


32-30864 


3 


4 


■0072486 


2450635 


600-5610 


4 


5 


■0010044 


1413542 




5 


6 


•0001173 


1012091 




6 


7 


•0000118 


8630-100 




7 


8 


•0000011 


85288^91 




8 


9 


•0000001 


9579775 




9 



n 


S„'(l-5) 


c„'(r5) 


|Bn'(l-5)|* 


n 


- 


•0707372 


-•9974950 


10000000 





1 


•6013220 


-•6256982 


0-7530864 


1 


2 


•3395609 


-r646772 


2-827160 


2 


3 


•1060500 


-9349252 


87-41975 


3 


4 


•0231575 


-5966635 


3560-073 


4 


5 


•0039005 


-446^6742 




5 


6 


•0005354 


-3907^009 




6 


7 


■0000620 


-3926r71 




7 


8 


■0000062 


-446244^1 




8 


9 


■0000006 


-5662576^ 




9 



n 


log|S„(l-5)| 


log|C„(l-5)| 


log|E„(l-5)|» 


n 





r-9989107 


2-8496479 


00000000 





1 


1-7739761 


0-0189721 


0-1697008 


1 


2 


1-2810878 


0-3050436 


0-6139592 


2 


3 


2-6282557 


0-7546472 


1-5093187 


3 


4 


3-8602521 


1-3892786 


2-7785572 


4 


5 


3-0019201 


2^1503086 




5 


6 


4-0691536 


3-0052195 




6 


7 


5-0730299 


3-9360158 




7 


8 


60217255 


4-9308926 




8 


9 


8-9215307 


5-9813553 




9 



n 


log|S„'(l-5)| 


log|Cn'(l-6)| 


log |E„'(1-6)|» 


n 





2-8496479 


1-9989107 


0-0000000 





1 


1-7791071 


r7963649 


1-8768448 


1 


2 


1-5309177 


0-2166335 


0-4513504 


2 


3 


10255107 


0-9707768 


1-9416096 


3 


4 


2-3646908 


1-7757294 


3-5514589 


4 


5 


3-5911161 


2-6499909 




5 


6 


4-7286677 


3-5918444 




6 


7 


5-7927320 


4-5939692 




7 


8 


6-7940914 


5-6495725 




8 


9 


7^7407389 


6-7530141 




9 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES, 



103 



Bessel Functions of Half-Integral Order— continued. 



n 


S„(l-6) 


C„{l-6) 


,1B„(1-6)|» 


n 





•9995736 


-•0291995 


1-000000 





1 


•6539330 


•9813239 


1-390625 


1 


2 


•2265508 


1-869182 


3545166 


2 


3 


■0540383 


4-859869 


2362125 


3 


4 


•0098667 


19-39275 


376-0787 


4 


5 


•0014617 


104-2243 




5 


6 


•0001823 


697-1495 




6 


7 


•0000196 


5560-116 




7 


8 


•0000019 


51428-93 




8 


9 


•0000002 


540872-3 




9 



n 


S„'(l-6) 


C„'(l-6) 


|B„'(r6)|» 


n 





-•0291995 


-•9995736 


10000000 





1 


•5908655 


-•6425270 


0-7619629 


1 


2 


•3707445 


-1355153 


1-973892 


2 


3 


•1252290 


-7^243073 


52-47779 


3 


4 


•0293716 


-43^62200 


1902-887 


4 


5 


•0052989 


-306-3083 




5 


6 


•0007780 


-2510-086 




6 


7 


•0000964 


-23628-36 




7 


8 


•0000103 


-251584-6 




8 


9 


-0000010 


-2990978- 




9 



n 


logI8„(l-6)| 


loglC„(l-6)| 


log |E„(1-6)|' 


n 





1-9998148 


2-4653757 


00000000 





1 


1-8155333 


1-9918124 


0-1432100 


1 


2 


1-3551656 


0-2716516 


0-5496366 


2 


3 


2-7327015 


0-6866246 


1-3733029 


3 


4 


3-9941701 


1-2876393 


2-.5752787 


4 


5 


3-1648490 


20179691 




5 


6 


4-2608239 


2-8433259 




6 


7 


5-2932701 


3-7450838 




7 


8 


6-2704195 


4-7112075 




8 


9 


7-1985963 


5-7330947 




9 



n 


log|S„'(l-6)| 


log |C„'(r6)| 


loglE„(l-6)P 


n 





2-4653757 


1-9998148 


00000000 





1 


1-7714886 


1-8078914 


1-8819338 


1 


2 


1-5690747 


0-1319885 


0-2953234 


2 


3 


10977051 


0-8599229 


1-7199756 


3 


4 


2-4679281 


1-6397065 


32794131 


4 


5 


3-7241892 


2-4861588 




5 


6 


4-8909713 


3-3996887 




6 


7 


5-9839202 


4-3734335 




7 


8 


50139483 


5-4006840 




8 


9 


7-9891208 


6-4758132 




9 



104 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Bessel Functions of Half-Integral Order — continued. 



n 


S„(l-7) 


Cn{l-7) 


|E„(1-7)|' 


n 





•9916648 


-•1288445 


1-000000 





1 


•7121767 


•9158740 


1-346021 


1 


2 


•2651177 


1-745093 


3115636 


2 


3 


•0675811 


4-216751 


17^78556 


3 


4 


•0131575 


15-61800 


243-9221 


4 


5 


•0020760 


78-46679 




5 


6 


■0002756 


492-1083 




6 


7 


•0000316 


3684-714 




7 


8 


•0000032 


32020-07 




8 


9 


•0000003 


3165160 




9 



n 


S„'(l-7) 


C„'(l-7) 


|E„'(r7)|' 


w 





-•1288445 


-•9916648 


1^0000000 





1 


•5727373 


-•6675939 


•07737096 


1 


2 


•4002736 


-1137176 


r453389 


2 


3 


•1458569 


-5-696234 


32-46835 


3 


4 


-0366224 


-32-53149 


1058-299 


4 


5 


•0070515 


-215-1667 




5 


6 


•0011033 


-1658-386 




6 


7 


•0001455 


-14680-24 




7 


8 


•0000166 


-146998-0 




8 


9 


•0000017 


-1643653^ 




9 



n 


log|S„(l-7)I 


log |C„(1-7)1 


log |E„(r7)|' 


n 





1-9963649 


ril00659 


0-0000000 





1 


1-8525878 


19618357 


0-1290518 


1 


2 


1-4234387 


0-2418185 


0-4935467 


2 


3 


2-8298253 


0-6249780 


1-2500675 


3 


4 


2-1191719 


1-1936255 


2-3872612 


4 


5 


3-3172314 


1-8946859 




5 


6 


4-4402972 


2-6920607 




6 


7 


5-4996503 


3-5664038 




7 


8 


6-5035823 


4-5054223 




8 


9 


7-4584539 


5^5003957 




9 



n 


log |S»'(1-7)| 


log |C„'(1-7)| 


log |E„'(1-7)P 


n 





11 100659 


i-9963649 


00000000 





1 


1-7579555 


1-8245123 


'l •8885780 


1 


2 


1-6023569 


0-0558278 


0-1623818 


2 


3 


1-1639270 


0-7555878 


1-5114602 


3 


4 


2-5637466 


1-5123039 


3-0246084 


4 


5 


3-8482825 


2-3327750 




5 


6 


3-0426831 


3-2196856 




6 


7 


4-1628774 


4-1667333 




7 


8 


5-2199186 


51673114 




8 


9 


6-2219501 


6-2158101 




9 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



105 



Bessel Functions of Half-Integral Order— continued. 



n 


S„(l-8) 


C„(l-8) 


|E,.(1-8)|> 


n 





•9738476 


-•2272021 


1000000 





1 


•7682286 


•8476242 


1308642 


1 


2 


•3065333 


1-639909 


2-783265 


2 


3 


•0832528 


3-707679 


13-75381 


3 


4 


•0172277 


12-77884 


163-2991 


4 


5 


•0028856 


60- 18653 




5 


6 


•0004064 


3550278 




6 


7 


•0000494 


2503-903 




7 


8 


•0000053 


20510-83 




8 


9 


■0000005 


191209-5 




9 



n 



S„'(l-8) 


C„'(l-8) 


|E„'(1-8)|» 


n 



-•2272021 


-•9738476 


1-0000000 


1 


•5470540 


-•6981045 


0-7866179 


1 


2 


•4276360 


- -9744971 


1-132517 


2 


3 


•1677786 


-4-539556 


20-63572 


3 


4 


•0449691 


-24-68975 


609-5837 


4 


5 


•0092122 


-154-4060 




5 


6 


•0015310 


-1123-239 




6 


7 


-0002143 


-9382-372 




7 


8 


•0000259 


-88655-34 




8 


9 


•0000028 


-935536-6 




9 



n 


log |S„(1-8)| 
19884910 


log|C„(l-8)| 


log |E„(1-8)|2 


n 





r-3564123 


0-0000000 





1 


1^8854904 


1-9282034 


0-1168208 


1 


2 


1-4864777 


0-2148198 


0-4445545 


2 


3 


2-9203990 


0-5691021 


1-1384231 


3 


4 


2-2362268 


1-1064915 


2-2129838 


4 


5 


3-4602321 


1-7794993 




5 


6 


4-6089333 


2-5502623 




6 


7 


5-6937251 


3-3986175 




7 


8 


6-7229634 


4-3119832 




8 


9 


7-7030474 


5-2815094 




9 



106 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Bessel Functions of Half-Integral Order^continueA. 



n 


log iSn'(l-8)| 


log |C„'(1-8)| 


log |E„'(1-8)12 


n 





i-3564123 


1-9884910 


00000000 





1 


1-7380302 


1-8439204 


1-8957638 


1 


2 


r-6310743 


1-9887805 


0540448 


2 


3 


1-2247366 


0-6570134 


1-3146196 


3 


4 


2-6529141 


1-3925167 


2-7850333 


4 


5 


3-^9643632 


2-1886641 




5 


6 


3-1849668 


30504723 




6 


7 


4-3309626 


3-9723126 




7 


8 


6-4135565 


4-9477049 




8 


9 


6-4409759 


5-9710608 




9 



n 


S„(l-9) 


C„(l-9) 


|E„(1-9)P 


n 





-9463001 


-■3232896 


1000000 





1 


-8213422 


•7761477 


1-277008 


1 


2 


•3505561 


1-548786 


2-521627 


2 


3 


•1011738 


3-299605 


10-89763 


3 


4 


-0221894 


10-60765 


112-5228 


4 


5 


-0039339 


46-94717 




5 


6 


-0005860 


261-1918 




6 


7 


-0000753 


1740154 




7 


8 


•0000085 


13476-87 




8 


9 


•0000009 


118842-4 




9 


10 


•0000001 


1174947- 




10 



n 


S„'(l-9) 


C„'(1^9) 


|E„'{r9)|2 


n 





--3232896 


-- 9463001 


1 0000000 





1 


-5140147 


--7317883 


0-7997253 


1 


2 


-4523358 


— -8541533 


0-9341855 


2 


3 


•1908080 


-3-661116 


13-44018 


3 


4 


■0544592 


-19-03230 


362-2312 


4 


5 


-0118370 


-112-9375 




5 


6 


•0020835 


-777-8689 




6 


7 


•0003085 


-6149-903 




7 


8 


■0000395 


-55004-56 




8 


9 


•0000044 


-549460-6 




9 


10 


•0000004 


-6065087- 




10 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



107 



Bessel Functions of Half-Integral Order - continued. 



n 


log |Sn(l-9)| 


log|C„(l-9)| 
1-5095917 


log|E„(l-9)P 


1 
n 1 





1-9760289 


0-0000000 





1 


1-9145242 


1-8899444 


0-1061937 


1 


2 


1-5447575 


0-1899914 


0-4016809 


2 


3 


1-00.50680 


0-5184619 


1-0373320 


3 


4 


2-3461456 


1-0256193 


2-0512405 


4 


5 


3-5948263 


1-6716094 




5 


6 


4-7678710 


2-4169595 




6 


7 


5-8767966 


3-2405878 




7 


8 


6-9300277 


4-1295890 




8 


9 


7-9340049 


5-0749712 




9 


10 


8-8938182 


6-0700182 




10 



n 


log |S„'(1-9)| 


log|C„'(l-9)| 


log|E„'{l-9)P 


n 





1-5095917 


1-9760289 


0000000 





1 


i-7109755 


1-8643855 


1-9029408 


1 


2 


1-6554610 


1-9315358 


1-9704331 


2 


3 


1-2805966 


0-5636135 


1-1284051 


3 


4 


2-7360716 


1-2794912 


2-5589859 


4 


5 


2-0732403 


'2-0528383 




5 


6 


3-3187965 


2-8909064 




6 


7 


4-4893142 


3-7888683 




7 


8 


5-5961638 


4-7403987 




8 


9 


6-6476631 


5-7399366 




9 


10 


7-6501758 


6-7828371 




10 



108 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Pakt IV. 

Tables of the ber, bei, ker, kei, dc. functions — (continued). 

Introductory Note. 

§ 1. Definitions (Kelvin, ' Math, and Phys. Papers,' vol. iii. p. 491 
Russell's 'Alternating Currents,' 2nd ed., vol. i., chap. 7). 

ber ic + i bei ic=Io(a;'^t) ('=>/— 1) 

ber x—i bei x=3q{x x^i) 
ker a; + t kei a;=Ko(a;>/i) 
kei x—i kei a;=Go(a;v^t) 

§ 2. Expansions 

In series of ascending powers. 

X* x^ ' " " 

ber a; =l—^r5—-, + ,-r— ————„+ . . . beirc=; 



2*. d'^ (2. 4. 6. 8)2 ' •■ 22 (2. 4. 6.)2^"" 

ker a;=(a— log a;) ber a; + - bei re — ;, — — „ + — -~ — ] 

^ ^ ^ ^4 2 22.42 24 2.4.6.8)2 | 

k9ia; = (a-log a?) beia;-^bera;+ |J-g^. (24 6)2+ ' ' * 
general term, 

a=log, 2-y = -1159315. . . 



2(1) 



(2. 4 . . . 2s.)2 



§ 3. In semi-divergent series of descending potvers. 

These are obtained from I„(a;)=(27ra;)-' exp (x+^+—„ + ^^^!^ 

^ x 2x^ 6a;^ 

, 8m + 2to2 15m + 14w^ + m' 45m + 51m2 + Sm^ 
~Ix* 10^5 + 12^6 

630m + 807m 2 + 1 90m^ + 5m* 8r5m + 438m2 + 132m3 + 87ra^ 
56a;^ 8x^ 

11340?» + 16704m2 + 5925m3 + 560m^ + 7m-^ 
72a;9 

14175W + 21780m2 + 8655m^ + 1080m^ + 32m5 

20a;'o 



where vi—^ ^l 

8 

(To derive these coefficients put in Bessel's equation for I„a;, viz. : 
y' + -y-^(l + -J=0; ?/=exp (^u.dx), whence u^ + tt' + ^u-(l+^-l\ 
=0 ; from this the coefficients are readily deduced.) 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 109 

From this expansion, putting aV i fora;andn=0, ber x=(27r.r)-*c' cos /3 
and beia;=(27ra;)~Vsin/?, where 

a=-^-+— _ ^^ _ ^^ _ ^^'^^ _ ^75733 
>/2 8N/2ic 384v'2a;3~128x^~5120v/2a;5~229376N/2a;7 

23797 

4096a;8 



^_ j; _«■ 1 1 25 1073 103 

n/2 8 8N/2a; IGic^ 384 N/2a;=» "^5120 v/2a;^"'" 192x6 
375733 



229376 N/2a;7 



Putting Xv't for x and «=1 since ro(a;)=Ii(x'), ber'a;=(27rj;)-*e''cosf/. 
and bei'a;=(27ra;)~Vsin(/) where 

_ ^ 3^_ 21 27 1899 _ 543483 _ 

'^~^/2 8V2a; 128v^2a;"3"'"l28a;^'^5120v/2a;'5~229376V2x^7 

32427 
~4096x«~ • • • 

x_ TT ^ _3 21 1899 27 

^~N/2'^8'^8N/2a;"^16a;2"*'l28v/2x3~5120N/2a;5~32a;« 
543483 
"22937672*7"*" ' " ' 

The corresponding series for kera;, keio;, &c., are obtained by putting 
— xiorx and [ ^j*cosn7r for {2ttx)~^ 

§ 4. The ' Product Functions' 

In practical problems the functions usually appear in certain combina- 
tions. For the ber and bei functions they are as follows : 

X6*(a;)=ber2a; + bei'''a; =la{x^\) ^^{xs/ \) 

Yb (x) = ber'2x + bei'^x = I'o(a; V ,) J,' {x^ .) 

Zb (a?)-=ber a;ber'a; + bei x bei'a?=jj(roJo + IoJ'o) 

W6 (a;)=ber x bei'x — beia;ber'a;= - (I'oJo— Wo) 

2( 

(In the last two the argument xVt is understood for lo and Jq.) 

* This notation is adapted from that in Russell's Alternating Currents, second 
edition, vol. 1, chapter 7. 



no 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



§ 5. The corresponding combinations of the ker and \iei functions are : 
Xk{x) =ker2a; + kei2a; =Ko{x vDGoix^l) 

V/fc(a;)=ker'2a; + koi'2^ =K'oG'o 

Zk{x) =kev X ker'x- -H kei x kei'a;=-(K'uGo + KoGr'o) 
WA;(a;)=ker x kei'ic — kei a; ker'a; = =,-(K'oGo— KqG'q). 



§ 6. Mixed (ber, ker, &c.) product-functions arise^from 

lo{xs/l)Go{xs/~i) &c. 

and the real and unreal parts of this product will be called Xr(x) an'd 
Xu{x) ; and there are corresponding combinations analogous to the V, 
W, and Z functions already given : 

Xr(a;) =ber a; keric+beia; keia;1 y^/^\_l y^,/'^\ t /^ /np f„ r\ 
X«(4=ker X bei a; - ber a; kei xj Xr(a;) + .Xt.(a;)=Io(a;s/OGo(a; ./.) 

Vr(a:) =ber;a; ker'a^ + bei'a; kei'a;-| Vr(a;) + tV«(^)=I'oG'o 
Vtt(a;)=ker'a; beia; — ber a; kei .■» J ^ ' ^ ' " " 

Zr{x) = (ber'a; ker a; + ber a; ker'a; + bai'a; keia;-|-bei x kei'a; - 

Zzt(a;) = 3(kera; bei'a; + ker'a; bei.r — ber'a; kei a; — ber a; kei'a: . 

Zr{x) + tZu{x) = ^^{l'oG, + loG'o). 

Wr(a;) =- (ber x kei'a; + ker x bei'a;— ber'a; kei x - ker'a; bei x - 
A 

Wtt(a;)=-(ker'a; ber a; + bei'a; kei a;— ber'a; ker a; — bei'a; kei a; - 
A 

y^r{x) + t-^u{x)=l (IoG'o-r«G„). 

At 

§ 7. The last four may be simplified by the following relations, which 
arise from the well-known property of the Bessel functions : — 

Io(a;)K'o(a,-)-ro(a;)Ko(^)= --• 



Putting x\/iiot X and equating real and imaginary parts, 

ber a; ker'a; -f- bei'a; kei a; — ber'a; ker a;— bei x kei'a; = 



1 



ber a; kei'a; -f bei a; ker'a;— ber'a; kei a;— bei'a; kera;=0. 
§ 8. Hence 

Z7-(a;) =bera; ker'a; -f- bei'a; keia; + ^- =ber'ker a; -J- bei x kei'a; — ;r- 

2a; 2x 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. Ill 

Zu{x)=ker X bei'o;— bera; kei'a;=beia; ker'aj — kei x ber'a; 
Wr(a;)=beraj kei'x— ber'o; keix=kerx bei'a; — ker'o; bei x 

Wtt(x)=ker'x ber a;— ker x ber'a? +- =bei x kei'a; — bei'x kei x— . 

2x 2x 

It will be noticed that jQ{x\/l)Ko{x\/~i)=X'r{x) — iX.u{x), &c. 

At the present time Yr{x) and Yu{x), called by Dr. Russell* 8{x) 
and T(x) are the only mixed functions which have arisen in practical 
work, and tables of these two only are included here, 

§ 9. As the four X- functions arise from the products IqJo, KqGo, and 
IqGo (argument x-^ i), they must each be related in the same way to 
their derivates ; and we shall now show that they are four independent 
solutions of a linear differential equation of the fourth order ; as are also 
the four V, the four Z, and the four W functions. 

§ 10. Differentiation of the X-, V-, Z-, W- functions. — The argument 
X will be understood : X stands for Xb{x) or any of the other three X 
functions, and V, Z, W, for the corresponding V-, Z-, and W- functions. 

Noticing that ber"a;= — - ber'x— bei a; and bei"a;=— bei'ic + berxt 

X X 

X'=2Z V'=2W--V 

X 

Z'=V-^Z w= x-^w. 

X X 

Further differentiation gives : 

Y" + h'=2X = 2(w-h^Yj] 
X \ X J 

multiplying by x and successively differentiating 

V"+i+^+^V"=2X"-'+"~-^X"-2=2fw"+-W"-i^ 
X x \ X J' 

Again X" + -X' =2V. Multiplying by x and successively differentiating 



X"+^ + -X"=2('v"-'+"~'''V"-'V 
X \ X }' 



By these relations the successive derivates of X, V, W, and Z (which 
=^X') can be calculated. 

* Alternating Currents, loc. cit. 
t Or we may obtain our results from X6(a;) = I„(a; -v^j) J„(a; ^^i), Ac. (| 4). 



112 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ^1916. 



§ 11. We can now find the linear differential equation solved by X. 
By eliminating V and its derivates from 



X X 

X™+?X"=2(V^ + 1V) 
2V 



X X 

X" + -Xi = 

X 



2X=V" + *'Vi 

X 

we obtain a;''.Xi^ + 4a;3.X™+a;2X"-a;X'-4a;^X=0. 

The corresponding equations for the V, Z, and W functions are : 
x'Y^'' + 4:X^V^"-3x'W+3xV-ix'Y =0. 

a;*Z'^ + 4a;'Z^"-8a;2Z"-3a;Zi + Z(3-4a;'') =0. 
x'Wl + 4a;' W"^ + a;' W" + xW- W(l + 4^'') =0. 



§ 12. These equations afford the best means of determining the 
coefficients in the expansions in series of the functions. The results are 
set out here ; the appropriate solution is of course determined by multi- 
plying out a few terms of the expansions of her x, ker x, &c. 

^^^''^~ 11 12 ^[r^4^l2l3l6 + l3T^ 



w%)=eA)+|^3+|^+f^;+ 



z«(x)=^z%)-(|j+^2:|p^ +(2:6^:0)^+ .. 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 113 

M-)=i'^-log^)Xb{.) + fl^^ + f^^jy-^+ . . .., where 



c,=':o.=!^c.=?^4 <^'=lX(j)+lX{2V^i) 



5 _43 _257 

=4 '^-24 '^"120 • ■ 



j=i 



Vr(.) = («-log.)V%) + 4eA)H|I,^+^^/^]5+ • • . . 
The coefficients are Ci—^, c-i—-., ^^~a' • • • • 
Zr(x)^(a-los X) Zb(x)- 1 +(V2)%5 {V.y .247 (V.)^^ , 

The coefficients are Ci—^ ; Cj — g; "3— -^^ ; 



The coefficients are c,— ; c, — - ; Cq — — ; 

' 4 ^ 8 ^ 12 

+ C3 (•V.)"+ 

^|3|3|6 

2V22ll (2. 6)2|3 (2.6.10)^(5^ • • • y -r i|i|i|2^ 'l2|214 

■^''^,3^76+ 

where .,=2; «,=67; .3=^^^ n,=^7659 ^ _ ^ 
'■ ' - 18' ^ 3600 ^ 88200 

, 8r-8 3(4r-l) 

' '"' 2r(2r-l) ' 8r2(2r— 1) 

Yk{x)= { (.-log xOH^g } Vfe(x) + 2(a-loga;) [ ie/.)^ + |4|^3 + -.- } 



3 ' (2. 6)2i5 ' ' ' ' J^8 \l\i ' 288 11 |2 jS' 



4\ ^2'%'^(2.6y<y ' ' ' ;+8 iiir 



1916 



114 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 

The new coefficients are (('*i— Ci+^-p I '■> ( ''^2 "" 2^2 + 5-92 j ' 

Zk{x)=[ia- loga;)2 + fg} Zb{x) + 2{a-\ogx) [-1+^11^^ 

3 11J2|4 J 

^fx , x^ , \ 11 (V2)V943 (V,)^ 

2^,22 (2.6)2 j2 ;^g ^j2 288)1^|2|4 

The new coefficients are (m, — ^Ci j ; In^ — jcA ; (^3— ^Csj ; 

Vfk{x) = I (a - log a;)2 + ^ j W&H + 2(a - log x) I ^(7 2) 

.17 (72)% ] 

I21I 11^13 J 

4 U 22 12 (2.6)2 14 "^ ■ ■ ■ / "^ 2 ^2/ 36'|1 |1 13 3600 "12 |2 |5 

(8 3 \ / 3 3 \ 

(^^^-6^^+8X2) •••• 

§ 13, Expansions in series of descending poivers. 

From the expansions, in descending powers, of her x, &e., we have 
Xb(x) = -^e''' and Yb(x)=J-e^'' (for a and v, see § 3). 

^ ^ ^vx 2irX 

Zb{x). Putting Zb{x)=^e'\ we have ||M=27rCe^«-'". 

Now e^''=2TrxXb{x). Taking logs and differentiating 

Z&(^)^^,_1^J 1 _ 1 , 25 ^ 13 _^ 1073 
Xfc(x) " 2x s/2 2a; 8N/2a;2 128 V 2a;* 32a;5 1024V2a;6 



Th» puUtag C=^-J^. 2g-a)=log(l-^-i-^-gl + 



25 
128a;^ 



16N/2a;' 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 115 

From this, by expanding the logarithm, we obtain 
r7Z,/ ^ 1 „, , . » 8 3 27 9 

^'^"^ = 271:7/' "^''' ^=71"^7r.-16P-12871x-3-128x-^ 

. 1179 , 387 , 



5120\/2a;5 512x« 
W5(x). We have /3=arc tan r^- Differentiating 

W6(aj)^o,__l +_!_ + JL + _M_--i^IL--^- 
Xi(a;) ^ n/2 8N/2a;2 Sx^ I28v/2cc« 1024 V 2x5 32x^ 

Proceeding as for Zb{x), we obtain 
"\V6(x) = — =— e^" where 

2N/27rX 

« 1 I 23 1 _ 1 153 ^35^ 

''"^v/2"^872^^i6^''^38472x"3 128x' 5T2"0s/2x-^ i536x« " ' * 

§ 14. The differential equations of the 4th order (see § 11) are all 
unchanged by substitution of -x, or tx, for x; therefore the same co- 
efficients furnish four independent solutions of each equation. 

The ker, l^ei, &c., forms are of course obtained by substituting —x for 

X and A /'" for a / -• The expansions of the mixed functions are: 

Xr(x)=\ 1 / 13 , \ fcosW r^_ 1 ^^_ 

Xu{x)= / 2x ^''^' \Qix' + • • • j \ sin i V'^^/ ^ 4 V2a; 192 V2x^ 

+ -i^+ 

2560 V 2a;^ 



1899 
2560v/2a;* 



_3 27 1179^ ^ _ 

''"4v/2a; 64V 2x=' 2560^ 2a;'* 

W^x)-/272:^ ^"V 8x2 64x^^768x« /IcosJV 



1 , 23 __^ 1153 



4v'2x 192 v/ 2x3 2560v/2x* 



I 2 



116 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. ^191 6. 

§ 15. The expansions of the ratios, similar to those given above for 

^A(^ and 1^#-), may be noted here. 
Xb{x) Xb{x) 

From e^''=2-!rxYb{x) ; taking logs and differentiating, and noticing 
that Yb'{x) = 2hNb{x)-hb{x)^ 

WJ)(a;)_ , l^J^ , 1 . 3 63_ _ 27 _ 1899 _^ 

Ybix) ''2a; ^/2 2a; 8^/2x2 128s/2a;'' 32r^ 1024y2a;« 

From e'^'=2s/2^TrxZb{x), differentiating as before and noticing that 
Zb'{x)=yb{x)--Zb{x) 

VM=2^'=2l ^ + ^ +^+ ^ + ^ -^^^- 
Zb{x) " 1^2 8v/2a;2 8a;=' 128 /2a;'' 32a;'^ 1024V2a;6 

1161 



256x^ 



From e'^"—2V2KX^Nb{x), noticing that ^b'{x)=Xb{x)-^ \Nb{x). 

Xb{x)_ f_ f I _ ^ _ ^ _ 23 1 1153 

Wb{x)^^'^'~^ 1 V2~8v/ 2x-^ 8a;3 128 v/ 2a;^ "*" 32a;5 "^ 1024 V 2x« 

835 
■256a;7' 



835 



From 0=arc tan r — r, differentiating 

yb{x)~'^ v/2 8V2a;2 8a;-* 128 v/2a;^ 1024 v/2x« 16a;^ 

Yb{x) f Z6(a;) y j W5(x) 1 ^ 

Yb(x)_ JL 1_ 3 13 83 _ 25 771^_ _ 

X6(^~'^~N/2a;"^4a;2'^8v/2a;3'''32a;''"''l28>/2a;5 64a;6 102W'2x'' '" 

The ker, kei, &c., functions yield similar series with the sign of x 



* It will be seen that we may also obtain the coefficients in the series f and a> as 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



117 



§ 16. The following properties are useful in checking calculations : 

Yb{x).Xb{x)=ZF-{x)+^Nb'{x) =Io(.rN/Oro(a,VOJo(a;v^r)J'o(a;V.) 

Vk{x).Xk{x)=Zk^x) + ^k''{x) &c. 

Yr{x).Xr{x) = Zr^{x) + Wr''{x) - A-^ 

Yti{x).Xu{x) = Zti^ix) + Wu'{x)-^^ 

Xb{x)Xk{x)=Xr\x)+Xti'{x)=l^,{x^'i). Jo(a;^7). K,{x ^/7). (Gol^VO 
Yb{x) Yk{x)= Yr%x)+ V?r(x) &c. 

Zb{x) Zk{x)= Zr^{x)+ Zu^{x)-^:^ 



W&(a;)WJfc(a;)=Wr2(a;) + Wtt2(a:) - 



4a;2 



Table of the functions when x=G, to illustrate the foregoing expan- 
sions and properties : 



' X6(6)! + 132-2682 


XA(6) + -0000525042 


i X»-(6) 


-•0471463 


X«(6)' + •0687158 


VK6) +117-7264 


Vk(6\ + -0000590055 


! Vr(6) 


+ 0550093 


V»(6)|- -0626138 


Z?/(6) + 821605 


ZA(6) --0000413701 


[ Za'6) 


-•0448258 


Zm(6)'- -0391922 


1 WJ(6):+ 93-9S96 


WA(6) --0000372298 


; Wr(6) + -0483902 


W«(6): + -0332545 



118 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Table V. 

{Note.— Tables of ber x, dc, and of ker x, dc, will he found in the British Association 
Reports of 1912 and 1915 respectively.) 





X 


Xi(.r) 


Vi(.r) 


Zlix) 


W/.(^) 




00 


1 













•2 


1-00005 


•0100001 


-0005000 


•100002 




•4 


1-00080 


-0400053 


•0040003 


•200053 




•6 


1-00405 


-090061 


-0135046 


•300405 




•8 


1-01281 


•160341 


-0320341 


-401707 




10 


103129 


■251303 


•0626628 


•505212 




1-2 


1-06498 


-363892 


•108584 


-612981 




1-4 


1-12065 


•499824 


•173218 


•728096 




1-6 


1-20655 


-661920 


•260379 


•854893 




1-8 


1-33255 


-854529 


•374501 


•999223 




20 


1-51046 


1-08403 


•520949 


1-168755 




2-2 


1-75450 


1-35944 


•706429 


1-37335 




2-4 


208193 


1-69315 


•93951 


1-62553 




2-6 


2-51392 


2-10186 


1-23131 


1-94108 




2-8 


307672 


2-60770 


1-59633 


2-33986 




30 


3-80325 


3-23967 


205354 


2-84679 




3-2 


4-73513 


4-03545 


2-62780 


3-49329 




3-4 


5-92538 


504380 


3-35153 


4-31898 




3-6 


7-44187 


6-32750 


4-26701 


5-37411 




3-8 


9-37181 


7-96737 


5-42919 


6-72254 




40 


11-82753 


10-06727 


6-90940 


8-44578 




4-2 


14-9539 


12-7608 


8-8000 


10-6482 




4-4 


18-9381 


16-2199 


11-2208 


13-4636 




4-6 


240217 


20-6660 


14-3263 


17-0643 




4-8 


30-5169 


26-3848 


18-3169 


21-6720 




5-0 


38-8274 


33-7452 


23-4516 


27-5728 




5-2 


49-4749 


43-2237 


300653 


351364 




5-4 


63-1341 


55-4372 


38-5921 


44-8401 




5-6 


80-6778 


71-1843 


49-5937 


57-3015 




5-8 


103-235 


91-500 


63-7984 


73-320 




60 


132-268 


117-726 


82-150 


93-930 




6-2 


169-670 


151-605 


105-875 


120-471 




6-4 


217-895 


195-396 


136-563 


154-681 




6-6 


280-122 


252-035 


176-279 


198-812 




6-8 


360-476 


325-338 


227-708 


255-784 




7-0 


464-311 


420-263 


294-339 


329-389 




7-2 


598-573 


543-256 


380-710 


424-546 




7-4 


772-290 


702-711 


492-726 


547-648 




7-6 


997-186 


909-539 


638-064 


706-998 




7-8 


1288-51 


1177-95 


826-74 


913-39 




8-0 


1666-08 


1526-44 


1071-78 


1180-87 




8-2 


2155-69 


1979-12 


139015 


1527-69 




8-4 


2790-90 


2567-39 


1803-99 


1977-61 




8-6 


3615-41 


333219 


2342-13 


2561-58 




8-8 


4686-14 


4326-90 


3042-17 


3319-88 




90 


6077-21 


5621-11 


3953-18 


4305-00 




9-2 


7885-26 


7305-63 


5139-16 


5585-32 




9-4 


10236-23 


9498-98 


6683-64 


7250-02 




9-6 


13294-4 


12355-8 


8695-7 


9415-3 






17273-9 


16078-1 


11317-6 


122329 




-9'8 






100 


22454-3 


20929-6 


14735-4 


15900-5 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



119 



Table VI. 



X 


X^(.r) 


Yk{.r) 


-Zk{x) 


-Wk{x) 





oo 


oo 


oo 


oo 


"2 


3-578536 


2428511 


8-701176 


3-345845 


■4 


1-624504 


562803 


2^717202 


1-326491 


•6 


•886757 


2-24272 


1-231493 


•687150 


•8 


•525874 


" 1-103742 


•650496 


•396591 


10 


•327220 


•606639 


•373568 


•242799 


1-2 


•210158 


•356545 


•226108 


•154291 


1-4 


•138048 


•219118 


•141870 


•100606 


1-6 


•0922234 


•1389881 


•0913721 


•0668513 


1-8 


•0624249 


•0902563 


•0600250 


•0450694 


20 


•0427017 


•0596793 


•0400477 


•0307342 


2-2 


•0294633 


•0398631 


•0269829 


•0211286 


2-4 


-0204761 


•0271615 


•0184628 


•0146726 


2-6 


•0143175 


•0186069 


•0127076 


•0102431 


2-8 


•0100639 


•0128489 


•00880954 


•00719042 


30 


•00710636 


•00893315 


•00614495 


•00507167 


3-2 


•00503806 


•00624709 


•00430923 


•00359218 


3-4 


•00358437 


•00439086 


•00303602 


•00255363 


3-6 


•00255816 


•00309989 


•00214779 


•00182127 


3-8 


•00183091 


•00219708 


•00152498 


•00130273 


40 


-00131374 


•00156261 


•00108629 


•000934262 


4-2 


•000944827 


•001114834 


•000776066 


•000671600 


4-4 


•000680933 


•000797598 


•000555901 


■000483822 


4-6 


•000491686 


•000572080 


•000399151 


•000349232 


4-8 


•000355660 


-000411271 


•000287226 


•000252534 


60 


•000257682 


-000296286 


•000207099 


•000182913 


5-2 


•000186975 


-000213858 


•000149600 


•000132688 


5-4 


•000135858 


•000154635 


•000108247 


•000096390 


5-6 


-0000988426 


•0001119950 


•0000784476 


•0000701132 


5-8 


-0000719989 


•0000812348 


•0000569341 


•0000510620 


60 


-0000525042 


•0000590055 


•0000413761 


•0000372298 


6-2 


•0000383282 


•0000429148 


•0000301073 


•0000271735 


6-4 


-0000280072 


•0000312498 


•0000219332 


•0000198533 


6-6 


-0000204844 


•0000227814 


■0000159960 


•0000145187 


6-8 


-0000149953 


-0000166254 


•0000116779 


•0000106269 


70 


-00001098614 


•00001214503 


•00000853371 


•00000778478 


7-2 


-00000805511 


•00000888030 


•00000624176 


•00000570725 


7-4 


■00000591042 


•00000649898 


•00000456930 


•00000418727 


7-6 


-00000433977 


•00000476016 


•00000334768 


•00000307426 


7-8 


-00000318862 


•00000348930 


•00000245455 


•00000225860 


80 


-00000234430 


•00000255965 


•00000180100(5) 


•00000166041 


8-2 


-00000172457 


•00000187900 


•00000132238(5) 


•00000122138 


8-4 


-00000126940 


•00000138028 


■00000097160 


•00000089896 


8-6 


-000000934870 


•000001014568 


•000000714306 


•000000662009 


8-8 


•000000688858 


•000000746207 


■000000525462 


•000000487771 


90 


•000000507837 


•000000549146 


•000000386762 


•000000359572 


9-2 


-000000374563 


•000000404349 


■000000284827 


•000000265194 


9-4 


-000000276390 


•000000297888 


-000000209866 


•000000195677 


9-6 


•000000204038 


•000000219567 


•000000154710 


•000000144446 


9-8 


•000000150688 


•000000161917 


•000000114104 


•000000106674 


100 


•0000001113328 


-0000001194581 


-0000000841936 


•0000000788102 



120 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Table VIL (See § 8, p. 110.) 



X 


Yr{x) 


\u[x) 


X 


Yr{x) 


Yu{x) 








-•500000 


5-2 


-•0371624 


-■0886720 


0-2 


+ 


0247540 


_ 


492179 


5-4 


— 


0108757 


— 


0919472 


0-4 


+ 


0713026 


— 


469113 


5-6 


+ 


0143658 


— 


0881244 


0-6 


+ 


124040 


— 


431967 


6-8 


+ 


0368098 


— 


0779618 


0-8 


+ 


174894 


— 


382606 


60 


+ 


0550093 


— 


0626138 


10 


+ 


218643 


— 


323490 


6-2 


+ 


0679052 


— 


0435313 


1-2 


+ 


251844 


— 


257524 


6-4 


■f 


0748787 


— 


0223443 


1-4 


+ 


272422 


_ 


187900 


6-6 


+ 


0757705 


_ 


0007394 


1-6 


+ 


279458 


_ 


117907 


6-8 


+ 


0708683 


+ 


0196616 


1-8 


+ 


273040 


_ 


050751 


7-0 


+ 


0608633 


+ 


0374134 


20 


+ 


254128 


+ 


010625(5) 


7^2 


+ 


0467809 


+ 


0513408 


2-2 


+ 


223987 


+ 


063413 


74 


4- 


0298904 


+ 


0606091 


2-4 


+ 


186138 


+ 


106494 


7^6 


+ 


0116026 


+ 


0647682 


2-6 


+ 


141961 


+ 


137681 


7-8 




0066396 


+ 


0637662 


2-8 


+ 


094732 


+ 


156626 


80 


— 


0234668 


+ 


0579349 


30 


+ 


047328 


+ 


163403 


8-2 


— 


0376797 


+ 


0479480 


3-2 


+ 


002473 


+ 


158757 


8^4 


— 


0483291 


+ 


0347564 


3-4 




037420 


+ 


144036 


8-6 


— 


0547744 


+ 


0195065 


3-6 


— 


070384 


+ 


121081 


8-8 


— 


0567175 


+ 


0034470 


3-8 


— 


094991 


+ 


092096 


90 


— 


0542104 




0121671 


4-0 


— 


1104176 


+ 


0594913 


9-2 


— 


0476367 


— 


0261681 


4-2 


— 


1164649 


+ 


0257313 


9-4 


— 


0376694 


— 


0375586 


4-4 


— 


1135359 




0068231 


9-6 


— 


0252095 


— 


0455787 


4-6 


— 


1025796 


— 


0360562 


9-8 


— 


0113098 


— 


0497534 


4-8 


— 


0850008 


— 


0602179 


100 


+ 0029099 


- 0499173 


50 


-■0625442 


-•0780156 













Table 


VIII. 






.r 


\h(x)l^h{x) 


Zbix)/XI)(x) Vi 


bixyxbix) 


Zh{x)l\h{x) 


WA(.r)/VJ(.r) 

















oo 


•2 


■010000 


■0005000 


099997 


•050000 


1000008 


•4 


■0.39973 


•0039971 


•199893 


•099993 


500067 


•6 


•089697 


■0134501 


299193 


•149949 


333557 


•8 


•158314 


■0316291 


396628 


•199787 


2-50532 


10 


•243678 


■0607616 


489883 


•249352 


201037 


1-2 


•34169 


■101959 


57558 


•298395 


168451 


h4 


•44601 


•154569 


64971 


•34656 


r45671 


1-6 


■54861 


•215804 


70854 


•39337 


129154 


18 


•64128 


•281043 


74986 


•43826 


1-16933 


20 


•71768 


•344896 


77378 


•48057 


107816 


2^2 


•77483 


•40264 


78276 


•51965 


101023 


2-4 


•81326 


•45127 


78078 


•55489 


•96006 


2-6 


■83609 


•48980 


77213 


■58582 


•92351 


2-8 


•84756 


•51884 


76050 


•61216 


•89729 


30 


•85181 


•53994 


74852 


•63388 


•87873 


32 


■85224 


•55496 


73774 


•65118 


•86565 


3-4 


•85122 


•56562 


72890 


•66449 


•85630 


36 


■85026 


•57338 


72215 


•67436 


•84933 


38 


•85014 


•57931 


71731 


•68143 


•84376 


40 


•85117 


•58418 


71408 


•68632 


•83893 


4-2 


•85334 


•58848 


71206 


•68962 


•83444 


4-4 


•85647 


•59250 


71093 


•69179 


•83007 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



121 







Table VIII.- 


—continued. 






X 


yiix)ixb(x) z 


b{x)IXb{x) 


Wb{x)/Xh{x) Zb(x)IYb{x) Wb{x)/yb{x) 


4-6 


•86031 


59639 


■71037 


69323 


82572 


4-8 


•86460 


60022 




71016 


69422 


82138 


50 


•86911 


60400 




71014 


69496 


81709 


6-2 


•87365 


60769 




71019 


69557 


81290 


5-4 


•87809 


61127 




71024 


69614 


80884 


5-6 


•88233 


61471 




71025 


69669 


80497 


5-8 


•88633 


61799 




71022 


69725 


80131 


60 


•89006 


62109 




71014 


69781 


79786 


6-2 


•89353 


62401 




71003 


69836 


79464 


6-4 


•89674 


62674 




70989 


69890 


79163 


6-6 


•89973 


62929 




70973 


69942 


78883 


6-8 


•90252 


63169 




70957 


69991 


78621 


70 


•90513 


63393 




70941 


70037 


78377 


7-2 


•90759 


63603 




70926 


70079 


78148 


7-4 


•90990 


63801 




70912 


70118 


77934 


7-6 


•91210 


63987 




70899 


70153 


77732 


7-8 


■91419 


64163 




70888 


70185 


77541 


80 


■91619 


64329 




70877 


70214 


77361 


8-2 


•91809 


64488 




70868 


70241 


77190 


8-4 


•91992 


64638 




70859 


70265 ! 


77028 


8-6 


■92166 


64782 




70852 


70288 


76874 


8-8 


■92334 


64919 




70845 


70308 


76727 


90 


■92495 


65049 




70838 


70327 


76586 


9-2 


■92649 


65174 




70832 


70345 


76452 


9-4 


■92798 i 


65294 




70827 


70362 


76324 


9-6 


■92940 1 


65409 




70822 


70377 


76202 


9-8 


■93078 


65519 




70817 


70391 


76084 


100 


;93210 


65624 


■70813 1 


70405 


75972 


oo 


rooooo 

1 


70711 


■70711 j 

1 


70711 


70711 



Note on the Graphs of these Batio Functions. 

Zb/Xb and Zb/Yb increase, and W&/V6 decreases, with the argument. 
Yb/Xb increases up to a maximum value '85285 when a;=3"1286, 
decreasing then to a minimum value -85006 when a;=8-7283 ; there- 
after it increases towards the asymptotic value 1. 

W6/X& increases up to a maximum value •78312 when aj=2^2584, 
then descends to a minimum value •71013 when a;=4^9360 ; it then 
rises slightly to a maximum •71025 when a;=5"5727, thereafter it 
decreases towards the asymptotic value |\/2=^70711. 



There is an error in Prof. Webster's Table of bei'a; which necessitated 
the recalculation of part of the Table. The error becomes considerable 
as the argument increases, and the corrected figures used in calculating 
the foregoing Tables are given below. 



122 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Table IX. 



x 


bei'a: 


X 


bei'^ 


6-5 


-14129423 


8-6 


+ 12-832116 


6-6 


-14-670413 


8-7 


+ 17-883387 


6-7 


-15-146266 


8-8 


+23-465444 


6-8 


-15-543406 


8-9 


+ 29-698302 


6-9 


-15-847109 


90 


+ 36-299384 


7-0 


-16-041489 


91 


+43-582976 


7-1 


-16-109484 


9-2 


+51-459634 


7-2 


-16-032856 


9-3 


+ 59-935547 


7-3 


-15-792207 


9-4 


+ 69011850 


7-4 


-15-367001 


9-5 


+78-683888 


7-5 


-14-735602 


9-6 


+ 88-940434 


7-6 


-13-875334 


9-7 


+99-762855 


7-7 


-12-762551 


9-8 


+ 111-124240 


7-8 


-11-372739 


9-9 


+ 122-988479 


7-9 


— 9-680623 


100 


+ 135-309302 


80 


- 7-660318 


101 


+ 148-029283 


8-1 


- 5-285490 


10-2 


+ 161-078815 


8-2 


- 2-529555 


10-3 


+ 174-375051 


8-3 


+ 0-634098 


10-4 


+ 187-820832 


8-4 


+ 4-231841 


10-5 


+ 201-303603 


8-5 


+ 8-289519 







The following simultaneous equation occurs in practice (see Russell' 
' Alternating Currents,' 2nd ed., vol. i. p. 222) : — 

A ber x + B bei a; + C ker x + D kei cc = 1 
A bei 03— B ber» + C kei x—D kera;=0 
A ber'x +B bei'o; + C ker'x +D kei'a;=0 
A bei'a; — B ber'ic + C kei'x— D ker'a;=0 



From the relations (§ 7) 

ber X ker'a; + bei'a; kei x—hev'x ker x- 
ber X kei'a; +beia; ker'x — ber'x kei x- 

■we may write the solution of the equation by inspection : — 

A = — ccker'a; B = +a;kei'x C = +a;ber'a; D = — xbei'a;. 



-bei a; kei 'x= — 1/x 
-bei'a; kera;=0 



ON THE CALCULATION OP MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



123 



Part V. (Prof. G. N. Watson.) 
Table X. 

Table of the Logarithmic Gamma Function. 



X 


10 + loger(l + a;) 


X 


10 + loger{l-Ha;) 


X 


10+loge^ll■^a;) 


•005 


9-9971344334 


•270 


9-8974168067 


535 


9-8810616420 


•010 


9-9943096921 


•275 


9-8964125776 


540 


9-8814165100 


•015 


9-9915254813 


•280 


9-8954374731 


545 


9-8817939466 


•020 


9-9887815107 


-285 


9-8944913366 | 


550 


9-8821938554 


•025 


9-9860774933 


-290 


9-8935740128 i 


555 


9-8826161405 


•030 


9-9834131461 


-295 


9-8926853481 


560 


9-8830607072 


•035 


9-9807881899 


-300 


9-8918251905 


565 


9-8835274612 


•040 


9-9782023489 


•305 


9-8909933893 


570 


9-8840163092 


•045 


9-9756553510 


-310 


9-8901897955 


575 


9-8845271585 


•050 


9-9731469275 


-315 


9-8894142616 


580 


9-8850599172 


•055 


9-9706768132 


-320 


9-8886666413 


585 


9-8856144942 


•060 


9-9682447463 


-325 


9-8879467900 


590 


9-8861907991 


•065 


9-9658504082 


-330 


9-8872545645 


595 


9-8867887421 


•070 


9-9634937237 


-335 


9-8865898228 


600 


9-8874082343 


•075 


9-9611742605 


-340 


9-8859524244 


605 


9-8880491873 


•080 


9-9588918298 


-345 


9-8853422303 1 


610 


9-8887115136 


•085 


9-9566461857 


-350 


9-8847591026 i 


615 


9-8893951263 


•090 


9-9544370852 


-355 


9-8842029049 \ 


620 


9-8900999390 


•095 


9-9522642886 


•360 


9-8836735020 


625 


9-8908258662 


■100 


9-9501275587 


-365 


9-8831707599 


630 


9-8915728231 


•105 


9-9480266616 


•370 


9-8826945461 


635 


9-8923407254 


•110 


9-9459613659 


•375 


9-8822447293 


640 


9-8931294895 


•115 


9-9439314431 


•380 


9-8818211791 


645 


9-8939390324 


•120 


9-9419366675 


•385 


98814237669 


650 


9-8947692718 


•125 


9-9399768159 


•390 


9-8810523647 


655 


9-8956201261 


•130 


9-9380516678 


•395 


9-8807068462 


660 


9-8964915140 


•135 


9-9361610054 


•400 


9-8803870858 


665 


9-8973833553 


•140 


9-9343046133 


•405 


9-8800929595 


670 


9-8982955699 


•145 


9-9324822788 


•410 


9-8798243441 , 


675 


9-8992280788 


•150 


9-9306937913 


•415 


9-8795811177 


680 


9-9001808031 


•165 


9-9289389431 


•420 


9-8793631594 


685 


9-9011536649 


•160 


9-9272175284 


•425 


9-8791703495 '• 


690 


9-9021465865 


•165 


9-9255293442 


j ^430 


9-8790025693 


695 


9-9031594912 


•170 


9-9238741894 


■435 


9-8788597013 


700 


9-9041923026 


•175 


9-9222518655 


! -440 


9-8787416287 


705 


9-9052449448 


•180 


9-9206021760 


-445 


9-8786482362 


710 


9-9063173427 


•185 


9-9191049267 


-450 


9-8785794093 


715 


9-9074094215 


•190 


9-9175799255 


•455 


9-8785350343 


720 


9-9085211071 


•195 


9-9160869826 


■460 


9-8785149990 


725 


9-9096523259 


•200 


9-9146259100 


•465 


9-8785191917 


730 


9-9108030049 


•205 


9-9131965220 


•470 


9-8785475020 


735 


9-9119730714 


•210 


9-9117986349 


•475 


9-8785998202 


740 


9-9131624535 


•215 


9-9104320669 


•480 


9-8786760379 


745 


9-9143710797 


•220 


9-9090966382 


; ■485 


9-8787760472 


750 


9-9155988790 


•225 


9-9077921709 


■ ^490 


9-8788997415 


755 


9-9168457808 


•230 


9-9065184892 


•495 


9-8790470148 


760 


9-9181117153 


•235 


9-9052754189 


•500 


9-8792177623 


765 


9-9193966129 


•240 


9-9040627878 


1 ^505 


9-8794118800 


770 


9-9207004045 


•245 


9-9028804256 


j ^510 


9^8796292647 


775 


9-9220230218 


•250 


9-9017281636 


•515 


9-8798698140 


780 


9-9233643966 


•255 


9-9006058349 


•520 


9-8801334265 


785 


9-9247244614 


•260 


9-89951 32746 


•525 


9-8804200017 


790 


9-9261031491 


•265 


9-8984503191 


•530 


9-8807294399 


795 


9-9275003930 



124 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Table of the Logarithmic Qamma FM«ciJow— continued. 



X 


10 + Iog<;r(l + a;) 


X 


10 + log, r(l-l-ar) 


X 


10 + loger(l <ar) 


•800 


9-9289161271 


•870 


9-9506418694 


■940 


9-9758086419 


•805 


9-9303502855 


•875 


9-9523273146 


•945 


9-9777337222 


•810 


9-9318028031 


•880 


9-9540302503 


■950 


9-9796755009 


•815 


9-9332736150 


-885 


9-9557506176 


■955 


9-9816339239 


•820 


9-9347626569 


•890 


9-9574883577 


■960 


9-9836089379 


•825 


9-9362698647 


-895 


9-9592434125 


■965 


9-9856004894 


•830 


9-9377951751 


-900 


9-9610157241 


■970 


9-9876085256 


•835 


9-9393385250 


■905 


9-9628052350 


■975 


9-9896329940 


•840 


9-9408998517 


•910 


9-9646118882 


•980 


9-9916738422 


•845 


9-9424790929 


■915 


9-9664356268 


■985 


9-9937310184 


•850 


9-9440761870 


■920 


9-9682763946 


■990 


9-9958044709 


•855 


9-9456910724 


■925 


9-9701341354 


■995 


9-9978941484 


•860 


9-9473236883 


■930 


9-9720087938 


1-000 


10-0000000000 


•865 


9-9489739740 


•935 


9-9739003142 j 







Table XL 
Table of the Integral of the Logarithmic Gamma Function. 



X 


tx j 

10+ iog,„r(i+o<'« ' 
Jo 


X 


11 

Cx 

10+ iog,„r(i+o<i' ; 
•'o 


X 


10+ iog,„r(i+o<?< 
Jo 


•01 


9-9999875846 


34 


9-9896969629 


68 


9-9725834399 


•02 


9-9999508093 


35 


9-9891990301 


69 


9-9721541702 


•03 


9-9998903733 


36 


9-9886961491 


70 


9-9717336117 


•04 


9-9998069658 


37 


9-9881887854 


71 


9-9713221100 


•05 


9-9997012663 


38 


9-9876773998 


72 


9-9709200084 


•06 


9-9995739448 


39 


9-9871624486 


73 


9-9705276475 


•07 


9-9994256625 


40 


9-9866443836 


74 


9-9701453654 


•08 


9-9992570712 


41 


9-9861236524 


75 


9-9697734976 


•09 


9-9990688145 


42 


9-9856006982 


76 


9-9694123772 


•10 


9-9988615270 


43 


9-9850759598 


77 


9-9690623348 


•11 


9-9986358354 


44 


9-9845498721 


78 


9-9687236987 


•12 


9-9983923582 


45 


9-9840228658 


79 


9-9683967947 


•13 


9-9981317060 


46 


9-9834953678 


80 


9-9680819463 


•14 


9-9978544815 


47 


9-9829678008 


81 


9-9677794747 


•15 


9-9975612803 


48 


9-9824405838 


82 


9-9674896989 


•16 


9-9972526903 


49 


9-9819141321 


83 


9-9672129355 


•17 


9-9969292922 


50 


9-9813888569 


84 


9-9669494991 


•18 


9-9965916600 


51 


9-9808651662 


85 


9-9666997019 


•19 


9-9962403605 


52 


9-9803434641 


86 


9-9664638540 


•20 


9-9958759540 


53 


9-9798241513 


87 


9-9662422636 


•21 


9-9954989940 


54 


9-9793076250 


88 


9-9660352364 


•22 


9-9951100280 


55 


9-9787942789 


89 


9-9658430763 


•23 


9-9947095968 


56 


9-9782845034 


90 


9-9656660852 


•24 


9-9942982352 


57 


9-9777786856 


91 


9-9655045628 


•25 


9-9938764720 


58 


9-9772772093 


92 


9-9653588069 


•26 


9-9934448302 


59 


9-9767804551 


93 


9-9652291134 


•27 


9-9930038268 


60 


9-9762888003 


94 


9-9651157760 


•28 


9-9925539734 


61 


9-9758026197 


95 


9-9650190869 


•29 


9-9920957760 


62 


9-9753222842 


96 


9-9649393361 


•30 


9-9916297350 


63 


9-9748481622 


97 


9-9648768117 


•31 


9-9911563457 


64 


9-9743806190 


98 


9-9648318002 


•32 


9-9906760982 


65 


9-9739200170 - 


99 


9-9648045862 


•33 


9-9901894773 


66 
67 


9-9734667158 1 
9-9730210722 


00 


9-9647954523 



ON THE CALCULATION OF MATHEMATICAL TABLES. 



125 



Table XII. 
Table of the Logarithmic Derivate of tlie Gamma Function. 



X 


i 


X 


^(x) = jJogcV[x) 


X 

1 


ax 


1 


1-4227843350985 


35 


3-5409943255439 


69 


4-2268426248273 


2 


0-4227843350985 


36 


3-5695657541153 ' 


70 


4-2413353784505 


3 


0-9227843350985 


37 


3-5973435318931 


71 


4-2556210927362 


4 


1-2561176684318 


38 


3-6243705589201 1 


72 


4-2697055997785 


5 


1-5061176684318 


39 


3-6506863483938 \ 


73 


4-2835944886674 


6 


1-7061176684318 


40 


3-6763273740348 1 


74 


4-2972931188044 


7 


1-8727843350985 


41 


3-7013273740348 


75 


4-3108066323179 


8 


2-0156414779556 


42 


3-7257176179372 


76 


4-3241399656512 


9 


2-1406414779556 


43 


3-7495271417467 


77 


4-3372978603880 


10 


2-2517525890667 


44 


3-7727829557002 


78 


4-3502848733750 


11 


2-3517525890667 


45 


3-7955102284275 


79 


4-3631053861955 


12 


2-4426616799758 


46 


3-8177324506497 


80 


4-3757633140436 


13 


2-5259950133091 


47 


3-8394715810845 


81 


4-3882636140436 


14 


2-6029180902322 


48 


3-8607481768291 


82 


4-4006092930559 


15 


2-6743466616608 


49 


3-8815815101624 


83 


4-4128044150071 


16 


2-7410133283275 


50 


3-9019896734277 


84 


4-4248526077782 


17 


2-8035133283275 


51 


3-9219896734277 


85 


4-4367573696830 


18 


2-8623368577393 


52 


3-9415975165649 


86 


4-4485220755654 


19 


2-9178924132949 


53 


3-9608282857957 


87 


4-4601499825421 


20 


2-9705239922423 


54 


3-9796962103240 


88 


4-4716442354153 


21 


3-0205239922423 


55 


3-9982147288425 


89 


4-4830078717789 


22 


3-0681430398613 


56 


4-0163965470243 


90 


4-4942438268351 


23 


3-1135975853158 


57 


4-0342536898814 


91 


4-5053549379462 


24 


3-1570758461854 


58 


4-0517975495305 


92 


4-5163439489352 


25 


3-1987425128521 


1 59 


4-0690389288408 


93 


4-5272135141526 


26 


3-2387425128521 


60 


4-0859880813832 


94 


4-5379662023246 


27 


3-2772040513136 


61 


4-1026547480499 


95 


4-5486045001969 


28 


3-3142410883506 


62 


4-1190481906729 


96 


4-5591308159864 


29 


3-3499553740649 


63 


4-1351772229310 


97 


4-5695474826531 


30 


3-3844381326856 


64 


4-1510502388040 


98 


4-5798567610036 


31 


3-4177714660189 


65 


4-1666752388040 


i 99 


4-5900608426362 


32 


3-4500295305350 


66 


4-1820598541886 


100 


4-6001618527372 


33 


3-4812795305350 


67 


4-1972113693401 


101 


4-6101618527372 


34 


3-5115825608380 


68 


4-2121367424744 







126 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Table XIII. 

Table of the Logarithmic Derivate of the Gamma Function, ^(x), for halves 
of odd integers. 



y\i{a:)=— log«r(a;) 
ax 



H 
H 
5i 

iH 

12* 
13* 

14i 
15* 
16* 
17* 
18* 
19i 
20* 

21* 
22* 
23* 
24* 
25J 
26* 
27* 
28* 
29* 
30* 
31* 
32* 
33* 



0-0364899739786 
0-7031566406453 
1-1031566406453 
1-3888709263596 
1-6110931485818 
1-7929113304000 
1-9467574842461 
2-0800908175794 
2-1977378764029 
2-3030010342976 
2-3982391295357 
2-4851956512748 
2-5651956512748 
2-6392697253489 
2-7082352425903 
2-772751371622G 
2-8333574322287 
2-8905002893715 
2-9445543434255 
2-9958363947075 
30446168825123 
3-0911285104193 
3-1355729548637 
3-1781261463531 
3-2189424728837 
3-2581581591582 
3-2958940082148 
3-3322576445784 
3-3673453638766 
3-4012436689613 
3-4340305542072 
3-4657765859532 
3-4965458167224 



i 

X 


ax 


34* 


3-5263965629911 


35* 


3-5553820702375 


36* 


3-6835510843220 


37* 


3-6109483445960 


i 38* 


3-6376150112627 


i 39* 


3-6635890372367 


40* 


3-6889054929320 


1 41* 


3-7135968509575 


42* 


3-7376932364907 


43* 


3-7612226482644 


44* 


3-7842111540115 


45* 


3-8066830641239 


46* 


3-8286610861019 


47* 


3-8501664624460 


48* 


3-8712190940249 


49* 


3-8918376507259 


50* 


3-9120396709279 


51* 


3-9318416511250 


52* 


3-9512591268541 


53* 


3-9703067459017 


54* 


3-9889983346867 


55* 


40073469585399 


56* 


4-0253649765579 


57* 


4-0430640916022 


58* 


40604553959500 


;, 59* 


4-0775494130440 


' 60* 


4-0943561357330 


61* 


4-1108850613528 


62* 


4-1271452239544 


63* 


4-14314.52239544 


64J 


4-1588932554505 


65* 


4-1743971314195 


66* 


4-1896643069920 


67* 


4-2047019009769 



68* 
69* 
70* 
71* 
72* 
73* 
74* 
75* 
76* 
77* 
78* 
79* 
80* 
81* 
82* 
83* 
84* 
85* 
86* 
87* 
88* 
89* 
90* 
91* 
92* 
93* 
94* 
95* 
96* 
97* 
98* 
99* 
100* 



^{x)=^\ogeTix) 



4-2195167157917 
4-2341152559377 
4-2485037451463 
4-2626881423094 
4-2766741562954 
4-2904672597437 
4-3040727019205 
4-3174955207124 
4-3307405538250 
4-3438124492498 
4-3567156750563 
4-3694545285595 
4-3820331449117 
4-3944555051601 
4-4067254438104 
4-4188466559316 
4-4308227038358 
4-4426570233624 
4-4543529297951 
4-4659136234367 
4-4773421948652 
4-4886416298934 
4-4998148142509 
4-5108645380078 
4-5217934997565 
4-5326043105673 
4-5432994977331 
4-5538815083151 
4-5643527125036 
4-5747154068041 
4-5849718170605 
4-5951241013245 
4-6051743525807 



ON RADIOTELEGRAPHIC INVESTIGATIONS. 127 



Rndiotelegraphic Investigations. — Report of the Commitee, con- 
sisting of Sir Oliver Lodge {Chairman) , Dr. W. H. Eccles 
{Secretary), Mr. S. G. Brown, Dr. G. Chree, Sir F. W. 
Dyson, Professor A. S. Eddington, Dr. Erskine-Murray, 
Professors J. A. Fleming, G. W. 0. Howe, H. M. Mac- 
DONALD, and J. W. Nicholson, Sir H. Norman, Captain 
H. E. Sankey, Professor A. Schuster, Sir Napier Shaw, 
and Professor H. H. Turner. 

The obsei-vational work done for the Committee during the past year 
has been carried out at about twenty-five stations distributed in 
Austraha, the United States of America, Canada. New Zealand, 
Ceylon, Trinidad, Dutch East Indies, Fiji, and the Gold Coast. 

Of the four kinds of Forms issued by the Committee for the collection 
of statistics, the first, relating to the number and strength of the strays 
at 11 A.M. and 11 p.m. Gi'eenwich mean time, has been in most regular 
use, and the stock is almost exhausted. No further edition of this 
Form will be issued during the war, and thus the collection of these 
statistics will come gradually to an end. 

The difficulty of obtaining clerical assistance for the work of 
reducing the Forms has greatly impeded progress, but a certain amount 
of work has been accomplished and has yielded results of interest. 
So soon as the several sections of the work are rounded off the results 
will be published. 

The reduction of Form I. is proceeding by the collation of records 
and reports of excessive atmospheric disturbance since August 1914 in 
North America and Australia, and by their examination in conjunction 
with meteorological data from the coiTesponding daily weather charts. 

The reduction of Form 11. is proceeding by the correlation of 
instances of exceptionally good or bad transmission with meteorological 
data, and by analysis of statistics from Cocos, Fiji, Lagos, Malta, and 
Sierra Leone. 

Several important exceptional phenomena have been reported which 
will, after discussion, be published. These include reports of : — 

Aurora, strays, and signals in Alaska and Hudson Bay. 

Severe atmospheric disturbances in Malta. 

Simultaneous strays on both sides of the Atlantic. 

Effect of tropical storm in the Gulf of Mexico, September 30, 1915. 

The Committee desire to express their cordial thanks for the favours 
extended to them by the Colonial Office, the Governments of Austi-alia, 
Canada, and New Zealand, the War Department and the Navy Depart- 
ment of the United States of America, the Telegraphic Department 
of the Dutch East Indies, the Marconi Companies in the United States 
of America and Canada, the United Fiiiit Company of New York, the 
Eastern, the Eastern Extension and African Direct Telegraph Com- 
panies, and Professors T. Agius, E. S. Hayes, and A. Hoyt Taylor. 



128 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 

The assistance of those who have taken part in investigations other 
than those herein referred to will be duly acknowledged in a future 
report. 



The Influence of Weather Conditions upon the Amounts of 
Nitrogen Acids in the Rainfall and Atmosphere in Aus- 
tralia. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Orme Masson (Chairman), Mr. V. G. Anderson (Secre- 
tary), and Messrs. D. Avery and H. A. Hunt. 

Cubing the period March 15, 1916, to March 31, 1916, daily samples 
of rain-water collected at sixteen stations suitably distributed over the 
continent of Australia have been quantitatively examined for nitric and 
nitrous nitrogen. Altogether about 1,000 samples have been examined. 
The results when compared with the daily weather records and isobaric 
charts confirm the following conclusions drawn from the results of 
experiments previously conducted by V. G. Anderson at Canterbury, 
Victoria.* 

i. For a given type of weather the concentration of oxidised nitrogen in 
the rainfall varies inversely as the amount of rainfall. 

ii. The total amount of oxidised nitrogen per unit area found in the 
rainfall accompanying a storm depends upon the type of 
weather, and is practically independent of the amount of rainfall. 

The work carried out during the past year has also shown that 

i. Antarctic storms at different stations carry down amounts of oxidised 
nitrogen which do not differ greatly from the amounts previously 
found at Canterbury. 

ii. Eain falling at northern stations during the prevalence of trade winds 
contains amounts of oxidised nitrogen which are almost equal to 
the amounts found in the rain accompanying Antarctic depres- 
sions (rear isobars) at southern stations. This is shown to be 
probably due to the anticyclonic origin of winds accompanying 
both types of rain. 

iii. Passage over land modifies anticyclonic air only to a slight extent ; 
but, if during the passage it is subjected to the influences accom- 
panying monsoonal disturbances, comparatively large amounts 
of oxidised nitrogen are found in the subsequent rainfall. 

iv. The highest total amounts of oxidised nitrogen are found at southern 
and inland stations in rain-water resulting from monsoonal 
storms following a ' heat wave. ' 

v. Eains occurring during ' divided control ' weather contain less 
oxidised nitrogen than tropical rains, but more than Antarctic 
rains. 

« V. G. Anderson, Report Brit. Assoc. 1914, 338 ; Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 1915, 
41, 99. 



INFLUENCE OF WEATHER ON ACIDS IN RAINFALL. 129 

vi. The nitrogen-fixing powers of inland monsoonal depressions tend 
towards the gradual enrichment, in respect of oxidised nitrogen, 
of the soil in south-eastern Australia. 

A number of determinations of the volume concentration of nitrogen 
peroxide in the atmosphere during the prevalence of anticyclonic 
weather has shown that at Canterbury, Victoria, in the rear circulation 
of anticyclones the air contains a gi'eater proportion of nitrogen peroxide 
than the air of the front circulation. 

On the assumption that the oxidised nitrogen of the rainfall is 
derived from the atmosphere, the ajnounts of nitrogen peroxide in the 
latter were compared with the amounts of oxidised nitrogen found in 
the rainfall at Canterbury for the con-esponding weather types. It is 
shown that air containing 0"5G volume of nitrogen peroxide per 10* 
volumes in the rear of an anticyclone would require to be washed out 
to a height of about 4,000 feet above ground-level in order to give the 
amount of oxidised nitrogen usually found in the rainfall accompanying 
this weather condition; similarly in the case of the front of an anti- 
cyclone it is shown that the height would require to be about 3,100 feet. 
The above are in fair agreement with the average altitude of rain-clouds 
(base), which according to leading authorities is about 3,500 feet. 

The Committee wishes to place on record an acknowledgment of 
its indebtedness to the following lady and gentlemen for their able 
assistance in collecting rain samples for this investigation : — 
Miss J. Heinrichsen, Ballarat, Victoria. 
S. Hebbard, Esq., Technical School, Sale, Victoria. 
A. 11. Bisdee, Esq., Wihareja, Steppes, Tasmania. • 
W. M. Lee Bryce, Esq., The Eesident Magistrate, Thursday 
Island, Queensland. 

F. Fairley, Esq., M.I.E.E., F.E.M.S., Woombye, Queensland. 
Dr. H. Priestley, Australian Institute of Tropical Medicine, Towns- 

ville, Queensland. 
E. Gordon Edgell, Esq., Bradwardine, Bathurst, N.S. Wales. 
E. J. Cook, Esq., P.M. Hergott Springs, South Australia. 
Simon Ockley, Esq., Comaum, Penola, South Australia. 
W. A. Doran, Esq., P.M. Eucla, Western Australia. 

G. E. Kirkby, Esq., P.M. Carnarvon, West Australia. 

Major G. T. Wood, The Eesident Magistrate, Broome, West Aus- 
tralia. 
G. G. Lavater, Esq., A. E.V.I. A., Narrogin, West Australia. 
Dr. Edwin Tyrie, Playford Hospital, Pine Creek, N.T. 
J. McKay, Esq., P.M. Alice Springs, Northern Territory (Central). 

With the approval of tlie Sectional Committee it is proposed to 
send the complete results of this investigation to the Eoyal Meteoro- 
logical Society for publication. 

The Committee does not seek reappointment. 

1916 IT 



130 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ^1916. 

List of Apparatus. 

26 doz. 4 oz. stoppered bottles. 

26 doz. double-lined cardboard boxes (2^ in. x 2^ in. x 6 in.). 

16 Rain-collecting gauges, complete with wooden stand, iron spikes, funnel, 

glass container, bottle-brush, and | oz. glass wool. 
*1 sixteen-hole water bath of copper, complete with wooden stand and 

attachments. 
*1 distilling apparatus, consisting of 1-5 litre Jena flask, Liebig's condenser, 

retort stands, clamps and bossheads. 
*1^ doz. glass basins (3^ in. diam.). 

*45 doz. Erlenmeyer flasks of Bohemian glass, 100 e.c. capacity. 
*lf doz. watch glasses (li in. diam.). 
*2 Nessler tubes (70 c.c.j graduated. 
5 wooden trays. 

Much of the above apparatus is distributed amongst observers in 
different parts of Austraha. The items marked with an asterisk, how- 
ever, are in Melbourne, and would be suitable for carrying on work 
of a similar character. 



Dijnamic Isomerism-. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor H. E. Armstrong {Chairman), Dr. T. M. Lowry 
(Secretary), Professor Sydney Young, Dr. C. H. Desch, 
Sir J. J. DoBBiE, and Dr. M. 0. Forster. (Drawn up hy 
the Secretary.) 

Important new evidence, which has been accumulated during the 
past year, indicates even more clearly than before that liquids con- 
taining a single optically-active component, of definite composition 
and of fixed molecular structure, may be expected in the majority of 
cases to exhibit the ' simple ' type of rotary dispersion expressed by 
the formula a (X'^ — Xq'*) = const. This formula has been tested in 
the case of forty-two compounds of the terpene series, for which data 
have recently been supplied by Professor Eupe, of Basel, ^ with the 
remarkable result that all but three have been found to conform closely 
to the ' simple ' dispersion law. In view of the complicated character 
of the molecular structure in these compounds (which contain one, 
two, or three asymmetric carbon atoms, complex ring systems, and 
unsaturated linkages), it is clear that ' simple ' rotary dispersion is 
not dependent on simple molecular structure, provided that the active 
substance is strictly homogeneous. ' Complex ' or ' anomalous ' rotary 
dispersion in an optically-active liquid (and especially in a liquid of 
apparently simple character) may therefore be regarded as an a priori 
reason for suspecting the existence of some anomaly of chemical com- 
position — e.g., polymerism, association or dissociation, or dynamic 
isomerism. 

> Ann., 1915, 409, 327. 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 131 



Absorption Spectra and Chemical Constitution of Organic Com- 
pounds. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir J. J. 
DoBBiE {Chairman), Professor E. C. C. Baly {Secretary) , 
and Dr. A. W. Stewart. 

In presenting the subjoined Report on Absorption Spectra and Chemical 
Constitution the Committee would draw attention to tlie fact that a 
Committee, composed of Sir W. N. Hartley, Sir James Dobbie, and 
Dr. A. Lauder, presented reports on this subject to the meetings of the 
British Association held in 1900, 1901, 1902, and 1903. Since 1903 
the investigation of Absorption Spectra has been very considerably 
extended, and it was thought advisable to bring the subject up to date. 

The list is believed to include every compound the Absorption 
Spectrum of which has properly been measured in the infra.-red, visible, 
or ultra-violet regions of the spectrum. An addendum has been made, 
containing a list of those compounds the fluorescence or phosphorescence 
of which has been measured. 

The journals are denoted by the usual abbreviated titles, with the 
exception of the Journal of the Chemical Society (London), w^hich 
is referred to simply as Trans. 

List of Organic Covipoimds, the Absorption Spectra of lohich have been 
measured in the visible and ultra violet. 



Acenaphthene. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 

Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
Acenaphthenequinone. Baly and Stewart. Trans., 89, 502 (1906). 
Acenaphthylene. Baly and'Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 
Acetaldehyde. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1910 (1912). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 466 (1912). 

Ber., 45, 2819 (1912). 
Phys. Zeit., 14, 516 (1913). 
Ber., 46, 3627 (1913). 
Henri and VViumser. Compt. rend., 156, 230 (1913). 
Jour, de Phys., 3, 305 (1913). 
Acetaldehyde-/>bromophenylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
Acetaldehydephenylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 

Stobbe and Nowak. Ber., 46, 2887 (1913). 
Acetaldehydephenylmethylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
Acetaldoxime. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 77, 318 (1900). 

,, Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1860 (1913). 

Acetamide. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1860 (1913). 
Acetanilide. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 

,, Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinning. Trans., 99, 451 (1911). 

Acetic acid. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
„ „ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456, 1617 (1912). 
Ber., 45, 2819 (1912). 
Ber., 46, 1304, 2596, 3627 (1913). 
Phys. Zeit., 14, 516 (1913). 
Compt. rend., 156, 550 (1913). 
Compt. rend., 157, 372 (1913). 

K 3 



132 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Acetic acid. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 158, 567 (1914), 

Bar., 47, 1690 (1914). 
Hantzsch. Zeit. phvs. Chem., 86, 624 (1913). 
Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Henri. Ber., 46, 36.50 (1913). 
„ and metallic salts. Ley. Ber., 42, 354 (1909). 

„ Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 
Trans., 105, 669 (1914). 
Acetic anhydride. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Acetoacetic acid, ethyl ester, see Ethyl acetoacetate. 
Acetone. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1906). 
„ Gelbke. Phys. Zeit., 13, 584 (1911). 

„ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456 (1912), 

Ber., 45, 2819 (1912). 
„ Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 

„ Henri and Wurmser. Compt. rend., 155, 503 (1912). 

„ Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1810 (1912). 

„ Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 3627 (1913). 

,, „ „ Compt. rend., 156, 884, 1322 (1913). 

„ „ ,, Phys. Zeit., 14, 516 (1913). 

„ Henri and Wurmser. Compt. rend., 156, 230 (1913). 

„ „ „ Jour, de Phys., 3, 305 (1913). 

„ Brannigan, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 406 (1913). 

„ Clarke and Stewart. Phys. Zeit., 14, 1049 (1913). 

Stark. Phys. Zeit., 14, 845 (1913). 
Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 47, 1690 (1914). 

Compt. rend., 158, 567, 1032 (1914). 
„ Henderson, Henderson and HeUbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

Rice. Proc. Roy. Soc, 91A, 76 (1914). 
„ Stark and Lipp. Zeit. phys. Chem., 86, 36 (1914). 

Acetone-p-bromophenylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
Acetonedicarboxylic acid, ethyl ester. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 
„ „ „ Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2596 (1913). 

Acetone-j)-nitrophenylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
Acetonephenylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
Acetonephenylmethylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
AcetonitrUe. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1860 (1913). 
Acetonylacetone. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 
„ Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1906), 

„ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1322 (1913). 

Ber., 46, 3627 (1913). 
Ber., 47, 1690 (1914). 
Acetophenone. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
„ Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 47, 1690 (1914). 

Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Acetophenone-p-nitrophenylhydrazone. Hewitt, Johnson, and Pope. Trans., 105, 

364 (1914). 
Acetophenoneoxime. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinning. Trans., 99, 

451 (1911). 
Acetophenonephenylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
Acetoxime. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 77, 318 (1900). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1860 (1913). 
Acetoxymethylenecamphor. Lowry and Southgate. Trans., 97, 905 (1910). 
Acetyl chloride. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Acetylacetone, Baly and Desch. Trans., 85, 1029 (1904). 
Hartley. Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 
Baly and Desch. Astrophys. Joum., 23, 110 (1906). 
„ Purvis and McQeland. Trans., 101, 1810 (1912). 

„ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1322 (1913). 

„ Morgan and Moss. Trans., 103, 78 (1913). 

„ Morgan and Reilly. Trans., 103, 1494 (1913). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF OROANIC COMPOUNDS. 133 

Acetylacetone. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 158, 1022 (1914). 

,, Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

„ metallic derivatives. Baly and Desch. Trans., 85, 1029 (1904) ; 

Astrophys. Journ., 23, 110 (1906). 
„ „ Morgan and Moss. Trans., 105, 189 (1914). 

Acetylaminoazobenzene. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 

3-Acetylaminoplienazthionium chloride. Pummerer, Eckert, and Gassner. Ber., 47, 

1494 (1914). 
„ ,, Eckert and Pummerer. Zeit. phys. Chem., 

87, 599 (1914). 
Acetylauramine. Grandmougin and Favre-Ambrumyan. Ber., 47, 2127 (1914). 
p-Acetylbenzeneazophenol. Hewitt, Mann, and Pope. Trans., 105, 2193 (1914). 
p-Acetylbenzeneazophenolphenylhydrazone. Hewitt, Mann, and Pope. Trans., 

105, 2193 (1914). 
p-Acetylbenzeneazo-o-naphthol. Hewitt, Mann, and Pope. Trans., 105, 2193 

(1914). 
p-AcetylbenzeneazO'/S-naphthol. Hewitt, Mann, and Pope. Trans., 105, 2193 

(1914). 
Acetylcamphor. Lowry and Southgate. Trans., 97, 905 (1910). 
Acetylene. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

„ Henri and Landau. Compt. rend., 156, G97 (1913). 

Stark and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 175 (1913). 
Zeit. phys. Chem., 86, 36 (1914). 
Acetylenedicarboxylic acid, ethyl ester. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2596 (1913). 
Acetylglyoxalic acid, ethyl ester. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 47, 1690 (1914). 
Acetylmethyl hexyl ketone. Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 

(1914). 
Acetyl-^-naphthaquinonephenylhydrazone. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
Acetyloxindone. Hantzsch. Zeit. phys. Chem., 84, 321 (1913). 
3-Acetyl-l-phenyl-4-methyl-l-3-ct/dobutadiene-2-carboxylic acid. Purvis. Trans., 

99, 107 (1911). 
5-Acetyl-3-phenyl-4-methyI-A'-C2/c^pentene. Purvis. Trans., 99, 107 (1911). 
Acetylauccinic acid, ethyl ester. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 
a-4-Acetyl-3-4-tolylenediazoimide. Morgan and Micklethwait. Trans., 103, 1391 

(1913). 
i8-4-Acetyl-3-4-tolyIenediazoimide. Morgan and Micklethwait. Trans., 103, 1391 

(1913). 
Acid brown. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152 (1887). 
Aconitic acid. Stewart. Trans., 91, 199 (1907). 

Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2596 (1913). 

Compt. rend., 157, 372 (1913). 
Aconitine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
i^-Aconitine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
Acraldehyde. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 3627 (1913). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 433 (1913). 
Acridine methiodide. Tinkler. Trans., 89, 856 (1906). 
o-Alanine. Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 
salts of. Ley. Ber., 42, 354 (1909). 

Ley and Winkler. Ber., 45, 372 (1912). 

„ „ Ley and Hegge. Ber., 48, 70 (1915). 
)3-Alanine, copper salt of. Ley and Hegge. Ber., 48, 70 (1915). 
Alizarin. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 85 (1913). 

Hiittig. Zeit. phys. Chem., 87, 129 (1914). 
Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1916). 
Alizarin-cyanine. Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1916). 
Allantoin. Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 
Allochrysoketone-l-carboxylic acid. Hantzsch. Ber., 49, 226 (1916). 
Allochrysoketonic acid and ester. Stobbe. Ber., 48, 441 (1915). 
Alloxan. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 

„ potassium salt. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 
Alloxantin. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 
AUyl alcohol. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 
Drossbach. Ber., 35, 1486 (1902). 



1'34 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, — 1916, 

Allyl alcohol, Magini. Nuovo Cim., 6, 343 (1903). 

„ Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2.596 (1913). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 433 (1913). 
Allyl bromide. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 433 (1913). 
Allyl wothiocyanate. Pfliiger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 
AUylacetic acid. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2596 (1913). 

„ Compt. rend., 157, 372 (1913). 
„ Ber., 47, 1690 (1914). 
Allylacetone. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 3627 (1913). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 433 (1913). 
Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 47, 1690 (1914). 

Compt. rend., 158, 567, 1022 (1914). 
o-Aminoacetophenone. Baly and Marsden. Trans., 93, 2108 (1908). 
p-Aminoacetophenone. Baly and Marsden. Trans., 93, 2108 (1908). 
4-Aminoantipyrine. Morgan and Reilly. Trans., 103, 1494 (1913). 
p-Aminoazobenzene. Pauer. Ann. der Phys., 61, 36.3 (1897). 
Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
Hewitt and Thole. Trans., 97, 511 (1910). 
Purvis. Trans., 105, 590 (1914). 
,, Baly and Hampson. Trans., 107, 248 (1915). 

Aminoazo-a-naphthalene. Hartley. Trans., 51, 153 (1887). 
Aminoazo-/3-naphthalene. Hartley. Trans., 51, 163 (1887). 
o-Aminobenzaldehyde. Baly and Marsden. Trans., 93, 2108 (1908). 
p-Aminobenzaldehyde. Baly and Marsden. Trans., 93, 2108 (1908). 

Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
o-Aminobenzaldoxime. Baly and Marsden. Trans., 93, 2108 (1908). 
p-Aminobenzeneazodimethylaniliiae. Hantzsch. Ber., 46, 1537 (1913). 
5-p-Aminobenzeneazo-8-hydroxyquinoline. Fox. Trans., 97, 1337 (1910). 
p-Aminobenzeneazophenol. Hewitt and Thomas. Trans., 95, 1292 (1909). 
m-Aminobenzoic acid. Magini. Nuovo Cim., 6,343 (1903) ; J. Chim. phys., 2, 410 

(1904). 
o-Aminobenzoic acid. Magini. Nuovo Cim., 6, 343 (1903); J. Chim. phys., 2, 410 

(1904). 
p-Aminobenzoic acid. Magini. Nuovo Cim., 6, 343 (1903); J. Chim. phys., 2, 410 

(1904). 
Aminochloromaleinimide. Ley and Fischer. Ber., 46, 327 (1913). 
)3-Aminocrotonic acid, ethyl ester. Baly and Desch. Trans., 85, 1029 (1904). 
l-Amino-6-8(9)-dihydroxynaphthaeenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 

(1907). 
Aminodimethyldihydroresorcm. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
p-Aminodiphenylaminediazonium sidphate. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 

3011 (1912). 
'tf-Aminoethylpiperonylcarboxylic anhydride. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. 

Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 
„ „ Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 

(1903). 
l-Amino-6-hydroxynaphthacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 (1907). 
Ammomethylenecamphor. Lowry and Southgate. Trans., 97, 905 (1910). 
Aminomethylmaleinimide. Ley and Fischer. Ber., 46, 327 (1913). 
o-Aminonicotinic acid. Ley and Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
7w-Aminophenol. Purvis. "Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
p-Aminophenol. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
Aminophenylnaphthophenazonium chloride. Havas. Ber., 47, 994 (1914). 
Aminophenylphenazonium chloride. Havas. Ber., 47, 994 (1914). 
a-Aminopyridine. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. jjhys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Aminosulphonic acid. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
Ammonium thiocyanate. Macbeth, Stewart, and Wright. Trans., 101, 599 (1912). 
Amyl acetate. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
m-Amyl alcohol. Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Chim., 11, 931 (1912). 
tert-Amyl alcohol. Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Chim., 11, 931 (1912). 
Amyl butyrate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Amyl camphorcarboxylate. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 899 (1910). 
Amyl camphorcarboxylate, acetate of. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 

899 (1910). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 135 

Amyl chlorocamphorcarboxylate. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 899 

(1910). 
Amyl formate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170,1. 257 (1879). 

„ Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Amyl iodide. Crymble, Stewart, and Wright. Ber., 43, 1183 (1910). 
Amyl nitrite. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 

'„ „ Harper and Macbeth. Trans., 107, 87 (1915). 
Amyl propionate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Amyl salicylate. Pfliiger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 
Amylene. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

Auhydrobisdibenzylsilicanediol. Robison and Kipping. Trans., 105, 40 (1914). 
Aniline. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Pauer. Ann. der Phys., 61, 363 (1897). 
Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 
Grebe. Zeit. wlss. Phot., 3, 376 (1905). 
Ley and Ulrich. Ber., 42, 3440 (1909). 
Koch. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 9, 401 (1910). 
Purvis. Trans., 97, 1546 (1910). 
Baly and Tryhom. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1121 (1915). 
,, Witte. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 347 (1915). 

Anilinoacetic acid, ethyl ester. Ley and Ulrich. Ber., 42, 3440 (1909). 
,, copper salt. Ley and Hegge. Ber., 48, 70 (1915). 

,, sodium salt. Ley and Hegge. Ber., 48, 70 (1915). 

l-Anilino-6-hydroxynaphthacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 (1907). 
Anisaldehyde. Pfliiger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 
Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
Aaisaldehydephenylhydrazone. Stobbe and Nowak. Ber., 46, 2887 (1913). 
Anisaldehydephenylmethylhydrazone. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
o-Anisidine. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 

Purvis. Trans., 107, 660 (1915). 
p-Anisidine. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 

Purvis. Trans., 107, 660 (1915). 
Anisole. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 
Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
Baly and Rice. Trans., 101, 1475 (1912). 
„ Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 

Purvis. Trans., 107, 660 (1915). 
Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Witte. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 347 (1915). 
Aiiisolediazoniumcyanide. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Anisylideneacetone. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 
Anthracene. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

Elston. Astrophys. Journ., 25, 155 (1907). 
Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 
McDowell. Phys. Rev., 26, 155 (1908). 
Stevenson. J. Phys. Chem., 15, 845 (1911). 
Anthracene-blue. Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1916). 
Anthraflavine. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 85 (1913). 
JW-Anthraflavine. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 85 (1913). 
Anthragallol. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 85 (1913). 

Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1916). 
Anthranil. Scheiber. Ber., 44, 2409 (1911). 
Anthraquinone. Baly and Stewart. Trans., 89, 502 (1906). 

Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 85 (1913). 
Anthrarufine. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 85 (1913). 
Anthroxanic acid. Scheiber. Ber., 44, 2409 (1911). 

Antipyrine-4-azo-)8-naphthylamine. Morgan and Reilly. Trans., 103, 1494 (1913). 
Antipyrine-4-azo-;3-naphthylamine-0'-sulphonic acid. Morgan and Reilly. Trans. 

loc. cit. 
Antipyrine-4-azoacetoacetic acid, ethyl ester. Morgan and Reilly. Trans, loc. cit. 



136 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

AiitipyTine-4-azoacetylacetone. Morgan and Reilly. Trans, loc. cit. 
AntipyTine-4-azoben7,oylacetone. Morgan and Reilly. Tran.s. loc. lit. 
Antipjrrine-4-azoetliyl methyl ketone. Morgan and Reilly. Trans, loc. cit. 
Antipyrine-4-azoetliyl-j8-naphtliylamine. Morgan and Reilly. Trans, loc. cit. 
Apiole. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinning. Trans., 99, 451 (1911). 
w<?-Apiole. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinning. Trans., 99, 451 (1911). 
Apoatropine. Gompel and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1541 (1913). 
Apomorphine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

Gompel and Henri. Compt. rend., 157, 1422 (1913). 
Arsenic triphenyl. Purvis and McCIeland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 
Asparagine. Magini. J. Chim. phys., 2, 410 (1904). 

Atropic acid. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinning. Trans., 99, 451 (1911). 
Atropine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 103, 1193 (1913). 
„ Gompel and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1541 (1913). 

Auramine. Grandmougin and Favre-Ambrunyan. Ber., 47, 2127 (1914), 
Aurine. Hartley. Trans., 51, 153 (1887). 

Australine. Hartley and Huntington. Proc. Roy. Soc, 31, 1 (1880). 
Azobenzene. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152 (1887). 

Pauer." Ann. der Phys., 61, 363 (1897). 
„ Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 

Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 

Gorke, Koppe, and Staiger. Ber., 41, 1156 (1908). 

Hantzsch. Ber., 42, 2129 (1909). 

Crymble, Stewart, and Wright. Ber., 43, 1188 (1910). 

Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 

Purvis and McCIeland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 

Hantzsch. Ber., 46, 1537 (1913). 

Purvis. Trans., 105, 590 (1914). 

Baly and Hampson. Trans., 107, 248 (1915). 
Azobenzenetrimethylammonium salts. See Benzeneazophenyltrimethylammonium 

salts. 
AzoisobutjTonitrile. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Azodicarbonamide. „ „ „ Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 

Azodicarboxylic acid, potassium salt. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Azomethane. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Azophenetole. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
p-Azophenol. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
o-p-Azophenol. Robertson. Trans., 103, 1472 (1913). 
/3-p-Azophenol. Robertson. Trans., 103, 1472 (1913). 
Azophenol hydrate. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 2512 (1910). 
Azophenol sodium salt. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 2512 (1910). 
Azoxyanisole. Purvis. Trans., 107, 660 (1915). 
Azoxybenzene. Purvis. Trans., 105, 590 (1914). 
Azoxyphenetole. Purvis. Trans., 107, 660 (1915). 



Barbituric acid. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 
Benzaldehyde. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 

Pfluger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 

Purvis and McCIeland. Trans.. 103, 1088 (1913). 

Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 47, 1690 (1914). 

Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058, 1121 (1915). 

Strasser. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 281 (1915). 
Benzaldehyde sodium hydrogen sulphite. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
Benzaldehyde-p-nitrophenylhydrazone. Hewitt, Johnson, and Pope. Trans., 105, 

364 (1914). 
Benzaldehydephenylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 

Stobbe and Nowak. Ber., 46, 2887 (1913). 
Benzaldehydephenylmethylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
Benzaldoxime. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 77, 509 (1900). 
„ Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 137 

Benzamide. Hartley and Hedley. Trans., 91, 319 (1907). 

Benzanilide. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinning. Trans., 99, 451 (1911). 

Benzaurine. Meyer and Hantzsch. Ber., 40, 3479 (1907). 

Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 70 (1913). 
o-Benzbetain. Ley and Ulrich. Ber., 42, 3440 (1909). 
Benzene. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881) ; 47, 685 (1885). 
Pauer. Ann. der Phys., 61, 363 (1897). 
Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 73, 095 (1898). 
Baly and Collie. Trans.. 87, 1332 (1905). 
Nature, 72, 630 (1905). 
Hartley. Nature, 72, 557 (1905). 
Friedrichs. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 3, 154 (1905). 
Grebe. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 3, 376 (1905). 

Hartley. Phil. Trans., 208 A., 475 (1908) ; Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 299 (1908). 
Grebe. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 9, 130 (1910). 
V. Kowalski. Bull. Akad. Sci., Cracovie, l.v, 17 (1910). 
Ley and v. Enaielhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Dickson. Zeitrwiss. Phot., 10, 166 (1911). 
Stark and Levy. Jahrb. Radioak,, 10, 179 (1913). 
Stark and Lipp. Zeit. phys. Chem., 86, 36 (1914). 
Witte. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 347 (1915). 
Benzene hexachloride. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 
Benzeneazoanisole. Gorke, Koppe, and Staiger. Ber., 41, 1156 (1908). 
Benzeneazobenzenediazonium chloride. Hewitt and Thole. Trans., 97, 511 (1910). 
Benzeneazocarbamide. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Benzeneazocarbonylcoumaranone. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1845 (1913). 
Benzeneazocarbonylcoumaranone, acetyl derivative. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1845, 

(1913). 
Benzeneazocarbonylcoumaranonephenylhydrazone, acetyl derivative. Merriman. 

Trans., 103, 1845 (1913). 
Benzeneazo-m-cresetole. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 
Benzeneazo-p-cresetole. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 
Benzeneazo-wi-cresol. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 
Benzeneazo-p-cresol. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 

Benzeneazo-2'6-dibromophenol. Hantzsch and Robertson. Ber., 43, 106 (1910). 
Benzeneazoethane. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 

Stobbe and Nowak. Ber., 46, 2887 (1913) ; 47, 578 (1914). 
5-Benzeneazo-8-hydroxyquinoline. Fox. Trans., 97, 1337 (1910). 
Benzeneazomethane. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 

„ Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 

Stobbe and Nowak. Ber., 47, 578 (1914). 
Benzeneazo-a-naphthol. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
Benzeneazo-a-naphthol, ethyl ether. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
Benzeneazo-j8-naphthol. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 

„ sulphonic acid. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152 (1887). 

Benzeneazo-a-naphthjd acetate. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
Benzeneazo-/3-naphthyl acetate. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
Benzeneazophenetole. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 

„ Gorke, Koppe, and Staiger. Ber., 41, 1156 (1908). 

„ Hantzsch and Robertson. Ber., 43, 106 (1910). 

Heilbron and Henderson. Trans., 103, 1404 (1913). 
Benzeneazophenol. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 

„ Gorke, Koppe, and Staiger. Ber., 41, 1156 (1908). 

„ Hantzsch. Ber., 42, 2129 (1909). 

Hantzsch and Robertson. Ber., 43, 106 (1910). 

Robertson and Brady. Trans., 103, 1479 (1913). 

Benzeneazophenol, butyl ether. Gorke, Koppe, and Staiger. Ber., 41, 1156 (1908). 

,, ethyl ether. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

,, methyl ether. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

,, phenyl ether. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

,, propyl ether. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

Benzeneazophenol acetate. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 



138 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Bcnzeneazophenol benzoate. Gorke, Koppe, and Staiger. Ber. 41, 1156 (1908). 
)> butyrate. ,, „ ,, ,, ,, ,, 

,, propionate. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

Benzeneazophenyltrimethjdammonium chloride. Hewitt and Thole. Trans., 97, 

511 (1910). 
Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 167 (1915). 
iodide. Hantzsch. Ber., 42, 2129 (1909). 
,, „ Baly and Hampson. Trans., 107, 

248 (1915). 
salts. Hantzsch. Ber., 46, 1537 (1913). 
Benzeneazothioanisole. Fox and Pope. Trans., 101, 1498 (1912). 
Benzenediazohydrate, potassium salt. Dobbie and Tinkler. Trans., 87, 273 (1905). 
sodium salt. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Benzenediazonium cliloride. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Benzenediazoniumsulphonic acids, salts of syn and anli. Dobbie and Tinkler. Trans., 

87, 273 (1905). 
„ ,, ,, ,, ,, Hantzsch and Lifschitz. 

Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Benzenehydrazocarbonylcoumaranone. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1845 (1913). 
Benzenesulphonic acid. Wright. Trans., 105, 669 (1914). 
Benzidine. Cain, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 568 (1913). 

Purvis. Trans., 105, 590 (1914). 
Benzil. Baly and Stewart. Trans., 89, 502 (1906). 

Hantzsch and Schuviete. Ber., 49, 213 (1916). 
Benzil-o-carboxylic acid. Hantzsch and Schuviete. Ber., 49, 213 (1916). 
Benzil-o-dicarboxylic acid. Hantzsch and Schuviete. Ber., 49, 213 (1916). 
Benzilosazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572 (1907). 
Benziloxime. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1651 (1910). 

Benzilphenylhj'drazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572 (1907). 
Benzilphenylmethylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 

1572 (1907). 
Benzoic acid. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Hartley and Hedlev. Trans., 91, 1572 (1907). 
Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 103, 1193 (1913). 
Merriman. Trans., 103, 1845 (1913). 
Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
Strasse. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 281 (1915). 
Hantzsch. Ber., 49, 226 (1916). 
salts of. Hartley and Hedley. Trans., 91, 319 (1907). 

„ „ Hewitt, Pope, and VVillett. Trans., 101, 1770 (1912). 
,, ,, Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 
Benzoinphenylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck. Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572 (1907). 
Benzonitrile. Baly and Cksllie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 
Strasser. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 281 (1915). 
Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 
Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Benzophenone. Stobbe. Ber., 44, 1481 (1911). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 
Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Hantzsch and Schuviete. Ber., 49, 213 (1916). 
Benzophenoneanil hydrochloride. Reddelien. Ber., 47, 1355 (1914). 
Benzophenoneoxime. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinning. Trans., 99, 451 
(1911). 
Lifschitz. Ber., 46, 3233 (1913). 
?>Benzoqui>ione. Lifschitz and Jenner. Ber., 48, 1730 (1915). 
Hartley. Trans., 53, 641 (1888). 
Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 
,, Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1902, 99. 

Baly and Stewart. Trans., 89, 502 (1906). 
Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 618 (1906). 
Hartley and Leonard. Trans., 95, 34 (1909). 
Hantzsch. Ber., 49, 511 (1915). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDF. 139 

p-Benzoquinoneazine. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 1494 (1910). 
p-Benzoquinonebcnzoylphenvlhydrazone. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 
p-Benzoquinonechlorimide. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1902, 99. 
p-Benzoquinonediazide. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 

Cain. Ber., 46, 101 (1913). 
p-Benzoquinonediehlorimide. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report. 

1902, 99. 
25-Benzoquinonedioxime. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1902, 99. 
7>-Benzoquinonehydrone. I^ifschitz and Jenner. Ber., 48, 1730 (1915). 
Benzoyl chloride. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
Benzoylacetic acid, ethyl ester. Balv and Desch. Tran«., 87, 706 (1905). 
Benzoylacetone. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 
Morgan and Moss. Trans., 103, 78 (1913). 
,, aluminium derivative. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 760 (190.5). 

Benzoylazobenzene. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1845 (1913). 
Benzoylazo-p-cresetole. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 
Benzoylbenzeneazo-p-cresol. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 

p-Benzoylbenzeneazo-p-cresol. Hewitt, Mann, and Pope. Trans., 105, 2193 (1914). 
p-Benzovlbenzeneazo-o-naphthol. Hewitt, Mann, and Pope. Trans., 105, 2193 

(19i4). 
p-Benzoylbenzeneazo-;8-naphthol. Hewitt, Mann, and Pope. Trans., 105, 2193 

(1914). 
Benzoylbenzeneazophenol. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 

p-Benzoylbenzeneazophenol. Hewitt, Mann, and Pope. Trans., 105, 2193 (1914). 
o-Benzoylbenzoic acid, salts and ethyl ester of. Hantzsch and Schuviete. Ber., 49, 

213 (1916). 
Benzoylcarbinolphenylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 

1572 (1907). 
Benzoyldianilmostilbene. Everest and McCombie. Trans., 99, 1752 (1911). 
s-Benzoylphenylhydrazine. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1845 (1913). 
Benzoylpiperidine. Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
Benzoylsuccinic acid, ethyl ester. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905) ; As- 

trophys. Journ., 23, 110 (1906). 
Benzyl acetate. Pfliiger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 
Benzyl alcohol. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 
Pfliiger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 
Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 
Baly and Trvhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 

„ „ Strasser. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 281 (1915). 

Benzyl benzoate. Pfliiger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). * 

Benzyl chloride. Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 
Benzyl cyanide. See Phenylacetonitrile. 
Benzvl ethyl ether. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 

Baly and Tryhom. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
„ „ Strasser. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 281 (1915). 
Benzylacetophenone. Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1289 (1911). 
Benzylamine. Purvis. Trans., 97, 1546 (1910). 
Benzylaniline. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 
Benzylidene chloride. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
Benzylideneacetone. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 

Baly and Schaefer. Trans., 93, 1808 (1908). 
Benzylideneacetophenone. Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1289 (1911). 
Benzylideneaminoazobenzene. Pope and Willett. Trans., 103, 1258 (1913) 
Benzylideneaniline. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, .571 (1910). 
Benzylideneanisylideneacetone. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 
Benzylidenecamphor. Lowry and Southgate. Trans., 97, 905 (1910). 
Benzyl idenemalonic acid. Baly and Schaefer. Trans., 93, 1808 (1908). 
Benzylidene-m-nitroaniline. Bal3% Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Benzylidene-p-nitroaniline. Balj', Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Berberidic acid. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 
Berberine. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 



140 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916, 

Berberine. Tinkler. Trans., 99, 1340 (1911). 
Biebrich scarlet. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152 (1887). 

Bis(amsylidenemetliyl)pyrone. Boon, Wilson, and Heilbron. Trans., 105, 2176 

(1914). 
,, salts. Boon, Wilson, and Heilbron. Trans., 105, 

2176 (1914). 
9) tetrabromo derivative. Boon, Wilson, and Heilbron. 

Trans., 105, 2176 (1914). 
Bisbenzeneazocliphenol. Robertson and Brady. Trans., 103, 1479 (1913). 
Bi8(benzylidenemethyl)pyrone. Boon, Wilson, and Heilbron. Trans., 105, 2176 

(1914). 
„ salts. Boon, Wilson, and Heilbron. Trans., 105, 

2176 (1914). 
2.3-Bis(p-dimethy]aminoanilo)-a-hydrindone. Purvis. Trans., 99, 1953 (1911). 
Bis(furfurylidenemethyl)pyrone. Boon, Wilson, and Heilbron. Trans., 105, 2176 

(1914). 
>> salts. Boon, Wilson, and Heilbron. Trans., 105, 

2176 (1914). 
Bismarck brown. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152 (1887). 

Bistolueneazodiphenol. Robertson and Brady. Trans., 103, 1479 (1913). 
Biuret. Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 
Borneol. Ilantzscli. Ber., 45, 553 (1912). 

Bornylene. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 
Brassidic acid. Macbeth, Stewart, and Wright. Trans., 101, 599 (1912). 
4-Bromoacenaphthene. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
m-Bromoaniline. Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
o-Bromoaniline. Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
?)-Bromoaniline. Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
p- Bromoanisole. Purvis. Trans., 107, 660 (1915). 
Bromobenzene. Pauer. Ann. der Phys., 61, 363 (1897). 
„ Grebe. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 3, 376 (1905). 

„ Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 618 (1906). 

,, Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem.,74, 1 (1910). 

„ Purvis. Trans., 99, 811 (1911). 

Witte. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 347 (1915). 
p-Bromobenzenediazonium sulphate. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
7J-Bro mo benzoic acid and sodium salt. Hewitt, Pope, and Willett. Trans., 101, 

1770 (1912). 
Bromo-jij-benzoquinone. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 618 (1906). 
o-Bromocamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807, 1340 (1909). 
3-Bromocamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
Bromocamphorcarboxylicamide. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 899 

(1910). 
Bromocamphorcarboxylicpiperidide. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 
899 (1910). J ' 8 

o-Bromocamphor-/3-sulpho-«-bromoanilide. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 1340 
(1909). ^ 

a-Bromocamphor-TT-sulphonamide. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 1340 (1909). 
«-Bromocamphor-ir-sulphonic acid, ammonium salt of. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 

95, 1340 (1909). 
<i-o-Bromocamphor-j3-sulphonic acid, ammonium salt of. Purvis. Trans., 107, 

643 (1915). 
Bromodinitromethane. Hedley. Ber., 41, 1195 (1908). 

» Harper and Macbeth. Trans., 107, 87 (1915). 

Bromoformylcamphor. Lowry and Southgate. Trans., 97, 905 (1910). 
3-Bromo-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-isopropylbenzeneazoformamide. Heilbron and Hen- 
derson. Trans., 103, 1404 (1913). 
5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-«i-tolueneazoformamide. Heilbron and Henderson. Trans., 103, 

1404 (1913). 
Bromomaleinamide. Ley and Fischer. Ber., 46, 327 (1913). 
a-Bromomethylcamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
y8-Bromomethylcamphor. ,, ,, 

oi-Bromomethylcamphor. ,, ,, 



ON ABS( EPTION SP2CTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 141 

•-Bromonaphthalene. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
j8-BromonaphthaIene. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
oo'-Bromonitrocamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
/3-Bromonitrocamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
ir-Bromonitrocamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
Bromonitromalonic acid, ethyl ester. Hantzsch and Voigt. Bei'., 45, 85 (1912). 
p-BromophenetoIe. Purvis. Trans., 107, 660 (1915). 
p-Bromophenol. Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
p-Bromophenylhydrazme. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
p-Bromophenyloximidoxazolone. Hantzsch and Heilbron. Bar., 43, 68 (1910). 

,, acetyl derivative. Hantzsch and Heilbron. Ber., 

43, 68 (1910). 
„ methyl ether. Hantzsch and Heilbron. Ber., 43, 

68 (1910). 
wt-Bromotoluene. Purvis. Trans., 99, 1699 (1911). 
o-Bromotoluene. Purvis. Trans., 99, 1699 (1911). 
Brucine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
Bulbocapnine. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

„ Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 

Butyl acetate. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456, 1617 (1912) ; Ber., 45, 

2819(1912); 46, 1304 (1913). 
JsoButyl acetate. Hartley and Huntington. PhU. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
iaoButyl alcohol. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

n- Butyl alcohol. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 45, 2819 (1912); Ckjmpt. rend., 155, 
456 (1912). 
„ „ Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Chim., 11, 931 (1912). 

tertButjl alcohol. Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Cbim., 11, 931 (1912). 
isoButyl butyrate. Hartley and Huntmgton. Phil. Trans, 170, I. 257 (1879). 
tsoButyl formate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans. 170, I. 257 (1879). 
tsoButyl iodide. Crymble, Stewart, and Wright. Ber., 43, 1183 (1910). 
tsoButyl valerate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
<er<Butylbenzene. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 

Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
tsoButylene. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 
Butyraldehyde. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456 (1912) ; Ber., 45, 2819 

(1912) ; 46, 3627 (1913). 
tsoButyric acid. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
n- Butyric acid. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
„ „ Stewart. Trans., 91, 199 (1907). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456, 1617 (1912) ; 156, 
550(1913); Ber., 45, 2819 (1912) ; 46,1304(1913). 
„ „ Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

„ Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913) ; 105, 669 (1914). 
„ „ salts. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

„ „ Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913) ; 105, 669 (1914). 

Butyryloamphor. Lowry and Southgate. Trans., 97, 905 (1910). 



Cafieine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, I. 471 (1885) ; Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 
Camphene. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 
Camphor. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 966 (1906). 
Hartley. Trans., 93, 961 (1908). 
Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
Lowry and Southgate. Trans., 97, 907 (1910). 
Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 
Purvis, Trans., 107, 643 (1915). 
Camphor-;8-anhydramide. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 1340 (1909). 
Camphorcarboxylic acid. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 899 (1910). 
»» amide ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

f» ethyl ester ,, ,, ,, . ,, ,, ,, 

,, metallic salts ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 



142 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Camphorcarboxylic methyl ester. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97,899(1910). 

,, piperidide. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

Camphoric acid. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

„ Scheiber and Knothe. Ber., 45, 2252 (1912). 
Camphoroxime. Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 966 (1906). 

Purvis. Trans. 107, 643 (1915). 
Camphorquinone. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1906). 
Camphorquinone-p-bromophenylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. 

Trans., 91, 1572 (1907). 
Camphorquinonediphenylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 

1572 (1907). 
a-Camphorquinonehydrazone. Lankshear and Lapworth. Trans., 99, 1785 (1911). 
/8-Camphorquinonehydrazone. Lankshear and Lapworth. Trans., 99, 1785 (1911). 
Camphorquinonephenylbenzylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. 

Trans., 91, 1.572 (1907). 
a-Camphorquinonephenylcarbamylhydrazone. Lankshear and Lapworth. Trans., 

99, 1785 (1911). 
/3-Camphorquinonephenylcarbamylhydrazone. Lankshear and Lapworth. Trans., 

99, 1785 (1911). 
a-Caraphorquinonephenylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 

91, 1572 (1907). 
,, Lankshear and Lapworth. Ti'ans., 99, 1785 

(1911). 
/3-Camphorquinonephenylhydrazone. Lankshear and Lapworth. Trans., 99, 1785 

(1911). 
Camphorquinonephenylmethylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. 

Trans., 91, 1572 (1907). 
o-Camphorquinonesemicarbazone. Lankshear and Lapworth. Trans., 99, 1785 

(1911). 
/8-Camphorquinonesemicarbazone. Lank.shear and Lapworth. Trans., 99, 1785 

(1911). 
Camphor-0-sulphonamide. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 1340 (1909). 
Camphor-/8-sulphonanilide. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 1340 (1909). 
Camphoryl chloride. Scheiber and Knothe. Ber., 45, 2252 (1912). 
Cane sugar. Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 
Hartley. Trans., 51, 58 (1887). 
,, ,, Lyman. Astrophys. Joum., 25, 45 (1907). 
Caprylene. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 
o-Carbamylphenoxyacetic acid. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1838 (1913). 
Carbon tetrachloride. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

Liveing and Dewar. Proc. Roy. Soc, 35, 71 (1883). 
Carbostyril. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 75, 640 (1899). 
Carvenone. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1262 (1911). 
o-Carboxyphenoxyacetic acid, ethyl ester, monoamide. Merriman. Trans., 103, 

1838 (1913). 
Caryophyllene. Hantzsch. Ber., 45, 553 (1912). 
Catechol. Hartley. Trans., 53, 641 (1888). 

„ Magini. Atti R. Accad. Lincei, 12, ii. 87 (1903) ; J. Chim. phys., 2, 410 

(1904). 
„ Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
Cedar-wood oil. Pfluger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 405 (1909). 
Cephaeline. Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 105, 1639 (1914). 
Cetyl alcohol. Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Chim., 11, 931 (1912). 
Cevadine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
Chelidonic acid, ethyl ester. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 

,, sodium salts. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 

Chloral. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1810 (1912). 
Chloral hydrate. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1810 (1912). 
4-Chloroacenaphthene. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
Chloroacetic acid. Hantzsch. Zeit. phys. Chem., 86, 624 (1914). 
Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 
„ sodium salt. Wright, Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 143 

Chloroacetone. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1810 (1912). 
m-Chloroaniline. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
o-Chloroaniline. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
„ Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 

p-Chloroaniline. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 

„ Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 

Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
OT-Chlorobenzaldehyde. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
o-Chlorobenzaldeliyde. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

?)-Chlorobenzaldehyde. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

Chlorobenzene. Pauer. Ann. der Phys., 61, 363 (1897). 
Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 
Grebe. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 3, 376 (1905). 
,, Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

Baly. Trans., 99, 856 (1911). 
Purvis. Trans., 99, 811 (1911). 
Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Witte. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 347 (1915). 
p-Chlorobenzenediazocyanide. Debbie and Tinkler. Trans., 87, 273 (1905). 
o-Chlorobenzene-ar)t2-diazosulphonic acid, salts of. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 

45, 3011 (1912). 
o-Chlorobenzene-sj/n-diazosulphonic acid, salts of. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 

3011 (1912). 
m-Chlorobenzoic acid. Soheiber. Ber., 45, 2398 (1912). 
Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
o-Chlorobenzoic acid. Scheiber. Ber., 45, 2398 (1912). 
Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
p-Chlorobenzoic acid. Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
Chlorobenzoquinone. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 618 (1906). 
o-Chlorobromobenzene. Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 
?w-Chlorobromobenzene. Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 
p-Chlorobromobenzene. Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 
aa'-Chlorobromocamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
a-Chlorocamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807, 1340 (1909). 
a-Chlorocamphor-;3-suli)honic acid, potassium salt. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 

1340 (1909). 
/8-Chlorocrotonic acid. Macbeth, Stewart, and Wright. Trans., 101, 599 (1912). 

Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3.570 (1913). 
)3-Chloroi«ocrotonic acid. Macbeth, Stewart, and Wright. Trans., 101, 599 (1912). 
Chloroform. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 
3-Chloro-4-hydroxybenzeneazoformamide. Heilbron and Henderson. Trans., 103, 

1404 (1913). 
l-Chloro-6-hydroxynaphthacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 (1907). 
o-Chloronaphthalene. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
iS-Chloronaphthalene. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
aa'-Chloronitrocamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
m-Chlorophenol. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
o-Chlorophenol. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
p-Chlorophenol. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
Chlorophyll, van Gulik. Ann. der Phys., 23, 277 (1907), and 46, 147 (1915). 
wi-Chlorotoluene. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 
Baly. Trans., 99, 856 (1911). 
Purvis. Trans., 99, 1699 (1911). 
o-Chlorotoluene. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 
Baly. Trans., 99, 856 (1911). 
Purvis. Trans., 99, 1699 (1911). 
p-Chlorotoluene. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905), 
„ Baly. Trans., 99, 856 (1911). 

Purvis. Trans., 99, 1699 (1911). 



144 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Chlorotoluquinoneoxime. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1651 (1910). 
Chrysene. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 
Chrysoidine. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152 (1887). 
Cinchonidine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
Cinchonine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

„ Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

,, Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 

„ Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 99, 1254 (1911). 

Cineol. Hantzsch. Ber., 45, 553 (1912). 
Cinnamaldehyde. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
Cinnamic acid. Stewart. Trans., 91, 199 (1907). 

Baly and Schaefer. Trans., 93, 1808 (1908). 
,, ,, Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

Stobbe. Ber., 43, 504 (1910) ; 44, 960 (1911). 
„ „ Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinning. Trans., 99, 451 (1911 ). 

Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1289 (1911). 
Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
„ „ ethyl ester. Baly and Schaefer. Trans., 93, 1808 (1908). 

„ „ ,, „ Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 

„ „ sodium salt. Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 

Cinnamylideneacetone. Baly and Schaefer. Trans., 93, 1808 (1908). 
Ginnamylideneacetophenone. Stobbe. Ber., 44, 960 (1911). 
Cinnamylideneacrylic acid. Baly and Schaefer. Trans., 93, 1808 (1908). 
Cinnamylidenemalonic acid. Baly and Schaefer. Trans., 93, 1808 (1908). 
„ Stobbe. Ber., 44, 960 (1911). 
„ methyl ester. Baly and Schaefer. Trans., 93, 1808 (1908). 
Cinnamylidene-p-toluidine. Tinkler. Trans., 103, 885 (1913). 
Citraconic acid. Stewart. Trans., 91, 199 (1907). 

Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2596 (1913); Ck)mpt. rend., 157, 
372 (1913). 
Citral. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 433 (1913). 

„ Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 47, 1690 (1914) ; Compt. rend., 158, 567 (1914). 
Citrazinic acid, ethyl ester. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 
„ „ sodium salt. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 

Citric acid. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2596 (1913). 
Cocaine. Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 103, 1193 (1913). 

Compel and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1541 (1913). 
Codeine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

„ Compel and Henri. Compt. rend., 157, 1422 (1913). 
Callidinedicarboxylic acid, ethyl ester. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 

74, 1 (1910). 
Congo-red. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 158 (1915). 
Coniine. Purvis. Trans., 97, 1035 (1910). 
Corybulbine. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

,, Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 

Corydaldine. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

,, Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 

Corvdaline. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 
Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 105, 1639 (1914). 
Corydic acid. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

,, ,, Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 

Cotarnine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

Dobbie, Lauder, and Tinkler. Trans., 83, 598 (1903). 
Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 
,, salts. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1783 (1911). 
Coumaranonecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1838 (1913). 

,, ,, ,, ,, acetyl derivative. Merriman. Trans., 103, 

1838 (1913). 
d-Coumaric acid. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 

„ „ sodium salt. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 

Creatinine. Hartley. Proc. Roy. Soc, 43, 529 (1888). 
wCresol. Hartley. Trans., 53, 641 (1888). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 145 

m Cresol. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (191.3). 
„ methyl ether. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 83, 1347 (1905). 
o-Cresol. Hartley. Trans., 53, 641 (1888). 

,, Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
Wright. Trans., 105, 669 (1914). 
„ methyl ether. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
p-Cresol. Hartley. Trans., 53, 641 (1888). 

Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
,, Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 

„ Wright. Trans., 105, 669 (1914). 

Crocein scarlet. Hartley. Trans., 51, 153 (1887). 
Crotonaldehyde. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 433 (1913). 
Crotonic acid. Stewart. Trans., 91, 199 (1907). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 433 (1913). 
Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 157, 372 (1913). 

„ „ Ber., 46, 2596, 3627 (1913), 47, 1690 (1914). 
Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
ethyl ester. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Cryptopine. Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 105, 1639 (1914). 
Crystal ponceau, van der Plaats. Ann. der Phys., 47, 429 (1915). 
Crystal violet, van der Plaats. Ann. der Phys., 47, 429 (1915). 

„ Schlenk and Marcus. Ber., 47, 1664 (1914). 

Cumeneazo-;8-naphtholdisulphonic acid. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152 (1887). 
7-Cumenediazonium sulphate. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. i?er., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Cuminaldehyde. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
Cuminolphenylhydrazone. Stobbe and Nowak. Ber., 46, 2887 (1913). 
Cupreine. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

„ Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 101, 77 (1912). 

Cyanic acid, potassium salt. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 (1901). 

tsoCyanic acid, ethyl ester. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 78, 848 (1901). 

,, „ methyl ester. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 (1901). 

Cyanoacetic acid, ethvl ester. Brannigan, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 406 

(1913). 
m-Cyanobenzoic acid. Soheiber. Ber., 45, 2398 (1912). 
o-Cyanobenzoic acid. Scheiber. Ber., 45, 2398 (1912). 

„ methyl ester. Scheiber. Ber., 45, 2398 (1912). 
Cyanuric acid. Hartley and Huntington. Proc. Roy. Soc., 31, 1 (1880). 
,, Hartley. Trans., 41, 45 (1882). 

„ Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 (1901). 
„ „ ethyl ester. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1262 

(1911). 
MoCyanuric acid, ethyl ester. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1262 
(1911). 
,, ,, methyl ester. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 

(1901). 
Cyanuric chloride. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 (1901). 
A'-'-Cyclohexadiene. Stark and Levy. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 179 (1913). 

,, Stark and Lipp. Zeit. phys. Chem., 86, 36 (1914). 

Cyclohexanone. Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

„ Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 47, 1690 (1914). 

Cyclohexene. Stark and Levy. Jahi-b. Radioak., 10, 179 (1913). 
Cymene. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, 1. 257 (1879). 

Hartley. Phil. Trans., 208 A, 475 (1908) ; Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 299 (1908). 
Hantzsch. Ber., 45, 553 (1912). 
Cymeneazo-/3-naphthalenedisulphonicacid. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152(1887). 



Dehydracetic acid. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
isoDehydracetic acid. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
Dehydrocorydaline. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

,, Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126, 

1916 L 



146 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP S(IE>[OE. — 1916. 

Deoxybenzoinphenylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 

1572 (1907). 
Dextrose. Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 

Hartley. Trans., 51, 58 (1887). 
3'3'-Diacetoaminophenazthionium chloride. Eckert and Pummerer. Zeit. phys. 

Ciaem., 87, 599 (1914). 
3'6-Diacetoaminophenazthionium chloride. Pummerer, Eckert, and Gassner. Ber., 

47, 1494 (1914). 
1*8 (9)-Diacetoxynaphthacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 (1907). 
Diacetyl. Baly and Stewart. Trans., 89, 502 (1906). 
Gelbke. Phys. Zeit., 13, 584 (1912). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1322 (1913) ; 158, 1022 (1914) : 
Ber., 46, 3627 (1913) ; 47, 1690 (1914). 
,, Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

Diacetylacetone. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
Diacetylcodeine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
Diacetj'ldimethylpyrone. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
Diacetyldioxime. Baly and Stewart. Trans., 89, 502 (1906). 
Diacetylphenylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572 

(1907). 
Diacetylphenylosazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans.. 91, 1672 (1907). 
Diacetylsuccinic acid, ethyl ester. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 
Diallyl. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 
Dialuric acid. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 
Diaminoazobenzene. Hartley. Trans., 51, 153 (1887). 

4'4'-Diaminobenzophenone. Grandmougin and Favre-Arabrumyan. Ber., 47, 2127 
(1914). 
Watson and Meek. Trans., 107, 1567 (1915). 
o-Diaminopropionic acid, copper salt. Ley and Hegge. Ber., 48, 70 (1915). 

p-Diaminotriphenylmethane. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 70 (1913). 

,, derivatives. Formanek. Zeit. Farb. Text. Chem., 2, 

473 (1903). 
Dianhydrotrisdibenzylsilicanediol. Robison and Kipping. Trans., 105, 40 (1914), 
Dianisylideneacetone. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 
Diazoacetic acid. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Diazoaminobenzene. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 

,, Purvis. Trans., 105, 590 (1914). 

Diazomethanedisulphonic acid, salts. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
y-Diazophenol. See p-Benzoquinonediazide. 

l-4-Dibenzoyl-2-dimethylpiperazine. Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
l'4-Dibenzo}d-3-dimethylpiperazine. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

Dibenzoylsuccinic acid., ethvl ester. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 77, 498 (1900). 
Dibenzyl. Baly and Tuck. " Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 

Crymble, Stewart, and Wright. Ber., 43, 1188 (1910). 

Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1289 (1911). 

Baly and Tryhorn. Tran?., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Dibenzyl ketone. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 
Dibenzvlamine. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 
s-Dibenzylcarbamide. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1.372 (1914). 
Dibenzylideneacetone. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 
Dibenzylsilicanediol. Robison and Kipping. Trans., 105, 40 (1914). 
«i-Dibromobenzene. Purvis. Trans., 99, 1699 (1911). 
o-Dibromobenzene. Purvis. Trans., 99, 1699 (1911). 
p-Dibromobenzene. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

„ Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 

oo'-Dibromocamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1900). 
aj3-Dibromocamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
Dibromo-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-isopropylbenzeneazoformamide. Heilbron and Hen- 
derson. Trans., 103, 1404 (1913). 
5-7-Dibromo-8-hydroxyquinoline. Fox. Trans., 97, 1119 (1910). 
Dibromomaleinimide. Ley and Fischer. Ber., 46, 327 (1913). 
oai-Dibromomethylcamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 117 

Dibromothymoquinone. Stewart and Baly. Tians., 89, 618 (1906). 
2-4-Dichloroaniline. Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
m-Dichlorobenzene. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 
Baly. Trans., 99, 856 (1911). 
Purvis. Trans., 99, 1699 (1911). 
o-Dichlorobenzene. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 
Baly. Trans., 99. 856 (1911). 
Purvis. Trans., 99, 1699 (1911). 
p-Dichlorobenzene. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 
Baly. Trans., 99, 856 (1911). 
Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 
Dichlorobenzoquinone. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 618 (1906). 
«-DicMorodioxyterephthalic acid. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 797 (1915). 

ethyl ester. Hantzsch. Ann., 384, 135 (1911). 
3-5-Dichloro-4-hydroxybenzeneazoformamide. Heilbron and Henderson. Trans., 

103, 1404 (1913). 
Dichlorophenylphenazonium chloride. Balls, Hewitt, and Newman. Trans., 101, 

1840 (1912). 
3-5-Dichloropyi'idine. Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
Dichlorothymoquinone. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 618 (1906). 
5-7-Diethoxy-2-?«p-diethoxvphenyl-4-ethyl-l-4-benzopyi-anol anhydrohydrochloride. 

Watson, Sen, and Medhi. trans., 107, 1477 (1915). 
5-7-Diethoxy-2-p-ethosyphenyl-4-ethvl-l-4-benzopyranol anhydrohydriodide. Wat- 
son, Sen, and Medhi. Trans., 107, 1477 (1915). 
Diethyl camphorcarboxylate. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 899 (1910). 
Diethyl coUidinedicarboxylate. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 

(1910). 
Diethyl diethylmalonate. Brannigan, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 406 

(1913). 
Diethyl diethyloxaloacetate. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 1407 (1915). 
Diethyl dimethyloxaloacetate. ,, ,, ,, ,, », 

Diethyl ketone. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456 (1912). 
Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1810 (1912). 
Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 45, 2819 (1912) ; 46, 3627 (1913). 

Compt. rend., 156, 1322 (1913). 
Rice. Proc. Roy. Soc, 91 A, 76 (1914). 
Diethyl ketone phenylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
Diethyl ketone phenylmethylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
Diethylamine. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, I860 (1913). 
Diethylaniline. Purvis. Trans., 97, 1546 (1910). 
Diethyl-2-4-dinitroaniline. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1662 (1910). 
Diethyl-3-4-dinitroanilme. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1662 (1910). 
Diethyl malonic acid, ethyl ester. Brannigan, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 

406(1913). 
Diethylnitrosoamine. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
Digitaline. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176. 471 (1885). 
Dihydroanthracene. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 

Stevenson. J. phys. Chem. 15, 845 (1911). 
1 ■3-Dihydrobenzene. Zelinsky and Gorsky. Ber., 44, 2312 (1911). 
1 •4-Dihydrobenzene. Zelinsky and Gorsky. Ber., 44, 2312 (1911). 
Dihydrocarvone. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1262 (191 1). 
Dihydrocollidinedicarboxylic acid, ethyl ester. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 

(1907). 
,, ,, ,, Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. 

Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
1-4-Dihydronaphthalene. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 

Leonard. Trans., 97, 1246 (1910). 
Dihydrophenylacridine. Dobbie and Tinkler. Trans., 87, 269 (1905). 
l-2-i)ihydroxyanthraquinone. Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1916). 
1-4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone. Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1916). 
5-7-Dihydroxy-2-mp-dihydroxyphenyl-4-ethyl-l-4-benzopyranol anhydride f nd 
anhydrohydriodide. Watson, Sen, and Medhi. Trans., 107, 1477 (1915). 

L 3 



148 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Dihydroxyfluorescein. Medhi and Watson. Trans., 107, 1579 (1915). 
5'7-Dihydroxy-2-p-hydroxyphenyl-4-ethyl-l'4-benzopyranol anhydride and anhydro- 

hydriodide. Watson, Sen, and Medhi. Trans., 107, 1477 (1915). 
1-6-Dihydroxynaphthacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Ti ans., 91, 426 (1907). 
1-7(10)-Dihydroxynaphthacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 (1907). 
1'8 (9)-Dihydroxynaphthacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. ' rans., 91, 426 (1907). 
rS-Dihydroxynaphthaccnequinonesulphonic acid. Baly a i Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 

(1907). 
m-Diiodobenzene. Purvis. Trans., 99, 2318 (1911). 
o-Diiodobenzene. Purvis. Trans., 99, 2318 (1911). 

l-2-Diketo-5-acotyl-3-phenyl-4-methyl-A''-cycZopentene. Purvis. Trans., 99, 107 

(1911). 
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, oxime. Purvis. Trans., 99, 

107 (1911). 
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, phenylhydrazone. Purvis. 

Trans., 99, 107 (1911). 
l-3-Diketo-2-anisylidenehydrindamine. Purvis. Trans., 99, 1953 (1911). 
l-3-Diketo-2-benzylideneliydrindamine. Purvis. Trans., 99, 1953 (1911). 
Diketobutyric acid, ethyl ester. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 158, 1022 

(1914). 
r3-I)iketo-2-p-dimethylaminobenzylidenehydrindamine. Purvis. Trans., 99, 1953 

(1911). 
2-3-Diketo-4-5-diphenylpyrroline. Purvis. Trans., 97, 2533 (1910). 

,, phenylhydrazone. Purvis. Trans., 97, 2535 (1910). 

1-4-Diketohexamethylene. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 73, 598 (1898). 
Diketohydrindylidenediketohydrindamine. Purvis. Trans., 99, 1953 (1911). 
2-3-Diketo-4-phenyl-5-p-anisylpyrroline. Purvis. Trans., 97, 2535 (1910). 
2*3-Diketo-4-phenyl-5-p-cuinylpyrroline. Purvis. Trans., 97, 2535 (1910). 
2-3-Diketo-4-phenyl-5-piperonylpyrroline. Purvis. Trans., 97, 2535 (1910). 
2-3-Diketo-4-phenyl-5-?>i-tolylpyrroline. Purvis. Trans., 97, 2535 (1910). 
2-3-Diketo-4-phenyl-5-o-tolylpyrroline. Purvis. Trans., 97, 2535 (1910). 
2-3-Diketo-4-phenyl-5-2J-tolylpyrroline. Purvis. Trans., 97, 2535 (1910). 
2-3-Diketo-4-phenyl-5-2>tolylpyrrolinephenylhydrazone. Purvis. Trans., 97, 2535 

(1910). 
pp'-I)imethoxy-2'5-diphenylpyrazine. Tutin and Caton. Trans., 97, 2535 (1910). 
j3p'-Dimethoxy-2-6-diplienylpyrazme. Tutin and Caton. Trans., 97, 2524 (1910). 
6-7-Dimethoxy-2-methyl-3'4-dihydroisoquinolinium chloride. Tinkler. Trans., 101, 

1245 (1912). 
6-7-Dimethoxy-2-methyltetrahydroi5oquinoline. Tinkler. Trans., 101, 1245 (1912). 
6-7-Dimethox3'«soquinoline-l-carboxylic acid. Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 105, 1639 

(1914). 
Dimethyl camphorcarboxylate. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 899 

(1910). 
Dimethvl oxaloacetate. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 1407 (1915). 
Dimethyl terephthalate. Hartley and Hedley. Trans., 91, 314 (1907). 
Dimethylamine. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1860 (1913). 
p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 

Hantzsch. Ber., 42, 2129 (1909) ; 46,1537(1913). 
„ • Baly and Hampson. Trans., 107, 248 (1915). 

Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 167 (1915). 
p-Dimethylaminoazobenzoic acid, ethyl ester. Hantzsch. Ber., 46, 1537 (1913). 
p-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. Baly and Marsden. Trans., 93, 2108 (1908). 

Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
Dimethylaminobenzeneazoaniline. Hantzsch. Ber., 46, 1537 (1913). 
Dimethylaminobenzeneazoanisole. Hantzsch. Ber., 46, 1537 (1913). 
p-Dimethylaminobenzeneazophenol. Hewitt and Thomas. Trans., 95, 1292 (1909). 
m-Dimethylaminophenol. Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
Dimethylaniline. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 

,, Ley and V. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

„ Purvis. Trans., 97, 1546 (1910). 

Dimethylanthranilic acid. Ley and Ulrich. Ber., 42, 3440 (1909). 

„ „ methyl ester. Ley and Ulrich. Ber., 42, 3440 (1909). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 



149 



Dimethylbenziminazolium iodide. Tinkler. Trans., 101, 1245 (1912). 
Dimethylbenziminazolol. Tinkler. Trans., 101, 1245 (1912). 

aa-Dimethylbutadiene. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 

139 (1913). 
/S-y-Dimethylbutadiene. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 

139 (1913). 
Dimethyldihydro/soquinoline. Tinkler. Trans., 101, 1245 (1912). 
Dimethyldiliydrorei5orcin. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
Dimethyl-2-4-dinitroaniline. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1G62 (1910). 
Dimethyl-3-4-dimtroaniline. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1(362 (1910). 
Dimethylfulvene. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 

(1913). 
Dimethylnitrobarbituric acid. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 
Dimethylnitrosoamine. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
3*3'-Dimethylphenazothionium chloride. Eckert and Pummerer. Zeit. phys. Chem., 



87, 599 (1914) 
3'6-Dimethylphenazothionium chloride 



Zeit. phys. Chem., 



Eckert and Pummerer. 
87, 599 (1914). 

,, ,, Pummerer, Eckert, and Gassner. Ber., 47, 

1494 (1914). 
2-Dimethylpiperazine. Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
3-Dimethylpiperazine. Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
2-5-Dimethylpyrazine. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 77, 846 (1900). 
Dimethylpyrone. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., S5, 144 (1909). 
DinnBthylpyronecarboxylic acid. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
o-Dimethyltoluidine. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Dimethyl-o-toluidineazobenzenesulphonic acid. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 167 (1915). 
Dimethylvioluric acid. Hantzsch and Robison. Ber., 43, 45 (1910). 

,, „ salts. Hantzsch and Robison. Ber., 43, 45 (1910). 

Dinaphthanthracene. Homer and Purvis. Trans., 93, 1319 (1908) ; 97, 1155 (1910). 
/8/3.DinaphthyI. Homer and Purvis. Trans., 93, 1319 (1908). 

35 -Dinitroacetyl-p-aminophenol. Meldola and Hollely. Trans., 105, 410 (1914). 
2-6-Dinitro-4-aminoanisole. Meldola and Hewitt. Trans., 103, 876 (1913). 
r3-Dinitro-5-aminobenzene. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1662 (1910). 
4-6-Dinitro-3-aminophenol. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 (1915). 
3"5-Dinitro-4-amino-o-xylene. Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101, 1209 
(1912). 
Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 (1915). 
Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101, 1209 



3'4-Dinitro-5-amino-o-xylene. 

(1912). 
5-6-Dinitro-3-amino-o-xylene. 

(1912). 
4'5-Dinitro-3-amino-o-xylene. 

(1912). 
3"5-Dinitro-6-amino-o-xylene. 



Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101, 1209 
Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101, 1209 

Trans., 101, 1209 



Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. 
(1912). 

„ Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 (1915). 

2-4-Dinitroaniline. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 (1915). 
3'5-Dinitro-4-anilino-o-x3'lene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 (1915). 
3'5-Dinitro-6-anilino-o-xylene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 (1915). 
3"6-Dinitro-4-o-anisidino-o-xylene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 

(1915). 
3*5-Dinitro-4-p-anisidino-o- xylene. 

(1915). 
3'5-Dinitro-6-o-anisidino-o- xylene. 

(1915). 
3'5-Dinitro-6-p-anisidino-o- xylene. 

(1915). 
w-Dinitrobenzcne. Pui-vis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088(1913). 
o-Dmitro benzene. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088(1913). 
p-Dinitrobenzene. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
3-3'-Dinitrobenzidine. Cain, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 586 (1913). 
3-5'-Dinitrobenzidine. Cain, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 586 (1913). 



Morgan, Moss, and Porter. 
Morgan, Moss, and Porter. 
Morgan, Moss, and Porter. 



Trans., 107, 1296 
Trans., 107, 1296 
Trans., 107, 1296 



l50 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — lOlfi. 

3"5-Dinitro-4-benzylamino-o-xj'lene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 

(1915). 
3-5-Dinitro-6-benzj-lamino-o-xylene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 

(1915). 
2'4 Dinitrobenzylaniline. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 (1915). 
wf^-Dinitrodiazoaminobenzene. Smith and Watts. Trans., 97, 562 (1910). 
3'5-Dinitro-4-dimethylamino-o-xylene. Morgan, Mo.'ss, and Porter. Trans., 107. 

1296 (1915). 
3"5-Dinitro-6-diinethylamino-o-xylene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 

1296 (1915). 
2-4:-Dinitrodimethylaniline. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1290 (1915). 
2-5-Dinitrodiniethyl-2>toluidine. Morgan and Clayton. Trans., 99, 1941 (1911). 
2'6-Dinitrodiinethyl-p-toluidine. Morgan and Clayton. Trans., 99, 1941 (1911). 
3-5-Dinitrodiniethyl-2J-toluidine. Morgan and Clayton. Trans., 99, 1941 (1911). 
2-6Dinitro-p-dimethyltoluidine. Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101, 1209 

(1912). 
3-5-I)initro-p-dimethyltoluidine. Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101, 1209 

(1912). 
Dinitroethane. Hedley. Bar., 41, 1195 (1908). 
3-5-Dinitro-4-ethylamino-o-xylene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 

(1915). 
3-5-I)initro-6-ethylaniino-o-xjdene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1290 

(1915). 
Dinitrofluorene. Balv, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans,, 97, 571 (1910). 
Dinitromethane. Hedley. Ber., 41, 1195 (1908). • 

Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 
35-Dinitro-4-methyIaraiao-o-xvIene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 

1296 (1915). 
3-5-Dinitro-6-methvlamiuo-o-X3dene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1290 

(1915). 
2-4-Dinitroinethylaniline. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1290(1915). 
3-5-Dinitromethyl-2J-toluidine. Morgan and Clayton. Trans., 99, 1941 (1911). 

„ Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101, 1209 

(1912). 
2-5-Dinitroplienetole. Buttle and Hewitt. Trans., 95, 1755 (1909). 
2-4-Dinitrophenol. Buttle and Hewitt. Trans., 95, 1755 (1909). 
„ Bortini. Zeit. phys. Chem., 87, 104 (1914). 

„ Wright. Trans., 105, 669 (1914). 

2'6-Dinitrophenol. Buttle and Hewitt. Trans., 95, 1755(1909). 
Dinitrophenylmaloiiic acid, ethyl ester. Hantzsch and Picton. Ber., 42, 2119(1909). 
2-4-Dinit.rophenylpiperidine. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1290 (1915). 
3'5-Dinitro-4-piperidino-o-xyIene. Morgan. Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1290, 

(1915). 
m-Dinitrotolidines. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296(1915). 
o-Dinitrotolidines. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 (1915). 
2-6-Dinitro-p-toluidine. Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101, 1209(1912). 
3-5-Dinitro-p-toluidine. Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101, 1209 (1912). 
3-5-Dinitro-3-2>toluidino-o-xylene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1290 

(1915). 
4- 0-Dinitro-3-7j-toluidino-o- xylene. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 

(1915). 
3-5-Dinitro-p-tolylmethylnitroamin Morgan and Clayton. Tran.s.,99, 1941 (1911), 
,, Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101. 

1209 (1912). 
2-5-Dinitro-p-tolylmethylnitrosoainin Morgan and Clayton. Trans., 99, 1941 

(1911). 
3-5-Dinitro-p-tol3dmethylnitrosoamine. Morgan and Clayton. Trans., 99, 1941 

(1911). 
,, Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101, 

1209 (1912). 
3-4-Dinitro-o-xyIene. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
3-5-Dinitro-o-xylene. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
4-5-Dinitro-o-xyIene. ,," „ „ ,, „ „ ,, ,, 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 151 

1-t-Dioxyanthraquinone. Mcjer and Fischer. Bcr., 46, 85 (1913). 
l-o-Dioxyanthraquinone. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

2"6-Dioxyanthraquinone. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, „ ,, 

Dioxyterephthalic acid. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 797 (1915). 
p-Dioxytriphenylmethaiic. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 70 (1913) 
Dioxyfumaric acid. Hantz.sch. Ber., 48, 1407 (1915). 
Dipentene. Hantzsch. Ber., 45, 553 (1912). 
Diphenyl. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 
„ Purvis. Trans., 105, 590 (1914). 

Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Diphenyl disulphide. Fox and Pope. Trans., 103, 1263 (1913). 
Diphenyl ether. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 

Purvis. Trans., 105, 590 (1914). 
Diphenyl phthalate. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 
Diphenyl sulphide. Fox and Pope. Trans., 103, 1263 (1913). 
Diphenylamine. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 
Purvis. Trans., 105, 590 (1914). 
Diphenyl butadiene. Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1289 (1911). 
Diphenylbutane. Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1289 (1911). 
Diphenylbutenine. Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1289 (1911). 
a«-Diphenylcarbamide. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 
5-Diphenylcarbamide. ,, ,, ,, ,, „ 

Diphenyldiacetylene. Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1289 (1911). 
Diphenylene oxide. Dobbie, Fox, and Gauge. Trans., 103, 36 (1913), 
Diphenylmaleinimide. Ley and Fischer. Ber., 46, 327 (1913). 
Diphenylmethane. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 
Purvis. Trans., 105. 590 (1914). 
Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
2-5-Diphenylpyrazine. Tutin and Clayton. Trans., 97, 2524 (1910). 
2-6-DiphenyIpyrazine. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

4'5-Diphenylpyrrolinophenazine. Purvis. Trans., 97, 2535 (1910). 
s-Diphenylthiocarbamide. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 
Diphenylthiovioluric acid and .salts. Lifschitz. Ber., 47, 1068 (1914). 
Diphenylviolurie acid. Hantz.sch and Robison. Ber., 43, 45 (1910). 
Lifschitz. Ber., 47, 1068 (1914). 
,, ,, salts. Hantzsch and Robison. Ber., 43, 45 (1910). 

Lifschitz. Ber., 47, 1068 (1914). 
Dipropargyl. Stark and Lipp. Jahi-b. Radioak., 10, 175 (1913). 
„ „ Zeit. phys. Chem., 86, 36 (1914). 
Dipropyl ketone. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1322 (1913) ; Ber., 46, 
3627 (1913). 
„ „ Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

Rice. Proc. Roy. Soc, 91A, 76 (1914). 
Dit«opropyl ketone. Rice. Proc. Roy. Soc, 91 A, 76 (1914). 
Dipropylamine. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1860 (1913). 
2-Dipyridyl. Hartley. Trans., 47, 685 (1885). 
Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
Dithiocarbonic acid, ethyl ester. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 

,, ,, phenyl ester. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

Dithiofluorane. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 70 (1913). 

Dithiooxalic acid, ethyl ester. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
,, ,, phenyl ester. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

>> >. propyl ester. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, „ 

Doebner's violet. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 70 (1913). 



Emetine. Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 105, 1639 (1914). 
Eosine. Meyer and Marx. Ber., 41, 2446 (1908). 

Nichols and Merritt. Phys. Rev., 31, 376 (1910). 

Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Chim., 13, 217 (1913). 



152 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Erucic acid. Macbeth, Stewart, and Wright. Trans., 101, 599 (1912). 
tsoErucic acid. Macbeth, Stewart, and Wright. Trans., 101, 699 (1912). 
Erythrooxyanthraquinone. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 85 (1913). 
Erythrosine. Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Chim., 13, 217 (1913).' 

,, van der Plaats. Ann. der Phys., 47, 429 (1915). 

Ethaneazobenzene. See Benzeneazoethane. 
Ethoxycaffeine. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 
)3-Ethoxycrotonic acid. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

.. ,. ethyl ester. Baly and Desch. Trans., 85, 1029 (1904). 

» „ „ ., Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 3049 (1910) : 45, 559 

(1912). 
». ,, ,, ,, Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 

.. ,. ., .. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

» ., ,, ,. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 772 (1915). 

'.. „ „ „ dibromide. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 772 (1915). 

.. ,, sodium salt. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

3-Ethoxy-l.l-dimethyl-A3-c;/c/!ohexenylidene-5-cyanoacetic acid, ethyl ester. Crossley 

andGUlmg. Trans., 97, 518 (1910). 
Ethoxyfumaric acid, ethyl ester. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 
7-Ethoxylutidine. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 
Ethoxymethylenecamphor. Lowry and Southgate. Trans., 97, 905 (1910). 
8-Ethoxyquinoline. Fox. Trans., 97, 1119 (1910). 
Ethyl acetate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

>, Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456, 1617 (1912) ; 156, 550 

(1913); Ber., 45, 2819 (1912) ; 46,1304(1913). 
Henri and Wurmser. (Dompt. rend., 156, 230 (1913); Jour, de 
Phys., 3, 305 (1913). 
,. ,, Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

Ethyl acetoacetate. Baly and Desch. Trans., 85, 1029 (1904) ; Astrophys. Journ., 
23, 110 (1906). 
.. ,, Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1906). 

„ „ Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1771 (1911). 

.. „ Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 

„ „ Baly and Rice. Trans., 103, 91 (1913). 

>. » Morgan and Reilly. Trans., 103, 1494 (1913). 

.. „ Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 3267 (1913) ; Compt. rend., 156 

1322(1913); 158,866(1914). 
>» .. Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

Ethyl acetonedicarboxylate. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 

„ „ Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2596 (1913). 

Ethyl acetylenedicarboxylate. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2596 (1913). 
Ethyl acetylglyoxalate. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 47, 1690 (1914). 
Ethyl acetylsuccinate. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 
Ethyl alcohol. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

„ „ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456 (1912) ; Ber., 45, 2819 

(1912). 
» ,, Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Chim., 11, 931 (1912). 

Henri. Ber., 46, 3650 (1913). 
Ethyl aminocrotonate. Baly and Desch. Trans., 85, 1029 (1904). 
Ethyl aniliuoacetate. Ley and Ulrich. Ber., 42, 3440 (1909). 

Ethyl antipjTOie-4-azoacetoacetate. Morgan and Reilly. Trans., 103, 1494 (1913). 
Ethyl benzoate. Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Ethyl benzoylacetate. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 
Ethyl benzoylsuccinate. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905); Astrophys. 

Journ., 23, 110 (1906). 
Ethyl bromonitromalonate. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 
Ethyl isobutyl ketone. Rice. Proc. Roy. Soc. 91A, 76 (1914). 
Ethyl butyrate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

». „ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 1617 (1912) ; 156, 550 

(1913); Ber., 46, 1304(1913). 
Ethyl camphorcarboxylate, Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 899 (1910). 
»» >> benzoate. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 

899(1910). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 153 

Ethyl camphorcarboxylate valerate. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 

899(1910). 
Ethyl o-carboxyphcnoxyacetate, monamide. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1838 (1913). 
Ethyl chelidonate. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
Ethyl cinnamate. Baly and Schaefer. Trans., 93, 1808 (1908). 
Pflii'ger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 
„ Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 

Ethyl citrazinate. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 
Ethyl collidinedicarboxylate. Lev and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 

(1910). 
Ethyl coumaranonecarboxylate. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1838 (1913). 
„ „ acetyl derivative. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1838 

(1913). 
Ethyl crotonate. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 158, 866 (1914). 
Ethyl isocyanate. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 (1901). 
Ethyl cyanoacetate. Brannigan, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 406 (1913). 
Ethyl cyanurate. Crymble, fetewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1262 (1911). 
Ethyl wocyanurate. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 (1901). 

„ „ Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1262 (1911). 

Ethyl diacetylsuccinate. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 
Ethyl diazoacetate. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Ethyl dibenzoylsuccinate. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 77, 498 (1900). 
Ethyl p-dichlorodimethoxyterephthalate. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 772 (1915). 
Ethyl p-dichlorodioxytere'phthalate. Hantzsch. Ann., 384, 135 (1911) ; Ber., 48, 

772 (1915). 
Ethyl diethylacetoacetate. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1906). 

Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 3049 (1910) ; 45, 559 (1912). 
,, „ Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 158, 866 (1914). 
Ethyl dihydrocollidinedicarboxylate. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 
>> ,, Lev and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 

74, 1 (1910). 
Ethyl diketobutyrate. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 158, 1022 (1914). 
Ethyl dimethylacetoacetate. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 3049 (1910 ; 45, 559 (1912) ; 

48, 772 (1915). 
Ethyl p-dimethylaminoazobenzoate. Hantzsch. Ber., 46, 1537 (1913). 
Ethyl dimethylsuccinylsuccinate. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 772 (1915). 
Ethyl dinitrophenylmalonate. Hantzsch and Picton. Ber., 42, 2119 (1909). 
Ethyl dioxyterephthalate. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 772 (1915). 

dibromide. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 772 (1915). 
Ethyl dithioearbonate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
Ethyl dithiooxalate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
Ethyl /3-ethoxycrotonate. Baly and Desch. Trans., 85, 1029 (1904). 

„ Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 3049 (1910) ; 45, 559 (1912). 

„ „ Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 

„ „ Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3670 (1912), 

Ethyl 3-ethoxy-ll-dimethyl-A^-C!/rfohexenylidene-5-cyanoacetate. Crossley and 

Gilling. Trans., 97, 518 (1910). 
Ethyl ethoxyfumarate. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 

Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 1407 (1915). 
Ethyl ethylacetoacetate. Baly and Desch. Trans., 85, 1029 (1904). 
„ Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 3049 (1910). 

Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 3627 (1913) ; Compt. rend., 
158, 866 (1914). 
Ethyl formate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, T. 257 (1879). 

„ „ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 1617 (1912) ; 156, 550 

(1913); Ber., 46, 1304(1913). 
Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Ethyl hydrazinocoumaranonecarboxylate. Merriman. Trans., 103. 1845 (1913). 
Ethyl 3-hydroxy-M-dimethyl-A^-C!/ci!ohexenylidene-5-cyanoacetate. Crossley and 

Gilling. Trans., 97, 518 (1910). 
Ethyl 3-hydroxy-ll-dimethyl-A^-c?/rZohexenylidene-5cyanoacetatc ethyl ethers. 
Crossley and Gilling. Trans., 97, 518 (1910). 



151 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Ethvl hydroxvmethylenesuccinate. Balv and Dcsch. Tran«., 85, 1029 (1904). 
Ethvl iodide/ Crj'mble, Stewart, and AVright. Ber., 43, 1183 (1910). 

Lev and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phvs. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Ethyl levulate. Stewart and Balv. Trans., 89, 489 (1906). 

„ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 158, 567, 866 (1914) ; Ber., 47, 

1690 (1914). 
Ethyl methylacetoacetatt. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 3049 (1910). 
Ethj-1 nitrite. Harper and Macbeth. Trans., 107, 87 (1915). 
Ethyl »!-nitroeinnamate. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. T?raus., 97, 571 (1910). 
Ethyl o-nitrocinnamate. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Ethyl p-nltrocinnamate. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Ethyl nitromalonate. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 
Ethyl j'sonitrosoacetoacetate. Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 966 (1906). 
Ethyl wonitrosomalonate. Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 966 (1906). 
Ethyl orthoformate. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1912). 
Ethyl oxalate. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1912). 
Ethyl oxaloacetate. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 
Ethvl oxindonecarboxvlate salts. Hantzsch. Zeit. phys. Chem., 84, 321 (1913). 
Ethvl phenoxvacetate' Balv and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 
Ethvl phenvlacetate. Balv and CoUie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 

Baly and Ti-vhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Ethyl phthalate. Scheiber. Ber., 46, 2366 (1913). 

Ethyl propionate. Hartlev and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
„"^ „ Bielecki and Hemi. Ber., 46, 1304 (1913) ; Compt. rend., 155, 

1617 (1912); 156, .550 (1913). 
Ethvl propvl ketone. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 3627 (1913) ; Compt. rend., 
156, 1322 (1913). 
Rice. Proc. Rov. Soc, 81A, 76 (1914). 
Ethyl pyruvate. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1906). 

„ Bielecki and Hemi. Ber., 47, 1690 (1914) ; Compt. rend., 158, 

567, 866 (1914). 
,, ,, Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

Ethjd succinylsuccinate. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 772 (1915). 

,, ,, dichloride and tetrabromide. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 772 (1915). 

Ethvl thioacetate. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Ethvl thiocarbonate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97. 2287 (1910). 

Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Ethjd thioncarbonate. Purvis. Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 

Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Ethyl thionthiocarbonate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910) 

Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Ethvl thiooxalate. Puivis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 

Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Ethvl triacetate. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
Ethyl trimethyldihvdrop3'ridinedicarboxylate. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 

(1907). 
, „ Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phvs. 

Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Ethyl trinitrophenvlmalonate. Hantzsch and Picton. Ber., 42, 2119 (1909). 
Ethyl trithiocarboiiate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
Ethyl valerate. Hartlev and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Ethyl xanthochelidonate. Balv, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
Ethvlamine. Hartlev and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 18(>0 (1913). 
Ethvlaniline. Purvis. Trans.. 97, 1546 (1910). 

Baly and Trvhoru. Ti-ans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Ethvlbenzene. Hartlev and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Pauer.' Ann. der Phvs., 61, 363 (1897). 
Balv and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 
Grebe. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 3. 376 (1905). 

Hartlev. PhU. Trans., 208A, 475 (1908) ; Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 
299 "(1908). 
„ Grebe. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 9, 130 (1910). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OP ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 155 

Ethylbenzene. Kowalski. Bull. Akad. Sci., Cracovie, lA, 17 (1910). 

„ Lev and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Cheni., 74, 1 (1910). 

Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1280 (1911). 
,, Weiiner. Zcit. wiss. Phot., 12, 33 (1913). 

Ethylene. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

,, Stark, Steubmg, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 

,, Stark and Lipp. Zeit. phys. Cheni., 86, 30 (1914). 
Ethylene iodide. Crymble, Stewart, and Wright. Ber., 43, 1183(1910). 
Ethylenediamine. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 18(50 (1913). 
Ethylidenexylidine. Purvis. Trans., 97, 644 (1910). 

Ethylnitroamine, cobalt derivative. Franchimont and Backer. Trans., 101, 2256 
(1912). 
,, copper salt. Franchimont and Backer. Rec. Trav. Chim., 32, 

158 (1913). 
,, nickel salt. Franchimont and Backer. Rec. Trav. Chim., 32, 321 

(1913). 
Ethylnitrolic acid. Hantzsch and Kanasirski. Ber., 42, 889 (1909). 

,, ,, salts. Hantzsch and Kanasir-siki. Ber., 42, 889 (1909). 

Ethylnitrosohydroxylamine, copper salt. Franchimont and Backer. Rec. Trav. 

Chim., 32, 158 (1913). 
Ethylthiocarbonic acid. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Eugenol. Pfluger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 400 (1909). 

,, Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinning. Trans., 99, 451 (1911). 
jwEugenol. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinning. Trans., 99, 451 (1911). 



Fast red. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152 (1887). 

Fenchone. Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

,, semicarbazone. Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 
(1914). 
Fluorane. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 70 (1913). 
Fluorene. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 
Fluorene ketone. Stobbe. Ber., 44, 1481 (1911). 

2-Fluorenediazonium chloride. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Fluorenoneanil hydrochloride. Reddelien. Ber., 47, 1355 (1914). 
Fluorenoneoxime. Lifschitz. Ber., 46, 3233 (1913). 

Fluorescein. Meyer and Marx. Ber., 40, 3603 (1907) ; 41, 2440 (1908). 
Kaempf. Phys. Zeit. 12. 761 (1911). 

Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 44, 1944 (1911) ; 46,70(1913). 
„ Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Chim., 13, 217 (1913). 

Medhi and Watson. Trans., 107, 1579 (1915). 
Fluorobenzcne. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

„ Strasser. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 281 (1915). 

p-Fluorophenetole. Purvis. Trans., 107, 660 (1915). 
Formaldehyde. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456 (1912) ; Ber., 45, 2819 

(1912). 
Formaldehydephenylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
Formic acid. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, 1. 257 (1879). 

„ ,, Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456 (1912) ; 156,550(1913); 
Ber., 45, 2819 (1912) ; 46, 1304 (1913). 
Henri. Ber., 46, 3650 (1913). 
Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913) ; 105, 669 (1914). 
„ salts. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913) ; 105, 669 (1914). 
Formylcamphor. Lowi-y and Southgate. Trans., 97, 906 (1910). 
Formylcamphoranliydride. Lowry and Southgate. Trans., 97, 905 (1910). 
Fuchsine. Hantzsch. Ber., 46, 1637 (1913) ; 48,167(1916). 
Fuchsone. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 70 (1913). 

Schlenk and Marcus. Ber., 47, 1664 (1914). 
Fuchsoneimoniumcarbinol. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 70 (1913). 
Fulminic acid. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 



156 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Fumaric acid. Magini. Phys. Zeit., 5, 69 (1904) ; J. Chim. pliys., 2, 410 (1904). 
Stewart. Trans., 91, 199 (1907). 
Bielecki and Henii. Compt. rend., 157, 372 (1913) ; Ber., 46, 2596 

(1913). 
Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 
Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 1407 (1915). 
„ sodium salt. Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 
Furan. Purvis. Trans., 97, 1648 (1910). 
Purfuraldehyde. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 73, 598 (1898). 

Purvis. Trans., 97, 1648 (1910). 
Furfuramide. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 73, 598 (1898). 
Furfuran. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 73, 598 (1898). 
Furfurol. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 47, 1690 (1914). 



Gallein. Medhi and Watson. Trans., 107, 1579 (1915). 

Gelatine. Hartley. Trans., 51, 58 (1887). 

Geraniolene. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 

Glucosazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572 (1907). 

Glucosemethylosazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572 (1907). 

Glucosephenylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572 

(1907). 
Glucosephenylmethylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 

1572 (1907). 
Glycine, cobalt salt. Ley and Winkler. Ber., 42, 3894 (1909) ; 45,372(1912). 
„ copper salt. Ley. Ber., 42, 354 (1909). 

Ley and Hegge. Ber., 48, 70 (1915). 
Glyoxal. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1810 (1912). 
Glyoxalphenylmetbylosazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572 

(1907). 
Glyoxalphenylosazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572(1907). 
Gnoscopme. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 
Guaiacol. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 

Wright. Trans., 105, 669 (1914). 
Guanine hydrochloride. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 

H 

Helianthin. Hartley. Trans., 51, 153 (1887). 

Hantzsch. Ber., 46, 1537 (1913) ; Ber., 48, 167 (1915). 
Heptane. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Heptyl alcohol. Massol and Faucon. Bull. See. Chim., 11, 931 (1912). 
Hexachlorobenzene. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1916). 
HexachlorocwZohexane. Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 
2.3.4-Hexachloropicoline. Purvis. Trans., 95, 294 (1909) ; 103, 2283 (1913). 
2.4-Hexadiene. Stark, Steubing,Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 

Stark and Lipp. Zeit. phys. Chem., 86, 36 (1914). 
Hexahydrophenylnitromethane. Zelinsky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chem., 78, 

629 (1912). 
1.2.4.5.6.8-Hexahydroxyanthraquinone. Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1916) 
1.2.3.5.6.7-Hexahydroxyanthraquinone. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,. 

Hexamethylacetone. Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

Rice. Proc. Roy.Soc.,9lA,76(1914). 
Hexamethylbenzene. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

Purvis. Trans., 107. 496 (1915). 
Hexamethylene. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 77, 846 (1900). 

„ Zelinsky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chem., 78, 629 (1912). 

Hexamethyl-p-rosaniline. van der Plaats. Ann. der Phys., 47, 429 (1915). 
Hexane. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, 1. 257 (1879) 
Hexanitrohydrazobenzene. Hantzsch and Lister. Ber., 43, 1685 (1910). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 157 

Hexaphenylethane. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 
Hexatriene. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 
Hexyl alcohol. Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Chim., 11, 931 (1912). 
Hexylene. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 
Hippuric acid. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
„ Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429(1883). 

Wright. Trans., 103, 628 (1913). 
,, sodium salt. Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 
Hofmann's violet. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152 (1887). 
Hydrastine. Debbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

„ Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 

Hydrastinine. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

,, Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 

,, Dobbie and Tinkler. Trans., 85, 1005 (1904). 

Hydrazinocoumaranonecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1845 

(1913). 
Hydrazobenzene. Purvis and McClelaud. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 
Hydrocarbon, C^Hie. Homer and Purvis. Trans., 93, 1319 (1908). 
Hydrocarbon, Co^H,,. Homer and Purvis. Trans., 97, 1155 (1910). 
Hydrocarbon, Cl,H„„. Homer and Purvis. Trans., 97, 1155 (1910). 
Hydrocarbon, Cj^HJ,. Homer and Purvis. Trans., 93, 1319 (1908). 
Hydrocinnamic acid. See ;8-Phenylpropionic acid. 
Hydrocotarnine. Dobbie, Lauder, and Tinkler. Trans., 83, 598 (1903). 

Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 
Hydrocyanic acid. Hartley. Trans., 41, 45 (1882). 
Hydrohydrastinine. Dobbie and Tinkler. Trans., 85, 1005 (1904). 
Hydroquinone. See Quinol. 
Hydroxy. See also Oxy-. 

Hydroxy«posafronone. Balls, Hewitt, and Newman. Trans., 101, 1840 (1912). 
wi-Hydroxybenzaldelij'de. Purvis. Trans. 105, 2482 (1914). 
o-Hydroxybenzaldehyde. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 

Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
p-Hydroxybenzaldehydephenylmethylhydrazone. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
4-Hydroxybenzeneazoformamide. HeiJbron and Henderson. Trans., 103, 1404 

(1913). 
,, acetyl derivative. Heilbron and Henderson. 

Trans., 103, 1404 (1913). 
3-Hydroxy-M-dimethyl-A'-C2/rfohexenylidene-5-cyanoacetic acid, ethyl ester. Cross- 
ley and Gilling. Trans., 97, 518 (1910). 
l-Hydroxy-2-6(?)-dinitronaphthacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 

(1907). 
3-Hydroxyfluorone. Watson and Meek. Trans., 107, 1567 (1915). 
Hydroxylamine. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 77, 318 (1900). 
Hydroxylaminedisulphonic acid, potassium salt. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 

(1908). 
l-Hydroxy-5-methoxynaphthacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 (1907). 
l-Hydroxy-8(9)-methoxynaphthacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 

(1907). 
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxytoluene. Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 105, 1639 (1914). 
Hydroxymethylenecamphor. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 766 (1905). 

,, Lowry and Southgate. Trans., 97, 905 (1910). 

Hydroxymethyleneindandione. Lifschitz. Ber., 47, 1401 (1914). 
Hydroxymethylenesuccinic acid, ethyl ester. Baly and Desch. Trans., 85, 1029 

(1904). 
4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-5-isopropylbenzeneazoformamide. Heilbron and Henderson. 

Trans., 103, 1404 (1913). 
l-Hydroxynaphthacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 (1907). 
Hydroxyquinolbenzein. Medhi and Watson. Trans., 107, 1579 (1915). 
6-Hydroxyquinoline. Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 101, 77 (1912), 
8-Hydroxyquinoline. Fox. Trans., 97, 1119, 1337 (1910). 
Hydroxystilbene. Hewitt, Lewcock, and Pope. Trans., 101, 604 (1912). 
8-Hydroxytetrahydroquinoline. Fox. Trans., 97, 1119 (1910). 



158 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

4-IIydroxy-»i-tolueneazoformamide. Heilbron and Henderson. Trans., 103, 1404 

(1913). 
Hyoscyamine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 103, 1193 (1913). 
Hyoscine. Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 103, 1193 (1913). 
Hypoxanthine. Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 



Indoneci/cZomethylacetoethylene. Purvis. Trans., 99, 107 (1911). 
Iodine green. Hartley. Trans., 51, 153 (1887). 
4-Iodoacenaphthene. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
wi-Iodoaniline. Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
o-Iodoaniline. Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
p-Iodoaniline. Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
lodoazobenzene. Hewitt and Thole. Trans., 97, 511 (1910). 
lodobenzene. Pauer. Ann. der Phvs.. 61, 363 (1897). 

Grebe. Zeit. wis.s. Phot., 3, 376 (1905). 

Purvis. Trans., 99, 2318 (1911). 
,, Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

wi-Iodobenzoio acid. Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
o-Iodobenzoic acid. Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
p-Iodobenzoic acid. Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
Iodoform. Crymble, Stewart, and Wright. Ber., 43, 1183 (1910). 

,, Lev and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

p lodophenol. "Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
w-Iodotoluene. Purvis. Trans., 99, 2318 (1911). 
o-Iodotoluene. Purvis. Trans., 99, 2318 (1911). 
Isatin. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 75, 640 (1899). 
Itaconic acid. "Stewart. Trans., 91, 199 (1907). 

Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2590 (1913). 

J 

Japaconitine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

K 

4-Keto-3-acetyl-5-benzylidene-2-methyIdihydrofuran. Purvis. Trans., 99, 107 

(1911). 
Keto-fluorene. Stobbe. Ber., 48, 441 (1915). 
9-Keto-fluorene-4-carboxylic acid. Stobbe. Ber., 48, 441 (1915). 

„ ethyl ester. Stobbe. Ber., 48, 441 (1915). 



Lactic acid. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2596 (1913). 

Laudanine. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 626 (1903) ; Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 

166. 
Laudanosine. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 626 (1903) ; Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 
166. 
„ Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 105, 1639 (1914). 

Laurie acid. Hantzsch and Schai-f. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Laurinol. Hantzsch. Ber., 45, 553 (1912). 
Leucine. Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 
Limonene. Ciymble, Stewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1262 (1911). 
,, Hantzsch. Ber., 45, 553 (1912). 

Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 
Lithium urate. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 
2.4-Lutidine. Purvis. Trans., 97, 692 (1910). 
2.6-Lutidine. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 

„ Purvis. Trans., 97, 692 (1910). 

7-Lutidone. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 



ox ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 159 



M 

Maleic acid. Magini. J. Chim. phys, 2, 410 (1904). 
„ „ Stewart. Tram., 91, "199 (1907). 
,, ,, Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2696 (1913) ; Compt. rend., 157, 372 

(1913). 
„ „ Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 1407 (1915). 
Malic acid. Bielecki and Hemi. Ber., 46, 2.596 (1913). 
Malonamide. Brannigan, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 406 (1913). 
Malonic acid. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456 (1912) ; Ber., 45, 2819 
(1912); 46,2596(1913). 
,, Wright. Trans.,103,528(1913); 105,669(1914). 
,, ,, sodium salts. Brannigan, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 406 

(1913). 
Wright. Trans.,103, 528(1913); 105, 069(1914). 
Mandelic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

Pm-vis. Trans'., 107, 966 (1915). 
Mandelonitrite. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
Melamine. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 (1901). 
Meliayl alcohol. Massol and Faucon. Bull. See. Chim., 11, 931 (1912). 
Menthone. Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 
Mercuric acetate. Crymble. Trans., 105, 658 (1914). 
Mercurydibenzyl. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

Purvis and McCIeland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 
Mercury diethyl. Crymble. Trans., 105, 658 (1914). 
Mercui-ydimethyl. Crymble. Trans., 105, 658 (1914). 
Mercurydiphenyl. Purvis and McCIeland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 
Mercuryethyl chloride. Ley and Fischer. Zeit. anorg. Chem., 82, 329 (1913). 

Ciymble. Trans., 105, 658 (1914). 
Mercuryethyl iodide. Crymble. Tran.s., 105, 558 (1914). 
Mercurymethyl bromide. Crymble. Trans., 105, 658 (1914). 
Mercurymethyl chloride. Ley and Fischer. Zeit. anorg. Chem., 82, 329 (1913) 

„ „ Ci-ymble. Trans.. 105, 658 (1914). 

Mercuiymethyl iodide. Q-ymble. Trans., 105, 658 (1914). 
Mercurypropionamide. Ley and Fischer. Zeit. anorg. Chem., 82, 329 (1913). 
Mercurysuccinimide. Ley and Fischer. Zeit. anorg. Chem., 82, 329 (1913). 
Mesaconic acid. Stewart. Trans., 91, 199 (1907). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 157, 372 (1913) ; Ber., 46, 2596 
(1913). 
Mfisidine. Purvis. Trans., 97, 1546 (1910). 
Mesityl oxide. Purvis and McCIeland. Trans., 103, 433 (1913). 

Brannigan, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 406 (1913). 
,, ,, Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 158, 567, 866, 1022 (1914) ; Ber., 
47, 1690 (1914). 
Mesitylsemicarbazone. Wilson and Heilbron. Trans.. 103, 377 (1913). 
Mesitylene. Hartley and Himtington. Phil. Trans., 170, 1, 257 (1879). 

Hartley. Phil. Trans., 208, A, 475 (1908) ; Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 299 

(1908). 
Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Mesotartaric acid. Stewart. Trans., 91, 1537 (1907). 
Methaneazobenzene. See Benzeneazomethane. 
Methazonic acid. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 
o-Methoxybenzaldehj'de. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 

o-Methoxybenzaldehydephenylmethylhydrazone. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
7)-Methoxybenzeneazodimethylaniline. ' Hewitt and Thomas. Trans., 95, 1292(1909). 

Hantzsch. Ber., 46, 1537 (1913). 
p-Methoxybenzeneazophenol. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
p-Methoxybenzenediazocyanide. Dobbie and Tinkler. Trans., 87, 273 (1905). 
o-Methoxybenzoic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

,, ,, sodium salt. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 

74, 1 (1910). 



160 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 

p-Methoxybenzoic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

,, ,, sodium salt. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 

74, 1 (1910). 
p-Methoxybenzylideneaminoazobenzene. Pope and Willett. Trans., 103, 1258 

(1913). 
6-Methoxyquinoline. Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 101, 77 (1912). 
Methoxystilbene. Hewitt, Lewcock, and Pope. Trans., 101, 604 (1912). 
Methyl acetate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, 1, 257 (1879). 

„ „ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155,456(1912) ; 156, 550 (1913) ; 

Ber., 45, 2819 (1912) ; 46, 1304 (1913). 
Methyl acetoacetate. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1322 (1913). 
Methyl alcohol. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, 1, 257 (1879). 

,, ,, Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456 (1912) ; Ber., 45, 

2819 (1912). 
„ „ Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Chim., 11, 931 (1912). 

Methyl ally] ketone. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 433 (1913). 
Methyl benzoate. Pfliiger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 

,, ,, Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinning. Trans., 99, 451 

(1911). 
Methyl butyl ketone. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1322 (1913) ; Ber , 
46, 3627 (1913). 
Rice. Proc. Roy. Soc, 91A, 76 (1914). 
Methyl isobutyl ketone. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1322 (1913) ; 
158,567(1914); Ber., 46, 3627 (1913) ; 47,1690(1914). 
„ ,, ,, Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

„ „ „ Rice. Proc. Roy. Soc, 91A, 76(1914). 

Methyl butyrate. Hartley and Huntington. Phi]. Trans., 170, 1, 257 (1879). 

„ „ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 1617 (1912) ; 156, 550 

(1913) ; Ber., 46, 1304 (1913). 
Methyl camphorcarboxylate. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 899 (1910). 
,, ,, acetate. Lowry, Desch, and Southgate. Trans., 97, 899 

(1910). 
Methyl cinnamylidenemalonate. Baly and Schaefer. Trans., 93, 1808 (1908). 
Methyl isocyanate. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 (1901). 
Methyl o-cyanobenzoate. Scheiber. Ber., 45, 2398 (1912). 
Methyl tsocyanide. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1860 (1913). 
Methyl isocyanurate. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 (1901). 
Methyl dimethylanthranilate. Ley and Ulrich. Ber., 42, 3440 (1909). 
Methyl ethyl ketone. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1906). 

,, ,, ,, Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456 (1912) ; 156, 

1322 (1913) ; Ber., 45, 2819 (1912) ; 46, 3627 (1913). 
,, ,, ,, Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

Rice. Proc. Roy. Soc, 91A, 76 (1914). 
Methyl formate. Hartley and Huntington. PhO. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

„ ,, Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 1617 (1912) ; 156, 550 

(1913); Ber., 46, 1304(1913). 
„ Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

Methyl hexyl ketone. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1906). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1322 (1913) ; Ber., 
46, 3627 (1913). 
„ ,, ,, Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

Rice. Proc Roy. Soc, 91A, 76 (1914). 
Methyl iodide. Crymble, Stewart, and Wright. Ber., 43, 1183 (1910). 
Methyl malonate. Brannigan, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 406 (1913). 
Methyl methylanthranilate. Ley and Ulrich. Ber., 42, 3440 (1909). 
Methyl nonyl ketone. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1906). 

,, „ ,, Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

Rice. Proc. Roy. Soc, 91A, 76 (1914). 
Methyl oxalate. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1262 (1911). 

,, „ Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

Methyl o-oxybenzoate. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Methyl propenyl ketone. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 433 (1913). 
Methyl propiolate. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2696 (1913). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF UFitJANlU COMPOUNDS. 161 

jMethyl propionate. iUclecki and Heiiii. Conipl. read., 155, 1617 (1912); 156, 550 

(1913) ; Ber..46, 1301,2590(1913). 
Methyl propyl ketone. Stewart antl Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1900). 

Rice. Proc. Roy. Soc, 9lA, 76 (1914). 
Methyl isopropyl ketone. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1900). 

,, ,, ,, Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 

(1914). 
Rice. Proc. Roy. Soc., 91A, 76 (1914). 
Methyl salicylate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

Pfluger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 
Methyl 2.3.4-tricbloropicolinate. Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
Methyl valerate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Traas., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 1617 (1912); 156, 550 
(1913) ; Ber., 46, 1304 (1913). 
Methylacetaiiilide. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Methylacetylacetonc. Baly and Desch. Trans., 85, 1029 (1904) ; Astropliys. 
Journ., 23, 110 (1906). 
„ Morgan and Moss. Trans., 103, 78 (1913). 

Morgan and ReiUy. Trans., 103, 1491 (1913). 
Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 158, 1022 (1914). 
Methylaminc. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Hartley and Bobbie. Trans., 77, 318 (1900). 
,, Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1800 (1913). 

Methylaminomethylmaleinmethylimide. Ley and Fischer. Ber., 46, 327 (1913). 
Methylaniline. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 

Purvis. Traas., 97, 1546 (1910). 
Methylanthranil. Scheiber. Ber., 44, 2409 (1911). 
Methylanthranilic acid. Ley and Ulrich. Ber., 42, 3440 (1909). 

,, methyl ester. Ley and Ulrich. Ber., 42, 3440 (1909). 
j8-Methylbutadiene. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 
139 (1913). 
Stark and Lipp. Zeit. phys. Chom., 86, 30 (1914). 
a-Methylcamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 85, 807, 1340 (1909). 
Methylcarbostyril. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 75, 040 (1899). 
Methyl-4'-carbostyril. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 75, 040 (1899). 
Methylcarbylamine. Bielecki and Hemi. Compt. rend., 156, 1860 (1913). 
m-Methylcyclohexanone. Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 

(1914). 
o-Methylcyclohesanone. Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 
p-Methylcyclohexanone. Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 
Methylene iodide. Crymble, Stewart, and Wright. Ber., 43, 1 183 (1910). 
Methylcnccamphor. Lowry and SOuthgate. Trans., 97, 905 (1910). 
Methyl eugenol. Pfluger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 

Mcthylheptenone. Bielecki and Heni-i. Compt. rend., 158, 507, 1022 (1914) ; Ber., 
47, 1090 (1914). 
,, Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 876 (1914). 

Methylhexamcthylene. Zelinsky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chem., 78, 629 (1912). 
Methylisatin. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 75, 640 (1899). 
Methyl-i^-isatin. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 75, 640 (1899). 
Methylnicroamide. Balv and De.sch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 

cobalt salt. Franchimont and Backer. Trans., 101, 2256 (1912). 
,, copper salt. Franchimont and Backer. Rec. Trav. Chim., 32, 

158 (1913). 
,, nickel salt. Franchimont and Backer. Rec. Trav. Chim., 32, 158 

(1913). 
1.1-Methylnitrocyclohexane. Zelinsky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chem., 78, 629 

1.1-Methylnitrocyclopentane. Zelinsky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chem., 78, 629 

(1912). 
Methyloxindone. Hantzsch. Zeit. phys. Chem., 84, 321 (1913). 

„ salts. Hantzsch. Zeit. phvs. Chem., 84, 321 (1913). 

Methylpentamethylene. Zelinsky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chem., 78, 629 (1912). 
Methylphenanthridine cyanide. Tinkler. Trans., 89, 856 (1906). 

1916 M 



162 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — IDIG. 

Methylphenazo Ilium salts. Hantzsch. Ber., 49, 511 (1916). 
w-Methylphenylacridonium salts. Hantzsch. Ber., 42, 68 (1909). 
Methylphenylacridonium chloride. Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 

iodide. Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 
o-Methylphenylpicramide. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1651, 1662 (1910). 
/8-Methylphenj4picramide. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1651, 1662 (1910). 
Methylisophthalimide. Scheiber. Ber., 45, 2398 (1912). 
l-Methyl-2-pyridone. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 
m-Methylthioacetanilide. May. Trans., 103, 2272 (1913). 
w-Methylthiobeuzanilide. May. Trans., 103, 2272 (1913). 
«-Methylthiobenzanilide. May. Trans., 103, 2272 (1913). 
Methyl-o-tolylpicramide. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1662 (1910). 
Methyl-ptolylpicramide. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1662 (1910). 
Morphine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 
,, Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 

Compel and Hemi. Cbmpt. rend., 157, 1422 (1913). 

Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 105, 1639 (1914). 
Muiexidc. Hartley. Trans., 51, 153 (1887) ; 87, 1796 (1905). 

Lifschitz. Ber., 47, 1068 (1914). 

N 

Naphthacenequinone derivatives. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 (1907). 
Naphthalene. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881) ; 47, 685 (1885). 
Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 
Homer and Purvis. Trans., 97, 280 (1910). 
Leonard. Trans., 97, 1246 (1910). 
Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
Stark and Levy. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 179 (1913). 
Baly. Phil. Mag., 29, 223 (1915). 
o-Naphthalenediazonium chloride. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber,, 45, 3011 (1912). 

Cain. Ber., 46, 101 (1913). 
a-Naphthaquinone. Baly and Stewart. Trans., 89, 502 (1906). 

Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
j8-Naphthaquiuone. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
|3-Naphthaquinonephenylhydrazone. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
a-Naphthaquinonephenylmethylhydrazone. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
Naphthazarinc. Meyer and Fischer. Ber,, 46, 85 (1913). 
a-Naphthol. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
;3-Naphthol. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 

/3-Naphthol sulphides. Crymble, Ross, and Smiles. Trans., 101, 1146(1912). 
a-Naphthylaminc. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
o-Naphthylamiae-^-naphtholdisulphonicacid, azo dye from, van der Plaafs. Ann. 

derPhys.,47,429(1915). 
/3-Naphthylamine. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 

Mjrgan and Reilly. Trans., 103, 1494 (1913). 
Naphthylaminochlorophenylphenazonium chloride. Balls, Hewitt, and Newman. 

Trans., 101, 1840 (1912). 
Narceme. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 
Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 
Narcotine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 
,, Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 

Nicotine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
Purvis. Trans., 97, 1035 (1910). 
Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 103, 1193 (1913). 
Nitroacetaldoxime. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 
Nitroacetic acid. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 

,, ,, potassium salt. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 

Nitroacetophenouephcnylmethylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906), 
Nitroaceto-p-toluidide, Baly, Tuck, and Marsdeu. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF OROANIO OOMPOUNPS. 163 

2-Nitro-4-acetyl-p-phenvlenecliainine. Morgan. Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 129C 

(1915). 
Nit roamide. Bal.y and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 ( 1 008). 

2-Nitro-4-aminophenol. Mor2;an, Mos.'*, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1290 (1915). 
2-Nitro-5-aminophenol. ., ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

3-Nitro-4-arainophen()l. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

4-Nitro-3-aminophenol. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

5-Nitro-2-arainophenol. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

2-Nitro-4-aminotoluene. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

2-Nitro-5-aniinotolnene. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

2-Nitro-6-aminotoluene. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

3-Nitro-2-aminotoluene. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

3-Nitro-4-aminotohiene. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

3-Nitro-6-aminotoluene. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

4-Nitro-2-aminotoluene. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

4-Nitro-3-aminotoliiene. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

5-Nitro-4-amino-TO-xylcne. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, „ 

fi-Nitro-4-araino-?»-xylene. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,• >• 

OT.-Nitroaniline. Hartley and Htmtington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1870). 
Baly, Edwards, and Stewart. Trans.. 89, 514 (190(1). 
Baly, Tuck, and Mar.sden. Trans.. 97, 57 I ( 1 910). 
o-Nitroaniline. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Morgan, .lobling, and Bamett. Trans., 101. 1209 (1912). 
Cain, Manbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 568 (1913), 
Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
7?-Nitroaniline. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Baly, Edwards, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 514 (1900). 
Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
,, Cain, iMacbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 508 (1913). 

2-Nitro-O-anilino-l-hydroxynaphthaceiieqninone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 426 

(1907). 
o-Nitroanisole. Baly, Edwards, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 514 (1900). 
Baly, Tuck, and Mar.sden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Baly and Rice. Trans., 101, 1475 (1912). 
Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
71-Nitroanisole. Balv, Edwards, and Stewart. Trans.. 89, 514 (1900). 
Balv and Rice. Trans., 101, 1475 (1912). 
Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
Nitroanthrone. Hantzscli and Korczynski. Ber., 42, 1210(1909). 
Ni t robarbituric acid . Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber. , 45, 85 ( 1 9 1 2 ) . 
w-Nitrobcnzaldchyde. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088(1913). 
o-Nitrobenzaldeh5'de. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
yj-Nitrobenzaklehyde. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
m-Nitrobenzaldehydophenylhj^drazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1900). 
.•)-Nitrobenzaldehydo|)hruylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1900). 
;)-Nitrobenzaldehydep]icnylhydrazonc. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 

,, Hewitt, Johnson, and Pope. Trans., 105, 

304 (1914). 
,, acet3'l derivative. Hewitt, Johnson, and 

Pope. Trans., 105, 364 (1914). 
TO-Nitrobenzaldeliydcphenylmethylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 

(1900). 
o-Nitrobenzaldehydephenylmethylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 

(1906). 
j)-Nitrobenzaldehydephenylmethylhydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 

(1906). 

7)-Nitrobenzf?«fJaldoxime. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1051 (1910). 

Brady. Trans., 105, 2104 (1914). 

7)-Nitrobenzs?/Haldoxime. Hantzsch. Ber.. 43, 1051 (1910). 

Brady. Trans., 105, 2104 (1914). 

Nitrobenzene. Paner. Ann. der Phys., 63, 303 (1897). 

Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 

Crymble, Stewart, and Wright. Ber., 43, 1191 (1010). 



164 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, — 1910. 

Nitrobenzene. Purvia and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
„ Baly and Rice. Trans., 103, 2085 (1913). 

„ Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 

p-Nitrobenzeneazobenzeneazophenol. Pope and Willett. Trans., 103, 1268 (1913). 
?/i-NitrobenzeneazodimethylaniIine. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 1494 

(1910). 
o-Nifcrobenzeneazodimethylaniline. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 1494 

(1910). 
»«-Nitrobenzeneazo-a-naphthol. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 1494(1910). 
o-Nitrobenzeneazo-ix-naphthol. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 1494(1910). 
p-Nitrobenzeneazo-a-naphthol. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 1494(1910). 
m-Nitrobenzeneazophenol. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 1494 (1910). 
o-Nitrobenzeneazophenol. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 1494(1910). 
7)-Nitrobenzeneazophenol. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 1494 (1910). 

Pope and Willett. Trans., 103, 1258 (1913). 
»»-Nitrobenzenediazoetliylamino-p-nitrobenzene. Smith and Watts. Trans., 97, 

562 (1910). 
;5-Nitrobenzenediazoethylamino-p-nitrobenzene. Smith and Watts. Trans., 97, 502 

(1910). 
;5-Nitrobenzenediazohydroxide. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 

„ methyl ether. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 

3011 (1912). 
Nitrobenzenediazo-i|'-semicarbazinocamphor. Forster. Trans., 89, 222 (1906). 
p-Nitrobenzenediazonium chloride. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
23-Nitrobenzenemethylnitrosoamine. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912), 
p-Nitrobenzenenitrosoamine. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
m-Nitrobenzenesulphonic acid. Baly and Rice. Trans., 103, 2085 (1813). 
wi-Nitro benzoic acid. Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
o-Nitrobenzoic acid. Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
p-Nitrobenzoic acid. Hewitt, Pope, and Willett. Trans., 101, 1770 (1912), 

Purvis, Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
p-Nitrobenzylidenearainoazobenzene. Pope and Willett. Trans., 103, 1258 (1913). 
p-Nitrobenzyl cyanide. Lifschitz and Jenner. Ber., 48, 1730 (1915). 
9>i-Nitrobenzylideneaniline. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
o-Nitrobenzylideneaniline. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
p-Nitrobenzylideneaniline. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Nitrocamphane. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
Nitrocamphor. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
Nitrocamphoranhydride. Lowry and Desch. Trans., 95, 807 (1909). 
Nitrocarbamide. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
??^-Nitrocinnamic acid. Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 

„ ethj'l ester. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
o-Nitrocinnamic acid. Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 

„ „ ethyl ester. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 

p-Nitrocinnamie acid. Purvis. Trans., 107, 9GG (1915). 

„ ethyl ester. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Nitro-p-cre.setole. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Nitro-p-cresol. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Nitrocyanoacetamide. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 
Nitrocyctohexane. Zelinsky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chem., 78, 629 (1912). 
Nitrodiacetyl-p-phenylenediamine. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 

(1915). 
l-Nitro-3.5-diaminobenzene. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1662 (1910). 
m-Nitrodimethylaniline. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910), 
p-Nitrodimethylaniline. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
2-Nitrodimethyl-p-toluidine. Morgan and Clayton. Trans., 99, 1941 (1911). 
3-Nitrodimethyl-p-toluidine. Morgan and Clayton. Trans., 99, 1941 (1911), 

„ Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 

Nitroethane. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 
Zelinsky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chem., 78, 029 (1912), 
Nitrofluorene. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Nitroform. Hedley. Ber., 41, 1195 (1908). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGAJMIU COMPOUNDS. 165 

Nitroforiu. Haiitzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 

„ Harper and Macbeth. Trans., 107, 87 (1915). 

Nitroguanidiue. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
Nitrohydroxystilbene. Hewitt, Lewcock, and Pope. Trans., 101, 604 (1912). 
c/troHJoNitrolic acid. Hantzsch and Kanasirski. Ber., 42, 889 (1909). 
tfioNitrolic acid. Hantzsch and Kanasirski. Ber., 42, 889 (1909). 
Nitromalonic acid, ethyl ester. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 

salts. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 
Nitromositylene. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Nitromethane. Baly and Dcsch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
Hedlcy. Ber., 41, 1195 (1908). 
Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 
Zelhisky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chem., 78, 629 (1912). 
Purvis and McClcland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
Nitromethoxystilbcnc. Hewitt, Lewcock, and Pope. Trans., 101, 604 (1912). 
3-Nitromcthylaceto-)o-toIuidide. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
3-Nitro-/)-methyltoluidmc. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 

Morgan, Joblmg, and Baniett. Trans., 101, 1209 (1912). 
a-Nitronaphthalene. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 

Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
/3-Nitronaphthalene. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 

Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912). 
a-Nitro-/3-naphthylaniiue. Purvis. Trans., 101, 1315 (1912) 
w-Nitropheuetole. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
o-Nitroi^henetole. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
'/3-Nitrophenetole. Baly, Tuck, and Mar.sden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
//j-Nitrophenol. Hartley and Himtmgton. Phil. Trans., 170, 1. 257 (1879). 
„ Baly, Edwards, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 514 (1906). 

Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
o-Nitrophenol. Hartley and Huntington. PhO. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Baly, Edwards, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 514 (1906). 
Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
Wright. Trans., 105, 669 (1914). 
p-Nitropheuol. Hartley and Huntmgton. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
„ Baly, Edwards, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 514 (1906). 

Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
,, Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 

Bortini. Zeit. phys. Chem., 87, 104 (1914). 
Wright. Trans., 105, 669 (1914). 
p-Nitrophenylacetic acid, ethyl ester. Hewitt, Pope, and Willett. Trans., 101, 1770 
(1912). 
,, ,, sodium salt. Hewitt, Pope, and AVillett. Trans., 101, 

1770 (1912). 
p-Nitrophenylaeetonitrile. Hewitt, Pope, and Willett. Trans., 101, 1770 (1912). 
Nitro-p-phenylenediaminc. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 (1915). 
p-Nitrophenylhydrazme. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
?«-Nitrophenylnitro methane. Hedlcy. Ber., 41, 1195 (1908). 
o-Nitrophenylnitromethane. Hedlcy. Ber., 41, 1195 (1908). 
7J-Nitrophenylnitromethane. Hedlcy. Ber., 41, 1195 (1908). 
Nitropropane. Zelin.sky and Rosanoff. Zeit. jihys. Chem., 78, 629 (1912). 
«ec-Nitropropane. Zelinsky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chem., 78, 629 (1912). 
Nitroquinol dimethyl ether. Hantzsch and Staiger. Ber., 41, 1204 (1908). 

Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans,, 97, .571 (1910). 
Baly and Rice. Trans., 101, 1475 (1912). 
NitrosoacetanUide. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
jsoNitrosoacetic acid. Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 966 (1906). 

,, ,, ethyl ester. Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 966 

(1906). 
isoNitrosoacetone. Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 966 (1906). 
t'soNitrosoacetylacetone. Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 966 (1906). 

Lifschitz. Ber., 46, 3233 (1913). 
Nitrosobenzene. Baly, Edwards, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 514 (1906). 



166 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. ^ — 1910. 

Nitrosobenzene. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
fert-Nitrosobutane. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
isoNitrosodibenzoylmethane. Lifschitz. Ber., 46, 3233 (1913). 
MoNitrosocamphor. Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 966 (1906). 

,, o-inetiiyl ether. Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 966 

(1906). 
p-Nitrosodimethylaniline. Hartley. Trans., 85, 1010 (1904). 
isoNitrosodimethyldihydroresorcm. Lifschitz. Ber., 46, 3233 (1913). 
isoNitrosomalonic acid, ethyl ester. Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 906 

(1906). 
jsoNitrosomethylacetone. Baly, Marsden, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 966 (1906). 
Nitrosomethylurethane. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
p-Nitrosophenol. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1902, 107. 

,, Baly, Edwards, and Stewart. Trans., 89, 514 (1906). 

JSoNitrosophenylmethylpyrazolone. Lifschitz. Ber., 47, 1068 (1914). 
Nitrosopiperidine. Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
te»/-Nitrosoi5opropylacetone. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
Nitrososulphonic acid, copper salt. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
Nitrosourethane. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
Nitrostilbene. Hewitt, Lewcock, and Pope. Trans., 101, 604 (1912). 
o)-Nitrostyrcne. Baly and Desch. Trans. 93, 1747 (1908). 
w-NitrotoIuene. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 

Purvis and McCIeland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
o-Nitrotoluenc. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 

„ Purvis and McCIeland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 

^j-Nitrotoluene. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 

„ Purvis and McCIeland. Trans., 103, 1088 ( 1913). 

3-Nitro-;j-toluidine. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (191U). 
4-Nitro-2.5-tolylencdiamine. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 (1915). 
Nitrourethane. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 
3-Nitro-o-xyleue. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
4-Nitro-o-xylene. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 



Octane. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, T. 257 (1879). 
?i-Octyl alcohol. Hartley and Huntington. PhU. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

,, ,, Massol and Faucon. "Bull. Soc. Chim., 11, 931 (1912). 

/•soOctyl alcohol. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

Oxalic acid. Hartley and Huntmgton. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
„ ,, Magini. Nuovo Cim., 6, 343 (1903). 

„ ,, Bielecki and Henri. Co mpt. rend., 155, 456 (1912) ; Ber., 45, 2819 

(1912); 46,2596(1913); 47,1690(1914). 
„ „ Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

,, ,, Wright. Trans., 103, 528(1913); 105,669(1914). 

,, ,, salts. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
,, ,, ,, Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913) ; 105,669(1914). 

Oxaloacetic acid, ethyl ester. Baly and Desch. Trans., 87, 760 (1905). 

,, ,, and salts. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 1407 (1915). 

OxalosuccLiionitrile. Gelbke. Phys. Zeit., 13, 584 (1912). 
Oxaluric acid. Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 
Oximidoxazolone. Hantzsch and Heilbron. Ber., 43, 08 (1910). 
Oxindonecarboxylic acid, ethyl ester. Hantzsch. Zeit. phys. Chem., 84, 321 (1913). 
m-Oxyanthraquinone. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 85 (1913). 
Oxyazobenzene. See Benzeneazophenol. 
wi-Oxybenzoic acid. Hartley. Trans., 53, 641 (1888). 

,. „ Magini. Atti R. Accad. Lincei, 12, ii. 87 (1903); J. Chim. 

phy.s., 2, 410 (1904). 
„ „ Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

,, ,, sodium salt. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 

1 (1910). 
o-Oxybeuzoic acid. Hartley and Huntmgton. Phil. Trans., 170, i. 257 (1879). 
„ „ Hartley. Trans., 53, 641 (ISSS). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORfiANTC COMPOUNDS. Ifi7 

o-Osybenznio acid. Magini. AtiiE. Acoad. Linrei, 12, ii. 87 (1003) ; ,T. Chim. pliys., 
2, 410 (1004). 
„ Wright. Trans.. 103, 528 (191.S). 
,, ,, methyl Pster. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zcit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 

(1010). 
„ sodium .salt. Wright. Trans.. 103, .528 (101.1) ; 105. 009(1014). 
TJ-Oxyhenzoie acid. Hartley. Trans., 53, 041 (1888). 

■ „ „ Magini. Atti R. Accad. Lincei, 12, ii. 87 (1003); J. Cliim. 

phys., 2, 410 (1904). 
,, ,, sodium salt. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zcit. phys. Cliem., 74, 1 

(1910). 
Wright. Trans., 105, 000 (1914). 
o-Oxycarbanil. Hartley, Dobbie, and Paliatseas. Trans., 87, 839 (1900). 

ethyl ethers. Hartley, Dobbie, and Paliatseas. Trans., 87. 839 (1000). 
Oxydiphenylphthfilide. Meyer and Fischer. Ber.. 44, 1944 (1911) ; 46,70(1913). 
Oxyfumaric acid. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 1407 (191o). 
Oxyhydra-stininc. Dobbie .and Lauder. Trans., 83, COS (1903). 

Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 120. 
Oxynarcotine. Hartley. ' Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
3-Oxyphenazofhiiinium chloride. Eckert .and Pummerer. Zcit. phys. Chem., 87, 599 

(1914). 
Oxyphenylphthalide. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 44, 1944 (1911). 46, 70 (1913). 
/(-Oxytriphcnylmclhanp. Meyer and Fisclier. Ber., 46, 70 (19i;i), 



Papayerine. Hartley. Phil. Trans.. 176, 471 (1885). 

Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 005 ( 1 903). 
Hartley, Dobbie, and Lander. Eiil. Ass. Report. 1903. 120. 
Pararosaniline. Baker. Trans., 91. 1490(1007). 

H.antz.sch. Ber., 46, 1537 (1913). 
Pentachloropyridine. Baker and Bal}'. Trans., 91, 1 122 (1907). 

Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283(1913). 
1.2.4.5.8-Pentahydroxyanthraquinone. Meek and Watson. Trans., 109. 544 (1010). 
Pentametliylacelone. Henderson, Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47, 870 (1914). 
a-Phellandrene. Hantzsch. Ber.. 45, .553 (1912). 

Stark, 8(eubing, Eaklaar, and Lipp. Jnhrb. Radionk., 10, 139 
(1913). 
/S-Phellandrene. Hantz.sch. Ber., 45, 553 (1912). 

Stark, SI cubing. Enklaar, and Lipp. Jnhrb. Badioak., 10. 139 
(1913). 
Phen.anthrene. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

Elston. Astrophys. .Tourn., 25, 155 (1907). 
Balv and Tuck. "Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 
„ (Jompel and Henri. Compt. rend.. 157, 1422(1913). 

Phenanthrenequinone. Baly and Stewart. Trans., 89. .502 (lOOti). 
Phen.anthridine Tuethiodide. Tinkler. Trans., 89, 8.5(1 (1900). 
Phenazine. Hantzsch. Ber., 49, 511 (1910). 
o-Phenetidine. Purvis. Trans., 107, 000 (1915). 
p-Phenetidine. Purvis. Trans., 107, 000 (1915). 
Phenetole. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 

Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
Purvis. Trans., 107, OGO (1915). 
Phenetoleazoformamide. Heilbron and Henderson. Trans., 103. 1404 (1913). 
Phenol. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170. I. 257 (1879). 
Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 81, 929 (1902). 
Baly and Ewbanlc. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
,, Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

Purvis .and McCIeland. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 
Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913) ; 105, 009 (1914). 
Wittc. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 14, 347 (1915). 
Phenolphthalein. Meyer and Hantzsch. Ber., 40. 3479 (1907). 

Meyer .and Marx. Ber., 40, 3003 (1907) ; 41, 2440 (1908). 



168 PURPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCTRNOE. — 1910. 

Phenolphthalein. Meyer and FiRclier. Bor., 44, 1044 (imi) ; 46,70(1913). 

,, dimethyl ether. Meyer and Hantzsch. Ber., 40, 3479 (1907). 

Phenosafranine chloride. Balls, Hewitt, and Newman. Trans.. 101, 1840 (1912). 
Pheuoxyacetic acid, ethyl ester. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1322 (1905). 
Phenyl acetate. Ciymble, Stewart, Wright, and Gleudinning. Trans., 99, 451 (1911 ). 
Phenyl benzyl ether. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 

Purvis. Trans., 105, 590 (1914). 
Phenyl benzyl ketone. Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1514 (1912). 
Phenyl carbonate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
Phenyl diphenylearbamate. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 
Phenyl dithiocarbonate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
Phenyl dithiooxalate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
Phenyl ethyl ketone. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 
Phenyl mercaptan. Fox and Pope. Trans., 103, 1263 (1913). 
Phenyl oxalate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
Phenyl o-oxybenzoate. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Cheni., 74, 1 (1910). 
Phenyl styryl ketone phenylseniicarbazone. Heilbron and ^Vilson. Trans., 103, 

1504 (1913). 
Phenyl styryl ketone semicarbazone. Heilbron and Wilson. Trans.. 101, 1482 (1912). 
Phenyl thioncarbonate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
Phenyl trithiocarbonate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
Phenyl acetic acid. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 
Purvis. Trans., 107, 9(U> (1915). 
Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
,, ethyl ester. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 

Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
,, ,, Sodium salt. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74. 1 

(1910). 
Hewitt, Pope, and Willett. Trans., 101, 1770 

(1912). 
Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 
Phenylacetonitrilc. Hewitt, Pope, and Willett. Trans., 101, 1770 (1012). 
Purvis. Trans., 107, 40(> (1915). 
Baly and Tryhorii. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
Phenylacetj'lene. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Phenylacridine. Han'tzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 

methiodide. Dobbie and Tinkler. Trans., 87, 200 (lOOG). 
Phenylacridonium sulphate. Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783(1011). 
Phenyl aminoacetic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
,, ,, sodium salt. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phj's. Chem., 

74, 1 (1910). 
Plienylaminochlorophenylphenazonium chloride. Balls, Hewitt, and Newman. 

Trans., 101, 1840 (1912). 
Phenvlaminonaphthvlaminochlorophenylphenazonium chloride. Balls, Hewitt, and 

Newman. Trans., 101, 1840 (1912). 
Phenylaminonaphthvlammophenylphenazonium chloride. Balls, Hewitt, and New- 
man. Trans., iOl, 1840 (1912). 
PhenylazodimethyldUiydroresorcin. Lifschitz. Ber., 47, 1401 (1914). 

enol ether. Lifschitz. Ber., 47, 1401 (1914). 
Phenyl benzoylacetylene. Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1289(1911). 
Phenylcyanonitromethane. Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1012). 
Phenyl -2.4-dinitroaniline. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1662(1010). 
Phenyldinitromethane. Hedley. Ber., 41, 1195 (1908). 

„ Harper and Macbeth. Trans., 107, 87 (1015). 

jj-Phenylenediamine. Purvis. Trans., 105, 590 (1914). 
Phenylglyoxalmethylosazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572 

(1907). 
Phenylglyoxalosazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572 (1907). 
Phenylglyoxalphenvlosazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 157? 

(1907). 
Phenylhydrazine. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1906). 
8-Phenj'lindoneacetic acid. Stobbe. Ber., 48, 441 (1915). 
7-Phenylindoneacetic acid. Stobbe. Ber., 48, 441 (1915 



ON ABSOKPTION SPKCTRA OF ORGANTf COMPOUNDS. 169 

7-Phenylinil<meanetic acid methyl ester. Stobbe. Tier., 48, 441 (101.'^). 
Pheiiylmetliylacridiiie cyanide. Tinkler. Trans., 89, 850 (100(1). 
Phenylmethylacridol. Dobbie and Tinkler. Trans., 87, 2i)0 (100.".). 
Phenylmethylhydrazodimethyldihydroresorcin. Lifschitz. T5cr.,4'7, 1401(1014), 
Phenylmethylnitrosoamino. Di)hl)ie and Tinkler. Trans., 87, 27:? (1005). 

Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1008). 
Phenylnitronictbane. Hantzsch and Voigt. Bar., 45, 85 (1012). 

„ Zelinsky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chcin., 78, 020 (1012). 

Plienylpicramide. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1062 (1010). 

Hantzsch and Lister. Ber., 43, 1685 (1010). 
4-Phenylpiperidinc. Pnrvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1013). 
Phenylpropiolic acid. Stewart. Trans., 91, 100 (1007). 

Ley and V. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chom., 74, 1 (1010). 
Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1280 (1011). 
Purvis. Trans., 107, 000 (1015). 
/3-P]ienvlpr(.pionic acid. Baly and Ctollie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1005). 
Stewart. Trans., 91, 199 (1907). 

Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chom,. 74, 1 (1010). 
Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1280 (101 1). 
Wriglit. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 
Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 10.58 (191.5). 
,, sodium salt. Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 
4-Phenylpyridino. Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1013). 
Phenylthiazimo. Puminerer, Eckert, and Gassner. Ber., 47, 1404 (1914). 

,, hydrochloride. Eckert and Pumracrcr. Zeit. phys. Chem.. 87, 500 

(1914). 
4-P]ienyl-5-/)toIylpyrrolinoplienazine. Purvis. Trans., 97, 2535 (1910). 
Phenyltrimetl\ylaramonium salts. Ley and Ulrich. Ber., 42, 3440 (1009). 
Phenyl-2.4-xyIylmethano. Purvis and McCleland. Trans.. 101, 1514 (1012). 
Phlorizine. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1870). 
Phloroglucinol. Hartley, Uobbic, and Lauder. Trans., 81, 929 (1902). 
Hedley. Trans., 89, 730 (1900). 
trimethyl ether. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 81, 920 (1902). 
Phorone. Baker and Baly. Trans.. 91, 1122 (1007). 

Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 103, 433 (1013). 

Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 47, 1600 (1014) ; Compt. rend., 158, 507, 1 1 14 
(1014). 
m Phthalakleliyde. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
o-Phthalaldehyde. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
?)-Phthalalde}iyde. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1014). 

Phthalic acid." Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1870). 
„ „ Magini. J. Chim. phys., 2, 410 (1904). 

Hartley and Hedley. Trans., 91, 314 (1907). 
MoPhthalic acid. Hartley and Hedley. Tran.3., 91, 314 (1907). 
„ Magini. J. Chim. phys., 2, 410 (1904). 
,, ,, potassium salt. Hartley and Hedley. Trans,, 91, 314 (1907). 

Phthalic anliydride. Hartlev and Hedley. Trans., 91, 314 (1907). 
Phthalide. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Phthalimide. Hartley and Hedley. Trans., 91, 314 (1007). 
Phthalyl chloride. Scheiber. Ber., 46, 2360 (1013). 
Picene. Homer and Purvis. Trans., 93, 1310 (1908) ; 97, 1155 (1910). 
Picoline. Hartley. Trans., 41, 45 (1882) ; 47, 685 (1885). 
Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 
Purvis. Trans., 95, 204 (1009); 97,692(1910). 
Picramic acid. Meldola and Hewitt. Trans., 103, 876 (1913). 
woPicramic acid. Meldola and Hewitt. Trans., 103, 870 (1913). 
Picramide. Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. Trans., 101, 1209 (1912). 
Picric acid. Buttle and Hewitt. Trans., 95, 1755 (1909). 
„ „ Baly and Rice. Trans., 103, 2085 (1013). 

Wright. Trans., 103, 528(1013); 105,009(1914). 
Bortini. Zeit. phys. CJem., 87, 104 (1914). 
,, ,. potassium salt. F''anchimont and Bacher. Proc. K. .A.kad. Amsterdam, 
17, 647 (19 



170 REPORTS ON THE 8TATE OF SCIENCE. — lOlG. 

Picric acid sodium salt. Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913) ; 105, fifiO (1914). 

Pierotoxine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

I'icrylmethylacetamide. Franchimont and Backer. Proc. K. Akad. Amsterdam, 17, 

G47 (1914). 
Pici-ylmethylamide. Franchimont and Backer. Rec. Trav. Cliim., 32, 32,5 (1913); 

Proc. K. Akad., Amsterdam, 17, 047 (1914). 
Picrylmetliylaminoformic acid, esters of. Franchimont and Backer. Proc. K. 

Akad., Amsterdam, 17, 647 (1914). 
Picryhnethylnitroamine. Franchimont and Backer. Rec. Trav. Chira , 32, 325 

'(1913). 
Picrylmethyhiitrosoamine. Franchimont and Backer. Proc. K. Akad., Amsterdam. 

17, 647 (1914). 
Picrylphenylmethylamidc. Franchimont and Backer. Proc. K. Akad., Amsterdam, 

17, G47 (1914). 
Pinacoline. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 489 (1900). 

Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1322 (1913) ; Ber., 46, 3027 
(1913). 
,, Henderson. Henderson, and Heilbron. Ber., 47. 870 (1914). 

Stark and Lipp. Zeit. phys. Oliem.. 86, 30 (1914). 
Rice. Proc. Rov. Soc, 91A, 70 (1914). 
a-Pinene. Hantzsch. Ber., 45, 553 (1912). 

Stark, Stenbing. Eaklaar, and Lipp. ,Tahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 
Piperazine. Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
Pipericacid. Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 103,1193(1913). 
Piperidine. Hartley. Trans., 47, 685 (1885). 

Purvis". Trans., 97, 092 (1910) ; 103, 2283 (1913). 
Piperidiiiium nitrite. Harper and Macbeth. Trans., 107, 87 (1915). 
Piperidoacetic acid, copper salt. Ley and Hegge. Ber., 48, 70 (lOL")). 
Pipeline. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 103, 1193 (1913). 
Purvis. Trans.. 103, 2283 (1913). 
Piperonalphenylliydrazone. Stri))be and Nowak. Ber., 46, 2887 (1913). 
Piperonylic acid. Dobbie and Lander. 'I'rans., 83, 005 (1903). 

Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. A.'^s. Report. 1903, 120. 
Propiolic acid, methyl ester. Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 259(i (1913). 
Propionaldchyde. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 450 (1912); Ber., 45, 
2819 (1912); 46, 3027 (1913). 
Purvis and McCleland. Trans., 101, 1810 (1912). 
Propionaldehydephenylhydrazonc. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1900). 
Propionaldchydcphenylmethylliydrazone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 89, 982 (1900). 
Propionamidc. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1800 (1913). 
Ley and Fischer. Zeit. anorg. Chem., 82, 329 (1913). 
Propiduic acid. Hartley and Huntington. IPliil. Trans.. 170, I. 257 (1879). 

Bielecki and Henri.' Compt. rend., 155, 456, 1017 (1912); 156, 
.550 (1913) ; Ber., 45, 2819 (1912) ; 46, 1304, 2590 (I9L3). 
„ Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913) ; 105, 009 (1914). 
„ metallic salts. Wright. Trans., 103, .528 (1913) ; 105, 009 (1914). 
Propionylcamphor. Lowry and Southgate. Trans., 97, 905 (1910). 
Propyl acetate. Magini. ' Nuovo Cim., 6, 343 (1903). 

„ „ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend.. 155, 4,56, 1617 (1912) ; 156 (1913) ; 

Ber., 45, 2819 (1912) ; 46, 1304 (1913). 
Propyl alcohol. Hartley and Himtington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

Dros,sbach. Ber., 35, 1486 (1902). 
MoPropy] alcohol. Hartley. Trans., 39, 153 (1881). 

m-Propvl alcohol. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 456 (1912) ; Ber., 45, 
2819 (1912) ; 46, 2596 (1913). 
., „ Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Cliim., 11, 931 (1912). 

Propyl aldehyde. See Propionaldchyde. 

Propyl butyrate. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 550 (1913). 
Propyl dithiooxalate. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
Propyl formate. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend.. 155, 1617 (1912) : 156, 550 
(1913); Ber., 46, 1304(1913). 



biJ AiSORPTiON gt»ECTRA OP ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 17 1 

I*ropyl propionate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. TranP., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

j, ,, Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 550 (1913). 

Propyl valerate. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Propylamine. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 18b0 (1913). 
Propylbenzene. Baly and Collie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 
Propylnitroamme. Franchimont and Backer. Trans., 101, 225G (1912). 
P.sychotrine. Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 105, ltJ39 (191i). 
Pulegone. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1202(1911). 
Purpurine. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 85 (1913). 

Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 54-1 (1910). 
Pyridine. Hartley. Trans., 47, 685 (1885). 

Pauer.' Ami. der Phys., 61, 363 (1897). 

Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 77, 509 (1900). 

Magini. Nuovo Cim., 6, 343 (1903). 

Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 

Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1910). 

Purvis. Trans., 97, 692 (1910). 

Baly and Rice. Trans., 103, 91 (1913). 

Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1121 (1915). 
Pyridine dicarboxylic acids. Hartley. Trans., 41, 45 (1882). 
Pyridmemethylbromide. Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 
Pyridinemethylchloride. Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 
Pvridinemethyliodide. Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 
a-'Pyridone. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1 122 ( 1907 ). 
/3-Pyridone. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 
7-Pyridone. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 
Pyrocatechol. See Catechol. 

Pyrocinchonimide. Ley and Fischer. Ber. 46, 327 (1913). 
Pyrogallol. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, 1, 257 (1879). 
Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 81, 929 (1902). 
Hedley. Trans., 89, 730 (1906). 
Pyrogallolbenzein. Medlii and Watson. Trans., 107, 1579 (1915). 
Pyromeconic acid. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
Pyromucic acid. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 73, 598 (1898). 
4-Pyrone. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
Pyronine-G. Watson and Meek. Trans., 107, 1567 (1915). 
Pyrrole. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 73, 598 (1898). 

Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 81, 929 (1902). 
Purvis. Trans., 97, 1648 (1910). 
Pyruvaldehydeosazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 1572 (1907). 
Pyruvaldehydephenylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 91, 

1572 (1907). 
Pyruvaldchydephenylmethylhydrazone. Baly, Tuck, Marsden, and Gazdar. Trans., 

91, 1572 (1907). 
Pyruvic acid. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1322 (1913) ; 158,866(1914); 
Ber., 47, 1690 (1914). 



Quinazarine. Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 46, 85 (1913). 

Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1916). 
Quinhydrone. Hartley and Leonard. Trans., 95, 34 (1909). 
Quinidine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
Quinine. Hartley. PhU. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 

Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903) ; 99, 1254 (1911). 
Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126. 
Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 101, 77 (1912). 
Quinol. Hartley. Trans., 53, 641 (1888). 

Magini. Atti R. Accad. Lincei, 12, ii, 87 (1903) ; J. Chim. pliys., 2, 410 

(1904). 
Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
5, Hartley and Leonaril. Trans., 95, 34 (1909). 

Pui-vis and McClelaud. Trans., 103, 1088 (1913). 



172 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — I'JIO. 

Quinol dimethyl ether. Baly aud Ewbaiik. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
„ „ „ Baly and Rice. Trans., 101, 1475 (1912). 

,, monomethyl ether. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
Quinoline. Hartley. Trans., 41, 45 (1882) ; 47, 085 (1885). 

,, Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chcm., 74, 1 (1910). 

Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 
Purvis. Trans., 97, 1035 (1910). 
Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 99, 1254 (1911). 
/soQuinolme. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Quiaoliaeazo-8-hydroxyquinoline. Fox. Trans., 97, 1337 (1910). 
Quinolineazo phenol. Fox. Trans., 97, 1337 (1910). 
Qumolinemethylchloride. Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 
Quinolinemethyliodide. Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 
JsoQuinoliuemethyliodide. Hantzsch. Ber., 44, 1783 (1911). 

Tinkler. Trans., 101, 1245 (1912). 
Qumolinic acid. Scheiber and Knothe. Ber., 45, 2252 (1912). 

„ chloride of. Scheiber and Knothe. Ber., 45, 2252 (1912). 
,, ,, dimethyl ester. Scheiber and Kmithe. Ber., 45, 2252 (1912). 

Quinolphthalem. Meyer and Marx. Ber., 40, 3(i03 (1907) ; 41,2240(1908). 

Meyer aud Fischer. Ber., 44, 1944 (1911). 
Quiuoue. See j-'-Benzoqumoue. 



Racemic acid. Stewart. Trans., 91, 1537 (1907). 

„ Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2596 (1913). 
Resorcinol. Hartley. Trans., 53, G41 (1888). 

,, Magini. Atti R. Accad. Lincei, 12, ii. 87 (1903); J. Chim. phys., 2, 

410 (1904). 
Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
„ dimethyl ether. Baly and Ewbauk. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 

Baly and Rice. Trans., 101, 1475 (1912). 
,, monomethyl ether. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 67, 1347 (1905). 

Rcsorchiolbenzein. Medhi and Watson. Trans., 107, 1579 (1915). 
Resorufin. Nichols and Menitt. Phys. Rev., 31, 376 (1910). 
Rosanilme. Hartley. Trans., 51, 153 (1887). 
Rose Bengal. Massol and Faucon. Bull. Soc. Chim., 13, 217 (1913). 

„ „ van der Plaats. Ann. der Phys., 47, 429 (1915). 

Rufigallol. Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1916). 

S 

Safrole. Pfliiger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 

„ Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendinnmg. Trans., 99, 451 (1911). 

isoSafrole. Pfliiger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 

,, Ciymble, Stewart, Wright, and Glendmniug. Trans., 99, 451 (1911). 

Salicme. Hartley aud Huntmgton. Phil. Trans., 170, 1, 257 (1879). 
Salicylaldehyde. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
Baly and Tryhorn, 107, 1121 (1915). 
Salicylaldehydeiihenylmethylhydrazone. Tuck. Trans., 95, 1809 (1909). 
Salicylic acid. See o-Oxybenzoic acid. 
Sandalwood oil. Pfliiger. Phys. Zeit. 10, 406 (1909). 
Serme. Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 

Sodium benzeue-a»U'-azotate. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Solanuie. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
Starch. Hartley. Trans., 51, 58 (1887). 
StUbeue. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 

Crymble, Stewart, and Wright. Ber., 43, 1188 (1910). 
Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1289 (1911). 
„ Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 

Hewitt, Lewcock, and Pope. Trans., 101, 604 (1912). 
Strychnine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OP ORGANIC COMPOUNPS. 173 

Styrene. Baly and Desch. Trans., 93, 1747 (1908). 

,, Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 

Stobbe and Ebert. Ber., 44, 1289 (1911). 
Succinic acid. Stewart. Trans., 91, 199 (1907). 

Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1262 (1911). 
,, ., Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 155, 450 (1912) ; 157, 372 (1913) ; 

Ber., 45, 2819(1912); 46,2590(1913); 47,1690(1914). 
Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913) ; 105, 669 (1914). 
,, sodium salts. Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913) ; 105, 669 (1914). 
Succinimide. Ley and Fischer. Ber., 46, 327 (1913) ; Zeit. anorg. Chem., 82, 329 

(1913). 
p-Sulphobenzeneazodimethylaniline. Hantzsch. Ber., 46, 1537 (1913). 
7)-Sulphobenzenediazohydroxide, salts of. Debbie and Tinkler. Trans , 87, 273 

(1906). 
o-Sulphobenzoic acid. Scheibcr and Knothe. Ber., 45, 2252 (1912). 

,, ,, chloride. Scheiber and Knotlie. Ber., 45, 2252 (1912). 

Sylvestrene. Hantzsch. Ber., 45, 553 (1912). 

,, Stark, Stenbing, Enldaar, and Lipp. Jahrli. Radioak., 10, 139 (1913). 



Tartaric acid. Magini. J. Chini. phj'.s., 2, 410 (1904). 
„ „ Stewart. Trans., 91, 1537 (1907). 

Bielecki and Henri. Ber., 46, 2590 (1913). 
Terephthalic acid. Hartley and Hedley. Trans., 91, 314 (1907). 
Magini. J. Chim," phys., 2, 410 (1904). 
). ,, potassium salt. Hartley and He<lley. Trans., 91, 314 (1907). 

Terpmene. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1202 (1911). 
Terpinolene. Crymble, Stewart, Wright, and Rea. Trans., 99, 1262 (1911). 
Tetraacetylethane. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
Tetraacetylmorphine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
a-Tetrabromo-p-azophenol. Robertson. Trans., 103, 1472 (1913). 
;3-Tetrabromo-p-azophenol. Robertson. Trans., 103, 1472 (1913). 
Tetrabromophenolphthalein. Meyer and Marx. Ber., 41, 2446 (1908). 

>, Meyer and Fischer. Ber., 44, 1944 (1911). 

Tetrachloro-2-aminopyridine. Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
2.3.4.5-Tetrachloropyridme. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (1907). 

Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
Tetrahydrobenzene. Hartley and Dobbie. Trans., 77, 846 (1900). 
,, Zelinsky and Gorsky. Ber., 44, 2312 (1911). 

Tetrahydroberberine. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

.. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126 

Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 105, 1639 (1914). 
1.2.3.4-Tetrahydronaphthalenc. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 

,, Leonard. Trans., 97, 1246 (1910). 

1.2.5.8-Tetrahydronaphthalene. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 93, 1902 (1908). 
Tetrahydropapaverine. Dobbie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 605 (1903). 

.. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 126 

„ Dobbie and Fox. Trans., 105, 1639 (1914). 

Tetrahydroqumoline. Hartley. Trans., 41, 45 (1882) ; 47,685(1885). 
1.2.5.8-Tetrahydroxyanthraquinone. Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1910). 
Tetraiododichlorofluoroscein, sodium salt, van der Plaats. Ann der Phvs 47 4'>0 
(1915). ■ - ■^ ■'■",■*-- 

mm>p'-Tetramethoxy-2.6-diphenylpyrazine. Tutm and Caton. Trans., 97, 2524 

4.4'-Tetramethyldiaminobenzhydrol. Watson and Meek. Trans., 107, 1567 (1915). 
4.4'-Tetramethyldiaminobenzophenone. Baly and Marsden. Trans., 93, 2108 (1908)." 
>. Grandmougin and Favre-Ambrumyan. Ber, 

47, 2127 (1914). 
Tetramethj'lnaphthalene. Homer and Purvis. Trans., 97, 280 (1910). 
Tetranaphthyl. Homer and Purvis. Trans., 93, 1319 (1908). 
Tetranitromethane. Zelinsky and Rosanoff. Zeit. phys. Chem., 78, 629 (1913). 
„ Harper and Macbeth. Trans., 107, 87 (1915). 

„ Macbeth. Trans., 107, 1824 (1915). 



174 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SOIENOE. — 1916, 

Tetraphenj'lquinocliraethane. Heilbron and Henderson. Trans., 103, 1404 (1913). 

Tetraphenylsilicane. Pnrvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1014). 

Tetraphenylthiopurpuric arid. Lifsohitz. Ber., 47. 1008(1914). 

Tetrazine. Koenigsberger and Vogt. Phys. Zei(., 14, 12()0 (1913). 

Thebaiue. Hartley. Phil. Trans. ^ 176, 471 (1885). 

Theobromine. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1790 (1905). 

Thiazime. Pummerer, Eckert, and Gassner. Ber., 47, 1494 (1914). 

,, hydrochloride. Eckert and Pummerer. Zeit. phys. Chem., 87, 699 
(1914). 
Thiazone. Pummerer, Eckert, and Gassner. Ber., 47, 1494 (1914). 
,, Ekert and Pummerer. Zeit. phys. Chem., 87, 599 (1914). 

Thioacetanilide. May. Trans., 103, 2272 (1913). 
Thioacetic acid. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

,, ethyl ester. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

potassium salt. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
riiiobenzamide. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
Thiobenzanilide. May. Trans., 103, 2272 (1913). 
Thiobenzoic acid. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

„ „ methyl ester. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

,, ,, metallic salts. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

Thincarbamido. Macbeth. Stewart, and Wright. Trans., 101, 599 (1912). 
Thioncarhiinic acid, ethyl ester. Pxirvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans,, 97, 2287 
(1910). 
„ ,. phenyl ester. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 

(1910). 
Thionin. Eckert and Pummerer. Zeit. phys. Chem., 87, 599 (1914). 

,, Pummerer, Eckert, and Gassner. Ber., 47, 1494 (1914). 

Thionthiocarbonic acid, ethyl ester. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97. 2287 

(1910). 
Thionylmethylphenylhydrazine. Hutchison and Smiles. Ber., 47, 514 (1914). 
Tliionylphenyliiydrazine. Hutchison and Smiles. Ber., 47, 514 (1914). 
Thiooxalic aciil, ethyl ester. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
Thiophene. Pauer." Ann. der Phys., 61, 303 (JS97). 

,, Hartley and Bobbie. " Trans., 73, 598 (1898). 

Purvis'. Trans., 97, 1048 (1910). 
Thymol. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Wright. Trans., 105, 009 (1914). 
„ sodium .salt. Wright. Trans., 105, 0C9 (1914). 
Thymoquinone. Baly and Stewart. Trans., 89, 502 (1900). 
Tolane. Stobbe and Ebert. Ber.. 44. 1289 (1911). 
m-Tolualdehyde. Purvis. Trans.. 105, 2482 (1914). 
o-Tolualdehyde. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
?)-Tolualdehyde. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
Toluene. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 
Pauer. Ann. der Phys., 61. 363 (1897). 
Baly and Oillie. Trans., 87, 1332 (1905). 
Grebe. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 3, 370 (1905). 

Hartley. Phil. Trans., 208A, 475 (1908) ; Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 299 (1908). 
,, v. Kowal.ski. Bull. Akad. Sci., Cracovie, 1.4, 17 (1910). 

Cremer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 349 (1912). 
Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (191 5). 
Witte. Zeit. wi.ss. Phot., 14, 347 (1915). 
?j-Tolueneazocarbonylcoumaranone. Merriman. Trans., 103, 1845 (1913). 
^)-Tolueneazo-p-cresetole. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 
2)-Tolueneazo-p-cresol. Tuck. Trans., 91, 449 (1907). 

2>Tolueneazodimethylamine. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Tolusnediazo-iJ'-semicarbazinocamphor. For.ster. Trans., 89, 222 (1900). 
o-Toluenesulphonic acid. Scheiber and Knothe. Ber., 45, 2262 (1912). 

„ chloride. Scheiber and Knothe. Ber., 45, 2252 (1912). 
Toluene-p-sulphonyl-1.6-dinitro-;8-naphthvIamine. Morgan, Jobling, and Barnett. 

Trans., 101, 1209 (1912). 
Toluene-2)-sulphonylmethjd-l-nitro-;8-naphthylamine. Morgan, Jobling, and Bar- 
nett. Trans., 101, 1209 (1912). 



ON xVBSOEPTlUJM SPECTKA OF OKUANIU COMPO UND.S. 175 

Toluene-p-sulphonyl-l-nitro-/3-uaphthylamme. Muigan, Jobliug, and Bainctt. 

Trans., 101, 1209 (1912). 
m-Toluic acid. Perkiu and Simonsen. Trans., 91, 840 (1907). 

„ „ Purvis. Trans., 107, 900 (1915). 
ti-Toluic acid. Purvis. Trans., 107, 966 (1915). 
r-Toluic acid. Purvis. Traus., 107, 966 (1915). 
ifi-7M-Toluic acid. Parkin and Simonsen. Trans., 91, 840 (1907). 
Ht-Toluidine. Hartley. Trans., 47, 685 (1885). 

„ Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 

Puivis. Trans., 97, 1546 (1910). 
o-Toluidiue. Hartley. Trans., 47, 685 (1885). 

Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 
„ Purvis. Trans., 97, 1546 (1910). 

,, azo-benzene. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 167 (1915). * 

,, ,, sulphonic acid. Hantzsch. Ber., 48, 167 (1915). 

;>ToIuiclinc. Hartley. Trans., 47, 685 (1885). 

Baly and Ewbairli. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 
Purvis. Trans., 97, 644 (1910). 
,, acetaklehyde condensation compound. Purvis. Trans., 97, 644 (1910). 
a-/j-Toluidino-7-phenylwocrotononitrilc. Tinkler. Trans., 103, 885 (1913). 
v/i-Toluonitrile. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 

Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 
o-Toluonitrile. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 

Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 
/7-Toluonitrile. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 

Purvis. Trans., 107, 496 (1915). 
Toluquinone. Baly and Stewart. Trans., 89, 502 (1906). 
m-Tolyl-2.4-diuitroaniline. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1662(1910). 
o-Tolyl-2.4-dinitroaniline. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1661, 1662 (1910). 
/j-TolyI-2.4-dinitroaniline. Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1662 (1910). 
2-/>Tolyl-ay8-naphthatriazole. Morgan and Micklethwait. Trans., 103, 71 (1913). 
3-/;-Tolyl-a;8-naphthai.sotriazole. Morgan and Micklethwait. Trans , 103 71 

(1913). 
o-Tolylpicramide. Hantzsch and Lister. Ber., 43, 1685 (1910). 
;j-Tolylpicramide. Hantzsch and Lister. Ber., 43, 1685 (1910). 
Triacetic acid, ethyl ester. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
Triacetic lactone. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
Triammoazobenzene. Hartley. Trans., 51, 153 (1887). 
•/>Triaminotriphenylmethanc, derivatives. Formanek. Zcit. Farb Text Chcm 2 

473 (1903). 
Trianliydrotrisdibenzylsilicanediol. Robison and Kipping. Trans., 105, 40 (1914) 
Trianisylcarbinol. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 
Trianisylmethane. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 
Tribenzoin. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 
Tribenzylamme. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 

Tribromobcnzcnc-««ij-azocyanide. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 
Tribromobenzene-«yM-azocyanidc. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912) 
2.4.6. -Tribrumophenol. Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 
Tricarballylic acid. Stewart. Trans., 91, 199 (1907). 

J. „ Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 157, 372 (1913)- Ber 4B 

2596 (1913). ; , .u ., ty. 

Trichloroacetic acid. Hantzsch. Zcit. plivs. Chem., 86, 624 (1914) 
Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 
.. ,, sodium salt. Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 

Trichlorobenzoquiuone. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 618 (1906). 
o-Trichlorofuchsine. Mayer. Ber., 47, 1161 (1914). 
2.4.6-Trichlorophenol. Purvis. Trans., 103, 1638 (1913). 

2.3.4-Trichloropicolinamide. Piuvis. Trans., 95, 294 (1909) ; 103, 2283 (1913) 
2.3.4-Ti-ichloropicolinic acid. Purvis. Trans., 95, 294 (1909). 

.. „ methyl ester. Purvis. Trans., 95, 294 (1909) 

2.3.5-Trichloropyridine. Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 
3.4.5-Trichloropyridme. Baker and Baly. Trans., 91, 1122 (19U7) 
Purvis. Trans., 103, 2283 (1913). 



176 REPORTS OJM THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916, 

Trinhlorotoluquiiioiic. Stewart and Baly. Trans., 89, 018 (190G). 
3.5.7-Triethoxy-2-mp-dietlioxyphenyl-4:-etliyI-1.4-beiizopyranol auliydroliydriodide. 

Watson, Sen, and Medhi. Trans., 107, 1477 (1915). 
3.5.7-Triethoxy-4-o-methoxyphenyl-2-m?j-diethoxyphenyl-1.4-benzopyianol anhydro- 

hydrochloride. Watson, Sen, and Medhi. trans., 107, 1477 (1915). 
Triethylamine. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

,, Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1860 (1913). 

Triethylmelamine. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 (1901). 
Triethyh'somelamine. Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Trans., 79, 848 (1901). 
1.2.3-Trihydroxyanthraquinone. Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1916). 
1.2.4-Triliydroxyanthraquinoue. Meek and Watson. Trans., 109, 544 (1916). 
3.5.7-Trihydroxy-2-mp-dihydroxyphenyl-4-ethyI-1.4-benzopyranol, anhydi-ide, anhy- 
drohydriodide, and anliydrohydrochloride triethyl ether. Watson, Sen, and 
Medlii. Trans., 107, 1477 (1915). 
3.5.7-Trihjrdroxy-2-o;j-dihydroxvphenj'l-4-methvl-l .4-benzopyranol anhydride. Wat- 

son. Sen, and Medhi. Trans., 107, 1477 ("l915). 
1.2.6-Trihydioxynaphtliacenequinone. Baly and Tuck. Trans., 91, 420 (1907). 
Triketohydrindene diphenyl hvdrazone. Purvis. Trans., 99, 1953 (1911). 

hydrate. Purvis. Trans., 99, 1953 (1911). 
Trimethylamme. Hartley and Himtington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 257 (1879). 

,, Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1860 (1913). 

Trimethyldihydropyridincdicarboxylic acid, ethyl ester. Baker and Baly. Tiaiis., 

91, 1122 (1907). 
,, ,, Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. 

Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Trimethvlethylenc. Stark, Steubing, Enklaar, and Lipp. Jahrb. Radioak., 10, 139 

(1913). 
2.4.6-Trimethylpyridine. Purvis. Trans., 97, 692 (1910). 

2.3.5-Trinitroacetylaminoanisole. Meldola and Hewitt. 'J'rans., 103, 876 (1913). 
2.3.6-Trinitroacetylaminoanisole. Meldola and Hewitt. Trans., 103, 876 (1913). 
2.3.5-Trinitro-4-acetylaminophenol. Meidola and Kuntzen. Trans., 97, 444 (1910). 
2.3.5-Trinitroarainoauisole. Meldola and Hewitt. Trans., 103, 876 (1913). 
2.4.6-Trinitroanisole. Buttle and Hewitt. Trans., 95, 1755(1909). 

Baly and Rice. Trans., 103, 2085 (1913). 
1.3.5-Trinitrobenzene. Hantzsch and Picton. Bcr., 42, 2119 (1909). 
„ Hantzsch. Ber., 43, 1662 (1910). 

Baly and Rice. Trans., 103, 2085 (1913). 
,, Pranchimont and Backer. Proc. K. Akad., Amsterdam, 17, 

647 (1914). 
2.3.6-Trinitrodimethyl-)o-toluidine. Morgan and Clayton. Trans., 99, 1941 (1911). 
Trinitromethane. Hedley. Ber., 41, 1195 (1908). 

Hantzsch and Voigt. Ber., 45, 85 (1912). 
Triuitrophenylmalonic acid, ethyl ester. Hantzsch and Picton. Bcr., 42, 2119 

(1909). 
2.4.6-Trinitrophenylpiperidine. Morgan, Moss, and Porter. Trans., 107, 1296 (1915). 
3.4.5-Trinitro-o-xylene. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
3.4.6-Trinitro-o-xylene. Baly, Tuck, and Marsden. Trans., 97, 571 (1910). 
Triphenyl phosphate. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 
Triphenylacetic acid. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 
Triphenjdamine. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907) 
Triphenylcarbmol. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 

Schlenk and Marcus. Ber., 47, 16lj4 (1914). 
Triphenylchloromethane. Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 
Triphenylguanidine. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 
Triphenylmethane. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152 (1887). 
Baker. Trans., 91, 1490 (1907). 
Triphenylphosphine. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 
Tripropylamine. Bielecki and Henri. Compt. rend., 156, 1860 (1913). 
Trithiocarbonio acid, ethyl ester. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 (1910). 
,, ,, phenyl ester. Purvis, Jones, and Tasker. Trans., 97, 2287 

(1910). 
Tri-o-tolyl phosphate. PurvLs, Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 
Tri-p-tolyl phosphate. Purvis. Trans., 105, 1372 (1914). 



ON AliSOItrXION .'>Pi;CTKA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 177 

Tropacolin. Hartley. Trans., 51, 152 (1887). 
a-Truxillio acid. Stobbe. Bcr., 44, 900 (1911). 
Turpentine. Hartley. Trans., 37, 670 (1880). 

Pfliiger. Phys. Zeit., 10, 406 (1909). 
Tyrosine. Hartley and Huntington. Phil. Trans., 170, I. 2.57 (1890). 
„ Soret. Aroli. des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 

U 

Urea. Soret. Arch. de.s Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 

Urethane. Braimigan, Macbeth, and Stewart. Trans., 103, 406 (1913). 

Urethanediazohydroside, salts. Hantzsch and Liischitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 

„ methyl other. Hantzsch and Lifschitz. Ber., 45, 3011 (1912). 

Uric acid. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1790 (1905). 

„ „ Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429(1883). 

„ „ lithium salt. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1790 (1905). 



woValeric acid. Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 

„ sodium salt. Wright. Trans., 103, 528 (1913). 
«- Valeric acid. Bielecki and Hemi. Compt. rend., 156, 550 (1913) ; Ber., 46, 1304 

(1913). 
Vanadium teracetylacetonate. Morgan and Moss. Tran.s., 103, 78 (1913). 

,, terbenzoylacetonatc. Morgan and Moss. Trans., 103, 78 (1913). 

Vanadyl bisacetylacetonate. Morgan and Moss. Trans., 103, 78 (1913). 
„ bisbenzoylacetonate. Morgan and Moss. Trans., 103, 78 (1913). 
,, bismethylacetjdacetonate. Morgan and Moss. Trans., 103, 78 (1913). 
Vanillin. Purvis. Trans., 105, 2482 (1914). 
Veratric acid. Dob bie and Lauder. Trans., 83, 005 (1903). 

,, ,, Hartley, Dobbie, and Lauder. Brit. Ass. Report, 1903, 120. 
Veratrine. Hartley. Phil. Trans., 176, 471 (1885). 
Veratrol. Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1347 (1905). 
Violuric acid. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 

„ sodium salt. Hartley. Trans., 87, 1796 (1905). 



Xanthic acid. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

,, ,, anhydride. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

,, ethyl ester. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 
,, ,, potassium salt. Hantzsch and Scharf. Ber., 46, 3570 (1913). 

Xanthine. Soret. Arch, des Sciences, 10, 429 (1883). 

Xanthochelidonic acid, ethyl ester. Baly, Collie, and Watson. Trans., 95, 144 (1909). 
m-Xylene. Hartley. Trans., 47, 685 (1885). 

Pauer. Ann. der Phys., 61, 363 (1897). 
Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 
Grebe. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 3, 376 (1905). 

Hartley. Phil. Trans., 208a, 475 (1908) ; Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 299 (1908). 
Mies. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 8, 287 (1910). 
Baly and Try horn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
o-Xylene. Hartley. Trans., 47, 685 (1885). 

Pauer. Ann. der Phys., 61, 363 (1897). 
Baly and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 
Grebe. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 3, 376 (1905). 

Hartley. Phil. Trans., 208a, 475 (1908) ; Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 299 (1908). 
Leonard. Trans., 97, 1240 (1910). 
Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
p- Xylene. Hartley. Trans., 47, 685 (1885). 

Pauer. Ann. der Phys., 61, 303 (1897). 
Balv and Ewbank. Trans., 87, 1355 (1905). 
Grebe. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 3, 376 (1905). 

Hartley. Phil. Trans., 208a, 475 (1908) ; Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 299 (1908). 
Mies. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 7, 357 (1909). 
1916 N 



178 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. IDIG. 

p- Xylene v. Kowalski. Bull. Akad. Sci., Cracovie, 1a, 17 (1910). 

Baly and Tryhorn. Trans., 107, 1058 (1915). 
w-2-Xylidine. Purvis. Trans., 97, 644 (1910). 
w-4-Xylidine. Purvis. Trans., 97, 1546 (1910). 

m-Xvlidine, acetaldehyde condensation compound. Purvis. Traus., 97, 644 (1910). 
o-3-Xylidine. Purvis. Trans., 97, 1546 (1910). 
Xyloquinone. Baly and Stewart. Trans., 89, 502 (1906). 

List of Organic Compounds the Absorption of lohioh has been 
examined in the Infra-red, 



Acetaldehyde. Weniger. Pliys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Acetic acid. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Acetone. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Acetonitrile. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Acetylene. Burmeister. Deutsch. Phys. Ges. Verb., 15, 589 (1913). 
,, Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Rubens and v. Wartenberg. Deutsch. Phys. Ges. Verb., 13, 796 (1911). 
Phys. Zeit., 12, 1080 (1911). 
Acetyleugenol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Aconitme. Silence. Astroi^hys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Allyl alcohol. Weniger. Phvs. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Allyl sulphide. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Allyl thiocyanate. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
isoAmyl acetate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Amyl alcohol. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
/soAinyl alcohol. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
tert-Amyl alcohol. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
isoAmyl butyrate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
isoAmyl tsobutyrate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
MoAmyl formate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
woAmyl propionate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
tsoAmyl isovalerate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Aniline. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie lust., 35 (1905). 
Anisole. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Atropine. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 

B 

Balladonna. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Benzaldehyde. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 ( 1905). 
Benzene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35, 1905. 
V. Bahr. Ann. der Phys., 33, 585 (1910). 
Angstrom. Ark. Blat. Astron. oJh Fysik, Stockholm, 8, No. 26, 1 (1913). 
Benzoic acid. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39. 243 (1914). 
Benzonitrile. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (19l'5). 
Brucine. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 30, 243 ( 1914). 
Butane. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie I)ist., 35 (1905). 
isoButyl acetate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31. 388 (1910). 
Butyl alcohol. Weniger. Phvs. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
woButyl alcohol. Weniger Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
sec-Butyl alcohol. Wenige-. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Butvl butyrate. Weniger.'' Phvs. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Butyric acid. Weniger. Phvs. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
i^oButyric acid. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 

Caproic acid. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
tsoCaproic acid. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905) 
Capryl alcohol. AVeniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910), 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 179 

Carbon bisulphide. Rubens and v. Wartenberg. 'Deutsch. Phys. Oes. Verb., 13, 790 

(1911). 
Carbon tetrachloride. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Carvacrol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Cerotic acid. C^oblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Chlorobenzene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Chloroform. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Cliloroheptadeeane. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Chlorotridecane. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Cinchonidine. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Cocaine. Spence. Astrophys. .lourn., 39. 243 (1014). 

,, hydrochloride. Spence. Astrophys. Jnum., 39, 243 (1914). 
Codeine. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Coniine. Spence. Astrophys. Joum., 39, 243 (1914). 
Cumene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Cumenol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Cyanine. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie lust., 35 (1905). 

Cyanogen. Rubens and v. Wartenberg. Dcutsch. Phys. Ges. Verb., 13, 79C (1911) ; 
Phys. Zeit., 12, 1080 (1911). 
Burmeister. Deutsch. Phys. Ges. Verb., 15, 589 (1913). 
Cymene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

D 

Decylene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Diethyl oxalate. Weniger. Phys. Rev. 31, 388 (1910). 
Diethyl succinate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Dimethylaniline. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie last., 35 (1905). 
Diphenyl. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Dodecane. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Dodecylene. Ciblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

E2 

Ecgonine hydrochloride. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Eserine. Spence. Astrophj's. Journ,, 39, 243 (1914). 
Ethane. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Ethyl acetate. Weniger. Pliys.' Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Ethyl alcohol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
,, ,, Rubens and v. Wartenberg, Deutsch. Phys. Ges. Verb., 13, 790 

„ (1911). Phys. Zeit., 12, 1080 (1911). 
,, ,, Angstrom. Arlc. Mat. Astron. och Fysik, Stockholm, 8, No. 20, 1 

(1913). 
Ethyl butyrate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Ethyl cyanide. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Ethyl ether. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Rubens and V. Wartenberg. Deutsch. Phy.s. Ges. Verb., 13,790 (1911) ; 

Phys. Zeit., 12, 1080 (1911). 
V. Baiir. Ann. der Phys., 38, 200 (1912). 
Ethyl hydrosulphide. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Ethyl iodide. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Ethyl malonate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31. 388 (1910). 
Ethyl oxalate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Ethyl propionate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Ethyl succinate. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Ethyl sulphate. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Ethyl sulphide. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Ethyl thiocyanate. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Ethyl f'sothiocyanate. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Ethylene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Rubens and v. Wartenberg. Deutsch. Phys. Ges. Verb., 13, 790 (1911) ; 
Phys. Zeit., 12, 1080 (1911). 
Ethylene bromide. Coblentz. Pul). Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

N 2 



180 REP')RTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — lOlfi. 

Ethylene glycol. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
/3-Eucaine. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Eucalyptol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Eiigenol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

G 

Glycerine. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905), 
Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 

H 

ITexadeeane. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Hexirlecylene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Hexane. O^bleutz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Homatropine. Spence. Asti-ophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 

Hydrogen cyanide. Burmeister. Deutsch. Phys. Ges. Vcrh., 15, .589 (1913), 

I 

Iodoform. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

li 

Limonene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

M 

Menthol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Mesitylene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Methane. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie In?t., 35 (1905). 
V. Bahr., Ann. der Phys., 33, 585 (1910). 

Rubens and v. Wartenbers;. Deutscli. Phys. Ges. Verb., 13, 790 (1911). 
V. Bahr., Ann. der Phys., '38, 200 (1912). 
Methyl acetatr. Cbblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1005). 
Weniger, Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
„ Callow, Lewis, and Nodder. Trans., 109, 55 (1910). 

Methyl alcohol, v. Bahr., Ann. der Phys , 33, 585 (1910). 
Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Angstrom. Ark. Mat. Astron. och Fj'sik, Stockholm, 8, No. 20, I 
(1913). 
Methyl butyrate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Methyl t.sobutyrate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Methyl carbonate. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Methyl chloride. Rubens and v. Wartenberg. Deutsrh. Phys. Ges. Vcrh., 13, 790 

(1911); Phys. Zeit., 12, 1080 (1911). 
Methyl cyanide. See Acetonitrile. 

Methyl ether. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst. 35 (1905). 
Methyl hexyl carbinol acetic ester. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Methyl iodide. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Methyl propionate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Methyl salicylate. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Methyl thiocyanate. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Methyl fsothiocyanate. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905) 
Methyl w-ovalerate. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Methylaniline. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Myricyl alcohol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

N 

Narcotine. Spence, Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Nicotine. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (l914). 
Nitrobenzene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905), 
Nitroethane. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Nitromethane. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
^-Nitrosodimethylaniline. C.iblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
o-Nitrotoluene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
p-Nitrotoluene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 



ON ABSORFTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 181 



Octiidecaiie. CobliMitz. Pub. Ciiruegio Inst., 35 (190.")). 
Octadecyleuo. Cobk'iilz. Pub. Cainegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Octane. Cobleutz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Oleic acid. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 



Paraldehyde. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905j. 

Pentadecylene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie List., 35 (1905). 

Pentanc. Rubens and v. Wartcnberg. Deutsch. Phys. Ges. Verb., 13, 79G (1911) 

Phys. Zeit., 12, 1080 (1911). 
Phenol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Phenyl acetate. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Phenyl Mustard Oi). Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Phenyl thiocyanate. C^iblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
o-Picoline. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

,, Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39. 243 (1914). 

Pilocarpine. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Puiene. Coblentz. Pub. Caniegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Piperidine. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Piperine. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Propionitrile. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst.. No. 35 (1905). 
Propyl alcohol. Wcniger. Phvs. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
sccPropyl alcohol. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Propylene glycol. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388 (1910). 
Pyridine. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Pyrrol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Q 

Quuiidine. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Quinoline. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 
Qumine. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 

,, sulphate. Spence. Astrophys. Journ., 39, 243 (1914). 

R 

Resin. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

S 

Safrole. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Sodium ethoxide. Weniger. Phys. Rev., 31, 388(1910). 
Stearic acid. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 



Terpineol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Tetrachloroethylene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Tetracosane. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Tetracosylene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Thiophene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie List., 35 (1905). 
Thymol. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Toluene. ^ Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

,, Angstrom. Ark. Mat. Astron. oeh Fysik, Stockholm, 8, No. 20, 1 (1913). 
o-Toluidine. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Triethylamme. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie lust., 35 (1905). 

V 

>i- Valeric acid. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 
Venice turpentine. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 



182 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 191(j. 



o-Xylene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

m-Xylene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

^> Xylene. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

Xylidine. Coblentz. Pub. Carnegie Inst., 35 (1905). 

List of Organic Compounds of tohich the Fluorescence or Phosphorescence 
has beefi Measured. 



Acetanilide. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
a-Acetnapbthalide. Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 
/3-Acetnaphthalide. Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 
Acetone. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 001 (1908). 

Gelbke. Phys. Zeit., 13, 584 (1912). 
Acetophenone. Goldstein. Deutsch. Phys. Ges. Verb., 12, 37(1 (1910). 
o-Aminobenzaldehyde. Baly and Ki-ulla. Trans., 101, 1409 (1912). 
a-Amiuonicotinic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. Phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
o-Aminopyridine. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. Phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Aniline. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

„ Ley and v. Engelhardt. 'Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 956 (1911). 
„ Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 166 (1912). 

Anilinoacetic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
o-Anisidine. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
f-Anisidine. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Aaisole. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

Baly and Eice. Trans., 101, 1476 (1912). 
Anthracene. Elston. Astrophys. Jour., 25, 155 (1907). 

„ V. Kowalski. Comptes Rendus, 145, 1270 (1907). 

„ Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 

„ Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 

„ McDowel. Phya. Rev., 26, 155 (1908). 

„ Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

„ Stevenson. J. Phj's. Chem., 15, 845 (1911). 

Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 166 (1912). 
Anthranilic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. ph3's. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Anthranol. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

„ Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 160 (1912). 

Anthraquinone. v. Kowalski. Comptes Rendus, 145, 1270 (1907). 
Azodicarbonamide. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 661 (1908). 
Azodicarboxylic acid, potassium salt. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 661 ( 1908). 



Benzamide. L'^y and v. Engelliardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
o-Benzbetain. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Benzene. Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 

„ Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908\ 

„ Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem,, 74, 1 (1910). 

„ V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 956 (1911). 

„ Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 166 (1912). 

Benzenesulphonic acid. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (190S)\. 
Benzil. Stirk and Steubing. Phj's. Zeit., 9, 66l'(1908). 
Benzoic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910)L 

,, „ V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12,956(1911). 

Benzonitrile. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phvs. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

„ V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 956 (1911). 

Benzophenone. Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908>. 
„ Goldstein. Deutsch. Phys. Ges. Verb., 12, 37b (1910). 



ON ABSCRl'TION SPECTRA OF ORCANIO COMPOUNDPi 183 

Benzoyl acetone. Ley and v. Engelhardt.. Zeit. phys. Cliem., 74, 1 (1010). 
Benzyl alcohol. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit.. phj's. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 
Benzyl chloride. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 
Benzyl cyanide. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phj's. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 
Benzylamine. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phy.s. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 

V. Kowalski. Phy.'?. Zeit., 12, 950 (1911). 
Bromobenzene. Stark and Stenbing. Phy.?. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phj^s. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

C 

Camphor. Stark and Steubing. Phj-s. Zeit., 9, COl (1908). 

Camphorquinone. Stark and Stenbing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 001 (1908). 

Catechol. Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8^ 250 (1907). 

?ft-Chloroaniline. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). "' ' 

o-Chloroaniline. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

^-Chloroaniline. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. ph5's. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

Chlorobenzene. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1008). 

„ Goldstein. Deutsch. Phys. Ges. Verb., 12. 370 (1910). 

„ Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910)- 

o-Chloropheno4. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
o-Chlorotoluene. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. ])hys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
p-Chlorotohiene. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Cliem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Cinnaraic acid. Ley and v. EngeThardt. Zeit. phy.s. Chem,, 74, 1 (1010). 
Col'idinedicarboxvlic acid, ethyl ester. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys, Chem. 

74, 1 (1910).^ 
>n-Cresol. Ley and y. Engelhardt. Zeit. phy.s. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

„ V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 950 (1911). 

m-Cresol methyl ether, v. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 050 (1911). 
o-Cresol. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 

V. Kowalski. Phy.s. Zeit., 12, 950 (1911). 
o-Ci-esol methyl ether, y. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 950 (1911). 
jj-Cresol. Ley and y. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 

v.'Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 0.50 (1911). 
p-Cresol methyl ether, v. Kowalski. Phj-s. Zeit., 12, 950 (1911). 
i^-Cumene. v. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit.. 12", 950 (1911). 
Cymene. y. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 9.50 (191 1). 



Diacetyl. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 001 (1008). 

„ Gelbke. Phj-s. Zeit., 12, 584 (1912). 

Dibenzyl. Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot.. 6, 305 (1908). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9. 481 (1908). 
Dibromoanthracene. Fischer. Zeit. "wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 
jo-Dibromobenzene. Ley and y. Engelhardt. Zcit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
p-Dichlorobenzene. Ley and y. Engelhardt. Zeit. jihvs. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Diethyl ketone. Stark and Steubing. Pliys. Zeit., 9," 001 (1908). 
Dihj'droanthracene. Stevenson. J. Ph3's. Chem., 15, 845 (1911). 
Dihydrocollidinedicarboxylic acid, ethyl ester. Ley and y. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. 

Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
p-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. Baly and Krulla. Trans., 101, 1469 (1912). 
Dimethyl aniline. Ley and y. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 
Dimethylanthranilic acid. Ley and y. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 
Dimethylfulvene. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 001 (1908). 
o-Dimethyltoluidine. Ley and y. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
7j-Dimethyltoluidinc. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910), 
3'0-Dioxyxanthone. Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 

„ Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908), 

Diphenyl. Fischer. Zeit. wi.ss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phos., 10, 100 (1912). 
Diphenyl ketone. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, OGl (1908). 
Diphenylamine. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9. 481 (1908). 
„ Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 181 (1912). 



184 - REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — lOlH. 

Diphenylmefhane. Stark and Stenbing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, KiG (1912). 
Durene. Stark and Steubiiig. Phys. Zeil-., 9, 481 (1908). 

E 

Eosin. Nichols and Merritt. Phys. Rev., 31, 381 (1910). 
Ethyl benzoate. Ley and v. Engelliardt. Zeit. phys. Cliem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Ethylaniline. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74. 1 (1910). 
Ethylbenzene. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. ph^'s. CHiem., 74, 1 (1910). 

V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 95(i (1911). 
Ethylenecyanidemonooxalic acid, ethyl ester. Gelbke. Phys. Zeit., 13, 584 (1912). 



Fluorane. Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 

Stark and Stenbing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Fluorescein. Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 

Kaempf. Phj-s. Zeit., 12, 761 (1911). 

Mccklenberg and Valentiner. Phys. Zeit., 15, 267 (1914). 
Fluorobenzene. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (19l0), 

H 

Hexamethylbenzene. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem,, 74, 1 (1910). 
Hydrocinnamic acid. See yS-Phenylpropionic acid. 
Hydroqninone. See Quinol. 

I 

lodobenzene. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

Ley and v. Engelhardt. "Zeit. phj's. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

M 

Mandelic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. ph,ys. Cliem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Mercnrjrdiphenyl. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Mesitylene. Stark anil Stenbing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 48i (1908). 

V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit", 12, 976 (1911). 

Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 106 (1912). 
Mesitylenic acid, (loldstein. Deiitsch. Pliys. Ges. Veih., 12, .176 (1910). 
Methyl ethyl ketone. Stark and Steubing." Phys. Zeit., 9, 661 (1908). 
Methylanthracene. Stark and Steubing. " Phys." Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Methylanthianilic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
o-Methyloxybenzoic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
p-Methyloxybcnzoic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1(1910). 

N 

Naphthalene. Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 
Plscher. Zeit. wiss. Phot.. 6, 305 (1908). 
Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
„ Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phj'S. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

„ Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 166 (1912). 

a-Naphthol. Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 181 (1912). 
)3-Naphthol. Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 181 (1912). 
Naphthonitrile. Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, .305 (1908). 
n-Naphthylamine. Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 181 (1912). 
;S-Naphthvlamine. Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908), 
Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 181 (1912). 



ON ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 185 

Nitroaniline. Dzicrzlicki and v. Kowalski. Bull. Akad. 8ci., Cracovie, 5, 724 (1909). 
o-Nitroaniline. hey and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phya. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Nitrobenzene. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phy.s. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
o-Nitrophenol. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phj's. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
p-Nitrophenol. Lej' and v. Engelhardt. 7°it. phy.*?. Chem., 74, I (1910). 



Oxalosuccinonitrile. Celbke. Phys. Zeit., 12, 584 (1011). 

)n-Oxybenzoic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 950 (1911). 
o-Oxybenzoic acid. Ley and v. Engolliardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

V. kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 950 (1911). 
p-Oxybenzoic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 9.56 (1911). 
Oxyhydroquinone. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 



Phenanthrene. Elston. Astrophys. Journ., 25, 155 (1907). 

V. Kowalski. Comptes rendus, 145, 1270 (1907). 
Stark and Meyer. Pliys. Zeit.. 8, 250 (1907). 
Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 
Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 16(5 (1912). 
Phenol. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

Ley and v. Engelhardt. 'Zeit. Phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
V. Kowalski. Phy.s. Zeit., 12, 95(i (1911). 
Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 181 (1912). 
Phenolphthalein. Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Phenoxylacetic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Phenylacetic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

V. Kowalski. Pliys. Zeit., 12, 9.50 (1911). 
Phenylacetylene. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Phenylamidoacetic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Phenylpropiolic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
/3-Phenylpropionic acid. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Phenyltrimetliylamraonium chloride. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem. 

74, 1 (1910). 
Phenyltrimethylammonium iodide. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem. 

74, 1 (1910). 
Phloroglucinol. Stark and Steubing. Phvs. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Phorone. Stark and Steubing Phys. Ze'it., 9, 661 (1908). 
Phthalamide. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Phlhalic acid. Stark and Mej'er. Phys. Zeit., 8, 2,50 (1907). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Ley and v. Engelhardt. "Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Phthalic ahlehyde. Goldstein. Deutsch. Phys. Ges. Verb., 12, 376 (1910). 
Phthalic anhj'dride. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Phthalide. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Propylbenzene. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 

V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 956 (1911). 
Pyridine. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phvs. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
Pyrocatechoi. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Pyrogallol. Stark and Steubing. Phys.' Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Pyruvic acid. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 661 (1908). 

Q 

Quinine sidphate. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 181 (1912). 
Quinol. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot , 10, 181 (1912). 
Quinol diraethylether. Baly and Rice. Trans., 101, 1475 (1912). 



186 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 191G. 

Quinnline. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit,., 9, 481 (1908). 

,, Ley and v. Engelhardt.. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 

Dickson. Zeit. wi.ss. Phot., 10, 181 (1912). 
isoQuinoline. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Cliem., 74, 1 (19101, 
Quinone. Stark and Meyer. Phy.?. Zeit., 8, 2.50 (1907). 
Qninonephthalein. Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 

„ Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 



Resorcin. Stark and Meyer. Phy.s. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 

„ Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

Resorcinol dimethylcther. Baly and Rice. Trans., 101, 1475 (19121. 
Resorufin. Wick. Phys. Zeit., 8, 081 (1907) ; 8, 002 (1907). 

„ Nichols and Merritt. Phys. Rev. 31, .381 (1910). 

S 

Styrol. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phy.s. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 

T 

Tetrahydroquinoline. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit, phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 

50/) -Tetramethyldiamiuobenzophenone. Baly and KruUa. Trans., 101, 1400(1912), 

Tetramethyldiaminoxanthone. Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
Toluene. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, I (1910). 

V. Kowalski. Phya. Zeit., 12, 9.50 (1011). 

Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 100 (1012). 
m-Toluic acid. (Joldstein. Deutsch. Phys. (!es. Verb., 12, 370 (1010). 

„ „ V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 050 (1011 ) 
o-Toluic acid. v. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 0,5G (1011). 
p-Toluic acid. v. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 950 (1911). 
w-Toluidine. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 
o-Toluidine. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 
p-Toluidine. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1010). 
o-Tolunitrile. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. phys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
7)-Tolunitrile. Ley and v. Engelhardt. Zeit. pliys. Chem., 74, 1 (1910). 
m-Toluonitrile. v. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 0,50 (191 1). 
o-Toluonitrile. v. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 0.50 (1911). 
/j-Toluonitrile. v. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 050 (1911). 
Triphenylamine. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1008). 
Triphenylcarbinol. Baly and KiiUla. Trans., 101, 1409 (1912). 
Triphenylmethane. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1008). 
„ Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Pliot., 10, KiO (1912). 



Xanthone. Stark and Meyer. Phys. Zeit., 8, 250 (1907). 

Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 
m- Xylene. Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1008). 

V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 9.50 (1911). 

Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 10() (1012). 
o-Xylene. Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1008). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

V. Kowalski. Phy.s. Zeit., 12, 950 (1911). 

Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 100 (1912). 
p-Xylene. Fischer. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 6, 305 (1908). 

Stark and Steubing. Phys. Zeit., 9, 481 (1908). 

V. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 9.5G (1911). 

Dickson. Zeit. wiss. Phot., 10, 100 (1912). 
l.4.5-Xylenol. v. Kowalski. Phys. Zeit., 12, 056 (1911). 



UN FUEL ECONOMY. 187 



Fuel Ecoiiomij. — First lit port of ilic Committee, consisting of 
Professor W. A. Bone* {Cliairman), Mr. E. D. Simon* 
(Secretary), the Et. Hon. Lord Allerton,* Mr. Egbert 
Armitagb, Professor J. O. Arnold, Mr. J. A. F. 
AspiNALL, Mr. A. H. Barker, Professor P. P. Bedson, 
Sir G. T. Beilby,* Sir Hugh Bell,* Mr. E. Bury, 
Dr. Charles Carpenter,* Dr. Dugald Clerk,* Professor 
H. B. Dixon, Dr. J. T. Dunn,* Mr. S. Z. de Ferranti, 
Dr. William GtALLOWay, Professor W. W. Haldane Gee, 
Professor Thos. Gray, Mr. T. Y. Greener,* Sir Egbert 
Hadfield,* Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw,* Mr. D. H. Helps, 
Mr. Greville Jones, INIr. W. W. Lackie, Mr. Michael 
LoNGRiDGE, Dr. J. W. Mellor, Mr. C. H. Merz,* Mr. 
Egbert Mund,* Mr. Bernard Moore, Hon. Sir Charles 
Parsons,* Sir Eichard Eedmayne,* Professor Eipper. 
Professor L. T. O'Shea, Mr. E. P. Sloan, Dr. J. B. 
Stead,* Dr. A. Strahan,* Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, Mr. 
Benjamin Talbot, Professor E. Threlfall, Mr. G. Blake 
Walker, Dr. E. V. Wheeler, Mr. B. W. Winder, 
Mr. W. B. Woodhguse, Professor W. P. Wynne, and 
Mr. H. James Yates,* appointed for the investigation of 
Fuel Economy, the Utilisation of Coal, and Smoke 
Prevention. 

Introduction. 

The national aspects of fuel economy may be considered from two 
somewhat different standpoints, namely, (1) in view of the economic 
situation created by the war, which will necessitate the general adop- 
tion of more scientific methods in the future development and utilisa- 
tion of the nation's mineral reserves, and (2) in view of that remoter, 
but possibly not far distant, future when our available coal supplies 
will be restricted by approaching exhaustion. In approaching its task 
the Committee decided that it could best serve the national interest by 
concentrating its attention upon the more immediate aspect of the 
problem. 

It can hardly be questioned that the chief material basis of the great 
industrial and commercial expansion of this country during the past 
century has been its abundant supplies of easily obtainable coal, which, 
until recent years, has given us a position of advantage over all other 
countries. It is also equally true that we can no longer claim any 
advantage in this respect over our two closest competitors. 

There can be little doubt but that up to the present we have been 
wasteful and improvident in regard to our methods of getting and 
utilising coal, and that not only are great economies in both these 

NoTB. — *Douotes a member of the Executive Committee. 



188 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



directions atlainable, but also that the question of the general adoption 
of more scientific methods in regard to these matters is one of vital 
importance, in view of the trying period of economic recuperation 
which will immediately succeed the war. 

For some years before the war the average price of coal at the pit- 
head had been decidedly on the up-grade, owing chiefly to deeper 
workings, higher wages, and greater precautions for ensuring the safety 
of the mines. The result of the great coal strike of 1912, and the 
legislation which it provoked, was to accentuate this tendency. And 
if, as seems probable, prices continue to rise for some time after the 
war at an accelerated rate, as compared with the pre-war period, the 
question of the best utilisation of fuels will be of increasing importance 
to the nation. 

If anything ought to arouse public opinion to the gravity of the 
situation, it is surely afforded by the statistics published in the Eeport 
upon the World's Coal Eesources, issued by the International 
Geological Congress in the year 1913. According to this estimate, the 
geographical distribution of the world's total possible and probable 
reserves of coal of all kinds available within 6,000 feet of the surface 
(amounting in all to 7,397,553 million metrio tons) may be represented 
diagrammatically as follows : 



OCEANIA=2-4 & A F R I C A = O • 8 




^EUROPE = lOSyy 

'7//////////////////////// ////////////////A 



AS lA = 17-3 




Percentages of World's Total Coal Eeserves. 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 



189 



51-8 



u 
< 




235 


AFRICA 89 


INDIA 




LU 


AUSTRALIA 




cc 




acL 


< 




a 


UJ 

—1 


< 


<X 


z 


He/) 

o — 


< 


ni- 


o 


ce 




G^'BRITAIN 



CANADA GT3RITA1N AUSTRALIA 

Percentages of Woeld's Total Coal Eeserves. 



The fact that the available reserves of coal in Great Britain only 
amount to about one-fortieth, whilst those of the whole Empire do not 
amount to more than about one-fourth, of the world's estimated total, 
is one which ought to be brought home to everyone responsible for tlie 
economic development of our national and imperial resources, especially 
in view of the fact that the United States, whose competition in the 
immediate future will probably be much more severely felt than ever 
before, possesses more than half the estimated world's coal, and that 
also in regard to the two prime considerations of quality and cost 
of production she probably compares favourably with Great Britain 
and the Empire. 

Moreover, it may be pointed out that in the United States both the 
Government and the University of Illinois have, for some years past, 
conducted numerous important chemical investigations and large-scale 
trials upon the character of the principal American coal seams and 
their adaptation for various economic ends, and that, in consequence, 
American manufacturers have at their disposal much more complete 
and systematic information about their country's coal resources than 
is at present possessed by their British competitors. Also, the United 
States Government, which is continually extending its policy of the 
conservation of its natural resources, has already taken legislative 
steps to prevent the premature exploitation of the coalfields of Alaska. 



190 



REPOBTS OK THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 19] 6. 



Nor has Canada lagged behind lier neighbour, as is proved by the 
recent exhaustive ' Investigation of the Coals of Canada witli refei'ence 
to their Economic Qualities,' conducted at the McGill University, 
Montreal, under the authority of the Dominion Government, and 
published in the years ]912 and 1913 by the Department of Mines in 
six imposing volumes. No such comprehensive investigations have ever 
been undertaken in this country, where they are much needed. The 
Committee is of opinion that the example of the United States and 
Canada might be followed with advantage to the industrial community 
by the Government of Great Britain, and that representations should 
be made with the object of inducing the Government to provide adequate 
funds in aid of further researches and investigations upon the chemical 
character of the principal British coal seams, the best means for their 
future development in the national interest, and upon problems of fuel 
economy, including the utilisation of all the by-products obtainable 
from coal. 

The rapid increase during recent years in the world's demands for 
coal is shown by the following approximate figures covering the ten 
years' period immediately preceding the outbreak of war: — 

Approximate total 
Year Millions of Tons 

1903 800 

1908 1,000 

1913 1,250 

From these figures it would appear tliafc, during the period in 
question, the world's demands have continuously increased at a com- 
pound int.erest rate of nearly 5 per cent, per annum. Another 
important fact is that these demands have been principally met by 
three countries, namely, the United States, Great Britain, and Ger- 
many, which, between them, have hitherto annually raised 83 per cent, 
of the total anthracite and l)ituminous coals consumed in the world. 
This being so, it is of interest to compare the relative rates of increase 
in the coal productions of these three countries during recent years, 
which may best be deduced from a comparison of quinquennial averages 
over a period of fifteen j^ears, from 1900-1914 inclusive, as follows: — 



Cnal PrnctucilonR nj the United Staies, Great Britain, and Cermany- 
Quinqvennial Averages 1900 to 1914. 



Period 


Millions of Tons per annum 


United States 


Great Britain 


Germ an J' l 


1900-04 . 
1905-09 . 
1910-14 . 


288-2 
400-5 
519-2 


226-8 
256-0 
269-9 


112-5 

139-8 
168-3 



' Excluding Lignites and Brown Coals. 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 11)1 

Prom these figures it may be inferred that up to the outbreak of 
the war the coal output of the United States was increasing annually 
at a compound interest rate of about 6 per cent., that of Germany at a 
compound rate of about 4 per cent., whilst the British output was 
increasing at a compound rate of 2 per cent. only. During the period 
1910-14 the United States produced nearly twice as much coal as 
Great Britain, and, assuming that these relative rates of increase are 
maintained after the war, it may be predicted that Germany's output 
of coal will overtake that of Great Britain about twenty years hence, 
when each country will be producing some 420,000,000 tons per annum. 

The public cannot be too often reminded that not only is coal of 
piime importance as a fuel, but also that, when suitably handled by 
the chemist, it yields very valuable by-products, which are the raw 
materials of important industries. Thus from coal-tar, and other by- 
products of its distillation, are obtained the raw materials for the 
nranufacture of both synthetic dyes and drugs and certain high explo- 
sives. Another important by-product obtainable is ammonia in the 
form of sulphate, which is chiefly used as a fertiliser in the production 
of foodstuffs. The use of artificial fertilisers, including ammonium 
sulphate, by agriculturists in Great Britain is still in its infancy, and 
the near future ought to see a large expansion in the home demands 
for nitrogenous fertilisers. 

Among other products obtainable by the low-temperature distillation 
of coal are liquid hydrocarbons of the paraffin and naphfchene series, 
and it is probable that large quantities of ' motor spirit ' could be 
manufactured in this country from coal. There is no doubt that we in 
this country have not been sufficiently alive to the importance of 
recovering such by-products from the raw coal raised in our mines, 
and that we have been very much behind Germany in this respect. 
Thus, for example, whilst in the coking industry modern by-produco 
recovery plants had been universally installed years ago throughout 
Germany, we were, in 1913, still carbonising about six and a half 
million tons of coal annually for metallurgical coke in old-fashioned 
bee-hive ovens. Also, whereas our total production of ammonium 
sulphate from coal was in 1913 about 318,000 tons, Germany produced 
nearly half a million tons from a very much smaller output of coal. 

The community needs to be reminded that, at least so far as this 
country is concerned, progress in fuel economy involves something 
more than increased thermal efficiency in respect of power production 
and of heating operations generally, important as these undoubtedly 
are. It also involves the whole question of the better utilisation of 
our coal, including the recovery of by-products and the consequent 
abolition of the smoke nuisance, which at present, directly and in- 
directly, costs the country many millions of pounds per annum. 

There are two outstanding features in the history of the British coal 
trade to which the Committee desires to draw attention. One is the 
i-emarkably steady increase in the total output of our mines, which, 
since 1870, has been maintained at an almost uniform compound 
interest rate of 2 per cent, per annum, as the following table of quin- 
quennial averages over a period of forty-five years — 1870-1914 — shows : 



192 



EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ^1916. 



BrilislL OiUputs of Coal 1870-1914. 

Coal Production i)i Great Britain — Quinquennial Averages, 

1870 to 1914 — Millions of Tons per Annum. 







Calculated at 2 


Proportion of 


Period 


Average Output 


per cent. Com- 


Total Output 




1 


pound Interest 


Exported 


1870-74 . 


121-5 


121-5 


0-13 


1875-79 . 


133-G 


131-1 


0-146 


1880-84 . 


156-4 


148-1 


0-172 


1885-89 . 


165-2 


163-5 


0-200 


1890-94 . 


180-3 


180-5 


0-220 


1895-99 . 


2020 


199-3 


0-237 


1900-04 . • 


226-8 


220-1 


0-27 


1905-09 . 


2560 


243-0 


0-31 


1910-14 . 


269-9 

1 


268-2 


0-326 i 



The second feature is the phenomenal growth of our export trade, 
which, during the past sixty years, lias increased something like twenty- 
fold, hotli as regards the quantities and the values of coal exported. 
Moreover, its value relative to other values exported has, during the 
same period, increased fourfold, until at the outbreak of war it con- 
stituted about 10 per cent, of our total export-ed values. We were then 
actually transacting over 70 per cent, of the total sea-borne coal trade 
of the world. It must, however, be borne in mind that a considerable 
proportion of the exported coal supplies the needs of our mercantile 
marine. 

Another circumstance which demands attention is the fact that the 
proportion of the coal raised annually in the United Kingdom which 
is exported has been doubled within the past thirty-five years, trebled 
within half a century, and is still increasing. Three factors have 
operated in producing this result. One is the proximity of the finest 
coalfields to our ports, another is the increased demands for coal from 
Europe and South America, while a third has been the phenomenal 
growth of om- mercantile marine. 

The foregoing figures for the total outputs of om* mines by no ' 
means represent the real rate of depletion of our available coal reserves. 
A vast amount of usable coal is left behind in the mine because, 
under present individualistic conditions, it does not pay to bring it to 
the surface. A larger profit on the capital of a colliery company can 
often be earned by working the better classes of coal and leaving the 
less valuable grades underground. According to figures issued in the 
Eeport of the 1905 Eoyal Commission on Coal Supplies, this wastage 
amounted to nearly 25 per cent, of the total raised in the larger coal- 
fields. The question of checking this wastage by finding out in what 
ways the less valuable grades can be turned to good account commer- 
cially is one of supreme national importance, and the Committee desires 
to draw special attention to it. Much of the coal now left behind in 
the mines ought to be converted into useful forms of energy and 
products for public purposes, and one of the most important aspects 
of the fuel- economy problem in Great Britain is the devising and 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 193 

organising of means for making it possible to raise this hitherto wasted 
coal at an economic advantage. 

So much for the general statistics of coal production. Coming now 
to the possible saving in the coal consumed annually in this country at 
the outbreak of the war (nearly 200,000,000 tons), it will be remembered 
that the 1905 Royal Commission on Coal Supplies found that the 
possible saving in our then annual coal consumption (167,000,000 tons) 
amounted to between forty and sixty million tons. There are many 
competent judges who consider that, notwithstanding the improved 
apparatus which has been put into use in the best factories throughout 
the country during the last ten years, the average result obtained for 
the country as a whole still lags behind the best obtainable to-day in as 
great a proportion as it did in 1905. It will be the business of this 
Committee (1) to estimate as nearly as may be the present possible 
margin of saving, and (2) to point out the particular directions in which 
it can be attained from a national point of view. 

Organisation of the Committee's Work. 

Having regard to the magnitude of its work, and the fact that the 
coal question is one upon which almost every branch of manufacturing 
and transport industry is dependent, the original Committee of thirteen 
members appointed by the Association in October 1915 decided to 
exei'cise somewhat freely its powers of co-option, so as to make a 
General Committee sufficiently large and representative of all the 
important interests involved. 

For the more detailed and special study of particular aspects of the 
fuel question the enlarged General Committee resolved itself into the 
following five Sub-Committees, each of which subsequently elected its 
own Chairman and, subject to its reporting from time to time to the 
General Committee, proceeded to make such arrangements as seemed 
best for the prosecution of its work : — 

(a) Chemical and Statistical. 

(b) Carbonisation. 

(c) Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Refractory Materials. 

(d) Power and Steam Raising. 

(e) Domestic Heating and Smoke Prevention. 

The General Committee next appointed an Executive Committee, 
composed of the Chairman and Secretai'y of ilie General Committee, 
the Chairman of each Sub-Committee {ex officio), and twelve other 
members, which could meet frequently in London for the discussion 
of matters relative to the organisation and co-ordination of the work of 
the Committee as a whole, to deal with matters arising out of the 
proceedings of the Sub-Committees which might require immediate 
action or decision, and to receive and consider communications either 
from Government Departments or Technical Associations concerning 
subjects under investigation by the Committee. 

The General Committee has met in London four times since its 
appointment in October 1915, the various Sub-Committees have each 
met about four times since their formation in January 1916, whilst 
the Executive Committee has met regularly on alternate Fridays since 
April 28 last. In all, thirty meetings have been held during the year. 

1916 o 



194 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



At the first meeting of the General Committee it was decided to 
organise a series of conferences of manufacturers and others interested 
in the fuel question in a number of the larger industrial centres, for the 
purposes of arousing interest in the work of the Committee, of inviting 
co-operation and suggestions from large users of fuel, and of educating 
public opinion in respect of the national importance of the question. 

The following six conferences have already been held: — 



Date 


Place 


Under the Auspices of 


1915. 
November 19 . 


Stoke-on-Trent | 


English Ceramic Society, 
North Staffs Mining Institute. 


1916. 






March 6 . 


London 


London Section of the Society of Chemi- 
cal Industry. 


March 13 . 


Middlesbrough 


Cleveland Institution of Engineers. 


March 29 . 


Nottingham 


Nottingham Section of the Society of 
Chemical Industry. 


April 5 


Manchester 


Manchester Section of the Society of 
Chemical Industry. 


April 6 


Sheffield . 


Sheffield Society of Engineers and 
Metallurgists. 



All but one of the above meetings were addressed by the Chairman 
and one or more of the other members of the Committee, and the 
discussions which invariably followed were productive of valuable 
suggestions or information regarding local conditions which demand 
special consideration. It may be also mentioned that the Chairman 
lectured at the Eoyal Institution of Great Britain, on Thursdays, 
January 20, 27, and February 3 last, on ' The Utilisation of the Energy 
of Coal.' 

lu March last the Committee was asked by the newly formed 
Central Coal and Coke Supplies Committee of the Board of Trade to 
make suggestions as to economies in fuel consumption which could be 
made at the present time, and, as the result of further correspondence 
upon the matter, it was arranged that Sir Richard Redmayne should act 
as the representative of the Board of Trade Committee on this 
Committee. 

During the first year of its existence the attention of the Committee 
has been fully occupied with questions of organisation and a preliminary 
survey of the ground which must be explored later on. Already several 
important lines of investigation needing the co-operation of manufac- 
turers have been instituted and are well in hand. But the returns are 
in most cases not yet sufficiently complete to justify publication in the 
Report, and, in view of the importance of the interests and issues 
involved, the Committee feels that it would be premature to issue any 
detailed report on particular aspects of the fuel question until its 
inquiries have reached a more advanced stage than at present. 

The Committee recommends that it be reappointed to continue its 
investigations, as outlined and foreshadowed in this Report, and, in 
view of the considerable expense involved in carrying out such work, 
it feels justified in asking for a grant of 100?. 



ON iUEL ECONOMY. 195 

APPENDICES. 

The Work of the Sub-Corn niittees. 

The following memoranda concerning the work of each of the five 
Sub-Committees will sufficiently indicate the various matters which ai-e 
at present chiefly under consideration, and the arrangements which 
have been made for their future investigation. 

A. 

Chemical and Statistical Sub-Committee.'— Dv. J. T. Dunn (Chair- 
man), Professor P. P. Bedson, Dr. W. Galloway, Professor Thos. 
Gray, Mr. T. Y. Greener, Professor L. T. O'Shea, Sir Eiciiard 
Eedmayne, Dr. A. Strahan, and Dr. E. V. Wheeler. 

The Sub-Committee is preparing a memorandum and a biblio- 
graphy upon the question of the chemistry of coal, and is of the opinion 
that the time has now arrived for a re-investigation of the subject in 
order to clear up a number of outstanding points connected with the 
chemical constituents of coal, their mutual relations in the raw material, 
and their influence upon the character of the various products obtain- 
able by its distillation or oxidation. Accordingly, some of its members 
have undertaken experimental work, partly on new lines and partly by 
way of check repetition, with the object of providing a basis for a more 
complete attack upon the subject in the near future. A group of 
research assistants is already working on the problem under Professor 
Bone's direction in the Department of Chemical Technology of the 
Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. 

As an important part of the work, the Sub-Committee hopes later 
on to organise systematic investigations upon the chemical character of 
the principal British coal seams. Such an undertaking would, how- 
ever, involve considerable labour and expense, and the prospect of 
achieving any useful result will depend entirely on the amount of funds 
which may be forthcoming in support. The Sub-Committee is of the 
opinion that the resources both of existing laboratories which have been 
established within recent years in this country for the special investiga- 
tion of fuel problems, and of other laboratories where the technique of 
the subject has been developed, might be utilised more than they are 
at present in this connection, and that the time is ripe for the organisa- 
tion of a scheme of systematic co-operative research, aided by national 
funds, in which all such laboratories may participate. 

The Sub-Committee is also compiling statistical information relative 
to the different purposes for which coal is used, and has entered into 
communication with the Board of Trade upon the question, but the 
collection and analysis of such statistics has been greatly impeded by 
the war. 

Another important matter into which the Sub-Committee proposes 
to inquire is the amount of wastage due to coal which, for one reason 
or another, is at present left behind in the pits. Part of such wastage, 

' The Chairman and Secretary of the General Committee are ex officio members 
of each Sub-Committee. 

o 2 



196 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

for example that due to the occurrence of faults in the coalfields, is 
unavoidable, but when all such allowance has been made, there un- 
doubtedly remains a large wastage in working which might be and 
ought to be avoided. A memorandum is being prepared on the reduc- 
tion of such wastage by the adoption of hydraulic stowing, a practice 
which, although in vogue on the Continent, has not yet been established 
in Great Britain. 

B. 

Carbonisation Sub-Committee. — Mr. T. Y. Greener (Chairman), 
Professor P. P. Bedson, Sir G. T. Beilby, Mr. E. Bury, Dr. Charles 
Carpekter, Dr. J. T. Dunn. Professor Thos. Gray, Mr. D. H. 
Helps, Mr. C. H. Merz, Professor L. T. O'Shea, Dr. J. E. Stead, 
Mr. G. Blake Walker, and Dr. E. V. Wheeler. 

The total amount of coal carbonised in this Kingdom for the manu- 
facture of metallurgical coke or for towns' gas in the year 1913 was 
probably about thirty-five to forty million tons, or approximately one- 
fifth of the total home consumption of coal for all purposes. 

According to a recent Parliamentary Return relating to all Autho- 
rised Gas Undertakings in the United Kingdom, the total quantity of 
coal carbonised for towns' gas by 831 such undertakings in the year 
1913 amounted to 16,971,724 tons, from which 195,826 milhon cubic 
feet of coal gas were produced, or say, on the average, about 11,500 
cubic feet per ton of coal carbonised. There are a number of gasworks 
not included in this Parliamentary Eeturn, and it is computed that 
they carbonise about one and a quarter million tons of coal per annum. 
Thus the total coal carbonised in gasworks throughout the Kingdom 
in the year 1913 would be about 18,200,000 tons. 

The amount of ammonium sulphate produced by gasworks in that 
time in the United Kingdom was officially given as 182,180 tons, which 
on the above basis would represent an average yield of about 22.4 pounds 
per ton of coal carbonised. 

No such complete returns are available in relation to the manufac- 
ture of metallurgical coke, but the amount of coal carbonised for this 
purpose in 1913 probably did not fall much short of twenty million tons. 
Of this coal, the larger proportion was carbonised in by-product ovens, 
producing, besides coke, tar, benzol, &c., some 133,816 tons of 
ammonium sulphate. Assuming an average yield of 22.5 pounds of 
ammonium sulphate per ton of coal, it would appear that approximately 
13.3 million tons were carbonised in by-product ovens, and probably 
about half that amount in bee-hive ovens. 

With regard to the coking industry, the Sub-Committee has already 
undertaken steps to secure a complete return of the number of by- 
product recovery ovens installed and w^orking throughout the country, 
the character of each installation (whether waste heat or regenerative), 
its coking capacity, the description of the recovery plant connected 
with it (whether direct or indirect), the number of benzol recovery 
plants in operation, the quantities and yields of the by-products obtain- 
able, and the purposes for which waste heat and surplus gas are being 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 197 

employed. When completed, this return will enable the Committee to 
arrive at an approximate estimate of the margins of possible economies 
in the shape of improved utilisation, of the coal carbonised which can 
now be effected in the coking industry and the directions in which 
further progress is likely to be made. 

A memorandum is also in course of preparation describing the more 
important developments of the by-product coking industry, from its 
inception until the present day. 

With regard to gasworks practice, inquiries have been instituted 
regarding the present practice in connection with the manufacture of 
towns' gas, and for this purpose the Institution of Gas Engineers is 
officially represented on the Sub-Committee. It is also intended later 
on to consider the question of low -temperature carbonisation from the 
point of view of its possible economic results, but up to the present 
time so little authentic information is available that the Committee 
would welcome the offer of proper facilities to enable them to investi- 
gate the matter. 

C. 

Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Refractory Materials Sub-Committee. — 
Dr. J. E. Stead (Chairman), Mr. Robert Aemitage, M.P., Professor 
J. 0. Arnold, Sir Hugh Bell, Bart., Mr. E. Burv, Sir Egbert 
Hadfield, Mr. Greville Jones, Dr. J. W. Mellor, Mr. Egbert 
Mgnd, Mr. Bernard Moore, Mr. Benjamin Talbot, Mr. B. W. 
Winder, and Mr. H. James Yates. 

The amount of coal consumed in metallurgical, ceramic, refractory 
materials, and cognate industries probably amounts to approximately 
20 per cent, of the total home consumption. Of this, probably about 
three-fourths must be debited to the iron and steel industries. 

The Sub-Committee has taken steps to ascertain from some of the 
larger manufacturers data which will assist it in determining the actual 
amount of fuel which is being used on the average in the manufacture 
of the various brands of pig iron, spiegeleisen, ferro-manganese, &c., 
throughout the Kingdom. A memorandum is in preparation concern- 
ing the heat balance of a blast furnace of modern construction for the 
manufacture of Cleveland No. 3 and other pig irons, and a description 
will be given of the best methods now available for the utilisation of 
the surplus gases from such a furnace. Inquiries are also being made 
as to the results of the application of dry air to blast furnaces. 

In like manner a series of questions relative to fuel consumptions in 
steelworks has been prepared for circulation among the larger steel 
plants in the Kingdom, with a view to ascertaining both the present 
average consumption and the directions in v.-hich further economies 
may be looked for in the near future. In this connection the Sub- 
Committee will endeavour to draw up a statement as to the best lay-out 
and arrangement of a combined by-product coking, iron-smelting, and 
steel-making plant from the point of view of utilising as completely as 
possible surplus gases and waste heat, and thus realising the maximum 
fuel economy in the heavy-steel industry. 



198 REPORTS ON I-HE SfAM OP SCIENCE.— 1916. 

Similar inquiries will be instituted in regai'd tO preSeht-day practice 
and results in relation to (1) iron foundries, (2) manufacture of wrought 
iron, and (3) specialised steel industries. 

Two members of the Sub-Committee specially connected with the 
ceramic industry have undertaken to prepare a memorandum showing 
the average present practice and the possible margins of fuel economy in 
relation to that industry, and information is invited by the Sub-Com- 
mittee relative to glassworks and brickworks. 

The Sub-Committee desires to state that all information com- 
municated to it by individual manufacturers will be regarded as con- 
fidential,' and will be used merely as a basis for arriving at an approxi- 
mate estimate of the present average fuel consumption per unit of 
output in the particular industry to which the information relates. 

D. 

Power and Steam Raising Sub-Committee. — Mr. C. H. Merz 
(Chairman), Lord Allerton, Mr. J. A. P. Aspinall, Dr. Dugald 
Clerk, Mr. S. Z. de Ferranti, Sir Robert Hadfield, Dr. H. S. 
Hele-Shaw, Mr. W. W. Lackie, Mr. Michael Longeidge, Mr. 
Robert Mond, Hon. Sir Charles Parsons, Professor Ripper, 
Mr. R. P. Sloan, Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, Professor Threlfall, 
Mr. G. Blake Walker, and Mr. B. W. Woodhouse. 

The special duty of this Sub-Committee is to investigate the 
economies in fuel which would result from the use of irapi'oved methods, 
and it has been decided to deal with the subject under the following 
heads : — 

(1) To consider (a) the amount of fuel consumed, and (b) the 

corresponding power developed in the United Kingdom 
under the following heads : Factories, Mines, Railways, 
Ships, and Steam Raising for other purposes than power. 

(2) To consider the present position of central electrical power 

plants and gas undertakings as regards power supply. 

(3) To discuss the relative merits of the present methods for 

producing power by steam, gas, oil, and petrol engines 
respectively. 

(4) To investigate the possible saving of fuel which might be 

effected (a) by improved plant, (b) by greater centralisa- 
tion of power production, (c) by co-ordination with metal- 
lurgical and other manufacturing processes, (d) by some 
measure of public control, (e) by better supervision, and 
(/) by the use of inferior grades of fuel which are at 
present wasted. 

While, on account of the magnitude of the subject and the amount 
of investigation involved, it is not possible at present to submit any 

8 It is suggested that all such information should be sent in the first instance to 
Professor Bone (Chairman of the General Committee), at the Imperial College of 
Science and Technology, London, who will classify and summarise it under either 
alphabetical letters or numerals in such a way that the names of the manufacturers 
or firms concerned will not be divulged to any of the members of the Committee. 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 199 

report, it may be mentioned that information has been sought as to 
the amount of fuel consumed and the coi-responding power developed in 
such official publications as the Eeporfc of the Eoyal Commission on 
Coal Supplies in 1905, the Census of Production for the year 1907, and 
the Returns published annually by the Home Office for Mines and 
Quarries, and various Shipping and Customs Reports. But although, 
from such sources, fairly accurate figures can be obtained for the 
amount of coal used annually for industrial purposes and shipping, the 
corresponding figures of power produced are not obtainable from any 
published returns so far as can be ascertained. 

The average figure of five pounds of coal per horse-power hour 
which was given in the Report of the Royal Commission on Coal 
Supplies in 1905 was, we believe, deduced from returns from a number 
of typical industrial concerns where information could be obtained, and 
ic is probable that this estimate did not exaggerate the actual coal 
consumption per horse-power hour at that time. 

In view of the impossibility of obtaining accurate returns of fuel 
consumption per horse-power hour from the whole of the power users 
in this country, it has been decided to investigate the matter by asking 
for detailed returns from typical factories in various trades and in 
different districts throughout the country, selected by members of the 
Sub-Committee who have special knowledge of particular trades. 

Special memoranda are in course of preparation on questions of 
organisation of power production for industrial and transport purposes, 
the use of lai'ge turbine and gas engines, and other important aspects 
of the power question. 

E. 

Domestic Fuel Suh-Gommittee. — Mr. E. D. Simon (Chairman), 
Mr. A. H. Barker, Professor H. B. Dixon, Professor W. W. 
Hai.dane Gee, Professor W. P. Wynne, and Mr. H. James Yates. 

The amount of coal actually consumed for domestic purposes in the 
United Kingdom probably does not fall far short of thirty-six million 
tons per annum — nearly one-fifth of the total consumption for all pur- 
poses in the Kingdom. To this would have to be added the ' coal 
equivalent ' of the gas and electricity consumed for domestic purposes, 
if a correct estimate of the total domestic coal consumption is to be 
made. The Royal Commission of 1905 estimated that 50 per cent, of 
the coal consumed for domestic purposes might be saved by the 
installation of better appliances, so that there is clearly a vast field 
for economy. 

The whole question of domestic uses of fuel bristles with difficulties 
and complications. In the first place, it is necessary to discriminate 
between fuel or enei'gy consumed in the kitchen for cooking and other 
similar purposes, and that applied for the heating of ordinary living- 
rooms. 

In the vast majority of the houses inhabited by the artisan popula- 
tion the kitchen fire or stove is the only place in the house where fuel 
is burnt; also in better-ciass houses it is only in the kitchen tliat fuel 



200 KEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 

is burnt daily throughout the whole year. Hence it would appear that 
the kitchen is responsible for the greater part of our annual domestic 
fuel bill, and, therefore, the question of the relative efficiencies of 
kitchen ranges, gas and electric cookers, and hot-water supply apparatus 
assumes considerable importance. 

Again, the selection or recommendation of particular means or 
apparatus for domestic heating cannot always be based simply upon the 
question of thermal efficiency, because it also involves considerations 
of a physiological and even of a psychological character. Thus, for 
example, systems of central heating which have been recommended on 
grounds chiefly of thermal efficiency, and which are so universally used 
in America and on the Continent, are not usually acceptable to the 
average Englishman, who undoubtedly prefers to be warmed by the 
radiation from a bright fire. 

This being so, the Sub-Committee feels that it will be wise to 
recognise at the outset that there is probably no single solution of the 
domestic heating problem which is likely to be universally adopted 
within any measurable period of time; and that, therefore, it should 
preferably concentrate its efforts upon questions of more immediat-e 
practical importance. 

It will be generally agreed that any reform in domestic fuel con- 
Bumption should aim at achieving one or more of the following objects, 
namely : — 

(1) Actual reduction in cost of domestic heating, either in the 

form of direct saving of fuel or labour, or both ; 

(2) Mitigation or abolition of the domestic smoke nuisance ; and 

(3) Better hygienic conditions in living-apartments generally. 

The Sub-Committee can perhaps best discharge its duties by con- 
sidering how far the various systems now available for domestic heat- 
ing fulfil such requirements, and how they may severally be installed 
and operated to the best advantage. 

In order to do this the Sub-Committee has arranged for experiments 
to be carried out with the object of determining how to produce in a 
given room suitably warm and healthy conditions at a minimum cost 
and with a minimum production of smoke, and how such conditions 
may be defined for any particular room. Also, experimental work is 
being carried out upon the relative efficiencies of coal fires, gas fires, 
electric heaters, and the like. 

Inasmuch, however, as in this country the use of the open coal fire 
will probably continue for some time to come, and as there are un- 
doubtedly great economies to be immediately realised by the wider adop- 
tion of improved fire-grates, the Sub-Committee will pay special atten- 
tion to the question of improvements in the construction and installa- 
tion of such grates, to which the attention of architects, builders, and 
the public generally ought to be drawn. 

Arising out of the present extensive use of solid fuel in domestic 
fires, the Sub-Committee will also consider the important question of 
the prospects of substituting for raw coal some form of carbonised fuel 



ON FUEL ECONOMY. 201 

(semi-coke or coke). There can be no doubt but that if such a sub- 
stitution could be effected, without either increasing the domestic coal 
bill or involving some other disadvantage, not only would there be a 
great addition to the amount of valuable by-products annually obtained 
from coal consumed in the Kingdom, but also the smoke nuisance in 
our large centres of population would be materially reduced. 

Work on these lines is being carried out in the Department of Heat- 
ing and Ventilating Engineering at the University College, London, at 
the Municipal School of Technology, Manchester, and at the Depart- 
ment of Chemical Technology at the Imperial College of Science and 
Technology, London. 



The Botanical and Chemical Characters of the Eucahjpts and 
their Correlation. — Second Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor H. E. Armstrong (Chairman), Mr. 
H. G. Smith (Secretary), Mr. E. C. Andrews, Mr. E. T. 
Baker, Professor F. O. Bower, Mr. E. H. Cambage, 
Professors A. J. Ewart and C. E. Fawsitt, Dr. Heber 
Green, Dr. Cuthbert Hall, Mr. J. McLuckie, Professors 
Orme Masson, E. H. Eennie, and E. Eobinson, and 
Mr. P. E. H. St. John. 

[Plate II.] 

DuBiNG the year the Committee has held three meetings in Sydney, 
at which methods of procedure and results were discussed. 

Mr. John McLuckie, M.A., B.Sc, of the Botanical Department, 
Sydney University, was added to the Committee. 

Much of the official year had passed away before the Committee 
in Australia knew that its first Eeport had been accepted for printing 
and that the Committee had been reappointed with a grant of £30. 

The serious drain on the young Australian scientists caused by the 
war has also been a factor in preventing the completion of certain 
work which it is considered desirable should be undertaken, so that 
no claim is made in the present Eepoi-t upon the grant. The Committ-«e 
ask to be reappointed, and that at least the sum allocated to them lant 
year may again be placed at their disposal. 

Work has been done during the year on 

(a) the phenols in Eucalyptus oils ; 

(b) the variation in the amounts of the constituents of Eucalyptus 

oils; 

(c) Eucalyptus Australiana and its peculiarities. 

(a) The Phenols in Eucalyptus Oils. 

In the first Report it was stated that two distinct phenols were 
present in Eucalyptus oils (No. 10 in previous Bibliography), though 
only in very small quantities. 

One of these phenols, Tasmanol, has now been isolated from the 



202 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

oils in several species of the ' peppermint ' and ' ashes ' groups. 
Tasmanol is a liquid ; it contains a methoxy-,group and gives a 
characteristic colour with ferric chloride. It is usually associated with 
the ketone piperitone. The prepared oils from all the members of the 
groups mentioned are water-white, so that a possible reason is suggested 
for the occurrence of the two classes of Eucalyptus oils, those which 
are colourless and those tinged yellow. 

The botanical characters of the species yielding oils which contain 
Tasmanol are also in agreement with this chemical character; thus 
the anthers are kidney-shaped (Renantherce) ; the lanceolate leaves have 
the venation type 3,* the timbers are white in colour, while the per- 
sistent portion of the fibrous barks is either that known as ' pepper- 
mint ' or allied to this ; the kinos contain neither Eudesmin nor Aroma- 
dendrin. 

The presence or absence of cineol in the oils appears to have no 
directing influence, as oils equally rich in cineol may contain either 
phenol or perhaps both. 

The second phenol, which occurs in the other large group of oils, 
has now been isolated in sufficient quantity to demonstrate its crystal- 
line form. The accompanying photograph shows the crystals of natural 
size. These crystals were obtained from the phenol extracted from 
about 60 lb. of the crude oil of Eucalyptus Woollsiana. 

It would be necessary to treat several hundreds of pounds of oil 
of the appropriate species to obtain sufficient of this crystallisable 
phenol to enable its chemical composition to be determined. It does 
not, so far, appear that it contains a methoxy-group ; in this respect 
it differs fi'om Tasmanol. 

The crystallisable phenol is associated with the aldehyde Aroma- 
dendral in the oils of the typical ' Boxes,' the group to which Euca- 
lyTptv.s Woollsiana belongs ; piperitone is absent ; it possibly occurs 
also in the cineol-pinene oils from which both the ketone and the 
aldehyde are absent or only present in traces. 



(b) The Variation in the Amount of Constituents in Eucalyptus Oils 
in Material of Various Ages. 

Thei'e has long been some uncertainty on this point; it is now 
recognised, however, that the various products from particular species 
of Eucalyptus are remarkably constant from a chemical point of view, 
so much so that botanical diagnosis is assisted by their determination. 

Differences in the amounts of the oily constituents of particular 
species are, however, to .be expected, although in the case of Eucalypts 
the variation is but slight, particularly when the material has been 
collected as for ordinary distillation. This fact is now recognised 
commercially and standards have been founded upon it. 

Eucalyptiis Smithii, the species chosen for these experiments, 
affords results from which a very good idea can be formed of ilie extent 
of variation to be expected in oils from trees of different ages. 

* ^Jiese types -of venation are illaatrated in the first Report. 



British Association, SQth Report, Newcastle, 1916.] [Plate II. 




Crystallised Phenol from the Oil of Eucah/ptus WoaUsiana. 



Illustrating the Report on the Botanical and Chemical Characters of the 
Eiicalypts and their Correlation. 

\_To face page 202. 



BOTANICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF THE EUCALYPTS. 203 



The oil from this species of Eucalyptus belongs to the cineol-pinene 
group and the leaf has a venation of type 2. The oil contains cineol 
in larger amount, perhaps, than is found in that of any other species 
and has a less percentage amount of the constituents which are 
generally considered of an objectionable nature, as, for instance, the 
aldehydes, sesquiterpenes, &c. 

The following tahles illustrate the rate of diminution of the terpene 
and the corresponding increase in cineol as the trees grow older ; but 
it may be observed thot the figures published fourteen years ago for 
the oil of this species agi'ee most closely with those now given for 
general material, although the foliage was collected over a hundred 
miles from the locality where the later material was gathered. 

Extended data as well as numerous illustrations are given in the 
'Journal of the Royal Society of New South Wales,' August 1915. 

Table I. 

(a) Leaves from lopped trees, seven months' growth; collected May 

1913. 

(b) Leaves from lopped trees, fifteen months' growth; collected May 

1913. 

(c) Leaves from seedlings, twelve months' growth; collected June 

1914. 
(J) Leaves from seedlings two and a half years old; collected July 

1914. 
(e) Leaves from cultivated tree at Marrickville ; collected June 1915. 
(/) Leaves from general material, partly young; collected January 1915. 
(^g) Leaves from general material; collected three weeks later than (/). 
(kj Leaves from old trees; collected March 1913. 

Tlue constants, &c., given by the crude oils from the above material 
were as follow: — 

Table IL 



- 


Specific ! 
Gravity 
at 15° C. 


Rotation ao 


Refractive 
Index 


Solubility in 

70 per Cent. 

Alcohol 


Saponifi- 
cation 
Number 


Cineol 
per Cent. 










Required 






^) 


0-9098 


+ 7-6° 


1-4636 
at 20° 


1-6 vols. 


4-8 


67-4 


(b) 


0-9157 


+ 6-5° 


1-4635 
at 20° 


1-2 „ 


5-6 


74-2 


(c) 


/)-9116 


+ 9-2° 


1-4650 
at 19° 


2-1 „ 


1-3 


61-5 


(d) 


Q-Mm9 


+ 7-0° 


1-4634 


X-4 ., 


4-1 


690 






at 18° 








W 


0-9198 


+ 4 ■.° 


1-4672 
at 16° 


1-2 ,. 


2'7 


75-9 


(/) 


lO'Saae 


4- 5-3" 


1-4571 

at 26° 


1-1 „ 


3-3 


m-1 


(3) 


0-9154 


4- -51^ 


1-4574 

at 25° 


11 ,. 


31 


790 


(h) 


0-9210 


+ 4-2^ 


1-4604 


11 .. 

! 


1-3 


85-2 



204 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

The cineol was determined by the resorcinol method, in all cases in 
the redistilled portion of the freshlj^ obtained oil boiling below 190°. 
The alcohol for solubilities was 70 per cent, by weight. 

(c) ' Eucalyptus Australiana ' {sp. nov.) and its Peculiarities. 

This species is plentifully distributed in New South Wales and 
Victoria. It is known vernacularly as ' Black peppermint, ' ' Narrow- 
leaf peppermint ' and also as ' Messmate.' Although morphologically 
this tree shows great resemblance to Eucalyptus amygdalina of 
Tasmania, yet the two trees are not identical. The yield of oil given 
by the Australian trees is remarkably high, sometimes reaching as 
high as 4i per cent., from leaves with terminal branchlets. This oil 
has abnomial characters, due largely to the presence of an alcohol, 
of high boiling point, at present undetermined ; the amount of 
this alcohol appears to be fairly constant. Phellandrene, which is 
present to a pronounced extent in the oil from higher altitudes, 
diminishes considerably in amount when the species grows naturally at 
a lower level, the cineol increasing correspondingly in amount. It 
was discovered several years ago that the cineol content of the oil 
from this species could be raised if the oil were fractionally separated 
when the leaves were being distilled. This fact has now commercial 
value and much of the water-white Eucalyptus oil containing about 
70 per cent, cineol, which has recently reached the London market, 
has been prepared from this species in this way, the oil coming over 
daring the first hour being sold as a pharmaceutical oil, that which 
distils later being used for other commercial purposes. It has been 
found that this ' first-hour oil ' is remarkably constant in general 
characters; numerous analyses, made in Sydney, show that if separated 
at the first hour the figures have the following range : — 

Eelative density at 15° C. = 0-9179 to 0-9211. 
Rotation "d = 1-30 to -M-7°. 

Solubility in 70 per cent, alcohol 1-05 to 1-15 volumes. 
Refractive index at 20° C. =1-4614 to 1-4636. 

Analyses of the second-hour oil gave 11-4 as saponification number 
for the ester and 95*1 for the acetylated oil. In the case of the third- 
hour oil the figures were 9-4 and 124-5 respectively. 

It is very probable that this species of Eucalyptus will eventually 
become of even greater economic importance as an oil-producing plant 
than it is at the present time. (For further information see ' Journal 
of the Royal Society of New South Wales,' December 1915.) 

Besides this species a few others have been described recently and 
named by Mr. Maiden, but the products these gave have not yet been 
chemically examined. 



ON BROWN COAL. 205 

Brown Coal. — Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
Ormb Masson (Chairman), Mr. P. G. W. Bayly (Secre- 
tary), and Mr. D. Avery, on the Utilisation of Brown Coal 
Bye-Products. 

Owing to pressure of work arising out of war conditions, no further 
work has been done in connection with experiments in the utihsation 
of brown coal. 

The work will, however, be set in hand at an early date, as the 
importance of the investigation is emphasised by the necessity for 
developing our raw products. 

The deposits of brown coal in Victoria (Australia) are enormous, 
covering several hundi'eds of square miles and varying in thickness 
up io 800 feet. 

The analysis of the coal may be taken as 

Per cent. 

H2O 63.00 

V.H.C 24-50 

F.C 2] -50 

Ash 100 

100-00 
Nitrogen . . . . . . . 0-30 

The recovered distillation products are: — 

(1) Ammonium sulphate . . . 30 lb. per ton. 

(2) Tar 68-5 lb. per ton. 

(3) Gas, 360 B.T.U 9,140 cubic feet. 

(4) Carbonaceous residue . . . 5fi0 lbs. 

The experiments in hand deal with the best form of retort or 
generator, and the examination of the tar for various oils and paraffins. 
The question of briquetting will also be reviewed. 



The Old Red Sandstone Rocks of Kiltorcan, Ireland. — Interim 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Grenville 
A. J. Cole (Chairman), Professor T. Johnson (Secretary), 
Dr. J. W. Evans, Dr. E. Kidston, and Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward, appointed for the Exploration thereof. 

Following the publication of the Interim Eeport made in 1915, 
approved sets of duplicate specimens of Archceopteris and Bothro- 
dendroii in various stages have been sent, at the receiver's expense, 
to educational institutions in Canada, the United States, South Africa, 
and New Zealand. No applications have as yet been made by museums 
or universities in the United Kingdom. 

The most interesting addition to our knowledge of the Kiltorcan 
flora during the year has been the discovery of seeds and pollen-grains, 



206 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

the attribution of which to Ginkgophylluni or some other genus is still 
under investigation. 

The Committee asks for reappointment, with a grant of il. 



The Plant-hearing Cherts at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. J. Horne (Chairman), 
Dr. W. Mackie (Secretary), and Drs. J. S. Flett, W. T. 
Gordon, G. Hickling, E. Kidston, B. N. Peach, and 
D. M. S. Watson, appointed to excavate Critical Sections 
therein. (Drawn up by the Chairman and Secretary.) 

CONTENTS. 

FASH 

I. Introduction 206 

II. Investigations of the Committee 209 

A. Record of Evidence in the Trenches 209 

B. Evidence from other Sections in tJie Area 211 

i. Glamlach Burn 211 

ii. Easaiche Burn . . . 211 

iii. Roadside Section 213 

III. Conclusions 215 

Report on the Plants. By Dr. Kidston, F.B.S 216 

I. Introduction. 

The Rhynie Old Red Sandstone outlier was first described in detail by 
Sir Archibald Geikie in his comprehensive paper on ' The Old Red 
Sandstone of Western Europe. '^ He divided the beds into the following 
zones in descending order: — 

6. Greenish grey shales, with beds of flagstone. Dryden. 

5. Thick group of hard pale grey and reddish or purplish sandstones, with 
occasional pebble beds, and numerous pipes, ' galls,' and irregular veinings of red clay. 
Rhynie quarries, Burn of Craig, about 1,000 feet. 

4. Band of diabase-porphyrite, seen between Contlach and Auchindoir Manse. 

3. Very soft and crumbling, grey and red, pebbly sandstones, and conglomerates of 
well-rounded pebbles, with bands of red shale, 300 or 400 feet, seen below Glenbogie, 
where the valley is cut out of this soft series. 

2. Red shales, with calcareous red nodules, 40 or 50 feet ; seen in small ravine to 
east of Glenbogie. 

1. Band of red and yellow conglomerate and breccia, sometimes with calcareous 
cement. This lowest deposit immediately underlies the shales at the last-named 
locality, and rests on the crystalline rocks 

The highest division (Dryden Flags) is practically the only one that 
falls within the scope of this report. 

The beds of the Rhynie outlier are seen to lie unconformably on 
the igneous rocks (diorites and granites), and the members of the 
metamorphic series of West Aberdeenshire along the eastern margin 
of the area, and to dip at fairly uniform angles of 15° to 20° to the 
west, where they are cut off by a fault running north and south which 
throws down the whole series against the clay-slates, grits, and diorites 
on the west. 

' Trans. Roy. Soc. vol. xxviii. p. 423. 



ON THE PLANT-BEARING CHERTS AT RHYNIE, ABERDEENSHIRE. 207 

The area was sui'veyed in detail by the Geological Survey, and the 
results, which confirm the conclusions previously arrived at by Sir 
Archibald Geikie as to the order of succession of the strata, are repre- 
sentfed in the one-inch map (Sheet 76) published in 1886, and are briefly 
described in the explanatory memoir to that sheet published in 1890. 
The classification adopted in the memoir is given below - : — 

(5) Dryden flags and shales. 

(4) Quarryhill sandstones. 

(3) Tillybrachty sandstones with volcanic zone. 

(2) Lower red shales with calcareous bands. 

(1) Basal breccia and conglomerate. 

Early in 1910 Dr. Mackie became aware that a narrow strip of 
sedimentary and volcanic rocks occurs to the west of the boundary 
fault as laid down on the Geological Survey Map (Sheet 76). This 
strip is situated about a quarter to half a mile due west of the village 
of the Muir of Ehynie, and extends both north and south of the Rhynie 
and Cabrach road. These beds present a much more ancient-looking 
facies than the Old Red Sandstone strata east of the fault, and were 
found on examination in detail to include cherts, silicified grits and 
conglomerates, together with a very acid andesite or rhyolite, which 
also shows silicification in places. The results were described by 
Dr. Mackie in a preliminary paper communicated to the British 
Association at the Dundee meeting in 1912,^ and in greater detail 
in a paper read before the Edinburgh Geological Society in 
November 1913.* In addition to the series there described, Dr. 
Mackie brought to light a distinct band of volcanic ash just 
above the rhyolite and between it and the ' Upper Grit ' of the same 
series. Late in 1912 — too late for inclusion in the British Association 
paper — numerous blocks of a fine black chert were discovei'ed by 
Dr. Mackie lying loose on the surface or built into the stone dykes 
along the sides of the adjacent fields. These appeared to radiate from 
a centre about seventy-five yards east of the bend of the road leading 
to Windyfield farmhouse. They were traced eastward for about three 
hundred yards, but up to that time they had nowhere been found in 
place. Their cherty character was at first the main point of interest, 
and for that reason, in the absence of field evidence of their strati 
graphical position, they were naturally supposed to belong to the 
silicified ' Older Series ' to the west of the Old Red Sandstone boundary 
fault. Between the date indicated and October 1913 numerous micro- 
sections of the chert were examined by Dr. Mackie, which proved 
to be exceptionally rich in plant remains in a remarkably perfect 
state of preservation. These were at once placed in the hands of 
Dr. Kidston for description in detail, and a brief account of them 
drawn up by him is appended to this report. Dr. Mackie believes that 
the microscopic sections of the plant-bearing cherts also show remains 
of small Crustacea, which are still under investigation. 

" Explanation of Sheet 76 {Mem. Geol. Siir.), p. 27. 
3 British Assoc. Report, Dundee 1912, p. 467. 

* ' The Rock Series of Craigbeg and Ord Hill, Rhynie, Aberdeenshire,' 
Trans. Edin. Oeol. See. vol. x. part 2, p. 205. 



208 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 




Scale 



1500 Feet 



£ayyla7iatu>7i' of Siffns 
< — J)ip of strata.. ^BiffTili/ tndinedystrata/,—*—Vertic(iL strata^ 
FaulUt ■sTiotfrt' t2uis 

Fig. 1. — Map showing the sites of the trenches 1 to 12, and position of the 
roadside section at Craigbeg. 



ON THE PLANT-BEARING CHERTS AT RHYnIE, ABERDEENSHIRE. 209 

In October 1913, Mr. D. Tait, of the Geological Survey, at the 
instance of the Assistant-Director, Dr. Flett, visited the area and made 
several excavations with the view of fixing definitely the stratigraphical 
position of these plant-bearing cherts. He proved their position within 
the Old Red Sandstone ai-ea and about tvv'o hundred yards east of the 
boundary fault, as laid down in the Geological Survey Map (Sheet 76). 
The main locality is in the position of Ti'ench No. 1 of the accompanying 
map (Fig. 1). His results are summarised in his report, which is 
quoted in Dr. Mackie's paper communicated to the Edinburgh Geological 
Society.' His conclusion was that these plant-bearing cherts belonged 
to the Old Eed Sandstone. For reasons given in the paper referred to. 
Dr. Mackie could not accept that conclusion, and the present investiga- 
tion was undertaken with the view of determining the exact strati- 
graphical position of the plant-bearing cherts. 

II. Investigations of the Committee. 

As the field of investigation lies almost wholly on agricultural land, 
the trenches had to be covered up by the end of March 1916. The work 
was much interrupted by unfavourable weather. Fortunately only a 
small part of the work as originally planned was not can-ied out. 
The Committee hope to be able to overtake the I'emainder in the late 
autumn of this year or nearly next spring, with the aid of a grant from 
the Royal Society. The work was conducted throughout under the 
personal supervision of Mr. Tait, of the Geological Survey. 

The area of investigation lies to the west of the village of Muir of 
Rhynie. About a quarter of a mile from the centre of the village, and 
about'a hundred yards to the N.W. of the bridge of the Easaiche Burn 
(see fig. 1), a small ditch between two fields occurs on the N.E. side of 
the road. This ditch was made the datum line for measurement from 
the road in a northern direction, while the road itself from the end of 
the ditch was made the line of measurement in an east and west direc- 
tion. As many blocks of the chert were found lying along the margins 
of this ditch, it was cleared out and the I'ocks in place were exposed at a 
distance of about fifty yards N.E. from the road. The chert band was 
found in the ditch. A bed of clay was also found below it. The section 
in the ditch remains as a record of the work of the Committee. 

A. Record of Evidence in the Trenches. 

The following are the records of the various trenches as drawn up 
by Mr. Tait. Their positions are indicated on the accompanying map 
(fig-1):- 

Trench No. 1. — In first field north of Easaiche Bridge, on south-east 
side of path and ditch separating the two fields, and 178 feet north-east 
of road. This trench is 38 feet long and about 3 feet wide. Its greatest 
depth is 6j feet. The plant-bearing chert, which is about 8 feet in 
thickness, projects upwards to within 6 inches of the surface of the 
field and dips at an angle of 45° to the north. 

' ' The Rock Series of Craigbeg and Ord Hill, Rhynie, Aberdeenshire,' 
Trans. Edin. Geol. Soc. vol. x. part 2, p. 223. 

1916 p 



210 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ^191S. 



Soil and subsoil varies from 6 inches to 6^ feet (thickness).' 

Feet 

— (1) Cherty sandstone with carbonaceous fragments . . — 
N — (2) Cherty sandstone with lenticles of chert . . . — 
M — (3) Chert with thin bands of sandstone .... — 

L — (4) Chert with sandy layers 1 

K — (5) Bedded cherty sandstone — 

1 — (6) Sandy chert, lenticular — 

H — (7) Bedded cherty sandstone, dark-coloured . . . — 

G— (8) Chert . . — 

F— (9) Sandy chert — 

E— (10) Chert 1 

D— (11) Cherty sandstone, dark-coloured — 

C— (12) Clayey shale — 

B— (13) Chert — 

A.' — (14) Dark cherty sandstone with carbonaceous markings . — 

A"— (15) Chert 1 

(16) Grey clay — 

(17) White plastic clay, greenish tint and rusty spots, bedding 

obscure, but more distinct near bottom ... 2 — 

(18) Clay or clayey shale not so light in colour as that above 2 — 

Trench No. 2. — Lower trench in upper field (second field) north of 
Easaiche Bridse. 



Inches 
5 



Surface 

Yellow clay, ? in place . 

Solid bed of chert, 2-3 feet 



Feet 
. 3 
. 2 
. 3 



Inches 



Feet Inches 
Chert blocks, fractured and 

confused . . . . ? — 
Light-coloured clay . . ? — 

Dips of 60° to 60° to the north-east were indicated. 
Trench No. 3. — Section in trench in upper field (second field), north 
of Easaiche Bridge, 70 feet north-east of road, and 180 feet north-west 
of the ditch separating the lower from the upper field. Thickness 

Feet Liches 
Surface material 4 — 

(1) Greenish-yellow clay 1 — 

(2) Bed ochrey clay — 4 

(3) Sandy chert and cherty sandstone in beds 1" to 2" and 

in small pieces ........ 1 — 

(4) Greyish shale with pale and yellow bands ... 3 — 

(5) Yellowish clayey shale with grey bedding lines . . 2 — 

(6) Yellow plastic clay, ochrey at base, bedding obscure . 1 — 

(7) Banded dark-grey and yellow clayey shale, micaceous . 2 — 

(8) Hard, dark-brown, well-bedded sandstone with carbon- 

aceous films on bedding planes, and with blebs of 
black chert often ^ inch in size . 

(9) Chert, lenticular, with plant remains 

(10) Dark cherty sandstone ... 

(11) Dark carbonaceous shale, micaceous 

(12) Chert with plant remains and dark che; 

(13) Cherty sandstone, much broken . 

(14) Chert with plant remains 

(15) Chert, much broken, sandy . 

(16) Solid, massive bed of chert with brecciated internal 

structure ....... 

Loose blocks of chert not in sitti at greater depth 

Dips 50° to 55° to the east-north-east. 

' The capital letters A to in the section of Trench No. 1 have been used 
by Dr. Kidston and Professor Lang to indicate the various sub-zones of the 
chert, in tlieir joint paper ' On Old Eed Sandstone Plants showing Structure 
from the Ehynie Chert Bed, Aberdeenshire,' communicated to the Eoyal Society 
of Edinburgh on July 3, 1916. 




-10 
-5 
-8 
9 
-6 

-10 
-3 



ON THE PLANT-BEARING CHERTS AT RHYNIE, ABERDEENSHIRE. 211 

Trench No. 4.— In first field north of Easaiche Bridge, on south-east 
side of ditch, and 250 feet north-east of road. 

A greenish and yellowish clayey and micaceous shale, with brown 
bands, was met with at a depth of 8 feet. This was weathered into a 
soft material that could be dug with a spade. The bedding planes indi- 
cated a dip to the north at 35°. 

Trench No. 5.— In first field north of Easaiche Bridge, on south-east 
side of ditch, and 300 feet north-east of the road. Tliis trench was 6 feet 
deep. At its north end, near the bottom, reddish clayey shale was 
found; at its south end, greenish shale. The rock was very much 
decomposed, but the fragments, often flat or lenticular in shape, dipped 
to the north. The section was not a good one, but there is little doubt 
that this material is in situ here. 

Trench No. 6. — In first field north of Easaiche Bridge, on south-east 
side of ditch, and 400 feet north-east of road. This trench went to a 
depth of 8 feet, but no solid rock was reached. A gravelly sand was 
found at the bottom. 

Trench No. 7. — In first field north of Easaiche Bridge, on south-east 
side of ditch, and 475 feet north-east of road. This trench went to a 
depth of about 5 feet. Brownish and greenish thin-bedded shale with 
a dip to the north was found in it. 

Trenches Nos. 8, 9, 10, 11 (sites as on map). — These trenches varied 
in depth from Gh feet to 9 feet. No rock was met with in any of them. 

Trench No. 12. — In north-east corner of field close to Windyfield 
farmhouse. A yellowish- gireen flaky sandstone was met with at about 
7 feet from the surface. The dip was probably to the south-south-east.' 
A snowstorm interrupted operations, and the section was never clearly 
exposed. 

B. Evidence from other Sections in the Area. 
i. Glamlach Burn Section. 

In the Glamlach Burn (fig. 1), on the north-east side of the field 
in which trenches 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7 were dug, there is a continuous 
section of shales and fine sandy flags, extending from the north end 
of the Cross Ditch down to within a few yards of the junction of the 
Glamlach Burn with the Easaiche Burn. The beds dip to the north 
at angles of about 30°, and belong to the Dryden Flag group. They 
overlie the plant-bearing cherts and associated strata exposed in trenches 
1 and 2. 

ii. Easaiche Burn Section. 

A few rock exposures occur in the Easaiche Burn (fig. 1), to the 
south-west of the field in which the trenches have been dug, at two 
localities — one about 400 feet, the other about 200 feet from the base 
line of the Cross Ditch. Flaggy sandstones cross the strf^am and dip 
with a high angle in a northerly direction. They belong to the Dryden 

' As the sandstone found in this trench evidently belongs to the Drydeu 
Flags the western boundary fault must run along the north-west side of this 
trench. Its exact position here has not been determined. 

P 3 



212 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 







ON THE PLANT-BEARING CHERTS AT RHYNIE, ABERDEENSHIRE. 213 

Flag group, and evidently underlie the plant-bearing cherts laid bare 
in the trenches in the field to the north-east. 

Further up stream, at a point about 500 feet from the datum line, 
calcareous shales about 10 feet in thickness appear on the right bank, 
followed by flaky sandstones. The shales and sandstones are vertical, 
and have a nortli-east and south-west strike — features that suggest 
proximity to a fault. The strike of these beds is parallel to the trend 
of the boundary fault on the western margin of the Ehynie outlier of 
Old Eed Sandstone. Immediately to the west, a band of hornblendic 
andesite crosses the stream. Its stratigraphical horizon is not clear, 
but it is referred provisionally to the Old Red Sandstone of the Rhynie 
outlier. 

iii. Roadside Section, Craigbeg. 

With the sanction of the road authorities, the rocks were laid bai'e 
by the side of the road ascending Craigbeg between Rhynie and the 
farm of Newseat (fig. 2). On its north-east side the rocks form a 
steep bank, covered in part by soil and vegetation. The vegetation 
was removed, and a continuous rock section, 110 feet in length, was 
exposed. In a south-east direction, where the gradient is not so steep, 
this rock section ended in superficial materials. Trenches were dug 
to find the solid rock between this locality and trench No. 3 (the 
nearest point to the south-east at which rock was found), but without 
success owing to the covering of drift. 

The interest of the roadside section centres in the following points : 
(l)The position of the fault between thediorite and the Craigbeg Series 
(the ' Older Series ' of Dr. Mackie), (2) the junction of the rhyolite 
and the ' Lower Grits '), (3) the probable position of the fault between 
the Old Red Sandstone of the Ehynie outlier and the ' Older Series,' 
and (4) the exposure of the chert band and other members of the Dryden 
Flag group. 

Beginning at the diorite at the north-west end of the road section 
and descending towards Rhynie, we pass from lower to higher beds. 
Dips are, however, only plainly seen in the beds that overlie the 
rhyolite, their inclination increasing from 25° to about 40° where the 
section ends. 

(1) The fault between the diorite and the Craigbeg Series was located 
at 1,045 feet from the datum line of the Cross Ditch. Its hade is about 
33° to the east. Its position is defined by a band of dark-purplish 
clay which was excavated at the top of the bank and at the road-level. 
Here the ' Slit Rock ' of Dr. Mackie 's succession lies against the fault 
plane, the basal chert of the ' Older Series ' being cut out by the fault. 
But it appears in place at the north-east corner of the old diorite quarry 
about 20 yai'ds to the north of the point indicated. 

(2) South-east from the fault, the ' Lower Grits ' of Dr. Mackie 's 
succession are exposed in the bank above the road, and their junction 
with the overlying rhyolite was laid bare for a distance of three or four 
feet, about 300 yards from the datum line. The junction line is more 
or less vertical, but follows an irregular zig-zag course. The two rocks 
are welded together, and the ' Lower Grit ' is bleached to a depth of 
about an inch at the point of contact. Dr. Flett and Dr. Campbell 



A £, ^ /^ ^ 

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ON THE PLANT-BEARING CHERTS AT RHYNIE, ABERDEENSHIRE. 215 

report that they have not detected any signs of contact alteration in 
the grit when examined under the microscope. Dr. Mackie has noted 
the occurrence of fine quartz veins between the two rocks in all his 
microscopic sections. The rhyolite weathers into a white plastic clay, 
with knots of less decomposed material. From its microscopic 
characters it may be classed as an andesite. Its outcrop along the 
road section measures 33 yards. It passes upwards into a band of 
volcanic ash with gritty partings, followed by the ' Upper Grits ' of 
Dr. Mackie's succession, consisting of hard, flaggy, much broken, 
micaceous sandstones with interbedded tuffs. 

(3) At the eastern margin of the ' Upper Grits ' the beds are much 
disturbed, and there are clear indications of faulting. Dr. Mackie 
infers that these indications mark the position of the fault that bounds 
the Ehynie outlier of Old Red Sandstone on its western side.* The 
locality is 250 yards from the datum line and about 120 yards further 
to the west thon the position of the fault laid down in the Geological 
Survey One-inch Map (Sheet 76). 

(4) Eastwards beyond the boundary fault a continuous rock section 
was laid bare for about 20 yards. The strata exposed (fig. 3) dip to the 
east at angles varying from 35° to 40° and belong to the group of the 
Dryden Flags and Shales. They consist of gi'eenish shales interbedded 
with soft, micaceous, flaggy sandstones, which contain in their lower 
part thin bands of tuff. Near the top of the section, bands of chert 
often sandy and nodular, sometimes more massive, are intercalated with 
these beds; one, containing plant remains, reaches a thickness of 2 feet, 
3 inches. Beyond this point to the south-east excavations were made 
in the bank, but they failed to reach solid rock. 

III. Conclusions. 

From the evidence obtained in the course of these excavations, the 
Committee have drawn the following conclusions: — • 

(1) The plant-bearing cherts found in the trenches are interbedded 
with the Dryden Flags and Shales, and are therefore of Old Eed Sand- 
stone age. 

(2) The plant-bearing cherts exposed in the roadside section (fig. 3) 
are also interbedded with Dryden Flags and Shales. The band is 
probably the stratigraphical equivalent of the chert occurring in the 
trenches to the east. It contains the same plant (Rhynia), and rests 
on a similar bed of white clay. 

(3) The strata exposed in the roadside section between the diorite 
on the west and the Dryden Flags on the east (the Craigbeg Series or 
the ' Older Series ' of Dr. Mackie) lie between two faults, each of them 
having a downthrow to the east. Owing to the intense silicification 
which most of the rocks have undergone, their lithological characters 
differ considerably from those of the normal Old Red Sandstone strata 
of the Rhynie outlier. They may nevertheless be of Old Red Sand- 
stone age. The precise stratigraphical horizon of these rocks has not 
been definitely determined. 

' It is probable that there may be more than one fault on the west side of 
the Rhynie outlier. 



216 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — ^1916. 

The Committee, having obtained a grant for this research from the 
Royal Society, desire to be reappointed to carry on investigations 
regarding points which are still doubtful. 

Note by Dr.. IVLackie. — As the members of the ' Older Series ' show locally 
intrusion and alteration by the younger granites of the North of Scotland, they 
probably represent an older stage of Old Red Sandstone than the other beds of 
the Rhynie outlier. 

Report on the Plants. By Dr. Kidstox, F.R.S. 

From a palseobotanical point of view the results of these investiga- 
tions are of gi'eat interest and importance. A careful examination of 
the Rhynie chert zone has shown that it is composed of a number of 
peat-heds, attaining a thickness of 8 feet, whose foniiation was brought 
to a final close by infiltration with silica, supplied by geysers or 
fumeroles. The structure of the peat and its enclosed plants, in many 
cases, are preserved in great perfection. The condition of the silicified 
peat, so far as its structure and contents are concerned, is shown to-day 
very much as it existed at the time that its formation was brought to a 
close. The peat-beds, now the chert zone, lie on a bed of white clay, 
4 feet thick, the top inch of which is a grey clay. 

It contains two vascular plants, Rhynia Gwynne-Vaughani n. sp. 
and n. g. , and Asteroxylon Mackiei n. sp. and n. g. The plants, named 
Rhynia, grew closely crowded together, and their remains formed a 
peat. The plant was rootless, consisting entirely of a system of 
cylindrical stems. Rhizomes were fixed in the peat by rhyzoids, and 
tapering aerial stems gi^ew up from them. These stems bore small 
hemispherical projections, and branched dichotomously and laterally. 
They had a thick- walled epidermis with stomata, and a simple central 
cylinder consisting of a strand of tracheides suiTOunded by phloem. 
Large cylindrical sporangia, containing numerous spores, were borne 
terminally on some of the leafless aeiial stems. The plant is com- 
parable with some of the specimens of PsUophyton princeps, figured 
by Dawson ; and a new class of vascular cryptogams, the Psilophytales, 
is formed for their reception. This is characterised by the sporangia 
being borne at the ends of the branches of the stem without any relation 
to leaves or leaf-like organs.' 

The peat is almost entirely formed of Rhynia, while Asteroxylon is 
of very rare occurrence. 

" Kkynia Gvnjime-Tdvqhani was described by Dr. R. Kidston and Professor 
Lang in a paper read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh on July 3, 1916. 
The description of Asteroxylon Mackiei, K. and L., is reserved for a future 
communication. 



ON THE LOWER CARBONIFEROUS FLORA AT GULLANE. 217 

Investigation of the Loiocr Carboniferous Flora at Gullane. — 
Report of the Co^nmittee, consisting of Dr. E. Kidston 
(Chairman), Dr. W. T. Gordon (Secretary), Dr. J. S.Flett, 
Professor E. J. Garwood, Dr. J. Horne, and Dr. B. N. 
Peach. 

A NEW discovery of ijcfcrified plaint-remains was made in 1914 at a 
point below high-water mark near Gullane, Haddingtonshire- The 
place could only be reached at certain states of the tide. In order to 
accelerate collecting, blasting operations were proposed, and a grant 
voted at last meeting of the Association to meet the expenses. The 
locality, however, lies within the area of the Forth Estuary, and, 
although the military and police authorities readily gave permission to 
blast on the foreshore, it was considered inadvisable to act on that 
permission meanwhile. No part of the grant was used therefore, but 
sufficient material has been collected to amplify considerably the data 
already obtained. Some 150 thin sections of the material have been 
prepared and examined. 

The flora represented in these sections is as follows: — 



LepidodendroH veltheiinianum, 

Sternb. 
Stigmaria ficoides, Sternb. 
Botryopteris (?) antiqua, Kidston. 



Bensonites fusiformis, R. Scott. 
Pitys primcBva, Witham. 
Pitys dayii, sp. nov. 
Pitys sp. nov. 



Chief importance is attached to the specimens of Pilys, as so many 
well-preserved specimens have never been obtained elsewhere. Many 
of these examples had the bark preserved, while one of them consisted 
of a branch tip still clothed with needle-like leaves. Much light has 
been thrown on the stem structure of the genus, while the details of 
the connexion of leaf and stem have also been determined. 

As regards the other plant types represented, it is interesting to note 
the similarity between the whole assemblage and the flora of the 
Pettycur Limestone at Pettycur, Fife. Indeed, the form Bensonites 
fusiformis, R. Scott, has not, so far, been recorded except from Petty- 
cur. Both Gullane and Pettycur lie on the Forth, and the geological 
horizon of the rocks at both localities is not very different, so that the 
similarity of the floras is not surprising. 

The specimens from Gullane occur in a greyish-white clastic rock, 
which, on examination, proved to be a highly decomposed volcanic ash. 
It is suggested that the decomposition of the ash, by vapours emitted 
from the volcano during its activity, produced solutions of mineral 
matter which caused the petrifaction of plant-fragments included in the 
ash. These plant-fragments occur quite sporadically through the 
rock, and they have evidently not been drifted in water. The petrify- 
ing solutions have been both calcareous and siliceous, so that some 
specimens are preserved in carbonate of lime, others in silica, while a 
few are partly in the one and partly in the other. 

The perfection of the preservation is very striking, and it is pro- 
posed to continue collecting specimens when possible. The Com- 
mittee, therefore, desires reappointment. 



218 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Photographs of Geological Interest.— Eighteenth Report of the 
Committee, consisting of Professors E. J. Garwood (Chair- 
man), W. W. Watts and S. H. Reynolds (Secretaries), 
Mr. G. BiNGLEY, Dr. T. G. Bonney, Messrs. G. V. Crook 
and W. Gray, Dr. E. Kidston, Mr. A. S. Eeid, Sir J. J. H. 
Teall, and Messrs. E. Welch and W. Whitaker. (Drawn 
up hy the Secretaries.) 

The Committee have to report that since the issue of the last Report in 
1910 they have received 429 photographs for the national collection. 
The total number in the collection is now 5,656, and the yearly average 
amounts to about 210. 

Since the issue of the last Report the Committee have suffered the 
loss of Professor James Geikie, their Chairman for twenty-six years. 
They have also lost Dr. Tempest Anderson and Mr. H. B. Woodward, 
both of whom took great interest in the work of the Committee and 
made contributions to the collection. 

The geographical scheme appended shows the distribution of new 
accessions among the counties. Kincardineshire figures in the list for 
the first time, and considerable additions have been made from Corn- 
wall, Durham, Somerset, Surrey, and Inverness ; while Yorkshire, with 
an addition of 127, has now over a thousand prints in the collection. 

Mr. Bingley adds still further to his photographic survey of the 
Yorkshire coast, as well as sending sets from the Yorkshire Dales, from 
Settle, and from Leeds. He also contributes a carefully selected set 
from the Magnesian Limestone of the Durham coast. To him we owe 
prints from Cumberland, "Westmorland, Lancashire, and the Isle of 
Man. 

Pit>fessor Reynolds has illustrated the coasts of Cornwall and 
Devon, with the Carboniferous Limestone districts of Gloucester and 
Somerset. The igneous and ancient rocks of many parts of Scotland 
are also illustrated by him, particularly in Argyll, Forfar, Inverness, 
and Sutherland. He also contributes prints from Galway and Mayo. 

Mr. A. S. Reid records the growth of deltas in certain Scottish 
Lochs; his photographs should be compared with Nos. 1867 and 1868. 

Mr. R. Welch contributes very interesting series of prints taken 
with his usual skill and finish, from Derbyshire and from several Irish 
counties, including Clare and Limerick. 

The late Mr. Russell Gwinnell sent numerous photographs taken in 
Skye and on the mainland ; and Mr. Zealley took photogi'aphs to illus- 
trate his work in the North of Ireland. 

Photographs sent by Mr. Wickham King record his discovery of 
Downtonian rocks in the South Staffordshire Coalfield. Mr. L. 
Richardson sends prints in illustration of his Rhpetic work. Colonel 
Haywood has photographed the coast scenery of the Isle of Man, and 
Mr. Cornewall- Walker presents, through Mr. Whitaker, a record of the 
excavations for a reservoir in Tunbridge Wells Sand, near Lingfield. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OP GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



219 





Previous 


Additions 


Total 


Counties 


Collection 


(1916) 


England — 








Cornwall 


92 


30 


122 


Cumberland .... 


44 


1 


45 


Derbyshire .... 


65 


4 


69 


Devonshire .... 


208 


9 


217 


Dorset 


174 


1 


175 


Durham 


145 


65 


210 


Gloucestershire .... 


123 


8 


131 


Hertfordshire .... 


22 


2 


24 


Lancashire .... 


80 


6 


86 


Oxfordshire .... 


1 


3 


4 


Shropshire .... 


64 


1 


65 


Somerset 


169 


86 


205 


Surrey 


75 


16 


91 


Sussex 


26 


1 


27 


Westmorland .... 


87 


6 


98 


Worcestershire .... 


27 


2 


29 


Yorkshire 


960 


127 


1,087 


Others 

Total .... 
Wales— 


922 


— 


922 


3,284 


818 


8,602 








Carnarvonshire .... 


118 


8 


126 


Others 

Total .... 
Channel Islands 
Isle of Man .... 
Scotland — 


286 


— 


286 


404 


8 


412 


38 


7 


88 


102 


109 






Argyllshire .... 


40 


4 


44 


Fifeshire 


64 


1 


65 


Forfarshire .... 


7 


5 


12 


Inverness-shire .... 


177 


25 


202 


Kincardineshire 


— 


4 


4 


Perthshire 


24 


8 


82 


Ross-shire 


19 


2 


21 


Sutherlaudshire 


48 


9 


57 


Others 

Total .... 
Ireland — 


224 


— 


224 


603 


58 


661 








Antrim 


287 


11 


298 


Clare 


15 


3 


18 


Cork 


23 


2 


25 


Donegal 


54 


2 


56 


Galway 


46 


6 


52 


Limerick 


2 


1 


3 


Londonderry .... 


26 


2 


28 


Mayo ...... 


25 


11 


86 


Others 

Total .... 
Rock Structures, &c. 
Summary. 


220 


— 


220 


698 


88 


736 


98 


98 








England 


3,284 


818 


8,602 


Wales 


404 


8 


412 


Channel Islands 


88 


— 


88 


Isle op Man .... 


102 


7 


109 


Scotland 


60S 


68 


661 


Ireland 


698 


88 


780 


Rock Structures, &c. 

Total .... 


98 


429 


98 
6,666 


6,227 



220 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Other contributors include Professor Allen, Mr. Montague Cooper, 
Mr. Cameron. Mr. Pritchett, Mr. A. E. Kitson, Mr. C. B. Storey, 
the late Mr. J. Parker, Dr. G. Abbott, Mr. Evers- Swindell, the York- 
shire Speleological Association, and Mr. E. Simpson. To all these 
helpers the Committee owe and beg to tender their thanks. 

Prizes for photographs of scenery illustrating geological features 
have been offered by the Tunbridge Wells Natural History Society. 

The Geological Survey has followed up the publication of a list of 
its own English geological photograplis by one. of its Scottish pictures, 
and made arrangements by which prints and slides may be purchased, 
thus giving to students and teachers an excellent opportunity of getting 
characteristic and typical geological illustrations. 

In spite of this it is thought that there will still be scope for the 
issue of a new series by the Committee, as the ground covered by its 
collection is at present wider than that of the Geological Survey. Un- 
fortunately, want of time has delayed the publication of the new series, 
but it is hoped that a method has now been found to bririig about the 
long-promised publication. 

Few additions to the duplicate series have been made since the issue 
of the published sets. Lectures on this series have been given by 
Mr. Whitaker at several local scientific societies, including the Ipswich 
and District Field Club, the Sidcup Literary and Scientific Society, the 
Folkestone Natural Histoiy Society, and the Sutton Society ; as well 
as at other Societies and Institutions at Croydon and Sutton. 

Applications by Local Societies for the loan of the duplicate collection 
of prints or slides should be made to the Secretary. A descrip- 
tive account of them can also be lent. The carriage and the making 
good of any damage to slides are the only expenses to be borne by the 
borrowing Society. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed, and that Pro- 
fessor S. H. Reynolds be Secretaiy. A financial statement, given in 
the appendix, shows that the assets of the Committee amount to 
£169 8s. lOd. 

EIGHTEENTH LIST OF GEOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. 
From August 23, 1910, to August 31, 1916. 

List of the geological photographs received and registered by the 
Secretaries of the Committee since the publication of the last Report. 

Contributors are asked to affix the registered numl)ers, as given 
below, to their negatives for convenience of future reference. Their 
own numbers are added in order to enable them to do so. 

* indicates that photographs and slides may be purchased from the 
donors or obtained through the address given with the series. 

Copies of other photographs desired can, in most instances, be 
obtained from the photographer direct, or from the officers of the Local 
Society under whose auspices the photograph was taken. The cost at 
which copies may b'e obtained depends on the size of the print and on 
local circumstances, over which the Committee have no control. 

The Committee do not assume the copyright of any photographs 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



22] 



included in this list. Inquiries respecting photographs, and appHcationa 
for permission to reproduce them, should be addressed to the photo- 
graphers direct. 

Copies of photographs should be sent unmounied to 

Professor S. H. Reynolds, 

The University, Bristol, 

accompanied by descriptions written on a form prepared for the purpose, 
copies of which may be obtained from him. 

The size of photographs is indicated as follows: — 

L = Lantern size. 1/1 = Whole Plate. 

1/4 = Quarter-plate. 10/8 = 10 inches by 8. 

1/2 = Half-plate. 12/10 = 12 inches by 10, &c. 

E. signifies Enlargement. 

ACCESSIONS, 1910-1916. 
ENGLAND. 

Cornwall. — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehurst, 
Headingley, Leeds. 1/2. 

Regd. 



No. 

5211 (7468) Land's End 

5212 (7469) „ 

5213 (7474) „ 



Granite Coast. 1906. 
Weathered Granite. 1906. 
Marine erosion of Granite (1906). 



Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., The 

University, Bristol. 1/4. 



5214 (2-13) Crou.'ia Common 

5215 (3-13) Coverack Cove 

5216 (4-13) 

5217 (5-13) 
6218 (6-13) 

5219 (713) 

5220 (8-13) 



6221 (913) 

5222 (11-13) Spernic Cove, near Cove- 

rack. 

5223 (12-13) Carrick Luz, near Cove- 

rack. 

5224 (14-13) Carrick Luz, near Cove- Aiigen Gabbro. 1913. 

5225 (15-13) Carrick Luz from W. 



Gabbro blocks. 1913. 

Basic dyke cutting Gabbro, cutting 

Serpentine. 1913. 
Basic dyke cutting Gabbro, cutting 

Serpentine. 1913. 
Plexus of Gabbro veins in Serpentine. 

1913. 
Plexus of Gabbro veins in Serpentine. 

1913. 
Raised Beach and Head on Serpentine 

veined with Gabbro. 1913. 
Weathered surface of Serpentine. 

1913. 
Two basic dykes in Serpentine. 1913. 
Plexus of Gabbro veins in Serpentine. 

1913. 
Inclusion of Serpentine in Gabbro. 

1913. 



]\Iarine erosion of Gabbro. 1913. 



6226 (16-13) Beagle's Pt., W. of Weathering of Serpentine. 1913 

Coverack. 

6227 (17-13) Chynall's Pt., Coverack 
5228 (18-13) 
6229 (21-13) Compass Cove, Lizard 



by 



6230 (23-13) Poldourian, Lizard 
5231 (25-13) Kennack Cove, Lizard 



Gabbro cutting Serpentine cut 

Epidiorite dykes. ,1913. 
Banded Chromite Serpentine. 1913. 
Epidiorite dykes in Serpentine. 1913. 



5232 (38-13) Gunwalloe, near Helston Contorted llanaccan beds (Devonian). 

1913. 



222 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Regd. 
No. 

5233 (44-13) Porthleven . . . The Giant's rock, an enormous Erratic 

of Granitic Gneiss. 1913. 

5234 (44a- 13) Loe Bar, near Helston The Sand bar holds up the water of 

the Helston river. 1913. 

5235 (45-13) Porthleven Cliffs . . Sea Cave and Shore Platform, with 

large Erratic, the 'Giant's Rock.' 
1913. 

5236 (46-13) Lavarnick Pit, Kynance Rock fall probably due to under- 

cutting of the Serpentine. 1913. 

5237 (4913) Gew Graze, Kynanoe . Rock fall presumably due to under- 

cutting of the Serpentine. 1913. 

5238 (50-13) Pare Bean, Kynance . Epidiorite dykes cutting Serpentine. 

1913. 

5239 (51-13) MuUion Island and Rocks. 1913. 

Kynance. 

5240 (52. J3) Pentreath Beach, Lizard Veined Serpentine. 1913. 

Cumberland. — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehursi, 
Headingley, Leeds. 1/4. 
(9114) Wasdale .... Screes. 1910. 

Derbyshire. — PJiotographed byB. Welch,* 49 Lonsdale Street, 
Belfast. 1/1. 

5626 (4109) Miller's Dale . . . Toadstone and Carboniferous Lime- 

stone. 1904. 

5627 (4114) Blue John Mine, Castle- Swallow Hole. 1905. 

ton. 

5628 (4111) Castleton .... Mouth of Windy Knoll Cave. 1905. 

5629 (4112) Bradwell Dale . . Encrinite band in Carboniferous Lime- 

stone. 1905. 

Devonshire. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., 
Sc.D., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5242 (110) Beer Head, from East . Chalk Cliffs, Upper Greensand in fore- 

ground. 1910. 

5243 (2-10) WhiteclifT and Seaton . Upper Cretaceous section. 1910. Upper 

Greensand to zone of T. gracilis. 

5244 (4-10) Beer Harbour, north side Chalk section, from B. Cuvieri to M. 

cor-testudinarium zone. 1910. 

5245 (S'lO) Beer, Annie's Knob . Outcrop of M. cor-testudlnarium zone. 

1910. 

5246 (6-10) West of Hooken Cliff, Upper Greensand at base of cliff. 

Beer. 1910. 

5247 (810) Hooken and Under Slipped Upper Cretaceous Rocks. 

Hooken, Beer. 1910. 

5248 (10-10) West of Lyme Regis . Small Slips. 1910. 

Photographed by F. J. Allen, M.A., D.Sc, 8 Halifax Eoad, 
Cambridge. 1/4. 

5249 ( ) Westleigh Quarry, near Contorted Carboniferous Limestono. 

Burlescombe. 1912. 

Photographed by MoJ^TAGVE Goover,* Photographer, Taunton. 12/10. 

5250 ( ) Westleigh Quarry, near Contorted Carboniferous Limestone. 

Burlescombe. 1912. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



223 



Dorsetshire. — Presenled by A. C. G. Cameron, Harcombe Bank, 
Uplyme. 6/3. 

Regd. 
No. 
5251 ( ) Lyme Regis . . . Burning cliffs of Lias. 



Durham. — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehnrst, 
Headingley, Leeds. 1/2. 



5278 



[9266) Trow Rocks, S. Shields . 

92G7) „ „ 

:9268) 

9269) Frenchman's Bay, S. 
Shielde. 

9271) Frenchman's Bay, S. 
Shields. 

9272) Frenchman's Bay, S. 
Shields. 

9273) Marsden Bay, Sunderland 

9274) 

9275) „ „ 

;9276) 

9277) Cliffs. Marsden Bay, Sun- 
derland. 

9278) S. of Grotto, Marsden 
Bay, Sunderland. 

9279) Cliffs S. of Grotto, Mars- 
den Bay, Sunderland. 

9280) S. "of Grotto, Marsden 
Bay, Sunderland. 

9282) Marsden Quarry, Sunder- 

l.ind. 
[9234) Marsden Bay, Sunderland 

9236) 

;9237) ,, „ 

9238) Marsden Rock, Marsden 

Bay. 
;9240) Marsden Bay, Sunderland 

9241) ,, „ 

9242) „ „ 

9243) 

9244) „ 

' The Chimney Rock.' 

9247) Marsden Bay, Sunderland 

9248) ,, „ 

(9231) Between Sunderland and 
Mareden Bay. 



Brecciated Magnesium Limeetone 
thrust over well-bedded ditto. 1910. 

Thrust plane in disturbed Magnesian 
Limestone. 1910. 

Mylonised band at thrust plane in 
^lagnesian Limestone. 1910. 

Fissuring and thrust faulting in Mag- 
neeian Limestone. 1910. 

Magnesian Limestone thrust over well- 
bedded strata. 1910. 

Cellular Magnesian Limestone. 1910. 

Velvet beds, top of brecciated beds, 
Magnesian Limestone. 1910. 

Mass of Breccia filling fissure. 1910. 

Twisted ' cleavage ' in Upper Mag- 
nesian Limestone. 1910. 

Jointing in Upper Ma^esian Lime- 
stone. 1910. 

Folding, buckling, &c., of Magnesian 
Limestone against horst (outside 
picture). 1910. 

Jointing passing into brecciation of 
Magneeian Limestone. 1910. 

Minute brecciation of Magnesian Lime- 
stone. 1910. 

Brecciation and contortion in Mag- 
nesian Limestone. 1910. 

Block of stellate concretionary Mag- 
nesian Limestone. 1910. 

Stack of Magnesian Limestone, con- 
cretionary and brecciated. 1910. 

Cliffs and stacks of Magnesian Lime- 
stone. 1910. 

Sea stacks of Magnesian Limeetone. 
1910. 

Marine erosion of Magnesian Lime- 
stone. 1910. 

Fissures in Magnesian Limestone 
Breccia. 1910. 

Brecciated Magnesian Limestone. 1910. 

Bedded and partly brecciated Upper 
Magnesian Limestone. 1910. 

Vertical ' Breccia-gash ' standing out 
from cliff. 1910. 

Stack of Magneeian Limestone Bi-eccia. 
1910. 

Sea cave. 1910. 

Sea stacks of Magnesian Limestone 
Breccia. 1910. 

Sea stack of Permian Breccias. 1910. 



224 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



9232) S. of Marsden Bay 

9233) Coast near Lizard Point 
between Sunderland and 
Marsden Bay. 

9225) ' Holey-Tock,' Roker, near 
Sunderland. 

9226) Roker, near Sunderland 

9227) 

9228) „ „ 

9283) Fulwell Quarry, Sunder- 
land. 

9284) Fulwell Quarry, Sunder- 
land. 

9285) Fulwell Quarry, Sunder- 
land. 

9286) Fulwell Quarry, Sunder- 
land. 

9287) Fulwell Quarry, Sunder- 
land. 

9288) Fulwell Quarry, Sunder- 
land. 

9289) West Boldon, near Sun- 
derland. 

9290) West Boldon, near Sun- 
derland. 

9291) Down Hill Quarry, Bol- 
don, near Sunderland. 

9292) Down Hill Quarry, Bol- 
don, near Sunderland. 

9293) Down Hill Quarry, Bol- 
don, near Sunderland. 

9294) Down Hill Sand Pit, 
Boldon, near Sunderland. 

9305) Fulwell Quarry, near 
Sunderland. 

9306) Fulwell Quarry, near 
Sunderland. 

9295) Near Hylton Castle, Sun- 
derland. 

9296) Near Hylton Castle, Sun- 
derland. 

9249) Hendon, near Sunderland 

9250) Cliffs at Hendon, S. of 
Sunderland. 

9251) Cliffs at Hendon, S. of 
Sunderland. 

9252) Hendon, near Sunderland 

9253) Cliffs, Hendon, S. of 
Sunderland. 

9254) Cliffs, Hendon, near Sun- 
derland. 

9255) 'Jane Jewison's Rock,' 
between Sunderland and 
Ryhope. 



Marine erosion of Permian Breccias. 

1910. 
Sea stacks and cliffs of Permian 

Breccia. 1910. 



^lagnesian Limestone. 

!Magnesian Limestone. 

jNIagnesian Limestone. 

IMagnesian Limestone. 



Sea caves in 
1910. 

' Cannon-ball ' 
1910. 

' Cannon-ball ' 
1910. 

' Cannon-ball ' 
1910. 

Cellular concretionary Magnesian Lime- 
stone. 1910. 

Honeycomb concretionary Magnesian 
Limestone. 1910. 

Botryoidal ^Magnesian Limestone. 1910. 

Cellular concretionary Magnesian 
Limestone. 1910. 

Concretionary INIagnesian Limestone. 
1910. 

Concretionary Magnesian Limestone. 
1910. 

Breccia and Lower Magnesian Lime- 
stone. 1910. 

Breccia and Lower Magnesian Lime- 
stone. 1910. 

Disturbed mass of Magnesian Lime- 
etone. 1910. 

Fissuring in Lower IVIagnesian Lime- 
stone. 1910. 

Sequence ' Yellow Sands ' to Fossili- 
ferous Limestone. 1910. 

False-bedding and bands of MnOj in 
Permian Sands. 1910. 

Botryoidal Magnesian Limestone. 1910. 

Honeycomb concretionary Magnesian 
Limestone. 1910. 

Disturbed Lower Magnesian Lime- 
stone. 1910. 

Disturbed Lower Magnesian Lime- 
stone. 1910. 

Concretionary, Upper INIagnesian Lime- 
stone. 1910. 

Concretionary Magnesium Limestone, 
capped by Boulder Clay. 1910. 

Honeycomb concretionary. Upper Mag- 
nesian Limestone. 1910. 

Bedding planes passing through Mag- 
nesian Limestone Concretions. 1910. 

Middle Permian thrust over Upper 
Concretionary Beds. 1910. 

Block-fractured rock and phacoidal 
structure developed above Thrust 
plane. 1910. 

Slickensided Breccia. 1910. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



225 



Regd. 

No. 

5308 



5309 

5310 

5311 

5312 
5313 
5314 

5315 

5316 



(9256) 'Jane Jewison's Rock,' 
between Sunderland and 
Ryhope. 

(9257) Cliffs near Ryhope, S. of 
Sunderland. 

(9258) Marslack, near Ryhope, 
S. of Sunderland. 

(9259) Marslack, near Ryhope, 
S. of Sunderland. 

(9260) Grindon, near Sunderland 

(9261) Grindon, near Sunderland 

(9263) Claxheugh, by R. Wear, 
2 miles W. of Sunderland. 

(9264) Claxheugh, by R. Wear, 
2 miles W. of Sunderland. 

(9265) Near Claxheugh, Sun- 
derland. 



Slickensided surface. 1910. 



Breccia resting on well-bedded Per- 
mian rocks. 1910. 

Breccia thrust over disturbed Mag- 
nesian Limestone. 1910. 

Strata disturbed by small Thrust. 1910. 

Esker. 1910. 

Gravel and sands of Esker. 1910. 

Rock-fall and section of Permian Beds. 
1910. 

False-bedded Yellow Permian Sand- 
stone. 1910. 

Minutely faulted cellular Breccia. 1910. 



Gloucestershire. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Eeynolds, 
M.A., Sc.D., The University, Bristol. 1/2. 
112) Sodbury Section (Carboni- Upper D Beds. 1912. 



5317 

ferous Limestone). 

5318 (2-12) Sodbury Section (Carboni- 

ferous Limestone). 

5319 (3-12) Sodbury Section (Carboni- 

ferous Limestone). 

5320 (4-12) Sodbury Section (Carboni- 

ferous Limestone). 

5321 (5-12) Sodbury Section (Carboni- 

ferous Limestone). 

5322 (6-12) Sodbury Section (Carboni- 

ferous Limestone). 

5323 (7-12) Sodbury Section (Carboni- 

ferous Limestone). 

5324 (8-12) Sodbury Section (Carboni- 

ferous Limestone). 



Lower D and Upper So Beds. 1912. 

The Base of the Concretionary Beds 

and Seminula-Oo\ite. 1912. 
Base of S, and S^ Beds. 1912. 

Sj and top of C,. 1912. 

Cannun-Dolomites and Swallet. 1912. 

Zflwinosa-Dolomites, &c. (C,). 1912 

Z Beds. 1912. 



Hertfordshire. — Photographed by G. E. Pritchett, F.S.A., 
Oak Hall, Bishop's Stortford. 1/1. 

5325 ( ) Whitehall Farm, Bishop's Hertfordshire Puddingstone, 22 tons 

Stortford. estimated. 

6326 ( ) Whitehall Farm, Bishop's Hertfordshire Puddingstone, 5 tons 

Stortford. estimated. 



Lancashire. — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehnrst, 
Headingley, Leeds. 1/2. 

5327 (7723) Hook Clough, Pendle Hill Callograptus carboniferus. 1906. 

5328 (8455) Leek Beck . . . Current-bedded Carboniferous Sands 

and Shales. 1909. 

5329 (8466) Sellet, near Kirkby Lons- Limestone quarry. 1909. 

dale. 

5330 (8467) Sellet, near Kirkby Lons- Quarry in Yoredale Sandstone. 1909. 

dale. 

5331 (8470) Whittington Quarry . Whittington Limestone, Yoredale 

Series. 1909. 
6332 (8471) Penford Beck, near Whit- Shales above Whittington Limestone, 
tington. Yoredale Series. 1909. 

1916 Q 



226 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Oxfordshire. — Photographed by A. E. Kitson, F.G.S., 109 Worple 
Road, Wimbledon, S.W. 1/4. 

Regd. 
No. 
6333 ( ) Blackthorn Hill, Bicester Great Oolite and Cornbraeh. 1908. 

5334 ( ) „ 

5335 ( ) „ 

Shropshire — Phoiographed by C. B. Storey, M.A., F.O.S., 
PJas Nantyr, Glyn, Riiabon. 1/4. 

5336 ( ) The ' Devir.s Chair,' the Arenig Quartzite. 1902. 

Stiperstones. 



Somerset. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Eeynolds, M.A., Sc.D., 

The University, Bristol. 1/2 and 1/4. 
5337 (07-59) Burrington Combe 



S, Beds 



5338 
5339 



(07-60) 
(07-61) 



5340 (09-37) 



5341 
5342 
5343 

5344 

5345 

5346 
5347 

5348 
5349 

5350 
5351 



(09-39) 
(09-40) 
(09-41) 

(09-42) 

(09-43) 

(09-45) 
(09-46) 

(09-47) 
(09-50) 

(09-51) 
(09-52) 



5352 (09-54) 



5353 
5354 
5355 



(09-55) 
(09-56) 
(09-57) 



5356 (09'58) 

5357 (09-61) 

5358 (09-63) 

5359 (09-65) 



5360 (11-1) Vobst€r Old Quarry, 

general view, looking west- 
ward. 

5361 (11-2) Vobster Quarry, eastern 

part of northern face. 
6362 (11-3) Vobster Quarry, western 
end. 



1907. 

the Goatchurch 



Cave. 



Silicified Lithostrotion 

1907. 
'The Cave.' 
Entrance to 

1907. 
Quarry 1 (baee of D,, top of S.,). 

1909. 
Quarry 1 and S^ Beds. 1909. 
Quarry 2, and hillside to the N. 1909. 
Hillside between Quarries 1 and 2, 

and part of Quarry 2. 1909. 
Quarry 2 (S,, and the lower part of 

S^). 1909. 
The section between' Quarry 2 and 

' The Cave.' 1909. 
Quarry 3 and the C^ scarp. 1909. 
S, and C Beds from Quarry 2 to near 

Quarry 3. 1909. 
S, and C^ Beds. 1909. 
Base of C2 Dolomites of Quarry 3, and 

top of C, y. 1909. 
C, 7 Beds. 1909. 
Hillside between C^ scarp and C, -y 

scarp. 1909. 
Quarry 3 and scarpe of C, and 

C, y. 1909. 
The Great Scarp of C, y. 1909. 
Great Scarp of C, y from W. 1909. 
Valley of W. twin Stream and Great 

Scarp of Cj y beyond it. 1909. 
Upper part of Combe and side of 

valley of Eastern twin Stream. 1909. 
The Eastern twin Stream. 1909. 
Valley of the Western twin Stream. 

1909. 
Weathered surface of coaree Crinoidal 

Oolite, E. twin Stream. 1909. 
Overfolded S., and D, Beds. 1911. 



Overfolded S. Beds planed down and 

capped by Lias. 1911. 
Higheet Seminula-'&eAs, overfolded. 

1911. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



227 



Regd. 
No. 
6363 (11-4) Vobster Quarry 

5364 (11-5) „ 

5365 (11-6) „ 



Lias OH' planed down and overfolded 

Carboniferous Limeetone. 1911. 

Lias ou planed down and overfolded 

Carboniferous Limestone. 1911. 

Lias on planed down and overfolded 

Carboniferous Limestone. 1911. 



Photographed by the late James Parkeh, 21 Tiirl Street, Oxford. 
5366 { ) Vobster Quarry . . Lias resting against Carboniferous 



Lias resting 
Limestone. 



1909. 



Photographed by L. Eichakdson, 

1/2, 5/4, 

5367 (1) Warren Farm section, near 

Watchet. 

5368 (2) Cleeve Bay, looking towards 

N. Hill, Minehead. 

5369 (3) Foreshore section, near Blue 

Anchor Point, Watchet. 

5370 (4) Blue Anchor Point, Watchet 

5371 (5) Top of cliff. Blue Anchor 

Point, Watchet. 

5372 (6) Blue Anchor Point, Watchet 



10 Oxford Parade, Cheltenham, 
and 1/4, 
Disturbed Keuper :Marls. 1904. 

Coast scenery near Blue Anchor. 1904. 
Point and Warren Farm .section. 1904. 
Sully Beds and Rh;etic Beds. 1904. 

Anticlinal arrangement of Keuper and 

Rhstic Beds. 1904. 
Rhaetic (Cotham, Langport, and 

Watchet Beds) and Base of Lias. 

1904. 
Keuper Marls, with veins of Gypsum. 

1904. 



5374 



5375 



Surrey. — Photographed by A. E. Cornew all-Walker, Redhill 
Surrey. 1/2. 

5373 ( ) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. Tunbridge Wells Sand. 1912. 
Reeervoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking nortli. 

) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. ,, ,, ,, >> 

Reeervoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking north. 

) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. ,, ,, ,, „ 

Reeervoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking north. 

5376 ( ) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. „ „ „ „ 

Reeervoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking north. 

5377 ( ) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. „ ,, „ „ 

Reeervoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking north. 

5378 ( ) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. ,, ,, „ ,. 

Reservoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking south. 

5379 ( ) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. „ „ „ >, 

Reeervoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking south. 

5380 ( ) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. „ ., „ ,, 

Reeervoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking south. 
6381 ( ) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. „ „ „ » 

Reeervoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking south. 

) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. ,, ;, >> >> 

Reeervoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking south. 



6382 



Q 2 



228 



BEPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Regd. 

No. 
5383 



5384 
5385 
5386 
5387 
5388 



) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. 
Reservoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking west. 

) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. 
Reservoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking west. 

) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. 
Reservoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking west. 

) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. 
Reservoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking east. 

) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. 
Reservoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking east. 

) Dry Hill, near Lingfield. 
Reservoir for East Surrey 
Waterworks, looking east. 



Tunbridge Wells Sand. 1912. 



Sussex. — Photographed hxj Johnson, Bird, and Co.,* 20 High Street, 
Tunbridge Wells, and presented by Dr. G. Abbott. L. 

5389 ( ) Eridge Rocks, nr. Tun- False-bedding in Tunbridge Wells 

bridge Wells. Sand. 1909. 

Westmorland. — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehurst, 
Headingley, Leeds. 1/2. 

5390 (8445) Brigsteer . . . Carboniferous Limestone Escarpment. 

1909. 

5391 (8448) Barbon Beck, Barbon . Carboniferous Limestone in bed of 

stream. 1909. 

5392 (8449) ,, ,, Junction of Carboniferous Limestone 

and Red Conglomerate. 1909. 

5393 (8456) R. Lnne, Kirkby Lens- Red Conglomerate. 1909. 

dale. 

5394 (8472) Hutton Roof Quarry . Section in Yoredale Grits. 1909. 

5395 (8474) 



Worcestershire. — Photographed by H. S. Evers-Swindell, Ped- 
more; and sent by W. Wickham King, F.G.S., Stourbridge. 1/2. 
5396 (L) Hayes, near Halesowen 



5397 (R) 



Coal Measures resting unconformably 

on Ludlow and Downton Beds. 

1912. 
Coal Measures resting unconformably 

on Ludlow and Downton Beds. 

1912. 



Yorkshire — Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehurst, 
Headingley, Leeds. 1/2 and 1/4. 

5398 (9207) Roseberry Topping . Cutting in Shales and Ironstone. 1910. 

5399 (9211) ,, „ . Outlier, 1910. 

5400 (9215) Ayton .... Whin Sill as seen in quarry face. 

5401 (9216) „ .... Quarry in Whin Sill. 1910. 

5402 (9715) Blea Hill Rigg . . End of Cleveland Dyke. 1912. 

5403 (9716) Foul Syke, Fylingdale Peat cutting, with tree stumps. 

Moors. 



1910. 



1912. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OP GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



229 



Regd. 

No. 

5404 (9708) Yellow Sand Bight, near 

Whitby. 

5405 (9709) Yellow Sand Bight, be- 

tween Whitby and Saltwick 
Nab. 

5406 (9710) Yellow Sand Bight, be- 

tween Whitby and Saltwick 
Nab. 

5407 (9720) Near Robin Hood's Bay 

5408 (9702) Robin Hood's Bay 

5409 (9693) The Peak, near Whitby 

5410 (9700) „ 

5411 (8525) Hayburn Wyke 

5412 (8562) Iron Scar, S. of Hay- 

burn Wyke. 

5413 (8563) Iron Scar, near Hayburn 

Wyke. 

5414 (8564) Iron Scar, S. of Hay- 

burn Wyke. 

5415 (8566) Iron Scar, S. of Hay- 

burn Wyke. 

5416 (8552) Cloughton Wyke . 

5417 (8553) „ ,, . . 

5418 (8557) ,, „ . . 

5419 (8558) „ „ . . 

5420 (8559) „ „ . . 

5421 (8547) Hundale Point, Clough- 

ton Wyke. 

5422 (9317) Burmeton Bay, N. of 

Scarborough. 

5423 (9319) Cromer Point, near Scar- 

borough. 

5424 (6940) Scalby Bay, N. of Scar- 

borough. 

5425 (6941) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 

5426 (6942) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 

5427 (6943) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 

5428 (6944) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 

5429 (6945) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 

5430 (6947) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 

5431 (6948) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 

5432 (6949) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 

5433 (6950) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 

5434 (6951) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 

5435 (6952) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 

5436 (6953) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 

borough. 



Roots from Lower Estuarine Series, 
penetrating Dogger and Upper Lias. 
1912. 

Fossil root in Upper Lias overlain by 
Dogger. 1912. 

Hollow in Dogger due to decay of tree 
trunks. 1912. 

Landslip on Cliffs. 1912. 
Tan-pits beck fall. 1912. 
Dogger and Estuarine Sandstone, S. 

side of Peak Fault. 1912. 
Bosses in Alum Shale on shore. 1912. 
Cliffs and Waterfall. 1909. 
Ellerbeck Beds, Lower Estuarine 

Series. 1909. 
Ripple-marked Ellerbeck Beds. 1909. 

Ellerbeck Beds, Lower Estuarine 

Series. 1909. 
Ellerbeck Beds, Lower Estuarine 

Series. 1909. 
Estuarine Series, Lower Oolite. 1909. 
Estuarine Series. 1909. 
Estuarine Series, Lower Oolite. 1909. 
Ripple marked Middle Estuarine Sand- 
stone. 1909. 
Block of current-bedded Middle 

Estuarine Sandstone. 1909. 
Estuarine Sandstone, with ripple 

marks and worm tracks. 1909. 
Upper Estuarine Sandstone, with Unto 

distorta. 1911. 
Current-bedding in Boulder of Upper 

Estuarine Sandstone. 1911. 
Estuarine Beds. 1905. 



Boulder Clay, sands and gravel. 1905. 
Boulder Clay section. 1905. 

Boulder Clay, gravels and silt. 1905. 
Boulder Clay, sand and gravel. 1905. 

Pockets of gravel in Boulder Clay. 

1905. 
Pockets of gravel in Boulder Clay. 

1905. 
Pockets of gravel in Boulder Clay. 

1905. 
Pockets of gravel in Boulder Clay. 

1905. 
Boulder Clay, sands, &c. 1905. 

Gravels in Boulder Clav. 1905. 



230 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 191^. 



Regd. 

No. 

5437 

5438 

5439 

5440 

5441 

5442 

5443 

5444 

5445 

5446 

5447 

5448 

5449 

5450 

5451 

5452 

5453 

5454 

5455 
5456 

5457 

5458 

5459) 

5460/ 

5461, 

5462; 

5463 1 

5464 ) 

5465) 

5466) 

6467 

5468 
5469 
5470 
5471 
5472 



Scar- 
Scar- 



Scar- 



(6954) Scalby Bay, near Scar- 
borough. 

(6955) Scalby Ness, near Scar- 
borough. 

(6957) Cliff.., S. of Holbeck 
Gardens, Scarborough. 

(6938) Carnelian Bay, 
borough. 

(9310) Carnelian Bay, 
borough. 

(9314) Carnelian Bay, 
borough. 

(6929) 0.«godby Nab, S. of Scar- 
borough. 

(6931) Osgodby Nab, S. of Scar- 
borough. 

(6932) Osgodby Nab, S. of Scar- 
borough. 

(6934) Osgodby Nab, S. of Scar- 
borough. 

(6935) Osgodby Nab, S. of Scar- 
borough. 

(6936) Osgodby Nab, S. of Scar- 
borough, from Carnelian Bay 

(6926) Cayton Bay, S. of Scar- 
borough. 

(6965) Red Cliff, Cayton 
S. of Scarborough. 

(6967) Red Cliff, Cayton 

S. of Scarborough. 
(6969) Red Cliff, Cayton 

S. of Scarborough. 

(6966) End of Yons Nab, 
Cayton Bay, Scarborough. 

(8834) Beach near Reighton, S. 
of Filey. 

(8835) Speeton Gap, near Filey 
(8837) Speeton Cliffs, Flam- 
borough Head. 

(7357) Speeton 

(7358) 

(7359) 

(7364) 

(7360) 

(7365) 

(7361) 

(7366) 

(7362) 

(7363) 

(8845) Cliffs between S. Landing 
and High Stacks, Flam- 
borough. 
(8847) Flamborough Head, N. 

side of S. Sea Landing. 
(8849) South Sea Landing, Flam- 
borough. 

(8851) High Stacks, Flam- 
borough. 

(8852) N. of High Stacks, Flam- 
borough. 

(8853) High Stacks, Flam- 
borough. 



Bay, 
Bay, 
Bay, 



Base of Boulder Clay Cliff. 1905. 
1905. 

Strongly jointed Upper Eetaarine 

Series. 1905. 

Boulder Clay on Lower Estuarine 

Series. 1905. 

Bedding of Upper Estuarine Sand- 
stone. 1911. 

Landslip in cliff. 1911. 

Estuarine Series capped by Boulder 

Clay. 1905. 
Estuarine and Millepore Series capped 

by Boulder Clay. 1905. 
Estuarine and Millepore bede. 1905. 



Shingle spit and sand dunes. 1905. 

Middle Oolite succession, cornbrash to 
Lower Calcareous Grit. 1905. 

Lower Calcareous Gritj_ Oxford Clay, 
Kellaway R-ock. 1905. 

Kellaway Rock at base of cliff. 1905. 



S. of Estuarine Series. 1905. 



Kimmeridge Clay, with nodules con- 
taining Perixphinctes. 1910. 
Slipped Red Chalk. 1910. 
Red Chalk. 1910. 

Ammonitea. 1906 



Chalk. 1910. 

Chalk capped by Boulder Clay. 1910. 
Chalk Cliffs. 1910. 
Marine Erosion of Chalk. 1910. 
Chalk Cliffs and Sea Caves. 1910. 
Arch in Chalk. 1910. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 231 

Regd. 
No 

6473 (8855) Selwick Bay, Flamborough . Erosion of Chalk Cliffs. -1910. 

5474 (8857) Flamborough Head . . Marine Erosion of Chalk. 1910. 

6475 (8858) ,, „ . . Chalk Cliffs. 1910. 

5476 (8869) Thornwick Bay, Flam- Arch in Chalk Cliff. 1910. 

borough Head. 

5477 (8846) Near Danee Dyke, Flam- Chalk Cliffs. 1910. 

borough. 

5478 (8843) Sewerby, near Bridlington . Boulder Clay against Pre-glacial 

Chalk Cliff. 1910. 

6479 (8844) Flamborough Head from Chalk and Boulder Clay. 1910. 

Sewerby. 

6480 (8477) Gannister Quarry, IMeanwood Folded Gannieter. 1909. 

Valley, near Le«ds. 
5481 (8497) Gannister Quarry, Meanwood Disturbed Gannister. 1909. 
Valley, near Leeds. 

6482 (8498) Gannister Quarry, Meanwood Crushed Gannister. 1909. 

Valley, near Leeds. 

6483 (8797) Gannister Quarry, Meanwood Overthrust. 1909. 

Valley, near Leeds. 
5484 (8798) Gannister Quarry, Meanwood Coal seam. 1909. 

Valley, near Leeds. 
6485 (8908) Semmer Water, near Bain- 1910. 

bridge. 

5486 (8909) Semmer Water, near Bain- 1910. 

bridge. 

5487 (8912) River Bain, Wensleydale, 1910. 

emerging from Semmer Water. 

5488 (8913) River Bain, Weneleydale . Looking down stream from spot 

whence No. 5487 was taken. 
1910. 

5489 (8926) Parker Gill Force . . Yoredale Limestone undercut. 

1910. 

5490 (8929) Mill Gill, near Askrigg . Black Shales overlying Great Sea: 

Limestone. 1910. 

6491 (8942) „ „ „ • Yoredale Series. 1910. 

6492 (8943) Whitfield Force, near Ask- The fall is over Yoredale Black 

rigg. Shales. 1910. 

5493 (8946) Cogill Beck, near Askrigg . Stream-bed showing jointing in 

Yoredale Limestone. 1910. 

5494 (8947) „ ,, ,, . Stream-bed showing jointing in 

Yoredale Limestone. 1910. 
5496 (8948) ,, „ „ • Jointing and pitting in Yoredale 

Limestone. 1910. 
5496 (8804) Atterniine Scars, Settle . Cliffs of Carboniferous Limestone. 

1910. 
6497 (8822) Attermine Scars, Settle . Screes of Carboniferous Limestone. 

1910. 
5498 (8819) Attermine and Langcliff Bare Scars of Carboniferous Lime- 
Scars, near Settle. stone. 1910. 
6499 (8807) Langdiffe Scar, near Settle, 1910. 

with entrance to Victoria Cave. 
5600 (9670) Entrance to Victoria Cave, 1912. 

Settle. 
6601 (8818) Warrendale Knotts, Atter- Scars of Carboniferous Limestone, 
mine Scars, Settle. 1910. 

5602 (8820) Warrendale Knotts, Atter- Carboniferous Limestone Scars. 

mine Scare, Settle. 1910. 

5603 (8806) Warrendale Knotts, Atter- Bare Scars of Carboniferous Lime- 

mine Scars, Settle. stone. 1910. 

5604 (9675) Black Hill, near Settle . Silurian below Millstone Grit. 1912. 



232 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Regd. 
No. 

5505 (9676) Black Hill, near Settle 

5506 (9678) Cowside Beck, near Settle . 

5507 (9679) „ „ „ . 

5508 (9366) „ 

5509 (9368) „ 

5510 (9370) „ „ „ . 

5511 (9371) „ 

5512 (9372) „ 

5513 (9364) INIealsbank Quarry, Ingleton 

5514 (9365) 

5515 (8810) Kingsdale, near Ingleton 

5516 (8813) Routen Pot, Kingsdale 

5517 (9362) Right bank of Greta, Ingle- 

ton. 

5518 (9374) Near Manor Bridge, Kings- 

dale Beck, Ingleton. 

5519 (9377) Mason Hill, near Ingleton 

5520 (9640) Hambleton Quarry, near 

Bolton Abbey Station. 

5521 (9641) Hambletoni Quarry, near 

Bolton Abbey Station. 

5522 (9642) Hambleton Qu<arry, near 

Bolton Abbey Station. 



Silurian below Millstone Grit. 1912. 

Basement Conglomerate of Carboni- 
ferous Age. 1912. 

Basement Conglomerate of Carboni- 

• ferous Age. 1912. 

Basement Conglomerate oi Carboni- 
ferous Age. 1912. 

Basement Conglomerate of Carboni- 
ferou.s Age. 1912. 

Basement Conglomerate of Carboni- 
ferous Age. 1912. 

Basement Conglomerate of Carboni- 
ferous Age. 1912. 

Carboniferous Limestone and 
Rubble Beds. 1911. 

Carboniferous Limestone. 1911. 

Carboniferous Limestone Erratic. 

1910. 
1910. 
Exposure of Coal Measures. 1911. 

Fault. 1911. 

Upper Permain Conglomerate. 1911. 
Contorted Yoredale Limestone. 

1912. 
Contorted Yoredale Limestone. 

1912. 
Contorted Yoredale Limestone. 

1912. 



Photographed hy E. Simpron, 44 Scfton Terrace, Beeston HilJ, Leeds, 
and presented on behalf of the Yorkshire Speleological Association. 

12/10. 

5523 ( ) Rift Pot, Ingleborough . . Carboniferous Limestone ; Surface. 

1908 (?). 

5524 ( ) „ „ „ . . First Chamber. 1908 ( ?). 



WALES. 
Carnarvonshire. — Photographed hy 



5525 ( 

5526 ( 

5527 ( 

5528 ( 

5529 ( 

5530 ( 

5531 ( 

5532 ( 



) Criccieth Bay 



' Head ' and Blown Sand. 1912. 
Rolled masses of Boulder Clay. 

1912. 
Glacial Valley. 1912. 
Rhyolite. 1912. 
Lower Llandovery Beds, fimbriatus 

to coni'ohitus zones. 1912. 
Tarannon Rocks. 1912. 
Tarannon Rocks, turriculatus zone. 

1912. 
) Wern Quarry, near Portmadoc Middle Lingula Flags. 1912. 



) Criccieth 

) Rhydcrosiau, Criccieth 

) Dwyfawr, Criccieth 

) >. . ., 

) Near Criccieth 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OP GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 233 

ISLE OP MAN. 

Photographed by Godfrey Bingley, Thorniehurst, Headingley, Leeds. 

1/2. 
Regd. 
No. 
5533 (7720) Poyll Vaaish , . . Desmograptus monensis. 1906. 



Photographed by Col. A. C. Haywood, Rearsby, Blundellsands. 1/2. 

5534 (1) Elby Point, Dalby . . . Contorted Manx Slates. 1909. 

5535 (2) „ 

5536 (3) „ 

5537 (4) 



5538 (5) Niarbyl Bay 
6539 (6) 



Disturbed Niarbyl Flags. 1909. 
Coast Scenery. 1910. 



SCOTLAND. 



Argyllshire. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., 
Sc.D., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5540 (11'7) Ardnamurchan Point from Gabbro Coast. 1911. 

the S.W. 

5541 (11'8) Ardnamurchan Point . . Dykes in Gabbro. 1911. 

Photographed by the late Russell F. Gwinnell, 33 5"^. Peter's Square, 
London, W. 1/4. 

5542 (1) Achnacroich, Lismane, Oban . Kaised Beach, with old Sea Cliff. 

1907. 

5543 (2) ,, ,, ,, . Travertine from stream on edge 

of Raised Beach. 1907. 

FiFESHiRE. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., 
The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5544 (16-12) Shore S. of Rock and Dome-shaped fold in the Calci- 

Spindle, St. Andrews. ferous Sandstone Series. 1912. 



FoRF.4RSHiRE. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., 
Sc.D., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

Unconformity between Upper and 
Lower Old Red Sandstone. 1912. 

Unconformity between Upper and 
Lower Old Red Sandstone. 1912. 



5545 (51-12) Shore, N. of Arbroath 

5546 (52-12) „ 

5547 (5312) „ 

5548 (54-12) „ 

5549 (5512) „ 



Marine erosion of Old Red Sand- 
stone. 1912. 

Mouth of Blowhole, ' The For- 
bidden Cave.' 1912. 

Blowhole, 'The Forbidden Cave.' 
1912. 



Inverness-shire. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, 
M.A., Sc.D., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5550 (11-12) Eigg from the S.E. . . The Sgurr of Eigg. 1911. 

5551 (11-16) Lochalsh .... Overfolded Torridonian rocks and 

Murchison. Monument. 1911. 
6552 (1117) Kylerhea, Sky© ... 100 ft. Raised Beach terrace. 1911. 



234 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Regd. 

No. 

5553 (11-19) Eastern Red Hills and Contrast in outline between Grano- 

Blaven Range from Cnoc Car- phyre and Gabbro Mountains, 

nach. 1911. 

5554 (11-21) Eastern Red Hills, Blaven 1911. 

Range and Southern Coolinis 
from Cnoc Carnach. 

5555 (11-22) Cnoc Carnach S. of Broad- Veins of Granophyre penetrating 

ford, Skye. Upper Basalt of Composite Sill. 

1911. 

5556 (11-26) S.E. of Loch Kilchrist, Vertical Junction of Durness Lime- 

near Broadford, Skye. stone and intrusive Granite. 1911. 

5557 (11-27) S.E. of Loch Kilchrist, Sponge-like bodies in Durness Lime- 

near Broadford, Skye. stone. 1911. 

6658 (11-28) S.E. of Loch Kilchrist, Trachyte Dyke in Durness Lime- 

near Broadford, Skye. stone. 1911. 

6659 (11-29) S.E. of Loch Kilchrist, Trachyte Dyke in Durness Lime- 

near Broadford, Skye. stone. 1911. 

5560 (11-32) S.E. of Loch Kilchrist, Junction of Granite and Durness 

near Broadford, Skye. Limestone. 1911. 

6561 (1135) Head of Loch Scavaig, Southern Coolins and etrongly 

Skye. Glaciated Rocks in foreground. 

1911. 

5562 (11-36) Loch Scavaig, Skye . Basalt Dykes in Gabbro. 1911. 

6663 (11-37) Outflow of Loch Coruisk, The outflow is over solid Gabbro. 

Skye. 1911. 

5564 (11-38) Allt-a-Chaoich, Loch Sea- Veined Peridotite. 1911. 

vaig, Skye. 

5565 (11-40) S. of 'Bad Step,' Loch Glaciated surface and Erratics. 

Scavaig, Skye. 1911. 

5566 (11-41) S. of ' Bad Step,' Loch 1911. 

Scavaig, Skye. 

5667 (11-48) Ben Lee, W. of Loch 1911. 

Sligachan, Skye. 

5568 (11-50) Marsco, near Sligachan, 1911. 

Skye. 

Photographed by the late Kussell F. Gwinnell, 33 St. Peter's Square, 
London, W. 1/4. 

5669 (2-08) Skulamus, E. of Broadford, Tertiary basic Dyke. 1908. 

Skye. 

5570 (5) Strath Suardal, Broadford, Eastern Red Hills and Kilchrist 

Skye. Vent. 1910. 

6571 (6) Broc-Bheinn, N.W. of Sliga- Spheroidal Weathering in Dolerite 

chan, Skye. Dyke. 1910. 

5572 (7) Lusaburn, Kylerhea Road, 65 Gorge in Torridonian Sandstone. 

miles from Broadford, Skye 1910. 

5573 (8) Lusaburn, Kylerhea. Road, 5^ Gorge in Torridonian Sandstone. 

miles from Broadford, Skye 1910. 

6674 (9) Lusaburn, Kylerhea Road, 5i, Gorge in Torridonian Sandstone, 
miles from Broadford, Skye 1910. 

Kincardineshire. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Eeynolds, 

M.A., Sc.D., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 
6575 (4212) Craigeven Bay, Stonehaven Pillow Lava. 1912. 

5676 (44-12) „ „ „ „ , „ 

5677 (4712) N. of Cowie Harbour, Shore platform formed of vertical 

Stonehaven. Downtonian rocks. 1912. 

5678 (49-12) Crawton, S. of Stonehaven Columnar Basalt, the centre of 

each column weathered away. 
1912. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OP GEoLOGICaL INTEREST. 



235 



Perthshire. — Photographed by A. S. Eeid, M.A., F.G.S., Trinity 
College, Glenalniond. 1/2. 



Regd. 
No. 
5618 
5619 
5620 
5621 
5622 
5623 
5624 

5625 



(13) Loch Lubnaig, near Callander 

(12) „ 

(15) „ 

(14) „ 

(4) „ 

(3) „ 

(8) Lotlie Doine and Voil, 

Callander. 
(7) Lochs Doine and Voil, 

Callander. 



Delta of Balvag River. 1916. 



Delta of Monachyle Burn dividing 
one Loch from the other. 1916. 

Delta of Monachyle Burn dividing 
one Loch from the other. 1916. 



Ross-SHiRE. — Photographed by the late Eussell F. Gwinnell, 
33 St. Peter's Square, Ijondon, W. 1/4. 

5579 (3) Black Rock Gorge, Novar, Gorge eroded along Joint plane in 

Cromarty Firth. Old Red Sandstone. 1908. 

5580 (4) Black Rock Gorge, Novar, Gorge eroded along Joint plane in 

Croniarty Firth. Old Red Sandstone. 1908. 



Sutherlandshire. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Reynolds, 
M.A., Sc.D., The University, Bristol. 1/4. 



5581 (21-12) Oykell Bridge, W. of Lairg 

5582 (22-12) Roadside W. of Inchna- 

damff. 

5583 (23-12) Roadside W. of Inchna- 

damff. 

5584 (2512) Quinag from Loch Glencoul 

5585 (26-12) N. side, Loch Glencoul 



5586 (27-12) Head of Loch Glencoul 



5587 (2912) Near head of Loch Glen- 

coul. 

5588 (30-12) Inchnadamff 

5589 (32-12) Roadside W. Oif Inchna- 

damff. 



Section of Moine Schists. 1912. 
Torridonian Unconfonnable on 

Le-wisian. 1912. 
Torridonian Unconformable on 

Lewisian. 1912. 
Torridonian Mountain on platform 

of Lewisian Gneiss. 1912. 
Glencoul Thrust, Levyisian Gneiss 

brought over Fucoid Beds (Cam- 
brian). 1912. 
Glencoul Thrust bringing Lewisian 

Gneiss over Durness Limestone. 

1912. 
Lewisian Gneiss. 1912. 

Durness Limestone. 1912. 
Torridonian Unconformable on 
Lewisian. 1912. 



IRELAND. 

ANTVim.— Photographed by R. Welch,* 49 Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 

1/1. 
5630 (5218) Frosses Bog, Ballymoney . Typical section in thick Peat. 1908. 

Photographed by A. E. V. Zealley, B.Sc, A.R.C.S., Geological 
Survey, Rhodesia, Buluwayo. 1/4. 



5590 
5591 



5592 
5593 



(91) Cliffs of Giant's Causeway 
(93) Part of Giant's Organ, Giant's 

Causeway. 
(103) Fair Head, Ballycastle . 
(106) N.W. of Lough-na-Cranagh, 

Ballycaetle. 



Curved Dolerite Columns. 
CoUminar Dolerite with 

verse Jointing. 1907. 
Cliff of Columnar Dolerite. 



1907. 
Trans- 



1907. 



Glaciated Lower 
Sandstone. 1907 



Carboniferous 



236 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, — 1916. 

Eegd. 
No. 

5594 (109) Longh-na-Cranagh, Bally- Glaciated Rock-basin, erratic 

castle. blocks. 1907. 

5595 (111) Murlough Bay, Ballycastle . Glauconitic Conglomerate, resting 

unconformably on Trias. 1907. 

5596 (116) White Park Bay, Ballintoy . Irregular and regular Columnar 

Jointing. 1907. 

5597 (117) ,, ,, ,, . Irregular and regular Columnar 

Jointing. 1907. 

5598 (122) Between Larry Bane and Solution grooves due to weathering 

Carrick-a-raide, Ballintoy. in Chalk. 1908. 

5599 (155) Cushendun .... Crushed Pebbles in Conglomerate 

of ' Dingle Beds.' 1907. 

Clare. — Photographed byB. Welch,* 49 Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 1/1. 

5631 (5266) Elder-Bush Cave, Newhall . Entrance, Stratification, and Rect- 

angular Galleries. 1905. 

5632 (5264) Catacombs Cave, Ennis . Entrance. 1905. 

5633 (5265) ,, ,, ,, . Interior, with Cross Chambers. 

1905. 

Cork. — Photographed by E. Welch,* 49 Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 1/1. 

5634 (5268) Mammoth Cave, Doneraile . Entrance in Quarry. 1907. 

5635 (5269) „ „ „ . Upper and part of Lower Stalag- 

mite Floors. 1907. 

Donegal. — Photograjjhed by A. E. V. Zealley, B.Sc, A.R.C.S, 
Geological Survey of Rhodesia, Buluwayo. 1/4. 

5600 (230) Barnes Gap, Creeslough . Weathered Metamorphosed Lime- 

stone. 1908. 

Photographed by E. Welch,* 49 Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 1/1. 

5636 (5214) Rosapenna .... Section in Shell-sands. 1903. 

Galway. — Photographed by Professor S. H. Eeynolds, M.A., Sc.D., 
The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5601 (55-13) Top of Bencorragh, Lough Pillow Lava (Spilite). 1913. 

Nafooey. 

5602 (56-13) Top of Bencorragh, Lough „ „ „ „ 

Nafooey. 

5603 (57-13) Top of Bencorragh, Lough 

Nafooey. 

5604 (58-13) Top of Bencorragh, Lough „ „ „ „ 

Nafooey. 

5605 (63-13) Top of Bencorragh, Lough „ „ ,, „ 

Nafooey. 

5606 (6413) Top of Bencorragh, Lough „ „ „ „ 

Nafooey. 

Limerick. — Photographed by E. Welch,* 49 Lonsdale Street, Belfast. 

1/1. 

5637 (11169) Castleconnell . . . Perforations in Limestone. 1906. 



ON PHOTOGRAPHS OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST. 



237 



Londonderry. — Photographed by R. Welch,* 49 Lonsdale Street, 

Belfast. 

Regd. 
No. 
6638 (5261) Culbane, Portglenone . . Diatomaceous Clay of River Bann. 

1903. 
5639 (5262) ,, „ . . Diatomaceous Clay of River Bann. 

1903. 

Mayo. — Photographed- by Professor S. H. Reynolds, M.A., Sc.D., 
The University, Bristol. 1/4. 

5607 (11-10) Derry Bay, Kilbride . Ice-worn Islands. 1910. 

5608 (1210) „ ,, „ . . Clogduff, an Ice-worn Island. 1910 

5609 (13-10) N. shore of Kilbride Pen- Roche Moutonnee. 1910. 

insula. 

5610 (14-10) N. shore of Kilbride Pen- „ „ „ 

insula. 

5611 (1510) Derry Bay, Kilbride . . Clogduff, an Ice- worn Island. 1910. 

5612 (16-10) ,, „ „ . . Ice-worn Shores. 1910. 

5613 (61-11) W. of Finny, Kilbride Pen- Chert in Spilite. 1911. 

insula. 

5614 (62-11) N. of Finny, Kilbride Pen- Flow Brecciation (?) in Spilite. 1911. 

insula. 

5615 (63-11) W. of Finny, Kilbride Pen- Strine;s and patches of Chert in 

insula. Spilite. 1911. 

5616 (64-11) W. of Finny, Kilbride Pen- Spilite (Pillow Lava). 1911. 

insula. 
6617 (65;11) W. of Finny, Kilbride Pen- Spilite (Pillow Lava) showing Con 
insula. centrically arranged Vesicles. 1911. 



APPENDIX. 

Financial Statement. 
As no meeting of the Committee has been practicable since 1908, there is give 
below a statement of the exact financial position : — 



Cr. 
Balance, September 1908 
Sales published series 



Total 



Balance Sheet, 1910. 



£ s. d. 

124 4 1 

8 5 



132 9 1 



Dr. 

Publication expenses 
Collection expenses 
Balance 



Total 



£ s. d. 

13 

2 6 9 

129 9 4 

132 9 1 



Interest Account since Close of Publication. £ g_ g_ 

January 1904 to August 1908, at 2^ per cent, on £140 . . . . 15 15 

August 1908 to August 1915, at 2;^ per cent, on £130 . . . . 22 15 

August 1915 to August 1916, at 4^ per cent. (War Loan) on £130 . 5 17 

Balance as above ■ . . 129 9 4 

173 16 4 



Total 



Cr. 

Assets as above 



Total . 



Balance Sheet, September 1916. 



£ s. d. 
173 16 4 



173 16 



Dr. 

Subscription refunded 
Collection expenses 
Exchequer Bond (5%) 
Cash 



Total 



£ s. d. 

1 5 

3 2 6 

100 

69 8 10 

173 16 4 



238 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



Nomenclature of the Carhoniferous, Permo-Carhouiferous , and 
Permian Rocks of the Southern Hemisphere. — Interim, 
Report of the Gom,mittee, consisting of Professor T. W. 
Edgeworth David {Chairman), Professor E. W. Skeats 
{Secretary), Mr. W. S. Dun, Sir T. H. Holland, Eev. 
W. HowcHiN, Mr. A. E. Kitson, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, 
Dr. A. W. EoGERS, Professor A. C. Seward, Dr. D. M. S. 
Watson, and Professor W. G. Woolnough, appointed to 
consider the above. 

During the past few months communications in response to the Seci'e- 
tary's circular letter (see last year's report in Re/p. Brit. Assoc, for 
1915, p. 263) have been received from Dr. A. W. Eogers and Dr. 
D. M. S. Watson, relating mainly to the classification in South Africa. 
Eeports in reply to the Secretary's questions have also lately been 
received from Mr. A. E. Kitson (Gold Coast), Mr. P. Chapman 
(Melbourne), Mr. W. H. Twelvetrees (Tasmania), and Professor P. 
Marshall (New Zealand). It has been considered advisable to keep 
these contributions for printing along with others which have not yet 
come to hand owing to war conditions. 



Occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. S. Goodrich 
{Chairman), Dr. J. H. Ashworth {Secretarij), Mr. G. P. 
Bidder, Professor F. O. Bower, Dr. W. B. Hardy, Dr. S. 
F. Harmer, Professor S. J. Hickson, Sir E. Ray Lan- 
kester, Professor W. C. McIntosh, and Dr. A. D. Waller. 

The British Association table at Naples has not been occupied during 
the current financial year. 

Mrs. Pixell-Goodrich has published ^ en account of the Gregarines 
of Ghjcera siphonostoma, founded on material obtained during her 
occupancy of the table in March and April 1914. 

Intimation has been received that the administration of the Zoo- 
logical Station is now in the hands of a Commission, with Professor 
F. S. Monticelli as President, appointed by the Italian Government. 

The Committee asks to be reappointed. 

' Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., vol. 61, pp. 205-216, pi. xviii., 1916. 



ON ZOOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PUBLICATION. 239 



Zoological Bibliography and Publication. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting of Professor E. B. Poulton {Chairman), 
Dr. F. A. Bather (Secretary), and Drs. W. E. Hoyle and 
P. Chalmers Mitchell. 

This Committee represents the resuscitation of a Committee first 
appointed in 1895, with Sir W. H. Flower as Chairman and Dr. 
Bather as Secretary. That Committee reported in 1896 and 1897, and 
its Eeports, in which a number of suggestions were made for the 
guidance of authors and editors, were widely distributed. Although 
the request of the Committee for reappointment with a small grant 
was not acceded to, its Secretary has continued to distribute those 
Reports, as well as a circular issued by the Committee, and has con- 
ducted correspondence arising therefrom. Whether or no it be in 
consequence of the action taken by the Committee of 1895 and thus 
continued, there can be no doubt as to the greater attention now paid 
by most publishing bodies to the points mentioned in the previous 
Reports. Others, however, have not yet fallen into line, and new 
publications, started without experience, fall into the old errors. For 
these reasons and also because the coiTespondence shows that interest 
in the subject tends to increase, this fresh Committee has been 
appointed, so as to reinvest the suggestions with their original 
authority, and to deal with any inquiries that may arise. 

During the past year copies of the circular have been sent to the 
editors of two societies with satisfactory results, and several inquiries 
have been answered, especially from the Geological Society of Glasgow. 

Method of making References to Previous Literature. 

One of these inquiries related to this subject, which also was dis- 
cussed in the pages of Science for October 1 and November 12, 1915. 
On this matter the Committee begs to offer the following suggestions : 

The question is : "What is the best way in which the author of a 
paper can introduce references to the works which he quotes or other- 
wise alludes to? No single method suits all cases. At the outset a 
distinction must be drawn between two classes of papers : first, brief 
articles, in which the references are correspondingly few and rarely 
repeated; secondly, long articles or memoirs, in which the references 
are correspondingly numerous and frequently repeated. 

In articles of the first class, references may quite easily be worked 
into the text, and can be repeated by giving the cited author's name, 
with a distinguishing date when more than one of his works has been 
mentioned. This is more economical of time, space, and money than 
footnotes, and is far less fruitful of error than the irritating ibid. 
and loc. cit., often used by writers who apparently do not know 
what the contractions really mean. 

For memoirs of the second class, it is more convenient for both 
author and reader to have, either at the end or at the beginning of the 



240 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

memoir, a ' List of Works referred to ' (often erroneously termed a 
' Bibliography,' even when lamentably lacking all bibliographic 
details). This should be arranged with the names of the authors in 
alphabetical order, and with the papers under each author's name in 
chronological order, the date of publication (month as well as year, if 
necessary) preceding the title of the paper. In those rare cases when 
two or more papers by a single author from a single year cannot be 
distinguished by the month, the letters a, b, &c., may be added. 
Examples : 

Lambeet, J. Jan. 1900. Etude sur quelques Echinides de I'lnfra- 
Lias. Bull. Soc. Sci. Yonne, LIII., 3-57, pi. i. 

Meyer, H. von. 1849b. Ueber die Laterne des Aristoteles. 
Arch. f. Anat., Jahrg. 1849, pp. 191-196, pi. ii. 

The references in the text will give the name of the author followed 
(or preceded) by the date, with the addition of a precise page-number 
where required. Examples : 

' Mesodiadema simplex Lambert (Jan. 1900, p. 31), Middle Lias.' 

' The term S clialt stuck , used by H. v. Meyer (1849b), is open to 
objection.' 

' So early as 1787, A. Parra observed the epiphyses.' 

The plan of arranging and numbering the quoted works in the 
order in which they happen to be mentioned in the text, and of refer- 
ring to them by the number, saves trouble to nobody except the writer 
of the paper at the moment of writing. The method here advocated 
is nearly, often quite, as brief ; it gives the historical perspective, and 
it is of itself enough to save a reader familiar with the subject from 
repeated application to the list at the end. 

The system is essentially the same as that introduced by Professor 
E. L. Mark in October, 1881 {Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, VI., 
232, footnote), and recommended in March, 1894, by H. H. Field 
{Bull. Soc. Zool. France, XIX., 44). Those authors, however, write 
'81 and '94, instead of 1881 and 1894, a system that could only have 
been defended had our science begun and ended with the nineteenth 
century. 

As bearing on this particular question, the Committee would repeat 
two suggestions made in 1897. First, that the title of a paper (or 
at least its opening words) should be quoted, as well as the name of the 
journal from which it is taken. Secondly, that references should be 
given in full {i.e., seines, volume, pages, date), so that an error in one 
may be corrected by the help of the others. 

The Committee asks for reappointment, and wishes to state that 
any inquiries or suggestions will be welcome, and should be addressed 
to its Secretary at the Natural History Museum, Cromwell Eoad, 
London, S.W. 



ON POLITICAL BOUNDARIES. 241 

Political Boundaries. 
By Colonel Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I. E., CB. 

[Ordered by the General Committee to be printed in exteneo.] 

It is said that more wars have been caused by boundary disputes than 
any other source of political contention. Whenever there is a war, 
there is, inevitably, a boundary violated somewhere or other as the 
direct result of military movement, but this is an effect rather than a 
cause. The cause is to be sought for amongst a great complexity of 
human motives — it may be a spirit of aggression, the sheer lust of 
world power, or it may be and frequently is an irrepressible demand for 
more space for an expanding people. This everlasting changing and 
shifting of boundaries which, whether regarded as cause or effect, is 
the accompaniment of every great world war would, one would have 
thought, have led long ago to a most careful consideration of 
the principles which should govern the setting out of boundaries 
between nationalities in such manner as to render them the most 
efficient factors in the preservation of peace; and yet the amount of 
really useful literature on this subject is almost infinitesimal. The 
complexity and importance of it has, I think, hardly been realised, 
and certainly no other subject could lend itself better to scientific dis- 
cussion from either the military, political, or the geographical stand- 
point, or start more free from preconceived notions and dogmatic opinion. 
One or two able writers have indeed attempted to define the require- 
ments of an international boundary from a theoretical point of view in 
a manner which is wholly admirable in so far as it is based on a belief 
in the regeneration of humanity, and the existence of an honest desire 
for a millennium of peace and goodwill which should lead nations to 
dwell together in unity. Unfortunately there are very few signs of 
this happy tendency in these days. It does not much matter in what 
direction you look for signs of yearning loving kindness amongst people, 
who, being ordered and ruled from separate and distinct centres of 
government, still exist as rivals in the gi'eat world field of commercial 
development and wealth hunting; you will not find them. In no direc- 
tion whatever are such symptoms significant enough to warrant the 
adoption of any scheme of boundary fixing which would lead to the 
commingling of the human fringes of the nations and promote mutual 
assimilation in a spirit of brotherly love and common ideals. Here we 
are faced with one of the difficulties which beset the discussion of the 
subject. What is a nation? or rather what are those conditions of 
government and geographical environment which constitute the basis 
of a nationality, binding all its individual members into one definite and 
complete whole in the consciousness of unity of purpose and ideals? 
An American writer defines a nation as ' a population of an ethnic 
unity, inhabiting a geographic unity under a common foiTn of govern- 
ment.' He is careful to add that the exceptions are quite numerous 
enough to prove the rule. We had better leave it at that, and remember 
that under the universal political empires of the past there were no 
nations; and that with the increase of democracies in the world will 
come an inevitable increase of international boundaries. It is, however, 
1916 R 



242 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

with the spirit of the nation, the sentiments whicli underHe its national 
ideals, that we have to deal in practice when laying out a line of 
separation, and this, so far as it affects boundary settlements 'between 
civilised communities, appears at first sight to be a vei-y complicated 
problem. The bonds of ethnic affinity; a fervid community in rehgious 
sentiment; a mutual basis of agreement and aim as regards cultural 
development, or political aspirations, have all been cited as sentiments 
strong enough to ensure such a peace-loving and peace-promoting 
assimilation as should render the existence of a dividing line a merely 
nominal geographical incident. As a matter of fact none of these 
sentiments weigh for an instant against a cetrain form of perfer\'id 
patriotism, which is a virtue inculcated by education and supported by 
the irresistible effects of environment and self-interest. I do not mean 
to say that self-interest is at the root of patriotism, but I do mean to say 
that it is very easy to place self-interest on a very high pedestal of 
morality, and then to imagine that it is patriotism ; and that it is a 
matter of the very deepest concern to any Government which values 
the great principle of love for one's country, and the spirit of self- 
sacrifice in that country's cause, to see to it that the highest patriotic 
ideals, whilst yet uncontaminated by the breath of self-interest, are 
fostered and inculcated during the earliest phases of education. It 
might be thought that community of origin and of language would be 
a powerful agent in the promotion of peace between peoples who share 
it. Unfortunately, it seems to count for little or nothing when 
boundary disputes arise. Such international family quarrels are often 
the bitterest, nor can we say that community of religious faith is any 
stronger as a binding agency than community of language and ethnical 
affinity. Such influences may almost be ignored, as well as those 
which arise from common aspirations after certain forms of culture, 
when men's passions are aroused by the greed of territorial expansion 
or the bitter grievance of its curtailment. It is quite sufficient for all 
practical purposes if we lump all such matters of sentiment together and 
regard the total effect of them as the will of the people. The will of 
the people is, in effect, the outcome and expression of all these 
influences, together with that greater, nobler, and more inspiring senti- 
ment which the Japanese know as ' bushido, ' and which we call 
patriotism. I have been concerned officially in the settlement of many 
boundaries, but never have I experienced (nor have I ever heard of) a 
settlement in which the people concerned on either side were so happily 
disposed towards each other as to ask only for a fair division of 
interests, and such a nominal hedge between them as would permit of 
neighbourly fraternisation and the interchange of courtesies. On the 
contrary, boundary disputes seem to possess quite an unreasonable, and 
sometimes incomprehensible, faculty for stirring up the very worst 
elements of international hatred and passion, and we are forced to the 
conclusion that a boundary settlement involves the partition of con- 
flicting interests which must be adjusted as far as possible so as to^ 
prevent those interests from ever clashing or morally interfering with 
each other again. So long as man is a fighting animal he must be 
prevented from physical interference with his neighbour by physical 



ON POLITICAL BOUNDARIES. 243 

means. I grant that this is not a high ideal, but wliat else can we 
suggest? We have had bitter experience of late years which should 
teach us again an old, old lesson of the value of high ideals and 
altruistic sentiment where men's passions are concerned in this un- 
redeemed world so full of beauty and of desperate evil ; and we must 
reluctantly admit that the best way to preserve peace amongst the 
nations is to part them by as strong and as definite a physical fence 
as we can find. In short, a boundary must be a barrier, and the 
position of it must be influenced largely by the will of the people. 
These, then, are the two governing conditions of boundaiy making. 
Let us consider the latter condition fii'st. All authorities seem to agree 
(there are not many of them) that the annexation of any territory 
directly against the will of its inhabitants is a political blunder. The 
assimilation of its people with the conquering nation is a slow, and 
often an impossible process. The Germans have not assimilated the 
French of Alsace and Lorraine, the English have hardly assimilated 
the Irish, and where race antagonism is believed to be supported by 
self-interest real assimilation seems to be hopeless. An admixture, 
so to speak, may be effected mechanically, but real chemical fusion 
never takes place. Under such circumstances it is seldom indeed that 
the acquired territory is a safe and thoroughly sound unit in the political 
entity. It adds little or nothing to the strength of a nation, althougli 
it may be economically useful, and it is apt to be a very thorn in the 
side of any Government and an undoubted danger in times of stress 
and adversity. The expression of the peoples' will varies infinitely in 
forni. In the savage and uncivilised countries of the black man tlaere 
may be no possibility of consulting it. The questions at issue may lie 
between whole nations, and the black man has little to say to the 
disposition of his own property. But amongst civilised countries there 
is always a ' will,' and it is usually exceedingly definite. Various sug- 
gestions have been made as to the best way of ascertaining that will. A 
plebiscite even has been suggested. I cannot imagine a surer way of 
starting an armed conflict. The process of vote-catching is never one 
which lends itself to the promotion of good feeling and brotherly love 
at the best of times, even when the object is a political issue only half 
comprehended. When it is a matter of close personal interest involving 
a clear issue of local gain or loss it certainly would stir up to its very 
depths the identical dispute which the boundary is planned to decide. 
Nor in practice will it be found that any such resource is necessary. 
However complicated may be the admixture of those sentiments which 
together combine to form a definite will on the part of the disputants, 
the expression of a people's will in tenns of the majority is usually 
definite and unmistakable. W^hen opinions are fairly divided and the 
expression of them is weak and wobbly, inclining first one way and then 
another, weighing advantages against disadvantages, and coming to no 
decided conclusion, then indeed sentiment may well be allowed to give 
way to those physical conditions which should govern the selection of 
the line of partition, strong geographically, a barrier for defence against 
aggression, an age-long guarantee for the peaceful development of 
culture and ccmmerce without interference or fear on either side. Let 



244 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

me repeat that the reason for giving first consideration to the senti- 
mental values in a boundary dispute is the obvious fact, long ago con- 
firmed by history, that no nation gains in strength by the acquisition 
of a people latently hostile, and prevented by hereditary or ethnical 
instinct from any process of assimilation which will cement the bonds 
of political union. Setting aside, then, the question of international 
sentiment, we may consider those problems which beset the physical 
side of the questions, especially the relations and influence of geography 
and environment on a frontier, together with some few of the most 
important rules \\ hich should guide first the delimitation, and then the 
demarcation, of a boundary, and I should like to commence by insisting, 
as far as I can, on some definitions which seem to be called for, judging 
from certain reports dealing with boundary matters which I have lately 
read, and on which I have been asked to express an opinion. The 
' delimitation ' of a boundary is not the actual process of marking out its 
position in the field. That is better understood by the word ' demarca- 
tion. ' Delimitation is a pi'ocess of defining by means of maps and 
protocols where a boundary should be demarcated in the field, and it is 
usually the function of those high political authorities who meet together 
to represent the interests of either nation concerned and agi-ee, on such 
geographical evidence as they can get, what either side is prepared to 
accept. Too often it is assumed that with the delimitation of a boundary 
the great question at issue is finally settled. If the delimitation is based 
on perfectly sound evidence, and if the protocols and other technical 
documents provided for the guidance of the demarcators is expressed 
both clearly and correctly, the subsequent business of demarcation 
becomes merely a secondaiy process giving effect in the field to that 
which has been decided in high conclave. This has seldom been the 
case in the past owing to a want of appreciation for the necessity for 
exact geographical knowledge, both practical and theoretical, on the 
part of the political delimitors, and it has happened that the terms of 
delimitation have led to far extended disputes and to a process of 
demarcation which, in one important instance at least, has lasted for 
more than a century and a half. Another matter on which some 
confusion of mind has been apparent, even amongst officers of special 
ability in this form of public service, is the distinction which lies 
between a frontier and a boundary. If you define this distinction 
shortly it amounts to this — a boundary denotes a line, and a frontier 
space. The boundary limits the frontier, and it is the expansion of the 
frontier which so frequently renders a boundary necessary ; a frontier 
is but a vague and indefinite term until the boundary sets a hedge 
between it and the frontier of a neighbouring State. 

There are, in my opinion, certain fixed principles which are 
applicable to all boundaries no matter where they may be traced, 
whether among the gloomy forests of the Upper Amazon or the peaks 
and pinnacles of the Andes, amongst the sun-baked hills of Africa or 
through the intricacies of the rugged borderland of India; whether in 
black man's wilderness or the white man's populous and overcrowded 
provinces; and these principles, which are dependent on physical 
attributes-, can never be safely ignored. The last half-century has 



ON POLITICAL BOUNDARIES. 245 

witnessed a perfect orgy of boundary making, and latterly the demand 
of scientific requirements (notably of geographical exactitude in defini- 
tion and demarcation) have been fairly met. We can certainly claim 
that of late years our boundaries have been shaped scientifically by 
competent demarcation guided by the text of delimitations which, if 
not technically perfect, have at least been free from the ridiculous 
elementary errors of past generations of politicians, who were ignorant 
of the very first principles of geogi'aphy. I need not weary you with 
any repetition of past mistakes, mistakes that have cost us the value 
of many millions sterling, and have more than once reduced this country, 
as well as other countines, to the verge of war. I have refen-ed to them 
often enough elsewhere. It is quite probable that we shall ere long 'be 
faced with a comparatively new phase of boundary problems where 
there can no longer be the excuse of want of sound map knowledge of 
the districts concerned to account for misleading and inaccurate 
delimitations, but where ethnical interests of the most important 
character will possibly present painfully complicated knots for dis- 
entanglement. In no case, however, can I imagine that the wishes of 
the majority of the people concerned will be difficult to ascertain, and 
in certainly the gi-eat majority of cases it will be those main principles 
involving physical attributes which will prove to be the most important 
factor in the settlement. We should, in the fii'st place, be absolutely 
certain that on both sides of the settlement there is the same governing 
idea of a contract which is to secure the permanent peace of the border. 
Whilst this is the just and righteous aim of the boundary maker, whilst 
he has nothing in view but that which is to develop the influences of 
peace and the interests, commercial and cultural, of the peoples between 
whom he has to set a liedge, he must beware of any reservation which 
may become apparent during the process of settlement whic^h would 
indicate that a loophole is to be left in that hedge through which 
advantage may be taken hereafter, when the hour shall strike, of some 
weakness which may facilitate a sudden and determined overthrow of 
the whole construction. In the strongest sense of the term, then, I 
must insist that a boundary must be a sound and unbroken barrier as 
far as possible, and that it must be selected most assuredly with the 
great object in view of hindering in every possible way any proposed 
scheme of violation. As a ban'ier it may be natural or it may be 
artificial. In either case it must be made as secure as Nature or Art 
can make it. Peace can only be based in this imperfect world on 
security. Security, as one able writer has justly put it, means 
' armament. ' In blood and tears have we at last learnt this lesson. 
May no specious notions of a new millennium blot it out from our 
minds, and may our political representatives, impressed at last with 
the lessons of the War, set about designing new political boundaries 
with lines as strong as they can be made. Prevention of war is much 
better than cure; better by the lives, it may be, of millions of brave men 
and the tears of thousands of women, and it may quite easily be 
prevented to a very appreciable extent by limiting the capacity of angry 
disputants to get at each other. How are we to secure these strong 
boundaries? To a certain extent Nature helps us, and where Nature 



24:6 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 

steps in with a really sound and impracticable fence nothing in the 
world can be better. Almost every geoigraphical feature has already 
been impressed into the service of the boundary maker. We have 
mountain ranges, rivers and lakes, seas and deserts, all doing duty, to 
say nothing of countless minor features which make up the topo- 
graphical plan of the earth's surface. Incomparably the best of these 
are mountain ranges. It may happen that they stand alone, untouched 
for miles by artificial designs as great and impassable border lands, in 
the midst of which the boundary follows the great divides, majestic, 
unapproachable, immovable, subject to no vicissitudes of natural force 
short of violent earthquakes, requiring no artificial boundary marks for 
definition, no ridiculous waste of money over demarcation, no expendi- 
ture in boundary upkeep, presenting on either hand a magnificent wall 
of defence, unbroken, impressive, defiant. It is true that here and 
there across all the .gi'eat m.ountain systems of the world there run the 
tortuous and narrow ways culminating in passes connecting the wide 
plains on either side. Over these passes and through their narrow ways 
armies have been conducted from time to time, and histoiy records 
several notable instances of great invasions conducted across great 
mountain systems, but I venture to think this is not a phase of history 
which is likely to repeat itself. The power of scientific defence forbids 
it. Under such circumstances opportunities for transgressing the 
boundary and trespass into foreign fields are not many, and the tres- 
passing is a matter which entails serious consideration and the delay 
of preparation. I need not enlarge on the value of mountain 
boundaries. You are all familiar with such notable instances as the 
great wall of the Pyrenees, the more intricate Alpine system, and the 
magnificent Continental divide of the Andine Cordillera, all of which 
have been pressed into international sei-vice ; but to my mind the most 
amazing natural boundary in the world is that of the snowy Himalayan 
ranges which part India from the great northern uplands. These 
ranges, combined with the important offshoots of the Hindu Kush and 
its extensions, absolutely and securely hedge in India from any 
northern threat of invasion,' leaving but one comparatively short north- 
western gateway doubtfully available through the whole wide extended 
frontier between Burma and Persia. If we cannot guard that gateway 
we had better leave India. Next to an impressive mountain system we 
must be content with lesser divides, lesser in altitude, and inferior in the 
quahty of difficult approach. If we cannot have Himalayas we may 
make good use of Carpathians. I need hardly refer to the excellent 
use which has been made of this formidable, but by no means un- 
approachable, mountain system, not only historically, but notably 
during the varying phases of the present war. The Crown Colony of 
Galicia, lying fiat beyond these mountains, has proved to be nothing 
but weakness to the Austrian Empire, which has been forced to defend 
her south-eastern frontier by the Carpathian ridges rather than by the 
fortresses and rivers of Galicia. Whatever may be the significance of 
the mountain system as a geographical divide between the nations, it 
is of obvious importance that the actual boundary should follow the 
parting of the waters. To take a remarkable instance of the weakness 



ON POLITICAL BOUNDARIES. 247 

which results from a faihire to observe this condition I may refer to 
the northern Itahan frontier. Here the main watershed has been inter- 
mittently abandoned; valleys are crossed; local interests are divided; 
racial and social affinities are disregarded ; mountain crests are traversed 
with an air of readiness which betokens a nominal rather than an actual 
boundary, and a permanent international grievance has been established 
which this war may, or may not, set right. 

Failing a definite uplifted watershed, the ordinary divide between 
the heads of minor affluents of a river basin is quite a useful alternative. 
The advantages ai-e those of pemianence, definiteness, and economy, 
added to a certain command in altitude which renders it important as a 
military feature. It is seldom that a divide alters its position from the 
action of natural causes : on the whole it may be regarded as a perma- 
nent feature unlikely to be shifted or affected by the wear and tear of 
nature's destructive forces; and it is definite and often unmistakably re- 
cognisable without the aid of artificial landmarks, which cost money and 
are perishable. Consequently, it is readily and quickly adapted to the 
purpose of boundary making. Judging from the map of Europe, it 
may be said that these advantages have not been overlooked in the past. 
To a very great extent it is the divide between the rivers, and not the 
rivers themselves, that have been adopted for international purposes. 
Rivers, perhaps, rank next in value to mountain chains, and they 
certainly play an important part in the great political partitioning of 
the world. They are at least unmistakable and definite features re- 
quiring little artificial assistance; and they do often serve the purpose 
of a barrier. Indeed, it entirely depends on the conditions of environ- 
ment whether a river makes a good boundary or a very bad one. 
Where the surrounding country is a waste of trackless forest or of 
wild upland, and where the river is confined to a nan-ow channel in 
a rock-bound bed, it may be admirably adapted for a boundary. The 
Oxus, from the plains of Badakshan to its glacier sources in the 
Pamirs, forms a typical boundary of this nature; but where it leaves 
the hills and, spreading into the plains, it changes its banks and its 
channels, swallowing up acres of good alluvial soil here, pushing up 
sandbanks and islands there, and laying out new islets or streamlets 
which wander irresponsibly over the surface of the plains confusing the 
issue as to what are its banks, it forms no boundary at all. Moreover, 
where it is broad enough and deep enough to warrant navigation, it 
has a tendency to lapse into the exclusive possession of the most 
pushing nation. 

The Oxus of the plains from Charjui to Badakshan has become a 
Russian highway. The Rhine, when indeed it formed a boundary, 
was always claimed as ' our river ' by the Germans. Rival claims 
for right of way and disputes about land or local irrigation claims are 
far more likely to arise from the common possession of an intermediate 
river than the friendly interchange of civilities and international 
amenities. When the Germans shifted their boundary from the Rhine 
to the Vosges Mountains they strengthened their own frontier greatly, 
whilst incidentally they also strengthened that of France, as we have 
every reason to know. The strength of the German frontier lies in 



248 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

the Vosges and the heights above the Meuse, not in the Meuse, the 
Moselle, or the Rhine. The annexation of the provinces of Alsace 
and Lorraine did nothing to damage the efficacy of their national frontier 
from the military point of view. It rather improved it. That it proved 
to be a great political blunder is due to German incapacity to appreciate 
the force of that fundamental consideration which deals with the 
will of the people and their national incapacity for assimilation. 

Lakes and deserts play approximately the same useful part as 
barriers between rival States. In Europe, Africa, and America lakes 
have been largely claimed in support of boundary demarcation and, 
like deserts, they have on the whole proved efficient, even if the exact 
position of the dividing line is but ill-defined in their midst. There 
is, indeed, this gi'eat advantage about both of these geographical 
features : it is seldom matter of importance that there should be exact 
demarcation. There may be islands in lakes, or oases and wells in 
deserts which have to be accounted for in the partition; but beyond 
them in the great wide sweep of inland water or the sand spaces of a 
sun-dried wilderness there is seldom the necessity for striking a distinct 
artificial line. It would be interesting had we time to trace a geographi- 
cal analogy between a desert frontier and a sea frontier ; and to show how 
it has happened that through long ages of history a desert-girt land of 
promise and development has owed continued peace and progress to its 
environment just as much as a sea-girt island. It may happen that no 
geographical features of any significance are available for the satis- 
faction of the boundary maker, and that continuous and obvious arti- 
ficial means have to be employed to make a boundary plain. Even 
with the best assistance of nature artificial methods of marking a 
boundary will always be necessary where man's own artificial impress 
on the earth's surface is encountered. Passes over the heights and 
roads traversing less conspicuous divides have to be denoted, and the 
gateways of a countiy or a State demand careful acknowledgment, 
but independently of such obvious points, on which it is not necessary 
to dwell, it very frequently happens that for thousands of miles the 
natural features (whether divide or river) are not marked enough to 
advertise the existence of a boundary without a line of pillars or marks 
of some sort at distances of intervisibility. A divide even may include 
marshy flats from which rivers drain in opposite directions, or culti- 
vated areas may intervene, so that at the best of times there is no 
getting away from artificial expression altogether. It is, however, the 
employment of means such as are wholly and purely artificial, where 
nature not only has no hand in the arrangement, but where her gentler 
efforts are traversed and discarded that so many ridiculously bad 
boundaries come to grief. The straight line, for instance, whether it 
represents a parallel of latitude, a meridian, or just a line projected 
on some particular bearing, is almost invariably bad. It possesses no 
elasticity, it is often most difficult to determine, it is expensive, and 
terribly tedious in the process of evolution. It may cut in two local 
interests of great importance and play the mischief with a well-defined 
frontier. The worst mistakes in delimitation have occurred where a 
meridian (undetermined by exact geodetic measurement) or a parallel 



ON POLITICAL BOUNDARIES. 249 

of latitude has been the weak resource of an ignorant arbitration which 
is deahng with a strictly geographical problem without waiting for proper 
geographical illustration. A straight line is generally an indication of 
geographical ignorance, a last resource when topographical information 
is wanting, so that it need not surprise us that it has in the ignorant 
past been distinctly popular. It has always proved to be immensely 
expensive, and I could occupy your time for hours in recounting 
historical instances of its adoption, with the evil financial results thereof. 
It is, however, to the credit of European diplomacy of the past that 
there are not many straight lines in Europe ; there has indeed been 
no excuse for them, for there cannot be many square miles of the 
Continent that have not served as the basis for military action leading 
to a certain amount of exact topographical knowledge since Caesar 
first conquered Gaul. What interests us at present chiefly is that 
particular phase of boundary making in the future which is to provide 
for the security and, through security, for the peace of the quasi- 
civilised communities of Europe and the Near East. If I am right 
in assuming the general principle governing the selection of a boundary 
line to be that of securing a barrier, clearly we are landed at once in 
questions of military defence as a necessary corollary. 

At the present time the principle for which we are fighting is that 
of maintaining the integrity of small nations ; and the principle which 
apparently tends to govern the evolution of national societies, both 
small and great, is that of the democracy. As democracies increase, 
and Empires are restricted, so will boundaries, together with the 
division of international interests, increase; but it must be remembered 
that the bed-rock of all social evolution is the everlasting question of 
population. Thus the right of expansion in order to meet the imperious 
demand of multiplying* people will promote boundary disputes and 
frontier wars as long as the world lasts. So that the security of a 
frontier is a matter of increasing importance in the world's economy, 
inasmuch as we can never expect an international convention to regulate 
the output of population in the same way that the output of armament 
or ships may be regulated, although one is just as important as the 
other in the interests of peaceful international evolution. 

What, then, is to be the nature of the political boundary of the 
future from the military point of view if we wish to attain the security 
which is the only guarantee (and which will continue to be the only 
guarantee) for peace? So far, as regards the actual line which denotes 
the boundary and limits the frontier on either side, there will be no 
great departure from those principles of selecting strong natural fea- 
tures to which I have already alluded, and these natural features will 
in most cases lend themselves readily to military defensive purposes. 
Consequently, we may assume that the mountain ridge or the divide 
will be adopted wherever possible. If we have learnt anything from 
the war, we have learnt the enormous advantage to defence which is 
given even by a slight command in altitude. It is true that river flats 
and marshes have figured largely in the strategy of the war in Poland, 
on the Russo-German frontier, and in Mesopotamia ; and that the 
skilful use of marshes and inundations has largely affected the results 



250 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1916. 

of the campaign ; but we may very safely say that no such accidents 
of topographical configuration would ever be selected as the basis of a 
boundary in preference to the advantages conferred by an elevated line. 
An open space of marshland, even if traversed by a definite river 
channel in its midst, could not often occur in European configuration 
as a useful alternative to the divide, so that I do not imagine that in 
the redistribution of political boundaries at the close of the war, no 
matter where they may take place, will there be any great departure 
from the old order which adopted elevations and placed strong fortresses 
at intervals to guard frontiers. Nothing has occurred which need shake 
our faith in the value of this military precaution for the security of the 
frontier. "Where the dividing line is unsupported by strong geo- 
graphical features, such as are of themselves of military significance, 
the construction of fortresses, wherein may be gathered large military 
forces of sufficient strength to render it impossible to pass them by or 
ignore them, will still be considered imperative. It was the strength 
of the line of French forts from Belfort to Verdun facing the Vosges 
Mountains and the Meuse which determined the initial strategy of 
the GeiTTian campaign, and directed the advance through Belgium as 
indicating the line of least resistance to Paris. It was the gallant 
defence of Liege which destroyed the full effect of the great initiative 
and gave priceless opportunity for mobilisation to the Allies. It is 
the Bhineland fortresses, and not the Rhine itself, which will protect 
the western frontiers of Germany when the hour comes for France to 
strike back. The unexpect-ed collapse of Antwerp, of Namur, and 
of Maubeuge does little to modify this opinion. I shall be surprised 
if in the long future history does not point to the defence of Verdun 
as the pivot on which the fortunes of the war turned. Along with 
fortresses and with the controlling system of railways (with which we 
cannot be concei-ned just now) there will be new developments on or 
near the boundary which will be the outcome of present experiences. 
The role of trench-digging and of earthworks, which is comparatively 
new to European campaigning and which has time and time again 
proved the one insuperable obstacle to rapid advance, will not be lost 
sight of or neglected in favour of more impressive permanent works. 
Boundaries will be selected that admit of the linking up of natural 
features by a tracery of trenches and field works, infinitely intricate, 
whilst artillery and all the mechanical paraphernaha of war with which 
we have lately become familiar will find their place in the general 
scheme. Indeed, it seems that the European boundary of the future 
will be something more than the artificial impress of a line on the 
face of Europe, having no further significance than that of a hedge. 
It may well become an actual military barrier bristling with obstruction 
and points of steel, so complete and effective in its appointments as 
to approach very closely to realising an ideal of absolute security. Thus 
will it really serve to diminish the probability of attack, and at any 
rate to induce long and very careful consideration before its violation 
is undertaken. It may be said that I am suggesting a defensive fence 
round every State that has any consideration for its own security such 
as might prove a serious bar to the exchange of friendly amenities. 



ON POLITICAL feOUNfiAlttES. 251 

1 fear that it is so ; but my suggestion only indicates that which will, 
it seems to me, inevitably happen. Anyhow, it is freely open to 
discussion, and I claim to do no more than briefly outline the prin- 
ciples which, I consider, must govern a subject on which there has 
been so far singularly little opinion expressed. 



The Question of Fatigue from the Economic Standpoint. — Second 
Intemn Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
J. H. Mdirhe.\d (Chairman) , Miss B. L. Hutchins (Secre- 
tary), Mr. P. Sargant Florence (Organising Secretary), Mr. 
C. K. Ogden (Special Investigator) , Miss A. M. Anderson, 
Professor Chapman, Professor Stanley Kent, Dr. Maitland, 
Miss M. C. Matheson, Mrs. Meredith, Dr. C. S. Myers, 
Mr. J. W. E.\MSBOTTOM, and Dr. J. Jenkins Eobb. 

CONTENTS. 

PAOE 

Introduction 251 

I. Accumulated Fatigue in Warfare 253 

II. Daily Course of Fatigue in Type-setting 256 

III. Fatigue as a Cause of Accidents 258 

IV. The Applicability of Psychology to Problems of Industrial Fatigue . . 262 
V. Bibliographical Material 270 

Introduction. 

The publication of the first (interim) Report of the Committee of the 
British Association appointed to investigate ' Fatigue from the Economic 
Standpoint ' has aroused interest both among the general public and 
among business men. As the Committee was appointed with the 
definite practical aim of influencing industrial organisation, it has 
tried through its Investigator to keep in touch with the attitude of 
practical organisers to the subject during the past year. Public reference 
to Fatigue has therefore as far as possible been noted. The reception 
of the Report itself showed that the publication occurred at a moment 
when scientific discussion was felt to be a necessity owing to the 
conditions of overtime, night work, Sunday work, and women's employ, 
ment in the munition industry. The matter was particularly taken up 
in the leading trade papers; in many cases corfespondence ensued, 
in which managers, foremen, and others contributed their expei'iences. 
The appointment by the Minister of Munitions of a Committee to deal 
with Industrial Fatigue and Health of Munition ^Yorkers early in 
September gave additional stimulus to the study of the subject, and in 
the Memoranda published by this Committee our interim report was 
frequently mentioned. 

The Medical Research Committee of the National Health Insurance, 
indeed, decided itself to promote investigation, which proceeded on 
the lines developed in our 1915 Report — namely, by the collation of 
actual factory statistics. The danger of overlapping has, however, been 



252 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE, — 1916. 

avoided by the fact that the investigators have been conversant with 
one another's work, and a Hne of demarcation was drawn whereby the 
Medical Eesearch investigation continued on the lines of our first Report 
while the British Association Committee approached the separate 
problem of accumulated fatigue, and concentrated more particularly 
on questions of method, endeavouring also to facilitate the co-ordination 
of previous investigations, and compiling a complete Bibliography of 
Fatigue in all its aspects, which should be of the greatest assistance to 
students in the future. This laborious task has been rendered yet more 
formidable by the interruption of communications with the Continent, 
but the resources of the University Library and the Psychological 
Library at Cambridge have once more been freely drawn upon. This 
BibHography, already comprising close upon 1,000 entries, under the 
threefold classification of years, subjects, and authors, has not yet 
reached the final stage necessary for publication; but, as an example, is 
submitted the list of entries classified under the heading ' General,' that 
is to say, dealing with the whole subject rather than with any special 
aspect. 

Owing to circumstances also arising out of the continuance of 
hostilities, memoranda on changes in factory hours and the experience 
of managers promised by members from their various localities have 
been held over, and the present Eeport is based for the most part on 
research undertaken by the Investigator (Mr. C. K. Ogden) and by Mr. 
P. S. Florence. The co-operation has been secured, amongst others, 
of Professor Lee, of Columbia University, Mr. Cyril Burt, Psycho- 
logical Adviser to the L.C.C., Miss May Smith, of Cherwell Hall, 
Oxford, and Mr. E. J. Dingwall, of the Cambridge University Library. 
The effect of Fatigue on Women Workers is being studied by Miss 
A. M. Anderson, Chief Lady Inspector of Factories, a translation has 
been made of those portions of Biicher's Arbeit und Rhythmus that are 
relevant to modern industrial conditions,* while Miss B. L. Hutchins 
has presented a memorandum reviewing the steps by which public 
attention has been gradually directed to the effects of fatigue in 
production. 

The Committee was appointed in the first instance to consider the 
problem of Fatigue from the Economic Standpoint. This might have 
been interpreted only to cover the effect of fatigue upon the output of 
particular groups of workers. But the Committee has felt from the 
beginning that behind this there was the larger question of the effect 
of fatiguing employments on the general health of the working popula- 
tion, the frequency of sickness, the period of industrial efficiency, the 
mortality rate in particular industries. Difficult though this investiga- 
tion is, the Committee has thought that it ought not to be shirked ; and 
in the attempt to deal with this problem under the title of accumulated 
fatigue they are able to present a memorandum (Section I.) from Dr. 

' The effect of rhythm in enabling' the organism to pertorm with ease an 
amount of work which, if it were absent, would cause acute distress and fatigue 
is well known, as for instance in the ground covered by fragile people at a ball. 
The noise, regularity, ' swing ' and team-work of so many processes in modern 
industry present very favourable ground for the application of rhythm, and the 
Committee have already made studies of some of its aspects. 



THE QUESTION OF FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 253 

Gwynne Maitland, who during the war in Serbia has had special oppor- 
tuiiities of observation; while the co-operation has been secured of 
Professor T. Loveday, of Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and 
of Dr. Major Greenwood (Statistician to the Lister Institute). They 
submit their results rather as an indication of what the Committee hope 
to achieve in the coming year than as claiming completeness in their 
present form. 

Section I. 

Accumulated Fatigue in M^arfare. 
Dr. Maitland. 

The present war supphes unlimited material for the study of fatigue, 
but there is little opportunity afforded for experimental examination ; one 
must for the most part be content with chnical observations. 

There is one outstanding advantage in these cases as compared with 
civil cases; it is that they show much greater severity, and so enable 
one to realise to what extent fatigue may be responsible not only for 
functional disordei's, but ultimately for permanent constitutional lesions. 

There is, however, this great disadvantage, that there is no 
opportunity for submitting these, as one can submit civil cases, to experi- 
ment. It is obviously impracticable to be in the position and to select 
the opportunity for measuring work before and after the strain of field 
and trench work. 

By experience of work in the field and by the observation of cases, 
useful conclusions can be reached, and some measure of reform has 
already been forced upon the Army. 

The soldier has a limited capacity for work, but if he has been care- 
fully trained that capacity may be increased ; on the other hand, if his 
capacity is exceeded, and recuperation is not permitted to him, that 
capacity may undergo so much diminution as to render him quite unfit 
for military purposes. 

Military necessity, the impossibility of bringing up relays for replace- 
ment, the inability to provide sufficient rest and uninterrupted sleep, 
prevent the Army from getting the greatest possible value out of the unit. 

It was, indeed, found that long-continued trench strain resulted in 
cases of breakdown which certainly recovered after a period of rest, but 
such cases were left with a shorter period of utility on their return to 
the trenches, and, breaking down again, frequently discharged as of no 
further use. Not only was the period of activity shortened, but the 
quality of their work deteriorated, as evinced by their inaccurate shoot- 
ing, by their inability to time hand-grenade fuses, by hesitation in 
matters which demanded quick and intelligent decision, and in various 
other ways. 

In estimating the predisposing factors causing the acute cases of 
fatigue it would have been of the greatest importance to classify the 
various field operations in such a way as to obtain a common denomi- 
nator, whereby forced marching, trench-digging, gun-moving, stretcher- 
bearing, and so on, might be schematised, and an ideal number of hours 



254 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

allotted to each task. Unfortunately, of course, the actual strain in- 
volved varies with the occasion, and the matter is further complicated by 
various other conditions, such as the time and amount of the place for 
rest and sleep, the adequacy and sufficiency of food, the amount of noise 
and sensory disturbances generally, and the nervous strain of exposure 
to fire, and so on. 

It is obvious we must therefore dispense with the hope of obtaining 
an ideal working day for each military unit. 

All that we can reasonably hope for is that, with the present greater 
ability to supply reinforcements, we can diminish the strain as well as 
more frequently replace the actual fighting units ; and it becomes a 
matter of the greatest urgency that with this ability, and with the 
growing delicacy of perception in the anticipation of the breaking-point, 
a greater discretion might be employed to prevent it. 

Now we have two degrees of acute fatigue always coming up for 
notice. The one is the occasional case which is sent to the rear in a 
state of collapse. 

The case is often confused with shock, and in some respects it 
resembles a case of shock : there is extreme pallor of the face, the 
extremities are cold, and there is a fine muscular tremor. The blood 
pressure of the brachial artery in such a case is very low, usually below 
80 mm. Hg, the pulse is thready and the heart sounds are feeble and 
fluttering. It is, in fact, to be distinguished from shock only by its 
history and course. 

Now, such a case follows the usual physiological course. Thus, 
after compensation has been established in the process of strain — i.e. 
' second wind ' has been obtained, the heart is relieved, the vessels of 
the working part are dilated, and the respiratory embarrassment sub- 
sides — no further trouble may ensue if rest occurs in due course, but if 
the work is greatly increased, or if it continues too long, the chief 
organ to give out is the heart, which is working at high speed and at 
higher pressure to supply the gi'eater need of the working parts. The 
heart begins to disjolay its weakness by failing to contract completely, 
the right heart over-loaded begins to show its distress in the laboured 
breathing of the lungs. The working parts, making the same demand 
for oxygenated blood, fail to be adequately supplied, owing to the 
growing weakness of the heart, and the fatigue products beginning to 
accumulate interfere therefore with the efficiency of the muscles. 

The discomfort under ordinary conditions may become so acute as 
to make a worker cease his work ; the initiative, however, which drives 
the soldier on, may so obsess his mind as to render him insensitive to 
these flags of distress and so he continues to the danger-point. The 
heart, still labouring on, fails, owing to congestion of the right heart, 
to get itself supplied with oxygenated blood, and the condition is there- 
fore aggravated and it undergoes dilatation. At this stage a failure of 
cerebral supply brings about syncope, the restitution of cerebral 
function with the horizontal position may even fail to bring back the 
mental stimulus, but usually only brings into consciousness the acute 
feeling of helplessness in the body. 

The soldier may then be fortunate enough to be carried straight away. 



THE QUESTION OK FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 255 

to the field hospital or even to the base, where apparently complete 
recuperation takes place, and he may once more take his place in the 
fighting line. 

This is the case usually which, through insufficient rest at the base, 
may return again suffering in the same way but more severely, and he 
may be eventually considered unfit to return. 

These are the cases that provoke attention ; but the cases which are 
more important to consider from the point of view of military values 
is the great class of combatants which do not collapse in the field but 
yet betray to some extent the symptoms of these graver cases. They 
manage to come through without collapse, but they too display extreme 
pallor, their blood pressure is extremely low, their heart feeble, and 
they also exhibit an extreme and incessant restlessness of the hands 
and feet — faiblesse irritable. In this condition they are practically 
useless as a fighting unit, and are in fact a genuine encumbrance. 
Fatigue here again has gone shghtly beyond the possibility of sound 
physiological recuperation, and the tissues show depreciation by the 
celerity with which fatigue is induced on the next occasion for great 
physical strain. It becomes then a matter of the greatest urgency to 
see these soldiers are replaced before this excessive fatigue is established ; 
that of course can only be done empirically by a knowledge of the 
endurance of the soldier in the present type of warfare. It is essential 
that these soldiers return to the fighting line with their capacity for 
work undiminished, and it is with this object in view that the hom's 
in the fighting line have lately been limited and the period of rest 
increased. 

Finally the result we have to expect if the demand for adequate rest 
and recuperation is not satisfied is that a permanent lesion is 
established. 

From this last type of case we perhaps ought to exclude those cases 
which after great exposure and great strain betray or develop on the 
one hand tubercular trouble, on the other those cases which, through 
inherent heart- weakness, develop dilated hearts and incompetent heart- 
values. The cases which are especially instructive are those cases 
which show no other lesion than the arterial. 

It was extraordinary to observe how many Serbian soldiers, who 
have lived through the Balkan wars culminating in this present war, 
revealed arterio sclerosis. Their temporal vessels were always markedly 
tortuous, and, on examination, almost all palpable vessels were found 
to be thickened and tortuous. 

There seems no better illustration of the result of hard work on 
arteries than this continued war strain. Hard work has long been stated 
to be an alternative to the acute specific toxins in the productions of 
fibrosis in arteries, but has never received much attention. 

It was in almost all the above cases possible to exclude the mineral 
poisons, alcohol, and specific toxins, and by exclusion the only con- 
clusion which could be arrived at was that accumulative fatigue bodies 
themselves act as an arterial toxin. Moreover, it is necessary to 
remember the great demands made upon the vasomotor system, which 
is constantly in requisition in hard work, and therefore constantly 



256 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 



demanding oxygen. With the tax made upon the heart in extreme 
stress the heart may fail to remove the fatigue bodies, which, accumulat- 
ing, may irritate the delicate muscular mechanism in the arterial walls. 
This irritation, with the relative absence of anabolic bodies and oxygen, 
results in a degeneration of muscular tissue, and the artery in self- 
defence undergoes fibrous degeneration. 

The history of six years of Balkan wars prove beyond dispute that 
the strain of forced marching, inadequate food, insufficient rest and 
sleep, resulting in a temporary and functional fatigue to begin with, may 
ultimately, through a gradual depreciation of tissue, cause a genuine 
degenerative lesion. 

Section II. 
The Daily Course of Fatigue in Type-setting. 

The Committee have succeeded in securing ' an hourly output 
curve oi the process of type-setting. Type-setting, whether by machine 
or hand, is work requiring the closest attention and must be sharply 
distinguished from the uniform and regular work that can so easily be 
performed automatically. The reading of the manuscript and the 
setting of the different combinations of letters and points require judg- 
ment and care. Working by hand, there is in addition the task of 
taking the type from the right box in the compositor's tray and of 
placing the type correctly on the stick. The piece-hands also often 
made their own corrections. Work on a typograph machine is much 
like that of typewriting. The matter to be set was of a uniform nature 
throughout. 

The factory was situated in the country and built spaciously ; there 
were no special conditions likely to be unfavourable to health. 

Type-setting hy Typograph Machines. Operated by men. Average 
mimber of ' ens ' over period of ten full working days in February 
1916. 



- 


Chester 


Marshall 


Newman 


Stringer 


Average 


8—9 

9-10(a) 
10-11 
11-12 


3,180 
3,740 
3,530 
3,300 


4,880 
5,730 
5,320 
5,520 


3,440 
4,000 " 
3,650 
3,300 


2,030 
2,520 
2,450 
2,740 


3,382 
3,997(a) 
3,737 
3,715 






Dinner Interval. 






1-2 

2-3 (*) 
3.15-4.15 
4.15-5.15 


3,570 
3,750 
4,000 
3,780 


5,550 
5,750 
5,840 
4,980 


3,500 
3,780 
3,400 
2,780 


2,800 
2,530 
2,560 
2,120 


3,855 
3,952 
3,950 
3,415 



Note. — (rt) There is a mid-spell break of ten minutes from 9 to 9.10. The 
output for the period 9 to 10 is averaged up to the full hour, (b) There is no 
break in the work from 3 to 3.15. 



' By courtesy of Mr. Stanley Unwin, of Messrs. Allen & Unwin, and of 
Messrs. Unwin Brothers. 



The question op fatigue prom the economic standpoint. 257 

Type-selling by hand. — 'Piece-hands.' Average number of 'ens' 
over period of ten full working days {February 1916). 



- 


Miss 
Randall 


Miss 
Howells 


Bickerton 


Smith 


Fletcher 


Average 


8-9 

9-10(a) 
10-11 
11-12 


1,420 
1,730 
1,620 
1,640 


1,430 
1,380 
1,530 
1,430 


1,290 
1,430 
1,190 
1,170 


1,140 
1,280 
1,150 
0,900 


1,500 
1,090 
1,110 
1,140 


1,356 
l,383(a) 
1,320 
1,256 






Dinner Interval. 






1-2 

2-3 
3.15-4.15(6) 
4.15-5.15 


1,500 
1,550 
1,440 
1,370 


1,300 
1,580 
1,750 
1,300 


1,060 
1,170 
1,340 
1,120 


1,050 

1,100 

940 

860 


1,330 
1,330 
1,500 
1,290 


1,248 
1,346 
1,394(6) 
1,188 



Notes. — There are two mid-spell breaks of ten minutes : — 

(a) From 9 to 9.10. 

(6) Round 3.30, when tea is taken. For the periods 9 to 10 and 3.15 to 4.15 
the output is averaged up to the full hour. There is no break in the work from 
3 to 3.15. 



The average curve of the output for all the individuals engaged on 
these type-setting processes follows very closely the curves which were 
given last year for soldering and labelling tins, and which were then 
suggested as the normal curve for all work requiring concentration and 
attention. 

Here again the two spells show a similar level of output and a 
similar curve. On the machines the afternoon output is 2 per cent. 
higher, in the hand-work it is 2 per cent, lower than the morning output. 
In both spells, with one exception, the output is at a maximum in the 
second hour and falls off in the third and fourth. In the afternoon the 
fall in the fourth hour of the spell (and the last of the day) is particu- 
larly marked. The one exception to the rule of a maximum in the 
second hour occurs in the afternoon spell of the type-setting by hand, 
when the maximum is in the third hour (from 3.15 to 4.15). 

If we may venture on an explanation of the above facts, the usual 
rise in output between the first and second hours of a spell would seem 
to be due to the worker getting practised, the fall occurring after the 
second hour to be due to fatigue. As for the exception in the time of 
the maximum output, the explanation probably lies in the cup of tea 
and the break of ten minutes given to the piece-hands at 3.30. The 
effect of the similar break at 9 a.m. in the case of machine operators 
as well as piece-hands no doubt adds its weight to that of practice in 
producing the morning maximum in the 9 to 10 hour. 

The above table also records the average output of each individual 
separately. As might be expected in industry where so many different 
factors contribute to the result, individuals show some wide deviations 
from the average curve of output for the day.' 

' The extent of these deviations from the curve can only be measured 
clearly if the hourly output of each individual be expressed as a percentage of 
his average hourly rate. Otherwise individual deviations in the level of output 
will interfere and affect the deviation. 

1916 s 



258 REPORTS ON THE STATE OE SCIENCE. — 1916. 

However, in the type-setting by hand, Bickerton represents the 
average direction of curve in both spells, while Smith does so in the 
morning spell and Howells and Fletcher in the afternoon. Five spells 
cut of ten are therefore roughly typical. In the type-setting by 
machine, Chester represents the average direction of curve in both 
spells, while Newman does so in the morning and Marshall in the 
afternoon. Four spells out of eight are therefore roughly typical. 

No -distinctive characteristic seems common to the two women 
piece-hands, Eandall and Howells. 

Section III. 
Faiigue as a Cause of Accidents. — Introduction. 

In the Interim Eeport published last year (1915), Section III., 
page 17, an attempt was made to estimate how far the number of 
accidents in each working hour could be expected to vary with fatigue. 
It was there submitted that ' in the causation of many accidents the 
psycho-physiological state of the victim was probably one of the 
elements, though generally only as a condition enabling some mechanical 
cause to take effect,' and further, that fatigue, the most important of 
psycho-physiological states, would be evidenced by an increase of such 
accidents towards the end of the working period. 

In testing the degree of fatigue by means of the accident curve, the 
question, therefore, becomes important how far the mental or bodily 
state of the injured men contributes to the occurrence of industrial 
accidents. As an experiment a list was made from the particulars of 
the causes of accidents presented by the Federation of Master Cotton 
Spinners' Associations to the Departmental Committee on Accidents 
1911 (Cd 5540), and in answer to the above question causes were 
separated according to whether they indicated the state of body and 
mind and hence fatigue to be contributable to the accident or not ; the 
term ' contributable ' being applied to any factor that might possibly be 
said to have contributed towards the accident. 

This list, which found only 75 out of 1,362 accidents to which 
fatigue was not ' contributable,' has been so often quoted since the 
publication of the Eeport (notably in the Brief prepared by Louis 
Brandeis in defence of the Oregon Ten-hour Working Day) that a more 
detailed study of the subject seems desirable. 

In particular it appears important that the possible contribution to 
an accident of the injured man's state of mind and body be measured 
more accurately ; in fact, that the possibility of such contribution be 
' graded ' according to whether it was very great, great, fair, and so on. 
As will be seen below, in the classification of accidents at the munition 
factory seven such grades are distinguished. 

The usefulness of such a measurement of the degree of contribution 
to an accident by the victim himself lies mainly in the chance it offers of 
a more accurate test of the influence of fatigue. In plotting the time- 
distribution of accidents, only those types of accidents should now be 
chosen that are attributable in great measure to the victim himself. If 
fatigue is the main determinant, then in these classes the increase in 



THE QUESTION OF FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 259 

accidents as the day proceeds is likely to Be steeper than it is for all 
types of accident taken together. The matter can be brought to the 
proof. 

The Victim's Degree of Responsibility * 

An accident is by derivation an injury that was not premeditated. 
A wound from a mortal enemy's bullet is not an accident, but a casualty 
or murder, according to circumstance. It is only when injuries occur 
in industry, where the main purpose is the making of goods, or in any 
other peaceful pursuit, that they can be called accidents. 

Now, this terminology puts us on the track of the most essential 
characteristic of an accident, the fact that it occurs owing to some 
unusual circumstance. 

Confining ourselves purely to injuries occurring to human beings, it 
is obvious that such injury * is due to some contact of the human body 
with itself or with a material object, whether solid, fluid, or gas. 

The unusual cii-cumstance to which an accident is due must, there- 
fore, occur, either in the movements (or position) of the human body, or 
in the movements (or position) of some material object, at the time the 
accident occurred. Where a man injui'es himself by falling, or places 
his hand between two cogwheels, or bruises himself against a door-post, 
it is his body that is behaving unusually; floor, cogv/heels, and post 
are just persisting as usual. Where a load drops on a man, or a tool 
breaks in his hand, or an explosion blows him up, it is the material, 
not he, that is acting unusually ; or, where a man in the course of his 
work steps on a plank with a nail in it which enters his foot, it is 
the material that lay, presumably, in an unusual position. 

This analysis of the causes of an industi-ial accident is undertaken 
in order to disclose the human element, the degree of responsibility of 
the injured man at the time; to say that some object acted unusually 
is, therefore, insufficient. The question must be raised as to what force, 
human or natural, caused the unusual action. In shell factories the 
most frequent cause of accidents is the dropping of a shell on to one's 
own foot; here it was the object that made an unusual movement, 
but the man who was the motive force. On the other hand, the action 
of a material object may be due to a fellow workman, or (though the 
distinction is irrelevant to the injured man's responsibility) where shells 
fall off a table, or sparks fly out of a wheel, action may be caused by 
purely natural and mechanical causes. 

Where it was the body of the injured man that made an unusual 
movement, or was in an unusual position at the time, rather than any 
material object, this may have been caused by something unusual in 
the external circumstances beyond the man's control. A man may have 
fallen down a hole because the floor was more slippery than he was 
accustomed to find it, or he may have tripped up over an object not 
usually placed in that position; or, again, he may have taken a 

' Based upon research undert^iken by Mr. P. S. Florence under a grant from 
the Medical Research Committee (National Health Insurance). 

* Injury is not taken to cover cases of poisoning, strain, sprain, or fainting. 

s 2 



260 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

' header ' into his machine because the tool on which he was putting his 
weight shpped. 

This last case is, however, somewhat complicated, and is illustrated 
by several of the examples given below. The exact stages in the 
occurrence would usually be somewhat as follows : — 

1. The man applies too much pressure. 

2. The tool slips and thus removes all support from the man. 

3. The man falls into, or part of his body moves into, a dangerous 
spot. 

4. The machine inflicts an injury. 

Here Stage 4 is due to the usual action of the machine, but the 
other stages are all unusual. 

This case might be classified separately as * unusual position of the 
injured man due to unusual action of material due in turn to unusual 
action of the injured man at the time,' but to avoid a profusion of classes 
the Stages 1 and 2 may be considered as cancelling out, and therefore 
forming an absence of, external circumstances beyond the injured man's 
control at the time. If the tool slipped, not because of excessive human 
pressure, but because it had become worn or was otherwise defective, 
then, of course, such external circumstance would be present. 

The analysis has now proceeded far enough to show what is the 
influence of the human element in each class of accident. The human 
factor, with its liability to recklessness, to inattention and to insufficient 
muscular co-ordination, obviously preponderates wherever, amid usual 
conditions, it was an action or position of the human body that was 
unusual at the time, or else wherever an unusual movement or position 
of a material object was caused by a human being at the time. 

But even in one of the classes of causes of accident that remain, 
namely, where the dangerous movement of the material object was due 
to natural causes, the fact that an accident ensued in some cases 
depends on a human element. Suppose that in hoisting a load on a 
crane the load swings over and hits a man on the head,' he might 
have avoided it. What chance of escape such a man actually has, 
depends firstly on whether the hoisting was part of his own work to which 
he should have been attending, and, secondly, what length of warning 
the unusual move of the material would give. If the material object 
fell noiselessly from a height, and to watch it was not part of the 
injured man's work, then no human element was present in the causa- 
tion of the accident whatever. A human element would, however, be 
introduced if the man had been inattentive, or else attentive but slow 
in escape. 

It is now possible to place in order each class of causes of accidents 
that has been formed, according to the degree to which the human 
element enters into them. First would come the accidents due to the 
action of the material which no human capacity could have foreseen or 
avoided at the time ; secondly, accidents which a high degree of attention 
might just have foreseen; thirdly, accidents which a quick reaction 
{i.e., presence of mind) might have escaped; fourthly, accidents which 

' See example D below. 



THE QUESTION OF FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 261 

either great attention to the work in hand might just have foreseen 
and a quick reaction might just have escaped; next, accidents due to 
some positive inattention or lack of muscular control (usually a 
muscular inaccuracy) either with extenuating circumstances (fifthly) or 
not (sixthly); and, finally, accidents due either to a lack of muscular 
control (often a lack of muscular co-ordination) or to inattention plus 
a slow reaction that misses the chance of escape. 

After the enumeration of each class of causes, accidents caused 
lately under such classes at a large munition factory will be given, being 
typical or specially compHcated examples, as described by the foreman 
in his report to the head office. It will be noted that the wording often 
omits one stage in the ' modus operandi ' or else is somewhat ambiguous, 
the tendency being to attribute accidents to an unusual behaviour in 
the material rather than in the man. Thus a ladle ' coming away ' 
when being handled by the operative is rather like the frequently 
attested cup-breaking in the housemaid's hands, while to say that 
' working at a steam hammer, tongs flew off job,' does not tell us how 
exactly the hammer affected the tongs. Where necessary, I have 
appended the explanation of the accident supervisor. 

Examples of the Causation of Accidents. 

1st. Unusual action of material objects at the time. Outside scope 
of injured man's work, no escape possible. 

A. ' By valve flying out and catching him on the head.' 

B. ' Carrying shell and passing machine a turning flew and burnt eye.' 

2nd. Unusual action or position of material objects at the time, 
within scope of injured man's work, no escape possible. 

Includes all injuries from sparks or cuttings flying out of work in hand. 

3rd. Unusual action or position of material objects at the time, out- 
side scope of injured man's work, escape possible. 

C. ' Shell rolled oS a bench and fell on his foot.' 
Includes most injuries from fellow workers* carelessness. 

4th. Unusual action or position of material objects at the time, 
within scope of injured man's work, escape possible. 

D. ' While slinging job with crane, the job slung round and caught him on 

leg." 

E. ' While setting the bar, the machine started, and his hand was caught 

between the bar and the shell-carrier.' 

F. ' While throwing water on scar from furnace, steam scalded his arm.' 

G. ' While walking across the shop, stepped on to a piece of wood with a 

nail in it. The nail penetrated his boot, and entered his foot.' 

5fch. Unusual action or position of injured man at the time attribut- 
able to unusual circumstances beyond his control. 

H. ' While removing a 12-inch punching-die off press, he stepped back to 

keep clear and in doing so fell over a 12-inch shell-block which was 

lying behind him.' 
I. ' Slipped on piece of sheet-iron and wrenched his back, when lifting 

4-5 forging.' 

6th. Unusual action or position of injured man at the time not 
attributable to unusual circumstances beyond his control. Consists 



262 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

mainly of injmies from falls, and also from catching in the machine, 
as follows : — 

J. ' While reaching over to stop the machine, his sleeve was caught by the 

drill.' 
K. 'While fastening shell in chuck, elbow caught reamer and caused the 

machine to be in motion.' 
L. ' In pushing G. M. ring in lathe to fix it with the dogs, his hand slipped 

off edge which had just been faced and was cut, making a very nasty 

wound.' 
M. ' While filing work in machine, finger came in contact with a rough edge 

of job and was lacerated.' 
N. ' In lifting the ladle from the boiling resin, the ladle, which had stuck, 

came away suddenly and splashed the boiling resin over hand and a 

little on face.' 
0. ' While standing waiting for turn at steam forging hammer, a job 

■which was being forged got fastened in tool, and as he was in the 

act of knocking it out it jumped out and fell on his foot.' 
P. ' Wooden stick which is used for cleaning shell slipped, and hand 

caught on shell, cutting it on the back.' 
Q. ' Cleaning machine while running slow, belt pulled in waste, also three 

fingers.' 

7th. Unusual action or position of material due to the injured man 
at the time. 

R. ' In throwing shunting stick on back of engine after coupling waggons, 

the hook of stick caught him on wrist.' 
S. ' While gauging a shell it slipped and fell on his right foot.' 
T. 'Filing rag off edge of hole, the file caught the slot in chuck and jammed 

hand on tool.' 
U. ' Grinding chisel, which slipped and cut palm of left hand.' 
V. ' While -working at steam hammer, tongs flew off job with the force of 

bat striking him in the face.' 

Note to V. — The man in all probability had been holding the tongs at an 
unusually high angle. 

Section IV. 

The Applicability of Psychology to Problems of Industrial 

Fatigue. 

(a) Laboratory Experiment. 

One of the most important genex'al differences between laboratory 
experiments and the normal conditions of the factory is to be found in 
the difficulty of ensuring any degree of natural affective behaviour in 
any kind of experiments suitable for laboratory investigation. Thus the 
very important factor constituted by the subject's every-day interests 
is not likely to show in the laboratory even where instructions are given 
to ' behave naturally.' ' The chief ' interest ' which the subject is likely 
to feel is a certain curiosity as to the results of the experiment itself — a 
state of mind which has no precise parallel in the industrial field. 

Moreover, the conditions of experimentation imply a very high 
average degree of tension, and of concentration on the operation or 
reaction of the moment, with no reference to the affective side of the 
personality taken as a whols. In the factory, on the other hand, the 
worker spends the gi'eater part of his life ; on his work the continuation 
of his existence largely depends. Boredom or joy in work may here 
exercise a peculiar influence on output — not less than economic 
considerations based on desires of the met far-reaching character. 



THE QUESTION OF FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 263 

Hence in experimental work the immediate conditions of attention 
are chiefly ol an objective nature, such as the intensity, extent, and 
duration of the stimulus ; in the factory, attention is more frequently 
determined by the mental relation of the worker to his work, by his 
needs and desires, by his moods and by his ' interests. ' 

On the other hand, laboratory work is able to study certain factors 
in isolation in a manner which the complicated conditions of factory and 
school life render impossible ; and the problem with which we are 
concerned is to discover how far factory investigation can profit by the 
analysis of the experimenter, and how far the artificiality of laboratory 
conditions is detrimental to the transference of conclusions from one 
field to another. 

First of all, we are confronted by the general problem which arises 
when we bear in mind the sudden accessions of energy of which every- 
day life shows so many examples, but which only occur on a small 
scale under artificial conditions : — 

' It is the possibility of these sudden accessions of energy,' says 
Dr. McDougall, 'that has rendered well nigh futile all the many 
attempts hitherto made to obtain reliable objective measures of degrees 
of fatigue of the organism as a whole.' He refers to the recent work 
of Dr. Elvers, which shows how even in ergographic work suggestion 
and expectation are often distinctly disturbing factors and essentially 
involve the bringing into play of one or more of these special sources 
of energy. 

Physiologists in particular are accused of neglecting this general 
consideration. ' It seems impossible to get the physiologists of the 
laboratory, the physiologists who are chiefly conceimed with the organs 
rather than with the organism, to consider this conception seriously and 
on its m.erits. If they occasionally refer to it, it is only to put it aside 
contemptuously as a naive sui'^'ival from the dark ages. Yet those 
who are in the habit of dealing with the problems of the organism as a 
whole, the physician and the psychologists, constantly make use of this 
conception, for they find it impossible to make progress in the under- 
standing of their problems without it. That fact gives the conception 
a claim to a more serious consideration than it has commonly received 
from the physiologists. ' 

But it is not only in their neglect 'of such general conceptions of 
every-day life as energy that the psychologists of the laboratory are in 
need of correction. They are too apt to work under conditions which 
in the case of fatigue practically exclude the production of any true 
fatigue as ive meet with it in industry. And it is therefore not 
surprising to note with regard to the general question of method, that 
MM. Binet and Henri have shown the inadequacy of the various 
methods supposed to estimate the fatigue of the organism as a whole 
employed previous to the date of publication of their work ' La Fatigue 
Intellectuelle ' (1898) ; and in a recent critical study of the principal 
methods Messrs. Ellis and Shipe " have arrived at the conclusion that 
none of those investigated by them are reliable. 

' American Journal of Psychology. 



264 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — ^1916. "* ' ^ ■^ 

Nevertheless, a good deal has been achieved in spite of the absence 
of universally accepted criteria, and in his ' Manual of Mental and 
Physical Tests ' Professor G. M. Whipple, of Cornell, has given a 
useful account of some of the leading methods employed so recently 
as 1910 with sundry references to fatigue. 

The study of these methods is a good index of the difference between 
laboratory and industrial work. 

First in importance comes the Ergograph, which records the 
endurance of a group of muscles, and is also used as an index of the 
effect of all forms of work. The ergograph, though objections have 
been raised to it on the ground that it fails properly to isolate a single 
muscle, is very much more confined in its fatiguing effects than any 
industrial process. 

The tapping test secures an index of various forms of motor ability, 
speed, &c., and also of the fatigue effects of rapid movements. It is 
even further removed from the operations of industry than is the 
ergograph. 

With the claims of the assthesiometer as a direct index of fatigue 
we have dealt in connection with school experiments. Of the various 
methods of producing and testing mental fatigue, which include cancel- 
lation (the crossing out of assigned letters or words from a printed 
sheet), completion (Ebbinghaus's test mentioned below under (b)), tests 
of memory, computation and simultaneous operations, only the two last 
call for special remarks here. 

Almost all analyses of the work-curve have been based on experi- 
ments in computation, and the same is true of pauses. Computation in 
its various forms is assumed to imply perception, movement, attention 
and retention, as well as associative activity; and Kraepelin and his 
followers have confined themselves chiefly to addition. In order to 
produce greater fatigue Thorndike has used four- and five-place numbers 
both for addition and multiplication. It need hardly be remarked that 
the kind of fatigue produced by work of this sort is reliable chiefly for 
certain problems of refined analysis. It is obviously peculiar, and 
largely temporary in its effects, and is considerably complicated by the 
elements of boredom and practice, to say nothing of mental types. 

Similarly, the experiments hitherto conducted on simultaneous 
activities have only a remote connection with the complex operations 
found in industry. Binet has suggested various methods of testing 
ability to execute concurrent motor activities, but most of the work 
has been done on purely intellectual operations. 

One of the most recent and successful pieces of laboratory apparatus 
is that devised by Dr. W. McDougall ' and described by him in the 
' British Journal of Psychology,' 1904-5. The process has more in 

' Dr. McDougall has written as follows (B.A. Report, 1908, p. 487) of the 
further utility of his apparatus : ' The Kraepelin methods seek to avoid dis- 
turbances by keeping interest at a minimum. But the human subject is not 
easily kept in such a state ; he will become interested if only in the approaching 
end of his task, and hence great irregularities. In view of these difficulties 
T have suggested a method of estimating fatigue, which follows the opposite 
principle, and seeks to keep interest at a maximum throughout, the task set 
being of the nature of a sprint.' 



THE QUESTION OP FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT, 265 

common with many processes of industry than any ergographic or 
mental test, and consists essentially in successfully jabbing with a pen 
at a series of spots in irregular succession on a cylinder. The rate of 
rotation may be increased or decreased, and the subject may be given 
any other task to be performed concurrently. It is claimed that the 
method enables us to measure, after an interval of half-an-hour's 
duration, the degree of fatigue produced by an effort sustained for about 
three minutes only. 

This method is not dissimilar from the operations involved, e.g. in 
working on the dial-feed cartridge-making machine, and when its value 
has been more generally recognised, it should provide a more practical 
measure of the effects both of monotonous and complex operations, 
and of the value of pauses, than has hitherto been available. 

A question naturally arises as to the value for industrial purposes 
of experimental work which does not reproduce the actual processes 
and machinery of the factory itself. On the one hand, we have 
the very natural objection that any abstraction from the actual 
conditions must, to some extent, vitiate the applicability of the results 
obtained. On the other hand, Muensterberg has pointed out that unless 
concrete situations are reproduced in toio we can never be sure that the 
omission is not an essential factor. He illustrates the argument by the 
contention that a reduced copy O'f an external apparatus may arouse 
ideas, feelings, and volitions which have little in common with the 
processes of actual life. The man to be tested for any industrial 
achievement would have to think himself into the miniature situation, 
and especially uneducated persons are often very unsuccessful in such 
efforts. This can clearly be seen from the experiences before naval 
courts, where it is usual to demonstrate collisions of ships by small 
ship models on the table in the court-room. Experience has frequently 
shown that helmsmen, who have found their course all life long among 
real ships in the harbour and on the sea, become entirely confused when 
they are to demonstrate by the models the relative positions of the 
ships. 

Hence Muensterberg urges the necessity of concentrating on the 
essentials of the process involved; e.g. in the case of street-car accidents 
a peculiar strain on the attention, &c. 

It is obvious that such a selection of essentials may be of the greatest 
value for the study of fatigue in certain cases — especially where attention 
is involved. On the other hand, there are many other kinds of opera- 
tions which are simple enough to reproduce in toto, and which can be 
better studied under laboratory conditions than in the factory itself. 
Particular interest attaches to the controlled experiments of Bogardus 
designed to get a degree of monotony and speed and strain equivalent 
to that produced by a longer spell of similar operations in the factory ; 
and showing that two-thirds of the muscular inaccuracies occurred in 
th'e last half of the period. 

(h) Educational Psychology. 

Scepticism with regard to the possibility of obtaining any satis- 
factory conclusions as to the effect of fatigue in schools seems to have 



266 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. "^^ 

given place quite recently to a more hopeful attitude, chiefly as a result 
of various studies by Winch, in which definite results are claimed as 
the result of a strictly scientific procedure. 

It is possible, therefore, that interest in the relations of fatigue in 
industry and education will now revive ; but there are many important 
respects in which the conditions of school and factory respectively affect 
the study of fatigue. First of all, there is the general consideration 
that according to meny modem educationists any conception of the 
school which approximates educational to industrial conditions is in 
itself a gross abuse. The object of the school should be to avoid all 
that leads to premature fatigue, and it is therefore only in ill-managed 
undesirable cases that we can casually step into the school in the 
expectation of finding measurable fatigue.' 

Even where modern conditions still allow of fatigue it must be 
regarded very differently from the fatigue of the factory. In The 
Great Society Graham Wallas writes: ' The stimulation of our nervous 
system along any given line of discharge makes a further stimulation 
along the same line more easy. It also " uses up " something in the 
nervous structure which requii-es time to repair. Every teacher knows 
that if a boy has to spend two hours in doing a succession of elementary 
sums of the same kind, he will do them with growing ease qua habit 
and growing difficulty qua fatigue. After a period of rest the fatigue 
wears off and the habit remains, so that a boy may then prove to have 
been making most progress towards accuracy in sum-working when he 
was too tired to work his sum accurately. ' 

This fatigue in the process of learning, this conception of progress 
cannot easily be paralleled in the factory. Extra effort is never stimu- 
lated in the factory with a view to the fonnation of habit ! The majority 
of mental tests as employed on school children are the same as those of 
the laboratory, and have not been essentially modified in the past sixteen 
years. Leuba's remarks of 1899 still hold good: — 

' The mental test, ' he then wrote, ' has been extensively applied. 
It is Kraepelin's method and the method of Burgerstein, Haser, 
Kemsies, and many others. The form may vary widely; firstly, in the 
character of the work required, which may be either a long series of 
simple examples (v. Laser, Holmes, Eichter), or a few pieces of more 
difficult work [v. Sikorsky, Friedrich, Kemsies); and secondly, in the 
method of measuring fatigue, which may be either by the decrease in 
the rapidity with which the work is done or by the increase in the 
number of errors which occur. A test which has been called the " com- 
bination method " was devised by Ebbinghaus, who used paragraphs 
of text from which here and there words had been erased. The sub- 
jects were required to fill in all the blanks, v/ithin a given time, with 
words which made sense with the context. Measurement was by the 
number of errors occurring. 

' The apparatus for all such mental tests is simple ; it requires only 
the preparation of a set of arithmetical problems or the mutilating of 

' On the other hand, ovcr-preesure ■will show itself in its perniciovus effects 
on health in general and in th« production of nervous or bovine dispositions. 
See e.g. Hertel's Over-pressure, p. 33. 



THE QUESTION OF FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 267 

a printed page. Its method of reading results is likewise easy, since it 
consists in a mere counting and averaging of errors. The truth of its 
interpretation is, however, by no means so certain. The test does not 
get at -the phenomenon to be studied at all directly or unequivocably, 
unless the distinction between fatigue and weariness is to be overlooked 
altogether. The material from which the results are read is the product 
of the total set of mental conditions obtaining at the time of tho 
investigation, and the number of errors in any given case will as readily 
be affected by a feeling of rivalry between the pupils or by a momentary 
distraction as by the influence of fatigue itself. These influences can- 
not unconditionally be set down as constant factors, which are, 
therefore, eliminable. The anticipation of recess or the conclusion of 
work may very well be potent in estabHshing a law of rhythmical 
increase and decrease in the number of errors, which will well combine 
with the actual exhaustion effects to produce a curve which does not 
at all truly represent the rise in fatigue. The results of practice, like- 
wise, interfere with the purity of the fatigue curve when it is determined 
by the numbers of errors occurring. ' 

As "Weber has pointed out, Kraepelin himself was very cautious in 
his attitude to the subject; but other investigations at the end of the 
last century raised the hopes of educationists and produced those 
strange obsessions as to the value of the sesthesiometer, which 
occupied so much space in psychological literature for a number of 
years. 

E'. MacDougall summarises the scale of values and recommenda- 
tions which these sesthesiometric investigations endeavoured to 
establish, as follows: — 

' Mathematics and classics stand high in all the lists ; singing, 
drawing, and religion come far down, as does also the study of 
German. That is, studies which demand close application tax the 
pupil heavily, while those in which practice and mechanical routine 
can play a part are marked by slight fatigue. Gymnastic exercise, 
instead of being recuperative, ranks among the most fatiguing forms of 
school work. Only light exercise is recreation. Even the recess 
period is marked by deep fatigue in those who indulge in violent exer- 
cise. Instead of the customary intervention, the various investigators 
agree in recommending a shorter pause after each hour's work, during 
which noisy games shall be discourag^ed and the children taught to 
seek rest, fresh air, and gentle movement. In these lies the solution 
of the problem of fatigue in school. ' 

It is clear that many of these views would be supported by 
educational reformers on grounds of common experience, but it has 
been demonstrated by Leuba, Germann, and others that the sesthesio- 
metric method is quite inadequate to establish such far-reaching 
conclusions. 

(c) The Need for Co-operation. 

On the whole, however, in spite of their experiments in school and 
laboratory, the work of psychologists is still for the most part the 
reverse of illuminating for the problems of industry. The writers of 



268 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — ^1916 

general text-books are content to introduce fatigue in the most cursory 
manner, and the student can obtain from them httle idea of the pro- 
blems which now demand attention.^ Dr. Myers, in Chapter xiv. of 
his ' Text-book of Experimential Psychology,' Vol. I., has recently 
made a welcome step in the right direction. 

The results of industrial investigation have now clearly indicated 

" It is worth while to present a brief analysis of the way in which even 
such an authority as Kuelpe introduces Fatigue into his well-known Outlines 
of Psychology. After defining a sensation as a simple conscious process 
standing in a relation of dependency to particular nervoue organs, he states 
that sensations are compared by means of ' sensible discrimination,' and are 
experienced and communicated by ' sensitivity ' which may be either direct or 
indirect (pp. 31 and 33). Sensible discrimination and sensitivity are improved 
amongst other things by a greater degree of attention and expectation : habitua- 
tion facilitates attention and expectation, but too great habituation nullifies 
their effects and dulls the subject's interest in the experiment. 

Practice in a process increases delicacy of perception and readiness of 
judgment by increasing attentional concentration and capacity of reproduction. 
Fatigue decreases all these things. Both practice and fatigue may be general 
or special (p. 43). 

Peripherally excited sensations (p. 87) are of various kinds — cutaneous, 
tactile, olfactory, visual, and organic. There are also ' common sensations ' 
in which one or more of these are compounded ; and' there is the eensation of 
giddiness which may be the function of a particular sense organ, the static 
sense. The common sensations include hunger and thirst, tickling, itching, 
and shivering ; cardiac and respiratory sensations, the sensation of being ' all 
right,' and finally the sensations of exertion and fatigue (pp. 146-148). 

Centrally excited sensations, all of which have previously been peri- 
pherally excited, are reproduced (through the mediation of direct or indirect 
recognition and association) modified in various degrees in memory and in 
imagination. This reproduction, like sensitivity and sensible discrimination, 
is conditioned by attention, by practice, and by fatigue, general and special. 
Relaxation after a sleepless night weakens memory in all departments. Per- 
sistent occupation with a particular object fatigues the memory. Kuelpe 
(p. 212) regards it as uncertain whether fatigue influences associability and 
reproductivity directly, or only indirectly — i.e. by way of attention. The 
abnormal increase of central excitability at a certain stage of fatigue (evidenced 
by vivid dreams, multiplication of illusions, &c.) seems to indicate that the 
diminution of associability and reproductivity resulting from fatigue does 
not affect the central sensations themselves so much as the arrangement, con- 
nection, and direction which are normal to them under the guidance of 
voluntary attention. An analysis of the influence of practice leads to a similar 
conclusion. We must therefore suspend judgment upon the question whether 
practice and fatigue are conditions of centrally excited sensations co-ordinate 
with attention. The forgetfulness of old age is probably to be explained by 
reference to fatigue (p. 217). 

Affective states, the pleasantness and unpleasantness of a sensation, are 
adversely influenced by fatigue, which (p. 261) weakens wliat would otherwise 
be a pleasure, and increases what would normally be a moderate unpleasantness. 

Fatigue is apt to retard the work of auditory analysis (p. 303). It ia 
far more difficult to distinguish the individual tones in a clang or to reduce 
a compound clang to its simpler constituents when the mind is fatigued than 
when it is fresh. The effect of fatigue, therefore, seems to be restricted to 
the increase of fusion degree, to the reinforcement of the unitariness of the 
total impression. Fatigue also diminishes the accuracy of estimating time 
intervals, brightness contrast, and : 

Fatigue lengthens reaction time in experiments. 

Though there is a relation between fatigue and sleep, sleep can hardly be 
regarded as a special instance of the general phenomenon of fatigue, as it 
is often impossible imder circumstances of extreme exhauetion. A theory 



THE QUESTION OP FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 269 

several directions in which further assistance from psychologists is 
urgently needed. 

A. The effect of the following factors in predisposing or retarding 
the onset of Fatigue : — 

I. The Intelligibility of the work. "What types of workers, if any, 
can take more pleasure in their work when each action has its place in 
some definite whole whose purpose they can understand. Are Ker- 
schensteiner's conclusions on this subject (* The Schools and the 
Nation,' p. 121, &c.) valid also for Industry? 

II. Spurt, on account of rush orders, &c. The investigations of 
Kraepelin require more detailed examination in their application to the 
factory. 

III. Rhythmisation. — Since industrial operations are usually com- 
plex — i.e. consist of several co-ordinated movements — rhythm requires 
further analysis into two elements: — 

(a) Regularising of the time of the whole complex operation. 

(b) Regularising of the method of operation — i.e. the timing of the 
separate movements within the whole operation. 

How far is there an adaptation of work rhythm to some natural 
(physiological) rhythm? 

IV. Concentration and attention over long periods. How exactly 
is Attention affected by Fatigue, e.g. at the end of a long spell of work 
(four or five hours)? What explanations can be given of the rise in 
accidents near the end of such a spell? Is it a case of momentary 
lapses or a general failure in intensity of application? Why does the 
number of accidents fall again in the very last hour of the spell before 
the meal-breaks ? (See 1915 Report.) 

B. What apparatus now at the service of Experimental Psycholo- 
gists is most suitable for use in factory investigations? What further 
contrivances can be devised to facilitate such research? 

of sleep must therefore include a reference to the attention, the importance 
of which for its induction or prevention is well known. There is no eurer 
means of producing sleep than to tire the attention. 

Kuelpe's standpoint throughout is that of the laboratory experimenter. 
His references to fatigue are either designed to put the experimenter on his 
guard against influences disturbing normal conditions, or are of the nature of 
obiter dicta. 



270 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ^1916. 

Section V. 

Bibliography. 
The classification adopted for the Subject Bibliography is as follows : 

A. Non-Induslrial. 

I. (a) General. 

(b) Attention, Interest, Suggestion. 
II. Mental Work. 

III. Physical Aspects, 
(a) General. 

(6) The Senses (ocular, auditive, tactile, olfactory). 

(c) Muscles. 

(d) Nerves, 
(c) Brain. 

(/) Circulation and Respiration. 

(g) Chemical analysis. 

{h) Temperature. 

(i) Food ; Drugs ; Alcohol. 

(j) Athletics. 

(k) Typewriting. 

(Z) Reaction. 

IV. Apparatus and Method. 
(a) General. 

(6) Ergography. 
(c) .(Esthesiometry. 
V. Practice. 
VI. Rhythm. 
VII. Pauses. 
VIII. Hygiene. Sleep. 
IX. Educational. 
X. Abnormal. 
XI. Supplementary and Various. 

B. With special reference to Industry. 

Entries grouped under Section B (Industrial) were for the most part printed in 
the Index of Sources at the end of our 1915 Report. The following selections com- 
prising the group ' 1 (a) General ' in the above classification give an idea of the 
scope of the work, and include only those entries which do not fall under any of the 
special groups into which it has been found convenient to divide the whole. 

Amab, J Effets physiologiques du travail et ' degre de fatigue.' 

' C.R. Acad, d Sci.,' clvii. 646-649. 1913. 

A useful paper which confines itself to a discus, 
sion of the phenomena of circulation and respira- 
tion in connection with various kinds of work, 
and shows when the conditions of work are no 
longer normal by a series of experiments upon 
rhythm and arterial pressure. 

Observations sur la fatigue professionnelle. ' J. de 

Physiol, et Path. Gen.' xvi. 178-188; 192-202. 
1914. 

Baur, a Die Grenzen Ermiidung und Uebermudung. 

' Studien Pad.-psychol.' v. 17-19. 1904. 

Bbttmann, S Ueber die Beeinilussung einfacher psychischer 

Vorgange durch korperliche und geistige Arbeit, 
'Psychol. Arb.' 152-208. 1896. Influence of 
walking or adding on reactions. 

Bevan-Lewis, W. . . . The Neuron Theory : Fatigue, Rest and Sleep. 

' Rep. Brit. Ass.' Lxxvi. 722-723. 1906. A brief 
statement. 

BiBROWicz, W. ... See Leubuscher, P. 



THE QUESTION OP FATIGUE PROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 271 



BuLKLEY, L. D. . . . Fatigue as an element of menace to health in the 

indxistries. ' 39th Annual Meeting of the American 
Academy of Medicine.' 1914. 

BuENUAM, W. H. . . . The Problem of Fatigue. ' Amer. J. of Psychol.' 

XIX. 385-399. 1908. A short suggestive enu- 
meration of factors under influence of James. 

Cancellieri, D. . . . Delia Fatica. ' Riv. ped.' i. 183. 1908. 

Carrieu, M De la fatigue et de son influence pathogenique. 

Paris, pp. 131. 1878. 

De Sandro, D. . . . The significance of physical fatigue. ' La Rif. 

med.,' No. 31. 1910. 

Dessy, S., and Grandis, V. . Contribution k I'etude de la fatigue. ' Arch. 

ital. de Biol.' xli. 225-233. 1904. Criticising 
and supplementing the work of Abelous, Langlois, 
and Albanese. 

Dresslen, F. B. . . . 'Fatigue.' 'Ped. Sem.' ii. No. 1, 102-106. Also 

' Amer. Jour, of Psychol.' iv. 614-517. 1892. 

Fek£, C Etude experimentale de I'influence des excitations 

agreables et des excitations desagreables sur le 
travail. ' Annee Psychol.' vii. 82-129. 1901. 

Etudes experimentales sur le travail chez I'homme 

et sur quelques conditions qui influent sur sa 
valeur. ' J. de I'Anat. et de la Physiol.' xxxvii. 
1-79. 1901. A brief review of the physiological 
and psychological conditions which bear upon 
the performance of work. 

Les variations de I'excitabilite dans la fatigue. 

' Annee Psychol.' vii. 69-81. 1901. 

Travail et Plaisir. Paris, 1904. Sums up Fere's 

work to that date. Enterprising and suggestive 
but rather unreliable. 

L'economie de I'efiort et de travail attrayant. 

' J. de I'Anat. et de la Physiol.' xlh. 253-292. 
1906. An interesting study, with many detailed 
experiments bearing on the subject in question. 

Fisher, I. .... Report on National Vitality. ' Yale Univ.' July 

1909. 

Fluoel, J. C Some observations on local fatigue in Illusion of 

Reversible Perspective. ' Brit. J. of Psychol.' VI. 
60-77. 1913. 

Foster, M Weariness. ' Nineteenth Century.' Sept. 1893. 

FouRNOL, L Contribution a I'etude du surmenage. Paris, 1879. 

Franz, S. I Fatigue factors in certain types of occupations. 

' Trans, xv. Intern. Cong, of Hygiene,' iii. 512- 
517. 1913. Psj'chologist to Government Hospital 
for Insane, Washington. 

Gley, E Etudes de Psychologic. Paris, 1903. Correlation 

of mental work and automatic processes. 

Grandis, V See Dessy, S. 

Harless, E Das Problem dor Ermiidung und Erholung. ' Aerztl. 

Int.-Bl.' 1861. Munchen, vm. 1. 

Henei, V Etude sur le travail psychique et physique. ' Annee 

Psychol' III. 232-278. 1897. A select biblio- 
graphy of forty-four items is appended. 

Hill, D. S Fatigue : Some of its Scientific and Practical 

Aspects. 'Methodist Qt. Rev.' Pp. 19. Oct. 
1909. 

Htllqeitbeb, a. . . . Fortlauf ende Arbeit und Willensbetatigung. ' Unter- 

such, zur Psychol, u. Phil. hrsg. v. Ach. N.' i. 
Bd. 6 H. pp. 50. Leipzig : Quelle and Meyer, 1912. 

HoLLiNGWOETH, H. L. . . Variations in Efficiency during the Working Day. 

' Psychol. Rev.' xxi. 473-491. 1914. 

Imbebt, a Fatigue as a result of occupation. ' 14th Intern. 

Cong, of Hyg. and Demography.' Berlin, 1907. 



272 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916, 



JoTEYKO, J Le quotient de la fatigue H/N. ' C.R. Acad. d. Sci. 

cxxx. 6C7-669. 1900. 

Excitability et fatigue. ' Rev. de rUniv. de Brux.' 

125-143. 1901. 

— — Le siege de la fatigue. ' Rev. gen. d. Sci.' xiii. 

294-300. 1902. 

La fatigue. ' Dictionn. de Physiol.* Richet,vi. 185. 

With bibliography. 1903. 

La fatigue. Paris, Alcan, 1902. 

Les Defenses Psychiques. ' Rev. Psychol.' xxxvin. 

113-134; 262-273. 1913. Review in ' Annce 
Psychol.' p. 381. 1914. 

KiPiANi, V Lois de la fatigue. ' Rev. Scient.' 5 S., rv. 367-369 ; 

398-403. 1905. Reviewing some of the work 
of Joteyko on Ergography. 

KocHMANN, AViLHELM . . Ueber die Verhaltnis von Arbeitszeit und geistiger 

Aufnahmfahigkeit der Arbeiter. ' Archiv fiir S.' 
873. 1913. 

A prescription of the methods that can be used 
in establishing how far the worker is really in a 
position to develop his faculties after accomplish- 
ing his day's work ; whether he is not obliged to 
dispense with all recreation that is of cultural 
value and tends to develop his personality, having 
to fall back on the public-house, the cinemato- 
graph, music-halls, football, and such like. Deals 
also with changes in the working capacity of 
the workman outside his professional activity, a 
province where the automatisation of functions 
cannot enter. 

Keaepelin, Emil . . . Die Arbeitskurve. ' Philos. Studien.' 459-508. 1902. 

and Rivers, W. H. R. . Ueber Ermiidung u. Erholung. ' Psychol. Stud.' 

627-678. 1896. 

Ladd, G. T., and Wood- Elements of Physiological Psychology. ' Scribner,' 

WORTH, R. S. chap. vn. sec. 32-37. 1911. 

Lagranqe, Fernand . . La fatigue et le repos. Pp. 357. Paris, Alcan, 

1912. The most comprehensive general study. 

This book contains the most comprehensive 
general survey of the whole subject. M. Lagrange 
divides the work into three parts. In the first 
he discusses the physiological, psychological, and 
other aspects of fatigue itself. In the second he 
mentions various therapeutic measures, and in 
the third he deals very f \illy with the meaning and 
value of rest. 

Lahy, J. M Les efEets compares sur la pression du sang de la 

fatigue physique produite par une marche pro- 
longee et de la fatigue psychique resultant d'un 
travail d'attention. ' C.R. Acad. d. Sci.' CLViii. 
1913-1916. 1914. 

Lee, F. S Fatigue. ' Harvey Lectures.' 1906. See also ' J. 

of Amer. Med. Assoc' XLvi. 1491-1500. 1906. 

The Nature of Fatigue. ' Pop. Sci. Mo.' 1910. 

The Physiology of Exercise and Rest. ' Journal 

of Outdoor Life.' June 1911. Lee's three 
general studies are the clearest and most reliable 
statements extant. 

Leubuscher, p., and Neurasthenic i. Arbeiterkreis. ' Deutsche Med.' 

BiBROWicz, W. May 1905. 

LiKDHEiM, A. R. VON . . The Morbidity and Mortality of Occupations. 

' 14th Intern. Cong, of Hyg. and Demography.' 
Berlin, 1907. 



THE QUESTION OF FATIGUE FROM THE ECONOMIC STANDPOINT. 273 



LiNDLKY, E. H. 



loeentz, f. 
MacDouqall, R. 

McDOUQALL, W. 

Manaseina, M. 
Marsh, H. D. . 

MiESEMEK, K. . 
MOOEE, J. M. . 

Mosso, AsOeLo 

Oehbn, Axel . 

Oliver, Sir T. 
Palmen, E. 



Patrick, C. T. W. . 

Poffekberger, a. T., and 
Tallman, G. C. 

POORE, G. V. . 

Revilliod, L. . 

RiTZMANN, F. . 

Rivers, W. H. R. . 
rudnev, v. i. . 



Sachnine, H. 



Savage, J. H. . 

Le Savoureux, H. 

■Schmidt, A. 
schoenhals, p. 

'schtjyten, c. . 

Shaw, E. R. . 

■Spbcht, \V. 

Btirling, W. . 



Ueber Arbeit und Ruhe. Leipzig, 1900. Also 
' Psychol. Arb.' v. 3, pp. 491-517. 1901. With 
many detailed statistics and calculations. 
Die Ermiidung und das Antikenotozin. ' Zs. f. 

pad. Psychol." xv. 482-484. 1914. 
A Review of Fatigue. ' Psychol. Rev.' vi. 203-208. 
1899. Rather favourable summing up of sesthe- 
siometry. 
Fatigue. ' Rep. Brit. Assoc.' 1906. Very important 

study : especially conception of energy. 
Lc surmenage mental dans la civilisation moderne. 

Translated from the Russian. Paris, 1890. 
The Diurnal Course of Efficiency. Diss. New York, 

Science Press, 1906. 
Ueber psychische Wirkungen korperlicher und 
geistige Arbeit. ' Psychol. Arb.' iv. 375-434. 
1902. 
Studies in Fatigue. ' Yale Studies,' v. 3, pp. 68-95. 
1895. General conclusion that fatigue makes 
work less rapid, accurate, and legular. 
La Fatica. 1891. English Trans. Drummond. 
New York, 1904. London, Allen and Unwin, 
1914. Remains a mine of suggestive work even 
to-day. 
Experimentelle Studien zur Individual Psychologic 
' Inang. Dis. Dorpat,' 1889. Yoakum speaks 
of it as ' beginning ' the work of the Kraepelin 
school. 
Occupational Fatigue. ' Journal of State Medicine.* 

Oct. 1914. 
Ueber die Einwirkung verschiedener Variabeln auf 
die Ermiidung. ' Skand. Arch. f. Physiol.' xxiv. 
197-225. 1910. 
The Psychologv of Relaxation. ' Pop. Sci. Mo ' 

Lxxxiv. 590-604. 1914. 
Variability in Performance during Brief Periods of 

Work. ' Psychol. Rev.' xxii. 371-376. 1915. 
On Fatigue. '' Lancet,' n. 163. 1876. 
La fatigue. ' Bull. Soc. med. de la Suisse Rom.' 

XIV. 250, 279. Lausanne, 1880. 
Arbeit, Ermiidung und Erholung. ' Concordia : Zs. 
der Zentralstelle fiir Volkswohlfahrt.' Nov. 1907. 
See. Kraepelin, E. 
Ueber Ermiidung [Russian]. ' Kazani, Med. Zurn ' 

1. 525-529. 1901. 

Etude surl'influence de la duiee du travail quotidien 

sur la sante generale de I'adulte. These Lvon 

1900. • 

Overwork as a Cause of Insanity. ' Lancet,' ii 127 

1875. 
L' ennui normal et I'ennui morbide. ' J. de Psj^chol. 

norm, et path.' XI. 131-148. 1914. 
Uebermiidung. ' Med. Klinik,' ix. 667-568. 1913. 
Neurasthenic und Hysterie bei Arbeitern. ' Monats. 

fiir Unfallheilkunde,' 289. Aronheim, 1906. 
Qu'est-ce que le surmenage ? ' Rev. psychol ' i 

142-158. 1908. 
Fatigue. ' Addr. and Proc. Nat. Educ. Assoc ' 550- 

564. 1898. 
Zur Analyse der Arbeitskurve. ' Zs f pad 

Psychol.' n. 19-31. 1910. 
Health, Fatigue, and Repose. 1913. ' Lady Priestley 
Lecture,' 1914. Popular account of various modern 
views. 



1916 



274 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1916. 



Stupin, S. . 
sudduth, w. x. 
Thohndike, E. !•. 

Tissii, P. . 

TEfeVES, Z.. 

Verwoen, M. . 
Wells, F. L. . 

Weyqandt, W. 

woodworth, r. s. 
Wkioht, W. R. 







ZUNTZ, N. . 



Fatigue, Work and Inhibition. ' Psychol. Bull.' 

X. 444-450. 1913. Very useful summary of 
recent work. 

Fatigue, Work and Inhibition. ' Psychol. Bull.' 

XI. 412-417. 1914. 

Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Ermiidung beim Men- 

schen. ' Skand. Arch. f. Physiol.' xii. 149. 1902. 
Fatigue in its relation to Consciousness. ' Alien. 

and Neurol.' xxn. 467-474. 1901. 
The Curve of Work. ' Psychol. Rev.' xix. 165-194. 

1912. Vigorous criticism of Kraepelin school. 
Fatigue in a Complex Function. ' Psychol. Rev.' 

XXI. 402-407. 1914. 
La Fatigue et I'entrainement physique. Paris, 

1897. A popular study, with interesting remarks 

on the results of gymnastics. 
Contributo critico-sperimentale alio studio dei 

fenomeni soggettivi di fatica nel lavoro volontario. 

' Riv. di Patol. nerv. e ment.' x. 201-219. 1905. 
Ermiidung und Erholung. ' Berlin Klin. Woch- 

ensch.' xxxvm. 125-132. 1901. 
Fatigue. ' Psychol. Bull.' vm. 390-395. 1911. 

Incomplete summary of new work in 1910-1911. 
Fatigue. ' Psychol. Bull.' ix. 416^20. 1912. 

Summary of recent work. 
Ermiidung und Erschopfung. ' Sitz. Ber. physik. 

ges.' 37. Wiirzburg, 1901. 
See Ladd, C. T. 
Some Effects on Incentives on Work and Fatigue. 

' Psychol. Rev.' xm. 23-24. 1906. 

A series of ergographic experiments are here 
described, which confirm the great importance 
of interest. Among other conclusions drawn 
from the experiments is the fact that the 
subject accomplished more work when working 
with a definite aim, and that the fatigue accom- 
panying such work is less than that acquired 
under no such direct stimulus. 
Die Merkmale der Ermiidung. vn. 741-744. 

Umschau, Frankfurt a. M. 1903. 



Industrial Unrest. — Abstract of the Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Professor A. W. Kirkaldy (Chairman) , Mr. 
E. J. W. Jackson (Secretary), the Et. Hon. Charles 
Booth, the Et. Hon. C. W. Bowerman, Sir Hugh Bell, 
Sir C. W. Mac.\ra, the Ven. Archdeacon Cunningham, 
Professors S. J. Chapman, E. C. K. Gonner, W. E. Scott, 
and Messrs. S. Ball, H. Gosling, Howard Heaton, and 
Pickup Holden. 

The Eeport was drawn up in three sections: — 

A. The causes of industrial unrest. 

B. Attempts at diminishing industrial unrest. 

C. Eecommendationa. 



ON INDUSTRIAL UNREST. 275 

A. Causes. 

1. The desire for a higher standard of hving. 

2. The desire of workpeople to exercise a greater control over their 

lives, and to have some determining will as to conditions of 
work. 

3. The uncertainty of regular employment. 

4. The monotony in employment. 

5. Suspicion and want of knowledge of economic conditions. 

6. The complaint that some labour is irregular and less satisfactory. 

7. The effects of war measures. 

B. Attempts at Diminishing Industrial Unrest. 
These include : 

1. Conciliation and Arbitration Boards. 

2. Arbitration (a) Voluntary. 

(b) Compulsory. 

3- Profit-sharing and co-partnership. 

4- Co-operation. 

C. Recommendations. 

The aim of this investigation was to discover certain general prin- 
ciples which must underlie an harmonious economic organisation. 
Before the problems of industrial unrest can be solved, these prin- 
ciples must be applied to particular industries. With their special 
application this Committee has not dealt, and the recommendations put 
forward include only broad principles possible of wide application. 

They may be divided into groups as they concern : 

1. The general attitude and outlook of employers and workmen. 

2. The machinery for dealing with disputes. 

3. The organisation of industry. 

4. Post-war arrangements. 

1. (i) That there should be greater frankness between employers 

and workpeople, and that they should discuss industrial 

matters together or through duly accredited representatives. 

(ii) That employers should consider the cost of labour, and not 

the wages earned by individual workmen, 
(iii) That the fundamental facts and principles of industrial and 
economic life should be known by both. 

2. (i) That employers and workpeople should improve their 

organisations with a view to determining jointly the con- 
ditions under which industries should be carried on. 
(ii) That in each industry permanent boards or committees be set 

up to consider all matters of common interest, 
(iii) That there be a Joint National Board to which local boards 
could refer unsettled disputes. 
3- (i) That the necessity for co-operation between employers and 
employed be recognised by both. 

I 2 



276 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

(ii) That employers establish : 

(a) Associations of one trade in a given district. 

(b) National Associations of one Trade. 

(c) Local Federations of Trades. 

(d) National Federations of Trades- 

(h and d being organised under a system of representation.) 
That workpeople establish unions and federations corresponding to 
the above, 
(iii) From the two National Federations there be elected an Indus- 
trial Council, 
(iv) That the State give recognition to approved associations, 
unions, and federations under carefully devised regula- 
tions, the State being the representative of the consumer 
and of the community. 
4. (i) On demobilisation, that district boards of really practical men 
be established to consider and adjust difficulties, especially 
as to replacement in industry of men who have joined the 
Forces, 
(ii) As to agreements and regulations in abeyance for the period of 
the War. The industrial community will have an oppor- 
tunity for considerable reconstruction. The new organisa- 
tion suggested should take this in hand. 



Replacement of Men hy Women in Industry. — Abstract of the 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor W. E. Scott 
(Chairman), Mr. J. Gunnison (Secretary), Miss Ashley, 
the Rt. Hon. C. W. Bowerman, Ptofessor S. J. Chapman, 
Ven. Archdeacon Cunningham, Mr. W. J. Davis, Professor 
E. C. K. GoNNER, and Mr. St. G. Heath. 

The activity of the Ministry of Munitions, the schemes for the ' dilution 
of labour, ' and the scarcity of skilled male labour have brought about 
in the second year of the war a marked development in the demand 
for female labour. At the present time (July 1916) over half a million 
women have replaced men who have left their occupations for more 
urgent national service. 

The women who have taken the men's places have for the most part 
had previous industrial experience, though seldom (in industry proper) 
of the kind of work they are now doing. Many of them are married 
women, or single women transferred from other occupations. Generally 
the supply has been drawn from the neighbourhood, but some of the 
munitions establishments have attracted women from a wide geographical 
area, not always limited to the British Isles. 

Besides the employment of women on trams and railways, in banks, 
and as postal servants (positions open to the public view), replacement 
has occurred through the whole of industry. Few women are to be 



REPLACEMENT OF MEN BY WOMEN IN INDUSTRY. 277 

found taking the place of highly skilled men ; but large numbers have 
released the unskilled and those termed, in engineering, ' semi-skilled.' 
But when the work of the men involved a degree of skill and experience 
which women seldom possess, new machinery of a moz'e automatic kind 
has been introduced (sometimes to such an extent as almost to transform 
an industry), and subdivision of processes has changed highly skilled 
work into a series of repetition operations which can be accomplished by 
relatively untrained workers. This has to be boi-ne in mind when women 
are stated to be doing the work of skilled men. 

The success of the women on these repetition processes is marked. 
They learn quickly; they are good time-keepers; they have, so far at 
least, stood the strain of long hours extremely well, and their manual 
dexterity enables them to achieve good results in the way of output on 
repetitive processes. On work demanding greater judgment and adapta- 
bility the evidence of their success is not so great; but their industrial 
training has been short. 

For some time the employment of women on men's processes was 
opposed by Trade Unions, which still in some industries "bring forward 
strong objection^ to replacement. But in the most important industries 
agreements have been reached between men and employers as to the 
conditions on which replacement may be carried out during the period 
of the war. Those conditions usually include an agreement as to 
women's wage-rates and a guarantee of the re-employment of the men 
replaced. 

The wages of women in war-time have been influenced by the fixing 
of a minimum for certain kinds of munition workers in certain classes 
of munitions establishments ; by the competition of munitions with other 
industries in the demand for female labour; by the pressure of the 
Trade Unions ; and by the general rise in prices. The fact that even in 
districts where the competition of munitions is keenest the wage-rates 
for women in other industries, on processes involving similar skill and 
exertion, have not always risen to the munition level, suggests that the 
withdrawal of the minimum regulation, twelve months after the war, 
will lead to a fall in women's wages. But it is unlikely that they will 
fall to their general pre-war level. 

The fact that not a great proportion of the women war workers were 
previously occupied suggests that after the war the problem of a large 
surplus of women may not be so serious as has been feared. The 
married women are for the most part in industry only for the period of 
the war ; and inquiry among women workers generally shows that many 
of them have no desire to remain in competition with men. But this 
involves the question of the increased demand for women on repetitive 
processes ; and if, as seems likely, the subdivision of processes and the 
highly automatic machinery introduced owing to war conditions have 
come to stay, there may be a change in the relative demand for skilled 
and for unskilled labour to the disadvantage of the former. 



278 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 

The Effects of the War on Credit, Currency, and Finance. — 
Report {Abstract) of the Committee, consisting of Professor 
W. E. ScoTT {Chairman), Mr. J. E. Allen {Secretary), Sir 
Edward Brabrook, Professor C. F. Bastable, Professor L. 
E. DicKSEE, Professor F. Y. Edgeworth, Mr. Barnard 
Ellinger, Mr. A. H. Gibson, Professor E. C. K. Gonner, 
Mr. Francis W. Hirst, Professor A. W. Kirkaldy, Mr. 
D. M. Mason, Professor J. Shield Nicholson, Sir E. H. 
Inglis Palgrave, and Mr. E. Sykes. 

I. Introduction. 

Communications invited from America and allied countries. The 
Committee records its thanks to Professor Gide (Paris), Professors 
Einaudi, Loria, and Supine (Italy), and Mr. S. Metz (Argentina). 

II. Credit. 
Last year's Eeport dealt with the period of transition from peace 
to war ; ' Credit has now adapted itself to a state of war. ' The 
marked increase in banking deposits is apparently anomalous, but 
explained by various considerations — e.g., calling in of floating foreign 
balances from abroad, decrease in outstanding London acceptances, 
subscriptions by the public and by banks to War Loans, Exchequer 
bonds. Treasury bills, issue of currency notes, &c. 

III. Currency. 

Since last year's Eeport the credit position has become less 
abnormal, and the need for emergency currency less; but it is now 
desirable to concentrate the country's stock of gold. Notes should 
be marked convertible into gold at Bank of England, though actual 
conversion undesirable. Adequate gold reserve against notes essen- 
tial : no increase since last year, while the note issue has been 
trebled. It is difficult to estimate quantity of gold in country before 
the war : some of it hoarded, and hoardnig seems to have increased. 

How far is issue of cun-ency notes an addition to the circulation? 
The Mint calculation gave 78,000,000L of gold in hands of public 
on June 30, 1914 : notes in hands of public now may not be much 
more. It is conceivable that there is no increase in money in circula- 
tion; but it is possible that the Mint calculation is an over-estimate. 
Mr. A. H. Gibson thinks pre-war amount under 50,000,000Z. 

IV. Prices. 
What has caused rise in prices ? Many reasons offered, ' prompted 
by certain aspects of the situation which are forced upon the attention 
of each writer by his own personal experience. ' Thus those engaged 
in monetary transactions explain rise by alterations of the currency; 
those engaged in manufacture and distribution explain it by quasi- 
monopoly of producers, intensity of demand of home and foreign 
Governments, inci'eased cost of production (plant, labour, capital), 



EFFECTS OF THE WAR ON CREDIT, CURRENCY, AND FINANCE. 279 

and increased taxation. The theoiy of money must be applied with 
great care at present, as this is a 'short period,' and it must be 
distinguished from a normal period. ' Index numbers ' afford a fair 
guide to amount of rise, but are not exhaustive. Professor Charles 
Gide, of Paris, thinks that the issue of notes, which has been specially 
large in France, has had very little influence on prices, since in 
France prices have not risen as much as they have in England. 

V. Foreign Exchanges. 
Report first combats impression prevalent abroad (as communi- 
cated By Professor Achille Loria, of Turin) that there is ' a moral 
prohibition on the export of gold,' and that England has in fact 
' a non-expoiiable gold standard. ' No doubt great exports have been 
made. The British Empire controls two-thirds of world's output 
of gold, therefore no good reason for any moral or patriotic impediment 
to the most perfect freedom of gold export. Difficulties of American 
exchange successfully removed by Dollar Securities Scheme. Pro- 
fessor Gide holds that the depreciation of its exchange does not 
necessarily indicate impoverishment of a country. 

VI. Economy, Individual and National. 

There are various types of saving which are of unequal value to the 
nation. Mistakes arise from thinking in terms of money. We ought 
to think ' in terms of commodities. ' It is clear that the best saving 
is in imported goods ; next in goods which ' are produced under 
conditions of diminishing return ' — e.g., ' saving in the use of wool, 
coal, food of all kinds, cotton, &c., is highly beneficial.' Economy 
in public expenditure is ' even more necessary. ' 

VII. and VIII. War Taxation and Finance. 

Eeport discusses relative advantages of financing war by loans 
and by taxation. It is a matter of some doubt whether much addi- 
tional revenue can be obtained by further taxation of commodities 
except petrol and spirits. If further revenue is required it must be 
obtained by a more scientific and equitable income-tax. At present 
taxation of working-classes is based on their consumption of neces- 
saries (apart from tobacco and intoxicants) ; canon of ' ability to 
pay ' ignored. Amount of tax paid by working man through sugar, 
tea, and other duties depends on size of his family and not of his 
income. Conclusion. — Contributions required from working-classes 
should be taken by income-tax on wages collected through the em- 
ployer at time of payment. 

IX. Economic Conditions after the War. 

Appendix. 

Diagram illiistrating Day-hy-day Borrowing. 

By Mr. D. Dbummond Phaser. 



280 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — ^1916. 



Stress Distributions in Engineering Materials. — Interim Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor J. Perry (Chair- 
man), Professors E. G. Coker and J. E. Petavel (Secre- 
taries), Professor A. Barr, Dr. C. Chreb, Mr. Gilbert Cook, 
Professor W. E. Dalby, Sir J. A. Ewing, Professor 
L. N. G. FiLON, Messrs. A. E. Fulton and J. J. Guest, 
Professors J. B. Henderson, F. C. Lea, and A. E. H. 
Love, Dr. W. Mason, Dr. F. Eogers, Mr. W. A. Scoble, 
Dr. T. E. Stanton, Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, and Mr. J. S. 
Wilson, to report on certain of the more Complex Stress 
Distributions in Engineering Materials. 

[Plate III.] 
During the past year the time of the various members of the Committee 
has been, to a large extent, taken up by work in connection with the war, 
and some of the researches carried out by Professor Coker and others, 
although having a direct bearing on the work of the Committee, cannot, 
at present, be included in the report. 

Papers have been received from Mr. Stromeyer, Dr. Stanton, and 
Dr. Mason, and are published as appendices. 

Mr. Stromeyer submits results of tests in tension, compression, and 
tension and shear made on a number of steels of different compositions. 

Dr. Mason has carried out some experiments with the alternating 
stress machine he recently designed ; these show that when the range of 
cyclic strain in alternating bending or in alternating torsion is not entirely 
elastic, the range of non-elastic strain varies largely with change of fre- 
quency of cycle. Some experiments have been made to investigate the 
recovery or apparent recovery that takes place when a piece showing 
' cyclical permanent set ' is allowed to rest. Similar ' recovery ' has 
been found, under certain circumstances, after alteration of frequency 
of cycle, during tests wherein the range of stress was constant throughout. 

Dr. Stanton gives a description of a new machine for tests of materials 
in combined bending and torsion. 

The general result of his work is a confirmation of Guest's hypothesis 
for the material used. 

The Committee ask for reappointment with a grant of 801. 

Appendix I. 

An Experimental Comparison of Simple and Compound Stresses. 

By C. E. Stromeyer. 

The following experiments were carried out on twenty-six samples 
of mild steel of which the chemical analyses and many mechanical tests 
have been previously reported. Vide ' Journal Iron and Steel Inst.' 1907 I., 
1907 III., 1909 I. ; 'Proceedings R.S.,' 1915; ' Trans. Inst. Naval Archi- 
tects,' 1915. 

The object of the present set of experiments was in part to trace a 
relationship between tension, compression, and shear stresses, in order 



ON STRESS DISTRIBXrriONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 281 



to test the applicability of Guest's law with regard to elastic limits, plastic 
limits, and ultimate strengths, for each of which breakdown points the 
tension and compression stresses should according to Guest's law be 
equal and twice as great as their combinations : the shearing stresses. 

Ultimate Strengths. Table I. 
The ultimate crushing strengths were not obtainable. The ordinary 
tensile strengths, T, were obtained by the usual method of dividing the 
original cross-section of the samples into the maximum loads recorded 
during the tests. The tenacities per reduced section, T„ were, as the 
name implies, obtained by dividing the reduced section of the sample, 
at the point of fracture, into the smallest recorded load at the moment 
of fracture. On account of the unsteady conditions near the moments 
of fracture it was not always possible to determine these loads with 

Table I. 
Ultimate Strengths. 



Ultimate 
Tenacities 



D 
A 

M 
X 

u 
p 

s 

B 

T 

L 

BB 

N 

E 

J 

Q 

V 

z 

F 

K 

G 

R 

W 

II 

C 

Y 



Esti- 
mated 



Tons 



23-78 
24-22 
2518 
25-38 
25-94 
26-33 

26 56 

27 31 
27-33 
27-40 
27-43 
27-57 
27-57 
27-85 
28-81 
28-90 
28-97 
2951 
29-94 
30-66 
31-26 
31-59 
32-60 
33 84 
37-69 



Ob- 
served T 



Tons 



23-60 

24-11 

24-90 

24-60 

25-30 

25-50 

26-00 

27-40 

28-20 

26-30 

27-60 

26-27 

30-60 

28-10 

28.50 

29-60 

29-70 

28-90 

27-80 

31-30 

32-10 

31-80 

33-70 

33-30 

37-40 



Tenacities per 
Eeduced Sections 



Ultimate Shearing 
Strengths 



Esti- 
mated 



Tons 



40-20 
48-16 
53-96 
50-52 
49-66 
54-64 
54-24 
52-52 
.54-10 
56-32 
54-32 
55-38 
51-28 
54-14 
54-76 
54-70 
55-72 
58-78 
.55-02 
57-84 
60-68 
57-48 
58-40 
55-76 
68-58 



Observed 
T, 



Tons 



36-57 

50-48 

58-22(- 

48-17 

53-12 

56-74 

53 33 
56-24 
62-62(- 
60-56(- 
51-20 
58-62(- 
58-42( 
67-86( 
68-77 
54-88 
49 33 
57 00 

54 96( 
60-88 
62 80 
61-26( 
64-81( 
51-72( 
66-96 



Esti- 
mated 



Ob- 
served S 



Tons 



20-72 
27-44 
24-42 
23-12 
23-29 
24-50 
24-54 
2510 
24-42 
25-39 
24-44 
24-85 
24-45 
24-63 
25-06 
24-79 
24-94 
27-10 
25-33 
25-85 
27-35 
25-90 
26-65 
25-73 
28-97 



Tons 



S/T 



S/Tr 



21-23 
22-00 

21-05 
22-86 
24-10 
22-90 
24-90 
25 72 
24-40 
23-34 
2372 
23-12 
24-85 
29-93 
25-00 
24-74 
26-60 
25-15 
27 -.50 
27-65 
27 11 
28-37 
26-41 
29 70 



0-90 
0-91 

0-86 
0-90 
0-95 
0-88 
0-91 
0-91 
0-93 
0-85 
0-90 
0-76 
0-89 
0-91 
0-85 
0-83 
0-92 
0-90 
0-88 
0-86 
0-85 
0-84 
0-80 
0-79 



0-58 
0-44 

0-44 

0-43 

0-42 

0-43 

0-44 

0-41( + ) 

0-40(-f) 

0-46 

0-40( + ) 

0-40(-f) 

0-36(+) 

0-44 

0-46 

0-50 

0-47 

0-46{ + ) 

0-45 

0-44 

0-43(-f) 

0-44(-f) 

0-5m-) 

0-44 



The above estimated stresses are found by the formulae 

T, =19-75 + 25 (C + C^) + 11 5 Si + 30 P + 205 N - 115 S + 36 5 As 
T, =50-5 + 20 C +20 Si + 40 P + 200 N - 80 S 

S =22 2 + 9 C +6 Si + 20 P + 100 N - 20 S. 

(— ) These stresses may be too high. (+) These ratios may be too low. 



282 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1910. 



Table II. 
Elastic and Plastic Limits. 





Tension 


Compression 


Sheab 


Elastic 


Plastic 


Elastic 


Elastic 


Plastic 




Limits 






Limits 


Limits 










Limits 


Drops 
Tons 








Limits 


Drops 


T. 


T, 


Tons 


Cc 


Cc 


Sc 


s. 


Sp 


Sd 




Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


D 


lo-5b 


16-50b 


180 


180 


20 0bb 


22-63 


9 


11-66 


10-9 


9-7 


A 


16-6b 


20-90! 


Gradual 


14-6b 


15-99 


80 


11-87 


12-0 


10-G 


M 


16-5! 


— 


17-5 


17-5 


20-2! 


19-61 


9 -Ob 


11-79 


10-7 


90? 


X 


16-3b 


1913! 


18-4 


18-4 


14-lb 


12-56 


9-4 


9-50 


10-4 


9-4 


u 


18-81! 


18-61! 


19-7 


19-5 


— 




10-5 


11-38 


11-5 


10-4? 


Q 


17-45 


18-03b 


181 


181 


— 





11-0 


12-24 


11-2 


10-4 


s 


17-2bb 


21-31b 


21-2 


20-9 


15 


lb 


15-80 


10-Ob 


12-30 


10-1 


9-9 


B 


17-4!! 


17-84! 


190 


. 


16 


9! 


17-25 


9-0 


12-50 


11-6 


10-1 


T 


13-Obb 


17-35b 


— 


— 


13 


4b 


18-77 


9-0 


12-00 


11-2 


10-4 


L 


17-9b 


1911b 


21-3 


21-2 


15 
19 


7!! 
7!! 


19-78 


11-7 


12-42 


12-3 


110? 


BB 


19-8b 


20-Olb 


21-2 


21-3 


14 
18 


lb 

7" 


18-66 


9-Ob 


13-20 


11-9 


10-8? 


N 


11 ^bb 


1301b 


16-4 


16-1 


14 


G! 


16-80 


90 


10-84 


9-2 


8-0? 


E 


21-4b 


26-08!! 


28-4 


28-4 


14 


5b 


18-45 


13-6 


16-15 


14-6 


13-4 


J 


18-7b 


17-92b 


200 


200 


16 


6b 


17-65 


ll-8b 


13-59 


12-9 





Q 


22-9! 


24-58! 


23-2 


231 


17 


Obb 


20-60 


14-6 


1509 


14-5 


12-6 


V 


20-Ob 


24-89! 


23- 


23-0 


16 


7! 


18-38 


10-5 


15-50 


13-4 


12-6 


Z 


20-0! 


21-20b 


20-3 


20-3 


15 


Obb 


14-94 


100 


12-60 


11-8 





F 


19-5! 


20-01!! 


20-2 


20-2 


16 


7b 


18-98 


10-5b 


14-00 


12-6 


11-3 


K 


18-8! 


18-46! 


210 


210 


18 


t)! 


20-13 


11-3 


13-20 


12-2 





G 


13-7bb 


24-51! 


23-5 


23-2 


15 


Ibb 


19-58 


12-5 


14-35 


13-6 


11-9 


R 


17-6bb 


24-90! 


230 


22-6 


18 


Obb 


20-68 


12-7 


16-50 


14-2 


12-5 


W 


20- lb 


24-38b 


23-1 


231 


16 


0!! 


18-94 


9-0 


13-40 


12-2 


110? 


H 


21 -3b 


24-29! 


24-4 


24-4 


17 


Obb 


22-14 


14-8 


15-50 


14-9 


12-9 


C 


17-71 


18-00! 


21-0 


— 


16 


lb 


18-87 


12-0 


13-00 


12-7 


11-3 


Y 


20-8bb 


25-64b 


Grad ual 


25-0!! 


2312 


14-5 


15-92 


15-7 


14-6 



(!) Well defined limits. 

(?) In these cases there were too few observed stresses to make accurate estimates 
of the ' drops.' 

(b) 111 defined limits. 

accuracy. The ultimate shearing strengths, S, were obtained from the 
torsion tests as explained below. In these cases, too, the unsteady- 
conditions at the ends of the tests interfered with the accuracy. Never- 
theless we find that the ratio S/T,. is fairly constant but rather less than 
5 as required by Guest's law. The ratios S/T vary from 0-756 to 946 
and seem to be of no value. 

Table I. also contains the estimated ultimate strengths estimated 
from three formulae there given. The agreement between the estimated 
and actual stresses is remarkably good in the case of T. The two other 
formulae are of interest because the constants for T,. are approximately 
twice as great as those for S. 

Possibly with an increased number of experiments the agreement may 
prove to bo a closer one. It should be noted that the influence of nitrogen 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 283 



Table III. 





Katios of Shear Limits to Tension and Compression Limits | 


Samples 


















S,/Te 

0-58 


SclCe 


Sc./Tc 


S,/Cc 


Sp/Tp 


SalTa 


D 


0-45 


0-71 


0-51 


0-60 


0-54 


A 


0-48 


0-55 


0-57 


0-74 


— 


— 


M 


0-54 


0-45 


— 


OGO 


OGl 


0-51(?) 


X 


0-58 


0-G(5 


0-50 


0-76 


0-56 


0-52 


u 


0-56 


— 


0-61 


— 


0-58 


0-53(?) 


p 


0-63 


— 


0-68 


— 


0-62 


0-57 


s 


0-58 


0-66 


0-58 


0-78 


0-47 


0-47 


B 


0-52 


0-53 


0-70 


0-72 


OGO 


— 


T 


0-69 


0-67 


0-69 


0-64 


— 


— 


L 


0-66 


0-78 
0-G4 


0-65 


0G3 


0-58 


0-52(?) 


BB 


0-45 


0-64 
048 


0G6 


0-71 


0-5G 


0-51(?) 


N 


0-79 


0-62 


0-84 


0G5 


0-56 


0-50 


E 


0-67 


0-94 


0-62 


0-88 


0-51 


0-47 


J 


0-63 


0-71 


0-7G 


0-77 


0-64 


— 


Q 


0-74 


0-86 


0-61 


0-73 


0G2 


0-54 


V 


0-52 


0-63 


062 


0-84 


0-59 


0-54 


Z 


0-50 


0-64 


0-59 


0-84 


0-58 


— 


F 


0-54 


0-63 


0-70 


0-74 


0-62 


0-5G 


K 


0-60 


0-62 


0-71 


0-65 


0-98 


— 


G 


0-91 


0-83 


0-59 


0-73 


0-58 


0-51 


R 


0-72 


0-70 


0-66 


0-80 


0G2 


0-55 


W 


0-45 


0-56 


0-55 


0-71 


0-53 


0-48(?) 


H 


0-69 


0-87 


0-64 


0-70 


0-Gl 


0-53 


C 


0-68 


0-75 


0-76 


0-72 


OGO 


— 


Y 


0-70 


0-62 


0-58 


0-69 


— 


— 



(?) See footnote Table II. 

is about ten times greater than that of carbon, and that therefore analyses 
which omit this constituent are valueless for comparisons lilce the present. 

Tables II. and III. deal with elastic and plastic limits on the above 
lines, but as these limits are badly defined it has seemed desirable to 
record not only the first indications of curvature in the elastic lines, viz. 
T,., C,., and S,. for tension, compression and shear, but also those stresses 
T,., C,., and S,, when the strain-indicator pointers commenced to creep 
after the additions of small loads. Under the tension and shearing stresses 
the material seemed to break down at certain badly defined stresses, 
which might be called plastic limits T^, and S^,, and sometimes this break- 
down resulted in what is generally known as ' drop ' T,, and S,,, the steel- 
yard dropping without additional loading. Both S,, and S^ have been 
estimated from the torsion tests as explained in the note at the end of the 
paper. 

As will be seen from Table III. the several ratios vary within the 
following limits : — - 



Ratios S,./T„ 


s,./c. 


S,./T, 


s,./c,. 


S„/T, 


S„/T, 


From 448 


0-448 


0497 


515 


474 


472 


To 908 


0-938 


0-836 


0876 


0645 


575 



It will be seen that only the last two ratios, and especially the last 
one, are at all steady. The conclusion may therefore be drawn that 



284 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — 1916. 

Guest's law does not apply to elastic limits as at present defined, but only 
to the drop stresses. This is perhaps natural, for the drop or minimum 
stress after the general breakdown is probably the natural resistance 
of the material, whereas the elastic limits may have been affected by 
preliminary strainings and by ageing effects. It should also be men- 
tioned that the changes of curvature of the elastic linos are very much more 
marked in the tension and compression cases T^ and C„ than in the shearing 
(torsion) cases, for in these latter it is only the outer fibres of the samples 
which are affected. 

Both in the tension and the compression experiments two strain 
indicators were used and corrections were made in the final results for 
eccentricity of pull. These corrections were less than 1 ton for the 
tension tests. Duplicate tests on the same material demonstrated that 
these corrections are necessary and that the methods adopted are fairly 
correct. 

Note on Shearing Stress Strain Diagrams. 

The problem is to determine the shearing stress strain curve from the 
torsion moment or stress strain curve. 

Assume that two similar cylindrical shells of the respective semi- 
diameters X| and X and the thicknesses dx and dx are subjected to equal 
circumferential shearing stresses S, then the respective torsion moments 
rfM, and dM. stand in the relation 

dM,/dM. = x^'-'/x\ 

This relation holds good for a number of concentric cylindrical sheila 
constituting a solid bar, provided of course that the stress distribution 
is similar in each bar of the respective radii r^ and r. 

M,/M = riVr^ 
Let r,=:r + ^r, then Ui=M{r + drjyr^=llfl+^'[''\. 

Assume that the smaller of the two rods of the radius ;• receives the 
addition of a thin cylindrical shell of the thickness dr, then its diameter 
will be the same as the other bar, and if this added cylinder be stressed 
circumferentially with the stress S, which exists in its original outer 
fibre, then the torsion moment M2 for this compounded bar is : — 

M2=M + 2n . Sr'' .dr. 

These two torsion moments M, and M, Avould be obtained with one and 
the same bar if in the first one, the shear strain angle at the surface, 
were a,, and if in the second it were : — 

dr\ ,, ,j dr 



a-2=ai{r + dr)/r=aJl + ^^j, then as Ja=a2 — a,=a' 



r 



we may in the above equations replace dr/r by da/a, and combine them 
as follows : — 

M2-M, = dM = 2.nSr'--3M^, 

o a 

and we have : — 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 285 

As long as the elastic limit of the material of a bar of the diameter 
d = 2r is not exceeded, the torsional resisting moment is 

M=Se . d^7r/lG = S^ . rV/2. 

If therefore from the observed torsion moment wc estimate shearing 
stresses S^ as if the material were perfectly elastic, then the plastic stresses 
arc 

This formula has been used for estimating the plastic shearing limits 
and drops from the torsion curves. Beyond these limits dM/da is negli- 
gibly small and the ultimate shearing stresses are therefore 

Appendix II. 
On (he Hysteresis of Steel under Repeated Torsion. 
By W. Mason, D.Sc. 

Recent experiments^ have shown that elastic hysteresis becomes 
rapidly greater with increasing range of stress. At a range of 85 tons 
per square inch, the width of the hysteresis loop for an annealed steel 
tube, measured in stress, amounted to 015 tons per square inch. 

The question arises whether the hysteresis found with stress-ranges 
which extend beyond what are believed to be the natural elastic limits 
is or is not of the same nature as elastic hysteresis. 

The following set of experiments was one of several made in order 
to get further information on this point. 

A turned and bored hollow specimen (see figure) of the dead mild 
steel provided by the Stress Distribution Committee of Section G of the 
British Association was fixed in an alternating torsion-testing machine 
wherein the torque, direct and reverse, was applied by a lever which 
could be operated either by mechanism or loaded by dead weights. The 
grips holding the ends of the specimen were centred inside ball-bearings, 
and care was taken to eliminate any friction that might affect the 
value of the applied torque. The range of the angle of twist was 
measured by mirrors bolted to the specimen (see figure\ The image 
of a fixed scale was reflected in turn by each mirror, and was received 
in a fixed telescope. . The mirrors remained fixed to the specimen through- 
out, and neither the scale nor telescope was moved during the experiments ; 
but if any small displacement of these latter, for any cause, did occur, 
there could be no effect on the range of torsional strain or width of 
hysteresis loop observed. 

The Table explains the scheme of the experiments. 

The readings in columns o, h, c, d, e arc accurate to within +01 
scale divisions, and the accuracy of the range of strain and of the width 
of hysteresis loop is certainly well within +02 scale divisions. The 
arrangement for observing the torsional strain is intended for measure- 
ment of comparatively large ranges of angular twist, and not for the 
accurate measurement of the elastic hysteresis. 

» ' Elastic Hysteresis in Steel,' F. E. Rowett.— Prof. Roy. Soc. A., Vol. 89. 1914. 



286 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE.— 1916. 



All the readings given in columns a, h, c, d, and e are for the tests 
in which the torque was applied by weights. During the intermediate 
runs of repeated stressing at the frequency of 200 per minute, readings 
were taken of the range of strain which corresponded very fairly (see 
Table) — up to Test No. 7 — with the ranges obtained in the dead-weight 
tests at the same ranges of stress. The former readings, i.e. at 200 per 
minute, are read to the nearest 05 scale division. It will be noticed that 
there was a distinct increase of range of strain and of width of hysteresis 
loop during the 36,000 cycles at +5 50 tons per square inch ; and a larger 
increase in both of these during the 228,000 cycles at ±5-62 range. Also 
at the change of speed, after the run of 228,000, from 200 to 8 cycles per 
minute, the range of strain altered from 6-90 to 7-24 ; this is an example 
of the speed effect already found by the author in previous work.^ 

It appears, then, that for the steel tested there is a limit to elastic 
ranges of strain in the neighbourhood of ±5 50 tons per square-inch 
range of stress. A torsion test, made with continuously increasing torque, 
of another specimen (solid) cut next iu order to the specimen of these 
tests from the same bar of steel, gave a }Tield point of 9 85 tons per square 
inch, and a limit of lU'oportionality in the neighbourhood of 5 80 to 6 tons 
per square inch. 

After Test No. 8 (see Table\ a succession of tests at smaller ranges 
of stress showed the hysteresis loop to be wider even than at the higher 
ranges of stress of the cycles imposed before the limit to the elastic ranges 

Test Specimen. 



■Square p^,^ii^,for2' 



Square 




Holes For bolts to nx 
mirror holders. 



of stress had been passed. The apparent recovery of elasticit}^ with 
rest in Test No. 15 is presumably the counterpart for alternating cycles 
of the well-known phenomenon of recovery with rest after overstrain. 
The foregoing experiments illustrate the following points : — 

At a range of stress — applied by equal direct and reverse torsion — 
which may be determined with considerably more accuracy than the 
elastic limit in a static test (i.e. with slowly increasing stress in one direc- 
tion\ the hysteresis increases largely with continued application of the 
cycles. At a smaller range of stress, the increase of hysteresis, if any, 
is very small and may probably be regarded as an increment of elastic 
hysteresis. Other of the author's tests have shown that 250,000 cycles 

■ ' On Speed Efiect and Recovery in Slow-speed Alternating Stress Tests ' — Froc. 
Boy. Soc. A, vol. 92, 191fi. 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 



287 




288 REPORTS ON THE STATE OE" SCIENCE, — 1916. 

of a range of stress somewhat below the above-mentioned limiting raflge 
do not cause an increment of hysteresis measurable by the same apparatus 
as used for the tests cited in this note. 

The large increase of hysteresis due to repetitions of a range slightly 
exceeding this limiting range cannot be regarded as increased elastic 
hysteresis for two reasons : — 

(1) Because on subsequent application of much less ranges of stress 
the hysteresis retains an augmented value which appears to be much 
more than what can be regarded as elastic hysteresis, and (2) the large 
increase of range of strain is not independent of the speed of cycle ; for, 
as previously shown by the author^ (see also Test No. 8), a reduction 
of frequency of cycle gives an increase of range of strain, and vice versa ; 
whereas Rowett* has found that the area of the elastic hysteresis loop 
is the same at low and high speeds within 5 per cent. 

At this limiting range of stress there appears to be a definite impair- 
ment of elasticity with repetition of cycle, and the increased hysteresis 
is most probably the coarser form of hysteresis believed to be due to 
crystalline slipping. 



Appendix III. 

On the Fatigue Resistance of Mild Steel under Various Conditions of 
Stress Distribution. 

By Dr. T. E. Stanton and Mr. R. G. Batson. 

The material on which the experiments described in this Report were 
made was a special sample of mild steel procured for the Committee by 
Dr. F. Rogers. The ordinary mechanical properties of the steel have been 
investigated fairly completely, and the results of the tests are given in the 
Report for 1915. It should be mentioned that the specimens used were 
prepared from the 1-5/16" bar, and were not heat-treated before 
testing. The results of a tensile test on the bar used give results which 
were practically identical with those obtained by Mr. Cook (see Report 
1915, p. 160), and were :— 

Yield Stress . . . . 13 5 tons per sq. inch. 
Maximum Stress . . . 22-4 ,, ,, ., 

I 



% Extension (j=^3 5) . 49 



% Contraction of Area at 

Fracture .... 70-8 
Modulus of Elasticity . . 297 x 10'^ lb. per sq. inch. 

The scheme of experiments was the determination of the fatigue 
resistance of solid cylindrical specimens subject to rapid alternations 
of a combined bending and twisting moment of given value and such 
that the ratio of bending moment to twisting moment could have any 

' Proc. Boyal Soc. A, vol 92. * Proc. Boyal $oc. A, vol. 89. 



.IJi HTAJ'ij 







z 







urn 



a; 




ON STRESS DISTRISOTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 289 

desired value between the extreme cases of reversals of simple bending 
and reversals of simple torsion. 

The fatigue-testing machine in which the experiments were made was 
specially designed and constructed for the purpose of the research in the 
engineering workshop of the National Physical Laboratory. The general 
principle of the machine will be seen from fig. 1, which is a diagrammatic 
representation of the manner in which the combination of bending and 




Fig. 1. 



twisting is applied to the specimen. In the position shown, the cross- 
section of the specimen at S is subject to a twisting moment "WD, and 
to a bending moment Wd. When the head has turned through 180" 
the moments will be equal in amount but opposite in sign. When the 
head has turned through 90° from the position shown the maximum 
stress will be that due to a bending moment WD plus that due to the 
direct loading, but as in all cases this stress is below the known fatigue 
limit of the material under reversals of simple bending, its effect is supposed 
to be negUgible, and the specimen is assumed to be subject to reversals 
of the combination of bending and twisting moment alone. 

The form of specimen adopted is shown in fig. 2a,* which represents 
a plan of the testing head with the specimen and hanger in position. By 
varying the length of the collar c, and also, if necessary, the position of the 
neck of the specimen, relative to the axis of rotation of the specimen, it 
will be seen that the ratio of bending moment to twisting moment can be 
varied within fairly wide limits. 

For the experiments in which the stresses were practically reversals 
of simple shear, the arrangement described above was not suitable, and 
the method of making the torsion tests is shown in fig. 2b. In this case 
it will be seen that the fatigue of the specimen takes place simultaneously 

' It was found on trial that the variation ol sectional area in the neighbourhood 
of the neck of the specimen, shown in fig. 2a, was a source of weakness and in the 
tests, of whioh the results are given in Table V., the form of the specimen was slightly 
modified. 

1916 u 



290 REPORTS OK THE STATE OP SCIENCE.— 1916, 

over two sections symmetrically placed about the axis of rotation. In 
the tests the distance of the hanging weight from the axis of the specimen 
was 8| inches, so that the ratio of the twisting moment to the bending 
moment was about 20. 

For reversals of simple bending, a test of a specimen in an ordinary 
fatigue-testing machine of the Wohler type would have been sufficient 
for the prediction of the fatigue limit. It was considered, however, of 
fundamental importance to determine if the effect of the reversals of 
bending produced in this machine were of the same amount as those 
produced by the continuous rotation of a loaded bar as in the ordinary 
Wohler test, and for this purpose a special device was employed, which 
is illustrated in fig. 2c, which is an elevation of the testing head with the 
specimen in position. It will be seen that the axis of the load is made to 
intersect the axis of the specimen, i.e. the torsional moment is made zero, 
by extending the hanger so as to envelop the head when rotating, and 
the load is transmitted to the specimen through the ball-bearing in the 
specimen itself. In this way reversals of simple bending are produced 
in the specimen, the essential difference between this case and the Wohler 
test being that in the former the maximum stress is confined to the axial 
plane in the specimen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. 

The Method of Carrying Out the Tests. 

In the ordinary system of testing for the prediction of the limiting 
fatigue range of stress it is customary to have a fairly large number of 
specimens, and to commence by imposing a range of stress which will 
probably cause fracture after a few thousand reversals. The next specimen 
is then tested under a smaller stress range, and so on until a range is 
found which the specimen will bear indefinitely. In the present case the 
cost of each specimen was so considerable that the reverse method to the 
above was adopted, i.e., a comparatively small range was first imposed, 
and if after three million reversals fracture had not occurred, the load 
was increased by about five per cent., and the test carried on. Finally 
a stage was reached when fracture took place with less than three million 
reversals. A new specimen was then fitted to the machine and tested 
at what was considered to be the limiting range. In this method the 
time taken in the series of tests required for the prediction of the fatigue 
limit is longer than in the former case, but considerable economy in the 
cost of preparation of specimens is eflected. 



ON STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN ENGINEERING MATERIALS. 



291 



Results of the Tests. 
The results obtained up to the present are given in the following 
table : — 

Table V. 

Limiting Fatigue Range of Stress for British Association Mild Steel 
Specimens prepared from the 1-5/16 in. round bar and not heat-treated. 



Ratio of 
Twisting 
Moment to 
Bending 
Moment 


Pounds per Square Inch 


Remarks 


Tensile 
Stress on 
Plane Per- 
pendicular 
to Axis of 
Specimen 


Shear 
Stress on 
Plane Per- 
pendicular 
to Axis of 
Specimen 


Maximum 
Principal 

Stress 


Maximum 
Shear 

Stress 






116 
1-45 
1-83 
2-50 
About 20 


±25000 

±25000 

±15700 
±13700 
±11500 
± 9000 
± 1260 


± 9100 
± 9800 
±10300 
±11100 
±12580 


±25000 

±25000 

±19750 
±18750 
±17550 
±16500 
±13230 


±12500 

±12500 

±11900 
±11900 
±11800 
±12000 
±12600 


Experiments made on 
testing machine of 
Wohler type running 
at 2,000 revs, per 
minute. 

Combined Stress Test- 
ing machine running 
at 2,000 revs, per 
minute. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 



EeMABKS on THE TeSTS. 

It will be seen in the first place that the results under alternations of 
bending in one plane are in agreement with those obtained under alternate 
bending in rotating planes as in the Wohler test, so that results obtained 
in the two types of machines are comparable. 

Further, the limiting shear stresses in the pure bending and in the pure 
torsion tests are seen to be in close agreement. 

Finally, although in the tour cases of combined stress the limiting 
maximum shear stresses seem to be appreciably below the values for 
pure bending and pure torsion, the general agreement is so close that 
further investigation is required before it can be stated definitely that 
the result indicated is a real one. This investigation is now in hand. 

General Conclusions. 
Although the number of tests carried out up to the present does not 
justify any general conclusion as to the nature of the criterion for ultimate 
failure, the general results of the investigation appear to demonstrate 
that, as a first approximation, Mr. Guest's hypothesis that failure is due 
to a particular value of the maximum shear stress may be applied to this 
particular steel. 



V 2 



292 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ^1916. 

Gaseous Explosions. — Interim Report of the Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. DuGALD Clerk (Ghairmayi) , Professors Dalby 
(Secretary), W. A. Bone, F. W. Burstall, H. L. 
Callendar, E. Gr. CoKER, and H. B. Dixon, Drs. 
E. T. Glazebrook and J. A. Harker, Colonel H. C. L. 
HoLDEN, Professors B. Hopkinson and J. E. Petavel, 
Captain H. Eiall Sankey, Professors A. Smithells and 
W. Watson, Mr. D. L. Chapman, and Mr. H. E. Wimperis. 

During the session most of the membei-s of the Committee were engaged 
on work in connection with the war, and no Notes were submitted for 
consideration. Only one meeting to deal with routine business and to 
consider as to future arrangements was therefore held. Consequently 
the grant of 50L made to the Committee at the Manchester meeting 
of the Association in 1915 was not drawn upon by the Chairman. 

The Committee recommend that they be reappointed, and that a 
sum of 50Z. be granted to them for the ensuing session, sO' that should 
the war come to an end during that time the work of the Committee 
could be resumed without delay. 



Exploration of the Palceolithic Site known as La Cotte de 
St. Brelade, Jerserj. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Dr. E. E. Marett (Chairman), Mr. G. F. B. de Gruchy 
(Secretary), Dr. A. Keith, Dr. C. Andrews, the late Dr. A. 
Dunlop, Colonel E. Gardner Warton, and Mr. H. Balfour. 

Report of Worlc done in 1916. 

Scheme of Operations. — The collapse of the cave roof in September 
1915 caused the workings to be encumbered by some 500 tons of rock 
rubbish, to which the winter rains added another 200. These accumu- 
lations were cleared away in February and March 1916, the work 
occupying eight weeks and three days. To save expense, the heavier 
stuff was dumped into the part of the cave already dug out, so as only 
to leave a sufficient fairway some 15 feet broad. In July and August 
for seven weeks excavation of the implementiferous bed was resumed. 
This bed now lay 30 feet from the entrance in the middle of the cave and 
8 feet further in along the western wall. The superincumbent debris had 
been removed down to 15-20 feet above floor-level, as far back as a 
line 50 feet from, and parallel with, the entrance. Behind this line 
. the debris rose sheer for 50-70 feet above floor-level, being especially 
dangerous at the N.E. corner. It was decided to limit exploration to 
the western side of the cave, corresponding to the Working A of former 
years, as being the easier and safer task. In the meantime it was 
found possible to attack the debris of the N.E. corner from the back — 
viz., from the cliff face tO' the north, and so eventually to break 
right through into the cave, after removing everything loose down to 
the level of the top of the human deposit. Thus this year's programme 
entailed a relatively large amount of labour spent on the sterile portions 



ON THE EXPLORATION OP A PALAEOLITHIC SITE IN JERSEY. 293 

of the cave-filling — labour which, however, has rendered it probable 
that the work can be brought to a finish next year. On the other 
hand. Working A proved fairly rich up to the point to which it was 
carried — namely, 53 feet from, the entrance ; and the archaeological spoil 
is of considerable value. 

Bane. — Bone was plentiful, but in a bad state owing to damp. 
It was distributed in pockets, in one case a magma of bone-fragments, 
mostly of reindeer and horse, occupying a space of some two cubic 
feet. The best specimens have been forwarded to the British Museum, 
where they still await full determination. A large and complete tine 
from the antler of a deer shows striations which are seemingly due to 
human use, if hardly human design. A well-developed rodent bed 
occurred beyond the 50-foot line at an unexpectedly high level, and 
may turn out to have stratigraphical value when this part of the bed is 
more thoroughly excavated. Three fresh species of rodents have 
already been determined from this year's finds. 

Stone Implements. — As regards flint, out of 803 pieces no less 
than 610 showed signs of use, and of these 420 were trimmed, including 
33 implements of first quality. Among the implements of second 
quality, to adopt the classification already employed (see Archceologia, 
Lxvii., 97/), 43 are long flakes with two trimmed side-edges, 89 long 
flakes with one trimmed side-edge, 84 square, 25 hollowed, none 
curved, 1 sharpened, 25 keeled, 39 discoidal, and 81 dwarf. Whereas 
in the outer portions of the cave the ratio of trimmed to untrimmed 
pieces was less than one in three, at the back it was about equal, 
presumably because most of the knapping responsible for the flint 
refuse was done near the entrance where the light was good. As 
regards stone other than flint, of 311 hammer-stones (182 being of 
granite and 129 of greenstone) nearly all showed signs of use, while 
175 were more or less fractured. Such hammer-stones, to use the 
term without prejudice, occurred chiefly in conjunction with the pockets 
of bone-fragments. It is a remarkable fact that whereas the ratio of 
such hammer-stones to the flint pieces was but 5f per cent, in the 
outer part of the cave, here at the back it actually amounted to 37^ per 
cent. Evidently the back of the cave served some speciahsed use, 
possibly a culinary one, which brought these pebbles into play. It may 
be noted that 63 per cent, of the hammer-stones from this Mousterian 
cave are 40-80 mm. long (700 being measured), whereas from the 
Neolithic kitchen-midden of Le Pinacle in Jersey 64i per cent, v^ere 
below 40 mm. in length (600 being measured), the inference perhaps 
being that the later people had smaller or weaker hands. A selection 
of the 1916 implements is being presented, with the consent of the 
Soci^t^ Jersiaise, to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 

Acknouledgments . — The Chairman and Secretary were in charge of 
the work throughout. Mr. E. de J. F. Struthers, M.A., B.Sc, Mrs. 
Holland and her son, Mrs. Jenkinson and Miss Moss came from 
Oxford and rendered invaluable aid. Many local helpers also assisted, 
notably Mr. E. T. Nicolle, Mr. H. J. Baal, Mr. E. F. Guiton, and 
Mr. G. Le Bas, B.Sc. Mr. E. Daghorn, the contractor, showed his 
usual skill, taking risks freely, and, indeed, twice narrowly escaping 



294 REPORTS ON THE STATE OP SCIENCE. — ^1916. 

a serious accident. The funds were furnished partly by the British 
Association and partly by the Government Grant Committee of the 
Eoyal Society. 



ArchcBological Investigations in Malta. — Report of the Com- 
mittee, consisting 0/ Prof essor J. L. Myees (Chairman), Dr. 
T. AsHBY (Secretary), Mr. H. Balfour, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 
a7id Dr. E. E. Marett. 

The Excavatio77s conducted at Gliar Dalarn (Malta) in July 1916. 
By Mr. G. Despott. 

A GBANT of 101. having been accorded by the British Association for 
conducting further excavations in Malta, Ghar Dalam was again 
chosen as the most important and promising site. As this is not, how- 
ever, yet Government property, permission had to be asked from its 
proprietor, Mr. G. Bezzina, P.L., who very kindly gave us full liberty 
to carry on the work. 

Since the excavations conducted by Dr. Ashby in May 1914, at 
which I had the good fortune to be present,^ a good amount of digging 
has been done by irresponsible persons, and this can be seen from the 
considerable enlargement of one of the trenches which were dug during 
that time. We have been assured, moreover, that many bones from 
the cave have been recently sold to several persons of the locality and to 
many others who are only affected by the craze of collecting. 

For the present excavations Mr. C. Eizzo, P. A. A., who is un- 
doubtedly one of the best authorities on the geology of these islands, 
suggested that some digging should be done around a large stalagmite 
115 feet from the entrance and about 10 feet from the left side of the 
cave, in the hope that it might have served to obstruct the way to 
carcasses which the flood may have once washed inside, and to see also 
if stalagmite has been found on any of the animal remains. 

Taking up this suggestion, a trench from 5 to 6 feet wide was dug 
along the whole width of the cave, which at this point is 30 feet wide. 

The roof over the part where the present trench was dug contains 
two groups of stalactites, one on each side, those in the middle having 
been detached, as can be seen from the parts of them still adhering to 
the roof, upon which stalactitic formations are again appearing. 
Mr. Eizzo observed that the stalactites are all formed below fissures 
of the rock. 

The larger of these groups is the one towards the left side, and 
several of the stalactites composing it are as much as 3 feet in length 
and nearly 2 feet in diameter; to one of these corresponds the large 
stalagmite, which is 5^ feet high and 2| feet in diameter. The top 
of this stalagmite projected for over one foot over the surface of the 
cave earth, and this projecting part is probably one of the large semi- 
circular bosses alluded to by Cooke, and which he describes as ' bases 
of stalagmites.' 

The superficial layer consisted of rounded boulders, many of which 

» Man, Jan. and Feb. 1916, Nos. 1, 14. 



ON ARCH^OLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MALTA. 295 

were as much as 1| or 2 feet in diameter : the greater part of these 
was heaped up to a height of about 3 feet along both sides of the 
cave; the middle part, around the large stalagmite, must have been 
cleared of them, evidently to form the pathway which runs inwards 
from the mouth of the cave to a distance of over 200 feet. Among 
the boulders both pottery and organic remains were found ; the former 
consisted chiefly of sherds of various textures, the majority being very 
rough and poorly baked, and several of them were as much as three- 
quarters of an inch in thickness ; the latter consisted of lumps of seaweed 
[Posidonia oceanica), which is often used here even at the present day 
for bedding for cattle instead of straw, and of limb bones, vertebrae, 
and jaws of cow, pig, and sheep or goat. These bones were, however, 
so very friable that they would not suffer the least handling, and, with 
the exception of the crown of some of the molars, all crumbled to dust 
as soon as touched. 

All the boulders having been cleared away, the surface of the cave 
earth was laid bare before us, so that we could begin digging the second 
layer, upon which many land shells (Helix aspersa) were strewn. 

This layer varied in depth from 1 to 1^ feet; it consisted chiefly 
of small stones, none of which was over 4 inches in its greatest 
dimension; these were embedded in a very fine earth of a deep brick- 
red colour. The organic remains met with in it consisted of some 
roots and the remains of cow, pig, horse, and sheep or goat. The 
majority of these bones were in a very fragmentary state ; none of them, 
however, were so friable as those met with amongst the boulders in 
the superficial layer. The only remains of the horse consisted of a 
molar which was found close to the large stalagmite, at a depth of 
■J- foot from the surface. The remains of the stag were met at the 
very bottom of this layer, and they consisted chiefly of limb bones, 
jaws, vertebrae, and a few broken antlers ; these last were very much 
like our globigerina limestone, both in colour and consistency. Land 
shells were also met with in this layer, but only towards the right 
side of the cave ; these consisted mostly of Helix vermiculata and Rumina 
decollata, a few Helix CariiancB, one or two Helix nperta, a Helix 
cellaria, a Cyclostoma melitense, and a few Clausilia hidens. We also 
noted many fragments of land shells which it is quite impossible to 
identify. The pottery met with in this layer consisted of sherds of 
various texture, mostly belonging to the neolithic period. 

The next or third layer consisted of a very fine red earth with 
hardly a single stone in it; it contained, however, many broken stalac- 
tites, varying in length from only a few inches to two or three feet, 
and in diameter from one-eighth or one-sixth inch to nearly one foot. 
They lay at different depths in this layer, which in some parts was as 
much as 3 feet thick. Many of these stalactites, which had evidently 
been detached from the roof just above, must have been lying in the 
position in which we found them for a considerable time, as was clear 
from the stalagmites which were subsequently found above them, and 
which in some cases were as much as one foot in height. 

Two large stalactites covered with a very thick stalagmitic foraia- 
tion, which had fallen from the part of the roof just above, as 



236 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCTENOE. — ^1916. 



f-l "3 




rst o 
erfici 
aver 


fe 
§ 




H-i 
g 


m, 






ON ARCHiBOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MALTA. 



297 



Been from their partes still adhering there, lay in a slanting position, 
enibedded midway into this layer, through all the foregoing and 
projecting for over one foot over the surface. These stalactites we shall 
call ' the large broken stalactites. ' The organic remains found in this 
Jayer were as follows. Just at the top of it human remains were met 
with; these consisted of four phalanges, a metacarpal bone, a milk 
molar, and one of the first bicuspids. Land shells were also met with 
in abundance at this level and a little further down : the majority of 
them were much fractured, and all of them so friable as to be very 
difficult to extract. I managed, however, to obtain seven or eight 
nearly perfect specimens. I compared these with those met with by 
Cooke when he excavated this cave, and I found them quite different. 
In size these shells (fig. la) are equal to the Helix vermiculaia ; in 
shape, however, they are identical with the Helix melitensis (fig. 2a). 




1^?3 





'N'^V 



Nat. Size. 



N°2°^ 



This struck me so much that I asked the opinion of my friend the 
Contino Dr. R. Caruana Gatto, who is the first authority on the land 
shells of these islands, and he considers them to be a new undescribed 
variety which he denotes as var. Despottii. Besides the land shells 
three marine species were met with ; these consisted of the upper four or 
five whorls of a Triton nodiferum, a broken Murex trunculus, and an 
Euthria cornea. These were of the colour and consistency of chalk, 
and, though rather far from one another, were found at a uniform depth 
of 3 feet or so from the surface — i.e. , in the middle of the present layer. 

Stag remains were found in considerable quantities almost all 
through this layer. Between the two large broken stalactites and the 
large stalagmite there was a conglomerate of stalagmitic formations and 
stag bones ; this was in some places over 2 feet thick. 

Between the large stala-gmite and the left side of the cave small 



298 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

bones, probably belonging to mammals the size of a rat, were found in 
great abundance, and they were met with from the very surface of 
this layer down to a depth of 3 feet; with them a few avian remains 
were also found. Both these and the foregoing, however, will have 
to be sent for identification, together with some other doubtful speci- 
mens, to the specialists of the British Museum, who are always so kind 
as to offer us their valuable aid. 

The inorganic remains consisted of a fine flint knife (fig. 8a), which 
was found at the same level with the human bones ; potsherds were 
also met with until about the middle of this layer, where two sling 
stones were also found. The sherds were of various textures, some 
being rough; others, on the contrary, rather fine, and having a fine 
gjlip; some had even ornaments engraved upon them, and these, 
according to Professor Zammit, who is our most competent authority 
on the subject, belong to the bronze age. 

At a depth of nearly two feet from the surface of this layer a 
stalagmitic incrustation varying in thickness from a half to one-eighth 
of an inch projected circularly from the sides of the large stalagmite 
to a distance varying from two to four feet. Stag bones were found 
beneath it, and these were of a peculiarly dark colour; the earth here 
was also blackish, but it continued so from the very surface of the 
cave floor. This might be due to the excrement of bats, which con- 
gregate in gi-eat numbers between the large stalagmites just above. 

A little more than one foot further down than this incrustation 
another one similar to it, but somewhat thicker and extending to a 
greater length, was found broken for the greater part; this is very 
probably due to the fall of the two large broken stalactites. 

Just beneath this stalagmitic foi-mation came the next, or fourth, 
layer; this was composed of red earth, having only a few stones 
sparingly scattered through it. The animal remains met with in it 
were stag bones, the. most abundant parts of which consisted of frag- 
ments of antlers, belonging to animals ranging from the fawn to full- 
grown individuals ; so abundant, in fact, were these antlers that it is 
difficult to explain why the number of other bones found together with 
them is so comparatively small. 

The bones found close to the rock from which the large stalagmite 
rises are of a black colour, the majority being very heavy, and almost 
of the consistency of pebbles. A foot from the bottom of this layer 
a third stalagmitic formation projects out of the rock towards the 
right side of the cave ; this had to be broken away, and beneath it the 
bones met with were of a charcoal-black colour, and still heavier than 
those met with just above. A few bits of these bones were of a reddish- 
brown colour, and their consistency was almost like that of flint. The 
majority of these bones were broken and rounded, showin? evident signs 
of their having been rolled considerably. Close to the rock on the right 
side, at a level with this last incrustation, a part of an elephant's molar 
(E. mnaidrensis) was found. This, too, is very much worn by rolling; 
its colour, however, is not dark. 

The fifth layer consisted of flat angular stones larger than any yet 
met with, excepting those in the superficial layer. Many nieces of 



ON ARCH^OLOaiCAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MALTA. 



299 



stalagmitic formations and stalactites were embedded between them 
and the whole was conglomerated by a loamy red earth, mmgled with 
whitish dust and bits of clay. The animal remains met with in this 
layer consisted of a few stag bones. 

We come now to the sixth layer, which may be the last. Its depth 
cannot yet be given, as it still continues further down ;_ four feet or 
more of it have, however, already been excavated. It is difficult to 
give a good account of this layer, as, properly speaking, there is no 
stratification in it. On one side we find pm-e clay, on another we 
find dust and coarse sand intermingled with it; in some parts we meet 
again with the usual red earth, which at this level is rather clayey, and 

so on. . 7 7- J 

In this layer the remains of the two hippopotami {Hip. •penilayidt and 
H. minor) appeared; with them, however, v^ere associated the remains 
of elephants (E. mnaidrensis) and stags. 

The remains of the hippopotami and elephants which can be well 
identified consist chiefly of molars and tusks; those of the stags of 
fragments of antlers. The other bones are in such a fragmentary state 
that no more can be said about them than that they belong to either 
the hippopotam.us or to the elephant. They are very black, very 
heavy, and much rounded, and at first sight rather difficult to dis- 
tinguish from the pebbles with which they are also associated. The 
pebbles here are of various colours and consistency, and very much 
like the pebbles found all along the beach of Marsascirocco harbour; 
with them some bits of stalactites are to be met with; these, too, are 
perfectly rounded, showing that, like the bones, they have undergone a 
good deal of rolling about. Among these pebbles, the majority of 
which are not more than four inches in diameter, some rounded 
boulders of very hard stone were met with, some of these being as 
much as 1-^ foot in diameter. 

This is, of course, only a preliminary report on the animal remains 
found during these excavations, and as they consist of several thousands 
of bones, it is quite clear that a considerable time is required for the 
compilation of a detailed report. The want of specimens for com- 
parison is also to be taken into consideration, as well as the fact that 
consequently some of the specimens will have to be sent to the British 
Museum for identification. Amongst these species hitherto unknown 
in this locality might also be found. 

The most important fragments of pottery found during these excava- 
tions were the following: — 

(1) A sherd of a reddish and poorly baked clay having two lines very 
roughly incised upon it; its thickness is nearly f inch, and it was found 
at 1^ foot from the surface. 

(2) Another fragment of a blackish and red colour, having a slip on 
the inside and on the outside a line of very coarse ornaments, probably 
done by means of the thumb nail. The thickness is the same as that 
of (1), but (2) was found one foot lower down. 

(3) A fragment of very poorly baked clay having bits of shells in it ; 
the inside is very rough and of a blackish colour on the outside; 
however, there is a thin coating of a buff colour, which seems to be of 



300 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 







WPMh 




e 7 

Half Nat. Size. 



ON ARCH.a»LOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN MALTA. 301 




Half Nat. Size. 



302 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

finer texture. Some incision may also be seen upon it; its tliickness 
is J inch. It was found at a depth of 1 foot from the surface. 

(4) A very rough sherd + inch in thickness, and having many 
fragments of shells in it ; on the inside it is of a reddish colour and on 
the outside black. Upon the black, however, it has a very thin coat- 
ing of buff colour. The incisions on it are rather coarse, and are 
apparently made by means of the finger nail. It was found at a depth 
of 3 feet from the surface. 

(5) A fragment of the same texture as the foregoing, wanting, 
however, the buff coating, and having more coarse incisions upon it. 
It was found at a depth of 2J feet from the surface. 

(6) A very rough and poorly baked sherd of a slate colour, having 
a perfectly black coating on the inside ; the ornaments incised upon it, 
though more elaborate, are also coarse. Its thickness is a little more 
than ^ inch ; it was found at a depth of 2^ feet. 

(7) Another fragment of a very rough texture; its colour is a slate 
grey, and it has a more elaborate ornament engraved on it. Its thick- 
ness is about -J- inch, and it was found at a depth of 2 feet from the 
surface. 

(8) A bit of very poorly baked, pottery | inch thick, having rather 
coarse incisions upon it ; it is also of a slate-grey colour, and was found 
at a depth of 3 feet. 

(9) A fragment of pottery of a slafe colour, having a perfectly black 
coating on the inside. The greater part of the incisions on it are rather 
faint, but it has also a band of a well-marked ornament. Its thickness 
is J inch, and it was found at a depth of 3 feet from the surface. 

(10) A fragment of much better baked pottery of finer texture ; it is 
probably a part of a bowl ; it has a fine band engraved around it, which 
is probably made with the finger nail. In colour it is grey, with a 
black coating on the inside. Its thickness is ^ inch, and it was found 
at the same level with (8) and (9). 

(11) This is similar in texture to No. 8; the incisions on it are, 
however, finer. It was found a little higher up than Nos. 8, 9, and 10. 

(12) This sherd is of almost the finest quality met with during these 
excavations. Its colour is black, with a reddish slip on the outside. 
It is a fragment from the rim of a vase ; the incisions upon it are fine 
and straight. Its thickness is less than ^ inch, and it was found 
at a depth of 2 feet from the surface. 

(13) A sherd of very rough texture, very poorly baked. In colour 
it is dark grey, with a whitish slip on the outside. The ornaments 
upon it consist of two incised parallel lines ; it is |- inch in thickness, 
and it was found at a depth of only -J- foot from the surface. 

(14) This is undoubtedly the finest piece of pottery foux.d during the 
excavations. It is of a black or very dark-grey colour; its thickness is 
less than ^ inch; the incisions upon it are also more perfect 
than any of those on the foregoing sherds. They are filled with a 
material quite like chalk, both in colour and consistency. This sherd 
was found at a depth of a little over 3 feet from the surface. 



ABTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN LOCHS OP HIGHLANDS OP SCOTLAND. 303 

Artificial Islands in the Lochs of the Highlands of Scotland. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Boyd 
Dawkins (Chairman), J. L. Mybes (Secretary), T. H. 
Brycb, and W. Eidgeway, Dr. A. Low, and Mr. A. J. B. 
Wage, appointed to investigate and ascertain the Distribu- 
tion thereof. 

Excavation Work on the Crannog in Loch Kinellan, Strathpeffer. 
Report from Hugh A. Feasee, M.A. 

As mentioned in the 1913 Eeport of this Sub-Committee, a grant was 
made by the Carnegie Trust to Dr. Munro for the excavation of the 
island in Loch Kinellan. In August 1914 Mr. Hugh A. Fraser started 
work on the island, with the assistance at the outset of the Eev. Odo 
Blundell and later of Dr. Munro. 

The work done in 1914 established the island as an artificial one, 
a point on which there was previously some doubt. 

Pits dug over the surface of the crannog revealed in every case a 
platform of logs or brushwood, or compact occupation-d6bris, under- 
neath a superincumbent mass of earth, clay, and stones, some four feet 
thick. 

Unfortunately, digging was greatly interfered with by water per- 
colating through the structure of the island from the loch. This not 
only delayed the work, but caused additional labour which exhausted 
the grant before the work had reached anything like a conclusive stage. 

Persuaded that more could be gleaned from a careful examination 
of the pits than was learned in 1914, I started work again in 1915. 

On examining the woodwork with care I found quite a numb(i>r of 
logs with checks, mortise-holes, &c. In no instance, however, did 
the most careful examination reveal these checks and mortise-holes as 
serving any primary purpose. Everything drove one to the conclusion 
that part at least of the wood used for strengthening the structure of 
the island had previously been employed for some other purpose. 

At the east end of the island the overlying mass of earth and stones 
appears to rest on a platform of brushwood ; in the centre and at the 
west end it rests on wooden platforms. Two pits at the east end, 
dug to the base of the island, showed underneath the surface-material 
successive layers of occupation-debris right down to the original lake 
bottom, some seven feet below the present surface. In selected pits 
situated at the centre and west end of the island the wooden platforms 
were pierced, and were found to consist of three layers of logs or tree- 
stems. Underneath the platforms there seems to be a succession of 
layers of habitation-ddbris corresponding to those found at the east 
end of the island. 

In course of the excavations, bones, whole and broken, and other 
kinds of food-refuse, were found in profusion, as were also pottery 
shards in the upper strata. The bones have been examined and 
reported on by Professor Bryce of Glasgow University, while the 
pottery has been reported on by Mr. Curie, Director of the Eoyal 



304 REPORTS ON TfiE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ^1916. 

Scottish Museum. The pottery is at present being compared with the 
pottery found in the Glastonbury lake-dwelhngs. 

The archaeological relics include a number of stone implements, one 
or two whorls, and an ivory playing piece. 

Late in the season a dug-out canoe was discovered supporting the 
logs in one of the pits. A length of twenty feet was exposed when the 
late autumn floods stopped work for the year. 

From the point of view of structure the results obtained have been 
interesting, and if continued may prove very valuable archaeologically. 
Any approximation as to the date of the island, or to the dates of its 
various eras, can only be made after careful comparison of the results 
obtained with those got at other sites — work that involves much labour 
and time. While further work on the island is very desirable, such 
work, to be of value, must be on a more ambitious scale than the funds 
available have hitherto permitted. 

The facts that continuous layers of occupation-refuse exist right 
down to the original bed of the lake and that much of the woodwork 
overlying these layers and supporting the surface-material shows 
signs of having been previously used structurally would point to the 
site's having been originally the location of a pile dwelHng or palifite, 
the ddbris from which formed the basis of the more modern crannog. 
While this suggestion is made tentatively, the theory was not sought 
for, but was arrived at as a possible and a very probable explanation of 
many circumstances noted in course of the investigation. 



The Structure and Function of the Mammalian Heart.— Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor C. S. Sherrington 
(Chairman), Professor Stanley Kent (Secretary), and Dr. 
Florence Buchanan, appointed to make further Researches 
thereon. (Drawn up hy the Secretary.) 

The work of the Committee since the date of the last Eeport ^ has 
progressed slowly, owing to numerous interruptions which have 
occurred. TKe Secretary was for some time engaged in the training of 
officers for the new armies. Afterwards he devoted the whole of his 
time to an inquiry into industrial fatigue. Under the circumstances 
it was thought best to devote such time as was available to the prepara- 
tion of material and the accumulation of facts rather than to attempt 
the publication of any detailed statement of results. The work that 
has been done is satisfactory, and will greatly assist future progress. 
The Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of 501. 

> Annual Report, 1915, p. 226. 



ON THE DUCTLESS GLANDS. 



305 



The Ductless Glands. — Report of the Committee, consisting of 
Professor Sir Edward Schafer (Chairman), Professor 
Swale Vincent (Secretary), Dr. A. T. Cameron, and Pro- 
fessor A. B. Macallum. (Drawn up by the Secretary.) 

The work of the Committee has been carried on during the past year 
by the Secretary and by Messrs. Austmann and Halliday under his 
direction. 

The subjects of investigation have been the effects of prolonged 
anaesthesia on the adrenahn content of the blood, and the morphological 
position of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. 

The results are generally confirmatory of previous work on the 
subject, but they involve questions of detail in technique which will 
be more appropriately described elsewhere. 

The Committee ask to be reappointed with a grant of 251. 



Electromotive Phenomena in Plants. — Report of the Committee, 
consisting of Dr. A. D. Waller (Chairman) , Mrs. Waller 
(Secretary), Professors J. B. Farmer, T. Johnson, and 
Veley, and Dr. F. O'B. Ellison. 

The object of the work this year has been to determine whether, for 
the practical purpose of ' seed germination testing, ' if the whole seed 
be used a sufficiently strong electrical response is obtained. 

The extraction of the radicle in small seeds is a delicate and trouble- 
some process, so that it would be an advantage to be able to use the 
whole seed. 

The following table shows the difference in response of the whole 
pea intact and its radicle: — 



Peas Soaked Twenty-four Hours. 



1. Whole pea blaze 

Its radicle 

2. Whole pea . 

Eadicle . 

3. Whole pea . 

Eadicle . 

4. Whole pea . 

Eadicle . 

5. Whole pea . 

Eadicle . 

6. Whole pea . 

Eadicle . 



0070 volt. 
0350 



0125 
0350 



0050 
0300 



0110 
0400 



0160 
0200 

•0100 
•0250 



1916 



306 REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE, — 1916. 

Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity. — Report 
of the Committee, consisting of Professor F. F. Blackman 
(Chairman), Mr. E. P. Geegory (Secretary), Professors 
W. Bateson a7id F. Keeble, and Miss E. E. Saunders. 

The experiments have been carried on during the present year in 
spite of labour difficulties. 

The work on Primula sinensis has mainly devolved on Miss Killby, 
Captain Gregory having been occupied with military duties. The seed 
harvest in 1915 was a large one, and it has been necessary to hold over 
some of the material to be dealt with in the coming season. The 
results already obtained have added considerably to our knowledge of 
the genetics and cytology of the peculiar (tetraploid) races which 
contain doable the normal number of chi'omosomes. Some of these 
races produce types which in the form of leaves and corolla and in 
certain colour characters find no parallel among the races with the 
normal number of chromosomes (' Proc. Eoy. Soc.,' December 1915). 
Progress has been made with the work of fixing certain types which 
have not as yet bred true, and in the course of the work a new 
form has been produced, the existence of which had been predicted 
though it had not previously been obtained. 

Miss Killby has also continued her work on beans and marrows, 
but two unfavourable seasons have delayed the work, and a further 
crop of plants will have to be raised before any definite statement can 
be made. 

Miss Gaii'dner has continued her experiments with wallflowers, but 
the work is not yet complete. 

Miss Saunders has carried out further work on stocks, foxgloves, 
and lobelia. 

From the new stock, intermediate in surface character between the 
ordinary fully hoary type and the wallflower-leaved variety obtained 
last year, another new form has been bred, intermediate again between 
its parent and the glabrous form. The gap between the two extreme 
types is thus being gradually bridged, and it is hoped that the produc- 
tion of these new forms may furnish a clue to the curious and un- 
explained relation between surface character and sap colour. Progress 
has been made with the attempt to synthesise an eversporting form, 
but further generations will need to be raised before any definite result 
can be expected. 

Of foxgloves a considerable number of first-year plants have been 
grown, and it is hoped that they will yield important results next yegtr. 
In the meanwhile they are being utilised as far as possible for the 
supply of digitalin. 

It is expected that the results obtained this year with lobelia will 
complete the work on the inheritance of doubleness in that form. 

It is hoped that it will be found possible to renew the grant, as a 
number of the experiments are still in progress. 



THE RENTING OF CINCHONA BOTANIC STATION IN JAMAICA. 307 

The Renting of Cinchona Botanic Station in Jamaica. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Professors F. 0. Bower 
(Chairman), E. H. Yapp (Secretanj), K. Bdllee, F. W. 
Oliver, and F. E. Weiss. 

The diminished rent of 12Z. 10s. was duly peid to the Jamaican Govern- 
ment and acknowledged. Owing to the continued state of war, no 
student made use of the station during the year. 

Following on the letter from the Colonial Secretary, printed in the 
1915 Eeport, the Jamaican Government have now entered into corre- 
spondence with Professor Duncan Johnson, of Baltimore, with a view 
to a lease from October 1, 1916, and with a provision that it should 
be made free to botanists of both countries (see letter of Assistant 
Colonial Secretary, March 21, 1916). In the latest communication 
(see letter of Acting Colonial Secretary, June 8, 1916), Mr. Cousins 
adds : ' That it is now suggested that Johns Hopkins or Cornell Univer- 
sities may consent to act in the matter of the lease, and that this may 
start from October 1 next, when the British Association tenancy would 
end.' It is also added that the Jamaican Government 'will negotiate 
for a free admission of British botanists as desired,' and that we shall 
be informed later of any an-angements made. 

As it thus appears that the British Association will obtain the object 
desired, viz., the accommodation of students at the Cinchona Station 
without any payment at all, the Committee ask that they be reappointed 
for the purpose of receiving applications from students ; but they do 
not apply for any renewal of grant. 



Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education. — Report of 
the Committee, consisting of Dr. C. S. Myers (Chairman) , 
Professor J. A. Green (Secretary), Professor J. Adams, 
Dr. G. A. AuDEN, Sir E. Brabrook, Dr. W. Brown, Mr. 
Cyril Burt, Professor E. P. Culver well, Mr. G. F. 
Daniell, Professor B. Foxley, Professor E. A. Gregory, 
Dr. C. W. Kimmins, Mr. W. McDougall, Professor T. P. 
Nunn, Dr. W. H. E. Eivers, Dr. F. C. Shrubsall, 
Professor H. Bompas Smith, Dr. C. Spearman, and Mr. 
A. E. Twentyman, appointed to inquire into and report upon 
the methods and results of research into the Mental and 
Physical Factors involved in Education. 

Norms in Mechanical Arithmetic. 

The Committee has had under consideration the question of so-called 
' normal performances ' of school children. It would be of great 
service to teachers to determine what may be considered reasonable 

X 2 



308 EEPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 1916. 

requirements from children of particular ages. In regard to most 
attainments such determinations present problems of gi-eat complexity. 
Individual children vary greatly in their powers and in the circum- 
stances of their out-of-school lives. So far as it is the outcome of 
experience, knowledge can hardly be measured; and there is by no 
means a general agreement about what ought to be taught to children 
of eight or to children of eleven. In the case of the fundamental instru- 
ments of social intercourse the problem is simpler. The mastery of 
these is generally expected as a result of school training; progress in 
these is more or less steady throughout the school career. Arithmetic, 
reading, spelUng, and writing provide instances. Arithmetical skill 
is largely dependent upon the rapid and accurate use of the funda- 
mental processes — addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division — 
which function best when they have reached the level of mechanical 
habit. In reading and writing mechanical habit again plays a chief 
part in their e,fficient use. But these subjects are psychologically more 
complex; and it is disputable whether any real value can come from 
isolating the ' habitual ' elements and attempting to measure progress 
in the development of mere mechanism. In the case of the arith- 
metical habits, no such disadvantage arises. Accordingly, the Com- 
mittee has restricted its inquiries to the four ' fundamental rules ' of 
arithmetic — addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. 

General Principles. 

In constructing test-sheets for each kind of process a definite, written 
scheme has been followed. Consequently, for the same kind of test it 
is possible to construct any number of test-sheets of approximately 
equal difficulty. 

As far as possible, all the available figures and combinations of 
figures in pairs are used with equal frequency. The tests are so con- 
structed that any child, after working through the first quarter (or in 
some tests, half) of the paper, has worked through all possible pairs 
of numbers (up to 9) once each. And, as far as possible, the pairs are 
scattered over the paper by pure chance. Every other column for 
addition sums involves 'carrying.' Similarly, half the pairs for sub- 
traction involve ' borrowing. ' No ' remainders ' are involved in the 
division sums. To facilitate computation of marks the sums were 
printed in rows of five or ten. One mark was awarded for each correct 
operation, — each column correctly added, each pair of figures correctlj' 
subtracted, multiplied, or divided. 

The children worked the sums upon sheets already printed. The 
tests were set, timed and marked by the investigators themselves or 
under their immediate superintendence. 

London Schools. 

Four elementary schools were chosen : the boys' department of an 
ordinary school attended by children in a ' good ' neighbourhood ; the 
girls' department of an ordinary school in a 'poor' neighbourhood; 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 30t> 

the boys and girls of an ordinary mixed school in a ' moderate ' neigh- 
bourhood; and the boys and girls of the junior mixed and elder (girls) 
departments of a special school for the mentally defective. 

Numbers. (Table I.) 

In all, 936 ' normal ' children and 111 ' defective ' children have 
been examined in London with the same series of tests (series 11). 
Taken in isolation, the numbers in some of the age-groups are small. 
Those above 13 and below 8 years of age are so few, and so highly 
selected, as to be negligible for general comparison. 

Age-Averages. (Tables II. and III.) 

The results, for the most part, show a steady progress from year to 
year. The average rate of progress in addition, subtraction, multipli- 
cation, and division, is about 3, 5, 7, and 4J marks per annum respec- 
tively. At 10 years, the children attain on an average 22, 44, 40, and 
26 marks: i.e., they work at the rate of 8 or 9 operations a minute 
in multiphcation and subtraction, and at about half that rate in 
division and addition. At the age of 11 the rate of progress declines ; 
and at 13 the average may even fall. In this decline, an important, 
but not the sole factor, is doubtless the transference of the best scholars 
to secondary and central schools. If we assume that, with a complete 
sample for the higher ages, progress would continue at nearly the same 
rate, then the following regression-equations would serve to calculate 
very approximately the norm from the age last birthday : — 

Addition-mark = 4 x age — 18 

Subtraction-mark = 8 x age — 36 
Multiplication-mark = 10 x age — 60 
Division- mark = 8 x age — 54 

Standard Deviation (Table IV.) and Range (Table V.). 

Within each age, the variation of individuals is considerable. The 
standard deviation increases absolutely with increase of age, but 
diminishes relatively to the age-average from about half the average to 
about a third. 

The best performance at the age of 9 usually surpasses the average 
performance at the age of 13 ; the worst performance at the age of 13 
usually falls to the average performance at the age of 8. The best 
performance in any age-group is double the average for that group, but 
occasionally may be four or five times as large. 

Overlap of Ages. (Figure 1.) 

Owing to the wide individual variation, the overlap between the 
several ages in any single test is enormous. The knowledge of the 
' norm ' or average for a given age, without knowledge of the amount 



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312 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — 19 IG. 



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Figure 2. — Averages for the several Ages in the several 
Schools (Marks for all Tests). 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 313 

of deviation around that average, is thus of little value. In conse- 
quence, however, of the incomplete, though high, correlation betv^^een 
performances in the several tests (Table VII.) and the high correlation 
with age, the overlap in the totals for the tests is smaller than the 
overlap in each test taken singly. 

Sex and Social Status. (Table V.) 

The children in the ' Good ' school gain about 50 per cent, more 
marks than the children in the ' Poor ' school, despite the fact that 
especial care 'is taken with the teaching of mechanical arithmetic in the 
latter. In the ' Moderate ' school the average marks as a rule fall 
between those gained at the ' Good ' and ' Poor ' schools respectively. 
Except at 12, the averages of the boys in the mixed school surpass those 
of the girls in every age. 

Defectives. 

Even in the highest and largest age-group (age 12), the averages 
for the defectives are less than half those for the normal children of 
the age of 8. Eoughly, they appear to be backward by nearly half their 
age ; and deviate below the average for their age by nearly three times 
the standard deviation. 

There is often, however, an appreciable overlap (Figure 1). In 
nearly every ordinary school tested there are performances which are 
worse than the best found among defectives of the same age. 



Correlations between the Several Tests. (Table VII.) 

Within each class the correlations between the several tests are 
moderately high. "Within each age-group they would, of course, be 
enormously higher. No decided hierarchy appears in the averages. 
There is doubtless a common general factor. But this cannot be mere 
general ability, since in general ability each class should be nearly homo- 
geneous ; and, overlying the general factor, there seem also to be specific 
factors in cychc overlap, — multiplication is most closely corre- 
lated with division ; division nearly as closely with subtraction ; sub- 
traction somewhat less closely with addition ; addition less closely still 
with multiplication, and least of all with division. 

Sheffield Schools. (Tables VIII. and IX.) 

Four Sheffield schools have worked tests which were built up on 
the same lines as those used in London, though the actual examples 
used were different. The four schools included one large mixed school 
in a neighbourhood rather above the average, a boys' school in an 
average artisan district, a girls' school in a poor district, and a mixed 
junior school in a district similar to the first school. There is, however, 
some difficulty in using these necessarily inexact descriptive terms of 



314 



REPORTS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE. — ^1916. 



schools in provincial towns where districts are not usually so clearly 
defined as in London. 

Unfortunately, the figures for the four schools are not yet com- 
pletely worked through. It is hoped to present them at the meeting. 
In comparison with the London figures, it should be noted that the age 
groups are larger, the averages are higher, the standard deviations are 
larger, and the range is wider. 

The correlations between the pairs of subjects for School C worked 
out for the several age groups, although not in detail comparable with 
those in Table VII., are considerably higher in the general averages at 
the foot of each column than those for the London schools. It is 
perhaps worth noting, however, that the correlation between multiplica- 
tion and division is highest in both tables, and that between subtraction 
and division is next highest also in both cases. 

For the rest, the same generalisations emerge. There is a steady 
progress from year to year. But the age-differences are swamped by the 
large variation and wide range exhibited by the individuals of each 
age-group. 

The Committee desires to be reappointed with a grant of lOL 
(Note. — Tables I.-VII. refer to London schools; Tables VIII. -IX. to Sheffield schools.) 



Table I. 
Number of Children Tested. 



Ago 


'G.' 

School 


'M.' 

School 
(Boys) 


•m: 

School 
(Girls) 


'P.' 
School 


Total 
Ordinary 


' M.D.' 

School 


Total 
All Schools 


16- 

15- 

14- 

13- 

12- 

11- 

10- 
9- 
8- 
7- 
6- 

Total 


1 

8 
47 
42 
79 
101 
97 
42 


1 
3 

12 
15 
21 
33 
28 
11 


1 
12 
37 
25 
38 
34 

8 


1 
31 
34 
35 
36 
39 
36 
27 

1 


2 
13 

102 
128 
160 

208 
198 
97 

27 

1 


3 

15 

8 

25 

28 

15 

6 

4 

6 

1 


3 

17 
21 

127 
156 
175 
214 

202 
103 

28 

1 


417 


124 155 


240 


936 


111 


1,047 



ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION. 315 







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